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Sample records for bottom-hole pressure

  1. SMART MONITORING AND DECISION MAKING FOR REGULATING ANNULUS BOTTOM HOLE PRESSURE WHILE DRILLING OIL WELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Vega

    Full Text Available Abstract Real time measurements and development of sensor technology are research issues associated with robustness and safety during oil well drilling operations, making feasible the diagnosis of problems and the development of a regulatory strategy. The major objective of this paper is to use an experimental plant and also field data, collected from a basin operation, offshore Brazil, for implementing smart monitoring and decision making, in order to assure drilling inside operational window, despite the commonly observed disturbances that produce fluctuations in the well annulus bottom hole pressure. Using real time measurements, the performance of a continuous automated drilling unit is analyzed under a scenario of varying levels of rate of penetration; aiming pressure set point tracking (inside the operational drilling window and also rejecting kick, a phenomenon that occurs when the annulus bottom hole pressure is inferior to the porous pressure, producing the migration of reservoir fluids into the annulus region. Finally, an empirical model was built, using real experimental data from offshore Brazil basins, enabling diagnosing and regulating a real drilling site by employing classic and advanced control strategies.

  2. Analysis of commingled gas reservoirs with variable bottom-hole flowing pressure and non-Darcy flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Banbi, A. H.; Wattenbarger, R. A. [Texas A and M Univ., TX (United States)

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents an extension to a previously proposed method for estimating and forecasting production of commingled gas wells. The proposed method is known as the Layered Stabilized Flow Model (LSFM). The extension described in this paper takes into account bottom-hole flowing pressure variations and non-Darcy flow, and provides simulator verifications and field examples. The essence of the LSFM is the coupling of the material balance equation and the stabilized gas flow equation, including non-Darcy flow, for each layer of the commingled gas. It is a simple method, well adapted to spread-sheet applications. It requires only the flow rate and the bottom-hole flowing pressure history, plus the initial reservoir pressure and gas properties to be able to to proceed with reserve estimates. The LSFM parameters are determined by history matching the well`s production rate over a selected calibration period. The results of the LSFM provide estimates of the original gas in place (OGIP) and the two flow equation parameters for each layer, which then can be used for production forecasting. Excellent results have been achieved in field tests in moderate to high permeability reservoirs, even with long shut-ins and significant variation in bottom-hole flowing pressure. 21 refs., 5 tabs., 10 figs.

  3. Better well control through safe drilling margin identification, influx analysis and direct bottom hole pressure control method for deep water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veeningen, Daan [National Oilwell Varco IntelliServ (NOV), Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Currently, well control events are almost exclusively detected by using surface measurements. Measuring a volume increase in the 'closed loop' mud circulation system; a standpipe pressure decrease; or changes in a variety of drilling parameters provide indicators of a kick. Especially in deep water, where the riser comprises a substantial section of the well bore, early kick detection is paramount for limiting the severity of a well bore influx and improve the ability to regain well control. While downhole data is presently available from downhole tools nearby the bit, available data rates are sparse as mud pulse telemetry bandwidth is limited and well bore measurements compete with transmission of other subsurface data. Further, data transfer is one-directional, latency is significant and conditions along the string are unknown. High-bandwidth downhole data transmission system, via a wired or networked drill string system, has the unique capability to acquire real-time pressure and temperature measurement at a number of locations along the drill string. This system provides high-resolution downhole data available at very high speed, eliminating latency and restrictions that typically limit the availability of downhole data. The paper describes well control opportunities for deep water operations through the use of downhole data independent from surface measurements. First, the networked drill string provides efficient ways to identify pore pressure, fracture gradient, and true mud weight that comprise the safe drilling margin. Second, the independent measurement capability provides early kick detection and improved ability to analyze an influx even with a heterogeneous mud column through distributed along-string annular pressure measurements. Third, a methodology is proposed for a direct measurement method using downhole real-time pressure for maintaining constant bottom hole pressure during well kills in deep water. (author)

  4. Bottom hole blowout preventer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lineham, D.H.

    1991-04-24

    An automatically controlled ball-valve type bottom-hole blowout preventer is provided for use in drilling oil or gas wells. The blowout preventer of the invention operates under normal drilling conditions in a fully open position with an unrestricted bore. This condition is maintained by a combination of spring and mud flow pressure acting against the upper surfaces of the valve. In the event of a well kick or blowout, pressures from gas or fluid volumes acting against the lower surfaces of the valve force it into the fully closed position. A system of ports and check valves within the blowout preventer forces hydraulic fluid from one chamber to another. The metering effect of these ports determines the rate of closure of the valve, thereby allowing normal running and pulling of the drill string or tubing, without interference to pipe fill-up or drainage, from valve closure. The blowout preventer is placed in a subassembly that is an integral part of the drill string and can be incorporated in a string in any location. 3 figs.

  5. Synthesis of Bottom Hole Temperatures and Heat Flow Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosnold, W. D.; Crowell, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    The development of a National Geothermal Data System (http://www.geothermaldata.org/) promises to provide industry, governmental agencies and researchers with a wealth of data on United States geothermal resources. Two of the larger data sets in the NDGS effort are the bottom-hole temperature data set from oil and gas drilling and the heat flow data set. The BHT data are being compiled by state geological surveys in a Bore Hole Observation Template that can include up to 76 different attributes for each well. The heat flow data are being compiled by a consortium led by the SMU Geothermal Laboratory in a Heat Flow Template that can include up to 63 different atrributes for each heat flow site. The key data for geothermal resource development are temperature, depth and the reservoir properties that control production capacity. The UND geothermal laboratory has assembled the BHT and heat flow data sets for North Dakota, Nebraska and Minnesota and we have compared how accurately the key geothermal data may be independently determined from each data set and by synthesis of both data sets. The BHT data provide temperature at depth, but it is well-documented that BHT data were recorded at non-equilibrium conditions and generally underestimate actual formation temperatures. Heat flow data include a measured temperature gradient, although the gradient may apply to only a short segment of the borehole temperature measurement. Synthesis of these two data sets provides checks that can prevent errors in data interpretation. We compared BHT data from the Denver Basin and Williston Basin to equilibrium temperature vs. depth profiles measured in deep boreholes and developed a thermal stratigraphy approach that permits correction of the BHT data for each basin.

  6. Correction of bottom-hole temperature data; Correcao de dados de temperatura de fundo de poco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcante, Anderson Gusmao [Instituto de Geociencias, Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil)], E-mail: agc@cpgg.ufba.br; Argollo, Roberto Max de; Carvalho, Humberto da Silva [Universidade Federal da Bahia (IF/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa em Geofisica e Geologia. Lab. de Fisica Nuclear Aplicada], E-mails: robmax@ufba.br, dgn@ufba.br

    2004-09-15

    577 registers of bottom-hole temperature (BHT) from 207 wells distributed throughout the Reconcavo, Camamu, Almada, Cumuruxatiba and Jequitinhonha sedimentary basins, Bahia-Brazil, were corrected to obtain true temperatures of the formations. The methodology used to correct these temperatures consisted in using the Eq.(1) numerically resolved as the data set shows two or more registers of temperatures at the same depth (exponential integral method) and in application of the time-depth scheme as we had only one temperature registered per depth. The corrections obtained by the two methods show that the formation static temperatures are 5 to 20 deg C greater than the non-corrected ones. We tested the validity of the time-depth scheme applying the empirical equation developed in this work on the multiple temperature registers taking the higher ones among them. The average geothermal gradient within the basins, obtained with the temperatures corrected by that method, presents a discrepancy of only 2,8% as compared to the one obtained with the corrected data by the exponential integral method, shows that it is a valid method to correct temperatures in the basins studied. The mean geothermal gradient obtained with corrected BHTs within all basins was (27,9 +-2,1) x 10-3 deg C m{sup -1}. (author)

  7. Development of Radar Navigation and Radio Data Transmission for Microhole Coiled Tubing Bottom Hole Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry G. Stolarczyk; Gerald L. Stolarczyk; Larry Icerman; John Howard; Hooman Tehrani

    2007-03-25

    This Final Technical Report summarizes the research and development (R&D) work performed by Stolar Research Corporation (Stolar) under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Contract Number DE-FC26-04NT15477. This work involved the development of radar navigation and radio data transmission systems for integration with microhole coiled tubing bottom hole assemblies. Under this contract, Stolar designed, fabricated, and laboratory and field tested two advanced technologies of importance to the future growth of the U.S. oil and gas industry: (1) real-time measurement-while-drilling (MWD) for guidance and navigation of coiled tubing drilling in hydrocarbon reservoirs and (2) two-way inductive radio data transmission on coiled tubing for real-time, subsurface-to-surface data transmission. The operating specifications for these technologies are compatible with 3.5-inch boreholes drilled to a true vertical depth (TVD) of 5,000 feet, which is typical of coiled tubing drilling applications. These two technologies (i.e., the Stolar Data Transmission System and Drill String Radar) were developed into pre-commercial prototypes and tested successfully in simulated coiled tubing drilling conditions. Integration of these two technologies provides a real-time geosteering capability with extremely quick response times. Stolar is conducting additional work required to transition the Drill String Radar into a true commercial product. The results of this advanced development work should be an important step in the expanded commercialization of advanced coiled tubing microhole drilling equipment for use in U.S. hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  8. Results of the 2008 UT Modeling Benchmark Obtained with 2 Semi-Analytical Models: Responses of Flat Bottom Holes at Various Depths Under Interfaces of Different Curvatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raillon, R.; Mahaut, S.; Leymarie, N.; Lonne, S.; Spies, M.

    2009-03-01

    This paper presents the results of the 2008 UT modeling benchmark with the ultrasonic simulation code for predicting echo-responses from flaws integrated into the Civa software platform and with the code developed by M. Spies. UT configurations addressed are similar to 2007 ones, to better understand some responses obtained last year. Experimental results proposed concern the responses of flat bottom holes at different depths inside surface curved blocks inspected by an immersion probe in normal incidence. They investigate the influence of surface curvature upon the amplitude and shape of flaw responses. Comparison of the simulated and experimental results is discussed.

  9. Formula of definite point overburden pressure of reservoir layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Karimi

    2014-06-01

    Since reservoir layers mostly have heterogeneity characterizations, and timely and repeatedly need to control the type of cutting lithology, drilling mud and reservoir pressure by geologists and drillers, the equations derived are effective in wellhead and bottom hole operations for the calculations in which the overburden pressure plays a key role.

  10. Oil Well Bottom Hole Locations, This GIS data set was produced as a general reference for the Department of Natural Resources, the oil and gas industry, environmental and regulatory agencies, landowners, and the public., Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Louisiana State University (LSU).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Oil Well Bottom Hole Locations dataset current as of 2007. This GIS data set was produced as a general reference for the Department of Natural Resources, the oil and...

  11. Statis pressure volumes in gas wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, E.D.

    1975-09-01

    A knowledge of the pressure exerted by the column in a gas well is necessary to determine subsurface pressures in several important areas. For example, the determination of bottom-hole pressures from surface pressures is important in reserve estimates, deliverabilities, etc., in gas reservoirs. Gas-lift installations require accurate pressure information at the valve horizons for proper functioning. Gas storage reservoirs require bottom-hole pressure data to compute deliverabilities, cushion, storage volume, etc. The relevant equations for computing the gas volume in the well are given. The difference in pressure or volume is small whether computed using average temperature or including the temperature gradient. The equations given should be more accurate and are as easy to use. Comparisons are given in tabular form.

  12. the effect of well-bore reverse flow of fluid on pressure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    1980-03-01

    Mar 1, 1980 ... Department of Petroleum Engineering. University of Ibadan, Ibadan. (Original manuscript received March 3, 1978 and in revised form March. 30,1980). ABSTRACT. Well-bore storage may dominate the bottom-hole pressure profile of a well particularly for the short time situation, The dominance may.

  13. Fracturing pressure curve analysis of highly-permeable formations to estimate fracture parameters; Analise da curva de pressao do fraturamento de formacoes de alta permeabilidade para estimativa dos parametros da fratura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Cecilia Toledo de; Rosolen, Marcos Antonio [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). E e P Engenharia de Producao. Gerencia de Fluidos, Estimulacao e Contencao de Areia], e-mails: cecilia_toledo@petrobras.com.br, marcosrosolen@petrobras.com.br

    2010-06-15

    Hydraulic fracturing, in keeping with other petroleum industry operations, is regarded as a complex process since it can not be directly observed. In this context, pressure analysis during fracturing treatment is a widely accepted powerful technique to develop a better understanding of the fracturing process. This study enhances the Valko and Oligney method, 1996, which estimates the fracture evolution using a direct interpretation of the measured bottom hole pressure curve during a hydraulic fracturing operation in a highly-permeable formation. Considering radial fracture geometry and using simplified flow and geomechanical equations, the model estimates a packing radius of the fracture using the slope of the increasing bottom hole pressure curve during tip screen out periods (TSO). The only model input data needed are the usual records available during and after the operation; namely: the bottom hole pressure, pumping rate and proppant concentrations. The proposed method enhancement was achieved with the inclusion and adjustment of state equations for the fracture growth and the leak-off process, respectively, but still maintaining the same input data for the original model. The case studies show that the modifications to the Valko and Oligney method closely follow the three-dimensional model results obtained using the commercial simulators. (author)

  14. High pressure fracturing in Colombia: a quantum leap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasquez, Juan C. [BP Exploration (United Kingdom); Gutierrez, Jim; Ham, Ernesto; Castro, Alberto [BJ Services Company (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Fracturing has become one of the most common stimulation and well completion techniques in petroleum production. Due to the deeper depths and high frac gradients encountered in some areas, various treatments have resulted in early screen outs or aborted operations due to insufficient rate limited by the available treating pressures. A state of the art technology and high pressure equipment including the largest frac pumps (rated at 2,700 hhp) in the world, were used in Colombian fields to overcome these limitations. The reliability of this equipment has allowed the treatment of these wells to operating pressures of up to 18,000 psi and rates in excess of 40 bpm, placing up to 400,000 lbs of bauxite. Bottom hole treating pressures of 25,000 psi also were reached. This paper describes the development of the fracture campaign and relates the jobs performed to date, including the results and lessons learned (author)

  15. Ultrasonic level sensors for liquids under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.; Mazel, D. S.; Hodges, D. Y.

    1986-01-01

    An ultrasonic level sensor of novel design continuously measures the level of a liquid subjected to a high pressure (up to about 40 MPa), as is sometimes required for the effective transfer of the liquid. The sensor operates as a composite resonator fabricated from a standard high-pressure plug. A flat-bottom hole is machined into the plug along its center line. An ultrasonic transducer is bonded rigidly to the interior surface of the bottom wall, while the exterior surface is in contact with the liquid. Although the bottom wall is designed to satisfy the pressure code, it is still sufficiently thin to permit ready excitation of the axisymmetric plate modes of vibration. The liquid level is measured by a conventional pulse-echo technique. A prototype sensor was tested successfully in a 2300-l water vessel at pressures up to about 37 MPa. A spectral analysis of the transmitted pulse reveals that the flexural, extensional, thickness-shear, and radial plate modes are excited into vibration, but none of these appears to be significantly affected by the pressurization of the liquid.

  16. PDC Bit Hydraulic & Mud Rheological simulation to model pressure drop across Bit

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    Kai Sheng Ong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During fluid flow from larger to smaller diameter pipes, a drop in pressure is experienced. High pressure drop across bit indicated high energy loss in the hydraulic system and also a setback to ROP performance. This is inefficient and pressure pumps would have to be of bigger sizing to make up for the losses. Present form of pressure drop models is in terms of mud density, flow rate, and total flow area. The objective of this paper is focused on the analysis of CFD simulation and to propose optimized parameters for improved ROP. Single phase flow study of Yield Power Law mud rheology was simulated at bottom hole of horizontal section. Parametric study on mud rheology was carried using DOE. Design points of DOE were sampled mostly using Latin Hypercube Sampling and a few by Central Composite Design. It is found that Kriging Response Surface method generated the best regression model where the predicted values are closest to the observed values and has the lowest Maximum Relative Residual (0.000336%. Inlet velocity and Power Index have significant effect on pressure drop. Consistency Index showed moderate effect while Yield Stress showed small effect to pressure drop. This research has proven that pressure loss model should take into account of mud rheology. Further research can be done with PDC bit rotation and its effect on mud behaviour.

  17. Application of fine managed pressure drilling technique in complex wells with both blowout and lost circulation risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Yan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fractured carbonate reservoirs are susceptible to blowout and lost circulation during drilling, which not only restricts drilling speed, but also poses big threat to well control. Moreover, there are few technical means available to reconstruct pressure balance in the borehole. Accordingly, the fine managed pressure drilling was used in the drilling of Well GS19 in the Qixia Formation with super-high pressure and narrow density window, which is a success: ① back pressure in the annular spaces will be adjusted to maintain a slightly over-balanced bottom-hole hydraulic pressure, and fluid level in the circulation tank will be kept in a slight dropping state to ensure that natural gas in the formation would not invade into the borehole in a massive volume; ② inlet drilling fluid density will be controlled at around 2.35 g/cm3, back pressures in the annular be maintained at 2–5 MPa, and bottom-hole pressure equivalent circulation density be controlled at 2.46–2.52 g/cm3; ③ during managed pressure drilling operations, if wellhead pressure exceeds or expects to exceed 7 MPa, semi-blind rams will be closed. Fluids will pass through the choke manifold of the rig to the choke manifold specifically for pressure control before entering gas/liquid separators to discharge gas; ④ during tripping back pressure will be kept at less than 5 MPa, volume of injected drilling fluid will be higher than the theoretical volume during tripping out, whereas the volume of returned drilling fluid will be higher than the theoretical volume during the out-tripping. This technique has been applied successfully in the drilling of the Qixia Formation, Liangshan Formation and Longmaxi Formation with a total footage of 216.60 m, as a good attempt in complicated wells with both blowout and lost circulation risks, which can provide valuable experiences and guidance for handling similar complexities in the future.

  18. Lubrication process at the wall in foam flow : application to pressure drop estimation in underbalanced drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peysson, Y.; Herzhaft, B. [Institut Francais du Petrole (France)

    2005-07-01

    Underbalanced drilling (UBD) is an effective solution to prevent formation damage, differential sticking or fluid losses. Low density drilling fluids such as gas, aerated mud or foams are used for underbalanced drilling, and the pressure of the drilling fluid is maintained at a value below the formation pressure. Foam is particularly useful for drilling because of its low density and good carrying capability, but its use remains hazardous due to the incomplete knowledge of its bottom-hole properties and flowing properties. Pressure drop estimation is crucial for UBD operations. This study evaluated the pressure drop variation with the flow rate in a circular pipe for different foam qualities and formulations. Experiments conducted in a pressure and temperature circular conduct flow showed that lubrication at the wall plays a crucial role. The intrinsic viscosity of the foam can be very high leading to the development of a water layer at the wall responsible for the lubrication of the flow. A two-phase description of the system allows the analytical estimation of the pressure drop. The size of the lubricated layer was then deduced and discussion of its range of existence was presented. Main parameters of its formation were also discussed. 17 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Bottom-hole temperature correction – the Chad Basin, N.E., Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relaxation of the same-depth requirement for depths differing by less than 100 m allowed the application of two such methods to a qualifying pair of single BHTs from where estimates of Horner plot slope and thermal diffusivity, κ were obtained. By assuming both the slope and к to be typical of the basin, several ...

  20. Operational design and pressure response of large-scale compressed air energy storage in porous formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Bauer, Sebastian

    2017-04-01

    With the rapid growth of energy production from intermittent renewable sources like wind and solar power plants, large-scale energy storage options are required to compensate for fluctuating power generation on different time scales. Compressed air energy storage (CAES) in porous formations is seen as a promising option for balancing short-term diurnal fluctuations. CAES is a power-to-power energy storage, which converts electricity to mechanical energy, i.e. highly pressurized air, and stores it in the subsurface. This study aims at designing the storage setup and quantifying the pressure response of a large-scale CAES operation in a porous sandstone formation, thus assessing the feasibility of this storage option. For this, numerical modelling of a synthetic site and a synthetic operational cycle is applied. A hypothetic CAES scenario using a typical anticline structure in northern Germany was investigated. The top of the storage formation is at 700 m depth and the thickness is 20 m. The porosity and permeability were assumed to have a homogenous distribution with a value of 0.35 and 500 mD, respectively. According to the specifications of the Huntorf CAES power plant, a gas turbine producing 321 MW power with a minimum inlet pressure of 43 bars at an air mass flowrate of 417 kg/s was assumed. Pressure loss in the gas wells was accounted for using an analytical solution, which defines a minimum bottom hole pressure of 47 bars. Two daily extraction cycles of 6 hours each were set to the early morning and the late afternoon in order to bypass the massive solar energy production around noon. A two-year initial filling of the reservoir with air and ten years of daily cyclic operation were numerically simulated using the Eclipse E300 reservoir simulator. The simulation results show that using 12 wells the storage formation with a permeability of 500 mD can support the required 6-hour continuous power output of 321MW, which corresponds an energy output of 3852 MWh per

  1. Effect of Matrix-Wellbore Flow and Porosity on Pressure Transient Response in Shale Formation Modeling by Dual Porosity and Dual Permeability System

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    Daolun Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical dual porosity and dual permeability numerical model based on perpendicular bisection (PEBI grid is developed to describe gas flow behaviors in shale-gas reservoirs by incorporating slippage corrected permeability and adsorbed gas effect. Parametric studies are conducted for a horizontal well with multiple infinite conductivity hydraulic fractures in shale-gas reservoir to investigate effect of matrix-wellbore flow, natural fracture porosity, and matrix porosity. We find that the ratio of fracture permeability to matrix permeability approximately decides the bottom hole pressure (BHP error caused by omitting the flow between matrix and wellbore and that the effect of matrix porosity on BHP is related to adsorption gas content. When adsorbed gas accounts for large proportion of the total gas storage in shale formation, matrix porosity only has a very small effect on BHP. Otherwise, it has obvious influence. This paper can help us understand the complex pressure transient response due to existence of the adsorbed gas and help petroleum engineers to interpret the field data better.

  2. Pressure ulcers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reddy, Madhuri

    2011-01-01

    Unrelieved pressure or friction of the skin, particularly over bony prominences, can lead to pressure ulcers in up to one third of people in hospitals or community care, and one fifth of nursing home residents...

  3. A New Approach in Pressure Transient Analysis: Using Numerical Density Derivatives to Improve Diagnosis of Flow Regimes and Estimation of Reservoir Properties for Multiple Phase Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Torkiowei Biu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the numerical density derivative approach (another phase of numerical welltesting in which each fluid’s densities around the wellbore are measured and used to generate pressure equivalent for each phase using simplified pressure-density correlation, as well as new statistical derivative methods to determine each fluid phase’s permeabilities, and the average effective permeability for the system with a new empirical model. Also density related radial flow equations for each fluid phase are derived and semilog specialised plot of density versus Horner time is used to estimate k relative to each phase. Results from 2 examples of oil and gas condensate reservoirs show that the derivatives of the fluid phase pressure-densities equivalent display the same wellbore and reservoir fingerprint as the conventional bottom-hole pressure BPR method. It also indicates that the average effective kave ranges between 43 and 57 mD for scenarios (a to (d in Example 1.0 and 404 mD for scenarios (a to (b in Example 2.0 using the new fluid phase empirical model for K estimation. This is within the k value used in the simulation model and likewise that estimated from the conventional BPR method. Results also discovered that in all six scenarios investigated, the heavier fluid such as water and the weighted average pressure-density equivalent of all fluid gives exact effective k as the conventional BPR method. This approach provides an estimate of the possible fluid phase permeabilities and the % of each phase contribution to flow at a given point. Hence, at several dp' stabilisation points, the relative k can be generated.

  4. Case studies of the application of enhanced steel alloys for bottom hole assembly components for sour service conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Alvaro [Nov Grant Prideco, Navasota (United States); Moura, Carlos [ASPEN Assesoria Tecnica e Comercial, Cascavel, PR (Brazil); Johnson, Charles; Landriault, Alain [Weatherford Canda Partnership, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The new more modern drilling programs require the drill string to travel across sour formations in order to reach the hydrocarbon reservoirs. Traditional materials have been employed in the manufacture of HWDP components along with basic heat treatment processes. Standard HWDP tools have started to show their operational as well as environmental limitations when subjected to sour service applications. The advanced, more complex drilling programs require for the HWDP tools to be put in service under different configurations. Either at the bottom of the drill string near the drill bit for vertical well configurations or on top of the drill string for weight application on horizontal or extended reach applications. An operator in northwestern Canada has replaced standard HWDP with enhanced sour service HWDP in order to complete the programmed wells. These enhanced tools offer higher tensile and torque capabilities and improved toughness than standard HWDP tools and in addition, provide protection against sour service conditions. The use of second-generation double shoulder connections (2nd-Gen. DSC) has also provided added torque and tensile capacities to these versatile HWDP tools. For over a year more than a dozen wells have been drilled employing these enhanced BHA tools and have helped the operator reach its targets through sour service formations and produce wells in a safe and cost effective manner. (author)

  5. Barometric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, C. E.

    1973-01-01

    The effects of alterations in barometric pressure on human beings are described. Human tolerances for gaseous environments and low and high barometric pressure are discussed, including effects on specific areas, such as the ear, lungs, teeth, and sinuses. Problems due to trapped gas within the body, high dynamic pressures on the body, and blasts are also considered.

  6. Pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, David K.; Ripley, Edward B.; Nienstedt, Zachary C.; Nienstedt, Alex W.; Howell, Jr., Layton N.

    2015-09-29

    Disclosed is a passive, in-situ pressure sensor. The sensor includes a sensing element having a ferromagnetic metal and a tension inducing mechanism coupled to the ferromagnetic metal. The tension inducing mechanism is operable to change a tensile stress upon the ferromagnetic metal based on a change in pressure in the sensing element. Changes in pressure are detected based on changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal when subjected to an alternating magnetic field caused by the change in the tensile stress. The sensing element is embeddable in a closed system for detecting pressure changes without the need for any penetrations of the system for power or data acquisition by detecting changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal caused by the tensile stress.

  7. Blood pressure measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reading; Measuring blood pressure; Hypertension - blood pressure measurement; High blood pressure - blood pressure measurement ... High blood pressure has no symptoms so you may not know if you have this problem. High blood pressure ...

  8. Blood Pressure Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... several blood pressure readings at home. Tracking your blood pressure readings It can be helpful in diagnosing or ... medication options might work best for you. Low blood pressure Low blood pressure that either doesn't cause ...

  9. Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lowest at night and rises sharply on waking. Blood pressure: How low can you go? What's considered low ... low blood pressure. Medications that can cause low blood pressure Some medications can cause low blood pressure, including: ...

  10. Mathematical Simulation of Unsteady-State Gas-Liquid Mixture Flow in a Bed-Well System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasov, É. M.; Imamaliev, S. A.

    2016-09-01

    Based on theoretical investigations, the influence of various forms of pressure variation at the wellhead with a nonstationary flow of a two-phase fluid in a bed-well system on the character of change in the bottom-hole pressure has been investigated, which makes it possible to determine this pressure from the wellhead operation parameters. The trapezoidal form of the change in pressure is considered as an example. The coupled equations of filtration and the equations describing nonstationary motion of a gas-liquid mixture in a pipeline have been solved jointly. Analytical formulas have been obtained allowing one to determine the bottom-hole pressure from the technological parameters at the wellhead with account for the dynamic connection of the bed-well system at different forms of change in the wellhead pressure. The influence of the wellhead pressure pulsation frequencies on the bottom-hole pressure dynamics has been established.

  11. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Nearly 1 in 3 American adults has high ... weight. How Will I Know if I Have High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a silent problem — you ...

  12. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Preventing Pressure Sores Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 ... with a spinal cord injury to do to prevent pressure sores? play_arrow Why is pressure relief ...

  13. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... know about pressure sores? play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to do to prevent pressure sores? play_arrow What role does diet and hydration play in preventing pressure ...

  14. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Situations Talking to Your Parents - or Other Adults Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) KidsHealth > For Teens > Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) Print ... rest temperature diet emotions posture medicines Why Is High Blood Pressure Bad? High blood pressure means a person's heart ...

  15. Sitting: pressure ulcer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, F

    Seating is a major factor in pressure ulcer development, but it is frequently overlooked in the literature on pressure area management. Pressure ulcers are largely preventable and nurses are integral to the promotion of good practice. The author examines how implementing careful patient assessment, correct positioning and providing optimum seating equipment can help to reduce the risk of pressure ulcer development.

  16. Pressure Dome for High-Pressure Electrolyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Timothy; Schmitt, Edwin

    2012-01-01

    A high-strength, low-weight pressure vessel dome was designed specifically to house a high-pressure [2,000 psi (approx. = 13.8 MPa)] electrolyzer. In operation, the dome is filled with an inert gas pressurized to roughly 100 psi (approx. = 690 kPa) above the high, balanced pressure product oxygen and hydrogen gas streams. The inert gas acts to reduce the clamping load on electrolyzer stack tie bolts since the dome pressure acting axially inward helps offset the outward axial forces from the stack gas pressure. Likewise, radial and circumferential stresses on electrolyzer frames are minimized. Because the dome is operated at a higher pressure than the electrolyzer product gas, any external electrolyzer leak prevents oxygen or hydrogen from leaking into the dome. Instead the affected stack gas stream pressure rises detectably, thereby enabling a system shutdown. All electrical and fluid connections to the stack are made inside the pressure dome and require special plumbing and electrical dome interfaces for this to be accomplished. Further benefits of the dome are that it can act as a containment shield in the unlikely event of a catastrophic failure. Studies indicate that, for a given active area (and hence, cell ID), frame outside diameter must become ever larger to support stresses at higher operating pressures. This can lead to a large footprint and increased costs associated with thicker and/or larger diameter end-plates, tie-rods, and the frames themselves. One solution is to employ rings that fit snugly around the frame. This complicates stack assembly and is sometimes difficult to achieve in practice, as its success is strongly dependent on frame and ring tolerances, gas pressure, and operating temperature. A pressure dome permits an otherwise low-pressure stack to operate at higher pressures without growing the electrolyzer hardware. The pressure dome consists of two machined segments. An O-ring is placed in an O-ring groove in the flange of the bottom

  17. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... which blood flows through blood vessels (arteries) at higher than normal pressures. Measuring Blood Pressure Blood pressure ... blood pressure are defined as having blood pressures higher than 120/80 mmHg. The following table outlines ...

  18. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood, which leads to secondary high blood pressure. Risk Factors Anyone can develop high blood pressure; however, ... history of high blood pressure can increase your risk for developing high blood pressure. Age Blood pressure ...

  19. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Back To Health Topics / High Blood Pressure High Blood Pressure Also known as Hypertension Leer en español ... vessels (arteries) at higher than normal pressures. Measuring Blood Pressure Blood pressure is the force of blood ...

  20. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... To Health Topics / High Blood Pressure High Blood Pressure Also known as Hypertension See also Information for ... arteries) at higher than normal pressures. Measuring Blood Pressure Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing ...

  1. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Back To Health Topics / High Blood Pressure High Blood Pressure Also known as Hypertension See also Information ... vessels (arteries) at higher than normal pressures. Measuring Blood Pressure Blood pressure is the force of blood ...

  2. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Back To Health Topics / High Blood Pressure High Blood Pressure Also known as Hypertension See also Information for ... vessels (arteries) at higher than normal pressures. Measuring Blood Pressure Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing ...

  3. Preventing High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Preventing High Blood Pressure: Healthy Living Habits Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... meal and snack options can help you avoid high blood pressure and its complications. Be sure to eat plenty ...

  4. High blood pressure - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007696.htm High blood pressure - children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure (hypertension) is an increase in the force of ...

  5. Blood Pressure Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    High blood pressure, also called hypertension, usually has no symptoms. But it can cause serious problems such as stroke, ... and kidney failure. If you cannot control your high blood pressure through lifestyle changes such as losing weight and ...

  6. High blood pressure - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007329.htm High blood pressure - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure (hypertension) is an increase in the force of ...

  7. High blood pressure medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007484.htm High blood pressure medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Treating high blood pressure will help prevent problems such as heart disease, ...

  8. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it be increased? play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to know about pressure sores? play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to do to prevent pressure ...

  9. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... especially prone to pressure sores? play_arrow What parts of the body are most likely to develop ... play_arrow How long is the typical healing time for a pressure sore? play_arrow Why do ...

  10. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... L Sarah Harrison, OT Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury ... do to prevent pressure sores? play_arrow What role does diet and hydration play in preventing pressure ...

  11. Pressure vessel design manual

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, Dennis R

    2013-01-01

    Pressure vessels are closed containers designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure substantially different from the ambient pressure. They have a variety of applications in industry, including in oil refineries, nuclear reactors, vehicle airbrake reservoirs, and more. The pressure differential with such vessels is dangerous, and due to the risk of accident and fatality around their use, the design, manufacture, operation and inspection of pressure vessels is regulated by engineering authorities and guided by legal codes and standards. Pressure Vessel Design Manual is a solutions-focused guide to the many problems and technical challenges involved in the design of pressure vessels to match stringent standards and codes. It brings together otherwise scattered information and explanations into one easy-to-use resource to minimize research and take readers from problem to solution in the most direct manner possible. * Covers almost all problems that a working pressure vessel designer can expect to face, with ...

  12. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... two types of high blood pressure. Primary (essential) hypertension For most adults, there's no identifiable cause of ... tends to develop gradually over many years. Secondary hypertension Some people have high blood pressure caused by ...

  13. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to prevent pressure sores? play_arrow What role does diet and hydration play in preventing pressure sores ... for families facing spinal cord injuries. The website does not provide medical advice, recommend or endorse health ...

  14. Pressure surge attenuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Alan M.; Snyder, Kurt I.

    1985-01-01

    A pressure surge attenuation system for pipes having a fluted region opposite crushable metal foam. As adapted for nuclear reactor vessels and heads, crushable metal foam is disposed to attenuate pressure surges.

  15. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Preventing Pressure Sores ... how are they treated? play_arrow When is surgical repair of a pressure sore required? play_arrow ...

  16. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Preventing Pressure Sores Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, MD Preventing Pressure Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from Hospital to ...

  17. Tunable high pressure lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, R. V.

    1976-01-01

    Atmospheric transmission of high energy CO2 lasers is considerably improved by high pressure operation which, due to pressure broadening, permits tuning the laser lines off atmospheric absorption lines. Pronounced improvement is shown for horizontal transmission at altitudes above several kilometers and for vertical transmission through the entire atmosphere. Applications of tunable high pressure CO2 lasers to energy transmission and to remote sensing are discussed along with initial efforts in tuning high pressure CO2 lasers.

  18. High-pressure microbiology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michiels, Chris; Bartlett, Douglas Hoyt; Aertsen, Abram

    2008-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. High Hydrostatic Pressure Effects in the Biosphere: from Molecules to Microbiology * Filip Meersman and Karel Heremans . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Effects...

  19. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholson, W R; Matthews, J. N.; O'Sullivan, J J; WREN, C.

    1993-01-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in adults is proving to be useful. The aim of this study was to determine if ABPM is accurate in the lower blood pressure range encountered in children and, equally important, whether it is acceptable to children. Thirty one children, between the ages of 6 and 18 years, were assessed using an ambulatory blood pressure monitor that uses an auscultatory method. Blood pressure was measured in the contralateral arm with a mercury sphygmomanometer and an...

  20. High Blood Pressure Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN High Blood Pressure Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... the facts about high blood pressure [PDF-255K] . High Blood Pressure in the United States About 75 million American ...

  1. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other risk factors, like diabetes, you may need treatment. How does high blood pressure affect pregnant women? A few women will get high blood pressure when they are pregnant. When pregnant women get high blood pressure, it is called preeclampsia or toxemia. How do I control my high ...

  2. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... six stages of a pressure sore and how are they treated? play_arrow When is surgical repair of a pressure sore required? play_arrow How long is the typical healing time for a pressure sore? play_arrow Why do ...

  3. Pressure relieving support surfaces (PRESSURE) trial: cost effectiveness analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Iglesias, Cynthia; Nixon, Jane; Cranny, Gillian; Nelson, E Andrea; Hawkins, Kim; Phillips, Angela; Torgerson, David; Mason, Su; Cullum, Nicky

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the cost effectiveness of alternating pressure mattresses compared with alternating pressure overlays for the prevention of pressure ulcers in patients admitted to hospital...

  4. Pressure locking test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; McKellar, M.G.; Bramwell, D. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, is funding the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in performing research to provide technical input for their use in evaluating responses to Generic Letter 95-07, {open_quotes}Pressure Locking and Thermal Binding of Safety-Related Power-Operated Gate Valves.{close_quotes} Pressure locking and thermal binding are phenomena that make a closed gate valve difficult to open. This paper discusses only the pressure locking phenomenon in a flexible-wedge gate valve; the authors will publish the results of their thermal binding research at a later date. Pressure locking can occur when operating sequences or temperature changes cause the pressure of the fluid in the bonnet (and, in most valves, between the discs) to be higher than the pressure on the upstream and downstream sides of the disc assembly. This high fluid pressure presses the discs against both seats, making the disc assembly harder to unseat than anticipated by the typical design calculations, which generally consider friction at only one of the two disc/seat interfaces. The high pressure of the bonnet fluid also changes the pressure distribution around the disc in a way that can further contribute to the unseating load. If the combined loads associated with pressure locking are very high, the actuator might not have the capacity to open the valve. The results of the NRC/INEL research discussed in this paper show that the relationship between bonnet pressure and pressure locking stem loads appears linear. The results also show that for this valve, seat leakage affects the bonnet pressurization rate when the valve is subjected to thermally induced pressure locking conditions.

  5. Pressure cryocooling protein crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chae Un [Ithaca, NY; Gruner, Sol M [Ithaca, NY

    2011-10-04

    Preparation of cryocooled protein crystal is provided by use of helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal allowing collection of high resolution data and by heavier noble gas (krypton or xenon) binding followed by helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal for collection of high resolution data and SAD phasing simultaneously. The helium pressurizing is carried out on crystal coated to prevent dehydration or on crystal grown in aqueous solution in a capillary.

  6. Thermistor Pressure Gauge Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanick, A. P.; Ainsworth, J. E.

    1961-01-01

    Thermistor pressure gauges are characterized by large pressure range, good accuracy and stability, fast measurement, insensitivity to over-pressure, negligible out-gassing, ease in cleaning, and physical and electrical simplicity and ruggedness. A number of excellent papers have been published describing these gauges. However, a detailed account of design procedure and characteristics for a specific gauge would eliminate much of the trial and error encountered in designing a gauge having prescribed range, sensitivity, and stability.

  7. Effect of Measured Wellhead Parameters and Well Scaling on the Computed Downhole Conditions in Cerro Prieto Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, K.P.; Miller, C.W.; Lippmann, M.J.

    1980-12-16

    This paper is devoted to the discussion of the wellbore model and its describing equations, comparison between the computed and measured pressures and the effect of measured wellhead parameters on the downhole pressures in the well. Finally a wellbore model with multiple inside diameters is discussed and the effect of well scaling on the bottom hole pressures is studied.

  8. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... complications. Preventing High Blood Pressure Onset Healthy lifestyle habits can help prevent high blood pressure from developing. It is important to check your blood pressure regularly. Children should have their blood pressure checked starting at ...

  9. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... those used to diagnose high blood pressure, prehypertension can progress to high blood pressure and should be ... pressure weakens and damages your blood vessels, which can lead to complications . Types of High Blood Pressure ...

  10. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can help you track your blood pressure. Pregnancy Planning High blood pressure can cause problems for mother ... View all news on High Blood Pressure RELATED EVENT The Role of Microbiota in Blood Pressure Regulation ...

  11. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pressures. Measuring Blood Pressure Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing against the walls of the ... blood pressure, sometimes called hypertension, happens when this force is too high. Health care workers check blood ...

  12. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood pressure and should be taken seriously. Over time, consistently high blood pressure weakens and damages your ... Blood Pressure When blood pressure stays high over time, it can damage the body and cause complications. ...

  13. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Card can help you track your blood pressure. Pregnancy Planning High blood pressure can cause problems for ... control your blood pressure before and during the pregnancy. Some women develop high blood pressure during pregnancy. ...

  14. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the development of high blood pressure later in life. Environmental Causes of High Blood Pressure Environmental causes ... Tend to get high blood pressure earlier in life. Often, on average, have higher blood pressure numbers. ...

  15. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sensor, and a blood pressure cuff. With this equipment, they measure: Systolic Pressure: blood pressure when the ... or at other locations that have blood pressure equipment and to keep a written log of all ...

  16. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and large arteries, which can affect blood pressure. Genetic Causes of High Blood Pressure Much of the ... involved in high blood pressure has come from genetic studies. High blood pressure often runs in families. ...

  17. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or its complications. Preventing High Blood Pressure Onset Healthy lifestyle habits can help prevent high blood pressure from developing. It is important to check your blood pressure regularly. Children should have their blood pressure checked starting at ...

  18. Pressurizing new reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neill, J.S.

    1956-01-30

    The Technical Division was asked recently to consider designs for new reactors that would add 8000 MW capacity to the Savannah River Plant. One modification of the existing SRP design that would enable a higher power rating, and therefore require fewer new reactors, is an increase in the maximum pressure in the D{sub 2}O system. The existing reactors at SRP are designed for a maximum pressure in the gas plenum of only 5 psig. Higher pressures enable higher D{sub 2} temperatures and higher sheath temperatures without local boiling or burnout. The requirements in reactor cooling facilities at any given power level would therefore be reduced by pressurizing.

  19. DIGITAL BLOOD PRESSURE MONITOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fuentes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present a blood pressure monitor which measures both the high blood pressure (systolic pressure,and the low blood pressure (diastolic pressure. It is a semiautomatic meter because the inflation of the occlusivecuff is carried out in a manual way. The transducer used is a piezoresistive silicon pressure sensor integrated onchip which provides a proportional voltage to the input pressure, with a measurement range from 0 to 50 kPa (0–7.3 PSI. The oscillometric method is employed, which consists on detecting the oscillometric signal on brachialartery, being processed at each pressure step, when the cuff is gradually deflated. Signal sampling is carried out ata rate determined by the heart rate.In order to program the digital electronics of the circuit we used Altera tools, with the compiler MAX-PLUS II, andthe device selected to implement the design was an EPM7128SLC84-15 CPLD (Complex Programmable LogicDevice

  20. Clamp Restrains Pressure Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliberti, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Safety restraint protects people and property if a high-pressure fitting fails. As long as pressure line remains attached at the fitting, clamp exerts essentially no force on hose. If fitting fails, force of fluid leaving free end of hose causes the cam on the clamp to compress hose with a positive locking action.

  1. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can it be increased? play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to know about pressure sores? play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to do to prevent pressure sores? play_arrow ...

  2. A life under pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jens Christian Brings; von Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Microvessels live 'a life under pressure' in several ways. In a literal sense, vessels of the microcirculation are exposed to high levels of stress caused primarily by the intravascular pressure head. In a figurative sense, the individual vessel and the microvascular network as a whole must...

  3. Pulse pressure and diurnal blood pressure variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Søren Tang; Poulsen, Per Løgstrup; Hansen, Klavs Würgler

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In nondiabetic subjects pulse pressure (PP) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease and microalbuminuria. Reduced circadian blood pressure (BP) variation is a potential risk factor for the development of diabetic complications. We investigated the association between...... retinopathy, nephropathy, macrovascular disease, PP, and diurnal BP variation in a group of type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: In 80 type 2 diabetic patients we performed 24-h ambulatory BP (AMBP) and fundus photographs. Urinary albumin excretion was evaluated by urinary albumin/creatinine ratio. Presence...... or absence of macrovascular disease was assessed by an independent physician. RESULTS: Forty-nine patients had no detectable retinal changes (grade 1), 13 had grade 2 retinopathy, and 18 had more advanced retinopathy (grades 3-6). Compared to patients without retinopathy (grade 1), patients with grades 2...

  4. Pressure Ulcers Surveillance Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Esin Gencer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pressure ulcer is a chronic wound. It reduces the quality of life of the elderly and individuals with restricted range of motion. It prolongs hospital stay and increases the risk of complications. The cost is quite high. Preventive actions for the prevention of pressure ulcers should be developed. Planning protocols and standards of care are among the main targets. Material and Method: Research was conducted in one-year period between 2012 May and 2013 May on patients who were followed up in Akdeniz University Hospital clinics and intensive care unit with pressure ulcers. The research population consisted of 569 patients. Patient data were recorded in SPSS 16 for Windows program. Statistical analyzes were performed with retrospective methods. The demographic characteristics of patients with pressure ulcers were analyzed as frequency and descriptive statistics. Prevalence and incidence of one year were calculated. Results: Of the patients, 58% were males, 42% were females. Of the patients, 36% were in the age range of 61-80 years, and their average length of stay was 42,9 days. Of the patients, 70% were at stage 2 and 3. In 15% of patients pressure ulcers occurred on the first day of hospitalization. Pressure ulcers were developed between days 2 and 10 in 59% of the patients. Prevalence rate was 2.5%, the incidence was 1.9%, the prevalence rate was 5.9% in the intensive care unit. Conclusion: It is easier to prevent pressure ulcers than treating.

  5. Superconductivity under high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaya, K.; Shimizu, K.; Takeda, K.; Tateiwa, N.; Muramatsu, T.; Ishizuka, M.; Kobayashi, T.C

    2003-05-01

    In part 1, we review techniques developed in our laboratory for producing the complex extreme condition of very low temperature and ultra-high pressure and those for measuring electrical resistance and magnetization of the sample confined in the extremely small space of the used pressure cell. In part 2, we review our experimental results in search for pressure-induced superconductivity, which have been obtained by the use of developed techniques. Typical examples are shown in the case of simple inorganic and organic molecular crystals, ionic crystals, and magnetic metals.

  6. High pressure induced superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaya, K.; Shimizu, K

    2003-10-15

    We have developed complex extreme condition of very low temperature down to 30 mK and ultra high pressure exceeding 200 GPa by assembling compact diamond anvil cell (DAC) on a powerful {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He dilution refrigerator. We have also developed measuring techniques of electrical resistance, magnetization and optical measurement for the sample confined in the sample space of the DAC. Using the newly developed apparatus and techniques, we have searched for superconductivity in various materials under pressure. In this paper, we will shortly review our newly developed experimental apparatus and techniques and discuss a few examples of pressure induced superconductivity which were observed recently.

  7. Pressure Safety Orientation Live #769

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, George [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-17

    Pressure Safety Orientation (course #769) introduces workers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to the Laboratory Pressure Safety Program and to pressure-related hazards. This course also affords a hands-on exercise involving the assembly of a simple pressure system. This course is required for all LANL personnel who work on or near pressure systems and are exposed to pressure-related hazards. These personnel include pressure-system engineers, designers, fabricators, installers, operators, inspectors, maintainers, and others who work with pressurized fluids and may be exposed to pressure-related hazards.

  8. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Preventing Pressure Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from Hospital to Home Kim Eberhardt Muir, MS Coping with ... Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About Us Expert ...

  9. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Preventing Pressure Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from Hospital to Home Kim Eberhardt Muir, MS Coping with ... Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About Us Expert ...

  10. Increased intracranial pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by pressing on important structures and by restricting blood flow into the brain. Many conditions can increase intracranial pressure. Common causes include: Aneurysm rupture and subarachnoid hemorrhage Brain tumor Encephalitis Head ...

  11. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Preventing Pressure Sores Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David ...

  12. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Preventing Pressure Sores ... sores? What is a Spinal Cord Injury? SCI Medical Experts People Living With SCI Personal Experiences By ...

  13. Pressure Transducer Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Files are located here, defining the locations of the pressure transducers on the HIRENASD model. These locations also correspond to the locations that analysts...

  14. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury ... Pressure Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from Hospital to Home Kim Eberhardt Muir, MS Coping with a New ...

  15. Gasoline Reid Vapor Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA regulates the vapor pressure of gasoline sold at retail stations during the summer ozone season to reduce evaporative emissions from gasoline that contribute to ground-level ozone and diminish the effects of ozone-related health problems.

  16. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, MD Preventing Pressure Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from ... Rosenberg, PsyD Understanding SCI Rehabilitation Donald Peck Leslie, MD Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Lisa ...

  17. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Preventing Pressure Sores Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, MD Preventing ...

  18. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Preventing Pressure Sores Adult Injuries ... LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About Us Expert Videos Contact Us Personal Experience Videos Blog Videos By ...

  19. Understanding Blood Pressure Readings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts About HBP • Know Your Numbers Introduction Hypertensive Crisis Monitoring Your Blood Pressure At ... to lower your HBP and prevent a heart attack. Lower your HBP now . Watch, Learn and ...

  20. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pressure Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from Hospital to Home Kim Eberhardt Muir, MS Coping with a ... Understanding SCI Rehabilitation Donald Peck Leslie, MD Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Lisa Rosen, MS ...

  1. High Blood Pressure Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High Blood Pressure Salt Cholesterol Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN High Blood Pressure Fact Sheet Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend ... time. High blood pressure is also called hypertension. High Blood Pressure in the United States Having high blood pressure ...

  2. Home monitoring of blood pressure

    OpenAIRE

    McGrath, Barry P.

    2015-01-01

    Home blood pressure monitoring is the self-measurement of blood pressure by patients. In the diagnosis and management of high blood pressure it is complementary to 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and clinic blood pressure measurements. Home monitoring can also help to identify white-coat and masked hypertension.

  3. Pressure multiplying dispenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFord, Henry S.; Moss, Owen R.

    1986-01-01

    A pressure multiplying dispenser for delivering fluid, preferably as a spray to the atmosphere, from a source of fluid, preferably a spray bottle, is described. The dispenser includes in combination a hollow cylindrical member, a nozzle delivery tube within the cylindrical member and a hollow actuator piston slideable within the cylindrical member which acts to multiply the pressure of a squeeze applied to the spray bottle.

  4. Fluctuating shells under pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulose, Jayson; Vliegenthart, Gerard A.; Gompper, Gerhard; Nelson, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal fluctuations strongly modify the large length-scale elastic behavior of cross-linked membranes, giving rise to scale-dependent elastic moduli. Whereas thermal effects in flat membranes are well understood, many natural and artificial microstructures are modeled as thin elastic shells. Shells are distinguished from flat membranes by their nonzero curvature, which provides a size-dependent coupling between the in-plane stretching modes and the out-of-plane undulations. In addition, a shell can support a pressure difference between its interior and its exterior. Little is known about the effect of thermal fluctuations on the elastic properties of shells. Here, we study the statistical mechanics of shape fluctuations in a pressurized spherical shell, using perturbation theory and Monte Carlo computer simulations, explicitly including the effects of curvature and an inward pressure. We predict novel properties of fluctuating thin shells under point indentations and pressure-induced deformations. The contribution due to thermal fluctuations increases with increasing ratio of shell radius to thickness and dominates the response when the product of this ratio and the thermal energy becomes large compared with the bending rigidity of the shell. Thermal effects are enhanced when a large uniform inward pressure acts on the shell and diverge as this pressure approaches the classical buckling transition of the shell. Our results are relevant for the elasticity and osmotic collapse of microcapsules. PMID:23150558

  5. High-pressure microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjort, K.

    2015-03-01

    When using appropriate materials and microfabrication techniques, with the small dimensions the mechanical stability of microstructured devices allows for processes at high pressures without loss in safety. The largest area of applications has been demonstrated in green chemistry and bioprocesses, where extraction, synthesis and analyses often excel at high densities and high temperatures. This is accessible through high pressures. Capillary chemistry has been used since long but, just like in low-pressure applications, there are several potential advantages in using microfluidic platforms, e.g., planar isothermal set-ups, large local variations in geometries, dense form factors, small dead volumes and precisely positioned microstructures for control of reactions, catalysis, mixing and separation. Other potential applications are in, e.g., microhydraulics, exploration, gas driven vehicles, and high-pressure science. From a review of the state-of-art and frontiers of high pressure microfluidics, the focus will be on different solutions demonstrated for microfluidic handling at high pressures and challenges that remain.

  6. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pressure and maintain normal blood pressure readings. Healthy Eating To help treat high blood pressure, health care ... more about the DASH eating plan. Heart-Healthy Eating Your health care provider also may recommend heart- ...

  7. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can help you track your blood pressure. Pregnancy Planning High blood pressure can cause problems for mother ... With DASH My Blood Pressure Wallet Card Other Resources Cigarette and Tobacco Facts (National Institute ... OIG USA.gov

  8. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... nervous system has important functions in blood pressure regulation, including heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing rate. ... EVENT The Role of Microbiota in Blood Pressure Regulation Executive Summary June 10, 2016 Bethesda, MD The ...

  9. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... providers diagnose high blood pressure when blood pressure readings are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming ... minutes before the test. To track blood pressure readings over a period of time, the health care ...

  10. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... Nervous System Activity The sympathetic nervous system has important functions in blood pressure regulation, including heart rate, ... prevent high blood pressure from developing. It is important to check your blood pressure regularly. Children should ...

  11. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure For most patients, health care providers ... are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy ...

  12. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood pressure. Primary High Blood Pressure Primary, or essential, high blood pressure is the most common type ... has no known cause, it might be called essential hypertension, primary hypertension, or idiopathic (id-ee-o- ...

  13. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood pressure, he or she can order additional tests to determine if your blood pressure is due to other conditions or medicines or if you have primary high blood pressure. ...

  14. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... of your blood pressure, he or she can order additional tests to determine if your blood pressure ... health and can lower high blood pressure. Stress management techniques include: Being physically active Listening to music ...

  15. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure For most patients, health care providers diagnose ... consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and ...

  16. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... increase your risk for developing high blood pressure. Age Blood pressure tends to rise with age. About 65 percent of Americans age 60 or older have high blood pressure. However, ...

  17. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... harder and leading to high blood pressure. Medicines Prescription medicines such as asthma or hormone therapies, including ... aldosterone system leading to high blood pressure. Other Medical Causes of High Blood Pressure Other medical causes ...

  18. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your blood pressure returns to your normal baseline range. Blood pressure normally rises with age and body ... 160 or higher OR 100 or higher The ranges in the table are blood pressure guides for ...

  19. Pressure Effect on Entrance Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jens Horslund; Couch, Mark

    1997-01-01

    The paper reports on experimentally determined pressure drops associated with orifice and capillary dies, where the exit pressure is elevated. The effect of hydrostatic pressure up to 70 MPa is reported for PS, LDPE and PP melts.......The paper reports on experimentally determined pressure drops associated with orifice and capillary dies, where the exit pressure is elevated. The effect of hydrostatic pressure up to 70 MPa is reported for PS, LDPE and PP melts....

  20. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... System Activity The sympathetic nervous system has important functions in blood pressure regulation, including heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing rate. Researchers are ...

  1. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... increased blood volumes and high blood pressure. Sympathetic Nervous System Activity The sympathetic nervous system has important functions in blood pressure regulation, including ...

  2. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... outlines and defines high blood pressure severity levels. Stages of High Blood Pressure in Adults Stages Systolic (top number) Diastolic (bottom number) Prehypertension 120– ...

  3. Validation of brachial artery pressure reconstruction from finger arterial pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guelen, Ilja; Westerhof, Berend E.; van der Sar, Gertrude L.; van Montfrans, Gert A.; Kiemeneij, Ferdinand; Wesseling, Karel H.; Bos, Willem Jan W.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Measurement of finger artery pressure with Finapres offers noninvasive continuous blood pressure, which, however, differs from brachial artery pressure. Generalized waveform filtering and level correction may convert the finger artery pressure waveform to a brachial waveform. An upper-arm

  4. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy Healthy Food Shopping Healthy Drinks for Kids High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) KidsHealth > For Parents > High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) ... How Is High Blood Pressure Treated? What Is High Blood Pressure? Blood pressure is the pressure of blood against ...

  5. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... High Blood Pressure Explore High Blood Pressure What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living ... Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless and can be done in ...

  6. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home / < Back To Health Topics / High Blood Pressure High Blood Pressure Also known as Hypertension Leer en español See ... defines high blood pressure severity levels. Stages of High Blood Pressure in Adults Stages Systolic (top number) Diastolic (bottom ...

  7. Pressure Effect on Extensional Viscosity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jens Horslund; Kjær, Erik Michael

    1999-01-01

    The primary object of these experiments was to investigate the influence of hydrostatic pressure on entrance flow. The effect of pressure on shear and extensional viscosity was evaluated using an axis symmetric capillary and a slit die where the hydrostatic pressure was raised with valves....... The experiments show a significant increase in extensional viscosity with increasing pressure....

  8. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home / < Back To Health Topics / High Blood Pressure High Blood Pressure Also known as Hypertension See also Information for ... defines high blood pressure severity levels. Stages of High Blood Pressure in Adults Stages Systolic (top number) Diastolic (bottom ...

  9. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... care provider may need to change or add medicines to your treatment plan over time. NHLBI’s My Blood Pressure Wallet Card can help you track your blood pressure. Pregnancy Planning High blood pressure can cause problems for mother and baby. High blood pressure can ...

  10. Human gallbladder pressure and volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borly, L; Højgaard, L; Grønvall, S

    1996-01-01

    Increased gallbladder (GB) pressure is probably a part of the pathogenesis of acute cholecystitis, and measurements of GB pressure might therefore be of interest. The aim of this study was to validate a microtip pressure transducer for intraluminal GB pressure measurements. In vitro precision and...

  11. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood pressure: primary and secondary high blood pressure. Primary High Blood Pressure Primary, or essential, high blood pressure is the most ... known cause, it might be called essential hypertension, primary hypertension, or idiopathic (id-ee-o-PATH-ick) ...

  12. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may stiffen small and large arteries, which can affect blood pressure. Genetic Causes of High Blood Pressure Much of the understanding of the body systems involved in high blood pressure has come from genetic studies. High blood pressure often runs in families. Years ...

  13. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are two main types of high blood pressure: primary and secondary high blood pressure. Primary High Blood Pressure Primary, ... plan based on whether you were diagnosed with primary or secondary high blood pressure and if there is a ...

  14. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless and can be done ... high blood pressure. Using the results of your blood pressure test, your health care provider will diagnose prehypertension or ...

  15. Pressure simulation program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoll, B.; Phaff, J.C.; Gids, W.F. de

    1995-01-01

    A computer program has been developed to predict the wind pressure coefficients Cp on facades and roofs of block shaped buildings. The program is based on fits of measured data, including wind shielding by obstacles and terrain roughness. Main advantages of the program are: it needs no expertise of

  16. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... arrow Is it true that a pressure sore can develop in a few hours? play_arrow What's ... play_arrow What is “skin tolerance” and how can it be increased? play_arrow What do family ...

  17. GOLD PRESSURE VESSEL SEAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A.E.

    1963-11-26

    An improved seal between the piston and die member of a piston-cylinder type pressure vessel is presented. A layer of gold, of sufficient thickness to provide an interference fit between the piston and die member, is plated on the contacting surface of at least one of the members. (AEC)

  18. Raised intracranial pressure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the cranium to compensate for the added volume. Once this compensatory reserve is exhausted, pressure increases and brain shifts may occur and result in herniation (Fig. 2). e compliance curve is expressed by plotting the ICP against an expanding volume. Once the compensatory reserve is exceeded the increase in ...

  19. PRESSURE-RESISTANT VESSEL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukers, A.; De Jong, T.

    1997-01-01

    Abstract of WO 9717570 (A1) The invention is directed to a wheel-shaped pressure-resistant vessel for gaseous, liquid or liquefied material having a substantially rigid shape, said vessel comprising a substantially continuous shell of a fiber-reinforced resin having a central opening, an inner

  20. Intracranial Pressure Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raboel, P H; Bartek, J; Andresen, M

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring of intracranial pressure (ICP) has been used for decades in the fields of neurosurgery and neurology. There are multiple techniques: invasive as well as noninvasive. This paper aims to provide an overview of the advantages and disadvantages of the most common and well-known methods...

  1. Farmers under pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade, Stefan Bastholm; Anneberg, Inger

    2013-01-01

    of them face severe financial difficulties, divorce and psychiatric problems, which are connected to an increased risk of being convicted for the neglect of farm animals. The narratives bring forward themes of pressure related to financial trouble, technological break down, family problems, stress...

  2. Pressurized Vessel Slurry Pumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pound, C.R.

    2001-09-17

    This report summarizes testing of an alternate ''pressurized vessel slurry pumping'' apparatus. The principle is similar to rural domestic water systems and ''acid eggs'' used in chemical laboratories in that material is extruded by displacement with compressed air.

  3. High Pressure Biomass Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Pradeep K [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-07-29

    According to the Billion Ton Report, the U.S. has a large supply of biomass available that can supplement fossil fuels for producing chemicals and transportation fuels. Agricultural waste, forest residue, and energy crops offer potential benefits: renewable feedstock, zero to low CO2 emissions depending on the specific source, and domestic supply availability. Biomass can be converted into chemicals and fuels using one of several approaches: (i) biological platform converts corn into ethanol by using depolymerization of cellulose to form sugars followed by fermentation, (ii) low-temperature pyrolysis to obtain bio-oils which must be treated to reduce oxygen content via HDO hydrodeoxygenation), and (iii) high temperature pyrolysis to produce syngas (CO + H2). This last approach consists of producing syngas using the thermal platform which can be used to produce a variety of chemicals and fuels. The goal of this project was to develop an improved understanding of the gasification of biomass at high pressure conditions and how various gasification parameters might affect the gasification behavior. Since most downstream applications of synags conversion (e.g., alcohol synthesis, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis etc) involve utilizing high pressure catalytic processes, there is an interest in carrying out the biomass gasification at high pressure which can potentially reduce the gasifier size and subsequent downstream cleaning processes. It is traditionally accepted that high pressure should increase the gasification rates (kinetic effect). There is also precedence from coal gasification literature from the 1970s that high pressure gasification would be a beneficial route to consider. Traditional approach of using thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) or high-pressure themogravimetric analyzer (PTGA) worked well in understanding the gasification kinetics of coal gasification which was useful in designing high pressure coal gasification processes. However

  4. Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basant R. Nassar BS

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH is a potentially reversible neurodegenerative disease commonly characterized by a triad of dementia, gait, and urinary disturbance. Advancements in diagnosis and treatment have aided in properly identifying and improving symptoms in patients. However, a large proportion of iNPH patients remain either undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. Using PubMed search engine of keywords “normal pressure hydrocephalus,” “diagnosis,” “shunt treatment,” “biomarkers,” “gait disturbances,” “cognitive function,” “neuropsychology,” “imaging,” and “pathogenesis,” articles were obtained for this review. The majority of the articles were retrieved from the past 10 years. The purpose of this review article is to aid general practitioners in further understanding current findings on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of iNPH.

  5. Low-pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Richard [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States); Kniep, Jay [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States); Hao, Pingjiao [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States); Chan, Chi Cheng [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States); Nguyen, Vincent [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States); Huang, Ivy [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States); Amo, Karl [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States); Freeman, Brice [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States); Fulton, Don [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States); Ly, Jennifer [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States); Lipscomb, Glenn [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States); Lou, Yuecun [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States); Gogar, Ravikumar [Membrane Technology And Research, Inc., Newark, CA (United States)

    2015-01-29

    This final technical progress report describes work conducted by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) for the Department of Energy (DOE NETL) on development of low-pressure membrane contactors for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from power plant flue gas (award number DE-FE0007553). The work was conducted from October 1, 2011 through September 30, 2014. The overall goal of this three-year project was to build and operate a prototype 500 m2 low-pressure sweep membrane module specifically designed to separate CO2 from coal-fired power plant flue gas. MTR was assisted in this project by a research group at the University of Toledo, which contributed to the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of module design and process simulation. This report details the work conducted to develop a new type of membrane contactor specifically designed for the high-gas-flow, low-pressure, countercurrent sweep operation required for affordable membrane-based CO2 capture at coal power plants. Work for this project included module development and testing, design and assembly of a large membrane module test unit at MTR, CFD comparative analysis of cross-flow, countercurrent, and novel partial-countercurrent sweep membrane module designs, CFD analysis of membrane spacers, design and fabrication of a 500 m2 membrane module skid for field tests, a detailed performance and cost analysis of the MTR CO2 capture process with low-pressure sweep modules, and a process design analysis of a membrane-hybrid separation process for CO2 removal from coal-fired flue gas. Key results for each major task are discussed in the report.

  6. Aspirated High Pressure Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    suggested by the General Electric Company based on an advanced military engine concept intended for high speed flight. The resultant high flight...section, consisting of the two rotors, each on an computed points. The peak pressure ratio is 3.08 and the peak independent, electric motor-driven...instrumentation along Moto . .. ,oto2 with the test error analysis were given by Onnee [14). SFlywheel 2 BLOWDOWN OPERATION T--’..Exit-t-rottle

  7. DEFLECTION PRESSURE TESTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, C.M.

    1961-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining whether the jacket of a nuclear- fuel slug has a leak are described. The region of the jacket to be leak-tested is sealed off, and gas under pressure is applied thereto. If there is an imperfection, the gas will enter the jacket and bulge another region of the jacket. The bulge occurring is measured by a gage.

  8. Microbes under pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallatschek, Oskar

    In natural settings, microbes tend to grow in dense populations where they need to push against their surroundings to accommodate space for new cells. The associated contact forces play a critical role in a variety of population-level processes, including biofilm formation, the colonization of porous media, and the invasion of biological tissues.Here, we reveal a collective mechanism of confinement that promotes the build-up of large mechanical pressures in microbial populations. Microfluidic experiments on budding yeast populations in space-limited environments show that self-driven jamming arises from the gradual formation and sudden collapse of force chains driven by microbial proliferation, extending the framework of driven granular matter. The resulting contact pressures can become large enough to slow down cell growth, to delay the cell cycle in the G1 phase, and to strain or even destroy the microenvironment through crack propagation. Finally, we discuss how discuss how collective pushing dynamics can promote the emergence of mutational jackpot events. Our results suggest that self-driven jamming and build-up of large mechanical pressures is a natural tendency of microbes growing in confined spaces, contributing to microbial pathogenesis and biofouling. NIH NIGMS R01, Simons Foundation.

  9. Pressure Controlled Chemical Gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Megan R; Batista, Bruno C; Steinbock, Oliver

    2016-06-30

    The dissolution of metal salts in silicate solution can result in the growth of hollow precipitate tubes. These "chemical gardens" are a model of self-organization far from the equilibrium and create permanent macroscopic structures. The reproducibility of the growth process is greatly improved if the solid salt seed is replaced by a salt solution that is steadily injected by a pump; however, this modification of the original experiment eliminates the membrane-based osmotic pump at the base of conventional chemical gardens and does not allow for analyses in terms of the involved pressure. Here we describe a new experimental method that delivers the salt solution according to a controlled hydrostatic pressure. In one form of the experiment, this pressure slowly decreases as zinc sulfate solution flows into the silicate-containing reaction vessel, whereas a second version holds the respective solution heights constant. In addition to three known growth regimes (jetting, popping, budding), we observe single tubes that fill the vessel in a horizontally undulating but vertically layered fashion (crowding). The resulting, dried product has a cylindrical shape, very low density, and one continuous connection from top to bottom. We also present phase diagrams of these growth modes and show that the flow characteristics of our experiments follow a reaction-independent Hagen-Poiseuille equation.

  10. Social Stress Induced Pressure Breathing and Consequent Blood Pressure Oscillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, Dirk S.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Meulen, Jan van der; Schoemaker, Regien

    1986-01-01

    A large amplitude blood pressure oscillation occurs during social defeat in a territorial fight between male rats, and during the application of a psychosocial stimulus associated with this defeat. Synchronous recording of blood pressure, intrathoracic pressure and diaphragm activity shows that the

  11. Effects of blood pressure and blood pressure reactivity on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated whether the relationship between sex and experimental pain report was explained by blood pressure at rest, or during pain task, or both in healthy, young adult females. Univariate analyses indicated significant positive correlation between baseline systolic blood pressure, systolic blood pressure ...

  12. Reconstruction of brachial pressure from finger arterial pressure during orthostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogert, Lysander W J; Harms, Mark P M; Pott, Frank

    2004-01-01

    In patients with recurrent syncope, monitoring of intra-arterial pressure during orthostatic stress testing is recommended because of the potentially sudden and rapid development of hypotension. Replacing brachial arterial pressure (BAP) by the non-invasively obtained finger arterial pressure (Fin...

  13. Reconstruction of brachial artery pressure from noninvasive finger pressure measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, W. J.; van Goudoever, J.; van Montfrans, G. A.; van den Meiracker, A. H.; Wesseling, K. H.

    1996-01-01

    Pulse wave distortions, mainly caused by reflections, and pressure gradients, caused by flow in the resistive vascular tree, may cause differences between finger and brachial artery pressures. These differences may limit the use of finger pressure measurements. We investigated whether brachial

  14. Delay Pressure Detection Method to Eliminate Pump Pressure Interference on the Downhole Mud Pressure Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of applying delay pressure detection method to eliminate mud pump pressure interference on the downhole mud pressure signals is studied. Two pressure sensors mounted on the mud pipe in some distance apart are provided to detect the downhole mud continuous pressure wave signals on the surface according to the delayed time produced by mud pressure wave transmitting between the two sensors. A mathematical model of delay pressure detection is built by analysis of transmission path between mud pump pressure interference and downhole mud pressure signals. Considering pressure signal transmission characteristics of the mud pipe, a mathematical model of ideal low-pass filter for limited frequency band signal is introduced to study the pole frequency impact on the signal reconstruction and the constraints of pressure sensor distance are obtained by pole frequencies analysis. Theoretical calculation and numerical simulation show that the method can effectively eliminate mud pump pressure interference and the downhole mud continuous pressure wave signals can be reconstructed successfully with a significant improvement in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR in the condition of satisfying the constraints of pressure sensor distance.

  15. CO2 water-alternating-gas flooding optimization of the Chigwell Viking I pool in the Western Canadian sedimentary basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hewson, C.W.; Leeuwenburgh, O.

    2017-01-01

    An ensemble-based production optimization technique is applied to a simulation model of OMERS Energy's Chigwell Viking Pool in order to determine optimal CO2-WAG cycle length, injection rates and production bottom hole pressures (BHPs). An ensemble-based approximate gradient calculation is used in

  16. Use of reduced-order models in well control optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.D.; Durlofsky, L.J.

    2016-01-01

    Many aspects of reservoir management can be expected to benefit from the application of computational optimization procedures. The focus of this review paper is on well control optimization, which entails the determination of well settings, such as flow rates or bottom hole pressures, that maximize

  17. Production Optimization for Two-Phase Flow in an Oil Reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Völcker, Carsten; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Thomsen, Per Grove

    2012-01-01

    framework to increase the production and economic value of an oil reservoir. Wether the objective is to maximize recovery or some financial measure like Net Present Value, the increased production is achieved by manipulation of the well rates and bottom-hole pressures of the injection and production wells...

  18. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless and can be done ... provider’s office or clinic. To prepare for the test: Don’t drink coffee or smoke cigarettes for ...

  19. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... of physical activity Drinking too much alcohol Stress Family History A family history of high blood pressure raises the risk ... for high blood pressure and may run in families. Genetic causes of this condition are why family ...

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    Full Text Available ... control high blood pressure; lifestyle changes such as weight loss can be highly effective in treating high blood ... your risk for health problems. Greater amounts of weight loss can improve blood pressure readings, lower LDL cholesterol , ...

  1. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... too high. Health care workers check blood pressure readings the same way for children, teens, and adults. ... Complications Because diagnosis is based on blood pressure readings, this condition can go undetected for years, as ...

  2. Medications for High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Medications for High Blood Pressure Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... age and you cannot tell if you have high blood pressure by the way you feel, so have your ...

  3. High blood pressure and diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007483.htm High blood pressure and diet To use the sharing features on ... diet is a proven way to help control high blood pressure . These changes can also help you lose weight ...

  4. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... severity levels. Stages of High Blood Pressure in Adults Stages Systolic (top number) Diastolic (bottom number) Prehypertension ... in the table are blood pressure guides for adults who do not have any short-term serious ...

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    Full Text Available ... or hormone therapies, including birth control pills and estrogen, and over-the-counter medicines such as cold ... pressure. Medicines to lower blood pressure include: Diuretics (Water or Fluid Pills): Flush excess sodium from your ...

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    Full Text Available ... check blood pressure readings the same way for children, teens, and adults. They use a gauge, stethoscope ... prehypertension and high blood pressure is increasing for children and teens, possibly due to the rise in ...

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    Full Text Available ... blood pressure test is easy and painless and can be done in a health care provider’s office ... severity of your blood pressure, he or she can order additional tests to determine if your blood ...

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    Full Text Available ... can cause high blood pressure. Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system makes angiotensin and ... blood volumes and high blood pressure. Sympathetic Nervous System Activity The sympathetic nervous system has important functions ...

  9. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... and to follow your prescribed treatment plan, which will include healthy lifestyle habit recommendations and possibly medicines. ... your blood pressure test, your health care provider will diagnose prehypertension or high blood pressure if: Your ...

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    Full Text Available ... renin-angiotensin-aldosterone pathways. However, these known genetic factors only account for 2 to 3 percent of ... which leads to secondary high blood pressure. Risk Factors Anyone can develop high blood pressure; however, age, ...

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    Full Text Available ... American adults. Compared with these ethnic groups, African Americans: Tend to get high blood pressure earlier in life. Often, on average, have higher blood pressure numbers. ...

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    Full Text Available ... blood pressure readings the same way for children, teens, and adults. They use a gauge, stethoscope or ... that are considered normal for babies, while older teens have numbers similar to adults. Abnormal Blood Pressure ...

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    Full Text Available ... track blood pressure readings over a period of time, the health care provider may ask you to ... the office on different days and at different times to take your blood pressure. The health care ...

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    Full Text Available ... Institute on Drug Abuse) High Blood Pressure (MedlinePlus) High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases) RELATED NEWS December ...

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    Full Text Available ... 139 OR 80–89 High blood pressure Stage 1 140–159 OR 90–99 High blood pressure ... To help make lifelong lifestyle changes, try making one healthy lifestyle change at a time and add ...

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    Full Text Available ... potassium Lack of physical activity Drinking too much alcohol Stress Family History A family history of high blood pressure raises the risk of developing prehypertension or high blood pressure. Some ...

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    Full Text Available ... may stiffen small and large arteries, which can affect blood pressure. Genetic Causes of High Blood Pressure ... which plaque builds up in leg arteries and affects blood flow in the legs. When people have ...

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  9. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... Also known as Hypertension See also Information for Health Professionals What Is High blood pressure is a common ... Before age 55, men are more likely than women to develop high blood pressure. After age 55, ...

  10. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... Operations and Administration Advisory Committees Budget and Legislative Information Jobs and Working at the NHLBI Contact and ... Blood Pressure Also known as Hypertension See also Information for Health Professionals What Is High blood pressure ...

  11. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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  12. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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  16. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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  17. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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  18. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... health and can lower high blood pressure. Stress management techniques include: Being physically active Listening to music ... Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases) RELATED NEWS December ...

  19. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... ask for your readings. Blood Pressure Severity and Type Your health care provider usually takes 2–3 ... any other location. Health care providers diagnose this type of high blood pressure by reviewing readings in ...

  20. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... hormones in your blood, which leads to secondary high blood pressure. Risk Factors Anyone can develop high blood pressure; however, age, race or ethnicity, being overweight, gender, ...

  1. High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the baby. Controlling your blood pressure during pregnancy and getting regular prenatal care are important for ... your baby. Treatments for high blood pressure in pregnancy may include close monitoring of the baby, lifestyle ...

  2. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lead to cognitive changes. Signs and symptoms include memory loss, difficulty finding words, and losing focus during ... above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless and can be done ...

  3. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... weakens and damages your blood vessels, which can lead to complications . Types of High Blood Pressure There ... Angiotensin narrows or constricts blood vessels, which can lead to an increase in blood pressure. Aldosterone controls ...

  4. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... to keep a written log of all your results. Whenever you have an appointment with the health ... appointments to diagnose high blood pressure. Using the results of your blood pressure test, your health care ...

  5. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... your blood vessels, which can lead to complications . Types of High Blood Pressure There are two main ... ask for your readings. Blood Pressure Severity and Type Your health care provider usually takes 2–3 ...

  6. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... Ethnicity High blood pressure is more common in African American adults than in Caucasian or Hispanic American adults. Compared with these ethnic groups, African Americans: Tend to get high blood pressure earlier in ...

  7. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... lifestyle habits, proper use of medicines, and regular medical care can prevent high blood pressure or its complications. ... blood pressure, it is important to obtain regular medical care and to follow your prescribed treatment plan, which ...

  8. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... being overweight or obese, and medicines. Unhealthy Lifestyle Habits Unhealthy lifestyle habits can cause high blood pressure, ... than men to develop high blood pressure. Lifestyle Habits Unhealthy lifestyle habits can raise your risk for ...

  9. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... talk with your health care provider and take steps to control your blood pressure by making healthy ... your health care team so you can take steps to control your blood pressure before and during ...

  10. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... normal for babies, while older teens have numbers similar to adults. Abnormal Blood Pressure Abnormal increases in ... Salt A low-sodium diet can help you manage your blood pressure. You should try to limit ...

  11. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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  12. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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  13. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... bring your log of blood pressure readings. Every time you visit the health care provider, he or she should tell you what your blood pressure numbers are; if he or she does not, you should ...

  14. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... Imbalances in this kidney function can expand blood volumes, which can cause high blood pressure. Renin-Angiotensin- ... change this kidney function, leading to increased blood volumes and high blood pressure. Sympathetic Nervous System Activity ...

  15. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... is too high. Health care workers check blood pressure readings the same way for children, teens, and adults. They use a gauge, stethoscope or electronic sensor, and a blood pressure ...

  16. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... for 2 to 3 percent of all cases. Emerging research suggests that certain DNA changes during fetal ... blood, which leads to secondary high blood pressure. Risk Factors Anyone can develop high blood pressure; however, ...

  17. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... and Obesity Smoking and Your Heart Stroke Send a link to NHLBI to someone by E-MAIL | ... 90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless and ...

  18. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... of all cases. Emerging research suggests that certain DNA changes during fetal development also may cause the development of high blood pressure later in life. Environmental Causes of High Blood Pressure Environmental causes of ...

  19. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... blood pressure. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors : Angiotensin-II is a hormone that narrows blood vessels, increasing blood pressure. ACE converts Angiotensin I to Angiotensin II. ACE inhibitors block this process, which stops the ...

  20. Blood pressure monitors for home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007482.htm Blood pressure monitors for home To use the sharing features ... may ask you to keep track of your blood pressure at home. To do this, you will need ...

  1. INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Widiyanthi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Intracranial pressure is total of pressure that is produced by brain, blood, and cerebrospinal fluid/CSF in the tight cranial space. As a respon to intracranial pressure increasing, compensation begin by movement of CSF from ventricle to cerebral subarachnoidal space, and increase the absorption of CSF. Increasing of ICP usually caused by increasing of brain volume (cerebral oedem, blood (intracranial bleeding, space occupying lesion, or CSF (hidrocephalus. Indication in ICP monitoring can be seen from : neurological criteria, abnormal CT-scan result when admission, normal CT-scan result, but had more two risk factors. According to the procedure that must be done, there are two methods in ICP monitoring: invasive ICP monitoring methodes and non-invasive measuring method. Increasing of ICP will decrease the compliance of brain, pulsation of artery more clearly, and the component of vein is lost. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  2. Saltstone Osmotic Pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, Ralph L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Dixon, Kenneth L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRN

    2013-09-23

    Recent research into the moisture retention properties of saltstone suggest that osmotic pressure may play a potentially significant role in contaminant transport (Dixon et al., 2009 and Dixon, 2011). The Savannah River Remediation Closure and Disposal Assessments Group requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to conduct a literature search on osmotic potential as it relates to contaminant transport and to develop a conceptual model of saltstone that incorporates osmotic potential. This report presents the findings of the literature review and presents a conceptual model for saltstone that incorporates osmotic potential. The task was requested through Task Technical Request HLW-SSF-TTR- 2013-0004.

  3. Pressure difference receiving ears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Axel; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2007-01-01

    waves behave in the air spaces leading to the interior surfaces of eardrums. A linear mathematical model with well-defined inputs is used for exploring how the directionality varies with the binaural directional cues and the amplitude and phase gain of the sound pathway to the inner surface...... of such pressure difference receiving ears have been hampered by lack of suitable experimental methods. In this review, we review the methods for collecting reliable data on the binaural directional cues at the eardrums, on how the eardrum vibrations depend on the direction of sound incidence, and on how sound...

  4. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure Much of the understanding of the body systems involved in high blood pressure has come from ... happens because medicines can change the way your body controls fluid and salt ... system leading to high blood pressure. Other Medical Causes ...

  5. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood pressure and maintain normal blood pressure readings. Healthy Eating To help treat high blood pressure, health care providers recommend that you limit sodium and salt intake, increase potassium, and eat foods that are heart healthy. Limiting Sodium and Salt ...

  6. Micromachined pressure/flow-sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterbroek, R.E.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Berenschot, Johan W.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; van den Berg, Albert

    The micromechanical equivalent of a differential pressure flow-sensor, well known in macro mechanics, is discussed. Two separate pressure sensors are used for the device, enabling to measure both, pressure as well as volume flow-rate. An integrated sensor with capacitive read-out as well as a

  7. Pressure Safety: Advanced Live 11459

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, George [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-03-02

    Many Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) operations use pressure equipment and systems. Failure to follow proper procedures when designing or operating pressure systems can result in injuries to personnel and damage to equipment and/or the environment. This manual presents an overview of the requirements and recommendations that address the safe design and operation of pressure systems at LANL.

  8. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Card can help you track your blood pressure. Pregnancy Planning High blood pressure can cause problems for mother and ... before and during the pregnancy. Some women develop high blood pressure during pregnancy. When this happens, your health care provider will ...

  9. The Myth of Peer Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Michael T.

    2000-01-01

    The construct of peer pressure was examined as part of a qualitative study of the determinants of mental health for 41 high-risk adolescents. While the concept of peer pressure enables adults to explain youths' troubling behaviors, content analysis of the participants' accounts of their lives reveals peer pressure to be a myth. (Author/MKA)

  10. Gas Pressure-Drop Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyben, William L.; Tuzla, Kemal

    2010-01-01

    Most chemical engineering undergraduate laboratories have fluid mechanics experiments in which pressure drops through pipes are measured over a range of Reynolds numbers. The standard fluid is liquid water, which is essentially incompressible. Since density is constant, pressure drop does not depend on the pressure in the pipe. In addition, flow…

  11. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Advisory Committees Jobs Contact Us FAQs Home » Health Information for the Public » Health Topics » High Blood Pressure » Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure Explore High Blood Pressure What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical ...

  12. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other conditions or medicines or if you have primary high blood pressure. Health care providers can use this information to develop your ... blood pressure persists or is first diagnosed as primary high blood pressure, your ... your health care provider may change or update your treatment plan ...

  13. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for the test: Don’t drink coffee or smoke cigarettes for 30 minutes prior to the test. Go ... DASH My Blood Pressure Wallet Card Other Resources Cigarette and Tobacco Facts (National Institute on Drug Abuse) High Blood Pressure (MedlinePlus) High Blood Pressure ...

  14. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure For most patients, health care providers diagnose high blood pressure when blood pressure ... and painless and can be done in a health care provider’s office or clinic. To prepare for the ...

  15. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure For most patients, health care providers diagnose high ... are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless ...

  16. Pressure transients in pipeline systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voigt, Kristian

    1998-01-01

    This text is to give an overview of the necessary background to do investigation of pressure transients via simulations. It will describe briefly the Method of Characteristics which is the defacto standard for simulating pressure transients. Much of the text has been adopted from the book Pressure...

  17. ORANGE JUICE AND BLOOD PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. VALIM

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Blood pressure is the force of blood against artery walls. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg and recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (as the heart contracts over diastolic pressure (as the heart relaxes between beats. High blood pressure (hypertension is defined as chronically elevated high blood pressure, with systolic blood pressure (SBP of 140 mm Hg or greater, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP of 90 mm Hg or greater. High blood pressure (HBP, smoking, abnormal blood lipid levels, obesity and diabetes are risk factors for coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in the US. Lifestyle modifications such as engaging in regular physical activity, quitting smoking and eating a healthy diet (limiting intake of saturated fat and sodium and increasing consumption of fiber, fruits and vegetables are advocated for the prevention, treatment, and control of HBP. As multiple factors influence blood pressure, the effects of each factor are typically modest, particularly in normotensive subjects, yet the combined effects can be substantial. Nutrition plays an important role in influencing blood pressure. Orange juice should be included as part of any low sodium diet and/or any blood pressure reducing eating plan, as it is sodium free, fat-free and can help meet recommended levels of potassium intake that may contribute to lower BP.

  18. Pressure vessel design manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    The first section of the book covers types of loadings, failures, and stress theories, and how they apply to pressure vessels. The book delineates the procedures for designing typical components as well as those for designing large openings in cylindrical shells, ring girders, davits, platforms, bins and elevated tanks. The techniques for designing conical transitions, cone-cylinder intersections, intermediate heads, flat heads, and spherically dished covers are also described. The book covers the design of vessel supports subject to wind and seismic loads and one section is devoted to the five major ways of analyzing loads on shells and heads. Each procedure is detailed enough to size all welds, bolts, and plate thicknesses and to determine actual stresses.

  19. Parent-Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helle Strandgaard

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I examine change and continuity in conceptions of parental agency in public debates about children’s media consumption in Scandinavia, 1945-1975. During this period, public debates about the various kinds of media products children consumed were dominated by different groups....... However, a strong continuity in the debates was the negative influence parents were seen as having on children’s media consumption due to their lack of insight and interest in the topic. Drawing upon recent works on children’s media, consumption and enculturation, I analyse why the negative description...... of parents as co-consumers prevailed despite radical changes in views on children’s media consumption. In particular, I examine the shared inter-Scandinavian socio-cultural contexts that structured the changing professional and political groups’ pressure on parents to perform according to their norms...

  20. Partial pressure gauges

    CERN Document Server

    Peter, G J

    2007-01-01

    The determination of partial pressures in vacuum systems is usually performed by mass spectrometers. The most common type is the QMS. Quadrupole mass spectrometers were developed decades ago and have been used by vacuum specialists as a diagnostic tool since then. In the first part of the paper the principles of these mass spectrometers are briefly reviewed together with the key features of the instruments. This is necessary to operate these instruments. In the second part the boundary conditions which arise from the application as residual gas analyser in UHV/XHV plants are described. These lead to special versions of mass spectrometers. Results obtained with these instruments and typical artefacts in mass spectra obtained in the UHV are discussed.

  1. Starch Gelatinization Induced by High Hydrostatic Pressure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kazutaka YAMAMOTO

    2013-01-01

    .... Starch gelatinization can also be induced by high hydrostatic pressure. Requirements for pressure gelatinization may also differ depending on botanical origin of starch, pressure, water, and temperature...

  2. Internal pressure and solubility parameter as a function of pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdier, Sylvain Charles Roland; Andersen, Simon Ivar

    2005-01-01

    The main goal of this work was to measure the solubility parameter of a complex mixture, such as a crude oil, especially as a function of pressure. Thus, its definition is explained, as well as the main approximations generally used in literature. Then, the internal pressure is investigated, since...... it is presented as an alternative of the solubility parameter. In this work, the assumption that internal pressure is a measure of the physical solubility parameter was made, i.e. representing the dispersion and polar forces. As for the pressure influence, it was seen that internal pressure reaches a maximum...... contrary to solubility parameter. An indirect method was chosen to estimate internal pressure, using thermal expansivities (determined by microcalorimetry) and isothermal compressibilities (determined by density measurements). The uncertainty is within 2% for the expansivity and 0.1% for the density. Five...

  3. Thermodynamic equilibrium at heterogeneous pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrijmoed, Johannes C.; Podladchikov, Yuri Y.

    2014-05-01

    Recent advances in metamorphic petrology point out the importance of grain-scale pressure variations in high-temperature metamorphic rocks. Pressures derived from chemical zonation using unconventional geobarometry based on equal chemical potentials fit mechanically feasible pressure variations. Here a thermodynamic equilibrium method is presented that predicts chemical zoning as a result of pressure variations by Gibbs energy minimization. Equilibrium thermodynamic prediction of the chemical zoning in the case of pressure heterogeneity is done by constraint Gibbs minimization using linear programming techniques. Compositions of phases considered in the calculation are discretized into 'pseudo-compounds' spanning the entire compositional space. Gibbs energies of these discrete compounds are generated for a given range and resolution of pressures for example derived by barometry or from mechanical model predictions. Gibbs energy minimization is subsequently performed considering all compounds of different composition and pressure. In addition to constraining the system composition a certain proportion of the system is constraint at a specified pressure. Input pressure variations need to be discretized and each discrete pressure defines an additional constraint for the minimization. The proportion of the system at each different pressure is equally distributed over the number of input pressures. For example if two input pressures P1 and P2 are specified, two constraints are added: 50 percent of the system is constraint at P1 while the remaining 50 percent is constraint at P2. The method has been tested for a set of 10 input pressures obtained by Tajčmanová et al. (2014) using their unconventional geobarometry method in a plagioclase rim around kyanite. Each input pressure is added as constraint to the minimization (1/10 percent of the system for each discrete pressure). Constraining the system composition to the average composition of the plagioclase rim

  4. Iliac venous pressure estimates central venous pressure after laparotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Brian A; Kirk, Katherine A; Tucker, Nikia; Gunn, Scott; Forsythe, Raquel

    2014-09-01

    Central venous pressure (CVP) is traditionally obtained through subclavian or internal jugular central catheters; however, many patients who could benefit from CVP monitoring have only femoral lines. The accuracy of illiac venous pressure (IVP) as a measure of CVP is unknown, particularly following laparotomy. This was a prospective, observational study. Patients who had both internal jugular or subclavian lines and femoral lines already in place were eligible for the study. Pressure measurements were taken from both lines in addition to measurement of bladder pressure, mean arterial pressure, and peak airway pressure. Data were evaluated using paired t-test, Bland-Altman analysis, and linear regression. Measurements were obtained from 40 patients, 26 of which had laparotomy. The mean difference between measurements was 2.2 mm Hg. There were no significant differences between patients who had laparotomy and nonsurgical patients (P = 0.93). Bland-Altman analysis revealed a bias of 1.63 ± 2.44 mm Hg. There was no correlation between IVP accuracy and bladder pressure, mean arterial pressure, or peak airway pressure. IVP is an adequate measure of CVP, even in surgical patients who have had recent laparotomy. Measurement of IVP to guide resuscitation is encouraged in patients who have only femoral venous catheter access. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Effect of measured wellhead parameters and well scaling on the computed downhole conditions in Cerro Prieto wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, K.P.; Miller, C.W.; Lippmann, M.J.

    1980-12-01

    Computing bottomhole pressures from the measured wellhead data by using a wellbore model is discussed. The wellbore model and its describing equations, comparison between the computed and measured pressures and the effect of measured wellhead parameters on the downhole pressures in the well are discussed. Finally a wellbore model with multiple inside diameters is discussed and the effect of well scaling on the bottom hole pressures is studied.

  6. Pressures Detector Calibration and Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2156315

    2016-01-01

    This is report of my first and second projects (of 3) in NA61. I did data taking and analysis in order to do calibration of pressure detectors and verified it. I analyzed the data by ROOT software using the C ++ programming language. The first part of my project was determination of calibration factor of pressure sensors. Based on that result, I examined the relation between pressure drop, gas flow rate of in paper filter and its diameter.

  7. Why ambulatory blood pressure monitoring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punzi, H A

    1998-11-15

    Factors that affect the reliability and accuracy of blood pressure measurements are reviewed, and new technologies for measuring blood pressure are discussed. Blood pressure measurements obtained in an office, hospital, or clinic are subject to variation and error. Reasons for variations include the wrong cuff size, improper inflation or deflation technique, and patient apprehension ("white-coat syndrome"). Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) involves the use of a fully automated standard arm cuff that is inflated at predetermined intervals by a small battery-powered pump unit. The most reliable ABPM method is the oscillometric method, which detects subtle changes in air pressure within the cuff system caused by fluctuations of the brachial artery. The process for interpreting 24-hour ABPM data is still evolving. Twenty-four-hour ABPM has been shown to eliminate white-coat hypertension and is also useful for assessing patients whose blood pressure is inappropriately high in the absence of end organ damage, monitoring persons at risk of developing hypertension because of their race or family history, determining a medication's 24-hour effect on blood pressure, and assessing the early-morning rapid rise in blood pressure, which has been linked to an increased risk of nonembolic stroke and myocardial infarction. ABPM enables identification of patients whose blood pressure is elevated in the office but normal at home, allows more appropriate screening of patients for clinical trials, gives reproducible values, and enables evaluation of drug duration and action.

  8. The infinite line pressure probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, D. R.; Richards, W. B.

    1985-01-01

    The infinite line pressure probe provides a means for measuring high frequency fluctuating pressures in difficult environments. A properly designed infinite line probe does not resonate; thus its frequency response is not limited by acoustic resonance in the probe tubing, as in conventional probes. The characteristics of infinite line pressure probes are reviewed and some applications in turbine engine research are described. A probe with a flat-oval cross section, permitting a constant-impedance pressure transducer installation, is described. Techniques for predicting the frequency response of probes with both circular and flat-oval cross sections are also cited.

  9. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Intramural Research Research Resources Research Meeting Summaries Technology Transfer ... » Health Information for the Public » Health Topics » High Blood Pressure » ...

  10. Structure integrity assessment of pressurizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubeljak, N.; Predan, J. (University of Maribor, Faculty of Mech. Eng., Maribor (Slovenia)); Vojvodie-Tuma, J. (Inst. for Metals and Technology, Ljubljana (Slovenia)); Kljajin, M. (University of Osijek, Faculty of Mech. Engineering , Brod (Croatia))

    2009-07-01

    Mechanical properties and fracture toughness testing of substrate pressurizer material is performed on simulated cast with same chemical composition and same production treatment as original material in Nuclear Power Plant. Tests were performed on artificially 2 years aged specimens at service temperature 300 deg C. The fracture toughness values in term of J-integral=81 N/mm was determined according to ASTM test procedure. Mechanical properties of clad and weld metal are taken from ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Considering the material and physical properties of pressurizer bottom and internal pressure, the numerical analysis of displacement and stress distribution through the thickness was performed

  11. Advanced Pressure Boundary Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santella, Michael L [ORNL; Shingledecker, John P [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    Increasing the operating temperatures of fossil power plants is fundamental to improving thermal efficiencies and reducing undesirable emissions such as CO{sub 2}. One group of alloys with the potential to satisfy the conditions required of higher operating temperatures is the advanced ferritic steels such as ASTM Grade 91, 9Cr-2W, and 12Cr-2W. These are Cr-Mo steels containing 9-12 wt% Cr that have martensitic microstructures. Research aimed at increasing the operating temperature limits of the 9-12 wt% Cr steels and optimizing them for specific power plant applications has been actively pursued since the 1970's. As with all of the high strength martensitic steels, specifying upper temperature limits for tempering the alloys and heat treating weldments is a critical issue. To support this aspect of development, thermodynamic analysis was used to estimate how this critical temperature, the A{sub 1} in steel terminology, varies with alloy composition. The results from the thermodynamic analysis were presented to the Strength of Weldments subgroup of the ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code and are being considered in establishing maximum postweld heat treatment temperatures. Experiments are also being planned to verify predictions. This is part of a CRADA project being done with Alstom Power, Inc.

  12. Estimation of vapour pressure and partial pressure of subliming ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    temperature curves are calculated at 80, 160 and 1000 mbar for salicylic acid and vanadyl bis-2,4- pentanedionate, a precursor used for chemical vapour deposition of vanadium oxides. Using a modification of the Langmuir equation, the partial pressure of these materials at different total pressures is also determined.

  13. Pressurized Lunar Rover (PLR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Kenneth; Frampton, Jeffrey; Honaker, David; McClure, Kerry; Zeinali, Mazyar; Bhardwaj, Manoj; Bulsara, Vatsal; Kokan, David; Shariff, Shaun; Svarverud, Eric

    The objective of this project was to design a manned pressurized lunar rover (PLR) for long-range transportation and for exploration of the lunar surface. The vehicle must be capable of operating on a 14-day mission, traveling within a radius of 500 km during a lunar day or within a 50-km radius during a lunar night. The vehicle must accommodate a nominal crew of four, support two 28-hour EVA's, and in case of emergency, support a crew of six when near the lunar base. A nominal speed of ten km/hr and capability of towing a trailer with a mass of two mt are required. Two preliminary designs have been developed by two independent student teams. The PLR 1 design proposes a seven meter long cylindrical main vehicle and a trailer which houses the power and heat rejection systems. The main vehicle carries the astronauts, life support systems, navigation and communication systems, lighting, robotic arms, tools, and equipment for exploratory experiments. The rover uses a simple mobility system with six wheels on the main vehicle and two on the trailer. The nonpressurized trailer contains a modular radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) supplying 6.5 kW continuous power. A secondary energy storage for short-term peak power needs is provided by a bank of lithium-sulfur dioxide batteries. The life support system is partly a regenerative system with air and hygiene water being recycled. A layer of water inside the composite shell surrounds the command center allowing the center to be used as a safe haven during solar flares. The PLR 1 has a total mass of 6197 kg. It has a top speed of 18 km/hr and is capable of towing three metric tons, in addition to the RTG trailer. The PLR 2 configuration consists of two four-meter diameter, cylindrical hulls which are passively connected by a flexible passageway, resulting in the overall vehicle length of 11 m. The vehicle is driven by eight independently suspended wheels. The dual-cylinder concept allows articulated as well as double

  14. Solvation pressure as real pressure: I. Ethanol and starch under negative pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Uden, N W A V; Faux, D A; Tanczos, A C; Howlin, B; Dunstan, D J

    2003-01-01

    The reality of the solvation pressure generated by the cohesive energy density of liquids is demonstrated by three methods. Firstly, the Raman spectrum of ethanol as a function of cohesive energy density (solvation pressure) in ethanol-water and ethanol-chloroform mixtures is compared with the Raman spectrum of pure ethanol under external hydrostatic pressure and the solvation pressure and hydrostatic pressure are found to be equivalent for some transitions. Secondly, the bond lengths of ethanol are calculated by molecular dynamics modelling for liquid ethanol under pressure and for ethanol vapour. The difference in bond lengths between vapour and liquid are found to be equivalent to the solvation pressure for the C-H sub 3 , C-H sub 2 and O-H bond lengths, with discrepancies for the C-C and C-O bond lengths. Thirdly, the pressure-induced gelation of potato starch is measured in pure water and in mixtures of water and ethanol. The phase transition pressure varies in accordance with the change in solvation pre...

  15. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... health and can lower high blood pressure. Stress management techniques include: Being physically active Listening to music or focusing on something calm or peaceful Performing yoga or tai chi Meditating Medicines Blood pressure medicines work in different ways to stop or slow some of the ...

  16. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Intramural Research Research Resources Research Meeting Summaries Technology Transfer Clinical Trials What Are Clinical Trials? Children & ... or at other locations that have blood pressure equipment and to keep a written ... at several medical appointments to diagnose high blood pressure. Using the ...

  17. High Blood Pressure and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More High Blood Pressure and Women Updated:Dec 14,2016 Pregnancy and ... Women . This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  18. Common High Blood Pressure Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common High Blood Pressure Myths Updated:Dec 8,2017 Knowing the facts ... health. This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  19. What Is High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More What is High Blood Pressure? Updated:Oct 5,2017 First, let’s define high ... resources . This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  20. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your risk for health problems. Greater amounts of weight loss can improve blood pressure readings, lower LDL cholesterol , ... blood pressure and triglyceride levels, a type of fat found in the blood. Alcohol also adds extra calories, which may cause weight gain. Men should have no more than two ...

  1. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other conditions or medicines or if you have primary high blood pressure. Health care providers can use this information to develop your treatment plan. Some people have “white coat hypertension.” This happens when blood pressure readings are only high when taken in a health ...

  2. High Pressure Research on Materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    basic types of apparatus that are now being used throughout the world. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1946. The static high pressure generating devices can be divided into two categories: piston-cylinder and opposed anvil devices. These devices with their pressure capabilities are listed in Figure 4.

  3. Pressure drop in contraction flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    This note is a supplement to Dynamic of Polymeric Liquids (DPL) page 178. DPL gives an equation for the pressure drop in a tapered (and circular) contraction, valid only at low angles. Here the general definition of contraction flow (the Bagley correction) and a more general method to find...... the pressure drop in a contraction are given....

  4. High Pressure Research on Materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 6. High Pressure Research on Materials - Production and Measurement of High Pressures in the Laboratory. P Ch Sahu N V Chandra Shekar. General Article Volume 12 Issue 6 June 2007 pp 10-23 ...

  5. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pressure readings, lower LDL cholesterol , and increase HDL cholesterol . However, research shows that no matter your weight, it is important to control high blood pressure to maintain good health. A useful measure of overweight and obesity is body mass index (BMI). BMI measures your ...

  6. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... learn how to check your blood pressure at home. Your health care provider can help you learn how to do ... to lower the chance of complications. With such care, most women and babies have good ... Resources Healthy Hearts, Healthy Homes: Keep the Beat: Control Your High Blood Pressure/ ...

  7. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... short-term serious illnesses. People with diabetes or chronic kidney disease should keep their blood pressure below 130/80 ... blood pressure include other medical conditions such as chronic kidney disease , sleep apnea , thyroid problems, or certain tumors. This ...

  8. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... cause high blood pressure. Blood Vessel Structure and Function Changes in the structure and function of small and large arteries may contribute to ... to stop or slow some of the body’s functions that cause high blood pressure. Medicines to lower ...

  9. Diabetes and blood pressure (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    People with diabetes have a higher risk for heart attacks and strokes. Your doctor or nurse should check your blood pressure ... People with diabetes have a higher risk for heart attacks and strokes. Your doctor or nurse should check your blood pressure ...

  10. Pressure distribution on spinning spinnerets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-dimensional model is used to study the pressure distribution in a chamber of a spinneret system. Darcy’s law is adopted for determining the inlet and outlet velocities of the flow. The pressure distribution on the spinneret plate is obtained, and the dead zone, where no nozzle exists, can be optimally determined.

  11. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NHLBI About NHLBI Home Mission and Strategic Vision Leadership Scientific Divisions Operations and Administration Advisory Committees Budget ... health and can lower high blood pressure. Stress management techniques include: Being physically ... SPRINT trial played a key role in the evolution of the new blood pressure ...

  12. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... physical health and can lower high blood pressure. Stress management techniques include: Being physically active Listening to music or focusing on something calm or peaceful Performing yoga or tai chi Meditating Medicines Blood pressure medicines work in different ways to stop or slow some ...

  13. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... can help you control high blood pressure. These habits include: Healthy eating Being physically active Maintaining a healthy weight Limiting ... earlier changes. When you practice several healthy lifestyle habits, you are more likely to lower ... Eating To help treat high blood pressure, health care ...

  14. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... provider’s office compared with readings taken in any other location. Health care providers diagnose this type of high blood pressure ... high blood pressure and reduce your risk for other health problems. Talk with your health care provider before you start a new exercise plan. ...

  15. Electronically-Scanned Pressure Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, C. F.; Parra, G. T.; Kauffman, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    Sensors not pneumatically switched. Electronic pressure-transducer scanning system constructed in modular form. Pressure transducer modules and analog to digital converter module small enough to fit within cavities of average-sized wind-tunnel models. All switching done electronically. Temperature controlled environment maintained within sensor modules so accuracy maintained while ambient temperature varies.

  16. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NHLBI About NHLBI Home Mission and Strategic Vision Leadership Scientific Divisions Operations and Administration Advisory Committees Budget ... health and can lower high blood pressure. Stress management techniques include: Being physically ... pressure medicines work in different ways to stop or slow some of the ...

  17. Earth Pressure on Tunnel Crown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars

    Two different analyses have been carried out in order to find the vertical earth pressure, or overburden pressure, at the crown of a tunnel going through a dike. Firstly, a hand calculation is performed using a simple dispersion of the stresses over depth. Secondly, the finite‐element program...

  18. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Stroke Other Resources Many resources are available for support and to provide additional information on high blood pressure not found elsewhere in this Health Topic. NHLBI Resources Healthy Hearts, Healthy Homes: Keep the Beat: Control Your High Blood Pressure/ ...

  19. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... provider may ask you to come into the office on different days and at different times to take your blood pressure. The health care provider also may ask you to check readings at home or at other locations that have blood pressure ...

  20. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or focusing on something calm or peaceful Performing yoga or tai chi Meditating Medicines Blood pressure medicines work in different ways to stop or slow some of the body’s functions that cause high blood pressure. Medicines to ...

  1. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Severity and Type Your health care provider usually takes 2–3 readings at several medical appointments to diagnose high blood pressure. Using the results of your blood pressure test, your health care provider will diagnose prehypertension or ...

  2. Blood Pressure Drugs and AMD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Stories Español Eye Health / News Research News: Blood Pressure Drugs and AMD Leer en Español: Noticias de ... also found an association between AMD and high blood pressure, but this has been inconsistent. To help clarify ...

  3. Wrinkling of Pressurized Elastic Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Dominic; Ajdari, Amin; Vaziri, Ashkan; Boudaoud, Arezki

    2011-10-01

    We study the formation of localized structures formed by the point loading of an internally pressurized elastic shell. While unpressurized shells (such as a ping-pong ball) buckle into polygonal structures, we show that pressurized shells are subject to a wrinkling instability. We study wrinkling in depth, presenting scaling laws for the critical indentation at which wrinkling occurs and the number of wrinkles formed in terms of the internal pressurization and material properties of the shell. These results are validated by numerical simulations. We show that the evolution of the wrinkle length with increasing indentation can be understood for highly pressurized shells from membrane theory. These results suggest that the position and number of wrinkles may be used in combination to give simple methods for the estimation of the mechanical properties of highly pressurized shells.

  4. Wrinkling of Pressurized Elastic Shells

    KAUST Repository

    Vella, Dominic

    2011-10-01

    We study the formation of localized structures formed by the point loading of an internally pressurized elastic shell. While unpressurized shells (such as a ping-pong ball) buckle into polygonal structures, we show that pressurized shells are subject to a wrinkling instability. We study wrinkling in depth, presenting scaling laws for the critical indentation at which wrinkling occurs and the number of wrinkles formed in terms of the internal pressurization and material properties of the shell. These results are validated by numerical simulations. We show that the evolution of the wrinkle length with increasing indentation can be understood for highly pressurized shells from membrane theory. These results suggest that the position and number of wrinkles may be used in combination to give simple methods for the estimation of the mechanical properties of highly pressurized shells. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  5. Pressure rig for repetitive casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Peter; Hutto, William R.; Philips, Albert R.

    1989-09-01

    The invention is a pressure rig for repetitive casting of metal. The pressure rig performs like a piston for feeding molten metal into a mold. Pressure is applied to an expandable rubber diaphragm which expands like a balloon to force the metal into the mold. A ceramic cavity which holds molten metal is lined with blanket-type insulating material, necessitating only a relining for subsequent use and eliminating the lengthy cavity preparation inherent in previous rigs. In addition, the expandable rubber diaphragm is protected by the insulating material thereby decreasing its vulnerability to heat damage. As a result of the improved design the life expectancy of the pressure rig contemplated by the present invention is more than doubled. Moreover, the improved heat protection has allowed the casting of brass and other alloys with higher melting temperatures than possible in the conventional pressure rigs.

  6. Pressurized waterproof case electronic device

    KAUST Repository

    Berumen, Michael L.

    2013-01-31

    A pressurized waterproof case for an electronic device is particularly adapted for fluid-tight containment and operation of a touch-screen electronic device or the like therein at some appreciable water depth. In one example, the case may be formed as an enclosure having an open top panel or face covered by a flexible, transparent membrane or the like for the operation of the touchscreen device within the case. A pressurizing system is provided for the case to pressurize the case and the electronic device therein to slightly greater than ambient in order to prevent the external water pressure from bearing against the transparent membrane and pressing it against the touch screen, thereby precluding operation of the touch screen device within the case. The pressurizing system may include a small gas cartridge or may be provided from an external source.

  7. Organic electronics based pressure sensor towards intracranial pressure monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Pratyush; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2010-04-01

    The intra-cranial space, which houses the brain, contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that acts as a fluid suspension medium for the brain. The CSF is always in circulation, is secreted in the cranium and is drained out through ducts called epidural veins. The venous drainage system has inherent resistance to the flow. Pressure is developed inside the cranium, which is similar to a rigid compartment. Normally a pressure of 5-15 mm Hg, in excess of atmospheric pressure, is observed at different locations inside the cranium. Increase in Intra-Cranial Pressure (ICP) can be caused by change in CSF volume caused by cerebral tumors, meningitis, by edema of a head injury or diseases related to cerebral atrophy. Hence, efficient ways of monitoring ICP need to be developed. A sensor system and monitoring scheme has been discussed here. The system architecture consists of a membrane less piezoelectric pressure sensitive element, organic thin film transistor (OTFT) based signal transduction, and signal telemetry. The components were fabricated on flexible substrate and have been assembled using flip-chip packaging technology. Material science and fabrication processes, subjective to the device performance, have been discussed. Capability of the device in detecting pressure variation, within the ICP pressure range, is investigated and applicability of measurement scheme to medical conditions has been argued for. Also, applications of such a sensor-OTFT assembly for logic sensor switching and patient specific-secure monitoring system have been discussed.

  8. Pressurized lunar rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Kenneth; Frampton, Jeffrey; Honaker, David; McClure, Kerry; Zeinali, Mazyar

    1992-05-01

    The pressurized lunar rover (PLR) consists of a 7 m long, 3 m diameter cylindrical main vehicle and a trailer which houses the power and heat rejection systems. The main vehicle carries the astronauts, life support systems, navigation and communication systems, directional lighting, cameras, and equipment for exploratory experiments. The PLR shell is constructed of a layered carbon-fiber/foam composite. The rover has six 1.5 m diameter wheels on the main body and two 1.5 m diameter wheels on the trailer. The wheels are constructed of composites and flex to increase traction and shock absorption. The wheels are each attached to a double A-arm aluminum suspension, which allows each wheel 1 m of vertical motion. In conjunction with a 0.75 m ground clearance, the suspension aids the rover in negotiating the uneven lunar terrain. The 15 N-m torque brushless electric motors are mounted with harmonic drive units inside each of the wheels. The rover is steered by electrically varying the speeds of the wheels on either side of the rover. The PLR trailer contains a radiosotope thermoelectric generator providing 6.7 kW. A secondary back-up energy storage system for short-term high-power needs is provided by a bank of batteries. The trailer can be detached to facilitate docking of the main body with the lunar base via an airlock located in the rear of the PLR. The airlock is also used for EVA operation during missions. Life support is a partly regenerative system with air and hygiene water being recycled. A layer of water inside the composite shell surrounds the command center. The water absorbs any damaging radiation, allowing the command center to be used as a safe haven during solar flares. Guidance, navigation, and control are supplied by a strapdown inertial measurement unit that works with the on-board computer. Star mappers provide periodic error correction.

  9. High pressure direct injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J. [Cummins Westport Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    A brief overview of Cummins Westport was provided, indicating that Westport originated in the 1980s through a research team at the University of British Columbia, and the hiring of the first employees began in 1996. The joint venture between Cummins and Westport was formed in March 2001. Cummins is the largest builder of commercial diesels in the world, and Westport is a small incubation technology company with emphasis on natural gas. The contribution of each company benefits the joint venture. Cummins brings traditional expertise in product and process development and distribution system, while Westport contributes new high pressure direct injection (HPDI) technology, funding and enthusiasm. The same base engine is kept and only the fuel system is changed. HPDI uses diesel cycle combustion and diesel pilot ignites natural gas. It allows for low emissions, high performance, high efficiency and economic payback. The pilot-ignited HPDI technology was explained, and its application to large class-8 trucks was discussed. The efficiency and performance of diesel engines is maintained by HPDI technology, there are 40 per cent reductions in nitrous oxide emissions, particulate matter emissions are reduced by 60 per cent, and carbon dioxide emissions are reduced by 20 per cent. A field demonstration was reviewed, and the major test at Norcal in San Francisco was discussed. The key success factors were found to be: formalized customer support plan, on-site technical support, parts availability, driver support and interaction, and training. Liquid natural gas fuel contamination was found to cause component wear. The emphasis has now been placed on three issues: injector life improvements, fuel debris and liquid natural gas pump/dome regulator life, and fuel economy improvements. The accomplishments for 2001 were identified, such as rapidly improving reliability, 17 HPDI trucks are upfit and in-service to name a few. The goals for 2002 include the placement of permanent fuel

  10. Diet, blood pressure, and multicollinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, D; McGee, D; Yano, K; Hankin, J

    1985-01-01

    Recent reports of an inverse association between dietary calcium intake and hypertension stimulated this analysis of the relationship of blood pressure to more than 20 dietary factors among a group of 8000 Japanese men in Hawaii. Reported intakes of potassium, calcium, protein, and milk were all inversely associated with blood pressure levels when examined one at a time while controlling for other risk factors. Alcohol intake was directly associated with blood pressure, and was treated as a confounding variable in the analysis. The association of potassium intake with blood pressure was relatively stronger than the associations for other nutrients, but the intake of potassium was so highly correlated with intakes of calcium, milk, and protein that it was not statistically possible to identify the independent association of potassium and blood pressure. Calcium intake was strongly correlated with milk and potassium intakes, and only calcium from dairy sources was associated with blood pressure. These data thus indicate that several dietary factors are inversely related to blood pressure levels independently of other risk factors such as age, body mass, and alcohol intake. The high degree of intercorrelation (multicollinearity) among these dietary factors, however, indicates that the independent role of any specific nutrient cannot be conclusively separated from the possible effects of other nutrients in this type of study.

  11. Products formed under pressurized pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, P.; Numazawa, S.; Mouras, S.; Napoli, A. [Cirad-Foret, Montpellier Cedex (France)

    1999-07-01

    Pressure is responsible for very high charcoal yields (varying from 40% to 48% depending on the raw material and process parameters). This high solid yield induces products quality changes. A primary goal of this ongoing research is to quantitatively measure the effect of process parameters (e.g., temperature, pressure) and feedstock composition (species, moisture) on the quality of pyrolysis products. Reaction pressure was achieved either by adding nitrogen into a seated reactor or by self-increase due to gas formation during load heating. Charcoal proximate and ultimate analyses have been performed. Gas and vapour analyses by GC are not completed yet and will be discussed later. The experimental results on Brazilian tropical hardwoods show the influence of the initial pressure on product quality compared with atmospheric pressure reaction. The paper will then compare and discuss results on the role of water during the reaction. Temperature and pressure profiles suggest that water has no chemical action in the reaction but allows faster pressure increase when heated. (author)

  12. Minimum miscibility pressure from EOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, T. [Montana Univ., Butte, MT (United States)

    2000-06-01

    Pressure is the main factor influencing the displacement efficiency of crude oil systems by gas injection. A certain minimum pressure, called Minimum Miscibility Pressure (MMP), is required in order to achieve miscible displacement. MMP is defined as the pressure at which the oil recovery versus pressure curve (generated from the slim-tube test) displays a sharp change in slope, also called the inflection point. The author described a simple, practical method that allows the MMP to be determined. The methodology involved the application of a modified version of the Peng and Robinson Equation of State, used in conjunction with a miscibility function. The Peng and Robinson Equation of State was modified by measured molecular weight and specific gravity of the heptanes-plus fraction for the determination of parameters. The necessary criteria for the prediction of the required injection pressure in miscible gas injection were taken into account in the formulation of the mathematical miscibility function. The demonstration of the use of the miscibility function for the determination of the required conditions for miscible displacement of hydrocarbon systems by gas injection was made. The author validated the methodology through a comparison with numerous experimentally measured minimum miscibility pressure values. The results indicated that the methodology presented by the author is capable of accurately predicting MMP for carbon dioxide and other gases with an absolute average error of 3.4 per cent. 32 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  13. Serotonin and Blood Pressure Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shaun F.; Davis, Robert Patrick; Barman, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) was discovered more than 60 years ago as a substance isolated from blood. The neural effects of 5-HT have been well investigated and understood, thanks in part to the pharmacological tools available to dissect the serotonergic system and the development of the frequently prescribed selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors. By contrast, our understanding of the role of 5-HT in the control and modification of blood pressure pales in comparison. Here we focus on the role of 5-HT in systemic blood pressure control. This review provides an in-depth study of the function and pharmacology of 5-HT in those tissues that can modify blood pressure (blood, vasculature, heart, adrenal gland, kidney, brain), with a focus on the autonomic nervous system that includes mechanisms of action and pharmacology of 5-HT within each system. We compare the change in blood pressure produced in different species by short- and long-term administration of 5-HT or selective serotonin receptor agonists. To further our understanding of the mechanisms through which 5-HT modifies blood pressure, we also describe the blood pressure effects of commonly used drugs that modify the actions of 5-HT. The pharmacology and physiological actions of 5-HT in modifying blood pressure are important, given its involvement in circulatory shock, orthostatic hypotension, serotonin syndrome and hypertension. PMID:22407614

  14. Pressure Measurement Based on Thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, K.

    2010-12-01

    Measuring gas pressures reliably in a harsh radiation environment was confirmed to be tricky during operation of the liquid spallation target of MEGAPIE at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). Severe drift of calibration and the loss of a sensor were experienced. At the same time, the only instrumentation that worked flawlessly in the system were thermocouples. Motivated by this experience, a novel pressure sensor for application in high radiation fields has been developed, which is based on temperature measurement. The new sensor takes advantage of the fact that the thermal conductivity over a mechanical joint exhibits a strong dependence on the contact pressure. In the novel sensor heating is applied at one point and temperatures are measured at different specific locations of the pressure gage; in particular, the temperatures on the two sides of a mechanical contact are monitored. From the observed temperature distribution the gas pressure can be derived. By choosing specific mechanical details in the lay-out, it is possible to tailor the useful measurement range. In addition to yielding pressure values, the new sensor concept admits for obtaining a measure for the accuracy of the result. This is done by continuous self monitoring of the device. The health status and based thereupon the plausibility of the indicated pressure value can be deducted by comparing sensed temperatures to expectation values for any given heating power. Malfunctioning of the pressure gage is reliably detected from the diverse readings of only one device; this can be seen as providing internal redundancy while at the same time immunity to common mode failure. After some analytical and finite element studies to verify the concept in principle, a first prototype of such a novel pressure sensor has been built at PSI. Initial measurement campaigns demonstrated the correct operation of the device as anticipated. Further potential for optimization, like designing a gage for high temperature

  15. 14 CFR 29.1325 - Static pressure and pressure altimeter systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Static pressure and pressure altimeter...: Installation § 29.1325 Static pressure and pressure altimeter systems. (a) Each instrument with static air case... between air pressure in the static pressure system and true ambient atmospheric static pressure is not...

  16. Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Phillip H.; Rakestraw, David J.

    2000-01-01

    A compact high pressure hydraulic pump having no moving mechanical parts for converting electric potential to hydraulic force. The electrokinetic pump, which can generate hydraulic pressures greater than 2500 psi, can be employed to compress a fluid, either liquid or gas, and manipulate fluid flow. The pump is particularly useful for capillary-base systems. By combining the electrokinetic pump with a housing having chambers separated by a flexible member, fluid flow, including high pressure fluids, is controlled by the application of an electric potential, that can vary with time.

  17. [Diabetes Infobus 1999. Blood pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, J

    2002-01-01

    In comparison to non-diabetic normotensive control subjects, hypertensive diabetic patients have a four-fold increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Additional to WHO/IHS definition, the terminus "high-normal blood pressure" (systolic 130-140 mm Hg and diastolic 85 - 28 kg/m2) subjects, whose percentage in our population were 32%, blood pressure was elevated (RR > 150/90) in 51%. In subclasses with high blood pressure, an increased cholesterol level was often seen; 64% of these subjects had a cholesterol level of greater 200 mg/dl.

  18. The physics of osmotic pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, M. G.

    2017-09-01

    Osmosis drives the development of a pressure difference of many atmospheres between a dilute solution and pure solvent with which it is in contact through a semi-permeable membrane. The educational importance of this paper is that it presents a novel treatment in terms of fluid mechanics that is quantitative and exact. It is also simple and intuitive, showing vividly how osmotic pressures are generated and maintained in equilibrium, driven by differential solvent pressures. The present rigorous analysis using the virial theorem seems unknown and can be easily understood—and taught—at various different levels. It should be valuable to undergraduates, graduate students and indeed to the general physicist.

  19. Micro packaged MEMS pressure sensor for intracranial pressure measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Liu; Yan, Yao; Jiahao, Ma; Yanhang, Zhang; Qian, Wang; Zhaohua, Zhang; Tianling, Ren

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a micro packaged MEMS pressure sensor for intracranial pressure measurement which belongs to BioMEMS. It can be used in lumbar puncture surgery to measure intracranial pressure. Miniaturization is key for lumbar puncture surgery because the sensor must be small enough to allow it be placed in the reagent chamber of the lumbar puncture needle. The size of the sensor is decided by the size of the sensor chip and package. Our sensor chip is based on silicon piezoresistive effect and the size is 400 × 400 μm2. It is much smaller than the reported polymer intracranial pressure sensors such as liquid crystal polymer sensors. In terms of package, the traditional dual in-line package obviously could not match the size need, the minimal size of recently reported MEMS-based intracranial pressure sensors after packaging is 10 × 10 mm2. In this work, we are the first to introduce a quad flat no-lead package as the package form of piezoresistive intracranial pressure sensors, the whole size of the sensor is minimized to only 3 × 3 mm2. Considering the liquid measurement environment, the sensor is gummed and waterproof performance is tested; the sensitivity of the sensor is 0.9 × 10-2 mV/kPa. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61025021, 61434001), and the ‘Thousands Talents’ Program for Pioneer Researchers and Its Innovation Team, China.

  20. Laplace pressure based disjoining pressure isotherm in non symmetric conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerre, Axel; Valignat, Marie-Pierre; Maggs, A. C.; Theodoly, Olivier; Jullien, Marie-Caroline

    2017-11-01

    Understanding the stability and dynamics of two phase systems, such as foams and emulsions, in porous media is still a challenge for physicists and calls for a better understanding of the intermolecular interactions between interfaces. In a classical approach, these interactions are investigated in the framework of Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, and Overbeek (DLVO) theory by building disjoining pressure isotherms. This paper reports on a technique allowing the measurement of disjoining pressure isotherms in a thin liquid film squeezed by either a gas or a liquid phase on a solid substrate. We couple a Reflection Interference Contrast Microscopy set-up to a microfluidic channel that sets the disjoining pressure through the Laplace pressure. This simple technique is found to be both accurate and precise. The Laplace pressure mechanism provides extremely stable conditions and offers opportunity for parallelizing experiments by producing several drops in channels of different heights. We illustrate its potential by comparing experimental isotherms for oil—[(water and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)]—glass systems with different models focusing on the electrostatic contribution of the disjoining pressure. The extracted values of the interface potentials are in agreement with the constant surface potential model and with a full computation. The derived SDS surface concentration agrees with values reported in the literature. We believe that this technique is suitable for investigating other working fluids and intermolecular interactions at smaller scales.

  1. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

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  10. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... Font Size Accessible Search Form Search the NHLBI, use the drop down list to select: the entire ... primary high blood pressure. Health care providers can use this information to develop your treatment plan. Some ...

  11. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... Organization NHLBI Director Budget, Planning, & Legislative Advisory Committees Jobs Contact Us FAQs Home » Health Information for the ... track blood pressure readings over a period of time, the health care provider may ask you to ...

  12. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... of physical activity Drinking too much alcohol Stress Family History A family history of high blood pressure ... mass index (BMI). BMI measures your weight in relation to your height. To figure out your BMI, ...

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    Full Text Available ... health problems. Greater amounts of weight loss can improve blood pressure readings, lower LDL cholesterol , and increase ... manage stress, relax, and cope with problems can improve your emotional and physical health and can lower ...

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    Full Text Available ... Events About NHLBI About NHLBI Home Mission and Strategic Vision Leadership Scientific Divisions Operations and Administration Advisory ... health and can lower high blood pressure. Stress management techniques include: Being physically active Listening to music ...

  15. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... have this condition. ISH can cause as much harm as HBP in which both numbers are too ... for mother and baby. High blood pressure can harm the mother’s kidneys and other organs and can ...

  16. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... a result, blood pressure goes down. Central Acting Agents: Act in the brain to decrease nerve signals ... healthy future, follow your treatment plan closely and work with your health care team. Healthy Lifestyle Changes ...

  17. 'Peer pressure' in larval Drosophila?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Niewalda, Thomas; Jeske, Ines; Michels, Birgit; Gerber, Bertram

    2014-01-01

    .... Here we focused in a more strict sense on 'peer pressure', that is on the question of whether the behaviour of a target individual larva is affected by what a surrounding group of larvae is doing...

  18. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system makes angiotensin and aldosterone hormones . Angiotensin narrows or constricts blood vessels, which can ... pressure. Medicines Prescription medicines such as asthma or hormone therapies, including birth control pills and estrogen, and ...

  19. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... SPRINT trial played a key role in the evolution of the new blood pressure guidelines Health experts ... National Institute of Health Department of Health and Human Services OIG USA.gov

  20. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... 5 ounces of wine 1½ ounces of liquor Managing and Coping With Stress Learning how to manage ... health and can lower high blood pressure. Stress management techniques include: Being physically active Listening to music ...

  1. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... harder and leading to high blood pressure. Medicines Prescription medicines such as asthma or hormone therapies, including ... health care provider before you start a new exercise plan. Ask him or her how much and ...

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    Full Text Available ... physical health and can lower high blood pressure. Stress management techniques include: Being physically active Listening to music or focusing on something calm or peaceful Performing ...

  3. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... system activity , and blood vessel structure and function. Biology and High Blood Pressure Researchers continue to study ... and Your Heart U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans Maintaining ...

  4. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... face, arms, or legs; trouble speaking or understanding speech; and trouble seeing. Diagnosis For most patients, health ... result, blood pressure goes down. Central Acting Agents: Act in the brain to decrease nerve signals that ...

  5. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... help to lower your blood pressure. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors : Angiotensin-II is a hormone that ... and Kidney Disease (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases) RELATED NEWS December 13, 2017 | ...

  6. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... help to lower your blood pressure. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors : Angiotensin-II is a hormone that ... National Institute of Health Department of Health and Human Services OIG USA.gov

  7. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... numbers are too high. Causes Changes, either from gene or the environment, in the body’s normal functions ... in families. Years of research have identified many genes and other mutations associated with high blood pressure, ...

  8. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... severity levels. Stages of High Blood Pressure in Adults Stages Systolic (top number) Diastolic (bottom number) Prehypertension ... that are heart healthy and low in fat, cholesterol, and salt. The DASH eating plan is a ...

  9. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... NHLBI About NHLBI Home Mission and Strategic Vision Leadership Scientific Divisions Operations and Administration Advisory Committees Budget ... in the blood vessels, causing the heart to work harder and leading to high blood pressure. Medicines ...

  10. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... such as chronic kidney disease , sleep apnea , thyroid problems, or certain tumors. This happens because these other ... blood pressure or prevent complications and long-term problems associated with this condition, such as coronary heart ...

  11. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... Science Science Home Blood Disorders and Blood Safety Sleep Science and Sleep Disorders Lung Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision ... normal for blood pressures to change when you sleep, wake up, or are excited or nervous. When ...

  12. Helping Teens Resist Sexual Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Baby Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Dating & Sex Fitness Nutrition Driving Safety School Substance Use Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Teen > Dating & Sex > Helping Teens Resist Sexual Pressure Ages & Stages Listen ...

  13. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and adults. They use a gauge, stethoscope or electronic sensor, and a blood pressure cuff. With this ... the American College of Cardiology (ACC), the guidelines now define hypertension as a systolic blood... View all ...

  14. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of physical activity Drinking too much alcohol Stress Family History A family history of high blood pressure ... Stroke Other Resources Many resources are available for support and to provide additional information on high blood ...

  15. Reverse Flow Pressure Limiting Aperture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilatos

    2000-01-01

    The reverse flow pressure limiting aperture is a device that creates and sustains a substantial gas pressure difference between two chambers connected via an aperture. The aperture is surrounded by an annular orifice leading to a third chamber. The third chamber is maintained at a relatively high pressure that forces gas to flow through the annular aperture into the first of said two chambers. The ensuing gas flow develops into a supersonic annular gas jet, the core of which is coaxial with the central aperture. A pumping action is created at the core of the jet and any gas molecules leaking through the aperture from the second chamber are entrained and forced into the first chamber, thus creating a substantial pressure difference between the first and second chamber.

  16. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... physical activity Drinking too much alcohol Stress Family History A family history of high blood pressure raises the risk of ... Genetic causes of this condition are why family history is a risk factor for this condition. Screening ...

  17. Controlling your high blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medicine or your blood pressure Alternative Names Controlling hypertension ... Diabetes Association. Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes-2016 Abridged for Primary Care Providers. Clin Diabetes . 2016;34(1):3- ...

  18. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... for a certain height. Gender Before age 55, men are more likely than women to develop high ... After age 55, women are more likely than men to develop high blood pressure. Lifestyle Habits Unhealthy ...

  19. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... Are less likely to achieve target blood pressure goals with treatment. Overweight You are more likely to ... 30 or more is considered obese. A general goal to aim for is a BMI below 25. ...

  20. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... system activity , and blood vessel structure and function. Biology and High Blood Pressure Researchers continue to study ... balances, cause your blood vessels to constrict, or impact the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system leading to high ...

  1. Cryogenic MEMS Pressure Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A directly immersible cryogenic MEMS pressure sensor will be developed. Each silicon die will contain a vacuum-reference and a tent-like membrane. Offsetting thermal...

  2. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of alcohol Lack of physical activity Overweight and Obesity Research studies show that being overweight or obese ... EVENT The Role of Microbiota in Blood Pressure Regulation Executive Summary June 10, 2016 Bethesda, MD The ...

  3. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... volumes and high blood pressure. Sympathetic Nervous System Activity The sympathetic nervous system has important functions in ... Drinking excess amounts of alcohol Lack of physical activity Overweight and Obesity Research studies show that being ...

  4. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... numbers are too high. Causes Changes, either from genes or the environment, in the body’s normal functions ... in families. Years of research have identified many genes and other mutations associated with high blood pressure, ...

  5. Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Phillip H.; Rakestraw, David J.; Arnold, Don W.; Hencken, Kenneth R.; Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Neyer, David W.

    2001-01-01

    An electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic pump for manipulating fluids in capillary-based systems. The pump uses electro-osmotic flow to provide a high pressure hydraulic system, having no moving mechanical parts, for pumping and/or compressing fluids, for providing valve means and means for opening and closing valves, for controlling fluid flow rate, and manipulating fluid flow generally and in capillary-based systems (Microsystems), in particular. The compact nature of the inventive high pressure hydraulic pump provides the ability to construct a micro-scale or capillary-based HPLC system that fulfills the desire for small sample quantity, low solvent consumption, improved efficiency, the ability to run samples in parallel, and field portability. Control of pressure and solvent flow rate is achieved by controlling the voltage applied to an electrokinetic pump.

  6. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tumblr. Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure For most patients, ... events, activities, and resources at www.hearttruth.gov . Twitter Facebook YouTube Google+ SITE INDEX ACCESSIBILITY PRIVACY STATEMENT ...

  7. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... to the bathroom before the test. Sit for 5 minutes before the test. To track blood pressure ... and Type Your health care provider usually takes 2–3 readings at several medical appointments to diagnose ...

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    Full Text Available ... to Aim for a Healthy Weight . Limiting Alcohol Intake Limit alcohol intake. Too much alcohol will raise your blood pressure ... physically active. Maintain a healthy weight. Limit alcohol intake. Other lifestyle changes can improve your overall health, ...

  9. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... that are heart healthy and low in fat, cholesterol, and salt. The DASH eating plan is a ... loss can improve blood pressure readings, lower LDL cholesterol , and increase HDL cholesterol . However, research shows that ...

  10. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... a risk factor for this condition. Screening and Prevention Healthy lifestyle habits, proper use of medicines, and regular medical care can prevent high blood pressure or its complications. Preventing High ...

  11. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... to cognitive changes. Signs and symptoms include memory loss, difficulty finding words, and losing focus during conversations. ... high blood pressure; lifestyle changes such as weight loss can be highly effective in treating high blood ...

  12. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... a period of time, the health care provider may ask you to come into the office on ... your blood pressure. The health care provider also may ask you to check readings at home or ...

  13. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... severity levels. Stages of High Blood Pressure in Adults Stages Systolic (top number) Diastolic (bottom number) Prehypertension ... lead to cognitive changes. Signs and symptoms include memory loss, difficulty finding words, and losing focus during ...

  14. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure Building 31 31 Center Drive Bethesda, MD 20892 Learn more about getting to NIH Get ... and Funding Building 31 31 Center Drive Bethesda, MD 20892 Learn more about getting to NIH Connect ...

  15. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... system activity , and blood vessel structure and function. Biology and High Blood Pressure Researchers continue to study ... sodium and salt intake, increase potassium, and eat foods that are heart healthy. Limiting Sodium and Salt ...

  16. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... include: Whole grains Fruits, such as apples, bananas, oranges, pears, and prunes Vegetables, such as broccoli, cabbage, ... a result, blood pressure goes down. Central Acting Agents: Act in the brain to decrease nerve signals ...

  17. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ACE inhibitors block this process, which stops the production of Angiotensin II, lowering blood pressure. Angiotensin II ... The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) leads or sponsors many studies aimed at preventing, diagnosing, ...

  18. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... treatment plans for high blood pressure that include lifelong lifestyle changes and medicines to control high blood ... Managing and coping with stress To help make lifelong lifestyle changes, try making one healthy lifestyle change ...

  19. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... Explore High Blood Pressure What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments ... stress, which can occur during the medical appointment, causes white coat hypertension. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Updated: ...

  20. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... be highly effective in treating high blood pressure. Treatment Plans Health care providers work with you to ... be changed or a new medicine prescribed. Future Treatments Scientists, doctors, and researchers continue to study the ...

  1. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... a day. One drink is: 12 ounces of beer 5 ounces of wine 1½ ounces of liquor ... ACE inhibitors block this process, which stops the production of Angiotensin II, lowering blood pressure. Angiotensin II ...

  2. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... Health care workers check blood pressure readings the same way for children, teens, and adults. They use ... are outside average numbers for children of the same age, gender, and height . Once your health care ...

  3. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... pressure is a common disease in which blood flows through blood vessels (arteries) at higher than normal ... press on nearby body parts, or block blood flow. The signs and symptoms that develop depend on ...

  4. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... habits, being overweight or obese, and medicines. Unhealthy Lifestyle Habits Unhealthy lifestyle habits can cause high blood ... likely than men to develop high blood pressure. Lifestyle Habits Unhealthy lifestyle habits can raise your risk ...

  5. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may contribute to high blood pressure. The angiotensin pathway and the immune system may stiffen small and ... the renal salt regulatory and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone pathways. However, these known genetic factors only account for ...

  6. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... estrogen, and over-the-counter medicines such as cold relief medicines may cause this form of high ... blood pressure stays high over time, it can damage the body and cause complications. Some common complications ...

  7. High Blood Pressure and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week High blood pressure and pregnancy isn't necessarily a dangerous combination. Here's what you ... 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/in-depth/pregnancy/art-20046098 . ...

  8. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NHLBI About NHLBI Home Mission and Strategic Vision Leadership Scientific Divisions Operations and Administration Advisory Committees Budget ... normal for babies, while older teens have numbers similar to adults. Abnormal Blood Pressure Abnormal increases in ...

  9. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... risk for health problems. Greater amounts of weight loss can improve blood pressure readings, lower ... to maintain good health. A useful measure of overweight and obesity is body mass index (BMI). BMI measures your ...

  10. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... Salt A low-sodium diet can help you manage your blood pressure. You should try to limit ... Managing and Coping With Stress Learning how to manage stress, relax, and cope with problems can improve ...

  11. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... control high blood pressure. Possible future treatments under investigation include new combination medicines, vaccines, and interventions aimed ... 2016 Bethesda, MD The NHLBI convened a working group of multidisciplinary researchers on June 10, 2016, to ...

  12. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or Hispanic American adults. Compared with these ethnic groups, African Americans: Tend to get high blood pressure ... and Mexicans ate less sodium than other Hispanic groups in the study. All Hispanic Americans should follow ...

  13. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... the test: Don’t drink coffee or smoke cigarettes for 30 minutes prior to the test. Go ... DASH My Blood Pressure Wallet Card Other Resources Cigarette and Tobacco Facts (National Institute on Drug Abuse) ...

  14. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... lead to cognitive changes. Signs and symptoms include memory loss, difficulty finding words, and losing focus during ... blood pressure numbers are outside average numbers for children of the same age, gender, and height . Once ...

  15. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... ounces of liquor Managing and Coping With Stress Learning how to manage stress, relax, and cope with ... Future Treatments Scientists, doctors, and researchers continue to study the changes that cause high blood pressure, to ...

  16. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... severity levels. Stages of High Blood Pressure in Adults Stages Systolic (top number) Diastolic (bottom number) Prehypertension ... bleed. Signs and symptoms include vision changes or blindness. Heart Attack : When the flow of oxygen-rich ...

  17. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2016 Bethesda, MD The NHLBI convened a working group of multidisciplinary researchers on June 10, 2016, to share current scientific k... View all events on High Blood Pressure Building 31 ...

  18. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... lead to an increase in blood pressure. Aldosterone controls how the kidneys balance fluid and salt levels. ... such as asthma or hormone therapies, including birth control pills and estrogen, and over-the-counter medicines ...

  19. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... lead to cognitive changes. Signs and symptoms include memory loss, difficulty finding words, and losing focus during ... high blood pressure. Treatment Plans Health care providers work with you to develop a treatment plan based ...

  20. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... improve your overall health, such as: If you smoke , quit. Get plenty of sleep. Drink more water. Medicines Take all blood pressure medicines that your health care provider prescribes. Know the names and doses of ...

  1. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies Women’s ... healthy. Limiting Sodium and Salt A low-sodium diet can help you manage your blood pressure. You ...

  2. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... care providers prescribe children and teens medicines at special doses that are safe and effective in children. ... different set of blood pressure medications or other special treatments. To achieve the best control of your ...

  3. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... pressure. The DASH eating plan focuses on fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other foods that are heart ... such as apples, bananas, oranges, pears, and prunes Vegetables, such as broccoli, cabbage, and carrots Legumes, such ...

  4. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... control high blood pressure; lifestyle changes such as weight loss can be highly effective in treating high blood ... If you’re overweight or obese, try to lose weight. A loss of just 3 to 5 percent ...

  5. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... narrow in the kidneys, possibly causing kidney failure. Cognitive Changes: Research shows that over time, higher blood pressure numbers can lead to cognitive changes. Signs and symptoms include memory loss, difficulty ...

  6. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... NHLBI About NHLBI Home Mission and Strategic Vision Leadership Scientific Divisions Operations and Administration Advisory Committees Budget ... health and can lower high blood pressure. Stress management techniques include: Being physically active Listening to music ...

  7. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... physical activity Drinking too much alcohol Stress Family History A family history of high blood pressure raises ... and Digestive and Kidney Diseases) RELATED NEWS December 13, 2017 | Research Feature NIH’s SPRINT trial played a ...

  8. Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate (Pulse) Updated:Sep 15,2017 Understanding the difference ... your blood moving through your blood vessels, your heart rate is the number of times your heart beats ...

  9. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... your risk for other related problems. Healthy Lifestyle Changes Healthy lifestyle habits can help you control high ... work with your health care team. Healthy Lifestyle Changes You can help control your blood pressure by ...

  10. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... and Strategic Vision Leadership Scientific Divisions Operations and Administration Advisory Committees Budget and Legislative Information Jobs and ... With DASH My Blood Pressure Wallet Card Other Resources Cigarette and Tobacco Facts (National Institute on Drug Abuse) High Blood ...

  11. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... healthy. Limiting Sodium and Salt A low-sodium diet can help you manage your blood pressure. You ... twice a week When following a heart-healthy diet, you should avoid eating: A lot of red ...

  12. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Events Spokespeople Email Alerts E-Newsletters About NHLBI Organization NHLBI Director Budget, Planning, & Legislative Advisory Committees Jobs Contact Us FAQs Home » Health Information for the Public » Health Topics » High Blood Pressure » ...

  13. Prevention of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include: Whole grains Fruits, such as apples, bananas, oranges, pears, and prunes Vegetables, such as broccoli, cabbage, ... ACE inhibitors block this process, which stops the production of Angiotensin II, lowering blood pressure. Angiotensin II ...

  14. What Causes High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include: Whole grains Fruits, such as apples, bananas, oranges, pears, and prunes Vegetables, such as broccoli, cabbage, ... ACE inhibitors block this process, which stops the production of Angiotensin II, lowering blood pressure. Angiotensin II ...

  15. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... include: Whole grains Fruits, such as apples, bananas, oranges, pears, and prunes Vegetables, such as broccoli, cabbage, ... ACE inhibitors block this process, which stops the production of Angiotensin II, lowering blood pressure. Angiotensin II ...

  16. Living with High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include: Whole grains Fruits, such as apples, bananas, oranges, pears, and prunes Vegetables, such as broccoli, cabbage, ... ACE inhibitors block this process, which stops the production of Angiotensin II, lowering blood pressure. Angiotensin II ...

  17. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include: Whole grains Fruits, such as apples, bananas, oranges, pears, and prunes Vegetables, such as broccoli, cabbage, ... ACE inhibitors block this process, which stops the production of Angiotensin II, lowering blood pressure. Angiotensin II ...

  18. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A lot of red meat Palm and coconut oils Sugary foods and beverages In the National Heart, ... work with your health care team. Healthy Lifestyle Changes You can help control your blood pressure by ...

  19. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies Women’s Health All Science A-Z Grants & Training ... Biology and High Blood Pressure Researchers continue to study how various changes in normal body functions cause ...

  20. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... volumes and high blood pressure. Sympathetic Nervous System Activity The sympathetic nervous system has important functions in ... plan closely and work with your health care team. Healthy Lifestyle Changes You can help control your ...

  1. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the walls of the arteries as the heart pumps blood. High blood pressure, sometimes called hypertension, happens ... breath. Heart Failure : When the heart can’t pump enough blood to meet the body’s needs. Common ...

  2. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... these other conditions change the way your body controls fluids, sodium, and hormones in your ... lifestyle habits, and a family history of high blood pressure can increase your risk ...

  3. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... system activity , and blood vessel structure and function. Biology and High Blood Pressure Researchers continue to study ... Channel Blockers: Keep calcium from entering the muscle cells of your heart and blood vessels. This allows ...

  4. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 120/80 mmHg. The following table outlines and defines high blood pressure severity levels. Stages of High ... American College of Cardiology (ACC), the guidelines now define hypertension as a systolic blood... View all news ...

  5. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... provider usually takes 2–3 readings at several medical appointments to diagnose high blood pressure. Using the ... Researchers believe stress, which can occur during the medical appointment, causes white coat hypertension. Rate This Content: ...

  6. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to check readings at home or at other locations that have blood pressure equipment and to keep ... office compared with readings taken in any other location. Health care providers diagnose this type of high ...

  7. All-optical pressure sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to an all-optical pressure sensor comprising a waveguide accommodating a distributed Bragg reflector. Pressure sensing can then be provided by utilizing effective index modulation of the waveguide and detection of a wavelength shift of light reflected from the Bragg...... reflector. Sound sensing may also be provided thereby having an all-optical microphone. One embodiment of the invention relates to an optical pressure sensor comprising at least one outer membrane and a waveguide, the waveguide comprising at least one core for confining and guiding light,at least one...... distributed Bragg reflector located in said at least one core, and at least one inner deflecting element forming at least a part of the core,wherein the pressure sensor is configured such that the geometry and/or dimension of the at least one core is changed when the at least one outer membrane is submitted...

  8. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies Women’s Health All Science A-Z Grants & Training Grants ... Before age 55, men are more likely than women to develop high blood pressure. After age 55, ...

  9. High pressure effects on fruits and vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, R.A.H.; Matser, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The chapter provides an overview on different high pressure based treatments (high pressure pasteurization, blanching, pressure-assisted thermal processing, pressure-shift freezing and thawing) available for the preservation of fruits and vegetable products and extending their shelf life. Pressure

  10. Performance Pressure Enhances Speech Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, W. Todd; Koslov, Seth; Yi, Han-Gyol; Chandrasekaran, Bharath

    2015-01-01

    Real-world speech learning often occurs in high pressure situations such as trying to communicate in a foreign country. However, the impact of pressure on speech learning success is largely unexplored. In this study, adult, native speakers of English learned non-native speech categories under pressure or no-pressure conditions. In the pressure conditions, participants were informed that they were paired with a (fictitious) partner, and that each had to independently exceed a performance criterion for both to receive a monetary bonus. They were then informed that their partner had exceeded the bonus and the fate of both bonuses depended upon the participant’s performance. Our results demonstrate that pressure significantly enhanced speech learning success. In addition, neurobiologically-inspired computational modeling revealed that the performance advantage was due to faster and more frequent use of procedural learning strategies. These results integrate two well-studied research domains and suggest a facilitatory role of motivational factors in speech learning performance that may not be captured in traditional training paradigms. PMID:28077883

  11. Pressure Ratio to Thermal Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Pedro; Wang, Winston

    2012-01-01

    A pressure ratio to thermal environments (PRatTlE.pl) program is a Perl language code that estimates heating at requested body point locations by scaling the heating at a reference location times a pressure ratio factor. The pressure ratio factor is the ratio of the local pressure at the reference point and the requested point from CFD (computational fluid dynamics) solutions. This innovation provides pressure ratio-based thermal environments in an automated and traceable method. Previously, the pressure ratio methodology was implemented via a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and macro scripts. PRatTlE is able to calculate heating environments for 150 body points in less than two minutes. PRatTlE is coded in Perl programming language, is command-line-driven, and has been successfully executed on both the HP and Linux platforms. It supports multiple concurrent runs. PRatTlE contains error trapping and input file format verification, which allows clear visibility into the input data structure and intermediate calculations.

  12. Intermolecular Interactions at high pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eikeland, Espen Zink

    2016-01-01

    In this project high-pressure single crystal X-ray diffraction has been combined with quantitative energy calculations to probe the energy landscape of three hydroquinone clathrates enclosing different guest molecules. The simplicity of the hydroquinone clathrate structures together with their st......In this project high-pressure single crystal X-ray diffraction has been combined with quantitative energy calculations to probe the energy landscape of three hydroquinone clathrates enclosing different guest molecules. The simplicity of the hydroquinone clathrate structures together....... High-pressure crystallography is the perfect method for studying intermolecular interactions, by forcing the molecules closer together. In all three studied hydroquinone clathrates, new pressure induced phase transitions have been discovered using a mixture of pentane and isopentane as the pressure...... transmitting medium. Through careful structural analysis combined with theoretical calculations, the structures of all the new high-pressure phases identified herein were determined. In the hydroquinone - methanol and hydroquinone - acetonitrile clathrate structures the phase transitions break the host...

  13. High-pressure properties inferred from normal-pressure properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamarit, J. Ll; Barrio, M.; Pardo, L. C.; Negrier, P.; Mondieig, D.

    2008-06-01

    From the stable and metastable normal-pressure phase equilibria involved in two-component systems sharing compounds of the series CCl4-nBrn, n = 0,...,4, several thermodynamic properties concerning non-experimentally available phase transitions have been determined. To do so, the well-established concept of crossed isodimorphism has been considered to involve the isomorphism relationships between the low-temperature monoclinic phases as well as, for both rhombohedral and face-centred cubic, orientationally disordered phases appearing in the compounds of the series. On the basis of such relations, the thermodynamic properties of the two-phase equilibria are extrapolated as a function of mole fraction to the pure compounds for which the involved transitions do not exist at normal pressure. The obtained thermodynamic properties are used to build up the topological pressure temperature phase diagrams of the compounds of the series. The results are compared with the experimental pressure temperature phase diagrams obtained by means of density measurements as a function of pressure and temperature.

  14. Does pressure cause liver cirrhosis? The sinusoidal pressure hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Sebastian

    2016-12-28

    Independent of their etiology, all chronic liver diseases ultimately lead to liver cirrhosis, which is a major health problem worldwide. The underlying molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood and no efficient treatment strategies are available. This paper introduces the sinusoidal pressure hypothesis (SPH), which identifies an elevated sinusoidal pressure (SP) as cause of fibrosis. SPH has been mainly derived from recent studies on liver stiffness. So far, pressure changes have been exclusively seen as a consequence of cirrhosis. According to the SPH, however, an elevated SP is the major upstream event that initiates fibrosis via biomechanic signaling by stretching of perisinusoidal cells such as hepatic stellate cells or fibroblasts (SPH part I: initiation). Fibrosis progression is determined by the degree and time of elevated SP. The SPH predicts that the degree of extracellular matrix eventually matches SP with critical thresholds > 12 mmHg and > 4 wk. Elevated arterial flow and final arterialization of the cirrhotic liver represents the self-perpetuating key event exposing the low-pressure-organ to pathologically high pressures (SPH part II: perpetuation). It also defines the "point of no return" where fibrosis progression becomes irreversible. The SPH is able to explain the macroscopic changes of cirrhotic livers and the uniform fibrotic response to various etiologies. It also opens up new views on the role of fat and disease mechanisms in other organs. The novel concept will hopefully stimulate the search for new treatment strategies.

  15. High Blood Pressure: Medicines to Help You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women High Blood Pressure--Medicines to Help You Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... Click here for the Color Version (PDF 533KB) High blood pressure is a serious illness. High blood pressure is ...

  16. Anxiety: A Cause of High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause of high blood pressure? Can anxiety cause high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Anxiety doesn't cause long-term high blood pressure (hypertension). But episodes of anxiety can cause dramatic, ...

  17. Alcohol: Does It Affect Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol: Does it affect blood pressure? Does drinking alcohol affect your blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Drinking too much alcohol can raise blood pressure to unhealthy levels. Having ...

  18. Differential pressure gauge has fast response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, H. S.

    1965-01-01

    Differential pressure gage with semiconductor type strain gage elements measures rapidly changing pressure. Output of the strain gage elements is a dc voltage that is directly proportional to the pressure difference being measured.

  19. Management of Chronic Pressure Ulcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Executive Summary In April 2008, the Medical Advisory Secretariat began an evidence-based review of the literature concerning pressure ulcers. Please visit the Medical Advisory Secretariat Web site, http://www.health.gov.on.ca/english/providers/program/mas/tech/tech_mn.html to review these titles that are currently available within the Pressure Ulcers series. Pressure ulcer prevention: an evidence based analysis The cost-effectiveness of prevention strategies for pressure ulcers in long-term care homes in Ontario: projections of the Ontario Pressure Ulcer Model (field evaluation) Management of chronic pressure ulcers: an evidence-based analysis Objective The Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) conducted a systematic review on interventions used to treat pressure ulcers in order to answer the following questions: Do currently available interventions for the treatment of pressure ulcers increase the healing rate of pressure ulcers compared with standard care, a placebo, or other similar interventions? Within each category of intervention, which one is most effective in promoting the healing of existing pressure ulcers? Background A pressure ulcer is a localized injury to the skin and/or underlying tissue usually over a bony prominence, as a result of pressure, or pressure in conjunction with shear and/or friction. Many areas of the body, especially the sacrum and the heel, are prone to the development of pressure ulcers. People with impaired mobility (e.g., stroke or spinal cord injury patients) are most vulnerable to pressure ulcers. Other factors that predispose people to pressure ulcer formation are poor nutrition, poor sensation, urinary and fecal incontinence, and poor overall physical and mental health. The prevalence of pressure ulcers in Ontario has been estimated to range from a median of 22.1% in community settings to a median of 29.9% in nonacute care facilities. Pressure ulcers have been shown to increase the risk of mortality among geriatric patients by

  20. Conformable pressure vessel for high pressure gas storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Lavender, Curt A.; Newhouse, Norman L.; Yeggy, Brian C.

    2016-01-12

    A non-cylindrical pressure vessel storage tank is disclosed. The storage tank includes an internal structure. The internal structure is coupled to at least one wall of the storage tank. The internal structure shapes and internally supports the storage tank. The pressure vessel storage tank has a conformability of about 0.8 to about 1.0. The internal structure can be, but is not limited to, a Schwarz-P structure, an egg-crate shaped structure, or carbon fiber ligament structure.

  1. High pressure neon arc lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Robert C.; Bigio, Irving J.

    2003-07-15

    A high pressure neon arc lamp and method of using the same for photodynamic therapies is provided. The high pressure neon arc lamp includes a housing that encloses a quantity of neon gas pressurized to about 500 Torr to about 22,000 Torr. At each end of the housing the lamp is connected by electrodes and wires to a pulse generator. The pulse generator generates an initial pulse voltage to breakdown the impedance of the neon gas. Then the pulse generator delivers a current through the neon gas to create an electrical arc that emits light having wavelengths from about 620 nanometers to about 645 nanometers. A method for activating a photosensitizer is provided. Initially, a photosensitizer is administered to a patient and allowed time to be absorbed into target cells. Then the high pressure neon arc lamp is used to illuminate the target cells with red light having wavelengths from about 620 nanometers to about 645 nanometers. The red light activates the photosensitizers to start a chain reaction that may involve oxygen free radicals to destroy the target cells. In this manner, a high pressure neon arc lamp that is inexpensive and efficiently generates red light useful in photodynamic therapy is provided.

  2. Pressure cylinders under fire condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hora

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The presence of pressure cylinders under fire conditions significantly increases the risk rate for the intervening persons. It is considerably problematic to predict the pressure cylinders behaviour during heat exposition, its destruction progress and possible following explosion of the produced air–gas mixture because pressure cylinders and its environment generate a highly complicated dynamic system during an uncontrolled destruction. The large scale tests carried out by the Pilsen Fire and Rescue Department and the Rapid Response Unit of the Czech Republic Police in October 2012 and in May 2014 in the Military area Brdy and in the area of the former Lachema factory in Kaznějov had several objectives, namely, to record, qualify and quantify some of the aspects of an uncontrolled heat destruction procedure of an exposed pressure cylinder in an enclosed space and to qualify and describe the process of a controlled destruction of a pressure cylinder by shooting through it including basic tactical concepts. The article describes the experiments that were carried out.

  3. Interarm difference in blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Jesper; Wiinberg, Niels

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed at examining the interarm difference in blood pressure and its use as an indicator of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Data were included from consecutive patients referred from their general practitioner to our vascular laboratory for possible PAD aged 50 years or older...... without known cardiac disease, renal disease, or diabetes mellitus. 824 patients (453 women) with mean age of 72 years (range: 50-101) were included. 491 patients had a diagnosis of hypertension and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) was present in 386 patients. Systolic blood pressure was 143 ± 24 mm......Hg and 142 ± 24 mmHg on the right and left arm, respectively (P = 0.015). The interarm difference was greater in patients with hypertension (P = 0.002) and PAD (P blood pressure was reproducible...

  4. Blood Pressure Self-Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Blood pressure self-measurement has been used extensively as part of several clinical processes including in the home monitoring setting for mitigating white coat effect and gaining more detailed insights into the blood pressure variability of patients over time. Self-measurement of BP is also being used as part of telemonitoring and telemedicine processes, as well as in the waiting rooms and self-measurement rooms of general practice clinics, specialized hospital department's outpatient clinics, and in other types of care facilitates and institutions.The aim of this review is to provide an overview of where, when, and how blood pressure self-measurement is being used, which official clinical guidelines and procedures are available for its implementation, as well as the opportunities and challenges that are related to its use.

  5. IIH with normal CSF pressures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soh Youn Suh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH is a condition of raised intracranial pressure (ICP in the absence of space occupying lesions. ICP is usually measured by lumbar puncture and a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF pressure above 250 mm H 2 O is one of the diagnostic criteria of IIH. Recently, we have encountered two patients who complained of headaches and exhibited disc swelling without an increased ICP. We prescribed acetazolamide and followed both patients frequently; because of the definite disc swelling with IIH related symptoms. Symptoms and signs resolved in both patients after they started taking acetazolamide. It is generally known that an elevated ICP, as measured by lumbar puncture, is the most important diagnostic sign of IIH. However, these cases caution even when CSF pressure is within the normal range, that suspicion should be raised when a patient has papilledema with related symptoms, since untreated papilledema may cause progressive and irreversible visual loss.

  6. 24-hour intraocular pressure and ocular perfusion pressure in glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Luciano; Katsanos, Andreas; Russo, Andrea; Riva, Ivano

    2013-01-01

    This review analyzes the currently available literature on circadian rhythms of intraocular pressure (IOP), blood pressure, and calculated ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) in patients with open-angle glaucoma. Although adequately powered, prospective trials are not available. The existing evidence suggests that high 24-hour IOP and OPP fluctuations can have detrimental effects in eyes with glaucoma. The currently emerging continuous IOP monitoring technologies may soon offer important contributions to the study of IOP rhythms. Once telemetric technologies become validated and widely available for clinical use, they may provide an important tool towards a better understanding of long- and short-term IOP fluctuations during a patient's daily routine. Important issues that need to be investigated further include the identification of appropriate surrogate measures of IOP and OPP fluctuation for patients unable to undergo 24-hour measurements, the determination of formulae that best describe the relationship between systemic blood pressure and IOP with OPP, and the exact clinical relevance of IOP and OPP fluctuation in individual patients. Despite the unanswered questions, a significant body of literature suggests that OPP assessment may be clinically relevant in a significant number of glaucoma patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sour pressure swing adsorption process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhadra, Shubhra Jyoti; Wright, Andrew David; Hufton, Jeffrey Raymond; Kloosterman, Jeffrey William; Amy, Fabrice; Weist, Jr., Edward Landis

    2017-11-07

    Methods and apparatuses for separating CO.sub.2 and sulfur-containing compounds from a synthesis gas obtained from gasification of a carbonaceous feedstock. The primary separating steps are performed using a sour pressure swing adsorption (SPSA) system, followed by an acid gas enrichment system and a sulfur removal unit. The SPSA system includes multiple pressure equalization steps and a rinse step using a rinse gas that is supplied from a source other than directly from one of the adsorber beds of the SPSA system.

  8. High Pressure Treatment in Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Fabian Torres Bello

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available High hydrostatic pressure (HHP, a non-thermal technology, which typically uses water as a pressure transfer medium, is characterized by a minimal impact on food characteristics (sensory, nutritional, and functional. Today, this technology, present in many food companies, can effectively inactivate bacterial cells and many enzymes. All this makes HHP very attractive, with very good acceptance by consumers, who value the organoleptic characteristics of products processed by this non-thermal food preservation technology because they associate these products with fresh-like. On the other hand, this technology reduces the need for non-natural synthetic additives of low consumer acceptance.

  9. Pressure gauge experiments in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.; Desa, E.; VijayKumar, K.; Desa, E.S.; Desai, R.G.P.; Prabhudesai, S.

    attached to a vertical post driven into the riverbed. The transducer’s positive port was exposed to water via an oil-filled capillary tube. A flow retarding perforated cap over the positive port minimised the Bernoulli effect. This ability of a... transducer whose precision is ±0.1%. The pressure inlet remained at the center of and flush with a flat surface, thereby minimizing the undesired Bernoulli dynamic pressure effects arising from flows, waves and a combination of flows and waves (Joseph et al...

  10. Incisional Negative Pressure Wound Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Nana; Birke-Sorensen, Hanne; Kruse, Marie

    Aim: Postoperative wound complications make many surgical procedures unnecessarily complex, particularly in high-risk patients. Negative Pressure Wound Therapy is well recognized in the management of open wounds. In recent years, it has been introduced as well in the management of closed surgical...... incisions to reduce postoperative wound complications, though the evidence base to support this intervention is limited. The aim of this study was to assess if Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT) reduces postoperative complications when applied on closed surgical incisions. Method: A systematic review...

  11. Atmospheric-pressure plasma technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogelschatz, U.

    2004-12-01

    Major industrial plasma processes operating close to atmospheric pressure are discussed. Applications of thermal plasmas include electric arc furnaces and plasma torches for generation of powders, for spraying refractory materials, for cutting and welding and for destruction of hazardous waste. Other applications include miniature circuit breakers and electrical discharge machining. Non-equilibrium cold plasmas at atmospheric pressure are obtained in corona discharges used in electrostatic precipitators and in dielectric-barrier discharges used for generation of ozone, for pollution control and for surface treatment. More recent applications include UV excimer lamps, mercury-free fluorescent lamps and flat plasma displays.

  12. Blood pressure modifies retinal susceptibility to intraocular pressure elevation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng He

    Full Text Available Primary open angle glaucoma affects more than 67 million people. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP is a risk factor for glaucoma and may reduce nutrient availability by decreasing ocular perfusion pressure (OPP. An interaction between arterial blood pressure and IOP determines OPP; but the exact contribution that these factors have for retinal function is not fully understood. Here we sought to determine how acute modifications of arterial pressure will affect the susceptibility of neuronal function and blood flow to IOP challenge. Anaesthetized (ketamine:xylazine Long-Evan rats with low (∼60 mmHg, sodium nitroprusside infusion, moderate (∼100 mmHg, saline, or high levels (∼160 mmHg, angiotensin II of mean arterial pressure (MAP, n = 5-10 per group were subjected to IOP challenge (10-120 mmHg, 5 mmHg steps every 3 minutes. Electroretinograms were measured at each IOP step to assess bipolar cell (b-wave and inner retinal function (scotopic threshold response or STR. Ocular blood flow was measured using laser-Doppler flowmetry in groups with similar MAP level and the same IOP challenge protocol. Both b-wave and STR amplitudes decreased with IOP elevation. Retinal function was less susceptible to IOP challenge when MAP was high, whereas the converse was true for low MAP. Consistent with the effects on retinal function, higher IOP was needed to attenuated ocular blood flow in animals with higher MAP. The susceptibility of retinal function to IOP challenge can be ameliorated by acute high BP, and exacerbated by low BP. This is partially mediated by modifications in ocular blood flow.

  13. Wound cleansing for pressure ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Zena E H; Cowman, Seamus

    2013-03-28

    Pressure ulcers (also called pressure sores, bed sores and decubitus ulcers) are areas of tissue damage that occur in the elderly, malnourished or acutely ill, who cannot reposition themselves. Pressure ulcers impose a significant financial burden on health care systems and negatively affect quality of life. Wound cleansing is considered an important component of pressure ulcer care. This systematic review seeks to answer the following question: what is the effect of wound cleansing solutions and wound cleansing techniques on the rate of healing of pressure ulcers? For this third update, we searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched 3 January 2013); The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 12); Ovid MEDLINE (2010 to November Week 3 2012); Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations December 31, 2012); Ovid EMBASE (2010 to 2012 Week 52); and EBSCO CINAHL (2010 to 21 December 2012). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing wound cleansing with no wound cleansing, or different wound cleansing solutions, or different cleansing techniques, were eligible for inclusion if they reported an objective measure of pressure ulcer healing. Two review authors extracted data independently and resolved disagreements through discussion. A structured narrative summary of the included studies was conducted. For dichotomous outcomes, risk ratio (RR), plus 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated; for continuous outcomes, mean difference (MD), plus 95% CI were calculated. Meta analysis was not conducted because of the small number of diverse RCTs identified. Two review authors independently assessed each included study using the Cochrane Collaboration tool for assessing risk of bias. One additional eligible study was identified from the updated searches, one study was added to the table of excluded studies. A total of three studies (169 participants) met the inclusion criteria for the

  14. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring - comparison with office ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Available data on the use of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure recordings in private practice are limited. For this purpose we studied 39 consecutive hypertensive patients on treatment in a private practice. Method. Office blood pressure, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, daytime ambulatory blood pressure ...

  15. Pressure sensor based on distributed temperature sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baar, J.J.J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Berenschot, Johan W.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2002-01-01

    A differential pressure sensor has been realized with thermal readout. The thermal readout allows simultaneous measurement of the membrane deflection due to a pressure difference and measurement of the absolute pressure by operating the structure as a Pirani pressure sensor. The measuring of the

  16. A new pressure ulcer conceptual framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coleman, S.; Nixon, J.; Keen, J.; Wilson, L.; McGinnis, E.; Dealey, C.; Stubbs, N.; Farrin, A.; Dowding, D.; Schols, J.M.; Cuddigan, J.; Berlowitz, D.; Jude, E.; Vowden, P.; Schoonhoven, L.; Bader, D.L.; Gefen, A.; Oomens, C.W.; Nelson, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    AIM: This paper discusses the critical determinants of pressure ulcer development and proposes a new pressure ulcer conceptual framework. BACKGROUND: Recent work to develop and validate a new evidence-based pressure ulcer risk assessment framework was undertaken. This formed part of a Pressure UlceR

  17. High pressure metrology for industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabuga, Wladimir; Rabault, Thierry; Wüthrich, Christian; Pražák, Dominik; Chytil, Miroslav; Brouwer, Ludwig; Ahmed, Ahmed D. S.

    2017-12-01

    To meet the needs of industries using high pressure technologies, in traceable, reliable and accurate pressure measurements, a joint research project of the five national metrology institutes and the university was carried out within the European Metrology Research Programme. In particular, finite element methods were established for stress–strain analysis of elastic and nonlinear elastic–plastic deformation, as well as of contact processes in pressure-measuring piston-cylinder assemblies, and high-pressure components at pressures above 1 GPa. New pressure measuring multipliers were developed and characterised, which allow realisation of the pressure scale up to 1.6 GPa. This characterisation is based on research including measurements of material elastic constants by the resonant ultrasound spectroscopy, hardness of materials of high pressure components, density and viscosity of pressure transmitting liquids at pressures up to 1.4 GPa and dimensional measurements on piston-cylinders. A 1.6 GPa pressure system was created for operation of the 1.6 GPa multipliers and calibration of high pressure transducers. A transfer standard for 1.5 GPa pressure range, based on pressure transducers, was built and tested. Herewith, the project developed the capability of measuring pressures up to 1.6 GPa, from which industrial users can calibrate their pressure measurement devices for accurate measurements up to 1.5 GPa.

  18. Test Your Blood Pressure IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... State SELECT YOUR LANGUAGE Español (Spanish) 简体中文 (Traditional Chinese) 繁体中文 (Simplified Chinese) Tiếng Việt (Vietnamese) Healthy Living for Heart.org ... Changes That Matter • Find Tools & Resources HBP Resources Animation Library Track Your Blood Pressure: Print (PDF) | Online ...

  19. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NHLBI About NHLBI Home Mission and Strategic Vision Leadership Scientific Divisions Operations and Administration Advisory Committees Budget ... health and can lower high blood pressure. Stress management techniques include: ... guidelines now define hypertension as a systolic blood... View all news ...

  20. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Entire Site Health Topics News & Resources Intramural Research Public Health Topics Education & Awareness Resources Contact The Health Information ... Contact Us FAQs Home » Health Information for the Public » Health Topics » High Blood Pressure » Diagnosis of High Blood ...

  1. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood pressure, you may need to restrict your sodium intake even more. Your health care provider may recommend the Dietary Approaches to ... heart healthy and low in fat, cholesterol, and salt. The DASH eating plan is ... Eating Your health care provider also may recommend heart-healthy eating, ...

  2. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... happens because medicines can change the way your body controls fluid and salt balances, cause your blood vessels to constrict, or impact the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system leading to high blood pressure. Other Medical Causes of High Blood ... these other conditions change the way your body controls fluids, sodium, and hormones in your blood, which leads ...

  3. Vital Signs - High Blood Pressure

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-02

    In the U.S., nearly one third of the adult population have high blood pressure, the leading risk factor for heart disease and stroke - two of the nation's leading causes of death.  Created: 10/2/2012 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/17/2012.

  4. Pressure vessel and method therefor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, Timothy

    2017-09-05

    A pressure vessel includes a pump having a passage that extends between an inlet and an outlet. A duct at the pump outlet includes at least one dimension that is adjustable to facilitate forming a dynamic seal that limits backflow of gas through the passage.

  5. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Trials Publications and Resources Health Education and Awareness The Science Science Home Blood Disorders and Blood Safety Sleep ... eating plan if you have high blood pressure. The DASH eating plan focuses on fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other foods that are heart healthy ...

  6. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... high. Causes Changes, either from genes or the environment, in the body’s normal functions may cause high ... in life. Environmental Causes of High Blood Pressure Environmental ... to constrict, or impact the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system leading to high ...

  7. The Power of Peer Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingle, Jane

    2006-01-01

    In a religion class of 26 bright creative sixth graders, one student demonstrates the power of peer pressure. Part of the morning ritual is to say prayer petitions. Students seems to be calmed by their expressions of care for their families, friends, pets, their military troops, victims of natural disasters, the homeless, etc. However, one student…

  8. Student Pressure Subject of Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses student pressure as a subject of debate. The latest debate about schoolwork is being fueled by three recent books: "The Homework Myth" by Alfie Kohn, "The Case Against Homework" by Sara Bennett and Nancy Kalish, and "The Overachievers", by Alexandra Robbins, which depicts overextended high…

  9. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Related Topics Atherosclerosis DASH Eating Plan Overweight and Obesity Smoking and Your Heart Stroke Send a link ... are consistently higher than 120/80 mmHg. Your child’s blood pressure numbers are outside average numbers for ...

  10. Pressure losses in pneumatic transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottjes, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    A model is derived to calculate the pressure losses originating from the dilute phase pneumatic transport of coarse particles in the horizontal stationary flow regime. The model is based on the balance of drag forces and frictional forces acting on the particles during pneumatic transport. The

  11. Preconsolidation Pressure and Creep Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Grete

    1995-01-01

    of oedometer tests with undisturbed samples have been analysed by means of different methods to determine the pre-consolidation pressure. An attempt is made to estimate the creep rates on the basis of AMS 14C-datings of the sediments and a model for creep determination proposed by Moust Jacobsen....

  12. Pressures on Youth in Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungerleider, Steven

    2003-01-01

    The pressures on young athletes today, many of them brought on or exacerbated by parents, drive young athletes to attain perfection and win by any means necessary. For the young athlete, the challenges of learning how to balance schoolwork, social life, family time, and sports, not to mention other interests they might have, are far more intense…

  13. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Strategic Vision Leadership Scientific Divisions Operations and Administration Advisory Committees Budget and Legislative Information Jobs and ... With DASH My Blood Pressure Wallet Card Other Resources Cigarette and Tobacco Facts (National Institute on Drug ... OIG USA.gov

  14. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... at a higher risk for heart disease and type 2 diabetes. This risk may be high with a waist ... raise your blood pressure and triglyceride levels, a type of fat found in the ... have no more than one drink containing alcohol a day. One drink is: ...

  15. Incisional Negative Pressure Wound Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Nana; Vinter, Christina Anne; Bille, Camilla

    Background: Obese women undergoing caesarean section are at increased risk of surgical wound complications, which may lead to delayed recovery, pain, reduced quality of life, and increased health care cost. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of incisional Negative Pressure Wound...

  16. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood pressure. The DASH eating plan focuses on fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other foods that are heart ... heart-healthy eating, which should include: Whole grains Fruits, such as apples, bananas, oranges, pears, and prunes Vegetables, such as broccoli, cabbage, and carrots Legumes, such ...

  17. PATTERN OF INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE IN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    manoeuver, forced blinking, intraocular inflammation, ocular trauma, ocular surgery, retinal or choroidal detachment, restriction, arid systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus and thyroid disorders.“ Procedures such as retrobulbar anaesthesia, general anaesthesia, external pressure on the eyeball, topical eye drops ...

  18. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... compared with readings taken in any other location. Health care providers diagnose this type of high blood pressure by reviewing readings in the office and readings taken anywhere else. Researchers believe stress, which can occur during the medical appointment, causes ...

  19. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Topics Education & Awareness Resources Contact The Health Information Center Health Professionals Systematic Evidence Reviews & Clinical Practice ... Advisory Committees Jobs Contact Us FAQs Home » Health Information for the Public » Health Topics » High Blood Pressure » ...

  20. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lead to cognitive changes. Signs and symptoms include memory loss, difficulty finding words, and losing focus during ... are consistently higher than 120/80 mmHg. Your child’s blood pressure numbers are outside average numbers for ...

  1. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bleed. Signs and symptoms include vision changes or blindness. Heart Attack : When the flow of oxygen-rich ... are consistently higher than 120/80 mmHg. Your child’s blood pressure numbers are outside average numbers for ...

  2. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... healthy diet. Be physically active. Maintain a healthy weight. Limit alcohol intake. Other lifestyle changes can improve your overall health, such as: If you smoke , quit. Get plenty of sleep. Drink more water. Medicines Take all blood pressure ...

  3. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to develop your treatment plan. Some people have “white coat hypertension.” This happens when blood pressure readings ... which can occur during the medical appointment, causes white coat hypertension. Treatment Based on your diagnosis, health ...

  4. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... condition is called isolated systolic hypertension (ISH). Many older adults have this condition. ISH can cause as much ... About 65 percent of Americans age 60 or older have high blood pressure. However, ... American adults than in Caucasian or Hispanic American adults. Compared ...

  5. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Topics Health Topics A-Z Clinical Trials Publications and Resources Health Education and Awareness The Science ... are consistently higher than 120/80 mmHg. Your child’s blood pressure numbers are outside average numbers for ...

  6. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cope with problems can improve your emotional and physical health and can lower high blood pressure. Stress management ... their experiences with clinical research. More Information Related Health ... Artery Disease Physical Activity and Your Heart Smoking and Your Heart ...

  7. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Your Heart U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans Maintaining a Healthy Weight Maintaining a healthy weight can help you control high blood pressure and reduce your risk for ...

  8. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... obese . The terms “overweight” and “obese” refer to body weight that’s greater than what is considered healthy for a certain height. Gender Before age 55, men are more likely than women to develop high blood pressure. After age 55, ...

  9. Bioinspired pressure actuated adhesive system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paretkar, D.R.; Kamperman, M.M.G.; Schneider, A.S.; Martina, D.; Creton, C.; Arzt, E.

    2011-01-01

    We developed a dry synthetic adhesive system inspired by gecko feet adhesion that can switch reversibly from adhesion to non-adhesion with applied pressure as external stimulus. Micropatterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surfaces with pillars of 30 µm length and 10 µm diameter were fabricated using

  10. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you what you need to know about choosing foods that are lower in sodium. Try to eat no more than 2,300 mg sodium a day. If you have high blood pressure, you may need to restrict your sodium intake even more. Your health care provider ...

  11. Research study of pressure instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogenboom, L.; Hull-Allen, G.

    1984-01-01

    To obtain a more vibration resistant pressure sensor for use on the Space Shuttle Main Engine, a proximity probe based, diaphragm type pressure sensor breadboard was developed. A fiber optic proximity probe was selected as the sensor. In combination with existing electronics, a thermal stability evaluation of the entire probe system was made. Based upon the results, a breadboard design of the pressure sensor and electronics was made and fabricated. A brief series of functional experiments was made with the breadboard to calibrate, thermally compensate, and linearize its response. In these experiments, the performance obtained in the temperature range of -320 F (liquid N2) to +200 F was comparable to that of the strain gage based sensor presently in use on the engine. In tests at NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), after some time at or near liquid nitrogen temperatures, the sensor output varied over the entire output range. These large spurious signals were attributed to condensation of air in the sensing gap. In the next phase of development of this sensor, an evaluation of fabrication techniques toward greater thermal and mechanical stability of the fiber probe assembly must be made. In addition to this, a positive optics to metal seal must be developed to withstand the pressure that would result from a diaphragm failure.

  12. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are heart healthy. Limiting Sodium and Salt A low-sodium diet can help you manage your blood pressure. ... lower in salt and sodium. Try to use low-sodium and “no added salt” foods and seasonings at ...

  13. Pressure transducers for cryogenic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlovskyy I. V.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The developed universal construction of tensoresistive pressure transducer for cryogenic liquids (liquid nitrogen and liquid helium is described. The study of strain gauges characteristics on the basis of p-type Si whiskers with different boron concentration, mounted on the invar spring elements (beams, in the wide ranges of strain ε=±1,2·10-3 and temperature 4,2-300 К for transducers simulation were carried out. It was shown that using heavily doped silicon strain gages gives the possibility to develop pressure transducers for liquid nitrogen and liquid helium based on the classic piezoresistance. The significant increasing of the pressure transducers sensitivity for liquid helium could be achieved by using the strain gages on the basis of silicon with boron concentration in the vicinity of metal-insulator transition based on the non-classic piezoresitance. Developed pressure transducers for cryogenic liquids with strain gauges on the basis of doped p-type Si whiskers are presented.

  14. Safety of hydrogen pressure gauges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voth, R. O.

    1972-01-01

    Study of the relative safety afforded an operator by various hydrogen-pressure gauge case designs. It is shown that assurance of personnel safety, should a failure occur, requires careful selection of available gauge designs, together with proper mounting. Specific gauge case features and mounting requirements are recommended.

  15. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1½ ounces of liquor Managing and Coping With Stress Learning how to manage stress, relax, and cope with problems can improve your ... physical health and can lower high blood pressure. Stress management techniques include: Being physically active Listening to ...

  16. Pressure Fluctuations in Nonideal Plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lankin, A.; Norman, G.; Saitov, I.

    Fluctuations of pressure of singly ionized nonideal plasma are studied using the fluctuation approach which provides the self-consistent joint description of free and weakly bound electron states. The classical molecular dynamics method is used. The electron-ion interaction is described by the

  17. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other health problems. If you’re overweight or obese, try to lose weight. A loss of just 3 to 5 percent can lower ... risk for health problems. Greater amounts of weight loss can improve blood pressure readings, lower ... to maintain good health. A useful measure of overweight and obesity is body mass index (BMI). BMI measures your ...

  18. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Accessible Search Form Search the NHLBI, use the drop down list to select: the entire site, the Health Topics section only, or the News and Resources section. NHLBI ... for Health Professionals What Is High blood pressure is a common disease in which blood flows through blood vessels (arteries) ...

  19. Ammonia Synthesis at Low Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cussler, Edward; McCormick, Alon; Reese, Michael; Malmali, Mahdi

    2017-08-23

    Ammonia can be synthesized at low pressure by the use of an ammonia selective absorbent. The process can be driven with wind energy, available locally in areas requiring ammonia for synthetic fertilizer. Such wind energy is often called "stranded," because it is only available far from population centers where it can be directly used. In the proposed low pressure process, nitrogen is made from air using pressure swing absorption, and hydrogen is produced by electrolysis of water. While these gases can react at approximately 400 °C in the presence of a promoted conventional catalyst, the conversion is often limited by the reverse reaction, which makes this reaction only feasible at high pressures. This limitation can be removed by absorption on an ammine-like calcium or magnesium chloride. Such alkaline metal halides can effectively remove ammonia, thus suppressing the equilibrium constraints of the reaction. In the proposed absorption-enhanced ammonia synthesis process, the rate of reaction may then be controlled not by the chemical kinetics nor the absorption rates, but by the rate of the recycle of unreacted gases. The results compare favorably with ammonia made from a conventional small scale Haber-Bosch process.

  20. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this system cause high blood pressure. Blood Vessel Structure and Function Changes in the structure and function of small and large arteries may ... su presión arterial alta Hispanic Community Health Study Data Book In Brief: Your Guide to Lowering Your ...

  1. The multidimensionality of peer pressure in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, D R; Brown, B B

    1985-03-01

    A sample of 689 adolescents (grades 7-12) from two Midwestern communities who had been identified by peers as members of one of three major peer groups responded to a self-report survey measuring perceptions of peer pressure in five areas of behavior: involvement with peers, school involvement, family involvement, conformity to peer norms, and misconduct. Perceived pressures toward peer involvement were particularly strong, whereas peer pressures concerning misconduct were relatively ambivalent. Perceived pressures toward misconduct increased across grade levels and pressures to conform to peer norms diminished; grade differences in perceived peer pressures concerning family involvement were community specific. Compared to druggie-toughs, jock-populars perceived stronger peer pressures toward school and family involvement, and less pressure toward (stronger pressure against) misconduct; patterns of perceived pressure among loners were more variable across communities. Results elaborated the process of peer influence in adolescent socialization and identity development.

  2. Research on Normal Human Plantar Pressure Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xi Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available FSR400 pressure sensor, nRF905 wireless transceiver and MSP40 SCM are used to design the insole pressure collection system, LabVIEW is used to make HMI of data acquisition, collecting a certain amount of normal human foot pressure data, statistical analysis of pressure distribution relations about five stages of swing phase during walking, using the grid closeness degree to identify plantar pressure distribution pattern recognition, and the algorithm simulation, experimental results demonstrated this method feasible.

  3. Research on Gas-liquid Flow Rate Optimization in Foam Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, B. K.; Sun, D. G.; Jia, Z. G.; Huang, Z. Q.

    2010-03-01

    With the advantages of less gas consumption, higher carrying rocks ability, lower leakage and higher penetration rate, foam drilling is widely used today in petroleum industry. In the process of foam underbalanced drilling, the mixture of gas, liquid and cuttings flows upwards through the annular, so it is a typical gas-liquid-solid multi-phase flow. In order to protect the reservoir and avoid borehole wall collapsing during foam drilling, it is crucial to ensure that the bottom hole pressure is lower than the formation pressure and higher than the formation collapse pressure, and in the mean time, foam drilling fluid in the whole wellbore should be in the best foam quality stage in order to have sufficient capacity to carry cuttings. In this paper, main relations between bottom hole pressure and gas-liquid injecting rate are analyzed with the underbalanced multiphase flow models. And in order to obtain precise flow pattern and flow pressure, the whole well bore is spatial meshed and iterative method is used. So, a convenient safety window expressed by gas-liquid injecting rate is obtained instead of that by bottom hole pressure. Finally, a foam drilling example from a block in Yemen is presented; the drilling results show that this method is reliable and practical.

  4. Intracranial pressure and cerebral perfusion pressure in near-drowning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnaik, A P; Preston, G; Lieh-Lai, M; Eisenbrey, A B

    1985-04-01

    Intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) were strictly controlled in 11 pediatric victims of near-drowning. Three outcome groups were defined: complete recovery, persistent vegetative state, and death. In the early postimmersion phase (first 72 h), CPP was consistently above 50 mm Hg in all patients. There were occasional, nonrepetitive, and easily controllable ICP spikes above 15 mm Hg in three patients from each group. Repeated ICP spikes above 15 mm Hg were observed in some patients with adverse outcome only after 72 h. Successful control of ICP and CPP did not ensure intact survival, and sustained late intracranial hypertension is more likely a sign of profound neurologic insult rather than its cause.

  5. Modeling systolic pressure variation due to positive pressure ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerges, Joanne

    2006-01-01

    Although many clinical techniques have been proposed to assess blood volume none have been established as an undisputed standard practice, Volume studies suggest systolic pressure variation (SPV) as a promising volume indicator but underlying influences on SPV are not well understood. Successful modeling of SPV will reveal the major SPV influencers, guide algorithm development to accommodate these influencers, and potentially lead to a more clinically relevant interpretation of SPV values, thus improving upon current clinical methods for assessing blood volume. This study takes a first step towards identifying SPV influencers by investigating three variations of an existing pressure-flow cardiovascular model. Each successive version introduces an additional modification in attempt to model SPV under normovolemic and hypovolemic conditions, where the last model accounts for positive pressure ventilation, venous compression, and a rightward septum shift. Under normovolemic conditions, each model yields SPV values of 5.8, 6.4, and 6.7 mmHg, respectively. Under hypovolemic conditions the results do not agree with clinical findings, suggesting these three mechanisms alone do not dictate the clinical SPV response to a decrease in volume. Model results are used to suggest improvements for future work.

  6. Relating external compressing pressure to mean arterial pressure in non-invasive blood pressure measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, K Y; Panerai, R B

    2015-01-01

    Arterial volume clamping uses external compression of an artery to provide continuous non-invasive measurement of arterial blood pressure. It has been assumed that mean arterial pressure (MAP) corresponds to the point where unloading leads to the maximum oscillation of the arterial wall as reflected by photoplethysmogram (PPG), an assumption that has been challenged. Five subjects were recruited for the study (three males, mean age (SD) = 32 (15) years). The PPG waveform was analysed to identify the relationship between the external compressing pressure, PPG pulse amplitude and MAP. Two separate tests were carried out at compression step intervals of 10 mmHg and 2 mmHg, respectively. No significant differences were found between the two tests. The bias between the compressing pressure and the MAP was -4.7 ± 5.63 mmHg (p < 0.001) showing a normal distribution. Further research is needed to identify optimal algorithms for estimation of MAP using PPG associated with arterial compression.

  7. 49 CFR 192.623 - Maximum and minimum allowable operating pressure; Low-pressure distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... distribution systems. (a) No person may operate a low-pressure distribution system at a pressure high enough to...) No person may operate a low pressure distribution system at a pressure lower than the minimum... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum and minimum allowable operating pressure...

  8. Glassy dynamics under superhigh pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronin, A A; Kondrin, M V; Lyapin, A G; Brazhkin, V V; Volkov, A A; Lunkenheimer, P; Loidl, A

    2010-04-01

    Nearly all glass-forming liquids feature, along with the structural alpha-relaxation process, a faster secondary process (beta relaxation), whose nature belongs to the great mysteries of glass physics. However, for some of these liquids, no well-pronounced secondary relaxation is observed. A prominent example is the archetypical glass-forming liquid glycerol. In the present work, by performing dielectric spectroscopy under superhigh pressures up to 6 GPa, we show that in glycerol a significant secondary relaxation peak appears in the dielectric loss at P>3 GPa. We identify this beta relaxation to be of Johari-Goldstein type and discuss its relation to the excess wing. We provide evidence for a smooth but significant increase in glass-transition temperature and fragility on increasing pressure.

  9. Vertebrate pressure-gradient receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The eardrums of all terrestrial vertebrates (tetrapods) are connected through Eustachian tubes or interaural canals. In some of the animals, these connections create pressure-gradient directionality, an enhanced directionality by interaction of sound arriving at both sides of the eardrum and stro......The eardrums of all terrestrial vertebrates (tetrapods) are connected through Eustachian tubes or interaural canals. In some of the animals, these connections create pressure-gradient directionality, an enhanced directionality by interaction of sound arriving at both sides of the eardrum....... Recent vertebrates form a continuum from perfect interaural transmission (0 dB in a certain frequency band) and pronounced eardrum directionality (30-40 dB) in the lizards, over somewhat attenuated transmission and limited directionality in birds and frogs, to the strongly attenuated interaural...

  10. Ambient pressure fuel cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mahlon S.

    2000-01-01

    An ambient pressure fuel cell system is provided with a fuel cell stack formed from a plurality of fuel cells having membrane/electrode assemblies (MEAs) that are hydrated with liquid water and bipolar plates with anode and cathode sides for distributing hydrogen fuel gas and water to a first side of each one of the MEAs and air with reactant oxygen gas to a second side of each one of the MEAs. A pump supplies liquid water to the fuel cells. A recirculating system may be used to return unused hydrogen fuel gas to the stack. A near-ambient pressure blower blows air through the fuel cell stack in excess of reaction stoichiometric amounts to react with the hydrogen fuel gas.

  11. High pressure processing of meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Alberto; Christensen, Mette; Ertbjerg, Per

    Abstract Background: The research of high pressure (HP) processing of meat based foods needs to address how pressure affects protein interactions, aggregation and/or gelation. The understanding of the gel forming properties of myofibrillar components is fundamental for the development of muscle...... based products (Chapleau et al., 2004;Colmenero, 2002). Object: The aim was to study the rheological properties of pork meat emulsion exposed to HP and the effect of HP on the aggregation state of myofibrillar proteins. To address the role of cathepsin in myofibrillar protein degradation the changes...... in the myofibrillar protein pattern and HP-induced change in activity of cathepsin B and L were investigated. Results: In this study we showed that HP treatment of pork meat emulsion, ranging from 0.1 to 800 MPa, induced protein gel formation as shown by the increased Young’s modulus (Fig.1). Analysis of SDS...

  12. Variable pressure thermal insulating jacket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Paul A.; Malecha, Richard F.; Chilenskas, Albert A.

    1994-01-01

    A device for controlled insulation of a thermal device. The device includes a thermal jacket with a closed volume able to be evacuated to form an insulating jacket around the thermal source. A getter material is in communcation with the closed volume of the thermal jacket. The getter material can absorb and desorb a control gas to control gas pressure in the volume of the thermal jacket to control thermal conductivity in the thermal jacket.

  13. Minority Game With Peer Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Chau, H. F.; Chow, F. K.; Ho, K. H.

    2003-01-01

    To study the interplay between global market choice and local peer pressure, we construct a minority-game-like econophysical model. In this so-called networked minority game model, every selfish player uses both the historical minority choice of the population and the historical choice of one's neighbors in an unbiased manner to make decision. Results of numerical simulation show that the level of cooperation in the networked minority game differs remarkably from the original minority game as...

  14. Crime, Education and Peer Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    P. Buonanno

    2003-01-01

    We present a dynamic two-period model of individual behaviour with heterogeneous agents in which individuals decide how to allocate their disposable time between education, crime and work in the legal sector. Education has a multiple role: it implies higher expected wages in the legal sector, increasing the opportunity cost of committing crime and it has a sort of “civilization” effect that makes more costly to engage in criminal activities. We model this effect by introducing a peer pressure...

  15. Barometric pressure and gas composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkin, V. B.

    1975-01-01

    Many factors affecting artificial gas atmosphere, which is used to maintain life during space flight, are considered. The wide variability of barometric pressure in spacecraft, due in large measure to spacecraft design is discussed. Explosive decompression is described; this develops from instantaneous depressurization of the cabin. Decompression sickness is reviewed, including bubble growth and evolution of gas bubbles in organisms. Dysbarism, hypoxia, and hypercapnia are also discussed.

  16. Pressure management in compartment fires

    OpenAIRE

    Hostikka, Simo; Kallada Janardhan, Rahul

    2017-01-01

    Fire-induced pressure has not been considered a threat for structural or occupant safety in apartment fires. The situation may be changing as the building envelopes are becoming much more air-tight due to the energy efficiency requirements and the construction of high-rise buildings. In this project, we investigated the effects of the building's air-tightness, ventilation configuration and the fire growth rate on the peak overpressures inside the fire compartment and smoke spread within the m...

  17. Extracting oscillometric pulses from the cuff pressure: does it affect the pressures determined by oscillometric blood pressure monitors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoore, John N

    2006-10-01

    Oscillometric noninvasive blood pressure measurement devices determine the pressures by analysing the relationship between the pressure in an occluding cuff and low-amplitude pressure pulses (oscillometric pulses) induced in the cuff by the arterial pressure wave. This paper examines the effects on the pulses and oscillometric pulse amplitude envelope of the filters that extract the pulses from the cuff pressure. The cuff pressure and oscillometric pulses extracted by the filter were recorded from a Critikon DINAMAP and a Datex Cardiocap, chosen because of accessibility of the filtered and unfiltered signals. The unfiltered oscillometric pulses were determined by subtracting the cuff pressure from a baseline constructed to represent either the Critikon's step deflation cuff pressure or the Datex's gradual pressure decrease. Waveforms were recorded from a noninvasive blood pressure test simulator and three volunteers. The filter alters the shape of oscillometric pulses causing a shift in the oscillometric pulse amplitude envelope drawn from the filtered pulses compared with that drawn from the unfiltered pulses in human subjects, but not the test simulator. The pulse shape distortion is dependent on the filter characteristics and the oscillometric pulse shape. Further work is required to explore whether this may help explain why simulators with artificial waveforms cannot validate noninvasive blood pressure monitors and why noninvasive blood pressure monitors may not be accurate in all patient groups.

  18. Pressurized hydrogen and methane releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruffin, E.; Mouilleau, Y.; Chaineaux, J.

    1996-07-01

    This paper reports on an experimental investigation of the concentration field of supercritical jets of methane and hydrogen. The jets were produced by venting a tank containing gas at a pressure of 40 bars (568 psi) to atmosphere through orifices whose diameters ranged from 25 to 150 mm. The investigation was designed with experiments on a scale typical of that encountered in industry during accidental discharges of pressurised gas, a scale much larger that that normally used in a laboratory. The concentration measurements were made in the subsonic zone of the jets using an original technique. This technique employs a sensor using the catalytic oxidation effects and can measure the concentration of combustible gas in highly reactive environments with no risk of ignition. Ignition tests of the flammable atmospheres and measurements of the aerial pressures had also been performed. The results show that concentration fields of supercritical and subsonic jets are equal if they are weighted by a properly chosen equivalent diameter. Explosion tests show that the over pressures produced by the deflagrations are highly dependent of the ignition point. (author). 6 figs.

  19. The myth of peer pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, M T

    2000-01-01

    The construct of peer pressure was examined as part of a qualitative study of the determinants of mental health for 41 high-risk adolescents. While the concept of peer pressure enables adults to explain youths' troubling behaviors, content analysis of the participants' accounts of their lives revealed peer pressure to be a myth. The youths indicated that adoption of the behavior and appearance of peers was a consciously employed strategy to enhance personal and social power. Association with peers was used to construct and maintain health-promoting identities that challenged the stigmatizing labels given to them by others. Three developmental stages to this process of identity construction were identified. During stage one, vulnerable youths learn to maintain a singular self-definition through interaction with peers. In stage two, youths purposefully use their peer relations to experiment with multiple identities. During stage three, youths collaborate with peers as equal partners in the construction of one or more identities for which they find acceptance.

  20. Scaling of pressurized fluidized beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guralnik, S.; Glicksman, L.R.

    1994-10-01

    The project has two primary objectives. The first is to verify a set of hydrodynamic scaling relationships for commercial pressurized fluidized bed combustors (PFBC). The second objective is to investigate solids mixing in pressurized bubbling fluidized beds. American Electric Power`s (AEP) Tidd combined-cycle demonstration plant will provide time-varying pressure drop data to serve as the basis for the scaling verification. The verification will involve demonstrating that a properly scaled cold model and the Tidd PFBC exhibit hydrodynamically similar behavior. An important issue in PFBC design is the spacing of fuel feed ports. The feed spacing is dictated by the fuel distribution and the mixing characteristics within the bed. After completing the scaling verification, the cold model will be used to study the characteristics of PFBCs. A thermal tracer technique will be utilized to study mixing both near the fuel feed region and in the far field. The results allow the coal feed and distributor to be designed for optimal heating.