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Sample records for bottom ashi paving

  1. The Laconia, New Hampshire Bottom, Ashi Paving Project. Volume 1: Environmental testing report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Bottom ash is the principal waste stream fro m the combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW). It is comprised of grate ash (97%), the slag material discharged at the end of the grate system and grate sffting (3%), the material that melts or falls through the grate structure. This project was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of using municipal solid waste grate ash as an aggregate substitute in the construction of a pavement binder course for a portion of Rt. 3 in Laconia, New Hampshire. The research was conducted over a two year period during 1993 and 1994. This study is the culmination of an earlier two year characterization study between 1990 and 1992 that documented the physical and environmental characteristics of the bottom ash as it was produced at the Concord, N.H. waste-to-energy (WTE) facility and used in an asphaltic binder course. Together, these two studies provide a complete evaluation of the potential for using grate ash or bottom ash in asphalt binder course or as recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) in base courses in pavements.

  2. Bottom paving as a part of the low pressure culvert erected by the float-on method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Ivanova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The widely used low pressure culverts are operated in the drop range between 1.5 and 5.0 meters. They distinguish by the near critical pairing mode of bays: in the downstream the true hydraulic jump does not develop. In this case the undular hydraulic jump develops in the downstream. Article is devoted to the issues of the improvement of bottom paving structures in low pressure constructions and the technology of its erecting. Features of controlling the near-critical flows arising during the operation are analyzed. Possible ways of technology improvement of structures are given illustrated by the example of bottom paving structures with guide elements. Results of hydraulic researches validating this construction are given.

  3. The Laconia, New Hampshire bottom ash paving project: Volume 3, Physical Performance Testing Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Bottom ash is the principal waste stream from the combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW). It is comprised of grate ash (97%), the slag material discharged at the end of the grate system, and grate sifting (3%), the material that melts or falls through the grate structure. This project was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of using municipal solid waste grate ash as an aggregate substitute in the construction of a pavement binder course for a portion of Rt. 3 in Laconia, New Hampshire. The research was conducted over a two year period during 1993 and 1994. This study is the culmination of an earlier two year characterization study between 1990 and 1992 that documented the physical and environmental characteristics of the bottom ash as it was produced at the Concord, N.H. waste-to-energy (@) facility and used in an asphaltic binder course. Together, these two studies provide a complete evaluation of the potential for using grate ash or bottom ash in asphalt binder course or as recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) in base courses in pavements.

  4. Lichen planus pigmetosus-like ashy dermatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Tripodi Cutrì

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ashy dermatosis, also known as erythema dyschromicum perstans, is an idiopathic dermal melanosis of unknown etiology. We here describe an unusual case of 63-year-old Caucasian male with ashy dermatosis and skin lesion of lichen pigmentosus-like. No treatment was tried because the lesions were totally asymptomatic. After a control, three months later, all lesions had cleared up. This case is of interest because it proves the existence of ashy dermatosis with clinical aspect lichen planus pigmentosus-like. This is the first case in the literature of lichen planus pigmentosuslike ashy dermatosis confirming the view that ashy dermatosis is a variant of lichen planus without the typically band-like infiltrate and Max Joseph spaces.

  5. Ashy dermatosis : A case of cinderella

    OpenAIRE

    Hasnaa Zaouri; Badreddine Hassam

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 20-years old female, who presented anasymptomatic  grayish macules affecting the neck, trunk and roots of legs (Panel A). Histopathologic examination showed  an increased dermal melanophages (Panel B) and a vacuolization of basal cell layer (Panel C), evoking an ashy dermatosis (AD). Paraclinical assessment didn't find any related  disease. Multiple therapy was proposed such as corticosteroids andphototherapy. Evolution was marked by the extension of  lesions in member...

  6. Ashy dermatosis : A case of cinderella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasnaa Zaouri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 20-years old female, who presented anasymptomatic  grayish macules affecting the neck, trunk and roots of legs (Panel A. Histopathologic examination showed  an increased dermal melanophages (Panel B and a vacuolization of basal cell layer (Panel C, evoking an ashy dermatosis (AD. Paraclinical assessment didn't find any related  disease. Multiple therapy was proposed such as corticosteroids andphototherapy. Evolution was marked by the extension of  lesions in members at five years of follow-up.AD was first described by Ramírez. He called the patients «Los cenicientos». The Spanish term cenicienta means Cinderella, because of this folklore character's close association with ashes from sitting at  home alone by the fireplace. Most cases present  gray–brown macules which are commonly found on the face, arms, neck, and trunk. Histopathologic findings are nonspecific and include vacuolization of the basal layer, pigmentary incontinence and perivascular inflammatory infiltrate. The etiology of AD is unknown. Some authors reported associations with ammonium nitrate, whipworm infestation and HIV seroconversions. Many treatments was proposed such as corticosteroids, dapsone, clofazimine and phototherapy, but the results are not satisfactory. Such as basic research on the pathogenesis and treatment of hypermelanosis continuous, we look for more answers to the questions raised by this case.

  7. Acute Toxicity of Sodium Fluorescein to Ashy Pebblesnails Fluminicola fuscus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, Kelly A.; Moffitt, Christine M.; Blew, David L.; Farmer, C. Neil

    2011-01-01

    Water resource agencies and groundwater scientists use fluorescein dyes to trace ground water flows that supply surface waters that may contain threatened or endangered mollusk species. Since little is known of the toxicity of sodium fluorescein to mollusks, we tested the toxicity of sodium fluorescein to the ashy pebblesnail Fluminicola fuscus. The pebblesnail was selected as a surrogate test species for the threatened Bliss Rapid snail Taylorcocha serpenticola that is endemic to the Snake River and its tributaries in the Hagerman Valley, Idaho. In laboratory tests, we expose replicated groups of snails to a series of concentrations of fluorescein in a static 24 h exposure at 15 degrees C. Following the exposure, we removed snails, rinsed them, and allowed a 48 h recovery in clean water before recording mortality. We estimated 377 mg/L as the median lethal dose. Mortality to snails occurred at concentrations well above those expected in test wells during the monitoring efforts.

  8. Distributed Simulation of Non-Point Source Pollution in Ashi River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Ma; Xiaofeng Jiang; Li Wang; Zhe Li; Xiongwei Liang

    2015-01-01

    In order to get a thorough understanding of non⁃point source pollution, it is essential to examine its temporal and spatial distribution. A physically⁃based distributed model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool ( SWAT) , was used in this research, to quantitatively estimate the NPS load and analyze the temporal and spatial distributions of NPS pollution in Ashi River Basin. The results indicated that SWAT was suitable to simulate stream⁃flow and water quality in Ashi River Basin. Total Nitrogen which was contributed by NPS (NPS⁃TN) accounted for 32�47%-62�61%, and Total Phosphorus which was contributed by NPS (NPS⁃TP) accounted for 22�30%-57�85% of the total load respectively. In inter⁃annual timescale, both NPS⁃TN and NPS⁃TP were influenced by stream⁃flow and fertilizer. However, when compared with fertilizer, NPS pollution was more directly affected by stream⁃flow. In annual timescale, NPS⁃TN and NPS⁃TP mainly occurred in flood season (from May to September). In the aspect of space, spatial differences of NPS⁃TN and NPS⁃TP were extremely significant. The spatial variations of NPS pollution were mainly influenced by land use, precipitation, soil and slope.

  9. ["Crazy paving" of the lungs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euler, André; Bremerich, Jens; Niemann, Tilo

    2014-03-26

    The term «crazy paving» describes an unspecific pattern in thoracic computed-tomography mimicking a paving stone configuration. This pattern can be caused by a number of differential diagnosis, for example alveolar hemorrhage, alveolar proteinosis, lipoid pneumonia or adenocarcinoma in situ. The knowledge of the correlation between imaging findings, histopathological pattern and clinical presentation prepares the clinician to understand the pathophysiology and to initiate the right therapeutic processes. In the following review, we describe the most common diseases and their radiologic correlation in daily practice. PMID:24686759

  10. Clinical Study on Treatment of Myofascial Pain Syndrome with Ashi Points

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张峻峰; 吴耀持; 韩丑萍

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical efficacy of Ashi points in the treatment of myofascial pain syndrome. Method: A hundred and fifty cases were randomized into a treatment group and a control group by the order of visit. The cases in the treatment group were treated with "Stuck Needle" method in Ashi points plus tuina manipulations. The cases in the control group were treated with external local application of Votalin. The cases in both groups were treated once a day and 10 times made up one course. Results: Among 90 cases in the treatment group, 18 got clinical recovery, 34 got marked effect, 34 got certain effect, the marked effective rate was 57.8% and the total effective rate was 94.4%; while among 60 cases in the control group, 1 got clinical recovery, 18 got marked effect, 15 got certain effect, the marked effective rate was 31.7% and the total effective rate was 73.3%. Statistical management showed P<0.01, indicating a significantly better effect in the treatment group. In addition, "Stuck Needle" method in Ashi points plus tuina manipulations can effectively improve local pain, tenderness, muscle spasm and motion range of joints, and can obtain significantly better effect for muscle spasm and motion range of joints. Conclusion: This therapy is safe, reliable and effective, and therefore worth spreading for clinical application.%目的:探讨阿是穴治疗肌筋膜疼痛综合征的,临床疗效.方法:将150例患者按就诊顺序随机分为治疗组和对照组,治疗组应用阿是穴"滞针法"针刺,配合"一指禅"推拿手法治疗;对照组应用扶他林乳剂局部涂擦治疗.两组均每日治疗1次,10次为1个疗程.结果治疗组90例,临床痊愈18例,显效34例,有效34例,显效率57.8%,总有效率94.4%;对照组60例,其中临床治愈1例,显效18例,有效15例,显效率31.7%,总有效率73.3%.,两组疗效经统计学处理,P<0.01,有非常显著性差异,说明治疗组疗效明显优于对照组.同时本疗法可以有

  11. Runway paving: taking a different approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doree, A.G.; Miller, S.R.; Huerne, ter H.L.

    2009-01-01

    Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) paving of airport runways mostly requires multiple paving teams, multiple pavers, and a wide array of other equipment. The runway paving projects are typically renowned for the logistical effort and the tight margins for overruns, often requiring a relatively large part of the

  12. Runway paving: taking a different approach

    OpenAIRE

    Doree, A.G.; Miller, S R; Huerne, ter, H.L.

    2009-01-01

    Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) paving of airport runways mostly requires multiple paving teams, multiple pavers, and a wide array of other equipment. The runway paving projects are typically renowned for the logistical effort and the tight margins for overruns, often requiring a relatively large part of the contractor’s resources. Due to the nature of airport operations the projects are of a fast-track nature and planned meticulously. The large-scale nature of the projects raise the attention of the m...

  13. Ashis Nandy e as vicissitudes do self: crítica, subjetividade e civilização indiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maurício Domingues

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Este texto trata da obra de Ashis Nandy, um dos principais intelectuais indianos contemporâneos, psicólogo social, psicanalista, bem como cientista político, que busca desenvolver o que chamou de "tradicionalismo crítico". Sua discussão da personalidade e do indivíduo, dentro de uma concepção ampla da civilização da Índia, com a modernidade fazendo-se presente como ameaça explícita (e elemento implícito, mais ambiguamente, é crucial em vários sentidos - em particular teoricamente - para o entendimento da Índia e para uma teoria da civilização. A composição múltipla do self e suas relações tanto com a cultura índica quanto com a ocidental se destacam em sua discussão.This paper examines the work of Ashis Nandy, one of Indian's foremost contemporary intellectuals, a social psychologist, psychoanalyst and political scientist, responsible for developing what he calls a ‘critical traditionalism.' Adopting a broad conception of Indian civilization in which modernity poses an explicit threat (and, more ambiguously, an implicit element, Nandy's discussion of personality and the individual is crucial at various levels - in particular theoretical - to understanding India and developing a theory of civilization. One of the prominent features of his discussion is the multiple composition of the self and its relations to both Indian and Western civilizations.

  14. 反阿是穴与阿是穴治疗肱骨外上髁炎疗效比较%Comparative study on therapeutic effect of Ashi-points and anti-Ashi-points on external humeral epicondylitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欣

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察反阿是穴与阿是穴治疗肱骨外上髁炎的临床疗效差异.方法:将68例患者随机分为反阿是穴组和阿是穴组,每组34例.反阿是穴组在按压后使局部疼痛缓解或消失处选取穴,阿是穴组在痛点取穴,并于周边围刺三针.隔天治疗1次,10次为一疗程,均治疗2个疗程,分别在疗程结束后当天、第7天、第30天、第6个月及1年后观察疗效.结果:治疗后当天反阿是穴组有效率为100.0%(34/34),阿是穴组有效率73.5%(25/34),两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),第7天和第30天反阿是穴组有效率分别是94.1%(32/34)、91.2%(31/34),优于阿是穴组的70.6%(24/34)、67.6%(23/34)(均P<0.01),第6个月和1年后反阿是穴组有效率分别为73.5%(25/34)、52.9%(18/34),阿是穴组有效率分别为64.7%(22/34)、61.8%(21/34),组间差异无统计学意义(均P>0.05).结论:反阿是穴治疗肱骨外上髁炎具有明显的近期效应,反阿是穴与阿是穴具有相似的远期疗效.%Objective To compare the clinical efficacy between Ashi-points and anti-As/iz-points for external humeral epicondylitis. Methods Sixty-eight cases were randomly devided into an anti-As/ti-points group( group A) and an As/ii-points group(group B), 34 cases in each group. In the group A, anti-Asfti-points(points of pain relief or disappearance after local press) were selected for acupunctures in the group B, Ashi-points (pain spots) were selected for acupuncture and surrounded needling therapy was added . Once other day, 10 treatments made one session, altogether 2 courses. The clinical effects were observed at the ending day, the 7 th day, the 30 th day, the 6 th months and one year after treatment. Results The effective rates at the ending day, the 7 th day, the 30 th day after treatment in the group A were 100. 0% (34/34), 94.1% (32/34) and 91. 2% (31/34) , which were superior to those of 73. 5% (25/34), 70. 6% (24/34), 67. 6% (23/34) respectively

  15. Paving the Way for Apollo 11

    CERN Document Server

    Harland, David M

    2009-01-01

    In 'Paving the Way for Apollo 11' David Harland explains the lure of the Moon to classical philosophers, astronomers, and geologists, and how NASA set out to investigate the Moon in preparation for a manned lunar landing mission. It focuses particularly on the Lunar Orbiter and Surveyor missions.

  16. EVALUATION OF EMISSIONS FROM PAVING ASPHALTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report provides data from pilot-scale measurements of the emissions of specific air pollutants from paving asphalt both with and without recycled crumb rubber additives. The methods used in this work measured emissions from a static layer of asphalt maintained for several hou...

  17. EVALUATION OF EMISSION FROM PAVING ASPHALTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report provides data from pilot-scale measurements of the emissions of specific air pollutants from paving asphalt both with and without recycled crumb rubber additives. he methods used in this work measured emissions from a static layer of asphalt maintained for several hour...

  18. PAVE: Program for assembling and viewing ESTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bomhoff Matthew

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New sequencing technologies are rapidly emerging. Many laboratories are simultaneously working with the traditional Sanger ESTs and experimenting with ESTs generated by the 454 Life Science sequencers. Though Sanger ESTs have been used to generate contigs for many years, no program takes full advantage of the 5' and 3' mate-pair information, hence, many tentative transcripts are assembled into two separate contigs. The new 454 technology has the benefit of high-throughput expression profiling, but introduces time and space problems for assembling large contigs. Results The PAVE (Program for Assembling and Viewing ESTs assembler takes advantage of the 5' and 3' mate-pair information by requiring that the mate-pairs be assembled into the same contig and joined by n's if the two sub-contigs do not overlap. It handles the depth of 454 data sets by "burying" similar ESTs during assembly, which retains the expression level information while circumventing time and space problems. PAVE uses MegaBLAST for the clustering step and CAP3 for assembly, however it assembles incrementally to enforce the mate-pair constraint, bury ESTs, and reduce incorrect joins and splits. The PAVE data management system uses a MySQL database to store multiple libraries of ESTs along with their metadata; the management system allows multiple assemblies with variations on libraries and parameters. Analysis routines provide standard annotation for the contigs including a measure of differentially expressed genes across the libraries. A Java viewer program is provided for display and analysis of the results. Our results clearly show the benefit of using the PAVE assembler to explicitly use mate-pair information and bury ESTs for large contigs. Conclusion The PAVE assembler provides a software package for assembling Sanger and/or 454 ESTs. The assembly software, data management software, Java viewer and user's guide are freely available.

  19. At-sea distribution of radio-marked Ashy Storm-Petrels Oceanodroma homochroa captured on the California Channel Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J.; Takekawa, J.Y.

    2008-01-01

    Small, rare and wide-ranging pelagic birds are difficult to locate and observe at sea; little is therefore known regarding individual movements and habitat affinities among many of the world's storm-petrels (Family Hydrobatidae). We re-located 57 of 70 radio-marked Ashy Storm-Petrels Oceanodroma homochroa captured at three colonies in the California Channel Islands: Scorpion Rocks (2004, 2005), Santa Barbara Island (2004) and Prince Island (2005). Between 23 July and 22 September 2004, and 5 July and 4 August 2005, we flew 29 telemetry surveys, covered more than 65 000 km2 (2004) and 43 000 km2 (2005) of open ocean from San Nicolas Island north to the Farallon Islands and obtained 215 locations from 57 storm-petrels at sea. In both years, radio-marked storm-petrels were aggregated over the continental slope from Point Conception to Point Buchon, within the western Santa Barbara Channel, and over the Santa Cruz Basin between Santa Cruz, San Nicolas and Santa Barbara islands. Individuals captured in the Channel Islands ranged more than 600 km and were located as far north as Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary. This is the first study to use radiotelemetry to determine the at-sea distribution and movements for any storm-petrel species.

  20. 针刺颈项部阿是穴为主治疗颈性眩晕%Cervical vertigo treated mainly with acupuncture at Ashi points

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建勋; 李国瑛; 许军花; LIU Xuan

    2011-01-01

    Cervical vertigo is mainly caused by neck soft tissue lesions or bone and joint disease of cervical vertebrae.It is one of the most common diseases in acupuncture department.Though there are a variety of therapies for this disease,it is hard to be cured.It affects the health and life quality of the patients.In recent one year,we have treated 86 cases of cervical vertigo with acupuncture mainly at Ashi points combined with Fēngchi (风池 GB 20).Controlled study on therapeutic effect of acupuncture at regular points was carried on.The report is as follows.

  1. Ashy Storm-Petrel Oceanodroma homochroa mist-netting and capture rates in the California Channel Islands, 2004–2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Josh

    2016-01-01

    The California Channel Islands (CCI) provide essential nesting habitat for a significant portion of the world’s Ashy Storm-Petrel Oceanodroma homochroa (ASSP) breeding population, but true abundance at this locality is not well known. Land-based nocturnal mistnetting has been conducted sporadically in the CCI since 1976, with variation in techniques and methods. Using a standardized catch-perunit-effort (CPUE) is one of the few methods available to monitor trends in relative abundance, but there currently are no guidelines for a standardized, repeatable approach for the CCI. During 2004–2007, I conducted mist-netting for ASSP at three colony sites within the CCI: Scorpion Rock (SR), Santa Barbara Island (SBI), and Prince Island (PI). During 47 site-nights (22 sessions), I obtained 1 177 unique captures, including 34 recaptures (2.9%) of previously banded individuals. ASSP captured at all three islands showed peak proportions of fully developed incubation patches in July and August. ASSP captured in the CCI had 5%–9% lower body mass than individuals captured off central California during the early 1970s; it is not known whether this difference reflects natural inter-annual variation or differences in body condition. ASSP from SBI had the lowest body condition index (BCI) compared with those from PI and SR, indicating different foraging environments. Overall, 22 netting-sessions at three islands yielded a power of 84% to detect a 30% lesser CPUE; 19 sessions would be required in a future effort to evaluate this level of change. Evaluation of additional factors that affect CPUE and other independent measures of abundance or attendance should be included in future mist-netting efforts.

  2. Bottom production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the context of the LHC experiments, the physics of bottom flavoured hadrons enters in different contexts. It can be used for QCD tests, it affects the possibilities of B decays studies, and it is an important source of background for several processes of interest. The physics of b production at hadron colliders has a rather long story, dating back to its first observation in the UA1 experiment. Subsequently, b production has been studied at the Tevatron. Besides the transverse momentum spectrum of a single b, it has also become possible, in recent time, to study correlations in the production characteristics of the b and the b. At the LHC new opportunities will be offered by the high statistics and the high energy reach. One expects to be able to study the transverse momentum spectrum at higher transverse momenta, and also to exploit the large statistics to perform more accurate studies of correlations

  3. Bottom production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baines, J.; Baranov, S.P.; Bartalini, P.; Bay, A.; Bouhova, E.; Cacciari, M.; Caner, A.; Coadou, Y.; Corti, G.; Damet, J.; Dell-Orso, R.; De Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Domenech, J.L.; Drollinger, V.; Eerola, P.; Ellis, N.; Epp, B.; Frixione, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gavrilenko, I.; Gennai, S.; George, S.; Ghete, V.M.; Guy, L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iengo, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jones, R.; Kharchilava, A.; Kneringer, E.; Koppenburg, P.; Korsmo, H.; Kramer, M.; Labanca, N.; Lehto, M.; Maltoni, F.; Mangano, M.L.; Mele, S.; Nairz, A.M.; Nakada, T.; Nikitin, N.; Nisati, A.; Norrbin, E.; Palla, F.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robins, S.; Rousseau, D.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Shapiro, M.; Sherwood, P.; Smirnova, L.; Smizanska, M.; Starodumov, A.; Stepanov, N.; Vogt, R.

    2000-03-15

    In the context of the LHC experiments, the physics of bottom flavoured hadrons enters in different contexts. It can be used for QCD tests, it affects the possibilities of B decays studies, and it is an important source of background for several processes of interest. The physics of b production at hadron colliders has a rather long story, dating back to its first observation in the UA1 experiment. Subsequently, b production has been studied at the Tevatron. Besides the transverse momentum spectrum of a single b, it has also become possible, in recent time, to study correlations in the production characteristics of the b and the b. At the LHC new opportunities will be offered by the high statistics and the high energy reach. One expects to be able to study the transverse momentum spectrum at higher transverse momenta, and also to exploit the large statistics to perform more accurate studies of correlations.

  4. Paving materials for heat island mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomerantz, M.; Akbari, H.; Chen, A.; Taha, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Rosenfeld, A.H. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This report summarizes paving materials suitable for urban streets, driveways, parking lots and walkways. The authors evaluate materials for their abilities to reflect sunlight, which will reduce their temperatures. This in turn reduces the excess air temperature of cities (the heat island effect). The report presents the compositions of the materials, their suitability for particular applications, and their approximate costs (in 1996). Both new and resurfacing are described. They conclude that, although light-colored materials may be more expensive than conventional black materials, a thin layer of light-colored pavement may produce energy savings and smog reductions whose long-term worth is greater than the extra cost.

  5. Study on Producing Heavy Paving Asphalt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Daosheng; Gao Zhirong; Huo Kaifu; Liao Kejian

    2002-01-01

    The highly viscous crude oil from Shuguang No. 1 zone of Liaohe oilfield features high density,high viscosity and low wax content. It contains no gasoline fraction and its diesel oil fraction yield is only 7.19%, which belongs to the low sulfur naphthenic stocks crude oil. Its heavy fraction is not suited for producing lubricating oil. Its heavy oil, which contains more resins and asphaltenes and less wax, is not an ideal feedstock for catalytic cracking, but is the ideal raw material for producing high-grade paving asphalt.Now this highly viscous crude oil is used as fuel oil after being emulsified in Liaohe oilfield, but its viscosity is so high that it cannot be atomized uniformly and burned completely, resulting not only in waste of oil resource but also in reduction of economical benefit. To make full use of this oil resource and alleviate the shortfall of high grade paving asphalt in China, various brands of asphalt meeting Q/SHR003-1998and ESSO specifications were developed by blending vacuum residue of the said oil and a blending component which are rich in aromatics and deficient in wax. The impact of blending component on properties of blended asphalt has been investigated and road performances of these blended asphalts were studied. The laboratory test results show that the blended asphalts have good road performance and antiaging property.

  6. Allergens in Paved Road Dust and Airborne Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel, Ann G.; Cass, Glen R.; Glovsky, M. Michael; Weiss, Jay

    1999-01-01

    Paved road dust present on the surface of streets in Southern California consists of a complex mixture of soil dust, deposited motor vehicle exhaust particles, tire dust, brake lining wear dust, plant fragments, and other biological materials. The research presented here shows that allergens from at least 20 different source materials are found in the paved road dust. These include pollens and pollen fragments, animal dander, and molds. When paved road dust is resuspended into the atmosphere ...

  7. Current practices for modification of paving asphalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahia, H.U.; Perdomo, D. [Asphalt Institute, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Superpave binder specification, AASHTO MP1, has introduced new concepts for selecting paving asphalt binders. The specification, in addition to using rheological and failure measurements that are more related to performance, is based on the idea that the criteria to maintain a satisfactory contribution of asphalt binders to the resistance of pavement failures remains the same but have to be satisfied at critical application temperatures. The test procedures require that the material be characterized within certain ranges of strains or stresses to ensure that material and geometric non-linearities are not confounded in the measurements. These new specification concepts have resulted in re-evaluation of asphalt modification by the majority of modified asphalt suppliers. The philosophy of asphalt modification is expected to change, following these new concepts, from a general improvement of quality to more focus on using modifiers based on the most critical need as defined by two factors: (1) The application temperature domain and (2) the type of distress to be remedied. The new specification requirements should result in a more effective use of modifiers as the amount and type of modifier will be directly related to the application environment and the engineering requirements.

  8. 40 CFR 52.2054 - Control of asphalt paving material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control of asphalt paving material. 52... asphalt paving material. (a) Notwithstanding any provisions to the contrary in the Pennsylvania Implementation Plan, the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation shall restrict the annual usage of asphalts...

  9. Examination of Quality and Operational Properties of Vibropressed Paving Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usanova Kseniia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents research findings on examination of quality of paving elements. Were investigated and analyzed performance properties of paving slabs on following: accuracy of geometric dimensions, appearance, compressive strength, frost resistance, water absorption and abrasion. Based on these results recommendations improving the current regulatory and technical documentation are provided.

  10. ASPHALT FOR OFF-STREET PAVING AND PLAY AREAS, 3RD EDITION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asphalt Inst., College Park, MD.

    THIS PAMPHLET DISCUSSES THE ALTERNATIVE METHODS, APPLICATIONS, AND TECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR OFF-STREET PAVING AND PLAY AREAS. OFF-STREET PAVING INCLUDES--(1) ASPHALT-PAVED PARKING AREAS, (2) ROOF DECK PARKING AREAS, (3) ASPHALT-PAVED DRIVEWAYS, (4) ASPHALT-PAVED SERVICE STATION LOTS, AND (5) SIDEWALKS. THE DISCUSSION OF PLAY AREAS…

  11. PRODUCTION OF PAVING BLOCK AND KERB INCORPORATING BLASTFURNACE SLAG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsa YÜKSEL

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of an experimental study about partial substitution of granulated blast-furnace slag (GBFS as fine aggregate in production of concrete paving blocks and kerbs. GBFS is replaced sand for different GBFS/sand ratios in concrete during production of kerb and paving block specimens. Some tests orienting towards strength and durability were applied on these specimens including control specimens that are produced with normal concrete. Then, the results of tested properties of GBFS-replaced specimens and control specimens were compared. GBFS decreases the compressive strength of paving blocks and kerbs according to the results. However, some durability properties which are more important than strength for these elements are improved with GBFS replacement. The most improved property was abrasion resistance. It is concluded that it is feasible to use GBFS in paving block and kerb production with an optimum replacement ratio for these specimens.

  12. Simplified Pavement Design for LPAs: Introduction to PaveXpress

    OpenAIRE

    Bonte, Dudley

    2015-01-01

    Simplified Pavement Design for LPA's; An introduction to and use of PaveXpress, a simplified, free, web-based pavement design scoping tool for roadway and parking lot pavements. The system was developed by Pavia Systems in partnership with the National Asphalt Pavement Association. PaveXpress creates technical sound pavement structural designs for flexible and rigid pavements based on widely accepted industry standards from the Association of State Highway Officials (AASHTO). The simplified p...

  13. Extending the Life of Asphalt Longitudinal Paving Joints

    OpenAIRE

    Hedges, Rex; Brownridge, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Is premature asphalt joint failure bringing your PASER number down? Participants will learn how applying asphalt preservative seals directly to the asphalt longitudinal paving joint can restore plasticity and flexibility and how application of in-depth sealing methods will protect against harmful UV rays, prevent oxidation, and waterproof against chloride intrusion. Rehabilitation methods to repair poorly performing and failed paving joints will also be covered.

  14. Treatment of 100 Cases of Cervical Spondylotic Radiculopathy by Electroacupuncture of Jiaji (Ex-B2) plus Oblique Needling Ashi Point

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-qing; ZHOU Wei-guang

    2006-01-01

    One hundred patients were diagnosed with cervicalspondylotic radiculopathy definitely by symptoms, signs and X-ray examination. The therapeutic method was acupuncture of Jiaji(Ex-B 2) on the affected segment and the upper and lower vertebrae close together. After the arrival of qi, the needles were connected to acupuncture therapeutic instrument. Meanwhile, the numb, heavy and uncomfortable area on the shoulder and upper limb, where something like cord could be touched, was selected as Ashi point. The needle was inserted perpendicularly into the skin on the place that the cord was most obvious and inserted obliquely and deeply along the cord. After 3-4 courses of treatment, 90 cases got marked effectiveness and 10 cases got effectiveness.%100例患者经症状,体征和X线检查确诊为神经根型颈椎病,治疗方法是针刺病变节段及上下相邻两节脊椎夹脊穴得气后,接针灸治疗仪,同时在肩部及上肢选取麻、沉不适区,触及条索状物,为阿是穴,从条索最明显处垂直刺入皮肤,沿条索纵向斜刺深入.3~4疗程后显效90例,有效10例.

  15. Directional Tactile Pavings in a Universal Design Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deichmann, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The topic of the presentation is the directional tactile pavings or tactile guidelines that are used by blind and visually impaired people for orientation, in this presentation primarily in the street environment. The focus is the difference between so-called natural and artificial tactile pavings, how they can and should be used, and how the tactile guidelines can be understood as devices of Universal Design. It is discussed whether guidelines based on foreign research can be transferred to the Danish context without additional Danish research. The tests that are known to have been made in Denmark have generally been conducted with a very low number of participants. A secondary focus is the architectural qualities of the tactile pavings, which is a subject for discussion among landscape architects in the Danish context.

  16. The asphalt paving process: plans for action research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, Seirgei; Huerne, ter Henny; Dorée, André; Atkin, Brian; Borgbrant, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Recent significant changes in public sector procurement in the Netherlands are forcing road construction companies to professionalize one of their primary processes: on-site asphalt paving. This paper describes an initiative aimed at improving quality in the process. A literature review confirmed th

  17. Spring Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Spring Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1968 and covered an area from Cape Hatteras, NC, to Nova Scotia, Canada, at depths >27m....

  18. Winter Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Winter Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1992 and covered offshore areas from the Mid-Atlantic to Georges Bank. Inshore strata were...

  19. Fall Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Fall Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1963 and covered an area from Hudson Canyon, NY to Nova Scotia, Canada. Throughout the years,...

  20. Summer Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sampling the coastal waters of the Gulf of Maine using the Northeast Fishery Science Center standardized bottom trawl has been problematic due to large areas of...

  1. Implementation of the SuperPave IDT analysis procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Guangli

    2010-01-01

    Cracking is one of the most severe distress modes of asphaltpavements. Thus characterising the fracture resistance properties of asphaltmixtures is the key issue for improving the performance relatedmixture design. The present master thesis project addresses the implementationof the theoretical framework, which is used to characterise thefracture resistance of mixtures based on the SuperPave indirect tensiletest (IDT). An open source Matlab-based software for analysing resilientmodulus, Poiss...

  2. Charmed Bottom Baryon Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Zachary S; Detmold, William; Meinel, Stefan; Orginos, Kostas

    2014-11-01

    The spectrum of doubly and triply heavy baryons remains experimentally unexplored to a large extent. Although the detection of such heavy particle states may lie beyond the reach of exper- iments for some time, it is interesting compute this spectrum from QCD and compare results between lattice calculations and continuum theoretical models. Several lattice calculations ex- ist for both doubly and triply charmed as well as doubly and triply bottom baryons. Here, we present preliminary results from the first lattice calculation of doubly and triply heavy baryons including both charm and bottom quarks. We use domain wall fermions for 2+1 flavors (up down and strange) of sea and valence quarks, a relativistic heavy quark action for the charm quarks, and non-relativistic QCD for the heavier bottom quarks. We present preliminary results for the ground state spectrum.

  3. Perbaikan Sistem Kerja Operator Pencetakan Paving Block Pada UKM Gunung Jati

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution, Mandala Putra

    2015-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan di UKM Gunung Jati yang terletak di Jalan halat No 156, Medan. UKM Gunung Jati merupakan usaha yang bergerak di bidang produksi paving block dengan bahan baku pasir, semen, tepung merah dan air. Penelitian ini tepatnya dilakukan pada stasiun pencetakan paving block, yang merupakan salah satu kegiatan manual dalam pembuatan paving block. Pada proses pencetakan paving block Pekerja sering mengalami keluhan sakit pada beberapa bagian tubuh. Hal ini disebabkan karena fas...

  4. Factory performance evaluations of engineering controls for asphalt paving equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, K R; Mickelsen, R L; Brumagin, T E

    1999-08-01

    This article describes a unique analytical tool to assist the development and implementation of engineering controls for the asphalt paving industry. Through an agreement with the U.S. Department of Transportation, the National Asphalt Pavement Association (NAPA) requested that the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) assist U.S. manufacturers of asphalt paving equipment with the development and evaluation of engineering controls. The intended function of the controls was to capture and remove asphalt emissions generated during the paving process. NIOSH engineers developed a protocol to evaluate prototype engineering controls using qualitative smoke and quantitative tracer gas methods. Video recordings documented each prototype's ability to capture theatrical smoke under "managed" indoor conditions. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), released as a tracer gas, enabled quantification of the capture efficiency and exhaust flow rate for each prototype. During indoor evaluations, individual prototypes' capture efficiencies averaged from 7 percent to 100 percent. Outdoor evaluations resulted in average capture efficiencies ranging from 81 percent down to 1 percent as wind gusts disrupted the ability of the controls to capture the SF6. The tracer gas testing protocol successfully revealed deficiencies in prototype designs which otherwise may have gone undetected. It also showed that the combination of a good enclosure and higher exhaust ventilation rate provided the highest capture efficiency. Some manufacturers used the stationary evaluation results to compare performances among multiple hood designs. All the manufacturers identified areas where their prototype designs were susceptible to cross-draft interferences. These stationary performance evaluations proved to be a valuable method to identify strengths and weaknesses in individual designs and subsequently optimize those designs prior to expensive analytical field studies. PMID:10462852

  5. The Treatment of 28 Renal Colic Patients by Transfusing a Saline Drip in AShi Points%肾周阿是穴注射生理盐水治疗肾绞痛28例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何国华; 赵志亮

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To observe the clinical effect of saline drips in AShi points peripheral kidney on the treatment of renal colic. Methods:The 56 cases of renal colic randomized into treatment and control groups with 28 cases in each. Both groups administered such conventional medicines for renal colic as nonsteroidal anti-inflamma-tory drugs, opioid analgesics as well as spasmolytics, the observation group were injected saline drips in AShi points around kidney. Results:The time for pain relieving and disappearing in the observation group was shorter than those in the control group, the differences in comparison of the time between two groups were significant (P<0.05);the differences in the comparison between the total effective rates of 96.43%in the observation group and 85.71%in the control group were obvious (P<0.05). Conclusion:The saline drips in AShi pionts are significantly effective in cur-ing renal colic and faster in stopping its pain.%目的:观察肾周阿是穴穴位注射生理盐水治疗肾绞痛的临床疗效。方法:将56例肾绞痛患者随机分为治疗组、对照组各28例。2组均给予非甾体类镇痛抗炎药、阿片类镇痛药及解痉药等肾绞痛常规治疗;观察组同时采用生理盐水肾周阿是穴穴位注射治疗。结果:疼痛缓解时间、疼痛消失时间观察组均短于对照组,2组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。总有效率观察组为96.43%,对照组为85.71%,2组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:肾周阿是穴穴位注射生理盐水治疗肾绞痛临床疗效显著,可较快缓解肾绞痛。

  6. Tomographic and pathological findings of crazy-paving pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vabo, Karen Amaral do; Damato, Simone Duarte [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Radiology

    2011-07-15

    Objective: To describe high-resolution computed tomography findings in several diseases that run their course with the 'crazy-paving' pattern. Materials and Methods: The present study has evaluated seven patients with diagnoses of alveolar proteinosis, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, lipoid pneumonia and pneumocystosis, correlating tomographic and pathological findings. Results: In the cases of pneumocystosis, the alveolar spaces were filled with foamy material where parasitic organisms intermingled with surfactants, fibrin and cell debris were observed. In the cases of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, the septa were thickened by associated fibrosis or lymphangitis, with the alveolar walls internally lined with tumor cells, and production of mucus. In the patient with alveolar proteinosis, the septa were thickened by edema, with alveolar filling determined by lipoprotein. In the patient with mineral oil aspiration, the histopathological findings included alveolar septa thickening caused by cell proliferation, with presence of fat vacuoles in alveolar septa. Conclusion: The crazy-paving pattern offers a wide range of differential diagnoses and must be evaluated in conjunction with clinical findings. (author)

  7. Tomographic and pathological findings of crazy-paving pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To describe high-resolution computed tomography findings in several diseases that run their course with the 'crazy-paving' pattern. Materials and Methods: The present study has evaluated seven patients with diagnoses of alveolar proteinosis, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, lipoid pneumonia and pneumocystosis, correlating tomographic and pathological findings. Results: In the cases of pneumocystosis, the alveolar spaces were filled with foamy material where parasitic organisms intermingled with surfactants, fibrin and cell debris were observed. In the cases of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, the septa were thickened by associated fibrosis or lymphangitis, with the alveolar walls internally lined with tumor cells, and production of mucus. In the patient with alveolar proteinosis, the septa were thickened by edema, with alveolar filling determined by lipoprotein. In the patient with mineral oil aspiration, the histopathological findings included alveolar septa thickening caused by cell proliferation, with presence of fat vacuoles in alveolar septa. Conclusion: The crazy-paving pattern offers a wide range of differential diagnoses and must be evaluated in conjunction with clinical findings. (author)

  8. Parallel paving: An algorithm for generating distributed, adaptive, all-quadrilateral meshes on parallel computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lober, R.R.; Tautges, T.J.; Vaughan, C.T.

    1997-03-01

    Paving is an automated mesh generation algorithm which produces all-quadrilateral elements. It can additionally generate these elements in varying sizes such that the resulting mesh adapts to a function distribution, such as an error function. While powerful, conventional paving is a very serial algorithm in its operation. Parallel paving is the extension of serial paving into parallel environments to perform the same meshing functions as conventional paving only on distributed, discretized models. This extension allows large, adaptive, parallel finite element simulations to take advantage of paving`s meshing capabilities for h-remap remeshing. A significantly modified version of the CUBIT mesh generation code has been developed to host the parallel paving algorithm and demonstrate its capabilities on both two dimensional and three dimensional surface geometries and compare the resulting parallel produced meshes to conventionally paved meshes for mesh quality and algorithm performance. Sandia`s {open_quotes}tiling{close_quotes} dynamic load balancing code has also been extended to work with the paving algorithm to retain parallel efficiency as subdomains undergo iterative mesh refinement.

  9. Automatic control system for uniformly paving iron ore pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bowen; Qian, Xiaolong

    2014-05-01

    In iron and steelmaking industry, iron ore pellet qualities are crucial to end-product properties, manufacturing costs and waste emissions. Uniform pellet pavements on the grate machine are a fundamental prerequisite to ensure even heat-transfer and pellet induration successively influences performance of the following metallurgical processes. This article presents an automatic control system for uniformly paving green pellets on the grate, via a mechanism mainly constituted of a mechanical linkage, a swinging belt, a conveyance belt and a grate. Mechanism analysis illustrates that uniform pellet pavements demand the frontend of the swinging belt oscillate at a constant angular velocity. Subsequently, kinetic models are formulated to relate oscillatory movements of the swinging belt's frontend to rotations of a crank link driven by a motor. On basis of kinetic analysis of the pellet feeding mechanism, a cubic B-spline model is built for numerically computing discrete frequencies to be modulated during a motor rotation. Subsequently, the pellet feeding control system is presented in terms of compositional hardware and software components, and their functional relationships. Finally, pellet feeding experiments are carried out to demonstrate that the control system is effective, reliable and superior to conventional methods.

  10. Reuse of steel slag in bituminous paving mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorlini, Sabrina; Sanzeni, Alex; Rondi, Luca

    2012-03-30

    This paper presents a comprehensive study to evaluate the mechanical properties and environmental suitability of electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag in bituminous paving mixtures. A variety of tests were executed on samples of EAF slag to characterize the physical, geometrical, mechanical and chemical properties as required by UNI EN specifications, focusing additionally on the volumetric expansion associated with hydration of free CaO and MgO. Five bituminous mixtures of aggregates for flexible road pavement were designed containing up to 40% of EAF slag and were tested to determine Marshall stability and indirect tensile strength. The leaching behaviour of slag samples and bituminous mixtures was evaluated according to the UNI EN leaching test. The tested slag showed satisfactory physical and mechanical properties and a release of pollutants generally below the limits set by the Italian code. Tests on volume stability of fresh materials confirmed that a period of 2-3 months is necessary to reduce effects of oxides hydration. The results of tests performed on bituminous mixtures with EAF slag were comparable with the performance of mixtures containing natural aggregates and the leaching tests provided satisfactory results. PMID:22305201

  11. Seismic experiment paves way for long-term seafloor observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stakes, Debra S.; Romanowicz, Barbara; Montagner, Jean-Paul; Tarits, Pascal; Karczewski, Jean-Francois; Etchemendy, Steve; Dawe, Craig; Neuhauser, Doug; McGill, Paul; Koenig, Jean Claude; Savary, Jean; Begnaud, Mike; Pasyanos, Mike

    The Monterey Bay Ocean Bottom International Seismic Experiment (MOISE) has successfully deployed a suite of geophysical and oceanographic instrument packages on the ocean floor using the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute's (MBARI) Ventana, a tethered Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV).The goal of this international cooperative experiment is to advance the global Seafloor Observatory effort by developing a prototype suite of instruments and installing them on the western side of the San Andreas fault system offshore of central California. The centerpiece of the instrument suite was a digital broadband seismometer package partially buried within the sediment-covered floor of Monterey Bay, 40 km offshore and 10 km west of the San Gregorio fault at a depth of 1015 m (Figure 1).

  12. Epoxy asphalt concrete paving on the deck of long-span steel bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Wei; QIAN Zhendong; CHEN Gang; YANG Jun

    2003-01-01

    It is the first systematic research in the world on the composition design of epoxy asphalt concrete as pav- ing material. Material characteristics and service perform- ance of mixture, fatigue resistance characteristics of epoxy asphalt concrete by the fatigue test of complex beam have also been described. This research indicates that epoxy asphalt concrete is a good type of paving material. Research results have been applied successfully in the paving of steel deck of the Second Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge (SNYRB). It provides a new paving type for long-span steel bridges of China and has a bright application prospect.

  13. DMPD: Toll-like receptors: paving the path to T cell-driven autoimmunity? [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17888644 Toll-like receptors: paving the path to T cell-driven autoimmunity? Marsla... Toll-like receptors: paving the path to T cell-driven autoimmunity? PubmedID 17888644 Title Toll-like receptors: paving the path

  14. Representativity of gas samples taken with the pressurized water sampling system (PAVE) 1995-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of the pressurized water down-borehole sampling system (PAVE) for the sampling of dissolved gases was initiated in 1993. The first test runs with PAVE were performed at Olkiluoto in 1995. From the 1995 to February 2004, a total of 174 samples were taken. PAVE sampling is continuing at Olkiluoto. During the pre-pumping period and when groundwater sampling, the water flows directly to the surface past the PAVE pressure vessels. During gas sampling, the water flows to the pressure vessels by opening the pressure valve. Argon or nitrogen gas was used as back-pressure gas in the pressure vessel to maintain pressure in the vessel when filling with sample. In the PAVE-sampling system there can be one to three pressure vessels in sequence (currently always three). Dissolved gas samples in pressure vessels have also been taken from groundwater pumped to the surface. In this report, all gas samples taken with the PAVE sampling system by the end of February 2004 are discussed. Samples are from Olkiluoto, Haestholmen, Kivetty and Romuvaara. Mainly the samples having at least two pressure vessels analysed from the same sampling point are discussed. The aim of this report is to determine if there is any systematic behaviour in the amount of water filling the pressure vessels, the extent of argon, nitrogen or air contamination, the possibility of water leaks, or other problems. Understanding these problems will help the development work of the PAVE equipment. In addition the measuring uncertainty of the gas results is evaluated. The most representative gas results are selected for all Olkiluoto PAVE samplings. All gas results are classified in four categories where success of the sampling and analysis has been taken into account. (orig.)

  15. Implementation of the AASHTO pavement design procedures into MULTI-PAVE.

    OpenAIRE

    Bekele, Abiy

    2011-01-01

    This thesis implements the empirical pavement design procedures for flexible as well as rigid pavement by American Association of State Highways and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) into two MATLAB modules of MULTI-PAVE. MULTI-PAVE was developed as a teaching tool that performs pavement thickness design for multiple design procedures using a common input file and a common output format. The AASHTO components were developed in accordance with the 1993 AASHTO Pavement Design Guide, and verifie...

  16. Development of Paving Material for Footpath and CAR Park Pavement Using Granite Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamachi, Masaharu; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Kentaro; Kamada, Koichi

    It is required to develop new paving materials for pavements, such as footpaths, car parks, etc., in parks, having good landscape. Such paving materials have been already developed, but these do not have sufficient strength, abrasion resistance and frost resistance. In this study, a new paving was examined material using cement, sand and granite soil. The mix proportion of this material tested was 2:4:4 of cement, sand and granite soil by mass. The maximum flexural and compressive strength were both obtained at a water content of 14% of the total mass, and the strength were several times larger than that of paving material on the market consisting of 10% of cement and 90% granite soil. The abrasion resistance was tested according to ASTM C 779, and this resistance was about four times greater than that of the paving material on the market. The frost resistance was obtained high value compared with the concrete of 72% in water cement ratio by a new simple resisting test method for freezing and thawing using liquid nitrogen and warm water. It is considered that this new paving material is applicable to pavement for footpath, car park, etc.

  17. One hundred and twenty cases of migraine treated by acupuncture on Zúlínqì(足临泣 GB 41)and bloodletting therapy on Ashi points%针刺足临泣配阿是穴放血治疗偏头痛120例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊富; ZHANG Yi

    2010-01-01

    @@ Migraine is a frequently encountered disease which may affect the work,study and daily life of the patient.It is proved of little avail of treatments with medication,acupuncture or other therapies on most of the patients.With high ratio of recurrence,it is very difficult to be completely cured.The author of the article has treated 120 cases of migraine with acupuncture on Zúlínqì(足临泣GB 41)and bloodletting therapy on Ashi points.The experience is now shared as the follows.

  18. Bottom sediments of Ypacarai Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottom sediments of Ypacarai Lake was investigated with XRF and Mossbauer techniques. The lake of about 120 Km2, is a shallow one, medium deep of about 1.8m. In addition to its use for recreation, its basin has a wide area of influence and of economical significance. Bottom sediments play an important role in the overall distribution of trace elements in the aquatic system and act as a sink for metals. Bottom samples were taken from 5 different sampling stations, selected according to the morphology and population sites in the shore. The concentration of toxic metals was found to be low and no negative ecological impact should be expected. The main metallic ion component is iron (1.69%). Mossbauer studies showed this element appears as Fe+3 and no Fe+2 was detected. It is here suggested that Fe+3 acts as the limiting element which controls eutrophication process

  19. Bottomed analog of Z+(4433)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The newly observed Z+(4433) resonance by BELLE is believed to be a tetraquark bound state made up of (cu)(cd). We propose the bottomed analog of this bound state, namely, by replacing one of the charm quarks by a bottom quark, thus forming Zbc0,±,±±. One of the Zbc is doubly charged. The predicted mass of Zbc is around 7.6 GeV. This doubly charged bound state can be detected by its decay into Bc±π±. Similarly, we can also replace both charm quark and antiquark of the Z+(4433) by bottom quark and antiquark, respectively, thus forming Zbb the bottomonium analog of Z+(4433). The predicted mass of Zbb is about 10.7 GeV

  20. Characterization of Coal Tar Pitch and Paving Pitch by UV, EA and NMR%Characterization of Coal Tar Pitch and Paving Pitch by UV,EA and NMR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Yan-hua; FENG Rui-jie; CAO Su-mei; LIU Xiang-yong; GAO Ting; PAN Zhi-quan

    2011-01-01

    In order to enlarge the use of coal tar pitch(CTP) in paving road, CTP and 60th paving pitch (PP) were extracted by n-heptane, toluene and ethanol step by step in a Soxhlet apparatus. The three fractions of CTP and PP were detected using UV-absorption(UV-A) ,elemental analyses(EA) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) firstly as a whole unit after quality characterization of physical nature of CTP and PP were finished. The CTP had more saturate aliphatie and residue compounds dissolved in ethanol. On the other hand there were more continental type structures of aromatic ring than that of PP. There was almost no residue in PP after extracted by ethanol. The results explained why CTP was crisp in cold winter and was soften in summer. The following research will focus on how to change the chemical construction of CTP into the relative similar structures with those of PP through adding polymer.

  1. Culture from the Bottom Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Dwight; Sohn, Jija

    2013-01-01

    The culture concept has been severely criticized for its top-down nature in TESOL, leading arguably to its falling out of favor in the field. But what of the fact that people do "live culturally" (Ingold, 1994)? This article describes a case study of culture from the bottom up--culture as understood and enacted by its individual users.…

  2. Crazy-paving sign in high-resolution computed tomography in parainfluenza virus pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crazy-paving sign is the appearance of a smooth linear pattern superimposed on an area of ground-glass opacity on thin-section computed tomography (CT). A 69-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital for treatment of pneumonia. Thoracic CT showed a crazy-paving sign in the right lung field on admission. She received ceftriaxone and clarithromycin, and the symptoms and infiltration shadow promptly disappeared. Serologic testing revealed a greater than 4-fold increase in the IgG titer for parainfluenza virus I. To our knowledge, there is no previous report of the crazy-paving sign in associated with viral pneumonia in a non-immunocompromised host or with parainfluenza pneumonia.

  3. 针刺阿是穴配合艾灸热敏化腧穴治疗项背肌筋膜疼痛综合征临床随机对照观察%Clinical Randomized Controlled Trials of Treatment of Neck-back Myofascial Pain Syndrome by Acupuncture of Ashi-points Combined with Moxibustion of Heat-sensitive Points

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴峰; 康明非; 熊鹏; 熊俊

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the therapeutic effect of acupuncture of Ashi points in combination with moxibustion of heat-sensitive points for neck-back myofascial pain syndrome, so as to find a better combined therapy. Methods A total of 62 eligible patients were randomly divided into treatment group (acupuncture of Ashi-points plus moxibustion of heat-sensitive points,n =32) and control group (acupuncture of Ashi-points plus TDP irradiation, n = 30) by using single-blind method. Ashi-points were the tenderpoints or subcutaneous induration spots determined by digital pressure in the focus region, and the heat-sensitive points were the acupoints around the subcutaneous induration spots in the neck-back regions determined by patients' feeling (heat from the ignited moxa transmitting toward the deep muscle layer, extending toward the surrounding region of the Ashi-points, etc.and the distal part of the body) during moxibustion. Ashi-points were punctured with filiform needles and stimulated with reducing method by lifting, thrusting and twirling the acupuncture needle repeatedly till "Deqi", followed by retaining the needle for 30 min.Moxibustion was given to the patients for 10- 90 min (when the patient began to feel heat penetrating into the deeper muscle layer to the termination of the heat transmission). TDP irradiation was given to the Ashi-points for 30 min in every session of treatment.The treatment was conducted once daily, 5 times a week, two weeks altogether. McGill pain questionnaire containing pain rating index (PRI), visual analogue scale (VAS) and present pain intensity (PPI) and "the criteria for assessing the therapeutic effect of back-myofascitis" recorded in "Standards for Diagnosis and Efficacy Evaluation of Clinical Conditions in Chinese Medicine"( published in 1994 in China) were used to evaluate the analgesic effect. Results Before the treatment, no significant differences were found between the treatment and control groups in PRI, VAS and PPI. After

  4. A Rare Cause of Crazy-Paving and Mediastinal Lymphadenopathy: Congestive Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysegul Senturk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Crazy-paving sign is a pattern seen on multislice computed tomography images of the lungs. It is characterized by a reticular pattern superimposed on ground-glass opacity. It was first described in the late 1980s in patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, but has now been described in some other diseases of the lung. Enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes can be seen in infectious and specific inflammatory diseases and malignancies. The present report describes a case of a 44-year-old man in whom congestive heart failure presented with a crazy-paving appearance and enlarged lymph nodes of the lungs on the chest computed tomography scan.

  5. Pembuatan Paving Block Berbasis Semen Polimer Dengan Limbah Padat Grit Sebagai Substitusi Pasir Dan Perekat Polivinyl Alkohol (PVA)

    OpenAIRE

    Tiambun Roswati

    2009-01-01

    Paving block dalam penelitian ini adalah campuran dari material pasir, grit, semen, Polivinyl Alkohol dan air. Variabel pada paving block ini adalah komposisi grit terhadap pasir : 0 : 100; 10 : 90; 20 : 80; 30 : 70; 40 : 60; 50 : 50; 60 : 40; 70 : 30; 80 : 20; 90 : 10; 100 : 0 (%volume). Adapun tujuan penelitian adalah pemanfaatan limbah industri bubur kertas yaitu grit sebagai substitusi pasir dan penggunaan Polivinyl Alkohol sebagai perekat pada pembuatan paving block. Semen seba...

  6. The use of coal mining wastes for manufacturing paving materials; Los Esteriles del Carbon como Materia Prima para la Fabricacion de Materiales para Pavimentacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This project was aimed at proving the technical feasibility of the use of coal mining wastes in the manufacturing of paving materials: floor-tiles, flags, paving-stones, grit stones, etc. The study proved that coal mining wastes in a mixture with other raw materials can be used in the manufacturing of paving materials: floor-tiles, paving-stones, grit stones.

  7. Research on the Anticorrosion Coating Under the Paved Layer for Highway Steel Box Bridge Deck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Cheng-jin; MING Tu-zhang; HU Guang-wei; OU Xue-mei; GEN Ou

    2006-01-01

    The corrosion of the anticorrosion coating and the defects of the asphalt concrete paved layer have been investigated on long-span steel box bridge decks. The anticorrosion coating lies in the middle of two entirely different materials: a highway steel box bridge deck and a paved layer, which is used as anticorrosion and waterproof coating for the steel bridge deck. For our study, electrochemical corrosion and pull strength experiments have been selected for the investigation of the corrosion properties of inorganic zinc rich coating, epoxy zinc rich coating and arc sprayed zinc coating. The adhesive strength between the coatings and the panel, and the effect of the coating corrosion on the shear properties of the paved layers including cast asphalt, thermal asphalt mortar, epoxy asphalt and modified asphalt concrete have been investigated. The results show that the adhesive strength between the coatings and the bridge panel is controlled by the method of pre-processing rust removal. Coating by sandblasting has stronger adhesive strength than coating by shot peening. The results also reveal that shear strength of the paved layer is affected by the corrosion product of zinc coating. The arc sprayed zinc coating has stronger shear strength than zinc rich coatings.

  8. Crazy-paving: correlation between high resolution computed tomography and anatomopathological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we present the high resolution computed tomography findings of various diseases which show a 'crazy-paving' pattern on CT. Cases of alveolar proteinosis, bronchoalveolar carcinoma, lipoid pneumonia and pneumocistosis are illustrated and correlated with the anatomopathological findings. (author)

  9. PAVEd for Success: An Evaluation of a Comprehensive Preliteracy Program for Four-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Hamilton, Claire E.; Neuharth-Pritchett, Stacey; Restrepo, M. Adelaida; Bradley, Barbara A.; Webb, Mi-Young

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of "PAVEd for Success," comprehensive preliteracy program guidelines to support the development of foundational preliteracy skills in 4 year olds. Prekindergarten teachers received professional development on variables of the program that included a summer institute, after-school…

  10. A method for treating bottom ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.C.; Van Craaikamp, H.; Berkhout, S.P.M.; Sierhuis, W.; Van Kooy, L.A.

    2007-01-01

    A method for treating bottom ash from a waste incineration plant. The invention relates in particular to a method for treating bottom ash from a domestic waste incineration plant. In accordance with the invention bottom ash having a size ranging up to 2 mm is treated by removing a previously determi

  11. Comparison Study of Reflection Seismic Surveys on Paved Site According to Sources and Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Keehm, Y.; Jin, J.

    2010-12-01

    To compare resolution of seismic section and to find cost effective method, high resolution near surface seismic reflection surveys were conducted on concrete paved site with several kinds combination of sources and receivers. Small 1.3kg handy hammer and 4.0kg sledge hammer were adopted to compare the results according to seismic sources. The seismic section from the small handy hammer source had clearly higher resolution than that of sledge hammer. We also used two different kind geophones with resonant frequencies 14Hz and 100Hz respectively. Specially designed weighted plates were prepared to increase the coupling between geophones and paved surface. The seismic section obtained with handy hammer and 100Hz resonant frequency geophones showed the best result in the aspects of resolution and cost in the study site.

  12. Environmental objections to the PAVE PAWS radar system: a scientific review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Robert K

    2003-01-01

    As part of our continental defense system, the United States Air Force has operated a radar system, known generally by the label PAVE PAWS, off of Cape Cod, MA since 1978. Some populated areas in the vicinity of the system are subject to a low level of background radiofrequency radiation from the system, and local citizens' groups have expressed concern that this radiofrequency radiation may affect their health. These concerns have been fueled by presentations and letters by Dr. R. A. Albanese, an applied mathematician at the Air Force Research Laboratory, who has proposed standards by which that PAVE PAWS radiofrequency radiation which is incident on populations should be judged. I discuss those standards that are sufficiently well defined to be subject to analysis and show that they are not based on sound quantitative reasoning. PMID:12492377

  13. Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) InfoPave: Extracting Practical Information out of the Data

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Riaz; Daleiden, Jerome; Kargah-Ostadi, Nima

    2015-01-01

    Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) InfoPave is the web interface for the world's largest pavement performance database. This web interface is being developed under the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) LTPP program to achieve the strategic goal of utilizing LTPP data effectively. An effective web interface helps reach users crossing all levels of expertise and geographical boundaries and helps information sharing which adds value to tax payers' dollars. To overcome the hurdles for easy...

  14. In situ coronary stent paving by Pluronic F127-alginate gel blends: Formulation and erosion tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmoro, Annalisa; Barba, Anna Angela; Grassi, Mario; Grassi, Gabriele; Lamberti, Gaetano

    2016-07-01

    In this work the development of an experimental protocol to perform the in situ gel-paving of coronary stent is presented. Biocompatible aqueous blends of Pluronic F127 and sodium alginates are used as potential drug dosage system for pharmacological in situ treatment of coronary in-stent restenosis. Pluronic F127/alginate aqueous blend has the unique characteristic to be liquid at room condition and to form gel at physiological temperature. The proposed protocol is based on the blend injection on stent wall previously implanted in a flexible silicon pipe mimicking the coronary artery. Injected blend is warmed up until human body temperature achieving a soft gel, then it is reticulated by copper bivalent ions to obtain an hard gel. To test the gel paving resistance to erosion phenomena when it is exposed to fluid flux (i.e. blood flux) a dedicated device, (the Simulated Artery Device, SAD), was built to simulate the human circulatory apparatus. The SAD is an hydraulic circuit in which a buffer solution (at pH 7.4) was fluxed by a peristaltic pump through the pipe hosting the covered stent. Erosion tests were performed monitoring, by gravimetric and spectrophotometric methods, the residual mass anchored to stent mesh after given times. The obtained results showed that the in situ gel-paving developed protocol was efficacious and reliable. The gel-paving was completely eroded in a time of the same order of magnitude of the physiological period required to restore the coronary lesion (subsequent to the atheroma removal) and of a pharmacological therapy to inhibit the in-stent-restenosis pathology. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 1013-1022, 2016. PMID:25997168

  15. Use of municipal solid waste incineration residues in the precasting of concrete paving

    OpenAIRE

    Courard, Luc; Degeimbre, Robert; Darimont, Anne; Laval, A. L.; Dupont, Léon; Bertrand, L.

    2002-01-01

    Valorisation of Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Residues - excluding ashes - is a positive advance in sustainable development: saving natural resources, decrease in wastes volume stored, reduction of energy consumption. If good conditions of incineration can be ensured and post-combustion treatments are realised, solid residues are in the form of granular materials usable in construction and civil engineering. Uses in road structures are classical; application for the precasting of paving ...

  16. Modeling and Simulation of Flow and Formation Damage of Asphalt-Paved Roads

    OpenAIRE

    M. H. Alawi; M. M. El-Qadi; M. A. El-Ameen

    2013-01-01

    Porous asphalt is a standard asphalt built on aggregate storage bed which allows water to drain through it and reduces stormwater runoff. However, porosity of the porous asphalt and the storage bed may be effectively reduced due to trapping suspended solids from the water or from the asphalt damage. In this paper, we present mathematical modeling and numerical simulation of flow and damage of porous asphalt-paved roads. A mathematical model to describe the fine-particles transport carried by ...

  17. Paving the way forward: A case study in innovation and process control

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, S.R.; Dorée, A.G.; Huerne, ter, Henny; Sluer, B.; Beuving, E.

    2008-01-01

    Co-operation between clients and the private sector provides significant opportunities to promote innovation in the road construction industry. This paper describes such an innovation project. In 2006, the Dutch ministry of Transport organised an innovation competition, challenging contractors to propose new technologies that might be relevant for the future of roads and road construction. BAM Wegen proposed using a combination of a dual layer paving process with a shuttle buggy for improved ...

  18. Pulmonary involvement of peripheral T-cell lymphoma manifesting as crazy paving pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Fraser, Traci; Nagarur, Amulya

    2015-01-01

    Crazy paving pattern is a finding on computed tomography of the chest that is characterized by interlobular septal thickening and ground-glass opacities. Though classically associated with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, the differential diagnosis for this pattern is broad, and initial workup includes bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage to evaluate for malignancy, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, infection, and eosinophilic pneumonia. Herein we present an unus...

  19. Using a dispersion model to estimate emission rates of particulate matter from paved roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatram, Akula; Fitz, Dennis; Bumiller, Kurt; Du, Shuming; Boeck, Michael; Ganguly, Chandragupta

    From January 1996 to June 1997, we carried out a series of measurements to estimate emissions of PM 10 from paved roads in Riverside County, California. The program involved the measurement of upwind and downwind vertical profiles of PM 10, in addition to meteorological variables such as wind speed and vertical turbulent intensity. This information was analyzed using a new dispersion model that incorporates current understanding of micrometeorology and dispersion. The emission rate was inferred by fitting model predictions to measurements. The inferred emission factors ranged from 0.2 g VKT -1 for freeways to about 3 g VKT -1 for city roads. The uncertainty in these factors is estimated to be approximately a factor of two since the contributions of paved road PM 10 emissions to ambient concentrations were comparable to the uncertainty in the mean value of the measurement. At this stage, our best estimate of emission factor lies between 0.1 and 10 g VKT -1; there is some indication that it is about 0.1 g VKT -1 for heavily traveled freeways, and is an order of magnitude higher for older city roads. We found that measured silt loadings were poor predictors of emission factors. The measured emission factors imply that paved road emissions may contribute about 30% to the total PM 10 emissions from a high traffic area such as Los Angeles. This suggests that it is necessary to develop methods that are more reliable than the upwind-downwind concentration difference technique.

  20. Perceptual learning: top to bottom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitay, Sygal; Zhang, Yu-Xuan; Jones, Pete R; Moore, David R

    2014-06-01

    Perceptual learning has traditionally been portrayed as a bottom-up phenomenon that improves encoding or decoding of the trained stimulus. Cognitive skills such as attention and memory are thought to drive, guide and modulate learning but are, with notable exceptions, not generally considered to undergo changes themselves as a result of training with simple perceptual tasks. Moreover, shifts in threshold are interpreted as shifts in perceptual sensitivity, with no consideration for non-sensory factors (such as response bias) that may contribute to these changes. Accumulating evidence from our own research and others shows that perceptual learning is a conglomeration of effects, with training-induced changes ranging from the lowest (noise reduction in the phase locking of auditory signals) to the highest (working memory capacity) level of processing, and includes contributions from non-sensory factors that affect decision making even on a "simple" auditory task such as frequency discrimination. We discuss our emerging view of learning as a process that increases the signal-to-noise ratio associated with perceptual tasks by tackling noise sources and inefficiencies that cause performance bottlenecks, and present some implications for training populations other than young, smart, attentive and highly-motivated college students.

  1. Road and Street Centerlines, Paved roads, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Juab County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — , published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'Paved roads'. Data by this publisher...

  2. Road and Street Centerlines, paved, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Juab County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — , published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'paved'. Data by this publisher are...

  3. Wet physical separation of MSWI bottom ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muchova, L.

    2010-01-01

    Bottom ash (BA) from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) has high potential for the recovery of valuable secondary materials. For example, the MSWI bottom ash produced by the incinerator at Amsterdam contains materials such as non-ferrous metals (2.3%), ferrous metals (8-13%), gold (0.4 ppm),

  4. Development of Castables for Gass Tank Bottom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUANLin; CHENShengling

    1998-01-01

    The production and use of zircon corundum refractory castables were analyzed.The superior properties and applied effect of castables for glass tank bottom were demonstrated.The results show that those castables have excellent molten glass corrosion resistance (MGCR) and enable glass tank bot-tom to form a seal mass.

  5. Modified-sulfur cements for use in concretes, flexible pavings, coatings, and grouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBee, W. C.; Sullivan, T. A.; Jong, B. W.

    1981-05-01

    A family of modified-sulfur cements was developed for the preparation of construction materials with improved properties. Various types of sulfur cements were prepared by reacting sulfur with mixtures of dicyclopentadiene and oligomers of cyclopentadiene. Durable cements were prepared with structural characteristics ranging from rigid to flexible. These cements were used to prepare corrosion-resistant materials for use in a wide variety of industrial applications where resistance to acidic and salt conditions is needed. These materials were prepared as rigid concretes, flexible pavings, spray coatings, and grouts. Production of modified-sulfur cements in a commercial-size plant was demonstrated.

  6. Progressive Dyspnea Associated with a Crazy-Paving Appearance on a Chest Computed Tomography Scan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimrod Maimon

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A ‘crazy-paving’ appearance of the lungs on computed tomography scanning of the chest was first described nearly 20 years ago in patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, and was thought to be characteristic of this condition. However, this pattern has subsequently been reported in a variety of pulmonary diseases and is now considered to be nonspecific. The present report describes a case of a 74-year-old man in whom congestive heart failure presented with a crazy-paving appearance of the lungs on a chest computed tomography scan. This uncommon association illustrates the importance of the correlation of clinical and radiographic information.

  7. The oscillations of ship lock bottom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Yu. Kuzmin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the dynamic characteristics of the ship lock. The accurate design relations intended to study the natural and forced vibrations of the bottom of the ship lock are provided. The degree of filling of the lock, as well as the added mass of water is considered. The various coupling conditions of the bottom and walls of buildings are taken into account. A concrete example of the calculation is given.An exact, in the framework of the adopted design scheme, solution of the problem of the own and forced vibrations of the bottom of the ship lock is found. The frequency of the first five tones of vibrations and the associated mass of liquid according to thickness of the structure and coupling conditions of the bottom and sides of the lock are analyzed. A significant effect of liquids on low-frequency part of the spectrum and the dynamic response of the bottom is determined.

  8. CHARACTERISTICS OF SLUDGE BOTTOM MESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Szydłowski

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study was to assess the selected heavy metals pollution of bottom sediments of small water bodies of different catchment management. Two ponds located in Mostkowo village were chosen for investigation. The first small water reservoir is surrounded by the cereal fields, cultivated without the use of organic and mineral fertilizers (NPK. The second reservoir is located in a park near rural buildings. Sediment samples were collected by the usage of KC Denmark sediments core probe. Samples were taken from 4 layers of sediment, from depth: 0–5, 5–10, 10–20 and 20–30 cm. Sampling was made once during the winter period (2014 year when ice occurred on the surface of small water bodies, from three points. The material was prepared for further analysis according to procedures used in soil science. The content of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry by usage of ASA ICE 3000 Thermo Scientific after prior digestion in the mixture (5: 1 of concentrated acids (HNO3 and HClO4. Higher pH values ​​were characteristic for sediments of pond located in a park than in pond located within the agricultural fields. In both small water bodies the highest heavy metal concentrations occurred in the deepest points of the research. In the sediments of the pond located within crop fields the highest concentration of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc were observed in a layer of 0–5 cm, wherein the nickel and chromium in a layer of 20–30 cm. In the sediments of the pond, located in the park the highest values ​​occurred at the deepest sampling point in the layer taken form 10–20 cm. Sediments from second reservoir were characterized by the largest average concentrations of heavy metals, except the lead content in sediment form the layer of 10–20 cm. According to the geochemical evaluation of sediments proposed by Bojakowska and Sokołowska [1998], the majority of samples belongs to Ist

  9. Detection of Cracks in Paved Road Surface Using Laser Scan Image Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J.; Zhu, L.; Kurosu, H.

    2016-06-01

    In the current study, we developed a methodology for detecting cracks in the surface of paved road using 3D digital surface model of road created by measuring with three-dimensional laser scanner which works on the basis of the light-section method automatically. For the detection of cracks from the imagery data of the model, the background subtraction method (Rolling Ball Background Subtraction Algorithm) was applied to the data for filtering out the background noise originating from the undulation and gradual slope and also for filtering the ruts that were caused by wearing, aging and excessive use of road and other reasons. We confirmed the influence from the difference in height (depth) caused by forgoing reasons included in a data can be reduced significantly at this stage. Various parameters of ball radius were applied for checking how the result of data obtained with this process vary according to the change of parameter and it becomes clear that there are not important differences by the change of parameters if they are in a certain range radius. And then, image segmentation was performed by multi-resolution segmentation based on the object-based image analysis technique. The parameters for the image segmentation, scale, pixel value (height/depth) and the compactness of objects were used. For the classification of cracks in the database, the height, length and other geometric property are used and we confirmed the method is useful for the detection of cracks in a paved road surface.

  10. DETECTION OF CRACKS IN PAVED ROAD SURFACE USING LASER SCAN IMAGE DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Choi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, we developed a methodology for detecting cracks in the surface of paved road using 3D digital surface model of road created by measuring with three-dimensional laser scanner which works on the basis of the light-section method automatically. For the detection of cracks from the imagery data of the model, the background subtraction method (Rolling Ball Background Subtraction Algorithm was applied to the data for filtering out the background noise originating from the undulation and gradual slope and also for filtering the ruts that were caused by wearing, aging and excessive use of road and other reasons. We confirmed the influence from the difference in height (depth caused by forgoing reasons included in a data can be reduced significantly at this stage. Various parameters of ball radius were applied for checking how the result of data obtained with this process vary according to the change of parameter and it becomes clear that there are not important differences by the change of parameters if they are in a certain range radius. And then, image segmentation was performed by multi-resolution segmentation based on the object-based image analysis technique. The parameters for the image segmentation, scale, pixel value (height/depth and the compactness of objects were used. For the classification of cracks in the database, the height, length and other geometric property are used and we confirmed the method is useful for the detection of cracks in a paved road surface.

  11. Pipeline bottoming cycle study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of applying bottoming cycles to the prime movers that drive the compressors of natural gas pipelines was studied. These bottoming cycles convert some of the waste heat from the exhaust gas of the prime movers into shaft power and conserve gas. Three typical compressor station sites were selected, each on a different pipeline. Although the prime movers were different, they were similar enough in exhaust gas flow rate and temperature that a single bottoming cycle system could be designed, with some modifications, for all three sites. Preliminary design included selection of the bottoming cycle working fluid, optimization of the cycle, and design of the components, such as turbine, vapor generator and condensers. Installation drawings were made and hardware and installation costs were estimated. The results of the economic assessment of retrofitting bottoming cycle systems on the three selected sites indicated that profitability was strongly dependent upon the site-specific installation costs, how the energy was used and the yearly utilization of the apparatus. The study indicated that the bottoming cycles are a competitive investment alternative for certain applications for the pipeline industry. Bottoming cycles are technically feasible. It was concluded that proper design and operating practices would reduce the environmental and safety hazards to acceptable levels. The amount of gas that could be saved through the year 2000 by the adoption of bottoming cycles for two different supply projections was estimated as from 0.296 trillion ft/sup 3/ for a low supply projection to 0.734 trillion ft/sup 3/ for a high supply projection. The potential market for bottoming cycle equipment for the two supply projections varied from 170 to 500 units of varying size. Finally, a demonstration program plan was developed.

  12. Bottom-strange mesons in hyperonic matter

    OpenAIRE

    Pathak, Divakar; Mishra, Amruta

    2014-01-01

    The in-medium behavior of bottom-strange pseudoscalar mesons in hot, isospin asymmetric and dense hadronic environment is studied using a chiral effective model. The same was recently generalized to the heavy quark sector and employed to study the behavior of open-charm and open-bottom mesons. The heavy quark (anti-quark) is treated as frozen and all medium modifications of these bottom-strange mesons are due to their strange anti-quark (quark) content. We observe a pronounced dependence of t...

  13. Bottom-up design of 2D organic photocatalysts for visible-light driven hydrogen evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To design two-dimensional (2D) organocatalysts, three series of covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are constructed using bottom-up strategies, i.e. molecular selection, tunable linkage, and functionalization. First-principles calculations are performed to confirm their photocatalytic activity under visible light. Two of our constructed 2D COF models (B1 and C3) are identified as a sufficiently efficient organocatalyst for visible light water splitting. The controllable construction of such COFs from suitable organic subunit, linkage, and functional groups paves the way for correlating band edge alignments and geometry parameters of 2D organic materials. Our theoretical prediction not only provides essential insights into designing 2D-COF photocatalysts for water splitting, but also sparks other technological applications for 2D organic materials. (paper)

  14. Landfilling: Bottom Lining and Leachate Collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Manfredi, Simone; Kjeldsen, Peter;

    2011-01-01

    The critical element of a landfill, which is essential for the protection of the environment in general, and prevention of contamination of the underlying soils and groundwater in particular, is the bottom lining system. The major focus of the bottom lining system development is to prevent leachate...... from entering the groundwater or surface water. The bottom lining system should cover the full footprint area of the landfill, including both the relatively flat bottom and the sideslopes in the case of an excavated configuration. This prevents the lateral migration of leachate from within the landfill...... works together with the overlying leachate management system, also referred to as the leachate collection and removal system (LCRS), which consists of a drainage layer that provides easy horizontal drainage of the leachate to a point of gravitational collection or pumping. Although individual liners...

  15. Time stability of ocean bottom seismometers (OBS)

    OpenAIRE

    Shariat Panahi, Shahram; Manuel Lázaro, Antonio; Corrêa Alegría, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    During the past decades, Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS) have played a key role in permanent seismic activity monitoring at sea as well as allowing a better understating of the earth interior. Data collected by the instrument can provide information on the ocean bottom sub-layers down to a depth of 40 km beneath the ocean floor. The accuracy of the results directly depends on the temperature stability of the crystal used as the main time base of the equipment. This paper pre...

  16. Biomechanics for inclusive urban design: Effects of tactile paving on older adults' gait when crossing the street.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thies, S B; Kenney, L P J; Howard, D; Nester, C; Ormerod, M; Newton, R; Baker, R; Faruk, M; MacLennan, H

    2011-05-17

    In light of our ageing population it is important that the urban environment is easily accessible and hence supports older adults' independence. Tactile 'blister' paving was originally designed to provide guidance for visually impaired people at pedestrian crossings. However, as research links irregular surfaces to falls in older adults, such paving may have an adverse effect on older people. We investigated the effects of tactile paving on older adults' gait in a scenario closely resembling crossing the street. Gait analysis of 32 healthy older adults showed that tactile, as compared to smooth, paving increases the variability in timing of foot placement by 20%, thereby indicating a disturbance of the rhythmic gait pattern. Moreover, toe clearance during the swing phase increased by 7% on tactile paving, and the ability to stop upon cue from the traffic light was compromised. These results need to be viewed under the consideration of limitations associated with laboratory studies and real world analysis is needed to fully understand their implications for urban design.

  17. 阳性点小针刀加火罐治疗粘连期肩周炎的临床观察%Clinical Observation on Effect of A-Shi Point Acupotomy Combined with Cupping in Treating the Remission Stage of Periarthritis of Shoulder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周海旺; 宁娜

    2013-01-01

    目的:对粘连期肩周炎采用阳性点小针刀松解加火罐治疗,观察其改善肩关节功能的临床疗效。方法:选取粘连期肩周炎38例,采用阳性点小针刀松解加火罐治疗,每3天1次,总共3次,第12天观察治疗效果和肩关节功能改善程度。结果:治愈6例,显效24例,有效8例,无效0例,总有效率100%,在改善肩关节功能方面,肩关节功能评分有显著提高,差异有统计学意义。结论:阳性点小针刀治疗能有效改善粘连期肩周炎肩关节功能,疗效确切,值得临床进一步推广应用。%Objective:To observe the clinic effect of A-shi point acupotomy and cupping in treating the remission stage of Periarthritis of shoulder .Methods:Thirty-eight patients suffered from the remission stage of Periarthritis of shoulder were treated with one session of A -shi point acupotomy and cupping every three days , for a total of three sessions .The clinic effects on the 12th day were observed .Re-sults:Six patients were cured , 24 cases showed obvious effective result , 8 cases were effective , and the total effective rate were 100%. There were obvious strengthening on improvement of shoulder motions and shoulder functioning sores , which showed significant statistical differences .Conclusion:The A-shi point acupotomy and cupping therapy can effectively and definitely improve the functions of shoulder in the remission stage of Periarthritis of shoulder which is worth generalizing .

  18. Modeling and Simulation of Flow and Formation Damage of Asphalt-Paved Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Alawi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Porous asphalt is a standard asphalt built on aggregate storage bed which allows water to drain through it and reduces stormwater runoff. However, porosity of the porous asphalt and the storage bed may be effectively reduced due to trapping suspended solids from the water or from the asphalt damage. In this paper, we present mathematical modeling and numerical simulation of flow and damage of porous asphalt-paved roads. A mathematical model to describe the fine-particles transport carried by a two-phase flow in a porous medium is presented. The buoyancy, capillarity, and mixed relative permeabilities correlations to fit with the mixed-wet system are considered. Throughout this investigation, we monitor the changing of the fluids properties such as water saturation and solid properties such as porosity and permeability due to trapping the fine-particles.

  19. Repair and restoration of paved surfaces. Phase 2: Backfilling of craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, V. C.

    1983-10-01

    The purpose of Phase II of REREPS (repair and restoration of paved surfaces) is to evaluate previously developed techniques and materials and to conduct necessary studies to determine the most beneficial backfill material. The study is to include new materials and innovative methodology to the greatest practicable extent. Compaction requirements are to be analyzed by comparison with existing requirements as modified by REREPS results to date. Specific compaction requirements include a quantification of compaction requirements versus depth below the load as well as subgrade compaction versus pavement strength and stiffness. Another specific requirement is to study the applicability of the sand grid support concept. In addition, other new methods and materials will be reviewed, developed, and/or introduced, as appropriate. This study constitutes partial completion of these objectives. An investigation research effort has been made to review the status of REREPS development to data.

  20. Acoustic wayfinding: A method to measure the acoustic contrast of different paving materials for blind people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secchi, Simone; Lauria, Antonio; Cellai, Gianfranco

    2017-01-01

    Acoustic wayfinding involves using a variety of auditory cues to create a mental map of the surrounding environment. For blind people, these auditory cues become the primary substitute for visual information in order to understand the features of the spatial context and orient themselves. This can include creating sound waves, such as tapping a cane. This paper reports the results of a research about the "acoustic contrast" parameter between paving materials functioning as a cue and the surrounding or adjacent surface functioning as a background. A number of different materials was selected in order to create a test path and a procedure was defined for the verification of the ability of blind people to distinguish different acoustic contrasts. A method is proposed for measuring acoustic contrast generated by the impact of a cane tip on the ground to provide blind people with environmental information on spatial orientation and wayfinding in urban places. PMID:27633240

  1. NORTH-EAST ROMANIA AS A FUTURE SOURCE OF TREES FOR URBAN PAVED ENVIRONMENTS IN NORTH-WEST EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SJÖMAN HENRIK

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Trees are an important feature of the urban environment. The problem today lies not in finding a wide range of well-adapted tree species for park environments, but in finding species suitable for urban paved sites. In terms of north-west Europe, it is unlikely that the limited native dendroflora will provide a large variety of tree species with high tolerance to the environmental stresses characterising urban paved sites in the region. However, other regions with a comparable climate but with a rich dendroflora can potentially provide new tree species and genera well-suited to the growing conditions at urban sites in north-west Europe. This paper examines the potential of a geographical area extending over north-east Romania and the Republic of Moldavia to supply suitable tree species for urban paved sites in Central and Northern Europe (CNE. The study involved comparing the temperature, precipitation, evapotranspiration and water runoff in the woodland area of Iasi, Romania, with those the current inner-city climate of Copenhagen, Denmark and those predicted for Copenhagen 2100. The latter included urban heat island effects and predicted global climate change. The results revealed similar pattern in summer water deficit and temperature between natural woodlands in Iasi and inner-city environment of Copenhagen today. On the other hand, there is a weak match between Iasi and the future Copenhagen. In order to match the future scenario of Copenhagen with the present situation in Iasi, a greater understanding in a early phase that the solution not only depends on suitable tree species, but also on technical solutions being developed in order to have trees in paved environments in the future. On the basis of precipitation and temperature data, natural woodlands in north-east Romania have the potential to be a source of suitable trees for urban paved environments in the CNE region, even for a future climate if other aspects in the planning of trees

  2. Proteinosis alveolar pulmonar y patrón en empedrado ("crazy-paving" en tomografía computarizada de alta resolución Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and crazy paving pattern in high resolution CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. de Arriba

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de proteinosis alveolar pulmonar en un varón de 27 años en el que la tomografía computarizada de alta resolución muestra un típico patrón "crazy-paving" o en empedrado, siendo esta prueba la que orienta hacia un diagnóstico diferencial concreto, a pesar de la inespecificidad de la presentación clínica. El lavado broncoalveolar no es concluyente y el diagnóstico definitivo se hace con biopsia transbronquial. Se revisan los aspectos más característicos de esta rara enfermedad y del patrón "crazy-paving" o en empedrado en la tomografía computarizada de alta resolución.We present a case of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in a 27 year old male, in which high resolution computerised tomography shows a typical crazy paving pattern. This test led to a specific differential diagnosis, in spite of the lack of specificity in the clinical presentation. The bronchoalveolar wash was not conclusive and the definitive diagnosis was made with a transbronchial biopsy. We review the most characteristic aspects of this rare disease and of the crazy paving pattern in high resolution CT.

  3. ATOMIZATION CAUSED BY BOTTOM FLOW ENERGY DISSIPATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Bottom flow energy dissipation is one of the common energydissipation methods for flood-releasing structures with high water head. Measures of this energy dissipation depend mainly on the turbulent action of hydraulic jump.In this paper, the physical process and the calculating methods of the atomization caused by bottom flow energy dissipation were studied, the computation models of atomization quantity for the self-aerated flow in overflow and hydraulic jump regions are presented, and the main results are of theoretical and practical significance for the hydraulic and electric engineering.

  4. 24 CFR 3285.804 - Bottom board repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottom board repair. 3285.804....804 Bottom board repair. (a) The bottom board covering must be inspected for any loosening or areas... to be replaced prior to closure and repair of the bottom board. (b) Any splits or tears in the...

  5. Some Properties of Emulsified Asphalt Paving Mixture at Iraqi Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakir.A.Al-Mishhadani* Hasan.H.Al-Baid

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cold emulsified asphalt mixture is generally a mix made of emulsified asphalt withaggregate. Emulsified asphalt is manufactured from base asphalt, emulsifier agent and waterwith approximate percentage of 40% to 75% asphalt, 0.1% to 2.5% emulsifier and 25% to60% water plus some minor components. This study aims to use the cold emulsified asphaltmixtures for road construction and maintenance in Iraq as an alternative to the hot asphaltmixtures, due to its economical, practical and environmental advantages. This studyfocusedto test and evaluates the emulsified asphalt material properties to be used as paving mixture.The tested properties of emulsified asphalt mixture were bulk density, air voids, dry Marshallstability, wet Marshall stability, retained Marshall stability, flow tests and compared with thecommon used specification.The results indicate that the emulsified asphalt type cationic slowsetting low viscosity (CSS-1 is very suitable with quartz type of aggregate from Al-Nibaayquarry. From many trial mixes it is found that the best percentages of initial residual bitumencontent to produced adequateresults for coating test ,mixing ,compaction ,curing and Marshallstability were ranged from (2.5%, 3%,3.5%,4% and 4.5%, andthe optimum percentage is(3.5%.Finally it can be conducted that the emulsified asphalt mixture is a suitable alternativemixture to the hot asphalt mixture for road construction and maintenance in Iraq.  

  6. From virtue ethics to rights ethics: Did the Reformation pave the way for secular ethics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Vorster

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In chapter four of his book, The unintended Reformation, Brad Gregory argues that ethical thinking since the 1500’s experienced a major shift in emphasis from the teleological concept of a ‘substantive morality of the good’ to liberalism’s ‘formal morality of rights’. He attributes it to the religious upheavals and ‘sociopolitical disruptions’ during the Reformation era. This article probes three elements of Gregory’s argument. Firstly, the article offers a critical assessment of Gregory’s depiction of the Reformation’s stance towards reason. It pays particular attention to the Reformation’s understanding of the effects of sin on the human being’s image of God, reason and the possibility for a shared social ethics. Secondly, this study scrutinises Gregory’s argument that the Reformation created an individualist notion of selfhood in contrast to the Roman Catholic communal notion of selfhood and thereby paved the way for modernism. Lastly, the discussion probes into Gregory’s claim that the Reformation’s ethical paradigm diverged radically from the Latin Christendom paradigm and that this contributed to the subjectivisation of ethics, by replacing a virtue ethics with a rights ethics.

  7. Some Properties of Emulsified Asphalt Paving Mixture at Iraqi Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakir.A.Al-Mishhadani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cold emulsified asphalt mixture is generally a mix made of emulsified asphalt withaggregate. Emulsified asphalt is manufactured from base asphalt, emulsifier agent and waterwith approximate percentage of 40% to 75% asphalt, 0.1% to 2.5% emulsifier and 25% to60% water plus some minor components. This study aims to use the cold emulsified asphaltmixtures for road construction and maintenance in Iraq as an alternative to the hot asphaltmixtures, due to its economical, practical and environmental advantages. This studyfocusedto test and evaluates the emulsified asphalt material properties to be used as paving mixture.The tested properties of emulsified asphalt mixture were bulk density, air voids, dry Marshallstability, wet Marshall stability, retained Marshall stability, flow tests and compared with thecommon used specification.The results indicate that the emulsified asphalt type cationic slowsetting low viscosity (CSS-1 is very suitable with quartz type of aggregate from Al-Nibaayquarry. From many trial mixes it is found that the best percentages of initial residual bitumencontent to produced adequateresults for coating test ,mixing ,compaction ,curing and Marshallstability were ranged from (2.5%, 3%,3.5%,4% and 4.5%, andthe optimum percentage is(3.5%.Finally it can be conducted that the emulsified asphalt mixture is a suitable alternativemixture to the hot asphalt mixture for road construction and maintenance in Iraq.

  8. Bottomonia: open bottom strong decays and spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santopinto E.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We present our results for the bottomonium spectrum with self energy corrections. The bare masses used in the calculation are computed within Godfrey and Isgur’s relativized quark model. We also discuss our results for the open bottom strong decay widths of higher bottomonia in the 3P0 pair-creation model.

  9. Spectroscopy and decays of charm and bottom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, J.N.

    1997-10-01

    After a brief review of the quark model, we discuss our present knowledge of the spectroscopy of charm and bottom mesons and baryons. We go on to review the lifetimes, semileptonic, and purely leptonic decays of these particles. We conclude with a brief discussion B and D mixing and rare decays.

  10. Bottom-up approach to silicon nanoelectronics

    OpenAIRE

    Mizumita, Hiroshi; Oda, S

    2005-01-01

    Submitted on behalf of EDA Publishing Association (http://irevues.inist.fr/handle/2042/5920) International audience This paper presents a brief review of our recent work investigating a novel bottom-up approach to realize silicon based nanoelectronics. We discuss fabrication technique, electronic properties and device applications of silicon nanodots as a building block for nanoscale silicon devices.

  11. CEOs: Gulf crisis hits hospitals' bottom line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsson, J

    1990-12-01

    Hospital CEOs say the Persian Gulf crisis could hit them hard where it counts. In fact, hospitals are already seeing some adverse impact from events in the Middle East. From fundraising to plant management to strategic planning, the confrontations in the Gulf are having an impact on the hospital's bottom line.

  12. Spectroscopy and decays of charm and bottom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a brief review of the quark model, we discuss our present knowledge of the spectroscopy of charm and bottom mesons and baryons. We go on to review the lifetimes, semileptonic, and purely leptonic decays of these particles. We conclude with a brief discussion B and D mixing and rare decays

  13. Coil in bottom part of splitter magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    1976-01-01

    Radiation-resistant coil being bedded into the bottom part of a splitter magnet. This very particular magnet split the beam into 3 branches, for 3 target stations in the West-Area. See Annual Report 1975, p.176, Figs.14 and 15.

  14. Bottom-up organic integrated circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Edsger C. P.; Mathijssen, Simon G. J.; van Hal, Paul A.; Setayesh, Sepas; Geuns, Thomas C. T.; Mutsaers, Kees A. H. A.; Cantatore, Eugenio; Wondergem, Harry J.; Werzer, Oliver; Resel, Roland; Kemerink, Martijn; Kirchmeyer, Stephan; Muzafarov, Aziz M.; Ponomarenko, Sergei A.; de Boer, Bert; Blom, Paul W. M.; de Leeuw, Dago M.

    2008-01-01

    Self- assembly - the autonomous organization of components into patterns and structures(1) - is a promising technology for the mass production of organic electronics. Making integrated circuits using a bottom- up approach involving self- assembling molecules was proposed(2) in the 1970s. The basic b

  15. Chinalco Sold Assets to Withdraw 2 Billion Yuan Capital, Paving the Way For Injecting New Businesses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    With only a little over one month left for 2015,looking back at this year’s aluminum price,it can be argued that it has reached the bottom.Since June this year,aluminum price began to fall,and showed no sign of stop in falling,by the time of the traditional peak season,market performance was still inactive,in October aluminum price picked up speed in falling,by November aluminum price has dropped below10000 yuan per tonne.

  16. Cathodic protection for the bottoms of above ground storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, John P. [Tyco Adhesives, Norwood, MA (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Impressed Current Cathodic Protection has been used for many years to protect the external bottoms of above ground storage tanks. The use of a vertical deep ground bed often treated several bare steel tank bottoms by broadcasting current over a wide area. Environmental concerns and, in some countries, government regulations, have introduced the use of dielectric secondary containment liners. The dielectric liner does not allow the protective cathodic protection current to pass and causes corrosion to continue on the newly placed tank bottom. In existing tank bottoms where inadequate protection has been provided, leaks can develop. In one method of remediation, an old bottom is covered with sand and a double bottom is welded above the leaking bottom. The new bottom is welded very close to the old bottom, thus shielding the traditional cathodic protection from protecting the new bottom. These double bottoms often employ the use of dielectric liner as well. Both the liner and the double bottom often minimize the distance from the external tank bottom. The minimized space between the liner, or double bottom, and the bottom to be protected places a challenge in providing current distribution in cathodic protection systems. This study examines the practical concerns for application of impressed current cathodic protection and the types of anode materials used in these specific applications. One unique approach for an economical treatment using a conductive polymer cathodic protection method is presented. (author)

  17. Excited bottom and bottom-strange mesons in the quark model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Qi-Fang; Pan, Ting-Ting; Wang, Yan-Yan; Wang, En; Li, De-Min

    2016-10-01

    In order to understand the possible q q ¯ quark-model assignments of the BJ(5840 ) and BJ(5960 ) recently reported by the LHCb Collaboration, we evaluate mass spectra, strong decays, and radiative decays of bottom and bottom-strange mesons in a nonrelativistic quark model. Comparing these predictions with the relevant experimental results, we suggest that the BJ(5840 ) and BJ(5960 ) can be identified as the B (2 1S0) and B (1 3D3) , respectively, and the B (5970 ) reported by the CDF Collaboration can be interpreted as the B (2 3S1) or B (1 3D3) . Further precise measurements of the width, spin and decay modes of the B (5970 ) are needed to distinguish these two assignments. These predictions of bottom and bottom-strange mesons can provide useful information to further experimental investigations.

  18. Excited bottom and bottom-strange mesons in the quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Lü, Qi-Fang; Wang, Yan-Yan; Wang, En; Li, De-Min

    2016-01-01

    In order to understand the possible $q\\bar{q}$ quark-model assignments of the $B_J(5840)$ and $B_J(5960)$ recently reported by the LHCb Collaboration, we evaluate mass spectra, strong decays, and radiative decays of bottom and bottom-strange mesons in a nonrelativistic quark model. Comparing these predictions with the relevant experimental results, we suggest that the $B_J(5840)$ and $B_J(5960)$ can be identified as $B(2^1S_0)$ and $B(1^3D_3)$, respectively, and the $B(5970)$ reported by the CDF Collaboration can be interpreted as $B(2^3S_1)$ or $B(1^3D_3)$. Further precise measurements of the width, spin and decay modes of the $B(5970)$ are needed to distinguish these two assignments. These predictions of bottom and bottom-strange mesons can provide useful information to further experimental investigations.

  19. Measurement of bottom-reflected sound in bottom-limited propagation environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Jooyoung; Park, Joungsoo

    2016-07-01

    To study the bottom reflection of underwater acoustic sound in a bottom-limited propagation environment, an experiment was conducted using four transmitting sounds in the form of a continuous wave from 1 to 6 kHz. The site of the experiment was a continental shelf region off the east coast of Korea where the bottom was composed of sandy mud. The mean water depth was 1100 m in the experiment area. Oceanographic data and acoustic data were collected simultaneously during the experiment. It was found that the sound pressure level decreased by 90 dB to 3.4 km and there is little frequency dependence because a strong direct path contributes more than a bottom-reflected path in sound pressure level. At a range between 6 and 7 km, there is a strong bottom-reflected ray path and frequency dependence exists because the bottom reflection loss varies with frequency at a given grazing angle. Sound pressure levels increase as the range increases between 6 and 7 km by 5.4, 1.9, 1.7, and 1.5 dB at frequencies of 1000, 2490, 3990, and 5490 Hz, respectively.

  20. Stabilization of bottom sediments from Rzeszowski Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koś Karolina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of stabilization of bottom sediments from Rzeszowski Reservoir. Based on the geotechnical characteristics of the tested sediments it was stated they do not fulfill all the criteria set for soils in earth embankments. Therefore, an attempt to improve their parameters was made by using two additives – cement and lime. An unconfined compressive strength, shear strength, bearing ratio and pH reaction were determined on samples after different time of curing. Based on the carried out tests it was stated that the obtained values of unconfined compressive strength of sediments stabilized with cement were relatively low and they did not fulfill the requirements set by the Polish standard, which concerns materials in road engineering. In case of lime stabilization it was stated that the tested sediments with 6% addition of the additive can be used for the bottom layers of the improved road base.

  1. Constructing bottom barriers with met grouting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibazaki, M.; Yoshida, H. [Chemical Grouting Company, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    Installing a bottom barrier using conventional high pressure jetting technology and ensuring barrier continuity is challenging. This paper describes technology that has been developed and demonstrated for the emplacement of bottom barriers using pressures and flow rates above the conventional high pressure jetting parameters. The innovation capable of creating an improved body exceeding 5 meters in diameter has resulted in the satisfying connection and adherence between the treated columns. Besides, the interfaces among the improved bodies obtain the same strength and permeability lower than 1 x 10{sup -7} cm/sec as body itself. A wide variety of the thickness and the diameter of the improved mass optimizes the application, and the method is nearing completion. The paper explains an aspect and briefs case histories.

  2. Race-To-The-Bottom Tariff Cutting

    OpenAIRE

    Vézina, Pierre-Louis

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical assessment of race-to-the-bottom unilateralism. It suggests that decades of unilateral tariff cutting in Asia's emerging economies have been driven by a competition to attract FDI from Japan. Using spatial econometrics, I show that tariffs on parts and components, a crucial locational determinant for Japanese firms, converged across countries following a contagion pattern. Tariffs followed those of competing countries if the latter were lower, if FDI jealousy ...

  3. How Service Innovation Boosts Bottom Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Claude Legrand; Rob LaJoie

    2013-01-01

    In the national quest for ground-breaking R&D discoveries and inventions, service innovation is frequently ignored at considerable cost to an organization’s bottom line and a nation’s productivity. For the fact is that innovation applied systematically to all activities outside of R&D can make the difference between uninspiring results and substantial growth in every sector. Many countries, in particular in Europe, have recognized the importance of service innovation and are devoting consider...

  4. Bottoming out-Sign of Stabilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dennis K. Zhao

    2009-01-01

    @@ Production Rose from its Nadir Apart from individual data report.CNTAC was a lot more focused on an overall review of textile industry as a whole to illustrate economic behavior for the first five months."sign of stabilization,bottoming out"are the key words emphatically voiced as a token of encou ragement,for the important economic indexes are indeed encouraging as compa red with this fi rst quarter.

  5. Bottom-strange mesons in hyperonic matter

    CERN Document Server

    Pathak, Divakar

    2014-01-01

    The in-medium behavior of bottom-strange pseudoscalar mesons in hot, isospin asymmetric and dense hadronic environment is studied using a chiral effective model. The same was recently generalized to the heavy quark sector and employed to study the behavior of open-charm and open-bottom mesons. The heavy quark (anti-quark) is treated as frozen and all medium modifications of these bottom-strange mesons are due to their strange anti-quark (quark) content. We observe a pronounced dependence of their medium mass on baryonic density and strangeness content of the medium. Certain aspects of these in-medium interactions are similar to those observed for the strange-charmed mesons in a preceding investigation, such as the lifting of mass-degeneracy of $B_S^0$ and ${\\bar B}_S^0$ mesons in hyperonic matter, while the same is respected in vacuum as well as in nuclear matter. In general, however, there is a remarkable distinction between the two species, even though the formalism predicts a completely analogous in-medium...

  6. Optimal Design of Round Bottomed Triangle Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman T. Hameed

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available     In optimal design concept, the geometric dimensions of a channel cross-section are determined in a manner to minimize the total construction costs. The Direct search optimization method by using MATALAB is used to solve the resulting channel optimization models for a specified flow rate, roughness coefficient and longitudinal slope. The developed optimization models are applied to design the round bottomed triangle channel and trapezoidal channels to convey a given design flow considering various design scenarios However, it also can be extended to other shapes of channels. This method optimizes the total construction cost by minimizing the cross-sectional area and wetted perimeter per unit length of the channel. In the present study, it is shown that for all values of side slope, the total construction cost in the round bottomed triangle cross-section are less than those of trapezoidal cross-section for the same values of discharge. This indicates that less excavation and a lining are involved and therefore implies that the round bottomed triangle cross-section is more economical than trapezoidal cross-section.

  7. C-105 heel pit removed and C-105 dome cut paves way for new retrieval technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackey, Thomas C.; Sutey, Michael J.

    2013-06-10

    For just the second time, crews have cut a hole in the top of an active radioactive waste storage tank at Hanford. Workers began cutting a 55-inch hole in the top of Tank C-105 last Tuesday night on graveyard shift, completing the cut early Wednesday. The hole will allow for installation of the Mobile Arm Retrieval System (MARS) Vacuum into the tank. The cut was made through 17 inches of concrete and rebar using the newly developed rotary-core cutting system, which uses a laser-guided steel canister with teeth on the bottom to drill a round hole into the tank dome. The project was completed safely and successfully in a high-rad area without contamination or significant dose to workers.

  8. Neutron thermalization in quality control of asphalts content in mixtures for paving. Adaptation of nuclear densimeters for this purpose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper shows how the neutron source of the nuclear densimeters, used for measure the humidity, can be used for measuring and making the quality control of the asphalt percentage in mixtures used for street paving. The measures are based in the neutronic thermalization processes, because the hydrogen is the main part of chemical composition of the asphalts. A calibration method for the equipment is presented. (author). 6 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  9. 'Crazy-paving' pattern: an exceptional presentation of cryptogenic organising pneumonia associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunal, Shekhar; Pilaniya, Vikas; Jain, Sudhir; Shah, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Organising pneumonia (OP) is a distinct but uncommon entity with characteristic clinicoradiological features and histological findings. When the aetiology of OP remains unknown, it is termed as cryptogenic OP (COP). COP is seen in the majority of patients with OP and usually observed in non/former smokers. A 54-year-old man, a smoker, presented with breathlessness, cough and mucoid sputum. Imaging demonstrated unilateral 'Crazy-paving' pattern in the left upper lobe and left-sided effusion. In addition, paraseptal emphysema and left lower lobe bullae along with very severe obstructive ventilatory defect and impaired diffusion suggested chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Transbronchial biopsy was suggestive of OP. In the absence of a definite aetiology, a diagnosis of COP associated with COPD was established. COP presenting as a unilateral 'Crazy-paving' pattern is yet to be documented. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first detailed description of COP presenting as unilateral 'Crazy-paving' pattern associated with COPD. PMID:27154992

  10. Vector-like bottom quarks in composite Higgs models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillioz, M.; Grober, R.; Kapuvari, A.;

    2014-01-01

    , and we test the compatibility with the electroweak precision observables. In particular we evaluate the constraint from the Z coupling to left-handed bottom quarks. General formulae have been derived which include the effects of new bottom partners in the loop corrections to this coupling and which can...... of the left-handed top and bottom quarks....

  11. A new kind of bottom quark factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a novel method of producing large numbers of B mesons containing bottom quarks. It is known that one should analyze at least 109 B meson decays to elucidate the physics of CP violation and rare B decay modes. Using the ultra high energy electron beams from the future generation of electron linear colliders, we Compton backscatter low energy laser beams off these electron beams. From this process, we produce hot photons having energy hundreds of GeV. Upon scattering these hot photons onto stationary targets, we show that it is possible to photoproduce and measure the necessary 109 B mesons per year. 24 refs., 4 figs

  12. Control Properties of Bottom Fired Marine Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, Brian; Andersen, Palle; Karstensen, Claus M. S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on model analysis of a dynamic model of a bottom fired one-pass smoke tube boiler. Linearized versions of the model are analyzed and show large variations in system gains at steady state as function of load whereas gain variations near the desired bandwidth are small. An analysis...... showed substantial improvement compared to a decentralized scheme based on sequential loop closing. Similar or better result is expected to be obtainable using a full Multiple input Multiple output scheme. Furthermore closed loop simulations, applying a linear controller to the nonlinear plant model...... on states and control signals should be considered....

  13. Rankine bottoming cycle safety analysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewandowski, G.A.

    1980-02-01

    Vector Engineering Inc. conducted a safety and hazards analysis of three Rankine Bottoming Cycle Systems in public utility applications: a Thermo Electron system using Fluorinal-85 (a mixture of 85 mole % trifluoroethanol and 15 mole % water) as the working fluid; a Sundstrand system using toluene as the working fluid; and a Mechanical Technology system using steam and Freon-II as the working fluids. The properties of the working fluids considered are flammability, toxicity, and degradation, and the risks to both plant workers and the community at large are analyzed.

  14. Charmed bottom baryon spectroscopy from lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Zachary S; Meinel, Stefan; Orginos, Kostas

    2014-01-01

    We calculate the masses of baryons containing one, two, or three heavy quarks using lattice QCD. We consider all possible combinations of charm and bottom quarks, and compute a total of 36 different states with $J^P = \\frac12^+$ and $J^P = \\frac32^+$. We use domain-wall fermions for the up, down, and strange quarks, a relativistic heavy-quark action for the charm quarks, and nonrelativistic QCD for the bottom quarks. Our analysis includes results from two different lattice spacings and seven different pion masses. We perform extrapolations of the baryon masses to the continuum limit and to the physical pion mass using $SU(4|2)$ heavy-hadron chiral perturbation theory including $1/m_Q$ and finite-volume effects. For the 14 singly heavy baryons that have already been observed, our results agree with the experimental values within the uncertainties. We compare our predictions for the hitherto unobserved states with other lattice calculations and quark-model studies.

  15. The petroleum industry improving the bottom line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oil and gas exploration and production business environment has presented many challenges over the last decade, notably price volatility and rising costs. Managing the margin and changing a company's cost structure to improve the bottom line is a major issue with company executives. The experiences of Oryx Energy Company since its spinoff from Sun Company in 1988 are used as an example of a company makeover. A generalized exploration and production income statement is employed to present industry cost/portfolio relationships and strategies for improving the bottom line. At Oryx, three major strategies were set in place to enhance shareholder value: an increased emphasis on applied technology, including horizontal drilling, advanced 3-dimensional seismic prospecting, and intensive use of interactive computer workstations; international expansion; and an emphasis on the U.S. Gulf of Mexico, deemphasizing the onshore U.S. and the gas processing business. Specific strategies are outlined in the areas of increasing revenues, reducing production cost and exploration expense, and controlling general and administrative expenses. 8 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Long Wave Dynamics along a Convex Bottom

    CERN Document Server

    Didenkulova, Ira; Soomere, Tarmo

    2008-01-01

    Long linear wave transformation in the basin of varying depth is studied for a case of a convex bottom profile in the framework of one-dimensional shallow water equation. The existence of travelling wave solutions in this geometry and the uniqueness of this wave class is established through construction of a 1:1 transformation of the general 1D wave equation to the analogous wave equation with constant coefficients. The general solution of the Cauchy problem consists of two travelling waves propagating in opposite directions. It is found that generally a zone of a weak current is formed between these two waves. Waves are reflected from the coastline so that their profile is inverted with respect to the calm water surface. Long wave runup on a beach with this profile is studied for sine pulse, KdV soliton and N-wave. Shown is that in certain cases the runup height along the convex profile is considerably larger than for beaches with a linear slope. The analysis of wave reflection from the bottom containing a s...

  17. Bottom-up holographic approach to QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most known result of the string theory consists in the idea that some strongly coupled gauge theories may have a dual description in terms of a higher dimensional weakly coupled gravitational theory — the so-called AdS/CFT correspondence or gauge/gravity correspondence. The attempts to apply this idea to the real QCD are often referred to as “holographic QCD” or “AdS/QCD approach”. One of directions in this field is to start from the real QCD and guess a tentative dual higher dimensional weakly coupled field model following the principles of gauge/gravity correspondence. The ensuing phenomenology can be then developed and compared with experimental data and with various theoretical results. Such a bottom-up holographic approach turned out to be unexpectedly successful in many cases. In the given short review, the technical aspects of the bottom-up holographic approach to QCD are explained placing the main emphasis on the soft wall model

  18. Bottom-up holographic approach to QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afonin, S. S. [V. A. Fock Department of Theoretical Physics, Saint Petersburg State University, 1 ul. Ulyanovskaya, 198504 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-22

    One of the most known result of the string theory consists in the idea that some strongly coupled gauge theories may have a dual description in terms of a higher dimensional weakly coupled gravitational theory — the so-called AdS/CFT correspondence or gauge/gravity correspondence. The attempts to apply this idea to the real QCD are often referred to as “holographic QCD” or “AdS/QCD approach”. One of directions in this field is to start from the real QCD and guess a tentative dual higher dimensional weakly coupled field model following the principles of gauge/gravity correspondence. The ensuing phenomenology can be then developed and compared with experimental data and with various theoretical results. Such a bottom-up holographic approach turned out to be unexpectedly successful in many cases. In the given short review, the technical aspects of the bottom-up holographic approach to QCD are explained placing the main emphasis on the soft wall model.

  19. Heavy Exotic Molecules with Charm and Bottom

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yizhuang

    2016-01-01

    We revisit the formation of pion-mediated heavy-light exotic molecules with both charm and bottom and their chiral partners under the general strictures of both heavy-quark and chiral symmetry. The chiral exotic partners with good parity formed using the $(0^+, 1^+)$ multiplet are about twice more bound than their primary exotic partners formed using the $(0^-,1^-)$ multiplet. The chiral couplings across the multiplets $(0^\\pm, 1^\\pm)$ cause the chiral exotic partners to unbind, and the primary exotic molecules to be about twice more bound, for $J\\leq 1$. Our multi-channel coupling results show that only the charm isosinglet exotic molecules with $J^{PC}=1^{++}$ binds, which we identify as the reported neutral $X(3872)$. Also, the bottom isotriplet exotic with $J^{PC}=1^{+-}$ binds, which we identify as a mixture of the reported charged exotics $Z^+_b(10610)$ and $Z^+_b(10650)$. The bound isosinglet with $J^{PC}=1^{++}$ is suggested as a possible neutral $X_b(10532)$ not yet reported.

  20. Multibaryons with strangeness, charm and bottom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopeliovich, V.B. [Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. Yadernykh Issledovanij; Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences; Zakrzewski, W.J. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences

    2000-12-01

    The spectra of baryonic systems with strangeness, charm and bottom are considered within a ''rigid oscillator'' version of the bound state soliton model. The static properties of multiskyrmions, of baryon number up to B=8, are calculated using the recently suggested rational map ansaetze as starting field configurations. The property of binding of flavoured mesons by an SU(2) skyrmion is proved rigorously within this model. Binding energy estimates are made of the states with largest isospin which can appear as negatively charged nuclear fragments and for states with zero isospin - fragments of ''flavoured'' nuclear matter. It is shown that for all types of flavour and for vertical stroke F vertical stroke {<=}2 the isoscalar baryonic systems have a better chance to be stable against strong and electromagnetic interactions than those with nonzero isospin. Baryonic systems with charm or bottom quantum numbers are found to be bound more than strange baryonic systems. (orig.)

  1. The use of coal mining wastes for manufacturing paving materials; Los esteriles del carbon como materia prima para la fabricacion de materiales para pavimentacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    This project was aimed at proving the technical feasibility of the use of coal mining wastes in the manufacturing of paving materials; floor-tiles, flags, paving-stones, grit stones, etc.. With that aim, four types of coal mining wastes were selected out of an inventory and several tests were conducted and following the results, the most appropriate coal mining wastes, the acceptance limits and the quality control tests to be applied to the materials obtained from coal mining wastes as starting materials for the manufacturing of paving materials were established. Different laboratory test were conducted on the manufacturing of flags, floor-tiles and paving-stones. In addition, semi-industrial scale tests were carried out on the manufacturing of grit stones. Preliminary manufactory designs were elaborated for both material types. The study proved that coal mining wastes in a mixture with other raw materials can be used in the manufacturing of paving materials: floor-tiles, flags, paving-stones, grit stones. (Author)

  2. Peach Bottom test element program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saurwein, J.J.; Holzgraf, J.F.; MIller, C.M.; Myers, B.F.; Wallroth, C.F.

    1982-11-01

    Thirty-three test elements were irradiated in the Peach Bottom high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) as part of the testing program for advanced HTGRs. Extensive postirradiation examinations and evaluations of 21 of these irradiation experiments were performed. The test element irradiations were simulated using HTGR design codes and data. Calculated fuel burnups, power profiles, fast neutron fluences, and temperatures were verified via destructive burnup measurements, gamma scanning, and in-pile thermocouple readings corrected for decalibration effects. Analytical techniques were developed to improve the quality of temperature predictions through feedback of nuclear measurements into thermal calculations. Dimensional measurements, pressure burst tests, diametral compression tests, ring-cutting tests, strip-cutting tests, and four-point bend tests were performed to measure residual stress, strain, and strength distributions in H-327 graphite structures irradiated in the test elements.

  3. Peach Bottom test element program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-three test elements were irradiated in the Peach Bottom high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) as part of the testing program for advanced HTGRs. Extensive postirradiation examinations and evaluations of 21 of these irradiation experiments were performed. The test element irradiations were simulated using HTGR design codes and data. Calculated fuel burnups, power profiles, fast neutron fluences, and temperatures were verified via destructive burnup measurements, gamma scanning, and in-pile thermocouple readings corrected for decalibration effects. Analytical techniques were developed to improve the quality of temperature predictions through feedback of nuclear measurements into thermal calculations. Dimensional measurements, pressure burst tests, diametral compression tests, ring-cutting tests, strip-cutting tests, and four-point bend tests were performed to measure residual stress, strain, and strength distributions in H-327 graphite structures irradiated in the test elements

  4. Designing the organisational chart from the bottom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giangreco, Antonio; Carugati, Andrea

    This is the first of a two-case series (408-026-1 and 408-027-1). Marco Ginola was hired as the Human Resources (HR) Director of a large municipality in central Italy. The organisation had gone through a phase of major expansion which left problems in co-ordination, integration, delegation...... and control. Marco had been called in because of his reputation for being an effective innovator with unconventional ideas for the public sector. Previously, during his long career in the civil service, Marco proved to be an effective leader and negotiator who was open to other people's view points. He would...... share any significant and final decisions with his employees, rather than merely imposing his own personal choice. After spending some time in the organisation, he put into action a bottom up method to redesign the structure of the HR department. He decided to temporarily suspend the existing internal...

  5. Production of pyroxene ceramics from the fine fraction of incinerator bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourtsalas, A; Vandeperre, L J; Grimes, S M; Themelis, N; Cheeseman, C R

    2015-11-01

    Incinerator bottom ash (IBA) is normally processed to extract metals and the coarse mineral fraction is used as secondary aggregate. This leaves significant quantities of fine material, typically less than 4mm, that is problematic as reuse options are limited. This work demonstrates that fine IBA can be mixed with glass and transformed by milling, calcining, pressing and sintering into high density ceramics. The addition of glass aids liquid phase sintering, milling increases sintering reactivity and calcining reduces volatile loss during firing. Calcining also changes the crystalline phases present from quartz (SiO2), calcite (CaCO3), gehlenite (Ca2Al2SiO7) and hematite (Fe2O3) to diopside (CaMgSi2O6), clinoenstatite (MgSiO3) and andradite (Ca3Fe2Si3O12). Calcined powders fired at 1080°C have high green density, low shrinkage (ceramics that have negligible water absorption. The transformation of the problematic fraction of IBA into a raw material suitable for the manufacture of ceramic tiles for use in urban paving and other applications is demonstrated.

  6. BC Hydro triple bottom line report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Columbia Hydro (BC Hydro) published this document which measures the environmental, social and economic performance of the company. It is a complement to BC Hydro's 2002 Annual Report. The report was prepared to better understand the company's business in terms of its commitment to being an environmentally, socially, and economically responsible company (the three bottom lines). BC Hydro proved its ability to integrate the three bottom lines in decision making processes by carefully examining the environmental, social and economical impacts of programs such as Power Smart, Green and Alternative Energy, and Water Use Planning. All indicators point to BC Hydro achieving its commitment of providing a minimum of 10 per cent of new demand through 2010 with new green energy sources. Water Use Plans were developed for hydroelectric generating stations, and they should all be in place by 2003. Efficiencies realised through the Power Smart program offset the increases in greenhouse gas associated with increased energy demand. Juvenile sturgeon raised in a hatchery were released into the Columbia River in May 2002. The completion of a 40-kilometre trail on the Sunshine Coast was helped by a financial contribution from BC Hydro in the amount of 23,000 dollars. Safety improvements were implemented at eight facilities, such as dam remediation, dam surveillance and instrumentation updates. Scholarships were awarded across the province, along with additional donations to non-profit organizations. Co-op positions were provided for 150 students. Internal energy efficiency programs were successful. Planning is under way for significant maintenance work and equipment replacement projects as the transmission and distribution infrastructure ages. The number of reported indicators was expanded this year. In turn, they were aligned with the revised Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) guidelines. tabs

  7. Energy-landscape paving for prediction of face-centered-cubic hydrophobic-hydrophilic lattice model proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingfa; Song, Beibei; Liu, Zhaoxia; Huang, Weibo; Sun, Yuanyuan; Liu, Wenjie

    2013-11-01

    Protein structure prediction (PSP) is a classical NP-hard problem in computational biology. The energy-landscape paving (ELP) method is a class of heuristic global optimization algorithm, and has been successfully applied to solving many optimization problems with complex energy landscapes in the continuous space. By putting forward a new update mechanism of the histogram function in ELP and incorporating the generation of initial conformation based on the greedy strategy and the neighborhood search strategy based on pull moves into ELP, an improved energy-landscape paving (ELP+) method is put forward. Twelve general benchmark instances are first tested on both two-dimensional and three-dimensional (3D) face-centered-cubic (fcc) hydrophobic-hydrophilic (HP) lattice models. The lowest energies by ELP+ are as good as or better than those of other methods in the literature for all instances. Then, five sets of larger-scale instances, denoted by S, R, F90, F180, and CASP target instances on the 3D FCC HP lattice model are tested. The proposed algorithm finds lower energies than those by the five other methods in literature. Not unexpectedly, this is particularly pronounced for the longer sequences considered. Computational results show that ELP+ is an effective method for PSP on the fcc HP lattice model.

  8. Pressure drop evaluation in fuel assembly bottom nozzles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Sydney da Silva; Brittes, Luiz Henrique A. [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S.A. (INB), Resende, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mails: sydney@inb.gov.br; brittes@inb.gov.br; Navarro, Moyses A. [Centro de Desenvolvimento de Energia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: navarro@cdtn.br

    2007-07-01

    Experiments were conducted in order to assess the pressure drop through an anti-debris bottom nozzle relatively to a standard bottom nozzle of a nuclear fuel assembly. Two kinds of experiments have been performed: one using bottom nozzles connected with the lower part of a Fuel Assembly (containing two spacer grids) and another one using the bottom nozzle alone. Reynolds numbers ranging from 10500 . 95000 have been employed, temperatures ranging from 40 . 55 deg C and pressures up to 4 bar. Results have shown that the pressure drop coefficients of the anti-debris nozzle referring to the whole lower region of the Fuel Assembly were {approx} 13% (for Re {approx_equal} 95000) till {approx} 17% (for Re {approx_equal} 10500) higher than the coefficients for standard bottom nozzle. This difference increases up to 118% when the pressure drop coefficients of the bottom nozzle alone are considered. (author)

  9. Transient Temperature Analysis for Industrial AC Arc Furnace Bottom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    (U)nal (C)amdal1; Murat Tun(c)

    2004-01-01

    Heat losses from the furnaces depend on the design and size. The surface heat loss from the bottom of an industrial AC electric arc furnace (EAF) possesses an important fraction of overall losses. So in this study the transient temperature variation at the bottom of the EAF was investigated. The transient temperature analysis was carried out using MATLAB computer program. T=T(r, t) for different bottom lining layers was depicted.

  10. Method of coupled mode for long-range bottom reverberation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The theory of coupled mode is used for modeling the long-range bottom reverberation in shallow water caused by bottom roughness. The distant bottom reverberation level and spatial coherence of impulsive source are both derived. The results agree with those from the classical reverberation model, and are compared with the experimental data. The influence of source bandwidth and the distance between sources and receivers on the intensity of bottom reverberation are particularly discussed. The method is shown to be available for both the monoand the bi-static cases.

  11. Proteinosis alveolar pulmonar y patrón en empedrado ("crazy-paving") en tomografía computarizada de alta resolución Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and crazy paving pattern in high resolution CT

    OpenAIRE

    C. de Arriba; Antón, C.; E. Arreche; M. P. Lorente

    2006-01-01

    Se presenta un caso de proteinosis alveolar pulmonar en un varón de 27 años en el que la tomografía computarizada de alta resolución muestra un típico patrón "crazy-paving" o en empedrado, siendo esta prueba la que orienta hacia un diagnóstico diferencial concreto, a pesar de la inespecificidad de la presentación clínica. El lavado broncoalveolar no es concluyente y el diagnóstico definitivo se hace con biopsia transbronquial. Se revisan los aspectos más característicos de esta rara enfermeda...

  12. How Service Innovation Boosts Bottom Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Legrand

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the national quest for ground-breaking R&D discoveries and inventions, service innovation is frequently ignored at considerable cost to an organization’s bottom line and a nation’s productivity. For the fact is that innovation applied systematically to all activities outside of R&D can make the difference between uninspiring results and substantial growth in every sector. Many countries, in particular in Europe, have recognized the importance of service innovation and are devoting considerable resources to research, the capture of best practices, and the measurement of progress and success. Given the physiognomy of the modern economy, it does not make sense for leaders in the Canadian public sector to devote all available innovation investment dollars to science and technology R&D. This article explores why service innovation is not yet a priority on the innovation agenda in Canada and why we should correct the dangerous misconception that there is just one “innovation gap” that needs to be addressed. It provides practical recommendations that public and private sector leaders can use to take advantage of this under-valued, high-potential innovation opportunity and calls for the creation of a national service innovation resource to support enterprises of all sizes as a means to improve Canadian productivity.

  13. To the Bottom of the Sbottom

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Tao; Wu, Yongcheng; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Huanian

    2015-01-01

    In the search for bottom squark (sbottom) in SUSY at the LHC, the common practice has been to assume a $100\\%$ decay branching fraction for a given search channel. In realistic MSSM scenarios, there are often more than one significant decay modes to be present, which significantly weaken the current sbottom search limits at the LHC. On the other hand, the combination of the multiple decay modes offers alternative discovery channels for sbottom searches. In this paper, we present the sbottom decays in a few representative mass parameter scenarios. We then analyze the sbottom signal for the pair production in QCD with one sbottom decaying via $\\tilde{b}\\rightarrow b \\chi_1^0,\\ b \\chi_2^0$, and the other one decaying via $\\tilde{b} \\rightarrow t \\chi_1^\\pm$. With the gaugino subsequent decaying to gauge bosons or a Higgs boson $\\chi_2^0 \\rightarrow Z \\chi_1^0,\\ h \\chi_1^0$ and $\\chi_1^\\pm \\rightarrow W^\\pm \\chi_1^0$, we study the reach of those signals at the 14 TeV LHC with 300 ${\\rm fb^{-1}}$ integrated lumino...

  14. 'Crazy-Paving' Patterns on High-Resolution CT Scans in Patients with Pulmonary Complications after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchiori, Edson; Escuissato, Dante L.; Gasparetto, Taisa Davaus; Considera, Daniela Peixoto [Federal University, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Franquet, Tomas [Hospital de Sant Pau, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-02-15

    To describe the pulmonary complications following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) that can present with a 'crazy-paving' pattern in high-resolution CT scans. Retrospective review of medical records from 2,537 patients who underwent HSCT. The 'crazy-paving' pattern consists of interlobular and intralobular septal thickening superimposed on an area of ground-glass attenuation on high-resolution CT scans. The CT scans were retrospectively reviewed by two radiologists, who reached final decisions by consensus. We identified 10 cases (2.02%), seven male and three female, with pulmonary complications following HSCT that presented with the 'crazy-paving' pattern. Seven (70%) patients had infectious pneumonia (adenovirus, herpes simplex, influenza virus, cytomegalovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, and toxoplasmosis), and three patients presented with non-infectious complications (idiopathic pneumonia syndrome and acute pulmonary edema). The 'crazy-paving' pattern was bilateral in all cases, with diffuse distribution in nine patients (90%), predominantly in the middle and inferior lung regions in seven patients (70%), and involving the anterior and posterior regions of the lungs in nine patients (90%). The 'crazy-paving' pattern is rare in HSCT recipients with pulmonary complications and is associated with infectious complications more commonly than non-infectious conditions.

  15. Brazil's Cuiabá- Santarém (BR-163) Highway: The Environmental Cost of Paving a Soybean Corridor Through the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnside, Philip M.

    2007-05-01

    Brazil’s Cuiabá-Santarém (BR-163) Highway provides a valuable example of ways in which decision-making procedures for infrastructure projects in tropical forest areas need to be reformulated in order to guarantee that environmental concerns are properly weighed. BR-163, which is slated to be paved as an export corridor for soybeans via the Amazon River, traverses an area that is largely outside of Brazilian government control. A climate of generalized lawlessness and impunity prevails, and matters related to environment and to land tenure are especially unregulated. Deforestation and illegal logging have accelerated in anticipation of highway paving. Paving would further speed forest loss in the area, as well as stimulate migration of land thieves ( grileiros) to other frontiers. An argument is made that the highway should not be reconstructed and paved until after a state of law has been established and it has been independently certified that sufficient governance prevails to secure protected areas and enforce environmental legislation. A waiting period is needed after this is achieved before proceeding with the highway paving. Above all, the logical sequence of steps must be followed, whereby environmental costs are assessed, reported, and weighed prior to making de facto decisions on implementation of infrastructure projects. Deviation from this logical sequence is a common occurrence in many parts of the world, especially in tropical areas.

  16. Smart Novel Semi-Active Tuned Mass Damper for Fixed-Bottom and Floating Offshore Wind (Paper)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Tsouroukdissian, Arturo [Alstom Renewable US LLC (GE Subsidiary); Lackner, Mathew [University of Massachusetts; Cross-Whiter, John [Glosten Associates; Park, Se Myung [University of Massachusetts; Pourazarm, Pariya [University of Massachusetts; La Cava, William [University of Massachusetts; Lee, Sungho [Glosten Associates

    2016-05-02

    The intention of this paper is to present the results of a novel smart semi-active tuned mass damper (SA-TMD), which mitigates unwanted loads for both fixed-bottom and floating offshore wind systems. The paper will focus on the most challenging water depths for both fixed-bottom and floating systems. A close to 38m Monopile and 55m Tension Leg Platform (TLP) will be considered. A technical development and trade-off analysis will be presented comparing the new system with existing passive non-linear TMD (N-TMD) technology and semi-active. TheSATMD works passively and activates itself with low power source under unwanted dynamic loading in less than 60msec. It is composed of both variable stiffness and damping elements coupled to a central pendulum mass. The analysis has been done numerically in both FAST(NREL) and Orcaflex (Orcina), and integrated in the Wind Turbine system employing CAD/CAE. The results of this work will pave the way for experimental testing to complete the technology qualification process. The load reductions under extreme and fatigue cases reach up significant levels at tower base, consequently reducing LCOE for fixed-bottom to floating wind solutions. The nacelle acceleration is reduced substantially under severe random wind and sea states, reducing the risks of failure of electromechanical components and blades at the rotor nacelle assembly. The SA-TMD system isa new technology that has not been applied previously in wind solutions. Structural damping devices aim to increase offshore wind turbine system robustness and reliability, which eases multiple substructures installations and global stability.

  17. Light Quark Mass Effects in Bottom Quark Mass Determinations

    OpenAIRE

    Hoang, A. H.

    2001-01-01

    Recent results for charm quark mass effects in perturbative bottom quark mass determinations from $\\Upsilon$ mesons are reviewed. The connection between the behavior of light quark mass corrections and the infrared sensitivity of some bottom quark mass definitions is examined in some detail.

  18. Bottom-up Attention Orienting in Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amso, Dima; Haas, Sara; Tenenbaum, Elena; Markant, Julie; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the impact of simultaneous bottom-up visual influences and meaningful social stimuli on attention orienting in young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Relative to typically-developing age and sex matched participants, children with ASDs were more influenced by bottom-up visual scene information regardless of whether…

  19. Pretreatment and utilization of waste incineration bottom ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Within recent years, researchers and authorities have had increasing focus on leaching properties from waste incineration bottom ashes. Researchers have investigated processes such as those related to carbonation, weathering, metal complexation, and leaching control. Most of these investigations......, however, have had a strong emphasis on lab experiments with little focus on full scale bottom ash upgrading methods. The introduction of regulatory limit values restricting leaching from utilized bottom ashes, has created a need for a better understanding of how lab scale experiences can be utilized...... in full scale bottom ash upgrading facilities, and the possibilities for complying with the regulatory limit values. A range of Danish research and development projects have within 1997-2005 investigated important techniques for bottom ash upgrading. The primary focus has been placed on curing...

  20. EFFECTS OF VARYING BOTTOM ON NONLINEAR SURFACE WAVES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The resonant flow of an incompressible, inviscid fluid with surface tension on varying bottoms was researched. The effects of different bottoms on the nonlinear surface waves were analyzed. The waterfall plots of the wave were drawn with Matlab according to the numerical simulation of the fKdV equation with the pseudo-spectral method. From the waterfall plots, the results are obtained as follows: for the convex bottom, the waves system can be viewed as a combination of the effects of forward-step forcing and backward step forcing, and these two wave systems respectively radiate upstream and downstream without mutual interaction. Nevertheless, the result for the concave bottom is contrary to the convex one. For some combined bottoms, the wave systems can be considered as the combination of positive forcing and negative forcing.

  1. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis versus exogenous lipoid pneumonia showing crazy-paving pattern: Comparison of their clinical features and high-resolution CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hei Kyung; Park, Chang Min; Goo, Jin Mo; Lee, Hyun Ju (Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, and Inst. of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National Univ. Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea)), e-mail: cmpark@radiol.snu.ac.kr

    2010-05-15

    Background: Although pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) and exogenous lipoid pneumonia (ELP) require different treatment strategies, both manifest as a crazy-paving pattern on CT and often have similar clinical manifestations and radiologic features. Purpose: To investigate the clinical features and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings of PAP and ELP showing the crazy-paving pattern. Material and Methods: The clinical features and HRCT findings of eight patients with pathologically proven PAP and six patients with pathologically proven ELP showing the crazy-paving pattern were retrospectively evaluated. Two radiologists analyzed the HRCT findings of PAP and ELP in consensus in terms of the presence, severity, and extent of illdefined centrilobular nodules, consolidations, ground-glass opacities (GGOs), reticulations, and the crazy-paving pattern. Results: With respect to the clinical features of these two diseases, all patients with ELP were retrospectively found to have a history of oil ingestion. In terms of the HRCT findings, ill-defined centrilobular nodules were seen in five of six patients (83%) with ELP, whereas they were not present in any patient with PAP (P=0.003). Consolidation was also more frequently present in patients with ELP (83%) than in those with PAP (11%), which was statistically different (P=0.0265). In terms of the severity and extent, the crazy-paving pattern and reticulations on HRCT were significantly more extensive and severe in patients with PAP than in those with ELP. Conclusion: PAP and ELP with the crazy-paving pattern have several distinctive characteristics with respect to their HRCT findings as well as history of oil ingestion, and can therefore be distinguished from one another

  2. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis versus exogenous lipoid pneumonia showing crazy-paving pattern: Comparison of their clinical features and high-resolution CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Although pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) and exogenous lipoid pneumonia (ELP) require different treatment strategies, both manifest as a crazy-paving pattern on CT and often have similar clinical manifestations and radiologic features. Purpose: To investigate the clinical features and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings of PAP and ELP showing the crazy-paving pattern. Material and Methods: The clinical features and HRCT findings of eight patients with pathologically proven PAP and six patients with pathologically proven ELP showing the crazy-paving pattern were retrospectively evaluated. Two radiologists analyzed the HRCT findings of PAP and ELP in consensus in terms of the presence, severity, and extent of illdefined centrilobular nodules, consolidations, ground-glass opacities (GGOs), reticulations, and the crazy-paving pattern. Results: With respect to the clinical features of these two diseases, all patients with ELP were retrospectively found to have a history of oil ingestion. In terms of the HRCT findings, ill-defined centrilobular nodules were seen in five of six patients (83%) with ELP, whereas they were not present in any patient with PAP (P=0.003). Consolidation was also more frequently present in patients with ELP (83%) than in those with PAP (11%), which was statistically different (P=0.0265). In terms of the severity and extent, the crazy-paving pattern and reticulations on HRCT were significantly more extensive and severe in patients with PAP than in those with ELP. Conclusion: PAP and ELP with the crazy-paving pattern have several distinctive characteristics with respect to their HRCT findings as well as history of oil ingestion, and can therefore be distinguished from one another

  3. Top Down Chemistry Versus Bottom up Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Takeshi; Witt, Adolf N.

    2016-06-01

    The idea of interstellar top down chemistry (TDC), in which molecules are produced from decomposition of larger molecules and dust in contrast to ordinary bottom up chemistry (BUC) in which molecules are produced synthetically from smaller molecules and atoms in the ISM, has been proposed in the chemistry of PAH and carbon chain molecules both for diffusea,c and dense cloudsb,d. A simple and natural idea, it must have occurred to many people and has been in the air for sometime. The validity of this hypothesis is apparent for diffuse clouds in view of the observed low abundance of small molecules and its rapid decrease with molecular size on the one hand and the high column densities of large carbon molecules demonstrated by the many intense diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) on the other. Recent identification of C60^+ as the carrier of 5 near infrared DIBs with a high column density of 2×1013 cm-2 by Maier and others confirms the TDC. This means that the large molecules and dust produced in the high density high temperature environment of circumstellar envelopes are sufficiently stable to survive decompositions due to stellar UV radiaiton, cosmic rays, C-shocks etc. for a long time (≥ 10^7 year) of their migration to diffuse clouds and seems to disagree with the consensus in the field of interstellar grains. The stability of molecules and aggregates in the diffuse interstellar medium will be discussed. Duley, W. W. 2006, Faraday Discuss. 133, 415 Zhen,J., Castellanos, P., Paardekooper, D. M., Linnartz, H., Tielens, A. G. G. M. 2014, ApJL, 797, L30 Huang, J., Oka, T. 2015, Mol. Phys. 113, 2159 Guzmán, V. V., Pety, J., Goicoechea, J. R., Gerin, M., Roueff, E., Gratier, P., Öberg, K. I. 2015, ApJL, 800, L33 L. Ziurys has sent us many papers beginning Ziurys, L. M. 2006, PNAS 103, 12274 indicating she had long been a proponent of the idea. Campbell, E. K., Holz, M., Maier, J. P., Gerlich, D., Walker, G. A. H., Bohlender, D, 2016, ApJ, in press Draine, B. T. 2003

  4. Anthropopression markers in lake bottom sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadolna, Anna; Nowicka, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    Lakes are vulnerable to various types of anthropogenic disturbances. Responses of lake ecosystems to environmental stressors are varied and depend not only on the type of a factor but also on the lake natural resistance to degradation. Within the EULAKES project an evaluation of anthropogenic stress extent in a flow-through, postglacial, ribbon lake (Lake Charzykowskie) was carried out. It was assumed, that this impact manifests unevenly, depending on a type and degree of the pressure on the shore zones, water quality of tributaries, lake basin shape and dynamics of a water movement. It was stated, that anthropogenic markers are substances accumulated in bottom sediments as a result of allochthonous substances inflow from the catchment and atmosphere. Along the selected transects 105 samples from the top layer of sediments (about 20 cm) was collected representing the contemporary accumulation (about 15 years). The content of selected chemical elements and compounds was examined, including nutrients (TN and TP), heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead, chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, mercury, iron, and manganese) and pesticides (DDT, DDD, DDE, DMDT , γ-HCH). The research was conducted in the deepest points of each lake basin and along the research transects - while choosing the spots, the increased intensity of anthropogenic impact (ports, roads with heavy traffic, wastewater discharge zones, built-up areas) was taken into consideration. The river outlets to the lake, where there are ecotonal zones between limnic and fluvial environment, were also taken into account. Analysis of the markers distribution was carried out against the diversity of chemical characteristics of limnic sediments. Ribbon shape of the lake basin and the dominant wind direction provide an opportunity of easy water mixing to a considerable depth. Intensive waving processes cause removal of the matter from the littoral zone towards lake hollows (separated by the underwater tresholds), where the

  5. Spectroscopy of singly, doubly, and triply bottom baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Ke-Wei; Liu, Na; Wang, Qian-Qian; Guo, Xin-Heng

    2016-01-01

    Recently, many singly bottom baryons have been established experimentally, but no doubly or triply bottom baryon has been observed. Under the Regge phenomenology, the mass of a ground state unobserved doubly or triply bottom baryon is expressed as a function of masses of the well established light baryons and singly bottom baryons. (For example, we write the mass of $\\Omega_{bbb}$ as a function of the masses of well established light baryons ($\\Sigma^{*}$, $\\Xi^{*}$, $\\Omega$) and singly bottom baryons ($\\Sigma_b^{*}$, $\\Xi_b^{*}$), and give its value to be 14788$\\pm$80 MeV.) After that, we calculate the values of Regge slopes and Regge intercepts for singly, doubly, and triply bottom baryons. (Regge intercepts and slopes, which are usually regarded as fundamental constants of hadron dynamics, are useful for many spectral and nonspectral purposes.) Then, masses of the orbitally excited singly, doubly, and triply bottom baryons are estimated. The isospin splitting is also determined, $M_{\\Xi_{bb}^{-}}-M_{\\Xi_{...

  6. Materials characterization of the Libyan Ashi-Shibat desert sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elemental silicon is produced mainly by the Carbo-thermic reduction of silica sand [1]. This technique produced rather impure silicon, which is termed as metallurgical grade silicon (MG-Si). An upgraded MG-Si, produced from high purity silica, is usually used to produced semiconductor and solar grade silicon tilized in the manufacturing of microelectronic components of integrated circuits, transistors and solar cells. In this paper, sand from one of the Libyan desert formations called Ash-Shibat, will be characterized to explore the possibility of its use in the production of high purity silicon. Such sands are thought to be suitable for the production of silicon used in electronic industry. Chemical analysis, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy are the main techniques used to characterize the sand and to asses the type and amount of impurities present. The results indicate that impurities such as B, Na, Ca, K, Mg, Al, Ti and Fe are present in the as received sand in trace amounts. These impurities were found to be contained mainly on the sand particles exterior surfaces, and in the binding material between them. The interior of the form of quartz silica. It is concluded from this study that further purification and processing of Ash-Shibat sand should produce high purity silica that can be used for producing electronic industry grade silicon. (author)

  7. Ashy storm-petrel at-sea density off California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS) updates and revises the management plans for each of its 13 sanctuaries. This process, which is open to the public,...

  8. Bottom-up Initiatives for Photovoltaic: Incentives and Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Reinsberger

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available When facing the challenge of restructuring the energy system, bottom-up initiatives can aid the diffusion of decentralized and clean energy technologies. We focused here on a bottom-up initiative of citizen-funded and citizen-operated photovoltaic power plants. The project follows a case study-based approach and examines two different community initiatives. The aim is to investigate the potential incentives and barriers relating to participation or non-participation in predefined community PV projects. Qualitative, as well as quantitative empirical research was used to examine the key factors in the further development of bottom-up initiatives as contributors to a general energy transition.

  9. Axial Force at the Vessel Bottom Induced by Axial Impellers

    OpenAIRE

    I. Fořt; P. Hasal; A. Paglianti; F. Magelli

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the axial force affecting the flat bottom of a cylindrical stirred vessel. The vessel is equipped with four radial baffles and is stirred with a four 45° pitched blade impeller pumping downwards. The set of pressure transducers is located along the whole radius of the flat bottom between two radial baffles. The radial distribution of the dynamic pressures indicated by the transducers is measured in dependence on the impeller off-bottom clearance and impeller speed.It fol...

  10. Crazy-paving: correlation between high resolution computed tomography and anatomopathological findings; Pavimentacao em mosaico: correlacao da tomografia computadorizada de alta resolucao com a anatomopatologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchiori, Edson; Vabo, Karen Amaral do; Damato, Simone Duarte [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Kavakama, Jorge [Hospital das Clinicas, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto do Coracao. Servico de Radiologia; Capelozzi, Vera Lucia [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Patologia

    2000-06-01

    In this paper we present the high resolution computed tomography findings of various diseases which show a 'crazy-paving' pattern on CT. Cases of alveolar proteinosis, bronchoalveolar carcinoma, lipoid pneumonia and pneumocistosis are illustrated and correlated with the anatomopathological findings. (author)

  11. Gulf of Maine Cooperative Bottom Longline Survey Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database is for a bottom longline (fixed gear) survey executed in the western and central Gulf of Maine targeting complex rocky habitats. The survey is...

  12. NEFSC 2005 Winter Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0502, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  13. NEFSC 2009 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (HB0905, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  14. NMFS Bottom Longline Analytical Dataset Provided to NRDA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Southeast Fisheries Science Center Mississippi Laboratories has conducted standardized bottom longline surveys in the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic since...

  15. Gear Selectivity of a Longfin Squid Bottom Trawl

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Loligo pealeii (longfin inshore squid) co-occurs with Atlantic butterfish (Peprilus triacanthus) throughout the year and discarding in the L. pealeii bottom trawl...

  16. Bottom production mechanism for same-sign dileptons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, C.E.M.; Martins Simoes, J.A. (Rio de Janeiro Univ. (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica); Garcia Canal, C.A. (La Plata Univ. Nacional (Argentina))

    1983-01-22

    Bottom production is investigated as a possible mechanism for same-sign prompt dileptons in neutrino reactions. A partonlike model is able to account for the CDHS dilepton signal with inputs compatible with other data.

  17. NEFSC 2015 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (HB1506, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  18. NEFSC 2000 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (Al0006, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  19. NEFSC 2005 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0508, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  20. NEFSC 1998 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (AL9811, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  1. NEFSC 2013 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (HB1304, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  2. NEFSC 2012 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (HB1201, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  3. NEFSC 2013 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (HB1301, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  4. NEFSC 2008 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0803, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  5. NEFSC 2002 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0210, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  6. NEFSC 2014 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (HB1401, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  7. NEFSC 2005 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0504, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  8. NEFSC 2007 Bottom Trawl Survey Calibration (HB0711, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  9. NEFSC 2011 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (HB1102, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  10. NEFSC 2004 Winter Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0401, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  11. NEFSC 2004 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0403, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  12. NEFSC 2011 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (HB1105, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  13. NEFSC 2008 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (HB0807, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  14. NEFSC 1999 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (AL9911, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  15. NEFSC 2005 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0509, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  16. NEFSC 2009 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (HB0901, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  17. NEFSC 2008 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (HB0802, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  18. NEFSC 2000 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0007, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  19. NEFSC 2004 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0409, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  20. NEFSC 2014 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (HB1405, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  1. NEFSC 2015 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (HB1501, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  2. NEFSC 2001 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0110, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  3. NEFSC 2012 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (HB1206, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  4. NEFSC 2002 Winter Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0203, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  5. Nanoelectronics: Thermoelectric Phenomena in «Bottom-Up» Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Yu.A. Kruglyak; P.A. Kondratenko; Yu.М. Lopatkin

    2014-01-01

    Thermoelectric phenomena of Seebeck and Peltier, quality indicators and thermoelectric optimization, ballistic and diffusive phonon heat current are discussed in the frame of the «bottom-up» approach of modern nanoelectronics.

  6. NEFSC 2007 Bottom Trawl Survey Calibration (HB0710, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  7. sir-06-5129_depth_bottom_trinidad_con

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital geospatial data set consists of contours of lines of equal depth to the bottom of the Trinidad Sandstone, the contact between the Trinidad Sandstone...

  8. NEFSC 2002 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0204, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  9. Bottom Sediments -- Cape Ann to Casco Bay (FOLGER75 shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The reconnaissance maps upon which this data set is based show the areal distribution of the major bottom sediment types covering the sea floor off eastern New...

  10. NEFSC 2010 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (HB1002, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  11. Base Stress of the Opened Bottom Cylinder Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建起; 孟晓娟

    2004-01-01

    The base stress of the opened bottom cylinder structure differs greatly from that of the structure with a closed bottom. By investigating the inner soil pressure on the cylinder wall and the base stress of the cylinder base, which were obtained from the model experiments, the interactions among the filler inside the cylinder,subsoil and cylinder are analyzed. The adjusting mechanism of frictional resistance between the inner filler and the wall of the cylinder during the overturning of the cylinder is discussed. Based on the experimental study, a method for calculating the base stress of the opened bottom cylinder structure is proposed. Meanwhile, the formulas for calculating the effective anti-overturning ratio of the opened bottom cylinder are derived.

  12. Nanoelectronics: Thermoelectric Phenomena in «Bottom-Up» Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.A. Kruglyak

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermoelectric phenomena of Seebeck and Peltier, quality indicators and thermoelectric optimization, ballistic and diffusive phonon heat current are discussed in the frame of the «bottom-up» approach of modern nanoelectronics.

  13. NEFSC 2003 Fall Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0305, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  14. 49 CFR 178.811 - Bottom lift test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... truck with the forks centrally positioned and spaced at three quarters of the dimension of the side of... bottom lift test. The IBC must be loaded to 1.25 times its maximum permissible gross mass, the load...

  15. NEFSC 2008 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0801, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  16. NEFSC 2003 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey (DE0303, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  17. Method for treatment of oil well bottom zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The patent deals with a method for the inactivation of sulfate reducing bacteria in an oil well bottom zone. According to the invention the feeding of a bactericidal agent into the well bottom zone is combined with gamma radiation in the zone where the radiation dose is at least 150 krad. A pressure in the range from 2 to 50 MPa is maintained during irrradiation. 1 tab

  18. Controlling near shore nonlinear surging waves through bottom boundary conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Abhik; Kundu, Anjan

    2016-01-01

    Instead of taking the usual passive view for warning of near shore surging waves including extreme waves like tsunamis, we aim to study the possibility of intervening and controlling nonlinear surface waves through the feedback boundary effect at the bottom. It has been shown through analytic result that the controlled leakage at the bottom may regulate the surface solitary wave amplitude opposing the hazardous variable depth effect. The theoretical results are applied to a real coastal bathymetry in India.

  19. Marine plastic litter as an artificial hard bottom fouling ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, J.

    1990-09-01

    20 fouling organisms were observed on plastic litter dredged from the Elbe estuary during July 1990; 60% of the species were typical sessile hard bottom organisms. Most individuals found on this artificial hard bottom were barnacles ( Balanus crenatus, Elminius modestus), the mussel Mytilus edulis and the polychaete Lanice conchilega. All individuals were juveniles which had settled only recently on the plastics. The earliest settlers were not much older than 4 8 weeks.

  20. Time base stability of ocean bottom seismometers (OBS)

    OpenAIRE

    Shariat Panahi, Shahram; Manuel Lázaro, Antonio; Corrêa Alegría, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    During the past decades, Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS) have played a key role in permanent seismic activity monitoring at sea as well as allowing a better understating of the earth interior. Data collected by the instrument can provide information on the ocean bottom sub-layers down to a depth of 40 km beneath the ocean floor. The accuracy of the results directly depends on the temperature stability of the crystal used as the main time base of the equipment. This paper pre...

  1. Experimental Investigations of Effect of Sulphur on Beach Sand–Fly Ash–Asphalt (S-F-A Paving Mixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyakumar, M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main components of the flexible pavements are asphalt and aggregates. But in most of the places in India there is shortage of the good quality aggregates (especially coarse aggregates, at the same time beach sand is available in plenty in many regions. Due to relative abundance of beach sand, the studies on the utilities of the beach sand in paving mixes are worth taking up. But beach Sand-Asphalt mix alone is not suitable for pavement construction, because of its low stability and high air voids. In the present study, Sand-Fly ash-Asphalt-Sulphur (S-F-A-S mixes are being made in different proportions and tested for their properties. Fatigue strength, stability, water sensitivity, stiffness modulus and dynamic modulus tests are carried out at standard test conditions and the results are analyzed for drawing conclusions. This study investigates the potential use of abundant ingredients, which may replace the ones which are scarce in nature.

  2. Evaluation and Study the Effect of Additives and Other Factors on Tensile Strength of Asphalt Paving Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa Khaleel A. Al-Baiti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The resistance of asphaltic concrete to cracking is dependent upon its tensile strength and flexibility characteristics. Also the low tensile strength has recognized as a major contributor to other performance problems. The fatigue life of mixtures decreases exponentially with decreasing of tensile strength. This trend is justified by the loss in stiffness and thereby initiating cracks and stripping. The main objective of this research is intended to study the effect of different variables related with the used materials and the external conditions on the tensile strength and predict a model of indirect tensile strength in asphalt concrete paving materials under the local prevailing conditions and investigate the effect of percent of additives of (Polyestrene resins and Hydrated Lime to enhance the resistance ability of asphalt concrete mixture against distresses. The main affected factors; soaking, asphalt content, compaction, aggregate maximum size and temperature, influence on the indirect tensile strength and presented through a statistics analysis model for tensile strength in asphalt mixture

  3. Using Drainage Slots in Permeable Paving Blocks to Delay the Effects of Clogging: Proof of Concept Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Lucke

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Permeable interlocking concrete pavements (PICP are specifically designed to remove sediment and other pollutants from stormwater runoff. Over time, this can lead to clogging of the PICP system. Previous research has shown that much of the clogging occurs on the bedding aggregate directly below the paving joints, while the remainder of the aggregate is unaffected. This paper describes a proof of concept study to delay the effects of clogging by making more efficient use of the bedding aggregate used in PICP systems. Lateral drainage slots were cut into the underside of PICP blocks to allow sediment-laden stormwater to access, and be filtered by, a greater surface area of bedding aggregate. Eight different slot designs were trialed in the study to determine which of the slot designs made the most efficient use of the bedding aggregate to filter the sediment from the stormwater. The study results demonstrated that the eight drainage slot designs deposited between 25% and 366% more sediment (by weight beneath the pavers than the control pavement. The results of the study suggest that PICP systems with drainage slots cast into their bases would take much longer to clog than unmodified pavers, thereby proving the concept of this study.

  4. Formation of Humic Substances in Weathered MSWI Bottom Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haixia Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at evaluating the humic substances (HSs content from municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI bottom ash and its variation with time and the effect of temperature on HSs formation. The process suggested by IHSS was applied to extract HSs from two different bottom ash samples, and the extracted efficiency with NaOH and Na4P2O7 was compared. MSWI bottom ash samples were incubated at 37∘C and 50∘C for 1 year. HSs and nonhumic substances were extracted from the bottom ash sample with different incubated period by 0.1 M NaOH/Na4P2O7. Results show that the rate of humic acid formation increased originally with incubation time, reached a maximum at 12th week under 37∘C and at 18th week under 50∘C, and then decreased with time. More humic acid in MSWI bottom ash was formed under 50∘C incubated condition compared with that incubated under 37∘C. Also, the elemental compositions of HSs extracted from bottom ash are reported.

  5. Paving the Way

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China’s largest private equity fund focusing on African investments boosts its footprint on the continent THE China-Africa Development Fund (CADFund),which has traditionally kept a low profile,has often been seen in the public spotlight over the past year. The fund and cement producer,Jidong Development Group,decided to invest approximately $220 million to set up a cement plant

  6. Are We Paving Paradise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graue, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This article traces the evolution of kindergarten from its focus on children, to its focus on outcomes, to its current focus on literacy and math. The early childhood parts of kindergarten are losing ground to growing allocation of kindergarten time to academic content. A more ecological approach to kindergarten involves reincorporating play into…

  7. Paving the Way

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Nan

    2011-01-01

    THE China Africa Development Fund (CADFund),which has traditionally kept a low profile,has often been seen in the public spotlight over the past year.The fund and cement producer,Jidong Development Group,decided to invest approximately $220 million to set up a cement plant in South Africa in May 2010.In Ethiopia,a modern leather-processing factory,which was built at a cost of about $26 million and invested by the CADFund and a Chinese leather company,was inaugurated last November.Lower Kafue Gorge Hydropower Station in Zambia,being invested by Sinohydro and Zambia's national electricity company,began construction in July this year and the CADFund has been following up this project.

  8. BOTTOM SHEAR STRESS UNDER WAVE-CURRENT INTERACTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Bing-chen; LI Hua-jun; LEE Dong-yong

    2008-01-01

    The present work adopts the COHERENS-SWAN model developed by the first author through coupling three-dimensional hydrodynamic model (COHERENS) and third-generation wave model (SWAN). Inside the COHERENS-SWAN, the SWAN is regarded as a subroutine and the time- and space-varying current velocity and surface elevation are obtained from the COHERENS. Wave-enhanced bottom shear stress, wave induced surface mixing length and wave dependent surface drag coefficient have been introduced into the COHERENS. Secondly, as wave-enhanced bottom shear stress ("bottom shear stress" described as BSS sometimes in this article) is concerned, a modified bottom shear stress Grant and Madsen model which introduces random wave field is given and introduced to COHERENS-SWAN. COHERENS-SWAN is also adopted to simulate three-dimensional flow in the Yellow River Delta with wave-current co-existing. Four numerical experiments were given to study the effects of wave-current interaction on enhancing bottom shear stress. The simulated current velocities, wave height and wave period match well with field measurement data. The simulated significant wave height and wave period for the case with considering the effects of current can give better agreement with measurement data than the case without involving the effects of current. The introduction of random wave generates lower the bottom shear stress than the case without introducing it. There are obvious differences between bottom shear stress of two way interaction and one way interaction. Velocity field obtained by the COHERENS-SWAN is reasonable according to previous studies and measurements.

  9. Oil and natural gas prospects in South America: Can the petroleum industry pave the way for renewables in Brazil?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large share of Brazil's current investments is concentrated in the development of petroleum resources in new frontiers. Perspectives for large offshore pre-salt fields are particularly good. However, challenges are also huge. On one hand, pre-salt resources development will draw vast amounts of economic and human resources and pose significant macroeconomic risks. On the other hand, the petroleum industry can generate multiplicative effects into the country's economy and, even more importantly, generate rents that can be diverted towards the promotion of renewable energy sources. This paper simulates the rent generation of Brazil's petroleum development up to 2030 according to: the country's current fiscal regime, projections of petroleum supply and a probability analysis of Brent price evolution, and assesses how these economic resources, if properly allocated, can pave the way for an increased use of renewables in Brazil. Findings show that an ambitious energy innovation program based on a target-oriented agency plus a program for solar development would cost less than half the minimum average annual petroleum rent free for investing in renewables between 2013 and 2030. The remaining budget could improve the security of ethanol fuel supply, by avoiding the negative impacts of sugar prices spikes on Brazil's ethanol production. - Highlights: • Nowadays, Brazil´s investments are concentrated in new frontier areas of the petroleum industry. • Rents from this industry can generate multiplicative effects into the country´s economy. • Part of these rents should be diverted to the promotion of renewable energy. • A major energy innovation program based on a target-oriented agency should be funded. • The security of ethanol fuel supply can be improved from these rents as well

  10. Vector-like bottom quarks in composite Higgs models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Like many other models, Composite Higgs Models feature the existence of heavy vector-like quarks. Mixing effects between the Standard Model fields and the heavy states, which can be quite large in case of the top quark, imply deviations from the SM. In this work we investigate the possibility of heavy bottom partners. We show that they can have a significant impact on electroweak precision observables and the current Higgs results if there is a sizeable mixing with the bottom quark. We explicitly check that the constraints from the measurement of the CKM matrix element Vtb are fulfilled, and we test the compatibility with the electroweak precision observables. In particular we evaluate the constraint from the Z coupling to left-handed bottom quarks. General formulae have been derived which include the effects of new bottom partners in the loop corrections to this coupling and which can be applied to other models with similar particle content. Furthermore, the constraints from direct searches for heavy states at the LHC and from the Higgs search results have been included in our analysis. The best agreement with all the considered constraints is achieved for medium to large compositeness of the left-handed top and bottom quarks

  11. Stability of leadership in bottom-up hierarchical organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Galam, S

    2007-01-01

    The stability of a leadership against a growing internal opposition is studied in bottom-up hierarchical organizations. Using a very simple model with bottom-up majority rule voting, the dynamics of power distribution at the various hierarchical levels is calculated within a probabilistic framework. Given a leadership at the top, the opposition weight from the hierarchy bottom is shown to fall off quickly while climbing up the hierarchy. It reaches zero after only a few hierarchical levels. Indeed the voting process is found to obey a threshold dynamics with a deterministic top outcome. Accordingly the leadership may stay stable against very large amplitude increases in the opposition at the bottom level. An opposition can thus grow steadily from few percent up to seventy seven percent with not one a single change at the elected top level. However and in contrast, from one election to another, in the vicinity of the threshold, less than a one percent additional shift at the bottom level can drive a drastic an...

  12. Use of leaching tests to quantify trace element release from waste to energy bottom ash amended pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessler, Justin G; Townsend, Timothy G; Ferraro, Christopher C

    2015-12-30

    A series of roadway tests strips were paved on-site at a landfill in Florida, U.S. Waste to energy (WTE) bottom ash was used as a partial course aggregate replacement in a hot mix asphalt (HMA) and a Portland cement concrete (PCC) pavement, along with control HMA and PCC sections. This allowed for a comparison of the relative degree of leaching between both materials (HMA and PCC) as well as between the ash-amended and control pavements. Batch and monolithic tank leaching tests were conducted on the pavements. Testing of the PCC samples demonstrated that Mo and Al were elevated above regulatory thresholds for both the control and ash amended samples. Further leach testing demonstrated that the release of Mo was likely from the PCC and not a result of the inclusion of the BA into pavement. Batch leach testing of ash-amended HMA samples revealed Sb as a constituent of potential concern. The results of the monolith leaching test displayed leaching of Sb within the same order of magnitude as the regulatory threshold. Calculation of the leachability index (LI) for Sb found that it would have limited mobility when incorporated in the HMA matrix. PMID:26340550

  13. Perspectives on Geoacoustic Inversion of Ocean Bottom Reflectivity Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ross Chapman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on acoustic reflectivity of the ocean bottom, and describes inversion of reflection data from an experiment designed to study the physical properties and structure of the ocean bottom. The formalism of Bayesian inference is reviewed briefly to establish an understanding of the approach for inversion that is in widespread use. A Bayesian inversion of ocean bottom reflection coefficient versus angle data to estimate geoacoustic model parameters of young oceanic crust is presented. The data were obtained in an experiment to study the variation of sound speed in crustal basalt with age of the crust at deep water sites in the Pacific Ocean where the sediment deposits overlying the basalt are very thin. The inversion results show that sound speed of both compressional and shear waves is increasing with crustal age over the track of the experiment where age increased from 40 to 70 million years.

  14. Bottom quark contribution to spin-dependent dark matter detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinmian Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigate a previously overlooked bottom quark contribution to the spin-dependent cross section for Dark Matter (DM scattering from the nucleon. While the mechanism is relevant to any supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model, for illustrative purposes we explore the consequences within the framework of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM. We study two cases, namely those where the DM is predominantly Gaugino or Higgsino. In both cases, there is a substantial, viable region in parameter space (mb˜−mχ≲O(100 GeV in which the bottom contribution becomes important. We show that a relatively large contribution from the bottom quark is consistent with constraints from spin-independent DM searches, as well as some incidental model dependent constraints.

  15. Steam bottoming cycle for an adiabatic diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, E.; Demier, R.; Krepchin, I.; Walker, D.

    1984-01-01

    Steam bottoming cycles using adiabatic diesel engine exhaust heat which projected substantial performance and economic benefits for long haul trucks were studied. Steam cycle and system component variables, system cost, size and performance were analyzed. An 811 K/6.90 MPa state of the art reciprocating expander steam system with a monotube boiler and radiator core condenser was selected for preliminary design. The costs of the diesel with bottoming system (TC/B) and a NASA specified turbocompound adiabatic diesel with aftercooling with the same total output were compared, the annual fuel savings less the added maintenance cost was determined to cover the increase initial cost of the TC/B system in a payback period of 2.3 years. Steam bottoming system freeze protection strategies were developed, technological advances required for improved system reliability are considered and the cost and performance of advanced systes are evaluated.

  16. Bottom Production in Two-Photon Collisions at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Böhrer, A

    2001-01-01

    Results on inclusive and exclusive bottom production in gammagamma collisions are presented. The total cross section of inclusive bottom production is investigated through its leptonic decays at LEP II energies by the experiments L3 and OPAL. The average cross section, after correction for acceptances and efficiencies, is sigma_tot = 13.3 +- 1.5 +- 2.3 pb. The next-to-leading order calculations are lower than the data by a factor three, which corresponds to a difference of more than three standard deviations. ALEPH studied the exclusive bottom production. Searching for the eta_b one candidate is found. Limits on Gamma_gammagamma(eta_b)*BR for 4 and 6 charged particles are extracted. The candidate has a mass of 9.30 +- 0.04 GeV.

  17. OIL DECONTAMINATION OF BOTTOM SEDIMENTS EXPERIMENTAL WORK RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lushnikov Sergey V.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of experimental work during 2004-2005 on oil decontamination of bottom sediments of Lake Schuchye, situated in the Komi Republic (Northern Russia. The cause of thecontamination were huge oil spills occurred after a series of accidental ruptures on the Harjaga-Usinsk and Vozej-Usinsk oil-pipe lines in 1994. Flotation technology was used for the cleaning of bottom sediments.157 tons of crude oil were removed during the course of 2-year experimental work from an area of 4,1 ha.The content of aliphatic and alicyclic oil hydrocarbons was reduced from 53,3 g/kg to 2,2 g/kg, on average.Hydrobiological investigations revealed that bottom sediments started to be inhabited by benthos organisms, dominantly Oligochaeta. Besides Oligochaeta, Chironomidae maggots and Bivalvia were detected. Theappearance of Macrozoobenthos organisms can serve as a bioindicator of water quality.

  18. Fluid flow over arbitrary bottom topography in a channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Srikumar

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, two-dimensional free surface potential flow over an arbitrary bottom in a channel is considered to analyze the behavior of the free surface profile using linear theory. It is assumed that the fluid is inviscid, incompressible and flow is irrotational. Perturbation analysis in conjunction with Fourier transform technique is employed to determine the first order corrections of some important physical quantities such as free surface profile, velocity potential, etc. From the practical point of view, one arbitrary bottom topography is considered to determine the free surface profile since the free surface profile depends on the bottom topography. It is found that the free surface profile is oscillatory in nature, representing a wave propagating downstream and no wave upstream.

  19. 煤沥青作为筑路材料的研究进展%Progress of the Study on Coal Tar Pitch as a Road Paving Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵普; 薛永兵; 李秉正; 曹东伟; 张海燕

    2012-01-01

    The composition and properties of the coal tar pitch (CTP) were reviewed and the advantages and disadvantages of the CTP used as road paving material was discussed in this paper. To improve the properties mentioned above, a modified paving material combining coal tar pitch with petroleum asphalt was investigated, and its application prospect was discussed.%简述了煤沥青的组成和性质,综述了煤沥青改性后用作筑路材料、煤沥青和石油沥青混合料用作筑路材料的研究进展及其毒性防治,展望了筑路用煤沥青材料的研究新方向及应用前景.

  20. Evaluation of the efficacy of decontamination method examined by high-pressure water jet washer at paved road in Chiba Prefectural Kashiwa-no-ha Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To decontaminate radioactive materials (especially cesium-134 and 137) derived from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident has been fulfilled at contaminated regions. This study evaluates the efficacy of decontamination method of high-pressure water jet washer (water pressure of 15 MPa, the rate of water usage was approximately 20 L/m2) that was conducted at paved road in Kashiwa-no-ha Park. The total decontamination area of paved road was 112,996 m2. To investigate concentrations of cesium-134 and 137 in deposits (mainly soil and dust) on the paved road, they were collected at 15 sites by scoop and brush tools before the decontamination was performed. The sum of cesium-134 and 137 concentration of deposits in the studied area fluctuates within 8,200 ∼ 88,600 Bq/kg, with mean value of 43,600 Bq/kg. A distribution map of 1 cm dose equivalent rate (μSv/h) at the height of 1 m above the paved road surface was observed before and after the decontamination procedure was carried out by portable gamma ray measuring instrument connected to monitoring software “Radiprobe” equipped with GPS unit. By means of decontamination procedure, observation of mean 1 cm dose equivalent rate decreased from 0.17 μSv/h to 0.13 μSv/h, which translates into the 1 cm dose equivalent reduction rate of 33% (the natural dose rate derived from the ground is subtracted). Also as a part of management, aiming at screening safety, decontamination wastewaters were collected at 8 sites of water gathering basin to quantify the concentration of cesium-134 and 137. The concentration of cesium-134 and 137 were below the concentration limit of public water defined by the government notice (60 Bq/L for cesium-134, 90 Bq/L for cesium-137), which were compared as a reference. (author)

  1. The Interplay of Top-Down and Bottom-Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Till; Brown, Carol V.; Ozturk, Pinar

    2014-01-01

    The exchange of patient health information across different organizations involved in healthcare delivery has potential benefits for a wide range of stakeholders. However, many governments in Europe and in the U.S. have, despite both top-down and bottom-up initiatives, experienced major barriers...... organizations (HIOs) that facilitate HIE across regional stakeholders remains an unanswered question. This research investigates the impacts of top-down and bottom-up initiatives on the evolutionary paths of HIOs in two contingent states in the U.S. (New Jersey and New York) which had different starting...

  2. Discovering the Higgs Bosons of Minimal Supersymmetry with Bottom Quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Kao, Chung; Sayre, Joshua; Wang, Yili

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the prospects for the discovery of a neutral Higgs boson produced with one bottom quark followed by Higgs decay into a pair of bottom quarks at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. We work within the framework of the minimal supersymmetric standard model. The dominant physics background is calculated with realistic acceptance cuts and efficiencies including the production of $bb\\bar{b}$, $\\bar{b}b\\bar{b}$, $jb\\bar{b}$ ($j = g, q, \\bar{q}$; $q = u, d, s, c$), $t\\bar{t} \\to b\\bar{b}jj\\ell\

  3. On the universal sl_2 invariant of Brunnian bottom tangles

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Sakie

    2011-01-01

    A link L is called Brunnian if every proper sublink of L is trivial. Similarly, a bottom tangle T is called Brunnian if every proper subtangle of T is trivial. In this paper, we give a small subalgebra of the n-fold completed tensor power of U_h(sl_2) in which the universal sl_2 invariant of n-component Brunnian bottom tangles takes values. As an application, we give a divisibility property of the colored Jones polynomial of Brunnian links.

  4. On the universal sl_2 invariant of boundary bottom tangles

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Sakie

    2011-01-01

    The universal sl_2 invariant of bottom tangles has a universality property for the colored Jones polynomial of links. Habiro conjectured that the universal sl_2 invariant of boundary bottom tangles takes values in certain subalgebras of the completed tensor powers of the quantized enveloping algebra U_h(sl_2) of the Lie algebra sl_2. In the present paper, we prove an improved version of Habiro's conjecture. As an application, we prove a divisibility property of the colored Jones polynomial of boundary links.

  5. 30 Gbps bottom-emitting 1060 nm VCSEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatarczak, Anna; Zheng, Y.; Rodes, G. A.;

    2014-01-01

    1060 nm VCSEL-based data transmission over 50 m OM3 MMF at 30 Gbit/s is experimentally demonstrated. A highly-strained bottom-emitting QW VCSEL with p-type modulation doping is used with 3.77 mA bias and 0.55 V data amplitude.......1060 nm VCSEL-based data transmission over 50 m OM3 MMF at 30 Gbit/s is experimentally demonstrated. A highly-strained bottom-emitting QW VCSEL with p-type modulation doping is used with 3.77 mA bias and 0.55 V data amplitude....

  6. Thickness optimization of the flow plate of bottom end piece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jeong Sik; Lee, Jae Kyung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-05-01

    High burnup fuel assembly has been the worldwide trends in nuclear fuel design. The burnup increase will result in more axial irradiation growth of fuel rod and consequently it requires more space between top and bottom nozzles to accommodate the increased axial growth of the fuel rod. In order to get more axial space between top and bottom nozzles, thickness optimization of the flow plate for the Korean fuel assembly (KOFA) as well as DRBEP-DG based on stress criterion was performed by way of finite element code `ANSYS`. 12 tabs., 92 figs., 9 refs. (Author) .new.

  7. Linear waves in two-layer fluids over periodic bottoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Maas, Leo

    2015-11-01

    A new, exact Floquet theory is presented for linear waves in two-layer fluids over a periodic bottom of arbitrary shape and amplitude. A method of conformal transformation is adapted. The solutions are given, in essentially analytical form, for the dispersion relation between wave frequency and generalized wavenumber (Floquet exponent), and for the waveforms of free wave modes. The dispersion relation is the analogue of the classical Lamb's equation for a two-layer fluid over a flat bottom. For internal modes the interfacial wave shows rapid modulation at the scale of its own wavelength that is comparable to bottom wavelength, whereas for surface modes it becomes a long wave carrier for modulating short waves of bottom wavelength. The approximation using a rigid-lid is given. Sample calculations are shown, including the frequencies that are Bragg resonant. Supports to JY by US National Science Foundation (Grant CBET-0845957) and a visitor's grant of the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) during the period of this work, are gratefully acknowledged.

  8. An efficient and not polluting bottom ash extraction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that boiler waste water effluent must meet more and more tighter requirements to comply with environmental regulations; sluice water resulting from bottom ash handling is one of the main problems in this context, and many utilities are under effort to maximize the reuse of the sluice water, and, if possible, to meet the aim of zero water discharge from bottom ash handling system. At the same time ash reuse efforts gain strength in order to minimize waste production. One solution to these problems can be found in an innovative Bottom Ash Extraction System (MAC System), marked by the peculiarity to be a continuous dry ash removal; the system has been developed in the last four years by MAGALDI INDUSTRIE SRL in collaboration with ANSALDO Ricerche, the R and D department of ANSALDO, the main Italian Boiler Manufacturer, and is now installed in six ENEL Boilers. The elimination of the water as separation element between the bottom part of the furnace and the outside atmosphere gives advantages mainly from the environmental view point, but a certain improvement in the boiler efficiency has also been demonstrated by the application of the system

  9. Bottom-Up Analysis of Single-Case Research Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard I.; Vannest, Kimberly J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper defines and promotes the qualities of a "bottom-up" approach to single-case research (SCR) data analysis. Although "top-down" models, for example, multi-level or hierarchical linear models, are gaining momentum and have much to offer, interventionists should be cautious about analyses that are not easily understood, are not governed by…

  10. Reading Nature from a "Bottom-Up" Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magntorn, Ola; Hellden, Gustav

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of ecology teaching and learning in a Swedish primary school class (age 10-11 yrs). A teaching sequence was designed to help students read nature in a river ecosystem. The teaching sequence had a "bottom up" approach, taking as its starting point a common key organism--the freshwater shrimp. From this species and its…

  11. The Use of Coal Bottom Ash In Hot Mix Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Begyina Kodjo Nketsiah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bottom ash is a waste material from coal burnt to generate electric power. It is incombustible and non-biodegradable; hence, the best way to dispose it is by recycling rather than incineration and land filling. Past research on bottom ash in road building have focused mainly on embankment filling, sub-base and base courses; except boiler slag which has received much attention in Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA. Bottom ash from Tanjung Bin Power Station was thus investigated through laboratory testing to justify its use in HMA construction in Malaysia. This Paper analysed the data with regards to performance in HMA. In the Marshall Mix design, the material largely satisfied the Stability, Flow and Stiffness requirements which were comparable to that of conventional aggregates, although void contents were a bit higher. When blended with granite, all the parameters were met. Contrary to past suggestions that bottom ash in HMA consumes more bitumen, the 6.4% (51.20g Optimum Bitumen Content (OBC achieved in this study does not necessarily translate into high consumption, compared to OBC of 5.3% (59.63g in the case of granite. The HMA also proved to be highly resistant to moisture-induced damage and satisfied the minimum JKR specification for Static Uniaxial Load Strain.

  12. Hyperspectral imaging based procedures applied to bottom ash characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Serranti, Silvia

    2007-09-01

    Bottom ash from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerators (MSWIs) is mainly land filled or used as material for the foundation of road in European countries. Bottom ash is usually first crushed to below 40 mm and separated magnetically to recover the steel scrap. The remaining material contains predominantly sand, sinters and pieces of stone, glass and ceramics, which could be used as building material if strict technical and environmental requirements are respected. The main problem is the presence of residual organic matter in the ash and the large surface area presented by the fine fraction that creates leaching values, for elements such as copper, that are above the accepted levels for standard building materials. Main aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility offered by hyperspectral imaging to identify organic matter inside the residues in order to develop control/selection strategies to be implemented inside the bottom ash recycling plant. Reflectance spectra of selected bottom ash samples have been acquired in the VIS-NIR field (400- 1000 nm). Results showed as the organic content of the different samples influences the spectral signatures, in particular an inverse correlation between reflectance level and organic matter content was found.

  13. The fortune at the bottom of the pyramid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coimbatore Krishnarao Prahalad

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on a 1998 working paper from the authors. It was originally published in Strategy+Business n. 26, first quarter 2002, and is one of the basis for the CK Prahalad best seller of the same title. Tha article argues about the possibility and opportunity to transform the bottom of the pyramid market in a profitable market.

  14. Simulation Study on Flat-Bottom Structure Slamming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhen; XIAO Xi; WANG De-yu

    2005-01-01

    A study is performed about the water entry of a flat-bottom structure by use of the FE software MSC Dytran. The aim of the study is to find out the effect of the air cushion and structural mass on the impact peak pressure and the role of splash in the course of water entry. Some FE models are built up and some cases including the flat-bottom structure with different masses impacting water at some constant or initial velocities are calculated. The calculation shows that air plays an important role in the course of water entry of a flat-bottom structure and the compression of the air captured by the flat-bottom structure produces the first peak pressure. And the mass of the structure has a great effect on the peak value of impact pressure. The structure with different masses will produce different impact pressures even at the same impact velocity. Splash will occur a long time after the impact pressure reaches the peak value. A formula is given for the calculation of the peak value of impact pressure in this paper.

  15. GROUTING TECHNIQUES IN BOTTOM SEALING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottom sealing of hazardous waste sites involves the injection or insertion of an inert impermeable and continuous horizontal barrier in soil below the source of contamination. This type of containment strategy could be used in conjunction with other technology such as slurry wal...

  16. Two Dimensional Polymerization of Graphene Oxide: Bottom-up Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Atanasov, Victor; Russev, Stoyan; Lyutov, Lyudmil; Zagranyarski, Yulian; Dimitrova, Iglika; Avdeev, Georgy; Avramova, Ivalina; Vulcheva, Evgenia; Kirilov, Kiril; Tzonev, Atanas; Abrashev, Miroslav; Tsutsumanova, Gichka

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a bottom-up synthesis of structures similar to graphene oxide via a two dimensional polymerization. Experimental evidence and discussion are conveyed as well as a general framework for this two dimensional polymerization. The proposed morphologies and lattice structures of these graphene oxides are derived from aldol condensation of alternating three nucleophilic and three electrophilic centers of benzenetriol.

  17. Steam bottoming cycle for an adiabatic diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulin, E.; Demler, R.; Krepchin, I.; Walker, D.

    1984-03-01

    A study of steam bottoming cycles using adiabatic diesel engine exhaust heat projected substantial performance and economic benefits for long haul trucks. A parametric analysis of steam cycle and system component variables, system cost, size and performance was conducted. An 811 K/6.90 MPa state-of-the-art reciprocating expander steam system with a monotube boiler and radiator core condenser was selected for preliminary design. When applied to a NASA specified turbo-charged adiabatic diesel the bottoming system increased the diesel output by almost 18%. In a comparison of the costs of the diesel with bottoming system (TC/B) and a NASA specified turbocompound adiabatic diesel with after-cooling with the same total output, the annual fuel savings less the added maintenance cost was determined to cover the increased initial cost of the TC/B system in a payback period of 2.3 years. Also during this program steam bottoming system freeze protection strategies were developed, technological advances required for improved system reliability were considered and the cost and performance of advanced systems were evaluated.

  18. Flowable Backfill Materials from Bottom Ash for Underground Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Joong Lee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between strength and strain in manufacturing controlled low strength materials to recycle incineration bottom ash. Laboratory tests for controlled low strength materials with bottom ash and recycled in-situ soil have been carried out. The optimum mixing ratios were 25%–45% of in-situ soil, 30% of bottom ash, 10%–20% of fly ash, 0%–3% of crumb rubber, 3% of cement, and 22% of water. Each mixture satisfied the standard specifications: a minimum 20 cm of flowability and 127 kPa of unconfined compressive strength. The average secant modulus (E50 was (0.07–0.08 qu. The ranges of the internal friction angle and cohesion for mixtures were 36.5°–46.6° and 49.1–180 kPa, respectively. The pH of all of the mixtures was over 12, which is strongly alkaline. Small-scale chamber tests for controlled low strength materials with bottom ash and recycled in-situ soil have been carried out. Vertical deflection of 0.88–2.41 mm and horizontal deflection of 0.83–3.72 mm were measured during backfilling. The vertical and horizontal deflections of controlled low strength materials were smaller than that of sand backfill.

  19. Rawlsian governments and the race to the bottom

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Marie Lozachmeur; Pierre Pestieau; Jon Hamilton

    2002-01-01

    This paper argues that there is no race to the bottom when the social planner adopts a Rawlsian criterion, only the poor are mobile and they do not work at the optimal tax outcome. This argument is developed within a two skill-model of optimal income taxation.

  20. Charm and bottom quark masses on the lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Lytle, Andrew T

    2015-01-01

    Lattice determinations of quark mass have made significant progress in the last few years. I will review recent advances in calculations of charm and bottom mass, which are near to achieving percent-level precision and with fully controlled systematics. Precise knowledge of these parameters is of particular interest for precision Higgs studies at future accelerators.

  1. Water Surface Wave in a Trough with Periodical Topographic Bottom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qi; ZHANG Hua; MIAO Guo-Qing; WEI Rong-Jue

    2007-01-01

    @@ We present the theoretical and experimental results of water surface wave in a trough with periodical topographic bottom under parametric excitation. There are 19 steps of the same size periodically inserted into the trough. It is found that waveforms observed in the experiment are consistent with theoretical ones. Moreover, some complex and interesting phenomena arise in the experiment due to nonlinearity.

  2. Rapid bottom melting widespread near Antarctic ice sheet grounding lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rignot, E.; Jacobs, S.

    2002-01-01

    As continental ice from Antartica reaches the grounding line and begins to float, its underside melts into the ocean. Results obtained with satellite radar interferometry reveal that bottom melt rates experienced by large outlet glaciers near their grounding lines are far higher than generally assumed.

  3. 49 CFR 179.200-17 - Bottom outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... valve due to stresses or shocks incident to transportation. (5) Bottom outlet nozzle of interior valves... the root of the “V” be more than 1/4 inch. The outlet nozzle on interior valves or the valve body on... inside closure seat or plug. In no case may the nozzle wall thickness at the root of the “V” be more...

  4. ADC Module built for an ocean bottom seismometer (OBS)

    OpenAIRE

    Carreras, Normandino; Shariat Panahi, Shahram; Manuel Lázaro, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the new data acquisition system designed for autonomous Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS) to study the earth dynamics and internal structure. This part is the responsible to acquire the signals from two different sensors to be processed. The analog-to-digital converter module is based on input amplifiers, modulator and digital filter.

  5. Data acquisition system for a cabled ocean bottom seismometer (OBS)

    OpenAIRE

    Rogalski, Tomasz; Shariat Panahi, Shahram; Río Fernandez, Joaquín del; Manuel Lázaro, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS) are highly used to monitor seismic activities at sea. They are also used to detect tsunamis and generate warning alarms. This paper presents a data acquisition system built for an OBS with capability to synchronize time through IEEE-1588 protocol. This acquisition system provides real time data through the Ethernet making it suitable for OBSs deployed at seafloor observatories.

  6. Bottom Sediments of Georges Bank (WIGLEY61 shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected as part of a survey of the bottom sediments of Georges Bank. The purpose of the survey was to provide basic data for use in studying the...

  7. Bottom-up fabrication of nanohole arrays loaded with gold nanoparticles: extraordinary plasmonic sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Markus; Quint, Stefan B; Klenk, Simon; Pacholski, Claudia

    2014-12-18

    A chemical route to periodic hole arrays in gold films whose holes are loaded with single gold nanoparticles is presented, paving the road to mass production of highly sensitive plasmonic sensors on large areas.

  8. Bottom temperature and salinity distribution and its variability around Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochumsen, Kerstin; Schnurr, Sarah M.; Quadfasel, Detlef

    2016-05-01

    The barrier formed by the Greenland-Scotland-Ridge (GSR) shapes the oceanic conditions in the region around Iceland. Deep water cannot be exchanged across the ridge, and only limited water mass exchange in intermediate layers is possible through deep channels, where the flow is directed southwestward (the Nordic Overflows). As a result, the near-bottom water masses in the deep basins of the northern North Atlantic and the Nordic Seas hold major temperature differences. Here, we use near-bottom measurements of about 88,000 CTD (conductivity-temperature-depth) and bottle profiles, collected in the period 1900-2008, to investigate the distribution of near-bottom properties. Data are gridded into regular boxes of about 11 km size and interpolated following isobaths. We derive average spatial temperature and salinity distributions in the region around Iceland, showing the influence of the GSR on the near-bottom hydrography. The spatial distribution of standard deviation is used to identify local variability, which is enhanced near water mass fronts. Finally, property changes within the period 1975-2008 are presented using time series analysis techniques for a collection of grid boxes with sufficient data resolution. Seasonal variability, as well as long term trends are discussed for different bottom depth classes, representing varying water masses. The seasonal cycle is most pronounced in temperature and decreases with depth (mean amplitudes of 2.2 °C in the near surface layers vs. 0.2 °C at depths > 500 m), while linear trends are evident in both temperature and salinity (maxima in shallow waters of +0.33 °C/decade for temperature and +0.03/decade for salinity).

  9. Control of lettuce bottom rot by isolates of Trichoderma spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zayame Vegette Pinto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bottom rot, caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG 1-IB, is an important disease affecting lettuce in Brazil, where its biological control with Trichoderma was not developed yet. The present study was carried out with the aim of selecting Trichoderma isolates to be used in the control of lettuce bottom rot. Forty-six Trichoderma isolates, obtained with baits containing mycelia of the pathogen, were evaluated in experiments carried out in vitro and in vivo in a greenhouse in two steps. In the laboratory, the isolates were evaluated for their capabilities of parasitizing and producing toxic metabolic substances that could inhibit the pathogen mycelial growth. In the first step of the in vivo experiments, the number and the dry weight of lettuce seedlings of the cultivar White Boston were evaluated. In the second step, 12 isolates that were efficient in the first step and showed rapid growth and abundant sporulation in the laboratory were tested for their capability of controlling bottom rot in two repeated experiments, and had their species identified. The majority of the isolates of Trichoderma spp. (76% showed high capacity for parasitism and 50% of them produced toxic metabolites capable of inhibiting 60-100% of R. solani AG1-IB mycelial growth. Twenty-four isolates increased the number and 23 isolates increased the dry weight of lettuce seedlings inoculated with the pathogen in the first step of the in vivo experiments.In both experiments of the second step, two isolates of T. virens, IBLF 04 and IBLF 50, reduced the severity of bottom rot and increased the number and the dry weight of lettuce seedlings inoculated with R. solani AG1-IB. These isolates had shown a high capacity for parasitism and production of toxic metabolic substances, indicating that the in vitro and in vivo steps employed in the present study were efficient in selecting antagonists to be used for the control of lettuce bottom rot.

  10. 碎石路征-83例薄层CT表现%Study on the crazy-paving pattern:83 cases of thin-section CT findings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    敖国昆; 董莘; 洪剑

    2014-01-01

    Objective:The purpose of this paper is to illustrate different diseases that cause this crazy-paving pattern and to correlate the thin-section CT findings with the histopathological findings. Methods: A retrospective review of the medical records of our radiological computed tomography database was performed from January 2010 until December 2012,searching for patients reported to have a crazy-paving pattern on a thin-section CT of the chest. In total, 83 patients with a crazy-paving pattern were retained and reviewed. Results:The crazy-paving pattern consists of interlobular septal and intralobular interstitial thickening superimposed on an area of ground-glass attenuation on thin-section CT scans. We identified 83 cases that presented with the crazy-paving pattern, inclould infection(bacterial infection n=6,viral infection n=16,fungal infection n=1,and mixed infection n=12); ARDS n=4; acute pulmonary oedema n=3; interstitial lung disease (UIP, NSIP) n=18; adenocarcinomas n=3; lymphangitis carcinomatosis n=3;lymphoma pulmonary infiltration n=2;radiation pneumonitis n=5;sarcoidosis n=1;alveolar proteinosis n=4;alveolar hemorrhage n=4; lipid pneumonia n=1. Conclusion: The crazy-paving pattern on thin-section CT is a non-specific signs, can be seen in infections, tumor, as well as some cryptogenetic diseases. Nevertheless, familiar with these common diseases, allows us to narrow the differential diagnosis, even prompted the diagnosis of certain diseases in the appropriate clinical setting.%目的:通过列举导致碎石路征表现各类疾病,比较其薄层CT的表现与组织病理学表现的关系。方法:回顾性的分析309医院放射科CT扫描数据库有关碎石路征报道的胸部薄层CT83例患者资料,对碎石路征表现的病例进行研究。结果:83例均表现为碎石路征的病例,包括感染35例(细菌感染6例,病毒性感染16例,真菌感染1例,混合感染12例);急性呼吸窘迫综合征(ARDS)4

  11. Enhanced E-bed bottoms upgrading using latest catalytic technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toshima, H.; Mayo, S.; Sedlacek, Z.; Hughes, T.; De Wind, M. [Albermarle Corp., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-07-01

    The profitability of refineries depends on heavy oil upgrading in terms of price, conversion, yields and quality of the product. The Ebullated-bed process represents a solution for the effective primary upgrading of heavy oils. Since the 1970s, Albemarle has commercialized several E-bed catalysts to upgrade the bottoms in low sediment and high hydrogenation operations. Although an E-bed is used to maximize the conversion of vacuum residuum (VR), it is often limited by fouling caused by sediment in the product. In order to reduce sedimentation in the product, Albemarle developed an improved E-bed catalytic technology by characterizing the asphaltenes and sediments in order to better understand the oil chemistry and compatibility. The most recent development involves the patented catalyst-staging technology and the improved single catalyst application. Both achieve very low sediment or higher hydrodesulphurization (HDS) and Conradson carbon (CCR) removal for improved bottom upgrading. tabs., figs.

  12. Importance of Nonperturbative QCD Parameters for Bottom Mesons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Upadhyay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of nonperturbative quantum chromodynamics (QCD parameters is discussed in context to the predicting power for bottom meson masses and isospin splitting. In the framework of heavy quark effective theory, the work presented here focuses on the different allowed values of the two nonperturbative QCD parameters used in heavy quark effective theory formula, and using the best fitted parameter, masses of the excited bottom meson states in jp=1/2+ doublet in strange and nonstrange sectors are calculated here. The calculated masses are found to be matching well with experiments and other phenomenological models. The mass splitting and hyperfine splitting have also been analyzed for both strange and nonstrange heavy mesons with respect to spin and flavor symmetries.

  13. Masses and decay widths of radially excited Bottom mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Pallavi

    2016-01-01

    Inspired from the experimental information coming from LHC [2,3] and Babar [4] for radially higher excited charmed mesons, we predict the masses and decays of the n=2 S-wave and P- wave bottom mesons using the effective lagrangian approach. Using heavy quark effective theory approach, non-perturbative parameters (?, ?1 and ?2) are fitted using the available experimental and theoretical informations on charm masses. Using heavy quark symmetry and the values of these fitted parameters, the masses of radially excited even and odd parity bottom mesons with and without strangness are predicted. These predicted masses led in constraining the decay widths of these 12 states, and also shed light on the unknown values of the higher hadronic coupling constants eeg 2 SH and eeg 2 TH. Studying the properties like masses, decays of 2S and 2P states and some hadronic couplings would help forthcoming experiments to look into these states in future.

  14. Research on rotary forming mechanism of cartridge bottom by FEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘钢; 姚雄亮; 黄少东; 唐全波

    2003-01-01

    The rotary forging of a cartridge bottom is simulated by finite element method with DEFORMTM. The analysis of stress and strain rate results indicates that the deformation conditions and the final geometry of a product are not completely axis-symmetrical under the partial loading conditions during the rotary forging operations. It is therefore required to have a few more rotary forging cycles at the end of total feeding to eliminate nonuniformity. The results of simulation show that the optimization of rotary forging process conditions can be achieved to avoid the underfill defect resulting from improper process conditions. This technology can be used to manufacture ring components with thin bottoms by properly controlling the working process and the tooling motion.

  15. Inverse problem of bottom slope design for aerator devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建华; 樊博; 许唯临

    2013-01-01

    Air entrainment is an effective approach to protect release works from cavitation damage. The traditional method of aera-tor device designs is that, for given flow conditions, the geometries of the aerator device are designed and then the effects are experi-mentally tested for cavitation damage control. The present paper proposes an inverse problem method of determining the bottom slopes in front of and behind an aerator if the requirements of air entrainment, flow conditions and some of aerator geometric para-meters are given. An RBF neural network model is developed and the relevant bottom slopes are calculated in different conditions of flow and geometry on the basis of the data of 19 aerator devices from different discharge tunnels with safe operation. The case study shows that the methodology provides an effective way to design aerator devices under given target conditions.

  16. Bottom-up effects on attention capture and choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peschel, Anne; Orquin, Jacob Lund; Mueller Loose, Simone

    Attention processes and decision making are accepted to be closely linked together because only information that is attended to can be incorporated in the decision process. Little is known however, to which extent bottom-up processes of attention affect stimulus selection and therefore...... the information available to form a decision. Does changing one visual cue in the stimulus set affect attention towards this cue and what does that mean for the choice outcome? To address this, we conducted a combined eye tracking and choice experiment in a consumer choice setting with visual shelf simulations...... salient. The observed effect on attention also carries over into increased choice likelihood. From these results, we conclude that even small changes in the choice capture attention based on bottom-up processes. Also for eye tracking studies in other domains (e.g. search tasks) this means that stimulus...

  17. The bottom oxygen border of bioluminescence distribution in ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavoruev, Valerii

    2006-02-01

    From materials of forwarding researches follows, that the depth of deposition of the bottom border of bioluminescence plankton has not correlation with any of measurable hydrological parameters. As the reaction of bioluminescence is oxygen depended, it was logical to assume, that the situation of the bottom maximum of luminescence plankton is determined by concentration of oxygen. The data of vertical distribution of bioluminescence intensity of plankton and concentration of oxygen received in the Black Sea and near to east coast of America were investigated. Is established, that the deep maximum of bioluminescence of plankton is found out between isooxygen 0.35 and 0.20 ml/l. At concentration of oxygen in water is lower 0.10-0.20 ml/l the bioluminescence of plankton it is not found out.

  18. Precious Metals in Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Bottom Ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muchova, Lenka; Bakker, Erwin; Rem, Peter [Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Materials and Environment, TU Delft (Netherlands)], E-mail: P.C.REM@TUDELFT.NL

    2009-04-15

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash contains economically significant levels of silver and gold. Bottom ashes from incinerators at Amsterdam and Ludwigshafen were sampled, processed, and analyzed to determine the composition, size, and mass distribution of the precious metals. In order to establish accurate statistics of the gold particles, a sample of heavy non-ferrous metals produced from 15 tons of wet processed Amsterdam ash was analyzed by a new technology called magnetic density separation (MDS). Amsterdam's bottom ash contains approximately 10 ppm of silver and 0.4 ppm of gold, which was found in particulate form in all size fractions below 20 mm. The sample from Ludwigshafen was too small to give accurate values on the gold content, but the silver content was found to be identical to the value measured for the Amsterdam ash. Precious metal value in particles smaller than 2 mm seems to derive mainly from waste of electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), whereas larger precious metal particles are from jewelry and constitute the major part of the economic value. Economical analysis shows that separation of precious metals from the ash may be viable with the presently high prices of non-ferrous metals. In order to recover the precious metals, bottom ash must first be classified into different size fractions. Then, the heavy non-ferrous (HNF) metals should be concentrated by physical separation (eddy current separation, density separation, etc.). Finally, MDS can separate gold from the other HNF metals (copper, zinc). Gold-enriched concentrates can be sold to the precious metal smelter and the copper-zinc fraction to a brass or copper smelter.

  19. A review of the open charm and open bottom mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Hua-Xing; Liu, Xiang; Liu, Yan-Rui; Zhu, Shi-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery of the first charmed meson in 1976, many open-charm and open-bottom mesons were observed. In 2003 two narrow charm-strange states $D_{s0}^*(2317)$ and $D_{s1}(2460)$ were discovered by the BaBar and CLEO Collaborations, respectively. After that, more excited heavy mesons were reported. In this work, we review the experimental and theoretical progress in this field.

  20. Biphase turbine bottoming cycle for a diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, S.; Hays, L.

    1977-02-15

    Application of a two-phase turbine system to waste heat recovery was examined. Bottoming cycle efficiencies ranging from 15 to 30% were calculated for a 720/sup 0/F diesel exhaust temperature. A single stage demonstration unit, designed for non-toxic fluids (water and DowTherm A) and for atmospheric seals and bearings, had a cycle efficiency of 23%. The net output power was 276 hp at 8,100 rpm, increasing the total shaft power from 1,800 hp for the diesel alone, to 2,076 hp for the combined system. A four stage organic turbine, for the same application, had a rotational speed of 14,700 rpm while a four stage steam turbine had 26,000 rpm. Fabrication drawings were prepared for the turbine and nozzle. The major improvement leading to higher cycle efficiency and lower turbine rpm was found to be the use of a liquid component with lower sensible heat. A reduction in capital cost was found to result from the use of a contact heat exchanger instead of tube-fin construction. The cost for a contact heat exchanger was only $35-52/kWe compared to $98/kWe for a tube-fin heat exchanger. Design drawings and materials list were prepared. A program resulting in the demonstration of a two-phase bottoming system was planned and the required cost estimated. The program would result in a feasibility test of the nozzle and turbine at the end of the first year, a laboratory performance test of the bottoming system by the end of the second year and a field demonstration test and laboratory endurance test of the bottoming system during the third year. The blowdown test rig for the first year's program and test turbine were designed.

  1. Bottom-up Budgeting FY 2015 Assessment: Camarines Sur

    OpenAIRE

    Maramot, Joyce Anne; Yasay, Donald B.; de Guzman, Reinier

    2015-01-01

    Bottom-up budgeting (BUB) is an adaptation of the participatory budgeting model in identifying and providing solutions to poverty at the municipal/city level. Leaders of civil society organizations engage with LGU officials in formulating a poverty alleviation plan to be considered in preparing the budget of national agencies the following fiscal year. This paper reports on how the guideline was implemented in three municipalities in Camarines Sur. The study then presents suggestions and reco...

  2. Effect of bottom cell properties on micromorph tandem device performance

    OpenAIRE

    Delli Veneri, Paola; Mercaldo, Lucia Vittoria; PRIVATO Carlo

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Micromorph tandem solar cells represent an elegant way of overcoming the efficiency limits of single-junction solar cells and reducing the light-induced degradation of amorphous silicon films. Micromorph devices have been realized on Asahi U-type TCO-covered glass substrates by very high frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (VHF-PECVD) at 100 MHz at low substrate temperature (150 ?C). For the bottom cell different growth regimes have been explored by changi...

  3. Bottom-up approaches for defining future climate mitigation commitments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Elzen, M.G.J.; Berk, M.M.

    2004-07-01

    This report analyses a number of alternative, bottom-up approaches, i.e. technology and performance standards; technology Research and Development agreements, sectoral targets (national /transnational), sector based Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), and sustainable development policies and measures (SD-PAMs). Included are technology and performance standards; technology, research and development agreements, sectoral targets (national /transnational), and sector-based (CDM), and sustainable development policies and measures (SD-PAMs). A more bottom-up approach for defining national emission targets, the so-called Triptych approach is also explored and compared with more top-down types of approaches (Multi-Stage and Contraction and Convergence) based on a quantitative and qualitative analysis. While bottom-up approaches are concluded as being valuable components of a future climate regime, they, in themselves, do not seem to offer a real alternative to emission reduction and limitation targets, as they provide little certainty about the overall environmental effectiveness of climate policies. In comparison with Multi-stage and the C and C approaches, the global Triptych approach offers the opportunity of early participation by developing countries' without the risk of creating large amounts of surplus emissions as in C and C; in using the approach we also avoid the need for dividing up the non-Annex I countries as in Multi-Stage. However, there will be substantial implementation problems related to the institutional and technical capabilities required. Thus it would seem better to exclude the least developing countries and have them first participate in some of the alternative bottom-up approaches.

  4. CFD SIMULATION OF A STIRRED DISHED BOTTOM VESSEL

    OpenAIRE

    Petr Vlček; Jan Skočilas; Tomáš Jirout

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with simulation of the fluid flow in a stirred curved-bottom vessel equipped with three curved blade impellers. The power number and the impeller flow rate number are dimensionless characteristics of the system determined from simulation results and compared with relevant experimental data or data from the literature. The model of the system was created in the conventional Gambit and Fluent program. The system is solved for two designs — for an unbaffled vessel, and for a baf...

  5. Deghosting of Ocean Bottom Cable Data:Two approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Jagmeet; Subramanyam, K.

    2005-01-01

    Two filter based approaches for deghosting of Ocean Bottom Cable data are presented. One of them is phase shifting of geophone followed by least square matching of cross ghosted geophone and hydrophone data.In the second approach,phase shifting of geophone is followed by direct matching of geophone's amplitude spectrum with that of the hydrophone within the seismic bandwidth.Results obtained from both approaches were found to be at par with one of the proprietary softwares available with ONGC.

  6. Energy of tsunami waves generated by bottom motion

    OpenAIRE

    Dutykh, Denys; Dias, Frédéric

    2009-01-01

    20 pages, 12 figures. Accepted to Proceedings of the Royal Society A. Other authors papers and supporting material can be downloaded at http://www.lama.univ-savoie.fr/~dutykh International audience In the vast literature on tsunami research, few articles have been devoted to energy issues. A theoretical investigation on the energy of waves generated by bottom motion is performed here. We start with the full incompressible Euler equations in the presence of a free surface and derive both...

  7. Magic for Filter Optimization in Dynamic Bottom-up Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Minnen, G

    1996-01-01

    Off-line compilation of logic grammars using Magic allows an incorporation of filtering into the logic underlying the grammar. The explicit definite clause characterization of filtering resulting from Magic compilation allows processor independent and logically clean optimizations of dynamic bottom-up processing with respect to goal-directedness. Two filter optimizations based on the program transformation technique of Unfolding are discussed which are of practical and theoretical interest.

  8. Open bottom mesons in hot asymmetric hadronic medium

    CERN Document Server

    Pathak, Divakar

    2014-01-01

    The in-medium masses and optical potentials of $B$ and ${\\bar B}$ mesons are studied in an isospin asymmetric, strange, hot and dense hadronic environment using a chiral effective model. The chiral $SU(3)$ model originally designed for the light quark sector, is generalized to include the heavy quark sector ($c$ and $b$) to derive the interactions of the $B$ and $\\bar B$ mesons with the light hadrons. Due to large mass of bottom quark, we use only the empirical form of these interactions for the desired purpose, while treating the bottom degrees of freedom to be frozen in the medium. Hence, all medium effects are due to the in-medium interaction of the light quark content of these open-bottom mesons. Both $B$ and $\\bar B$ mesons are found to experience net attractive interactions in the medium, leading to lowering of their masses in the medium. The mass degeneracy of particles and antiparticles, ($B^+$, $B^-$) as well as ($B^0$, ${\\bar B}^0$), is observed to be broken in the medium, due to equal and opposite ...

  9. Workability and strength of lignite bottom ash geopolymer mortar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathonsaowaphak, Apha; Chindaprasirt, Prinya; Pimraksa, Kedsarin

    2009-08-30

    In this paper, the waste lignite bottom ash from power station was used as a source material for making geopolymer. Sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) were used as liquid for the mixture and heat curing was used to activate the geopolymerization. The fineness of bottom ash, the liquid alkaline/ash ratio, the sodium silicate/NaOH ratio and the NaOH concentration were studied. The effects of the additions of water, NaOH and napthalene-based superplasticizer on the workability and strength of the geopolymer mortar were also studied. Relatively high strength geopolymer mortars of 24.0-58.0 MPa were obtained with the use of ground bottom ash with 3% retained on sieve no. 325 and mean particle size of 15.7 microm, using liquid alkaline/ash ratios of 0.429-0.709, the sodium silicate/NaOH ratios of 0.67-1.5 and 7.5-12.5M NaOH. The incorporation of water improved the workability of geopolymer mortar more effectively than the use of napthalene-based superplasticizer with similar slight reduction in strengths. The addition of NaOH solution slightly improves the workability of the mix while maintaining the strength of the geopolymer mortars.

  10. Bottom Baryon Decays to Pseudoscalar Meson and Pentaquark

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Hai-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Based on SU(3) flavor symmetry, we decompose the decay amplitudes of bottom baryon decays to a pseudoscalar meson and an octet or a decuplet pentaquark in terms of three invariant amplitudes $T_1$ and $T_{2,3}$ corresponding to external $W$-emission and internal $W$-emission diagrams, respectively. For antitriplet bottom baryons $\\Lambda_b^0,\\Xi_b^0$ and $\\Xi_b^-$, their decays to a decuplet pentaquark proceed only through the internal $W$-emission diagram. Assuming the dominance from the external $W$-emission amplitudes, we present an estimate of the decay rates relative to $\\Lambda_b^0\\to P_p^+K^-$, where $P_p^+$ is the hidden-charm pentaquark with the same light quark content as the proton. Hence, our numerical results will provide a very useful guideline to the experimental search for pentaquarks in bottom baryon decays. For example, $\\Xi_b^0\\to P_{\\Sigma^+}K^-$, $\\Xi_b^-\\to P_{\\Sigma^-}\\bar K^0$, $\\Omega_b^-\\to P_{\\Xi^-}\\bar K^0$ and $\\Omega_b^-\\to P_{\\Xi^0}K^-$ may have rates comparable to that of $\\Lam...

  11. Simulation of Random Waves and Associated Laminar Bottom Shear Stresses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao-Lin SHEN; Ching-Jer HUANG

    2008-01-01

    This work presents a new approach for simulating the random waves in viscous fluids and the associated bottom shear stresses. By generating the incident random waves in a numerical wave flume and solving the unsteady two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations and the fully nonlinear free surface boundary conditions for the fluid flows in the flume, the viscous flows and laminar bottom shear stresses induced by random waves are determined. The deterministic spectral amplitude method implemented by use of the fast Fourier transform algorithm was adopted to generate the incident random waves. The accuracy of the numerical scheme is confirmed by comparing the predicted wave spectrum with the target spectrum and by comparing the numerical transfer function between the shear stress and the surface elevation with the theoretical transfer function. The maximum bottom shear stress caused by random waves, computed by this wave model, is compared with that obtained by Myrhaug's model (1995). The transfer function method is also employed to determine the maximum shear stress, and is proved accurate.

  12. Time variable bottom water outflow in the Northwestern Weddell Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzow, Torsten; Rohardt, Gerd

    2015-04-01

    The Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) has shown widespread warming in recent decades, with implications for sea level rise and global heat uptake. Anomalously warm AABW has recently been reported to have reached the Brazil basin in the South Atlantic, while the warming further south partly seems to have come to a halt. The Weddell Sea represents the primary source of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) formation in the Southern Ocean. More than 60% of the AABW are supplied by Weddell Sea Deep Water, of which Weddell Sea Bottom Water (WSBW) is the main source. WSBW descends down the continental slope along the western margin of the Weddell Sea as a northward flowing plume, thereby entraining warmer ambient waters. The plume has been observed using moored current meters and temperature sensors between 1989 and 1998 and between 2005 and 2012 near the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula, complemented by repeated cross-slope CTD sections along the mooring array. In this study we extend the WSBW volume transport and temperature time series of Fahrbach et al. (2001) originally covering the 1989-1998 interval by the more recent period. We will report on both seasonal to inter-annual variability and possible longer-term trends in both volume transport and temperature of WSBW. The results will be discussed in the context of changes in the source areas of WSBW, such as the breakup of parts of the Larsen Ice Shelf on the eastern Arctic Peninsula, possibly fueling the formation dense water on the shelf.

  13. A combination of Monte Carlo Temperature Basin Paving and Graph theory:Water cluster low energy structures and completeness of search

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    RAJAN SHRIVASTAVA; AVIJIT RAKSHIT; SUDHANSHU SHANKER; LOVEKESH VIG; PRADIPTA BANDYOPADHYAY

    2016-09-01

    The knowledge of degree of completeness of energy landscape search by stochastic algorithms is often lacking. A graph theory based method is used to investigate the completeness of search performed by Monte Carlo Temperature Basin Paving (MCTBP) algorithm for (H₂O)n, (n=6, 7, and 20). In the second part of the work, a combination of MCTBP and graph theory was used to devise a new algorithm for finding low energy structures of (H₂O)n, (n=21-25), where input structures for (H₂O)n comes from the graphs of (H₂O)n−1. The new algorithm can be a complementary tool to the MCTBP method.

  14. The Paving Stones: initial feed-back on an attempt to apply the AGILE principles for the development of a CubeSat space mission to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segret, Boris; Semery, Alain; Vannitsen, Jordan; Mosser, Benoît.; Miau, Jiun-Jih; Juang, Jyh-Ching; Deleflie, Florent

    2014-08-01

    The AGILE principles in the software industry seems well adapted to the paradigm of CubeSat missions that involve students for the development of space missions. Some of well-known engineering and program processes are revisited on the example of an interplanetary CubeSat mission profile that has been developed by several teams of students in various countries and at various educational levels since 02/2013. The lessons learned at adapting traditional space mission methods are emphasized and they produce a metaphoric image of paving stones.

  15. Splitting strength and abrasion resistance of concrete paving blocks as a function of dry bulk specific gravity and ultrasonic pulse velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haktanir, T.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Artificial Portland cement concrete paving blocks are widely used in many countries. These paving blocks come in a variety of designs with names such as "Interlocking" and "Italian Flower", and are manufactured with special machinery using rather high quality concrete having a compressive strength of about 50 MPa. Concrete blocks are employed instead of natural cobble stones for essentially economic reasons. The laboratoiy equipment required to measure paving block splitting strength and abrasion resistance, two of the chief properties to be tested in quality checks, is costly and the tests are time-consuming and labour-intensive. The present paper reports on a detailed experimental study performed to relate the splitting strength and abrasion resistance of concrete paving blocks to "dry bulk specific gravity" (DBSG and "ultrasonic pulse velocity" (UPV, respectively. Statistically significant regression equations describing the dependence of splitting strength on DBSG and abrasion resistance on UPV were obtained with data from random samples of material provided by seven different manufacturers.

    RESUMEN Los bloques para pavimentos (adoquines elaborados con hormigón se utilizan habitualmente en numerosos países. Estos bloques de pavimentación se diseñan de diversas formas, como por ejemplo "Entrelazado " ("Interlocking " o "Flor Italiana " ("Italian Flower"; se fabrican con maquinaria especial y con frecuencia se utiliza hormigón de la más alta calidad, con resistencia a la compresión de alrededor de 50 MPa. La razón de utilizar bloques de hormigón en lugar de bloques de piedra natural es básicamente económica. Los equipos de laboratorio necesarios para medir la resistencia a la compresión y a la abrasión -dos de las propiedades más importantes para determinar la calidad de los bloques en estudio- son costosos y los ensayos requieren tiempo y mano de obra considerables. En el presente trabajo se exponen ensayos experimentales

  16. Pembuatan Paving Block Dengan Menggunakan Limbah Las Karbit Sebagai Bahan Additif Dengan Perekat Limbah Padat Abu Terbang Batubara (Fly Ash) Pltu Labuhan Angin Sibolga

    OpenAIRE

    Muliyasih, Sri

    2011-01-01

    Many kinds of analysis about the utilizing of fly ash and carbide waste for the making of concrete have been conducted. The analysis done here uses the two of waste they are; fly ash and carbide waste mixed with cement, sand, and water to result the product what is called paving block, with the comparison cement :sand :water = 1 : 4 : 0,6. for the use of fly ash 10 % and 20 % of the volume cement, percentage of carbide waste used is started from 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% dan 50% . The sample of the...

  17. Evaluation of aseismic integrity in HTTR core-bottom structure. Pt. 1. Aseismic test for core-bottom structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aseismic tests were carried out using (1)/(5)-scale and (1)/(3)-scale models of the core-bottom structure of the HTTR to quantitatively evaluate the response of acceleration, strain, impact load etc. The following conclusions are obtained. (i) The frequency response of the keyway strain is correlative with that of the impact acceleration on the hot plenum block. (ii) It was confirmed through (1)/(5)-scale and (1)/(3)-scale model tests that the applied similarity law is valid to evaluate the seismic response characteristics of the core-bottom structure. (ii) The stress of graphite components estimated from the scale model test using S2-earthquake excitation was sufficiently lower than the allowable stress used as the design criterion. ((orig.))

  18. Evaluation of the relationship between PAH content and mutagenic activity of fumes from roofing and paving asphalts and coal tar pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, M L; Beatty, P W; Fetzer, J C; Glickman, A H; McGinnis, E L

    1993-11-01

    Fume condensates from asphalt and coal tar pitch were evaluated to determine if polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) composition, crude oil source, or temperature at which the fume was generated correlated with mutagenic activity. The fume condensates were tested for mutagenic activity using a modified Ames Test. Benzo[a]pyrene (BP) and other PAHs were detected in all samples. The concentration of BP in coal tar pitch was 18,100 ppm while the concentration in asphalt was less than 6 ppm. Coal tar fumes contained between two and three orders of magnitude more BP, as well as other PAH species, than asphalt fumes. Coal tar fume condensates were also approximately 100 times more mutagenic than those of asphalt. Generation temperature, crude oil source, and/or process conditions affected the PAH concentrations but not the mutagenicity in roofing asphalt fume condensates. With paving asphalt fumes, PAH content and mutagenicity varied with crude oil source but not with processing conditions; due to limited data, it was not possible to determine the effect of generation temperature. Coal tar pitch fumes generated at 316 degrees C contained significantly higher concentrations of PAHs than those generated at 232 degrees C and the mutagenic activity generally paralleled the PAH content. A subset of the paving asphalts demonstrated good correlation between mutagenicity and three- to seven-ring PAH content. These results indicate that asphalt fumes are far less mutagenic than coal tar fumes. Asphalt fumes differ in their ability to induce mutagenic activity, and, most likely, in their potential carcinogenicity.

  19. Bottom hadrons from lattice QCD with domain wall and NRQCD fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Meinel, William Detmold, C.-J. David Lin, Matthew Wingate

    2009-07-01

    Dynamical 2+1 flavor lattice QCD is used to calculate the masses of bottom hadrons, including B mesons, singly and doubly bottom baryons, and for the first time also the triply-bottom baryon Omega{sub bbb}. The domain wall action is used for the up-, down-, and strange quarks (both valence and sea), while the bottom quark is implemented with non-relativistic QCD. A calculation of the bottomonium spectrum is also presented.

  20. The effect of bottom sediment supplement on heavy metals content in plants (Zea mays) and soil

    OpenAIRE

    Baran A.; Jasiewicz C.; Tarnawski M.

    2013-01-01

    Important aspect of bottom sediments is the problem of their management or disposal after their extraction from the bottom of rivers, dam reservoirs, ports, channels or ponds. The research aimed at an assessment of potential environmental management of bottom sediment used as an admixture to light soil basing on its effect on contents of heavy metals in plants and soil. The research was conducted on light soil with granulometric structure of weakly loamy sand. The bottom sediment was added to...

  1. Experimental Study on the Measurement of Water Bottom Vibration Induced by Underwater Drilling Blasting

    OpenAIRE

    Gu Wenbin; Chen Jianghai; Wang Zhenxiong; Wang Zhihua; Liu Jianqing; Lu Ming

    2015-01-01

    Due to the lack of proper instrumentations and the difficulties in underwater measurements, the studies about water bottom vibration induced by underwater drilling blasting are seldom reported. In order to investigate the propagation and attenuation laws of blasting induced water bottom vibration, a water bottom vibration monitor was developed with consideration of the difficulties in underwater measurements. By means of this equipment, the actual water bottom vibration induced by underwater ...

  2. Ocean bottom pressure changes lead to a decreasing length-of-day in a warming climate

    OpenAIRE

    F. Landerer; Jungclaus, J.; Marotzke, J.

    2007-01-01

    We use a coupled climate model to evaluate ocean bottom pressure changes in the IPCC-A1B climate scenario. Ocean warming in the 21st and 22nd centuries causes secular oceanic bottom pressure anomalies. The essential feature is a net mass transfer onto shallow shelf areas from the deeper ocean areas, which exhibit negative bottom pressure anomalies. We develop a simple mass redistribution model that explains this mechanism. Regionally, however, distinct patterns of bottom pressure anomalies em...

  3. Air bottoming cycle, an alternative to combined cycles. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaikko, J. [Royal Inst. of Techn., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Technology

    2001-10-01

    In this work, the idea of Air Bottoming Cycle (ABC) has been studied. The objectives for the work have been to establish an understanding of the concept for power and heat generation as well as to find - if possible - feasible concepts for future use in the Swedish energy system. Combined cycle in power generation is an established technology. In the conventional combined cycle, a gas turbine works as a topping cycle together with the steam (Rankine) bottoming cycle. In the ABC the steam bottoming cycle is replaced with a gas turbine (Brayton) bottoming cycle having air as a working fluid. The two gas turbines are thermally connected over a gas-to-gas heat exchanger. This concept promises savings in weight and cost, as well as operating benefits, compared to the Rankine bottoming technology. The ABC has been modelled using a heat balance program, and a parametric study for the concept optimisation as well as for off-design analysis has been performed. Performance of the ABC has been compared to other, established technologies. A preliminary economic evaluation has been made. As a result of the study, it is clarified that the Rankine bottoming cycle with steam remains superior to the ABC as regards electrical efficiency in the medium and large power scale. For small-scale applications (<10 MW{sub e}) where the thermodynamic advantage of the Rankine cycle is not dominating any longer and its economy is burdened by the heavy investment structure, the ABC becomes the better alternative for energy utilisation. A preliminary economic evaluation shows that (at energy prices autumn 2000) the ABC is at the same level as the comparable small-scale cogeneration installations. Due to high power-to-heat ratio however, higher electricity prices will favour the ABC. One interesting feature of the ABC is that about 50% of the dissipated low-value heat from the cycle is carried by clean (sterile) air at the temperature around 200 deg C. This air can be utilised for space heating or

  4. Air bottoming cycle, an alternative to combined cycles. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaikko, J. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Technology

    2002-02-01

    In this work, the idea of Air Bottoming Cycle (ABC) has been studied. The objectives for the work have been to establish an understanding of the concept for power and heat generation as well as to find - if possible - feasible concepts for future use in the Swedish energy system. Combined cycle in power generation is an established technology. In the conventional combined cycle, a gas turbine works as a topping cycle together with the steam (Rankine) bottoming cycle. In the ABC the steam bottoming cycle is replaced with a gas turbine (Brayton) bottoming cycle having air as a working fluid. The two gas turbines are thermally connected over a gas-to-gas heat exchanger. This concept promises savings in weight and cost, as well as operating benefits, compared to the Rankine bottoming technology. The ABC has been modelled using a heat balance program, and a parametric study for the concept optimisation as well as for off-design analysis has been performed. Performance of the ABC has been compared to other, established technologies. A preliminary economic evaluation has been made. As a result of the study, it is clarified that the Rankine bottoming cycle with steam remains superior to the ABC as regards electrical efficiency in the medium and large power scale. For small-scale applications (<10 MW{sub e}) where the thermodynamic advantage of the Rankine cycle is not dominating any longer and its economy is burdened by the heavy investment structure, the ABC becomes the better alternative for energy utilisation. A preliminary economic evaluation shows that (at energy prices autumn 2000) the ABC is at the same level as the comparable small-scale cogeneration installations. Due to high power-to-heat ratio however, higher electricity prices will favour the ABC. One interesting feature of the ABC is that about 50% of the dissipated low-value heat from the cycle is carried by clean (sterile) air at the temperature around 200 deg C. This air can be utilised for space heating or

  5. Ocean Bottom Seismometers technology: current state and future outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilinskiy, Dmitry; Ganzha, Oleg

    2016-04-01

    The beginning of 2000s was marked by a significant progress in the development and use of self-pop-up sea-bottom seismic recorders (Ocean Bottom Seismometers). In Russia it was a novel solution developed by the Russian Academy of Sciences Experimental Design Bureau of Oceanological Engineering. This recorder and its clones have been widely used not only for the Earth crust studies, but also for investigations of sub-basalt structures and gas hydrate exploration. And what has happened over the last 10 years? Let us look closely at the second generation of ocean bottom stations developed by Geonodal Solutions (GNS) as an illustration of the next step forward in the sea-bottom acquisition technology. First of all, hardware components have changed dramatically. The electronic components became much smaller, accordingly, the power consumption and electronic self-noise were dropped down significantly. This enabled development of compact station 330 mm in diameter instead of previous 450mm. The weight fell by half, while the autonomy increased up to 90 days due to both decreased energy consumption and increased capacity of the batteries. The dynamic range of recorded seismic data has expended as a result of decreased set noise and the application of 24-bit A/D converters. The instruments dimensions have been reduced, power consumption decreased, clock accuracy was significantly improved. At the same time, development of advanced time reference algorithms enabled to retain instrument accuracy around 1 ms during all the autonomous recording period. The high-speed wireless data transfer technology offered a chance to develop "maintenance-free" station throughout its operation time. The station can be re-used at the different sea bottom locations without unsealing of the deep-water container for data download, battery re-charge, clock synchronization. This noticeably reduces the labor efforts of the personnel working with the stations. This is critically important in field

  6. Balancing Priorities and Measuring Success: A Triple Bottom Line Framework for International School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, James

    2009-01-01

    Drawing upon a multiple bottom line concept, which was originally developed for the business world, this article proposes a triple bottom line framework for analyzing and assessing the performance of international schools. The author contends that international schools can be broken down into three bottom lines: one "financial," one "academic" and…

  7. Higgs Searches with Bottom Quarks and Invisible Particles

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2077110

    An essential search to answer the question of whether the newly discovered boson of mass 125 GeV at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the standard model Higgs boson ($H$) is the search for decay of the boson into a pair of bottom quarks ($b {\\overline{b}}$), as this is theoretically the dominant decay channel of a low-mass Higgs boson. For best signal-to-background sensitivity, the associated production of the Higgs boson with a vector boson ($V$ = $W$ or $Z$) is used. The search is carried out in six channels based on the decay of the vector boson: $W(\\mu\

  8. Bottom Raking Damage to High-Speed Craft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of the raking damage to high speed craft (HSC) and conventional ships. The analysis is based on a detailed theoretical model for the raking resistance of an assembled ship bottom structure and on the idea that the impact conditions for various ship types have...... is insensitive to these uncertainties.The result of the analysis suggests that the normalised raking damage (damage length/ship length) to HSC can be expected to be 3-4 times longer than that to conventional ships. This implies that a significant part of HSC grounding accidents will produce tears in the full...

  9. Ocean bottom seismic and tsunami network along the Japan Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehira, K.; Kanazawa, T.; Noguchi, S.; Aoi, S.; Kunugi, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Okada, Y.; Sekiguchi, S.; Shiomi, K.; Shinohara, M.; Yamada, T.

    2012-12-01

    Huge tsunami, which was generated by the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake of M9 subduction zone earthquake, attacked the coastal areas in the north-eastern Japan and gave severe casualties (about 20,000 people) and property damages in the areas. The present tsunami warning system, based on land seismic observation data, did not work effectively in the case of the M9 earthquake. For example, real tsunami height was higher than that of forecast by this system. It is strongly acknowledged that marine observation data is necessary to make tsunami height estimation more accurately. Therefore, new ocean bottom observation project has started in 2011 that advances the countermeasures against earthquake and tsunami disaster related to subduction zone earthquake and outer rise earthquake around Japan Trench and Kuril Trench. A large scale ocean bottom cabled observation network is scheduled to be deployed around Japan Trench and Kuril Trench by 2015. The network is consisted of 154 ocean bottom observation stations. Ocean bottom fiber optic cables, about 5100 km in total length, connect the stations to land. Observation stations with tsunami meters and seismometers will be placed on the seafloor off Hokkaido, off Tohoku and off Kanto, in a spacing of about 30 km almost in the direction of East-West (perpendicular to the trench axis) and in a spacing of about 50 - 60 km almost in the direction of North-South (parallel to the trench axis). Two or more sets of tsunami meters and seismometers will be installed in one station for redundancy. Two sets of three component servo accelerometers, a set of three component quartz type accelerometers (frequency outputs), a set of three component velocity seismometers will be installed, and two sets of quartz type depth sensors (frequency outputs) will be installed as tsunami meters. Tsunami data and seismometer data will be digitized at sampling frequency of 10 Hz and 100 Hz, respectively, and will be added clock

  10. English L2 reading getting to the bottom

    CERN Document Server

    Birch, Barbara M

    2014-01-01

    English L2 Reading, Third Edition offers teachers research-based insights into bottom-up skills in reading English as a second language and a solid foundation on which to build reading instruction. Core linguistic and psycholinguistic concepts are presented within the context of their application to teaching. The goal is to balance or supplement (not replace) top-down approaches and methodologies with effective low-level options for teaching English reading. The text's pedagogical features- Questions, Study Guide Questions. Discussion Questions, Spotlight on Teaching sections- engage readers o

  11. QCD Corrections to Higgs Pair Production in Bottom Quark Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, Sally; /Brookhaven; Kao, Chung; /Fermilab /Oklahoma U.; Wang, Yili; Williams, Peter; /Oklahoma U.

    2006-10-01

    We present a complete next-to-leading order (NLO) calculation for the total cross section of inclusive Higgs pair production via bottom-quark fusion (b{bar b} {yields} hh) at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in the Standard Model. The NLO QCD corrections lead to less dependence on the renormalization scale ({mu}{sub R}) and the factorization scale ({mu}{sub F}) than the leading-order (LO) cross section, and they significantly increase the LO cross section. The rate for inclusive Higgs pair production is small in the Standard Model, but can be large in models with enhanced couplings of the b quark to the Higgs bosons.

  12. Recent progress in backreacted bottom-up holographic QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Järvinen, Matti [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Supérieure, 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2016-01-22

    Recent progress in constructing holographic models for QCD is discussed, concentrating on the bottom-up models which implement holographically the renormalization group flow of QCD. The dynamics of gluons can be modeled by using a string-inspired model termed improved holographic QCD, and flavor can be added by introducing space filling branes in this model. The flavor fully backreacts to the glue in the Veneziano limit, giving rise to a class of models which are called V-QCD. The phase diagrams and spectra of V-QCD are in good agreement with results for QCD obtained by other methods.

  13. Bottom-up graphene nanoribbon field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Patrick B. [Applied Science and Technology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Pedramrazi, Zahra [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Madani, Ali [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Chen, Yen-Chia; Crommie, Michael F. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Oteyza, Dimas G. de [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Centro de Física de Materiales CSIC/UPV-EHU-Materials Physics Center, San Sebastián E-20018 (Spain); Chen, Chen [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Fischer, Felix R. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Bokor, Jeffrey, E-mail: jbokor@eecs.berkeley.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2013-12-16

    Recently developed processes have enabled bottom-up chemical synthesis of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) with precise atomic structure. These GNRs are ideal candidates for electronic devices because of their uniformity, extremely narrow width below 1 nm, atomically perfect edge structure, and desirable electronic properties. Here, we demonstrate nano-scale chemically synthesized GNR field-effect transistors, made possible by development of a reliable layer transfer process. We observe strong environmental sensitivity and unique transport behavior characteristic of sub-1 nm width GNRs.

  14. Wikipedia: organisation from a bottom-up approach

    OpenAIRE

    Spek, Sander; Postma, Eric; Herik, H. Jaap van den

    2006-01-01

    Wikipedia can be considered as an extreme form of a self-managing team, as a means of labour division. One could expect that this bottom-up approach, with the absense of top-down organisational control, would lead to a chaos, but our analysis shows that this is not the case. In the Dutch Wikipedia, an integrated and coherent data structure is created, while at the same time users succeed in distributing roles by self-selection. Some users focus on an area of expertise, while others edit over ...

  15. Physical and numerical modeling of labyrinth weirs with polyhedral bottom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. San Mauro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to comply with the new safety regulations a significant number of Spanish dam spillways must be upgraded. In this scenario and with the aim of increasing the discharge capacity with a reduced investment innovative designs become interesting solutions. One of these innovative designs are the labyrinth weirs. Project POLILAB is carrying out with the objective of optimize the design of labyrinth weirs, physical and numerical tests exposed in this article were developed within this framework. The most relevant results are related with the discharge capacity, the flow pattern and the structural reinforcement achieved by the implementation of a polyhedral bottom.

  16. Theoretical and Experimental Study of Breaking Wave on Sloping Bottoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Kuei-Sen; CHEN Yang-Yih; LI Meng-Syue; HSU Hung-Chu

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the continuous evolution of breaking wave for the surface water waves propagating on a sloping beach. A Lagrangian asymptotic solution is derived. According to the solution coupled with the wave breaking criteria and the equations of water particles motion, the wave deformation and the continuous wave breaking processes for the progressive water waves propagating on a sloping bottom can be derived. A series of experiments are also conducted to compare with the theoretical solution. The results show that the present solution can reasonably describe the plunging or spilling wave breaking phenomenon.

  17. Spintronics in the «Bottom-up» Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.A. Kruglyak

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Basic topics of spintronics such as spin valve, interface resistance due to the mismatch of conduction modes, spin potentials, non-local spin voltage, spin moment and its transport, Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation, and explanation on its basis why a magnet has an “easy axis”, nanomagnet dynamics by spin current, polarizers and analyzers of spin current, diffusion equation for ballistic transport and current in terms of non-equilibrium potentials are discussed in the frame of the “bottom-up” approach of modern nanoelectronics.

  18. Open bottom mesons in hot asymmetric hadronic medium

    OpenAIRE

    Pathak, Divakar; Mishra, Amruta

    2014-01-01

    The in-medium masses and optical potentials of $B$ and ${\\bar B}$ mesons are studied in an isospin asymmetric, strange, hot and dense hadronic environment using a chiral effective model. The chiral $SU(3)$ model originally designed for the light quark sector, is generalized to include the heavy quark sector ($c$ and $b$) to derive the interactions of the $B$ and ${\\bar B}$ mesons with the light hadrons. Due to large mass of bottom quark, we use only the empirical form of these interactions fo...

  19. Breaking of Waves over a Steep Bottom Slope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten S.

    The thesis deals with the wave breaking process of waves propagating over a steep submerged bottom slope. The amount of energy dissipated in the wave breaking process is focused upon. An extensive number of experimental tests (>400) using regular and irregular waves breaking over a simulated reef...... in the hydraulic laboratory are performed. Based on the experimental tests several formulae developed. Formulae  are capable of predicting the transmitted wave height and wave energy flux, respectively. Futhermore, a numerical wave model based on the extended Mild-Slope equation has been developed. The model...

  20. The seismic test of HTTR core bottom structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seismic tests were carried out using scale models of the core bottom structure (CBS) in the HTTR to quantitatively evaluate the responses of acceleration, strain, impact load and so on. The following conclusions are obtained. (1) The frequency response of the keyway strain could be correlated experimentally with that of the impact acceleration on the hot plenum blocks (HPB). (2) It was confirmed through the comparison of the 1/5-scale and 1/3-scale model tests that the applied similarity laws is valid to evaluate the seismic response characteristics of the CBS. (3) It was demonstrated that the structural integrity of the CBS will be kept against earthquakes. (author)

  1. Distinguishing Top-Down From Bottom-Up Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Shea, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    The distinction between top-down and bottom-up effects is widely relied on in experimental psychology. However, there is an important problem with the way it is normally defined. Top-down effects are effects of previously-stored information on processing the current input. But on the face of it that includes the information that is implicit in the operation of any psychological process – in its dispositions to transition from some types of representational state to others. This paper suggests...

  2. A dataset from bottom trawl survey around Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-tsao Shao

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Bottom trawl fishery is one of the most important coastal fisheries in Taiwan both in production and economic values. However, its annual production started to decline due to overfishing since the 1980s. Its bycatch problem also damages the fishery resource seriously. Thus, the government banned the bottom fishery within 3 nautical miles along the shoreline in 1989. To evaluate the effectiveness of this policy, a four year survey was conducted from 2000–2003, in the waters around Taiwan and Penghu (Pescadore Islands, one region each year respectively. All fish specimens collected from trawling were brought back to lab for identification, individual number count and body weight measurement. These raw data have been integrated and established in Taiwan Fish Database (http://fishdb.sinica.edu.tw. They have also been published through TaiBIF (http://taibif.tw, FishBase and GBIF (website see below. This dataset contains 631 fish species and 3,529 records, making it the most complete demersal fish fauna and their temporal and spatial distributional data on the soft marine habitat in Taiwan.

  3. A dataset from bottom trawl survey around Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Kwang-Tsao; Lin, Jack; Wu, Chung-Han; Yeh, Hsin-Ming; Cheng, Tun-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Bottom trawl fishery is one of the most important coastal fisheries in Taiwan both in production and economic values. However, its annual production started to decline due to overfishing since the 1980s. Its bycatch problem also damages the fishery resource seriously. Thus, the government banned the bottom fishery within 3 nautical miles along the shoreline in 1989. To evaluate the effectiveness of this policy, a four year survey was conducted from 2000-2003, in the waters around Taiwan and Penghu (Pescadore) Islands, one region each year respectively. All fish specimens collected from trawling were brought back to lab for identification, individual number count and body weight measurement. These raw data have been integrated and established in Taiwan Fish Database (http://fishdb.sinica.edu.tw). They have also been published through TaiBIF (http://taibif.tw), FishBase and GBIF (website see below). This dataset contains 631 fish species and 3,529 records, making it the most complete demersal fish fauna and their temporal and spatial distributional data on the soft marine habitat in Taiwan.

  4. "Triple-bottom-line" assessment of urban stormwater projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A C; Fletcher, T D

    2006-01-01

    New guidelines have been developed and trialled in Australia to assist urban stormwater managers to assess options for projects that aim to improve urban waterway health. These guidelines help users to examine the financial, ecological and social dimensions of projects (i.e., the so-called "triple-bottom-line"). Features of the assessment process described in the guidelines include use of multi criteria analysis, input from technical experts as well as non-technical stakeholders, and provision of three alternative levels of assessment to suit stormwater managers with differing needs and resources. This paper firstly provides a background to the new guidelines and triple-bottom-line assessment. The assessment methodology promoted in the new guidelines is then briefly summarised. This methodology is compared and contrasted with European guidelines from the "SWARD" project that have been primarily developed for assessing the relative sustainability of options involving urban water supply and sewerage assets. Finally, the paper discusses how assessment methodologies that evaluate the financial, ecological and social dimensions of projects can, under some circumstances, be used to evaluate the relative progress of options for urban water management on a journey towards the widely pursued, but vaguely defined goal of "sustainable development".

  5. WAVE BOTTOM LAYERS DYNAMIC WITH SUSPENDED SEDIMENT OVER VORTEX RIPPLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Chang-bo; BAI Yu-chuan; ZHAO Zi-dan; ZHANG Hong-wu

    2004-01-01

    Vortex ripple is widely formed in the coastal region, and the dynamic of vortex is quite important because it is responsible for sediment transport. The flow structure around the vortex ripples can be modeled as 2D flow due to the geometry of the flow boundaries. In this paper, 2D Large-Ed dy-Simulation (LES) method was used to predict the flow structure and the dynamic of vortex in the bottom layers under the action of the wave, the numerical simulation results show a completely process of vortex formation, evolvement and disappearance. Based on the study of flow structure, the suspended sediment transport was modeled in present paper. The simulated sediment concentrations were compared to measurements from the literature. The agreement between the time averaged simulated concentration profiles and measurements is satisfactory. For a high setting velocity, the suspended sediment is confined to the vicinity of the bed, and it is dominated by the local bottom shear stress. For a small setting velocity,the suspension is more dominated by the characteristic of vor tex. There are two suspended sediment transport peaks observed in the cross-section at the trough and crest in the half period, the second peak is due to the separation bubble taking the sediment.

  6. Inverse Magnetic Catalysis in Bottom-Up Holographic QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Nick; Scott, Marc

    2016-01-01

    We explore the effect of magnetic field on chiral condensation in QCD via a simple bottom up holographic model which inputs QCD dynamics through the running of the anomalous dimension of the quark bilinear. Bottom up holography is a form of effective field theory and we use it to explore the dependence on the coefficients of the two lowest order terms linking the magnetic field and the quark condensate. In the massless theory, we identify a region of parameter space where magnetic catalysis occurs at zero temperature but inverse magnetic catalysis at temperatures of order the thermal phase transition. The model shows similar non-monotonic behaviour in the condensate with B at intermediate T as the lattice data. This behaviour is due to the separation of the meson melting and chiral transitions in the holographic framework. The introduction of quark mass raises the scale of B where inverse catalysis takes over from catalysis until the inverse catalysis lies outside the regime of validity of the effective descr...

  7. Hunting for exotic doubly hidden-charm/bottom tetraquark states

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wei; Liu, Xiang; Steele, T G; Zhu, Shi-Lin

    2016-01-01

    We extend a moment QCD sum rule method to study the existence of exotic doubly hidden-charm/bottom tetraquark states made of four heavy quarks. Using the compact diquark-antidiquark configuration, we calculate the mass spectra of these tetraquark states. There are 18 hidden-charm $cc\\bar c\\bar c$ tetraquark currents with $J^{PC} = 0^{++}$, $0^{-+}$, $0^{--}$, $1^{++}$, $1^{+-}$, $1^{-+}$, $1^{--}$, and $2^{++}$. We use them to perform QCD sum rule analyses, and the obtained masses are all higher than the spontaneous dissociation thresholds of two charmonium mesons, which are thus their dominant decay modes. The masses of the corresponding hidden-bottom $bb\\bar b\\bar b$ tetraquarks are all below or very close to the thresholds of the $\\Upsilon(1S)\\Upsilon(1S)$ and $\\eta_b(1S)\\eta_b(1S)$, except one current of $J^{PC}=0^{++}$. Hence, we suggest to search for the doubly hidden-charm states in the $J/\\psi J/\\psi$ and $\\eta_c(1S)\\eta_c(1S)$ channels.

  8. Heat flow through the sea bottom around the Yucatan Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khutorskoy, M.D.; Kononov, V.I.; Polyak, B.G. (Geological Inst., Moscow (USSR)); Fernandez, R. (Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y Educacion Superior de Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico)); Matveev, V.G.; Rot, A.A. (Polytechnical Inst., Kuybyshev (USSR))

    1990-02-10

    Heat flow studies were conducted in January-February 1987, off the Atlantic Coast of Mexico on board the R/V Akademik Nikolai Strakhov. Two areas were surveyed, one transecting the Salt Dome Province and the Campeche Canyon, in the Gulf of Mexico, and the other, on the eastern flank of the Yucatan Peninsula. Conductive heat flow through the bottom sediments was determined as the product of vertical temperature gradient and in situ thermal conductivity, measured with a thermal probe using a multithermistor array and real-time processing capabilities. Forward two-dimensional modeling allows one to estimate heat flow variations at both sites from local disturbances and to obtain average heat flow values of 51 mW/m{sup 2} for the transect within the Gulf of Mexico and 38 and 69 mW/m{sup 2} for two basins within the Yucatan area. Sea bottom relief has a predominant effect over other environmental factors in the scatter of heat flow determination in the Gulf of Mexico.

  9. Speciation of Chromium in Bottom Ash Obtained by the Incineration of the Leather Waste Shavings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    k. louhab

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of bottom ash morphology and chromium metals behavior during incineration of a leather waste shavings at different incineration temperature have been studied. The Cr, Ca, Mg, Cl rates in bottom ashes, flay ashes and emitted gases in different incineration temperature of the tannery wastes are also determined. The morphology of the bottom ashes obtained by incineration at different temperature from the leather waste shavings was examined by MEB. The result show that the temperature and the length of incineration influence on the structure of the bottom ash and on the chromium in the bottom ash.

  10. Growth and energetics in Spisula subtruncata (Da Costa) and the effect of suspended bottom material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møhlenberg, F.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    1981-01-01

    suspended bottom material. Algal ingestion rate was proportional to algal concentration and independent of the concentration of suspended bottom material. Growth rate increased with algal concentration and was further increased by 10-110% by adding suspended bottom material. The positive effect of suspended...... bottom material on growth is due to a higher efficiency of assimilation of the ingested algae and/or the utilization of organic matter in the suspended bottom material. The efficiency of algal assimilation decreased from 76% at a low (150 .mu.g dry org wt/l) to 33% at a high (500 .mu.g) algal...

  11. To fractionate municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash: Key for utilisation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sormunen, Laura Annika; Rantsi, Riina

    2015-11-01

    For the past decade, the Finnish waste sector has increasingly moved from the landfilling of municipal solid waste towards waste incineration. New challenges are faced with the growing amounts of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash, which are mainly landfilled at the moment. Since this is not a sustainable or a profitable solution, finding different utilisation applications for the municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash is crucial. This study reports a comprehensive analysis of bottom ash properties from one waste incineration plant in Finland, which was first treated with a Dutch bottom ash recovery technique called advanced dry recovery. This novel process separates non-ferrous and ferrous metals from bottom ash, generating mineral fractions of different grain sizes (0-2 mm, 2-5 mm, 5-12 mm and 12-50 mm). The main aim of the study was to assess, whether the advanced bottom ash treatment technique, producing mineral fractions of different grain sizes and therefore properties, facilitates the utilisation of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash in Finland. The results were encouraging; the bottom ash mineral fractions have favourable behaviour against the frost action, which is especially useful in the Finnish conditions. In addition, the leaching of most hazardous substances did not restrict the utilisation of bottom ash, especially for the larger fractions (>5 mm). Overall, this study has shown that the advanced bottom ash recovering technique can be one solution to increase the utilisation of bottom ash and furthermore decrease its landfilling in Finland.

  12. To fractionate municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash: Key for utilisation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sormunen, Laura Annika; Rantsi, Riina

    2015-11-01

    For the past decade, the Finnish waste sector has increasingly moved from the landfilling of municipal solid waste towards waste incineration. New challenges are faced with the growing amounts of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash, which are mainly landfilled at the moment. Since this is not a sustainable or a profitable solution, finding different utilisation applications for the municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash is crucial. This study reports a comprehensive analysis of bottom ash properties from one waste incineration plant in Finland, which was first treated with a Dutch bottom ash recovery technique called advanced dry recovery. This novel process separates non-ferrous and ferrous metals from bottom ash, generating mineral fractions of different grain sizes (0-2 mm, 2-5 mm, 5-12 mm and 12-50 mm). The main aim of the study was to assess, whether the advanced bottom ash treatment technique, producing mineral fractions of different grain sizes and therefore properties, facilitates the utilisation of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash in Finland. The results were encouraging; the bottom ash mineral fractions have favourable behaviour against the frost action, which is especially useful in the Finnish conditions. In addition, the leaching of most hazardous substances did not restrict the utilisation of bottom ash, especially for the larger fractions (>5 mm). Overall, this study has shown that the advanced bottom ash recovering technique can be one solution to increase the utilisation of bottom ash and furthermore decrease its landfilling in Finland. PMID:26330401

  13. Area-intensive bottom culture of blue mussels Mytilus edulis in a micro-tidal estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per; Christensen, Helle Torp; Hansen, Benni Winding;

    2012-01-01

    Dredge fishery for blue mussels Mytilus edulis (L.) impacts the benthic ecosystem, and substitution by area-intensive bottom culture production may reduce adverse effects on the ecosystem. Two different field studies in 2007 and 2009 tested the productivity of bottom culture of blue mussels......, and whether a shift from dredging of full-grown blue mussels to production of blue mussels in bottom culture could reduce the area of impacted sea bottom. In the first study, the macrostructure of a commercial bottom culture was analysed by side scan mapping, and the growth of blue mussels was recorded...... on a transect from the edge to the central part of the bottom culture. In the second study, we analysed the effect of seeding density (1.5 and 3.5 kg m−2) on mussel production. The measured production was used to model the affected area when producing blue mussels in bottom culture. The macrostructure...

  14. Airborne exposures to PAH and PM2.5 particles for road paving workers applying conventional asphalt and crumb rubber modified asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, R R; Wallingford, K M; Williams, R W; House, D E; Lewtas, J

    1998-01-01

    Personal exposure monitoring was conducted for road paving workers in three states. A research objective was to characterize and compare occupational exposures to fine respirable particles (asphalt and asphalt containing crumb rubber from shredded tires. Workers not exposed to asphalt fume were also included for comparison (to support the biomarker component of this study). The rubber content of the crumb rubber modified (CRM) asphalt at the three study sites was 12, 15, and 20%. A comparison of some specific job categories from two sites indicates greater potential carcinogenic PAH exposures during CRM asphalt work, however, the site with the greatest overall exposures did not indicate any differences for specific jobs. A statistical analysis of means for fine particle, pyrene and total carcinogenic PAH personal exposure shows, with two exceptions, there were no differences in exposures for these three measurement variables. One site shows significantly elevated pyrene exposure for CRM asphalt workers and another site similarly shows greater carcinogenic PAH exposure for CRM asphalt workers. Conventional and CRM asphalt worker airborne exposures to the PAH carcinogen marker, BaP, were very low with concentrations comparable to ambient air in many cities. However, this study demonstrates that asphalt road paving workers are exposed to elevated airborne concentrations of a group of unknown compounds that likely consist of the carcinogenic PAHs benz(a)anthracene, chrysene and methylated derivatives of both. The research described in this article has been reviewed in accordance with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency policy and approved for publication. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use. PMID:9577752

  15. Bottom-up fabrication of graphene nanostructures on Ru(1010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Junjie; Zhang, Han-jie; Cai, Yiliang; Zhang, Yuxi; Bao, Shining; He, Pimo

    2016-02-01

    Investigations on the bottom-up fabrication of graphene nanostructures with 10, 10'-dibromo-9, 9'-bianthryl (DBBA) as a precursor on Ru(1010) were carried out using scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Upon annealing the sample at submonolayer DBBA coverage, N = 7 graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) aligned along the [1210] direction form. Higher DBBA coverage and higher annealing temperature lead to the merging of GNRs into ribbon-like graphene nanoflakes with multiple orientations. These nanoflakes show different Moiré patterns, and their structures were determined by DFT simulations. The results showed that GNRs possess growth preference on the Ru(1010) substrate with a rectangular unit cell, and GNRs with armchair and zigzag boundaries are obtainable. Further DFT calculations suggest that the interaction between graphene and the substrate controls the orientations of the graphene overlayer and the growth of graphene on Ru(1010).

  16. Succeeding at the Bottom-of-the-Pyramid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boxenbaum, Eva; Olsen, Mette

    initiative to build a social impact venture at the interface of a multi-national corporation and a hybrid organization that is operating on the Bottom-of-the-Pyramid market. Our study identifies how corporate social entrepreneurs dynamically use framing and organizational anchoring strategies to build...... internal support and external legitimacy for a radically new social venture initiative. Our findings point to the challenges, opportunities, and strategies associated with straddling global events and internal corporate priorities when engaging in corporate social entrepreneurship.......Hybrid organizational forms often rely on the initiative or collaboration of corporate actors, yet the role of these actors is rarely examined in detail. This paper examines corporate social entrepreneurship, which refers to the initiative of corporate actors to establish new, independent social...

  17. BitCube: A Bottom-Up Cubing Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Alfredo; Giugno, Rosalba; Puglisi, Piera Laura; Pulvirenti, Alfredo

    Enhancing on line analytical processing through efficient cube computation plays a key role in Data Warehouse management. Hashing, grouping and mining techniques are commonly used to improve cube pre-computation. BitCube, a fast cubing method which uses bitmaps as inverted indexes for grouping, is presented. It horizontally partitions data according to the values of one dimension and for each resulting fragment it performs grouping following bottom-up criteria. BitCube allows also partial materialization based on iceberg conditions to treat large datasets for which a full cube pre-computation is too expensive. Space requirement of bitmaps is optimized by applying an adaption of the WAH compression technique. Experimental analysis, on both synthetic and real datasets, shows that BitCube outperforms previous algorithms for full cube computation and results comparable on iceberg cubing.

  18. Bottom Slamming on Heaving Point Absorber Wave Energy Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Backer, Griet; Vantorre, Marc; Frigaard, Peter;

    2010-01-01

    Oscillating point absorber buoys may rise out of the water and be subjected to bottom slamming upon re-entering the water. Numerical simulations are performed to estimate the power absorption, the impact velocities and the corresponding slamming forces for various slamming constraints. Three buoy...... occurrence probabilities can be significantly reduced by adapting the control parameters. The magnitude of the slamming load is severely influenced by the buoy shape. The ratio between the peak impact load on the hemisphere and that on the 45 cone is approximately 2, whereas the power absorption is only 4......-8% higher for the 45 degrees cone. This work illustrates the need to include slamming considerations aside from power absorption criteria in the buoy shape design process and the control strategy....

  19. Exotic nuclei with charm and bottom flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasui S.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the possibility of existence of exotic nuclei containing charm and bottom mesons. We study the interaction between $ar{D}$ (B mesons and nucleons from view of heavy quark symmetry, and derive the one pion exchange potentials. We apply these potentials to the two body system of $ar{D}$ (B meson and nucleon N , and find there are possible stable bound states with spin JP = 1/2− and isospin I = 0. We find that the tensor interaction mixing $ar{D}$N and $ar{D}$*N (BN and B*N plays an important role. We also qualitatively discuss the possible bound states of $ar{D}$ (B meson and two nucleons.

  20. Doubly bottom strong-interaction stable tetraquarks from lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Francis, Anthony; Lewis, Randy; Maltman, Kim

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of $qq^\\prime \\bar Q \\bar Q$ tetraquark bound states using $n_f=2+1$ lattice QCD ensembles with pion masses $\\simeq 164$, $299$ and $415$ MeV. Motivated by observations from heavy baryon phenomenology, we consider two lattice interpolating operators both of which are expected to couple efficiently to tetraquark states: one with diquark-antidiquark and one with meson-meson structure. Using NRQCD to simulate the bottom quarks we study the $ud\\bar b \\bar b$, $\\ell s\\bar b \\bar b$ channels with $\\ell=u,d$, and find unambiguous signals for strong-interaction-stable $J^P=1^+$ tetraquarks. These states are found to lie $189(10)$ and $98(7)$ MeV below the corresponding free two-meson thresholds.

  1. Experimental Analysis of Pressure Fluctuations behind a Bottom Aerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Experimental observations show that the random process of two-phase flow beh ind an aerator is an ergodic process and its amplitude distribution is similar t o a normal distribution. The maximum pressure fluctuation is at the re-attachme n t point where the jet-trajectory flow over the aerator re-attaches to bottom o f the channel, and its amplitude is 2-3 times larger than when there is no aerato r. There is a dominant frequency of 1.24 Hz in the model, but the coherence in th e frequency domain is not obvious for other frequencies beside the dominant frequ ency. There is a large vortex at the re-attachment point behind the aerator but correlation among the measurement points is not obvious in the time domain.

  2. Contextualised ICT4D: a Bottom-Up Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Sutinen, Erkki

    2010-01-01

    . In a certain way, this agenda can be understood as a topdown approach which transfers technology in a hierarchical way to actual users. Complementary to the traditional approach, a bottom-up approach starts by identifying communities that are ready to participate in a process to use technology to transform......The term ICT4D refers to the opportunities of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) as an agent of development. Much of the research in the field is based on evaluating the feasibility of existing technologies, mostly of Western or Asian origin, in the context of developing countries...... their own strengths to new levels by designing appropriate technologies with experts of technology and design. The bottomup approach requires a new kind of ICT education at the undergraduate level. An example of the development of a contextualized IT degree program at Tumaini University in Tanzania shows...

  3. TOTAL PHOSPHORUS RELEASE FROM BOTTOM SEDIMENTS IN FLOWING WATER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Kun; CHENG Peng-da; ZHONG Bao-chang; WANG Dao-zeng

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,the bottom of the Dianshan Lake was selected as a test sample.The dynamic release of contaminated sediments into the overlying water column was experimentally investigated in an open water channel under different hydrodynamic conditions.The experimental results indicate that the Total Phosphorus (TP) release process can be divided into three stages:rapid release,slow release and equilibration release.In the initial release stage the measured TP concentration changes along the depth.The TP concentration near the sediment-water interface is higher than that near the water surface,but the TP concentration becomes uniform along the depth after 3 h.The dynamic release of re-suspension sediment pollutants is about 6 times higher than the static release of sediment-water interface.There are three main types of release mechanism:diffusion release,re-suspended pore water mixing release and re-suspended particles desorbing release.

  4. Fallout Radioactivity in Some Egyptian Lakes Bottom Sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of the Egyptian environmental radioactivity monitoring program, the fallout radioactivity levels in Qarun, Bardawill and Ed ku lakes bottom sediments have been measured. The specific activities of 137Cs were measured using gamma ray spectrometer based on Hyper pure germanium detector. The specific activities of plutonium isotopes(238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Pu) were measured using alpha spectrometry based on surface battier detectors and liquid scintillation spectrometry after radiochemical separation. The activity ratios 239+240Pu/137Cs, 239+240Pu/241Pu, and 238Pu/ 239+240Pu were calculated. The results seemed to confirm that fallout radioactivity is mainly due to nuclear weapons testing fallout

  5. Making the results of bottom-up energy savings comparable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moser Simon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Energy Service Directive (ESD has pushed forward the issue of energy savings calculations without clarifying the methodological basis. Savings achieved in the Member States are calculated with rather non-transparent and hardly comparable Bottom-up (BU methods. This paper develops the idea of parallel evaluation tracks separating the Member States’ issue of ESD verification and comparable savings calculations. Comparability is ensured by developing a standardised BU calculation kernel for different energy efficiency improvement (EEI actions which simultaneously depicts the different calculation options in a structured way (e.g. baseline definition, system boundaries, double counting. Due to the heterogeneity of BU calculations the approach requires a central database where Member States feed in input data on BU actions according to a predefined structure. The paper demonstrates the proposed approach including a concrete example of application.

  6. On extracting weak quark couplings from bottom and top decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We list and discuss the various types of systematic uncertainties one faces when extracting quark mixing angles from the decays of bottom and top hadrons. Evaluating various suggested methods we conclude that a study of the lepton energy spectrum in B and T decays provides a reasonable way of obtaining the ratio of mixing angles; yet analysis of just the endpoint region will not lead to a reliable determination. Such results should be backed up by other studies based on very energetic kaons and on the mode B-->tau-anti #betta#sub(tau). A dedicated effort should be made to search for flavour changing neutral currents in channels like B, T->tau+tau-X. (orig.)

  7. Bottom-Up Discrete Symmetries for Cabibbo Mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Varzielas, Ivo de Medeiros; Talbert, Jim

    2016-01-01

    We perform a bottom-up search for discrete non-Abelian symmetries capable of quantizing the Cabibbo angle that parameterizes CKM mixing. Given a particular Abelian symmetry structure in the up and down sectors, we construct representations of the associated residual generators which explicitly depend on the degrees of freedom present in our effective mixing matrix. We then discretize those degrees of freedom and utilize the Groups, Algorithms, Programming (GAP) package to close the associated finite groups. This short study is performed in the context of recent results indicating that, without resorting to special model-dependent corrections, no small-order finite group can simultaneously predict all four parameters of the three-generation CKM matrix and that only groups of $\\mathcal{O}(10^{2})$ can predict the analogous parameters of the leptonic PMNS matrix, regardless of whether neutrinos are Dirac or Majorana particles. Therefore a natural model of flavour might instead incorporate small(er) finite groups...

  8. Evaluating vehicle re-entrained road dust and its potential to deposit to Lake Tahoe: a bottom-up inventory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongzi; Kuhns, Hampden D; Gillies, John A; Gertler, Alan W

    2014-01-01

    Identifying hotspot areas impacted by emissions of dust from roadways is an essential step for mitigation. This paper develops a detailed road dust PM₁₀ emission inventory using a bottom-up approach and evaluates the potential for the dust to deposit to Lake Tahoe where it can affect water clarity. Previous studies of estimates of quantities of atmospheric deposition of fine sediment particles ("FSP", dust emission factors, five years of meteorological data, a traffic demand model and GIS analysis was used to estimate the near field deposition of airborne particulate matter atmospheric deposition to the lake. Approximately ~20 Mg year(-1) of PM₁₀ and ~36 Mg year(-1) Total Suspended Particulate (TSP) from roadway emissions of dust are estimated to reach the lake. We estimate that the atmospheric dry deposition of particles to the lake attributable to vehicle travel on paved roads is approximately 0.6% of the Total Maximum Daily Loadings (TMDL) of FSP that the lake can receive and still meet water quality standards.

  9. Bottom-hadron production through top quark decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moosavi Nejad, Seyed Mohammad

    2009-06-15

    In this thesis we apply perturbative QCD to make precise predictions for some observables in high-energy processes involving bottom-quark. Our first application is a prediction for the energy spectrum of b-flavored hadrons in top quark decay. For that purpose we calculate at NLO the OCD corrections for bottom fragmentation in top decay. The b-quark in the top quark decay is considered once as a massless and once as a massive particle in our calculations. The difference between the differential width calculated in both cases can give us the perturbative fragmentation function of the b-quark. After that using the obtained differential widths and applying ZM-VFNS and GM-VFNS, we make some predictions for the spectrum of B-hadrons produced in top quark decay. The comparison of both approaches shows that the mass effect of the b-quark in the top quark decay is negligible. We also investigate the mass effect of B-hadron in the energy distribution obtained in the previous calculations and we show that this increases the value of the differential width when the energy taken away by the produced parton in top decay is small. Our second application is to obtain the helicity contributions of the W{sup +}-boson in the energy distribution of b-flavored hadrons in top quark decay. For this reason we study the angular decay distribution for the cascade decay of the top-quark (t{yields} b+W{sup +}({yields}e{sup +}+{nu}{sub e})). Using ZM-VFNS we make predictions for the NLO contributions of the longitudinal, the transverse-minus and the transverse-plus helicity of the W{sup +}-boson in the energy distribution of B-hadron. (orig.)

  10. Top-down or bottom-up forecasting?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wanke

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The operations literature continues on inconclusive as to the most appropriate sales forecasting approach (Top-Down or Bottom-up for the determination of safety inventory levels. This paper presents the analytical results for the variance of the sales forecasting errors during the lead-time in both approaches. The forecasting method used was the Simple Exponential Smoothing and the results led to the identification of two supplementary impacts upon the forecasting error variance, and consequently, upon safety inventory levels: the Portfolio Effect and the Anchoring Effect. The first depends upon the correlation coefficient of demand between two individual items and the latter, depends upon the smoothing constant and upon the participation of the individual item in total sales. It is also analysed under which conditions these variables would favour one forecasting approach instead of the other.A literatura de operações permanece sem concluir sobre a abordagem mais adequada de previsão de vendas (Top-Down ou Bottom-Up para o dimensionamento de estoques de segurança. Nesse manuscrito são apresentados os resultados analíticos para a variância dos erros de previsão no tempo de resposta com amortecimento exponencial nessas duas abordagens. Os resultados apontam dois impactos complementares na variância do erro de previsão, e conseqüentemente, nos níveis de estoque de segurança: Efeito Portifólio e Efeito Ancoragem. O primeiro depende do coeficiente de correlação da demanda entre os produtos e o segundo, da constante de amortecimento e da participação das vendas do produto nas vendas totais. É analisado sob quais condições essas variáveis favoreceriam uma abordagem de previsão em detrimento da outra.

  11. Ocean Bottom Seismograph Performance during the Cascadia Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderhold, K.; Evers, B.

    2015-12-01

    The Ocean Bottom Seismograph Instrument Pool (OBSIP) provides instrumentation and operations support for the Cascadia Initiative community experiment. This experiment investigates geophysical processes across the Cascadia subduction zone through a combination of onshore and offshore seismic data. The recovery of Year 4 instruments in September 2015 marks the conclusion of a multi-year experiment that utilized 60 ocean-bottom seismographs (OBSs) specifically designed for the subduction zone boundary, including shallow/deep water deployments and active fisheries. The new instruments feature trawl-resistant enclosures designed by Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO) and Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) for shallow deployment [water depth ≤ 500 m], as well as new deep-water instruments designed by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute (WHOI). Existing OBSIP instruments were also deployed along the Blanco Transform Fault and on the Gorda Plate through complementary experiments. Stations include differential pressure gauges (DPG) and absolute pressure gauges (APG). All data collected from the Cascadia, Blanco, and Gorda deployments will be freely available through the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) Data Management Center (DMC). The Cascadia Initiative is the largest amphibious seismic experiment undertaken to date and demonstrates an effective structure for community experiments through collaborative efforts from the Cascadia Initiative Expedition Team (CIET), OBSIP (institutional instrument contributors [LDEO, SIO, WHOI] and Management Office [IRIS]), and the IRIS DMC. The successes and lessons from Cascadia are a vital resource for the development of a Subduction Zone Observatory (SZO). To guide future efforts, we investigate the quality of the Cascadia OBS data using basic metrics such as instrument recovery and more advanced metrics such as noise characteristics through power spectral density analysis. We also use this broad and

  12. Bottom-hadron production through top quark decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis we apply perturbative QCD to make precise predictions for some observables in high-energy processes involving bottom-quark. Our first application is a prediction for the energy spectrum of b-flavored hadrons in top quark decay. For that purpose we calculate at NLO the OCD corrections for bottom fragmentation in top decay. The b-quark in the top quark decay is considered once as a massless and once as a massive particle in our calculations. The difference between the differential width calculated in both cases can give us the perturbative fragmentation function of the b-quark. After that using the obtained differential widths and applying ZM-VFNS and GM-VFNS, we make some predictions for the spectrum of B-hadrons produced in top quark decay. The comparison of both approaches shows that the mass effect of the b-quark in the top quark decay is negligible. We also investigate the mass effect of B-hadron in the energy distribution obtained in the previous calculations and we show that this increases the value of the differential width when the energy taken away by the produced parton in top decay is small. Our second application is to obtain the helicity contributions of the W+-boson in the energy distribution of b-flavored hadrons in top quark decay. For this reason we study the angular decay distribution for the cascade decay of the top-quark (t→ b+W+(→e++νe)). Using ZM-VFNS we make predictions for the NLO contributions of the longitudinal, the transverse-minus and the transverse-plus helicity of the W+-boson in the energy distribution of B-hadron. (orig.)

  13. Analisis Kecepatan Bottom Block Terhadap Struktur Mikro Produk Direct Chill Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soejono Tjitro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct chill casting process is used to produce to ingot. To produce to ingot is influenced such as bottom block speed. The objective of this research is to examine to ingot's microstructures. To use to bottom block speed is 57 mm/min and 67 mm/min. The pouring temperature of melt aluminum alloys is 750oC. Water flow rate is constant. Testing specimen is round shape which diameter and length each 70 mm and 400 mm. Microstructures on longitudinal and transversal round is investigated. Generally, microstructures of product of Direct Casting Process is non-uniform dendritic. Grain shape of 67 mm/minute bottom block rate is larger than 57 mm/minute bottom block rate. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Proses Direct Chill Casting digunakan untuk menghasilkan ingot. Proses pembuatan ingot ini dipengaruhi antara lain kecepatan bottom block. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengamati pengaruh kecepatan bottom block terhadap struktur mikro ingot. Kecepatan bottom block yang digunakan 57 mm/menit dan 67 mm/menit. Temperatur tuang paduan aluminium 750oC. Debit air konstan. Spesimen uji berbentuk round dengan diameter 70 mm dan panjang 400 mm. Struktur mikro yang diamati pada ke arah longitudinal dan transversal round. Struktur mikro yang dihasilkan proses direct chill casting secara umum adalah dendritik yang tidak seragam. Bentuk butir kecepatan bottom block 67 mm/menit lebih besar daripada kecepatan bottom block 57 mm/menit. Kata kunci: direct chill casting, struktur mikro, kecepatan bottom block.

  14. Search for scalar bottom quarks from gluino decays in collisions at.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulencia, A; Acosta, D; Adelman, J; Affolder, T; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Ambrose, D; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Anikeev, K; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Arguin, J-F; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Bachacou, H; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Belforte, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Ben-Haim, E; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bishai, M; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Bloom, K; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Bourov, S; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carron, S; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chapman, J; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, I; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Chu, P H; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciljak, M; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Coca, M; Connolly, A; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Cruz, A; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cyr, D; DaRonco, S; D'Auria, S; D'onofrio, M; Dagenhart, D; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdecker, G; Dell'Orso, M; Demers, S; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Dionisi, C; Dittmann, J R; Dituro, P; Dörr, C; Dominguez, A; Donati, S; Donega, M; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Ebina, K; Efron, J; Ehlers, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, I; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Flores-Castillo, L R; Foland, A; Forrester, S; Foster, G W; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Fujii, Y; Furic, I; Gajjar, A; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Garcia Sciverez, M; Garfinkel, A F; Gay, C; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; di Giovanni, G P; Giannetti, P; Gibson, A; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C; Giokaris, N; Giolo, K; Giordani, M; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Goldstein, J; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Gotra, Y; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Griffiths, M; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Haber, C; Hahn, S R; Hahn, K; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B-Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Hayward, H; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Hennecke, M; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Holloway, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Huston, J; Ikado, K; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ishizawa, Y; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jensen, H; Jeon, E J; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Kang, J; Karagoz-Unel, M; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kemp, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, M S; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kirby, M; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kobayashi, H; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Kordas, K; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kovalev, A; Kraus, J; Kravchenko, I; Kreps, M; Kreymer, A; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhlmann, S E; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lecci, C; Lecompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Li, K; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Liss, T M; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Liu, Y; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Loverre, P; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; MacQueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Maksimovic, P; Manca, G; Margaroli, F; Marginean, R; Marino, C; Martin, A; Martin, M; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Maruyama, T; Matsunaga, H; Mattson, M E; Mazini, R; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McGivern, D; McIntyre, P; McNamara, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; von der Mey, M; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Miller, J S; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Miquel, R; Miscetti, S; Mitselmakher, G; Miyamoto, A; Moggi, N; Mohr, B; Moore, R; Morello, M; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Mulhearn, M; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Munar, A; Murat, P; Nachtman, J; Nahn, S; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Naumov, D; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J

    2006-05-01

    We searched for scalar bottom quarks 156 pb(-1) of pp collisions at radicalS = 1.96 recorded by the Collider Detector at Fermilab II experiment at the Tevatron. Scalar bottom quarks can be produced from gluino decays in -parity conserving models of supersymmetry when the mass of the gluino exceeds that of the scalar bottom quark. Then, a scalar bottom quark can decay into a bottom quark and a neutralino. To search for this scenario, we investigated events with large missing transverse energy and at least three jets, two or more of which were identified as containing a secondary vertex from the hadronization of quarks. We found four candidate events, where 2.6 +/- 0.7 are expected from standard model processes, and placed 95% confidence level lower limits on gluino and scalar bottom quark masses of up to 280 and 240 GeV/c(2), respectively.

  15. Measurements by Ocean Bottom Gravimeter at Harima-nada in Seto Inland Sea, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshima, Masato; Ishihara, Takemi; Koizumi, Kin-Ichiro; Seama, Nobukazu; Oshida, Atsushi; Fujimoto, Hiromi; Kanazawa, Toshihiko

    Gravity measurements on the sea bottom using an ocean bottom gravimeter(OBG) and a small survey vessel of 8.5 tons were performed at Harima-nada, in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan. Measurements at one bottom station were completed in about 30 minutes including 2 mile transit from the previous station, and 23 new data were obtained during 4 days. The measurement noise on the shallow sea-bottom was reduced considerably by attaching an anchor to the rope between the deployed ocean bottom gravimeter and the ship, and by keeping the ship almost fixed to the deployed anchor. The measurement accuracy is better than 0.005 mgal at the base station and is better than 0.05 mgal for the sea bottom measurements with the anchor. The new measurements combined with old data revealed the presence of high gravity anomaly zone running in Harima-nada sub-parallel to the Median Tectonic Line.

  16. Area-intensive bottom culture production of blue mussels, Mytilus edulis (L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Helle Torp

    it is therefore necessary to focus on area-intensive production methods for mussel exploitation. For that purpose bottom culture production of blue mussels is relevant. Despite a long tradition for bottom culturing in Europe the method is still de-pendent on natural conditions, such as recruitment, food...... insights in biological mechanisms can be used as a tool to develop and optimize bottom culture production methods. The study was addressed through the following questions: 1) How can the seed mussel source in bottom culturing be supported? 2) How can survival of mussels in bottom culturing be improved......? And 3) How does bottom culture practice support an area-intensive exploitation of blue mussels? To answer the questions four experimental studies were conducted. Results from a laboratory- and a manipulated field experiment showed that blue mussels collected on sus-pended long line cultures in the water...

  17. The impact of bottom brightness on spectral reflectance of suspended sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolk, Brian L.; Han, L.; Rundquist, D. C.

    2000-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted outdoors to investigate how bottom brightness impacts the spectral response of a water column under varied suspended sediment concentrations. A white aluminum panel placed at the bottom of the tank was used as the bright bottom, and a flat-black tank liner served as the dark bottom. Sixteen levels of suspended sediment from 25 to 400 mg litre -1 were used in each experiment. Spectral data were collected using a Spectron SE-590 spectroradiometer. The major findings include the following: the bright bottom had the greatest impact at visible wavelengths; when suspended sediment concentrations exceeded 100 mg litre -1, the bright bottom response was found to be negligible; and, substrate brightness has minimal impact between 740 and 900 nm, suggesting that these wavelengths are best for measuring suspended sediment concentrations by means of remote sensing.

  18. Preliminary Hard and Soft Bottom Seafloor Substrate Map Derived from an Unsupervised Classification of Gridded Backscatter and Bathymetry Derivatives at Selected U.S. Locations in the Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Substrate, Hard bottom vs. Soft bottom: This is a preliminary product. Cell values reflect whether the seafloor is hard bottom or soft bottom based on an...

  19. A General Linear Wave Theory for Water Waves Propagating over Uneven Porous Bottoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    锁要红; 黄虎

    2004-01-01

    Starting from the widespread phenomena of porous bottoms in the near shore region, considering fully the diversity of bottom topography and wave number variation, and including the effect of evanescent modes, a general linear wave theory for water waves propagating over uneven porous bottoms in the near shore region is established by use of Green's second identity. This theory can be reduced to a number of the most typical mild-slope equations currently in use and provide a reliable research basis for follow-up development of nonlinear water wave theory involving porous bottoms.

  20. Furnace bottom rise mechanism in preparation of Al-Si alloys by electrothermal process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The experiments of preparation of Al-Si alloys by electrothermal process were carried out respectively in 20 kW, 100 kW and 1 800 kW DC arc furnaces. The mechanism of furnace bottom rise was studied.It was found that the bottom rise can be divided into three types, including the low bottom temperature, abnormal reducing reaction and carbide deposition. The furnace bottom rise is related to the carbon ratio of the briquet, the heating speed of the briquet and the parameters and operation of furnace.

  1. SIMULATION STUDY OF IMAGING OF UNDERWATER BOTTOM TOPOGRAPHY BY SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Interaction between current and underwater bottom topography modulates roughness of the sea surface, which in turn yields variation of the radar scattering echo. By using the mechanism, this paper presents a simulation model for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imaging of underwater bottom topography. The numerical simulations experiments were made using the Princeton Ocean Model (POM) and analytical expression theory of SAR Image in Mischief sea area. It is concluded that the SAR image is better visual when water depth of underwater bottom topography is shallow or gradient of underwater bottom topography is high.

  2. Aerosol particle and trace gas emissions from earthworks, road construction, and asphalt paving in Germany: Emission factors and influence on local air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Peter; Drewnick, Frank; Borrmann, Stephan

    2015-12-01

    Aerosol emissions from construction sites have a strong impact on local air quality. The chemical and physical characteristics of particles and trace gases emitted by earthworks (excavation and loading of soil as well as traffic on unpaved roads) and road works (asphalt sawing, smashing, soil compacting, asphalt paving) have therefore been addressed in this study by using a mobile set-up of numerous modern online aerosol and trace gas instruments including a high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer. Fuel-based emission factors for several variables have been determined, showing that earthwork activities and compacting by use of a plate compactor revealed the highest median emission factors for PM10 (up to 54 g l-1). Construction activities were assigned to contribute about 17% (36 000 t a-1) to total PM10 emissions and 3% (13 500 t a-1) to total traffic-related NOx emissions in Germany. In particular, calculated PM10 emissions by earthworks are about 15 800 t a-1 corresponding to 44% of total PM10 emissions by construction activities in Germany. Mechanical processes such as asphalt sawing (PM1/PM10 = 18 ± 31%), soil compacting by a plate compactor (PM1/PM10 = 5 ± 6%) and earthworks (PM1/PM10 = 2 ± 5%) emit predominantly coarse mineral dust particles. Contrary to that, particle emissions by thermal construction processes (asphalt paving: PM1/PM10 = 62 ± 14%) and by the internal combustion engines of heavy machinery (e.g. road roller PM1/PM10 = 94 ± 9%) are mostly in the submicron range. These particles were mainly composed of organics containing non-polar saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons (e.g. asphalting: O:C 100 μg m-3 and can easily breach the European limit level of PM10. This study also shows that particulate mineral dust emissions are strongly dependent on soil moisture and can thus successfully be reduced to a high percentage by wetting the ground (for PM10 up to 95 ± 34%) showing the importance of potential mitigation strategies.

  3. The "Karma Level Sexy Bottom" awards are back at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2014-01-01

    The highly coveted "Karma Level Sexy Bottom" awards are given to the winners of the “Bike to CERN” competition. There is only one way to secure your place in history: commute to work on your bike, no matter what the weather conditions are and how busy you may feel.   The president of the CERN cycling club, Henrik Nissen (left), with Tim Smith, one of the three winners of the “Bike to CERN” Challenge. At CERN, bikers have a dedicated club and can take part in two popular events designed to challenge them: Bike2Work, which has been going for 10 years and which, every June, mobilises some 50,000 employees from more than 1100 companies and organisations across Switzerland, and the “unofficial Bike to CERN” challenge, which runs throughout the year. In 2013, 125 people took part in this local competition, but many CERN personnel ride to work every day without registering their kilometres. The three winners, all correspond...

  4. BB interactions with static bottom quarks from Lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Bicudo, Pedro; Peters, Antje; Wagner, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The isospin, spin and parity dependent potential of a pair of $B$ mesons is computed using Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD with two flavours of degenerate dynamical quarks. The $B$ meson is addressed in the static-light approximation, i.e.\\ the $b$ quarks are infinitely heavy. From the results of the $B\\,B$ meson-meson potentials, a simple rule can be deduced stating which isospin, spin and parity combinations correspond to attractive and which to repulsive forces. We provide fits to the ground state potentials in the attractive channels and discuss the potentials in the repulsive and excited channels. The attractive channels are most important since they can possibly lead to a bound four-quark state, i.e.\\ a $\\bar{b}\\bar{b}ud$ tetraquark. Using these attractive potentials in the Schr\\"odinger equation, we find indication for such a tetraquark state of two static bottom antiquarks and two light $u/d$ quarks with mass extrapolated down to the physical value.

  5. Integrating health impact assessment into the triple bottom line concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This theoretical study explores the links between the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) concept and the principles of HIA and considers the potential role of HIA to provide a mechanism for integrating health concerns within a broader agenda of government and business. TBL is a framework linked to the broader sustainability agenda that underpins and reviews environmental, economic and social performance of organizations. In its simplest form, TBL acts as a tool for reporting to stakeholders/shareholders organizational performance and the nature of the impacts on the community. The links to HIA are clear as both seek to determine the impact (potential and actual) on the health and well-being of the population. The study found that TBL can operate at four levels within organizations ranging from reporting through to full integration with the organization's goals and practices. Health is narrowly defined and there are tensions about how to undertake the social accountability functions. The study shows the potential role for HIA within the broader policy and accountability agenda. As health is one of the main outcomes of an organization's activities it needs to be taken into account at all levels of activity

  6. Utilization of Meat and Bone Meal Bottom Ash in Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginija VALANČIENĖ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available During utilization of animal waste meat and bone meal (MBM is received, realization and use of which has been stopped due to risk for the transmission of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy infection. The MBM must be safely stored or treated. Most often meat and bone meal undergoes thermal treatment. During combustion large quantities of residues (ashes are received, the recycled use of which has been given a lot of attention lately. In this work it was investigated the impact of the additive of the bottom ash (BA formed during combustion of the MBM on the properties of forming mass and ceramic body of hydromica clay, and also it was evaluated a possibility to use the MBM BA in manufacturing of building ceramics. After replacing the sand in porous ceramics by this additive the plasticity of the forming mass, drying and firing shrinkage as well as density of ceramic body changed insignificantly whereas the compressive strength increased by 8 % - 22 %. So the MBM BA can be utilized in production of porous ceramics.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.1.256

  7. Nonplanar conductive surfaces via "bottom-up" nanostructured gold coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinod, T P; Jelinek, Raz

    2014-03-12

    Development of technologies for the construction of bent, curved, and flexible conductive surfaces is among the most important albeit challenging goals in the promising field of "flexible electronics". We present a generic solution-based "bottom-up" approach for assembling conductive gold nanostructured layers on nonplanar polymer surfaces. The simple two-step experimental scheme is based upon incubation of an amine-displaying polymer [the abundantly used poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), selected here as a proof of concept] with Au(SCN)4(-), followed by a brief treatment with a conductive polymer [poly(3,4-thylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonate)] solution. Importantly, no reducing agent is co-added to the gold complex solution. The resultant surfaces are conductive and exhibit a unique "nanoribbon" gold morphology. The scheme yields conductive layers upon PDMS in varied configurations: planar, "wrinkled", and mechanically bent surfaces. The technology is simple, inexpensive, and easy to implement for varied polymer surfaces (and other substances), opening the way for practical applications in flexible electronics and related fields. PMID:24548243

  8. A top-bottom price approach to understanding financial fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Castro, Miguel A.; Miranda, José G. V.; Borges, Ernesto P.; Cajueiro, Daniel O.; Andrade, Roberto F. S.

    2012-02-01

    The presence of sequences of top and bottom (TB) events in financial series is investigated for the purpose of characterizing such switching points. They clearly mark a change in the trend of rising or falling prices of assets to the opposite tendency, are of crucial importance for the players' decision and also for the market stability. Previous attempts to characterize switching points have been based on the behavior of the volatility and on the definition of microtrends. The approach used herein is based on the smoothing of the original data with a Gaussian kernel. The events are identified by the magnitude of the difference of the extreme prices, by the time lag between the corresponding events (waiting time), and by the time interval between events with a minimal magnitude (return time). Results from the analysis of the inter day Dow Jones Industrial Average index (DJIA) from 1928 to 2011 are discussed. q-Gaussian functions with power law tails are found to provide a very accurate description of a class of measures obtained from the series statistics.

  9. [Bottoming out in augmentation mammaplasty--correction and prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, J; Stahlenbrecher, A

    2006-08-01

    Displacement of a breast implant beneath the original submammary fold is known as a rare but, in most cases, difficult to correct complication after augmentation mammaplasty. Suggestions for re-centering the mammary implant range from simple percutaneous sutures to the additional application of expensive alloplastic dermal grafts. Based on the latest findings concerning plastination histology of the fascial system of the breast and in the light of our own clinical experience regarding correction of implant ptosis we have developed a special treatment concept. When placing the implant, the vertical fibers of the submammary fold are saved as a precautionary measure. In cases where there is a risk of possible inferior displacement of the mammary implant, an individually manufactured belt-like bandage is applied for approximately eight weeks postoperatively. In cases requiring the correction of a severe "bottoming out" deformity, we either lift the capsular shell of the implant or, if the fibrous capsule is thin and vulnerable, we use a special capsular flap technique resulting in a hammock that catches the implant at the height of the new submammary fold. Postoperative application of our belt-like bandage is again indispensable. PMID:16991043

  10. Bypass transition of the bottom boundary layer under solitary wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, Mahmoud; Diamessis, Peter; Parras, Luis; Liu, Philip

    2015-11-01

    The transition to turbulence in the bottom boundary layer (BBL) flow driven by a soliton-like pressure gradient in an oscillating water tunnel (an approximation for the BBL under solitary waves) is investigated using hydrodynamic linear stability theory and DNS. As observed in the laboratory experiment by Sumer et al. (2010), two possible transition scenarios exist. The first scenario is associated with the classical transition resulting from the breakdown of the exponentially growing 2-D Tollmien-Schlichting waves. The alternative scenario; i.e., bypass transition; takes place through formation of localized turbulent spots. The investigation of the latter transition scenario is performed in two steps. The first step consists of reformulating the linear stability analysis in the non-modal framework for the purpose of finding the optimum disturbance characteristics which lead to the formation of those turbulent spots. In the second step, the computed optimum noise structure is inserted in the 3D DNS in order to induce the formation of the turbulent spots and effectively simulate the bypass transition observed experimentally.

  11. Analysis of ADCP data above a bottom observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Gerber

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A 300-kHz ADCP was set on GEOSTAR, a six-m3 deep-sea observatory. It was operated with cells of 80 cm during a three-week test experiment at 42-m water depth in the northern Adriatic sub-basin. Although it provided valuable data about the horizontal current field over most of the water column, it also allowed specifying the wake disturbances induced by the observatory. These disturbances are characterised by vertical velocities that are significant up to ~20 m above seafloor (echo intensity data suggest that the wake can even reach the surface, and by inclinations of the bottom nepheloïd layer (as deduced from differences in echo intensities from beam to beam. Our analysis is validated by consistent relationships between the horizontal current direction and speed on one side and the characteristics of both dynamical (vertical velocity and non-dynamical (echo intensity parameters on the other side. It is in good agreement with the simulations from a numerical model, and hence specifies the sensitivity (especially with respect to echo intensity and accuracy of an instrument usually operated within fields of current and scatterers not disturbed by the device supporting it. In addition, the error velocity parameter displays specific characteristics that easily allow specifying the thickness of the layer disturbed by the observatory, thus providing a technique to validate the quality of data acquired in similar conditions.

  12. Method for Determining Leakage Velocities through the Bottom of Reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method based on an idea of converting a slow flow through a chosen area of reservoir bottom to a fast flow in a pipe of a small diameter is presented. If the chosen area is tightly covered by a bottomless cylinder with an outlet through a pipe then the product of leakage velocity and the area covered is equal to the product of flow velocity in the pipe and the pipe cross-section. Even extremely low leakage velocities render measurable velocities in the pipe if its cross-section is very small in comparison with the covered area. This idea can be used for leakage velocity measurements if the measuring device does not disturb natural flow lines. Conditions under which this requirement is satisfied are considered in detail. A measuring device constructed according to these conditions and described in the paper can measure leakage velocities from 5 x 10-7 to 3 x 10-3 cm/sec. The flow velocity in the measuring pipe is known from the transit time measurement of an injected pulse of a radioisotope. (author)

  13. Organizing a Global Labor Movement from Top and Bottom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Nash Jr.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available While the prospects for a global labor movement are ripe, working people and their supporters may fail to take full advantage of this historical opening. A potential barrier is the existence of a strategic myopia when it comes to the role of preexisting labor organizations at the national and international levels. Specifically, these higher-tier institutions are often viewed by labor activists and the rank-and-file as inherently autocratic and imperialistic, and are thus deemed to have little value for efforts at fostering global labor solidarity. A consequence is that many in the labor movement concentrate their energies solely at a local or community level, with the idea that it is only here that true progressive change can result. In terms of broader solidarity and resistance, it is felt that cross-regional and cross-national linkages will eventually develop to expand the struggle to a truly global level. In effect, it is presumed by many that a global labor movement will, and in fact must, be built strictly from the "bottom-up" ( e.g. Brecher and Costello, 1994.

  14. CFD SIMULATION OF A STIRRED DISHED BOTTOM VESSEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Vlček

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with simulation of the fluid flow in a stirred curved-bottom vessel equipped with three curved blade impellers. The power number and the impeller flow rate number are dimensionless characteristics of the system determined from simulation results and compared with relevant experimental data or data from the literature. The model of the system was created in the conventional Gambit and Fluent program. The system is solved for two designs — for an unbaffled vessel, and for a baffled vessel.The vessel is filled with water and the impeller speed            is 100 min−1. Three turbulent models were used for the solution: k-ε, k-ω and RSM. The results were compared with experimental data or data from the literature. The k-ε model had the smallest demands on processor time, and the results compared satisfactorily with the experimental data. The model provides comprehensive information about the characteristics of the system.

  15. BUEES:a bottom-up event extraction system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao DING; Bing QIN; Ting LIU

    2015-01-01

    Traditional event extraction systems focus mainly on event type identifi cation and event participant extraction based on pre-specifi ed event type paradigms and manually annotated corpora. However, different domains have different event type paradigms. When transferring to a new domain, we have to build a new event type paradigm and annotate a new corpus from scratch. This kind of conventional event extraction system requires massive human effort, and hence prevents event extraction from being widely applicable. In this paper, we present BUEES, a bottom-up event extraction system, which extracts events from the web in a completely unsupervised way. The system automatically builds an event type paradigm in the input corpus, and then proceeds to extract a large number of instance patterns of these events. Subsequently, the system extracts event arguments according to these patterns. By conducting a series of experiments, we demonstrate the good performance of BUEES and compare it to a state-of-the-art Chinese event extraction system, i.e., a supervised event extraction system. Experimental results show that BUEES performs comparably (5% higher F-measure in event type identifi cation and 3% higher F-measure in event argument extraction), but without any human effort.

  16. Reservoir behavior and production rate using bottom waterflooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segovia C., A.G.

    1975-08-01

    Calculation of predictable behavior and assignment of production rate per well is a recommended procedure, based on Buckley and Leverett's theory on frontal displacement using bottom waterflooding. The study of a natural reservoir mechanism of production by hydraulic drive or gas-layer drive was made because they are rate sensitive. Production rates are established after a feasibile economic analysis. The production effect on final oil recovery must be established from the reservoir itself, to get more hydrocarbons efficiently, avoiding gas or water problems, and premature advance of the aquiferous or the gas layer. The calculation determines fundamental reservoir parameters which can be used to predict expected problems to be avoided with no risk. Most productive formations are thin but extended, and their exploitation is not economical if the equilibrium between oil and water production is broken down. When the characteristics are favorable, engineering analysis and study are used to yield optimal reservoir control and exploitation using frontal displacement mechanisms. 10 references.

  17. Bottom-Up Synthesis and Sensor Applications of Biomimetic Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of nanotechnology, biology, and bioengineering greatly improved the developments of nanomaterials with unique functions and properties. Biomolecules as the nanoscale building blocks play very important roles for the final formation of functional nanostructures. Many kinds of novel nanostructures have been created by using the bioinspired self-assembly and subsequent binding with various nanoparticles. In this review, we summarized the studies on the fabrications and sensor applications of biomimetic nanostructures. The strategies for creating different bottom-up nanostructures by using biomolecules like DNA, protein, peptide, and virus, as well as microorganisms like bacteria and plant leaf are introduced. In addition, the potential applications of the synthesized biomimetic nanostructures for colorimetry, fluorescence, surface plasmon resonance, surface-enhanced Raman scattering, electrical resistance, electrochemistry, and quartz crystal microbalance sensors are presented. This review will promote the understanding of relationships between biomolecules/microorganisms and functional nanomaterials in one way, and in another way it will guide the design and synthesis of biomimetic nanomaterials with unique properties in the future.

  18. Search for signatures with top, bottom, tau and exotics

    CERN Document Server

    Andrea Favareto; Luigi Longo

    2016-01-01

    The Standard Model (SM) of particle physics is a sensational success, especially since the discov- ery of the 125 GeV Higgs boson. However, there are still several open questions that the Standard Model doesnâ??t address, like the nature of dark matter and dark energy, the matter-antimatter asym- metry, the neutrino oscillations, the inconsistency with the general relativity and the hierarchy problem. Theories Beyond the Standard Model (BSM), such as Supersymmetry, Little and Com- posite Higgs, Extra-Dimensions, Extended Gauge models, Technicolor, Left-Right symmetric models, and many other BSM scenarios are trying to answer these questions. In these proceed- ings we present the most recent results for searches Beyond the Standard Model at the LHC by the ATLAS and CMS experiments, focusing on signatures with top, bottom, tau and exotics. The data are found to be consistent with the Standard Model. The non-observation of a signal permits to set limits at the 95pct confidence level on the production cross sect...

  19. Effects of a brine discharge over soft bottom Polychaeta assemblage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilar-Ruso, Yoana del [Dpto. de Ciencias del Mar y Biologia Aplicada, Universidad de Alicante, Campus de San Vicente del Raspeig, Ap. 99, E-03080, Alicante (Spain)], E-mail: yoana.delpilar@ua.es; Ossa-Carretero, Jose Antonio de la; Gimenez-Casalduero, Francisca; Sanchez-Lizaso, Jose Luis [Dpto. de Ciencias del Mar y Biologia Aplicada, Universidad de Alicante, Campus de San Vicente del Raspeig, Ap. 99, E-03080, Alicante (Spain)

    2008-11-15

    Desalination is a growing activity that has introduced a new impact, brine discharge, which may affect benthic communities. Although the role of polychaetes as indicators to assess organic pollution is well known, their tolerance to salinity changes has not been examined to such a great extent. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of brine discharge over soft bottom polychaete assemblage along the Alicante coast (Southeast Spain) over a two year period. Changes in the polychaete assemblage was analysed using univariate and multivariate techniques. We compared a transect in front of the discharge with two controls. At each transect we sampled at three depths (4, 10 and 15 m) during winter and summer. We have observed different sensitivity of polychaete families to brine discharges, Ampharetidae being the most sensitive, followed by Nephtyidae and Spionidae. Syllidae and Capitellidae showed some resistance initially, while Paraonidae proved to be a tolerant family. - The Polychaete assemblage is affected by the brine discharge of the Alicante desalination plant and we detect different sensitivity levels in polychaete families to brine impact.

  20. The PAVE (peeling-assisted volume-enhancing) lift: A retrospective 6-year clinical analysis of a combined approach for facial rejuvenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Kai Oliver; Schaller, Hans-Eberhard; Jaminet, Patrick; Gonser, Phillipp

    2016-08-01

    The peeling-assisted volume-enhancing (PAVE) lift is a single-stage approach that combines superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) plication techniques with fat grafting and different peeling agents. To evaluate the safety of this approach, we analyzed the records of 159 patients who underwent surgery between 2008 and 2014. The percentage of complications observed was not higher than values reported in the literature for each treatment entity: surgical facelift: n=3 haematomas (1.89 %), n=2; temporary apraxia of the mandibular branch (1.26%); fat transfer: minor asymmetry in n = 5 cases (3.14%); peeling: temporary hyperpigmentation in trichloroacetic acid (n = 5; 3.8%) and phenol peels (n = 4; 3.1%), permanent hypopigmentation (n = 6; 5.6%), formation of skin miliae persisting longer than 2 to 3 months (n = 5; 4.6%) and prolonged erythema (n = 3; 0.28%) in phenol peels. The single-stage use of chemical peels, autologous fat transfer, and surgical rhytidectomy was safe. PMID:27320171

  1. Study of Low Cost Polyurethane Paving Materials%低成本聚氨酯铺装材料的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴国才; 狄昌祥

    2001-01-01

    A low cost polyurethane paving materials were produced by studying compositions and ratio of polyurethane elastomer admixture. The result shows that the mechanical properties can be improved when mass ratio of PG-4/N-220 is above 0.23, the catalyst amout added is between 0.4%~1.2% and the mass ratio of prepolymer/paste is 0.9/4~1.0/4 with addition of modified fillers.%通过研究聚氨酯弹性体的组成及配比,制备了低成本聚氨酯铺装材料。结果表明,聚醚多元醇PG-4/N-220大于0.23,催化剂用量为0.4%~1.2%,预聚体和浆料之比为0.9∶4~1.0∶4,再加入填料处理剂,能提高其力学性能。

  2. Paving the Way for Speech: Voice-Training-Induced Plasticity in Chronic Aphasia and Apraxia of Speech—Three Single Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Jungblut

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Difficulties with temporal coordination or sequencing of speech movements are frequently reported in aphasia patients with concomitant apraxia of speech (AOS. Our major objective was to investigate the effects of specific rhythmic-melodic voice training on brain activation of those patients. Three patients with severe chronic nonfluent aphasia and AOS were included in this study. Before and after therapy, patients underwent the same fMRI procedure as 30 healthy control subjects in our prestudy, which investigated the neural substrates of sung vowel changes in untrained rhythm sequences. A main finding was that post-minus pretreatment imaging data yielded significant perilesional activations in all patients for example, in the left superior temporal gyrus, whereas the reverse subtraction revealed either no significant activation or right hemisphere activation. Likewise, pre- and posttreatment assessments of patients’ vocal rhythm production, language, and speech motor performance yielded significant improvements for all patients. Our results suggest that changes in brain activation due to the applied training might indicate specific processes of reorganization, for example, improved temporal sequencing of sublexical speech components. In this context, a training that focuses on rhythmic singing with differently demanding complexity levels as concerns motor and cognitive capabilities seems to support paving the way for speech.

  3. Low energy isomers of (H2O)25 from a hierarchical method based on Monte Carlo temperature basin paving and molecular tailoring approaches benchmarked by MP2 calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Nityananda; Gadre, Shridhar R; Rakshit, Avijit; Bandyopadhyay, Pradipta; Miliordos, Evangelos; Xantheas, Sotiris S

    2014-10-28

    We report new global minimum candidate structures for the (H2O)25 cluster that are lower in energy than the ones reported previously and correspond to hydrogen bonded networks with 42 hydrogen bonds and an interior, fully coordinated water molecule. These were obtained as a result of a hierarchical approach based on initial Monte Carlo Temperature Basin Paving sampling of the cluster's Potential Energy Surface with the Effective Fragment Potential, subsequent geometry optimization using the Molecular Tailoring Approach with the fragments treated at the second order Møller-Plesset (MP2) perturbation (MTA-MP2) and final refinement of the entire cluster at the MP2 level of theory. The MTA-MP2 optimized cluster geometries, constructed from the fragments, were found to be within <0.5 kcal/mol from the minimum geometries obtained from the MP2 optimization of the entire (H2O)25 cluster. In addition, the grafting of the MTA-MP2 energies yields electronic energies that are within <0.3 kcal/mol from the MP2 energies of the entire cluster while preserving their energy rank order. Finally, the MTA-MP2 approach was found to reproduce the MP2 harmonic vibrational frequencies, constructed from the fragments, quite accurately when compared to the MP2 ones of the entire cluster in both the HOH bending and the OH stretching regions of the spectra.

  4. Paving the way for speech: voice-training-induced plasticity in chronic aphasia and apraxia of speech--three single cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungblut, Monika; Huber, Walter; Mais, Christiane; Schnitker, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Difficulties with temporal coordination or sequencing of speech movements are frequently reported in aphasia patients with concomitant apraxia of speech (AOS). Our major objective was to investigate the effects of specific rhythmic-melodic voice training on brain activation of those patients. Three patients with severe chronic nonfluent aphasia and AOS were included in this study. Before and after therapy, patients underwent the same fMRI procedure as 30 healthy control subjects in our prestudy, which investigated the neural substrates of sung vowel changes in untrained rhythm sequences. A main finding was that post-minus pretreatment imaging data yielded significant perilesional activations in all patients for example, in the left superior temporal gyrus, whereas the reverse subtraction revealed either no significant activation or right hemisphere activation. Likewise, pre- and posttreatment assessments of patients' vocal rhythm production, language, and speech motor performance yielded significant improvements for all patients. Our results suggest that changes in brain activation due to the applied training might indicate specific processes of reorganization, for example, improved temporal sequencing of sublexical speech components. In this context, a training that focuses on rhythmic singing with differently demanding complexity levels as concerns motor and cognitive capabilities seems to support paving the way for speech. PMID:24977055

  5. The Muscle Sensor for on-site neuroscience lectures to pave the way for a better understanding of brain-machine-interface research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Amane; Nagata, Osamu; Togawa, Morio; Sazi, Toshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Neuroscience is an expanding field of science to investigate enigmas of brain and human body function. However, the majority of the public have never had the chance to learn the basics of neuroscience and new knowledge from advanced neuroscience research through hands-on experience. Here, we report that we produced the Muscle Sensor, a simplified electromyography, to promote educational understanding in neuroscience. The Muscle Sensor can detect myoelectric potentials which are filtered and processed as 3-V pulse signals to shine a light bulb and emit beep sounds. With this educational tool, we delivered "On-Site Neuroscience Lectures" in Japanese junior-high schools to facilitate hands-on experience of neuroscientific electrophysiology and to connect their text-book knowledge to advanced neuroscience researches. On-site neuroscience lectures with the Muscle Sensor pave the way for a better understanding of the basics of neuroscience and the latest topics such as how brain-machine-interface technology could help patients with disabilities such as spinal cord injuries.

  6. Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Introducing hard bottom substrate sea bottom and marine biology. Data report 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhard, S.B.; Pedersen, John

    2002-08-15

    The Ministry of Environment and Energy requested ELSAM and ELTRA to establish an offshore wind farm with an output of 150 MW in the waters of Horns Rev, approximately 15 km off Blaevandshuk, which is the most westerly point of Denmark. The first phase of construction of the wind farm have started in spring 2002. Before the construction activities take place, a baseline description of the benthos has been conducted as a part of an environmental monitoring programme for the introduction of hard bottom substrates in the North Sea. The establishment of a monitoring programme is required according to some environmental guidelines for offshore wind farms prepared by the Danish Energy Agency. The monitoring programme established for the benthic infauna was performed in spring 2001. In addition to a proposed fish investigation programme concerning the stomach contents of fish a comparative programme on benthos was established as part of the monitoring programme. The benthos sampling in connection with the fish programme was conducted in autumn 2001. This benthic survey includes sampling in a proposed reference area for the fish surveys north east of the wind farm. This report presents the data of the baseline environmental survey of the seabed in the wind farm site and in the proposed reference site and a brief description of the weather conditions at the time of sampling. (au)

  7. Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Introducing hard bottom substrate sea bottom and marine biology. Data report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ministry of Environment and Energy requested ELSAM and ELTRA to establish an offshore wind farm with an output of 150 MW in the waters of Horns Rev, approximately 15 km off Blaevandshuk, which is the most westerly point of Denmark. The first phase of construction of the wind farm have started in spring 2002. Before the construction activities take place, a baseline description of the benthos has been conducted as a part of an environmental monitoring programme for the introduction of hard bottom substrates in the North Sea. The establishment of a monitoring programme is required according to some environmental guidelines for offshore wind farms prepared by the Danish Energy Agency. The monitoring programme established for the benthic infauna was performed in spring 2001. In addition to a proposed fish investigation programme concerning the stomach contents of fish a comparative programme on benthos was established as part of the monitoring programme. The benthos sampling in connection with the fish programme was conducted in autumn 2001. This benthic survey includes sampling in a proposed reference area for the fish surveys north east of the wind farm. This report presents the data of the baseline environmental survey of the seabed in the wind farm site and in the proposed reference site and a brief description of the weather conditions at the time of sampling. (au)

  8. Contribution of natural organic matter to copper leaching from municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zomeren, van A.; Comans, R.N.J.

    2004-01-01

    The leaching of heavy metals, such as copper, from municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash is a concern in many countries and may inhibit the beneficial reuse of this secondary material. The enhanced leaching of copper from three MSWI bottom ash samples by dissolved organic carbon (DOC)

  9. What a drag: Quantifying the global impact of chronic bottom trawling on continental shelf sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Ferdinand K. J.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Hanebuth, Till J. J.

    2016-07-01

    Continental shelves worldwide are subject to intense bottom trawling that causes sediment to be resuspended. The widely used traditional concepts of modern sedimentary transport systems on the shelf rely only on estimates for naturally driven sediment resuspension such as through storm waves, bottom currents, and gravity-driven flows but they overlook a critical anthropogenic factor. The strong influence of bottom trawling on a source-to-sink sediment budget is explored on the NW Iberian shelf. Use of Automated Information System vessel tracking data provides for a high-resolution vessel track reconstruction and the accurate calculation of the spatial distribution of bottom trawling intensity and associated resuspended sediment load. The mean bottom trawling-induced resuspended sediment mass for the NW Iberian shelf is 13.50 Mt yr- 1, which leads to a six-fold increase in off-shelf sediment transport when compared to natural resuspension mechanisms. The source-to-sink budget analysis provides evidence that bottom trawling causes a rapid erosion of the fine sediment on human time scales. Combining global soft sediment distribution data of the shelves with worldwide bottom trawling intensity estimates we show that the bottom trawling-induced resuspended sediment mass amounts to approximately the same mass of all sediment entering the shelves through rivers. Spatial delineations between natural and anthropogenic sediment resuspension areas are presented to aid in marine management questions.

  10. Measuring Sandy Bottom Dynamics by Exploiting Depth from Stereo Video Sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musumeci, Rosaria E.; Farinella, Giovanni M.; Foti, Enrico;

    2013-01-01

    In this paper an imaging system for measuring sandy bottom dynamics is proposed. The system exploits stereo sequences and projected laser beams to build the 3D shape of the sandy bottom during time. The reconstruction is used by experts of the field to perform accurate measurements and analysis i...

  11. What a drag: Quantifying the global impact of chronic bottom trawling on continental shelf sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Ferdinand K.J.; Storlazzi, Curt; Hanebuth, Till J.J.

    2016-01-01

    Continental shelves worldwide are subject to intense bottom trawling that causes sediment to be resuspended. The widely used traditional concepts of modern sedimentary transport systems on the shelf rely only on estimates for naturally driven sediment resuspension such as through storm waves, bottom currents, and gravity-driven flows but they overlook a critical anthropogenic factor. The strong influence of bottom trawling on a source-to-sink sediment budget is explored on the NW Iberian shelf. Use of Automated Information System vessel tracking data provides for a high-resolution vessel track reconstruction and the accurate calculation of the spatial distribution of bottom trawling intensity and associated resuspended sediment load. The mean bottom trawling-induced resuspended sediment mass for the NW Iberian shelf is 13.50 Mt yr− 1, which leads to a six-fold increase in off-shelf sediment transport when compared to natural resuspension mechanisms. The source-to-sink budget analysis provides evidence that bottom trawling causes a rapid erosion of the fine sediment on human time scales. Combining global soft sediment distribution data of the shelves with worldwide bottom trawling intensity estimates we show that the bottom trawling-induced resuspended sediment mass amounts to approximately the same mass of all sediment entering the shelves through rivers. Spatial delineations between natural and anthropogenic sediment resuspension areas are presented to aid in marine management questions.

  12. High-frequency bottom-pressure and acoustic variations in a sea strait: internal wave turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haren, H.

    2012-01-01

    During a period of 3 days, an accurate bottom-pressure sensor and a four-beam acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) were mounted in a bottom frame at 23 m in a narrow sea strait with dominant near-rectilinear tidal currents exceeding 1 m s(-1) in magnitude. The pressure record distinguishes small

  13. Water purification with sintered porous materials fabricated at 400℃ from sea bottom sediments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A sintering technology for preparing porous materials from sea bottom sediments was developed for use in water purification. The purpose of the present study was to develop methods for converting the sea bottom sediments dredged from Ago Bay into value-added recycled products. The sintered products fabricated at 400℃ were found to be very effective adsorbents for the removal of heavy metals.

  14. Charge transport in bottom-up inorganic-organic and quantum-coherent nanostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makarenko, Ksenia Sergeevna

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is based on results obtained from experiments designed for a consistent study of charge transport in bottom-up inorganic-organic and quantum-coherent nanostructures. New unconventional ways to build elements of electrical circuits (like dielectrophoresis, wedging transfer and bottom-up f

  15. Bottom excitation contribution to dilepton production in ν, anti ν reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottom production in ν and anti ν deep inelastic reactions is discussed within the framework of the standard model for quarks and leptons. Using the Kobayashi-Maskawa model it is found that dilepton events available at present can have a bottom contribution which can be as high as 10% (upper bound)

  16. Numerical Study on the Influence of Different Waving Bottom Form on the Fluid Surface Wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxin Zhu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effect of waving bottom on the surface wave is studied. Basing on the fundamental equations of potential flow theory and boundary conditions, using the multiple scales perturbation method to derive the first-order and the second-order approximate equation which the fluid surface waves satisfied in the presence of waving bottom. Under the second-order approximation, the fluid surface waveform in first-order approximate equation is numerically simulated with MATLAB in the presence of different waving bottom form. The results show that: the fluid surface waveform is composed of a harmonic wave which has the same frequency with waving bottom and a pair of KdV solitary waves that spread to both the right and the left side when the waving bottom wave is a harmonic wave; and when the waving bottom is a solitary wave packet, it consists of a solitary wave which is closely related to the specific form of waving bottom and a couple of KdV solitary waves. With the development of time, three waves in fluid surface do not affect each other and they propagate independently. Thus it can be seen the waving bottom is effective for maintaining surface wave energy balance income and expenditure in the spreading process.

  17. 14 CFR 25.533 - Hull and main float bottom pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... pressure distributions must be applied: (1) For an unflared bottom, the pressure at the chine is 0.75 times the pressure at the keel, and the pressures between the keel and chine vary linearly, in accordance... same as that for an unflared bottom, and the pressure between the chine and the beginning of the...

  18. 14 CFR 23.533 - Hull and main float bottom pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... bottom, the pressure at the chine is 0.75 times the pressure at the keel, and the pressures between the keel and chine vary linearly, in accordance with figure 3 of appendix I of this part. The pressure at... unflared bottom, and the pressure between the chine and the beginning of the flare varies linearly,...

  19. Bottom-Up Colloidal Crystal Assembly with a Twist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahynski, Nathan A; Rovigatti, Lorenzo; Likos, Christos N; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z

    2016-05-24

    Globally ordered colloidal crystal lattices have broad utility in a wide range of optical and catalytic devices, for example, as photonic band gap materials. However, the self-assembly of stereospecific structures is often confounded by polymorphism. Small free-energy differences often characterize ensembles of different structures, making it difficult to produce a single morphology at will. Current techniques to handle this problem adopt one of two approaches: that of the "top-down" or "bottom-up" methodology, whereby structures are engineered starting from the largest or smallest relevant length scales, respectively. However, recently, a third approach for directing high fidelity assembly of colloidal crystals has been suggested which relies on the introduction of polymer cosolutes into the crystal phase [Mahynski, N.; Panagiotopoulos, A. Z.; Meng, D.; Kumar, S. K. Nat. Commun. 2014, 5, 4472]. By tuning the polymer's morphology to interact uniquely with the void symmetry of a single desired crystal, the entropy loss associated with polymer confinement has been shown to strongly bias the formation of that phase. However, previously, this approach has only been demonstrated in the limiting case of close-packed crystals. Here, we show how this approach may be generalized and extended to complex open crystals, illustrating the utility of this "structure-directing agent" paradigm in engineering the nanoscale structure of ordered colloidal materials. The high degree of transferability of this paradigm's basic principles between relatively simple crystals and more complex ones suggests that this represents a valuable addition to presently known self-assembly techniques. PMID:27124487

  20. Building Models from the Bottom Up: The HOBBES Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medellin-Azuara, J.; Sandoval Solis, S.; Lund, J. R.; Chu, W.

    2013-12-01

    Water problems are often bigger than technical and data challenges associated in representing a water system using a model. Controversy and complexity is inherent when water is to be allocated among different uses making difficult to maintain coherent and productive discussions on addressing water problems. Quantification of a water supply system through models has proven to be helpful to improve understanding, explore and develop adaptable solutions to water problems. However, models often become too large and complex and become hostages of endless discussions of the assumptions, their algorithms and their limitations. Data management organization and documentation keep model flexible and useful over time. The UC Davis HOBBES project is a new approach, building models from the bottom up. Reversing the traditional model development, where data are arranged around a model algorithm, in Hobbes the data structure, organization and documentation are established first, followed by application of simulation or optimization modeling algorithms for a particular problem at hand. The HOBBES project establishes standards for storing, documenting and sharing datasets on California water system. This allows models to be developed and modified more easily and transparently, with greater comparability. Elements in the database have a spatial definition and can aggregate several infrastructural elements into detailed to coarse representations of the water system. Elements in the database represent reservoirs, groundwater basins, pumping stations, hydropower and water treatment facilities, demand areas and conveyance infrastructure statewide. These elements also host time series, economic and other information from hydrologic, economic, climate and other models. This presentation provides an overview of the project HOBBES project, its applications and prospects for California and elsewhere. The HOBBES Project

  1. Ash Management Review—Applications of Biomass Bottom Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpuneet S. Ghuman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In industrialized countries, it is expected that the future generation of bioenergy will be from the direct combustion of residues and wastes obtained from biomass. Bioenergy production using woody biomass is a fast developing application since this fuel source is considered to be carbon neutral. The harnessing of bioenergy from these sources produces residue in the form of ash. As the demand for bioenergy production increases, ash and residue volumes will increase. Major challenges will arise relating to the efficient management of these byproducts. The primary concerns for ash are its storage, disposal, use and the presence of unburned carbon. The continual increase in ash volume will result in decreased ash storage facilities (in cases of limited room for landfill expansion, as well as increased handling, transporting and spreading costs. The utilization of ash has been the focus of many studies, hence this review investigates the likely environmental and technological challenges that increased ash generation may cause. The presence of alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, chlorine, sulphur and silicon influences the reactivity and leaching to the inorganic phases which may have significant impacts on soils and the recycling of soil nutrient. Discussed are some of the existing technologies for the processing of ash. Unburned carbon present in ash allows for the exploration of using ash as a fuel. The paper proposes sieve fractionation as a suitable method for the separation of unburnt carbon present in bottom ash obtained from a fixed-bed combustion system, followed by the application of the gasification technology to particle sizes of energy importance. It is hoped that this process will significantly reduce the volume of ash disposed at landfills.

  2. Properties of the Water Column and Bottom Derived from AVIRIS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Zhong-Ping; Carder, Kendall L.; Chen, F. Robert; Peacock, Thomas G.

    2001-01-01

    Using AVIRIS data as an example, we show in this study that the optical properties of the water column and bottom of a large, shallow area can be adequately retrieved using a model-driven optimization technique. The simultaneously derived properties include bottom depth, bottom albedo, and water absorption and backscattering coefficients, which in turn could be used to derive concentrations of chlorophyll, dissolved organic matter, and suspended sediments. The derived bottom depths were compared with a bathymetry chart and a boat survey and were found to agree very well. Also, the derived bottom-albedo image shows clear spatial patterns, with end members consistent with sand and seagrass. The image of absorption and backscattering coefficients indicates that the water is quite horizontally mixed. These results suggest that the model and approach used work very well for the retrieval of sub-surface properties of shallow-water environments even for rather turbid environments like Tampa Bay, Florida.

  3. Analysis of hydrodynamic characteristics of unmanned underwater vehicle moving close to the sea bottom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-xu Du

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The accurate research on the hydrodynamics of unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV, which moves close to the sea bottom, has a great significance for its maneuverability. The structured grid of the computational models with different distances to the sea bottom and attack angles is generated by Ansys ICEM, and the flow field near the sea bottom is simulated using CFX. The characteristics of the drag, lift, pitching moment influenced by the distance to sea bottom and the attack angle are studied. The result shows that the drag coefficient increases with the decrease of distance, while it increases with the increase of attack angle. There exists attraction force when UUV moves close to the sea bottom, and the attraction force increases with the decrease in distance. The lift coefficient increases with the increase in attack angle. The absolute value of the pitching moment coefficient increases with the decrease in distance and the increase in attack angle.

  4. Analysis of hydrodynamic characteristics of unmanned underwater vehicle moving close to the sea bottom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-xu DU; Huan WANG; Cheng-zhi HAO; Xin-liang LI

    2014-01-01

    The accurate research on the hydrodynamics of unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV), which moves close to the sea bottom, has a great significance for its maneuverability. The structured grid of the computational models with different distances to the sea bottom and attack angles is generated by Ansys ICEM, and the flow field near the sea bottom is simulated using CFX. The characteristics of the drag, lift, pitching moment influenced by the distance to sea bottom and the attack angle are studied. The result shows that the drag coefficient increases with the decrease of distance, while it increases with the increase of attack angle. There exists attraction force when UUV moves close to the sea bottom, and the attraction force increases with the decrease in distance. The lift coefficient increases with the increase in attack angle. The absolute value of the pitching moment coefficient increases with the decrease in distance and the increase in attack angle.

  5. Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Introducing hard bottom substrate sea bottom and marine biology. Status report 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhard, S.B.; Pedersen, John

    2002-08-15

    A baseline description of the benthos was carried out in spring and autumn 2001 prior to the construction of an offshore wind farm at Horns Rev, situated approximately 15 km off Blaevands Huk, which is Denmark's most westerly point. The surveys have been conducted as part of an environmental monitoring programme for the introduction of hard bottom substrates in the North Sea. The establishment of a monitoring programme is required according to some environmental guidelines set up by the Danish Energy Agency for offshore wind farms. Because no environmental criteria existed for benthic communities in connection with the construction activities, no power analysis was made prior to the design of the monitoring programme. The monitoring programme established for the benthic infauna is thus somewhat limited and only major changes in the community structure are expected to be detectable. The baseline description for the benthic infauna can also be used for comparison of the stomach contents of fish in a comparative programme. A newly defined reference area may be introduced for the fish programme why sampling in this area was carried out in the autumn 2001. Samples were recovered at a total of 18 stations at 6 wind turbine locations in the wind farm area in June 2001 and at a total of 9 stations at 3 wind turbine locations in September 2001. In September additional sampling was carried out at 5 stations in a designated reference area. At the wind turbine locations sampling was carried out at 3 stations located 5, 25 and 100 m from the edge of the planned scour protection. Samples were analysed for sediment characteristics and for benthic infauna. Only the benthos relating to the macrofauna was investigated during the surveys. (au)

  6. Coupling of ocean bottom seismometers to sediment: results of tests with the U.S. Geological Survey ocean bottom seismometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trehu, Anne M.

    1985-01-01

    The response of an ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) to a transient pull that excites the natural OBS-sediment coupling resonance can be modeled as a mass-spring-dashpot system in which the resonant frequency and damping are functions of instrument mass and bearing radius and of the physical properties of the sediment (primarily the shear modulus). For the very soft sediments sometimes found on the sea floor, this resonance may be within the main frequency band of interest (2 to 15 Hz) for many common instrument configurations. To test the model and to find an anchor that would shift the coupling resonance to a higher frequency and decrease its amplitude, we conducted a series of tests which measured the response of the vertical and horizontal components of the U.S. Geological Survey OBS to transient pulls as a function of anchor configuration and sediment properties. The tested anchors included a concrete “flowerpot,” a tripod, a plate, and a perforated plate. Sites were on soft, organic-rich ooze and on firm sand. Several small shots were also fired at the ooze site in order to compare the response of the plate and “flowerpot” anchors to seismic signals. For a given anchor at a given site, the observed response was very repeatable. We found that the model predicts the vertical coupling response quite well and that good vertical coupling can be achieved with the plate or perforated-plate anchors. The response to the horizontal pulls, however, was similar and resonant for all anchors.

  7. Mercury in water and bottom sediments from a mexican reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Lerma-Santiago river's source is located in the State of Mexico. Its drainage basin occupies an area of 129,632 km2. The river receives urban wastewater discharges from 29 municipalities, as well as industrial water discharges, both treated and untreated, mainly from the industrial zones of Toluca, Lerma, Ocoyoacac, Santiago Tianguistengo, Pasteje and Atlacomulco. It is estimated that during a year, the stream receives 536 x 106 m3 of waste waters, which carries 350,946 ton of organic load; 33% of these waste waters come from urban discharges, and 67% originate from industrial discharges. The Jose Antonio Alzate Reservoir fed by the Lerma river is the first significant water reservoir downstream of the main industrial areas in the State of Mexico and both are considered the most contaminated water bodies in the State of Mexico. Mercury concentrations in water and bottom sediments in the Jose Antonio Alzate Reservoir were determined in 6 different sampling zones over a 1-year period. Mercury was measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and irradiated with a thermal neutron flux of 9 x 1012 n. cm-2 s-1 for a period of 26 hours. High variations of mercury concentrations in water in both, soluble and suspended forms, were observed to depend on the sampling season. During the rainy season, rain events contribute with a substantial water volume to modify physicochemical parameters like pH, which dilute chemical species in the Alzate Reservoir. There are evidence that in the Jose Antonio Alzate reservoir, sedimentation and adsorption act as a natural cleaning process, decreasing the dissolved concentrations and increasing the metallic content of the sediments. A negative gradient was identified for mercury concentrations, from the Lerma river inlet to Alzate Reservoir dam, which demonstrates the considerable influence of the Lerma river inlet. This gradient also proves the existence of a metal recycling process between water and sediment, while the

  8. Modeling the formation of the quench product in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inkaew, Kanawut; Saffarzadeh, Amirhomayoun; Shimaoka, Takayuki

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated changes in bottom ash morphology and mineralogy under lab-scale quenching conditions. The main purpose was to clarify the mechanisms behind the formation of the quench product/layer around bottom ash particles. In the experiments, the unquenched bottom ashes were heated to 300°C for 1h, and were quenched by warm water (65°C) with different simulated conditions. After having filtered and dried, the ashes were analyzed by a combination of methodologies namely, particle size distribution analysis, intact particle and thin-section observation, X-ray diffractometry, and scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results indicated that after quenching, the morphology and mineralogy of the bottom ash changed significantly. The freshly quenched bottom ash was dominated by a quench product that was characterized by amorphous and microcrystalline calcium-silicate-hydrate (CSH) phases. This product also enclosed tiny minerals, glasses, ceramics, metals, and organic materials. The dominant mineral phases produced by quenching process and detected by XRD were calcite, Friedel's salt, hydrocalumite and portlandite. The formation of quench product was controlled by the fine fraction of the bottom ash (particle size conceptual model of the ash-water reactions and formation of the quench product in the bottom ash was proposed. PMID:27079853

  9. Improving Heat Transfer at the Bottom of Vials for Consistent Freeze Drying with Unidirectional Structured Ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Mónica; Tiago, João M; Singh, Satish K; Geraldes, Vítor; Rodrigues, Miguel A

    2016-10-01

    The quality of lyophilized products is dependent of the ice structure formed during the freezing step. Herein, we evaluate the importance of the air gap at the bottom of lyophilization vials for consistent nucleation, ice structure, and cake appearance. The bottom of lyophilization vials was modified by attaching a rectified aluminum disc with an adhesive material. Freezing was studied for normal and converted vials, with different volumes of solution, varying initial solution temperature (from 5°C to 20°C) and shelf temperature (from -20°C to -40°C). The impact of the air gap on the overall heat transfer was interpreted with the assistance of a computational fluid dynamics model. Converted vials caused nucleation at the bottom and decreased the nucleation time up to one order of magnitude. The formation of ice crystals unidirectionally structured from bottom to top lead to a honeycomb-structured cake after lyophilization of a solution with 4% mannitol. The primary drying time was reduced by approximately 35%. Converted vials that were frozen radially instead of bottom-up showed similar improvements compared with normal vials but very poor cake quality. Overall, the curvature of the bottom of glass vials presents a considerable threat to consistency by delaying nucleation and causing radial ice growth. Rectifying the vials bottom with an adhesive material revealed to be a relatively simple alternative to overcome this inconsistency.

  10. Optimization for the structure of BF hearth bottom and the arrangement of thermal couples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongbo Zhao; Shusen Cheng

    2006-01-01

    The hearth of "heat transfer method" and the ceramic cup synthetic hearth bottom of "heart isolation method" are two most popular designs for blast furnace (BF). Although there are successful real examples, some disadvantages, for instance large heat loss and high cost, still exist for these designs. According to the theory of heat transfer, based on the calculation of temperature distribution of the hearth bottom, it is elucidated that all brick layers at the hearth bottom may not be considered as the only reason why different structures exhibited different temperature distributions although total heat resistance is the same, and then based on the effect of hot metal and cold water on different temperature distribution ranges, the concepts of "heat resistance" and "cooling enhancement" are put forth. Based on this, the disadvantages and the factors affecting temperature distribution, of the two types of hearth bottoms were illustrated. On the basis of these analyses, a novel structure for BF hearth bottom designing that can easily form "self-protecting" slag layer stably, called "the method of gradient brick layout that has an optimum combination of cooling enhancement and heat resistance"was proposed; it can not only prolong the hearth bottom longevity but also reduce the cost and heat loss. Also, the optimum arrangement of thermal couples in hearth bottom was suggested based on the previous studies on erosion prediction carried out by the author.

  11. Multi-phase analytical model of radionuclide migration in lake water and bottom sediment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maceika, Evaldas; Filistovic, Vitold; Luksiene, Bena; Tarasiuk, Nikolay; Buivydas, Sarunas; Konstantinova, Marina; Puzas, Andrius [State research institute Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanoriu ave. 231, LT-2300 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2014-07-01

    Migration of long-lived radionuclides in lake eco-system is governed by several processes: advection, dilution, seasonal exchange, sedimentation; bioaccumulation. Interaction of dissolved radionuclide in water with the bottom sediments is of particular importance. Radionuclide can be adsorbed and desorbed by the bottom sediments. In turn, radionuclide is rapidly absorbed by organic and nonorganic origin particles in the lake water sphere. At the end, the particles will sink to the lake bottom and will form sediment layers of elevated contamination. Therefore explicit evaluation and balance of multi-phase radionuclide activity fluxes at the interface of lake water and bottom sediments surface is modelled in details. Created mathematical model, analytically describing dynamic of radionuclide migration, encompass both spheres of lake eco-system: water and bottom sediments. Solid and liquid radionuclide activity fractions are considered in every sphere. Sediment contamination is described by 1-D depth dependent advection-diffusion and adsorption/desorption reaction equation. Processes, taking place in the solid phase at the lake water sphere, are described by the adsorption/desorption dynamic equation as well as by activity fluxes balance at the interface with bottom sediments. Mathematical equations are rapidly solved by using Laplace transform and numerical inversion methods. Created model better described experimental measurement data of {sup 137}Cs radionuclide activity distribution profiles in studied lake bottom sediment vertical layers. This research was funded by a grant (No. MIP-041/2012) from the Research Council of Lithuania. (authors)

  12. Multi-phase analytical model of radionuclide migration in lake water and bottom sediment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migration of long-lived radionuclides in lake eco-system is governed by several processes: advection, dilution, seasonal exchange, sedimentation; bioaccumulation. Interaction of dissolved radionuclide in water with the bottom sediments is of particular importance. Radionuclide can be adsorbed and desorbed by the bottom sediments. In turn, radionuclide is rapidly absorbed by organic and nonorganic origin particles in the lake water sphere. At the end, the particles will sink to the lake bottom and will form sediment layers of elevated contamination. Therefore explicit evaluation and balance of multi-phase radionuclide activity fluxes at the interface of lake water and bottom sediments surface is modelled in details. Created mathematical model, analytically describing dynamic of radionuclide migration, encompass both spheres of lake eco-system: water and bottom sediments. Solid and liquid radionuclide activity fractions are considered in every sphere. Sediment contamination is described by 1-D depth dependent advection-diffusion and adsorption/desorption reaction equation. Processes, taking place in the solid phase at the lake water sphere, are described by the adsorption/desorption dynamic equation as well as by activity fluxes balance at the interface with bottom sediments. Mathematical equations are rapidly solved by using Laplace transform and numerical inversion methods. Created model better described experimental measurement data of 137Cs radionuclide activity distribution profiles in studied lake bottom sediment vertical layers. This research was funded by a grant (No. MIP-041/2012) from the Research Council of Lithuania. (authors)

  13. Improving Heat Transfer at the Bottom of Vials for Consistent Freeze Drying with Unidirectional Structured Ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Mónica; Tiago, João M; Singh, Satish K; Geraldes, Vítor; Rodrigues, Miguel A

    2016-10-01

    The quality of lyophilized products is dependent of the ice structure formed during the freezing step. Herein, we evaluate the importance of the air gap at the bottom of lyophilization vials for consistent nucleation, ice structure, and cake appearance. The bottom of lyophilization vials was modified by attaching a rectified aluminum disc with an adhesive material. Freezing was studied for normal and converted vials, with different volumes of solution, varying initial solution temperature (from 5°C to 20°C) and shelf temperature (from -20°C to -40°C). The impact of the air gap on the overall heat transfer was interpreted with the assistance of a computational fluid dynamics model. Converted vials caused nucleation at the bottom and decreased the nucleation time up to one order of magnitude. The formation of ice crystals unidirectionally structured from bottom to top lead to a honeycomb-structured cake after lyophilization of a solution with 4% mannitol. The primary drying time was reduced by approximately 35%. Converted vials that were frozen radially instead of bottom-up showed similar improvements compared with normal vials but very poor cake quality. Overall, the curvature of the bottom of glass vials presents a considerable threat to consistency by delaying nucleation and causing radial ice growth. Rectifying the vials bottom with an adhesive material revealed to be a relatively simple alternative to overcome this inconsistency. PMID:26502885

  14. Eco-friendly porous concrete using bottom ash aggregate for marine ranch application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung Jae; Prabhu, G Ganesh; Lee, Bong Chun; Kim, Yun Yong

    2016-03-01

    This article presents the test results of an investigation carried out on the reuse of coal bottom ash aggregate as a substitute material for coarse aggregate in porous concrete production for marine ranch applications. The experimental parameters were the rate of bottom ash aggregate substitution (30%, 50% and 100%) and the target void ratio (15%, 20% and 25%). The cement-coated granular fertiliser was substituted into a bottom ash aggregate concrete mixture to improve marine ranch applications. The results of leaching tests revealed that the bottom ash aggregate has only a negligible amount of the ten deleterious substances specified in the Ministry of Environment - Enforcement Regulation of the Waste Management Act of Republic Korea. The large amount of bubbles/air gaps in the bottom ash aggregate increased the voids of the concrete mixtures in all target void ratios, and decreased the compressive strength of the porous concrete mixture; however, the mixture substituted with 30% and 10% of bottom ash aggregate and granular fertiliser, respectively, showed an equal strength to the control mixture. The sea water resistibility of the bottom ash aggregate substituted mixture was relatively equal to that of the control mixture, and also showed a great deal of improvement in the degree of marine organism adhesion compared with the control mixture. No fatality of fish was observed in the fish toxicity test, which suggested that bottom ash aggregate was a harmless material and that the combination of bottom ash aggregate and granular fertiliser with substitution rates of 30% and 10%, respectively, can be effectively used in porous concrete production for marine ranch application. PMID:26687102

  15. Eco-friendly porous concrete using bottom ash aggregate for marine ranch application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung Jae; Prabhu, G Ganesh; Lee, Bong Chun; Kim, Yun Yong

    2016-03-01

    This article presents the test results of an investigation carried out on the reuse of coal bottom ash aggregate as a substitute material for coarse aggregate in porous concrete production for marine ranch applications. The experimental parameters were the rate of bottom ash aggregate substitution (30%, 50% and 100%) and the target void ratio (15%, 20% and 25%). The cement-coated granular fertiliser was substituted into a bottom ash aggregate concrete mixture to improve marine ranch applications. The results of leaching tests revealed that the bottom ash aggregate has only a negligible amount of the ten deleterious substances specified in the Ministry of Environment - Enforcement Regulation of the Waste Management Act of Republic Korea. The large amount of bubbles/air gaps in the bottom ash aggregate increased the voids of the concrete mixtures in all target void ratios, and decreased the compressive strength of the porous concrete mixture; however, the mixture substituted with 30% and 10% of bottom ash aggregate and granular fertiliser, respectively, showed an equal strength to the control mixture. The sea water resistibility of the bottom ash aggregate substituted mixture was relatively equal to that of the control mixture, and also showed a great deal of improvement in the degree of marine organism adhesion compared with the control mixture. No fatality of fish was observed in the fish toxicity test, which suggested that bottom ash aggregate was a harmless material and that the combination of bottom ash aggregate and granular fertiliser with substitution rates of 30% and 10%, respectively, can be effectively used in porous concrete production for marine ranch application.

  16. Cooperation between Top-Down and Bottom-Up Theorem Provers by Subgoal Clause Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, Dirk

    1999-01-01

    Top-down and bottom-up theorem proving approaches have each specific ad-vantages and disadvantages. Bottom-up provers profit from strong redundancycontrol and suffer from the lack of goal-orientation, whereas top-down provers aregoal-oriented but have weak calculi when their proof lengths are considered. Inorder to integrate both approaches our method is to achieve cooperation betweena top-down and a bottom-up prover: The top-down prover generates subgoalclauses, then they are processed by a ...

  17. Social and ethical checkpoints for bottom-up synthetic biology, or protocells

    OpenAIRE

    Bedau M.A.; Parke E.C.; Tangen U.; Hantsche-Tangen B.

    2009-01-01

    An alternative to creating novel organisms through the traditional “top-down” approach to synthetic biology involves creating them from the “bottom up” by assembling them from non-living components; the products of this approach are called “protocells.” In this paper we describe how bottom-up and top-down synthetic biology differ, review the current state of protocell research and development, and examine the unique ethical, social, and regulatory issues raised by bottom-up synthetic biology....

  18. Co-sintering of treated APC-residues with bottom ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergfeldt, B.; Jensen, Dorthe Lærke; Vehlow, J.;

    2001-01-01

    the influence of co-sintering of Ferrox products with bottom ashes on the quality of the residues and the effects on the combustion process. Only few elements showed higher concentrations in the bottom ashes of these co-combustion tests compared to reference tests. No significant effect on the leaching...... behaviour of the bottom ashes could be found. During the co-combustion process an increase in SO2 concentrations in the raw gas and slightly lower temperatures in the fuel bed could be observed....

  19. Can Tax Competition Lead to a Race to the Bottom in Europe? A Skeptical View

    OpenAIRE

    Thierry Warin; André Fourçans

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of the likelihood of a race to the bottom in a monetary union, like the Euro-zone, that could result from tax competition between countries. This fear of a race to the bottom is used both in the economic literature and the political arena to promote tax harmonization. Using a game theoretical approach with the costs of changing tax policies to analyze the conditions of a race to the bottom, this paper shows that countries may not choose such an extreme strate...

  20. Mapping practices of project management – merging top-down and bottom-up perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for studying different accounts of project management practices based on network mapping and analysis. Drawing upon network mapping and visualization as an analytical strategy top-down and bottom-up accounts of project management practice are analysed...... and compared. The analysis initially reveals a substantial difference between the top-down and bottom-up accounts of practice. Furthermore it identifies a soft side of project management that is central in the bottom-up account but absent from the top-down. Finally, the study shows that network mapping...... is a promising strategy for visualizing and analysing different accounts of project management practices....

  1. Nitrogen starvation induces expression of Lg-FLO1 and flocculation in bottom-fermenting yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Tomoo

    2012-11-01

    When exponentially growing cells of bottom-fermenting yeast were starved for nitrogen or were grown on proline (a non-preferred nitrogen source), flocculation was induced. This flocculation was not induced by starvation for either carbon or amino acids. Expression of Lg-FLO1, which is required for flocculation of bottom-fermenting yeast, was also found to be induced by starvation for nitrogen. This suggests that the flocculation of bottom-fermenting yeast is under the control of a nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR)-like mechanism.

  2. On the computation of finite bottom-quark mass effects in Higgs boson production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Romain; Öztürk, Deniz Gizem

    2016-08-01

    We present analytic results for the partonic cross-sections contributing to the top-bottom interference in Higgs production via gluon fusion at hadron colliders at NLO accuracy in QCD. We develop a method of expansion in small bottom-mass for master integrals and combine it with the usual infinite top-mass effective theory. Our method of expansion admits a simple algorithmic description and can be easily generalized to any small parameter. These results for the integrated cross-sections will be needed in the computation of the renormalization counter-terms entering the computation of finite bottom-quark mass effects at NNLO.

  3. Study of top and bottom contact resistance in one organic field-effect transistor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Ge; Liu Ming; Wang Hong; Shang Li-Wei; Ji Zhuo-Yu; Liu Xing-Hua; Liu Jiang

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports that the organic field-effect transistors with hybrid contact geometry were fabricated,in whic hthe top electrodes and the bottom electrodes were combined in parallel resistances within one transistor.With the facility of the novel structure,the difference of contact resistance between the top contact geometry and the bottom contact geometry was studied.The hybrid contact devices showed similar characteristics with the top contact configuration devices,which provide helpful evidence on the lower contact resistance of the top contact configuration device.The origin of the different contact resistance between the top contact device and the bottom contact device was discussed.

  4. Magnetic properties of bottom sediments from Meromectic Shira Lake (Siberia, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogozin, D. Yu.; Balaev, D. A.; Semenov, S. V.; Shaikhutdinov, K. A.; Bayukov, O. A.

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic properties were studied in bottom sediments of saline meromictic Shira Lake by the methods of static magnetometry and resonance Mössbauer spectroscopy for the first time. All layers of bottom sediments contain nanosized single-domain magnetite particles produced by magnetotactic bacteria. The concentration of magnetite in bottom sediments decreased with depth, reaching a local minimum in the layer corresponding to the minimal level of the lake observed in 1910-1930. It is demonstrated that biogenic magnetite may indicate climate-related changes in the level of Shira Lake, in addition to the other biological and geochemical characteristics.

  5. Chemical data for bottom sediment, lake water, bottom-sediment pore water, and fish in Mountain Creek Lake, Dallas, Texas, 1994-96

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S.A.; Van Metre, P.C.; Moring, J.B.; Braun, C.L.; Wilson, J.T.; Mahler, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    Mountain Creek Lake is a reservoir adjacent to two U.S. Department of the Navy facilities, the Naval Weapons Industrial Reserve Plant and the Naval Air Station in Dallas, Texas. A Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Investigation found ground-water plumes containing chlorinated solvents on both facilities. These findings led to a U.S. Geological Survey study of Mountain Creek Lake adjacent to both facilities between June 1994 and August 1996. Bottom sediments, lake water, bottom-sediment pore water, and fish were collected for chemical analysis.

  6. Inter-Municipal Cooperation in the Development of Industrial Parks and Tax Redistribution: The Road to Hell is Paved with Good Intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razin Eran

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Inter-municipal cooperation mechanisms have been promoted as flexible tools, reflecting the transition from government to governance in a new network economy and eliminating the need to engage in redrawing clear-cut boundaries in the context of soft spaces with fuzzy boundaries. An evaluation of inter-municipal cooperation in the development of industrial parks and tax revenue redistribution in Israel, from the first 1992 initiative to imposed redistribution in 2014/15, reveals how an initiative ’from below’ has been adopted and encouraged ’from above’, finally used by the central state as a tool of control, to serve its own objectives. It highlights the inherent temptation for top-down imposition, embedded in bottom-up cooperation mechanisms, calling for light-touch regulatory legislation and opting for gently imposed solutions where needed.

  7. Passive Seismic Reflectivity Imaging with Ocean-Bottom Cable Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohl, D.; Mateeva, A.

    2005-12-01

    The idea of imaging the subsurface reflectivity distribution by correlating long traces of seismic ``noise'' (i.e. seismic data recorded without active sources) goes back more than 30 years [1]. To this day, passive seismic reflectivity imaging has not been exploited for business use in the E&P industry. The conditions for successful passive seismic reflection imaging have greatly improved over the past few years, and the prize of cheap continuous sourceless seismic imaging and possibly monitoring is still large. Nearly unlimited quantities of very high quality passive noise data are now available from permanent 4C ocean bottom cable (OBC) installations. In the present contribution, we report our initial results for single-line (2D) OBC data collected in the North Sea and GOM. The OBCs used for the experiment are of length 6-10 km with 4C receivers spaced 50 m apart. They are deployed in both shallow and deep water over large hydrocarbon reservoirs. Passive noise data were recorded for 8-24 h periods, sometimes several times, and months apart. In the analysis presented here only the hydrophone records are used, and the data from all recording periods are used together to produce a single 2D migrated reflectivity section. We observe that environmental noise (e.g. boat and rig activity) play an important role for imaging and usually requires pre-migration seismic processing steps to filter out unwanted signals. At the core of our image generation and processing sequence is the crosscorrelation of noise trace pairs and subsequent prestack time migration [1] with a velocity model established for the active-source OBC data processing. We compute 4 sec of lag time to either side of t=0. After removing unwanted signals (e.g. seafloor interface waves) from these ``virtual shot gathers'' one can clearly detect the linear-moveout direct water wave with velocity 1500 m/s, and a linear interface wave with velocity 2000 m/s. Other ``events'' with moveout are visible, but the

  8. Scrap tire rubber as modifier of asphalt cement for use in road paving Borracha de pneus como modificador de cimentos asfálticos para uso em obras de pavimentação

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Oda; Jose Leomar Fernandes Junior

    2001-01-01

    This work presents the results of a research on the technical feasibility of the use of asphalt-rubber binder by the asphalt paving industry. In Brazil more than 30 million tires a year are disposed of, mostly in inadequate sites, causing serious health and environmental problems. The effects of the main factors (rubber content, rubber particle size, temperature of mixture, reaction time) on the behavior of asphalt-rubber binders are evaluated by traditional and Superpave Method tests, the la...

  9. 复合纳米材料的制备及对路用煤沥青的改性研究%Preparation of nano complicated material and its application for road-paving coal tar pitch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭建国; 任真; 李玉霞; 郭建平

    2012-01-01

    通过水热共沉淀法制备了改性纳米复合材料,利用比表面积、TEM和接触角对其进行了表征.将改性纳米复合材料应用于路用煤沥青的改性中,结果显示该纳米改性煤沥青的性能指标完全达到了90#路用石油沥青指标,可以应用于实际道路的铺设.%Modified nano complicated material is prepared by co-precipitation method and characterized by SBET, TEM and contact angle. The obtained nano complicated material is used for the application for road-paving coal tar pitch. The results show that the property of modified coal tar pitch is better than that of the road-paving 90 pitch. It means that the coal tar pitch modified by nano complicated material can used in paving road.

  10. Application of synchronous rubber-asphalt gravel sealing layer in airport paving%同步橡胶沥青碎石封层在机场加铺中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉海; 罗勇; 谭悦

    2012-01-01

    以上海某机场跑道第四次沥青混凝土加铺改造工程为依托,首次提出了机场不停航施工条件下道面沥青混凝土加铺工程中采用同步橡胶沥青碎石封层作为防反层和防水层的方案,从施工技术要求和材料要求等方面对机场同步橡胶沥青碎石封层技术进行了系统的阐述,对同步橡胶沥青碎石封层在我国机场道面加铺改造工程中的应用有重要参考意义。%Taking the 4th asphah concrete paving reconstruction engineering of Shanghai Airport Runway as the background, the paper firstly puts forward synchronous rubber-asphah gravel sealing layer as counter-attack layer and water-proof layer in asphalt concrete paving engineering under non-stop flights conditions, and systematically describes the synchronous rubber-asphalt gravel sealing technique from aspects of construction technology requirements and material requirements, which has significant meaning for the application of synchronous rubber-asphah gravel sealing layer in domestic airport runway paving reconstruction engine.ering.

  11. 聚酯玻纤布在桥面防水粘结层中的应用%Application of Fiberglass Polyester Paving Mat in Waterproof Cohesive Layer on Deck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严恒; 战琦琦; 朱洪洲; 唐伯明

    2011-01-01

    In general coiled materials or coating materials chosen for waterproof adhesive layer in pavement of bridge deck on highways do not exhibit optimal effect. In order to improve the adhesive property between deck and asphalt pavement, the SBS modified asphalt + fiberglass polyester paving mat are selected as waterproof adhesive materials. The dosage of oil in adhesive layer is determined via shearing test, the test road is paved and the pull test is carried out. The test results show that the interlayer adhesive property of fiberglass polyester paving mat displays perfect property.%通常,公路桥梁桥面铺装防水粘结层选用的卷材或涂膜类材料效果均不佳,为了提高桥面与沥青铺装层之间的粘结性能,选用SBS改性沥青+聚酯玻纤布的形式作为防水粘结材料,通过剪切试验确定粘层油用量,铺筑试验路,并进行拉拔试验,结果表明,聚酯玻纤布的层间粘结性能良好.

  12. Robotized system for removal of slime from the bottom of steam generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucherenko, O. V.; Shvarov, V. A.

    2014-02-01

    Reliability of steam generators depends not only on the main technical characteristics and correctness of the operational mode but also on the cleanliness of the heat-exchange surface and the presence of slime precipitated on the bottom. To provide the cleanliness, chemical methods of cleaning the heatexchange surfaces are used. In this article, we consider the process of removal of sediments that are formed precisely on the bottom of the steam generator from its volume. Possible mechanical methods for removal of sediments are presented. The consideration of variants of cleaning approved for acting steam generators showed the efficiency and applicability of the developed installation for the slime removal from steam generators. The main principles of construction of the system for slime removal from the steam generator bottom and constructive features of the installation, which make it possible to implement the stated tasks on the slime removal from the steam generator bottom, are given.

  13. Bottom depth and type for shallow waters: Hyperspectral observations from a blimp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, ZhongPing; Carder, K.; Steward, R. [Univ. of South Florida, St. Petersburg, FL (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    In a study of a blimp transect over Tampa Bay (Florida), hyperspectral upwelling radiance over the sand and seagrass bottoms was measured. These measurements were converted to hyperspectral remote-sensing reflectances. Using a shallow-water remote-sensing-reflectance model, in-water optical properties, bottom depths and bottom albedos were derived analytically and simultaneously by an optimization procedure. In the process, curvatures of sand and seagrass albedos were used. Also used was a model of absorption spectrum of phytoplankton pigments. The derived bottom depths were compared with bathymetry charts and found to agree well. This study suggests that a low-flying blimp is a useful platform for the study and mapping of coastal water environments. The optical model as well as the data-reduction procedure used are practical for the retrieval of shallow water optical properties.

  14. Veel haring, maar vrijwel geen jonge kabeljauw: International Bottom Trawl Survey 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heessen, H.J.L.

    2003-01-01

    Onderzoeksvaartuigen hebben de jaarlijkse International Bottom Trawl Survey (IBTS) uitgevoerd om een indruk te krijgen van de jongste jaarklassen van jonge haring, sprot en rondvis. Overzicht van de bestanden van kabeljauw, schelvis, wijting en haring 1978-2002

  15. Bottom-up and top-down effects on plant communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Souza, Lara; Zelikova, Tamara Jane; Sanders, Nate

    2016-01-01

    Top-down effects of herbivores and bottom-up effects of nutrients shape productivity and diversity across ecosystems, yet their single and combined effects on spatial and temporal beta diversity is unknown. We established a field experiment in which the abundance of insect herbivores (top...... herbivores did not alter plant richness (α diversity) yet consistently promoted Shannon's evenness, relative to plots where insect herbivores were present. Further, insect herbivores promoted spatial-temporal β diversity. Overall, we found that the relative importance of top-down and bottom-up controls......-down) and soil nitrogen (bottom-up) were manipulated over six years in an existing old-field community. We tracked plant α and β diversity - within plot richness and among plot biodiversity- and aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) over the course of the experiment. We found that bottom-up factors...

  16. Field measurements of bottom boundary layer processes and sediment resuspension in the Changjiang Estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何青; 李九发; 李炎; 金惜三; 车越

    2001-01-01

    A field observation of the hydrodynamics and the sediment resuspension in a bottom boundary layer was carried out in the Changjiang Estuary, during July-August 1997. Using bottom field research facilities, detailed measurements of near-bottom currents and suspended sediment concentration distribution within 1.0 m above bed have been obtained in the Changjiang Estuary——a high concentration estuary. An Acoustic Suspended Sediment Monitor (ASSM) wasused to observe near bed sediment resuspension processes. In addition, the log-profile method was applied to estimating hydraulic roughness Z0 and bottom shear stress values (or friction velocities u). Further understanding of sediment suspension mechanics and hydrodynamic characteristics will require the long-term measurements of near bed processes.

  17. A Bottom up Initiative: Meditation & Mindfulness 'Eastern' Practices in the "Western" Academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    a case of bottom up initiative, where the students themselves have demanded inclusion of non- conventional psychosocial interventions illustrated by meditation and mindfulness as Eastern psychological practices, thus filling the gap related to the existential, spiritual approaches. The western...

  18. Numerical Investigation of Wave Slamming of Flat Bottom Body during Water Entry Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozhou Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical wave load model based on two-phase (water-air Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS type equations is used to evaluate hydrodynamic forces exerted on flat bottom body while entering ocean waves of deploying process. The discretization of the RANS equations is achieved by a finite volume (FV approach. The volume of fluid (VOF method is employed to track the complicated free surface. A numerical wave tank is built to generate the ocean waves which are suitable for deploying offshore structures. A typical deploying condition is employed to reflect the process of flat bottom body impacting waves, and the pressure distribution of bottom is also presented. Four different lowering velocities are applied to obtain the relationship between slamming force and wave parameters. The numerical results clearly demonstrated the characteristics of flat bottom body impacting ocean waves.

  19. NUMERICAL STUDIES OF 2D FREE SURFACE WAVES WITH FIXED BOTTOM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping-wen Zhang; Xiao-ming Zheng

    2002-01-01

    The motion of surface waves under the effect of bottom is a very interesting and challenging phenomenon in the nature. we use boundary integral method to compute and analyze this problem. In the linear analysis, the linearized equations have bounded error increase under some compatible conditions. This contributes to the cancellation of instable Kelvin-Helmholtz terms. Under the effect of bottom, the existence of equations is hard to determine, but given some limitations it proves true. These limitations are that the swing of interfaces should be small enough, and the distance between surface and bottom should be large enough. In order to maintain the stability of computation, some compatible relationship must be satisfied like that of [5]. In the numerical examples, the simulation of standing waves and breaking waves are calculated. And in the case of shallow bottom, we found that the behavior of waves are rather singular.

  20. NEFSC 2008 Spring Bottom Trawl Survey - Site Specific Calibration (HB0803, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC bottom trawl survey is a fisheries independent, multi-species survey that provides the primary scientific data for fisheries assessments in the U.S....

  1. Charm and bottom production in two-photon collisions with OPAL

    OpenAIRE

    Csilling, Akos

    2000-01-01

    A preliminary update of the previous OPAL measurement of the inclusive production of D* mesons in anti-tagged photon-photon collisions is presented together with the first preliminary OPAL measurement of bottom production in photon-photon collisions.

  2. Social and ethical checkpoints for bottom-up synthetic biology, or protocells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedau, Mark A; Parke, Emily C; Tangen, Uwe; Hantsche-Tangen, Brigitte

    2009-12-01

    An alternative to creating novel organisms through the traditional "top-down" approach to synthetic biology involves creating them from the "bottom up" by assembling them from non-living components; the products of this approach are called "protocells." In this paper we describe how bottom-up and top-down synthetic biology differ, review the current state of protocell research and development, and examine the unique ethical, social, and regulatory issues raised by bottom-up synthetic biology. Protocells have not yet been developed, but many expect this to happen within the next five to ten years. Accordingly, we identify six key checkpoints in protocell development at which particular attention should be given to specific ethical, social and regulatory issues concerning bottom-up synthetic biology, and make ten recommendations for responsible protocell science that are tied to the achievement of these checkpoints. PMID:19816801

  3. Altitude of the bottom of the Trinidad Sandstone in the Raton Basin, Las Animas County, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of structure contours that show lines of equal altitude of the bottom of the Trinidad Sandstone, the contact between the Trinidad Sandstone...

  4. The updated bottom up solution applied to atmospheric pressure photoionization and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Updated Bottom Up Solution (UBUS) was recently applied to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) mass spectrometry (MS) of triacylglycerols (TAGs). This report demonstrates that the UBUS applies equally well to atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) MS and to electrospray ionizatio...

  5. BOEM Seismic Water Bottom Anomalies - Gulf of Mexico - Gulf of Mexico NAD27

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — Since 1998, geoscientists at the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) have identified and mapped over 31,000 water bottom (seafloor) acoustic amplitude...

  6. EFFECTS OF WAVE-CURRENT INTERACTIONS ON BOTTOM STRESS AND CURRENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Bao-shu; Yang De-zhou; Lin Xiang; Hou Yi-jun; Cheng Ming-hua; Will Perrie

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a high-resolution (2′×2′) numerical model of coastal coupled wave-current interaction with explicit consideration of the effects of wave-current interaction on bottom stress. For two selected storms with measured data in the Yellow River coastal area of the Bohai Sea, it is shown that the bottom stress calculated by using a coupled wave-current model is increased, as one would expect, compared with the bottom stress computed with an uncoupled current model. Moreover, the current velocity field is also changed, but the corresponding current directions show less influence in the two simulations. The extents of changes in bottom stress and current velocity vary with storm intensities. The results further imply that the coupled wave-current model should be used as the basis for simulating the current velocity and sea level in the near shore region.

  7. The suppression of Antarctic bottom water formation by melting ice shelves in Prydz Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, G D; Herraiz-Borreguero, L; Roquet, F; Tamura, T; Ohshima, K I; Fukamachi, Y; Fraser, A D; Gao, L; Chen, H; McMahon, C R; Harcourt, R; Hindell, M

    2016-01-01

    A fourth production region for the globally important Antarctic bottom water has been attributed to dense shelf water formation in the Cape Darnley Polynya, adjoining Prydz Bay in East Antarctica. Here we show new observations from CTD-instrumented elephant seals in 2011-2013 that provide the first complete assessment of dense shelf water formation in Prydz Bay. After a complex evolution involving opposing contributions from three polynyas (positive) and two ice shelves (negative), dense shelf water (salinity 34.65-34.7) is exported through Prydz Channel. This provides a distinct, relatively fresh contribution to Cape Darnley bottom water. Elsewhere, dense water formation is hindered by the freshwater input from the Amery and West Ice Shelves into the Prydz Bay Gyre. This study highlights the susceptibility of Antarctic bottom water to increased freshwater input from the enhanced melting of ice shelves, and ultimately the potential collapse of Antarctic bottom water formation in a warming climate.

  8. Treated bottom ash medium and method of arsenic removal from drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadgil, Ashok (El Cerrito, CA)

    2009-06-09

    A method for low-cost arsenic removal from drinking water using chemically prepared bottom ash pre-treated with ferrous sulfate and then sodium hydroxide. Deposits on the surface of particles of bottom ash form of activated iron adsorbent with a high affinity for arsenic. In laboratory tests, a miniscule 5 grams of pre-treated bottom ash was sufficient to remove the arsenic from 2 liters of 2400 ppb (parts per billion) arsenic-laden water to a level below 50 ppb (the present United States Environmental Protection Agency limit). By increasing the amount of pre-treated bottom ash, even lower levels of post-treatment arsenic are expected. It is further expected that this invention supplies a very low-cost solution to arsenic poisoning for large population segments.

  9. Food plants utilized by migratory waterfowl at Cheyenne Bottoms Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this problem was to gather information on food habits of migratory waterfowl using Cheyenne Bottoms Waterfowl Refuge, and to determine the most...

  10. Generation of surface waves by an underwater moving bottom: Experiments and application to tsunami modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Jamin, Timothée; Ruiz-Chavarría, Gerardo; Berhanu, Michael; Falcon, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We report laboratory experiments on surface waves generated in a uniform fluid layer whose bottom undergoes a sudden upward motion. Simultaneous measurements of the free-surface deformation and the fluid velocity field are focused on the role of the bottom kinematics in wave generation. We observe that the fluid layer transfers bottom motion to the free surface as a temporal high-pass filter coupled with a spatial low-pass filter. Both filter effects are usually neglected in tsunami warning systems. Our results display good agreement with a prevailing linear theory without fitting parameter. Based on our experimental data, we provide a new theoretical approach for the rapid kinematics limit that is applicable even for non-flat bottoms: a key step since most approaches assume a uniform depth. This approach can be easily appended to tsunami simulations under arbitrary topography.

  11. Numerical simulation of water flow through the bottom en piece of a nuclear fuel assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, Moyses A. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: navarro@cdtn.br; Santos, Andre A. Campagnole dos [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: acampagnole@yahoo.com.br; Gomes, Sydney da Silva; Brittes, Luiz Henrique A. [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S.A. (INB), Reende, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mails: sydney@inb.gov.br; brittes@inb.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    The water flow through the bottom nozzle of a nuclear fuel assembly was simulated using a commercial CFD code, CFX 10.0. Previously, simulations with a perforated plate similar to the bottom nozzle plate were performed to define the appropriate mesh refinement and turbulence model ({kappa}-{epsilon} or SST). Subsequently, the numerical simulation was performed with the optimized mesh using the turbulence model ({kappa}-{epsilon} in a standard bottom nozzle with some geometric simplifications. The numerical results were compared with experimental results to determine the pressure drop through the bottom nozzle in the Reynolds range from {approx}10500 to {approx}95000. The agreement between the numerical simulations and experimental results may be considered satisfactory. The study indicated that the CFD codes can play an important role in the development of pieces with complex geometries, optimizing the planning of the experiments and aiding in the experimental analysis. (author)

  12. Ecological Dynamics of Wetlands at Lisbon Bottom, Big Muddy National Fish and Wildlife Refuge, Missouri

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The study documented the interaction between hydrology and the biological dynamics within a single spring season at Lisbon Bottom in 1999. The study goal was to...

  13. Anisotropic amplitude variation of the bottom-simulating reflector beneath fracture-filled gas hydrate deposit

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sriram, G.; Dewangan, P.; Ramprasad, T.; RamaRao, P.

    For the first time, we report the amplitude variation with angle (AVA) pattern of bottom-simulating reflectors (BSRs) beneath fracture-filled gas hydrate deposits when the effective medium is anisotropic. The common depth point (CDP) gathers of two...

  14. Comparison between laboratory and field leachability of MSWI bottom ash as a road material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Maria; Querol, Xavier; Josa, Alejandro; Vazquez, Enric; López-Soler, Angel

    2008-01-15

    The leaching properties of bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) used as an aggregate substitute in unbound pavement layers are evaluated. The mechanical behaviour of bottom ash is acceptable for this application, but the potential environmental consequences constitute the most important limitation on the use of bottom ash as a road material. The environmental properties of bottom ash are assessed by means of the Dutch availability test NEN 7341 and the single-batch and two-stage batch European EN 12457 laboratory leaching tests. Furthermore, an experimental unbound pavement stretch is constructed to provide information on leaching behaviour under field conditions. In this high infiltration scenario, the results from predicted (based upon laboratory leaching tests) and measured releases (under field conditions) are compared, evidencing that predictions based on compliance leaching tests may be highly realistic. The depletion period of the extractable fraction of a number of elements in these field conditions is also quantified.

  15. Bottom Dissolved Oxygen Maps From SEAMAP Summer Groundfish/Shrimp Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bottom dissolved oxygen (DO) data was extracted from environmental profiles acquired during the Southeast Fisheries Science Center Mississippi Laboratories summer...

  16. The suppression of Antarctic bottom water formation by melting ice shelves in Prydz Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, G. D.; Herraiz-Borreguero, L.; Roquet, F.; Tamura, T.; Ohshima, K. I.; Fukamachi, Y.; Fraser, A. D.; Gao, L.; Chen, H.; McMahon, C. R.; Harcourt, R.; Hindell, M.

    2016-08-01

    A fourth production region for the globally important Antarctic bottom water has been attributed to dense shelf water formation in the Cape Darnley Polynya, adjoining Prydz Bay in East Antarctica. Here we show new observations from CTD-instrumented elephant seals in 2011-2013 that provide the first complete assessment of dense shelf water formation in Prydz Bay. After a complex evolution involving opposing contributions from three polynyas (positive) and two ice shelves (negative), dense shelf water (salinity 34.65-34.7) is exported through Prydz Channel. This provides a distinct, relatively fresh contribution to Cape Darnley bottom water. Elsewhere, dense water formation is hindered by the freshwater input from the Amery and West Ice Shelves into the Prydz Bay Gyre. This study highlights the susceptibility of Antarctic bottom water to increased freshwater input from the enhanced melting of ice shelves, and ultimately the potential collapse of Antarctic bottom water formation in a warming climate.

  17. Impressions of the turbulence variability in a weakly stratified, flat-bottom deep-sea ‘boundary layer’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haren, H.

    2015-01-01

    The character of turbulent overturns in a weakly stratified deep-sea is investigated in some detail using 144 high-resolution temperature sensors at 0.7 m intervals, starting 5 m above the bottom. A 9-day, 1 Hz sampled record from the 912 m depth flat-bottom (<0.5% bottom-slope) mooring site in the

  18. Reconstructing bottom water temperatures from measurements of temperature and thermal diffusivity in marine sediments

    OpenAIRE

    F. Miesner; Lechleiter, A.; Müller, C.(Dr. Remeis-Sternwarte and ECAP, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Sternwartstr. 7, 96049 , Bamberg, Germany)

    2015-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of oceanic bottom water temperatures is a complicated task, even in relatively easy-to-access basins like the North or Baltic seas. Here, a method to determine annual bottom water temperature variations from inverse modeling of instantaneous measurements of temperatures and sediment thermal properties is presented. This concept is similar to climate reconstructions over several thousand years from deep borehole data. However, in contrast, the presented ...

  19. Use of Coal Bottom Ash as Mechanical Stabiliser in Subgrade Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Abdus Salaam Cadersa; Akshay Kumar Seeborun; Andre Chan Chim Yuk

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the laboratory investigation work which forms part of a full scale research road project in Mauritius where coal bottom ash is used as mechanical stabiliser in a saprolitic subgrade soil. Three mixtures of subgrade soil and CBA were investigated in the laboratory, each containing varying percentages of coal bottom ash by weight (15%, 30%, and 40%, resp.). The laboratory research indicated that the mechanical properties of the subgrade soil are improved with the addition of...

  20. Expression of Bottom Component RNA of Cowpea Mosaic Virus in Cowpea Protoplasts

    OpenAIRE

    Rezelman, Geertje; Goldbach, Rob; van Kammen, Albert

    1980-01-01

    Upon inoculation of cowpea protoplasts with the bottom component of cowpea mosaic virus, at least six virus-induced proteins (with sizes of 170, 110, 87, 84, 60, and 32 kilodaltons) are synthesized, but not the capsid proteins (37 and 23 kilodaltons). These bottom-component-induced proteins were studied with respect to their genetic origin and mode of synthesis. The analyses were based on their electrophoretic peptide patterns resulting from partial digestion with Staphylococcus aureus protea...

  1. Numerical modelling of electrovortex and heat flows in dc electric arc furnace with cooling bottom electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazak, Oleg

    2014-05-01

    The article is devoted to the numerical modelling of electrovortex and convection flows in DC electric arc furnace with the cooling bottom electrode. The shear stress on the fettle area are offered as criteria for the estimation of vortex flows influence on the increased wearing of fettle. It is shown that cooling down the bottom electrode to the melting metal temperature leads to decrease of shear stress on the fettle area by 15 %.

  2. Innovative use of recovered municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash as a component in growing media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sormunen, Annika; Teo, Kanniainen; Tapio, Salo; Riina, Rantsi

    2016-07-01

    The utilisation of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash has been extensively studied, for example, in the unbound layers of roads and the products of cement and concrete industry. On the other hand, less attention has been given to other innovative utilisation possibilities, such as using the municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash as a component in growing media of plants. The municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash contains useful substances, such as calcium, that can influence plant growth in a positive manner. Therefore, the utilisation of this waste-derived material in the growing media may substitute the use of commercial fertilisers. Since the municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash also contains hazardous substances that can be toxic to plants, the main aim of this study was to add different amounts of recovered municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash in the growing media and to evaluate the effect of this material on plant growth. Based on the obtained results, the concentration of, for example copper and zinc, increased in test plants; ryegrass and barley, when recovered municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash was added in their growing media. On the other hand, this did not have a significant effect on plant growth, if compared with the growth of plants in commercially produced growing medium. Furthermore, the replacement of natural sand with municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash had a positive liming effect in the growing media. Overall, these findings suggest that the utilisation of recovered municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash as a component in growing media is possible and, thus, may allow more widespread and innovative use of this waste-derived material.

  3. Changes in discharge and solute dynamics between hillslope and valley-bottom intermittent streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bernal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To gain understanding on how alluvial zones modify water and nutrient export from semiarid catchments, we compared monthly discharge as well as stream chloride, carbon, and nitrogen dynamics between a hillslope catchment and a valley-bottom catchment with a well-developed alluvium. Stream water and solute fluxes from the hillslope and valley-bottom catchments showed contrasting patterns between hydrological transitions and wet periods, especially for bio-reactive solutes. During transition periods, stream water export decreased >40% between the hillslope and the valley bottom coinciding with the prevalence of stream-to-aquifer fluxes at the alluvial zone. In contrast, stream water export increased by 20–70% between the hillslope and valley-bottom catchments during wet periods. During transition periods, stream solute export decreased by 34–97% between the hillslope and valley-bottom catchments for chloride, nitrate, and dissolved organic carbon. In annual terms, stream nitrate export from the valley-bottom catchment (0.32 ± 0.12 kg N ha−1 yr−1 [average ± standard deviation] was 30–50% lower than from the hillslope catchment (0.56 ± 0.32 kg N ha−1 yr−1. The annual export of dissolved organic carbon was similar between the two catchments (1.8 ± 1 kg C ha−1 yr−1. Our results suggest that hydrological retention in the alluvial zone contributed to reduce stream water and solute export from the valley-bottom catchment during hydrological transition periods when hydrological connectivity between the hillslope and the valley bottom was low.

  4. Methane and ethane from global oil and gas production: bottom-up simulations over three decades

    OpenAIRE

    L. Höglund-Isaksson

    2016-01-01

    Existing bottom-up emission inventories of historical methane and ethane emissions from global oil and gas systems do not well explain year-on-year variations estimated by top-down models from atmospheric measurements. This paper develops a bottom-up methodology which allows for country- and year specific source attribution of methane and ethane emissions from global oil and natural gas production for the period 1980 to 2012. The analysis rests on country-specific simulations of associated ga...

  5. Posture of Iridina spekei (Bivalvia: Mutelidae) on the Flat Sandy Bottom of Lake Tanganyika

    OpenAIRE

    KONDO, Takaki

    1986-01-01

    Length, height and angle of the exposed part of mussel, Iridina spekei, above the bottom were examined on the sandy flat of Lake Tanganyika. The larger mussel protruded higher above the bottom, which seemed to be advantageous to scatter sperm or larvae father in order to increase chances of the fertilization or parasitism of larvae on fish. Immature mussels seemed to lie hidden to avoid predation by fish.

  6. Adsorption of Crystal Violet Dye from Aqueous Solution onto Zeolites from Coal Fly and Bottom Ashes

    OpenAIRE

    Tharcila Colachite Rodrigues Bertolini; Juliana C. Izidoro; Carina P. Magdalena; Denise A. Fungaro

    2013-01-01

    The adsorption of the cationic dye Crystal Violet (CV) over zeolites from coal fly ash (ZFA) and bottom ash (ZBA) was evaluated. The coal fly ash (CFA) and the coal bottom ash (CBA) used in the synthesis of the zeolites by alkaline hydrothermal treatment were collected in Jorge Lacerda coal-fired power plant located at Capivari de Baixo County, in Santa Catarina State, Brazil. The zeolitic materials were characterized predominantly as hydroxy-sodalite and X. The dye adsorption equilibrium was...

  7. Mapping practices of project management – merging top-down and bottom-up perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Thuesen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for studying different accounts of project management practices based on network mapping and analysis. Drawing upon network mapping and visualization as an analytical strategy top-down and bottom-up accounts of project management practice are analysed and compared. The analysis initially reveals a substantial difference between the top-down and bottom-up accounts of practice. Furthermore it identifies a soft side of project management that is central in t...

  8. Conservation laws and symmetries of the shallow water system above rough bottom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, A. V.; Druzhkov, K. P.

    2016-06-01

    The system of one-dimensional shallow water equations above the rough bottom is considered. All its hydrodynamic conservation laws are found, and a group classification is performed. A new conservation law additional to the two basic conservation laws is found. It is shown that the system of shallow water equations can be linearized by a point change of variables only in cases of constant and linear bottom profiles.

  9. A Study on the Environmental Standard of Sediment on the Bottom of the Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Hee; Yoo, Hye Jin [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    Sediment on the bottom of the water has been considered one of the water pollutants in the environmental management of Korea so treated as a management on pollutants, as you can see the examples in the dragging operation in the polluted sea area. To healthily maintain and conserve the water ecosystem including bottom living things in the water, sediment on the bottom of the water should be recognized as the independent medium, which should maintain the certain quality like the water, the atmosphere, and soil, rather than the source of water pollution. Such recognition means that the management of sediment on the bottom of the water should change the fragmentary goal, centered the post management focusing on the water management, to the ecosystematic goal including the bottom living things. In a point of the view, this study has a great significance to suggest not only the final goal for the management of sediment on the bottom of the water but also the necessity of developing the environmental standard of the sediment on the bottom of the water, which is a standard of the management or judgment in the actual managing the sediment on the bottom of the water - an estimation on the pollution of sediment, a removal of the polluted sediment, a purification of sediment, and an abandonment of the dragged sediment -, and the development measures. Considering the situation that even the basic scheme related to the management of sediment is not prepared in the Government level, the concept of the environmental standard of sediment, the foreign example of the environmental standard of sediment, the current state of the domestic sediment pollution, and the development scheme of the environmental standard in this study must be the important foundation to establish the management system of sediment in the Government level. 121 refs., 10 figs., 45 tabs.

  10. First Observation of Bottom Baryon Σb States at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the latest results on the search for bottom baryon states Σb using ∼ 1 fb-1 of CDF data. The study is performed with the world's largest sample of fully reconstructed Λ0b decays collected by CDF II detector at √s = 1.96 TeV in the hadronic trigger path. We observe 4 new states consistent with Σb(*)± bottom baryons

  11. First Observation of Bottom Baryon Sigma(b) States at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the latest results on the search for bottom baryon states Σb using ∼ 1 fb-1 of CDF data. The study is performed with the world's largest sample of fully reconstructed Λb0 decays collected by CDF II detector at √s = 1.96TeV in the hadronic trigger path. We observe 4 new states consistent with Σb(*)± bottom baryons

  12. Use of Coal Bottom Ash as Mechanical Stabiliser in Subgrade Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdus Salaam Cadersa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the laboratory investigation work which forms part of a full scale research road project in Mauritius where coal bottom ash is used as mechanical stabiliser in a saprolitic subgrade soil. Three mixtures of subgrade soil and CBA were investigated in the laboratory, each containing varying percentages of coal bottom ash by weight (15%, 30%, and 40%, resp.. The laboratory research indicated that the mechanical properties of the subgrade soil are improved with the addition of bottom ash. Highest values for soaked and unsoaked CBR values were obtained for the mixture containing 30% by weight of bottom ash, which were 145% and 95%, respectively, as compared to 40% and 55% for the subgrade soil alone. Upon addition of coal bottom ash, a considerable decrease in swelling potential during soaking was observed for the mixture containing 40% by weight of CBA. The swell decreased from 0.17% for the subgrade soil alone to 0.04% for the mixture containing 40% by weight of CBA. Moreover, a CBA content of 30% resulted in a mix of intermediate plasticity as compared to the subgrade soil which is highly plastic. It is concluded that coal bottom ash can be used successfully as a mechanical stabilizer in the experimental subgrade soil by addition of 30 to 40% of CBA.

  13. Deep water bottom current deposition in the northern South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Lei; LI XueJie; GENG JianHua; PANG Xiong; LEI YongChang; QIAO PeiJun; WANG LiaoLiang; WANG HongBin

    2007-01-01

    There are some active bottom currents on the northern continental slope of the South China Sea (SCS). Reflection seismic profiles show that the bottom current channels occur in the water depth range of 1000 to 2700 m, extending from the NE to the SW, leading to accumulation of discontinuous drifts with higher sedimentation rates on the eastern side of the channel. The stacking pattern of the layers suggests that these drifts propagated southwestward, following the direction of the bottom currents. One sedimentary drift to the southeast of the Dongsha Islands has the highest sedimentation rate of 97cm/ka in the last 12 ka. The sedimentary characteristics of the sediment layers indicate that these bottom currents are most likley caused by the water movement of a branch of the West Pacific Ocean Current, which enters the northern SCS via the Bashi Strait. Once formed, the bottom currents transport sediments along the northern slope of SCS southwestward and finally disappear into the central basin of the SCS. Due to the bottom current activity, the deep-sea sedimentary process in the northern SCS is complex.

  14. Bottom Topographic Changes of Poyang Lake During Past Decade Using Multi-temporal Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.

    2015-12-01

    Poyang Lake, as a well-known international wetland in the Ramsar Convention List, is the largest freshwater lake in China. It plays crucial ecological role in flood storage and biological diversity. Poyang Lake is facing increasingly serious water crises, including seasonal dry-up, decreased wetland area, and water resource shortage, all of which are closely related to progressive bottom topographic changes over recent years. Time-series of bottom topography would contribute to our understanding of the lake's evolution during the past several decades. However, commonly used methods for mapping bottom topography fail to frequently update quality bathymetric data for Poyang Lake restricted by weather and accessibility. These deficiencies have limited our ability to characterize the bottom topographic changes and understanding lake erosion or deposition trend. To fill the gap, we construct a decadal bottom topography of Poyang Lake with a total of 146 time series medium resolution satellite images based on the Waterline Method. It was found that Poyang Lake has eroded with a rate of -14.4 cm/ yr from 2000 to 2010. The erosion trend was attributed to the impacts of human activities, especially the operation of the Three Gorge Dams, sand excavation, and the implementation of water conservancy project. A decadal quantitative understanding bottom topography of Poyang Lake might provide a foundation to model the lake evolutionary processes and assist both researchers and local policymakers in ecological management, wetland protection and lake navigation safety.

  15. Lime application methods, water and bottom soil acidity in fresh water fish ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queiroz Julio Ferraz de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Although some methods for determining lime requirement of pond soils are available and commonly used, there is still no consensus on whether it is more effective to apply liming materials to the bottoms of empty ponds or to wait and apply them over the water surface after ponds are filled. There is also little information on how deep lime reacts in pond sediment over time, and whether the depth of reaction is different when liming materials are applied to the water or to the soil. Therefore, three techniques for treating fish ponds with agricultural limestone were evaluated in ponds with clayey soils at a commercial fish farm. Amounts of agricultural limestone equal to the lime requirement of bottom soils were applied to each of three ponds by: direct application over the pond water surface; spread uniformly over the bottom of the empty pond; spread uniformly over the bottom of the empty pond followed by tilling of the bottom. Effectiveness of agricultural limestone applications did not differ among treatment methods. Agricultural limestone also reacted quickly to increase total alkalinity and total hardness of pond water to acceptable concentrations within 2 weeks after application. The reaction of lime to increase soil pH was essentially complete after one to two months, and lime had no effect below a soil depth of 8 cm. Tilling of pond bottoms to incorporate liming materials is unnecessary, and tilling consumes time and is an expensive practice; filled ponds can be limed effectively.

  16. Physical Experiments to Investigate the Effects of Street Bottom Heating and Inflow Turbulence on Urban Street-Canyon Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jae-Jin KIM; Jong-Jin BAIK

    2005-01-01

    The effects of street bottom heating and inflow turbulence on urban street-canyon flow are experimentally investigated using a circulating water channel. Three experiments are carried out for a street canyon with a street aspect ratio of 1. Results from each experiment with bottom heating or inflow turbulence are compared with those without bottom heating and appreciable inflow turbulence. It is demonstrated that street bottom heating or inflow turbulence increases the intensity of the canyon vortex. A possible explanation on how street bottom heating or inflow turbulence intensifies the canyon vortex is given from a fluid dynamical viewpoint.

  17. The Vaendoera test road, Sweden: A case study of long-term properties of roads constructed with MSWI bottom ash; Projekt Vaendoera: En studie av laangtidsegenskaper hos vaegar anlagda med bottenaska fraan avfallsfoerbraenning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendz, David; Arm, Maria; Westberg, Gunnar; Sjoestrand, Karin; Lyth, Martin; Wik, Ola [Swedish Geotechnical Inst., Linkoeping (Sweden); Flyhammar, Peter [Lund Inst. of Technology (Sweden). Dept. of Water Resources Engineering

    2006-03-15

    The accumulated effects of leaching and aging in a subbase layer of bottom ash were investigated in this study. The paved test road were constructed in 1987 in Linkoeping, Sweden, and has been used until the start of this study. The objective of this study was to investigate: (i) the accumulated effects of leaching and aging (ii) the accumulated effects of load and aging on the geotechnical properties (iii) the prerequisites for separate excavation of the bottom ash for possible reuse. The study started in September 2003 and included tests with falling weight deflectometer, triax testing on undisturbed core samples of bottom ash, sampling for chemical analysis. Three trenches were excavated in the test road, samples of the subbase layer and the subgrade were taken in the shaft walls and brought to the laboratory for leaching tests (EN 12457-2) and extraction, respectively. The extraction procedure was used to estimate extractable and chemically available fractions. It was found that the steady increase of stiffness which had been detected by falling weight deflectometer during the first years after construction had ceased. The undisturbed samples showed stiffness comparable with recently produced bottom ash from the same incineration plant, but lower stiffness if compared with the reference material of crushed rock. The permanent deformation was significantly larger for the samples compared with the crushed rock and recent (1999-2001) bottom ash from other incineration plants. The spatial distribution patterns of leachable easily soluble constituents reveal the existence of horizontal gradients, directed from the center of the road towards the shoulders of the road. This implies that horizontal transport by diffusion is the rate limiting leaching process for all easily soluble constituents underneath the pavement in a road. The bottom ash that was used in the sub-base layer was fresh at the time of the construction of the test road with a pH of about 11. Measured p

  18. Probing magnetic bottom and crustal temperature variations along the Red Sea margin of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravat, D.; Salem, A.; Abdelaziz, A.M.S.; Elawadi, E.; Morgan, P.

    2011-01-01

    Over 50 magnetic bottom depths derived from spectra of magnetic anomalies in Eastern Egypt along the Red Sea margin show variable magnetic bottoms ranging from 10 to 34. km. The deep magnetic bottoms correspond more closely to the Moho depth in the region, and not the depth of 580??C, which lies significantly deeper on the steady state geotherms. These results support the idea of Wasilewski and coworkers that the Moho is a magnetic boundary in continental regions. Reduced-to-pole magnetic highs correspond to areas of Younger Granites that were emplaced toward the end of the Precambrian. Other crystalline Precambrian units formed earlier during the closure of ocean basins are not strongly magnetic. In the north, magnetic bottoms are shallow (10-15. km) in regions with a high proportion of these Younger Granites. In the south, the shoaling of the magnetic bottom associated with the Younger Granites appears to be restricted to the Aswan and Ras Banas regions. Complexity in the variation of magnetic bottom depths may arise due to a combination of factors: i) regions of Younger (Precambrian) Granites with high magnetite content in the upper crust, leaving behind low Curie temperature titanomagnetite components in the middle and lower crust, ii) rise in the depth of 580??C isotherm where the crust may have been heated due to initiation of intense magmatism at the time of the Red Sea rifting (~. 20. Ma), and iii) the contrast of the above two factors with respect to the neighboring regions where the Moho and/or Curie temperature truncates lithospheric ferromagnetism. Estimates of fractal and centroid magnetic bottoms in the oceanic regions of the Red Sea are significantly below the Moho in places suggesting that oceanic uppermost mantle may be serpentinized to the depth of 15-30 km in those regions. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  19. Investigation on Leaching Behaviour of Fly Ash and Bottom Ash Replacement in Self-Compacting Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Ikhmal Haqeem Hassan, Mohd; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al

    2016-06-01

    Fly ash and bottom ash are some of the waste generated by coal-fired power plants, which contains large quantities of toxic and heavy metals. In recent years, many researchers have been interested in studying on the properties of self-compacting concrete incorporated with fly ash and bottom ash but there was very limited research from the combination of fly ash and bottom ash towards the environmental needs. Therefore, this research was focused on investigating the leachability of heavy metals of SCC incorporated with fly ash and bottom ash by using Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure, Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure and Static Leaching Test. The samples obtained from the coal-fired power plant located at Peninsula, Malaysia. In this study, the potential heavy metals leached out from SCC that is produced with fly ash as a replacement for Ordinary Portland Cement and bottom ash as a substitute for sand with the ratios from 10% to 30% respectively were designated and cast. There are eight heavy metals of concern such as As, Cr, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Mn and Fe. The results indicated that most of the heavy metals leached below the permissible limits from the United States Environmental Protection Agency and World Health Organization limit for drinking water. As a conclusion, the minimum leaching of the heavy metals from the incorporation of fly ash and bottom ash in self-compacting concrete was found in 20% of fly ash and 20% of bottom ash replacement. The results also indicate that this incorporation could minimize the potential of environmental problems.

  20. Polymethylmethacrylate-based luminescent solar concentrators with bottom-mounted solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Bottom-mounted luminescent solar concentrators on dye-doped plates were studied. • The mechanism of transport process was proposed. • The fabricated luminescent solar concentrator achieved a gain of 1.38. • Power conversion efficiency of 5.03% was obtained with cell area coverage of 27%. • The lowest cost per watt of $1.89 was optimized with cell area coverage of 18%. - Abstract: Luminescent solar concentrators offer an attractive approach to concentrate sunlight economically without tracking, but the narrow absorption band of luminescent materials hinders their further development. This paper describes bottom-mounted luminescent solar concentrators on dye-doped polymethylmethacrylate plates that absorb not only the waveguided light but also the transmitted sunlight and partial fluorescent light in the escape cone. A series of bottom-mounted luminescent solar concentrators with size of 78 mm × 78 mm × 7 mm were fabricated and their gain and power conversion efficiency were investigated. The transport process of the waveguided light and the relationship between the bottom-mounted cells were studied to optimize the performance of the device. The bottom-mounted luminescent solar concentrator with cell area coverage of 9% displayed a cell gain of 1.38, to our best knowledge, which is the highest value for dye-doped polymethylmethacrylate plate luminescent solar concentrators. Power conversion efficiency as high as 5.03% was obtained with cell area coverage of 27%. Furthermore, the bottom-mounted luminescent solar concentrator was found to have a lowest cost per watt of $1.89 with cell area coverage of 18%. These results suggested that the fabricated bottom-mounted luminescent solar concentrator may have a potential in low-cost building integrated photovoltaic application

  1. Comparative analysis of a bottoming transcritical ORC and a Kalina cycle for engine exhaust heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Thermal performance comparison of two eligible bottoming cycles is investigated. • Thermal match between the temperature profiles of working fluid and exhaust is considered. • Influences of the various-temperature heat source on the two WHR cycles are studied. • Bottoming transcritical ORC shows advantages at a certain ICE load. • Suitable working conditions for both of the bottoming cycles are given. - Abstract: A performance comparison of two types of bottoming cycles, including a Kalina cycle and a transcritical organic Rankine cycle (ORC) using working fluids with sliding-temperature boiling characteristics, is conducted in order to analyze energy saving of the sensible exhaust waste heat recovery (WHR) under various internal combustion engine (ICE) working conditions. Through quantitatively analyzing the relation between exhaust waste-heat behaviors and the ICE load of a commercial ICE, two bottoming subsystems models, including a transcritical ORC using some several Alkanes and a Kalina cycle using NH3–H2O as working fluids, are build under the same ICE various-temperature exhaust heat-source and air heat-sink conditions. Compared to Kalina cycle, the transcritical ORC shows prominent advantages on the overall thermal efficiency, low operation pressure and simple components configuration at the ICE load with exhaust temperature over 491 K. The optimal thermal performance of the transcritical ORC appears at the ICE load with the certain exhaust temperature of 569–618 K. However, thermodynamic performance of the bottoming transcritical ORC is worsened considerably at the ICE load with the exhaust temperature over or under the certain value. Moreover, the extremely high turbine expansion ratio requires a complex multi-stage turbine design and big turbine dimensions for the bottoming transcritical ORC using Alkanes-based working fluid

  2. Transient analysis of dissolution of a reactor bottom head into a melt pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dissolution of the bottom head of a heavy-water reactor into a pool of molten fuel under severe accident conditions is investigated using a distributed-parameter model. The main objectives are to determine the rate of dissolution-front propagation and to estimate the extent to which the bottom head is thinned owing to dissolution. The model consists mainly of partitioning the bottom head into a number of rings and analyzing the transient dissolution of each ring with a localized lumped-parameter model. For each of the rings, the dissolution is modeled using a mass transfer coefficient, the temperature distribution is considered to be one dimensional and quasisteady and the heat flux across the melt-bottom head interface is modeled using a heat transfer coefficient. The distribution of the heat transfer coefficients is considered to be quasi-steady and is based on the heat transfer calculation results obtained using the ACCORD code. The model thus takes into account both the variation of heat fluxes over the melt pool-bottom head interface and the variations of interface mass transfer with time and with position along the interface. The basic equations and their solution method for the distributed-parameter model are described. Comparisons of calculation results with those obtained previously using the overall lumped-parameter model are presented

  3. Gas engine bottoming cycles with ammonia-water mixtures as working fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, M.; Thorin, E.; Svedberg, G.

    1999-07-01

    Gas engines and diesel engines can be used for power generation in small-scale industrial and utility power plants. A bottoming cycle recovering heat from the exhaust gas, charge air, jacket water and lubrication oil can increase the power output of a gas or diesel engine power plant. The current study investigates ammonia-water power cycles as bottoming cycles to natural gas fired gas engines. The engines used in the calculations are 16V25SG and 18V34SG from Wartsila NSD. The configurations of the bottoming processes have been changed in order to achieve better temperature matching in the heat exchangers. The ammonia-water cycles have been compared to a simple Rankine steam cycle. All cycles have been optimized to give maximum power output. The ammonia-water bottoming cycles generate 18--54% more power than a simple Rankine steam cycle. An economic estimation of the bottoming cycles shows that the extra equipment needed for an ammonia-water cycle may be justified by the extra amount of power generated.

  4. Z decay into a bottom quark, a light sbottom, and a light gluino

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discrepancy between the measured and theoretical production cross section of b quarks at the Fermilab Tevatron can probably be explained by the recently proposed scenario of light gluinos of mass 12-16 GeV and light sbottoms of mass 2-5.5 GeV. In this scenario, we study a related process at the Z pole, Z→bb-tilde1*g-tilde+b-barb-tilde1g-tilde followed by g-tilde→bb-tilde1*/b-barb-tilde1. The hadronic branching ratio for this channel is (1-3)x10-3, which is of the order of the size of the uncertainty in Rb. We find that a typical event consists of an energetic prompt bottom jet back to back with a 'fat' bottom jet, which consists of a bottom quark and two bottom squarks. Such events with a 10-3 branching ratio may affect the measurement of Rb; they are even more interesting if the fat bottom jet can be identified

  5. Collection and preparation of bottom sediment samples for analysis of radionuclides and trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication is the first in a series of TECDOCs on sampling and sample handling as part of the IAEA support to improve reliability of nuclear analytical techniques (NATs) in Member State laboratories. The purpose of the document is to provide information on the methods for collecting sediments, the equipment used, and the sample preparation techniques for radionuclide and elemental analysis. The most appropriate procedures for defining the strategies and criteria for selecting sampling locations, for sample storage and transportation are also given. Elements of QA/QC and documentation needs for sampling and sediment analysis are discussed. Collection and preparation of stream and river bottom sediments, lake bottom sediments, estuary bottom sediments, and marine (shallow) bottom sediments are covered. The document is intended to be a comprehensive manual for the collection and preparation of bottom sediments as a prerequisite to obtain representative and meaningful results using NATs. Quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) is emphasized as an important aspect to ensure proper collection, transportation, preservation, and analysis since it forms the basis for interpretation and legislation. Although there are many approaches and methods available for sediment analyses, the scope of the report is limited to sample preparation for (1) analysis of radionuclides (including sediment dating using radionuclides such as Pb-210 and Cs-137) and (2) analysis of trace, minor and major elements using nuclear and related analytical techniques such as NAA, XRF and PIXE

  6. Effect of the water-saturated sediment layer on recording seismic signals with a bottom seismometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levchenko, D. G.

    2006-10-01

    Recording seismic signals on the bottom is accompanied by specific distortions caused by resonance phenomena. In the literature, such distortions are explained by the natural vibration of the heavy housing of a seismometer on a soft elastic sediment layer. Meanwhile, there are experimental results that contradict this model. In the present paper, we consider the rheological properties of the bottom sediments, which in fact were not taken into account previously. The model of a viscoplastic medium was used (the Bingham model), and the parameters of the model were experimentally determined. The estimates show that, in the frequency range from 0.003 to 30 Hz used in broadband bottom seismology, the effect of the mass of the seismometer on the results of recording on a soft bottom is negligible. Large errors can be introduced only when a seismometer is placed on rubberlike media such as peat soil, algae aggregations, etc. Resonance phenomena in recording signals on the bottom can occur when seismic waves propagate through a layer of water-saturated sediments. These phenomena are more pronounced for shear waves, whereas the distortions of the longitudinal waves propagating through the water-saturated layer are relatively weak.

  7. Searches for supersymmetric partners of the bottom and top quarks with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Dafinca, Alexandru

    "Supersymmetry is a promising candidate theory that could solve the hierarchy problem and explain the dark matter density in the Universe. The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider is sensitive to a variety of such supersymmetric models. This thesis reports on a search for pair production of the supersymmetric scalar partners of bottom and top quarks in 20.1 fb$^{-1}$ of $pp$ collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV using the ATLAS experiment. The study focuses on final states with large missing transverse momentum, no electrons or muons and two jets identified as originating from a $b$-quark. This final state can be produced in a $R$-parity conserving minimal supersymmetric scenario, assuming that the scalar bottom decays exclusively to a bottom quark and a neutralino and the scalar top decays to a bottom quark and a chargino, with a small mass difference with the neutralino. As no signal is observed above the Standard Model expectation, competitive exclusion limits are set on scalar bottom and...

  8. Numerical study of different bottom boundary conditions on water flow in lysimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groh, Jannis; Vanderborght, Jan; Pütz, Thomas; Vereecken, Harry

    2015-04-01

    The separation of the bottom of the lysimeter from its surroundings in the field introduces an artificial boundary that may impact the water balance of lysimeters. The use of tension controlled lysimeter (TCL) prevents an artificial boundary at the end of the lysimeter. Water flow across the lysimeter bottom can be controlled by the adjustment of matric potentials at the lower end of the lysimeter to measured field conditions in the close vicinity of the facility. However lysimeters are often transferred from the place where the soil monoliths were sampled to another location for practical reasons or to study the effect of climate change (e.g. SOILCan). The water flux across the bottom boundary of translocated TCL can be affected if climatic conditions, soil properties and the hydrogeological setting in the field differ from the place where the lysimeter was taken from. To assess the potential impact of different bottom boundary conditions on the water balance of translocated TCL a numerical study in virtual soils was conducted. We present a comparison of different approaches using water balance simulations. Results shows that water balance components of translocated TCL are sensitive towards the soil hydraulic parameters and hydrogeological setting in the field. The change in field conditions can impact the water flux dynamic across the lysimeter bottom, change the evaporation and the plant water uptake and release. A shift in the climate regime (translocation) will modify the depth and dynamics of the water table and impact the water balance of lysimeters.

  9. Heavy Metal Contamination of Soils around a Hospital Waste Incinerator Bottom Ash Dumps Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Adama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste incineration is the main waste management strategy used in treating hospital waste in many developing countries. However, the release of dioxins, POPs, and heavy metals in fly and bottom ash poses environmental and public health concerns. To determine heavy metal (Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ag in levels in incinerator bottom ash and soils 100 m around the incinerator bottom ash dump site, ash samples and surrounding soil samples were collected at 20 m, 40 m, 60 m, 80 m, 100 m, and 1,200 m from incinerator. These were analyzed using the absorption spectrophotometer method. The geoaccumulation (Igeo and pollution load indices (PLI were used to assess the level of heavy metal contamination of surrounding soils. The study revealed high concentrations in mg/kg for, Zn (16417.69, Pb (143.80, Cr (99.30, and Cd (7.54 in bottom ash and these were above allowable limits for disposal in landfill. The study also found soils within 60 m radius of the incinerator to be polluted with the metals. It is recommended that health care waste managers be educated on the implication of improper management of incinerator bottom ash and regulators monitor hospital waste incinerator sites.

  10. The effect of bottom sediment supplement on heavy metals content in plants (Zea mays and soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baran A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Important aspect of bottom sediments is the problem of their management or disposal after their extraction from the bottom of rivers, dam reservoirs, ports, channels or ponds. The research aimed at an assessment of potential environmental management of bottom sediment used as an admixture to light soil basing on its effect on contents of heavy metals in plants and soil. The research was conducted on light soil with granulometric structure of weakly loamy sand. The bottom sediment was added to light soil in the amount of 0 (control 5, 10, 30 i 50%. The test plant was maize (Zea mays, “Bora” c.v. The sediment applied in the presented research revealed high share of silt and clay fractions, alkaline pH and low contents of heavy metals, therefore it may be used as an admixture to the above mentioned soils to improve their productivity. The applied bottom sediment to the soil affected a decreased in Zn, Cd and Pb content in maize in comparison with the treatment without the deposit whereas increased content of Cu, Cr and Ni. No exceeded permissible content of heavy metals concerning plant assessment in view of their forage usability were registered in maize biomass.

  11. ZINC AND LEAD IN BOTTOM SEDIMENTS AND AQUATIC PLANTS IN RIVER NAREW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Skorbiłowicz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic ecosystems are a valuable part of natural environment. The increasing level of pollution in waters transforming biocoenoses and other adverse effects of the impact of toxic substances have contributed to the development of biological monitoring. The aim of the study was to determine the changes in contents of zinc and lead in bottom sediments and roots of aquatic plants: Phragmites australis and Acorus calamus in the river Narew. There were 14 points on the river, from where samples of bottom sediments and plant material were collected. The contents of lead and zinc were determined by means of flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry using Varian device. It was proven that bottom sediments were characterized by low contents of zinc and lead except from two sampling points: in Bondary and Narew. Achieved results of analyzes of plant material showed a slight exceeding in the case of lead. Spatial distribution of zinc and lead contents in examined roots of plants coincided with their contents in bottom sediments, which was also confirmed by statistical analysis. It was proven that aquatic plants had greater tendency for accumulation of metals than bottom sediments.

  12. Submarine Slope Failure Primed and Triggered by Bottom Water Warming in Oceanic Hydrate-Bearing Deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Hyuk Kwon

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Many submarine slope failures in hydrate-bearing sedimentary deposits might be directly triggered, or at least primed, by gas hydrate dissociation. It has been reported that during the past 55 years (1955–2010 the 0–2000 m layer of oceans worldwide has been warmed by 0.09 °C because of global warming. This raises the following scientific concern: if warming of the bottom water of deep oceans continues, it would dissociate natural gas hydrates and could eventually trigger massive slope failures. The present study explored the submarine slope instability of oceanic gas hydrate-bearing deposits subjected to bottom water warming. One-dimensional coupled thermal-hydraulic-mechanical (T-H-M finite difference analyses were performed to capture the underlying physical processes initiated by bottom water warming, which includes thermal conduction through sediments, thermal dissociation of gas hydrates, excess pore pressure generation, pressure diffusion, and hydrate dissociation against depressurization. The temperature rise at the seafloor due to bottom water warming is found to create an excess pore pressure that is sufficiently large to reduce the stability of a slope in some cases. Parametric study results suggest that a slope becomes more susceptible to failure with increases in thermal diffusivity and hydrate saturation and decreases in pressure diffusivity, gas saturation, and water depth. Bottom water warming can be further explored to gain a better understanding of the past methane hydrate destabilization events on Earth, assuming that more reliable geological data is available.

  13. Sub-bottom profiling for large-scale maritime archaeological survey An experience-based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, Ole; Boldreel, Lars Ole

    2013-01-01

    The development of cost-effective management strategies, including mapping of the submerged cultural heritage - potentially extensive even at quite great depths - is becoming ever more important, given increasing commercial activity in marine areas which may cause damage or prevent further...... and wrecks partially or wholly embedded in the sea-floor sediments demands the application of highresolution sub-bottom profilers. This paper presents a strategy for the cost-effective large-scale mapping of unknown sedimentembedded sites such as submerged Stone Age settlements or wrecks, based on sub......-bottom profiling with chirp systems. The mapping strategy described includes: a) definition of line spacing depending on the target; b) interactive sailing, i.e. when potential archaeological anomalies are located, their character is immediately investigated in more detail by a denser pattern of sub-bottom survey...

  14. How To Design A Triple Bottom Line Organization: A Start-Up Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Schroeder

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In today’s business environment, where success for a start-up company is measured by early revenue and profit, it can be quite challenging to design a triple bottom line organization (people/planet/profit from the very beginning. We present a case study of a U.S.-based start-up firm and discuss its early challenges, developmental processes, and current success as a triple bottom line firm. The company’s founder and CEO, with no initial product, distribution, or revenue strategy, sought to develop a company that could provide the marketplace with a valuable product while also staying true to a corporate vision of positively affecting less fortunate people. Our analysis of the case suggests that the founder’s vision, passion, transparent communication, and leveraging of partners’ resources were key elements in building the firm. We draw implications of our case study for the designers of future triple bottom line organizations.

  15. Strain Response of Hot-Mix Asphalt Overlays for Bottom-Up Reflective Cracking

    CERN Document Server

    Ghauch, Ziad G

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the strain response of typical HMA overlays above jointed PCC slabs prone to bottom-up reflective cracking. The occurrence of reflective cracking under the combined effect of traffic and environmental loading significantly reduces the design life of the HMA overlays and can lead to its premature failure. In this context, viscoelastic material properties combined with cyclic vehicle loadings and pavement temperature distribution were implemented in a series of FE models in order to study the evolution of horizontal tensile and shear strains at the bottom of the HMA overlay. The effect of several design parameters, such as subbase and subgrade moduli, vehicle speed, overlay thickness, and temperature condition, on the horizontal and shear strain response was investigated. Results obtained show that the rate of horizontal and shear strain increase at the bottom of the HMA overlay drop with higher vehicle speed, higher subgrade modulus, and higher subbase modulus. Moreover, the rate of horizon...

  16. Mechanism of Off—Bottom Suspension of Solid Particles in a Mechanical Stirred Tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAOYuyun; HUANGXiongbin; 等

    2002-01-01

    The minimum fluid velocity to maintain particles just suspended was deduced,and the theoretical analysis shows that the minimum velocity is influenced by the properties of the solid and liquid,not by the operational conditions. For justification,the local minimum velocity at the bottom of the tank was measured by a bi-electrode conductivity probe,in a square-sectioned stirred tank (0.75m×0.75m×1.0m) with the glass beads-water system. The experiments showed that the fluid velocities for the same suspension state were identical despite that the power dissipated per unit mass was not the same under different configuration and operation.Both theoretical analysis and experimental results indicate that the off-bottom suspension is controlled by the local fluid flow over the bottom of the stirred tank.

  17. Intrinsic bottom and its impact on heavy new physics at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Lyonnet, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Heavy quark parton distribution functions (PDFs) play an important role in several Standard Model and New Physics processes. Most analyses rely on the assumption that the charm and bottom PDFs are generated perturbatively by gluon splitting and do not involve any non-perturbative degrees of freedom. On the other hand, non- perturbative, intrinsic heavy quark parton distributions have been predicted in the literature. We demonstrate that to a very good approximation the scale-evolution of the intrinsic heavy quark content of the nucleon is governed by non-singlet evolution equations. This allows to analyze the intrinsic heavy quark distributions without having to resort to a full-fledged global analysis of parton distribution functions. We exploit this freedom to model intrinsic bottom distributions which are so far missing in the literature. We estimate the impact of the non-perturbative contribution to the charm and bottom-quark PDFs and on several important parton-parton luminosities at the LHC.

  18. Modeling of Vortex Flows in Direct Current (DC) Electric Arc Furnace with Different Bottom Electrode Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazak, Oleg

    2013-10-01

    This article is devoted to the numerical modeling of electrovortex and convection flows in the direct current (DC) electric arc furnace with a different position of the bottom electrode. The electromagnetic, temperature, and hydrodynamic distribution parameters are given. The shear stress on the fettle area is offered as a criterion for the estimation of vortex flow influence on the increased wearing of the fettle. It is shown that lifting the bottom electrode above the fettle surface at the electrode radius leads to the decrease of shear stress on the fettle area by 30 pct. Putting the bottom electrode lower than the fettle surface by the distance equal to the electrode radius and its expanding by the same distance reduces the stress by 10 pct.

  19. THEORETICAL ESTIMATION OF GROUNDWATER DISCHARGE AND ASSOCIATED NUTRIENT LOADING TO A LAKE WITH GENTLE SLOPE BOTTOM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong; WANG Chao

    2007-01-01

    A simple estimation model of groundwater discharge and nutrient flux from nearshore unconfined aquifer to lake was studied. It was supposed that the aquifer was permeable isotropic homogeneously and its thickness approximated to the depth of lake. Distribution of the hydraulic gradient and the specific discharge along the transect of the discharge zone were discussed. Results show that the groundwater discharge patterns vary with the inclination angle of lakeshore bottom. For a shallow lake with gentle slope bottom, the rate of discharge of groundwater to lake is not constant across a discharge zone, but the discharge is concentrated in a narrow portion of the littoral zone where the Dupuit assumptions are invalid. The width of the discharge zone is correlative with aquifer thickness and slope of the lake bottom. The distribution functions of hydraulic gradient and groundwater discharge rates accord exponentially with offshore distance.

  20. Bottom-Tau Yukawa Unification in the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Allanach, Benjamin C

    1994-01-01

    We discuss the unification of the bottom quark and tau lepton Yukawa couplings within the framework of the next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model. We compare the allowed regions of the $m_t$-$\\tan \\beta$ plane to those in the minimal supersymmetric standard model, and find that over much of the parameter space the deviation between the predictions of two models is small, and nearly always much less than the effect of current theoretical and experimental uncertainties in the bottom quark mass and the strong coupling constant. However over some regions of parameter space top-bottom Yukawa unification cannot be achieved. We also discuss the scaling of the light fermion masses and mixing angles, and show that to within current uncertainties the results of recent texture analyses performed for the minimal model also apply to the next-to-minimal model.