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Sample records for botulism

  1. Botulism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bulging cans or foul-smelling preserved foods. Sterilizing home-canned foods by pressure cooking them at 250°F (121°C) for 30 minutes may reduce the risk for botulism. Visit the Centers for ... on home canning safety ( www.cdc.gov/features/homecanning ). Keep ...

  2. Botulism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause paralysis of the trunk, arms, legs, and respiratory system. In these food-borne infections, symptoms start soon after the contaminated food is eaten—typically within 12 to 48 hours. Infant botulism may range from mild to severe, often ...

  3. Botulizem: Botulism:

    OpenAIRE

    Berginc Dolenšek, Anica; Kapš, Rafael; Ožek, Branka; Patkovič Colarič, Jasmina; Starič, Feliks

    2004-01-01

    Background. Human botulism is a serious, relatively rare and potencial lethal disease, caused by Clostridium botulinum, a gram positive obligat anaerobic spore forming bacili which strain produced seven potent nevrotoksins (type A-G). It can be found in soil and marine sediment troughout the world and alsocolonizes the gastrointestinal tract of fishes, birds and mammals. Human botulism is usually caused by neurotoxin type A, B, E and rerely F. Type C, D and E cause illness in mammals, birds a...

  4. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... diseases: smallpox, anthrax, botulism, plague, tularemia, and viral hemorrhagic fevers. If these germs were used to intentionally infect ... the Program Overview Anthrax Plague Smallpox Botulism Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers Tularemia Note: Parts of this video were adapted ...

  5. Denmark: botulism in an infant or infant botulism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paerregaard, A; Angen, O; Lisby, M;

    2008-01-01

    was noted. Botulism was suspected and confirmed by testing of patient serum in a bioassay. The condition of the patient improved following administration of botulism antiserum. The clinical picture was suggestive of intestinal (infant) botulism. However, botulism acquired from consumption of food...

  6. Denmark: Botulism in an infant or infant botulism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pærregaard, A; Angen, Øystein; Lisby, M;

    2008-01-01

    was noted. Botulism was suspected and confirmed by testing of patient serum in a bioassay. The condition of the patient improved following administration of botulism antiserum. The clinical picture was suggestive of intestinal (infant) botulism. However, botulism acquired from consumption of food...

  7. Home Canning and Botulism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Home Canning and Botulism Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... list of pH values for foods . Make your home-canned vegetables safe Use a recommended pressure canner ...

  8. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Emergency Response Guide Reaching At-Risk Populations MedCon Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir This video describes the Category A diseases: smallpox, anthrax, botulism, ...

  9. Tracheotomy for infant botulism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, J A; Rowe, L D; Pasquariello, P; Potsic, W P

    1979-01-01

    Botulism is a serious intoxication caused by ingestion of food containing preformed botulinus toxin and characterized by rapidly progressive bulbar paralysis, generalized weakness, and respiratory insufficiency. In 1976 a distinct clinical entity of infant botulism was recognized. The disease apparently results from intraintestinal toxin production which produces a defect in neuromuscular transmission by interfering with release of acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses. Five cases of infant botulism were identified at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia between 1975 and 1977. Initial symptoms included constipation, slow feeding, lethargy and weak cry. Four of the patients progressed to respiratory insufficiency requiring nasotracheal intubation. Three of the infants with respiratory failure required tracheotomy. Because infants with respiratory failure may require support for months, we recommend that a tracheotomy be performed early in the management to avoid the complications associated with prolonged intubation. The effectiveness of antitoxin or antibiotics to treat infant botulism remains questionable and therefore prolonged respiratory supportive care is the mainstay of therapy. In addition, we offer guidelines for decannulation in cases of infant botulism. None of the patients in our series could be decannulated prior to initial discharge from the hospital. PMID:517932

  10. Denmark: botulism in an infant or infant botulism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pærregaard, Anders; Angen, O.; Mølbak, Kare; Clausen, M.E.; Christensen, Jens Juul Dencker; Lisby, Michael; Paerregaard, A; Angen, O; Lisby, M; Mølbak, K; Clausen, M E; Christensen, J J

    2008-01-01

    A 4.5 months old, previously healthy Danish girl was admitted to a paediatric department after six days of passive behaviour and weak suck. Over the next days she became increasingly weak, developed bilateral ptosis, the muscle stretch reflexes were lost, and mydriasis with slow pupillary responses...... was noted. Botulism was suspected and confirmed by testing of patient serum in a bioassay. The condition of the patient improved following administration of botulism antiserum. The clinical picture was suggestive of intestinal (infant) botulism. However, botulism acquired from consumption of food with...

  11. Waterfowl botulism in California 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The San Joaquin Valley had the potential for a severe botulism outbreak, but intensive management efforts kept losses to 45,000 birds. Outbreaks in the Sacramento...

  12. Botulism: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    lili natalia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Botulism is a potential lethal disease in animals as well as in human, a neuroparalytic disease caused by Clostridium botulinum toxin. C. botulinum is widely distributed in the soil and vegetation, intestinal contents of mammals, birds and fish. Eight types of C. botulinum (A, B, C1, C2, D, E, F, G have been recognized, each elaborating an immunologically distinct form of toxin. Botulinum neurotoxins are the most powerful biological toxins known and in some countries they have been studied and developed as biological weapon. The medical aspects of the toxin were also developed for therapeutic uses in human diseases. The spores of C. botulinum are relatively heat resistant and in contrast to the spores, botulinum toxin is relatively heat labile. Botulinum toxins are inactivated by their antitoxins. Botulinum toxin produces clinical manifestations when either inhaled or ingested. After toxin is absorbed, it enters the bloodstream and travels to peripheral cholinergic synapses, primarily the neuromuscular junction. Once at these sites, botulinum toxin is internalized and enzymatically prevents the release of acteylcholine leads to paralysis. Laboratory diagnoses for botulism should include isolating C. botulinum and detecting of toxin in the patient. Rapid and sensitive detection of all types of botulinum toxin are needed. Cases of botulism in Indonesia were found primarily in poultry and many cases were suspected and remained undiagnosed. Cases of botulism were suspected affecting cattle in East Java and serologically results showed positive to C. botulinum type C. The botulismus prevention using vaccine induced a strong antibody response and could be remained protective for 12 months, while botulism treatment in animals is usually ineffective.

  13. Trial of Immune Globulin in Infant Botulism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A 5-year, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the orphan drug Human Botulism Immune Globulin Intravenous (BIG-IV in 122 infants in California with confirmed infant botulism (75 caused by type A Clostridium botulinum toxin, and 47 by type B toxin was conducted at the California Department of Health Services, Richmond, CA; National Botulism Surveillance and Reference Laboratory, CDC and P, Atlanta; and Division of Biostatistics, University of California, Berkeley.

  14. The Workshop on Animal Botulism in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skarin, Hanna; Tevell Åberg, Annica; Woudstra, Cédric;

    2013-01-01

    A workshop on animal botulism was held in Uppsala, Sweden, in June 2012. Its purpose was to explore the current status of the disease in Europe by gathering the European experts in animal botulism and to raise awareness of the disease among veterinarians and others involved in biopreparedness....... Animal botulism is underreported and underdiagnosed, but an increasing number of reports, as well as the information gathered from this workshop, show that it is an emerging problem in Europe. The workshop was divided into 4 sessions: animal botulism in Europe, the bacteria behind the disease, detection...... main conclusions drawn from these discussions were that there is an urgent need to replace the mouse bioassay for botulinum toxin detection with an in vitro test and that there is a need for a European network to function as a reference laboratory, which could also organize a European supply of...

  15. Disease investigations : Study of waterfowl botulism

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Studies were done to determine the ecology of the botulism organism Clostridium botulinum Type C and the manner of which toxin is ingested by the waterfowl so that...

  16. Botulism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Foodborne Diseases Emerging Infectious Diseases/Pathogens National Library of Medicine, MedlinePlus FoodSafety.gov ​​​​​​​​​​ Skip Content Marketing Share this: JavaScript is disabled in your browser. ...

  17. Asymmetric Type F Botulism with Cranial Nerve Demyelination

    OpenAIRE

    Filozov, Alina; Kattan, Jessica A.; Jitendranath, Lavanya; Smith, C. Gregory; Lúquez, Carolina; Phan, Quyen N.; Fagan, Ryan P.

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of type F botulism in a patient with bilateral but asymmetric neurologic deficits. Cranial nerve demyelination was found during autopsy. Bilateral, asymmetric clinical signs, although rare, do not rule out botulism. Demyelination of cranial nerves might be underrecognized during autopsy of botulism patients.

  18. [Infant botulism: case report and review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriagada S, Daniela; Wilhelm B, Jan; Donoso F, Alejandro

    2009-04-01

    Botulism is a rare disease in Chile and of the known clinical presentation, infant botulism is the most common. We report the case of a previously healthy seven month old male infant with a two weeks history of rinorrea, cough, fatigue, constipation and progressive weakness after the consumption of honey. Stool cultures were positive for Clostridium botulinum group 1 type A and electromyography was compatible with the diagnosis. The patient evolved with arterial hypertension, interpreted as secondary to autonomic dysfunction, which responded to calcium channel blockers. Muscle tone improved progressively during the following four weeks. Infant botulism is a potentially fatal disease; diagnosis can be difficult given the broad clinical manifestations. Prevention should focus on education of parents of infants as well as medical personnel. PMID:19621149

  19. Fatal outbreak of botulism in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Tóra Hedinsdottir; Jespersen, Sanne; Kanstrup, Jakob;

    2015-01-01

    Botulism commonly occurs when the anaerobic, gram-positive bacterium Clostridium botulinum, under suitable conditions, produces botulinum neurotoxins. Named A-F, these toxins are the immediate causative agent of the clinical symptoms of symmetrical, descending neurological deficits, including...... recovery was complete. Microbiological assays, including toxin neutralization bioassay, demonstrated the presence of neurotoxin E in two survivors. The third survivor was shown by PCR to have the BoNT type E gene in faeces. This is the first report of cases of fatal botulism in Greenland. It underscores...

  20. Botulismo de origem alimentar Foodbourne botulism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natacha Deboni Cereser

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O botulismo alimentar ocorre pela ingestão de toxinas pré-formadas pelo Clostridium botulinum, consideradas as mais potentes dentre as toxinas conhecidas. Caracteriza-se como uma doença de extrema gravidade, de evolução aguda, provoca distúrbios digestivos e neurológicos, em conseqüência à ingestão de diversos tipos de alimentos. As conservas caseiras estão entre os alimentos que oferecem maior risco à população consumidora. Os produtos de origem animal são frequentemente associados aos surtos da doença, destacando-se os embutidos, tais como salsichas, salames, presuntos e patês. Derivados do leite e enlatados, bem como produtos fermentados, são passíveis de provocar a intoxicação. As outras formas naturais da doença são botulismo por feridas e botulismo infantil, normalmente associado ao consumo de mel contendo esporos do Clostridium botulinum.Foodbourne botulism occurs after ingestion of preformed toxins produced by the Clostridium botulinum, which has been considered one of the most potent known one. The disease, acquired after ingestion of various kinds of foods, has acute character, and provokes gastrointestinal and neurologic symptoms. Homemade canned foods are those that represent higher risk to human health. Processed meat products are frequently associated with botulism outbreaks, mainly sausages, ham and pates. Dairy and canned food, as well as fermented foods, also may be related with this disease. Still, botulism may be caused by toxin production in deep wound, named wound botulism; and after ingestion of honey contaminated with spores by infants, named infant botulism.

  1. Diplopia as the primary presentation of foodborne botulism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakshoor, Hamid; Moghaddam, Ali Akbar Saber; Vejdani, Amir Hossein; Armstrong, Blair K.; Moshirfar, Majid

    2012-01-01

    Foodborne botulism is a serious condition caused by Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin. Clinically, botulism presents as bilateral cranial nerve neuropathy and descending paralysis. We report a unique presentation of botulism to remind clinicians of this potentially fatal condition. In this observational case report initial evaluation showed only esodeviation. This progressed to unilateral cranial nerve six (CN VI) paresis along with systemic signs. Clinical diagnosis was made based on in-depth history and concurrent symptoms in three other patients. Foodborne botulism presenting as diplopia and unilateral motility deficits is rare and can represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to the ophthalmologist. PMID:22993467

  2. Foodborne Botulism in Canada, 1985–2005

    OpenAIRE

    Leclair, Daniel; Fung, Joe; Isaac-Renton, Judith L.; Proulx, Jean-Francois; May-Hadford, Jennifer; Ellis, Andrea; Ashton, Edie; Bekal, Sadjia; Farber, Jeffrey M.; Blanchfield, Burke; Austin, John W.

    2013-01-01

    During 1985–2005, a total of 91 laboratory-confirmed outbreaks of foodborne botulism occurred in Canada; these outbreaks involved 205 cases and 11 deaths. Of the outbreaks, 75 (86.2%) were caused by Clostridium botulinum type E, followed by types A (7, 8.1%) and B (5, 5.7%). Approximately 85% of the outbreaks occurred in Alaska Native communities, particularly the Inuit of Nunavik in northern Quebec and the First Nations population of the Pacific coast of British Columbia. These populations w...

  3. Use of sentinel mallards for epizootiologic studies of avian botulism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, T.E.; Brand, C.J.

    1994-01-01

    Captive-reared mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were used as sentinels to study the epizootiology of avian botulism at the Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge, Willows, California (USA) from 1986 to 1989. Sentinel mallards were wing-clipped, and 40 to 50 birds were confined in 1.6-ha enclosures in 11 selected wetlands (pools). Enclosures were searched intensively three to four times weekly from July through October. Sick and dead wild and sentinel birds were collected, necropsied, and tested for type C botulism toxin. Botulism epizootics occurred in sentinel mallards in 1986, 1987, and 1989, but only a few isolated cases of botulism were detected in 1988. In most epizootics, botulism also was detected simultaneously in wild birds using the same pool outside the enclosure. Epizootics in sentinels were initiated and perpetuated in the absence of vertebrate carcasses. A sex-specific trend in the probability of intoxication was detected, with males contracting botulism at a higher rate than females. Daily mortality rates of sentinels during botulism epizootics ranged from 0.0006 to 0.0600, with a mean of 0.0190. These rates would result in the daily loss of 0.6 to 60 birds per thousand at risk. The use of sentinel birds provided an effective means of gathering site-specific epizootiologic data.

  4. [Clostridia: toxin masters. Botulism: from botox to sausages?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzi, Marta; Rossel, Anne; Coen, Matteo; Kaiser, Laurent; Abbas, Mohamed

    2016-04-13

    Clostridia are ubiquitous Gram-positive bacteria whose toxins are responsible for serious diseases. In this article we report a case of foodborne botulism we have recently managed. Moreover, we briefly describe the major clinical syndromes caused by different species of Clostridium (except for C. difficile infections, as this subject has been previously extensively reviewed in this journal). Botulism causes a flaccid paralysis starting with cranial nerves. Administration of botulism anti-toxin should be rapidly considered as soon as botulism is suspected, as prognosis is largely dependent on timely treatment; alerting the public health authorities is equally important. In Switzerland botulinum antitoxin can be obtained from the pharmacy of the Swiss Army. PMID:27263152

  5. Historical review of avian botulism at Stillwater Wildlife Management Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to review historical information on avian botulism at Stillwater Wildlife Management Area. This report includes incidental reports of...

  6. An Overview of Type E Botulism in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SI-WU FU; CHEN-HUAI WANG

    2008-01-01

    The geographical distribution of C. botulinum type E and its associated disease, type E botulism in China, is different from that in other areas of the world. Cases of type E botulism generally arise in costal regions. In China, however, type E botulism is found primarily in the Qinghai-Tibet plateau of northwest China far from the ocean, at an altitude of approximately 4-5 kin. The foods most commonly associated with the disease are fermented grain and beans as well as raw meat. A suspected outbreak of type E botulism poisoning in the central costal region of China in the 1990s prompted the collection and analysis of samples of mud, sand, and fish from the region. The toxin produced by type E botulinum was found in these samples. Surprisingly, though, upon further analysis, the strain isolated from the samples was identified not as type E C. botulinum, but as the neurotoxigenic bacterium Clostridium butyricum.

  7. Avian botulism in the southern San Joaquin valley 1970

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A joint effort of the Department of Fish and' Game and the U. S. Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife contained botulism losses in the southern San Joaquin Valley...

  8. Botulism protocols for the Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan gives a basic description of what avian botulism is and the locations on the Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge where botulism...

  9. FDA Approves First Botulism Antitoxin for Use in Neutralizing All Seven Known Botulinum Nerve Toxin Serotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Antitoxin for use in neutralizing all seven known botulinum nerve toxin serotypes Product to be stored in Strategic National ... antibody fragments that neutralize all of the seven botulinum nerve toxin serotypes known to cause botulism. Botulism is a ...

  10. Botulism type B: epidemiologic aspects of an extensive outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terranova, W; Breman, J G; Locey, R P; Speck, S

    1978-08-01

    Between March 31 and April 6, 1977, 59 individuals developed type B botulism. All ill persons had eaten at the same Mexican restaurant and all had consumed a hot sauce made with improperly home-canned jalapeno peppers, either by adding it to their food, or by eating a nacho that had had hot sauce used in its preparation. There was a highly significant association between illness and consumption of hot sauce when a comparison was made between ill persons and well controls: 4% of all restaurant patrons eating at the restaurant during the outbreak period became ill with botulism; however, approximately two-thirds of those actually exposed to the toxic hot sauce became ill. Disease severity was statistically correlated with incubation periods. No differences in disease severity were found between persons of different age groups. The full clinical spectrum (mild symptomatology with neurologic findings through life-threatening ventilatory paralysis) of type B botulism was documented. PMID:707476

  11. [Botulism after intake of half-fermented fish].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, T; Jacobsen, D; von der Lippe, E; Yndestad, M

    1998-11-20

    From 1975 to 1997, 21 cases of foodborn botulism have been reported in Norway. Half-fermented fish is the major cause. We describe one patient with botulism following intake of home-prepared half-fermented fish. Seven people had eaten fish from the same bucket, but only two developed symptoms. The fish was initially stored at 13 degrees C; this probably explains why toxin developed. Type E toxin in moderate concentrations was found in fish samples. The patient was treated with specific antitoxin and made a gradual recovery. He returned to work after eight months. PMID:9889609

  12. The 1971 waterfowl botulism outbreak in the Tulare Lake basin

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The efforts of the Department of Fish and Game and the U.S. Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife held botulism losses in the Tulare Lake region of the Southern...

  13. Serum Antibody Response to Clostridium botulinum Toxin in Infant Botulism

    OpenAIRE

    Rubin, Lorry G.; Dezfulian, Manuchehr; Yolken, Robert H.

    1982-01-01

    A serum antibody response has not been previously demonstrated after infection with Clostridium botulinum. We developed an enzyme immunoassay for measuring serum antibody to C. botulinum toxins A, B, and E. This assay system detected a specific immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M antibody response to C. botulinum toxin in two patients with infant botulism.

  14. Cluster of Botulism among dutch tourists in Turkey, june 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Swaan, C.M.; Ouwerkerk, van, E.N.J.; Roest, H.I.J.

    2010-01-01

    In June 2008, three Dutch tourists participating in a mini-cruise in Turkey needed urgent repatriation for antitoxin treatment because of symptoms of botulism. Because there was a shortage of antitoxin in the Netherlands, an emergency delivery was requested from the manufacturer in Germany. An outbreak investigation was initiated into all nine cruise members, eight of whom developed symptoms. C. botulinum type B was isolated in stool culture from four of them. No other patients were notified ...

  15. Cluster of botulism among Dutch tourists in Turkey, June 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaan, C M; van Ouwerkerk, I M; Roest, H J

    2010-01-01

    In June 2008, three Dutch tourists participating in a mini-cruise in Turkey needed urgent repatriation for antitoxin treatment because of symptoms of botulism. Because there was a shortage of antitoxin in the Netherlands, an emergency delivery was requested from the manufacturer in Germany. An outbreak investigation was initiated into all nine cruise members, eight of whom developed symptoms. C. botulinum type B was isolated in stool culture from four of them. No other patients were notified locally. Food histories revealed locally purchased unprocessed black olives, consumed on board of the ship, as most likely source, but no left-overs were available for investigation. C. botulinum type D was detected in locally purchased canned peas, and whilst type D is not known to be a cause of human intoxication, its presence in a canned food product indicates an inadequate preserving process. With increasing tourism to areas where food-borne botulism is reported regularly special requests for botulism antitoxin may become necessary. Preparing an inventory of available reserve stock in Europe would appear to be a necessary and valuable undertaking. PMID:20394717

  16. An outbreak of foodborne botulism associated with food sold at a salvage store in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalluri, Pavani; Crowe, Colleen; Reller, Megan; Gaul, Linda; Hayslett, James; Barth, Suzanne; Eliasberg, Stacey; Ferreira, J; Holt, Kristin; Bengston, Steve; Hendricks, Kate; Sobel, Jeremy

    2003-12-01

    Foodborne botulism is caused by potent neurotoxins of Clostridium botulinum. We investigated a large outbreak of foodborne botulism among church supper attendees in Texas. We conducted a cohort study of attendees and investigated the salvage store that sold the implicated foods. We identified 15 cases of botulism (40%) among 38 church supper attendees. Nine patients (60%) had botulinum toxin type A detected in stool specimens. The diagnosis was delayed in 3 cases. Fifteen (63%) of 24 attendees who ate a chili dish developed botulism (relative risk, undefined; Pdish was prepared with "brand X" or "brand Y" frozen chili, "brand Z" canned chili, and hot dogs. An unopened container of brand X chili yielded type A toxin. Brand X chili was purchased at a salvage store where perishable foods were inadequately refrigerated. Our investigation highlights the need to improve clinicians' awareness of botulism. More rigorous and more unannounced inspections may be necessary to detect food mishandling at salvage stores. PMID:14614672

  17. Outbreak of Type C Botulism in Commercial Layer Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yuko; Wigle, William L; Gallagher, Susan; Johnson, Amy L; Sweeney, Raymond W; Wakenell, Patricia S

    2016-03-01

    This report describes an outbreak of type C botulism in two organic, free-range commercial layer farms in the Midwest. Hens affected were 64-wk-old Hy-Line brown hens and 34-wk-old Hy-Line brown hens owned by the same company, but housed on different premises, with approximately 20,000 birds per house. Mortality over the 2 wk of investigation was estimated to be up to 8% and 2.8%, respectively, with birds acting listless, lethargic, and depressed. Clinical signs consisted of progressive paralysis, and severely affected birds were moribund and laterally recumbent. Hens had ruffled feathers that easily epilated, with loss of muscular tone in the neck, tail, and wings. Hens had closed eyes and were reluctant to move. There were no significant gross or histopathologic lesions. Intestinal samples were submitted to the University of Pennsylvania Botulism Diagnostic Laboratory for real-time PCR and were positive for Clostridium botulinum organisms containing the Type C neurotoxin gene. Speculations on the source of the botulinum toxins include poor mortality removal leading to cannibalism of decomposing carcasses, as well as birds on the farm having access to putrid carcasses in the compost pile from a hole in their outdoor access fence. PMID:26953952

  18. Cure of experimental botulism and antibotulismic effect of toosendanin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-liang SHI; Zhong-feng WANG

    2004-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), a group of bacterial proteins that comprise a light chain disulfide linked aheavy chain, are the most lethal biotoxins known to mankind. By inhibiting neurotransmitter release, BoNTs causesevere neuroparalytic disease, botulism. A series of important findings in the past 10 years which displayed themolecular targets of BoNTs and hence proposed a four-step action mechanism to explain BoNT intoxication greatlyadvanced the study of antibotulismic drug. In this article, we reviewed these progresses and anti-botulismiccompounds found in recent years. These compounds function due to their facilitation on neurotransmitter releaseor to their interference on the binding, internalization, translocation, and endopeptidase activity of the toxins.Toosendanin is a triterpenoid derivative extracted from a digestive tract-parasiticide in Chinese traditional medicine.Chinese scientists have found that the compound is a selective prejunctional blocker. In spite of sharing somesimilar action with BoNT, toosendanin can protect botulism animals that have been administrated with lethal dosesof BoNT/A or BoNT/B for several hours from death and make them restore normal activity. The neuromuscularjunction preparations isolated from the rats that have been injected with toosendanin tolerate BoNT/A challenge.Toosendanin seems to have no effect on endopeptidase activity of BoNT, but blocks the toxin approach to itsenzymatic substrate.

  19. Bioassessment of avian botulism at Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Current detection of a botulism outbreak is dependent on the occurrence of dead or sick birds during field surveys (Reed and Rocke 1992). A recently developed...

  20. Frozen, Fully-Cooked Products and Botulism--Food Safety Advisory

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... Actions ${title} Loading... Frozen, Fully-Cooked Products & Botulism - Food Safety Advisory In August and September 2001, several cases ...

  1. Outbreak of wound botulism in people who inject drugs, Norway, October to November 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, E; Arnesen, T M; Brantsaeter, A B; Gerlyng, P; Grepp, M; Hansen, B Å; Jonsrud, K; Lundgren, B; Mellegård, H; Møller-Stray, J; Rønning, K; Vestrheim, D F; Vold, L

    2013-01-01

    In October and November 2013, four cases of wound botulism were confirmed in people who inject drugs (PWID) in Norway. Two additional cases are suspected. Because of the international distribution pathways for heroin – the likely source of the outbreak – healthcare workers and public health authorities in other countries should remain vigilant for wound botulism in PWID. This outbreak serves as a reminder that countries should ensure access to botulinum antitoxin in case of outbreak situations. PMID:24229788

  2. Botulism in injecting drug users, Dublin, Ireland, November-December 2008.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ward, M

    2009-01-08

    In November and December 2008, six cases of suspect wound botulism were reported in heroin injecting drug users, all residents in Dublin, Ireland. Patients were aged between 23-42 years of age; four cases were male; one patient died shortly after admission. The patients presented to four different hospitals across the city. Botulism in injecting drug users in Ireland was last reported in 2002.

  3. Lobotomies and Botulism Bombs: Beckett's Trilogy and the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piette, Adam

    2016-06-01

    The article argues that Beckett's Trilogy stages the effects of a lobotomy operation on a potentially politically subversive writer, and that the consequences of the operation can be traced in both the retreat of the narrator(s) of the Trilogy into the mind and into comatose mental states and in the detail of the operation itself, based on the 'icepick' lobotomies performed by neurologist Walter Freeman in the late 1940s and early 1950s. To write about extreme psychiatric situations in the post-war period is necessarily to invoke the political uses of psychosurgery with which this article engages. The article goes on to consider the figure of the brain-damaged mind as a Cold War trope in the references to botulism and the motif of the penetrated skull in The Unnamable. PMID:26691878

  4. Type C botulism in swine fed on restaurant waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djeison L. Raymundo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the epidemiologic data of the death of pigs during the period of 2002 to 2009 following the ingestion of botulinum neurotoxin type C. This neurotoxin was present in food residues originating from restaurant and hotel kitchens, stored in barrels without shelter from the sun and administered in a collective trough without prior thermal treatment. Animals which died at different ages showed clinical signs of botulism characterized by flaccid paralysis, weight loss, anorexia, weakness, lack of coordination, locomotion difficulties with the evolution of lateral recumbency with involuntary urination and defecation. No alterations were observed at postmortem and histological examination. The bioassay with serum neutralization in mice was carried out on samples of intestinal contents from pigs affected and revealed the presence of large quantities of botulinum toxin type C.

  5. Botulinum Neurotoxins and Botulism: A Novel Therapeutic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanpen Chaicumpa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Specific treatment is not available for human botulism. Current remedial mainstay is the passive administration of polyclonal antibody to botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT derived from heterologous species (immunized animal or mouse hybridoma together with supportive and symptomatic management. The antibody works extracellularly, probably by blocking the binding of receptor binding (R domain to the neuronal receptors; thus inhibiting cellular entry of the holo-BoNT. The antibody cannot neutralize the intracellular toxin. Moreover, a conventional antibody with relatively large molecular size (150 kDa is not accessible to the enzymatic groove and, thus, cannot directly inhibit the BoNT zinc metalloprotease activity. Recently, a 15–20 kDa single domain antibody (VHH that binds specifically to light chain of BoNT serotype A was produced from a humanized-camel VH/VHH phage display library. The VHH has high sequence homology (>80% to the human VH and could block the enzymatic activity of the BoNT. Molecular docking revealed not only the interface binding between the VHH and the toxin but also an insertion of the VHH CDR3 into the toxin enzymatic pocket. It is envisaged that, by molecular linking the VHH to a cell penetrating peptide (CPP, the CPP-VHH fusion protein would be able to traverse the hydrophobic cell membrane into the cytoplasm and inhibit the intracellular BoNT. This presents a novel and safe immunotherapeutic strategy for botulism by using a cell penetrating, humanized-single domain antibody that inhibits the BoNT by means of a direct blockade of the groove of the menace enzyme.

  6. Avian botulism and avian chlamydiosis in wild water birds, Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, Douglas E.; Franson, J. Christian; Brannian, Roger E.; Long, Renee R.; Radi, Craig A.; Krueger, David; Johnson, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, Wisconsin, conducted a diagnostic investigation into a water bird mortality event involving intoxication with avian botulism type C and infection with avian chlamydiosis at the Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Montana, USA. Of 24 carcasses necropsied, 11 had lesions consistent with avian chlamydiosis, including two that tested positive for infectious Chlamydophila psittaci, and 12 were positive for avian botulism type C. One bird tested positive for both avian botulism type C and C. psittaci. Of 61 apparently healthy water birds sampled and released, 13 had serologic evidence of C. psittaci infection and 7 were, at the time of capture, shedding infectious C. psittaci via the cloacal or oropharyngeal route. Since more routinely diagnosed disease conditions may mask avian chlamydiosis, these findings support the need for a comprehensive diagnostic investigation when determining the cause of a wildlife mortality event.

  7. Protective immunity against botulism provided by a single dose vaccination with an adenovirus-vectored vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Mingtao; Xu, Qingfu; Elias, Md.; Pichichero, Michael E.; Simpson, Lance L.; Leonard A. Smith

    2007-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins cause botulism, a neuroparalytic disease in humans and animals. We constructed a replication-incompetent adenovirus encoding a synthesized codon-optimized gene for expression of the heavy chain C-fragment (HC50) of botulinum neurotoxin type C (BoNT/C). This recombinant human serotype 5 adenoviral vector (Ad5) was evaluated as a genetic vaccine candidate against botulism caused by BoNT/C in a mouse model. A one-time intramuscular injection with 105 to 2 × 107 pfu of adeno...

  8. Foodborne botulism associated with home-preserved turnip tops in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Anniballi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, foodborne botulism is a rare disease mainly due to home-preserved food. In the case reported here, clinical diagnosis was performed on the basis of clinical signs and referred consumption of home-preserved turnip tops in oil. Definitive diagnosis was performed by detection of botulinum toxin in sera and neuro-toxigenic organisms in stools and leftover food. This case report highlights the need of a high medical awareness, prompt clinical diagnosis, and synergic collaboration among the health authorities for a correct management of botulism as well as disease containment.

  9. A brief history of botulism in South Africa : historical overview : Onderstepoort and veterinary research in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, C M

    2009-01-01

    When looking back into the history of botulism and contemplating the final understanding of the syndrome and the ultimate solutions, there are four facets that stand out clearly. The first is that much of the solution was guided by astute observations, curious travellers, committed veterinarians and particularly farmers themselves who were able to relate the occurrence of the condition to climatic and grazing conditions. Secondly, there was the identification of the osteophagia and pica...

  10. Two cases of food-borne botulism in Finland caused by conserved olives, October 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalava, K; Selby, K; Pihlajasaari, A; Kolho, E; Dahlsten, E; Forss, N; Bäcklund, T; Korkeala, H; Honkanen-Buzalski, T; Hulkko, T; Derman, Y; Järvinen, A; Kotilainen, H; Kultanen, L; Ruutu, P; Lyytikaïnen, O; Lindström, M

    2011-01-01

    In October 2011 in Finland, two persons fell ill with symptoms compatible with botulism after having eaten conserved olives stuffed with almonds. One of these two died. Clostridium botulinum type B and its neurotoxin were detected in the implicated olives by PCR and mouse bioassay, respectively. The olives were traced back to an Italian manufacturer and withdrawn from the market. The public and other European countries were informed through media and Europe-wide notifications. PMID:22172330

  11. Hazard analysis and possibilities for preventing botulism originating from meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilev Dragan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the more important data on the bacteria Clostridium botulinum, the appearance of botulism, hazard analysis and the possibilities for preventing botulism. Proteolytic strains of C.botulinum Group I, whose spores are resistant to heat, create toxins predominantly in cans containing slightly sour food items, in the event that the spores are not inactivated in the course of sterilization. Non-proteolytic strains of Group II are more sensitive to high temperatures, but they have the ability to grow and create toxins at low temperatures. Type E most often creates a toxin in vacuum-packed smoked fish, and the non-proteolytic strain type B in dried hams and certain pasteurized meat products. The following plays an important role in the prevention of botulism: reducing to a minimum meat contamination with spores of clostridia, implementing good hygiene measures and production practice during the slaughter of animals, the inactivation of spores of C. botulinum during sterilization (F>3, and, in dried hams and pasteurized products, the prevention of bacterial growth and toxin forming by maintaining low temperatures in the course of production and storage, as well as the correct use of substances that inhibit the multiplication of bacteria and the production of toxins (nitrites, table salt, etc..

  12. A Family Outbreak of Foodborne Botulism Following Consumption of Home-Canned Doogh in Hamadan, West of Iran

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    Hashemi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Food-borne botulism is one of the potentially fatal forms of food poisoning, usually caused by ingestion of home-canned vegetables, fruits and fish products. Objectives The aim of this study was to report an outbreak of botulism due to homemade doogh in Hamadan, Iran. Patients and Methods During an outbreak, 10 members of a family referred to the hospital because of food poisoning. All patients had a history of consumption of doogh, a traditional drink. After careful physical examination, all of them were hospitalized. Botulism was suspected in all patients except for the first patient. Results The first patient was a 76-year-old man who died after 12 hours of admission due to respiratory distress. Nine subsequent patients were diagnosed as botulism with the following symptoms: diplopia (90%, dizziness (70%, nausea and vomiting (80%, ptosis (60%, symmetric weakness of extremities (60%, dysarthria (30%, chest discomfort (30%, mydriasis (20%, dysphasia (20% and dry mouth (20%. All of the nine patients received botulinum antitoxin and improved during 5-15 days of hospitalization. Conclusions Immediate diagnosis based on careful history and physical examination are essential for management of botulism. People should be notified about proper food handling and preparation of traditional homemade foods.

  13. Toxina botulínica no tratamento da dor Toxina botulínica en el tratamiento del dolor Botulinum toxin in pain treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Orlando Carlos Gomes Colhado; Marcelo Boeing; Luciano Bornia Ortega

    2009-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A toxina botulínica (TxB), uma das mais potentes toxinas bacterianas conhecidas, tem reconhecidamente ação terapêutica eficaz no tratamento de algumas síndromes dolorosas. Entretanto, algumas de suas indicações ainda estão em fase de comprovação com relação a sua eficácia. O objetivo deste estudo foi revisar o histórico, propriedades farmacológicas e aplicações clinicas da TxB, quando empregada no tratamento de dores de diferentes origens. CONTEÚDO: A TxB é o produt...

  14. Two simultaneous botulism outbreaks in Barcelona: Clostridium baratii and Clostridium botulinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente, S; Nolla, J; Valdezate, S; Tortajada, C; Vargas-Leguas, H; Parron, I; Sáez-Nieto, J A; Portaña, S; Carrasco, G; Moguel, E; Sabate, S; Argelich, R; Caylà, J A

    2013-09-01

    Botulism is a severe neuroparalytic disorder that can be potentially life-threatening. In Barcelona, Spain, no outbreaks had been reported in the past 25 years. However, in September 2011, two outbreaks occurred involving two different families. A rare case of Clostridium baratii which produced a neurotoxin F outbreak was detected in five family members who had shared lunch, and several days before that another family was affected by C. botulinum toxin A which was probably present in homemade pâté. PMID:23158693

  15. Toxina botulínica como tratamento para fobia social generalizada com hiperidrose

    OpenAIRE

    Larissa da Rocha Lessa; Fontenelle, Leonardo F.

    2011-01-01

    CONTEXTO: Enrubescimento, tremores e transpiração excessiva são fenômenos frequentemente observados na fobia social. OBJETIVOS: Descrever a resposta de um paciente com o tipo generalizado de fobia social e hiperidrose à terapia cognitivo-comportamental aliada à toxina botulínica. MÉTODO: Relato de caso único. RESULTADOS: O Sr. A, 20 anos, estudante universitário, procurou tratamento por apresentar sintomas compatíveis com os diagnósticos de fobia social e depressão. O Sr. A também apresentava...

  16. Castleberry's: 2007 Botulism Recall; A Case Study by The Food Industry Center

    OpenAIRE

    Seltzer, Jonathan M.; Rush, Jeff; Kinsey, Jean D.

    2008-01-01

    This case summarizes the available information on the 2007 Castleberry’s recall and food recalls in general, and raises questions prompted by a recall of this magnitude. A massive, nationwide recall of Castleberry’s canned food due to botulism in the summer of 2007 illustrates the complexity of the food industry. Product from a single production line at a single plant, packed under 90 labels (the company’s own store brands and foodservice), spurred a recall of tens of millions of cans of food...

  17. A brief history of botulism in South Africa : historical overview : Onderstepoort and veterinary research in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Cameron

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available When looking back into the history of botulism and contemplating the final understanding of the syndrome and the ultimate solutions, there are four facets that stand out clearly. The first is that much of the solution was guided by astute observations, curious travellers, committed veterinarians and particularly farmers themselves who were able to relate the occurrence of the condition to climatic and grazing conditions. Secondly, there was the identification of the osteophagia and pica syndrome which led to the feeding of bone-meal as a successful mitigating measure as well as the establishment that botulism was not due to a plant poisoning. Thirdly, the solution of the problem depended on the integration of experience and knowledge from diverse disciplines such as soil science, animal behaviour and husbandry, nutrition, botany and ultimately advanced bacteriology and the science of immunology. Finally it required the technical advancement to produce toxoids in large quantities and formulate effective aluminium hydroxide precipitated and oil emulsion vaccines.

  18. Fatal course of foodborne botulism in an eigth-month old Infant

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    Davide Lonati

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An 8-month old girl, weighing 9 kg, was brought by her parents at 8.15 am to the Emergency Department (ED for a progressive worsening of weakness and acute respiratory failure. On admission, the baby presented with poor oral intake, a weak cry and extremely weak muscular body control. Poor gag and suck, unreactive mydriasis, hypotonia, lethargy and absence of peristalsis were noted. Laboratory data showed severe respiratory acidosis. Chest X-ray, electroencephalography, encephalic CT scan and MRI were all normal, as were cerebrospinal fluid analysis and viral tests. Orotracheal intubation and continuous mechanical ventilation were applied. The patient received fluids, corticosteroids, aerosol therapy, large-spectrum antibiotics and enteral- nutrition. Further investigation revealed ingestion of an improperly prepared homecanned homogenized turkey meal. Type A botulinum neurotoxin was identified. Trivalent botulinum antitoxin, prostigmine and oral activated charcoal were administered. Generalized flaccid paralysis, areflexic bilateral mydriasis, gastric stasis and deep coma persisted for the duration of the hospital stay, and the patient died of severe respiratory failure and cardiac arrest 12 days after ED admission. Botulism poisoning should be suspected in any infant presenting with feeding difficulties, constipation, descendent paralysis or acute respiratory failure. Supportive treatment and antidotal therapy should be performed as soon as a clinical diagnosis is made. We describe a case of foodborne botulism in an 8-month old infant caused by ingestion of an improperly prepared home-canned homogenized turkey meal, representing the youngest fatal case reported in medical literature.

  19. Outbreak of Foodborne Botulism Associated with Improperly Jarred Pesto - Ohio and California, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Patrick; Needham, Michael; Jackson, Brendan R; Bokanyi, Rick; St Germain, Eric; Englender, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    On July 28, 2014, the Cincinnati Health Department was notified of suspected cases of foodborne botulism in two women admitted to the same hospital 12 days apart. Patient A had been treated for 12 days for suspected autoimmune disease. When patient B, the roommate of patient A, was evaluated at the same medical center for similar symptoms, it was learned that on July 13, patient A and patient B had shared a meal that included prepackaged pesto from a jar; clinicians suspected botulism and notified the local health department. The pesto had been purchased from company A's farm stand in San Clemente, California. Laboratory testing detected botulinum toxin type B by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in leftovers of pasta with pesto. A culture of these food samples yielded Clostridium spp. that produced botulinum toxin type B; polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing also was positive for type B toxin gene. Environmental assessment of company A identified improper acidification and pressurization practices and lack of licensure to sell canned products commercially, including products in hermetically-sealed jars. On July 30, the vendor voluntarily recalled all jarred products, and the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) warned the public not to consume company A's jarred foods. This report describes the two cases and the public health investigation that traced the source of the outbreak. PMID:26914208

  20. Biodiversity of Clostridium botulinum Type E Associated with a Large Outbreak of Botulism in Wildlife from Lake Erie and Lake Ontario ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Hannett, George E.; Stone, Ward B.; Davis, Stephen W.; Wroblewski, Danielle

    2010-01-01

    The genetic relatedness of Clostridium botulinum type E isolates associated with an outbreak of wildlife botulism was studied using random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Specimens were collected from November 2000 to December 2008 during a large outbreak of botulism affecting birds and fish living in and around Lake Erie and Lake Ontario. In our present study, a total of 355 wildlife samples were tested for the presence of botulinum toxin and/or organisms. Type E botulinum toxin was...

  1. Toxina Botulínica, considerações em Medicina Dentária

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Natacha Betânia Alves

    2014-01-01

    A toxina botulínica (TB) foi durante muito anos considerada um promotor de doença. No presente é considerada um agente terapêutico versátil para o tratamento de distúrbios musculares. O seu mecanismo de ação ocorre ao nível da fenda sináptica do músculo esquelético e leva a uma desnervação parcial e funcional dos neurónios motores, através da inibição da liberação do neurotransmissor de acetilcolina (Ach), juntamente com o bloqueio da libertação de outros neurotransmissores periféricos relaci...

  2. Infant botulism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that spreads downward Poor feeding and weak suckling Respiratory failure Extreme tiredness (lethargy) Weak cry ... Respiratory insufficiency can develop. This would require assistance with breathing (mechanical ventilation).

  3. A penicillin- and metronidazole-resistant Clostridium botulinum strain responsible for an infant botulism case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazuet, C; Yoon, E-J; Boyer, S; Pignier, S; Blanc, T; Doehring, I; Meziane-Cherif, D; Dumant-Forest, C; Sautereau, J; Legeay, C; Bouvet, P; Bouchier, C; Quijano-Roy, S; Pestel-Caron, M; Courvalin, P; Popoff, M R

    2016-07-01

    The clinical course of a case of infant botulism was characterized by several relapses despite therapy with amoxicillin and metronidazole. Botulism was confirmed by identification of botulinum toxin and Clostridium botulinum in stools. A C. botulinum A2 strain resistant to penicillins and with heterogeneous resistance to metronidazole was isolated from stool samples up to 110 days after onset. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested by disc agar diffusion and MICs were determined by Etest. Whole genome sequencing allowed detection of a gene cluster composed of blaCBP for a novel penicillinase, blaI for a regulator, and blaR1 for a membrane-bound penicillin receptor in the chromosome of the C. botulinum isolate. The purified recombinant penicillinase was assayed. Resistance to β-lactams was in agreement with the kinetic parameters of the enzyme. In addition, the β-lactamase gene cluster was found in three C. botulinum genomes in databanks and in two of 62 genomes of our collection, all the strains belonging to group I C. botulinum. This is the first report of a C. botulinum isolate resistant to penicillins. This stresses the importance of antibiotic susceptibility testing for adequate therapy of botulism. PMID:27108966

  4. Toxina botulínica no tratamento da dor Toxina botulínica en el tratamiento del dolor Botulinum toxin in pain treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Carlos Gomes Colhado

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A toxina botulínica (TxB, uma das mais potentes toxinas bacterianas conhecidas, tem reconhecidamente ação terapêutica eficaz no tratamento de algumas síndromes dolorosas. Entretanto, algumas de suas indicações ainda estão em fase de comprovação com relação a sua eficácia. O objetivo deste estudo foi revisar o histórico, propriedades farmacológicas e aplicações clinicas da TxB, quando empregada no tratamento de dores de diferentes origens. CONTEÚDO: A TxB é o produto da fermentação do Clostridium Botulinum, uma bactéria anaeróbia Gram-positiva. Comercialmente, as TxB existem nas formas A e B, agentes biológicos obtidos laboratorialmente. A TxB, uma neurotoxina que possui alta afinidade pelas sinapses colinérgicas, ocasiona bloqueio na liberação de acetilcolina pelo terminal nervoso, sem alterar a condução neural de sinais elétricos ou síntese e armazenamento de acetilcolina. Comprovadamente, a TxB pode enfraquecer seletivamente a musculatura dolorosa, interrompendo o ciclo espasmo-dor. Com relação à dor, varias publicações têm demonstrado a eficácia e segurança da TxB-A no tratamento da cefaleia tipo tensão, migrânea, dor lombar crônica e dor miofascial. CONCLUSÕES: A TxB-A é segura e bem tolerada em desordens dolorosas crônicas, onde regimes de farmacoterapia podem sabidamente provocar efeitos colaterais. Outra vantagem é a redução do uso de analgésicos e o tempo de ação de 3 a 4 meses por dose. Entretanto pesquisas futuras serão necessárias para se estabelecer a eficácia da TxB-A em desordens dolorosas crônicas e seu exato mecanismo no alivio da dor, bem como seu potencial em tratamentos multifatoriais.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: La toxina botulínica (TxB, una de las más potentes toxinas bacterianas de que se tiene conocimiento, posee una reconocida acción terapéutica eficaz en el tratamiento de algunos síndromes dolorosos. Sin embargo, algunas de sus

  5. Uso de toxina botulínica en neurología: Experiencia en el Hospital Guillermo Almenara Irigoyen, EsSalud

    OpenAIRE

    Édgard Rojas; César Castañeda; Roberto Portillo; David Lira

    2004-01-01

    Objetivo: Identificar las principales utilidades de la toxina botulínica en las enfermedades neurológicas. Lugar: Hospital Nacional Guillermo Almenara Irigoyen, EsSalud, Lima,Perú. Periodo 2001-2003. Material y Métodos: Se estudió 122 pacientes a quienes se les infiltró toxina botulínica tipo A a nivel de los músculos comprometidos, según el tipo de patología. Se les hizo una evaluación posterior a la aplicación de la toxina. Resultados: El espasmo hemifacial fue el diagnóstico más frecuente ...

  6. Barbiturate ingestion in three adult captive tigers (Panthera tigris and concomitant fatal botulism of one : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Williams

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Zoo animals, including tigers, have been reported to suffer from barbiturate intoxication, with pentabarbitone being most commonly recorded. Clinical signs range from mild ataxia to general anaesthesia with recovery over hours to days with several factors affecting hepatic barbiturate metabolism and tissue partitioning. Botulism is an often fatal intoxication in man, animals, birds and certain fish. The occurrence in carnivores is uncommon to rare, with only 2 reports found of botulism in felids. This report relates to 3 adult captive cohabiting tigers that simultaneously developed signs of abdominal discomfort, progressive ataxia, recumbency and comatose sleep resembling stage 2 anaesthesia, alternating with periods of distracted wakefulness and ataxic movements. These signs occurred 4 days after being fed the carcass of a horse that had ostensibly died of colic and not been euthanased. The male tiger that was the dominant animal in the feeding hierarchy was worst affected and had to be given intravenous fluids. The female that was lowest in hierarchy was unaffected. After 48-72 hours of treatment at the Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital the females could eat and made an uneventful recovery. The male tiger showed partial recovery but died during the night a few hours after drinking water on his return to the owner. Necropsy revealed severe oesophageal dilation and impaction with decaying grass; some of this material and water were present in the pharynx and trachea, and had been aspirated causing acute widespread bronchopneumonia. Colon content tested negative for common pesticides but, together with liver, tested positive for barbiturate. Serum taken on the day of admission had tested negative for barbiturate and the residual serum from the 3 animals later tested negative for botulinum toxin. Colon and oesophageal content from the male at necropsy were positive for Clostridium botulinum toxin type C by the mouse bioassay

  7. Efeito da Toxina Botulínica Tipo-A sobre um modelo de nocicepção trigeminal

    OpenAIRE

    Piovesan, Elcio Juliato

    2010-01-01

    Resumo: A neurotoxina botulínica do tipo A (NTBo-A) é uma substância com efeito sobre o sistema colinérgico, autonômico e sobre neurotransmissores envolvidos nos mecanismos nociceptivos. Sua utilização em síndromes álgicas tem sido indicada com resultados conflitantes. O objetivo do estudo é avaliar o efeito antinociceptivo da NTBo-A em modelos de dor aguda (tratamento preventivo) e crônica (efeito analgésico). Para dor aguda utilizamos um modelo de dor induzida pela formalina 2,5% (TF) aplic...

  8. Toxina botulínica y su empleo en la patología oral y maxilofacial Botulinum toxin and its use in oral and maxillofacial pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Martínez-Pérez

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Las toxinas botulínicas son exotoxinas de la bacteria formadora de esporas Clostridim botulinum y los agentes causantes del botulismo. Cuando se inyecta en el músculo produce una parálisis flácida. El efecto clínico está directamente relacionado con la dosis y debe ajustarse para cada caso concreto. La Toxina botulínica ha demostrado en los más de veinte años en que se está utilizando que es un fármaco seguro. Las indicaciones de la toxina botulínica en la actualidad incluyen todas aquellas patologías que resultan de la hiperfunción muscular y la disfunción autonómica.Abstract: Botilinum toxins are exotoxins of the bacteria that form the Clostridium botulinum spores and the causative agents of botulism. When injected into the muscle flaccid paralysis is produced. The clinical effect is directly related with the dose and is should be adjusted for each particular case. over the last twenty years that it has been in use, the botulinum toxin has shown itself to be a reliable drug. Current indications for the use of botulinum toxin include all those pathologies which are the results of muscle hyperfunction and autonomic dysfunction.

  9. Botulismo tipo C em ganso ocorrido em Minas Gerais, Brasil Type C botulism in a goose at Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Francisco Carlos Faria Lobato

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Botulismo é uma intoxicação causada pela ingestão das toxinas produzidas pelo Clostridium botulinum, que acomete mamíferos e aves, caracterizando-se por um quadro de paralisia flácida. Neste trabalho, é descrito um caso de botulismo em ganso, ocorrido no município de Santa Luzia, região metropolitana de Belo Horizonte, no Estado de Minas Gerais. Ao exame clínico, o animal apresentava-se com um quadro de paralisia flácida dos músculos do pescoço, das pernas e asas, além de apresentar ainda desprendimento de penas. A necropsia não revelou lesões significativas. Foi colhido o soro do animal e submetido ao teste de soroneutralização em camundongo, que identificou a toxina de C. botulinum tipo C.Botulism is an intoxication caused by the ingestion of toxins produced by Clostridium botulinum, that affects mammals and birds, characterized by a flaceid paralysis. This report describes a case of botulism in a goose in Santa Luzia, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Clinical examinations showed dropping feathers and flaccid paralysis involving the muscles of the wings, legs and neck. post-mortem examination showed no significant gross or macroscopic lesions C. botulinum type C toxin was demonstrated in the serum of the affected animal through serum neutralization test in mice.

  10. Beneficial effects of botulinum toxin type A in trigeminal neuralgia Beneficio de la toxina botulínica tipo A en neuralgia del trigemino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Zúñiga

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum toxin has been thoroughly studied as a potential tool in the treatment of several pain syndromes. Therefore, we assessed the clinical effects of botulinum toxin type A injections in 12 patients with otherwise unresponsive idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia. Patients were infiltrated with 20-50 units of botulinum toxin in trigger zones. Those who presented with mandibular involvement were also infiltrated in the masseter muscle. The patients were assessed on a weekly basis using the Visual Analogic Scale for pain. Ten of our patients reported a significant benefit from botulinum toxin injections, with reduction or even disappearance of pain, and remained pain free for as long as 60 days. Our findings suggest that botulinum toxin may represent a useful therapeutic tool in the management of patients with this entity.La toxina botulínica ha sido estudiada en forma exhaustiva como una potencial herramienta en el tratamiento de múltiples síndromes dolorosos. Por lo tanto, evaluamos los efectos clínicos de la aplicación de toxina botulínica tipo A en 12 sujetos con neuralgia trigeminal idiopática resistente a manejo farmacológico. Se aplicaron en dichos sujetos entre 20 y 50 unidades de toxina botulínica tipo A en las zonas gatillo. Además se infiltró el músculo masetero en aquellos que presentaban involucro mandibular. Los sujetos fueron evaluados semanalmente con una escala visual análoga para dolor. Diez de los sujetos reportaron un beneficio significativo con el uso de toxina botulínica, con reducción e incluso desaparición del dolor, permaneciendo libres de dolor por un periodo de hasta 60 días. Nuestros hallazgos sugieren que la toxina botulínica puede representar una herramienta terapéutica útil en el manejo de pacientes con esta entidad.

  11. Toxina botulínica para tratamiento del dolor crónico. Revisión de la evidencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Carlo Rivera Día

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El dolor crónico es una de las principales causas de consulta médica, produce limitación funcional, altera el estado del ánimo y disminuye el rendimiento laboral. En muchas ocasiones es de difícil manejo y pobre respuesta a terapias farmacológicas, generando un reto para el equipo interdisciplinario que trata esta enfermedad. Cada día se investigan más métodos enfocados a aliviar el dolor, entre ellos la aplicación de sustancias como la toxina botulínica en los puntos dolorosos. Objetivo: Realizar una revisión narrativa no sistemática sobre la evidencia científica disponible acerca del uso de la toxina botulínica en el tratamiento del dolor crónico. Métodos y materiales: Se realizó una búsqueda en la base de datos PUBMED, que incluyó artículos de metaanálisis, revisiones sistemáticas, revisiones de Cochrane, ensayos clínicos, revisiones narrativas y series de casos, entre 1997 y 2013, para la realización de una revisión narrativa no sistemática. Resultados: Se tuvieron en cuenta un total de 66 artículos para la realización de la actualización en el tema propuesto. Conclusiones: La toxina botulínica presenta propiedades que posiblemente puedan tener algún beneficio en el área del dolor crónico. Sin embargo, no existe suficiente evidencia que soporte su uso en la mayoría de sus indicaciones en este grupo de pacientes. Se requieren más estudios para recomendar su uso. La guía ultrasonográfica es considerada una herramienta útil en su aplicación.

  12. Biodiversity of Clostridium botulinum type E associated with a large outbreak of botulism in wildlife from Lake Erie and Lake Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannett, George E; Stone, Ward B; Davis, Stephen W; Wroblewski, Danielle

    2011-02-01

    The genetic relatedness of Clostridium botulinum type E isolates associated with an outbreak of wildlife botulism was studied using random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Specimens were collected from November 2000 to December 2008 during a large outbreak of botulism affecting birds and fish living in and around Lake Erie and Lake Ontario. In our present study, a total of 355 wildlife samples were tested for the presence of botulinum toxin and/or organisms. Type E botulinum toxin was detected in 110 samples from birds, 12 samples from fish, and 2 samples from mammals. Sediment samples from Lake Erie were also examined for the presence of C. botulinum. Fifteen of 17 sediment samples were positive for the presence of C. botulinum type E. Eighty-one C. botulinum isolates were obtained from plants, animals, and sediments; of these isolates, 44 C. botulinum isolates produced type E toxin, as determined by mouse bioassay, while the remaining 37 isolates were not toxic for mice. All toxin-producing isolates were typed by RAPD; that analysis showed 12 different RAPD types and multiple subtypes. Our study thus demonstrates that multiple genetically distinct strains of C. botulinum were involved in the present outbreak of wildlife botulism. We found that C. botulinum type E is present in the sediments of Lake Erie and that a large range of bird and fish species is affected. PMID:21115703

  13. Efecto protector de la toxina botulínica en colgajos cutáneos The protective effect of botulinum toxin on skin flaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.X. Astudillo Carrera

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Los colgajos cutáneos de patrón vascular randomizado son de gran utilidad en Cirugía Reconstructiva; un aporte vascular adecuado es el factor más importante para la supervivencia de los mismos. Realizamos un estudio experimental levantando un total de 36 colgajos en el dorso de 9 conejos (4 en cada conejo: a 9 controles, b 9 con aplicación de toxina botulínica tipo A transoperatoria a lo largo del colgajo, c 9 con toxina botulínica tipo A aplicada 7 días antes del procedimiento quirúrgico, y, d 9 con aplicación de toxina botulínica tipo A transoperatoria más epinefrina. El análisis de los colgajos se realizó a través de imágenes digitales que se examinaron con el programa ImageJ. Efectuamos el análisis estadístico con la prueba T de Student. La evaluación final de los colgajos se realizó al séptimo día, tiempo en el cual se obtuvo: a una media de área necrótica en los controles del 72.17 ± 3.9% ; b en los que se aplicó toxina botulínica transoperatoria el porcentaje de aérea necrótica fue del 5.09 ± 1.2% p = 0.032; c en aquellos en los que la toxina botulínica se aplicó 7 días antes del procedimiento se reportó necrosis del 24.97 ± 2.7% p = 0.041 y d en los que se aplicó toxina botulínica transoperatoria más epinefrina el porcentaje de necrosis fue del 23.90 ± 3.9% p = 0.045. Concluimos que la toxina botulínica tipo A actúa como protector contra el proceso de sufrimiento-isquemia de los tejidos, debido a su acción vasodilatadora, recomendando su aplicación al inicio del procedimiento quirúrgico.Random-pattern cutaneous flaps are very useful in Reconstructive Surgery; an adequate vascular contribution is an important factor for the survival of the flaps. We designed an experimental study elevating a total of 36 dorsal flaps, divided in 4 groups: a 9 were controls, to which 0.9% physiological solution was applied, b 9 with a transoperatory application of type A botulinum toxin throughout the length of

  14. Botulism in Brazil, 2000-2008: epidemiology, clinical findings and laboratorial diagnosis Botulismo no Brasil, 2000-2008: epidemiologia, achados clínicos e diagnóstico laboratorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Estela Gravato Rowlands

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Botulism is a rare and potentially lethal illness caused by Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin. We describe the findings of a laboratorial investigation of 117 suspected cases of botulism reported to the surveillance system in Brazil from January 2000 to October 2008. Data on the number and type of samples analyzed, type of toxins identified, reporting of the number of botulism cases and transmission sources are discussed. A total of 193 clinical samples and 81 food samples were analyzed for detection and identification of the botulism neurotoxin. Among the clinical samples, 22 (11.4% presented the toxin (nine type A, five type AB and eight with an unidentified type; in food samples, eight (9.9% were positive for the toxin (five type A, one type AB and two with an unidentified type. Of the 38 cases of suspected botulism in Brazil, 27 were confirmed by a mouse bioassay. Laboratorial botulism diagnosis is an important procedure to elucidate cases, especially food-borne botulism, to confirm clinical diagnosis and to identify toxins in food, helping sanitary control measures.Botulismo é uma doença rara e potencialmente letal, resultante da ação de uma neurotoxina produzida pelo Clostridium botulinum. No presente estudo, estão descritos os resultados da investigação laboratorial de 117 casos suspeitos de botulismo notificados ao sistema de vigilância, ocorridos no Brasil no período de janeiro de 2000 a outubro de 2008. Os dados obtidos sobre as fontes de transmissão, os tipos de toxina identificados e de amostras analisadas serão discutidos. Foram analisadas 193 amostras clínicas e 81 amostras de alimentos para detecção e identificação de neurotoxina botulínica. Entre as amostras clínicas, 22 (11,4% amostras apresentaram resultado positivo para toxina (nove do tipo A, cinco do tipo AB e em oito o tipo não foi identificado e entre as amostras de alimentos, oito (9,9% foram positivas (cinco do tipo A, uma do tipo AB e em duas o tipo n

  15. Tratamiento del Síndrome de Dolor Miofascial con Toxina Botulínica tipo A Botulinum toxin type A in the management of Myofascial pain syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    de Castro, M; L. Cánovas; B. García-Rojo; P. Morillas; J. Martínez-Salgado; A. Gómez-Pombo; A. Castro-Méndez

    2006-01-01

    Introducción: El síndrome de dolor miofascial (SDM) se caracteriza por áreas dolorosas de la musculatura esquelética y por la evidencia clínica y electromiográfica de contracción de bandas musculares sobre las cuales existe un punto cuya presión desencadena un dolor intenso local y referido (punto gatillo). La fisiopatología es incierta pero una posible explicación sería la lesión del músculo por microtraumatismos, sobreuso o espasmo prolongado. La toxina botulínica la produce el microorganis...

  16. Toxina botulínica en parálisis cerebral infantil: resultados en 27 sujetos a lo largo de un año

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez-Carpintero, R. (Rocío); NARBONA, J.

    1997-01-01

    Introducción y objetivos. Resultados positivos en el tratamiento de la parálisis cerebral infantil espástica con toxina botulínica, en estudios anglosajones de los últimos años, nos han llevado a iniciar este trabajo, cuyo objetivo es mostrar nuestra experiencia con la toxina en el tratamiento de esta enfermedad, establecer sus indicaciones, analizar los resultados obtenidos y plantear posibles aplicaciones futuras. Material y métodos. Incluimos 10 pacientes hemipléficos y 17 dipl...

  17. Wound Botulism in Injection Drug Users: Time to Antitoxin Correlates with Intensive Care Unit Length of Stay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Offerman, Steven R

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We sought to identify factors associated with need for mechanical ventilation (MV, length of intensive care unit (ICU stay, length of hospital stay, and poor outcome in injection drug users (IDUs with wound botulism (WB.Methods: This is a retrospective review of WB patients admitted between 1991-2005. IDUs were included if they had symptoms of WB and diagnostic confirmation. Primary outcome variables were the need for MV, length of ICU stay, length of hospital stay, hospital-related complications, and death.Results: Twenty-nine patients met inclusion criteria. Twenty-two (76% admitted to heroin use only and seven (24% admitted to heroin and methamphetamine use. Chief complaints on initial presentation included visual changes, 13 (45%; weakness, nine (31%; and difficulty swallowing, seven (24%. Skin wounds were documented in 22 (76%. Twenty-one (72% patients underwent mechanical ventilation (MV. Antitoxin (AT was administered to 26 (90% patients but only two received antitoxin in the emergency department (ED. The time from ED presentation to AT administration was associated with increased length of ICU stay (Regression coefficient = 2.5; 95% CI 0.45, 4.5. The time from ED presentation to wound drainage was also associated with increased length of ICU stay (Regression coefficient = 13.7; 95% CI = 2.3, 25.2. There was no relationship between time to antibiotic administration and length of ICU stay.Conclusion: MV and prolonged ICU stays are common in patients identified with WB. Early AT administration and wound drainage are recommended as these measures may decrease ICU length of stay.[West J Emerg Med. 2009;10(4:251-256.

  18. Distonia laríngea: relato de caso e tratamento com toxina botulínica Laryngeal dystonia: case report and treatment with botulinum toxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor José Barbosa Santos

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Distonia laríngea, ou disfonia espasmódica, é caracterizada por contrações involuntárias e inapropriadas da musculatura responsável pela fonação, sendo a do tipo adutora a mais comum. Caracteriza-se por quebras fonatórias, sendo seu diagnóstico confirmado por videolaringoestroboscopia. O tratamento de escolha é feito com a aplicação direta de toxina botulínica nos músculos responsáveis pelo movimento incoordenado. O objetivo desse trabalho é relatar o caso de uma paciente com diagnóstico de distonia laríngea do tipo adutora, tratada com toxina botulínica e discutir as vantagens e observações descritas na literatura a respeito desse tratamento.Laryngeal dystonia or spasmodic dysphonia is characterized by involuntary and innapropiate spasms of vocal muscles, having the adductor type as the most common one. It is chacterized by strain-strangled voice with pitch breaks. Diagnosis is made by means of videolaryngostroboscopic exam. The treatment of choice is done with botulinum toxin directly injected in the muscles responsible for the mismatched movement. The aim of this study is to report on an adductor- type dysphonia patient and to discuss the advantages and observations about this treatment reported in the literature.

  19. Retargeting Clostridium difficile Toxin B to Neuronal Cells as a Potential Vehicle for Cytosolic Delivery of Therapeutic Biomolecules to Treat Botulism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greice Krautz-Peterson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs deliver a protease to neurons which can cause a flaccid paralysis called botulism. Development of botulism antidotes will require neuronal delivery of agents that inhibit or destroy the BoNT protease. Here, we investigated the potential of engineering Clostridium difficile toxin B (TcdB as a neuronal delivery vehicle by testing two recombinant TcdB chimeras. For AGT-TcdB chimera, an alkyltransferase (AGT was appended to the N-terminal glucosyltransferase (GT of TcdB. Recombinant AGT-TcdB had alkyltransferase activity, and the chimera was nearly as toxic to Vero cells as wild-type TcdB, suggesting efficient cytosolic delivery of the AGT/GT fusion. For AGT-TcdB-BoNT/A-Hc, the receptor-binding domain (RBD of TcdB was replaced by the equivalent RBD from BoNT/A (BoNT/A-Hc. AGT-TcdB-BoNT/A-Hc was >25-fold more toxic to neuronal cells and >25-fold less toxic to Vero cells than AGT-TcdB. Thus, TcdB can be engineered for cytosolic delivery of biomolecules and improved targeting of neuronal cells.

  20. Botulismo em bovinos de corte e leite alimentados com cama de frango Botulism in beef and dairy cattle fed with poultry litter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveraldo S. Dutra

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Surtos de botulismo causados pelos tipos C e D da toxina botulínica são freqüentes no país, estando originalmente associados à osteofagia e à ingestão de alimentos e água contaminados. No presente trabalho são descritos os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínico-patológicos e laboratoriais de sete surtos da intoxicação em bovinos de corte e leite alimentados com cama de frango, ocorridos nos estados de São Paulo e Minas Gerais entre 1989 e 2000. Cinco surtos ocorreram em rebanhos de corte confinados ou criados extensivamente e suplementados com o subproduto, e dois em propriedades leiteiras. De um total de 1.535 animais alimentados regularmente com a cama de frango, 455 (29,64% morreram em um período que variou de 2 a 4 semanas. A morbidade nos sete surtos estudados variou de 3,47 a 100%, da mesma forma que a mortalidade. Em uma das propriedades a letalidade foi de 60,52%, e em todos os outros surtos ela foi acima de 88,43%; em três propriedades o coeficiente foi de 100%. Os sinais clínicos de paralisia progressiva, dificuldade na locomoção, decúbito e estado mental aparentemente normal, diminuição do tônus da musculatura da língua e cauda, sialorréia e dificuldade respiratória caracterizaram o quadro clínico. À necropsia de 30 animais não foi observada qualquer alteração macroscópica digna de nota. A presença de esporos de Clostridium botulinum foi detectada em amostras de cama de frango colhidas nas sete propriedades. Nas amostras de fígado, líquido ruminal e intestinal, provenientes dos 30 animais necropsiados, foi possível detectar toxinas botulínicas tipos C (5 ou D (9, ou classificada como pertencente ao complexo CD (1, em pelos menos um dos materiais provenientes de 15 animais, confirmando assim o diagnóstico clínico-patológico e epidemiológico de botulismo.Outbreaks of botulism caused by type C and D of the botulinum toxin are frequent in Brazil, and are associated with bone chewing and ingestion of

  1. The Changes and Significance of Electroencephalogram in the Alimentary Botulism%食物性肉毒中毒患者的脑电图改变及其意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘燕敏

    2011-01-01

    Objective To discuss the changes and significance of electroencephalogram in the alimentary botulism. Methods EEG data of 32 patients diagnosed with alimentary botulism were retrospectively analyzed. Results 22 among the 32 patients with alimentary botulism had abnormal EEG, the rate was 68. 75 %. The EEG abnormalities were characterized by the local or diffuse slow wave, a wave ante location, and low tension in the background activity. Conclusion EEG can be considered as one of the diagnostic instruments of the alimentary botulism, especially in the state of midrange and severe poisoning. EEG can be considered as valuable indicator to evaluate the severity of the alimentary botulism. EEG's dynamic monitoring can be considered as one of the indicators to judge the pathogen tic condition turnover of the alimentary botulism.%目的 探讨食物性肉毒中毒患者脑电图(EEG)的变化及其意义.方法 回顾性分析32例临床确诊为食物性肉毒中毒患者的EEG资料.结果 32例食物性肉毒中毒患者中有22例EEG异常,异常率为68.75%,主要表现为局限性或弥漫性慢波化、a波前移、背景活动呈低电压状态.不同程度食物性肉毒中毒患者EEG异常率间差异有统计学意义(P=0.025).结论 EEG可作为食物性肉毒中毒的诊断手段之一,尤其在中度、重度中毒时;EEG可作为判断食物性肉毒中毒严重程度的指标;EEG的动态监测可判断食物性肉毒中毒的病情转归.

  2. Tratamento da doença de Hailey-Hailey com toxina botulínica tipo A Hailey-Hailey disease treatment with Botulinum toxin type A

    OpenAIRE

    Giancarlo Rezende Bessa; Thaís Corsetti Grazziotin; Ana Paula Manzoni; Magda Blessmann Weber; Renan Rangel Bonamigo

    2010-01-01

    Duas irmãs com doença de Hailey-Hailey, com lesões recorrentes - uma em axilas e outra em região inguinal -, e resposta limitada aos tratamentos clássicos. Elas foram tratadas com aplicação de toxina botulínica tipo A. Observamos que houve importante melhora na paciente tratada na região inguinal e remissão completa na paciente em cujas axilas sofreram tratamento. Além disso, foi possível poupar uso de antibióticos sistêmicos e corticoides tópicos. O alto custo é um fator restritivo para uso ...

  3. Botulinum toxin: mechanisms of action Toxina botulínica: mecanismos de ação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Dressler

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This review describes therapeutically relevant mechanisms of action of botulinum toxin (BT. BT's molecular mode of action includes extracellular binding to glycoproteine structures on cholinergic nerve terminals and intracellular blockade of the acetylcholine secretion. BT affects the spinal stretch reflex by blockade of intrafusal muscle fibres with consecutive reduction of Ia/II afferent signals and muscle tone without affecting muscle strength (reflex inhibition. This mechanism allows for antidystonic effects not only caused by target muscle paresis. BT also blocks efferent autonomic fibres to smooth muscles and to exocrine glands. Direct central nervous system effects are not observed, since BT does not cross the blood-brain-barrier and since it is inactivated during its retrograde axonal transport. Indirect central nervous system effects include reflex inhibition, normalisation of reciprocal inhibition, intracortical inhibition and somatosensory evoked potentials. Reduction of formalin-induced pain suggests direct analgesic BT effects possibly mediated through blockade of substance P, glutamate and calcitonin gene related peptide.O propósito deste artigo é uma revisão dos mecanismos de ação da toxina botulínica (TB relevantes para a compreensão do seu uso terapêutico. A ação da TB a nível molecular consiste na sua ligação extracelular a estruturas glicoprotéicas em terminais nervosos colinérgicos e no bloqueio intracelular da secreção de acetilcolina. A TB interfere no reflexo espinal de estiramento através do bloqueio de fibras musculares intrafusais causando redução da sinalização aferente veiculada por fibras Ia e II e do tono muscular. Portanto, o efeito da TB pode estar relacionado não somente à paresia muscular mas também à inibição reflexa espinal. A TB promove ainda o bloqueio de fibras autonômicas para músculos lisos e glândulas exócrinas. Apesar de ocorrer alguma difusão sistêmica após a aplica

  4. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

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  1. Study of Waterfowl Botulism

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A total of 55 invertebrate samples were collected from July 1, 1974 to June 30, 1975. Two samples were toxic out of five analyzed. The four year contract for...

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  4. Emergency treatment of botulism food poisoning:one case report%肉毒杆菌食物中毒急诊救治一例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周航亮; 邓腊明

    2014-01-01

    肉毒杆菌食物中毒是由肉毒杆菌释放的肉毒毒素引起严重的神经肌肉中毒症状。该病初期常因临床表现为急性胃肠道中毒症状引起误诊而耽误治疗,严重者导致患者死亡。及早明确诊断和临床对症治疗是成功救治该病的关键。该文总结分析1例肉毒杆菌食物中毒患者的急诊救治过程。经过详细询问该患者的发病史和进食史,进行全面的体格检查、常规检验、影像辅助检查和实验室血浆肉毒毒素检测分析并结合临床症状,该患者确诊为肉毒毒素中毒。在未明确肉毒毒素亚型情况下,对患者大剂量注射A、B型抗肉毒毒素,辅助抗感染和营养恢复神经功能的综合治疗取得较好的治疗效果。患者发病第7日症状好转,救治26 d后康复出院。%Botulism food poisoning is characterized with severe neurotoxic symptoms induced by botu-linum toxin released by botulinum. Constantly,patients with botulism food poisoning could be misdiagnosed or receive delayed treatment due to gastrointestinal symptoms as early clinical manifestations,even leading to death. Therefore,early diagnosis and effective treatment determine the success of fighting against this disease. In this article,the diagnosis and treatment of one case of botulism food poisoning were retrospectively reviewed. After detail inquiry of onset and dietary habit,comprehensive physical examination,routine and imaging test, plasma botulinum toxin detection and combined with clinical symptoms,the patient was diagnosed as botulinum toxin poisoning. In the absence of the exact subtype of botulinum toxin,combined therapy of a large-dose injec-tion of types A and B anti-botulinum toxin,anti-infection therapy and nutritional recovery of neurological func-tion can achieve desirable therapeutic effect. The symptoms were improved at 7th days after treatment. The pa-tient was discharged after 26 days treatment.

  5. Tratamento da doença de Hailey-Hailey com toxina botulínica tipo A Hailey-Hailey disease treatment with Botulinum toxin type A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Rezende Bessa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Duas irmãs com doença de Hailey-Hailey, com lesões recorrentes - uma em axilas e outra em região inguinal -, e resposta limitada aos tratamentos clássicos. Elas foram tratadas com aplicação de toxina botulínica tipo A. Observamos que houve importante melhora na paciente tratada na região inguinal e remissão completa na paciente em cujas axilas sofreram tratamento. Além disso, foi possível poupar uso de antibióticos sistêmicos e corticoides tópicos. O alto custo é um fator restritivo para uso rotineiro e estudos maiores são necessários para definir eficácia e relação custo-benefício dessa intervenção.Two sisters with recurrent lesions, one on axillae and other on the groin, and with limited response to classical treatments were treated with injections botulinum toxin type A. We observed marked improvement in the patient treated in the groin and complete remission in the patient treated in the axillae. It was possible to spare the use of systemic antibiotics and topical corticosteroids. The high cost is a restrictive factor to routine use and large studies are necessary to access efficacy and cost benefit profile.

  6. Tratamiento del Síndrome de Dolor Miofascial con Toxina Botulínica tipo A Botulinum toxin type A in the management of Myofascial pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Castro

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El síndrome de dolor miofascial (SDM se caracteriza por áreas dolorosas de la musculatura esquelética y por la evidencia clínica y electromiográfica de contracción de bandas musculares sobre las cuales existe un punto cuya presión desencadena un dolor intenso local y referido (punto gatillo. La fisiopatología es incierta pero una posible explicación sería la lesión del músculo por microtraumatismos, sobreuso o espasmo prolongado. La toxina botulínica la produce el microorganismo Clostridium botulinum en condiciones anaeróbicas y se trata de una de las sustancias más potentes que se conocen. Material y métodos: Se trata de un estudio observacional prospectivo en el que hemos estudiado la aplicación de la toxina botulínica tipo A en el tratamiento del síndrome de dolor miofascial en una serie de 20 pacientes. Todos los pacientes fueron sometidos a una infiltración diagnóstica de la musculatura lumbar o del músculo piramidal con 8 ml de ropivacaína al 0,2% y 6 mg de fosfato sódico de betametasona y 6 mg de acetato de betametasona. Para la localización de los músculos utilizamos referencias anatómicas y administramos de 3 a 5 ml de contraste hidro-soluble para asegurarnos mediante fluoroscopia de la correcta localización de la aguja. La administración de toxina botulínica se realizó siguiendo el mismo método utilizado en las infiltraciones diagnósticas. Decidimos utilizar una dosis de 250 U de Dysport® en cada músculo a infiltrar sin pasar en ningún caso de 1000 U para un mismo paciente. La eficacia del tratamiento se basó en el control del dolor según la Escala Visual Analógica basal (EVA 1, a los 15 días (EVA 15, a los 30 días (EVA 30 y a los 90 días (EVA 90 de las infiltraciones y el test de Lattinen evaluado antes del tratamiento (TLT 1 y al final del estudio (TLT 2. Todos los pacientes fueron preguntados acerca de posibles efectos secundarios. Finalmente se registró el grado de

  7. Toxina botulínica tipo A para el manejo del dolor en pacientes con síndrome de dolor miofascial crónico Botulinum toxin type A for the management of pain in patients with chronic myofascial pain

    OpenAIRE

    J.C. Torres Huerta; J.R. Hernández Santos; E.M. Ortiz Ramírez; S. Tenopala Villegas

    2010-01-01

    Introducción: El síndrome de dolor miofascial es uno de los principales problemas de dolor crónico en la práctica clínica, comúnmente asociado a un traumatismo o a microtraumatismos repetitivos. La toxina botulínica tipo A (Botox®) es una alternativa aceptada como opción terapéutica. Objetivo: Valorar la funcionalidad de las actividades diarias mejorando la intensidad del dolor con el uso de la toxina botulínica tipo A, infiltrada en puntos gatillo, en pacientes con síndrome de dolor miofasci...

  8. Efectividad del tratamiento conservador y/o toxina botulínica en la displasia de cadera en parálisis cerebral infantil espástica. Revisión sistemática

    OpenAIRE

    Busto Ruiz, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo: Estudiar la efectividad del tratamiento conservador y/o toxina botulínica tipo A en la prevención o tratamiento de la displasia o dislocación de la cadera en PCI espástica. Material y métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en las bases de datos de Pubmed, Web of Science (WOS), PEDro y Cochrane Library. Las palabras clave utilizadas fueron hip dysplasia, hip dislocation, hip subluxation, cerebral palsy, treatment, management, child. Se incluyeron todo tipo d...

  9. Actualización sobre aplicaciones de la toxina botulínica en estética facial Update on the use of botulinium toxin in facial aesthetics

    OpenAIRE

    J.M. Alcolea López

    2011-01-01

    En la actualidad, la toxina botulínica (TB) es parte importante en los tratamientos médico-estéticos de la cara. Este trabajo hace una aproximación didáctica, con fines prácticos formativos, sobre el manejo de la TB para el rejuvenecimiento facial en el ejercicio de la Cirugía Plástica y Estética. Entender la anatomía del envejecimiento es clave para manejar de forma integral la TB junto con otras técnicas de la especialidad destinadas a combatir el envejecimiento, considerándolo en su conjun...

  10. Botulinum toxin for treatment of cocontractions related to obstetrical brachial plexopathy Toxina botulínica para tratamento das co-contrações relacionadas à plexopatia braquial obstétrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos O. Heise

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum toxin type A was recently introduced for treatment of biceps - triceps muscle cocontraction, which compromises elbow function in children with obstetrical brachial plexopathy. This is our preliminary experience with this new approach. Eight children were treated with 2 - 3 U/kg of botulinum toxin injected in the triceps (4 patients and biceps (4 patients muscle, divided in 2 or 3 sites. All patients submitted to triceps injections showed a long-lasting improvement of active elbow flexion and none required new injections, after a follow-up of 3 to 18 months. Three of the patients submitted to biceps injections showed some improvement of elbow extension, but none developed anti-gravitational strength for elbow extension and the effect lasted only three to five months. One patient showed no response to triceps injections. Our data suggest that botulinum toxin can be useful in some children that have persistent disability secondary to obstetrical brachial plexopathy.A toxina botulínica do tipo A foi introduzida recentemente para o tratamento das co-contrações entre os músculos biceps e triceps, que comprometem a função do cotovelo nas crianças com plexopatia braquial obstétrica. Apresentamos nossa experiência preliminar com esta abordagem. Oito crianças foram tratadas com 2 - 3 U/kg de toxina botulínica injetada nos músculos triceps (4 pacientes e biceps (4 pacientes, divididas em 2 ou 3 sítios. Todos os pacientes submetidos a injeções no triceps apresentaram melhora persistente da flexão do cotovelo e nenhum precisou de novas aplicações após seguimento de 3 a 18 meses. Três pacientes submetidos a aplicações no biceps apresentaram melhora na extensão do cotovelo, mas nenhum adquiriu força antigravitacional e o efeito durou apenas 3 a 5 meses. Um paciente não respondeu às injeções. Nossos dados sugerem que a toxina botulínica pode ser útil no tratamento de algumas crianças com seqüelas de plexopatia braquial

  11. Avaliação do filme lacrimal de pacientes com distonia facial durante tratamento com toxina botulínica tipo A Lacrimal film evaluation of patients with facial dystonia during botulinum toxin type A treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Grativol Costa

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar o efeito da toxina botulínica no filme lacrimal em pacientes com distonia facial. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos 24 pacientes portadores de blefaroespasmo essencial e espasmo hemifacial que receberam aplicação de toxina botulínica tipo A que foram submetidos à propedêutica do filme lacrimal previamente à aplicação e após, com 7 e 30 dias. RESULTADOS: Houve diminuição das queixas de olho seco trinta dias após a aplicação, entretanto, o tempo de ruptura do filme lacrimal e o teste de Schirmer não demonstraram variação significativa entre os períodos pré-tratamento e 1 mês da aplicação. Em relação ao teste de coloração com rosa bengala, todos os olhos que coraram no pré-tratamento, melhoraram na última avaliação. CONCLUSÃO: A injeção de toxina botulínica pode aliviar as queixas de olho seco nos pacientes com distonia facial pela provável ação de inibição do orbicular na sua função de bomba lacrimal.PURPOSE: To determine the effect of botulinum toxin injection in the eyelid on lacrimal film in patients with facial dystonia. METHODS: Twenty-four patients with essential blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm were submitted to botulinum toxin injection and lacrimal film tests were performed before the application and after seven and thirty days. RESULTS: There was improvement in symptoms of dry eye and rose bengal test, however, the breakup time and Schirmer's test did not show significant variation between pretreatment and after 1 month of follow-up. CONCLUSION: The dry eye symptoms in patients with facial dystonia may be attenuated by botulinum toxin due to its possible inhibitory effect on the orbicular muscle leading to a decrease in lacrimal pump.

  12. Síndrome de Frey por submaxilectomía y tratamiento con toxina botulínica Frey syndrome secondary to submaxillectomy and botulinic treatment

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    Alejandra Baéz

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de Frey (SF se caracteriza por rubor, calor y sudación en la región maseterina y geniana durante las comidas. El SF se observa en el 20-60% de los pacientes sometidos a parotidectomía. Presentamos un caso con SF secundario a la ablación de la glándula submaxilar en un varón de 30 años de edad, sin antecedentes patológicos, que consultó en el año 2000 por adenopatía cervical izquierda. La misma fue biopsiada y la anatomía patológica informó carcinoma medular de tiroides. El paciente presentaba múltiples metástasis hepáticas y pulmonares, motivo por el cual recibió tratamiento quimioterápico con cisplatino plus doxorrubicina (seis ciclos con respuesta completa, finalizando dicho esquema en marzo del 2002. En julio del 2002 se realizó tiroidectomía total más vaciamiento ganglionar izquierdo con resección de la glándula submaxilar. Durante la cirugía se lesionó la rama mentoniana del nervio cervicofacial, rama del VII par craneal. En septiembre del 2004 consultó por episodios de sudación durante las comidas en la región submaxilar izquierda. Se realizó prueba de Minor y luego se procedió a aplicar toxina botulínica tipo A en la región afectada, a razón de 2.5 UI por punto (cm², a un total de 17 puntos. El control a los 21 días demostró más de un 95% de efectividad en la resolución del SF. El efecto duró un año, y una segunda reinfiltración mostró similar respuesta. No hallamos descripciones anteriores de SF en región submaxilar; se presenta su tratamiento satisfactorio con toxina botulínica tipo A.A case of Frey syndrome (FS secondary to submaxillar gland exeresis is presented and the results of the treatment with botulinum toxin (BTX type A. FS is a condition of sweating cheek and preauricular area during mealtime as a sequel detected in about 20-60% of patients after parotidectomy. The clinical symptoms include swelling, flushing and hyperhidrosis. The treatment choice for this condition is

  13. Correção de estrabismo paralítico por injeção de toxina botulínica Management of paralytic strabismus by injection of botulinum toxin

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    Raquel Wattiez

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar a ação da toxina botulínica em paralisias adquiridas de VI e III nervos. Pacientes e métodos: Foram tratados com toxina botulínica 15 pacientes, com diagnóstico de paralisia de VI e III nervos, aguda ou crônica. Foram estudados de forma prospectiva, durante os meses de agosto de 1998 a maio de 1999. O estudo incluiu, além da avaliação do estrabismo, avaliação oftalmológica completa. Os pacientes foram acompanhados por um período de 2 a 7 meses após a última aplicação. Resultados: Onze pacientes (73% apresentaram paralisias do VI nervo e 4 pacientes (27%, paralisias de III nervo. Seis casos foram agudos (40% e 9 casos (60%, crônicos. Cinco dos 6 casos agudos (83% conseguiram controlar o desvio com a toxina botulínica como único tratamento e obter fusão. Dos 9 casos crônicos, 2 casos (22% corrigiram o desvio só com a toxina, os outros 7, além da aplicação, foram submetidos à cirurgia, dos quais 4 casos (46% foram corrigidos e os outros 3 casos (32% não. Conclusão: Concluímos que nos casos em que houve força muscular residual, após a paralisia, e bom potencial de fusão, a toxina botulínica foi o melhor tratamento, pois foi possível controlar o desvio e obter fusão, sem cirurgia.Purpose: To evaluate the treatment by injection of botulinum toxin in acquired sixth and third nerve palsies. Methods: Fifteen patients were treated with botulinum toxin. They were studied prospectively during nine months, between August, 1998 and May, 1999. In addition to the strabismus examination, a complete ophthalmological evaluation was performed. The patients were followed for 2 to 7 months after the last injection or surgical procedure. Results: Eleven patients (73% presented with sixth nerve palsy and four (27% with third nerve palsy. Six cases were acute (40% and 9 cases (60% were chronic. Five acute cases (83% obtained ocular alignment and controlled the deviation with toxin. Two of nine chronic cases (22

  14. Denmark: Botulism in an infant or infant botulism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pærregaard, A; Angen, Øystein; Lisby, M; Mølbak, K; Clausen, M.E.; Christensen, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    preformed neurotoxin could not be excluded. The food history revealed consumption of a commercially produced banana/peach puree which was suspected as a possible source, and based on a precautionary principle this product was recalled. The case description illustrates a risk-management dilemma between...

  15. Foodborne botulism: a continuous threat

    OpenAIRE

    Neto, C.; De Silva, A.; Cardoso, L; Silva, S; Barreira, J.

    2009-01-01

    O botulismo alimentar é uma doença neuroparalítica flácida resultante da ingestão de alimentos contaminados com uma toxina produzida pela bactéria Clostridium botulinum, podendo surgir de forma esporádica ou epidémica. Trata-se de uma doença rara, de declaração obrigatória e potencialmente fatal. Em Portugal foram declarados em 2005 e 2006 apenas 7 e 10 casos respectivamente. Os autores apresentam o caso clínico de uma criança de 9 anos de idade, internada ...

  16. Uso de toxina botulínica para tratamiento de la hipertrofía del músculo masetero Use of botulinum toxin for treatment of hypetrophy of the masseter muscle

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    F. González Magaña

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Definimos la hipertrofia del músculo masetero como el crecimiento excesivo de la masa muscular de dicho músculo, de presentación subclínica y de etiología multifactorial. Presenta una incidencia entre los 20 a 40 años sin predilección de sexo. Desde que en 1880 Legg la describiera por primera vez, se han intentado múltiples tratamientos, desde los médicos hasta los quirúrgicos, siendo el tratamiento con toxina botulínica el de mayor aceptación en la actualidad. El objetivo del presente artículo es realizar una revisión bibliográfica y proveer una herramienta para el médico que se enfrente a la hipertrofia del músculo masetero, además de presentar un caso clínico unilateral y la técnica empleada para su tratamiento. Como método diagnóstico en el paciente empleamos TAC de cráneo y macizo facial con cortes finos a 1 mm, así como de la región maseterina y aplicamos toxina botulínica de acuerdo a la zona de seguridad propuesta por Nam-Ho Kim y en base a los puntos anatómicos que indica el mismo protocolo, a dosis de 50 U en intervalos de 3 meses. Empleamos también TAC postoperatorio como medio de evaluación del resultado. Los tratamientos médicos con toxina botulínica son variables en sus dosis, aplicaciones y técnicas, así como en los diferentes productos disponibles en el mercado. En nuestro caso, el resultado fue clínicamente satisfactorio, cubriendo en su totalidad las expectativas del paciente. Proponemos que la protocolización del paciente, las dosis adecuadas, el tiempo entre aplicaciones y los sitios anatómicos correctos de inyección, llevan a la corrección de la hipertrofia del músculo masetero.Masseter muscle hypertrophy is an overgrowth of muscle mass with subclinical presentation and multifactorial etiology, with an incidence between 20 to 40 years and without sex predilection. In 1880 Legg describes this pathology for the first time and since then have been reported and attempted to formally

  17. Tratamiento de la cefalea tensional con toxina botulínica tipo A Botulinum toxin type A for the treatment of tension-type headache

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    D. Arbaiza

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar el tiempo de inicio de la analgesia, la eficacia y la seguridad de la aplicación de la toxina botulínica tipo A (TB-A en pacientes con cefalea tensional (CT. Material y métodos: Criterios de inclusión: Edad de 18-70 años, diagnóstico de CT de acuerdo a la International Headache Society, dos o más episodios de CT por mes durante por lo menos 3 meses, CT no controlado con el tratamiento estándar, examen neurológico normal y firma de un consentimiento informado. Variables: Intensidad de la cefalea (IC, frecuencia de presentación de la cefalea (FC, duración de cefalea (DC, sensibilidad a la digitopresión (SDP de la musculatura pericraneal, número de puntos dolorosos (NPD de la musculatura pericraneal, tiempo de inicio de la analgesia (TIA, tiempo hasta el efecto máximo de la analgesia (TMA y disminución de la utilización de analgésicos (DUA. Evaluaciones en los días 0, 15 y 30. Se aplicaron 50 U TB-A en la musculatura pericraneal. Los pacientes pudieron continuar con su terapia analgésica previa de acuerdo a la evolución de la cefalea. Resultados: Se reclutaron 20 pacientes, todos de sexo femenino, con una edad promedio de 47 años. La IC de 2,15 en la primera evaluación disminuyó a 1,05 y 0,9 en la segunda y tercera evaluaciones (p=0,009 y 0,008. La FC de 10,25 días disminuyó a 3,6 y 2,75 días (p=0,008 y 0,012. La DC de 2,3 horas diarias disminuyó a 1,3 y 1,1 (p=0,009 en las dos. La SDP de 1,55 disminuyó a 0,5 y 0,55 (p=0,008 en las dos. El NPD de 2,65 disminuyó a 0,8 y 0,6 (p=0,010 y 0,006. El TIA fue de 8 días y el TMA fue de 25 días. La DUA de 5 disminuyó a 1,9 y 1,5. El 35% de los pacientes presentaron un evento adverso probable, y de una intensidad leve a moderada. Conclusiones: La TB-A es un tratamiento simple, efectivo y seguro para el control de la CT La técnica de aplicación estandarizada es un método fácil de reproducir. Se requieren estudios para valorar el número de punciones y

  18. Aplicación de la toxina botulínica A para el tratamiento del síndrome de Frey Application of botulinum toxin A for the treatment of Frey’s Syndrome

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    J. Mareque Bueno

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome Aurículo-temporal también conocido como sudoración gustativa o síndrome de Frey, es una entidad caracterizada por sudoración y enrojecimiento de la piel del territorio inervado por el nervio aurículo-temporal durante las comidas. El síndrome de Frey es probablemente una secuela inevitable en la cirugía de la glándula parótida. Una vez que se presenta se perpetua durante toda la vida si no se realiza tratamiento. Realizando el test de Minor tras cirugía sobre la glándula parótida ha sido publicado que el 100% son positivos, y que el 50% son sintomáticos percibiendo la sudoración durante las comidas, y alrededor de un 15% consideran sus síntomas graves. En el siguiente articulo presentamos los resultados de nuestro estudio que consistió en la inyección intradérmica de toxina botulínica A a nuestros pacientes con síndrome de Frey y el seguimiento. Los resultados han sido desaparición de los síntomas durante un periodo medio de 16 meses con cierta variabilidad individual. Con estos resultados podría considerarse la inyección de toxina botulínica A como ténica de elección para el síndrome de Frey ya establecido.The auriculotemporal syndrome, also known as gustatory sweating or Frey’s syndrome, is a condition characterized by sweating and flushing of the cutaneous territory innervated by the auriculotemporal nerve while eating. Frey’s syndrome is probably an inevitable sequela of parotid gland surgery. Once it appears, it persists for the rest of the patient’s life if not treated. It has been reported that performance on the Minor test after parotid gland surgery is 100% positive and 50% of patients are symptomatic, experiencing sweating during meals. About 15% consider their symptoms serious. In this article we present the results of our study of the treatment of Frey’s syndrome by intradermal injection of botulinum toxin A and the follow-up of the patients. The patients’ symptoms disappeared during

  19. Actualización sobre aplicaciones de la toxina botulínica en estética facial Update on the use of botulinium toxin in facial aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Alcolea López

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad, la toxina botulínica (TB es parte importante en los tratamientos médico-estéticos de la cara. Este trabajo hace una aproximación didáctica, con fines prácticos formativos, sobre el manejo de la TB para el rejuvenecimiento facial en el ejercicio de la Cirugía Plástica y Estética. Entender la anatomía del envejecimiento es clave para manejar de forma integral la TB junto con otras técnicas de la especialidad destinadas a combatir el envejecimiento, considerándolo en su conjunto. Resumimos los conocimientos actuales sobre el empleo de las inyecciones de TB en el tercio superior de la cara.Currently, botulinum toxin (BT plays an important role in aesthetic-medical treatments of the face. This paper provides a didactical approach for practical training purposes, concerning the use of BT for facial rejuvenation when practising Plastic and Aesthetic Surgery. It is essential to understand the anatomy of ageing in order to integrate TB in combination with other techniques of the speciality employed to combat ageing by considering it as a whole. This paper resumes the current knowledge about the use of TB injections in the upper third of the face.

  20. Avaliação de um programa de aplicação de toxina botulínica tipo A em crianças do Vale do Jequitinhonha com paralisia cerebral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazielle Fernandes da Silva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar os efeitos de um programa público de aplicação de toxina botulínica tipo A (TBA na espasticidade muscular, amplitude de movimento, qualidade da marcha, independência funcional e qualidade de vida de crianças e adolescentes com paralisia cerebral (PC. Foi realizado um estudo quase experimental que avaliou os efeitos do emprego da TBA, aplicada três vezes, com intervalos de três meses, em 14 crianças com PC. Estas foram avaliadas através da Escala Modificada de Ashworth, Goniometria Manual, Physician Rating Scale, Inventário de Avaliação Pediátrica de Incapacidade (PEDI e Questionário do Cuidador da Criança (QCC. Foi observada redução da espasticidade, aumento da amplitude de movimento, melhora das habilidades funcionais de autocuidado e mobilidade do PEDI e das áreas de cuidado pessoal, conforto e interação/comunicação do QCC. O programa de aplicação de TBA em crianças e adolescentes com PC, realizado em um núcleo de reabilitação público do Vale do Jequitinhonha, foi efetivo para a população beneficiada.

  1. O uso da toxina botulínica no tratamento da distonia laríngea (disfonia espasmódica: estudo preliminar com doze pacientes Use of botulinum toxin in the treatment of laryngeal dystonia (spasmodic dysphonia: preliminary study of twelve patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio A. G. Teive

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available A distonia laríngea (disfonia espasmódica é distúrbio do movimento caracterizado por contrações involuntárias da musculatura laríngea envolvida no processo de vocalização. A utilização da toxina botulínica no tratamento da distonia laríngea trouxe consideráveis benefícios clínicos. Descrevemos os resultados preliminares do uso terapêutico da toxina botulínica no tratamento da distonia laríngea em 12 pacientes. Após investigação clínica, os pacientes foram submetidos a videolaringoestroboscopia para confirmação diagnóstica e as injeções de toxina botulínica foram realizadas através de punção da membrana cricotireóidea em direção ao músculo tireoaritenóideo, com uso de eletromiografia. A maioria dos pacientes submetidos ao tratamento com toxina botulínica apresentou melhora significativa da distonia laríngea (83% dos casos, com duração média do efeito de quatro meses, sem efeitos colaterais significativos.Laryngeal dystonia (spasmodic dysphonia is a movement disorder characterized by involuntary contractions of laryngeal muscles involved with vocalization. The introduction of botulinum toxin in the treatment of laryngeal dystonia had a major clinical impact due to the striking improvement of symptoms. We report the preliminary results of therapeutical use of botulinum toxin in the treatment of twelve patients with laryngeal dystonia. After an extensive clinical evaluation, the patients underwent a videostroboscopic exam for diagnostic confirmation. Botulinum toxin was injected in the cricothyreoid membrane, directed towards the thyreoaritenoid muscle, with the aid of eletromyography needles. Most of patients who underwent botulinum toxin injection had a significant improvement of their symptoms (83%, with effects lasting for four months in average and without important side effects.

  2. Efectividad de la toxina botulínica en la parálisis cerebral infantil, patología adquirida y patología idiopática en la población infanto-juvenil de un servicio de rehabilitación

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Hernández, María

    2015-01-01

    La presente tesis doctoral estudia la efectividad de la toxina botulínica en el tratamiento de la parálisis cerebral, la patología adquirida y la patología idiopática en una población infanto-juvenil. La incidencia de la patología a estudio es baja pero debido a las mejoras en la práctica clínica que permiten una mayor supervivencia tanto de prematuros como de pacientes con patología adquirida, se ha producido un aumento de la prevalencia de estos pacientes en las consultas. Los objetivos ...

  3. Utilización de la toxina botulínica para mejorar la funcionalidad y la expresión del labio en parálisis facial de larga evolución Use of botulinum toxin to improve the functionality and expression of the lip in long-term facial palsy

    OpenAIRE

    C. Gómez Martín; R. Fonseca Valero; J.M. Galán Fajardo

    2010-01-01

    La parálisis de la rama marginal del nervio facial en el contexto de una parálisis facial de larga evolución, produce una deformidad estética y funcional que puede ser mejorada con la inyección de toxina botulínica. Utilizamos esta técnica en 2 pacientes consiguiendo unos resultados casi inmediatos en lo que se refiere a la apertura bucal, a la expresión y a la continencia oral. Indicamos esta técnica en pacientes de edad avanzada, con múltiples operaciones previas y que aceptan este procedim...

  4. Botulismo bovino: comprovação laboratorial do diagnóstico clínico, período 1986-1989 Bovine botulism: laboratorial confirmation of clinical diagnosis during the period 1986-1989

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    Lucia Baldassi

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available Num período de 4 anos (1986-1989 foram processados 517 materiais correspodentes a 235 casos com diagnóstico clínico de botulismo de bovinos, dos Estados de São Paulo, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Goiás, Bahia, Pará, Maranhão, Distrito Federal e Roraima (Brasil. Exames laboratoriais foram realizados com o intuito de confirmar a suspeita clínica, detectando a toxina nos materiais correspondentes aos casos supracitados. Os tipos de toxina verificados foram "C" e "D" presentes no fígado e conteúdos de estômago e intestinos, que perfaziam o maior número das amostras remetidas. O pequeno número de casos confirmados leva à suposição de que outras enfermidades devem estar envolvidas nessas mortes, ainda que se considere possíveis resultados falso negativos.Five hundred and seventeen specimens relating to a total of 235 clinical cases of bovine botulism occurring over period of four years (1986-1989 were studied. These samples came from the States of S. Paulo, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Goiás, Bahia, Pará, Maranhão, Distrito Federal and Roraima. Laboratorial tests were performed on these samples with a view to toxin detection. Toxin types C and D were detected being found in the liver and in gastric and intestinal contents. The small number of confirmed cases led to the supposition of the participation of other diseases in these deaths reported, even if false negative cases are taken into account.

  5. Botulinum toxin type A in the treatment of hemifacial spasm: an 11-year experience Toxina botulínica tipo A no tratamento do espasmo hemifacial: 11 anos de experiência

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    Egberto Reis Barbosa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the long-term effect of botulinum toxin type A (BTX in the treatment of hemifacial spasm (HFS, a retrospective analysis of patients treated at the Movement Disorders Unit of the Division of Neurology, Clinical Hospital, University of São Paulo, School of Medicine from 1993 to 2004 was made. A total of 808 injections with BTX were administered to 54 patients with HFS. The mean duration of improvement per application was 3.46 months and the mean rate of improvement using subjective judgement by the patient was of 83%. Adverse effects, mostly minor, were observed in 64.8% of patients at least once along the period of follow-up and the most frequent of them was orbicularis oris paralysis (38.8%. There was no decrement in response when compared the first and the last injection recorded.Para avaliar o efeito em longo prazo da toxina botulínica tipo A (TXB no tratamento do espasmo hemifacial (EHF, foi feita uma análise retrospectiva de pacientes tratados no Ambulatório de Distúrbios do Movimento da Divisão de Clínica Neurológica - Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo no período de 1993 a 2004. Um total de 808 aplicações de TXB foram administradas a 54 pacientes com EHF. A duração média de melhora foi de 3,46 meses e a taxa média de melhora segundo avaliação subjetiva do paciente foi de 83%. Efeitos adversos, em sua maioria menores, foram observados em 64,8% dos pacientes ao menos uma vez durante o seguimento e o mais freqüente foi paralisia do orbicular da boca (38,3%. Não se observou decremento na resposta quando se comparou a primeira com a última aplicação anotada.

  6. Botulinum toxin type A in refractory chronic migraine: an open-label trial Toxina botulínica tipo A no tratamento da enxaqueca refratária: um estudo aberto

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    Carla Menezes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum toxin type A (BT-A has been described as an important strategy to various types of pain such as cervical dystonia, myofascial pain syndrome and headache. Although BT-A efficacy has not been proven in tension type headache, its use in migraine continues controversial. In this open trial, we evaluated the efficacy of BT-A in refractory migraine. BT-A was injected in patients diagnosed with migraine who had previously used three classes of prophylactic drugs by at least one year with no response. The most important improvement was observed within 30 days, but pain intensity and frequency of headache had been decreased until the end of three months of follow up. Side effects of BT-A were mild and self limited. We conclude that BT-A seems to be a safe and effective treatment to refractory migraine patients.Toxina botulínica tipo A (TB-A tem sido descrita como importante estratégia para diversos tipos de dor como cefaléia e dores relacionadas a distonia cervical ou síndrome miofascial. Embora a eficácia da TB-A não tenha sido demonstrada na cefaléia do tipo tensional, seu uso na enxaqueca continua controverso. Nesse estudo avaliamos a eficácia da TB-A na enxaqueca refratária. TB-A foi injetada em pacientes com enxaqueca que fizeram tratamento prévio com no mínimo três classes de medicamentos profiláticos, sem resultados satisfatórios. A melhora mais significativa dos pacientes foi observada após 30 dias de aplicação de TB-A, enquanto intensidade da dor e freqüência de cefaléia continuaram reduzidas até o final de três meses de seguimento. Os efeitos colaterais observados após a aplicação de TB-A foram moderados e auto-limitados. Os nossos dados mostram que TB-A parece ser um tratamento seguro e eficaz para pacientes com enxaqueca refratária.

  7. Toxina botulínica no blefaroespasmo, no espasmo hemifacial e na distonia cervical: resultados em 33 pacientes Botulinum toxin in blepharospasm, hemifacial spasm and cervical dystonia: results in 33 patients

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    Sérgio Ap. Novis

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliamos os resultados terapêuticos obtidos com o emprego de toxina botulínica do tipo A em 33 pacientes com distonia (12 com blefaroespamo; 10 com espasmo hemifacial e 11 com torcicolo espasmódico. Utilizamos uma escala de pontuação de gravidade antes de cada aplicação, sendo reavaliados duas semanas após, seguindo a mesma escala. Entre os com blefaroespasmo, oito eram mulheres e quatro homens; a média de idade foi 57,7 anos; a média do tempo de doença de quatro anos; três tinham história similar na família; nove eram essenciais e três fizeram uso de neurolépticos (distonia tardia. A dose média empregada ficou em 51,3 U, com a duração média do efeito benéfico de 2,8 meses. Do total de 22 aplicações (injeções e reinjeções, 14 (63,7% tiveram resultado ótimo, 5 (22,7% bom e três (13,6% nulo. Naqueles com espasmo hemifacial, oito eram mulheres e dois homens; a média de idade foi 52,6 anos; a média do tempo de doença 7,4 anos; oito eram essenciais e dois pós-páralíticos. A dose média empregada ficou em 32 U. Do total de 15 aplicações, todos (100% tiveram resultado ótimo, com a duração média do efeito benéfico de 3,4 meses. Nos pacientes com distonia cervical, oito eram homens e três mulheres; a média de idade foi 44,2 anos; a média do tempo de doença 12,2 anos; seis eram essenciais, três fizeram uso de neuroléptico e dois tinham história familiar. A dose média empregada ficou em 238,6 U, com a duração média do efeito benéfico de 4,7 meses. Do total de 20 aplicações, 18 (90% tiveram resultado bom, 1 (5% regular e 1 (5% nulo. Ptose palpebral, paresia facial e disfagia foram os efeitos colaterais mais encontrados. Concluímos que a toxina botulínica revelou-se eficaz no tratamento destas condições.The effects of botulinum toxin type A were studied in 33 patients with dystonia (12 blepharospasms, 10 hemifacial spasms and 11 spasmodic torticollis. A rate scale was used to evaluate the severity

  8. Toxina botulínica tipo A tópica con iontoforesis para el tratamiento de la hiperhidrosis axilar: Efecto y persistencia Topic type A botulinum toxin with iontophoresis in the treatment of armpit hyperhidrosis: effect and persistency

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    J.F. Silva-Gavarrete

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available La sobreproducción de sudor se denomina hiperhidrosis (HH y frecuentemente conlleva en el ser humano tanto problemas dermatológicos como de índole social. En la actualidad, existen múltiples tratamientos para controlar la HH axilar, siendo entre ellos el uso de la terapia con Toxina Botulínica tipo A (TXB-A uno de los más efectivos, con la limitante de que la toxina tiene que ser inyectada mediante múltiples punciones en la axila, por lo que tiende a ser un tratamiento rechazado por los pacientes. La iontoforesis es un método que utiliza corriente galvánica y se emplea de forma clínica para la introducción transdermal de medicamentos. Realizamos un ensayo clínico simple ciego sobre 10 pacientes a los que se les aplicó gel inerte mezclado con Toxina Botulínica tipo A (TXB-A de la marca Dysport® mediante una sesión de iontoforesis en una axila al tiempo que en la otra axila se les aplicó la TXB-A de forma tradicional, inyectada. Los resultados fueron evaluados con el Minor Test (Test Yodo-almidón comparativamente en ambas axilas y en cada paciente a los 10 días, 2 meses y 5 meses de la aplicación. Empleamos el mismo número de unidades y la misma dilución de TXB-A tanto para la administrada vía tópica, como para la inyectada. Los resultados presentaron una disminución de la HH axilar en ambas axilas durante todo el estudio, siendo la forma inyectada la que más altos porcentajes de efecto presentó. En general un 74.67% de disminución de la secreción sudoral para la forma tópica con iontoforesis y un 90.33% para la forma inyectada. En cuanto a la duración del efecto, ambas aplicaciones tuvieron resultados estadísticamente significativos para la persistencia del efecto a los 5 meses. Por lo tanto, en base al presente trabajo, concluimos que la TXBA aplicada tópicamente mediante iontoforesis mejora la HH axilar y además presenta una persistencia del efecto de un mínimo de 5 meses.The overproduction of sweat by the

  9. Efectos de la toxina botulínica A (Botox® intraarticular en la artrosis de rodilla avanzada Effects of intraarticular Botulinum Toxin A (Botox® on refractory knee osteoarthritis

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    P. Fenollosa Vázquez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: la osteoartritis es la enfermedad articular más común y una de los problemas de salud más frecuentes y sintomáticos en la madurez y senectud. Este trabajo describe nuestra experiencia clínica con inyecciones intraarticulares de toxina botulínica tipo A (TBA en dolor de rodilla artrósico y refractario. Materiales y métodos: doce mujeres con gonartrosis avanzada y refractaria, acudieron a consulta para el manejo del dolor de rodilla de moderado a severo. Las pacientes estuvieron en seguimiento 16 semanas, durante las que la mejoría de su estado fue valorado comparando el dolor basal respecto al dolor en el momento de la visita mediante diferentes escalas estandarizadas. Simultáneamente, se evaluaron la funcionalidad, la cantidad de medicación analgésica diaria y los efectos secundarios. Resultados: el consumo de medicación decreció de 3,6 a 2 tomas/día. No se observaron efectos secundarios. Conclusión: se evidenció un alivio del dolor que se inició en la semana 2 y se mantuvo hasta 12 semanas tras la inyección de TBA. La mediana del cambio de la escala total de WOMAC y de la EVA fue de -7,5 y -1,9 respectivamente, con una disminución significativa del dolor a las 16 semanas. No se registraron cambios en la escala WOMAC en 5 pacientes, mientras que 3 casos mostraron un descenso en dicha escala mayor del 20% y los en los 4 restantes fue superior al 40%. Las que respondieron a la infiltración notaron una mejora en las actividades de la vida diaria gracias a este alivio. El consumo de medicación decreció de 3,6 a 2 tomas/día. No se observaron efectos secundarios.Objective: osteoarthritis is the most common joint disease and it is among the most disabling health problems for middle aged and older people. Purpose: to test the effects of a single intraarticular injection of Botulinum Toxin A (BTA on refractory knee osteoarthritis. Material and method: twelve women (mean age: 72 with refractory knee osteoarthritis who

  10. Lamsiekte (botulism: Solving the aetiology riddle

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    Rudolph D. Bigalke

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The reason or reasons why it took Sir Arnold Theiler so many years to unravel the riddle of the aetiology of lamsiekte in cattle and whether P.R. Viljoen’s lifelong grudge for receiving insufficient credit from Theiler for his research contribution was justified are analysed in this paper. By 1912, Theiler knew that Duncan Hutcheon had advocated the use of bonemeal as a prophylactic against the disease in the early 1880s. Hutcheon’s colleague, J.D. Borthwick, had shown conclusively in a field experiment in 1895 that lamsiekte did not occur in cattle fed a liberal allowance of bonemeal; and bone-craving had been identified by Hutcheon and several farmers as being associated with the occurrence of the disease (a ‘premonitory’ sign. Hutcheon regarded a phosphate deficiency of the pastures as the direct cause of lamsiekte. However, Theiler did not accept this, was convinced that intoxication was involved and developed a ‘grass toxin’ theory. Viljoen (1918 also latched onto the grass toxin theory. He did not believe that osteophagia existed, stating categorically that he had not observed it on the experimental farm Armoedsvlakte where > 100 cases of lamsiekte had occurred during the > 3 years that he spent there. Moreover, he did not believe in the prophylactic value of bonemeal. However, careful analysis of a subsequent publication, of which he was a co-author, revealed that in late 1918 and early 1919 he reproduced the disease by drenching cattle with blowfly pupae and larvae as well as with crushed bones from decomposing bovine carcasses. For this breakthrough he did not get proper credit from Theiler. Reappointed to study lamsiekte on Armoedsvlakte in the autumn of 1919, Theiler, probably already aware that the toxin he was seeking was in the decomposing bones or carcass material rather than the grass, deliberately ‘walked with the cattle’ on the farm to encounter a classic manifestation of bone-craving (osteophagia. The penny then immediately dropped. Theiler, actually rationalising an hypothesis that was about four decades old, did so with a vengeance. Within less than two years he had reproduced lamsiekte by exposing cattle with natural bone-craving to rotten carcass material, had chemical proof that the grazing was phosphorus-deficient, had developed a satisfactory bonemeal prophylactic dosage programme, and the bacterial toxin concerned – perhaps the trickiest contribution – had been produced in culture. Hence the table was set for the later development of an excellent lamsiekte vaccine.

  11. Toxina botulínica tipo A para el manejo del dolor en pacientes con síndrome de dolor miofascial crónico Botulinum toxin type A for the management of pain in patients with chronic myofascial pain

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    J.C. Torres Huerta

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El síndrome de dolor miofascial es uno de los principales problemas de dolor crónico en la práctica clínica, comúnmente asociado a un traumatismo o a microtraumatismos repetitivos. La toxina botulínica tipo A (Botox® es una alternativa aceptada como opción terapéutica. Objetivo: Valorar la funcionalidad de las actividades diarias mejorando la intensidad del dolor con el uso de la toxina botulínica tipo A, infiltrada en puntos gatillo, en pacientes con síndrome de dolor miofascial crónico. Material y métodos: 30 pacientes con síndrome de dolor miofascial crónico con edad entre 25 y 50 años de ambos sexos. A todos se les realizó infiltración de puntos gatillo mediante equipo de electrosonomiografía para la aplicación de toxina botulínica tipo A a una dilución de las 100 Um de toxina en 1 ml de solución salina infiltrando de 200 a 400 Um totales, dependiendo del sitio del dolor. Se valoró la calidad analgésica mediante la escala visual analógica (EVA y el índice de funcionalidad con el cuestionario de Oswestry durante 4 semanas. Resultados: La valoración de la EVA promedio inicial fue de 7,23 y la final de 3,13 (p Introduction: Myofascial syndrome is one of the main chronic pain syndromes encountered in clinical practice and is commonly associated with trauma or repetitive microtrauma. Botulinum toxin type A (Botox® is an accepted therapeutic option. Objective: To evaluate the use of botulinum toxin type A (Botox®, infiltrated in trigger points, as an option in the management of pain in patients with chronic myofascial syndrome. Material and Methods: Thirty men and women with myofascial pain syndrome, aged between 25 and 50 years were included. In all patients, botulinum toxin type A (Botox® was infiltrated in trigger points by means of electrosonomyographic equipment. A dilution of 100 Um toxin in 1 cc saline solution was used and a total of 200 to 400 Um was administered depending on the site of the

  12. Comparación de resultados obtenidos en el tratamiento del dolor miofascial de la cintura pélvica con toxina botulínica sola y asociada con lidocaína

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    I. Velázquez Rivera

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: entre el 70 y el 85 % de la población adulta sufre de dolor de espalda alguna vez en su vida. El síndrome de dolor miofascial (SDM ha sido descrito recientemente definiéndose como dolor musculoesquelético no inflamatorio, localizado, desarrollado sin causa aparente, refractario a tratamientos farmacológicos y físicos, y se acompaña de la presencia de puntos gatillos y de bandas tensas palpables en el músculo. Su prevalencia se estima que varía entre un 30 y un 85 %. Los músculos psoas, cuadrado lumbar y piramidal son los más frecuentemente implicados en el SDM de cintura pélvica. Una de las principales alternativas para tratar el SDM es la toxina botulínica tipo A (TB, que actúa en la membrana sináptica en la placa neuromuscular, inhibiendo la liberación de acetilcolina, produciendo relajación muscular y alivio del dolor, aunque, en muchas ocasiones, su efecto no se hace evidente hasta transcurridos varios días. La lidocaína es un anestésico local (AL tipo amida con duración de acción intermedia que actúa impidiendo la propagación del impulso nervioso disminuyendo la permeabilidad de los canales de sodio. El objetivo de este estudio era comprobar si al añadir AL a ladosis de TB, conseguíamos un acortamiento en el tiempo dela reducción de la EVA y mejoría de la calidad de vida. Material y métodos: el diseño del estudio fue prospectivo, controlado, longitudinal y aleatorizado en el que se ha valorado la evolución de 20 pacientes divididos en dos grupos. Al primer grupo se les administró TB tipo A (grupo T. Al segundo grupo se les trató con TB tipo A y dosis adicional de lidocaína al 2% (grupo TL. Previamente, ambos grupos, habían respondido de forma positiva a un test con infiltración del músculo afecto con lidocaína al 2 %. El seguimiento de los pacientes se hizo secuencialmente a los 3, 7, 15 y 90 días de iniciado el tratamiento. Para el análisis estadístico se utilizó un análisis de la

  13. Análise vocal em pacientes com disfonia espasmódica nos momentos pré e pós tratamento com toxina Botulínica A Vocal analysis in patients with spasmodic dysphonia before and after treatment with Botulinum toxin A

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    Ana Cristina Côrtes Gama

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar de forma objetiva e subjetiva a voz de pacientes com disfonia espasmódica nos momentos pré e pós aplicação de toxina botulínica A. MÉTODO: as emissões vocais de onze pacientes do sexo feminino foram registradas antes e após (15 dias o tratamento. As amostras vocais foram analisadas por duas fonoaudiólogas com experiência em voz por meio da análise perceptivo-auditiva (escala GRBASI e da análise espectrográfica. RESULTADOS: na análise perceptivo-auditiva com vogal sustentada os parâmetros que alteraram após o tratamento foram o grau de severidade, tensão e instabilidade, enquanto na fala encadeada foram o grau de severidade e a tensão. Na análise espectrográfica ocorreu melhora do traçado após o tratamento sem significância estatística entre os parâmetros. CONCLUSÃO: ocorreu melhora significante dos aspectos perceptivo-auditivos após o tratamento e, portanto, as injeções de toxina botulínica A mostraram-se eficazes no tratamento da disfonia espasmódica no grupo estudado.PURPOSE: to analyze in an objective and subjective manner the voice of patients with spasmodic dysphonia in the moments before and after botulinum toxin A. METHOD: the vocal emissions of eleven women patients were recorded before and after (15 days treatment. The vocal samples were analyzed by two experienced speech therapists through the perceptual analysis (GRBASI scale and spectrographic analysis. RESULTS: in the perceptual analysis with subtended vowel, the altered parameters were degree of severity, strain and instability, while in connected speech only degree of severity and strain changed after treatment. In the perceptual analysis with sustained vowel, the parameters that have changed, were the degree of severity, strain and instability, while in connected speech only degree of severity and strain changed after treatment. The spectrographic analysis was improved after treatment with no statistical significance found among

  14. Eficácia do resfriamento da pele no alívio da dor desencadeada pela injeção de toxina botulínica tipo A nas distonias faciais Skin cooling efficacy on pain relief in periocular injections with botulinum toxin A in facial dystonias

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    Paula Barros Bandeira de Mello Monteiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia do resfriamento da pele com gelo no alívio da dor desencadeada pela injeção de toxina botulínica tipo A na região periocular em pacientes portadores de distonia facial. MÉTODOS: Neste estudo prospectivo, 13 pacientes receberam injeção de toxina botulínica tipo A em região glabelar (m. prócero e periocular (m. orbicular para tratamento de distonia facial. Antes das aplicações, um lado da região glabelar foi resfriado com gelo durante 5 minutos, enquanto no outro lado foi aplicada pomada Epitezan®, funcionando como placebo. A aplicação foi feita primeiramente no lado resfriado. Após a aplicação em cada um dos lados os pacientes foram instruídos a dar uma nota para a dor desencadeada pela injeção, em uma escala de 0 a 10 onde 0 era ausência de dor e 10 a dor mais intensa. RESULTADOS: A média das notas dadas pelos pacientes à dor desencadeada pela injeção no lado onde foi aplicado placebo foi 3,92 ± 3,28. No local onde foi aplicado gelo a média das notas foi de 2,92 ± 2,18 (p PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of skin cooling with ice on pain relief in periocular injection with botulinum toxin type A in patients with facial dystonias. METHODS: In this prospective study, 13 patients received botulinum toxin type A injection in glabela (procerus m. and periocular region (orbicular m. for facial dystonias treatment. Before the injections, one side of the glabela was submitted to a 5-minute cooling period, while the opposite side had Epitezan® cream applied, as a placebo. The application was done at the cooled side first. After the application on each side the patients were instructed to rate the pain associated with the injection on a scale from 0 to 10, with 0 indicating no pain and 10 the worst pain. RESULTS: The average pain score on the side where cold was applied was 3,92 ± 3,28, while on the control side the average pain score was 2,92 ± 2,18 (p < 0,0166. CONCLUSION: In this study

  15. Botulinum toxin A and physiotherapy intervention in the treatment of the painful shoulder after stroke: case report Toxina botulínica A e intervenção fisioterapêutica no tratamento do ombro doloroso pós acidente vascular cerebral: relato de caso

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    Suellen M. Marinho dos Santos Andrade

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The syndrome of the painful shoulder is considered a common finding in patients who suffered stroke. Several therapeutic modalities are suggested for the improvement of the patients’ clinical condition. In this report, a case of syndrome of the painful shoulder will be discussed, whose treatment consisted of the use of botulinum toxin A associated to physiotherapy. After a four-month treatment, significant improvements occurred concerning pain, spasticity, range of motion and quality of life, suggesting that this therapeutic association is an efficient tool against the incapacitating effects related to this syndrome. A síndrome do ombro doloroso é considerada um achado comum em pacientes que sofreram acidente vascular cerebral. Várias modalidades terapêuticas são apontadas para melhoria do quadro clínico dos pacientes. Neste relato, será apresentado um caso de síndrome do ombro doloroso, cujo tratamento consistiu no emprego de toxina botulínica A associada à fisioterapia. Após quatro meses de tratamento, houve melhorias significativas quanto à dor, espasticidade, amplitude de movimento e qualidade de vida, e isso sugere ser essa associação terapêutica uma ferramenta eficaz contra os efeitos incapacitantes relacionados a esta síndrome.

  16. Quality of life of children with cerebral palsy treated with botulinum toxin: are well-being measures appropriate? Qualidade de vida em crianças com paralisia cerebral tratadas com toxina botulínica: estas avaliações são adequadas?

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    Taísa R. Simões de Assis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze quality of life (QOL of children with cerebral palsy (CP treated with botulinum toxin type A (BTXA. METHOD: Two QOL evaluation tools, translated into Portuguese, were used: Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI and Child's Caregiver Questionnaire (CCQ. Questionnaires were answered by caregivers on two occasions. Patients were divided into 3 groups: I - patients who had been previously treated with BTXA and who underwent a session of BTXA; II - patients who used BTXA for the first time; III - patients previously treated with BTXA but did not in this interval. RESULTS: Sixty-eight patients were evaluated. In group I (n=26 the functional ability had improvement for all types of CP (p=0.04, and tetraplegic increased interaction/communication (p=0.02. In group II (n=14 positioning improved (p=0.02. Group III (n=28 showed no change in QOL. CONCLUSIONS: PODCI and CCQ are able to capture outcome in children with CP.OBJETIVO: Analisar a qualidade de vida (QV de crianças com paralisia cerebral tratadas com toxina botulínica do tipo A (TBA. MÉTODO: Dois instrumentos de QV, adaptados para a língua portuguesa, foram utilizados: Instrumento para Avaliação de Resultados de Reabilitação em Pediatria (IARRP e Questionário do Cuidador da Criança (CQC, sendo respondidos pelos cuidadores. Os pacientes foram divididos em 3 grupos: I - já haviam utilizado TBA e foram submetidos à aplicação neste intervalo; II - utilizaram TBA pela primeira vez; III - utilizaram TBA previamente, mas não neste intervalo. RESULTADOS: Sessenta e oito pacientes foram avaliados, no grupo I (n=26 houve melhora da capacidade funcional em todos os tipos de PC (p=0.04, e tetraplégicos tiveram ganho também na interação/comunicação (p=0.02. No grupo II (n=14 houve melhora em posicionamento (p=0.02. Não foram observadas mudanças na QV do grupo III (n=28. CONCLUSÃO: IARRP e CQC são capazes de avaliar resultados em crianças com PC.

  17. Uso de manometria computadorizada para estudo do espasmo do segmento faringoesofágico em pacientes com voz traqueoesofágica inadequada antes e após aplicação de toxina botulínica Computerized manometry use to evaluate spasm in pharyngoesophageal segment in patients with poor tracheoesophageal speech before and after treatment with botulinum toxin

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    Carlos T. Chone

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Voz traqueoesofágica (VTE com prótese fonatória (PF é método eficaz e reproduzível na reabilitação vocal após laringectomia total (LT, impedida pelo espasmo do segmento faringoesofágico (SFE. A manometria computadorizada (MC é novo método objetivo e direto de avaliação do SFE. OBJETIVO: Análise objetiva do espasmo do SFE, com MC, antes e após aplicação de toxina botulínica (TB. DESENHO DO ESTUDO: Prospectivo clínico. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Análise de oito pacientes consecutivos submetidos à LT com VTE e PF, sem emissão vocal, com espasmo do SFE à videofluoroscopia, considerado padrão ouro para detecção de espasmo. Todos trataram o espasmo com injeção de 100 unidades de TB no SFE. Avaliação constituiu-se de videofluoroscopia e MC do SFE, antes e após aplicação de TB. RESULTADOS: Houve diminuição na pressão do SFE à MC, após injeção de TB em todos. A média de pressão do SFE à MC, nos oito pacientes, antes da aplicação de TB foi de 25.36 mmHg e após foi de 14.31 mmHg (p=0,004. Houve emissão vocal sem esforço e melhora do espasmo do SFE à videofluoroscopia após o uso da TB. CONCLUSÃO: Foi observada diminuição na pressão do SFE após injeção da TB à MC em todos os pacientes, com melhora do espasmo à videofluoroscopia.Tracheoesophageal voice (TEV with voice prosthesis (VP is an efficient and reproducible method used in vocal rehabilitation after total laryngectomy (TL, prevented by spasms in the pharyngoesophageal segment (PES. Computerized Manometry (CM is a new, direct and objective method used to assess the PES. AIM: to carry out an objective analysis of the PES, with CM, before and after the injection of botulinum toxin (BT. STUDY DESIGN: clinical-prospective. MATERIALS AND METHODS: analysis of eight patients consecutively submitted to TL with TEV and VP, without vocal emission, with PES spasms seen through videofluoroscopy, considered the gold standard for spasm detection. All had their

  18. Reabilitação fonatória do laringectomizado total: utilização de toxina botulínica na voz tráqueo-esofágica com prótese fonatória Botulinum toxin in speech rehabilitation with voice prosthesis after total laryngectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Takahiro Chone

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Na punção tráqueo-esofágica(PTE é realizada miotomia do músculo constritor da faringe, mas sua necessidade é entre 9% a 79% dos pacientes. Sua realização pode aumentar as taxas de fístula salivar no pós-operatório. A aplicação da TB é ambulatorial. OBJETIVO: Análise da eficácia da aplicação de toxina botulínica (TB, na reabilitação do laringectomizado total com voz tráqueo-esofágica(VTE com espasmo(E do segmento faringo-esofágico (SFE sem miotomia. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Análise de oito pacientes submetidos à laringectomia total (LT, reabilitados com VTE com prótese fonatória (PF, esforço para emissão de voz devido à E do SFE. Todos submetidos a tratamento dessa alteração motora com injeção de 100 unidades de TB no SFE. A avaliação constituiu-se de análise perceptiva de voz, videofluoroscopia (VF do SFE, análise acústica de voz e manometria computadorizada (MC do SFE, todos antes e após aplicação de TB. DESENHO DE ESTUDO: Estudo prospectivo. RESULTADOS: Houve diminuição na pressão à MC do SFE, após a injeção de TB. Análise acústica demonstrou melhora na qualidade de harmônicos após o tratamento. Houve emissão de voz sem esforço e melhora do E após o uso da TB. CONCLUSÃO: Todos os pacientes com E do SFE apresentaram melhora vocal após aplicação da TB neste SFE.In tracheo esophageal puncture (TEP, we carry out a myotomy of the pharynx constrictor muscle; however, about 9 to 79% of patients need such procedure. The consequence of such procedure is an increase in salivary fistula rates in the postoperative. Botulin toxin is used in an outpatient basis. AIM: analyzing the efficacy of botulin toxin (BT use in the rehabilitation of totally laryngectomized patients with tracheo-esophageal voice (TEV with spasms (S of the pharyngo-esophageal segment (PES without myotomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed eight patients submitted to total laryngectomy (TL, rehabilitated with TEV, with speech

  19. Análise estrutural da laringofaringe e suas implicações na miotomia do cricofaríngeo, na injeção de toxina botulínica e na dilatação por balão Laryngopharyngeal structural analysis and its morphofunctional correlation with cricopharyngeal myotomy, botulinum toxin injection and balloon dilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Melciades Barbosa Costa

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: O músculo cricofaríngeo é de tipo estriado esquelético, por conseguinte, incapaz de manter contração continuada por longos períodos. Apesar disto, tem sido considerado como o responsável pela zona de alta pressão registrada manometricamente na transição faringoesofágica. Em razão desta crença, tem sido alvo de terapêuticas cruentas que visam, por ruptura de sua integridade, franquear a comunicação entre a faringe e o esôfago. OBJETIVO: Dar as bases anatômicas que definam os limites de participação do músculo cricofaríngeo na função da transição faringoesofágica; considerar alternativa morfofuncional para explicar a zona de alta pressão desta transição e as implicações das miotomias sobre ela, uso de toxina botulínica e das dilatações pneumáticas. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: O total de 24 peças obtidas de cadáveres de adultos de ambos os sexos fixados em formaldeído a 10%, teve a laringofaringe estudada quanto as suas características morfológicas e relações. RESULTADOS: O músculo cricofaríngeo apresenta suas inserções ântero-laterais nas bordas póstero-laterais da cartilagem cricóide, configurando morfologia em meia calha ou de uma letra C que não permite, quando de sua contração, a geração de pressão com predomínio anterior e posterior, como a encontrada na transição faringoesofágica. Este tipo de distribuição pressórica tem sustentação na relação de pinça exercida, por um lado, pela rigidez oferecida pelos corpos vertebrais, por outro, pelo contorno posterior da cartilagem cricóide. CONCLUSÕES: A organização muscular da laringofaringe permite afiançar que a miotomia alargada da transição faringoesofágica, aquela que se estende além do fascículo transverso do cricofaríngeo, lesa musculatura ejetora e em área cuja a já maior dimensão luminar dispensaria a secção parietal. Miotomia que tome somente o fascículo transverso do cricofaríngeo poderá contribuir

  20. The rat as an animal model for infant botulism.

    OpenAIRE

    Moberg, L J; Sugiyama, H

    1980-01-01

    Susceptibility to intraintestinal Clostridium botulinum colonization of conventional infant and germfree adult rats is comparable to that of mice. C. botulinum-monoassociated rats pass C. botulinum toxin in their milk.

  1. [The clinical diagnosis 'wound botulism' in an injecting drug addict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rundervoort, R.S.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der; Vermeulen, C.M.; Oostenbrugge, R.J. van

    2003-01-01

    A 38-year-old subcutaneous injecting heroin addict had subacute blurred vision, dysarthria and dysphagia. The next day she could not swallow or speak and developed weakness of all limbs and respiratory failure. Electromyography showed abnormalities compatible with a presynaptic neuromuscular transmi

  2. A review of research on Type C botulism among waterbirds

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — After investigating a variety of possible alternatives, including "alkali poisoning", Kalmbach and Gunderson (1934) determined that "duck sickness" was the result...

  3. Animal Botulism Outcomes in the AniBioThreat Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woudstra, Cédric; Tevell Åberg, Annica; Skarin, Hanna;

    2013-01-01

    and botulinum neurotoxins are considered potential weapons for bioterrorism and have been included in the Australia Group List of Biological Agents. In 2010 the European Commission (DG Justice, Freedom and Security) funded a 3-year project named AniBioThreat to improve the EU's capacity to counter...... required acquiring new genetic information to better understand the diversity of these Clostridia and develop detection methods targeting both highly specific genetic markers of these Clostridia and the neurotoxins they are able to produce. Several European institutes participating in the Ani...

  4. Predicting mobility gains among children with cerebral palsy after application of botulinum toxin A Predizendo ganhos de mobilidade em crianças com paralisia cerebral após aplicação de toxina botulínica A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VCR Cury

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Botulinum toxin A (BTA is commonly used to treat children with cerebral palsy (CP. However, the variables measured before BTA application and associated with motor function and independent mobility, known as predictors of functional outcomes, have not been well defined. OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical predictors of gains in functional motor skills and independence of mobility among children with CP, three and six months after BTA application. METHODS: This was a convenience sample of children with spastic CP (n=35. Measurements of quantitative gains in motor skills and independence of mobility were taken three and six months after BTA application. These outcomes were observed through repeated applications of two functional tests: GMFM (Gross Motor Function Measure and PEDI (Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory. These tests evaluated gross motor function while sitting or standing and during transitions between these postures, and also during dynamic activities such as walking, running and jumping, along with the children's independence in mobility tasks. The independent variables included the children's characteristics such as age, severity, topographic diagnosis, neuromuscular-skeletal parameters (range of motion and spasticity, gait quality and performance in the functional tests before BTA. RESULTS: Four predictive models were developed (R² between 0.58 and 0.83; pCONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A toxina botulínica A (TBA é comumente utilizada em crianças com paralisia cerebral (PC, entretanto preditores de desfechos funcionais, ou seja, variáveis mensuradas pré-aplicação da TBA e associadas a ganho na função motora e independência na mobilidade não são bem definidos. OBJETIVO: Identificar preditores clínicos de ganho em habilidades motoras funcionais e independência em mobilidade em crianças com PC, aos três e seis meses pós-aplicação de TBA. MÉTODOS: Amostra de conveniência de crianças com PC espástica (n=35

  5. Avian botulism at a sugar beet processing plant in South Moravia (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk; Škorpíková, V.; Horal, D.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 10 (2005), s. 443-445. ISSN 0375-8427 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Clostridium botulinum * free-living birds Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.621, year: 2005 http://www.vri.cz/docs/vetmed/50-10-443.pdf

  6. Parálisis cerebral infantil: tóxina botulínica y fisioterapia

    OpenAIRE

    Frías González, Laura

    2014-01-01

    La Parálisis Cerebral Infantil es una encefalopatía secular con afectación predominantemente motriz, que consiste en una variada combinación de espasticidad, ataxia, distonía y otras discinesias [1]. La espasticidad es la mayor causante de discapacidad física, por lo que su tratamiento va a ser de vital importancia en los niños que la presentan. Para ello hay diferentes técnicas que podemos llevar a cabo, aunque siempre debemos tener en cuenta las características individuale...

  7. Neurorehabilitación post toxina botulínica tipo A

    OpenAIRE

    Bugallo, Romina

    2014-01-01

    La espasticidad, como secuela neurológica, se comporta como una de las más importantes causas de invalidez en el adulto. El manejo de la espasticidad está dirigido por las necesidades de cada paciente en particular y sus metas funcionales. Determinados músculos espásticos pueden colaborar con una postura ventajosa funcionalmente, pero de forma inversa debe ser tratada cuando primen las desventajas, o sea, cuando existe interferencia en la función, posición, higiene y confort de...

  8. Efecto de la Toxina Botulínica A en el tratamiento del dolor miofascial masticatorio.

    OpenAIRE

    Forteza González, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓNEl Síndrome de Dolor Miofascial Masticatorio (SDMFM) - También denominado Dolor Facial Miogénico - es un cuadro que, según estudios, afecta hasta al 25% de la población. Afecta preferentemente a mujeres (entre el 75 y el 88,5 %), entre 20 y 40 años. Se caracteriza por la presencia de trismus, dolor facial, fatiga y limitación de la función en los músculos maseteros (79-84 %) y temporales (56-65 %), seguidos de los pterigoideos internos, externos y los digástricos. Puede afectar a ...

  9. Management of Animal Botulism Outbreaks: From Clinical Suspicion to Practical Countermeasures to Prevent or Minimize Outbreaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anniballi, Fabrizio; Fiore, Alfonsina; Löfström, Charlotta;

    2013-01-01

    administration and supportive therapies are used to treat sick animals. Once the diagnosis has been made, euthanasia is frequently advisable. Vaccine administration is subject to health authorities' permission, and it is restricted to a small number of animal species. Several measures can be adopted to prevent...

  10. Feeding Your 4- to 7-Month-Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... botulism in babies. And do not give regular cow's milk until your baby is older than 12 ... Months Your Baby's Growth: 4 Months Infant Botulism Food Allergies Contact Us Print Resources Send to a friend ...

  11. An alternative approach to combination vaccines: intradermal administration of isolated components for control of anthrax, botulism, plague and staphylococcal toxic shock

    OpenAIRE

    Morefield, Garry L.; Tammariello, Ralph F; Purcell, Bret K.; Patricia L Worsham; Chapman, Jennifer; Smith, Leonard A.; Alarcon, Jason B.; Mikszta, John A.; Ulrich, Robert G.

    2008-01-01

    Background Combination vaccines reduce the total number of injections required for each component administered separately and generally provide the same level of disease protection. Yet, physical, chemical, and biological interactions between vaccine components are often detrimental to vaccine safety or efficacy. Methods As a possible alternative to combination vaccines, we used specially designed microneedles to inject rhesus macaques with four separate recombinant protein vaccines for anthr...

  12. Incidencia del Síndrome de Frey diagnosticado mediante Test de Minor y su tratamiento con Toxina Botulínica

    OpenAIRE

    Lesmas Navarro, Maria José

    2015-01-01

    Los tumores de las glándulas salivales son una patología poco frecuente, con una incidencia aproximada de 2-3 casos por cada 100.000 habitantes, a pesar de ello son un motivo de consulta al especialista en Otorrinolaringología que no debemos menospreciar. Aproximadamente el 80% de estos tumores se originan en la glándula parótida y su tratamiento consistirá fundamentalmente en una parotidectomía. Como con cualquier otra cirugía, debemos conocer bien las complicaciones que pueden aparecer ...

  13. Consenso experto sobre la evidencia científica disponible acerca del uso de toxina botulínica en vejiga hiperactiva

    OpenAIRE

    Esteban, M; Salinas, J.; Arlandis, S.; Díez Rodríguez, Jesús María; M. Jiménez; Rebassa, M.; Angulo Cuesta, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is a pathology impairing patients’ quality of life and with a high percentage of patients who are refractory to medication. In this paper, technical opinion of an «expert panel» is assessed in order to gain the most reliable professional consensus on scientific evidence available on the criteria for the use of Onabotulinumtoxin A (OnabotA) in OAB. 1.022 JCR (2014) Q4, 60/76 Urology & nephrology UEM

  14. Aplicación de la "toxina botulínica A" en el tratamiento del síndrome aurículo-temporal

    OpenAIRE

    Mareque Bueno, Javier

    2007-01-01

    Consultable des del TDX Títol obtingut de la portada digitalitzada El síndrome aurículo-temporal, también conocido como síndrome de Frey, es una entidad clínica caracterizada por presentar sudoración en la región preauricular coincidiendo con las comidas. Este cuadro aparece en algunos pacientes que han sido sometidos a parotidectomías, generalmente por tumoraciones benignas, debido a una reinervación aberrante de las fibras parasimpáticas colinérgicas que inervaban las glándulas paróti...

  15. Botulinum Toxin; Bioterror and Biomedicinal Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Jiri Patocka; Kamil Kuca; Daniel Jun

    2006-01-01

    Botulinum toxin is a group of seven homologous, highly poisonous proteins isolated fromfermentation of the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum, which naturally occurs in soiland can grow on many meats and vegetables. Botulinum toxin causes neuromuscular disordercalled botulism, which is a potentially lethal disease. There are three types of botulism: Food,wound, and infant botulism. It can lead to death unless appropriate therapy is done. Due to theseverity and potency of botulinum toxi...

  16. Cost-Effectiveness of Treating Upper Limb Spasticity Due to Stroke with Botulinum Toxin Type A: Results from the Botulinum Toxin for the Upper Limb after Stroke (BoTULS Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Steen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Stroke imposes significant burdens on health services and society, and as such there is a growing need to assess the cost-effectiveness of stroke treatment to ensure maximum benefit is derived from limited resources. This study compared the cost-effectiveness of treating post-stroke upper limb spasticity with botulinum toxin type A plus an upper limb therapy programme against the therapy programme alone. Data on resource use and health outcomes were prospectively collected for 333 patients with post-stroke upper limb spasticity taking part in a randomized trial and combined to estimate the incremental cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY gained of botulinum toxin type A plus therapy relative to therapy alone. The base case incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER of botulinum toxin type A plus therapy was £93,500 per QALY gained. The probability of botulinum toxin type A plus therapy being cost-effective at the England and Wales cost-effectiveness threshold value of £20,000 per QALY was 0.36. The point estimates of the ICER remained above £20,000 per QALY for a range of sensitivity analyses, and the probability of botulinum toxin type A plus therapy being cost-effective at the threshold value did not exceed 0.39, regardless of the assumptions made.

  17. Aplicación de la toxina botulínica A para el tratamiento del síndrome de Frey Application of botulinum toxin A for the treatment of Frey’s Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    J. Mareque Bueno; J. González Lagunas; C. Bassas Costa; G. Raspall Martín

    2008-01-01

    El síndrome Aurículo-temporal también conocido como sudoración gustativa o síndrome de Frey, es una entidad caracterizada por sudoración y enrojecimiento de la piel del territorio inervado por el nervio aurículo-temporal durante las comidas. El síndrome de Frey es probablemente una secuela inevitable en la cirugía de la glándula parótida. Una vez que se presenta se perpetua durante toda la vida si no se realiza tratamiento. Realizando el test de Minor tras cirugía sobre la glándula parótida h...

  18. Botulinum toxin type A in refractory chronic migraine: an open-label trial Toxina botulínica tipo A no tratamento da enxaqueca refratária: um estudo aberto

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Menezes; Bernardo Rodrigues; Elza Magalhães; Ailton Melo

    2007-01-01

    Botulinum toxin type A (BT-A) has been described as an important strategy to various types of pain such as cervical dystonia, myofascial pain syndrome and headache. Although BT-A efficacy has not been proven in tension type headache, its use in migraine continues controversial. In this open trial, we evaluated the efficacy of BT-A in refractory migraine. BT-A was injected in patients diagnosed with migraine who had previously used three classes of prophylactic drugs by at least one year with ...

  19. Valoración del tratamiento del hombro doloroso espástico post ictus mediante la aplicación de toxina botulínica tipo A

    OpenAIRE

    Villamayor Blanco, Bibiana

    2013-01-01

    Introducción. El hombro doloroso espástico en pacientes con hemiparesia tras un ictus, es una entidad clínica frecuente. La incidencia en nuestro medio se encuentra entorno al 53%. Habitualmente se presenta una vez transcurridos los 2-3 primeros meses de evolución, aunque también se pude producir de forma precoz. El hombro doloroso en estos pacientes supone una reducción en la participación en las actividades funcionales, en el proceso rehabilitador y predice una menor recuperación funcional ...

  20. Study design and methods of the BoTULS trial: a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the clinical effect and cost effectiveness of treating upper limb spasticity due to stroke with botulinum toxin type A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Laura

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following a stroke, 55–75% of patients experience upper limb problems in the longer term. Upper limb spasticity may cause pain, deformity and reduced function, affecting mood and independence. Botulinum toxin is used increasingly to treat focal spasticity, but its impact on upper limb function after stroke is unclear. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical and cost effectiveness of botulinum toxin type A plus an upper limb therapy programme in the treatment of post stroke upper limb spasticity. Methods Trial design : A multi-centre open label parallel group randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation. Participants : Adults with upper limb spasticity at the shoulder, elbow, wrist or hand and reduced upper limb function due to stroke more than 1 month previously. Interventions : Botulinum toxin type A plus upper limb therapy (intervention group or upper limb therapy alone (control group. Outcomes : Outcome assessments are undertaken at 1, 3 and 12 months. The primary outcome is upper limb function one month after study entry measured by the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT. Secondary outcomes include: spasticity (Modified Ashworth Scale; grip strength; dexterity (Nine Hole Peg Test; disability (Barthel Activities of Daily Living Index; quality of life (Stroke Impact Scale, Euroqol EQ-5D and attainment of patient-selected goals (Canadian Occupational Performance Measure. Health and social services resource use, adverse events, use of other antispasticity treatments and patient views on the treatment will be compared. Participants are clinically reassessed at 3, 6 and 9 months to determine the need for repeat botulinum toxin type A and/or therapy. Randomisation : A web based central independent randomisation service. Blinding : Outcome assessments are undertaken by an assessor who is blinded to the randomisation group. Sample size : 332 participants provide 80% power to detect a 15% difference in treatment successes between intervention and control groups. Treatment success is defined as improvement of 3 points for those with a baseline ARAT of 0–3 and 6 points for those with ARAT of 4–56. Trial registration ISRCTN78533119 EudraCT 2004-002427-40 CTA 17136/0230/001 Funding National Institute for Health Research, Health Technology Assessment Programme. Ipsen Ltd provide botulinum toxin type A (Dysport®.

  1. Eficacia de las terapias conservadoras y la toxina botulínica en la parálisis braquial obstétrica. Revisión sistemática

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz Pedraja, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: la parálisis braquial obstétrica (PBO) continúa siendo una de las causas más frecuentes de traumatismo obstétrico y constituye una de las lesiones más complejas de los nervios periféricos. Sin embargo, hasta la fecha no existe un acuerdo en cuanto a la estrategia de tratamiento más eficaz. Objetivos: realizar una búsqueda bibliográfica para valorar la efectividad del tratamiento conservador además de otras terapias alternativas como la Restricción – Inducción de Movimiento (C...

  2. A monoclonal antibody based capture ELISA for botulinum neurotoxin serotype B: toxin detection in food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botulism is a serious foodborne neuroparalyic disease caused by botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) produced by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Seven toxin serotypes (A-H) have been described. The majority of human cases of botulism are caused by serotypes A and B followed by E and F. We repo...

  3. Botulinum Toxin; Bioterror and Biomedicinal Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Patocka

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum toxin is a group of seven homologous, highly poisonous proteins isolated fromfermentation of the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum, which naturally occurs in soiland can grow on many meats and vegetables. Botulinum toxin causes neuromuscular disordercalled botulism, which is a potentially lethal disease. There are three types of botulism: Food,wound, and infant botulism. It can lead to death unless appropriate therapy is done. Due to theseverity and potency of botulinum toxin, its importance as a biological weapon is of majorconcern to public health officials. Nevertheless, botulinum toxin is also medicament.

  4. Waterfowl disease contingency plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this contingency plan is reduce waterfowl losses from disease, primarily avian botulism, along the eastern shore of the Great Salt Lake in Utah. This...

  5. Muscle function loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease) Bell's palsy Botulism Guillain-Barré syndrome Myasthenia gravis Neuropathy Paralytic shellfish poisoning Periodic paralysis Focal nerve ... doctor will perform a physical examination and ask questions about your medical history and symptoms, including: Location: ...

  6. Disease: H00339 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ase in a dose-dependent fashion, resulting in symmetrical, descending, and progre...: foodborne, wound, infant botulism, and adult intestinal toxemia. Botulinum toxin blocks acetylcholine rele

  7. Black Rhino Diceros Bicornis Minor mortality in the Kruger National Park

    OpenAIRE

    V. de Vos

    1980-01-01

    The death of two black rhinos (Diceros bicornis minor) in the Kruger National Park is described. A diagnosis of lamsiekte, or botulism, was made, based on typical clinical findings backed by circumstantial evidence.

  8. An investigation into the water quality of Long Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Burleigh and Kidder Counties, North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Long Lake National Wildlife Refuge has a long history of severe botulism outbreaks killing as many as 50,000 birds in a single year. Water quality has been...

  9. Quantification of Clostridium botulinum Toxin Gene Expression by Competitive Reverse Transcription-PCR

    OpenAIRE

    McGrath, S.; Dooley, J. S. G.; Haylock, R. W.

    2000-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum produces a characteristic botulinum neurotoxin which can cause an often fatal neuroparalytic condition known as botulism. Although food-borne botulism is rare, critical screening by food companies is necessary to ensure that food products are safe. At present, the food industry assesses the risks of botulinum neurotoxin production by challenge testing to check any new food products and to check the efficacy of new storage regimes. Challenge testing involves artificial in...

  10. Independent evolution of neurotoxin and flagellar genetic loci in proteolytic Clostridium botulinum

    OpenAIRE

    Twine Susan M; Mason David R; Paul Catherine J; Carter Andrew T; Alston Mark J; Logan Susan M; Austin John W; Peck Michael W

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Proteolytic Clostridium botulinum is the causative agent of botulism, a severe neuroparalytic illness. Given the severity of botulism, surprisingly little is known of the population structure, biology, phylogeny or evolution of C. botulinum. The recent determination of the genome sequence of C. botulinum has allowed comparative genomic indexing using a DNA microarray. Results Whole genome microarray analysis revealed that 63% of the coding sequences (CDSs) present in refer...

  11. Evaluation of adamantane hydroxamates as botulinum neurotoxin inhibitors: synthesis, crystallography, modeling, kinetic and cellular based studies

    OpenAIRE

    Šilhár, Peter; Silvaggi, Nicholas R; Pellett, Sabine; Čapková, Kateřina; Johnson, Eric A.; Allen, Karen N.; Janda, Kim D.

    2012-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most lethal biotoxins known to mankind and are responsible for the neuroparalytic disease botulism. Current treatments for botulinum poisoning are all protein based and thus have a limited window of treatment opportunity. Inhibition of the BoNT light chain protease (LC) has emerged as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of botulism as it may provide an effective post exposure remedy. Using a combination of crystallographic and modeling studies a seri...

  12. Botulinum toxin A and physiotherapy intervention in the treatment of the painful shoulder after stroke: case report
    Toxina botulínica A e intervenção fisioterapêutica no tratamento do ombro doloroso pós acidente vascular cerebral: relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Suellen M. Marinho dos Santos Andrade; Mayara Dinamine França Dantas; Cristina Katya Dantas Torres; Karen Lúcia de Araújo Freitas Moreira

    2007-01-01

    The syndrome of the painful shoulder is considered a common finding in patients who suffered stroke. Several therapeutic modalities are suggested for the improvement of the patients’ clinical condition. In this report, a case of syndrome of the painful shoulder will be discussed, whose treatment consisted of the use of botulinum toxin A associated to physiotherapy. After a four-month treatment, significant improvements occurred concerning pain, spasticity, range of motion and quality of life,...

  13. Quality of life of children with cerebral palsy treated with botulinum toxin: are well-being measures appropriate? Qualidade de vida em crianças com paralisia cerebral tratadas com toxina botulínica: estas avaliações são adequadas?

    OpenAIRE

    Taísa R. Simões de Assis; Edilson Forlin; Isac Bruck

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To analyze quality of life (QOL) of children with cerebral palsy (CP) treated with botulinum toxin type A (BTXA). METHOD: Two QOL evaluation tools, translated into Portuguese, were used: Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) and Child's Caregiver Questionnaire (CCQ). Questionnaires were answered by caregivers on two occasions. Patients were divided into 3 groups: I - patients who had been previously treated with BTXA and who underwent a session of BTXA; II - patients who ...

  14. Diversity of Group I and II Clostridium botulinum Strains from France Including Recently Identified Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazuet, Christelle; Legeay, Christine; Sautereau, Jean; Ma, Laurence; Bouchier, Christiane; Bouvet, Philippe; Popoff, Michel R.

    2016-01-01

    In France, human botulism is mainly food-borne intoxication, whereas infant botulism is rare. A total of 99 group I and II Clostridium botulinum strains including 59 type A (12 historical isolates [1947–1961], 43 from France [1986–2013], 3 from other countries, and 1 collection strain), 31 type B (3 historical, 23 recent isolates, 4 from other countries, and 1 collection strain), and 9 type E (5 historical, 3 isolates, and 1 collection strain) were investigated by botulinum locus gene sequencing and multilocus sequence typing analysis. Historical C. botulinum A strains mainly belonged to subtype A1 and sequence type (ST) 1, whereas recent strains exhibited a wide genetic diversity: subtype A1 in orfX or ha locus, A1(B), A1(F), A2, A2b2, A5(B2′) A5(B3′), as well as the recently identified A7 and A8 subtypes, and were distributed into 25 STs. Clostridium botulinum A1(B) was the most frequent subtype from food-borne botulism and food. Group I C. botulinum type B in France were mainly subtype B2 (14 out of 20 historical and recent strains) and were divided into 19 STs. Food-borne botulism resulting from ham consumption during the recent period was due to group II C. botulinum B4. Type E botulism is rare in France, 5 historical and 1 recent strains were subtype E3. A subtype E12 was recently identified from an unusual ham contamination. Clostridium botulinum strains from human botulism in France showed a wide genetic diversity and seems to result not from a single evolutionary lineage but from multiple and independent genetic rearrangements. PMID:27189984

  15. Botulinum Toxin Type A as a Therapeutic Agent against Headache and Related Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Siro Luvisetto; Parisa Gazerani; Carlo Cianchetti; Flaminia Pavone

    2015-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) is a toxin produced by the naturally-occurring Clostridium botulinum that causes botulism. The potential of BoNT/A as a useful medical intervention was discovered by scientists developing a vaccine to protect against botulism. They found that, when injected into a muscle, BoNT/A causes a flaccid paralysis. Following this discovery, BoNT/A has been used for many years in the treatment of conditions of pathological muscle hyperactivity, like dystonias and spastic...

  16. Botulinum Neurotoxins Can Enter Cultured Neurons Independent of Synaptic Vesicle Recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Pellett, Sabine; Tepp, William H.; Jacob M Scherf; Eric A Johnson

    2015-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the causative agent of the severe and long-lasting disease botulism. At least seven different serotypes of BoNTs (denoted A-G) have been described. All BoNTs enter human or animal neuronal cells via receptor mediated endocytosis and cleave cytosolic SNARE proteins, resulting in a block of synaptic vesicle exocytosis, leading to the flaccid paralysis characteristic of botulism. Previous data have indicated that once a neuronal cell has been intoxicated by a Bo...

  17. Shaping our future: animal health in a global trading environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    More Simon J

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, the clinical findings and results of haematological and biochemical analyses of 26 cattle with botulism were evaluated. The most important clinical signs in the affected cattle included: decreased appetite, ataxia, difficulty to rise, loss of tongue tone, salivation and bradycardia. A definitive diagnosis of botulism was based on demonstration of the preformed toxin in ruminal and intestinal contents and feed materials including poultry litter, by mouse inoculation test. This study is the first confirmation, by direct toxin isolation, of Clostridium botulinum type C and Clostridium botulinum type D in cattle, in Turkey.

  18. Rapid microfluidic assay for the detection of botulinum neurotoxin in animal sera

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potent botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) represent a threat to public health and safety. Botulism is a disease caused by BoNT intoxication that results in muscle paralysis that can be fatal. Sensitive assays capable of detecting BoNTs from different substrates and settings are essential to limit f...

  19. 21 CFR 610.53 - Dating periods for licensed biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... years 5 years. Blood Group Substance AB ......do ......do 2 years. Blood Group Substance A ......do ......do Do. Blood Group Substance B ......do ......do Do. Botulism Antitoxin ......do Not applicable 5... blood cells ......do ......do Do. 3. Enzyme conjugated products ......do ......do Do. Iodinated...

  20. Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin type B is heat-stable in milk and not inactivated by pasteurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foodborne botulism is caused by the ingestion of foods containing botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs). Currently, the only accepted assay to detect active C. botulinum neurotoxin is an in vivo mouse bioassay, which raises ethical concerns with regard to the use of experimental animals. Therefore, there is...

  1. Validation of a real-time PCR based method for detection of Clostridium botulinum types C, D and their mosaic variants C-D and D-C in a multicenter collaborative trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woudstra, C.; Skarin, H.; Anniballi, F.;

    2013-01-01

    avian and mammalian botulism. The GeneDisc® arrays developed as part of the DG Home funded European project 'AnibioThreat' were highly sensitive and specific when tested on pure isolates and naturally contaminated samples (mostly clinical specimen from avian origin). Results of the multicenter...... collaborative trial involving eight laboratories in five European Countries (two laboratories in France, Italy and The Netherlands, one laboratory in Denmark and Sweden), using DNA extracts issued from 33 pure isolates and 48 naturally contaminated samples associated with animal botulism cases, demonstrated the...... robustness of these tests. Results showed a concordance among the eight laboratories of 99.4%-100% for both arrays. The reproducibility of the tests was high with a relative standard deviation ranging from 1.1% to 7.1%. Considering the high level of agreement achieved between the laboratories these PCR...

  2. Comparative sequence analyses of the neurotoxin complex genes in Clostridium botulinum serotypes A, B, E, and F

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay K. Singh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Neurotoxin complex (NTC genes are arranged in two known hemagglutinin (HA and open reading frame X (ORFX clusters. NTC genes have been analyzed in four serotypes A, B, E and F of Clostridium botulinum causing human botulism. Analysis of amino acid sequences of NT genes demonstrated significant differences among subtypes and four serotypes. Phylogram tree of NT genes reveals that serotypes A1 and B1 are much closer compared to serotype E1 and F1. However, non-toxic non-hemagglutinin (NTNH gene is highly conserved among four serotypes. Analysis of phylogram tree of NTNH gene reveals that serotypes A and F are more closely related compared to serotype B and E. Additionally, sequences of HAs and ORFX genes are very divergent but these genes are specific in subtypes and serotypes of Clostridium botulinum. Information derived from sequence analyses of NTC has direct implication in development of detection tools and therapeutic countermeasures for botulism.

  3. Bioterorizem: Bioterrorism:

    OpenAIRE

    Pokrajac, Tatjana

    2010-01-01

    Bioterrorism is an attack on the health of the general population through an artificially induced epidemic ofbacterial infectious diseases such as anthrax,pIague, cholera, tularemia, brucellosis or botulism, and certain viroses, such as Ebola, smallpox etc., along with rickettsioses or systemic mycoses. This article includes an analysis of microbiological agents which areof interest for bioterrorism and the possibility of providing efficient preventative action (e.g. preventative measures in ...

  4. Modified, Packaged Tortillas Have Long Shelf Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourland, Charles; Glaus-Late, Kimberly

    1995-01-01

    Tortillas made from modified recipe and sealed in low-pressure nitrogen in foil pouches in effort to increase their shelf life at room temperature. Preliminary tests show that shelf life of these tortillas at least five months; in contrast, commercial tortillas last only few days. Part of water in recipe replaced with glycerin. Particularly necessary to avoid Clostridium botulinum, which grows in anaerobic environments and produces deadly toxin that causes botulism.

  5. Protective Effects of Breast Milk on Central Nervous System and the Incidence of Febrile Convulsion in Breast-Fed Children

    OpenAIRE

    A Tayarani Bathayi; KH Farivar

    1999-01-01

    It is known that central nervous system is well protected in breast-fed children, recognized in decreased incidence of multiple sclerosis, infectious and malignant diseases of the central nervous system, sudden infant death syndrome, 5th day convulsion, and botulism as well as an increase in IQ rates. In this retrospective study we have found also an indirect correlation between in incidence of febrile convulsion and length of breast-feeding. Among 270 cases of febrile convulsion 144 (53.3%) ...

  6. A rare cause of acute flaccid paralysis: Human coronaviruses

    OpenAIRE

    Cokyaman Turgay; Tekin Emine; Koken Ozlem; S Paksu Muhammet; A Tasdemir Haydar

    2015-01-01

    Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) is a life-threatening clinical entity characterized by weakness in the whole body muscles often accompanied by respiratory and bulbar paralysis. The most common cause is Gullian–Barre syndrome, but infections, spinal cord diseases, neuromuscular diseases such as myasthenia gravis, drugs and toxins, periodic hypokalemic paralysis, electrolyte disturbances, and botulism should be considered as in the differential diagnosis. Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) cause common ...

  7. Potent Neutralization of Botulinum Neurotoxin/B by Synergistic Action of Antibodies Recognizing Protein and Ganglioside Receptor Binding Domain

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Changchun; Wang, Shuhui; Wang, Huajing; Mao, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Tiancheng; Ji, Guanghui; Shi, Xin; Xia, Tian; Lu, Weijia; Zhang, Dapeng; Dai, Jianxin; Guo, Yajun

    2012-01-01

    Background Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), the causative agents for life-threatening human disease botulism, have been recognized as biological warfare agents. Monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapeutics hold considerable promise as BoNT therapeutics, but the potencies of mAbs against BoNTs are usually less than that of polyclonal antibodies (or oligoclonal antibodies). The confirmation of key epitopes with development of effective mAb is urgently needed. Methods and Findings We selected 3 neutrali...

  8. Detection of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin genes (A-F) in dairy farms from Northern Germany using PCR: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fohler, Svenja; Discher, Sabrina; Jordan, Eva; Seyboldt, Christian; Klein, Guenter; Neubauer, Heinrich; Hoedemaker, Martina; Scheu, Theresa; Campe, Amely; Charlotte Jensen, Katharina; Abdulmawjood, Amir

    2016-06-01

    Classical botulism in cattle mainly occurs after ingestion of feed contaminated with preformed toxin. In 2001 a form of botulism ("visceral botulism") was postulated to occur after ingestion of Clostridium (C.) botulinum cells or spores, followed by colonization of the intestine, and local production of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) causing chronic generalized disease. To verify the potential role of C. botulinum in the described syndrome, a case-control study was conducted, including 139 farms. Fecal samples, rumen content, water and silage samples were collected on each farm. Real time BoNT gene PCR assays were conducted after enrichment in RCM (Reinforced Clostridial Medium) at 37 °C and conventional PCRs after enrichment in MCM (Modified Cooked Meat Medium) at 30 °C. Furthermore, a direct detection of BoNT genes without prior enrichment was attempted. BoNT A, B, C, D, E and F genes were detected in animal samples from 25 (17.99%), 3 (2.16%), 0 (0.0%), 2 (1.44%), 1 (0.72%), and 3 (2.16%) farms, respectively. Eleven feed samples were positive for BoNT A gene. By enrichment a significant increase in sensitivity was achieved. Therefore, this should be an essential part of any protocol. No significant differences regarding BoNT gene occurrence could be observed between Case and Control farms or chronically diseased and clinically healthy animals within the particular category. Thus, the postulated form of chronic botulism in cows could not be confirmed. This study supports the general opinion that C. botulinum can occasionally be found in the rumen and intestine of cows without causing disease. PMID:27016061

  9. Botulisme hos spaedbørn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Thomas; Mølbak, Kåre; Paerregaard, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Infant botulism is a rare disease that affects infants below the age of 12 months following absorption of neurotoxins produced by ingested Clostridium botulinum spores. The clinical manifestations are caused by symmetrical cranial nerve palsies followed by descending, symmetric flaccid paralysis of...... voluntary muscles. Presenting symptoms include constipation, lethargy, mydriasis and ptosis. The diagnosis is made on the basis of clinical examination and confirmed by isolating the toxin in serum or stools. Treatment consists of supportive intensive care and treatment with antitoxins....

  10. Botulinum Toxin and Gastrointestinal Tract Disorders: Panacea, Placebo, or Pathway to the Future?

    OpenAIRE

    Lacy, Brian E.; Weiser, Kirsten; Kennedy, Abigail

    2008-01-01

    The history of botulinum toxin is fascinating. First recognized as the cause of botulism nearly 200 years ago, it was originally feared as a deadly poison. Over the last 30 years, however, botulinum toxin has been transformed into a readily available medication used to treat a variety of medical disorders. Interest in the use of botulinum toxin has been particularly strong for patients with spastic smooth muscle disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Patients with achalasia, diffuse esophag...

  11. Endemic, Notifiable Bioterrorism-Related Diseases, United States, 1992–1999

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Man-Huei; Glynn, M. Kathleen; Groseclose, Samuel L.

    2003-01-01

    Little information is available in the United States regarding the incidence and distribution of diseases caused by critical microbiologic agents with the potential for use in acts of terrorism. We describe disease-specific, demographic, geographic, and seasonal distribution of selected bioterrorism-related conditions (anthrax, botulism, brucellosis, cholera, plague, tularemia, and viral encephalitides) reported to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System in 1992–1999. Tularemia a...

  12. Botulinum toxin: Bioweapon & magic drug

    OpenAIRE

    Dhaked, Ram Kumar; Singh, Manglesh Kumar; Singh, Padma; Gupta, Pallavi

    2010-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins, causative agents of botulism in humans, are produced by Clostridium botulinum, an anaerobic spore-former Gram positive bacillus. Botulinum neurotoxin poses a major bioweapon threat because of its extreme potency and lethality; its ease of production, transport, and misuse; and the need for prolonged intensive care among affected persons. A single gram of crystalline toxin, evenly dispersed and inhaled, can kill more than one million people. The basis of the phenomenal p...

  13. Independent evolution of neurotoxin and flagellar genetic loci in proteolytic Clostridium botulinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Twine Susan M

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteolytic Clostridium botulinum is the causative agent of botulism, a severe neuroparalytic illness. Given the severity of botulism, surprisingly little is known of the population structure, biology, phylogeny or evolution of C. botulinum. The recent determination of the genome sequence of C. botulinum has allowed comparative genomic indexing using a DNA microarray. Results Whole genome microarray analysis revealed that 63% of the coding sequences (CDSs present in reference strain ATCC 3502 were common to all 61 widely-representative strains of proteolytic C. botulinum and the closely related C. sporogenes tested. This indicates a relatively stable genome. There was, however, evidence for recombination and genetic exchange, in particular within the neurotoxin gene and cluster (including transfer of neurotoxin genes to C. sporogenes, and the flagellar glycosylation island (FGI. These two loci appear to have evolved independently from each other, and from the remainder of the genetic complement. A number of strains were atypical; for example, while 10 out of 14 strains that formed type A1 toxin gave almost identical profiles in whole genome, neurotoxin cluster and FGI analyses, the other four strains showed divergent properties. Furthermore, a new neurotoxin sub-type (A5 has been discovered in strains from heroin-associated wound botulism cases. For the first time, differences in glycosylation profiles of the flagella could be linked to differences in the gene content of the FGI. Conclusion Proteolytic C. botulinum has a stable genome backbone containing specific regions of genetic heterogeneity. These include the neurotoxin gene cluster and the FGI, each having evolved independently of each other and the remainder of the genetic complement. Analysis of these genetic components provides a high degree of discrimination of strains of proteolytic C. botulinum, and is suitable for clinical and forensic investigations of botulism

  14. Recent developments in cell-based assays and stem cell technologies for Botulinum neurotoxin research and drug discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Kiris, Erkan; Kota, Krishna P.; James C. Burnett; Soloveva, Veronica; Kane, Christopher D.; Bavari, Sina

    2014-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are exceptionally potent inhibitors of neurotransmission, causing muscle paralysis and respiratory failure associated with the disease botulism. Currently, no drugs are available to counter intracellular BoNT poisoning. To develop effective medical treatments, cell-based assays provide a valuable system to identify novel inhibitors in a time- and cost-efficient manner. Consequently, cell-based systems including immortalized cells, primary neurons, and stem-cell d...

  15. Consumers’ perception and knowledge of food safety: results of questionnaires accessible on IZSalimenTO website

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaranta Traversa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present survey was undertaken to investigate consumers’ knowledge of the main foodborne agents and dietary regimen during pregnancy. Data were collected using monthly questionnaires available on IZSalimenTO website between March 2013 and January 2014. Hepatitis A virus questionnaire: 20 respondents (77% recognized berries as foodstuff linked to the outbreak of hepatitis A. The majority correctly indicated as precautionary advice to boil berries before consumption. Botulism questionnaire: 29 respondents (62% indicated pesto as food involved in botulism alert in July 2013. The risk of infant botulism in infant less than 1 year old due to honey consumption is known by 24 respondents (51%. Main foodborne disease questionnaire: the risk of infection by Salmonella after the consumption of foods made with raw eggs is known by the majority (94%; N=17 as well as the treatments to be applied in order to make fresh fish safe from parasites (76%. Pregnancy questionnaire: 20 respondents (74% believed that washing vegetables and fruits with sodium bicarbonate or chlorate solution is able to inactivate Toxoplasma; only 4 (15% reported both raw meat and vegetables washed with sodium bicarbonate as food at risk. Results indicate that all consumers should be trained on behaviour and dietary regimen to be adopted in pregnancy and in infant <1 year old. The website may be considered as a useful tool to assess consumers’ knowledge: both the news section and the contents published may be a source of information and education for consumers on food safety.

  16. High-Throughput Screening Uncovers Novel Botulinum Neurotoxin Inhibitor Chemotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bompiani, Kristin M; Caglič, Dejan; Krutein, Michelle C; Benoni, Galit; Hrones, Morgan; Lairson, Luke L; Bian, Haiyan; Smith, Garry R; Dickerson, Tobin J

    2016-08-01

    Botulism is caused by potent and specific bacterial neurotoxins that infect host neurons and block neurotransmitter release. Treatment for botulism is limited to administration of an antitoxin within a short time window, before the toxin enters neurons. Alternatively, current botulism drug development targets the toxin light chain, which is a zinc-dependent metalloprotease that is delivered into neurons and mediates long-term pathology. Several groups have identified inhibitory small molecules, peptides, or aptamers, although no molecule has advanced to the clinic due to a lack of efficacy in advanced models. Here we used a homogeneous high-throughput enzyme assay to screen three libraries of drug-like small molecules for new chemotypes that modulate recombinant botulinum neurotoxin light chain activity. High-throughput screening of 97088 compounds identified numerous small molecules that activate or inhibit metalloprotease activity. We describe four major classes of inhibitory compounds identified, detail their structure-activity relationships, and assess their relative inhibitory potency. A previously unreported chemotype in any context of enzyme inhibition is described with potent submicromolar inhibition (Ki = 200-300 nM). Additional detailed kinetic analyses and cellular cytotoxicity assays indicate the best compound from this series is a competitive inhibitor with cytotoxicity values around 4-5 μM. Given the potency and drug-like character of these lead compounds, further studies, including cellular activity assays and DMPK analysis, are justified. PMID:27314875

  17. An Invisible Lethal Killer: Clostridium Botulinum and Botulinum Neurotoxins%一种致命的隐形杀手:肉毒杆菌与肉毒毒素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王景林

    2013-01-01

    2013年8月,因肉毒杆菌污染,问题奶粉再次进入公众视野.肉毒杆菌(Clostridium botulinum)是一种革兰阳性粗短杆菌,严格厌氧,有A~G7个亚型,每个亚型都可产生一种剧毒的大分子外毒素,即肉毒毒素(botulinum toxin).这种毒素可引起人和动物发生以松弛性麻痹为主症的肉毒中毒(botulism),虽然并不常见,但却是一种致命的中毒性疾病.本文综述了肉毒杆菌生物学特征、肉毒毒素结构与毒性、肉毒中毒临床表现以及检验鉴定等,并介绍了食品安全生产中肉毒杆菌与肉毒毒素的安全风险与控制措施.%The milkpowder contaminated by Clostridium botulinum once again go into the public view in August 2013.Clostridium botulinum,which is a strictly anaerobic gram-positive bacillus,is classified into seven main types from A through G according to exotoxins and they can produce antigenically distinct botulinum neurotoxins.It is a potent toxin that causes the most severe form of food poisoning with pronounced flaccid paralysis,called botulism.The review covers biological features of C.botulinum,structure and toxicity of toxin,clinical symptoms and identification of botulism as well as the risk and control of C.botulinum and toxins during food processing and preservation.

  18. Identification of novel linear megaplasmids carrying a ß-lactamase gene in neurotoxigenic Clostridium butyricum type E strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Franciosa

    Full Text Available Since the first isolation of type E botulinum toxin-producing Clostridium butyricum from two infant botulism cases in Italy in 1984, this peculiar microorganism has been implicated in different forms of botulism worldwide. By applying particular pulsed-field gel electrophoresis run conditions, we were able to show for the first time that ten neurotoxigenic C. butyricum type E strains originated from Italy and China have linear megaplasmids in their genomes. At least four different megaplasmid sizes were identified among the ten neurotoxigenic C. butyricum type E strains. Each isolate displayed a single sized megaplasmid that was shown to possess a linear structure by ATP-dependent exonuclease digestion. Some of the neurotoxigenic C. butyricum type E strains possessed additional smaller circular plasmids. In order to investigate the genetic content of the newly identified megaplasmids, selected gene probes were designed and used in Southern hybridization experiments. Our results revealed that the type E botulinum neurotoxin gene was chromosome-located in all neurotoxigenic C. butyricum type E strains. Similar results were obtained with the 16S rRNA, the tetracycline tet(P and the lincomycin resistance protein lmrB gene probes. A specific mobA gene probe only hybridized to the smaller plasmids of the Italian C. butyricum type E strains. Of note, a ß-lactamase gene probe hybridized to the megaplasmids of eight neurotoxigenic C. butyricum type E strains, of which seven from clinical sources and the remaining one from a food implicated in foodborne botulism, whereas this ß-lactam antibiotic resistance gene was absent form the megaplasmids of the two soil strains examined. The widespread occurrence among C. butyricum type E strains associated to human disease of linear megaplasmids harboring an antibiotic resistance gene strongly suggests that the megaplasmids could have played an important role in the emergence of C. butyricum type E as a human

  19. Clinical and electrodiagnostic findings in cyhalothrine poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiri, Keivan; Mohaghegh, Mohammad Reza; Teimouri, Somayyeh Sadat; Okhovat, Ali Asghar

    2016-01-01

    Acute onset bulbar symptoms with respiratory failure and descending paralysis may occur in several neuromuscular disorders including variants of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), diphtheria, botulism and toxins. We present a 51-year-old man who presented with complains of ptosis and dyspnea following pyrethroids spraying in an enclosed area for eradication of flea. Within 5-6 days of admission limb weakness, dysphagia, dysarthria, blurred vision, diplopia, tremor and respiratory distress added to previous symptoms. Temporal profile of events after exposure, development of similar symptoms in patient's son, electrodiagnostic findings and exclusion of other etiologies confirms intoxication etiology. We reviewed the literature and provide an extensive electrodiagnostic overview. PMID:27099845

  20. Reacción inflamatoria asociada a infiltración cosmética facial múltiple: A propósito de un caso Inflammatory reaction associated with multiple cosmetic facial infiltration: Report of a case

    OpenAIRE

    B Tejedor Gómez; J.C. Coca Meneses; J.C. Melendres Romero; A. Eguía del Valle; J. López Vicente; R. Martínez-Conde

    2010-01-01

    El uso de sustancias para el aumento de los tejidos blandos con fines cosméticos puede ocasionar la aparición de diferentes efectos adversos, entre los que se encuentran las reacciones inflamatorias tardías. Se presenta un caso clínico de una de estas reacciones en una paciente de 41 años de edad que había sido infiltrada 4 años antes en ambos surcos nasogenianos y glabelar con un gel de poliacrilamida y posteriormente con toxoide botulínico tipo A. Se discuten los principales aspectos clínic...

  1. Evidencias sobre la efectividad de la toxina butolínica en el pie equino post-ictus: Revisión sistemática

    OpenAIRE

    Grande Cobo, Sara

    2013-01-01

    RESUMEN: INTRODUCCIÓN: La espasticidad en la extremidad inferior y la deformidad del pie en equino-varo suelen ser las manifestaciones físicas más frecuentes tras un ictus o accidente cerebrovascular (ACV). OBJETIVO: El propósito de esta revisión sistemática es evaluar la existencia de evidencia sobre la seguridad y la eficacia de la toxina botulínica como una de las posibles intervenciones para paliar estos síntomas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en...

  2. Caracterització de la distribució i efectes de la toxina epsilon de "Clostidrium perfringens" en els sistemes renal i nerviós

    OpenAIRE

    Soler Jover, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    [cat] La toxina epsilon de Clostridium perfringens és la toxina clostridial més potent després de les neurotoxines tetànica i botulínica. Provoca una enterotoxèmia general en animals de granja, provocant greus pèrdues econòmiques. La toxina es sintetitza en forma de protoxina inactiva que requereix de dos talls proteolítics per a la seva activació. En aquest treball hem clonat i expressat amb èxit en E. coli diferents formes de la protoxina i de la toxina, conjugades o no a la Green Fluoresce...

  3. Studies in Petition-Oriented Aspects of Radiation Pasteurization of Fishery Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the many successful experiments substantiating the feasibility of preserving fishery products with gamma rays, there remains the task of obtaining approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, before the process can be used in commerce. The Gloucester Technological Laboratory has conducted research in two pertinent areas: in one study an empirical test has been used to collect data in one aspect of a multi-laboratory investigation of a possible botulism hazard in radiation-pasteurized fishery products; in the second study the efficacy of the process was substantiated under commercial shipping conditions. (author)

  4. Association of toxin-producing Clostridium botulinum with the macroalga Cladophora in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Chan Lan; Ochsner, Urs; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Whitman, Richard L.; Tepp, William H.; Lin, Guangyun; Johnson, Eric A.; Peller, Julie; Sadowsky, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Avian botulism, a paralytic disease of birds, often occurs on a yearly cycle and is increasingly becoming more common in the Great Lakes. Outbreaks are caused by bird ingestion of neurotoxins produced by Clostridium botulinum, a spore-forming, gram-positive, anaerobe. The nuisance, macrophytic, green alga Cladophora (Chlorophyta; mostly Cladophora glomerata L.) is a potential habitat for the growth of C. botulinum. A high incidence of botulism in shoreline birds at Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore (SLBE) in Lake Michigan coincides with increasingly massive accumulations of Cladophora in nearshore waters. In this study, free-floating algal mats were collected from SLBE and other shorelines of the Great Lakes between June and October 2011. The abundance of C. botulinum in algal mats was quantified and the type of botulism neurotoxin (bont) genes associated with this organism were determined by using most-probable-number PCR (MPN-PCR) and five distinct bont gene-specific primers (A, B, C, E, and F). The MPN-PCR results showed that 16 of 22 (73%) algal mats from the SLBE and 23 of 31(74%) algal mats from other shorelines of the Great Lakes contained the bont type E (bont/E) gene. C. botulinum was present up to 15 000 MPN per gram dried algae based on gene copies of bont/E. In addition, genes for bont/A and bont/B, which are commonly associated with human diseases, were detected in a few algal samples. Moreover, C. botulinum was present as vegetative cells rather than as dormant spores in Cladophora mats. Mouse toxin assays done using supernatants from enrichment of Cladophora containing high densities of C. botulinum (>1000 MPN/g dried algae) showed that Cladophora-borne C. botulinum were toxin-producing species (BoNT/E). Our results indicate that Cladophora provides a habitat for C. botulinum, warranting additional studies to better understand the relationship between this bacterium and the alga, and how this interaction potentially contributes to botulism

  5. Clinical and electrodiagnostic findings in cyhalothrine poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keivan Basiri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute onset bulbar symptoms with respiratory failure and descending paralysis may occur in several neuromuscular disorders including variants of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS, diphtheria, botulism and toxins. We present a 51-year-old man who presented with complains of ptosis and dyspnea following pyrethroids spraying in an enclosed area for eradication of flea. Within 5-6 days of admission limb weakness, dysphagia, dysarthria, blurred vision, diplopia, tremor and respiratory distress added to previous symptoms. Temporal profile of events after exposure, development of similar symptoms in patient's son, electrodiagnostic findings and exclusion of other etiologies confirms intoxication etiology. We reviewed the literature and provide an extensive electrodiagnostic overview.

  6. Clinical and electrodiagnostic findings in cyhalothrine poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiri, Keivan; Mohaghegh, Mohammad Reza; Teimouri, Somayyeh Sadat; Okhovat, Ali Asghar

    2016-01-01

    Acute onset bulbar symptoms with respiratory failure and descending paralysis may occur in several neuromuscular disorders including variants of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), diphtheria, botulism and toxins. We present a 51-year-old man who presented with complains of ptosis and dyspnea following pyrethroids spraying in an enclosed area for eradication of flea. Within 5-6 days of admission limb weakness, dysphagia, dysarthria, blurred vision, diplopia, tremor and respiratory distress added to previous symptoms. Temporal profile of events after exposure, development of similar symptoms in patient's son, electrodiagnostic findings and exclusion of other etiologies confirms intoxication etiology. We reviewed the literature and provide an extensive electrodiagnostic overview. PMID:27099845

  7. A Monoclonal Antibody Based Capture ELISA for Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype B: Toxin Detection in Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry H. Stanker

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Botulism is a serious foodborne neuroparalytic disease, caused by botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT, produced by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Seven toxin serotypes (A–H have been described. The majority of human cases of botulism are caused by serotypes A and B followed by E and F. We report here a group of serotype B specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs capable of binding toxin under physiological conditions. Thus, they serve as capture antibodies for a sandwich (capture ELISA. The antibodies were generated using recombinant peptide fragments corresponding to the receptor-binding domain of the toxin heavy chain as immunogen. Their binding properties suggest that they bind a complex epitope with dissociation constants (KD’s for individual antibodies ranging from 10 to 48 × 10−11 M. Assay performance for all possible combinations of capture-detector antibody pairs was evaluated and the antibody pair resulting in the lowest level of detection (L.O.D., ~20 pg/mL was determined. Toxin was detected in spiked dairy samples with good recoveries at concentrations as low as 0.5 pg/mL and in ground beef samples at levels as low as 2 ng/g. Thus, the sandwich ELISA described here uses mAb for both the capture and detector antibodies (binding different epitopes on the toxin molecule and readily detects toxin in those food samples tested.

  8. Camelid-derived heavy-chain nanobody against Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin E in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghban, Roghayyeh; Gargari, Seyed Latif Mousavi; Rajabibazl, Masoumeh; Nazarian, Shahram; Bakherad, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) result in severe and often fatal disease, botulism. Common remedial measures such as equine antitoxin and human botulism immunoglobulin in turn are problematic and time-consuming. Therefore, diagnosis and therapy of BoNTs are vital. The variable domain of heavy-chain antibodies (VHH) has unique features, such as the ability to identify and bind specifically to target epitopes and ease of production in bacteria and yeast. The Pichia pastoris is suitable for expression of recombinant antibody fragments. Disulfide bond formation and correct folds of protein with a high yield are some of the advantages of this eukaryotic host. In this study, we have expressed and purified the camelid VHH against BoNT/E in P. pastoris. The final yield of P. pastoris-expressed antibody was estimated to be 16 mg/l, which is higher than that expressed by Escherichia coli. The nanobody expressed in P. pastoris neutralized 4LD50 of the BoNT/E upon i.p. injection in 25% of mice. The nanobody expressed in E. coli extended the mice's survival to 1.5-fold compared to the control. This experiment indicated that the quality of expressed protein in the yeast is superior to that of the bacterial expression. Favorable protein folding by P. pastoris seems to play a role in its better toxin-binding property. PMID:24673401

  9. The effect of pH on recombinant C-terminal domain of Botulinum Neurotoxin type E (rBoNT/E-HCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Jafar Mousavy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant proteins are tending to be the most favorable vaccine-candidates against botulism. Recombinant Carboxy-terminal of botulinum neurotoxin serotype E (rBoNT/E-HCC has been introduced as an efficient vaccine against botulism type E. In this report, we made an effort to investigate the effect of different pH on protein structure to assess if rBoNT/E-HCC could be used as a vaccine for oral administration. Initially, rBoNT/E-HCC was expressed and purified. Structural changes of rBoNT/E-HCC at several pH conditions were studied by various techniques including circular dichroism (CD, fluorescence, aggregation and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The results showed the more compact and more stable structure for rBoNT/E-HCC at acidic pH, and loosely folded structure at alkaline pH. Our finding as the first step of rBoNT/E-HCC evaluation, hopefully introduce it as a suitable vaccine candidate for oral administration.

  10. Causes of mortality in common loons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J Christian; Cliplef, David J.

    1992-01-01

    Summarized are necropsy results from 222 carcasses of Common Loons (Gavia immer) submitted to the National Wildlife Health Research Center from 1976 through 1991.  The carcasses were from 18 states, and 10 or more birds each were from Minnesota, Florida, Virginia, Michigan, Wisconsin, Maine, and North Carolina.  Seventy-three (33%) carcasses were emaciated, and in some of these birds emaciation was thought to be related to exposure to mercury.  OVer 40% of these emaciated birds were from Florida.  Trauma, including blunt trauma of unknown origin, outboard motor propeller wounds, and shooting caused the deaths of 49 (22%) loons, 30 of which were from Minnesota.  Diseases, primarily avian botulism type E and aspergillosis, account for 39 (18%) moralities and lead poisoning for 14 (6%), 11 of which had fishing sinkers in their stomachs.  Most of the avian botulism type E cases occurred during two outbreaks on Lake Michigan.  Seven of the 14 lead-poisoned birds were from Minnesota.  Nine (4%) birds died of miscellaneous causes and 9 (4%) of drowning, primarily from entanglement in nets.  No diagnosis could be reached for 29 (13%) carcasses.  Sample bias precludes interpretation of these data to represent actual proportional causes of mortality in the loon population.  However, the sample size is sufficient to clearly identify major causes of mortality.

  11. Identifying the origin of waterbird carcasses in Lake Michigan using a neural network source tracking model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenow, Kevin P.; Ge, Zhongfu; Fara, Luke J.; Houdek, Steven C.; Lubinski, B.

    2016-01-01

    Avian botulism type E is responsible for extensive waterbird mortality on the Great Lakes, yet the actual site of toxin exposure remains unclear. Beached carcasses are often used to describe the spatial aspects of botulism mortality outbreaks, but lack specificity of offshore toxin source locations. We detail methodology for developing a neural network model used for predicting waterbird carcass motions in response to wind, wave, and current forcing, in lieu of a complex analytical relationship. This empirically trained model uses current velocity, wind velocity, significant wave height, and wave peak period in Lake Michigan simulated by the Great Lakes Coastal Forecasting System. A detailed procedure is further developed to use the model for back-tracing waterbird carcasses found on beaches in various parts of Lake Michigan, which was validated using drift data for radiomarked common loon (Gavia immer) carcasses deployed at a variety of locations in northern Lake Michigan during September and October of 2013. The back-tracing model was further used on 22 non-radiomarked common loon carcasses found along the shoreline of northern Lake Michigan in October and November of 2012. The model-estimated origins of those cases pointed to some common source locations offshore that coincide with concentrations of common loons observed during aerial surveys. The neural network source tracking model provides a promising approach for identifying locations of botulinum neurotoxin type E intoxication and, in turn, contributes to developing an understanding of the dynamics of toxin production and possible trophic transfer pathways.

  12. New Insights into the Genetic Diversity of Clostridium botulinum Group III through Extensive Genome Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woudstra, Cédric; Le Maréchal, Caroline; Souillard, Rozenn; Bayon-Auboyer, Marie-Hélène; Mermoud, Isabelle; Desoutter, Denise; Fach, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Animal botulism is caused by group III Clostridium botulinum strains producing type C and D toxins, or their chimeric forms C/D and D/C. Animal botulism is considered an emerging disease in Europe, notably in poultry production. Before our study, 14 genomes from different countries were available in the public database, but none were from France. In order to investigate the genetic relationship of French strains with different geographical areas and find new potential typing targets, 17 strains of C. botulinum group III were sequenced (16 from France and one from New Caledonia). Fourteen were type C/D strains isolated from chickens, ducks, guinea fowl and turkeys and three were type D/C strains isolated from cattle. The New Caledonian strain was a type D/C strain. Whole genome sequence analysis showed the French strains to be closely related to European strains from C. botulinum group III lineages Ia and Ib. The investigation of CRISPR sequences as genetic targets for differentiating strains in group III proved to be irrelevant for type C/D due to a deficient CRISPR/Cas mechanism, but not for type D/C. Conversely, the extrachromosomal elements of type C/D strains could be used to generate a genetic ID card. The highest level of discrimination was achieved with SNP core phylogeny, which allowed differentiation up to strain level and provide the most relevant information for genetic epidemiology studies and discrimination. PMID:27242769

  13. Induction of protective neutralizing antibody responses against botulinum neurotoxin serotype C using plasmid carried by PLGA nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruwona, Tinashe B; Xu, Haiyue; Li, Junwei; Diaz-Arévalo, Diana; Kumar, Amit; Zeng, Mingtao; Cui, Zhengrong

    2016-05-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is a lethal neurotoxin, for which there is currently not an approved vaccine. Recent efforts in developing vaccine candidates against botulism have been directed at the heavy chain fragment of BoNT, because antibodies against this region have been shown to prevent BoNT from binding to its receptor and thus to nerve cell surface, offering protection against BoNT intoxication. In the present study, it was shown that immunization with plasmid DNA that encodes the 50 KDa C-terminal fragment of the heavy chain of BoNT serotype C (i.e., BoNT/C-Hc50) and is carried by cationic poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles induces stronger BoNT/C-specific antibody responses, as compared to immunization with the plasmid alone. Importantly, the antibodies have BoNT/C-neutralizing activity, protecting the immunized mice from a lethal dose of BoNT/C challenge. A plasmid DNA vaccine encoding the Hc50 fragments of BoNT serotypes that cause human botulism may represent a viable vaccine candidate for protecting against botulinum neurotoxin intoxication. PMID:26837242

  14. Aspectos clínicos e terapêuticos em 135 pacientes com distonia: experiência do Setor de Distúrbios do Movimento do Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal do Paraná Clinical and therapeutical features in 135 patients with dystonia: experience of movement disorders unity of the Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal do Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIORGIO FABIANI

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo visa descrever aspectos clínicos e respostas terapêuticas de 135 pacientes com distonia. Quanto à classificação, 54% apresentava distonia focal, 17,8% segmentar, 8,1% hemidistonia, 1,5% multifocal e 18,6% generalizada. Vinte e seis por cento apresentavam distonia secundária; e 5,9% tinham história familiar. O tratamento das distonias idiopáticas divide-se em específico e sintomático, podendo ser local, com toxina botulínica; ou sistêmico, com drogas orais. As drogas utilizadas foram anticolinérgicos e benzodiazepínicos, com resposta pobre em formas generalizadas. A toxina botulínica foi utilizada em 54 pacientes com distonia focal ou segmentar. Na distonia cervical o início do efeito (IE ocorreu em oito dias; obtendo-se efeito máximo (EM em 25,2 dias, e duração média do efeito (DME de 76,8 dias. Na síndrome de Meige e blefaroespasmo obtivemos resultados encorajadores: IE=4,5dias; EM=17,6dias; DME=87,6dias. Conclui-se que a toxina botulínica A é a primeira escolha para distonias focais e segmentares, enquanto formas generalizadas apresentam resposta pobre às drogas utilizadas.This study aims to describe the clinical patterns and therapeutic responses in 135 patients with dystonia. According to the classification, 54% were focal; 17.8% were segmental; 8.1% hemidistonia; 18.6% generalized and 1.5% were multifocal. There was a positive familial history in 5.9% of the cases. The treatment of the idiopathic dystonias is divided in: specific and symptomatic, and it can be local with botulinum toxin, or systemic with oral drugs. The most common drugs used in the treatment were anticholinergics and benzodiazepines, with poor responses in the generalized forms. Botulinum toxin A was the first line treatment for focal and segmental forms of dystonia. Meanwhile, the generalized forms of dystonia show poor response to the therapies utilized.

  15. Pré-compostagem de cadáveres de bovinos acometidos pelo botulismo The effect of composting cattle carcasses on botulinum spores and toxin content

    OpenAIRE

    Vera C.L.M. Curci; Iveraldo S. Dutra; Jürgen Döbereiner; Jorge de Lucas Junior

    2007-01-01

    Foram pré-compostados, em células individuais e isoladas, cinco cadáveres de bovinos acometidos pelo botulismo com a finalidade de monitorar a presença de esporos de Clostridium botulinum e de toxina botulínica antes e após o processo de decomposição em leira estática com fonte de carbono. O diagnóstico da intoxicação nos animais foi baseado nas características clínico-patológicas, epidemiológicas ou laboratoriais. Dos cinco bovinos com evolução clínica crônica de botulismo, cujos cadáveres f...

  16. Eficacia del tratamiento mediante toxina butolínica y fisioterapia en niños con parálisis cerebral. Una revisión sistemática

    OpenAIRE

    Duque Dehesa, Mireya

    2013-01-01

    RESUMEN Introducción. La parálisis cerebral (PC) es una de las causas más importantes de espasticidad en la musculatura de los niños que la sufren, siendo la causante de graves alteraciones en la alineación articular, en la funcionalidad y actividad del niño. Objetivo. El objetivo de este estudio es valorar el uso que existe hasta este momento de la toxina botulínica tipo A (TB-A) en combinación con la intervención fisioterapéutica como parte del tratamiento del niño con PC. Valorando l...

  17. Modificaciones de la marcha en un niño con diplejía espástica tras el tratamiento con reeducación postural global: a propósito de un caso.

    OpenAIRE

    Cazorla Guillén, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    Introducción: el objetivo de este artículo es comprobar si una técnica de estiramiento global como es la Reeducación Postural Global es efectiva en la modificación de la marcha en un niño de diez años con diplejía espástica. Presentación del caso: se describe que el paciente es derivado al Servicio de Fisioterapia del Hospital Universitario Príncipe de Asturias por un médico rehabilitador que pauta un tratamiento de ocho semanas tras la inyección de toxina botulínica. Se realiza la valora...

  18. A rare cause of acute flaccid paralysis: Human coronaviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cokyaman Turgay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP is a life-threatening clinical entity characterized by weakness in the whole body muscles often accompanied by respiratory and bulbar paralysis. The most common cause is Gullian-Barre syndrome, but infections, spinal cord diseases, neuromuscular diseases such as myasthenia gravis, drugs and toxins, periodic hypokalemic paralysis, electrolyte disturbances, and botulism should be considered as in the differential diagnosis. Human coronaviruses (HCoVs cause common cold, upper and lower respiratory tract disease, but in the literature presentation with the lower respiratory tract infection and AFP has not been reported previously. In this study, pediatric case admitted with lower respiratory tract infection and AFP, who detected for HCoV 229E and OC43 co-infection by the real-time polymerase chain reaction, has been reported for the first time.

  19. A rare cause of acute flaccid paralysis: Human coronaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgay, Cokyaman; Emine, Tekin; Ozlem, Koken; Muhammet, S Paksu; Haydar, A Tasdemir

    2015-01-01

    Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) is a life-threatening clinical entity characterized by weakness in the whole body muscles often accompanied by respiratory and bulbar paralysis. The most common cause is Gullian-Barre syndrome, but infections, spinal cord diseases, neuromuscular diseases such as myasthenia gravis, drugs and toxins, periodic hypokalemic paralysis, electrolyte disturbances, and botulism should be considered as in the differential diagnosis. Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) cause common cold, upper and lower respiratory tract disease, but in the literature presentation with the lower respiratory tract infection and AFP has not been reported previously. In this study, pediatric case admitted with lower respiratory tract infection and AFP, who detected for HCoV 229E and OC43 co-infection by the real-time polymerase chain reaction, has been reported for the first time. PMID:26557177

  20. Thioredoxin and Its Reductase Are Present on Synaptic Vesicles, and Their Inhibition Prevents the Paralysis Induced by Botulinum Neurotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pirazzini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxins consist of a metalloprotease linked via a conserved interchain disulfide bond to a heavy chain responsible for neurospecific binding and translocation of the enzymatic domain in the nerve terminal cytosol. The metalloprotease activity is enabled upon disulfide reduction and causes neuroparalysis by cleaving the SNARE proteins. Here, we show that the thioredoxin reductase-thioredoxin protein disulfide-reducing system is present on synaptic vesicles and that it is functional and responsible for the reduction of the interchain disulfide of botulinum neurotoxin serotypes A, C, and E. Specific inhibitors of thioredoxin reductase or thioredoxin prevent intoxication of cultured neurons in a dose-dependent manner and are also very effective inhibitors of the paralysis of the neuromuscular junction. We found that this group of inhibitors of botulinum neurotoxins is very effective in vivo. Most of them are nontoxic and are good candidates as preventive and therapeutic drugs for human botulism.

  1. Myasthenia gravis and related disorders: Pathology and molecular pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, James C; Richman, David P

    2015-04-01

    Disorders affecting the presynaptic, synaptic, and postsynaptic portions of the neuromuscular junction arise from various mechanisms in children and adults, including acquired autoimmune or toxic processes as well as genetic mutations. Disorders include autoimmune myasthenia gravis associated with acetylcholine receptor, muscle specific kinase or Lrp4 antibodies, Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome, nerve terminal hyperexcitability syndromes, Guillain Barré syndrome, botulism, organophosphate poisoning and a number of congenital myasthenic syndromes. This review focuses on the various molecular and pathophysiological mechanisms of these disorders, characterization of which has been crucial to the development of treatment strategies specific for each pathogenic mechanism. In the future, further understanding of the underlying processes may lead to more effective and targeted therapies of these disorders. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neuromuscular Diseases: Pathology and Molecular Pathogenesis. PMID:25486268

  2. Genomics of Clostridium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Mark Joseph; Johnson, Eric A.

    The clostridia have a rich history and contemporary importance in industrial, environmental, and medical microbiology. Due to their ability to form endospores, clostridia are ubiquitous in nature and are found in many environments, especially in soils and the intestinal tract of animals including humans. Many clostridia cause devastating diseases of humans and animals, such as botulism, tetanus, and gas gangrene, through the production of protein toxins. The clostridia produce more protein toxins that are lethal for humans and animals than any other bacterial genus (Johnson, 2005; Van Heyningen, 1950). Other species are important in the formation of solvents and organic acids by anaerobic fermentations or as a source of unique enzymes for biocatalysis (Bradshaw and Johnson, 2010; Hatheway and Johnson, 1998).

  3. Interaction of Botulinum Toxin with the Epithelial Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukako Fujinaga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT is a protein toxin (~150 kDa, which possesses a metalloprotease activity. Food-borne botulism is manifested when BoNT is absorbed from the digestive tract to the blood stream and enters the peripheral nerves, where the toxin cleaves core proteins of the neuroexocytosis apparatus and elicits the inhibition of neurotransmitter release. The initial obstacle to orally ingested BoNT entering the body is the epithelial barrier of the digestive tract. Recent cell biology and molecular biology studies are beginning to elucidate the mechanism by which this large protein toxin crosses the epithelial barrier. In this review, we provide an overview of the structural features of botulinum toxins (BoNT and BoNT complex and the interaction of these toxins with the epithelial barrier.

  4. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U10201-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available melanogaster chromos... 221 5e-56 (Q99LC5) RecName: Full=Electron transfer flavoprotein...e) Rat electron transfer flavoprotein (ET... 154 6e-36 AM412317_3290( AM412317 |pid:none) Clostridium botul...13_610( CP000713 |pid:none) Psychrobacter sp. PRwf-1, comple... 202 8e-86 (Q9HZP7) RecName: Full=Electron transfer flavopro...g VV78X021543.... 194 6e-59 (A2XNR6) RecName: Full=Electron transfer flavopro...t... 221 4e-56 ( P13804 ) RecName: Full=Electron transfer flavoprotein subunit al... 221 4e

  5. Postpartum Clostridium sordellii infection associated with fatal toxic shock syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørbye, C; Petersen, Ina Sleimann; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2000-01-01

    . Clostridium sordellii is rarely encountered in clinical specimens (1% of Clostridium species), but it has been described as a human pathogen with fatal potential. Two toxins, a lethal and a hemorrhagic (that antigenically and pathophysiologically appear similar to Clostridium difficile toxins B and A......Clostridium bacteria are anaerobic Gram positive spore-form-ing bacilli, known to cause distinct clinical syndromes such as botulism, tetanus, pseudomembranous colitis and myonecrosis. The natural habitats of Clostridium species are soil, water and the gastrointestinal tract of animals and humans....... In 5-10% of all women, Clostridium species are also found to be normal inhabitants in the microbial flora of the female genital tract. In case of a non-sexually transmitted genital tract infection, Clostridium species are isolated in 4-20%, and clostridium welchii seems to be the most common isolate...

  6. Recent developments in cell-based assays and stem cell technologies for botulinum neurotoxin research and drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiris, Erkan; Kota, Krishna P; Burnett, James C; Soloveva, Veronica; Kane, Christopher D; Bavari, Sina

    2014-03-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are exceptionally potent inhibitors of neurotransmission, causing muscle paralysis and respiratory failure associated with the disease botulism. Currently, no drugs are available to counter intracellular BoNT poisoning. To develop effective medical treatments, cell-based assays provide a valuable system to identify novel inhibitors in a time- and cost-efficient manner. Consequently, cell-based systems including immortalized cells, primary neurons and stem cell-derived neurons have been established. Stem cell-derived neurons are highly sensitive to BoNT intoxication and represent an ideal model to study the biological effects of BoNTs. Robust immunoassays are used to quantify BoNT activity and play a central role during inhibitor screening. In this review, we examine recent progress in physiologically relevant cell-based assays and high-throughput screening approaches for the identification of both direct and indirect BoNT inhibitors. PMID:24450833

  7. Botulinum Toxin Type a as a Therapeutic Agent against Headache and Related Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvisetto, Siro; Gazerani, Parisa; Cianchetti, Carlo; Pavone, Flaminia

    2015-09-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) is a toxin produced by the naturally-occurring Clostridium botulinum that causes botulism. The potential of BoNT/A as a useful medical intervention was discovered by scientists developing a vaccine to protect against botulism. They found that, when injected into a muscle, BoNT/A causes a flaccid paralysis. Following this discovery, BoNT/A has been used for many years in the treatment of conditions of pathological muscle hyperactivity, like dystonias and spasticities. In parallel, the toxin has become a "glamour" drug due to its power to ward off facial wrinkles, particularly frontal, due to the activity of the mimic muscles. After the discovery that the drug also appeared to have a preventive effect on headache, scientists spent many efforts to study the potentially-therapeutic action of BoNT/A against pain. BoNT/A is effective at reducing pain in a number of disease states, including cervical dystonia, neuropathic pain, lower back pain, spasticity, myofascial pain and bladder pain. In 2010, regulatory approval for the treatment of chronic migraine with BoNT/A was given, notwithstanding the fact that the mechanism of action is still not completely elucidated. In the present review, we summarize experimental evidence that may help to clarify the mechanisms of action of BoNT/A in relation to the alleviation of headache pain, with particular emphasis on preclinical studies, both in animals and humans. Moreover, we summarize the latest clinical trials that show evidence on headache conditions that may obtain benefits from therapy with BoNT/A. PMID:26404377

  8. Bacterial spores as possible contaminants of biomedical materials and devices. [Bacillus anthracis, clostridium botulinum, C. perfringens, C. tetani

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grecz, N.; Kang, T.

    1973-01-01

    Destruction of spores on biomedical devices in drugs, and biologicals is essential for prevention of infection of patients with pathogenic sporeformers. Of particular concern are Clostridium tetani, C. perfringens, C. botulinum, Bacillus anthracis and other sporeforming pathogens. Spores are ubiquitous in nature and contamination of biomedical devices varies depending on manufacturing process, handling, raw materials and other variables. In the last 20 years the number of cases per year of specific notifiable diseases in the United States was as follows: tetanus, 120 to 500 cases, botulism, 7 to 47 cases, and anthrax, 2 to 10 cases. Gas gangrene is caused by a mixed flora consisting predominantly of sporeformers. C botulinum, which usually acts as saprophytic agent of food poisoning, may also initiate pathogenic processes; there are nine cases on record in the United States of botulism wound infections almost half of which ended in death. The spores of these organisms are distinguished by high radiation resistance and their erradication often requires severe radiation treatments. Representative bacterial spores in various suspending media show D/sub 10/ values (dose necessary to destroy 90 percent of a given population) ranging from approximately 0.1 to 0.4 Mrad. Some viruses show D/sub 10/ values up to greater than 1 Mrad. The D/sub 10/-values of spores vary depending on physical, chemical and biological factors. This variability is important in evaluation and selection of biological indicator organisms. Radiation sterilization of biomedical devices and biomedical materials must provide safety from infectious microorganisms including radiation resistant spores and viruses.

  9. Clostridium botulinum type D/C intoxication in a dairy cow stock in Saxony-Anhalt (Germany)--report on an innovative diagnostic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlabola, Janine; Hashish, Emad; Pauly, Birgit; Kubisiak, Bernd; Behm, Ingrid; Heseler, Rüdiger; Schliephake, Annette; Wieler, Lothar H; Neubauer, Heinrich; Seyboldt, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Botulism in cattle is a rare but serious disease. In Germany there is no obligation to report botulism in animals and therefore a precise morbidity rate is not available. In this manuscript we describe an outbreak of Clostridium (C.) botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) intoxication in a Saxony-Anhalt dairy cow stock of 286 Holstein-Friesian cows and offspring in spring/summer 2009 and its diagnostic approach. 122 animals showed clinical signs of BoNT intoxication. 115 of the affected animals (40.2% of the herd) independent of age died or had to be euthanized. Therapeutic attempts failed in almost all diseased cows, only four calves and three heifers recovered. Diagnostic samples of several animals (n = 4) (liver, ruminal and intestinal contents) and feed (n = 6) were tested for BoNT genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). BoNT gene type D was found in several (n = 8) organ samples. The PCR results allowed a preselection of samples for BoNT that were then tested by the mouse bioassay. Thus, the number of mice being inoculated in the mouse bioassay could be reduced. The mouse bioassay turned out positive (wasp-waist) in three preselected organ samples and the neutralization test of one sample with type-specific antitoxin confirmed the presence of BoNT type D. We succeeded in isolating a C. botulinum strain from a liver sample which was typed as a D/C mosaic strain by sequence analysis of the toxin gene. However, the source of the BoNT intoxication could not be traced back. PMID:27169148

  10. Monoclonal Antibodies that Inhibit the Proteolytic Activity of Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype/B

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    Yongfeng Fan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Existing antibodies (Abs used to treat botulism cannot enter the cytosol of neurons and bind to botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT at its site of action, and thus cannot reverse paralysis. However, Abs targeting the proteolytic domain of the toxin could inhibit the proteolytic activity of the toxin intracellularly and potentially reverse intoxication, if they could be delivered intracellularly. As such, antibodies that neutralize toxin activity could serve as potent inhibitory cargos for therapeutic antitoxins against botulism. BoNT serotype B (BoNT/B contains a zinc endopeptidase light chain (LC domain that cleaves synaoptobrevin-2, a SNARE protein responsible for vesicle fusion and acetylcholine vesicle release. To generate monoclonal Abs (mAbs that could reverse paralysis, we targeted the protease domain for Ab generation. Single-chain variable fragment (scFv libraries from immunized mice or humans were displayed on yeast, and 19 unique BoNT/B LC-specific mAbs isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS. The equilibrium dissociation constants (KD of these mAbs for BoNT/B LC ranged from 0.24 nM to 14.3 nM (mean KD 3.27 nM. Eleven mAbs inhibited BoNT/B LC proteolytic activity. The fine epitopes of selected mAbs were identified by alanine-scanning mutagenesis, revealing that inhibitory mAbs bound near the active site, substrate-binding site or the extended substrate-binding site. The results provide mAbs that could prove useful for intracellular reversal of paralysis and identify epitopes that could be targeted by small molecules inhibitors.

  11. Monoclonal Antibodies Targeting the Alpha-Exosite of Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype/A Inhibit Catalytic Activity.

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    Yongfeng Fan

    Full Text Available The paralytic disease botulism is caused by botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT, multi-domain proteins containing a zinc endopeptidase that cleaves the cognate SNARE protein, thereby blocking acetylcholine neurotransmitter release. Antitoxins currently used to treat botulism neutralize circulating BoNT but cannot enter, bind to or neutralize BoNT that has already entered the neuron. The light chain endopeptidase domain (LC of BoNT serotype A (BoNT/A was targeted for generation of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs that could reverse paralysis resulting from intoxication by BoNT/A. Single-chain variable fragment (scFv libraries from immunized humans and mice were displayed on the surface of yeast, and 19 BoNT/A LC-specific mAbs were isolated by using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS. Affinities of the mAbs for BoNT/A LC ranged from a KD value of 9.0×10-11 M to 3.53×10-8 M (mean KD 5.38×10-9 M and median KD 1.53×10-9 M, as determined by flow cytometry analysis. Eleven mAbs inhibited BoNT/A LC catalytic activity with IC50 values ranging from 8.3 ~73×10-9 M. The fine epitopes of selected mAbs were also mapped by alanine-scanning mutagenesis, revealing that the inhibitory mAbs bound the α-exosite region remote from the BoNT/A LC catalytic center. The results provide mAbs that could prove useful for intracellular reversal of paralysis post-intoxication and further define epitopes that could be targeted by small molecule inhibitors.

  12. "Isolation of Clostridum botiulinum (Types A, B, E in Sediments from Coastal Areas in the North of Iran"

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    HR Tavakoli

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Iranian J Publ Health, Vol. 32, No. 3, pp.37-40, 2003 Isolation of Clostridum botiulinum (Types A, B, E in Sediments from Coastal Areas in the North of Iran *HR Tavakoli 1,V Razavilar 2 1Dept. of Nutrition and Food Hygiene,School of public health, Baghyatollah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran 2Dept. of Food Hygiene, School of Veterinary Medicine, Tehran University , Iran Clostridium botulinum has long been recognized as an etiological agent of food borne botulism and has been reported as an important food safety hazard. The aim of this study was to obtain information about C. botulinum distribution in north areas sediments of Iran in order to ascertain the risks associated with consumption and processing of fish from these waters. Two hundred and seventy samples of sediments from coastal areas of "Gilan" and "Mazandaran" provinas of Iran were collected and analyzed. The supernatants were inoculated into cooked meat media and then , grown specimens were stained and cheked microscopically. After centrifuge ,the supernatants were divided into three (untreated ,heated , and tripsinised and toxicity of them were tested by mouse bioassay. All mice controlled for 4 days for symptoms of botulism. Monovalent standard antitoxins were used for detection of toxin type. The present study revealed that the prevalence of C. botulinum (types A, B and E in sediments from different areas of Gillan and Mazandaran was 3.6% and 4.6% respectively, Mean prevalence of C. botulinum in sediments from north regions of Iran was 4.1%. It is also demonstrated that C. botulinum type E is predominant type seen in aquatic environments of the coastal areas of Iran. This is the first report of C. botulinum distribution in the sediments coastal areas of Iran. Introduction *Corresponding author: +98 21 4811483

  13. Botulinum Toxin Type A as a Therapeutic Agent against Headache and Related Disorders

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    Siro Luvisetto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A is a toxin produced by the naturally-occurring Clostridium botulinum that causes botulism. The potential of BoNT/A as a useful medical intervention was discovered by scientists developing a vaccine to protect against botulism. They found that, when injected into a muscle, BoNT/A causes a flaccid paralysis. Following this discovery, BoNT/A has been used for many years in the treatment of conditions of pathological muscle hyperactivity, like dystonias and spasticities. In parallel, the toxin has become a “glamour” drug due to its power to ward off facial wrinkles, particularly frontal, due to the activity of the mimic muscles. After the discovery that the drug also appeared to have a preventive effect on headache, scientists spent many efforts to study the potentially-therapeutic action of BoNT/A against pain. BoNT/A is effective at reducing pain in a number of disease states, including cervical dystonia, neuropathic pain, lower back pain, spasticity, myofascial pain and bladder pain. In 2010, regulatory approval for the treatment of chronic migraine with BoNT/A was given, notwithstanding the fact that the mechanism of action is still not completely elucidated. In the present review, we summarize experimental evidence that may help to clarify the mechanisms of action of BoNT/A in relation to the alleviation of headache pain, with particular emphasis on preclinical studies, both in animals and humans. Moreover, we summarize the latest clinical trials that show evidence on headache conditions that may obtain benefits from therapy with BoNT/A.

  14. Purification and Characterization of Botulinum Neurotoxin FA from a Genetically Modified Clostridium botulinum Strain.

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    Pellett, Sabine; Tepp, William H; Bradshaw, Marite; Kalb, Suzanne R; Dykes, Janet K; Lin, Guangyun; Nawrocki, Erin M; Pier, Christina L; Barr, John R; Maslanka, Susan E; Johnson, Eric A

    2016-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), produced by neurotoxigenic clostridial species, are the cause of the severe disease botulism in humans and animals. Early research on BoNTs has led to their classification into seven serotypes (serotypes A to G) based upon the selective neutralization of their toxicity in mice by homologous antibodies. Recently, a report of a potential eighth serotype of BoNT, designated "type H," has been controversial. This novel BoNT was produced together with BoNT/B2 in a dual-toxin-producing Clostridium botulinum strain. The data used to designate this novel toxin as a new serotype were derived from culture supernatant containing both BoNT/B2 and novel toxin and from sequence information, although data from two independent laboratories indicated neutralization by antibodies raised against BoNT/A1, and classification as BoNT/FA was proposed. The sequence data indicate a chimeric structure consisting of a BoNT/A1 receptor binding domain, a BoNT/F5 light-chain domain, and a novel translocation domain most closely related to BoNT/F1. Here, we describe characterization of this toxin purified from the native strain in which expression of the second BoNT (BoNT/B) has been eliminated. Mass spectrometry analysis indicated that the toxin preparation contained only BoNT/FA and confirmed catalytic activity analogous to that of BoNT/F5. The in vivo mouse bioassay indicated a specific activity of this toxin of 3.8 × 10(7) mouse 50% lethal dose (mLD50) units/mg, whereas activity in cultured human neurons was very high (50% effective concentration [EC50] = 0.02 mLD50/well). Neutralization assays in cells and mice both indicated full neutralization by various antibodies raised against BoNT/A1, although at 16- to 20-fold-lower efficiency than for BoNT/A1. IMPORTANCE Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), produced by anaerobic bacteria, are the cause of the potentially deadly, neuroparalytic disease botulism. BoNTs have been classified into seven serotypes, serotypes A

  15. Esporos de Clostridium botulinum em mel comercializado no Estado de São Paulo e em outros Estados brasileiros Clostridium botulinum spores in honey commercialized in São Paulo and other Brazilian states

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    Adriana Valim Ferreira Ragazani

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O botulismo infantil tem afetado crianças abaixo de um ano de idade em várias regiões do mundo, e o mel tem sido identificado como uma das mais importantes fontes de intoxicação alimentar. Apesar disso, há dados escassos sobre o botulismo entre crianças no Brasil, especialmente no tipo de alimento comercial mais implicado nesta patologia. Este estudo pretendeu investigar a presença de esporos de Clostridium botulinum em mel comercializado no Brasil. Cem amostras de mel comercializado em seis diferentes Estados brasileiros (SP, MG, GO, CE, MT, SC foram pesquisados para a presença de esporos de Clostridium botulinum, usando o choque térmico, seguido pela inoculação em caldo Cooked Meat Medium (Difco® e incubado em condições anaeróbias. As culturas positivas foram analisadas através de esfregaços corados pelo Gram e semeadas em placas de Reinforced Clostrideo Agar (Difco® e placas de Sulfito Polimixina Sulfadiazina -SPS (Difco®, as quais foram incubadas em condições anaeróbicas para obter colônias desta bactéria. As colônias positivas foram submetidas a teste de toxicidade através da inoculação em camundongos susceptíveis e caracterização bioquímica. Foram encontradas colônias de Clostridium botulinum que produzem toxinas ativas em 7% das amostras de mel comercial, realçando a relevância deste microrganismo para a saúde pública devido ao alto risco potencial de o mel comercializado nestas regiões brasileiras causar o botulismo infantil, especialmente em crianças abaixo de um ano de idade.Infant botulism has been affecting children under one year of age in several regions of the world and honey has been identified as one of the most important source of this food borne disease. Despite this, there are scarce data about botulism among children in Brazil, specially the type commercial food most implicated in this pathology. This study aimed at investigating the presence of spores of Clostridium botulinum in honey

  16. Universal and specific quantitative detection of botulinum neurotoxin genes

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    Arnon Stephen S

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clostridium botulinum, an obligate anaerobic spore-forming bacterium, produces seven antigenic variants of botulinum toxin that are distinguished serologically and termed "serotypes". Botulinum toxin blocks the release of acetylcholine at neuromuscular junctions resulting in flaccid paralysis. The potential lethality of the disease warrants a fast and accurate means of diagnosing suspected instances of food contamination or human intoxication. Currently, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA-accepted assay to detect and type botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs is the mouse protection bioassay. While specific and sensitive, this assay requires the use of laboratory animals, may take up to four days to achieve a diagnosis, and is unsuitable for high-throughput analysis. We report here a two-step PCR assay that identifies all toxin types, that achieves the specificity of the mouse bioassay while surpassing it in equivalent sensitivity, that has capability for high-throughput analysis, and that provides quantitative results within hours. The first step of our assay consists of a conventional PCR that detects the presence of C. botulinum regardless of the neurotoxin type. The second step uses quantitative PCR (qPCR technology to determine the specific serotype of the neurotoxin. Results We assayed purified C. botulinum DNA and crude toxin preparations, as well as food and stool from healthy individuals spiked with purified BoNT DNA, and one stool sample from a case of infant botulism for the presence of the NTNH gene, which is part of the BoNT gene cluster, and for the presence of serotype-specific BoNT genes. The PCR surpassed the mouse bioassay both in specificity and sensitivity, detecting positive signals in BoNT preparations containing well below the 1 LD50 required for detection via the mouse bioassay. These results were type-specific and we were reliably able to quantify as few as 10 genomic copies. Conclusions While other studies

  17. Botulinum toxin for treating muscular temporomandibular disorders: a systematic review

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    Eduardo Machado

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study, through a systematic literature review, aims to analyze the effectiveness of Botulinum Toxin as a treatment for masticatory myofascial pain and muscles temporomandibular disorders (TMD. METHODS: Survey in research bases: MEDLINE, Cochrane, EMBASE, Pubmed, Lilacs and BBO, between the years of 1966 and April 2011, with focus in randomized or quasi-randomized controlled clinical trials, blind or double-blind. RESULTS: After applying the inclusion criteria, 4 articles comprised the final sample: 3 were double-blind randomized controlled clinical trials and 1 was single-blind randomized controlled clinical trial. CONCLUSIONS: According to the literature, there is lack of evidence about the real effectiveness of botulinum toxin in the treatment of masticatory myofascial pain and muscular TMD. Thus, further randomized controlled clinical trials, with representative samples and longer follow-up time, to assess the real effectiveness of the technique are needed.OBJETIVO: este trabalho, por meio de uma revisão sistemática da literatura, teve como objetivo analisar a efetividade da toxina botulínica como tratamento para dor miofascial mastigatória e disfunções temporomandibulares (DTM musculares. MÉTODOS: pesquisa nas bases de dados Medline, Cochrane, Embase, Pubmed, Lilacs e BBO, no período entre 1966 e abril de 2011, com enfoque em estudos clínicos controlados randomizados ou quase-randomizados, cegos ou duplo-cegos. RESULTADOS: após a aplicação dos critérios de inclusão, chegou-se a 4 artigos, sendo que 3 eram estudos clínicos controlados randomizados duplo-cego e 1 era estudo clínico controlado randomizado simples-cego. CONCLUSÕES: pela análise da literatura, verificou-se um número reduzido de evidências significativas sobre a real efetividade da toxina botulínica no tratamento da dor miofascial e de DTM musculares. Assim, são necessários novos estudos clínicos controlados randomizados, com amostras

  18. Tratamento farmacológico da gagueira: evidências e controvérsias Pharmacologic treatment of stuttering: evidences and controversies

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    Camila Vila-Nova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este artigo tem por objetivo analisar a situação do tratamento farmacológico da gagueira, mostrando a eficácia de diferentes abordagens baseadas em drogas psiquiátricas, além de evidenciar a utilização de outros fármacos no tratamento dessa enfermidade. MÉTODOS: Revisão de literatura em base de dados Medline, utilizando os termos stuttering treatment, disfluency, disfluency treatments, botulinum toxin and stuttering treatment, botulinum toxin and disfluency treatment. RESULTADOS: Foram encontrados estudos envolvendo as seguintes drogas: citalopram + clomipramina, paroxetina, olanzapina, citalopram + alprazolam, pimozida, risperidona, tiaprida, clomipramina e desipramina, levetiracetam, divalproato de sódio, clonidina e betanecol, além de ensaios clínicos com a utilização de toxina botulínica tipo A e anestésicos. Os estudos envolvendo citalopram + clomipramina, paroxetina, olanzapina, citalopram + alprazolam, risperidona, clomipramina e desipramina, levetiracetam, divalproato de sódio, lidocaína e toxina botulínica tipo A demonstraram resultados positivos. A maioria das pesquisas relativas ao tratamento farmacológico da gagueira se restringe a estudos de caso e ensaios clínicos com pequenas amostras. CONCLUSÃO: Não existem evidências suficientes que justifiquem a utilização de um tratamento específico para a gagueira. Os estudos apresentados indicam a necessidade da realização de mais ensaios clínicos duplo-cegos e controlados com placebo envolvendo amostras maiores.OBJECTIVE: This article analyzes the pharmacologic treatment of stuttering, assessing the effectiveness of different treatments using psychiatric drugs and further evidences of other drugs in the treatment of this disorder. METHODS: Search in Medline database, using the terms stuttering treatment, disfluency, disfluency treatments, botulinum toxin and stuttering treatment, botulinum toxin and disfluency treatment. RESULTS: Studies involving

  19. Potent new small-molecule inhibitor of botulinum neurotoxin serotype A endopeptidase developed by synthesis-based computer-aided molecular design.

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    Yuan-Ping Pang

    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNTA causes a life-threatening neuroparalytic disease known as botulism. Current treatment for post exposure of BoNTA uses antibodies that are effective in neutralizing the extracellular toxin to prevent further intoxication but generally cannot rescue already intoxicated neurons. Effective small-molecule inhibitors of BoNTA endopeptidase (BoNTAe are desirable because such inhibitors potentially can neutralize the intracellular BoNTA and offer complementary treatment for botulism. Previously we reported a serotype-selective, small-molecule BoNTAe inhibitor with a K(i (app value of 3.8+/-0.8 microM. This inhibitor was developed by lead identification using virtual screening followed by computer-aided optimization of a lead with an IC(50 value of 100 microM. However, it was difficult to further improve the lead from micromolar to even high nanomolar potency due to the unusually large enzyme-substrate interface of BoNTAe. The enzyme-substrate interface area of 4,840 A(2 for BoNTAe is about four times larger than the typical protein-protein interface area of 750-1,500 A(2. Inhibitors must carry several functional groups to block the unusually large interface of BoNTAe, and syntheses of such inhibitors are therefore time-consuming and expensive. Herein we report the development of a serotype-selective, small-molecule, and competitive inhibitor of BoNTAe with a K(i value of 760+/-170 nM using synthesis-based computer-aided molecular design (SBCAMD. This new approach accounts the practicality and efficiency of inhibitor synthesis in addition to binding affinity and selectivity. We also report a three-dimensional model of BoNTAe in complex with the new inhibitor and the dynamics of the complex predicted by multiple molecular dynamics simulations, and discuss further structural optimization to achieve better in vivo efficacy in neutralizing BoNTA than those of our early micromolar leads. This work provides new insight

  20. Crystal Structure of the Receptor Binding Domain of the botulinum C-D Mosiac Neurotoxin Reveals Potential Roles of Lysines 1118 and 1136 in Membrane Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y Zhang; G Buchko; L Qin; H Robinson; S Varnum

    2011-12-31

    The botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) produced by different strains of the bacterium Clostridium botulinum are responsible for the disease botulism and include a group of immunologically distinct serotypes (A, B, E, and F) that are considered to be the most lethal natural proteins known for humans. Two BoNT serotypes, C and D, while rarely associated with human infection, are responsible for deadly botulism outbreaks afflicting animals. Also associated with animal infections is the BoNT C-D mosaic protein (BoNT/CD), a BoNT subtype that is essentially a hybrid of the BoNT/C ({approx}two-third) and BoNT/D ({approx}one-third) serotypes. While the amino acid sequence of the heavy chain receptor binding (HCR) domain of BoNT/CD (BoNT/CD-HCR) is very similar to the corresponding amino acid sequence of BoNT/D, BoNT/CD-HCR binds synaptosome membranes better than BoNT/D-HCR. To obtain structural insights for the different membrane binding properties, the crystal structure of BoNT/CD-HCR (S867-E1280) was determined at 1.56 {angstrom} resolution and compared to previously reported structures for BoNT/D-HCR. Overall, the BoNT/CD-HCR structure is similar to the two sub-domain organization observed for other BoNT HCRs: an N-terminal jellyroll barrel motif and a C-terminal {beta}-trefoil fold. Comparison of the structure of BoNT/CD-HCR with BoNT/D-HCR indicates that K1118 has a similar structural role as the equivalent residue, E1114, in BoNT/D-HCR, while K1136 has a structurally different role than the equivalent residue, G1132, in BoNT/D-HCR. Lysine-1118 forms a salt bridge with E1247 and may enhance membrane interactions by stabilizing the putative membrane binding loop (K1240-N1248). Lysine-1136 is observed on the surface of the protein. A sulfate ion bound to K1136 may mimic a natural interaction with the negatively changed phospholipid membrane surface. Liposome-binding experiments demonstrate that BoNT/CD-HCR binds phosphatidylethanolamine liposomes more tightly than BoNT/D-HCR.

  1. Sheep Monoclonal Antibodies Prevent Systemic Effects of Botulinum Neurotoxin A1

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    Charles B. Shoemaker

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT is responsible for causing botulism, a potentially fatal disease characterized by paralysis of skeletal muscle. Existing specific treatments include polyclonal antisera derived from immunized humans or horses. Both preparations have similar drawbacks, including limited supply, risk of adverse effects and batch to batch variation. Here, we describe a panel of six highly protective sheep monoclonal antibodies (SMAbs derived from sheep immunized with BoNT/A1 toxoid (SMAbs 2G11, 4F7 or BoNT/A1 heavy chain C-terminus (HcC (SMAbs 1G4, 5E2, 5F7, 16F9 with or without subsequent challenge immunization with BoNT/A1 toxin. Although each SMAb bound BoNT/A1 toxin, differences in specificity for native and recombinant constituents of BoNT/A1 were observed. Structural differences were suggested by pI (5E2 = 8.2; 2G11 = 7.1; 4F7 = 8.8; 1G4 = 7.4; 5F7 = 8.0; 16F9 = 5.1. SMAb protective efficacy vs. 10,000 LD50 BoNT/A1 was evaluated using the mouse lethality assay. Although not protective alone, divalent and trivalent combinations of SMabs, IG4, 5F7 and/or 16F9 were highly protective. Divalent combinations containing 0.5–4 μg/SMAb (1–8 μg total SMAb were 100% protective against death with only mild signs of botulism observed; relative efficacy of each combination was 1G4 + 5F7 > 1G4 + 16F9 >> 5F7 + 16F9. The trivalent combination of 1G4 + 5F7 + 16F9 at 0.25 μg/SMAb (0.75 μg total SMAb was 100% protective against clinical signs and death. These results reflect levels of protective potency not reported previously.

  2. Intoxicación por alimentos, plantas y setas Poisoning by foodstuffs, plants and mushrooms

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    M.A. Pinillos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La intoxicación alimentaria se define como aquella intoxicación provocada por cualquier alimento o producto alimenticio que por contener sustancias tóxicas, gérmenes, metales, aditivos, hormonas, etc. provocan una intoxicación. Supone una parte muy importante de la Toxicología Clínica, aunque en la mayoría de las estadísticas, las toxiinfecciones alimentarias provocada por bacterias, protozoos y virus no son contabilizadas como intoxicaciones, ya que son provocadas por gérmenes y son recogidas como infecciones. En este tema se hace referencia a todos los tipos de patologías debidas a los alimentos, haciendo hincapié en el botulismo, comentando el cuadro clínico en sus diferentes formas clínicas, pero sobre todo en la forma adulta y contraída mediante el consumo de alimentos mal conservados o poco cocinados; la intoxicación por pescado y por marisco. Se describen también los cuadros toxicológicos a los que puede avocar el consumo de plantas que contienen sustancias tóxicas, encuadradas por las diferentes sintomatologías que producen; por último, se exponen las intoxicaciones por setas según el periodo de incubación y las posibles confusiones.Food poisoning is defined as poisoning caused by any foodstuff or alimentary product that causes poisoning because it contains toxic substances, germs, metals, additives, hormones, etc. It forms an important part of Clinical Toxicology, although in the majority of statistics, alimentary toxic infections provoked by bacteria, protozoa and viruses are not classified as poisonings, since they are caused by germs, and are classified as infections. Reference is made within this subject to all types of pathologies due to food, with special emphasis given to botulism. The clinical picture of botulism is discussed in its different clinical forms, but above all in its adult form which is contracted through the consumption of undercooked or badly preserved foods; poisoning by fish and seafood

  3. PCR und ELISA - Alternativen zum Maustest für die Analyse des Botulismus-Neurotoxin-C1 Giftbildungspotentiales in Umweltproben? [PCR and ELISA - in vitro alternatives to the mouse-bioassay for assessing the botulinum-neurotoxin-C1 production potential in environmental samples?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zechmeister, T.C.; Farnleitner, A.H.; Rocke, T.E.; Pittner, F.; Rosengarten, R.; Mach, R.L.; Herzig, A.; Kirschner, A.K.T.

    2002-01-01

    Botulism is one of the most important bird diseases world-wide and is caused by the intoxication with Botulinum-Neurotoxin-C1 (BoNt-C1), which is produced by toxigenic clostridia under appropriate conditions. Avian botulism leads regularly to large losses among the migrating bird populations breeding and resting at the saltwater pools of the Austrian national park Neusiedler See-Seewinkel. Despite of its ethical dubiousness and its high technical expense the mouse-bioassay is still used as the routine standard method for the detection of BoNt-C1. According to the 3R-concept, in vitro alternative methods for the qualitative detection of BoNt-C1 (immunostick-ELISA) and a corresponding BoNt-C1 gene fragment (nested-PCR) were established. In order to estimate the BoNt-C1 production potential the methods were tested with sediment samples from different saltwater pools subjected to cultivation conditions appropriate for in vitro BoNt-C1-production. With the mouse-bioassay, 52 out of 77 samples were found to have a positive toxin production potential. The immunostick-ELISA showed a similar sensitivity as the mouse-bioassay and exhibited a highly significant positive correlation (r=0.94; pPCR approach revealed higher numbers of positive BoNt-C1 gene fragment detections as compared to the direct toxin analysis approaches. A weak correlation (r=0.21; p=0.07) with the mouse-bioassay was discernible, no correlation was found with the immunostick-ELISA (r=0.09; p=0.46). Obviously, the PCR approach detected the BoNt-C1 gene fragment in some of the samples where no toxin expression has occurred. Thus it is suggested that the qualitative immunostick-ELISA represents a potential in vitro alternative to the mouse-bioassay for assessing the BoNt-C1 production potential in environmental samples. In contrast, qualitative BoNt-C1 gene fragment detection via PCR led to an overestimation of the actual toxin production potential.

  4. Phospholipase C Produced by Clostridium botulinum Types C and D:Comparison of Gene, Enzymatic, and Biological Activities with Those of Clostridium perfringens Alpha-toxin

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    Sakurai,Jun

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium botulinum type C and D strains recently have been found to produce PLC on egg yolk agar plates. To characterize the gene, enzymatic and biological activities of C. botulinum PLCs (Cb-PLCs, the cb-plc genes from 8 strains were sequenced, and 1 representative gene was cloned and expressed as a recombinant protein. The enzymatic and hemolytic activities of the recombinant Cb-PLC were measured and compared with those of the Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin. Each of the eight cb-plc genes encoded a 399 amino acid residue protein preceded by a 27 residue signal peptide. The protein consists of 2 domains, the N- and C-domains, and the overall amino acid sequence identity between Cb-PLC and alpha-toxin was greater than 50%, suggesting that Cb-PLC is homologous to the alpha-toxin. The key residues in the N-domain were conserved, whereas those in the C-domain which are important in membrane interaction were different than in the alpha-toxin. As expected, Cb-PLC could hydrolyze egg yolk phospholipid, p-nitrophenylphosphorylcholine, and sphingomyelin, and also exhibited hemolytic activity;however, its activities were about 4- to over 200-fold lower than those of alpha-toxin. Although Cb-PLC showed weak enzymatic and biological activities, it is speculated that Cb-PLC might play a role in the pathogenicity of botulism or for bacterial survival.

  5. Role of Nitrite in Processed Meat Products and its Degradation during their Storage

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    ILIRJANA BOCI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents the analytical data of nitrite level obtained from the experimental work done on meat processed samples taken from a meat processing plant in Tirana. There has been a long debate and health concern about the nitrite content in meat products. Nitrite is added to e.g. sausages, and hams and other meat products to preserve these products and keep them free from dangerous bacteria. Among the aims are preventing botulism, a dangerous food poison. But also it’s important to use the smallest possible amount of nitrite as a preservative because nitrite in meat can also form nitrosamines, which can damage the health. That’s why the role of nitrite in processed meat and its recommended level conform to new EC Regulations are given in the introduction part of this paper. It is important that the nitrite level be monitored during all the processing steps up to the end consumers. This makes the objective of this paper. It gives the analytical data on nitrite level on meat processed samples taken and tested during their storage and ripening period of time. Different kinds of meat products are taken and tested to evaluate the influence of various parameters (storage time, time until to the end consumers, various kinds of packing in the degradation rate of ingoing nitrite.

  6. CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM NEUROTOXIN SEROTYPE B.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SWAMINATHAN,S.; ESWARAMOORTHY,S.

    2001-11-19

    The toxigenic strains of Clostridium botulinum produce seven serologically distinct types of neurotoxins labeled A - G (EC 3.4.24.69), while Clostridium tetani produces tetanus neurotoxin (EC 3.4.24.68). Botulinum and tetanus neurotoxins (BoNTs and TeNT) are produced as single inactive chains of molecular mass of approximately 150 kDa. Most of these neurotoxins are released after being cleaved into two chains, a heavy chain (HI) of 100 kDa and a light chain (L) of 50 kDa held together by an interchain disulfide bond, by tissue proteinases. BoNT/E is released as a single chain but cleaved by host proteinases [1]. Clostvidium botulinum neurotoxins are extremely poisonous proteins with their LD{sub 50} for humans in the range of 0.1 - 1 ng kg{sup -1} [2]. Botulinum neurotoxins are responsible for neuroparalytic syndromes of botulism characterized by serious neurological disorders and flaccid paralysis. BoNTs block the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction causing flaccid paralysis while TeNT blocks the release of neurotransmitters like glycine and {gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the inhibitory interneurons of the spinal cord resulting in spastic paralysis. In spite of different clinical symptoms, their aetiological agents intoxicate neuronal cells in the same way and these toxins have similar structural organization [3].

  7. The effect of gamma-irradiation on the antibacterial activity of honey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molan, P.C.; Allen, K.L. [Waikato Univ., Hamilton (New Zealand). Honey Research Unit

    1996-11-01

    There is increasing usage of honey as a dressing on infected wounds, burns and ulcers, but there is some concern that there may be a risk of wound botulism from the clostridial spores sometimes found in honey. It is well-established that the antibacterial activity is heat-labile so would be destroyed if honey were sterilized by autoclaving , but the effect of gamma-irradiation on the antibacterial activity of honey is not known. Therefore an investigation was carried out to assess the effect on the antibacterial activity of honey when the honey was subjected to a commercial sterilization procedure using gamma-irradiation (25 kGy). Two honeys with antibacterial activity due to enzymically-generated hydrogen peroxide and three manuka honeys with non-peroxide antibacterial activity were investigated. The honeys were tested against Staphylococcus aureus in an agar well diffusion assay. There was no significant change found in either type of antibacterial activity resulting from this form of sterilization of honey, even when the radiation was doubled (to 50 kGy). (Author).

  8. Pharyngeal-cervical-brachial variant of Guillain-Barre syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakerley, Benjamin R; Yuki, Nobuhiro

    2014-03-01

    The pharyngeal-cervical-brachial (PCB) variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome is defined by rapidly progressive oropharyngeal and cervicobrachial weakness associated with areflexia in the upper limbs. Serial nerve conduction studies suggest that PCB represents a localised subtype of Guillain-Barré syndrome characterised by axonal rather than demyelinating neuropathy. Many neurologists are unfamiliar with PCB, which is often misdiagnosed as brainstem stroke, myasthenia gravis or botulism. The presence of additional ophthalmoplegia and ataxia indicates overlap with Fisher syndrome. Half of patients with PCB carry IgG anti-GT1a antibodies which often cross-react with GQ1b, whereas most patients with Fisher syndrome carry IgG anti-GQ1b antibodies which always cross-react with GT1a. Significant overlap between the clinical and serological profiles of these patients supports the view that PCB and Fisher syndrome form a continuous spectrum. In this review, we highlight the clinical features of PCB and outline new diagnostic criteria. PMID:23804237

  9. Use of Monoclonal Antibodies in the Sensitive Detection and Neutralization of Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa W. Cheng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT are some of nature’s most potent toxins. Due to potential food contamination, and bioterrorism concerns, the development of detection reagents, therapeutics and countermeasures are of urgent interest. Recently, we have developed a sensitive electrochemiluminescent (ECL immunoassay for BoNT/B, using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs MCS6-27 and anti-BoNT/B rabbit polyclonal antibodies as the capture and detector. The ECL assay detected as little as 1 pg/mL BoNT/B in the buffer matrix, surpassing the detection sensitivities of the gold standard mouse bioassays. The ECL assay also allowed detection of BoNT/B in sera matrices of up to 100% sera with negligible matrix effects. This highly-sensitive assay allowed the determination of the biological half-lives of BoNT/B holotoxin in vivo. We further tested the toxin neutralization potential of our monoclonal antibodies using the mouse systemic and oral intoxication models. A combination of mAbs protected mice in both pre- and post-exposure models to lethal doses of BoNT/B. MAbs were capable of increasing survival of animals when administered even 10 h post-intoxication in an oral model, suggesting a likely time for BoNT/B complexes to reach the blood stream. More sensitive detection assays and treatments against BoNT intoxication will greatly enhance efforts to combat botulism.

  10. High-level expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of the receptor binding domain of botulinum neurotoxin serotype D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yanfeng; Gao, Xiaoli; Qin, Lin; Buchko, Garry W.; Robinson, Howard; Varnum, Susan M.

    2010-12-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are highly toxic proteins for humans and can cause neuroparalytic disease botulism. Due to the limitations of production and manipulation of holoenzymes, expressing non-toxic heavy chain receptor binding domains (HCR) has become a common strategy for vaccine and antibody development. Meanwhile, large quantities and highly purified soluble proteins are required for research areas such as antibody maturation and structural biology. We present high level expression and purification of the BoNT serotype D HCR in E. coli using a codon-optimized cDNA. By varying expression conditions, especially at low temperature, the protein was expressed at a high level with high solubility. About 150-200 mg protein was purified to >90% purity from 1 L cell culture. The recombinant D_HCR was crystallized and the crystals diffracted to 1.65 Å resolution. The crystals belong to space group P212121 with unit cell dimensions a = 60.8 Å, b = 89.7 Å, c = 93.9 Å. Preliminary crystallographic data analysis revealed one molecule in asymmetric unit.

  11. Antibiotic, Pesticide, and Microbial Contaminants of Honey: Human Health Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noori Al-Waili

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural contamination with pesticides and antibiotics is a challenging problem that needs to be fully addressed. Bee products, such as honey, are widely consumed as food and medicine and their contamination may carry serious health hazards. Honey and other bee products are polluted by pesticides, heavy metals, bacteria and radioactive materials. Pesticide residues cause genetic mutations and cellular degradation and presence of antibiotics might increase resistant human or animal's pathogens. Many cases of infant botulisms have been attributed to contaminated honey. Honey may be very toxic when produced from certain plants. Ingestion of honey without knowing its source and safety might be problematic. Honey should be labeled to explore its origin, composition, and clear statement that it is free from contaminants. Honey that is not subjected for analysis and sterilization should not be used in infants, and should not be applied to wounds or used for medicinal purposes. This article reviews the extent and health impact of honey contamination and stresses on the introduction of a strict monitoring system and validation of acceptable minimal concentrations of pollutants or identifying maximum residue limits for bee products, in particular, honey.

  12. LA ASOCIACIÓN DE DIVERTÍCULO DE ZENKER Y ACALASIA Zenker`s diverticulum and acalasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Martínez Marín

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un paciente de 88 años, con disfagia y antecedentes de acalasia no tratada de veinte años de evolución y síntomas de disfagia oro faríngea. Los exámenes radiológicos y endoscópicos identificaron además de la acalasia un divertículo de Zenker. Se realizó terapia paliativa con inyección de toxina botulínica en el esfínter esofágico inferior, con mejoría de los síntomas. Se hace una revisión de la rara coexistencia de estas dos patologías.An 88 year old patient has been observed. He is suffering from dysphagia and has a medical history of achalasia, which has had an evolution and has not bee treated for twenty years. He also has oropharynx dysphagia symptoms. In addition to the achalasia, the X-ray and endoscopy exams identified a Zenker diverticulum. Palliative or mitigating therapy was realized using botulinum toxin injection in the lower esophageal sphincter, with symptom improvement. A study is being made concerning the rare co-existence of these two pathologies.

  13. Clostridium butyricum: from beneficial to a new emerging pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassir, N; Benamar, S; La Scola, B

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium butyricum, a strictly anaerobic spore-forming bacillus, is a common human and animal gut commensal bacterium, and is also frequently found in the environment. Whereas non-toxigenic strains are currently used as probiotics in Asia, other strains have been implicated in pathological conditions, such as botulism in infants or necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm neonates. In terms of the latter, within the same species, different strains have antagonist effects on the intestinal mucosa. In particular, short-chain fatty acids, which are products of carbohydrate fermentation, have a dose-dependent paradoxical effect. Moreover, toxin genes have been identified by genome sequencing in pathological strains. Asymptomatic carriage of these strains has also been reported. Herein, we provide an overview of the implications of C. butyricum for human health, from the beneficial to the pathogenic. We focus on pathogenic strains associated with the occurrence of necrotizing enterocolitis. We also discuss the need to use complementary microbiological methods, including culture, in order to better assess gut bacterial diversity and identify new emergent enteropathogens at the strain level. PMID:26493849

  14. Effect of irradiation in extending the storage life of boiled Chub mackerel (Rastrelliger spp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of irradiation at doses of 0.1, 0.2, or 0.3 Mrad in extending the storage life of boiled Chub mackerel held at room temperature was described. Total aerobic count, trimethylamine nitrogen, and total volatile basic nitrogen contents were used and objective indices of quality in comparison with sensory evaluation of the product. Boiled fish irradiated at 0.1, 0.2, or 0.3 Mrad were found to be in good quality for 10, 15, and 17 days respectively, compared with 3 days for the unirradiated control. Trimethylamine nitrogen and total volatile basic nitrogen contents were found to be useful indices of quality, which showed fair correlation with sensory evaluation of the irradiated product. Total aerobic count showed little value as a quality index. Bacillus, Staphylococcus, and Micrococcus predominated in both unirradiated and irradiated boiled fish. The product was found to be free of faocal coliform. Safety of the irradiated boiled fish concerning botulism was discussed

  15. BACTERIA CARRIED BY CHRYSOMYA MEGACEPHALA (FABRICIUS, 1794 (DIPTERA: CALLIPHORIDAE IN SINOP, MATO GROSSO, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Carneiro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae, popularly known as blowfly, has a great capacity for dispersion and, due to factors such as food abundance and favorable climate, it colonizes Brazil completely in a short time. These insects are important to the sectors of epidemiology, public health and forensics, especially due to carrying microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa and helminthes, which are responsible for the spread of diseases such as dysentery, cholera, botulism, typhoid fever, brucellosis, polio, smallpox and tuberculosis. The objective of this study was to verify the diversity of bacteria carried by this species in the Federal University of Mato Grosso – Campus of Sinop during the month of January of 2012. The flies were collected using two traps baited with 100 g of fresh sardines on each and maintained in the field for 24 hours. Twenty specimens of C. megacephala were placed in Petri dishes, to walk for two minutes upon Nutrient Agar (NA. After establishment of the colonies, isolation of the bacteria on the NA medium and their multiplication in test tubes containing the same culture medium was performed, and later sent to identification by gas chromatography. The bacteria encountered were Aquaspirillum polymorphum; Burkholderia ambifaria; Burkholderia anthina; Burkholderia cepacia; Burkholderia cenocepacia; Burkholderia pyrrocinia; Burkholderia stabilis; Paenibacillus macerans; Virgibacillus pantothenticus, Bacillus subtilis e Photorhabdus luminescens luminescens, with the last two species considered of importance in the plant protection sector.

  16. Characterization and immunological activity of different forms of recombinant secreted Hc of botulinum neurotoxin serotype B products expressed in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Shi, DanYang; Chang, ShaoHong; Gong, Xin; Yu, YunZhou; Sun, ZhiWei; Wu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The recombinant Hc proteins of botulinum neurotoxins and tetanus toxin are exclusively produced by intracellular heterologous expression in Pichia pastoris for use in subunit vaccines; the same Hc proteins produced by secreted heterologous expression are hyper-glycosylated and immunologically inert. Here, several different recombinant secreted Hc proteins of botulinum neurotoxin serotype B (BHc) were expressed in yeast and we characterized and assessed their immunological activity in detail. Recombinant low-glycosylated secreted BHc products (BSK) were also immunologically inert, similar to hyper-glycosylated BHc products (BSG), although deglycosylation restored their immunological activities. Unexpectedly, deglycosylated proBHc contained an unexpected pro-peptide of an α-factor signal and fortuitous N-linked glycosylation sites in the non-cleaved pro-peptide sequences, but not in the BHc sequences. Notably, a non-glycosylated secreted homogeneous BHc isoform (mBHc), which we successfully prepared after deleting the pro-peptide and removing its single potential glycosylation site, was immunologically active and could confer effective protective immunity, similarly to non-glycosylated rBHc. In summary, we conclude that a non-glycosylated secreted BHc isoform can be prepared in yeast by deleting the pro-peptide of the α-factor signal and mutating its single potential glycosylation site. This approach provides a rational and feasible strategy for the secretory expression of botulism or other toxin antigens. PMID:25567004

  17. Myasthenia and related disorders of the neuromuscular junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillane, Jennifer; Beeson, David J; Kullmann, Dimitri M

    2010-08-01

    Our understanding of transmission at the neuromuscular junction has increased greatly in recent years. We now recognise a wide variety of autoimmune and genetic diseases that affect this specialised synapse, causing muscle weakness and fatigue. These disorders greatly affect quality of life and rarely can be fatal. Myasthenia gravis is the most common disorder and is most commonly caused by autoantibodies targeting postsynaptic acetylcholine receptors. Antibodies to muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) are detected in a variable proportion of the remainder. Treatment is symptomatic and immunomodulatory. Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome is caused by antibodies to presynaptic calcium channels, and approximately 50% of cases are paraneoplastic, most often related to small cell carcinoma of the lung. Botulism is an acquired disorder caused by neurotoxins produced by Clostridium botulinum, impairing acetylcholine release into the synaptic cleft. In addition, several rare congenital myasthenic syndromes have been identified, caused by inherited defects in presynaptic, synaptic basal lamina and postsynaptic proteins necessary for neuromuscular transmission. This review focuses on recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of these disorders. PMID:20547629

  18. Enfermidades do sistema nervoso dos ruminantes no sul do Rio Grande do Sul Neurological diseases in ruminants in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Riet-Correa

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Descrevem-se os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e patológicos das enfermidades do sistema nervoso central dos ruminantes, diagnosticadas na região Sul do Rio Grande do Sul, incluindo: abiotrofia cerebelar; hipoplasia cerebelar; hipermetria hereditária; artrogripose; hipomielinogênese congênita; abscesso cerebral; listeriose; tétano; botulismo; necrose simétrica focal; raiva; leucose; encefalite por herpesvírus bovino-5; febre catarral maligna; intoxicações por Solanum fastigiatum, Claviceps paspali, Ramaria flavo-brunnescens, Halimium brasiliense e Diplodia maydis; encefalopatia hepática causada por Senecio spp. e Echium plantagineum; cetose; coenurose; e síndrome espinhal.The main epidemiological, clinical and pathologic aspects of the diseases of the nervous system in cattle in Southern Rio Grande do Sul are described, including, the following conditions: cerebellar abiotrophy; cerebellar hypoplasia; congenital hypermetria; arthrogryposis; congenital hypomyelinogenesis; brain abscess; listeriose; tetanus; botulism; focal symmetrical encephalomalacia; rabies; leucosis; encephalitis by Herpesvirus Bovine-5; bovino malignant catarrh; intoxications by Solanum fastigiatum, Claviceps paspali, Halimium brasiliense, Diplodia maydis, and Ramaria flavo-brunnescens; hepatoencephalopaty caused by Senecio spp. and Echium plantagineum; ketosis; coenurosis; and spinal syndrome.

  19. The effect of gamma-irradiation on the antibacterial activity of honey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is increasing usage of honey as a dressing on infected wounds, burns and ulcers, but there is some concern that there may be a risk of wound botulism from the clostridial spores sometimes found in honey. It is well-established that the antibacterial activity is heat-labile so would be destroyed if honey were sterilized by autoclaving , but the effect of gamma-irradiation on the antibacterial activity of honey is not known. Therefore an investigation was carried out to assess the effect on the antibacterial activity of honey when the honey was subjected to a commercial sterilization procedure using gamma-irradiation (25 kGy). Two honeys with antibacterial activity due to enzymically-generated hydrogen peroxide and three manuka honeys with non-peroxide antibacterial activity were investigated. The honeys were tested against Staphylococcus aureus in an agar well diffusion assay. There was no significant change found in either type of antibacterial activity resulting from this form of sterilization of honey, even when the radiation was doubled (to 50 kGy). (Author)

  20. Toosendanin interferes with pore formation of botulinum toxin type A in PC12 cell membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu-feng LI; Yu-liang SHI

    2006-01-01

    Aim: Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) abort the process of neurotransmitter release at presynaptic motor nerve terminals, causing muscle paralysis. The ability of botulinum toxin to produce its effect is dependent on the ability of the light chain to cleave the SNARE proteins associated with transmitter release. Translocation of the light chain protease through the heavy chain-formed channel is a pivotal step in the intoxication process. Toosendanin (TSN), a triterpenoid derivative extracted from a Chinese traditional medicine, has been demonstrated to be an effective cure for experimental botulism. This study was designed to explore the antibotulismic mechanisms of toosendanin. Methods: The inside-out singlechannel recording patch-clamp technique was used to record the BoNT/A-induced currents in the presence and absence of TSN. Results: Channel formation was delayed and the sizes of the channels were reduced in the TSN-treated PC12cell membrane. Conclusion: The antibotulismic effect of TSN might occur via interference with toxin translocation.

  1. Unique Ganglioside Recognition Strategies for Clostridial Neurotoxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Marc A.; Fu, Zhuji; Kim, Jung-Ja P.; Baldwin, Michael R. (MCW); (UMC)

    2012-03-15

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) and tetanus neurotoxin are the causative agents of the paralytic diseases botulism and tetanus, respectively. The potency of the clostridial neurotoxins (CNTs) relies primarily on their highly specific binding to nerve terminals and cleavage of SNARE proteins. Although individual CNTs utilize distinct proteins for entry, they share common ganglioside co-receptors. Here, we report the crystal structure of the BoNT/F receptor-binding domain in complex with the sugar moiety of ganglioside GD1a. GD1a binds in a shallow groove formed by the conserved peptide motif E ... H ... SXWY ... G, with additional stabilizing interactions provided by two arginine residues. Comparative analysis of BoNT/F with other CNTs revealed several differences in the interactions of each toxin with ganglioside. Notably, exchange of BoNT/F His-1241 with the corresponding lysine residue of BoNT/E resulted in increased affinity for GD1a and conferred the ability to bind ganglioside GM1a. Conversely, BoNT/E was not able to bind GM1a, demonstrating a discrete mechanism of ganglioside recognition. These findings provide a structural basis for ganglioside binding among the CNTs and show that individual toxins utilize unique ganglioside recognition strategies.

  2. 肉毒杆菌及肉毒毒素研究进展%Progress in Research on Bacillus botulinus and Botulinum Toxins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵思俊; 李雪莲; 曹旭敏; 王娟; 王玉东; 王君玮; 曲志娜

    2013-01-01

    肉毒杆菌是一种致命病菌,能引起肉毒中毒症。肉毒杆菌作为影响食品安全的一个重要风险因素,尤其是在新西兰恒天然公司部分产品受到肉毒杆菌污染事件发生后,肉毒杆菌及肉毒毒素受到了普遍关注。现就肉毒杆菌及肉毒毒素的生物学特性、中毒机制、诊断及治疗研究进展进行综述。%Bacillus botulinus is a deadly bacteria,can cause botulism disease by botulinum toxin which is among the most powerful known poisons. As an important risk factor for food safety,especially the in-cident of the product for Fonterra by botulinum toxin contamination was occured,Bacillus botulinus and botulinum toxin has been widespread concerned. The paper reviews the progress of biological characteris-tics,toxic mechanism,diagnosis and treatment for Bacillus botulinus and botulinum toxin.

  3. Toxin production of non-proteolytic Cl. botulinum type B in radurized fish. Part of a coordinated programme on the wholesomeness of the process of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toxin formation by proteolytic and nonproteolytic strains of C. botulinum type B in radurized raw fish and in radurized Pindang fish was investigated. In radurized Pindang fish samples, inoculation was done either before or after cooking. Radurization process with 2 and 3 kGy caused the extension of storage life of Rastrelliger sp., Euthynnus sp., and Scomberomorus sp. by factors of 2 and 2.5 at storage temperatures between 5 and 100 C. In general at 10.5 +- 0.30 C, no toxin was formed before the samples were spoiled both in irradiated and unirradiated samples. At 5.6 +- 0.50 C no toxin was formed until after the samples were spoiled. The earliest toxin formation in unirradiated Pindang samples stored at ambient temperature was detected after the samples were spoiled. In irradiated Pindang samples inoculated with C. botulinum spores after cooking and stored at ambient temperature the toxin formation was detected before the samples were spoiled. However, if the inoculation was done before the fish was processed into Pindang, the toxin was always detected after the samples were spoiled regardless of the irradiation dose, strain and inoculation level. As fish may be contaminated - if at all - with spores of C. botulinum in its raw state, processing of fish into Pindang and irradiation would not contribute to the health hazard concerning botulism even if the samples are stored at ambient temperature

  4. Preliminary characterization of digestive enzymes in freshwater mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauey, Blake W.; Amberg, Jon J.; Cooper, Scott T.; Grunwald, Sandra K.; Newton, Teresa J.; Haro, Roger J.

    2015-01-01

    Resource managers lack an effective chemical tool to control the invasive zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha. Zebra mussels clog water intakes for hydroelectric companies, harm unionid mussel species, and are believed to be a reservoir of avian botulism. Little is known about the digestive physiology of zebra mussels and unionid mussels. The enzymatic profile of the digestive glands of zebra mussels and native threeridge (Amblema plicata) and plain pocketbook mussels (Lampsilis cardium) are characterized using a commercial enzyme kit, api ZYM, and validated the kit with reagent-grade enzymes. A linear correlation was shown for only one of nineteen enzymes, tested between the api ZYM kit and a specific enzyme kit. Thus, the api ZYM kit should only be used to make general comparisons of enzyme presence and to observe trends in enzyme activities. Enzymatic trends were seen in the unionid mussel species, but not in zebra mussels sampled 32 days apart from the same location. Enzymatic classes, based on substrate, showed different trends, with proteolytic and phospholytic enzymes having the most change in relative enzyme activity.

  5. Potential impacts of climate change on infectious diseases in the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Alan J; Butler, Jay C

    2005-12-01

    Climate change could cause changes in the incidence of infectious diseases in Arctic regions. Higher ambient temperatures in the Arctic may result in an increase in some temperature sensitive foodborne diseases such as gastroenteritis, paralytic shellfish poisoning and botulism. An increase in mean temperature may also influence the incidence of infectious diseases of animals that are spread to humans (zoonoses) by changing the population and range of animal hosts and insect vectors. An increase in flooding events may result in outbreaks of waterborne infection, such as Giardia lamblia or Cryptospordium parvum. A change in rodent and fox populations may result in an increase in rabies or echinococcosis. Temperature and humidity influence the distribution and density of many arthropod vectors which in turn may influence the incidence and northern range of vectorborne diseases such as West Nile virus. Recommendations include: the strenghtening of public health systems, disease surveillance coordinated with climate monitoring, and research into the detection, prevention, control and treatment of temperature-sensitive infectious diseases. PMID:16440610

  6. CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM NEUROTOXIN SEROTYPE B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The toxigenic strains of Clostridium botulinum produce seven serologically distinct types of neurotoxins labeled A - G (EC 3.4.24.69), while Clostridium tetani produces tetanus neurotoxin (EC 3.4.24.68). Botulinum and tetanus neurotoxins (BoNTs and TeNT) are produced as single inactive chains of molecular mass of approximately 150 kDa. Most of these neurotoxins are released after being cleaved into two chains, a heavy chain (HI) of 100 kDa and a light chain (L) of 50 kDa held together by an interchain disulfide bond, by tissue proteinases. BoNT/E is released as a single chain but cleaved by host proteinases[1]. Clostvidium botulinum neurotoxins are extremely poisonous proteins with their LD(sub 50) for humans in the range of 0.1 - 1 ng kg(sup -1)[2]. Botulinum neurotoxins are responsible for neuroparalytic syndromes of botulism characterized by serious neurological disorders and flaccid paralysis. BoNTs block the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction causing flaccid paralysis while TeNT blocks the release of neurotransmitters like glycine and(gamma)-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the inhibitory interneurons of the spinal cord resulting in spastic paralysis. In spite of different clinical symptoms, their aetiological agents intoxicate neuronal cells in the same way and these toxins have similar structural organization[3

  7. Biodiversity of Clostridium botulinum type E strains isolated from fish and fishery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyytiä, E; Hielm, S; Björkroth, J; Korkeala, H

    1999-05-01

    The genetic biodiversity of Clostridium botulinum type E strains was studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with two macrorestriction enzymes (SmaI-XmaI and XhoI) and by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis with two primers (OPJ 6 and OPJ 13) to characterize 67 Finnish isolates from fresh fish and fishery products, 15 German isolates from farmed fish, and 10 isolates of North American or North Atlantic origin derived mainly from different types of seafood. The effects of fish species, processing, and geographical origin on the epidemiology of the isolates were evaluated. Cluster analysis based on macrorestriction profiles was performed to study the genetic relationships of the isolates. PFGE and RAPD analyses were combined and resulted in the identification of 62 different subtypes among the 92 type E isolates analyzed. High genetic biodiversity among the isolates was observed regardless of their source. Finnish and North American or North Atlantic isolates did not form distinctly discernible clusters, in contrast with the genetically homogeneous group of German isolates. On the other hand, indistinguishable or closely related genetic profiles among epidemiologically unrelated samples were detected. It was concluded that the high genetic variation was probably a result of a lack of strong selection factors that would influence the evolution of type E. The wide genetic biodiversity observed among type E isolates indicates the value of DNA-based typing methods as a tool in contamination studies in the food industry and in investigations of botulism outbreaks. PMID:10224001

  8. Simultaneous and sensitive detection of six serotypes of botulinum neurotoxin using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based protein antibody microarrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yanfeng; Lou, Jianlong; Jenko, Kathryn L.; Marks, James D.; Varnum, Susan M.

    2012-11-15

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), produced by Clostridium botulinum, are a group of seven (A-G) immunologically distinct proteins and cause the paralytic disease botulism. These toxins are the most poisonous substances known to humans and are potential bioweapon agents. Therefore, it is necessary to develop highly sensitive assays for the detection of BoNTs in both clinical and environmental samples. In the present study, we have developed an ELISA-based protein antibody microarray for the sensitive and simultaneous detection of BoNT serotype A, B, C, D, E and F. With engineered high-affinity antibodies, the assays have sensitivities in buffer of 8 fM (1.2 pg/mL) for serotypes A and B, and 32 fM (4.9 pg/mL) for serotypes C, D, E, and F. Using clinical and environmental samples (serum and milk), the microarray is capable of detecting BoNT/A-F to the same levels as in standard buffer. Cross reactivity between assays for individual serotype was also analyzed. These simultaneous, rapid, and sensitive assays have the potential to measure botulinum toxins in a high-throughput manner in complex clinical or environmental samples.

  9. Recommended Immunological Strategies to Screen for Botulinum Neurotoxin-Containing Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Simon

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs cause the life-threatening neurological illness botulism in humans and animals and are divided into seven serotypes (BoNT/A–G, of which serotypes A, B, E, and F cause the disease in humans. BoNTs are classified as “category A” bioterrorism threat agents and are relevant in the context of the Biological Weapons Convention. An international proficiency test (PT was conducted to evaluate detection, quantification and discrimination capabilities of 23 expert laboratories from the health, food and security areas. Here we describe three immunological strategies that proved to be successful for the detection and quantification of BoNT/A, B, and E considering the restricted sample volume (1 mL distributed. To analyze the samples qualitatively and quantitatively, the first strategy was based on sensitive immunoenzymatic and immunochromatographic assays for fast qualitative and quantitative analyses. In the second approach, a bead-based suspension array was used for screening followed by conventional ELISA for quantification. In the third approach, an ELISA plate format assay was used for serotype specific immunodetection of BoNT-cleaved substrates, detecting the activity of the light chain, rather than the toxin protein. The results provide guidance for further steps in quality assurance and highlight problems to address in the future.

  10. Benzoquinones as inhibitors of botulinum neurotoxin serotype A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, Paul T; Hixon, Mark S; Janda, Kim D

    2014-08-01

    Although botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A) is known for its use in cosmetics, it causes a potentially fatal illness, botulism, and can be used as a bioterror weapon. Many compounds have been developed that inhibit the BoNTA zinc-metalloprotease light chain (LC), however, none of these inhibitors have advanced to clinical trials. In this study, a fragment-based approach was implemented to develop novel covalent inhibitors of BoNT/A LC. First, electrophilic fragments were screened against BoNT/A LC, and benzoquinone (BQ) derivatives were found to be active. In kinetic studies, BQ compounds acted as irreversible inhibitors that presumably covalently modify cysteine 165 of BoNT/A LC. Although most BQ derivatives were highly reactive toward glutathione in vitro, a few compounds such as natural product naphthazarin displayed low thiol reactivity and good BoNT/A inhibition. In order to increase the potency of the BQ fragment, computational docking studies were employed to elucidate a scaffold that could bind to sites adjacent to Cys165 while positioning a BQ fragment at Cys165 for covalent modification; 2-amino-N-arylacetamides met these criteria and when linked to BQ displayed at least a 20-fold increase in activity to low μM IC₅₀ values. Unlike BQ alone, the linked-BQ compounds demonstrated only weak irreversible inhibition and therefore acted mainly as non-covalent inhibitors. Further kinetic studies revealed a mutual exclusivity of BQ covalent inactivation and competitive inhibitor binding to sites adjacent to Cys165, refuting the viability of the current strategy for developing more potent irreversible BoNT/A inhibitors. The highlights of this study include the discovery of BQ compounds as irreversible BoNT/A inhibitors and the rational design of low μM IC50 competitive inhibitors that depend on the BQ moiety for activity. PMID:24984937

  11. Preliminary study on the isolation of Clostridium butyricum strains from natural sources in the UK and screening the isolates for presence of the type E botulinal toxin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoddusi, Hamid B; Sherburn, Richard

    2010-08-15

    Clostridia such as Clostridium tyrobutyricum, C. pasteurianum and C. butyricum may cause spoilage problems in certain types of food, but they are not normally regarded as dangerous. However some strains of C. butyricum have acquired the type E botulinum neurotoxin gene and have caused both infant and classical botulism in Italy (1986), China (1994) and India (1996). This study was carried out to examine a range of samples from fresh vegetables to food and environmental samples in the UK and test their ability to produce type E botulinal neurotoxin (BoNT) by probing for the presence of the toxin gene. Samples were enriched in modified Bhat and Barker (MBB) broth which is a minimal medium with lactate and acetate as a source of carbon and energy. In addition selective antibiotics are present in the medium to favour the growth of C. butyricum. This was followed by plating out onto iron sulphite agar (ISA) for isolation of C. butyricum from food and environmental samples. A total of 978 samples were tested and 302 (31%) yielded presumptive C. butyricum isolates. The highest percentage of positives came from soil, potato skins, Swede skin, yoghurt and cream. No positive isolates were obtained from pate, garlic or spring greens. A sub-sample of isolates was examined for the presence of gene encoding the type E botulinum neurotoxin using PCR. Only one of the many existing PCR methods was successful and therefore used for screening C. butyricum isolates for the presence of the type E toxin gene. None of the 93 tested isolates were found to be toxigenic (type E botulinal neurotoxin). PMID:20633941

  12. Diversity of the bacterial community in Myanmar traditional salted fish yegyo ngapi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takeshi; Taguchi, Chihiro; Kida, Kakeru; Matsuda, Hiroko; Terahara, Takeshi; Imada, Chiaki; Moe, Nant Kay Thwe; Thwe, Su Myo

    2016-10-01

    The distribution and characterization of bacteria including lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the traditional and popular salted fish yegyo ngapi in Myanmar were studied to clarify the contribution of these bacteria to the curing and ripening of this product. Samples of yegyo ngapi purchased from a market in Yangon were used. Most of the isolates obtained using de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe medium containing 10 % NaCl were identified as coccoid LAB on the basis of their basic phenotypic characteristics. From the results of 16S rRNA gene sequencing and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of this gene, most of the isolates were identified as the halophilic LAB Tetragenococcus muriaticus. Analyses of the 16S rRNA gene based on the clone library using DNA extracted from salted fish products were also performed. The results of these molecular-analysis-based techniques showed that spore-forming and non-spore-forming anaerobic bacteria including the genera Clostridium and Halanaerobium in addition to T. muriaticus were also frequently found in bacterial communities. These findings suggest that the anaerobic condition during curing and ripening resulted in bacterial communities composed of strictly anaerobic bacteria and halophilic LAB, and that these bacteria might also contribute to the manufacturing processes of this product. In addition, DNA sequences similar to that of Clostridium botulinum were found in the clone library analysis. Therefore, despite no reports of botulism poisoning from the region where the samples were taken, closer surveillance should be carried out from the viewpoint of food safety. PMID:27565776

  13. The long journey of botulinum neurotoxins into the synapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) cause the disease botulism, a flaccid paralysis of the muscle. They are also very effective, widely used medicines applied locally in sub-nanogram quantities. BoNTs are released together with several non-toxic, associated proteins as progenitor toxin complexes (PCT) by Clostridium botulinum to become highly potent oral poisons ingested via contaminated food. They block the neurotransmission in susceptible animals and humans already in nanogram quantities due to their specific ability to enter motoneurons and to cleave only selected neuronal proteins involved in neuroexocytosis. BoNTs have developed a sophisticated strategy to passage the gastrointestinal tract and to be absorbed in the intestine of the host to finally attack neurons. A non-toxic non-hemagglutinin (NTNHA) forms a binary complex with BoNT to protect it from gastrointestinal degradation. This binary M-PTC is one component of the bi-modular 14-subunit ∼760 kDa large progenitor toxin complex. The other component is the structurally and functionally independent dodecameric hemagglutinin (HA) complex which facilitates the absorption on the intestinal epithelium by glycan binding. Subsequent to its transcytosis the HA complex disrupts the tight junction of the intestinal barrier from the basolateral side by binding to E-cadherin. Now, the L-PTC can also enter the circulation by paracellular routes in much larger quantities. From here, the dissociated BoNTs reach the neuromuscular junction and accumulate via interaction with polysialo gangliosides, complex glycolipids, on motoneurons at the neuromuscular junction. Subsequently, additional specific binding to luminal segments of synaptic vesicles proteins like SV2 and synaptotagmin leads to their uptake. Finally, the neurotoxins shut down the synaptic vesicle cycle, which they had exploited before to enter their target cells, via specific cleavage of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE

  14. Causes of mortality in laying hens in different housing systems in 2001 to 2004

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    Etterlin Pernille

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The husbandry systems for laying hens were changed in Sweden during the years 2001 – 2004, and an increase in the number of submissions for necropsy from laying hen farms was noted. Hence, this study was initiated to compare causes of mortality in different housing systems for commercial laying hens during this change. Methods Based on results from routine necropsies of 914 laying hens performed at the National Veterinary Institute (SVA in Uppsala, Sweden between 2001 and 2004, a retrospective study on the occurrence of diseases and cannibalism, i.e., pecking leading to mortality, in different housing systems was carried out. Using the number of disease outbreaks in caged flocks as the baseline, the expected number of flocks with a certain category of disease in the other housing systems was estimated having regard to the total number of birds in the population. Whether the actual number of flocks significantly exceeded the expected number was determined using a Poisson distribution for the variance of the baseline number, a continuity correction and the exact value for the Poisson distribution function in Excel 2000. Results Common causes of mortality in necropsied laying hens included colibacillosis, erysipelas, coccidiosis, red mite infestation, lymphoid leukosis and cannibalism. Less common diagnoses were Newcastle Disease, pasteurellosis and botulism. Considering the size of the populations in the different housing systems, a larger proportion of laying hens than expected was submitted for necropsy from litter-based systems and free range production compared to hens in cages (P P P Conclusion The results of the present study indicated that during 2001–2004 laying hens housed in litter-based housing systems, with or without access to outdoor areas, were at higher risk of infectious diseases and cannibalistic behaviour compared to laying hens in cages. Future research should focus on finding suitable prophylactic

  15. Botulinum and Tetanus Neurotoxin-Induced Blockade of Synaptic Transmission in Networked Cultures of Human and Rodent Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beske, Phillip H; Bradford, Aaron B; Grynovicki, Justin O; Glotfelty, Elliot J; Hoffman, Katie M; Hubbard, Kyle S; Tuznik, Kaylie M; McNutt, Patrick M

    2016-02-01

    Clinical manifestations of tetanus and botulism result from an intricate series of interactions between clostridial neurotoxins (CNTs) and nerve terminal proteins that ultimately cause proteolytic cleavage of SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) proteins and functional blockade of neurotransmitter release. Although detection of cleaved SNARE proteins is routinely used as a molecular readout of CNT intoxication in cultured cells, impaired synaptic function is the pathophysiological basis of clinical disease. Work in our laboratory has suggested that the blockade of synaptic neurotransmission in networked neuron cultures offers a phenotypic readout of CNT intoxication that more closely replicates the functional endpoint of clinical disease. Here, we explore the value of measuring spontaneous neurotransmission frequencies as novel and functionally relevant readouts of CNT intoxication. The generalizability of this approach was confirmed in primary neuron cultures as well as human and mouse stem cell-derived neurons exposed to botulinum neurotoxin serotypes A-G and tetanus neurotoxin. The sensitivity and specificity of synaptic activity as a reporter of intoxication was evaluated in assays representing the principal clinical and research purposes of in vivo studies. Our findings confirm that synaptic activity offers a novel and functionally relevant readout for the in vitro characterizations of CNTs. They further suggest that the analysis of synaptic activity in neuronal cell cultures can serve as a surrogate for neuromuscular paralysis in the mouse lethal assay, and therefore is expected to significantly reduce the need for terminal animal use in toxin studies and facilitate identification of candidate therapeutics in cell-based screening assays. PMID:26615023

  16. Accelerated intoxication of GABAergic synapses by botulinum neurotoxin A disinhibits stem cell-derived neuron networks prior to network silencing

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    Phillip H Beske

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs are extremely potent toxins that specifically cleave SNARE proteins in peripheral synapses, preventing neurotransmitter release. Neuronal responses to BoNT intoxication are traditionally studied by quantifying SNARE protein cleavage in vitro or monitoring physiological paralysis in vivo. Consequently, the dynamic effects of intoxication on synaptic behaviors are not well understood. We have reported that mouse embryonic stem cell-derived neurons (ESNs are highly sensitive to BoNT based on molecular readouts of intoxication. Here we study the time-dependent changes in synapse- and network-level behaviors following addition of BoNT/A to spontaneously active networks of glutamatergic and GABAergic ESNs. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings indicated that BoNT/A rapidly blocked synaptic neurotransmission, confirming that ESNs replicate the functional pathophysiology responsible for clinical botulism. Quantitation of spontaneous neurotransmission in pharmacologically isolated synapses revealed accelerated silencing of GABAergic synapses compared to glutamatergic synapses, which was consistent with the selective accumulation of cleaved SNAP-25 at GAD1+ presynaptic terminals at early timepoints. Different latencies of intoxication resulted in complex network responses to BoNT/A addition, involving rapid disinhibition of stochastic firing followed by network silencing. Synaptic activity was found to be highly sensitive to SNAP-25 cleavage, reflecting the functional consequences of the localized cleavage of the small subpopulation of SNAP-25 that is engaged in neurotransmitter release in the nerve terminal. Collectively these findings illustrate that use of synaptic function assays in networked neurons cultures offers a novel and highly sensitive approach for mechanistic studies of toxin:neuron interactions and synaptic responses to BoNT.

  17. Evaluating the synergistic neutralizing effect of anti-botulinum oligoclonal antibody preparations.

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    Eran Diamant

    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT are considered some of the most lethal known substances. There are seven botulinum serotypes, of which types A, B and E cause most human botulism cases. Anti-botulinum polyclonal antibodies (PAbs are currently used for both detection and treatment of the disease. However, significant improvements in immunoassay specificity and treatment safety may be made using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs. In this study, we present an approach for the simultaneous generation of highly specific and neutralizing MAbs against botulinum serotypes A, B, and E in a single process. The approach relies on immunization of mice with a trivalent mixture of recombinant C-terminal fragment (Hc of each of the three neurotoxins, followed by a parallel differential robotic hybridoma screening. This strategy enabled the cloning of seven to nine MAbs against each serotype. The majority of the MAbs possessed higher anti-botulinum ELISA titers than anti-botulinum PAbs and had up to five orders of magnitude greater specificity. When tested for their potency in mice, neutralizing MAbs were obtained for all three serotypes and protected against toxin doses of 10 MsLD50-500 MsLD50. A strong synergistic effect of up to 400-fold enhancement in the neutralizing activity was observed when serotype-specific MAbs were combined. Furthermore, the highly protective oligoclonal combinations were as potent as a horse-derived PAb pharmaceutical preparation. Interestingly, MAbs that failed to demonstrate individual neutralizing activity were observed to make a significant contribution to the synergistic effect in the oligoclonal preparation. Together, the trivalent immunization strategy and differential screening approach enabled us to generate highly specific MAbs against each of the A, B, and E BoNTs. These new MAbs may possess diagnostic and therapeutic potential.

  18. Detection of preformed type A botulinal toxin in hash brown potatoes by using the mouse bioasssay and a modified ELISA test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, J L; Eliasberg, S J; Harrison, M A; Edmonds, P

    2001-01-01

    A foodborne illness caused by type A toxin-producing Clostridium botulinum was investigated by using the standard mouse bioassay and a rapid invitro test for toxin detection. The patient, who consumed improperly stored hash brown potatoes that contained the preformed toxin, was diagnosed with type A botulism. C. botulinum type A toxin was detected in the hash brown potatoes as well as in the tryptone-peptone-glucose-yeast extract (TPGY) medium subcultures of this food using the mouse bioassay and an amplified ELISA technique. The mouse bioassay revealed preformed toxin at 10,000 minimum lethal dose (MLD)/g uncooked product and the amplified ELISA an equivalent 50,000 MLD/g. The cultural toxin from the uncooked product killed mice at the 10(6) dilution and a modification of the ELISA procedure was positive at the 10(3) dilution. Cooked food obtained from the consumer's waste can contained 100 MLD/g and the ELISA was also positive at the same dilution of the product. The culture of the cooked product obtained from the waste can was lethal for mice at the 10(7) dilution and positive using the modified ELISA at the 10(4) dilution. The unmodified amplified ELISA method indicated a toxin level of approximately 1 ng/mL (equivalent to 5 x 10(5) MLD/mL) in diluted culture fluid from the uncooked food and the culture of cooked food obtained from the waste can. The hash brown potatoes were negative for types B, E, and F preformed and cultural botulinal toxins using both assays. PMID:11601465

  19. Prevalence and correlates of neck injection among people who inject drugs in Tijuana, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    RAFFUL, CLAUDIA; WAGNER, KARLA D.; WERB, DAN; GONZÁLEZ-ZÚÑIGA, PATRICIA E.; VERDUGO, SILVIA; RANGEL, GUDELIA; STRATHDEE, STEFFANIE A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and Aims Injecting drugs in the neck has been related to adverse health conditions such as jugular vein thrombosis, deep neck infections, aneurysm, haematomas, airway obstruction, vocal cord paralysis and wound botulism, among others. We identified prevalence and correlates of neck injection among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana, Mexico. Design and Methods Beginning in 2011, PWID aged ≥18 years who injected drugs within the last month were recruited into a prospective cohort. At baseline and semi-annually, PWID completed interviewer-administered surveys soliciting data on drug-injecting practices. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of injecting in the neck as the most frequent injection site at a single visit. Results Of 380 PWID, 35.3% injected in the neck at least once in the past 6 months, among whom 71.6% reported it as their most common injection site, the most common injecting site after the arms (47%). Controlling for age, years injecting and injecting frequency, injecting heroin and methamphetamine two or more times per day and having sought injection assistance were associated with injecting in the neck [adjusted odds ratios (AOR): 2.12; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.27–3.53 and AOR: 2.65; 95% CI: 1.52–4.53 respectively]. Discussion and Conclusions Injecting in the neck was very common among PWID in Tijuana and was associated with polydrug use and seeking injection assistance. Tailoring harm reduction education interventions for individuals who provide injection assistance (‘hit doctors’) may allow for the dissemination of safe injecting knowledge to reduce injection-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:25867795

  20. Easy expression of the C-terminal heavy chain domain of botulinum neurotoxin serotype A as a vaccine candidate using a bi-cistronic baculovirus system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaflores, Oliver B; Hsei, Chein-Ming; Teng, Chao-Yi; Chen, Ying-Ju; Wey, Jiunn-Jye; Tsui, Pei-Yi; Shyu, Rong-Hwa; Tung, Kuo-Lun; Yeh, Jui-Ming; Chiao, Der-Jiang; Wu, Tzong-Yuan

    2013-04-01

    Clostridial botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is one of the most toxic proteins causing the food borne disease, botulism. In previous studies, recombinant BoNT production by Escherichia coli and yeast Pichia pastoris has been hampered by high AT content and codon bias in the gene encoding BoNT and required a synthetic gene to resolve this intrinsic bottleneck. This paper reports the simultaneous expression of the C-terminal heavy chain domain of BoNT (rBoNT/A-HC-6h) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) using a bi-cistronic baculovirus-insect cell expression system. The expression of EGFP facilitated the monitoring of viral infection, virus titer determination, and isolation of the recombinant virus. Protein fusion with hexa-His-tag and one-step immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) purification produced a homogenous, stable, and immunologically active 55-kDa rBoNT/A-HC-6h (about 3mg/L) with >90% purity. Furthermore, measured levels of serum titers were 8-folds for mice vaccinated with the purified rBoNT/A-HC-6h (2μg) than for mice administered with botulinum toxoid after initial immunization. Challenge experiment with botulinum A toxin demonstrated the immunoprotective activity of purified rBoNT/A-HC-6h providing the mice full protection against 10(2) LD50 botulinum A toxin with a dose as low as 0.2μg. This study provided supportive evidence for the use of a bi-cistronic baculovirus-Sf21 insect cell expression system in the facile expression of an immunogenically active rBoNT/A-HC. PMID:23313783

  1. Myasthenia gravis

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    Massey Janice M

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Myasthenia gravis (MG is a rare, autoimmune neuromuscular junction disorder. Contemporary prevalence rates approach 1/5,000. MG presents with painless, fluctuating, fatigable weakness involving specific muscle groups. Ocular weakness with asymmetric ptosis and binocular diplopia is the most typical initial presentation, while early or isolated oropharyngeal or limb weakness is less common. The course is variable, and most patients with initial ocular weakness develop bulbar or limb weakness within three years of initial symptom onset. MG results from antibody-mediated, T cell-dependent immunologic attack on the endplate region of the postsynaptic membrane. In patients with fatigable muscle weakness, the diagnosis of MG is supported by: 1. pharmacologic testing with edrophonium chloride that elicits unequivocal improvement in strength; 2. electrophysiologic testing with repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS studies and/or single-fiber electromyography (SFEMG that demonstrates a primary postsynaptic neuromuscular junctional disorder; and 3. serologic demonstration of acetylcholine receptor (AChR or muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK antibodies. Differential diagnosis includes congenital myasthenic syndromes, Lambert Eaton syndrome, botulism, organophosphate intoxication, mitochondrial disorders involving progressive external ophthalmoplegia, acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP, motor neuron disease, and brainstem ischemia. Treatment must be individualized, and may include symptomatic treatment with cholinesterase inhibitors and immune modulation with corticosteroids, azathioprine, cyclosporine, and mycophenolate mofetil. Rapid, temporary improvement may be achieved for myasthenic crises and exacerbations with plasma exchange (PEX or intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg. Owing to improved diagnostic testing, immunotherapy, and intensive care, the contemporary prognosis is favorable with less than five percent mortality

  2. Detection of Clostridium botulinum in liquid manure and biogas plant wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Jürgen; Schrödl, Wieland; Shehata, Awad A; Krüger, Monika

    2015-09-01

    Biogas plants have been considered as a source for possible amplification and distribution of pathogenic bacteria capable of causing severe infections in humans and animals. Manure and biogas wastes could be sources for spore-forming bacteria such as Clostridium botulinum. In the present study, 24 liquid manure and 84 biogas waste samples from dairies where the majority of the cows suffered from chronic botulism were investigated for the presence of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) and C. botulinum spores. The prevalence of BoNT/A, B, C, D, and E in biogas wastes was 16.6, 8.3, 10.7, 7.1, and 10.8 %, respectively, while in manure, the prevalence was 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 8.3, and 4.1 %, respectively. After enrichment of samples in reinforced cultural medium, they were tested for C. botulinum BoNT/A, B, C, D, and E using ELISA (indirect C. botulinum detection). The prevalence of C. botulinum type A, B, C, D, and E samples in biogas wastes was 20.2, 15.5, 19, 10.7, and 34.8 %, respectively, while the prevalence in liquid manure was 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 8.3, and 12.5 %, respectively. In conclusion, the occurrence of BoNT and C. botulinum spores in biogas waste of diseased animals indicates an increased and underestimated hygienic risk. Application of digestates from biogas fermentations as fertilizers could lead to an accumulation of long lifespan spores in the environment and could be a possible health hazard. PMID:25753763

  3. Genetic Diversity Among Botulinum Neurotoxin Producing Clostridial Strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, K K; Smith, T J; Helma, C H; Ticknor, L O; Foley, B T; Svennson, R T; Brown, J L; Johnson, E A; Smith, L A; Okinaka, R T; Jackson, P J; Marks, J D

    2006-07-06

    Clostridium botulinum is a taxonomic designation for many diverse anaerobic spore forming rod-shaped bacteria which have the common property of producing botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs). The BoNTs are exoneurotoxins that can cause severe paralysis and even death in humans and various other animal species. A collection of 174 C. botulinum strains were examined by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis and by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and BoNT genes to examine genetic diversity within this species. This collection contained representatives of each of the seven different serotypes of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT A-G). Analysis of the16S rRNA sequences confirmed earlier reports of at least four distinct genomic backgrounds (Groups I-IV) each of which has independently acquired one or more BoNT serotypes through horizontal gene transfer. AFLP analysis provided higher resolution, and can be used to further subdivide the four groups into sub-groups. Sequencing of the BoNT genes from serotypes A, B and E in multiple strains confirmed significant sequence variation within each serotype. Four distinct lineages within each of the BoNT A and B serotypes, and five distinct lineages of serotype E strains were identified. The nucleotide sequences of the seven serotypes of BoNT were compared and show varying degrees of interrelatedness and recombination as has been previously noted for the NTNH gene which is linked to BoNT. These analyses contribute to the understanding of the evolution and phylogeny within this species and assist in the development of improved diagnostics and therapeutics for treatment of botulism.

  4. Plasmidome interchange between Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium novyi and Clostridium haemolyticum converts strains of independent lineages into distinctly different pathogens.

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    Hanna Skarin

    Full Text Available Clostridium botulinum (group III, Clostridium novyi and Clostridium haemolyticum are well-known pathogens causing animal botulism, gas gangrene/black disease, and bacillary hemoglobinuria, respectively. A close genetic relationship exists between the species, which has resulted in the collective term C. novyi sensu lato. The pathogenic traits in these species, e.g., the botulinum neurotoxin and the novyi alpha toxin, are mainly linked to a large plasmidome consisting of plasmids and circular prophages. The plasmidome of C. novyi sensu lato has so far been poorly characterized. In this study we explored the genomic relationship of a wide range of strains of C. novyi sensu lato with a special focus on the dynamics of the plasmidome. Twenty-four genomes were sequenced from strains selected to represent as much as possible the genetic diversity in C. novyi sensu lato. Sixty-one plasmids were identified in these genomes and 28 of them were completed. The genomic comparisons revealed four separate lineages, which did not strictly correlate with the species designations. The plasmids were categorized into 13 different plasmid groups on the basis of their similarity and conservation of plasmid replication or partitioning genes. The plasmid groups, lineages and species were to a large extent entwined because plasmids and toxin genes had moved across the lineage boundaries. This dynamic process appears to be primarily driven by phages. We here present a comprehensive characterization of the complex species group C. novyi sensu lato, explaining the intermixed genetic properties. This study also provides examples how the reorganization of the botulinum toxin and the novyi alpha toxin genes within the plasmidome has affected the pathogenesis of the strains.

  5. Prospects of Eliminating Pathogens by the Process of Food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food-borne diseases are an increasing health hazard throughout the world. Some of these diseases, such as salmonellosis, staphylo-entero-toxicosis, botulism, vibriosis and parasitic infections have always played an important role, whereas some other food-borne pathogens, such as Campylobacter, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and toxin-producing fungi have only been recognized in recent decades. Changing food-production methods, food processing and especially food habits, together with the enormous trade in foods and feeds from one part of the world to the other, are responsible for the increase of these diseases. To meet this situation, prevention and control of food-borne diseases, which involve large groups of persons and play a major socio-economic role in many parts of the world, are of utmost importance. In prevention and control programmes food irradiation can be applied successfully and may solve some of the food and feed contamination problems. The author summarizes to-day’s most important food-borne diseases, the type of foods which are responsible for infections in man and animals, and the commodities in which low-dose food irradiation may be of great value in preventing these diseases. The advantages of irradiation versus the use of chemical additives and pesticides and with respect to the prevention of cross-contamination (which plays a very important role in initiating food-borne diseases) by pre-packaging, are emphasized. The required irradiation doses to eliminate or reduce the number of pathogenic organisms which may be present in foods, the problem of radioresistance and the acceptability of irradiated food are discussed. Finally to-day’s situation of irradiated foods with regard to legislation, consumers’ information and economic feasibility is summarized. (author)

  6. Prospects of eliminating pathogens by the process of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food-borne diseases are an increasing health hazard throughout the world. Some of these diseases, such as salmonellosis, staphylo-entero-toxicosis, botulism, vibriosis and parasitic infections have always played an important role, whereas some other food-borne pathogens, such as Campylobacter, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and toxin-producing fungi have only been recognised in recent decades. Changing food-production methods, food processing and especially food habits, together with the enormous trade in foods and feeds from one part of the world to the other, are responsible for the increase of these diseases. To meet this situation, prevention and control of food-borne diseases, which involve large groups of persons and play a major socio-economic role in many parts of the world, are of utmost importance. In prevention and control programmes food irradiation can be applied successfully and may solve some of the food and feed contamination problems. The author summarizes to-day's most important food-borne diseases, the type of foods which are responsible for infections in man and animals, and the commodities in which low-dose food irradiation may be of great value in preventing these diseases. The advantages of irradiation versus the use of chemical additives and pesticides and with respect to the prevention of cross-contamination (which plays a very important role in initiating food-borne diseases) by pre-packaging, are emphasized. The required irradiaton doses to eliminate or reduce the number of pathogenic organisms which may be present in foods, the problem of radioresistance and the acceptability of irradiated food are discussed. Finally to-day's situation of irradiated foods with regard to legislation, consumers' information and economic feasibility is summarized. (author)

  7. Structure-function discrepancy in Clostridium botulinum C3 toxin for its rational prioritization as a subunit vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prathiviraj, R; Prisilla, A; Chellapandi, P

    2016-06-01

    Clostridium botulinum is anaerobic pathogenic bacterium causing food-born botulism in human and animals by producing botulinum neurotoxins A-H, C2, and C3 cytotoxins. Physiological group III strains (type C and D) of this bacterium are capable of producing C2 and C3 toxins in cattle and avian. Herein, we have revealed the structure-function disparity of C3 toxins from two different C. botulinum type C phage (CboC) and type D phage (CboD) to design avirulent toxins rationally. Structure-function discrepancy of the both toxins was computationally evaluated from their homology models based on the conservation in sequence-structure-function relationships upon covariation and point mutations. It has shown that 8 avirulent mutants were generated from CboC of 34 mutants while 27 avirulent mutants resulted from CboD mutants. No major changes were found in tertiary structure of these toxins; however, some structural variations appeared in the coiled and loop regions. Correlated mutation on the first residue would disorder or revolutionize the hydrogen bonding pattern of the coevolved pairs. It suggested that the residues coupling in the local structural environments were compensated with coevolved pairs so as to preserve a pseudocatalytic function in the avirulent mutants. Avirulent mutants of C3 toxins have shown a stable structure with a common blue print of folding process and also attained a near-native backrub ensemble. Thus, we concluded that selecting the site-directed mutagenesis sites are very important criteria for designing avirulent toxins, in development of rational subunit vaccines, to cattle and avian, but the vaccine specificity can be determined by the C3 toxins of C. botulinum harboring phages. PMID:26239365

  8. Systemic colonization of clover (Trifolium repens) by Clostridium botulinum strain 2301

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    Zeiller, Matthias; Rothballer, Michael; Iwobi, Azuka N.; Böhnel, Helge; Gessler, Frank; Hartmann, Anton; Schmid, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, cases of botulism in cattle and other farm animals and also in farmers increased dramatically. It was proposed, that these cases could be affiliated with the spreading of compost or other organic manures contaminated with Clostridium botulinum spores on farm land. Thus, soils and fodder plants and finally farm animals could be contaminated. Therefore, the colonization behavior and interaction of the botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT D) producing C. botulinum strain 2301 and the non-toxin producing Clostridium sporogenes strain 1739 were investigated on clover (Trifolium repens) in a field experiment as well as in phytochamber experiments applying axenic and additionally soil based systems under controlled conditions. Plants were harvested and divided into root and shoot parts for further DNA isolation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays; subsamples were fixed for fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis in combination with confocal laser scanning microscopy. In addition, we observed significant differences in the growth behavior of clover plants when inoculated with clostridial spores, indicating a plant growth promoting effect. Inoculated plants showed an increased growth index (shoot size, wet and dry weight) and an enlarged root system induced by the systemic colonization of clover by C. botulinum strain 2301. To target C. botulinum and C. sporogenes, 16S rDNA directed primers were used and to specifically detect C. botulinum, BoNT D toxin genes targeted primers, using a multiplex PCR approach, were applied. Our results demonstrate an effective colonization of roots and shoots of clover by C. botulinum strain 2301 and C. sporogenes strain 1739. Detailed analysis of colonization behavior showed that C. botulinum can occur as individual cells, in cell clusters and in microcolonies within the rhizosphere, lateral roots and within the roots tissue of clover. PMID:26583010

  9. Structural And Biochemical Studies of Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype C1 Light Chain Protease: Implications for Dual Substrate Specificity

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    Jin, R.; Sikorra, S.; Stegmann, C.M.; Pich, A.; Binz, T.; Brunger, A.T.

    2009-06-01

    Clostridial neurotoxins are the causative agents of the neuroparalytic disease botulism and tetanus. They block neurotransmitter release through specific proteolysis of one of the three soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive-factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) SNAP-25, syntaxin, and synaptobrevin, which constitute part of the synaptic vesicle fusion machinery. The catalytic component of the clostridial neurotoxins is their light chain (LC), a Zn2+ endopeptidase. There are seven structurally and functionally related botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), termed serotype A to G, and tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT). Each of them exhibits unique specificity for their target SNAREs and peptide bond(s) they cleave. The mechanisms of action for substrate recognition and target cleavage are largely unknown. Here, we report structural and biochemical studies of BoNT/C1-LC, which is unique among BoNTs in that it exhibits dual specificity toward both syntaxin and SNAP-25. A distinct pocket (S1') near the active site likely achieves the correct register for the cleavage site by only allowing Ala as the P1' residue for both SNAP-25 and syntaxin. Mutations of this SNAP-25 residue dramatically reduce enzymatic activity. The remote a-exosite that was previously identified in the complex of BoNT/A-LC and SNAP-25 is structurally conserved in BoNT/C1. However, mutagenesis experiments show that the a-exosite of BoNT/C1 plays a less stringent role in substrate discrimination in comparison to that of BoNT/A, which could account for its dual substrate specificity.

  10. Sôbre a patogenia da Grangrena gasona

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    Genésio Pacheco

    1954-06-01

    Full Text Available Since von Hibler gas grangrene has been considered a local infection with systemic symptoms. When we consider some of the symptoms of gas gangrene, those of the central nervous system are in evidence beeing similar to those observed in tetanus and botulism. It is likely therefore that gas gangrene intoxication and the disease caused by it are of neurotoxic nature. With Almeida Cardoso and Araujo Costa we were able to demonstrate lesions in the central nervous system of animals wich had been intoxicated during a short period of time as well in those with intoxication of longer duration. In acute intoxication, after intracreneal inoculation, severe alterations were seen within 20 to 30 minutes in the cells of the spinal cord, specially in motor cells and also in some cells of the posterior cord and spinal bulb. The changes consisted in chromatolysis and picnosis and were more marked in animals intoxicated with Clostridium histolyticum and Cl. perfringens toxines. Myelin sheet was unchanged. in delayed intoxication with greater and repeated dosis lesions of the central nervous system (brain, protuberance, medula ablongate and medula spinal were observed. They consisted in hyperemia, perivascular hemorrages in white and grey substances, oedema, accumulation of glia cells with enlarged and hyperchromatic nuclei, fragmentation of the myelin sheet and balooning degeneration of the described by Spielmeyer. Such changes were found in the swollen and hemorragic zones and were generally similar to those found in the acute type of Spielmeyer 9acute swelling and liquefation. Other changes found sometimes were agglutination of Nissl's bodies, sinous appearence of the dendritic endings, shruncken cells of Spielmeyer and neuronophagy around "ghost" cells. In short the changes...

  11. Analysis of a unique Clostridium botulinum strain from the Southern hemisphere producing a novel type E botulinum neurotoxin subtype

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    Raphael Brian H

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clostridium botulinum strains that produce botulinum neurotoxin type E (BoNT/E are most commonly isolated from botulism cases, marine environments, and animals in regions of high latitude in the Northern hemisphere. A strain of C. botulinum type E (CDC66177 was isolated from soil in Chubut, Argentina. Previous studies showed that the amino acid sequences of BoNT/E produced by various strains differ by rarA operon. Results Genetic and mass spectral analysis demonstrated that the BoNT/E produced by CDC66177 is a novel toxin subtype (E9. Toxin gene sequencing indicated that BoNT/E9 differed by nearly 11% at the amino acid level compared to BoNT/E1. Mass spectrometric analysis of BoNT/E9 revealed that its endopeptidase substrate cleavage site was identical to other BoNT/E subtypes. Further analysis of this strain demonstrated that its 16S rRNA sequence clustered with other Group II C. botulinum (producing BoNT types B, E, and F strains. Genomic DNA isolated from strain CDC66177 hybridized with fewer probes using a Group II C. botulinum subtyping microarray compared to other type E strains examined. Whole genome shotgun sequencing of strain CDC66177 revealed that while the toxin gene cluster inserted into the rarA operon similar to other type E strains, its overall genome content shared greater similarity with a Group II C. botulinum type B strain (17B. Conclusions These results expand our understanding of the global distribution of C. botulinum type E strains and suggest that the type E toxin gene cluster may be able to insert into C. botulinum strains with a more diverse genetic background than previously recognized.

  12. Small-molecule quinolinol inhibitor identified provides protection against BoNT/A in mice.

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    Padma Singh

    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs, etiological agents of the life threatening neuroparalytic disease botulism, are the most toxic substances currently known. The potential for the use as bioweapon makes the development of small-molecule inhibitor against these deadly toxins is a top priority. Currently, there are no approved pharmacological treatments for BoNT intoxication. Although an effective vaccine/immunotherapy is available for immuno-prophylaxis but this cannot reverse the effects of toxin inside neurons. A small-molecule pharmacological intervention, especially one that would be effective against the light chain protease, would be highly desirable. Similarity search was carried out from ChemBridge and NSC libraries to the hit (7-(phenyl(8-quinolinylaminomethyl-8-quinolinol; NSC 84096 to mine its analogs. Several hits obtained were screened for in silico inhibition using AutoDock 4.1 and 19 new molecules selected based on binding energy and Ki. Among these, eleven quinolinol derivatives potently inhibited in vitro endopeptidase activity of botulinum neurotoxin type A light chain (rBoNT/A-LC on synaptosomes isolated from rat brain which simulate the in vivo system. Five of these inhibitor molecules exhibited IC(50 values ranging from 3.0 nM to 10.0 µM. NSC 84087 is the most potent inhibitor reported so far, found to be a promising lead for therapeutic development, as it exhibits no toxicity, and is able to protect animals from pre and post challenge of botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A.

  13. Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype A Recognizes Its Protein Receptor SV2 by a Different Mechanism than Botulinum Neurotoxin B Synaptotagmin.

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    Weisemann, Jasmin; Stern, Daniel; Mahrhold, Stefan; Dorner, Brigitte G; Rummel, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) exhibit extraordinary potency due to their exquisite neurospecificity, which is achieved by dual binding to complex polysialo-gangliosides and synaptic vesicle proteins. The luminal domain 4 (LD4) of the three synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2 isoforms, SV2A-C, identified as protein receptors for the most relevant serotype BoNT/A, binds within the 50 kDa cell binding domain HC of BoNT/A. Here, we deciphered the BoNT/A-SV2 interactions in more detail. In pull down assays, the binding of HCA to SV2-LD4 isoforms decreases from SV2C > SV2A > SV2B. A binding constant of 200 nM was determined for BoNT/A to rat SV2C-LD4 in GST pull down assay. A similar binding constant was determined by surface plasmon resonance for HCA to rat SV2C and to human SV2C, the latter being slightly lower due to the substitution L563F in LD4. At pH 5, as measured in acidic synaptic vesicles, the binding constant of HCA to hSV2C is increased more than 10-fold. Circular dichroism spectroscopy reveals that the quadrilateral helix of SV2C-LD4 already exists in solution prior to BoNT/A binding. Hence, the BoNT/A-SV2C interaction is of different nature compared to BoNT/B-Syt-II. In particular, the preexistence of the quadrilateral β-sheet helix of SV2 and its pH-dependent binding to BoNT/A via backbone-backbone interactions constitute major differences. Knowledge of the molecular details of BoNT/A-SV2 interactions drives the development of high affinity peptides to counteract BoNT/A intoxications or to capture functional BoNT/A variants in innovative detection systems for botulism diagnostic. PMID:27196927

  14. Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype A Recognizes Its Protein Receptor SV2 by a Different Mechanism than Botulinum Neurotoxin B Synaptotagmin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisemann, Jasmin; Stern, Daniel; Mahrhold, Stefan; Dorner, Brigitte G.; Rummel, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) exhibit extraordinary potency due to their exquisite neurospecificity, which is achieved by dual binding to complex polysialo-gangliosides and synaptic vesicle proteins. The luminal domain 4 (LD4) of the three synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2 isoforms, SV2A‐C, identified as protein receptors for the most relevant serotype BoNT/A, binds within the 50 kDa cell binding domain HC of BoNT/A. Here, we deciphered the BoNT/A‐SV2 interactions in more detail. In pull down assays, the binding of HCA to SV2-LD4 isoforms decreases from SV2C >> SV2A > SV2B. A binding constant of 200 nM was determined for BoNT/A to rat SV2C-LD4 in GST pull down assay. A similar binding constant was determined by surface plasmon resonance for HCA to rat SV2C and to human SV2C, the latter being slightly lower due to the substitution L563F in LD4. At pH 5, as measured in acidic synaptic vesicles, the binding constant of HCA to hSV2C is increased more than 10-fold. Circular dichroism spectroscopy reveals that the quadrilateral helix of SV2C-LD4 already exists in solution prior to BoNT/A binding. Hence, the BoNT/A‐SV2C interaction is of different nature compared to BoNT/B‐Syt-II. In particular, the preexistence of the quadrilateral β-sheet helix of SV2 and its pH-dependent binding to BoNT/A via backbone–backbone interactions constitute major differences. Knowledge of the molecular details of BoNT/A‐SV2 interactions drives the development of high affinity peptides to counteract BoNT/A intoxications or to capture functional BoNT/A variants in innovative detection systems for botulism diagnostic. PMID:27196927

  15. Analysis of the neurotoxin complex genes in Clostridium botulinum A1-A4 and B1 strains: BoNT/A3, /Ba4 and /B1 clusters are located within plasmids.

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    Theresa J Smith

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clostridium botulinum and related clostridial species express extremely potent neurotoxins known as botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs that cause long-lasting, potentially fatal intoxications in humans and other mammals. The amino acid variation within the BoNT is used to categorize the species into seven immunologically distinct BoNT serotypes (A-G which are further divided into subtypes. The BoNTs are located within two generally conserved gene arrangements known as botulinum progenitor complexes which encode toxin-associated proteins involved in toxin stability and expression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Because serotype A and B strains are responsible for the vast majority of human botulism cases worldwide, the location, arrangement and sequences of genes from eight different toxin complexes representing four different BoNT/A subtypes (BoNT/A1-Ba4 and one BoNT/B1 strain were examined. The bivalent Ba4 strain contained both the BoNT/A4 and BoNT/bvB toxin clusters. The arrangements of the BoNT/A3 and BoNT/A4 subtypes differed from the BoNT/A1 strains and were similar to those of BoNT/A2. However, unlike the BoNT/A2 subtype, the toxin complex genes of BoNT/A3 and BoNT/A4 were found within large plasmids and not within the chromosome. In the Ba4 strain, both BoNT toxin clusters (A4 and bivalent B were located within the same 270 kb plasmid, separated by 97 kb. Complete genomic sequencing of the BoNT/B1 strain also revealed that its toxin complex genes were located within a 149 kb plasmid and the BoNT/A3 complex is within a 267 kb plasmid. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite their size differences and the BoNT genes they contain, the three plasmids containing these toxin cluster genes share significant sequence identity. The presence of partial insertion sequence (IS elements, evidence of recombination/gene duplication events, and the discovery of the BoNT/A3, BoNT/Ba4 and BoNT/B1 toxin complex genes within plasmids illustrate the

  16. Distonia laríngea respiratória

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    Lebl Mariana Dantas Aumond

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A distonia laríngea respiratória (DLR é uma desordem rara caracterizada por espasmos da musculatura adutora das pregas vocais durante a fase inalatória da respiração, com manifestação clínica de dispnéia e estridor. O diagnóstico etiológico do estridor laríngeo, entretanto, nem sempre é fácil de ser realizado, principalmente em situações emergenciais, de forma que a DLR pode não ser diagnosticada, o que nos leva a supor ser mais freqüente do que usualmente é descrita. O diagnóstico da DRL requer primeiramente a realização de uma história médica e exames laringológico e neurológico apropriados, com ênfase na verificação da presença de características distônicas e na exclusão de outras etiologias causadoras de movimentos paradoxais de pregas vocais. Muitos tratamentos foram propostos para a DLR, mas nenhum deles apresentou resultados satisfatórios. O uso da Toxina Botulínica do tipo A (Botox® no músculo tireoaritenoídeo tem oferecido melhoras admiráveis, apesar dos poucos casos descritos. Apresentamos dois casos clínicos de pacientes com DLR tratados com Botox® que apresentavam o fechamento glótico inspiratório causado tanto pelos espasmos anômalos dos músculos tireoaritenoídeos, como pela movimentação paradoxal da epiglote. Dentro da classificação proposta por Koufman e Blabock para as distonias laríngeas, inserimos um novo subtipo de DLR caracterizado pela presença de paroxismos de adução de estruturas glóticas e supraglóticas durante a respiração.

  17. Structural Insights into the Functional Role of the Hcn Sub-domain of the Receptor-Binding Domain of the Botulinum Neurotoxin Mosaic Serotype C/D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yanfeng; Gardberg, Anna; Edwards, Tom E.; Sankaran, Banumathi; Robinson, Howard; Varnum, Susan M.; Buchko, Garry W.

    2013-07-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), the causative agent of the deadly neuroparalytic disease botulism, is the most poisonous protein known for humans. Produced by different strains of the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum, BoNT effects cellular intoxication via a multistep mechanism executed by the three modules of the activated protein. Endocytosis, the first step of cellular intoxication, is triggered by the ~50 kDa, heavy-chain receptor-binding module (HCR) that is specific for a ganglioside and a protein receptor on neuronal cell surfaces. This dual receptor recognition mechanism between BoNT and the host cell’s membrane is well documented and occurs via specific intermolecular interactions with the C-terminal sub-domain, Hcc, of BoNT-HCR. The N-terminal sub-domain of BoNT-HCR, Hcn, comprises ~50% of BoNT-HCR and adopts a B-sheet jelly roll fold. While suspected in assisting cell surface recognition, no unambiguous function for the Hcn sub-domain in BoNT has been indentified. To obtain insights into the potential function of the Hcn sub-domain in BoNT, the first crystal structure of a BoNT with an organic ligand bound to the Hcn sub-domain has been obtained. Here, we describe the crystal structure of BoNT/CD-HCR determined at 1.70 Å resolution with a tetraethylene glycol (PG4) molecule bound in an hydrophobic cleft between B-strands in the B-sheet jelly fold roll of the Hcn sub-domain. The molecule is completely engulfed in the cleft, making numerous hydrophobic (Y932, S959, W966, and D1042) and hydrophilic (S935, W977, L979, N1013, and I1066) contacts with the protein’s side chain and backbone that may mimic in vivo interactions with the phospholipid membranes on neuronal cell surfaces. A sulfate ion was also observed bound to residues T1176, D1177, K1196, and R1243 in the Hcc sub-domain of BoNT/CD-HCR. In the crystal structure of a similar protein, BoNT/D-HCR, a sialic acid

  18. Acalasia de esôfago de causa desconhecida na infância Esophageal achalasia of unknown etiology in children

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    Pedro M. Fernandez

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Os autores descrevem o caso de uma criança do sexo feminino, de 9 anos de idade, com acalasia de esôfago de causa indeterminada, tratada cirurgicamente. Discutem também os métodos empregados para diagnóstico e tratamento, além de realizarem uma revisão da literatura. DESCRIÇÃO: A acalasia do esôfago é uma doença rara em crianças, geralmente de origem indeterminada. Tem como principais sintomas regurgitação, vômitos de características esofágicas, disfagia e perda de peso. O diagnóstico é feito por esofagograma, endoscopia e, mais precisamente, por manometria esofágica. O tratamento de escolha é a cardiomiotomia a Heller, associada ou não a válvula anti-refluxo. A dilatação endoscópica por balão e a toxina botulínica têm sido descritas como alternativas terapêuticas. COMENTÁRIOS: A acalasia de esôfago é uma doença rara em crianças, e sua origem geralmente é indeterminada. O quadro clínico pode ser confundido com doença do refluxo gastroesofágico, podendo retardar seu diagnóstico. A cardiomiotomia a Heller, associada à confecção de válvula anti-refluxo, consiste na modalidade terapêutica de escolha.OBJECTIVE: To report a case of a 9-year-old female presented with esophageal achalasia and approached with surgery. The authors discuss the treatment and make a literature review on the topic. DESCRIPTION: Childhood esophageal achalasia is an unusual disease, often with unknown etiology. The main symptoms are esophageal vomits, dysphagia and weight loss. The diagnosis can be made by esophagogram and endoscopy, but the main examination is the esophageal manometry. Even though the surgical approach is a well-established therapy, some alternative treatments have been used, such as the endoscopy balloon dilatation and the use of botulinum toxin. COMMENTS: Esophageal achalasia is a rare disease in childhood, with unknown etiology. The presentation may be confused with gastroeshophageal reflux, sometimes

  19. Comparação entre acalásia idiopática e acalásia conseqüente à doença de Chagas: revisão de publicações sobre o tema

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    Dantas Roberto Oliveira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: Embora acalásia idiopática e acalásia conseqüente à doença de Chagas tenham manifestações clínicas semelhantes, mesmo tratamento e ambas comprometerem o plexo mientérico do esôfago, é possível que as alterações motoras do esôfago provocadas pelas duas doenças não sejam iguais, conseqüência da diferente intensidade da destruição dos neurônios inibitórios e excitatórios do esôfago. OBJETIVOS: Revisar os trabalhos que estudaram a fisiopatologia e as alterações motoras do esôfago na acalásia idiopática e na doença de Chagas. DADOS E FONTES DE REFERÊNCIAS: Foram revistos trabalhos que definiram as características da acalásia idiopática e aquela provocada pela doença de Chagas. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Está demonstrado o comprometimento da inervação inibitória do esôfago nas duas doenças. Em relação à inervação excitatória, os resultados dos estudos dos efeitos do edrofônio, da atropina e da toxina botulínica sugerem que ela está mais comprometida na doença de Chagas do que na acalásia idiopática, o que justificaria a maior pressão do esfíncter inferior do esôfago observada na acalásia idiopática. Os pacientes com doença de Chagas têm mais falhas de contrações e maior freqüência de anticorpos contra os receptores muscarínicos M2 da acetilcolina. A duração da contração em corpo esofágico é maior nos pacientes com acalásia idiopática. CONCLUSÕES: Os diferentes trabalhos que estudaram as duas doenças sugerem que existem diferenças entre o comprometimento do esôfago na acalásia idiopática e na doença de Chagas, principalmente no comprometimento da inervação excitatória, mais intenso na doença de Chagas.

  20. National surveillance of poultry diseases in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, E K; Hamadeh, S K; Hilan, C; Kallas, M; Eid, A; Sakr, W

    1997-12-01

    From 1992 to mid-1996, a national survey of poultry diseases in Lebanon was conducted. This surveillance included meat breeder, layer breeder, commercial layer and chicken broiler flocks. The history, signs, lesions and laboratory tests of poultry were used in the diagnosis of prevalent poultry diseases. Culture techniques were used to screen for bacterial diseases; serological techniques and, to a lesser extent, culture techniques were used to diagnose viral diseases; and both serological and culture techniques were used to diagnose Mycoplasma infections. The outbreaks of diseases detected in broiler breeder flocks and the number of such flocks experiencing these diseases were as follows: femoral head necrosis (6), egg-drop syndrome (3), reovirus-associated malabsorption syndrome (3), synovitis (Mycoplasma synoviae infection) (7), swollen head syndrome (SHS) (3), tenosynovitis (viral arthritis) (1), lymphoid leukosis (3), avian encephalomyelitis (1), fowl pox (1) and aortic rupture (1). The disease outbreaks detected in layer breeders were as follows: SHS (2), bumble foot (2), egg-drop syndrome (3) and avian infectious bronchitis (IB) (1). The disease outbreaks detected in commercial layer flocks were as follows: egg-drop syndrome (5), avian infectious laryngotracheitis (2), avian IB (nephrogenic strain) (1), malabsorption (1), avian tuberculosis (Mycobacterium avium) (1), Marek's disease (1), fowl pox (1), Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Enteritidis infection (1), salpingitis (1) and Heterakis gallinae infestation (1). The disease outbreaks detected in broiler flocks were as follows: colibacillosis (40), infectious bursal disease (Gumboro disease) (15), malabsorption syndrome (8), avian infectious laryngotracheitis (8), paratyphoids (salmonellosis) (7), femoral head necrosis (8), SHS (6), avian mycoplasmosis (Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection) (6), synovitis (7), avian IB (6), botulism (1), avian encephalomyelitis (1) and gangrenous dermatitis (1). Diseases

  1. High dose botulinum toxin A for the treatment of lower extremity hypertonicity in children with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Allison W; Crowner, Beth; Brunstrom, Janice E; Kissel, Abigail; Racette, Brad A

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the safety profile of high dose (15–25 units/kg) of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and increased lower extremity muscle tone. We performed a retrospective review of 929 patient encounters at the Movement Disorders Center at Washington University. A total of 261 patients (105 females; 156 males) were treated during these visits, ages 6 months to 21 years (mean 8y 4mo [SD 4y 8mo]). Ambulatory ability at the time of BTX-A injection was independent ambulation (36.4%, n=95), ambulation with a walker (27.6%, n=72), and non-ambulatory (31.8%, n=83). A few patients (4.2%, n=11) were able to ambulate with a cane or crutch at the time of injection. Participants were characterized according to BTX-A dose, CP etiology, motor involvement pattern, muscles injected, ambulatory ability, and use of oral tone medications. Follow-up records were searched for reported adverse events (AEs), with a mean time to AE assessment of 6.5 weeks (SD 3.38). The AE occurrence was determined for doses of 0 to 4.9 units/kg, 5 to 9.9 units/kg, 10 to 14.9 units/kg, 15 to 19.9 units/kg, and 20 to 25 units/kg. The overall AE occurrence was 4.2%. Standard doses of BTX-A had side-effect occurrences of 3.9% for 5 to 10 units/kg and 7.6% for 10 to 15 units/kg. Among higher doses (15–20 units/kg and 20–25 units/kg) the AE occurrence was 3.5% and 8.6% respectively. No patient developed botulism. AEs were randomly distributed across dosing groups, CP etiologies, clinical phenotypes, ambulatory status, and treatment duration. All doses were associated with a significant increase in passive range of motion using the Tardieu scale. We conclude that higher dose BTX-A is safe in children with a spectrum of CP phenotypes and are well tolerated over time. PMID:17979859

  2. Advances in Significance Testing for Cluster Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Deidra Andrea

    surveillance data while controlling the Bayesian False Discovery Rate (BFDR). The procedure entails choosing an appropriate Bayesian model that captures the spatial dependency inherent in epidemiological data and considers all days of interest, selecting a test statistic based on a chosen measure that provides the magnitude of the maximumal spatial cluster for each day, and identifying a cutoff value that controls the BFDR for rejecting the collective null hypothesis of no outbreak over a collection of days for a specified region.We use our procedure to analyze botulism-like syndrome data collected by the North Carolina Disease Event Tracking and Epidemiologic Collection Tool (NC DETECT).

  3. Detection of botulinum neurotoxin serotype B at sub mouse LD(50 levels by a sandwich immunoassay and its application to toxin detection in milk.

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    Miles C Scotcher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT, the causative agent of botulism, a serious neuroparylatic disease, is produced by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum and consists of a family of seven serotypes (A-H. We previously reported production of high-affinity monoclonal antibodies to BoNT serotype A. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Recombinant peptide fragments of the light chain, the transmembrane and receptor-binding domains of the heavy chain of botulinum neurotoxin type B (BoNT/B were expressed in Escherichia coli as GST-fusion proteins and purified. These proteins were used to immunize BALB/cJ mice for the generation of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs. Antibody-producing hybridomas were detected using either a direct binding ELISA binding to plate-immobilized BoNT/B, or with a capture-capture ELISA whereby the capacity of the antibody to capture BoNT/B from solution was tested. A total of five mAbs were selected, two of which bound the toxin light chain and three bound the receptor-binding domain of BoNT/B heavy chain. MAb MCS6-27 was identified via capture-capture ELISA and was the only mAb able to bind BoNT/B in solution under physiological conditions. MAbs F24-1, F26-16, F27-33 and F29-40 were identified via direct binding ELISA, and were able to capture BoNT/B in solution only in the presence of 0.5-0.9 mM sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS. MAb MCS6-27 and an anti-BoNT/B polyclonal antibody were incorporated into a sandwich ELISA that did not require SDS. CONCLUSIONS: We report here the generation of monoclonal antibodies to serotype B and the subsequent development of a sensitive sandwich immunoassay. This immunoassay has a detection limit of 100 fg BoNT/B, fifty times more sensitive than the mouse bioassay detection limit of 5 pg BoNT/B. Additionally, this assay detected as little as 39 pg/mL of toxin in skim, 2% and whole milk.

  4. Paralisia cerebral, novas perspectivas terapêuticas Cerebral palsy, new therapeutic possibilities

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    Newra Tellechea Rotta

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: a revisão da paralisia cerebral tem como objetivo oferecer ao pediatra informações atualizadas sobre o diagnóstico e tratamento. Fontes dos dados: foram utilizados dados de revisão bibliográfica não sistematizada e da experiência no atendimento dos pacientes da Unidade de Neurologia do Serviço de Pediatria do HCPA-UFRGS. Síntese dos dados: o diagnóstico e tratamento da paralisia cerebral é multidisciplinar. Ao lado do sintoma principal motor, estão os sintomas associados que requerem igual atenção. Os exames de neuroimagem são importantes para melhor localizar a lesão, e mostrar sua extensão e características. O EEG auxilia no diagnóstico das epilepsias associadas. O tratamento principal é fisioterápico, auxiliado pelo tratamento da espasticidade, com antiespásticos orais, ou com toxina botulínica injetável. O tratamento de epilepsia secundária varia de acordo com o tipo de crise. Conclusões: o pediatra é o primeiro médico a entrar em contato com a criança com paralisia cerebral, e deve estar apto para reconhecer precocemente os desvios do desenvolvimento, orientar o manejo e, dentro das possibilidades e necessidades, encaminhar ao especialista.Objective: to provide pediatrician with updated information about diagnoses and treatment of cerebral palsy. This articles aims at supplying pediatricians with tools that will help them diagnose and treat cerebral palsy. Sources: non-systematic review of literature combined with personal experience at the Neurology Unit of Pediatrics Service of Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre - Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. Summary of the findings: the cerebral palsy diagnosis and treatment are based on multidisciplinary clinical exam, EEG, CT and MR. Conclusions: pediatricians are the first physician that see the patient with cerebral palsy. Thus, they should be able to diagnose an treat it.

  5. Qualidade de Vida em Voz: estudo na doença de Parkinson idiopática e na disfonia espasmódica adutora Quality of life in voice: a study in Parkinson's disease and in adductor spasmodic dysphonia

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    Bárbara Pereira Lopes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o impacto causado pela alteração vocal na qualidade de vida (QV dos pacientes com doença de Parkinson (DP idiopática e com disfonia espasmódica adutora (DEA. MÉTODO: o estudo foi realizado com 56 indivíduos do sexo feminino, dos quais 28 compunham o grupo controle; 14, o grupo de DEA, no período anterior ao tratamento com toxina botulínica; e 14, o grupo de DP idiopática. Os participantes preencheram o questionário de Qualidade de Vida em Voz (QVV validado para o português brasileiro. Para verificar a diferença entre as médias dos grupos foi utilizado o método de análise de variância por postos de Kruskal-Wallis e o teste de Tamhane para comparações múltiplas, com significância PURPOSE: to evaluate the impact of voice disorders on quality of life of patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease and with adductor spasmodic dysphonia. METHOD: the study consisted of 56 females, 28 in the control group; 14, the adductor spasmodic dysphonia group in the period prior to treatment with botulinum toxin; and 14, the group of idiopathic Parkinson's disease. The participants filled in the Voice-Related Quality of life (V-RQOL questionnaire validated for Brazilian Portuguese. To check the difference between averages of the groups it was used the method of analysis of variance by Kruskal-Wallis and Tamhane test for multiple comparisons, with significance <0.05. RESULTS: the average age of the groups were 66.18 for the control group, 67.21 for the Parkinson's disease group and 59.7 for the adductor spasmodic dysphonia group, with no statistical difference between the groups. In the V-RQOL protocol the mean domain social-emotional, physical functioning and total score were higher in the control group, followed by group of Parkinson's disease and, finally, the group of adductor spasmodic dysphonia with statistically significant difference between them. In addition, there was statistical difference for each pair of groups

  6. Qualidade de Vida em Voz: estudo na doença de Parkinson idiopática e na Disfonia Espasmódica Adutora Quality of life in voice: a study in Parkinson's disease and in adductor spasmodic dysphonia

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    Bárbara Pereira Lopes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o impacto causado pela alteração vocal na qualidade de vida (QV dos pacientes com doença de Parkinson (DP idiopática e com disfonia espasmódica adutora (DEA. MÉTODO: o estudo foi realizado com 56 indivíduos do sexo feminino, dos quais 28 compunham o grupo controle; 14, o grupo de DEA, no período anterior ao tratamento com toxina botulínica; e 14, o grupo de DP idiopática. Os participantes preencheram o questionário de Qualidade de Vida em Voz (QVV validado para o português brasileiro. Para verificar a diferença entre as médias dos grupos foi utilizado o método de análise de variância por postos de Kruskal-Wallis e o teste de Tamhane para comparações múltiplas, com significância PURPOSE: to evaluate the impact of voice disorders on quality of life of patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease and with adductor spasmodic dysphonia. METHOD: the study consisted of 56 females, 28 in the control group; 14, the adductor spasmodic dysphonia group in the period prior to treatment with botulinum toxin; and 14, the group of idiopathic Parkinson's disease. The participants filled in the Voice-Related Quality of life (V-RQOL questionnaire validated for Brazilian Portuguese. To check the difference between averages of the groups it was used the method of analysis of variance by Kruskal-Wallis and Tamhane test for multiple comparisons, with significance <0.05. RESULTS: the average age of the groups were 66.18 for the control group, 67.21 for the Parkinson's disease group and 59.7 for the adductor spasmodic dysphonia group, with no statistical difference between the groups. In the V-RQOL protocol the mean domain social-emotional, physical functioning and total score were higher in the control group, followed by group of Parkinson's disease and, finally, the group of adductor spasmodic dysphonia with statistically significant difference between them. In addition, there was statistical difference for each pair of groups

  7. Brotes de infección por histeria monocytogenes: Una revisión de las vías que llevan a su aparición Listeria monocytogenes outbreaks: A review of the routes that favor bacterial presence

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    M. Laura Rossi

    2008-10-01

    , particularly since listeriosis is a relatively rare disease compared with other common foodborne illnesses such as salmonellosis or botulism. However, because of its high case fatality rate, listeriosis ranks among the most frequent causes of death due to foodborne illness: second after salmonellosis. Changes in the manner food is produced, distributed and stored have created the potential for widespread outbreaks involving many countries. The pasteurization of raw milk, which destroys L. monocytogenes, does not eliminate later risk ofL. monocytogenes contamination in dairy producís. Extensive work has been ongoing in many countries during the last decade to prevent outbreaks and decrease the incidence of listeriosis. A marked reduction has occurred in its incidence in some of these countries during the 1990s, suggesting a relationship between preventive measures and reduction on human cases listeriosis.

  8. Distonias: aspectos clínicos e terapêuticos em 64 pacientes Dystonias: clinical and therapeutic features in 64 patients

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    James Pitágoras de Mattos

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available Os Autores apresentam a experiência em 64 pacientes, com as várias formas clínicas de apresentação de distonias, acompanhados no Setor de Doenças Extrapiramidais do Serviço de Neurologia do Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho da UFRJ, assim como, revisam a literatura, cotejando os resultados. O acompanhamento desses pacientes durante 5 anos e 6 meses resultou nas seguintes observações: 33 do sexo masculino e 31 do feminino; 48 brancos, 10 pardos e 6 negros; a média do tempo de doença foi 9 anos e 8 meses. Quanto à distribuição do movimento anormal, 30 (46,9% eram focais; 17 (26,6%, segmentares; 13 (20,3%, generalizadas; 3 (4,7%, hemidistonias; 1 (1,5%, multifocal. Quanto à idade de início, em 11 (17,2% se apresentou antes dos 12 anos; em 6 (9,4%, entre 13 e 20 anos; e em 47 (73,4%, após os 20 anos. Correspondiam à origem idiopática esporádica, 39 (60,9%; idiopática familiar, 6 (9,4%; sintomática, 19 (29,7%. No que se refere à abordagem terapêutica destes pacientes, destacamos o emprego de anticolinérgicos, de agonistas e antagonistas dopaminérgicos e do baclofen isolado ou associado aos anticolinérgicos para as formas generalizadas. Para as distonias focais, os Autores concluem ser a toxina botulínica do tipo A o agente terapêutico mais eficaz aconselhado atualmente.The experience with 64 patients with dystonia seen at the Extrapyramidal Diseases Sector of the Neurology Department of the Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho of the UFRJ is presented as well as the pertinent review of the literature. The five-and-a-half-year of follow-up showed that 33 were male and 31 female; 48 were white, 10 mulatto and 6 negro; the mean time of disease was 9 years and 8 months. According to the distribution of the movement disorder, 30 (46.9% were focal, 17 (26.6% segmental, 13 (20.3% generalized, 3 (4.7% hemidystonia and 1 (1.5% multifocal. In 11 (17.2% the age of onset was before 12 years old, in 6 (9

  9. Doenças do sistema nervoso de bovinos no semiárido nordestino Diseases of the nervous system of cattle in the semiarid of Northeastern Brazil

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    Glauco J.N. Galiza

    2010-03-01

    pituitary abscesses, malignant catarrhal fever (6.3%, botulism (6.3%, congenital malformations (4.5%, trauma (4.5%, tuberculosis (2.7%, tetanus (2.7%, infection by bovine hervesvirus-5 (2.7%, non-suppurative encephalomyelitis (2.7%, intoxication by Prosopis juliflora (2.7%, congenital status spongiosus of unknown etiology (1.8%, and polioencephalomalacia (1.8%. Other diseases diagnosed only once (0.9% were cryptococcosis, listeriosis, thromboembolic encephalitis, lymphosarcoma, trypanosso-miasis, and babesiosis by Babesia bovis.

  10. Inhibition of botulinum toxin's association with rat brain synaptosomes by toosendanin,an antibotulismic triterpenoid

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    Jianying Zhou; Yuliang Shi

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Toosendanin(TSN),a triterpenoid derivative extracted from the bark of Melia toosendanin Sieb et Zucc,has been demonstrated to be an effective drug for treatment of experimental botulism.OBJECTIVE:To explore its antibotulismic mechanism by observing the effect of toosendanin on association of botulinum toxin(BoTx)with rat brain synaptosomes under different conditions.DESIGN:A randomized controlled experiment.SETTING:Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences,Chinese Academy of Sciences.MATERIALS:Sprague-Dawley rats,weighing(220±12)g,were involved.TSN was a sample recrystallized in ethanol with a purity>98%.BoTx/A and BoTx/C of 500 ku(1.8x107mouse LD50/mg)were purchased from Wako(Japan),Horse antitoxins to BoTx/A and/C(pdmary antibodies)were purchased from Lanzhou Institute of Biological Products(China).METHODS:Major experiments were finished between March 2005 and October 2005 in key laboratory of neurobiology,Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences,Chinese Academy of Sciences.①Preparation of synaptosome of rats:one aliquot of synaptosome was pre-incubated with TSN(17μmol/L)for 20 minutes at 4℃or 37℃(another aliquot of synaptosome which was untouched was used as control).Then,BoTx was respectively added for another 20-minute incubation.②A homochronous experiment was still Derformed at 37℃.Differently,high level of K+ was used to stimulate synaptosome for 25 minutee.Two aliquots of synaptosomes with or without TSN(17 μmol/L)were preincubated for 15 minutes.Then,30 mmol/L KCl was separately added in two aliquots,5 minutes later,13 nmol/L BoTx/C was separately added followed by 20-minute incubation.[3]The effect of TSN on BoTx binding was observed by Western blot and synchronization method.③ttest was used for comparing the difference of measurement data.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:The gray value of BoTx bands from westem blot was used to estimate the bound amount of BoTx.RESULTS:①Preincubation of synaptosomes with TSN(17 μmol/L)at 4

  11. Tratamento médico e fonoaudiológico da disfonia espasmódica: uma revisão bibliográfica Medical treatment and speech therapy for spasmodic dysphonia: a literature review

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    Eliana Maria Gradim Fabron

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A disfonia espasmódica (DE é um distúrbio vocal caracterizado por voz tensa-estrangulada, com quebras de sonoridade e que compromete a comunicação do indivíduo. O objetivo deste estudo é apresentar uma revisão bibliográfica dos tratamentos médico e fonoaudiológico proposto para a DE no período entre 2006 e 2010. Os tratamentos descritos foram: injeção de toxina botulínica (TB, miectomia, neurectomia, denervação e reinervação laríngea seletiva adutora, tireoplastia, miotermia tiroaritenóidea com radiofrequência, injeção de lidocaína, homeopatia e tratamento fonoaudiológico (fonoterapia. O uso de injeção de TB mostrou resultados que indicaram a satisfação dos pacientes tratados, embora alguns dos artigos apontassem a necessidade de reaplicação da toxina frequentemente, como desvantagem. Os procedimentos cirúrgicos foram considerados duradouros e indicados para os pacientes que não quiseram se submeter às aplicações de TB. Tais estudos, no entanto, apresentaram contingência de pacientes restrita e os resultados foram baseados, na maioria das investigações, no julgamento dos próprios pacientes sobre a sua qualidade vocal. Os tratamentos, com uso de lidocaína e homeopatia, mostraram resultados positivos em relação à qualidade vocal dos pacientes e foram sugeridos como uma opção, também, para aqueles que não gostariam de ser submetidos ao tratamento cirúrgico ou à aplicação de TB. Os poucos estudos que reportam fonoterapia assinalaram bons resultados quando a mesma foi associada à injeção de TB, mostrando a escassez de informações nesta área. Futuras pesquisas envolvendo a fonoterapia no tratamento da DE são necessárias.Spasmodic dysphonia (SD is a voice disorder characterized by a strained-strangled voice, with sound breaks and has implications in one's communication. The purpose of this study is to present a bibliographic review of the speech therapy and medical treatment suggested for SD

  12. Dor torácica não-cardiogênica Non-cardiac chest pain

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    Gerson Ricardo de Souza Domingues

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Dor torácica não-cardiogênica ou dor torácica funcional é síndrome clínica com elevada prevalência no mundo ocidental, podendo estar presente entre 15% a 30% dos pacientes com coronariografias normais. Tem importante impacto na qualidade de vida dos pacientes e associa-se com considerável aumento da utilização dos serviços de saúde. FONTES DE INFORMAÇÃO: Para esta revisão, foram utilizadas as seguintes bases de dados: Medline, the Cochrane Library, LILACS e livros nacionais. Das publicações dos últimos 5 anos foram selecionadas fontes relevantes como artigos originais, artigos de revisão, consensos, diretrizes e revisões sistemáticas de literatura com meta-análise. Publicações relevantes anteriores ao período de tempo analisado, foram também incluídas. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídas 44 publicações, sendo 28 artigos originais, 12 trabalhos de revisão, 2 diretrizes, 1 meta-análise e 1 consenso. CONCLUSÕES: A dor torácica não-cardiogênica abrange a investigação do trato digestório, do aparelho musculoesquelético, do aparelho respiratório e de distúrbios psicológicos. O objetivo do tratamento é o alívio ou eliminação do sintoma e deve estar voltado para o principal mecanismo gerador. A base do tratamento é medicamentosa, entretanto, pode ser necessária intervenção de natureza psicológica e, nos pacientes com acalásia a terapia endoscópica ou cirúrgica. Considerando-se que a maioria dos pacientes apresentarão causas relacionadas ao esôfago, sendo as principais, a doença do refluxo gastroesofágico e distúrbios motores, as principais medicações utilizadas no controle da dor torácica não-cardiogênica são os inibidores da bomba de prótons e os antidepressivos tricíclicos. Recentemente, novas modalidades diagnósticas e também formas de tratamento, tais como, a injeção por endoscopia de toxina botulínica no esôfago e a hipnose, estão em investigação e algumas poder

  13. ACCEPTANCE OF GUARIROBA [Syagrus oleracea (Mart. Becc.] PALM HEART IN PRESERVES OF DIFFERENT ORGANIC ACIDS ACEITAÇÃO DO PALMITO DE GUARIROBA [Syagrus oleracea (Mart. Becc.] EM CONSERVAS SOB DIFERENTES ÁCIDOS ORGÂNICOS

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    Nilson Gomes Jaime

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the acceptation of guariroba [Syagrus oleracea (Mart. Becc.] palm heart preserved, acidified with organic the acids acetic, citric monohydrate, dl-lactic 85%, and dl-malic and L(+-tartaric. The 75 preserves of guariroba were processed, packed in glass bottles, immersed in brine acidified with different organic acids, in quantities sufficient to lower the pH of the mixture to about 4.3, projected for balance. The experiment was completely randomized, with five treatments and fifteen repetitions. Six glasses of palm hearts at random were used to determine the stabilizing pH of the preserves. Nine glasses were used to assess the acceptance of preserved guariroba and other physical and chemical analyses. The acceptance was evaluated through a tasting portion of approximately 50 g of the product, based on a hedonic scale of seven levels, applied to 500 not trained volunteers. All treatments have had acceptance exceeding 80% among judgers used to guariroba consumption, and over 65% among non-consumers. The treatment with malic acid (pH 3.50 obtained lower acceptance than those acidified with acetic (pH 4.01, citric (pH 3.67, lactic (pH 3.88, and tartaric acids (pH 3.43, which did not differ significantly among them. In such levels of pH, the costs of acidification with lactic acid, citric acid, and acetic acid were equivalent among them and lower than those processed with malic and tartaric acids.

     

    KEY-WORD: Palmetto; canned heart-of-palm; botulism.

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a aceitação de palmito de guariroba [Syagrus oleracea (Mart. Becc.] em conserva, acidificada

  14. Current endoscopic techniques in the treatment of obesity Técnicas endoscópicas actuales en el tratamiento de la obesidad

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    Eduardo Espinet-Coll

    2012-02-01

    últimos años han surgido y se han ido desarrollando nuevas estrategias y técnicas endoscópicas para el tratamiento de la obesidad. Propósito del estudio: en este artículo revisamos y analizamos el estado actual de estas técnicas y las características básicas diferenciales entre cada una de ellas: balones y prótesis, inyección de sustancias, sistemas de suturas, técnicas malabsortivas y otras actualmente en investigación. Métodos: se evalúa tanto la técnica endoscópica como sus principales indicaciones, resultados, tolerancias, complicaciones y efectos adversos observados, aportando nuestra experiencia personal y en relación con una revisión bibliográfica extensa. Resultados: comparativamente con la técnica más extendida del balón Bioenterics, el Spatz puede ofrecer mayor pérdida de peso pero con peor tolerancia y más complicaciones y el Heliosphere Bag consigue una pérdida parecida de peso pero con mayor dificultad técnica. Otros balones y prótesis (Ullorex, Semiestacionario, Silimed, Endogast requieren todavía mejorías técnicas y mayores estudios. La inyección de toxina botulínica, aunque segura, parece ofrecer una eficacia menor y más transitoria. Los sistemas de sutura (TOGa, gastroplastia vertical endoluminal y POSE parecen eficaces pero son técnicamente más laboriosos. Los procedimientos malabsortivos (Endobarrier, ValenTX son algo laboriosos pero eficaces, especialmente indicados en pacientes que asocien diabetes mellitus del adulto. Conclusiones: el desarrollo de nuevas técnicas endoscópicas y las mejorías en los diseños de las existentes condicionan un papel cada vez más importante del endoscopista en el tratamiento de la obesidad. Consideramos importante seleccionar la técnica endoscópica individualmente, en función de los resultados deseables (eficacia, tolerancia, seguridad, efectos adversos y riesgos y de la experiencia propia de cada centro. Creemos que estas técnicas deben aplicarse por endoscopistas espec

  15. Crotoxin in humans: analysis of the effects on extraocular and facial muscles Crotoxina em humanos: estudo da ação em músculos extraoculares e faciais

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    Geraldo de Barros Ribeiro

    2012-12-01

    é-sináptico. O objetivo da pesquisa é avaliar a capacidade da crotoxina em induzir paralisia transitória de músculos extraoculares e faciais em seres humanos. MÉTODOS: As doses utilizadas de crotoxina foram de 2 a 5 unidades (U, sendo que cada unidade correspondia a uma DL-50. Na primeira etapa, aplicou-se 2U de crotoxina em músculos extraoculares de 3 indivíduos amauróticos, candidatos à evisceração. Na segunda etapa, realizaram-se 12 aplicações de crotoxina em músculos extraoculares de 9 indivíduos estrábicos e amblíopes. Na terceira e última etapa, utilizou-se a crotoxina para o tratamento do blefaroespasmo essencial em 3 indivíduos. RESULTADOS: Nenhum paciente demonstrou qualquer efeito sistêmico ou alteração da visão ou de qualquer estrutura ocular. O único efeito local adverso foi hiperemia conjuntival, que melhorou espontaneamente. Em 2 pacientes não houve alteração do desvio ocular após a aplicação de 2U de crotoxina. Observou-se em 8 das 12 aplicações, limitação do movimento ocular no campo de ação do músculo aplicado. A diminuição do desvio ocular com 2U crotoxina (9 aplicações foi em média de 15,7 dioptrias prismáticas (DP; na dosagem de 4U (2 aplicações foi em média de 37,5 DP e na única aplicação de 5U, obteve-se redução de 16 DP no desvio ocular. A alteração do alinhamento ocular manteve-se por 1 a 3 meses. Dois dos 3 pacientes portadores de blefaroespasmo apresentaram melhora dos espasmos hemifacias, os quais voltaram após 2 meses. CONCLUSÕES: Através dos resultados observados neste estudo, acreditamos que a crotoxina possa ser útil no tratamento do estrabismo e do blefaroespasmo. Novos estudos precisam ser realizados para confirmar a eficácia e a segurança da crotoxina como opção terapêutica para diversas áreas da medicina que atualmente utilizam a toxina botulínica.

  16. Toxina botunílica tipo B no manejo de distonia não-responsiva a toxina botunílica tipo A Botulinum toxin type B in the management of dystonia non-responsive to botulinum toxin type A

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    Francisco Cardoso

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Injeção de toxina botulínica (BTX é o tratamento de escolha para distonias focais. Contudo, 10% ou mais dos pacientes que recebem injeções repetitivas de BTX tipo A (BTX-A perdem resposta (não-respondedores secundários. Uma das estratégias para o manuseio destes pacientes é tratá-los com outros serotipos de BTX. O objetivo deste artigo é descrever minha experiência com BTX tipo B (BTX-B no manejo de pacientes com distonia focal não-respondedores secundários a BTX-A. MÉTODO: Uso aberto e não controlado de injeções de BTX-B para tratar pacientes com distonia não-respondedores secundários a BTX-A. Resposta ao tratamento foi avaliada em uma escala 0-4 (Jankovic. RESULTADOS: Quatro pacientes entraram no estudo. Paciente 1- Aos 48 anos este homem desenvolveu distonia cervical idiopática, sendo notado blefaroespasmo e distonia oromandibular cinco anos mais tarde. Ele foi tratado com 7604U de BTX-A ao longo de 23 sessões separadas por intervalo médio de 18,8 semanas (variação 6-39. Perda da resposta foi percebida após a sétima sessão. Primeiro tratamento com BTX-B produziu resposta grau 3 e duração de 3 semanas. Segunda sessão, 23500U, resultou em grau 4 com duração de 12 semanas. Paciente 2- Este homem, com síndrome de Tourette desde os 8 anos, desenvolveu blefaroespasmo tardio aos 51 anos. Em 8 sessões de injeções de BTX-A ele recebeu 550U com intervalo médio entre sessões de 8,8 semanas (intervalo 6-12. Declínio da resposta foi notado após a quinta sessão. Primeiro tratamento com BTX-B, injeção de 3000U, teve resposta grau 3 e duração de 12 semanas. Segunda sessão, 6000U, produziu escore 4. Paciente 3- Esta mulher apareceu com blefaroespasmo aos 58 anos, desenvolveu distonias laríngea e oromandibular um ano mais tarde e, aos 65 anos, surgiu distonia cervical. Em outras instituições ela recebeu 6 sessões de BTX-A. No meu serviço ela recebeu 1404U ao longo de 8 sessões com intervalo médio entre