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Sample records for bothrops alternatus increases

  1. Plant extracts for topic therapy of Bothrops alternatus envenomation

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    Marilia Martins Melo; Maria Lúcia; Gerhard G. Habermehl

    2007-01-01

    Two plants were investigated for their properties against the local effects of Bothrops alternatus venom in rabbits, namely Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae) and Aristolochia cymbifera L. (Aristolochiaceae). The experiments showed that, Curcuma longa extract topic application was the most effective treatment against local symptoms (edema, hemorrhages and necrosis) caused by Bothrops venom, whereas the results with Aristolochia cymbifera L. were doubtful, because they led to a larger damaged ar...

  2. Plant extracts for topic therapy of Bothrops alternatus envenomation

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    Marilia Martins Melo

    Full Text Available Two plants were investigated for their properties against the local effects of Bothrops alternatus venom in rabbits, namely Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae and Aristolochia cymbifera L. (Aristolochiaceae. The experiments showed that, Curcuma longa extract topic application was the most effective treatment against local symptoms (edema, hemorrhages and necrosis caused by Bothrops venom, whereas the results with Aristolochia cymbifera L. were doubtful, because they led to a larger damaged area during the early phase of the inflammation process, besides skin mummification.

  3. Meal size effects on the postprandial metabolic response of Bothrops alternatus (Serpentes: Viperidae

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    Rodrigo S. B. Gavira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effects of meal size on the postprandial metabolic response of the lancehead Bothrops alternatus (Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1894, fed mice equaling to 5, 10, 20, and 40% of the snake's body mass. The maximum O2 consumption rates measured during digestion increased with meal size, reaching levels up to 2.8-7.8-fold higher than the metabolic rate measured during fasting. Specific Dynamic Action (SDA duration also increased with meal size, lasting from 54 to 212 hours to complete. Under our experimental conditions, 30ºC, the majority of our snakes failed to completely digest prey with a relative size of 40%. The SDA coefficient ranged from 17 to 27% of the energy content of the meal and was not affected by meal size.

  4. Effect of Bothrops alternatus snake venom on macrophage phagocytosis and superoxide production: participation of protein kinase C

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    SS Setubal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Envenomations caused by different species of Bothrops snakes result in severe local tissue damage, hemorrhage, pain, myonecrosis, and inflammation with a significant leukocyte accumulation at the bite site. However, the activation state of leukocytes is still unclear. According to clinical cases and experimental work, the local effects observed in envenenomation by Bothrops alternatus are mainly the appearance of edema, hemorrhage, and necrosis. In this study we investigated the ability of Bothrops alternatus crude venom to induce macrophage activation. At 6 to 100 ¼g/mL, BaV is not toxic to thioglycollate-elicited macrophages; at 3 and 6 ¼g/mL, it did not interfere in macrophage adhesion or detachment. Moreover, at concentrations of 1.5, 3, and 6 ¼g/mL the venom induced an increase in phagocytosis via complement receptor one hour after incubation. Pharmacological treatment of thioglycollate-elicited macrophages with staurosporine, a protein kinase (PKC inhibitor, abolished phagocytosis, suggesting that PKC may be involved in the increase of serum-opsonized zymosan phagocytosis induced by BaV. Moreover, BaV also induced the production of anion superoxide (O2_ by thioglycollate-elicited macrophages. This BaV stimulated superoxide production was abolished after treating the cells with staurosporine, indicating that PKC is an important signaling pathway for the production of this radical. Based on these results, we suggest that phagocytosis and reactive oxygen species are involved in the pathogenesis of local tissue damage characteristic of Bothrops spp. envenomations.

  5. A transcriptomic analysis of gene expression in the venom gland of the snake Bothrops alternatus (urutu

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    Menossi Marcelo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Bothrops is widespread throughout Central and South America and is the principal cause of snakebite in these regions. Transcriptomic and proteomic studies have examined the venom composition of several species in this genus, but many others remain to be studied. In this work, we used a transcriptomic approach to examine the venom gland genes of Bothrops alternatus, a clinically important species found in southeastern and southern Brazil, Uruguay, northern Argentina and eastern Paraguay. Results A cDNA library of 5,350 expressed sequence tags (ESTs was produced and assembled into 838 contigs and 4512 singletons. BLAST searches of relevant databases showed 30% hits and 70% no-hits, with toxin-related transcripts accounting for 23% and 78% of the total transcripts and hits, respectively. Gene ontology analysis identified non-toxin genes related to general metabolism, transcription and translation, processing and sorting, (polypeptide degradation, structural functions and cell regulation. The major groups of toxin transcripts identified were metalloproteinases (81%, bradykinin-potentiating peptides/C-type natriuretic peptides (8.8%, phospholipases A2 (5.6%, serine proteinases (1.9% and C-type lectins (1.5%. Metalloproteinases were almost exclusively type PIII proteins, with few type PII and no type PI proteins. Phospholipases A2 were essentially acidic; no basic PLA2 were detected. Minor toxin transcripts were related to L-amino acid oxidase, cysteine-rich secretory proteins, dipeptidylpeptidase IV, hyaluronidase, three-finger toxins and ohanin. Two non-toxic proteins, thioredoxin and double-specificity phosphatase Dusp6, showed high sequence identity to similar proteins from other snakes. In addition to the above features, single-nucleotide polymorphisms, microsatellites, transposable elements and inverted repeats that could contribute to toxin diversity were observed. Conclusions Bothrops alternatus venom gland

  6. Hemograma de cães envenenados experimentalmente com Bothrops alternatus após diferentes tratamentos.

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    D. O. Jacome

    2005-03-01

    inoculação do veneno. O hemograma de cães envenenados por Bothrops alternatus e tratados com soro antibotrópico, flunixina meglumina e extrato aquoso de Curcuma longa é caracterizado por anemia e leucocitose por neutrofilia. Palavras-chave: Hemograma, Bothrops, cão SUMMARY: The aim of this study was to evaluate hemograms of dogs experimentally envenomed with Bothrops alternatus following different therapeutic approaches (specific anti-venom serum, flunixin meglumine and aqueous extract of Curcuma longa. Twelve Mongrel adult dogs were IM inoculated with 0.3 mg/Kg of venom and treated two hours after venom inoculation. The dogs were divided into three groups (I, II and III of four animals each. Group I was treated with specific anti-venom serum diluted in 0.9% saline which can neutralize 0.3mg/Kg of venom. Group II received flunixin meglumine (1,1mg/kg, IM once a day for five days. Group III was treated with aqueous extract of Curcuma longa (10% on the skin at the site of venom inoculation, three times a day, for five days. The results showed a significant decrease (p<0,05 in the mean values of erythrocytes, hemoglobin concentration and packed cell volumes in all groups 168 hours after venom inoculation. The leukograms revelead leukocytosis with neutrophilia (p<0,05 24 hours following venom inoculation. The leukograms revelead leukocytosis with neutrophilia (p<0,05 24 hours following venom inoculation. The mean values of band neutrophils were within the normal ranges, but were increased 30 hours after inoculations in group II, and 24-168 hours after inoculation in group III. The leukograms revelead leukocytosis with neutrophilia (p<0,05 24 hours following venom inoculation. The mean values of band neutrophils were within the normal ranges, but were increased 30 hours after inoculations in group II, and 24-168 hours after inoculation in group III. The numbers of eosinophils dropped significantly (p<0,05 in the three groups between six and 168 hours after

  7. Treatment of Bothrops alternatus envenomation by Curcuma longa and Calendula officinalis extracts and ar-turmerone Tratamento local do envenenamento por Bothrops alternatus com extrato de Curcuma longa e Calendula officinalis e ar-turmerone

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    M.M. Melo

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available It was investigated the efficiency of two extracts of plants and one fraction of their properties against the local effects of bothropic envenomation. Bothrops alternatus venom (1.25µg diluted in 100µl of sterile saline solution was inoculated (intradermally into the shaved dorsal back skin of 30 New Zealand rabbits. The animals were divided in six groups receiving the following treatments: group I: subcutaneous application of Curcuma longa extract (1.0ml; group II: topic treatment of Curcuma longa hydroalcoholic extract (1.0ml; group III: topic application of ar-turmerone in vaseline (1.0g; group IV: topic application of Curcuma longa methanolic extract (1.0ml; group V: topic application of Calendula officinalis ointment (1.0g; group VI: topic application of saline (1.0ml. These treatments were done at 30 minutes, and at 2, 4, 24 and 72 hours after venom inoculation. Intensity of local edema, hemorrhagic halo and necrosis were evaluated until 168h after that. Additionally, seven days after the Bothrops venom inoculation, blood was collected from heart with and without EDTA (10% for hemogram and biochemical parameters (total protein, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and fibrinogen and all the animals were anesthetized, sacrificed by ether inhalation and submitted to necropsy. Fragments of tissues were taken for histopathological evaluation. The most efficient treatment for inhibition of edema, necrosis and local hemorrhage after Bothrops alternatus venom was the topic application of ar-turmerone.Investigou-se a eficácia do extrato de plantas no tratamento local do envenenamento botrópico. Veneno de serpentes Bothrops alternatus (1,25µg diluído em 100µl de solução salina estéril foi inoculado (via intradérmica entre as escápulas de 30 coelhos. Os animais foram divididos em seis grupos (tratamentos: grupo I: tratamento subcutâneo com extrato de Curcuma longa; grupo II: tratamento tópico com extrato hidroalcoólico de Curcuma longa

  8. Effect of monospecific antibodies against baltergin in myotoxicity induced by Bothrops alternatus venom from northeast of Argentina. Role of metalloproteinases in muscle damage.

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    Gay, Carolina; Maruñak, Silvana; Teibler, Pamela; Leiva, Laura; Acosta, Ofelia

    2013-03-01

    Myotoxicity, one of the most relevant local manifestations in envenomation by Bothrops genus, may result from a direct action of myotoxins or be due to an indirect vascular degeneration and ischemia. Baltergin, a snake venom metalloproteinase (SVMP), isolated from Bothrops alternatus venom has been used to obtain monospecific IgG, in order to determine the relative role of toxin in myotoxicity induced by whole venom. Bothrops diporus venom, another medical relevant genus of the northeastern region of Argentina, was also studied. Anti-baltergin IgG was able to neutralize completely the hemorrhagic activity of B. alternatus venom at an antibodies:venom ratio of 30:1 (w:w). However, mice injected with B. diporus venom showed a small spot remaining even at the highest ratio of IgG:venom assayed (50:1; w:w). Specific antibodies were efficient to neutralize the myotoxicity of B. alternatus venom at ratio 30:1 (w:w) but did not neutralize the same effects in B. diporus venom. Anti-baltergin polyclonal antibodies were useful tools for revealing the central role of SVMPs in the development of myotoxicity of B. alternatus venom, as well as, helping to suggest indirectly presence of potent myotoxic phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) in B. diporus venom. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Aspectos clínico-patológicos e laboratoriais do envenenamento experimental por Bothrops alternatus em bovinos Clinic and pathological and laboratory aspects of experimental poisoning by Bothrops alternatus venom in cattle

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    Saulo A. Caldas

    2008-06-01

    , acompanhada de hemorragia, no entorno do local da inoculação nos animais que receberam o veneno por via intramuscular; essa lesão era discreta nos músculos próximos ao local de inoculação subcutânea. Nos bovinos deste estudo, o aumento de volume observado no local de inoculação e adjacências era constituído por sangue e não edema. Não foram observadas mioglobinúria, nem lesões macro ou microscópicas significativas nos rins. Este estudo indica que exemplares de B. alternatus, caso inoculem todo seu veneno, poderiam levar bovinos adultos à morte. Por outro lado, pelo fato de ofídios serem capazes de regular a quantidade de veneno inoculada e, possivelmente, não considerarem bovinos como presa potencial, é provável que o número de acidentes nessa espécie seja pequeno, o que está de acordo com o observado na maioria dos centros diagnóstico anátomo-patológico no país.The aim of this study was to determine the clinical-pathological alterations and laboratory findings in cattle inoculated with Bothrops alternatus venom, with the intention of providing information for the establishment of diagnosis and differential diagnosis procedures, as well as to elucidate some obscurities observed in the pertinent literature. The lyophilized venom was diluted in 1 ml of physiologic solution. It was administered to 5 bovines by the subcutaneous route at doses of 0.0625, 0.125 and 0.25mg/kg body weight, and to 2 bovines by the intramuscular route at doses of 0.25 e 0.45mg/kg. Six bovines died and the only animal that survived, who had subcutaneously received the venom at a dose of 0.0625mg/kg, recovered. The first clinical signs were observed from 25min to 5h30min after the inoculation. The clinical evolution time varied from 7 hours 18 minutes to 92 hours. Regardless of the dose, the clinical picture was characterized by swelling (hemorrhage/hematoma at the site of inoculation, increase in bleeding time and capillary refill time, paleness of mucous membranes and

  10. Aqueous two-phase systems: A simple methodology to obtain mixtures enriched in main toxins of Bothrops alternatus venom.

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    Gomez, Gabriela; Leiva, Laura; Nerli, Bibiana Beatriz

    2016-08-01

    Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and protease (P) are enzymes responsible of myotoxic, edematogenic and hemostasis disorder effects observed in the envenomation by Bothrops alternatus pitviper. Their partitioning coefficient (Kp) in different polyethyleneglycol/potassium phosphate aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) was determined in order to both achieve a better understanding of the partitioning mechanism and define optimal conditions for toxin isolation. Polyethyleneglycols (PEGs) of molecular weights 1000; 3350; 6000 and 8000; different temperatures (5, 20 and 37 °C) and phase volume ratios of 0.5; 1 and 2 were assayed. PLA2 partitioned preferentially to the top phase while P mainly distributed to the bottom phase. Either entropically- or enthalpically-driven mechanisms were involved in each case (PLA2 and P). The aqueous two-phase system formed by PEG of MW 3350 (12.20% wt/wt) and KPi pH 7.0 (11.82% wt/wt) with a volume ratio of one and a load of 1.25 mg of venom/g of system showed to be the most efficient to recover both enzymes. It allowed obtaining the 72% of PLA2 in the top phase with a purification factor of 2 and the 82% of P at the bottom phase simultaneously. A further adsorption batch step with DEAE-cellulose was used to remove satisfactorily the PEG from the top phase and recover the active PLA2. The proposed methodology is simple, inexpensive, and only requires professionals trained in handling basic laboratory equipment. It could be easily adoptable by developing countries in which the snakebite accidents cause considerable morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Caracterização individual do veneno de Bothrops alternatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril em função da distribuição geográfica no Brasil (Serpentes,Viperidae Individual characterization of Bothrops alternatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril venoms, according to their geographic distribution in Brazil (Serpentes, Viperidae

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    Marisa M. T. da Rocha

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Bothrops alternatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854 é uma serpente de importância em saúde pública, com ampla distribuição geográfica, desde o Mato Grosso do Sul até o sudeste do Brasil, chegando até a Argentina e Uruguai, ocupando vários domínios morfoclimáticos. Neste trabalho investigou-se a variação do veneno de adultos de Bothrops alternatus, em função de sua distribuição geográfica no Brasil, comparativamente ao veneno elaborado sob a forma de "pool" desta espécie (veneno referência, que inclui serpentes, em sua maioria, da região do estado de São Paulo. Foram analisadas as atividades letal, coagulante sobre o plasma, proteolítica sobre a caseína e miotóxica, bem como os padrões eletroforéticos de 61 amostras individuais de veneno contrapostas ao "pool". Os resultados mostraram que o veneno de B. alternatus é pouco ativo, comparativamente ao de outros Bothrops Wagler, 1824. A variação individual prevaleceu, não apresentando correlação com as áreas de distribuição geográfica e domínios morfoclimáticos, porém a atividade coagulante das amostras de veneno provenientes do nordeste da distribuição geográfica apresentaram-se menos ativas comparativamente às da porção central da distribuição. Os venenos provenientes das bordas da distribuição apresentaram ações proteolíticas e miotóxicas mais intensas, que estatisticamente não foram significativamente diferentes. As variações individuais prevaleceram.Bothrops alternatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854 snakebites are an important public health problem in Brazil. Such snakes are found from Mato Grosso do Sul (central Brazil to southeastern Brazil, reaching even Argentina and Uruguay and thereby occupying different morphoclimatic domains. This work investigated venom variation occurring in adult specimens of B. alternatus specimens, according to their geographic distribution in Brazil. The standard venom pool (reference venom produced by

  12. Avaliação das lesões locais de cães envenenados experimentalmente com Bothrops alternatus após diferentes tratamentos Evaluation of local lesions in dogs experimentally envenomed by Bothrops alternatus after different treatments

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    M.M.B. Santos

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic action of flunixin meglumine and aqueous extract of Curcuma longa (10% on local lesions caused by bothropic venom, comparing with the specific antivenom. Twelve adult dogs were inoculated in the middle third of the lateral face of the thigh with 0.3mg/kg of venom. The dogs were divided into three groups of four animals and the treatment was done two hours after venom inoculation as follows: Group I- specific antivenom diluted in saline (one dosage sufficient to neutralize the venom, Group II- flunixin meglumine (1.1mg/kg, IM, once a day for five days, Group III- topical application of aqueous extract of C. longa (10% (three times a day for five days. Necrosis was observed in all dogs of groups I and II, and in two dogs of group III. Edema and hemorrhagic halo were observed in all dogs. Better recovery of lesions was observed in dogs of group I and III. The results denote a satisfactory effect of C. longa on treatment of local lesions caused by bothropic venom in dogs.

  13. Alternagin-C, a disintegrin-like protein from the venom of Bothrops alternatus, modulates a2ß1 integrin-mediated cell adhesion, migration and proliferation

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    Selistre-de-Araujo H.S.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The alpha2ß1 integrin is a major collagen receptor that plays an essential role in the adhesion of normal and tumor cells to the extracellular matrix. Alternagin-C (ALT-C, a disintegrin-like protein purified from the venom of the Brazilian snake Bothrops alternatus, competitively interacts with the alpha2ß1 integrin, thereby inhibiting collagen binding. When immobilized in plate wells, ALT-C supports the adhesion of fibroblasts as well as of human vein endothelial cells (HUVEC and does not detach cells previously bound to collagen I. ALT-C is a strong inducer of HUVEC proliferation in vitro. Gene expression analysis was done using an Affimetrix HU-95A probe array with probe sets of ~10,000 human genes. In human fibroblasts growing on collagen-coated plates, ALT-C up-regulates the expression of several growth factors including vascular endothelial growth factor, as well as some cell cycle control genes. Up-regulation of the vascular endothelial growth factor gene and other growth factors could explain the positive effect on HUVEC proliferation. ALT-C also strongly activates protein kinase B phosphorylation, a signaling event involved in endothelial cell survival and angiogenesis. In human neutrophils, ALT-C has a potent chemotactic effect modulated by the intracellular signaling cascade characteristic of integrin-activated pathways. Thus, ALT-C acts as a survival factor, promoting adhesion, migration and endothelial cell proliferation after binding to alpha2ß1 integrin on the cell surface. The biological activities of ALT-C may be helpful as a therapeutic strategy in tissue regeneration as well as in the design of new therapeutic agents targeting alpha2ß1 integrin.

  14. Recruitment of striatonigral disinhibitory and nigrotectal inhibitory GABAergic pathways during the organization of defensive behavior by mice in a dangerous environment with the venomous snake Bothrops alternatus (Reptilia, Viperidae).

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    Almada, Rafael Carvalho; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2015-06-01

    The neuropsychopharmacological basis of fear- or panic-related behavior has been the focus of several studies. Some mesencephalic tectum (MT) structures, such as the superior colliculus (SC) and dorsal periaqueductal gray matter (dPAG), are considered to be responsible for the control of defensive responses evoked during threatening situations. Furthermore, the pars reticulata of the substantia nigra (SNpr) sends inputs to the SC that can work as a sensory channel to MT neurons fundamental for the elaboration of defensive responses. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of striato-nigral GABAergic inputs in the activity of nigro-tectal outputs during the elaboration of defensive behavior using a GABA(A) receptor selective blockade in the MT of mice confronted pre-treated with Bothrops alternatus. Mice with injections of physiological saline into the SNpr and treated with a GABA(A) receptor selective antagonist in the MT displayed an increase in panic-related behavior, expressed by an increase in the duration of freezing, frequency of nonoriented escape and frequency of total escape responses during the confrontation with the snake. However, intra-SNpr injections of cobalt chloride followed by MT injections of bicuculline caused a significant decrease in the duration of freezing and total escape responses. In addition, intra-SNpr injections of lidocaine followed by MT injections of bicuculline caused an increase in panic-related behavior. The results highlight the involvement of SNpr and MT structures in the organization of defensive behaviors and suggest an inhibitory control of striatonigral-nigrotectal pathways during the elaboration of fear- and panic-related behavior. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The defensive strike of five species of lanceheads of the genus Bothrops (Viperidae).

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    Araújo, M S; Martins, M

    2007-05-01

    We studied the defensive strike of one species of each of five recognized lineages within the genus Bothrops, namely, B. alternatus, B. jararaca, B. jararacussu, B. moojeni and B. pauloensis. The defensive strike of the studied species was in general similar to that of Crotalus viridis and C. atrox, but some important differences were observed. Bothrops alternatus and B. pauloensis struck preferentially from a tight body posture, whereas B. jararaca and B. moojeni from a loose body posture. Defensive strikes were either true or false (during the latter, the mouth remains closed or partially open). Almost all strikes were successful; only on a few occasions snakes missed their target (flawed strikes). Strike variables were very conservative among the five species, especially strike distance and height, and one possible explanation may be related to constraints imposed on strike variables as a way of increasing strike accuracy.

  16. The defensive strike of five species of lanceheads of the genus Bothrops (Viperidae

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    MS. Araújo

    Full Text Available We studied the defensive strike of one species of each of five recognized lineages within the genus Bothrops, namely, B. alternatus, B. jararaca, B. jararacussu, B. moojeni and B. pauloensis. The defensive strike of the studied species was in general similar to that of Crotalus viridis and C. atrox, but some important differences were observed. Bothrops alternatus and B. pauloensis struck preferentially from a tight body posture, whereas B. jararaca and B. moojeni from a loose body posture. Defensive strikes were either true or false (during the latter, the mouth remains closed or partially open. Almost all strikes were successful; only on a few occasions snakes missed their target (flawed strikes. Strike variables were very conservative among the five species, especially strike distance and height, and one possible explanation may be related to constraints imposed on strike variables as a way of increasing strike accuracy.

  17. Prospection, structural analysis and phylogenetic relationships of endogenous gamma-phospholipase A(2) inhibitors in Brazilian Bothrops snakes (Viperidae, Crotalinae).

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    Estevão-Costa, Maria Inácia; Rocha, Bruno Coelho; de Alvarenga Mudado, Maurício; Redondo, Rodrigo; Franco, Glória Regina; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre

    2008-07-01

    During the last 20 years, there have been an increasing number of reports on endogenous phospholipase A(2) inhibitors (PLIs) in the sera of snakes. These studies have demonstrated the existence of three different structural classes of PLIs (alpha, beta and gamma). The gamma class members are potent inhibitors of phospholipases A(2) (PLA(2)) from the venom of Viperidae snakes. These enzymes, together with the mammalian pro-inflammatory PLA(2), belong to the IIA class of the PLA(2)-superfamily. Although coming from distinct sources, these phospholipases A(2) share main structural features. For this reason, gammaPLIs have been considered as potential models for the development of selective inhibitors of pro-inflammatory PLA(2) in humans. In spite of the rich diversity of the ophidian fauna in Brazil, only two gammaPLI representatives, from Crotalus durissus terrificus and Lachesis muta, have been described in Brazilian snakes so far. Here we investigated the presence of transcripts of novel gammaPLIs in six Bothrops species (Viperidae, Crotalinae) commonly found in our country: Bothrops alternatus, Bothrops erythromelas, Bothrops jararaca, Bothrops jararacussu, Bothrops moojeni and Bothrops neuwiedi. gammaPLI transcripts were present in every species analysed. The deduced mature proteins possessed 181 amino acid residues following a 19-residue signal peptide, similar to the gammaPLIs from C. d. terrificus taken as our model, with the exception of the deduced proteins from B. erythromelas and B. neuwiedi snakes. In these particular cases, an insertion of 4-amino acid residues was consistently present. A Bayesian tree was obtained for the Brazilian Bothrops gammaPLIs, showing four clusters: (1) L. muta and B. jararacussu, (2) B. alternatus, (3) B. erythromelas and B. neuwiedi, (4) B. jararaca and B. moojeni. Detailed structural analysis and further comparisons of these novel Bothrops inhibitors with gammaPLIs from New and Old World snakes are provided.

  18. Bothrops jararaca venom metalloproteinases are essential for coagulopathy and increase plasma tissue factor levels during envenomation.

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    Karine M Yamashita

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIMS: Bleeding tendency, coagulopathy and platelet disorders are recurrent manifestations in snakebites occurring worldwide. We reasoned that by damaging tissues and/or activating cells at the site of the bite and systemically, snake venom toxins might release or decrypt tissue factor (TF, resulting in activation of blood coagulation and aggravation of the bleeding tendency. Thus, we addressed (a whether TF and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI, an oxireductase involved in TF encryption/decryption, were altered in experimental snake envenomation; (b the involvement and significance of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMP and serine proteinases (SVSP to hemostatic disturbances. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Crude Bothrops jararaca venom (BjV was preincubated with Na2-EDTA or AEBSF, which are inhibitors of SVMP and SVSP, respectively, and injected subcutaneously or intravenously into rats to analyze the contribution of local lesion to the development of hemostatic disturbances. Samples of blood, lung and skin were collected and analyzed at 3 and 6 h. Platelet counts were markedly diminished in rats, and neither Na2-EDTA nor AEBSF could effectively abrogate this fall. However, Na2-EDTA markedly reduced plasma fibrinogen consumption and hemorrhage at the site of BjV inoculation. Na2-EDTA also abolished the marked elevation in TF levels in plasma at 3 and 6 h, by both administration routes. Moreover, increased TF activity was also noticed in lung and skin tissue samples at 6 h. However, factor VII levels did not decrease over time. PDI expression in skin was normal at 3 h, and downregulated at 6 h in all groups treated with BjV. CONCLUSIONS: SVMP induce coagulopathy, hemorrhage and increased TF levels in plasma, but neither SVMP nor SVSP are directly involved in thrombocytopenia. High levels of TF in plasma and TF decryption occur during snake envenomation, like true disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome, and might be implicated in

  19. Bothrops jararaca venom metalloproteinases are essential for coagulopathy and increase plasma tissue factor levels during envenomation.

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    Yamashita, Karine M; Alves, André F; Barbaro, Katia C; Santoro, Marcelo L

    2014-05-01

    Bleeding tendency, coagulopathy and platelet disorders are recurrent manifestations in snakebites occurring worldwide. We reasoned that by damaging tissues and/or activating cells at the site of the bite and systemically, snake venom toxins might release or decrypt tissue factor (TF), resulting in activation of blood coagulation and aggravation of the bleeding tendency. Thus, we addressed (a) whether TF and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), an oxireductase involved in TF encryption/decryption, were altered in experimental snake envenomation; (b) the involvement and significance of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMP) and serine proteinases (SVSP) to hemostatic disturbances. Crude Bothrops jararaca venom (BjV) was preincubated with Na2-EDTA or AEBSF, which are inhibitors of SVMP and SVSP, respectively, and injected subcutaneously or intravenously into rats to analyze the contribution of local lesion to the development of hemostatic disturbances. Samples of blood, lung and skin were collected and analyzed at 3 and 6 h. Platelet counts were markedly diminished in rats, and neither Na2-EDTA nor AEBSF could effectively abrogate this fall. However, Na2-EDTA markedly reduced plasma fibrinogen consumption and hemorrhage at the site of BjV inoculation. Na2-EDTA also abolished the marked elevation in TF levels in plasma at 3 and 6 h, by both administration routes. Moreover, increased TF activity was also noticed in lung and skin tissue samples at 6 h. However, factor VII levels did not decrease over time. PDI expression in skin was normal at 3 h, and downregulated at 6 h in all groups treated with BjV. SVMP induce coagulopathy, hemorrhage and increased TF levels in plasma, but neither SVMP nor SVSP are directly involved in thrombocytopenia. High levels of TF in plasma and TF decryption occur during snake envenomation, like true disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome, and might be implicated in engendering bleeding manifestations in severely-envenomed patients.

  20. Human antibody fragments specific for Bothrops jararacussu venom reduce the toxicity of other Bothrops sp. venoms.

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    Roncolato, Eduardo Crosara; Pucca, Manuela Berto; Funayama, Jaqueline Carlos; Bertolini, Thaís Barboza; Campos, Lucas Benício; Barbosa, José Elpidio

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 20,000 snakebites are registered each year in Brazil. The classical treatment for venomous snakebite involves the administration of sera obtained from immunized horses. Moreover, the production and care of horses is costly, and the use of heterologous sera can cause hypersensitivity reactions. The production of human antibody fragments by phage display technology is seen as a means of overcoming some of these disadvantages. The studies here attempted to test human monoclonal antibodies specific to Bothrops jararacussu against other Bothrops sp. venoms, using the Griffin.1 library of human single-chain fragment-variable (scFv) phage antibodies. Using the Griffin.1 phage antibody library, this laboratory previously produced scFvs capable of inhibiting the phospholipase and myotoxic activities of Bothrops jararacussu venom. The structural and functional similarities of the various forms of phospholipase A2 (PLA₂) in Bothrops venom served as the basis for the present study wherein the effectiveness of those same scFvs were evaluated against B. jararaca, B. neuwiedi, and B. moojeni venoms. Each clone was found to recognize all three Bothrops venoms, and purified scFvs partially inhibited their in vitro phospholipase activity. In vivo assays demonstrated that the scFv clone P2B7 reduced myotoxicity and increased the survival of animals that received the test venoms. The results here indicate that the scFv P2B7 is a candidate for inclusion in a mixture of specific antibodies to produce a human anti-bothropic sera. This data demonstrates that the human scFv P2B7 represents an alternative therapeutic approach to heterologous anti-bothropic sera available today.

  1. Producción de Suero Antiveneno de Bothrops Alternatus en ovinos

    OpenAIRE

    Stamatti, Guillermo; Baravalle, Cristian Gerardo; Peñalva, Pablo; Gorchs, Carolina; Bini, Ricardo Bruno

    2012-01-01

    p. 101-106 La producción de suero antiofídico como único tratamiento comprobadamente efectivo contra el accidente producido por la mordedura de serpientes venenosas, se ha venido realizando en equinos desde finales del siglo pasado. En la actualidad, poco se conoce del porqué de la escasez de investigaciones en otras especies y además relativamente, se ha hecho poco en términos de conseguir una nueva manera de producir un antiveneno más efectivo. Los sueros equinos usados para el tratamien...

  2. Some toxic and enzymatic activities of Bothrops ammodytoides (yarará ñata) venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roodt, A R; Dolab, J A; Hajos, S E; Gould, E; Dinápoli, H; Troiano, J C; Gould, J; Dokmetjian, J C; Carfagnini, J C; Fernández, T; Amoroso, M; Segre, L; Vidal, J C

    2000-01-01

    Bothrops ammodytoides, the smallest representative of this genus, is found only in Argentina. Venom was extracted from thirty adult specimens (35-70 cm in length, 90-300 g in weight) captured in the Province of Buenos Aires and kept in captivity. Venom yield was 3-30 mg. SDS-PAGE showed strong bands at 14.0; 23-25; 45; 54 and 63 kDa and weak bands at 17.0; 30.0; 40.0 and 85.0 kDa. Toxic activities were: LD50 (intravenous, mice) 0.5+/-0.2 microg/g; minimal procoagulant dose on human plasma (MPD-P) 35+/-2 mg/l; and minimal defibrinogenating dose (MDD, mice) 6-12 microg. Hemorrhagic and/or necrotic activities appear to play a major role in lethality; minimal hemorrhagic dose (MHD, mice) is 10+/-2 microg/g and minimal necrotizing dose (MND, mice) is 38+/-5 microg. The LD50, MPD-P and MND are among the lowest in venoms from Bothrops species found in Argentina. B. ammodytoides venom exhibited high proteolytic and phospholipase A2 activities. Most of the B. ammodytoides venom components cross-react with Bivalent Bothropic antivenom (Instituto Nacional de Producción de Biológicos ANLIS Dr. G. Malbrin, against B. alternatus and B. neuwiedii venoms). One ml of antivenom neutralizes 1.2 mg of B. ammodytoides venom.

  3. Inhibitory effects of ascorbic acid, vitamin E, and vitamin B-complex on the biological activities induced by Bothrops venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Carlos Henrique de Moura; Assaid Simão, Anderson; Marcussi, Silvana

    2016-01-01

    Natural compounds have been widely studied with the aim of complementing antiophidic serum therapy. The present study evaluated the inhibitory potential of ascorbic acid and a vitamin complex, composed of ascorbic acid, vitamin E, and all the B-complex vitamins, on the biological activities induced by snake venoms. The effect of vitamins was evaluated on the phospholipase, proteolytic, coagulant, and fibrinogenolytic activities induced by Bothrops moojeni (Viperidae), B. jararacussu, and B. alternatus snake venoms, and the hemagglutinating activity induced by B. jararacussu venom. The vitamin complex (1:5 and 1:10 ratios) totally inhibited the fibrinogenolytic activity and partially the phospholipase activity and proteolytic activity on azocasein induced by the evaluated venoms. Significant inhibition was observed in the coagulation of human plasma induced by venoms from B. alternatus (1:2.5 and 1:5, to vitamin complex and ascorbic acid) and B. moojeni (1:2.5 and 1:5, to vitamin complex and ascorbic acid). Ascorbic acid inhibited 100% of the proteolytic activities of B. moojeni and B. alternatus on azocasein, at 1:10 ratio, the effects of all the venoms on fibrinogen, the hemagglutinating activity of B. jararacussu venom, and also extended the plasma coagulation time induced by all venoms analyzed. The vitamins analyzed showed relevant in vitro inhibitory potential over the activities induced by Bothrops venoms, suggesting their interaction with toxins belonging to the phospholipase A2, protease, and lectin classes. The results can aid further research in clarifying the possible mechanisms of interaction between vitamins and snake enzymes.

  4. Palicus Alternatus Rathbun (Decapoda: Brachyura un nuevo registro para el Caribe colombiano Palicus Alternatus Rathbun (Decapoda: Brachyura un nuevo registro para el Caribe colombiano

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    Campos Néstor Hernando

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe por primera vez para el Caribe colombiano un representante de la familia de cangrejos Palicidae, Palicus alternatus Rathbun, 1897, de la región de Santa Marta. Se complementa la descripción y se hacen anotaciones sobre su dimorfismo sexual. One member of the crab family Palicidae, Palicus alternatus Rathbun, 1897, is described by the first time for the Colombian Caribbean; the species was collected in the Santa Marta region. The description of P. alternatus is completed, including a discussion of its sexual dimorphism.

  5. Effects of bark beetle pheromones on the attraction of Monochamus alternatus to pine volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian-Ting Fan; Daniel Miller; Long-Wa Zhang; Jiang-Hua Sun

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the attraction of Monochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), Dryocoetes luteus Blandford and Orthotomicus erosusWollaston (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) to multiple-funnel traps baited with the pine volatiles, ethanol and (+)-α-pinene and the bark beetle pheromones, ipsenol and ipsdienol. M. alternatus were attracted to traps baited...

  6. Differential immune responses of Monochamus alternatus against symbiotic and entomopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Meng, Jie; Ning, Jing; Qin, Peijun; Zhou, Jiao; Zou, Zhen; Wang, Yanhong; Jiang, Hong; Ahmad, Faheem; Zhao, Lilin; Sun, Jianghua

    2017-08-01

    Monochamus alternatus, the main vector beetles of invasive pinewood nematode, has established a symbiotic relationship with a native ectotrophic fungal symbiont, Sporothrix sp. 1, in China. The immune response of M. alternatus to S. sp. 1 in the coexistence of beetles and fungi is, however, unknown. Here, we report that immune responses of M. alternatus pupae to infection caused by ectotrophic symbiotic fungus S. sp. 1 and entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana differ significantly. The S. sp. 1 did not kill the beetles while B. bassiana killed all upon injection. The transcriptome results showed that the numbers of differentially expressed genes in M. alternatus infected with S. sp. 1 were 2-fold less than those infected with B. bassiana at 48 hours post infection. It was noticed that Toll and IMD pathways played a leading role in the beetle's immune system when infected by symbiotic fungus, but upon infection by entomopathogenic fungus, only the Toll pathway gets triggered actively. Furthermore, the beetles could tolerate the infection of symbiotic fungi by retracing their Toll and IMD pathways at 48 h. This study provided a comprehensive sequence resource of M. alternatus transcriptome for further study of the immune interactions between host and associated fungi.

  7. Extratos de Curcuma longa L. e Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. no tratamento local do envenenamento por Bothrops alternatus

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    F. V. Fonseca

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo a utilização dos extratos aquosos das plantas Curcuma longa e Kalanchoe brasiliensis na terapêutica tópica complementar do envenenamento botrópico experimental em camundongos, visando a antagonização dos efeitos locais (edema, hemorragia e necrose provocados pelo veneno. O experimento mostrou que os melhores resultados foram obtidos com o extrato de Kalanchoe brasiliensis.

  8. Acidente por serpentes do gênero Bothrops: série de 3.139 casos

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    Lindioneza Adriano Ribeiro

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Em avaliação dos prontuários médicos de 3.139 pacientes picados por serpentes do gênero Bothrops atendidos no Hospital Vital Brazil (HVB, de 1981 a 1990, observou-se maior acometimento do sexo masculino (75,7%. Em 1.412 casos (45,0% a serpente foi identificada, sendo 1.376 B. jararaca, 20 B. jararacussu, 11 B. neuwiedi, 2 B. moojeni, 2 B. alternatus e 1 B. pradoi. As regiões anatômicas mais comumente picadas foram: pé (47,5% e mão (21,3%. O torniquete foi realizado em 38,2% dos casos e sua freqüência diminuiu durante esse período (p Medical records of 3,139 patients bitten by Bothrops snakes and attended at Vital Brazil Hospital (HVB from 1981 to 1990 were reviwed. They were more frequent in males (75.7%. In 1,412 cases (45.0% the snake was classified by species, and 1,376 were B. jararaca, 20 B. jararacussu, 11 B. neuwiedi, 2 B. moojeni, 2 B. alternatus e 1 B. pradoi. The most frequent bitten anatomic regions were: foot (47.5% and hand (21.3%. Tourniquet was used in 38.2% of the cases and its frequency fell down during the study period (p < 0.05. The clinical features at the bite site were: pain (95.6%, swelling (95.4%, echimosis (56.1%, blisters (13.8%, necrosis (16.5%, and abscess (11.0%. Systemic manifestations were: bleeding (12.3%, acute renal failure (1.6%, and shock (0.7%. There were blood coagulation disorders in 1,730 (57.9% of the 2,990 cases. There were 21 amputations (0.7% and 9 deaths (0.3%. The average serum dose that was used in treatment fell down during the study period (p < 0.001.

  9. Functional and proteomic comparison of Bothrops jararaca venom from captive specimens and the Brazilian Bothropic Reference Venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Iasmim Baptista de; Morais-Zani, Karen de; Serino-Silva, Caroline; Sant'Anna, Sávio S; Rocha, Marisa M T da; Grego, Kathleen F; Andrade-Silva, Débora; Serrano, Solange M T; Tanaka-Azevedo, Anita M

    2018-03-01

    Snake venom is a variable phenotypic trait, whose plasticity and evolution are critical for effective antivenom production. A significant reduction of the number of snake donations to Butantan Institute (São Paulo, Brazil) occurred in recent years, and this fact may impair the production of the Brazilian Bothropic Reference Venom (BBRV). Nevertheless, in the last decades a high number of Bothrops jararaca specimens have been raised in captivity in the Laboratory of Herpetology of Butantan Institute. Considering these facts, we compared the biochemical and biological profiles of B. jararaca venom from captive specimens and BBRV in order to understand the potential effects of snake captivity upon the venom composition. Electrophoretic analysis and proteomic profiling revealed few differences in venom protein bands and some differentially abundant toxins. Comparison of enzymatic activities showed minor differences between the two venoms. Similar cross-reactivity recognition pattern of both venoms by the antibothropic antivenom produced by Butantan Institute was observed. Lethality and neutralization of lethality for B. jararaca venom from captive specimens and BBRV showed similar values. Considering these results we suggest that the inclusion of B. jararaca venom from captive specimens in the composition of BBRV would not interfere with the quality of this reference venom. Snakebite envenomation is a neglected tropical pathology whose treatment is based on the use of specific antivenoms. Bothrops jararaca is responsible for the majority of snakebites in South and Southeastern Brazil. Its venom shows individual, sexual, and ontogenetic variability, however, the effect of animal captivity upon venom composition is unknown. Considering the reduced number of wild-caught snakes donated to Butantan Institute in the last decades, and the increased life expectancy of the snakes raised in captivity in the Laboratory of Herpetology, this work focused on the comparative

  10. Interacting Effects of Temperature and Photoperiod on Diapause in Larvae of Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera : Cerambycidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Katsumi, TOGASHI; Ishikawa Forest Experiment Station:(Present address)Faculty of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima University

    1995-01-01

    Fourth-instar, diapause and prediapause Monochamus alternatus larvae were collected from dead Pinus thunbergii trees and their developmental responses to laboratory conditions were investigated in early October. In continuous darkness, diapause was maintained at 25℃, but on incubation at 25℃ after chilling for 121-122 days at 10℃, prediapause larvae averted diapause and diapause larvae terminated diapause. Under a photoperiod of 16L-8D at 25℃, some prediapause larvae averted diapause, and dia...

  11. Postprandial thermogenesis in Bothrops moojeni (Serpentes: Viperidae

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    DR Stuginski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Snakes that can ingest prey that are proportionally large have high metabolic rates during digestion. This great increase in metabolic rate (specific dynamic action - SDA may create a significant augment in the animal's body temperature. The present study investigated postprandial thermogenesis in Bothrops moojeni. Briefly, two groups of snakes were fed meals equivalent to 17 ± 3% and 32 ± 5% of their body weight and were observed for 72 hours, in which thermal images of each snake were taken with an infrared camera in a thermostable environment with a constant air temperature of 30°C. The results showed a significant increase in snake surface temperature, with a thermal peak between 33 and 36 hours after feeding. The meal size had a great impact on the intensity and duration of the thermogenic response. Such increase in temperature appears to be connected with the huge increase in metabolic rates during digestion of relatively large prey by snakes that feed infrequently. The ecologic implication of the thermogenic response is still not well understood; however, it is possible that its presence could affect behaviors associated with the snake digestion, such as postprandial thermophily.

  12. Preclinical testing of Peruvian anti-bothropic anti-venom against Bothrops andianus snake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Francisco S; Starling, Maria C; Duarte, Clara G; Machado de Avila, Ricardo; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes; Silva Suarez, Walter; Tintaya, Benigno; Flores Garrido, Karin; Seraylan Ormachea, Silvia; Yarleque, Armando; Bonilla, César; Chávez-Olórtegui, Carlos

    2012-11-01

    Bothrops andianus is a venomous snake found in the area of Machu Picchu (Peru). Its venom is not included in the antigenic pool used for production of the Peruvian anti-bothropic anti-venom. B. andianus venom can elicit many biological effects such as hemorrhage, hemolysis, proteolytic activity and lethality. The Peruvian anti-bothropic anti-venom displays consistent cross-reactivity with B. andianus venom, by ELISA and Western Blotting and is also effective in neutralizing the venom's toxic activities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Trichomoniasis in Bothrops jararaca (serpentes, viperidae

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    F. C. Vilela

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of trichomoniasis in a Bothrops jararaca (Serpentes, Viperidae donated to the Center for the Study of Venoms and Venomous Animals - CEVAP/UNESP. The animal had diarrhea with great quantity of flagellated protozoa in the feces. Microscopic examination of fecal smears stained with Giemsa revealed the presence of trichomonads, morphologically similar to Trichomonas acosta. Trichomonads were not detected in fecal exams after treatment with a single dose of 40 mg/kg metronidazole (Flagyl®.

  14. Envenomation by Bothrops punctatus in southwestern Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañas, Carlos A; Vallejo, Alexandra

    2016-12-15

    Bothrops punctatus (Chocoan forest lancehead) is a semi-arboreal pitviper species distributed in Panamá, Colombia, and Ecuador, whose human envenomation is poorly characterized. We describe two patients bitten by B. punctatus, whose most relevant clinical feature was the development of a severe coagulopathy with few local manifestations (mild edema without signs of necrosis) at the site of the bite. Patients quickly improved their clinical and laboratory abnormalities after polyvalent antivenom application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hemostatic properties of Venezuelan Bothrops snake venoms with special reference to Bothrops isabelae venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis; Sánchez, Elda E; Márquez, Adriana; Carvajal, Zoila; Salazar, Ana M; Girón, María E; Estrella, Amalid; Gil, Amparo; Guerrero, Belsy

    2010-11-01

    In Venezuela, Bothrops snakes are responsible for more than 80% of all recorded snakebites. This study focuses on the biological and hemostatic characteristics of Bothrops isabelae venom along with its comparative characteristics with two other closely related Bothrops venoms, Bothrops atrox and Bothrops colombiensis. Electrophoretic profiles of crude B. isabelae venom showed protein bands between 14 and 100 kDa with the majority in the range of 14-31 kDa. The molecular exclusion chromatographic profile of this venom contains five fractions (F1-F5). Amidolytic activity evaluation evidenced strong thrombin-like followed by kallikrein-like activities in crude venom and in fractions F1 and F2. The fibrinogenolytic activity of B. isabelae venom at a ratio of 100:1 (fibrinogen/venom) induced a degradation of A alpha and B beta chains at 15 min and 2 h, respectively. At a ratio of 100:10, a total degradation of A alpha and B beta chains at 5 min and of gamma chains at 24 h was apparent. This current study evidences one of rarely reported for Bothrops venoms, which resembles the physiologic effect of plasmin. B. isabelae venom as well as F2 and F3 fractions, contain fibrinolytic activity on fibrin plate of 36, 23.5 and 9.45 mm(2)/microg, respectively using 25 microg of protein. Crude venom and F1 fraction showed gelatinolytic activity. Comparative analysis amongst Venezuelan bothropoid venoms, evidenced that the LD(50) of B. isabelae (5.9 mg/kg) was similar to B. atrox-Puerto Ayacucho 1 (6.1 mg/kg) and B. colombiensis-Caucagua (5.8 mg/kg). B. isabelae venom showed minor hemorrhagic activity, whereas B. atrox-Parguasa (Bolivar state) was the most hemorrhagic. In this study, a relative high thrombin-like activity was observed in B. colombiensis venoms (502-568 mUA/min/mg), and a relative high factor Xa-like activity was found in B. atrox venoms (126-294 mUA/min/mg). Fibrinolytic activity evaluated with 10 microg protein, showed that B. isabelae venom contained higher

  16. Effects of Schizolobium parahyba extract on experimental Bothrops venom-induced acute kidney injury.

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    Monique Silva Martines

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Venom-induced acute kidney injury (AKI is a frequent complication of Bothrops snakebite with relevant morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of Schizolobium parahyba (SP extract, a natural medicine with presumed anti-Bothrops venom effects, in an experimental model of Bothrops jararaca venom (BV-induced AKI. METHODOLOGY: Groups of 8 to 10 rats received infusions of 0.9% saline (control, C, SP 2 mg/kg, BV 0.25 mg/kg and BV immediately followed by SP (treatment, T in the doses already described. After the respective infusions, animals were assessed for their glomerular filtration rate (GFR, inulin clearance, renal blood flow (RBF, Doppler, blood pressure (BP, intra-arterial transducer, renal vascular resistance (RVR, urinary osmolality (UO, freezing point, urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA], lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, kinetic method, hematocrit (Hct, microhematocrit, fibrinogen (Fi, Klauss modified and blinded renal histology (acute tubular necrosis score. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: BV caused significant decreases in GFR, RBF, UO, HcT and Fi; significant increases in RVR, NGAL and LDH; and acute tubular necrosis. SP did not prevent these changes; instead, it caused a significant decrease in GFR when used alone. CONCLUSION: SP administered simultaneously with BV, in an approximate 10∶1 concentration, did not prevent BV-induced AKI, hemolysis and fibrinogen consumption. SP used alone caused a decrease in GFR.

  17. Isolation and Functional Characterization of an Acidic Myotoxic Phospholipase A2 from Colombian Bothrops asper Venom

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    Silvia Posada Arias

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Myotoxic phospholipases A2 (PLA2 are responsible for many clinical manifestations in envenomation by Bothrops snakes. A new myotoxic acidic Asp49 PLA2 (BaCol PLA2 was isolated from Colombian Bothrops asper venom using reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC. BaCol PLA2 had a molecular mass of 14,180.69 Da (by mass spectrometry and an isoelectric point of 4.4. The complete amino acid sequence was obtained by cDNA cloning (GenBank accession No. MF319968 and revealed a mature product of 124 amino acids with Asp at position 49. BaCol PLA2 showed structural homology with other acidic PLA2 isolated from Bothrops venoms, including a non-myotoxic PLA2 from Costa Rican B. asper. In vitro studies showed cell membrane damage without exposure of phosphatidylserine, an early apoptosis hallmark. BaCol PLA2 had high indirect hemolytic activity and moderate anticoagulant action. In mice, BaCol PLA2 caused marked edema and myotoxicity, the latter seen as an increase in plasma creatine kinase and histological damage to gastrocnemius muscle fibers that included vacuolization and hyalinization necrosis of the sarcoplasm.

  18. Spindle cell sarcoma in Bothrops leucurus Sarcoma fusocelular em jararaca - Bothrops leucurus

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    H. B. Marcello Jr.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente relato descreve os achados anatomopatológicos de uma neoplasia maligna em jararaca (Bothrops leucurus, mantida em cativeiro durante sete anos. O animal apresentava massa nodular subcutânea localizada no lado direito do terço anterior. O exame histológico revelou tratar-se de neoplasia mesenquimal maligna, permitindo o diagnóstico de sarcoma fusocelular.

  19. Variação anual do sistema reprodutor de fêmeas de Bothrops jararaca (Serpentes, Viperidae) Annual variation of the reproductive system in females of Bothrops jararaca (Serpentes, Viperidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Thélia R. F. Janeiro-Cinquini

    2004-01-01

    The morphological changes of the ovary and oviduct of 238 tropical snakes Bothrops jararaca (Wied, 1824) were determined. The ovarian mass presented a remarkable decrease in October, after ovulation, staying in low levels from November to March, during the gestational period. From April to September, it increased because of the ovarian follicles maturation. A gradual increase in oviduct weight was observed from October to March due to stages of embryonic development. A significant difference ...

  20. [Toxicity and neutralization of venoms from Peruvian snakes of the genera Bothrops and Lachesis (Serpentes: Viperidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incio Ruiz, R; Incio Ruiz, L; Martínez-Vargas, A Z; Salas Arruz, M; Gutiérrez, J M

    1993-12-01

    The lethal potencies (Median Lethal Dose) of the venoms of Peruvian snakes (Bothrops atrox, Bothrops barnetti, Bothrops pictus and Lachesis muta muta) were determined in mice by using intravenous and intraperitoneal routes of injection. In addition, the neutralizing ability of three antivenoms (bothropic polyvalent, bothropic bivalent and lachetic) was studied by preincubation-type experiments. B. pictus venom had the highest lethality by the intraperitoneal route whereas B. atrox venom had the highest lethality when tested by the intravenous route. The three antivenoms were effective in neutralizing lethality of the homologous venoms. Bivalent antivenom was more effective than polyvalent antivenom in the neutralization of B. pictus venom. On the basis of these findings, the use of bivalent bothropic antivenom is recommended in the Pacific coastal regions of Perú, whereas polyvalent bothropic antivenom is recommended in the oriental jungle regions of the country.

  1. Evaluation of antivenoms in the neutralization of hyperalgesia and edema induced by Bothrops jararaca and Bothrops asper snake venoms

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    Picolo G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutralization of hyperalgesia induced by Bothrops jararaca and B. asper venoms was studied in rats using bothropic antivenom produced at Instituto Butantan (AVIB, 1 ml neutralizes 5 mg B. jararaca venom and polyvalent antivenom produced at Instituto Clodomiro Picado (AVCP, 1 ml neutralizes 2.5 mg B. aspar venom. The intraplantar injection of B. jararaca and B. asper venoms caused hyperalgesia, which peaked 1 and 2 h after injection, respectively. Both venoms also induced edema with a similar time course. When neutralization assays involving the independent injection of venom and antivenom were performed, the hyperalgesia induced by B. jararaca venom was neutralized only when bothropic antivenom was administered iv 15 min before venom injection, whereas edema was neutralized when antivenom was injected 15 min or immediately before venom injection. On the other hand, polyvalent antivenom did not interfere with hyperalgesia or edema induced by B. asper venom, even when administered prior to envenomation. The lack of neutralization of hyperalgesia and edema induced by B. asper venom is not attributable to the absence of neutralizing antibodies in the antivenom, since neutralization was achieved in assays involving preincubation of venom and antivenom. Cross-neutralization of AVCP or AVIB against B. jararaca and B. asper venoms, respectively, was also evaluated. Only bothropic antivenom partially neutralized hyperalgesia induced by B. asper venom in preincubation experiments. The present data suggest that hyperalgesia and edema induced by Bothrops venoms are poorly neutralized by commercial antivenoms even when antibodies are administered immediately after envenomation.

  2. Pine wilt disease in Yunnan, China: Evidence of non-local pine sawyer Monochamus alternatus (Coloptera: Cerambycidae) populations revealed by mitochondrial DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da-Ying Fu; Shao-Ji Hu; Hui Ye; Robert A. Haack; Ping-Yang. Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Monochamus alternatus (Hope) specimens were collected from nine geographical populations in China,where the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner et Buhrer) was present. There were seven populations in southwestern China in Yunnan Province (Ruili,Wanding, Lianghe, Pu'er, Huaning, Stone Forest and Yongsheng),...

  3. Fatal bothropic snakebite in a horse: a case report

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    NS Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports a snakebite in a horse in the state of Pará, Brazil. At initial evaluation the animal was reluctant to walk and had tachycardia, tachypnea, severe lameness, bleeding on the pastern and swelling around the left hind leg. Blood samples from the bleeding sites, took on the first day, showed leukocytosis and neutrophilia, whereas biochemical values of urea and creatinine were significantly increased. The chosen treatment was snake antivenom, fluid therapy, antibiotics, anti-inflammatory agents and diuretic drugs. On the fourth day of therapy, the hematological values were within normal parameters. There was improvement related to the clinical lameness and swelling of the limb. However, a decrease in water intake and oliguria were observed. On the seventh day the animal died. Necropsy revealed areas of hemorrhagic edema in the left hind limb and ventral abdomen; the kidneys presented equimosis in the capsule, and when cut they were wet. Moreover, the cortex was pale, slightly yellow and the medullary striae had the same aspect. Based on these data, we concluded that the snakebite in the present study was caused by Bothrops spp. and that renal failure contributed to death.

  4. First report of hepatic hematoma after presumed Bothrops envenomation

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    Fernanda Cristina Cunha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIn Latin America, Bothrops envenomation is responsible for the majority of accidents caused by venomous snakes. Patients usually present local edema, bleeding and coagulopathy. Visceral hemorrhage is extremely rare and considered a challenge for diagnosis and management. We report the first case of hepatic hematoma owing to the bothropic envenomation in a 66-year-old man who was bitten in the left leg. He presented local edema, coagulopathy, and acute kidney injury. Radiological findings suggested hepatic hematoma, with a volume of almost 3 liters. The hepatic hematoma was gradually absorbed without the need for surgical intervention with complete resolution in 8 months.

  5. Envenomation by Bothrops atrox in a traveler to Manaus, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larréché, Sébastien; Imbert, Patrick; Mornand, Pierre; Andriamanantena, Dina; Mion, Georges; Rapp, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Snakebites are an infrequent but real risk for travelers. We report a case of envenomation by Bothrops atrox in a traveler to Manaus, Brazil. Rapid administration of specific antivenom prevented the expected systemic disorders. This case gives opportunity to review prevention and first aid measures of snakebites in travelers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Antiparasitic effects induced by polyclonal IgY antibodies anti-phospholipase A2 from Bothrops pauloensis venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Isabela Pacheco; Silva, Mariana Ferreira; Santiago, Fernanda Maria; de Faria, Lucas Silva; Júnior, Álvaro Ferreira; da Silva, Rafaela José; Costa, Mônica Soares; de Freitas, Vitor; Yoneyama, Kelly Aparecida Geraldo; Ferro, Eloísa Amália Vieira; Lopes, Daiana Silva; Rodrigues, Renata Santos; de Melo Rodrigues, Veridiana

    2018-01-31

    Activities of phospholipases (PLAs) have been linked to pathogenesis in various microorganisms, and implicated in cell invasion and so the interest in these enzymes as potential targets that could contribute to the control of parasite survival and proliferation. Chicken eggs immunized with BnSP-7, a Lys49 phospholipase A2 (PLA2) homologue from Bothrops pauloensis snake venom, represent an excellent source of polyclonal antibodies with potential inhibitory activity on parasite PLAs. Herein, we report the production, characterization and anti-parasitic effect of IgY antibodies from egg yolks of hens immunized with BnSP-7. Produced antibodies presented increasing avidity and affinity for antigenic toxin epitopes throughout immunization, attaining a plateau after 4weeks. Pooled egg yolks-purified anti-BnSP-7 IgY antibodies were able to specifically recognize different PLA2s from Bothrops pauloensis and Bothrops jararacussu venom. Antibodies also neutralized BnSP-7 cytotoxic activity in C2C12 cells. Also, the antibodies recognized targets in Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis and Toxoplasma gondii extracts by ELISA and immunofluorescence assays. Anti-BnSP-7 IgY antibodies were cytotoxic to T. gondii tachyzoite and L. (L.) amazonensis promastigotes, and were able to decrease proliferation of both parasites treated before infection. These data suggest that the anti-BnSP-7 IgY is an important tool for discovering new parasite targets and blocking parasitic effects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Bothrops sanctaecrucis Hoge 1966 (Squamata: Viperidae

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    Miranda Calle, Alejandro Bruno

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Seis ejemplares de la especie Bothrops sanctaecrucis presentes en la Colección Boliviana de Fauna (CBF, La Paz- Bolivia fueron examinados y comparados con sus congéneres (Tabla 1. Departamento de Cochabamba, Provincia Carrasco, Sección Quinta, Municipio Puerto Villarroel, Localidad Yuquis, 16º47’00.0"S, 64º56’50.0"O; 216 msnm. (CBF 673 Fecha de colecta: 11 mayo 1988. Colector: K.H. Redford. (200 mm LHC, 31.4 mm LCC. (CBF 776 Fecha de colecta: abril 1991. Colector: Allyn Maclean Sterman. (481.8 mm LHC, 85.8 mm LCC. Ambos individuos fueron colectados en la ecoregión Bosque Amazónico Preandino (Ibisch et al., 2003, y evaluados por Harvey et al. (2005. Departamento del Beni, Provincia General José Ballivián, Sección Segunda, Municipio San Borja, Localidad Quiquibey, 15º22’30.8"S, 67º06’17.4"O; 300 msnm. Fecha de colecta: 28 noviembre 1989. Colector: Efraín Peñaranda. Colectado en la ecoregión Bosque Amazónico Subandino (Ibisch et al., 2003. (CBF 814. Individuo con 921.8 mm LHC, 159.8 mm LCC. Departamento del Beni, Provincia Moxos, Sección Primera, Municipio San Ignacio, Localidad Oromomo, 16º01’58.7"S, 66º11’12.5"O; 250 msnm. (CBF 1009 Fecha de colecta: 17 mayo 1992. Colectores: Sergio Otazú y Fernando Guerra. (552.2 mm LHC, 119.0 mm LCC. (CBF 1023 Fecha de colecta: 18 mayo 1992. Colectores: Sergio Otazú y Fernando Guerra. (997.0 mm LHC, 151.4 mm LCC. Ambos individuos fueron colectados en la ecoregión Bosque Amazónico Subandino (Ibisch et al., 2003, y evaluados por Harvey et al. (2005. Ambos ejemplares corresponden a la localidad tipo de la especie descrita por Hoge (1966. Departamento de La Paz, Provincia Nor Yungas, Sección Primera, Municipio Coroico, Lo calidad Bajo Hornuni (Parque Nacional y Área Natural de Manejo Integrado Cotapata, 16º12’54.4"S, 67º53’09.8"O; 1935 msnm. Sin fecha de colecta. Colector: Amira Apaza. Colectado en la ecoregión Yungas (Ibisch et al., 2003. (CBF 3359. Individuo con 843

  8. Therapeutic possibilities of Bothrops jararaca in high dilution

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Costa Gaia Nazareth; Francisco José de Freitas

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The knowledge and use of the venom of Bothrops jararaca in high dilutions is still quite limited. One of the important properties is the use of one of its components, bradykinin, for the development of antihypertensive medication known as captopril. Other situations, such as clinical, local and systemic should receive more depth to the composition of Materia Medica related to various medical actions on the man and mammals in general. The systemic action of the bite of this snake...

  9. Variação anual do sistema reprodutor de fêmeas de Bothrops jararaca (Serpentes, Viperidae Annual variation of the reproductive system in females of Bothrops jararaca (Serpentes, Viperidae

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    Thélia R. F. Janeiro-Cinquini

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The morphological changes of the ovary and oviduct of 238 tropical snakes Bothrops jararaca (Wied, 1824 were determined. The ovarian mass presented a remarkable decrease in October, after ovulation, staying in low levels from November to March, during the gestational period. From April to September, it increased because of the ovarian follicles maturation. A gradual increase in oviduct weight was observed from October to March due to stages of embryonic development. A significant difference was observed between right and left ovary weight, and oviduct length, independently of the months considered.

  10. Capacidade reprodutiva de Bothrops jararaca (Serpentes, Viperidae Reproductive capacity of Bothrops jararaca (Serpentes, Viperidae

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    Thélia Rosana Forte Janeiro-Cinquini

    Full Text Available The relationship between female body size and egg number was examined in the snake Bothrops jararaca (Wied, 1924. Some authors have demonstrated that the estimated clutch size may be affected by the inclusion or exclusion of dead neonates or non-developed eggs. The reproductive system of 254 mature females newly arrived from nature was examined and 29.55% (n=75 had eggs in the oviducts in different stages of embryonic development. The presence of atresic eggs was observed in 34.5% of those females. A significant difference was observed in the number of eggs in the right and left oviducts (t=9.48, P<0.001, but not in the number of atresic eggs (t=1.110, P=0.278. The correlation of female body size and egg number was greater when all, the normal and atresic eggs were considered (r=0.63, P<0.001. The exclusion of atresic eggs from the clutch size decreased slightly this correlation (r=0.54, P<0.001.

  11. PRODUCTION OF AN EFFECTIVE ANTI-Bothrops-TETANUS MIXED HYPERIMMUNE SERUM OF EQUINE ORIGIN

    OpenAIRE

    GUIDOLIN, R.; STEPHANO, M. A.; MORAIS, J. F.; SAKAGUTI, E. H.; PRADO, S. M. A.; FRATELLI, F.; VANCETTO, M. D. C.; HIGASHI, H. G.

    1998-01-01

    The present investigation reveals the possibility of simultaneous immunization of horses with Bothrops or Crotalus snake venoms and Tetanus antigens for the production of anti-Bothrops-Tetanus or anti-Crotalus-Tetanus mixed serum, with high titers of the respective specific antibodies. Bothrops antivenoms with an average neutralizing titer of 4.16 mg venom/ml were obtained from plasma of horses with titers lower than 0.5 mg venom/ml when Tetanus antigens were not used. This suggests the exist...

  12. Isotopic analysis of Bothrops atrox in Amazonian forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, M. G.; Silva, A. M.; Chalkidis, H.; de Oliveira Júnior, R. C.; Camargo, P. B.

    2012-12-01

    The poisoning of snakes is considered a public health problem, especially in populations from rural areas of tropical and subtropical countries. In Brazil, the 26,000 snakebites, 90% are of the genus Bothrops, and Bothrops atrox species predominant in the Amazon region including all the Brazilian Amazon. Research shows that using stable isotopes, we can verify the isotopic composition of tissues of animals that depend mainly on food, water ingested and inhaled gases. For this study, samples taken from Bothrops atrox (B. atrox), in forest using pitfall traps and fall ("Pitt-fall traps with drift fence"). The analyzes were performed by mass spectrometry, where the analytical error is 0.3‰ for carbon and 0.5‰ to nitrogen. The results of the forest animals are significantly different from results of animal vivarium. The average values of the tissues and venoms of snakes of the forest for carbon-13 and nitrogen-15 are: δ13C = -24.68‰ and δ15N = 14.22‰ and mean values of tissue and poisons snakes vivarium (Instituto Butantan) to carbon-13 and nitrogen-15 are δ13C = -20.47‰ and δ15N = 8.36‰, with a significantly different due to different sources of food animals. Based on all results isotopic δ13C and δ15N, we can suggest that changes as the power of the serpent, (nature and captivity), changes occur in relation to diet and environment as the means of the isotopic data are quite distinct, showing that these changes can also cause metabolic changes in the body of the animal itself and the different periods of turnover of each tissue analyzed.

  13. Acute kidney injury caused by Crotalus and Bothrops snake venom: a review of epidemiology, clinical manifestations and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Polianna L M M; Jacinto, Camilla N; Silva Junior, Geraldo B; Lima, Juliana B; Veras, Maria do Socorro B; Daher, Elizabeth F

    2013-01-01

    Ophidic accidents are an important public health problem due to their incidence, morbidity and mortality. An increasing number of cases have been registered in Brazil in the last few years. Several studies point to the importance of knowing the clinical complications and adequate approach in these accidents. However, knowledge about the risk factors is not enough and there are an increasing number of deaths due to these accidents in Brazil. In this context, acute kidney injury (AKI) appears as one of the main causes of death and consequences for these victims, which are mainly young males working in rural areas. Snakes of the Bothrops and Crotalus genera are the main responsible for renal involvement in ophidic accidents in South America. The present study is a literature review of AKI caused by Bothrops and Crotalus snake venom regarding diverse characteristics, emphasizing the most appropriate therapeutic approach for these cases. Recent studies have been carried out searching for complementary therapies for the treatment of ophidic accidents, including the use of lipoic acid, simvastatin and allopurinol. Some plants, such as Apocynaceae, Lamiaceae and Rubiaceae seem to have a beneficial role in the treatment of this type of envenomation. Future studies will certainly find new therapeutic measures for ophidic accidents.

  14. ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY CAUSED BY Crotalus AND Bothrops SNAKE VENOM: A REVIEW OF EPIDEMIOLOGY, CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS AND TREATMENT

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    Polianna L.M.M. Albuquerque

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Ophidic accidents are an important public health problem due to their incidence, morbidity and mortality. An increasing number of cases have been registered in Brazil in the last few years. Several studies point to the importance of knowing the clinical complications and adequate approach in these accidents. However, knowledge about the risk factors is not enough and there are an increasing number of deaths due to these accidents in Brazil. In this context, acute kidney injury (AKI appears as one of the main causes of death and consequences for these victims, which are mainly young males working in rural areas. Snakes of the Bothrops and Crotalus genera are the main responsible for renal involvement in ophidic accidents in South America. The present study is a literature review of AKI caused by Bothrops and Crotalus snake venom regarding diverse characteristics, emphasizing the most appropriate therapeutic approach for these cases. Recent studies have been carried out searching for complementary therapies for the treatment of ophidic accidents, including the use of lipoic acid, simvastatin and allopurinol. Some plants, such as Apocynaceae, Lamiaceae and Rubiaceae seem to have a beneficial role in the treatment of this type of envenomation. Future studies will certainly find new therapeutic measures for ophidic accidents.

  15. Comparison of Phylogeny, Venom Composition and Neutralization by Antivenom in Diverse Species of Bothrops Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Pedro S.; Bernardoni, Juliana L.; Oliveira, Sâmella S.; Portes-Junior, José Antonio; Mourão, Rosa Helena V.; Lima-dos-Santos, Isa; Sano-Martins, Ida S.; Chalkidis, Hipócrates M.; Valente, Richard H.; Moura-da-Silva, Ana M.

    2013-01-01

    In Latin America, Bothrops snakes account for most snake bites in humans, and the recommended treatment is administration of multispecific Bothrops antivenom (SAB – soro antibotrópico). However, Bothrops snakes are very diverse with regard to their venom composition, which raises the issue of which venoms should be used as immunizing antigens for the production of pan-specific Bothrops antivenoms. In this study, we simultaneously compared the composition and reactivity with SAB of venoms collected from six species of snakes, distributed in pairs from three distinct phylogenetic clades: Bothrops, Bothropoides and Rhinocerophis. We also evaluated the neutralization of Bothrops atrox venom, which is the species responsible for most snake bites in the Amazon region, but not included in the immunization antigen mixture used to produce SAB. Using mass spectrometric and chromatographic approaches, we observed a lack of similarity in protein composition between the venoms from closely related snakes and a high similarity between the venoms of phylogenetically more distant snakes, suggesting little connection between taxonomic position and venom composition. P-III snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) are the most antigenic toxins in the venoms of snakes from the Bothrops complex, whereas class P-I SVMPs, snake venom serine proteinases and phospholipases A2 reacted with antibodies in lower levels. Low molecular size toxins, such as disintegrins and bradykinin-potentiating peptides, were poorly antigenic. Toxins from the same protein family showed antigenic cross-reactivity among venoms from different species; SAB was efficient in neutralizing the B. atrox venom major toxins. Thus, we suggest that it is possible to obtain pan-specific effective antivenoms for Bothrops envenomations through immunization with venoms from only a few species of snakes, if these venoms contain protein classes that are representative of all species to which the antivenom is targeted. PMID

  16. Biochemical characterization and biological action of an haemorrhagine from the bothrops brazili venom

    OpenAIRE

    Isla, Martín; Laboratorio de Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, UNMSM; Málaga, Orestes; Laboratorio de Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, UNMSM; Yarlequé, Armando; Laboratorio de Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, UNMSM

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To characterize a hemorrhagic protein from Bothrops brazili snake venom and to determine if the polyvalent antibotropic serum is able to neutralize it. Material and Methods: A hemorrhagic protein from Bothrops brazili snake venom was purified through two chromatographical steps: Sephadex G-100 and CM Sephadex C-50, respectively, using 0,05M ammonium acetate buffer pH 7. In the last chromatographical system the protein was eluted after 0,3M sodium chloride was applied; thus, a uniqu...

  17. Lance-headed viper (Bothrops moojeni bite wounding the eye Acidente botrópico (Bothrops moojeni com ferimento ocular

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    Érico Otaviano Brandão

    1993-08-01

    Full Text Available A 5-year-old girl was bitten in her left eye by a lance-headed viper identified as Bothrops moojeni, measuring 115 cm of length. There was severe facial swelling and left exophthalmus, and enucleation of the eye was necessary. The patient apparently had mild systemic envenoming, but local inflammatory signs and histological evidence of necrosis suggest that both the mechanical trauma and the local action of the venom had a role in the genesis of the eye lesion. It is arguable if the loss of the eye could be prevented even if the antivenom was administered earlier.Uma menina de 5 anos de idade foi picada no olho esquerdo por uma serpente da espécie Bothrops moojeni, que media 115 cm de comprimento. Houve intenso edema facial e ex-oftalmia; enucleação do olho foi necessária. A paciente aparentemente apresentou um envenenamento sistêmico leve, mas os sinais inflamatórios locais e a evidência histológica de necrose sugerem que tanto o traumatismo mecânico como a ação local do veneno tiveram um papel na gênese da lesão ocular. É questionável se o prognóstico da lesão ocular teria sido diferente se o antiveneno tivesse sido administrado em dose adequada mais precocemente.

  18. Proteomic identification of gender molecular markers in Bothrops jararaca venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelanis, André; Menezes, Milene C; Kitano, Eduardo S; Liberato, Tarcísio; Tashima, Alexandre K; Pinto, Antonio F M; Sherman, Nicholas E; Ho, Paulo L; Fox, Jay W; Serrano, Solange M T

    2016-04-29

    Variation in the snake venom proteome is a well-documented phenomenon; however, sex-based variation in the venom proteome/peptidome is poorly understood. Bothrops jararaca shows significant sexual size dimorphism and here we report a comparative proteomic/peptidomic analysis of venoms from male and female specimens and correlate it with the evaluation of important venom features. We demonstrate that adult male and female venoms have distinct profiles of proteolytic activity upon fibrinogen and gelatin. These differences were clearly reflected in their different profiles of SDS-PAGE, two-dimensional electrophoresis and glycosylated proteins. Identification of differential protein bands and spots between male or female venoms revealed gender-specific molecular markers. However, the proteome comparison by in-solution trypsin digestion and label-free quantification analysis showed that the overall profiles of male and female venoms are similar at the polypeptide chain level but show striking variation regarding their attached carbohydrate moieties. The analysis of the peptidomes of male and female venoms revealed different contents of peptides, while the bradykinin potentiating peptides (BPPs) showed rather similar profiles. Furthermore we confirmed the ubiquitous presence of four BPPs that lack the C-terminal Q-I-P-P sequence only in the female venom as gender molecular markers. As a result of these studies we demonstrate that the sexual size dimorphism is associated with differences in the venom proteome/peptidome in B. jararaca species. Moreover, gender-based variations contributed by different glycosylation levels in toxins impact venom complexity. Bothrops jararaca is primarily a nocturnal and generalist snake species, however, it exhibits a notable ontogenetic shift in diet and in venom proteome upon neonate to adult transition. As is common in the Bothrops genus, B. jararaca shows significant sexual dimorphism in snout-vent length and weight, with females being

  19. Natural history of the terciopelo Bothrops asper (Serpentes: Viperidae) in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasa, Mahmood; Wasko, Dennis K; Lamar, William W

    2009-12-01

    The terciopelo Bothrops asper is the only lancehead species widely distributed in the humid lowlands of Middle America and northwestern South America. Its large body size, relative abundance and cryptic habits contribute to the high incidence of snakebites induced by this species throughout its distribution. The terciopelo plays an important role in ecosystems, both as prey and as a generalist predator. Diet comprises a great variety of prey items, including some species that are considered nuisances. B. asper, as other lancehead species, exhibits a notable ontogenetic shift in diet, consuming ectotherms (mainly frogs and lizards) when young, and increasingly incorporating birds, rodents, and other small mammals with maturity. Adult terciopelos also consume large anurans, especially when endothermic prey availability is low. Using radiotelemetry we determined home range and movement patterns from 28 individual B. asper at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. Overall home range estimates are relatively small compared with other pitvipers, averaging between 3.71ha and 5.95ha; home range size did not differ between males and females. Movement patterns are largely aseasonal and consist of short (50 m) movements to new foraging areas. Habitat use is related to prey availability and therefore to foraging strategy. Our data support a strong preference for areas near swamps by both sexes. Reproduction in B. asper is highly seasonal, and--apparently--biannual. Reproductive cycles in Costa Rica are tightly related to rainfall patterns. Therefore, the timing of breeding differs between populations in the Caribbean and Pacific lowlands. Bothrops asper is adapted to areas with low levels of disturbance along the agricultural frontier, and consequently it is not rare to find it in or near human dwellings. However, despite popular belief, no evidence supports a purported increase in population density of this species in Costa Rica. Despite human persecution and substantial

  20. Functional proteomic analyses of Bothrops atrox venom reveals phenotypes associated with habitat variation in the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Leijiane F; Portes-Junior, José A; Nicolau, Carolina A; Bernardoni, Juliana L; Nishiyama-Jr, Milton Y; Amazonas, Diana R; Freitas-de-Sousa, Luciana A; Mourão, Rosa Hv; Chalkidis, Hipócrates M; Valente, Richard H; Moura-da-Silva, Ana M

    2017-04-21

    Venom variability is commonly reported for venomous snakes including Bothrops atrox. Here, we compared the composition of venoms from B. atrox snakes collected at Amazonian conserved habitats (terra-firme upland forest and várzea) and human modified areas (pasture and degraded areas). Venom samples were submitted to shotgun proteomic analysis as a whole or compared after fractionation by reversed-phase chromatography. Whole venom proteomes revealed a similar composition among the venoms with predominance of SVMPs, CTLs, and SVSPs and intermediate amounts of PLA2s and LAAOs. However, when distribution of particular isoforms was analyzed by either method, the venom from várzea snakes showed a decrease in hemorrhagic SVMPs and an increase in SVSPs, and procoagulant SVMPs and PLA2s. These differences were validated by experimental approaches including both enzymatic and in vivo assays, and indicated restrictions in respect to antivenom efficacy to variable components. Thus, proteomic analysis at the isoform level combined to in silico prediction of functional properties may indicate venom biological activity. These results also suggest that the prevalence of functionally distinct isoforms contributes to the variability of the venoms and could reflect the adaptation of B. atrox to distinct prey communities in different Amazon habitats. In this report, we compared isoforms present in venoms from snakes collected at different Amazonian habitats. By means of a species venom gland transcriptome and the in silico functional prediction of each isoform, we were able to predict the principal venom activities in vitro and in animal models. We also showed remarkable differences in the venom pools from snakes collected at the floodplain (várzea habitat) compared to other habitats. Not only was this venom less hemorrhagic and more procoagulant, when compared to the venom pools from the other three habitats studied, but also this enhanced procoagulant activity was not efficiently

  1. [Molecular evaluation on the efficacy of sustainable control of Monochamus alternatus by non-woven fabric fungal bands impregnated with Beauveria bassiana].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, De-Gui; Fan, Mei-Zhen; Meng, Yan-Qiong; Li, Zeng-Zhi; Xia, Cheng-Run

    2007-03-01

    By using molecular marker of group I intron, a field evaluation was made on the efficacy of sustainable control of Monochamus alternatus by non-woven fabric bands impregnated with Beauveria bassiana. The results showed that the control efficacy in two treated plots was 19.5% and 10.8%, and 14.2% and 11% when evaluated with conventional and molecular evaluation methods, respectively, suggesting that the conventional method which evaluated the control efficacy in terms of microbes mortality or infection rate couldn't distinguish the efficacies caused by released biocontrol agents and indigenous pathogens, while molecular method could avoid the interference of indigenous pathogens and give an objective and reasonable evaluation on the efficacy of microbial control.

  2. Bothrops jararaca peptide with anti-hypertensive action normalizes endothelium dysfunction involved in physiopathology of preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Gabriel; Morais, Katia L P; Guerreiro, Juliano R; de Oliveira, Eduardo Fontana; Hoshida, Mara Sandra; Oliveira, Leandro; Sass, Nelson; Lebrun, Ivo; Ulrich, Henning; Lameu, Claudiana; de Camargo, Antonio Carlos Martins

    2011-01-01

    Preeclampsia, a pregnancy-specific syndrome characterized by hypertension, proteinuria and edema, is a major cause of fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality especially in developing countries. Bj-PRO-10c, a proline-rich peptide isolated from Bothrops jararaca venom, has been attributed with potent anti-hypertensive effects. Recently, we have shown that Bj-PRO-10c-induced anti-hypertensive actions involved NO production in spontaneous hypertensive rats. Using in vitro studies we now show that Bj-PRO-10c was able to increase NO production in human umbilical vein endothelial cells from hypertensive pregnant women (HUVEC-PE) to levels observed in HUVEC of normotensive women. Moreover, in the presence of the peptide, eNOS expression as well as argininosuccinate synthase activity, the key rate-limiting enzyme of the citrulline-NO cycle, were enhanced. In addition, excessive superoxide production due to NO deficiency, one of the major deleterious effects of the disease, was inhibited by Bj-PRO-10c. Bj-PRO-10c induced intracellular calcium fluxes in both, HUVEC-PE and HUVEC, which, however, led to activation of eNOS expression only in HUVEC-PE. Since Bj-PRO-10c promoted biological effects in HUVEC from patients suffering from the disorder and not in normotensive pregnant women, we hypothesize that Bj-PRO-10c induces its anti-hypertensive effect in mothers with preeclampsia. Such properties may initiate the development of novel therapeutics for treating preeclampsia.

  3. Appraisal of Antiophidic Potential of Marine Sponges against Bothrops jararaca and Lachesis muta Venom

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    Guilherme Muricy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Snakebites are a health problem in many countries due to the high incidence of such accidents. Antivenom treatment has regularly been used for more than a century, however, this does not neutralize tissue damage and may even increase the severity and morbidity of accidents. Thus, it has been relevant to search for new strategies to improve antiserum therapy, and a variety of molecules from natural sources with antiophidian properties have been reported. In this paper, we analyzed the ability of ten extracts from marine sponges (Amphimedon viridis, Aplysina fulva, Chondrosia collectrix, Desmapsamma anchorata, Dysidea etheria, Hymeniacidon heliophila, Mycale angulosa, Petromica citrina, Polymastia janeirensis, and Tedania ignis to inhibit the effects caused by Bothrops jararaca and Lachesis muta venom. All sponge extracts inhibited proteolysis and hemolysis induced by both snake venoms, except H. heliophila, which failed to inhibit any biological activity. P. citrina inhibited lethality, hemorrhage, plasma clotting, and hemolysis induced by B. jararaca or L. muta. Moreover, other sponges inhibited hemorrhage induced only by B. jararaca. We conclude that Brazilian sponges may be a useful aid in the treatment of snakebites caused by L. muta and B. jararaca and therefore have potential for the discovery of molecules with antiophidian properties.

  4. Reproductive Biology of Bothrops erythromelas from the Brazilian Caatinga

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    Verônica Alberto Barros

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive biology of Bothrops erythromelas, a small pit viper from the Caatinga, a semiarid biome in Brazil, is described based on analysis of individuals deposited in zoological collections. Males are smaller and also attain sexual maturity at a smaller size than females. Female reproductive cycle is seasonal with an extended period of secondary vitellogenesis and births occurring in a restricted period from late spring to early summer. Sperm storage in females may probably occur in infundibular tubular glands and uterine muscular twisting (UMT, which is a polymorphic condition within B. erythromelas. Seasonal spermatogenesis in males is variable with some intraspecific variation regarding the male reproductive stage per season. Most males are reproductively active during spring/summer and reproductively quiescent during autumn/winter, although some individuals vary (e.g., show testicular spermatogenesis and active sexual segment of the kidneys (SSK during winter. The SSK could be identified in every male. Most males showed highly hypertrophied SSK in spring/summer and moderately hypertrophied SSK in autumn/winter. The ampulla ductus deferentis was observed and histochemical reactions were conducted. We discuss the probable influence of the unique environmental conditions of the Caatinga region and phylogenetic inertia in the reproductive patterns of this snake species.

  5. Interaction of Bothrops jararaca venom metalloproteinases with protein inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asega, Amanda F; Oliveira, Ana K; Menezes, Milene C; Neves-Ferreira, Ana Gisele C; Serrano, Solange M T

    2014-03-01

    Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) play important roles in the local and systemic hemorrhage observed upon envenomation. In a previous study on the structural elements important for the activities of HF3 (highly hemorrhagic, P-III-SVMP), bothropasin (hemorrhagic, P-III-SVMP) and BJ-PI (non-hemorrhagic, P-I-SVMP), from Bothrops jararaca, it was demonstrated that they differ in their proteolysis profile of plasma and extracellular matrix proteins. In this study, we evaluated the ability of proteins DM43 and α2-macroglobulin to interfere with the proteolytic activity of these SVMPs on fibrinogen and collagen VI and with their ability to induce hemorrhage. DM43 inhibited the proteolytic activity of bothropasin and BJ-PI but not that of HF3, and was not cleaved the three proteinases. On the other hand, α2-macroglobulin did not inhibit any of the proteinases and was rather cleaved by them. In agreement with these findings, binding analysis showed interaction of bothropasin and BJ-PI but not HF3 to DM43 while none of the proteinases bound to α2-macroglobulin. Moreover, DM43 promoted partial inhibition of the hemorrhagic activity of bothropasin but not that of HF3. Our results demonstrate that metalloproteinases of B. jararaca venom showing different domain composition, glycosylation level and hemorrhagic potency show variable susceptibilities to protein inhibitors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Phylogeography of the Central American lancehead Bothrops asper (SERPENTES: VIPERIDAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldarriaga-Córdoba, Mónica; Parkinson, Christopher L; Daza, Juan M; Wüster, Wolfgang; Sasa, Mahmood

    2017-01-01

    The uplift and final connection of the Central American land bridge is considered the major event that allowed biotic exchange between vertebrate lineages of northern and southern origin in the New World. However, given the complex tectonics that shaped Middle America, there is still substantial controversy over details of this geographical reconnection, and its role in determining biogeographic patterns in the region. Here, we examine the phylogeography of Bothrops asper, a widely distributed pitviper in Middle America and northwestern South America, in an attempt to evaluate how the final Isthmian uplift and other biogeographical boundaries in the region influenced genealogical lineage divergence in this species. We examined sequence data from two mitochondrial genes (MT-CYB and MT-ND4) from 111 specimens of B. asper, representing 70 localities throughout the species' distribution. We reconstructed phylogeographic patterns using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods and estimated divergence time using the Bayesian relaxed clock method. Within the nominal species, an early split led to two divergent lineages of B. asper: one includes five phylogroups distributed in Caribbean Middle America and southwestern Ecuador, and the other comprises five other groups scattered in the Pacific slope of Isthmian Central America and northwestern South America. Our results provide evidence of a complex transition that involves at least two dispersal events into Middle America during the final closure of the Isthmus.

  7. Sexual dimorphism in venom of Bothrops jararaca(Serpentes: Viperidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, M F D; Travaglia-Cardoso, S R; Rocha, M M T

    2006-09-15

    Bothrops jararaca is an abundant snake in Brazil, and its venom has been studied exhaustively. The species exhibits adult size dimorphism in which female are larger. We registered the growth in Snout-Vent Length and weight of one litter (with 11 females and 12 males). We compared growth curves and venom profile between male and female of B. jararaca in order to establish the relationship of those characters and sex. Their venoms were analyzed when they were 36 months old, concerning SDS PAGE, protein content, proteolytic, hyaluronidasic, phospholipasic, blood-clotting, edematogenic, hemorrhagic, myotoxic activities, and lethality. Differences in the growth curves of the females and the males were significantly different after the 12th month of age, with the females growing faster. Females produced five times more venom than males. The electrophoretic patterns were variable: the venom from males had more protein bands than females. Venom composition varied significantly between males and females. Venom from females is more potent for hyaluronidasic, hemorrhagic, and lethality activities, whereas venom from males is more potent for coagulant, phospholipasic, and myotoxic activities. The variability of proteolytic and edematogenic activities were not significant. The important sexual dimorphism in body size and mass, amount of venom produced, and venom composition in B. jararaca may reflect a divergence in niche partitioning.

  8. Determination of inorganic elements in blood of mice immunized with Bothrops Snake venom using XRF and NAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes da Silva, L. F. F.; Zamboni, C. B.; Bahovschi, V.; Metairon, S.; Suzuki, M. F.; Sant'Anna, O. A.; Rizzutto, M. A.

    2015-07-01

    In this work, mice genetically modified [HIII line] were immunized against different Bothrops snake venoms to produce anti-Bothrops serum (antivenom). The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) techniques were used to evaluate Ca and Fe concentrations in blood of these immunized mice in order to establish a potential correlation between both phenotypes: antibody response and blood constituents after Bothrops venom administration. The results were compared with the control group (mice not immunized) and with human being estimative. These data are important for clinical screening of patients submitted to immunological therapy as well as the understanding of the envenoming mechanisms.

  9. Edema induced by Bothrops asper (Squamata: Viperidae snake venom and its inhibition by Costa Rican plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Badilla

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available We tested the capacity of leaf (Urera baccifera, Loasa speciosa, Urtica leptuphylla, Chaptalia nutans, and Satureja viminea and root (Uncaria tomentosa extracts to inhibit edema induced by Bothrops asper snake venom. Edema-forming activity was studied plethysmographically in the rat hind paw model. Groups of rats were injected intraperitoneally with various doses of each extract and, one hour later, venom was injected subcutaneously in the right hind paw. Edema was assessed at various time intervals. The edematogenic activity was inhibited in those animals that received an injection U. tomentosa, C. nutans or L. speciosa extract. The extract of U. baccifera showed a slight inhibition of the venom effect. Extract from S. viminea and, to a lesser extent that of U. leptuphylla, induced a pro-inflammatory effect, increasing the edema at doses of 250 mg/kg at one and two hours. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(2: 245-252. Epub 2006 Jun 01.Se investigó la capacidad de los extractos de las hojas de Urera baccifera, Loasa speciosa, Urtica leptuphylla, Chaptalia nutans, Satureja viminea y de la raíz de Uncaria tomentosa para inhibir el edema inducido por el veneno de Bothrops asper por métodos pletismométricos. Los grupos de ratas fueron inyectados intraperitonealmente con varias dosis de cada extracto y una hora mas tarde se inyectó veneno por vía subcutánea en la pata trasera derecha de la rata. Se evaluó el edema en distintos intervalos de tiempo. Los resultados muestran que la actividad edematogénica fue inhibida en los animales que recibieron los extractos de raíz de U. tomentosa, hojas de C. nutans y L. speciosa. Los extractos de hojas de U. baccifera mostraron leve inhibición del efecto del veneno. El extracto de hojas de S. viminea y en menor grado el de U. leptuphylla indujeron un efecto pro inflamatorio.

  10. Naa Technique for Clinical Investigation of Mice Immunized with BOTHROP Venom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamboni, C. B.; Aguiar, R. O.; Kovacs, L.; Suzuki, M.; Sant'Anna, O. A.

    2009-06-01

    In the present study Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique was used to determine sodium concentration in whole blood of mice immunized with Bothrops venom. With this value it was possible to perform clinical investigation in this animal model using whole blood.

  11. Muscle Tissue Damage Induced by the Venom of Bothrops asper: Identification of Early and Late Pathological Events through Proteomic Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Herrera, Cristina; Macêdo, Jéssica Kele A; Feoli, Andrés; Escalante, Teresa; Rucavado, Alexandra; Gutiérrez, José María; Fox, Jay W

    2016-01-01

    The time-course of the pathological effects induced by the venom of the snake Bothrops asper in muscle tissue was investigated by a combination of histology, proteomic analysis of exudates collected...

  12. Estudo dos efeitos da peçonha de Bothrops insularis (Jararaca ilhoa) sobre o musculo de camundongo e pintainho

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Carlos Cogo

    1991-01-01

    Resumo: A peçonha da Bothrops insularis (jararaca-ilhôa) foi estudada em aves in vitro (toxicidade e estudo morfológico) e in vitro (estudo miográfico, eletrofisiológico e morfológico acompanhado de dosagem de CK), comparando seus efeitos com aqueles da peçonha Bothrops jararaca. Os resultados obtidos levam às seguintes conclusões: 1) A toxicidade da peçonha Bothrops insularis é superior à da peçonha de Bothrops jararaca cerca de 5 vezes, mostrando-se as aves muito mais sensíveis à peçonha d...

  13. Daily patterns of the locomotor activity of Bothrops jararacussu (Serpentes: Viperidae: A response to environmental lighting conditions or an endogenous rhythm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Niehues da Cruz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available While most circadian biologists would probably assume that circadian clocks drive activity patterns, it is also well known that environmental stimuli may mask endogenous rhythms by either increasing or suppressing activity. The hypothesis that circadian rhythms are generally entrained by exogenous cycles was experimentally tested in Bothrops jararacussu. In this study, we investigated the locomotor activity under constant light and constant dark conditions for 24 days and compared it to that of control snakes living under a light/dark cycle. Under the light/dark cycle, one peak of activity was observed during the night phase, which is typical of the circadian rhythms of nocturnal species. Constant light on Bothrops jararacussu promoted a significant fragmentation and an overall increase in the amount of locomotor activity, while constant darkness provoked a significant suppression of activity. This circadian rhythm is probably endogenous, primarily synchronized by alternating light and darkness. Constant light induces desynchronization, and constant darkness leads to the blockage of circadian clocks. The functional significance of these circadian changes suggests a small flexibility in circadian organization in response to environmental conditions.

  14. Neutralization of toxicological activities of medically-relevant Bothrops snake venoms and relevant toxins by two polyvalent bothropic antivenoms produced in Peru and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevao-Costa, Maria I; Gontijo, Silea S; Correia, Barbara L; Yarleque, Armando; Vivas-Ruiz, Dan; Rodrigues, Edith; Chávez-Olortegui, Carlos; Oliveira, Luciana S; Sanchez, Eladio F

    2016-11-01

    Snakebite envenoming is a neglected public pathology, affecting especially rural communities or isolated areas of tropical and subtropical Latin American countries. The parenteral administration of antivenom is the mainstay and the only validated treatment of snake bite envenoming. Here, we assess the efficacy of polyspecific anti-Bothrops serum (α-BS) produced in the Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS, Peru) and at the Fundação Ezequiel Dias (FUNED, Brazil), to neutralize the main toxic activities induced by five medically-relevant venoms of: Bothrops atrox, B. barnetti, and B. pictus from Peru, and the Brazilian B. jararaca and B. leucurus, all of them inhabiting different geographical locations. Protein electrophoretic patterns of these venoms showed significant differences in composition, number and intensity of bands. Another goal was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of lyophilized α-BS developed at INS to neutralize the detrimental effects of these venoms using in vivo and in vitro assays. The availability of lyophilized α-BS has relevant significance in its distribution to distant rural communities where the access to antivenom in health facilities is more difficult. Despite the fact that different antigen mixtures were used for immunization during antivenom production, our data showed high toxin-neutralizing activity of α-BS raised against Bothrops venoms. Moreover, the antivenom cross-reacted even against venoms not included in the immunization mixture. Furthermore, we have evaluated the efficacy of both α-BS to neutralize key toxic compounds belonging to the predominant protein families of Bothrops snakes. Most significantly, both α-BS cross-specifically neutralized the main toxicological activities e.g. lethality and hemorrhage induced by these venoms. Thus, our data indicate that both α-BS are equally effective to treat snake bite victims inflicted by Bothrops snakes particularly B. atrox, responsible for the largest numbers of human

  15. The distribution and elimination of Bothrops erythromelas venom labeled with {sup 131} I after intravenous injection in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, M.L. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Zoologia]. E-mail: rocha@cascavel.uefs.br

    1999-07-01

    Pharmacokinetic studies can be used to study the systemic effects of snake venoms and to develop standard serotherapy protocols for envenomation. Bothrops erythromelas is probably responsible for most of the snakebite in Pernambuco. The objective of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of B. erythromelas venom (BeV) in mice, and to evaluate the efficacy of bothropic antivenom. BeV showed bicompartmental distribution in the blood of the experimental animals. (author)

  16. Acerca de la localidad tipo de Bothrops ammodytoides Leybold (Serpentes: viperidae) y Pseudotomodon trigonatus (Leybold) (Serpentes: colubridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Scrocchi, Gustavo

    1997-01-01

    De las especies del género Bothrops, Bothrops ammodytoides es una de las más típicas, ya que su característica "nariz" la hace inconfundible. Probablemente sea debido a esto que la sinonimia de esta especie sea bastante corta, ya que parece haber sido conocida claramente desde el momento de su descripción original.

  17. Bothrops jararaca peptide with anti-hypertensive action normalizes endothelium dysfunction involved in physiopathology of preeclampsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Benedetti

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia, a pregnancy-specific syndrome characterized by hypertension, proteinuria and edema, is a major cause of fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality especially in developing countries. Bj-PRO-10c, a proline-rich peptide isolated from Bothrops jararaca venom, has been attributed with potent anti-hypertensive effects. Recently, we have shown that Bj-PRO-10c-induced anti-hypertensive actions involved NO production in spontaneous hypertensive rats. Using in vitro studies we now show that Bj-PRO-10c was able to increase NO production in human umbilical vein endothelial cells from hypertensive pregnant women (HUVEC-PE to levels observed in HUVEC of normotensive women. Moreover, in the presence of the peptide, eNOS expression as well as argininosuccinate synthase activity, the key rate-limiting enzyme of the citrulline-NO cycle, were enhanced. In addition, excessive superoxide production due to NO deficiency, one of the major deleterious effects of the disease, was inhibited by Bj-PRO-10c. Bj-PRO-10c induced intracellular calcium fluxes in both, HUVEC-PE and HUVEC, which, however, led to activation of eNOS expression only in HUVEC-PE. Since Bj-PRO-10c promoted biological effects in HUVEC from patients suffering from the disorder and not in normotensive pregnant women, we hypothesize that Bj-PRO-10c induces its anti-hypertensive effect in mothers with preeclampsia. Such properties may initiate the development of novel therapeutics for treating preeclampsia.

  18. Bothrops jararaca Peptide with Anti-Hypertensive Action Normalizes Endothelium Dysfunction Involved in Physiopathology of Preeclampsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Gabriel; Morais, Katia L. P.; Guerreiro, Juliano R.; de Oliveira, Eduardo Fontana; Hoshida, Mara Sandra; Oliveira, Leandro; Sass, Nelson; Lebrun, Ivo; Ulrich, Henning; Lameu, Claudiana; de Camargo, Antonio Carlos Martins

    2011-01-01

    Preeclampsia, a pregnancy-specific syndrome characterized by hypertension, proteinuria and edema, is a major cause of fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality especially in developing countries. Bj-PRO-10c, a proline-rich peptide isolated from Bothrops jararaca venom, has been attributed with potent anti-hypertensive effects. Recently, we have shown that Bj-PRO-10c-induced anti-hypertensive actions involved NO production in spontaneous hypertensive rats. Using in vitro studies we now show that Bj-PRO-10c was able to increase NO production in human umbilical vein endothelial cells from hypertensive pregnant women (HUVEC-PE) to levels observed in HUVEC of normotensive women. Moreover, in the presence of the peptide, eNOS expression as well as argininosuccinate synthase activity, the key rate-limiting enzyme of the citrulline-NO cycle, were enhanced. In addition, excessive superoxide production due to NO deficiency, one of the major deleterious effects of the disease, was inhibited by Bj-PRO-10c. Bj-PRO-10c induced intracellular calcium fluxes in both, HUVEC-PE and HUVEC, which, however, led to activation of eNOS expression only in HUVEC-PE. Since Bj-PRO-10c promoted biological effects in HUVEC from patients suffering from the disorder and not in normotensive pregnant women, we hypothesize that Bj-PRO-10c induces its anti-hypertensive effect in mothers with preeclampsia. Such properties may initiate the development of novel therapeutics for treating preeclampsia. PMID:21858206

  19. Snake Venomics and Antivenomics of Bothrops diporus, a Medically Important Pitviper in Northeastern Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Carolina; Sanz, Libia; Calvete, Juan J.; Pla, Davinia

    2015-01-01

    Snake species within genus Bothrops are responsible for more than 80% of the snakebites occurring in South America. The species that cause most envenomings in Argentina, B. diporus, is widely distributed throughout the country, but principally found in the Northeast, the region with the highest rates of snakebites. The venom proteome of this medically relevant snake was unveiled using a venomic approach. It comprises toxins belonging to fourteen protein families, being dominated by PI- and PIII-SVMPs, PLA2 molecules, BPP-like peptides, L-amino acid oxidase and serine proteinases. This toxin profile largely explains the characteristic pathophysiological effects of bothropic snakebites observed in patients envenomed by B. diporus. Antivenomic analysis of the SAB antivenom (Instituto Vital Brazil) against the venom of B. diporus showed that this pentabothropic antivenom efficiently recognized all the venom proteins and exhibited poor affinity towards the small peptide (BPPs and tripeptide inhibitors of PIII-SVMPs) components of the venom. PMID:26712790

  20. Snake Venomics and Antivenomics of Bothrops diporus, a Medically Important Pitviper in Northeastern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Carolina; Sanz, Libia; Calvete, Juan J; Pla, Davinia

    2015-12-25

    Snake species within genus Bothrops are responsible for more than 80% of the snakebites occurring in South America. The species that cause most envenomings in Argentina, B. diporus, is widely distributed throughout the country, but principally found in the Northeast, the region with the highest rates of snakebites. The venom proteome of this medically relevant snake was unveiled using a venomic approach. It comprises toxins belonging to fourteen protein families, being dominated by PI- and PIII-SVMPs, PLA₂ molecules, BPP-like peptides, L-amino acid oxidase and serine proteinases. This toxin profile largely explains the characteristic pathophysiological effects of bothropic snakebites observed in patients envenomed by B. diporus. Antivenomic analysis of the SAB antivenom (Instituto Vital Brazil) against the venom of B. diporus showed that this pentabothropic antivenom efficiently recognized all the venom proteins and exhibited poor affinity towards the small peptide (BPPs and tripeptide inhibitors of PIII-SVMPs) components of the venom.

  1. Postura de folículos vitelogênicos em cativeiro por serpentes Bothrops (Serpentes, Viperidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Queiroz Alves

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2014v27n2p213 As Serpentes do gênero Bothrops são amplamente distribuídas nas Américas Central e Sul e dados reprodutivos são disponíveis para várias das suas espécies. Mas B. leucurus é pouco estudada em vários aspectos. Neste trabalho, relatamos episódios de expulsão folicular por uma fêmea de B. leucurus e duas fêmeas de B. neuwiedi mantidas em cativeiro. As posturas dos folículos de B. leucurus e B. neuwiedi podem sugerir que serpentes Bothrops incluem o mecanismo fisiológico de expulsão folicular em sua fisiologia reprodutiva como meio para desbloquear os ovidutos.

  2. Anti-hemorrhagic Activity of Four Brazilian Vegetable Species Against Bothrops jararaca Venom

    OpenAIRE

    Nishijima, Catarine Massucato Nishijima; Rodrigues, Clenilson Martins [UNESP; Silva, Marcelo Aparecido; Lopes-Ferreira, Mônica; Vilegas, Wagner [UNESP; Hiruma-Lima, Clélia Akiko

    2009-01-01

    Around 20,000 snakebites are reported annually in Brazil and 90% of them are inflicted by species of the genus Bothrops. Intravenous administration of antibothropic antivenom neutralizes the systemic actions, but it is of little effect on the reversal of local symptoms and often induces adverse reactions, a context that drives the search for complementary treatments for snakebite accidents. Vegetable extracts with a range of antiophidian activities constitute an excellent alternative. In this...

  3. Células gliais do sistema nervoso central de Bothrops jararaca (Reptilia, Ofidae): um estudo ultraestrutural

    OpenAIRE

    Bondan, Eduardo F.; Maria de Fátima M. Martins; Rita Sinigaglia-Coimbra; Rici,Rose Eli G.; Maria Angélica Miglino; Graca, Dominguita L.; Rogério L. Zacariotti

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although ultrastructural characteristics of mature neuroglia in the central nervous system (CNS) are very well described in mammals, much less is known in reptiles, especially serpents. In this context, two specimens of Bothrops jararaca were euthanized for morphological analysis of CNS glial cells. Samples from telencephalon, mesencephalon and spinal cord were collected and processed for light and transmission electron microscopy investigation. Astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microgli...

  4. Daño renal en ratas inducido por veneno de Bothrops neuwiedii diporus de Argentina Renal injury in rats poisoned by venom of Bothrops neuwiedii diporus from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Koscinczuk

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available La insuficiencia renal aguda es una de las complicaciones sistémicas más frecuentes después de un accidente ofídico. En este estudio se evalúan los efectos que el veneno de Bothrops neuwiedii diporus produce en el riñón de ratas machos de la cepa Wistar. La histopatología permitió comprobar el desarrollo de necrosis tubular aguda; las lesiones iniciales se observaron a las 3 horas de la inoculación de una dosis de 700 µg del veneno, observándose en corteza renal congestión y degeneración granulohialina de las células epiteliales tubulares, acompañadas de dilatación y cilindros hialinos en la luz tubular. A las 24 horas se presentó necrosis tubular aguda en una superficie extensa de la corteza sin daño de la membrana basal tubular. Las lesiones de degeneración turbia de células epiteliales tubulares, dilatación de la luz tubular y cilindros hialinos se mantuvieron presentes hasta las 4 semanas post-inoculación. Si bien los parámetros de la bioquímica clínica asociados con insuficiencia renal aguda aumentaron a las 6 horas de la administración del veneno (urea: 1.10±0.22 g/dl; creatinina: 19.60±1.51mg/dl, a la semana descendieron a valores normales. Las densidades urinarias, en cambio, a la semana se mantuvieron más bajas que lo normal, 1.005 ± 0.001 (pAcute renal failure is one of the systemic complications that can be found in bothropic accidents. In this study the effects on male Wistar rats induced by the venom of Bothrops neuwiedii diporus were evaluated. The histopathology revealed acute tubular necrosis, lesions firstly were observed 3 hours post inoculation of 700 µg of venom. Cortical kidney congestion and granulohialin degeneration of tubular epithelial cells were observed, these lesions achieved a maximum at 24 hours after inoculation. Tubular epithelial hidropic degeneration and dilatation of tubular lumen with hyalin casts were present inclusive up to 4 weeks after inoculation. Biochemical parameter

  5. Effect of Echinacea purpurea (Asteraceae aqueous extract on antibody response to Bothrops asper venom and immune cell response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Chaves

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of aqueous extract of Echinacea purpurea roots on the murine antibody response to Bothrops asper snake venom in vivo was studied. Three groups were used. Group #1, baseline control, was treated with snake venom plus PBS. Group #2 was treated with snake venom plus sodium alginate as adjuvant (routine method used at Instituto Clodomiro Picado, and group #3 or experimental group, was treated with snake venom plus aqueous extract of E. purpurea root as adjuvant. In all groups, the first inoculation was done with Freund’s complete adjuvant (FCA. By the time of the second bleeding, mice in group #3 showed a remarkable increment in the level of anti-venom antibodies compared with those in groups #1 or #2. In vitro immune cell proliferation as a response to aqueous extract of E. purpurea root was studied using human lymphocytes activated with different lectins (Con A, PHA and PWM. In all cases, increase in percentage of lymphoproliferation was greater when E. purpurea root extract was used in addition to individual lectins. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (1: 113-119. Epub 2007 March. 31.Se estudió in vivo, el efecto del extracto acuoso de las raíces de Echinacea purpurea en la respuesta de los anticuerpos murinos al veneno de la serpiente Bothrops asper. El grupo 1 control, fue tratado con el veneno y PBS. El grupo 2 con veneno y alginato de sodio (método utilizado en el Instituto Clodomiro Picado, y el grupo 3 o experimental, con veneno y extracto acuoso de las raíces de E. purpurea. En todos los grupos, la primera inmunización fue hecha con FCA (Freund’s Complete Adjuvant. En las muestras correspondientes a la segunda sangría, los ratones del grupo 3 mostraron un marcado incremento en el nivel de anticuerpos, en comparación con los ratones de los otros grupos. También se determinó la proliferación de células inmunes in vitro, como respuesta al extracto acuoso de la raíz de E. purpurea, utilizando linfocitos humanos activados con

  6. Peptidomics of Three Bothrops Snake Venoms: Insights Into the Molecular Diversification of Proteomes and Peptidomes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashima, Alexandre K.; Zelanis, André; Kitano, Eduardo S.; Ianzer, Danielle; Melo, Robson L.; Rioli, Vanessa; Sant'anna, Sávio S.; Schenberg, Ana C. G.; Camargo, Antônio C. M.; Serrano, Solange M. T.

    2012-01-01

    Snake venom proteomes/peptidomes are highly complex and maintenance of their integrity within the gland lumen is crucial for the expression of toxin activities. There has been considerable progress in the field of venom proteomics, however, peptidomics does not progress as fast, because of the lack of comprehensive venom sequence databases for analysis of MS data. Therefore, in many cases venom peptides have to be sequenced manually by MS/MS analysis or Edman degradation. This is critical for rare snake species, as is the case of Bothrops cotiara (BC) and B. fonsecai (BF), which are regarded as near threatened with extinction. In this study we conducted a comprehensive analysis of the venom peptidomes of BC, BF, and B. jararaca (BJ) using a combination of solid-phase extraction and reversed-phase HPLC to fractionate the peptides, followed by nano-liquid chromatography-tandem MS (LC-MS/MS) or direct infusion electrospray ionization-(ESI)-MS/MS or MALDI-MS/MS analyses. We detected marked differences in the venom peptidomes and identified peptides ranging from 7 to 39 residues in length by de novo sequencing. Forty-four unique sequences were manually identified, out of which 30 are new peptides, including 17 bradykinin-potentiating peptides, three poly-histidine-poly-glycine peptides and interestingly, 10 l-amino acid oxidase fragments. Some of the new bradykinin-potentiating peptides display significant bradykinin potentiating activity. Automated database search revealed fragments from several toxins in the peptidomes, mainly from l-amino acid oxidase, and allowed the determination of the peptide bond specificity of proteinases and amino acid occurrences for the P4-P4′ sites. We also demonstrate that the venom lyophilization/resolubilization process greatly increases the complexity of the peptidome because of the imbalance caused to the venom proteome and the consequent activity of proteinases on venom components. The use of proteinase inhibitors clearly showed

  7. Human neutrophil migration and activation by BJcuL, a galactose binding lectin purified from Bothrops jararacussu venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes Luiz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neutrophil migration to an inflamed site constitutes the first line of the innate immune response against invading microorganisms. Given the crucial role of endogenous lectins in neutrophil mobilization and activation, lectins from exogenous sources have often been considered as putative modulators of leukocyte function. Lectins purified from snake venom have been described as galactoside ligands that induce erythrocyte agglutination and platelet aggregation. This study evaluated human neutrophil migration and activation by C-type lectin BJcuL purified from Bothrops jararacussu venom. Results Utilizing fluorescence microscopy, we observed that biotinylated-BJcuL was evenly distributed on the neutrophil surface, selectively inhibited by D-galactose. Lectin was able to induce modification in the neutrophil morphology in a spherical shape for a polarized observed by optical microscopy and exposure to BJcuL in a Boyden chamber assay resulted in cell migration. After 30 minutes of incubation with BJcuL we found enhanced neutrophil functions, such as respiratory burst, zymozan phagocytosis and an increase in lissosomal volume. In addition, BJcuL delays late apoptosis neutrophils. Conclusion These results demonstrate that BJcuL can be implicated in a wide variety of immunological functions including first-line defense against pathogens, cell trafficking and induction of the innate immune response since lectin was capable of inducing potent neutrophil activation.

  8. Comparison of the adjuvant activity of aluminum hydroxide and calcium phosphate on the antibody response towards Bothrops asper snake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, Hidekel; Herrera, María; Rojas, Leonardo; Villalta, Mauren; Vargas, Mariángela; Leiguez, Elbio; Teixeira, Catarina; Estrada, Ricardo; Gutiérrez, José María; León, Guillermo; Montero, Mavis L

    2014-01-01

    The adjuvanticity of aluminum hydroxide and calcium phosphate on the antibody response in mice towards the venom of the snake Bothrops asper was studied. It was found that, in vitro, most of the venom proteins are similarly adsorbed by both mineral salts, with the exception of some basic phospholipases A2, which are better adsorbed by calcium phosphate. After injection, the adjuvants promoted a slow release of the venom, as judged by the lack of acute toxicity when lethal doses of venom were administered to mice. Leukocyte recruitment induced by the venom was enhanced when it was adsorbed on both mineral salts; however, venom adsorbed on calcium phosphate induced a higher antibody response towards all tested HPLC fractions of the venom. On the other hand, co-precipitation of venom with calcium phosphate was the best strategy for increasing: (1) the capacity of the salt to couple venom proteins in vitro; (2) the venom ability to induce leukocyte recruitment; (3) phagocytosis by macrophages; and (4) a host antibody response. These findings suggest that the chemical nature is not the only one determining factor of the adjuvant activity of mineral salts.

  9. Ocorrência de Hepatozoon spp. (Apicomplexa, Hepatozoidae em serpentes do gênero Bothrops de cativeiro Occurrence of Hepatozoon spp. (Apicomplexa, Hepatozoidae in snakes of genus Bothrops in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Glaser

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of Hepatozoon gamont in the blood cells of Bothrops jararaca and B. jararacussu in captivity was analyzed. The prevalence of infection by Hepatozoon spp. was 50% and few erythrocytes contained the gamonts. Results suggest that the infection by Hepatozoon spp. occurred in the natural environment or after the captivity.

  10. Ocorrência de Hepatozoon spp. (Apicomplexa, Hepatozoidae) em serpentes do gênero Bothrops de cativeiro Occurrence of Hepatozoon spp. (Apicomplexa, Hepatozoidae) in snakes of genus Bothrops in captivity

    OpenAIRE

    V. Glaser; A.P. Boni; C.A.C. Albuquerque

    2008-01-01

    The occurrence of Hepatozoon gamont in the blood cells of Bothrops jararaca and B. jararacussu in captivity was analyzed. The prevalence of infection by Hepatozoon spp. was 50% and few erythrocytes contained the gamonts. Results suggest that the infection by Hepatozoon spp. occurred in the natural environment or after the captivity.

  11. Inactivation and fragmentation of lectin from Bothrops leucurus snake venom by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, E. S.; Souza, M. A. A.; Vaz, A. F. M.; Coelho, L. C. B. B.; Aguiar, J. S.; Silva, T. G.; Guarnieri, M. C.; Melo, A. M. M. A.; Oliva, M. L. V.; Correia, M. T. S.

    2012-04-01

    Gamma radiation alters the molecular structure of biomolecules and is able to mitigate the action of snake venoms and their isolated toxins. The effect of γ-radiation on the folding of Bothrops lecurus venom lectin was measured by a hemagglutinating assay, intrinsic and bis-ANS fluorescence. Intrinsic and bis-ANS fluorescence analyses indicated that irradiation caused unfolding followed by aggregation of the lectin. Our results suggest that irradiation can lead to significant changes in the protein structure, which may promote the loss of its binding property and toxic action.

  12. Variação entre filhotes de representantes do complexo Bothrops newied (Serpentes, Viperidae, Crotalinae

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    Vinícius Xavier

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available External morphological characters of 141 young specimens (69 males and 72 femalesof the Bothrops newied complex were analyzed. Regression analysis was used in the study of morphometric characters and principal components analysis was used in the study of meristic and qualitative characters. Sexual dimorphism was confirmed in the meristic and morphometric characters. Males showed higher counts of subcaudals and longer tails. Females showed eventually higher number of ventrals and dorsal rows, and larger heads. Six different drawing patterns were diagnosed and can indicate the existence of different species. Ontogenetic variation was described.

  13. The occurrence of Crepidobothrium sp. (Cestoda, Proteocephalidae in Bothrops moojeni (Hoge (Serpentes, Viperidae

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    Reinaldo José da Silva

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of Crepidobothrium sp.(Cestoda, Proteocephalidae in the intestine of Bothrops moojeni (Hoge,1965(Serpentes, Viperidae is reported. The host snake was rescued from the fauna in Porto Primavera dam, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. The snake died in captivity on July 13,1999. At necropsy, 28 tapeworms were found in the snake intestine. The analysis of specimens morphology allowed the conclusion that they belong to the Crepidobothrium (Monticelli, 1900 genus. It was not possible to determine the Crepidobothrium species due to the lack of the gravid proglottids. This is the first report of B. moojeni as a host of cestodes.

  14. Anti-hemorrhagic activity of four Brazilian vegetable species against Bothrops jararaca venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijima, Catarine Massucato Nishijima; Rodrigues, Clenilson Martins; Silva, Marcelo Aparecido; Lopes-Ferreira, Mônica; Vilegas, Wagner; Hiruma-Lima, Clélia Akiko

    2009-03-09

    Around 20,000 snakebites are reported annually in Brazil and 90% of them are inflicted by species of the genus Bothrops. Intravenous administration of antibothropic antivenom neutralizes the systemic actions, but it is of little effect on the reversal of local symptoms and often induces adverse reactions, a context that drives the search for complementary treatments for snakebite accidents. Vegetable extracts with a range of antiophidian activities constitute an excellent alternative. In this study, we investigated the anti-hemorrhagic effects of Mouriri pusa Gardn. (Melastomataceae), Byrsonima crassa Niedenzu (Malpighiaceae), Davilla elliptica St. Hill. (Dilleniaceae) and Strychnos pseudoquina St. Hil. (Loganiaceae) against Bothrops jararaca venom. The methanolic extracts from M. pusa (leaves), B. crassa (leaves) and D. elliptica (leaves) showed total neutralization capacity against local hemorrhages. The amenthoflavone and quercetin fractions from B. crassa and the flavonoids fractions (quercetin and myricetin) from M. pusa and D. elliptica also showed total neutralization capacity. We conclude that flavonoids derived from myricetin, quercetin and amenthoflavone play an important role in the anti-hemorrhagic potential of these Brazilian vegetables species against B. jararaca venom.

  15. Anti-hemorrhagic Activity of Four Brazilian Vegetable Species Against Bothrops jararaca Venom

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    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Around 20,000 snakebites are reported annually in Brazil and 90% of them are inflicted by species of the genus Bothrops. Intravenous administration of antibothropic antivenom neutralizes the systemic actions, but it is of little effect on the reversal of local symptoms and often induces adverse reactions, a context that drives the search for complementary treatments for snakebite accidents. Vegetable extracts with a range of antiophidian activities constitute an excellent alternative. In this study, we investigated the anti-hemorrhagic effects of Mouriri pusa Gardn. (Melastomataceae, Byrsonima crassa Niedenzu (Malpighiaceae, Davilla elliptica St. Hill. (Dilleniaceae and Strychnos pseudoquina St. Hil. (Loganiaceae against Bothrops jararaca venom. The methanolic extracts from M. pusa (leaves, B. crassa (leaves and D. elliptica (leaves showed total neutralization capacity against local hemorrhages. The amenthoflavone and quercetin fractions from B. crassa and the flavonoids fractions (quercetin and myricetin from M. pusa and D. elliptica also showed total neutralization capacity. We conclude that flavonoids derived from myricetin, quercetin and amenthoflavone play an important role in the anti-hemorrhagic potential of these Brazilian vegetables species against B. jararaca venom.

  16. Screening of Bothrops snake venoms for L-amino acid oxidase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessati, M.L.; Fontana, J.D.; Guimaraes, M.F. [Federal Univ. of Parana, Curitiba (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    Toxins, enzymes, and biologically active peptides are the main components of snake venoms from the genus Bothrops. Following the venom inoculation, the local effects are hemorrhage, edema, and myonecrosis. Nineteen different species of Brazilian Bothrops were screened for protein content and L-amino acid oxidase activity. B. cotiara, formerly found in the South of Brazil, is now threatened with extinction. Its venom contains a highly hemorrhagic fraction and, as expected from the deep yellow color of the corresponding lyophilized powder, a high L-amino acid oxidase (LAO) activity was also characterized. Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is its associate coenzyme. B. cotiara venom LAO catalyzed the oxidative deamination of several L-amino acids, and the best substrates were methionine, leucine, tryptophan, and phenylalanine, hence, its potential application for the use in biosensors for aspartame determination and for the removal of amino acids from plasma. High levels for LAO were also found in other species than B. cotiara. In addition, the technique of isoelectric focusing (IEF) was employed as a powerful tool to study the iso- or multi-enzyme distribution for LAO activity in the B. cotiara snake venom.

  17. Aerobic bacteria in oral cavity of Lancehead snakes (Bothrops atrox with stomatitis

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    Heloisa Castro Pereira

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Stomatitis is a common disease found on snake farms, and Gram-negative bacilli are the main etiological agents that play an important role as secondary sources of viral or parasitic infections. The purpose of this work was to identify the aerobic bacteria in the oral cavity of Bothrops atrox with stomatitis. Samples for microbiological examination were collected from 12 snakes bred on a commercial snake farm for venom extraction. Samples of the secretion in the oral cavity of each serpent presenting stomatitis were collected from fang sheath, using a cotton swab with sterile alginate. The samples were incubated and cultured on Petri dishes containing blood agar and XLD agar using the agar depletion technique. Bacterial growth occurred in all analyzed samples collected from the oral cavity of Bothrops atrox with stomatitis, and some of the samples contained more than one microorganism. The following Gram-negative bacteria were isolated: Escherichia coli (26.31%, Citrobacter spp. (21.05%, Proteus spp. (15.78% and Salmonella spp. (10.52%. The only Gram-positive bacterium that was isolated was Staphylococcus spp., which was present in 26.31% of the analyzed samples.

  18. Local inflammation, lethality and cytokine release in mice injected with Bothrops atrox venom

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    S. F. Barros

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We have provided evidence that: (a lethality of mice to crude Bothrops venom varies according the isogenic strain (A/J > C57Bl/6 > A/Sn > BALB/c > C3H/ HePas > DBA/2 > C3H/He; (bBALB/c mice (LD50=100.0 μg were injected i.p. with 50 μg of venom produced IL-6, IL-10, INF-γ, TNF-α and NO in the serum. In vitro the cells from the mice injected and challenged with the venom only released IL-10 while peritoneal macrophages released IL-10, INF-γ and less amounts of IL-6; (c establishment of local inflammation and necrosis induced by the venom, coincides with the peaks of TNF-α, IFN-γ and NO and the damage was neutralized when the venom was incubated with a monoclonal antibody against a 60 kDa haemorrhagic factor. These results suggest that susceptibility to Bothrops a trox venom is genetically dependent but MHC independent; that IL-6, IL10, TNF-α, IFN-γ and NO can be involved in the mediation of tissue damage; and that the major venom component inducers of the lesions are haemorrhagins.

  19. Fatal stroke after Bothrops snakebite in the Amazonas state, Brazil: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva de Oliveira, Sâmella; Freitas-de-Sousa, Luciana Aparecida; Alves, Eliane Campos; de Lima Ferreira, Luiz Carlos; da Silva, Iran Mendonça; de Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães; Fan, Hui Wen; Moura-da-Silva, Ana Maria; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo

    2017-11-01

    Bothrops atrox is the snake responsible for the majority of snakebites in the Brazilian Amazon. Patients generally evolve to local manifestations such as edema, pain and ecchymoses. Systemic effects of B. atrox venom are usually restricted to blood incoagulability and spontaneous bleeding. However, in a few cases, bleeding in the central nervous system may occur, which can lead to sequels and deaths. Here, we report a case of a 59 year-old woman who presented edema, pain and ecchymoses on the right foot, headache, nausea, diarrhea, hypertension and blood incoagulability after the bite by Bothrops snake in the Brazilian Amazon. This case evolved with stroke resulting in death despite the antivenom and conservative therapy employed. In addition, we were able to identify the presence of venom in the patient's brain tissue after death. Direct action of toxins present in the snake's venom in the induction of systemic hemorrhage allied to blood incoagulability and hypertension presented by the patient could be involved in the mechanism of stroke in this case. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Triterpenoid Betulin Protects against the Neuromuscular Effects of Bothrops jararacussu Snake Venom In Vivo

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    Miriéle Cristina Ferraz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We confirmed the ability of the triterpenoid betulin to protect against neurotoxicity caused by Bothrops jararacussu snake venom in vitro in mouse isolated phrenic nerve-diaphragm (PND preparations and examined its capability of in vivo protection using the rat external popliteal/sciatic nerve-tibialis anterior (EPSTA preparation. Venom caused complete, irreversible blockade in PND (40 μg/mL, but only partial blockade (~30% in EPSTA (3.6 mg/kg, i.m. after 120 min. In PND, preincubation of venom with commercial bothropic antivenom (CBA attenuated the venom-induced blockade, and, in EPSTA, CBA given i.v. 15 min after venom also attenuated the blockade (by ~70% in both preparations. Preincubation of venom with betulin (200 μg/mL markedly attenuated the venom-induced blockade in PND; similarly, a single dose of betulin (20 mg, i.p., 15 min after venom virtually abolished the venom-induced decrease in contractility. Plasma creatine kinase activity was significantly elevated 120 min after venom injection in the EPSTA but was attenuated by CBA and betulin. These results indicate that betulin given i.p. has a similar efficacy as CBA given i.v. in attenuating the neuromuscular effects of B. jararacussu venom in vivo and could be a useful complementary measure to antivenom therapy for treating snakebite.

  1. The Triterpenoid Betulin Protects against the Neuromuscular Effects of Bothrops jararacussu Snake Venom In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Miriéle Cristina; de Oliveira, Jhones Luiz; de Oliveira Junior, Joel Reis; Cogo, José Carlos; dos Santos, Márcio Galdino; Franco, Luiz Madaleno; Puebla, Pilar; Ferraz, Helena Onishi; Ferraz, Humberto Gomes; da Rocha, Marisa Maria Teixeira; Hyslop, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    We confirmed the ability of the triterpenoid betulin to protect against neurotoxicity caused by Bothrops jararacussu snake venom in vitro in mouse isolated phrenic nerve-diaphragm (PND) preparations and examined its capability of in vivo protection using the rat external popliteal/sciatic nerve-tibialis anterior (EPSTA) preparation. Venom caused complete, irreversible blockade in PND (40 μg/mL), but only partial blockade (~30%) in EPSTA (3.6 mg/kg, i.m.) after 120 min. In PND, preincubation of venom with commercial bothropic antivenom (CBA) attenuated the venom-induced blockade, and, in EPSTA, CBA given i.v. 15 min after venom also attenuated the blockade (by ~70% in both preparations). Preincubation of venom with betulin (200 μg/mL) markedly attenuated the venom-induced blockade in PND; similarly, a single dose of betulin (20 mg, i.p., 15 min after venom) virtually abolished the venom-induced decrease in contractility. Plasma creatine kinase activity was significantly elevated 120 min after venom injection in the EPSTA but was attenuated by CBA and betulin. These results indicate that betulin given i.p. has a similar efficacy as CBA given i.v. in attenuating the neuromuscular effects of B. jararacussu venom in vivo and could be a useful complementary measure to antivenom therapy for treating snakebite. PMID:26633987

  2. Paper electrophoretic and enzimatic studies on blood serum, venom and liver of "Bothrops jararaca"

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    Luiz P. Ribeiro

    1955-12-01

    Full Text Available Fígado, veneno e sôro sanguíneo de "Bothrops jararaca" foram estudados por meio da eletroforese em papel e determinação de atividades enzimáticas. Xantina oxidase e deshidrogenase foram encontradas sòmente no fígado das cobras. A análise espectrográfica do veneno e do sôro confirmam os resultados negativos obtidos para xantina oxidase uma vez que não foi encontrado molibdêneo. L-amino ácido oxidase foi determinada no fígado, sÔro e veneno. A eletroforese em papel do sôro sanguíneo mostrou que existem 7 frações proteicas, sendo que duas apresentam fluorescência característica de flavinas, quando expostas à luz ultra-violeta. Em vista dos resultados obtidos é concluido que as flavinas do sôro e do veneno de Bothrops jararaca estão na maior parte ligadas às proteínas. Estas flavinas combinadas parecem estar sob a forma de FAD (flavina adenina dinucleotídeo fazendo parte do grupo prostético da L-amino ácido oxidase, uma vez que não foi encontrada nenhuma atividade de xantina oxidase.

  3. In vitro hemolytic activity of Bothrops lanceolatus (fer-de-lance venom

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    LJ Martins

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bothrops lanceolatus venom contains a variety of enzymatic and biological activities. The present work investigated the hemolytic activity of this venom and its phospholipase A2 (PLA2. Bothrops lanceolatus venom (6.7 µg/mL caused indirect hemolysis of cow, horse, rat and sheep erythrocytes, with horse erythrocytes being the most sensitive; no direct hemolysis was observed. Hemolysis in sheep erythrocytes was concentration-dependent (5-11.7 µg/mL and markedly attenuated by heating the venom for 30 minutes at ≥ 40°C and by the PLA2 inhibitor p-bromophenacyl bromide. An acidic PLA2 (5 µg/mL purified from B. lanceolatus venom also caused hemolysis. This PLA2 showed immunoprecipitin lines with antivenom against B. lanceolatus, which suggests that the enzymatic and hemolytic activities of this enzyme may be neutralized during antivenom therapy. These results indicate that B. lanceolatus venom and its PLA2 can cause hemolysis in vitro.

  4. Activation of J77A.1 Macrophages by Three Phospholipases A2 Isolated from Bothrops atrox Snake Venom

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    Juliana L. Furtado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated the in vitro effects of two basic myotoxic phospholipases A2 (PLA2, BaTX-I, a catalytically inactive Lys-49 variant, and BaTX-II, a catalytically active Asp-49, and of one acidic myotoxic PLA2, BaPLA2, a catalytically active Asp-49, isolated from Bothrops atrox snake venom, on the activation of J774A.1 macrophages. At noncytotoxic concentrations, the toxins did not affect the adhesion of the macrophages, nor their ability to detach. The data obtained showed that only BaTX-I stimulated complement receptor-mediated phagocytosis. However, BaTX-I, BaTX-II, and BaPLA2 induced the release of the superoxide anion by J774A.1 macrophages. Additionally, only BaTX-I raised the lysosomal volume of macrophages after 15 min of incubation. After 30 min, all the phospholipases increased this parameter, which was not observed within 60 min. Moreover, BaTX-I, BaTX-II, and BaPLA2 increased the number of lipid bodies on macrophages submitted to phagocytosis and not submitted to phagocytosis. However, BaTX-II and BaPLA2 induced the release of TNF-α by J774A.1 macrophages. Taken together, the data show that, despite differences in enzymatic activity, the three toxins induced inflammatory events and whether the enzyme is acidic or basic does not seem to contribute to these effects.

  5. Effects of irradiated Bothropstoxin-1 and Bothrops jararacussu crude venom on the immune system; Acao da Bothropstoxina-1 e do veneno total de Bothrops jararacussu irradiados sobre o sistema imune

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caproni, Priscila

    2009-07-01

    Ionizing radiation has been successfully employed to modify the immunological properties of biomolecules and has been proven to be a powerful tool to attenuate snake venoms toxicity without affecting and even increasing their immunogenic properties. Very promising results were obtained when crude animal venoms, as well as isolated toxins, were treated with {sup 60}Co gamma rays, yielding toxoids with good immunogenicity, however, little is known about the modifications that irradiated molecules undergo and even less about the immunological response that such antigens elicit. At the present work, we have evaluated the effects on immune system of B10.PL and BALB/c mice of Bothrops jararacussu crude venom and isolated bothropstoxin-1 (Bthx-1), before and after gamma radiation exposition. According to our data, irradiation process promoted structural modifications on both isolated toxin and crude venom, characterized by higher molecular weight protein (aggregates and oligomers) formation. Irradiated samples were immunogenic and the antibodies elicited by them were able to recognize the native toxin in ELISA. These results indicate that irradiation of toxic proteins can promote significant modifications in their structures, but still retain many of the original antigenic and immunological properties. Also, our data indicate that the irradiated protein induced higher titers of IgG2b, suggesting that Th1 cells were predominantly involved. Results from Western blot assay showed that antibodies raised against irradiated bothropstoxin-1 recognize both native isolated toxin or crude venom. Cytotoxicity assay showed that irradiated toxin and crude venom were less toxic than their native counterpart. Thus, the viability of the macrophages cultured in the presence of irradiated Bthx-1 or crude venom was higher if compared with their native forms. LDH Assay showed that irradiated Bthx-1 promotes less muscular damage than the native form. Our data confirm a potential use of

  6. Muscle Tissue Damage Induced by the Venom of Bothrops asper: Identification of Early and Late Pathological Events through Proteomic Analysis.

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    Cristina Herrera

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The time-course of the pathological effects induced by the venom of the snake Bothrops asper in muscle tissue was investigated by a combination of histology, proteomic analysis of exudates collected in the vicinity of damaged muscle, and immunodetection of extracellular matrix proteins in exudates. Proteomic assay of exudates has become an excellent new methodological tool to detect key biomarkers of tissue alterations for a more integrative perspective of snake venom-induced pathology. The time-course analysis of the intracellular proteins showed an early presence of cytosolic and mitochondrial proteins in exudates, while cytoskeletal proteins increased later on. This underscores the rapid cytotoxic effect of venom, especially in muscle fibers, due to the action of myotoxic phospholipases A2, followed by the action of proteinases in the cytoskeleton of damaged muscle fibers. Similarly, the early presence of basement membrane (BM and other extracellular matrix (ECM proteins in exudates reflects the rapid microvascular damage and hemorrhage induced by snake venom metalloproteinases. The presence of fragments of type IV collagen and perlecan one hour after envenoming suggests that hydrolysis of these mechanically/structurally-relevant BM components plays a key role in the genesis of hemorrhage. On the other hand, the increment of some ECM proteins in the exudate at later time intervals is likely a consequence of the action of endogenous matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs or of de novo synthesis of ECM proteins during tissue remodeling as part of the inflammatory reaction. Our results offer relevant insights for a more integrative and systematic understanding of the time-course dynamics of muscle tissue damage induced by B. asper venom and possibly other viperid venoms.

  7. Intralaboratory validation of kinetic chromogenic Limulus amebocyte lysate assay for bacterial endotoxin determination in anti-bothropic serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingola, Fernando F; Albertino, Sheila R G; Abrantes, Shirley de M P; Zamith, Helena P S

    2013-11-01

    Over the years, substituting in vitro biological methods for in vivo tests has posed an ever increasing challenge for researchers, including those who study the applications for snake antivenom. In the quality control of antivenons, the only official test recommended by pharmacopoeias for detecting pyrogenicity is the rabbit pyrogen test. In the present study, we propose intralaboratory validation of a method to replace the rabbit pyrogen test: in vitro determination of bacterial endotoxin in anti-bothropic serum (ABS) with quantitative kinetic chromogenic limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay. The kinetic chromogenic LAL assay is specific to the detection of gram-negative bacterial endotoxin. The validation of the test involved the determination of performance parameters required by the Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária Brasileira (ANVISA, the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency), the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) 35. In all experiments, the correlation coefficient of the curve obtained with the control standard endotoxin (CSE; Escherichia coli 055:B5 strain, range, 0.005-50 EU/mL) was between -0.998 and -1.000; and the recovery of endotoxin added to the sample of ABS (0.5 EU/mL) at the working dilution (1:10) followed the recuperation criteria (i.e., 50-200%). We performed six determinations, in each of which the coefficient of variation for the intermediate precision was between 5.6% and 13.8% (below the 15% threshold) and the accuracy was between 90.7% and 114.3% (within the acceptable range of 80-120%). The endotoxin concentration limit for the ABS was determined to be ≤ 2.9 EU/mL. The intralaboratory validation of the methodology was considered to have been successful because it met the criteria for all of the performance parameters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Variaciones en las actividades enzimáticas del veneno de la serpiente Bothrops atrox "jergón", de tres zonas geográficas del Perú Variation of the enzymatic activity of Bothrops atrox "jergon" snake venom from three geographic regions, Peru

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    César Ortiz

    2012-06-01

    casein and by zymogram. Additionally, immunodiffusion and neutralization assays in vitro were done with a polyvalent botropic serum from the national institute of health of Peru. Results. The amidolytic, coagulant, hemorrhagic, proteolytic by zymogram, phospholipase A2, and indirect hemolytic activity were variable, demonstrating increased activity in the venoms from Amazonas, regarding proteolytic by zymogram, phospholipase A2, and indirect hemolytic activity. While the amount of protein electrophoretic bands and proteolytic activity on casein did not demonstrated differences. Regarding neutralization tests, a 0.5 dose of antivenom was sufficient to effectively neutralize (>50% the coagulant activity and phospholipase A2 of all samples analyzed. Conclusions. Some biological properties of the venom from adult Bothrops atrox of Peru are variable, without interference with the in vitro neutralization by the polyvalent botropic serum on coagulant and phospholipase A2 properties of the venom.

  9. Ocorrência de híbridos não naturais entre Bothrops jararaca e B. neuwiedi (Serpentes, Viperidae Occurrence of non natural hybridism between Bothrops jararaca and B. neuwiedi (Serpentes, Viperidae

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    Rafael Lucchesi Balestrin

    Full Text Available In May 1987, a female of Bothrops jararaca (Wied, 1824, from Carazinho, Rio Grande do Sul (RS, Brazil, was placed in the same vivarium with a male of Bothrops neuwiedi Wagler, 1824 coming from Guaíba, RS. There, they stayed for aproximately ten months. In March 1988, it was observed a delivery of five live and two still born, among them six presented morphologic characteristics of B. neuwiedi and one of B. jararaca. After the female died, in April 1988, through necropsy, two fetusus were found, one near the cloaca and, both identified as B. neuwiedi. The morphologic analysis and the origin of the progenitors suggest the hypothesis that the litter was resulted of cross-breeding.

  10. Aspectos da biologia reprodutiva de Bothrops jararaca em cativeiro (Serpentes, Viperidae Reproductive biological aspects of Bothrops jararaca in captivity (Serpentes, Viperidae

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    Maria Lúcia Machado Alves

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available The reproduction of Bothrops jararaca (Wied, 1824 in captivity in ordened to determine the intercourse period, births, number of neonates, proportion of males and females per litter were performed between 1989 and 1999. Fifty eight females were observed, 16 intercourses in captivity, 45 females arrived already fertilized from nature and 53 litters, resulting on the birth of 426 live neonates, 67 infertile egg masses, 18 stillborn neonates and 4 abnormal neonates. The intercourse period was from february to december and the births happened between february and may. From the two gestacional periods observed, the shortest one was 152 days and the longest 239. The average amount of live neonates per litter was 8,04. Among 323 neonates, 47,68% were males and 52,32% were females. During the first year of life, 75,71% of the females and 71,54% of the males died, and 2,31% of the females and 0,81% of the males reached the fifth year of life.

  11. Neutralizing capacity of a new monovalent anti-Bothrops atrox antivenom: comparison with two commercial antivenoms

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    R. Otero

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Three horse-derived antivenoms were tested for their ability to neutralize lethal, hemorrhagic, edema-forming, defibrinating and myotoxic activities induced by the venom of Bothrops atrox from Antioquia and Chocó (Colombia. The following antivenoms were used: a polyvalent (crotaline antivenom produced by Instituto Clodomiro Picado (Costa Rica, b monovalent antibothropic antivenom produced by Instituto Nacional de Salud-INS (Bogotá, and c a new monovalent anti-B. atrox antivenom produced with the venom of B. atrox from Antioquia and Chocó. The three antivenoms neutralized all toxic activities tested albeit with different potencies. The new monovalent anti-B. atrox antivenom showed the highest neutralizing ability against edema-forming and defibrinating effects of B. atrox venom (41 ± 2 and 100 ± 32 µl antivenom/mg venom, respectively, suggesting that it should be useful in the treatment of B. atrox envenomation in Antioquia and Chocó

  12. Glial cells of the central nervous system of Bothrops jararaca (Reptilia, Ofidae: an ultrastructural study

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    Eduardo F. Bondan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although ultrastructural characteristics of mature neuroglia in the central nervous system (CNS are very well described in mammals, much less is known in reptiles, especially serpents. In this context, two specimens of Bothrops jararaca were euthanized for morphological analysis of CNS glial cells. Samples from telencephalon, mesencephalon and spinal cord were collected and processed for light and transmission electron microscopy investigation. Astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglial cells and ependymal cells, as well as myelin sheaths, presented similar ultrastructural features to those already observed in mammals and tended to maintain their general aspect all over the distinct CNS regions observed. Morphological similarities between reptilian and mammalian glia are probably linked to their evolutionary conservation throughout vertebrate phylogeny.

  13. BOTHROPS JARARACUSSU: A NEW RECORD FOR THE MUNICIPALITY OF SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL

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    Silara Fatima Batista

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bothrops jararacussu is a terrestrial snake, predominantly nocturnal, and mainly found in forested areas. Our objective was to provide the first record of B.jararacussu for the municipality of São Paulo, in the highland of Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar (PESM, Núcleo Curucutu. The register ocurred through monthly samplings in the Núcleo Curucutu, during one year. The specimen was found in a transitional area of Atlantic upper montane forest and Pinus sp. reforestation. It represents a new altitude record (>800m in a well-preserved area, reiterating the importance of this park for the maintenance of biodiversity in this municipality and evinces the region potential to house rare species in São Paulo highland.

  14. [Neutralization of the hemorrhagic effect induced by Bothrops asper (Serpentes: Viperidae) venom with tropical plant extracts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, O; Gutiérrez, J M; Barrios, M; Castro, I; Romero, M; Umaña, E

    1999-09-01

    Organic extracts representing 48 species included in 30 families of Costa Rican tropical plants were evaluated for their ability to neutralize hemorrhagic activity induced by the venom of the snake Bothrops asper. A bioassay in mice was used, based on intradermal injection of either venom or venom-extract mixtures followed by the measurement of hemorrhagic areas. Total inhibition of hemorrhage was observed with the ethanolic, ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts of Bursera simaruba, Clusia torresii, C. palmana, Croton draco, Persea americana, Phoebe brenesii, Pimenta dioica, Sapindus saponaria, Smilax cuculmeca and Virola koschnyi. Chemical analysis of these extracts identified catequines, flavones, anthocyanines and condensated tannins, which may be responsible for the inhibitory effect observed, probably owing to the chelation of the zinc required for the catalytic activity of venom's hemorrhagic metalloproteinases.

  15. Intraspecific variation of Bothrops pubescens (cope, 1869 venom in Uruguay (serpentes: viperidae

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    V. Morais

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In Uruguay, there was no information about the variations degree in Bothrops pubescens venoms until the present work, in which we investigated intraspecific venom variation using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. We found some differences in the venom protein profile; however, they were not related to the parameters studied (geographic distribution, weight, sex, and captivity time. Moreover, we distinguished two different groups in relation to band densities at 49 and 57 kDa. Specimens with predominant density in the 49kDa band tend to be predominantly females. Weight distribution in this group extended for all the range (150-1500 g with an average weight of 720 g. The other group (57kDa predominant band showed restricted weight range (150-400 g with an average weight of 280 g. Cluster analysis was also performed. The variability observed in the venom profile probably corresponds to genetic variations.

  16. Molecular Cloning and Pharmacological Properties of an Acidic PLA2 from Bothrops pauloensis Snake Venom

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    Francis Barbosa Ferreira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we describe the molecular cloning and pharmacological properties of an acidic phospholipase A2 (PLA2 isolated from Bothrops pauloensis snake venom. This enzyme, denominated BpPLA2-TXI, was purified by four chromatographic steps and represents 2.4% of the total snake venom protein content. BpPLA2-TXI is a monomeric protein with a molecular mass of 13.6 kDa, as demonstrated by Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF analysis and its theoretical isoelectric point was 4.98. BpPLA2-TXI was catalytically active and showed some pharmacological effects such as inhibition of platelet aggregation induced by collagen or ADP and also induced edema and myotoxicity. BpPLA2-TXI displayed low cytotoxicity on TG-180 (CCRF S 180 II and Ovarian Carcinoma (OVCAR-3, whereas no cytotoxicity was found in regard to MEF (Mouse Embryonic Fibroblast and Sarcoma 180 (TIB-66. The N-terminal sequence of forty-eight amino acid residues was determined by Edman degradation. In addition, the complete primary structure of 122 amino acids was deduced by cDNA from the total RNA of the venom gland using specific primers, and it was significantly similar to other acidic D49 PLA2s. The phylogenetic analyses showed that BpPLA2-TXI forms a group with other acidic D49 PLA2s from the gender Bothrops, which are characterized by a catalytic activity associated with anti-platelet effects.

  17. Características biológicas e inmunológicas del veneno de Bothrops cotiara (Serpentes: Viperidae

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    Adolfo Rafael de Roodt

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Bothrops cotiara es una serpiente que se encuentra en la provincia de Misiones (Argentina, el Sur de Brasil y Paraguay. La información sobre las características clínicas de los accidentes por esta serpiente es muy escasa y existen pocos datos sobre su veneno y la capacidad neutralizante de las actividades tóxicas del mismo por antivenenos terapéuticos. En este trabajo se estudiaron características bioquímicas, actividades tóxicas y la reactividad inmunoquímica del veneno de B. cotiara. Seis antivenenos anti Viperinos Sudamericanos fueron estudiados frente a este veneno por el método ELISA y se probó la capacidad neutralizante de tres de estos frente a las actividades hemorrágica, necrotizante, procoagulante, trombina-símil, hemolítica indirecta y la potencia letal de veneno de ejemplares de B. cotiara de la provincia de Misiones. Los patrones cromatográficos y electroforéticos mostraron características similares a los de otros venenos de Bothrops. Las actividades tóxicas estuvieron dentro de los ámbitos descritos para los venenos botrópicos. Los seis antivenenos mostraron gran reactividad inmunoquímica por ELISA y las potencias neutralizantes de los tres estudiados fueron muy próximas para las actividades letal, hemorrágica, necrotizante, hemolítica indirecta, coagulante y trombina-símil. Los resultados de los estudios de neutralización indicarían que ante la mordedura de esta poco común especie de Bothrops, pueden usarse los diferentes tipos de antivenenos botrópicos o botrópico-crotálicos para uso terapéutico disponibles en esa región.Biological and immunological characteristics of the poison of Bothrops cotiara (Serpentes: Viperidae. Bothrops cotiara is a venomous snake sporadically found in the province of Misiones in Argentina, South of Brazil and Paraguay. Data on the clinics of the envenomation produced by its bite and on its venom are scarce. There is no information on the neutralizing capacity of the

  18. ENVENENAMIENTO OFIDICO POR EL GENERO Bothrops COMPLICADO CON MIOCARDIOPATIA TÓXICA: A PROPOSITO DE UN CASO.

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    Sajar Abusaid Palomo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El envenenamiento ofídico en Venezuela es un problema de salud pública, afectando a agricultores y mineros, implicada con mayor frecuencia la familia Viperidae, genero Bothrops. Presenta clínica variable, desde manifestaciones locales hasta sistémicas. Paciente femenina de 40 años, agricultora, consulta por dolor y aumento de volumen en cara lateral de pie izquierdo por envenenamiento ofídico. Acude a ambulatorio de su localidad, 24 horas después es trasladada al Hospital Universitario Ruiz y Páez, ingresando con diagnóstico de Envenenamiento Ofídico por Bothrops. Evoluciona tórpidamente presentando Insuficiencia Renal Aguda en terapia de hemodiálisis, Sepsis punto de partida respiratorio, Insuficiencia Respiratoria Aguda y Miocardiopatía Tóxica, por lo que ingresa a Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos y Cuidados Coronarios. Luego de marcada mejoría clínica es dada de alta. El envenenamiento ofídico por Bothrops corresponde 80% de los accidentes por mordeduras de serpientes, su pronóstico depende de la especie, atención medica-hospitalaria, el intervalo de tiempo ocurrido y el uso de la terapia antiofídica especifica.

  19. Bp-13 PLA2: Purification and Neuromuscular Activity of a New Asp49 Toxin Isolated from Bothrops pauloensis Snake Venom

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    Georgina Sucasaca-Monzón

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new PLA2 (Bp-13 was purified from Bothrops pauloensis snake venom after a single chromatographic step of RP-HPLC on μ-Bondapak C-18. Amino acid analysis showed a high content of hydrophobic and basic amino acids and 14 half-cysteine residues. The N-terminal sequence showed a high degree of homology with basic Asp49 PLA2 myotoxins from other Bothrops venoms. Bp-13 showed allosteric enzymatic behavior and maximal activity at pH 8.1, 36°–45°C. Full Bp-13 PLA2 activity required Ca2+; its PLA2 activity was inhibited by Mg2+, Mn2+, Sr2+, and Cd2+ in the presence and absence of 1 mM Ca2+. In the mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm (PND preparation, the time for 50% paralysis was concentration-dependent (P0.05. The main effect of this new Asp49 PLA2 of Bothrops pauloensis venom is on muscle fiber sarcolemma, with avian preparation being less responsive than rodent preparation. The study enhances biochemical and pharmacological characterization of B. pauloensis venom.

  20. Hemiparesia esquerda consecutiva a empeçonhamento: Por Bothrops Jararacussu

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    Napoleão L. Teixeira

    1944-09-01

    Full Text Available O A. apresenta uma observação de hemiparesia esquerda, consecutiva a envenenamento por Bothrops Jararacussu. É o segundo caso que publica, com idêntica etiologia; além das suas, há duas outras observações semelhantes, de Octávio de Magalhães. Depois de discorrer sobre as hemiplegias cerebrais infantis - mais comuns - lembra que estas nem sempre se acompanham de espasticidade, podendo apresentar-se, raramente, com hipotonia muscular, ou mesmo de coréia, atetose, ou movimentos córeo-atetóticos que falam em favor de comprometimento extrapiramidal. Assinala, também, que crises epileptiformes - generalizadas ou parciais - podem ocorrer, o mesmo se podendo dizer de distúrbios psíquicos. Traduzir-se-iam, estes, por déficit intelectual marcado, podendo ir desde a debilidade mental até a idiotia; ou então, mesmo quando não há aparente comprometimento da esfera intelectual, por perturbações da afetividade, da vontade e do pragmatismo. Passando em revista as causas mais frequentes das hemiplegias cerebrais infantis, abre lugar, dentre elas, para os empeçonhamentos ofídico e escorpiônico (Magalhães e Guimarães. Estuda, a seguir, a patogenia das hemiplegias no decurso dos referidos empeçonhamentos, alinhando as hipóteses correntes, da preferência de conceituadas autoridades no assunto. Transcreve, finalmente, sua observação clínica, da qual se pode concluir, sem dúvida possível, haver, no caso "que apresenta, estreita e imediata ligação entre o envenenamento ofídico e a hemiparesia em estudo. O observado seria portador, além do mais, de crises epileptiformes generalizadas, aparecidas logo a seguir ao empeçonhamento. Além da fotografia do caso que apresenta, mostra-nos o A. outra, de caso anteriormente publicado, este, porém, de hemiplegia cerebral infantil típica, instalada aos 11 anos, após picada de Bothrops jararaca.

  1. Investigating possible biological targets of Bj-CRP, the first cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP) isolated from Bothrops jararaca snake venom.

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    Lodovicho, Marina E; Costa, Tássia R; Bernardes, Carolina P; Menaldo, Danilo L; Zoccal, Karina F; Carone, Sante E; Rosa, José C; Pucca, Manuela B; Cerni, Felipe A; Arantes, Eliane C; Tytgat, Jan; Faccioli, Lúcia H; Pereira-Crott, Luciana S; Sampaio, Suely V

    2017-01-04

    Cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs) are commonly described as part of the protein content of snake venoms, nevertheless, so far, little is known about their biological targets and functions. Our study describes the isolation and characterization of Bj-CRP, the first CRISP isolated from Bothrops jararaca snake venom, also aiming at the identification of possible targets for its actions. Bj-CRP was purified using three chromatographic steps (Sephacryl S-200, Source 15Q and C18) and showed to be an acidic protein of 24.6kDa with high sequence identity to other snake venom CRISPs. This CRISP was devoid of proteolytic, hemorrhagic or coagulant activities, and it did not affect the currents from 13 voltage-gated potassium channel isoforms. Conversely, Bj-CRP induced inflammatory responses characterized by increase of leukocytes, mainly neutrophils, after 1 and 4h of its injection in the peritoneal cavity of mice, also stimulating the production of IL-6. Bj-CRP also acted on the human complement system, modulating some of the activation pathways and acting directly on important components (C3 and C4), thus inducing the generation of anaphylatoxins (C3a, C4a and C5a). Therefore, our results for Bj-CRP open up prospects for better understanding this class of toxins and its biological actions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Photobiomodulation of local alterations induced by BthTX-I, a phospholipase A2 myotoxin from Bothrops jararacussu snake venom: In vivo and in vitro evaluation.

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    Santos, Adriano Silvio Dos; Guimarães-Sousa, Ludmila; Costa, Maricilia Silva; Zamuner, Luis Fernando; Sousa, Norma Cristina; Hyslop, Stephen; Soares, Andreimar M; Chavantes, Maria Cristina; Cogo, José Carlos; Zamuner, Stella Regina

    2018-02-01

    This report describes the effect of photobiomodulation (PBM) on edema formation, leukocyte influx, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) biosynthesis and cytotoxicity caused by bothropstoxin-I (BthTX-I), a phospholipase A2 (PLA2) homologue isolated from Bothrops jararacussu snake venom. Swiss mice or C2C12 cells were irradiated with low-level laser (LLL) at 685nm wavelength, an energy density of 4.6J/cm2 and an irradiation time of 13s. To evaluate the effect on edema formation and leukocyte influx, LLL was applied to the site of inoculation 30min and 3h post-injection. C2C12 cells were exposed to BthTX-I and immediately irradiated. PBM significantly reduced paw edema formation, peritoneal leukocyte influx and PGE2 synthesis, but increased the viability of C2C12 muscle cells after BthTX-I incubation. These findings demonstrate that PBM attenuated the inflammatory events induced by BthTX-I. The attenuation of PGE2 synthesis could be an important factor in the reduced inflammatory response caused by laser irradiation. The ability of LLL irradiation to protect muscle cells against the deleterious effects of BthTX-I may indicate preservation of the plasma membrane. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Local and systemic effects of BdipTX-I, a Lys-49 phospholipase A2 isolated from Bothrops diporus snake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixera, Leda Fabiélen; de Carvalho, Letícia Helena; de Castro, Onássis Boeri; Bastos, Jéssica Silva Félix; Néry, Neriane Monteiro; Oliveira, George Azevedo; Kayano, Anderson Makoto; Soares, Andreimar Martins; Zuliani, Juliana Pavan

    2018-01-01

    The present work aimed to isolate a basic phospholipase A2 (PLA2) from Bothrops diporus snake venom (BdV), evaluate and compare the myotoxic and oedema-inducing activities, as well as the systemic effects caused by both the isolated PLA2 and BdV on Swiss mice. A Lys-49 PLA2 (BdipTX-I) was obtained through two chromatographic steps: an ion-exchange and a reverse phase. The local (oedema and myotoxicity) and systemic (hepatic and renal functions) effects were then assessed for BdipTX-I and BdV. Results showed that the oedema-inducing activity was significant in all tested doses (5 and 20 μg/paw) for both BdipTX-I and BdV. Myotoxicity was evaluated by the increase of serum CK, CK-MB and LDH, and results showed that BdV effect is more prominent than BdipTX-I effect. The systemic effects were evaluated by determining specific laboratory markers: AST, ALT, GGT, ALP, urea, creatinine, protein and calcium. BdipTX-I and BdV were able to induce renal changes in the experimental model, leading to proteinuria (induced both by BdipTX-I and by BdV) and uremia (induced only by BdV). Thus, it is concluded that the systemic effects of BdV and BdipTX-I occur differently. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A influência dos ritmos circadianos no metabolismo da serpente Bothrops jararaca (Serpentes, Viperidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.5030 The influence of circadian rhythms on the metabolism of the snake Bothrops jararaca (Serpentes, Viperidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.5030

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    José Geraldo Pereira da Cruz

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A atividade termorreguladora conduziu a uma busca extensiva para o entendimento das correlações entre as variáveis fisiológicas, incluindo as funções metabólicas e a temperatura corporal. Frequentes observações mostram que algumas serpentes podem se aquecer, sendo este aumento de temperatura independente da temperatura ambiente, indicando a termorregulação bem sucedida. Bothrops jararaca foram expostas a dois ambientes com diferentes temperaturas (20 e 30oC durante três semanas, sendo mensuradas a temperatura corporal e o consumo de oxigênio. O aumento da temperatura corporal e consumo de oxigênio de Bothrops jararaca ocorreram na fase de escuro do fotoperíodo, consistente para espécies noturnas. Entretanto, antecedendo a fase de escuro, as serpentes em 20oC apresentaram os níveis mais elevados durante o dia para temperatura corporal e consumo de oxigênio. Estes resultados indicam pela primeira vez que animais termodependentes podem controlar a temperatura corporal por meio de ritmos fisiológicos circadianos, semelhante aos observados em termoindependentes. Os ritmos circadianos permitem que os animais antecipem as mudanças no ambiente: parâmetros fisiológicos como a temperatura corporal e as reservas de energia ou sua mobilização podem ser ajustadas antes que as mudanças ambientais previstas ocorram realmente.The thermoregulatory activity has led to an extensive search for correlations between physiological variables, including metabolic functions, and the ideal level of body temperature. Snakes were also often seen basking, when their body temperatures were relatively independent of ambient temperature, indicating successful thermoregulation. Bothrops jararaca were exposed to two different ambient temperatures (20 and 30ºC over a time course of three weeks and oxygen consumption and body temperature were measured. The snakes exhibited a freerunning rhythm of body temperature. Metabolic rate was increased at the same

  5. Envenenamento experimental por Bothropoides jararaca e Bothrops jararacussu em ovinos: aspectos clínico-patológicos e laboratoriais Experimental poisoning by Bothropoides jararaca and Bothrops jararacussu in sheep: clinic-pathological and laboratory aspects

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    Ana Paula Aragão

    2010-09-01

    Bothropoides jararaca and Bothrops jararacussu venom to provide subsidies for the differential diagnosis of snake bites. The liofilized venoms were diluted in 1 ml saline and administrated subcutaneously to four sheep. Three of the animals died, and the one that received 0.5mg/kg (B. jararaca venom recovered. First symptoms were observed from 7 minutes to 1 hour after inoculation, and the clinical course varied from 7 hours and 9 minutes to 21 hours and 59 minutes. The symptoms, independent of the dosage, were swelling of the inoculation site, increased bleeding time and capillary filling, tachycardia, dyspnea, pale mucous membranes and diminished reaction to external stimuli. Laboratory tests revealed pronounced normocytic and normochromic anemia, trombocytopenia, slight reduction of fibrogen and total plasmatic protein, in two animals diminished hematocrit, besides pronounced increase of creatinaquinase and lactic dehydrogenase. At necropsy, the main findings at the inoculation site and adjacent tissues were extensive hemorrhages in the sheep inoculated with jararaca venom, and predominantly edema in the two animals inoculated with jararacussu venom. In two sheep which received jararacussu venom, acute pulmonary edema was observed. Hemorrhage and edema as the main histopathological changes, besides necrosis of muscle fibers and vessels at the inoculation site and adjacent tissue was observed. The renal tubular necrosis was attributed to shock. The volume increase at the inoculation site and surroundings was mainly due to hemorrhage (B. jararaca or edema (B. jararacussu.

  6. Individual variability in the venom proteome of juvenile Bothrops jararaca specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Gabriela S; Kitano, Eduardo S; Pagotto, Ana H; Sant'anna, Sávio S; Rocha, Marisa M T; Zelanis, André; Serrano, Solange M T

    2013-10-04

    Snake venom proteomes/peptidomes are highly complex and subject to ontogenetic changes. Individual variation in the venom proteome of juvenile snakes is poorly known. We report the proteomic analysis of venoms from 21 juvenile specimens of Bothrops jararaca of different geographical origins and correlate it with the evaluation of important venom features. Individual venoms showed similar caseinolytic activities; however, their amidolytic activities were significantly different. Rather intriguingly, plasma coagulant activity showed remarkable variability among the venoms but not the prothrombin-activating activity. LC-MS analysis showed significant differences between venoms; however, an interesting finding was the ubiquitous presence of the tripeptide ZKW, an endogenous inhibitor of metalloproteinases. Electrophoretic profiles of proteins submitted to reduction showed significant variability in total proteins, glycoproteins, and in the subproteomes of proteinases. Moreover, identification of differential bands revealed variation in most B. jararaca toxin classes. Profiles of venoms analyzed under nonreducing conditions showed less individual variability and identification of proteins in a conserved band revealed the presence of metalloproteinases and l-amino acid oxidase as common components of these venoms. Taken together, our findings suggest that individual venom proteome variability in B. jararaca exists from a very early animal age and is not a result of ontogenetic and diet changes.

  7. Irradiation of the Crude Venom of Bothrops jararacussu to Obtain Toxoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Camila G.; Avalloni, Tânia M.; Oshima-Franco, Yoko; de J. Oliveira, Sara; de Oliveira, José M.; Cogo, José C.

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this work was to reduce the toxicity of Bothrops jararacussu venom using gamma-rays of low-energy coming from a source of Americium-241 (E = 59.6 keV and 3.7×109 Bq of activity) in order to obtain a toxoid. The radiation dose that each sample received was controlled by exposure time of the venom to the radiation beam. Mouse nerve phrenic-diaphragm preparation was used for testing the loss of venom toxicity, since the venom causes an irreversible neuromuscular blockade. In this condition, the several samples of irradiated venom, when assayed in neuromuscular preparation showed that with a dose of 0.051 Gy the paralysis caused by the irradiated venom was of 91%, at 0.360 Gy was of 79%, at 1.662 Gy was of 50% and at 2.448 Gy was of 42%. Therefore, it can be concluded that the irradiation model was able to induce a progressive loss of the venom toxicity.

  8. Evaluation of anti-Bothrops asper venom activity of ethanolic extract of Brownea rosademonte leaves

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    Salazar Marcos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Significant inhibition of the coagulant and hemorrhagic effects of Bothrops asper venom was demonstrated by ethanolic extract prepared from the leaves of Brownea rosademonte. In vitro experiments preincubating 5.5 mg of extract kg-1 b.m. for 30 min with a minimum hemorrhagic dose of venom (273.8 ± 16.1 μg of venom kg-1 b.m. lowered the hemorrhagic activity of the venom alone in CD-1 mice by 51.5 ± 2.6 %. Additionally, 1.7 mg extract L-1 plasma prolonged 5.1 times the plasma coagulation time. Fractionation of the extract led to the isolation of two compounds: ononitol (1 and quercetrin (2. The structure of compounds 1 and 2 was established by spectroscopic analyses, including APCI-HRMS and NMR (1H, 13C, HSQC, HMBC and COSY. A quercetrin concentration of 0.11 μmol L-1 prolonged the plasma coagulation time 2.6 times demonstrating that this compound was one of the active constituents of the Brownea rosademonte extract.

  9. Envenomations by Bothrops and Crotalus Snakes Induce the Release of Mitochondrial Alarmins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zornetta, Irene; Caccin, Paola; Fernandez, Julián; Lomonte, Bruno; Gutierrez, José María; Montecucco, Cesare

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscle necrosis is a common manifestation of viperid snakebite envenomations. Venoms from snakes of the genus Bothrops, such as that of B. asper, induce muscle tissue damage at the site of venom injection, provoking severe local pathology which often results in permanent sequelae. In contrast, the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, induces a clinical picture of systemic myotoxicity, i.e., rhabdomyolysis, together with neurotoxicity. It is known that molecules released from damaged muscle might act as ‘danger’ signals. These are known as ‘alarmins’, and contribute to the inflammatory reaction by activating the innate immune system. Here we show that the venoms of B. asper and C. d. terrificus release the mitochondrial markers mtDNA (from the matrix) and cytochrome c (Cyt c) from the intermembrane space, from ex vivo mouse tibialis anterior muscles. Cyt c was released to a similar extent by the two venoms whereas B. asper venom induced the release of higher amounts of mtDNA, thus reflecting hitherto some differences in their pathological action on muscle mitochondria. At variance, injection of these venoms in mice resulted in a different time-course of mtDNA release, with B. asper venom inducing an early onset increment in plasma levels and C. d. terrificus venom provoking a delayed release. We suggest that the release of mitochondrial ‘alarmins’ might contribute to the local and systemic inflammatory events characteristic of snakebite envenomations. PMID:22363828

  10. The effects of low-level laser on muscle damage caused by Bothrops neuwiedi venom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dourado, D.M.; Matias, R.; Almeida, M.F.; Paula, K.R. de; Carvalho, P.T.C. [University for the Development of the State and of the Region of Pantanal (UNIDERP), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Lab. of Experimental Histopathology]. E-mail: ccfi@uniderp.br; Vieira, R.P. [University of Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). School of Medicine. Dept. of Pathology and Physical Therapy; Oliveira, L.V.F. [Nove de Julho University (UNINOVE), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Masters Program in Rehabilitation Sciences

    2008-07-01

    The present study aimed to assess the effects of low-level laser (660 nm) on myonecrosis caused by the insertion of Bothrops neuwiedi venom in the gastrocnemius muscle of rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n = 24 each): Group S (0.9% saline solution); Group V (venom) and Group VLLL (venom plus low-level laser). These categories were subdivided into four additional groups (n = 6) based on the euthanasia timing (3 hours, 24 hours, 3 days and 7 days). The groups V and VLLL were inoculated with 100 {mu}L of concentrated venom (40 {mu}g/mL) in the gastrocnemius muscle. The muscle was irradiated using a gallium-aluminum-arsenide laser (GaAlAs) at 35 mW power and 4 J/cm{sup 2} energy density for 3 hours, 24 hours, 3 days or 7 days after venom inoculation. To evaluate the myotoxic activity of the venom, CK activity was measured and the muscle was histologically analyzed. The low-level laser reduced venom-induced CK activity in the groups euthanized at 3 hours, 24 hours and 3 days (p < 0.0001). Histological analysis revealed that low-level laser reduced neutrophilic inflammation as well as myofibrillar edema, hemorrhage and myonecrosis following B. neuwiedi envenomation. These results suggest that low-level laser can be useful as an adjunct therapy following B. neuwiedi envenomation. (author)

  11. Antivenom Effects of 1,2,3-Triazoles against Bothrops jararaca and Lachesis muta Snakes

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    Thaisa F. S. Domingos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Snake venoms are complex mixtures of proteins of both enzymes and nonenzymes, which are responsible for producing several biological effects. Human envenomation by snake bites particularly those of the viperid family induces a complex pathophysiological picture characterized by spectacular changes in hemostasis and frequently hemorrhage is also seen. The present work reports the ability of six of a series of 1,2,3-triazole derivatives to inhibit some pharmacological effects caused by the venoms of Bothrops jararaca and Lachesis muta. In vitro assays showed that these compounds were impaired in a concentration-dependent manner, the fibrinogen or plasma clotting, hemolysis, and proteolysis produced by both venoms. Moreover, these compounds inhibited biological effects in vivo as well. Mice treated with these compounds were fully protected from hemorrhagic lesions caused by such venoms. But, only the B. jararaca edema-inducing activity was neutralized by the triazoles. So the inhibitory effect of triazoles derivatives against some in vitro and in vivo biological assays of snake venoms points to promising aspects that may indicate them as molecular models to improve the production of effective antivenom or to complement antivenom neutralization, especially the local pathological effects, which are partially neutralized by antivenoms.

  12. A New Platelet-Aggregation-Inhibiting Factor Isolated from Bothrops moojeni Snake Venom

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    Bruna Barbosa de Sousa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the purification and functional characterization of BmooPAi, a platelet-aggregation-inhibiting factor from Bothrops moojeni snake venom. The toxin was purified by a combination of three chromatographic steps (ion-exchange on DEAE-Sephacel, molecular exclusion on Sephadex G-75, and affinity chromatography on HiTrap™ Heparin HP. BmooPAi was found to be a single-chain protein with an apparent molecular mass of 32 kDa on 14% SDS-PAGE, under reducing conditions. Sequencing of BmooPAi by Edman degradation revealed the amino acid sequence LGPDIVPPNELLEVM. The toxin was devoid of proteolytic, haemorrhagic, defibrinating, or coagulant activities and induced no significant oedema or hyperalgesia. BmooPAi showed a rather specific inhibitory effect on ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation in human platelet-rich plasma, whereas it had little or no effect on platelet aggregation induced by collagen and adenosine diphosphate. The results presented in this work suggest that BmooPAi is a toxin comprised of disintegrin-like and cysteine-rich domains, originating from autolysis/proteolysis of PIII SVMPs from B. moojeni snake venom. This toxin may be of medical interest because it is a platelet aggregation inhibitor, which could potentially be developed as a novel therapeutic agent to prevent and/or treat patients with thrombotic disorders.

  13. Pulsed ultrasound therapy accelerates the recovery of skeletal muscle damage induced by Bothrops jararacussu venom

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    J. Saturnino-Oliveira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effect of pulsed ultrasound therapy (UST and antibothropic polyvalent antivenom (PAV on the regeneration of mouse extensor digitorum longus muscle following damage by Bothrops jararacussu venom. Animals (Swiss male and female mice weighing 25.0 ± 5.0 g; 5 animals per group received a perimuscular injection of venom (1 mg/kg and treatment with UST was started 1 h later (1 min/day, 3 MHz, 0.3 W/cm², pulsed mode. Three and 28 days after injection, muscles were dissected and processed for light microscopy. The venom caused complete degeneration of muscle fibers. UST alone and combined with PAV (1.0 mL/kg partially protected these fibers, whereas muscles receiving no treatment showed disorganized fascicules and fibers with reduced diameter. Treatment with UST and PAV decreased the effects of the venom on creatine kinase content and motor activity (approximately 75 and 48%, respectively. Sonication of the venom solution immediately before application decreased the in vivo and ex vivo myotoxic activities (approximately 60 and 50%, respectively. The present data show that UST counteracts some effects of B. jararacussu venom, causing structural and functional improvement of the regenerated muscle after venom injury.

  14. The effects of low-level laser on muscle damage caused by Bothrops neuwiedi venom

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    DM Dourado

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to assess the effects of low-level laser (660 nm on myonecrosis caused by the insertion of Bothrops neuwiedi venom in the gastrocnemius muscle of rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n = 24 each: Group S (0.9% saline solution; Group V (venom and Group VLLL (venom plus low-level laser. These categories were subdivided into four additional groups (n = 6 based on the euthanasia timing (3 hours, 24 hours, 3 days and 7 days. The groups V and VLLL were inoculated with 100 µL of concentrated venom (40 µg/mL in the gastrocnemius muscle. The muscle was irradiated using a gallium-aluminum-arsenide laser (GaAlAs at 35 mW power and 4 J/cm² energy density for 3 hours, 24 hours, 3 days or 7 days after venom inoculation. To evaluate the myotoxic activity of the venom, CK activity was measured and the muscle was histologically analyzed. The low-level laser reduced venom-induced CK activity in the groups euthanized at 3 hours, 24 hours and 3 days (p < 0.0001. Histological analysis revealed that low-level laser reduced neutrophilic inflammation as well as myofibrillar edema, hemorrhage and myonecrosis following B. neuwiedi envenomation. These results suggest that low-level laser can be useful as an adjunct therapy following B. neuwiedi envenomation.

  15. Functional characterization of fibrinolytic metalloproteinases (colombienases) isolated from Bothrops colombiensis venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girón, María E; Guerrero, Belsy; Salazar, Ana María; Sánchez, Elda E; Alvarez, Marco; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis

    2013-11-01

    Researchers trying to improve the safety and efficacy of fibrinolytic therapy have been isolating fibrinolytic enzymes from snake venoms. Two fibrinolytic enzymes, colombienases 1 and 2, with significant activity have been isolated from the venom of Bothrops colombiensis. The colombienases were characterized for various biological activities which include hemorrhagic, fibrinogenolytic, proteolytic, hemolytic, edematogenic and cytotoxic. Colombienases directly acted on fibrin by degrading fibrinogen Aα and Bβ chains without activating the fibrinolytic system (plasminogen/plasmin), additionally colombienase-2 degraded fibrinogen γ chains as well as the fibronectin molecule. Laminin and type IV collagen were colombienases resistant. Gelatin-zymogram activity was present in B. colombiensis venom (BcV) bands between 64 and 148 kDa. All activities were abolished by metalloproteinases inhibitors. Both enzymes lacked hemorrhagic, hemolytic, cytotoxic, plasminogen activator and coagulant activities. Both colombienases had direct fibrino(geno)lytic activity without other toxic side effects including in vivo hemorrhaging, which could be promising in terms of therapeutic potential as thrombolytic agents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Estudio bioquímico del veneno de la serpiente Bothrops hyoprorus

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    César Bonilla

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la purificación parcial de la enzima Fosfolipasa A del veneno de Bothrops hyoprorus y la caracterización de sus actividades hemolítica y citotóxica. La actividad fosfolipásica se detectó en dos fracciones de 23 y 12 Kd por cromatografía en Sephadex G-100 y G-50. Las actividades fosfolipásica y hemolítica fueron detectadas en las mismas fracciones. Los ensayos de Western-blot, sugieren que la fracción con 12 Kd es un producto de degradación, in-vitro, del polipéptido mayor. La actividad citotóxica de la fracción fue evidente sólo a elevadas concentraciones, sugiriéndose que moléculas diferentes a Fosfolipasa A serián responsables del efecto citotóxico del veneno

  17. Acción de la miotoxina del veneno de Bothrops brazili Hoge, 1953 (Ophidia: Viperidae

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    Carmen Pantigoso

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Se ha estudiado el modo de acción de la miotoxina aislada del veneno de la serpiente Bothrops brazili. La inoculación de la miotoxina en el músculo gastrocnemius de ratones albinos produce durante la primera hora de acción la liberación de creatina kinasa y lactato deshidrogenasa, mientras que por PAGE-SDS, se revela que la incubación de la miotoxina con músculo gastrocnemius aislado, produce además la liberación de otras proteínas musculares. Asimismo, la miotoxina produce hipercontracción, lesiones delta e incrementa los niveles de calcio intramuscular, tanto in vivo como in vitro, lo cual no depende del ingreso de calcio extracelular vía receptores de dihidropiridina. Este incremento de calcio explicaría la hipercontracción observada y podría generar la activación de proteasas y lipasas endógenas dependientes de calcio, que conducirían a la necrosis muscular.

  18. Envenomations by Bothrops and Crotalus snakes induce the release of mitochondrial alarmins.

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    Irene Zornetta

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle necrosis is a common manifestation of viperid snakebite envenomations. Venoms from snakes of the genus Bothrops, such as that of B. asper, induce muscle tissue damage at the site of venom injection, provoking severe local pathology which often results in permanent sequelae. In contrast, the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, induces a clinical picture of systemic myotoxicity, i.e., rhabdomyolysis, together with neurotoxicity. It is known that molecules released from damaged muscle might act as 'danger' signals. These are known as 'alarmins', and contribute to the inflammatory reaction by activating the innate immune system. Here we show that the venoms of B. asper and C. d. terrificus release the mitochondrial markers mtDNA (from the matrix and cytochrome c (Cyt c from the intermembrane space, from ex vivo mouse tibialis anterior muscles. Cyt c was released to a similar extent by the two venoms whereas B. asper venom induced the release of higher amounts of mtDNA, thus reflecting hitherto some differences in their pathological action on muscle mitochondria. At variance, injection of these venoms in mice resulted in a different time-course of mtDNA release, with B. asper venom inducing an early onset increment in plasma levels and C. d. terrificus venom provoking a delayed release. We suggest that the release of mitochondrial 'alarmins' might contribute to the local and systemic inflammatory events characteristic of snakebite envenomations.

  19. Abarema cochliacarpos Extract Decreases the Inflammatory Process and Skeletal Muscle Injury Induced by Bothrops leucurus Venom

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    Jeison Saturnino-Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Snakebites are a public health problem, especially in tropical countries. However, treatment with antivenom has limited effectiveness against venoms’ local effects. Here, we investigated the ability of Abarema cochliacarpos hydroethanolic extract (EAc to protect mice against injection of Bothrops leucurus venom. Swiss mice received perimuscular venom injection and were subsequently treated orally with EAc in different doses. Treatment with EAc 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg reduced the edema induced by B. leucurus in 1%, 13%, and 39%, respectively. Although lower doses showed no antihypernociceptive effect in the Von Frey test, the higher dose significantly reduced hyperalgesia induced by the venom. Antimyotoxic activity of EAc was also observed by microscopy assessment, with treated muscles presenting preserved structures, decreased edema, and inflammatory infiltrate as compared to untreated ones. Finally, on the rotarod test, the treated mice showed better motor function, once muscle fibers were preserved and there were less edema and pain. Treated mice could stand four times more time on the rotating rod than untreated ones. Our results have shown that EAc presented relevant activities against injection of B. leucurus venom in mice, suggesting that it can be considered as an adjuvant in the treatment of envenomation.

  20. ENVENENAMIENTO OFIDICO POR EL GENERO Bothrops COMPLICADO CON MIOCARDIOPATIA TÓXICA: A PROPOSITO DE UN CASO.

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    Sajar Abusaid Palomo; Carlos Muñoz Medina; Milagros Mota Carvajal; Marisol Sandoval

    2014-01-01

    El envenenamiento ofídico en Venezuela es un problema de salud pública, afectando a agricultores y mineros, implicada con mayor frecuencia la familia Viperidae, genero Bothrops. Presenta clínica variable, desde manifestaciones locales hasta sistémicas. Paciente femenina de 40 años, agricultora, consulta por dolor y aumento de volumen en cara lateral de pie izquierdo por envenenamiento ofídico. Acude a ambulatorio de su localidad, 24 horas después es trasladada al Hospital Universitario Ruiz y...

  1. First record of Porocephalus cf. clavatus (Pentastomida: Porocephalida) as a parasite on Bothrops asper (Squamata: Viperidae) in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, G; Sánchez-Monge, A

    2015-11-01

    Pentastomids are parasites that infect respiratory cavities of vertebrates, they are pretty common but poorly known in wildlife veterinary. A Bothrops asper snake (Garman, 1884) was captured in the Caribbean region of Costa Rica and had its lung infested with pentastomids, identified as ca Porocephalus clavatus (Wyman, 1845). This represents the first record of Porocephalus (Humboldt, 1812) on B. asper as well as P. cf. clavatus in Costa Rica. Further studies are needed to clarify their taxonomic position, images and scanning electron microscopy photographs (SEM) of the specimens are given.

  2. First record of Porocephalus cf. clavatus (Pentastomida: Porocephalida as a parasite on Bothrops asper (Squamata: Viperidae in Costa Rica

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    G. Alvarado

    Full Text Available Abstract Pentastomids are parasites that infect respiratory cavities of vertebrates, they are pretty common but poorly known in wildlife veterinary. A Bothrops asper snake (Garman, 1884 was captured in the Caribbean region of Costa Rica and had its lung infested with pentastomids, identified as ca Porocephalus clavatus (Wyman, 1845. This represents the first record of Porocephalus (Humboldt, 1812 on B. asper as well as P. cf. clavatus in Costa Rica. Further studies are needed to clarify their taxonomic position, images and scanning electron microscopy photographs (SEM of the specimens are given.

  3. Eficacia experimental de anticuerpos IgY producidos en huevos, contra el veneno de la serpiente peruana Bothrops atrox Experimental efficacy of IgY antibodies produced in eggs against the venom of the Peruvian snake Bothrops atrox

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    Julio C. Mendoza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Desarrollar un protocolo de inmunización para producir inmunoglobulinas IgY de origen aviar contra el veneno de la serpiente peruana Bothrops atrox y evaluar la capacidad neutralizante. Materiales y métodos. Se inmunizaron seis gallinas de postura de la raza hy line brown con 500 μg/dosis de veneno de B. atrox en un periodo de dos meses. Cada semana, los huevos fueron colectados para el aislamiento de inmunoglobulinas IgY a partir de la yema, usando dos pasos consecutivos con αcido caprνlico y sulfato de amonio. La detecciσn de anticuerpos se realizσ por inmunodifusiσn doble mientras que el tνtulo y reactividad cruzada se determinaron por las técnicas de ELISA y Western blot. El cálculo de DL50 y de la DE50 del antiveneno IgY producido se realizó utilizando el método de Probits. Resultados. La masa de anticuerpos aislados fue de 8,5 ± 1,35 mg de IgY/mL de yema. Asimismo, la DE50 del antiveneno aviar fue calculada en 575 μL de antiveneno/mg de veneno. Adicionalmente, los ensayos de reactividad cruzada mostraron que el veneno de B. atrox comparte mas epνtopes comunes con el veneno de B. brazili (47% que con otros veneno del mismo género, en tanto que los venenos de Lachesis muta (19% y Crotalus durissus (12% mostraron una baja reactividad cruzada. Conclusiones. Se ha obtenido IgY purificada contra el veneno de B. atrox con capacidad neutralizante y se ha demostrado su utilidad como herramienta inmunoanalítica para evaluar la reactividad cruzada con venenos de otras especies.Objectives. To develop an immunization protocol in order to produce avian IgY immunoglobulins against Bothrops atrox Peruvian snake venom and to evaluate its neutralizing capacity. Materials and methods. Six Hy Line Brown hens were immunized each two weeks using 500μg/doses of B. atrox venom in a period of two months. Each week, eggs were collected for IgY isolation from yolk using two consecutive steps with caprilic acid and ammonium sulfate

  4. Purification and Biochemical Characterization of Three Myotoxins from Bothrops mattogrossensis Snake Venom with Toxicity against Leishmania and Tumor Cells

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    Andréa A. de Moura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bothrops mattogrossensis snake is widely distributed throughout eastern South America and is responsible for snakebites in this region. This paper reports the purification and biochemical characterization of three new phospholipases A2 (PLA2s, one of which is presumably an enzymatically active Asp49 and two are very likely enzymatically inactive Lys49 PLA2 homologues. The purification was obtained after two chromatographic steps on ion exchange and reverse phase column. The 2D SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that the proteins have pI values around 10, are each made of a single chain, and have molecular masses near 13 kDa, which was confirmed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The N-terminal similarity analysis of the sequences showed that the proteins are highly homologous with other Lys49 and Asp49 PLA2s from Bothrops species. The PLA2s isolated were named BmatTX-I (Lys49 PLA2-like, BmatTX-II (Lys49 PLA2-like, and BmatTX-III (Asp49 PLA2. The PLA2s induced cytokine release from mouse neutrophils and showed cytotoxicity towards JURKAT (leukemia T and SK-BR-3 (breast adenocarcinoma cell lines and promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis. The structural and functional elucidation of snake venoms components may contribute to a better understanding of the mechanism of action of these proteins during envenomation and their potential pharmacological and therapeutic applications.

  5. Spectroscopic and thermal characterization of alternative model biomembranes from shed skins of Bothrops jararaca and Spilotis pullatus

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    André Rolim Baby

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been an interest in the use of shed snake skin as alternative model biomembrane for human stratum corneum. This research work presented as objective the qualitative characterization of alternative model biomembranes from Bothrops jararaca and Spilotis pullatus by FT-Raman, PAS-FTIR and DSC. The employed biophysical techniques permitted the characterization of the biomembranes from shed snake skin of B. jararaca and S. pullatus by the identification of vibrational frequencies and endothermic transitions that are similar to those of the human stratum corneum.Existe atualmente interesse no uso da muda de pele de cobra como modelos alternativos de biomembranas da pele humana. O presente trabalho apresentou como objetivo a caracterização qualitativa de modelos alternativos de biomembranas provenientes de mudas de pele de cobra da Bothrops jararaca e Spilotis pullatus por espectroscopia Raman (FT-Raman, espectroscopia fotoacústica no infravermelho (PAS-FTIR e calorimetria exploratória diferencial (DSC. As técnicas biofísicas FT-Raman, PAS-FTIR e DSC permitiram caracterizar qualitativamente os modelos alternativos de biomembranas provenientes das mudas de pele de cobra da B. jararaca e S. pullatus e identificar freqüências vibracionais e transições endotérmicas similares ao estrato córneo humano.

  6. Isolation and Biochemical Characterization of a New Thrombin-Like Serine Protease from Bothrops pirajai Snake Venom

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    Kayena D. Zaqueo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel serine protease (SP isolated from Bothrops pirajai, a venomous snake found solely in Brazil that belongs to the Viperidae family. The identified SP, named BpirSP-39, was isolated by three chromatographic steps (size exclusion, bioaffinity, and reverse phase chromatographies. The molecular mass of BpirSP-39 was estimated by SDS-PAGE and confirmed by mass spectrometry (39,408.32 Da. The protein was able to form fibrin networks, which was not observed in the presence of serine protease inhibitors, such as phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF. Furthermore, BpirSP-39 presented considerable thermal stability and was apparently able to activate factor XIII of the blood coagulation cascade, unlike most serine proteases. BpirSP-39 was capable of hydrolyzing different chromogenic substrates tested (S-2222, S-2302, and S-2238 while Cu2+ significantly diminished BspirSP-39 activity on the three tested substrates. The enzyme promoted platelet aggregation and also exhibited fibrinogenolytic, fibrinolytic, gelatinolytic, and amidolytic activities. The multiple alignment showed high sequence similarity to other thrombin-like enzymes from snake venoms. These results allow us to conclude that a new SP was isolated from Bothrops pirajai snake venom.

  7. Toxicity of Bothrops neuwiedi complex ("yarará chica") venom from different regions of Argentina (Serpentes, Viperidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Vanessa Costa; Lanari, Laura Cecilia; Hajos, Silvia Elvira; de Roodt, Adolfo Rafael

    2011-04-01

    We report a study of toxic and enzymatic activities of Bothrops neuwiedi complex venoms collected from specimens of different regions of Argentina and a pool of these same venoms. Were determined lethal, hemorrhagic and pro-coagulant (plasma and fibrinogen) doses and the neutralization of these activities by a bivalent antivenom. The electrophoretic pattern of different regions venom was studied by SDS-PAGE. All samples exhibited lethal potencies, hemorrhagic and coagulant (plasma and fibrinogen) activities with potencies concordant with previous studies. The only conspicuous difference in the toxicological pattern of Bothrops diporus venoms was the low-thrombin-like activity found in one sample. The antivenom used in this study could neutralize all the toxic activities tested and the neutralizing potency of the antivenom was comparable for all samples. Despite the wide distribution of B. neuwiedi complex throughout Argentina and the evident morphological variation between B. diporus (B. neuwiedi complex), this study establishes a remarkably similar toxicity profile throughout its range. This is the first systematic study on the regional variation of enzymatic and toxic activities of venom from species belonging to the B. neuwiedi complex, one of the snakes of highest sanitary importance in South America and their neutralization by the type of antivenom most commonly used in the South of South America. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Inhibition of the inflammatory and coagulant action of Bothrops atrox venom by the plant species Marsypianthes chamaedrys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Alcineide; Santos, Gleyce Barbosa Dos; Verdam, Maria Christina Dos Santos; Fraporti, Liziara; Malheiro, Adriana; Lima, Emerson Silva; Dos-Santos, Maria Cristina

    2011-03-08

    This study investigated the efficacy of Marsypianthes chamaedrys Vahl (Lamiaceae) inflorescence and leaf extracts in inhibiting the inflammatory and coagulant actions of Bothrops atrox venom. Marsypianthes chamaedrys, which is used in Brazil as a folk medicine to treat snakebites and local inflammatory reactions, was tested in vitro to determine its ability to block indirect phospholipase A(2) and direct coagulant activities and in vivo to determine its ability to inhibit leukocyte migration and cytokine release. In vitro, Marsypianthes chamaedrys showed antiphospholipase A(2) and anticoagulant activities; the latter activity was also confirmed by prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) in the absence of venom. Of the extracts used, those obtained from the crushed plant had the greater inhibitory activity in in vitro tests, showing that biological activity is affected by the way extracts are obtained. In vivo, Marsypianthes chamaedrys inhibited leukocyte migration and the release of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α without altering the concentration of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. As specific antivenoms are not effective in neutralizing the local action of Bothrops venoms, characterization of the anti-inflammatory mechanisms induced by Marsypianthes chamaedrys is of vital importance if the extracts of this plant species are to be used in future as adjuvants in the treatment of snakebites. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of platelet number and function and fibrinogen level in patients bitten by snakes of the Bothrops genus

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    Fábio Cardoso Luan

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Platelet function and plasma fibrinogen levels were evaluated in 14 patients, 10 males and 4females, aged 13-59years bitten by Bothrops genus snakes. There was a statistical difference (p Foram avaliadas a função plaquetária e os níveis séricos de fibrinogênio em 14 doentes picados por serpentes do gênero Bothrops, sendo 10 do sexo masculino e 4 do sexo feminino, com idades compreendidas entre 13 e 59 anos. Houve diferença estatística (p < 0,05 entre os níveis séricos defibrinogênio avaliados 24 e 48 horas após o acidente. Houve tendência à normalização após 48 horas do tratamento. A plaquetopenia foi evidente nas avaliações de 24 e 48 horas. Houve tendência à nomalização no 8o dia após o tratamento (p <0,05. Os níveis de produtos de degradação defibrina (PDF mostraram-se alterados em 83,33 % dos pacientes avaliados. Os autores sugerem que a hipoagregação esteja relacionada com níveis baixos de fibrinogênio e elevados de PDF.

  10. PROVENANCE SNAKES OF GENUS Bothrops AND Crotalus (VIPERIDAE CATALOGED IN SERPENTARIUM ZOO UNIVERSITY OF CAXIAS DO SUL (UCS

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    Ezequiel Capeletti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Snakes are reptiles that have large environmental adaptations, which favored it's distribution among the various ecosystems. In Brazil, there are found 392 species of snakes, while in Rio Grande do Sul (RS, this research field, 79 species have been described, of which there is the Viperidae family. The objective of this work is to verify the origin of snakes of genus Bothrops and Crotalus, according to the records of the last 15 years of the serpentarium the University of Caxias do Sul, representing the first survey in captivity of the northeastern region of RS. By extension, we seek to investigate whether there is a relationship between the amount of snakes records and abiotic factors: precipitation, temperature and humidity during the period. The research was developed at UCS's serpentarium, by documental analysis of notebook records describing serpents entries between the years 2000 and 2014, in addition to literature review that helped to understand the distribution of the species and gather of the environmental parameters at the Instituto Nacional de Metereologia for further analysis. It was found that the received species are distributed in 26 cities in the RS state, of which the highlights are the municities of Nova Petrópolis and Caxias do Sul, with 148 and 42 individuals respectively. Further, it was found that there was no relationship between the amount of animals and registered temperature, precipitation and humidity. Keywords: Geographic distribution; Bothrops; Crotalus; abiotic factors; northeastern RS.

  11. Thrombelastographic characterization of the thrombin-like activity of Crotalus simus and Bothrops asper venoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Vance G; Boyer, Leslie V; Redford, Daniel T; Ford, Paul

    2017-04-01

    : Annually, thousands suffer venomous snake-bite from Crotalus simus and Bothrops asper vipers in central and South America. The goals of the present study were to generally characterize the thrombin-like effects of venom from these snakes in human plasma with viscoelastic methods. Human plasma was exposed to the venom of three different C. simus subspecies and venoms obtained from B. asper vipers located in three different locations in Mexico. To characterize the factor X-activating and thrombin-like activity of these venoms, plasma (normal or factor XIII deficient) was pretreated with a variety of additives (e.g., heparin) in the absence or presence of calcium prior to exposure to 2.0 μg/ml of each viper's venom. These profiles were compared with plasma without venom that had contact activation of coagulation. Coagulation kinetics were determined with thrombelastography. All venoms had thrombin-like activity, with C. s. simus creating a slow growing, weak clot that was likely mediated by metalloproteinases. In contrast, B. asper venoms had rapid onset of coagulation and a high velocity of thrombus growth. Further, B. asper venom activity was calcium-independent, activated prothrombin, activated factor XIII, and independently polymerized fibrinogen. The viscoelastic methods used were able to differentiate subspecies of C. simus and specimens of B. asper, and provide insight into the mechanisms by which the venoms acted on plasma. These methods may be useful in the profiling of similar venoms and perhaps can assist in the assessment of interventions designed to treat envenomation (e.g., antivenom).

  12. A C-Type Lectin from Bothrops jararacussu Venom Disrupts Staphylococcal Biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Raphael Contelli; Fabres-Klein, Mary Hellen; de Oliveira, Leandro Licursi; Feio, Renato Neves; Malouin, François; Ribon, Andréa de Oliveira Barros

    2015-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is a major threat to animal health and the dairy industry. Staphylococcus aureus is a contagious pathogen that is usually associated with persistent intramammary infections, and biofilm formation is a relevant aspect of the outcome of these infections. Several biological activities have been described for snake venoms, which led us to screen secretions of Bothrops jararacussu for antibiofilm activity against S. aureus NRS155. Crude venom was fractionated by size-exclusion chromatography, and the fractions were tested against S. aureus. Biofilm growth, but not bacterial growth, was affected by several fractions. Two fractions (15 and 16) showed the best activities and were also assayed against S. epidermidis NRS101. Fraction 15 was identified by TripleTOF mass spectrometry as a galactose-binding C-type lectin with a molecular weight of 15 kDa. The lectin was purified from the crude venom by D-galactose affinity chromatography, and only one peak was observed. This pure lectin was able to inhibit 75% and 80% of S. aureus and S. epidermidis biofilms, respectively, without affecting bacterial cell viability. The lectin also exhibited a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on both bacterial biofilms. The antibiofilm activity was confirmed using scanning electron microscopy. A pre-formed S. epidermidis biofilm was significantly disrupted by the C-type lectin in a time-dependent manner. Additionally, the lectin demonstrated the ability to inhibit biofilm formation by several mastitis pathogens, including different field strains of S. aureus, S. hyicus, S. chromogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Escherichia coli. These findings reveal a new activity for C-type lectins. Studies are underway to evaluate the biological activity of these lectins in a mouse mastitis model. PMID:25811661

  13. The crystal structure of a phospholipase-like from Bothrops godmani venom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontes, Marcos R.M. [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica e Biofisica; Azevedo, W.F. [UNESP, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias, Letras e Ciencias Exatas; Gutierrez, J.M.; Arni, R.K. [Instituto Clodomiro Picado, San Jose (Costa Rica)

    1997-12-31

    Full text. Phospho lipases A2 are common components of bothropic venoms responsible for disruption of the cell membrane integrity via hydrolysis of its phospholipids, culminating with cell death. These enzymes have an Asp at position 49 (D49) which is a part of the Ca++ loop which promotes the catalytic activity on phosphatidylcholine (lecithin) from egg yolk. More recently however, a new class of PLA{sub 2}-like proteins has been described which, although devoid of PLA{sub 2} activity on phosphatidylcholine, due to a mutation D49K, are still highly myonecrotic, their effect being Ca++ independent and still not completely understood. In this work we show the X-ray structure determination and refinement process of this toxin. The crystals were obtained by hanging drop, a vapour diffusion method. The data collection was made using a image plate detector R-AXIS IIC from RIGAKU (IFSC/USP), Cu K{alpha} radiation at room temperature. Data was collected up to 2.8 A resolution and the merging of all equivalent reflections resulted in a dataset which is about 80 % complete. The crystals belong to the space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2 with cell constants a= b=60.56 A and c=84.72 A. The structure was solved by Molecular Replacement method using AMORE program. The structure refinement process have been made using he X-PLOR program; the final R-factor was 17.9 % and free R-factor is 25.8 % including 69 water molecules. (author)

  14. Ontogenetic variations in the venom proteome of the Amazonian snake Bothrops atrox

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    Sousa Marcelo V

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bothrops atrox is responsible for the majority of snakebite accidents in the Brazilian Amazon region. Previous studies have demonstrated that the biological and pharmacological activities of B. atrox venom alter with the age of the animal. Here, we present a comparative proteome analysis of B. atrox venom collected from specimens of three different stages of maturation: juveniles, sub-adults and adults. Results Optimized conditions for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE of pooled venom samples were achieved using immobilized pH gradient (IPG gels of non-linear 3–10 pH range during the isoelectric focusing step and 10–20% gradient polyacrylamide gels in the second dimension. Software-assisted analysis of the 2-DE gels images demonstrated differences in the number and intensity of spots in juvenile, sub-adult and adult venoms. Although peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF failed to identify even a minor fraction of spots, it allowed us to group spots that displayed similar peptide maps. The spots were subjected to a combination of tandem mass spectrometry and Mascot and MS BLAST database searches that identified several classes of proteins, including metalloproteinases, serine proteinases, lectins, phospholipases A2, L-amino oxidases, nerve growth factors, vascular endothelial growth factors and cysteine-rich secretory proteins. Conclusion The analysis of B. atrox samples from specimens of different ages by 2-DE and mass spectrometry suggested that venom proteome alters upon ontogenetic development. We identified stage specific and differentially expressed polypeptides that may be responsible for the activities of the venom in each developmental stage. The results provide insight into the molecular basis of the relation between symptomatology of snakebite accidents in humans and the venom composition. Our findings underscore the importance of the use of venoms from individual specimen at various stages of maturation for

  15. Differential transcript profile of inhibitors with potential anti-venom role in the liver of juvenile and adult Bothrops jararaca snake

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    Cícera Maria Gomes

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Snakes belonging to the Bothrops genus are vastly distributed in Central and South America and are responsible for most cases of reported snake bites in Latin America. The clinical manifestations of the envenomation caused by this genus are due to three major activities—proteolytic, hemorrhagic and coagulant—mediated by metalloproteinases, serine proteinases, phospholipases A2 and other toxic compounds present in snake venom. Interestingly, it was observed that snakes are resistant to the toxic effects of its own and other snake’s venoms. This natural immunity may occur due the absence of toxin target or the presence of molecules in the snake plasma able to neutralize such toxins. Methods In order to identify anti-venom molecules, we construct a cDNA library from the liver of B. jararaca snakes. Moreover, we analyzed the expression profile of four molecules—the already known anti-hemorrhagic factor Bj46a, one gamma-phospholipase A2 inhibitor, one inter-alpha inhibitor and one C1 plasma protease inhibitor—in the liver of juvenile and adult snakes by qPCR. Results The results revealed a 30-fold increase of gamma-phospholipase A2 inhibitor and a minor increase of the inter-alpha inhibitor (5-fold and of the C1 inhibitor (3-fold in adults. However, the Bj46a factor seems to be equally transcribed in adults and juveniles. Discussion The results suggest the up-regulation of different inhibitors observed in the adult snakes might be a physiological adaptation to the recurrent contact with their own and even other snake’s venoms throughout its lifespan. This is the first comparative analysis of ontogenetic variation of expression profiles of plasmatic proteins with potential anti-venom activities of the venomous snake B. jararaca. Furthermore, the present data contributes to the understanding of the natural resistance described in these snakes.

  16. Neutralization of the edema-forming, defibrinating and coagulant effects of Bothrops asper venom by extracts of plants used by healers in Colombia.

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    Núñez, V; Otero, R; Barona, J; Saldarriaga, M; Osorio, R G; Fonnegra, R; Jiménez, S L; Díaz, A; Quintana, J C

    2004-07-01

    We determined the neutralizing activity of 12 ethanolic extracts of plants against the edema-forming, defibrinating and coagulant effects of Bothrops asper venom in Swiss Webster mice. The material used consisted of the leaves and branches of Bixa orellana (Bixaceae), Ficus nymphaeifolia (Moraceae), Struthanthus orbicularis (Loranthaceae) and Gonzalagunia panamensis (Rubiaceae); the stem barks of Brownea rosademonte (Caesalpiniaceae) and Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae); the whole plant of Pleopeltis percussa (Polypodiaceae) and Trichomanes elegans (Hymenophyllaceae); rhizomes of Renealmia alpinia (Zingiberaceae), Heliconia curtispatha (Heliconiaceae) and Dracontium croatii (Araceae), and the ripe fruit of Citrus limon (Rutaceae). After preincubation of varying amounts of each extract with either 1.0 microg venom for the edema-forming effect or 2.0 microg venom for the defibrinating effect, the mixture was injected subcutaneously (sc) into the right foot pad or intravenously into the tail, respectively, to groups of four mice (18-20 g). All extracts (6.2-200 microg/mouse) partially neutralized the edema-forming activity of venom in a dose-dependent manner (58-76% inhibition), with B. orellana, S. orbicularis, G. panamensis, B. rosademonte, and D. croatii showing the highest effect. Ten extracts (3.9-2000 microg/mouse) also showed 100% neutralizing ability against the defibrinating effect of venom, and nine prolonged the coagulation time induced by the venom. When the extracts were administered either before or after venom injection, the neutralization of the edema-forming effect was lower than 40% for all extracts, and none of them neutralized the defibrinating effect of venom. When they were administered in situ (sc at the same site 5 min after venom injection), the neutralization of edema increased for six extracts, reaching levels up to 64% for C. limon.

  17. Food resources influence spatial ecology, habitat selection, and foraging behavior in an ambush-hunting snake (Viperidae: Bothrops asper): an experimental study.

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    Wasko, Dennis K; Sasa, Mahmood

    2012-06-01

    Prey availability affects many aspects of predators' life history and is considered a primary factor influencing individuals' decisions regarding spatial ecology and behavior, but few experimental data are currently available. Snakes may represent ideal model organisms relative to other animal groups for addressing such resource dependency, due to a presumably more direct link between food resources and many aspects of behavior and natural history. We experimentally investigated the relationship between food intake and spatial behavior in a population of the snake Bothrops asper in a Costa Rican lowland rainforest. Six adult snakes were allowed to forage naturally while six were offered supplemental food in the field, with both groups monitored using radiotelemetry. Mean home range size did not differ between groups presumably due to small sample size, but supplementally fed snakes demonstrated altered patterns of macro- and microhabitat selection, shorter and less frequent movements, and increased mass acquisition. Fed snakes also devoted less time to foraging efforts, instead more frequently remaining inactive and utilizing shelter. Because snakes were always fed in situ and not at designated feeding stations, observed shifts in habitat selection are not explained by animals simply moving to areas of higher food availability. Rather, B. asper may have moved to swamps in order to feed on amphibians when necessary, but remained in preferred forest habitat when food was otherwise abundant. The strong behavioral and spatiotemporal responses of snakes in this population may have been influenced by an overall scarcity of mammalian prey during the study period. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of Bothrops atrox venom and two isolated toxins on the human complement system: Modulation of pathways and generation of anaphylatoxins.

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    Menaldo, Danilo L; Bernardes, Carolina P; Jacob-Ferreira, Anna L; Nogueira-Santos, Cíntia G; Casare-Ogasawara, Tania M; Pereira-Crott, Luciana S; Sampaio, Suely V

    2016-12-01

    The complement system plays important biological roles, including the activation of inflammatory processes in response to the generation of proteolytic fragments of its components. Here we evaluated the effects of Bothrops atrox venom and two of its toxins (the P-I metalloprotease Batroxase and the acidic phospholipase A 2 BatroxPLA 2 ) on the human complement system, evaluating their effects on the classical (CP), lectin (LP) and alternative (AP) pathways, as well as on different complement components associated to the generation of anaphylatoxins. Primarily, the venom and both toxins modulated the hemolytic activity of the complement CP, with the venom and Batroxase reducing this activity and BatroxPLA 2 increasing it. ELISA deposition assays indicated that B. atrox venom and Batroxase were also capable of modulating all three activation pathways (CP, LP and AP), reducing their activity after incubation with normal human serum (NHS), while BatroxPLA 2 apparently only interfered with AP. Additionally, the venom and Batroxase, but not BatroxPLA 2 , promoted significant degradation of the components C3, C4, Factor B and C1-Inhibitor, as shown by Western blot and SDS-PAGE analyses, also generating anaphylatoxins C3a, C4a and C5a. Therefore, B. atrox venom and Batroxase were able to activate the complement system by direct proteolytic action on several components, generating anaphylatoxins and affecting the activation pathways, while BatroxPLA 2 only interfered with the hemolysis induced by CP and the C3 deposition related to AP. Our results indicate that Batroxase and possibly other metalloproteases should be the main toxins in B. atrox venom to induce pronounced effects on the complement system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Neutralization of the edema-forming, defibrinating and coagulant effects of Bothrops asper venom by extracts of plants used by healers in Colombia

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    Núñez V.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We determined the neutralizing activity of 12 ethanolic extracts of plants against the edema-forming, defibrinating and coagulant effects of Bothrops asper venom in Swiss Webster mice. The material used consisted of the leaves and branches of Bixa orellana (Bixaceae, Ficus nymphaeifolia (Moraceae, Struthanthus orbicularis (Loranthaceae and Gonzalagunia panamensis (Rubiaceae; the stem barks of Brownea rosademonte (Caesalpiniaceae and Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae; the whole plant of Pleopeltis percussa (Polypodiaceae and Trichomanes elegans (Hymenophyllaceae; rhizomes of Renealmia alpinia (Zingiberaceae, Heliconia curtispatha (Heliconiaceae and Dracontium croatii (Araceae, and the ripe fruit of Citrus limon (Rutaceae. After preincubation of varying amounts of each extract with either 1.0 µg venom for the edema-forming effect or 2.0 µg venom for the defibrinating effect, the mixture was injected subcutaneously (sc into the right foot pad or intravenously into the tail, respectively, to groups of four mice (18-20 g. All extracts (6.2-200 µg/mouse partially neutralized the edema-forming activity of venom in a dose-dependent manner (58-76% inhibition, with B. orellana, S. orbicularis, G. panamensis, B. rosademonte, and D. croatii showing the highest effect. Ten extracts (3.9-2000 µg/mouse also showed 100% neutralizing ability against the defibrinating effect of venom, and nine prolonged the coagulation time induced by the venom. When the extracts were administered either before or after venom injection, the neutralization of the edema-forming effect was lower than 40% for all extracts, and none of them neutralized the defibrinating effect of venom. When they were administered in situ (sc at the same site 5 min after venom injection, the neutralization of edema increased for six extracts, reaching levels up to 64% for C. limon.

  20. Ocorrência de alguns endo e ectoparasitos no serpentário da UNIFENAS - Universidade de Alfenas - MG

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    Terezinha Araújo

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of Crotalus durissus terrificus and Bothrops alternatus held in captivity by University of Alfenas- MG were examined with the aim of studying the parasitological fauna of the snakes. These animals showed anorexia, dehydration, diarrhea and anemia. Three rattlesnakes and two Bothrops alternatus died about two months after the beginning of the clinical signs. It were identified helmints of the genus Kalicephalus, Ophidascaris, Rhabdias and Oxyuris; protozoans of the genus Haemogregarina and mites of the genus Ophionysus. Ivermectin was administrated to the survivors.

  1. Immunogenicity of Bothrops atrox (Ophidia: Viperidae venom and its evaluation by immunoenzymatic methods Inmunogenicidad del veneno de Bothrops atrox (Ophidia: Viperidae y su evaluación por métodos inmunoenzimáticos

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    Gustavo A. Sandoval

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The immunogenicity of Bothrops atrox, “jergón”, venom was studied using ELISA and Western Blot methods, as well as cross-reactivity patterns against venoms of Bothrops brazili, Lachesis muta and Crotalus durissus. For this purpose, New Zealand white rabbits (2 kg aprox were immunized with four 500 μg doses of B. atrox venom in a period of 90 days. Antibody production was followed using ELISA technique, and title of hiper-immune serum was determined at the end of immunization protocol. Additionally, electrophoretic patterns of venoms were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and venom reactivity against obtained serum by ELISA and Western Blot. Immunization schedule allowed a pronounced antibody production since day 20 of protocol. At the end of process, serum title was 256000, which demonstrated both efficacy and usefulness of the developed procedure. On the other hand, studied venoms showed a heterogenic protein composition according to their electrophoretic patterns, whereas cross-reactivity values of 23,7%, 4,0% and 1,8% were obtained between B. atrox venom and B. brazili, L. muta and C. durissus venoms, respectively, using immunoenzymatic methods. According to our results, this procedure constitutes an initial step for further assays directed to optimization in immunoserum production for envenoming treatment and development of kits for diagnosis and species identification of snakes.Se estudió la inmunogenicidad del veneno de la serpiente Bothrops atrox, “jergón”, utilizando los métodos inmunoenzimáticos de ELISA y Western Blot, así como los patrones de reactividad cruzada empleando los venenos de las serpientes Bothrops brazili, Lachesis muta y Crotalus durissus. Para este fin se inmunizaron conejos albinos Nueva Zelanda (2 kg aprox con cuatro dosis de 500 μg del veneno de B. atrox en un periodo de 90 días. La producción de anticuerpos fue monitoreada mediante la técnica de ELISA, determinándose el título del suero hiperinmune obtenido

  2. Referências hematológicas para a jararaca de rabo branco (Bothrops leucurus recém capturadas da natureza Hematological references for wild recently-caught white-tailed lancehead (Bothrops leucurus

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    K.F. Grego

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The hematological values for the specie Bothrops leucurus, recently captured from nature, were determined from blood samples of 29 snakes (11 males and 18 females. The performed hematological tests were: total red blood cell count (TRBCC, total white blood cell count (TWBCC, total trombocyte blood cell count (TTBCC; packed cell volume (PCV; hemoglobin content; and mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC. The mean values for TRBCC was 4.23cellsx10(5/mm³, for TWRCC was 8.92cellsx10³/mm³ and for TTBCC was 8.60cellsx10³/mm³. The mean for packed cell volume was 22.3%. The intraerythrocytic hemoparasite Hepatozoon sp was found on 58.6% of the studied animals.

  3. An in-depth snake venom proteopeptidome characterization: Benchmarking Bothrops jararaca.

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    Nicolau, Carolina A; Carvalho, Paulo C; Junqueira-de-Azevedo, Inácio L M; Teixeira-Ferreira, André; Junqueira, Magno; Perales, Jonas; Neves-Ferreira, Ana Gisele C; Valente, Richard H

    2017-01-16

    A large-scale proteomic approach was devised to advance the understanding of venom composition. Bothrops jararaca venom was fractionated by OFFGEL followed by chromatography, generating peptidic and proteic fractions. The latter was submitted to trypsin digestion. Both fractions were separately analyzed by reversed-phase nanochromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry. This strategy allowed deeper and joint characterizations of the peptidome and proteome (proteopeptidome) of this venom. Our results lead to the identification of 46 protein classes (with several uniquely assigned proteins per class) comprising eight high-abundance bona fide venom components, and 38 additional classes in smaller quantities. This last category included previously described B. jararaca venom proteins, common Elapidae venom constituents (cobra venom factor and three-finger toxin), and proteins typically encountered in lysosomes, cellular membranes and blood plasma. Furthermore, this report is the most complete snake venom peptidome described so far, both in number of peptides and in variety of unique proteins that could have originated them. It is hypothesized that such diversity could enclose cryptides, whose bioactivities would contribute to envenomation in yet undetermined ways. Finally, we propose that the broad range screening of B. jararaca peptidome will facilitate the discovery of bioactive molecules, eventually leading to valuable therapeutical agents. Our proteopeptidomic strategy yielded unprecedented insights into the remarkable diversity of B. jararaca venom composition, both at the peptide and protein levels. These results bring a substantial contribution to the actual pursuit of large-scale protein-level assignment in snake venomics. The detection of typical elapidic venom components, in a Viperidae venom, reinforces our view that the use of this approach (hand-in-hand with transcriptomic and genomic data) for venom proteomic analysis, at the specimen

  4. Distribution of 131I-labeled Bothrops erythromelas venom in mice

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    C.M.L. Vasconcelos

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Bothrops erythromelas is responsible for many snake bites in northeastern Brazil. In the present study we determined the in vivo distribution of the venom following its subcutaneous injection into mice. B. erythromelas venom and albumin were labeled individually with 131I by the chloramine T method, and separated in a Sephacryl® S-200 column. The efficiency of labeling was 68%. Male Swiss mice (40-45 g, which had been provided with drinking water containing 0.05% KI over a period of 10 days prior to the experiment, were inoculated dorsally (sc with 0.3 ml (2.35 x 105 cpm/mouse of 131I-venom (N = 42, 131I-albumin or 131I (controls, N = 28 each. Thirty minutes and 1, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h after inoculation, the animals were perfused with 0.85% NaCl and skin and various organs were collected in order to determine radioactivity content. There was a high rate of venom absorption in the skin (51% within the first 30 min compared to albumin (20.1% and free iodine (8.2%. Up to the third hour after injection there was a tendency for venom and albumin to concentrate in the stomach (3rd h, small intestine (3rd h and large intestine (6th h. Both control groups had more radioactivity in the digestive tract, especially in the stomach, but these levels decreased essentially to baseline by 12-18 h postinjection. In the kidneys, the distribution profiles of venom, albumin and iodine were similar. Counts at 30 min postinjection were low in all three groups (1.37, 1.86 and 0.77, respectively, and diminished to essentially 0% by 12-18 h. Albumin tended to concentrate in muscle until the 3rd h postinjection (1.98%. There was a low binding of labeled venom in the liver (<0.54%, thyroid (<0.11% and lungs (<0.08%, and no iodinated venom was detected in brain, heart, diaphragm, spleen or bladder. The low venom binding observed in most internal organs, comparable to that of albumin, suggests that B. erythromelas venom does not specifically target most internal organs

  5. Distribution of {sup 131} I- labeled Bothrops erythromelas venom in mice

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    Vasconcelos, C.M.L.; Valenca, R.C.; Araujo, E.A. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia; Modesto, J.C.A.; Pontes, M.M.; Guarnieri, M.C. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Zoologia; Brazil, T.K. [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia

    1998-03-01

    Bothrops erythromelas is responsible for many snake bites in northeastern Brazil. In the present study we determined the in vivo distribution of the venom following its subcutaneous injection into mice. B. erythromelas venom and albumin were labeled individually with {sup 131} I by the chloramine T method, and separated in a Sephacryl S-200 column. The efficiency of labeling was 68%.Male Swiss mice (40-45 g), which had been provided with drinking water containing 0.05% KI over a period of 10 days prior to the experiment, were inoculated dorsally (sc) with 0.3 ml (2.35 x 10{sup 5} cpm/mouse) of {sup 131} I-venom (N = 42), {sup 131} -albumin or {sup 131} I (controls, N = 28 each). Thirty minutes and 1,3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h after inoculation, the animals were perfused with 0.85% Na Cl and skin and various organs were collected in order to determine radioactivity content. There was a high rate of venom absorption int he skin (51%) within the first 30 min compared to albumin (20.1%) and free iodine (8.2%). Up to the third hour after injection there was a tendency for venom and albumin to concentrate in the stomach ( 3 rd h),small intestine (3 rd h) and large intestine (6th h). Both control groups had more radioactivity in the digestive tract, especially in the stomach, but these levels decreased essentially to baseline by 12-18 h postinjection. In the kidneys, the distribution profiles of venom, albumin and iodine were similar. Counts at 30 min postinjection were low in all three groups (1.37, 1.86 and 0.77, respectively), and diminished to essentially 0% by 12-18 h. Albumin tended to concentrate in muscle until the 3 rd h postinjection (1.98%).There was a low binding of labeled venom in the liver (B. erythromelas venom does not specifically target most internal organs). That is, the systemic effects of envenomation ar mainly due to an indirect action. (author) 14 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Preparación toxoide a partir de la fracción hemorrágica del veneno de Bothrops asper (serpiente de América Central y del Sur) (Toxoid preparation from hemorrhagic fraction of the venom from Bothrops asper (snake from Central and South America).

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    Rodríguez-Acosta, A; Aguilar, I; Girón, M E

    1993-01-01

    A technique is described for preparing a toxoid from the hemorrhagic fraction of the Bothrops asper venom. This method conserves a high degree of immunogenicity although it eliminates lethal effects. None of the animals vaccinated with the toxoid from this fraction had hemorrhagic lesions after they were injected the venom from the hemorrhagic fraction.

  7. Another new and threatened species of lancehead genus Bothrops (Serpentes, Viperidae) from Ilha dos Franceses, Southeastern Brazil.

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    Barbo, Fausto E; Gasparini, João Luiz; Almeida, Antonio P; Zaher, Hussam; Grazziotin, Felipe G; Gusmão, Rodrigo B; Ferrarini, José Mário G; Sawaya, Ricardo J

    2016-04-04

    A new insular species of the genus Bothrops is described from Ilha dos Franceses, a small island off the coast of Espírito Santo State, in southeastern Brazil. The new species differs from mainland populations of B. jararaca mainly by its small size, relative longer tail, relative smaller head length, and relative larger eyes. The new species is distinguished from B. alcatraz, B. insularis and B. otavioi by the higher number of ventral and subcaudal scales, relative longer tail and smaller head. The new species is highly abundant on the island, being nocturnal, semiarboreal, and feeding on small lizards and centipeds. Due its unique and restricted area of occurrence, declining quality of habitat, and constant use of the island for tourism, the new species may be considered as critically endangered.

  8. Does gestation or feeding affect the body temperature of the golden lancehead, Bothrops insularis (Squamata: Viperidae under field conditions?

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    Rafael P. Bovo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature affects physiological performance in reptiles and, therefore, body temperature (Tb control is argued to have an important adaptive value. Alterations in Tb due to transient changes in physiological state, as during digestion or gestation, are often linked to the potential benefits of a more precise Tb regulation. However, such thermoregulatory responses in nature remain controversial, particularly for tropical snakes. Herein, we measured Tb of the golden lanceheads, Bothrops insularis (Amaral, 1921, at Queimada Grande Island, southeastern Brazil, to test for alteration in selected body temperatures associated with feeding or gestation. We found no evidence that postprandial or gravid snakes selected for higher Tb indicating that, under natural conditions, body temperature regulation in B. insularis apparently encompasses other ecological factors beyond physiological state per se.

  9. Aislamiento y caracterización parcial de una miotoxina del veneno de la serpiente Bothrops atrox (Ophidia: Viperidae

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    Sergio Huatuco

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Se ha purificado una miotoxina del veneno de la serpiente Bothrops atrox, empleando una columna de intercambio catiónico de CM-Sephadex C-50 equilibrada con buffer acetato de amonio 0,05M a pH 7. La miotoxina es una proteína básica, y por cromatografía de filtración y PAGE-SDS se ha determinado que tiene un peso molecular de 27 kDa, estando formada por dos cadenas polipeptídicas de 14 kDa cada una. La inoculación de la miotoxina en el músculo gastrocnemius de ratones albinos produce la liberación de creatina kinasa así como la necrosis del tejido. La miotoxina tiene actividad de fosfolipasa, anticoagulante y edemática, pero no hemolítica.

  10. Cross-reactivity and phospholipase A{sub 2} neutralization of anti-irradiated Bothrops jararaca venom antibodies

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    Spencer, P.J.; Nascimento, N. do; Paula, R.A. de; Cardi, B.A.; Rogero, J.R. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    The detoxified Bothrops jararaca venom, immunized rabbits with the toxoid obtained and investigated cross-reactivity of the antibodies obtained against autologous and heterelogous venoms was presented. It was also investigated the ability of the IgGs, purified by affinity chromatography, from those sera to neutralize phospholipase. A{sub 2}, an ubiquous enzyme in animal venoms. Results indicate that venom irradiation leads to an attenuation of toxicity of 84%. Cross-reactivity was investigated by ELISA and Western blot and all venoms were reactive to the antibodies. On what refers to phospholipase A{sub 2} activity neutralization, the antibodies neutralized autologous venoms efficiently and, curiously, other venoms from the same genus were not neutralized, while Lachesis muta venom, a remote related specier, was neutralized by this serum. These data suggest that irradiation preserve important epitopes for induction of neutralizing antibodies and that these epitopes are not shared by all venoms assayed. (author). 8 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs.

  11. Isolation and characterization of a myotoxin from Bothrops brazili Hoge, 1953 Hoge, 1953 snake venom (Ophidia: Viperidae.

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    Carmen Pantigoso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A myotoxin from the venom of the snake Bothrops brazili has been purified by ion-exchange chromatography on CM-Sephadex C-50 with 0,05 M ammonium acetate buffer pH 7. The homogeneity was evaluated by PAGE with and without SDS, immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis. The myotoxin is a basic protein with 15,6% of Lys+Arg; it is not a glicoprotein, has not enzymatic activity, and corresponds to 25% of the whole venom protein. The molecular weight of the myotoxin was determined by PAGE-SDS and gel filtration chromatography. The myotoxin has 30 KDa of molecular weight and two polypeptide chains of 15 KDa each. Myotoxin produces a severe necrosis on the gastrocnemius muscle of white mice. The myotoxin does not have hemolytic nor anticoagulant activity. However, produces edema with a DEM of 32,6 mg of protein.

  12. Description of Serpentirhabdias atroxi n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae), a parasite of Bothrops atrox (Linnaeus) (Reptilia: Serpentes: Viperidae) in Brazilian Amazonia.

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    Kuzmin, Yuriy; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; da Costa, Paulo André Ferreira Borges; Maschio, Gleomar Fabiano; dos Santos, Jeannie Nascimento

    2016-01-01

    A new lung-dwelling nematode species is described from the common lancehead Bothrops atrox (Linnaeus) in the Brazilian Amazon Region. The species is assigned to the genus Serpentirhabdias Tkach, Kuzmin & Snyder, 2014 based on the presence of six lips arranged in two lateral groups, the absence of prominent cuticular inflations, and lung parasitism in snakes. Serpentirhabdias atroxi n. sp. differs from other species of the genus mainly by details of the morphology of the anterior end: cuticularised ring surrounding the anterior part of the buccal cavity and six minute onchia present in the oesophastome. Serpentirhabdias atroxi n. sp. is the seventh species of the genus known from the Neotropical Realm and the second species described from viperid snakes.

  13. Aqueous Leaf Extract of Jatropha gossypiifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae) Inhibits Enzymatic and Biological Actions of Bothrops jararaca Snake Venom

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    Félix-Silva, Juliana; Souza, Thiago; Menezes, Yamara A. S.; Cabral, Bárbara; Câmara, Rafael B. G.; Silva-Junior, Arnóbio A.; Rocha, Hugo A. O.; Rebecchi, Ivanise M. M.; Zucolotto, Silvana M.; Fernandes-Pedrosa, Matheus F.

    2014-01-01

    Snakebites are a serious public health problem due their high morbi-mortality. The main available specific treatment is the antivenom serum therapy, which has some disadvantages, such as poor neutralization of local effects, risk of immunological reactions, high cost and difficult access in some regions. In this context, the search for alternative therapies is relevant. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antiophidic properties of Jatropha gossypiifolia, a medicinal plant used in folk medicine to treat snakebites. The aqueous leaf extract of the plant was prepared by decoction and phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of sugars, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenes and/or steroids and proteins. The extract was able to inhibit enzymatic and biologic activities induced by Bothrops jararaca snake venom in vitro and in vivo. The blood incoagulability was efficiently inhibited by the extract by oral route. The hemorrhagic and edematogenic local effects were also inhibited, the former by up to 56% and the latter by 100%, in animals treated with extract by oral and intraperitoneal routes, respectively. The inhibition of myotoxic action of B. jararaca reached almost 100%. According to enzymatic tests performed, it is possible to suggest that the antiophidic activity may be due an inhibitory action upon snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) and/or serine proteinases (SVSPs), including fibrinogenolytic enzymes, clotting factors activators and thrombin like enzymes (SVTLEs), as well upon catalytically inactive phospholipases A2 (Lys49 PLA2). Anti-inflammatory activity, at least partially, could also be related to the inhibition of local effects. Additionally, protein precipitating and antioxidant activities may also be important features contributing to the activity presented. In conclusion, the results demonstrate the potential antiophidic activity of J. gossypiifolia extract, including its significant action upon local effects, suggesting that

  14. Bothrops asper snake venom and its metalloproteinase BaP–1 activate the complement system. Role in leucocyte recruitment

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    Sandra H. P. Farsky

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The venom of the snake Bothrops asper, the most important poisonous snake in Central America, evokes an inflammatory response, the mechanisms of which are not well characterized. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether B. asper venom and its purified toxins – phospholipases and metalloproteinase – activate the complement system and the contribution of the effect on leucocyte recruitment. In vitro chemotaxis assays were performed using Boyden's chamber model to investigate the ability of serum incubated with venom and its purified toxins to induce neutrophil migration. The complement consumption by the venom was evaluated using an in vitro haemolytic assay. The importance of complement activation by the venom on neutrophil migration was investigated in vivo by injecting the venom into the peritoneal cavity of C5-deficient mice. Data obtained demonstrated that serum incubated with crude venom and its purified metalloproteinase BaP–1 are able to induce rat neutrophil chemotaxis, probably mediated by agent(s derived from the complement system. This hypothesis was corroborated by the capacity of the venom to activate this system in vitro. The involvement of C5a in neutrophil chemotaxis induced by venom-activated serum was demonstrated by abolishing migration when neutrophils were pre-incubated with antirat C5a receptor antibody. The relevance of the complement system in in vivo leucocyte mobilization was further demonstrated by the drastic decrease of this response in C5-deficient mice. Pre-incubation of serum with the soluble human recombinant complement receptor type 1 (sCR 1 did not prevent the response induced by the venom, but abolished the migration evoked by metalloproteinase-activated serum. These data show the role of the complement system in bothropic envenomation and the participation of metalloproteinase in the effect. Also, they suggest that the venom may contain other component(s which can cause direct activation

  15. Biochemical Characterization, Action on Macrophages, and Superoxide Anion Production of Four Basic Phospholipases A2 from Panamanian Bothrops asper Snake Venom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Aristides Quintero; Rodríguez, Isela González; Arantes, Eliane C.; Setúbal, Sulamita S.; Calderon, Leonardo de A.; Zuliani, Juliana P.; Stábeli, Rodrigo G.; Soares, Andreimar M.

    2013-01-01

    Bothrops asper (Squamata: Viperidae) is the most important venomous snake in Central America, being responsible for the majority of snakebite accidents. Four basic PLA2s (pMTX-I to -IV) were purified from crude venom by a single-step chromatography using a CM-Sepharose ion-exchange column (1.5 × 15 cm). Analysis of the N-terminal sequence demonstrated that pMTX-I and III belong to the catalytically active Asp49 phospholipase A2 subclass, whereas pMTX-II and IV belong to the enzymatically inactive Lys49 PLA2s-like subclass. The PLA2s isolated from Panama Bothrops asper venom (pMTX-I, II, III, and IV) are able to induce myotoxic activity, inflammatory reaction mainly leukocyte migration to the muscle, and induce J774A.1 macrophages activation to start phagocytic activity and superoxide production. PMID:23509779

  16. Poor efficacy of preemptive amoxicillin clavulanate for preventing secondary infection from Bothrops snakebites in the Brazilian Amazon: A randomized controlled clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Sachett, Jacqueline A. G.; Iran Mendonça da Silva; Eliane Campos Alves; Sâmella S Oliveira; Sampaio,Vanderson S; Fábio Francesconi do Vale; Gustavo Adolfo Sierra Romero; Marcelo Cordeiro Dos Santos; Hedylamar Oliveira Marques; Mônica Colombini; Ana Maria Moura da Silva; Fan Hui Wen; Marcus V G Lacerda; Monteiro, Wuelton M.; Ferreira, Luiz C.L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Secondary bacterial infections from snakebites contribute to the high complication rates that can lead to permanent function loss and disabilities. Although common in endemic areas, routine empirical prophylactic use of antibiotics aiming to prevent secondary infection lacks a clearly defined policy. The aim of this work was to estimate the efficacy of amoxicillin clavulanate for reducing the secondary infection incidence in patients bitten by Bothrops snakes, and, secondarily, ide...

  17. Clinical poisoning in bovine the venom of Bothrops atrox the municipality of Oriximiná-Pará, Central Amazonia, Brazil - Case report

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    Ubaldo de Almeida Farias Junior

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Farias Junior U. de A. & Chalkidis H.M. [Clinical poisoning in bovine the venom of Bothrops atrox the municipality of Oriximiná-Pará, Central Amazonia, Brazil - Case report.] Envenenamento clínico de bovino por peçonha de Bothrops atrox no município de Oriximiná-Pará, Amazô- nia Central, Brasil - Relato de caso. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(3:264-268, 2015. Laboratório de Pesquisas Zoológicas, Faculdades Integradas do Tapajós, Rua Rosa Vermelha, 335, Aeroporto Velho, Santarém, PA 68010-200, Brasil. E-mail: chalkidis@hotmail.com It explains a case of poisoning bovine by Bothrops atrox, abundant snake family Viperidae, prevalent in northern Brazil, assigned as the etiological agent of over 90% of cases of snakebite in the State of Pará. Report the examination semiological and the clinical symptoms observed due to its evolution as well. Clinical signs are confronted with the findings conferred in similar cases reported by veterinarians and ranchers in the region. The treatment in this particular case was not proceeded in order to examine symptoms presented by the accuracy of these reports.

  18. Preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of BthTX-II, a myotoxic Asp49-phospholipase A{sub 2} with low catalytic activity from Bothrops jararacussu venom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corrêa, L. C.; Marchi-Salvador, D. P. [Departamento de Física e Biofísica, Instituto de Biociências, UNESP, CP 510, CEP 18618-000, Botucatu-SP (Brazil); Cintra, A. C. O.; Soares, A. M. [Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Toxicológicas e Bromatológicas, FCFRP, USP, Ribeirão Preto/SP (Brazil); Fontes, M. R. M., E-mail: fontes@ibb.unesp.br [Departamento de Física e Biofísica, Instituto de Biociências, UNESP, CP 510, CEP 18618-000, Botucatu-SP (Brazil)

    2006-08-01

    A myotoxic Asp49-PLA{sub 2} with low catalytic activity from B. jararacussu (BthTX-II) was crystallized in the monoclinic crystal system; a complete X-ray diffraction data set was collected and a molecular-replacement solution was obtained. The oligomeric structure of BthTX-II resembles those of the Asp49-PLA{sub 2} PrTX-III and all bothropic Lys49-PLA{sub 2}s. For the first time, a complete X-ray diffraction data set has been collected from a myotoxic Asp49-phospholipase A{sub 2} (Asp49-PLA{sub 2}) with low catalytic activity (BthTX-II from Bothrops jararacussu venom) and a molecular-replacement solution has been obtained with a dimer in the asymmetric unit. The quaternary structure of BthTX-II resembles the myotoxin Asp49-PLA{sub 2} PrTX-III (piratoxin III from B. pirajai venom) and all non-catalytic and myotoxic dimeric Lys49-PLA{sub 2}s. In contrast, the oligomeric structure of BthTX-II is different from the highly catalytic and non-myotoxic BthA-I (acidic PLA{sub 2} from B. jararacussu). Thus, comparison between these structures should add insight into the catalytic and myotoxic activities of bothropic PLA{sub 2}s.

  19. Increments in cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases in skeletal muscle after injection of tissue-damaging toxins from the venom of the snake Bothrops asper

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    Alexandra Rucavado

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Envenomations by the snake Bothrops asper are characterized by prominent local tissue damage (i.e. myonecrosis, blistering, hemorrhage and edema. Various phospholipases A2 and metalloproteinases that induce local pathological alterations have been purified from this venom. Since these toxins induce a conspicuous inflammatory response, it has been hypothesized that inflammatory mediators may contribute to the local pathological alterations described. This study evaluated the local production of cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs as a consequence of intramuscular injections of an Asp-49 myotoxic phospholipase A2 (myotoxin III (MT-III and a P-I type hemorrhagic metalloproteinase (BaP1 isolated from B. asper venom. Both enzymes induced prominent tissue alterations and conspicuous increments in interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6 and a number of MMPs, especially gelatinase MMP-9, rapidly after injection. In contrast, no increments in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interferon-γ were detected. In agreement, MT-III and BaP1 did not induce the synthesis of TNF-α by resident peritoneal macrophages in vitro. Despite the conspicuous expression of latent forms of MMPs in muscle, evidenced by zymography, there were no increments in activated MMP-2 and only a small increase in activated MMP-9, as detected by a functional enzymatic assay. This suggests that MMP activity was regulated by a highly controlled activation of latent forms and, probably, by a concomitant synthesis of MMP inhibitors. Since no hemorrhage nor dermonecrosis were observed after injection of MT-III, despite a prominent increase in MMP expression, and since inflammatory exudate did not enhance hemorrhage induced by BaP1, it is suggested that endogenous MMPs released in the tissue are not responsible for the dermonecrosis and hemorrhage characteristic of B. asper envenomation. Moreover, pretreatment of mice with the peptidomimetic MMP inhibitor batimastat did not reduce myotoxic nor

  20. Análisis inmunoenzimático (ELISA para determinar niveles de IgG anti Bothrops atrox en accidente ofídico Immunoenzymatic determination of IgG anti bothrops atrox levels after snake bites

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    John J. Estrada

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un método de inmunización de conejos con veneno de Bothrops atrox con el fin de preparar antisueros y estandarizar un inmunoanálisis (ELISA para medir niveles de IgG en pacientes con accidente ofídico. La respuesta Inmune de los conejos se siguió por inmunodifusión en doble dimensión (Ouchterlony e inmunoelectroforesis, demostrando la presencia de bandas nítidas desde el día 60 y en todas las sangrias posteriores; se comprobó que hay variabilidad individual en su respuesta inmune. El ELISA para detección de IgG humana anti B. atrox en los indígenas del Chocó fue una prueba simple y sensible (83.3% pero inespecífica por las reacciones cruzadas en individuos que habían sufrido accidentes por B. nasutus. La técnica para detectar IgG equina anti B. atrox en pacientes tratados con antiveneno fue tambIén simple y muy sensible. We developed an immunization method for the production of rabbit antisera against Bothrops atroxvenoms. An enzyme-Ilnked assay (ELISA was standardized in order to measure IgG levels after snake bites. The immune response of rabbits, as determined by Ouchterlony and immunoelectrophoresis techniques, revealed bands of precipitation from the sixtieth day on. Individual variability in the immune response of rabbits was demonstrated. For the measurement of IgG levels In Indians from the Department of Choco (Colombia, ELISA proved to be a sensitive (83.3% and simple but not an specific procedure, since there were cross-reactions in those previously bitten by B. nasutus. ELISA was also simple and sensitive (100% for the determination of equine anti B. atrox IgG antibodies in patients treated with antivenom

  1. Crystal structure of a Bothrops toxin I, a Myotoxin K 49 like Phospholipase A{sub 2}

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    Giotto, M.T.S.; Azevedo, W.F.; Horjales, E.; Oliva, G.; Mascarenhas, Y.P.; Garratt, R.C. [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]|[Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    1996-12-31

    Full text. Bothrops toxin-I (BthTX-I) is a mytoxin isolated from the Brazilian snake Bothrops jararacussu which is a member of the phospholipase A{sub 2} but presents no catalytic activity due to a D49K substitution. Protein was provided by Prof. Dr. J.R. Giglio and Prof{sup a}. Dr{sup a}. A.C.O. Cintra from the Departamento de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto and used in crystallization experiments which were performed using the vapor diffusion technique in hanging drops at 18{sup 0}C. The BthTX-I crystallized in 0.1 M HEPES, pH ranging from 7.0 to 7.6. The precipitant was (NH{sub 4})SO{sub 4} in concentrations ranging from 7.0 to 7.6. The precipitant was (NH{sub 4})SO{sub 4} in concentrations ranging from 57 to 62%. The data collection was initially performed using the automatic difractometer R-AXIS IIC from the Rigaku Co. at the Laboratorio de Cristalografia of IFESC-USP. Subsequently a second data set was collected at SERC Daresbury Laboratory in England using synchrotron radiation. BthTX-I crystallizes in space group P3{sub 1} 21 with a=b=57.58 A, c=131.27 A, {alpha}={beta}=900{sup 0}C and {gamma}=120{sup 0}C. Processing of the data was performed with the MOSFLM program yielding an R{sub merge}= 6.3% and completeness of 99.6% at 2.1 A of resolution. The structure was solved by Molecular Replacement using the package AMoRe with the Agksitrodon piscivorus piscivorus enyme as search model and refined using the refinement program X-PLOR to a final R=18.7% and R{sub free}=27.4%. The assymetric unit contains two monomers, which can be chosen such that they present similar interactions to those described for the homogeneous myotoxin II from B. asper. The interface is, however, surprisingly small when compared to other dimeric structures and is less complementary than expected. A theoretical model for phospholipid building to BthTX-I suggests that no direct interactions between the sn-2 ester bond and K49 would be expected, thus explaining the lack of catalytic activity.

  2. Blood coagulation induced by the venom of Bothrops atrox. 2. Identification, purification, and properties of two factor X activators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, H; Bon, C

    1987-02-10

    We have characterized and purified the two components of the venom of Bothrops atrox that activate the coagulation factor X. Activator 1 and activator 2 were separated by ion-exchange chromatography but otherwise presented similar characteristics. They consist of a heavy polypeptide of Mr 59,000 and either one or two light chains forming a doublet of Mr 14,000-15,000. They are inactive on synthetic substrates and on prothrombin or fibrinogen and thus appear to act specifically on factor X. They are not sensitive to inhibitors of serine proteases or thiol esterases. The activation of factor X is activated by Ca2+ ions with a Hill coefficient of 2.4 and is inhibited by Hg2+, Ba2+, and Cd2+. Its pH dependency suggests that the activity depends on the ionization of a group with an apparent pK of 6.9. We studied the cleavage of purified bovine factor X by B. atrox activators and compared it to that obtained with the factor X activator from Vipera russelli venom. Like the physiological activators, the venom's activators cleave the heavy chain of factor X, producing the activated factor Xa alpha. They produce however two other cleavages: one near the N-terminal end of the heavy chain of factor X, generating factor Xmu, and a second one located at one extremity of the heavy chain of factor Xa alpha, generating factor Xav.

  3. Isolation and characterization of two new non-hemorrhagic metalloproteinases with fibrinogenolytic activity from the mapanare (Bothrops colombiensis) venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girón, María E; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis; Salazar, Ana María; Sánchez, Elda E; Galán, Jacob; Ibarra, Carlos; Guerrero, Belsy

    2013-01-01

    Colombienases are acidic, low molecular weight metalloproteinases (Mr of 23,074.31 Da colombienase-1 and 23,078.80 Da colombienase-2; pI of 6.0 and 6.2, respectively) isolated from Bothrops colombiensis snake venom. The chromatographic profile in RP-HPLC and its partial sequence confirmed its high homogeneity. Both colombienases present fibrino(geno)lytic activity, but did not show any hemorrhagic, amidolytic, plasminogen activator or coagulant activities, and no effect on platelet aggregation induced by collagen or ADP. Both enzymes were strongly active on fibrinogen Aα chains followed by the Bβ chains, and colombienases-2, at high doses, also degraded the γ chains. This activity was stable at temperatures ranging between 4 and 37 °C, with a maximum activity at 25 °C, and at pHs between 7 and 9. The homology demonstrated by the comparison of sequences, with zinc-dependent metalloproteinases, as well as the metal chelant effects on, confirmed that the colombienases were metalloproteinases, particularly to α-fibrinogenases belonging to the P-I class of SVPMs (20-30 kDa), which contain only the single-domain proteins. The biological characteristics of the colombienases confer a therapeutic potential, since they contain a high fibrino(geno)lytic activity, devoid of hemorrhagic activity. These metalloproteinases might be explored as thrombolytic agents given that they dissolve fibrin clots or prevent their formation.

  4. Gene expression profiling of the venom gland from the Venezuelan mapanare (Bothrops colombiensis) using expressed sequence tags (ESTs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suntravat, Montamas; Uzcategui, Néstor L; Atphaisit, Chairat; Helmke, Thomas J; Lucena, Sara E; Sánchez, Elda E; Acosta, Alexis Rodríguez

    2016-03-05

    Bothrops colombiensis is a highly dangerous pit viper and responsible for over 70% of snakebites in Venezuela. Although the composition in B. colombiensis venom has been identified using a proteome analysis, the venom gland transcriptome is currently lacking. We constructed a cDNA library from the venom gland of B. colombiensis, and a set of 729 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) was identified. A total number of 344 ESTs (47.2% of total ESTs) was related to toxins. The most abundant toxin transcripts were metalloproteinases (37.5%), phospholipases A2s (PLA2, 29.7%), and serine proteinases (11.9%). Minor toxin transcripts were linked to waprins (5.5%), C-type lectins (4.1%), ATPases (2.9%), cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISP, 2.3%), snake venom vascular endothelium growth factors (svVEGF, 2.3%), L-amino acid oxidases (2%), and other putative toxins (1.7%). While 160 ESTs (22% of total ESTs) coded for translation proteins, regulatory proteins, ribosomal proteins, elongation factors, release factors, metabolic proteins, and immune response proteins. Other proteins detected in the transcriptome (87 ESTs, 11.9% of total ESTs) were undescribed proteins with unknown functions. The remaining 138 (18.9%) cDNAs had no match with known GenBank accessions. This study represents the analysis of transcript expressions and provides a physical resource of unique genes for further study of gene function and the development of novel molecules for medical applications.

  5. Phenotypic differences in a cryptic predator: factors influencing morphological variation in the terciopelo Bothrops asper (Garman, 1884; Serpentes: Viperidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldarriaga-Córdoba, Mónica María; Sasa, Mahmood; Pardo, Rodrigo; Méndez, Marco Antonio

    2009-12-01

    The terciopelo Bothrops asper, is a cryptic lancehead pitviper widely distributed in humid environments of Middle America and the north-western portion of South America. Throughout its extensive distribution range, the terciopelo exhibits great morphological variation in external characters, a situation that has complicated its proper separation from other related species. In this paper, we analyzed the phenotypic variation of B. asper based in a sample of 514 specimens from nine distinct physiographic regions. Univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated great phenotypic differentiation among most pre-established groups, and the pattern is fairly congruent between sexes. However, no correspondence was observed between morphological variation and molecular divergence, inferred from mDNA sequences, between individuals representing the physiographical regions under study. Geographic variation in the number of interrictals, ventral scales, subcaudal scales and dorsal blotches was positively correlated with latitude and number of dry months, but inversely related with precipitation. However, other variables do not exhibit such an effect. The observed relationships between scale counts and environmental variables are explained in terms of selective pressures to improve water balance along the distributional range of the species.

  6. Differences in endothelin receptor types in the vasculature of Bothrops jararaca (Viperidae) and Oxyrhopus guibei (Colubridae) snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Lívia S M; Frias, Flávia T; Carmona, Eurídice; Borgheresi, Rosa A M B

    2008-07-01

    Endothelins (ETs) are vasoactive peptides evolutionary well conserved that exert their effects through two specific receptors (ET(A) and ET(B)) widely distributed in all vertebrates. In snakes, the presence and function of endothelins and their receptors are still scarcely described. We have recently demonstrated the presence of ET(A) and ET(B2) receptors in the snake Bothrops jararaca (Bj). In the present work we showed that distinctively from Bj, the vascular contraction induced by endothelin in Oxyrhopus guibei (Og) snake is mediated only by ET(A) receptors. Selective ET(B) agonists (SRTX-c and IRL(1620)) and antagonists (IRL(1038) and BQ(788)) were ineffective in Og preparations of isolated aorta. We also showed that ET-1 response on Og arterial blood pressure was monophasic hypertensive as opposed to biphasic (hypotension followed by hypertension) in Bj. Furthermore, we characterized the relaxing properties of endothelin receptor ET(B1) in pre-contracted aorta preparations. We showed that IRL(1620) induced relaxation of pre-contracted Bj aorta but was ineffective in relaxing Og preparations. IRL(1620) relaxing effect on Bj aorta was abolished by l-NAME, indicating involvement of NO release, and was reduced by selective ET(B) antagonists. Our findings suggest that Og snake has a more primitive spectrum of ET receptors (only ET(A) receptor) than Bj (presence of ET(A), ET(B1) and ET(B2) receptors).

  7. Biology and conservation status of Piraja’s Lancehead Snake Bothrops piraña Amaral, 1923 (Serpentes: Viperidae, Brazil

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    M.A.D. Freitas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The venomous snake Bothrops pirajai (Amaral, 1923 is endemic to Brazil. Despite being described almost a century ago, very little is known about this species, which has never been studied in situ. Here, we present new data on the biology and natural history of B. pirajai based on a review of existing museum specimens and a field study (1504 man hours carried out throughout the species range. The distribution of B. pirajai was found to be restricted to the eastern Atlantic forest of the state of Bahia, Brazil, between Todosos Santos Bay, Itabuna and Ilhéus (12050’S-14050’S, 88-835 m. We recommend the species be uplisted to Endangered in the International Union for the Conservation of Nature’s global Red List of Threatened Species as its estimated extent of occurrence is under 5000km2. The effective conservation of B. pirajai will rely on addressing two key issues: improving our knowledge of the species and successfully mitigating habitat loss and fragmentation.

  8. Inhibition of the Myotoxicity Induced by Bothrops jararacussu Venom and Isolated Phospholipases A2 by Specific Camelid Single-Domain Antibody Fragments.

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    Nidiane D R Prado

    Full Text Available Antivenoms, produced using animal hyperimmune plasma, remains the standard therapy for snakebites. Although effective against systemic damages, conventional antivenoms have limited efficacy against local tissue damage. Additionally, the hypersensitivity reactions, often elicited by antivenoms, the high costs for animal maintenance, the difficulty of producing homogeneous lots, and the instability of biological products instigate the search for innovative products for antivenom therapy. In this study, camelid antibody fragments (VHH with specificity to Bothropstoxin I and II (BthTX-I and BthTX-II, two myotoxic phospholipases from Bothrops jararacussu venom, were selected from an immune VHH phage display library. After biopanning, 28 and 6 clones recognized BthTX-I and BthTX-II by ELISA, respectively. Complementarity determining regions (CDRs and immunoglobulin frameworks (FRs of 13 VHH-deduced amino acid sequences were identified, as well as the camelid hallmark amino acid substitutions in FR2. Three VHH clones (KF498607, KF498608, and KC329718 were capable of recognizing BthTX-I by Western blot and showed affinity constants in the nanomolar range against both toxins. VHHs inhibited the BthTX-II phospholipase A2 activity, and when tested for cross-reactivity, presented specificity to the Bothrops genus in ELISA. Furthermore, two clones (KC329718 and KF498607 neutralized the myotoxic effects induced by B. jararacussu venom, BthTX-I, BthTX-II, and by a myotoxin from Bothrops brazili venom (MTX-I in mice. Molecular docking revealed that VHH CDRs are expected to bind the C-terminal of both toxins, essential for myotoxic activity, and to epitopes in the BthTX-II enzymatic cleft. Identified VHHs could be a biotechnological tool to improve the treatment for snake envenomation, an important and neglected world public health problem.

  9. Poor efficacy of preemptive amoxicillin clavulanate for preventing secondary infection from Bothrops snakebites in the Brazilian Amazon: A randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachett, Jacqueline A G; da Silva, Iran Mendonça; Alves, Eliane Campos; Oliveira, Sâmella S; Sampaio, Vanderson S; do Vale, Fábio Francesconi; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra; Dos Santos, Marcelo Cordeiro; Marques, Hedylamar Oliveira; Colombini, Mônica; da Silva, Ana Maria Moura; Wen, Fan Hui; Lacerda, Marcus V G; Monteiro, Wuelton M; Ferreira, Luiz C L

    2017-07-01

    Secondary bacterial infections from snakebites contribute to the high complication rates that can lead to permanent function loss and disabilities. Although common in endemic areas, routine empirical prophylactic use of antibiotics aiming to prevent secondary infection lacks a clearly defined policy. The aim of this work was to estimate the efficacy of amoxicillin clavulanate for reducing the secondary infection incidence in patients bitten by Bothrops snakes, and, secondarily, identify risk factors for secondary infections from snakebites in the Western Brazilian Amazon. This was an open-label, two-arm individually randomized superiority trial to prevent secondary infection from Bothrops snakebites. The antibiotic chosen for this clinical trial was oral amoxicillin clavulanate per seven days compared to no intervention. A total of 345 patients were assessed for eligibility in the study period. From this total, 187 accomplished the inclusion criteria and were randomized, 93 in the interventional group and 94 in the untreated control group. All randomized participants completed the 7 days follow-up period. Enzyme immunoassay confirmed Bothrops envenoming diagnosis in all participants. Primary outcome was defined as secondary infection (abscess and/or cellulitis) until day 7 after admission. Secondary infection incidence until 7 days after admission was 35.5% in the intervention group and 44.1% in the control group [RR = 0.80 (95%CI = 0.56 to 1.15; p = 0.235)]. Survival analysis demonstrated that the time from patient admission to the onset of secondary infection was not different between amoxicillin clavulanate treated and control group (Log-rank = 2.23; p = 0.789).Secondary infections incidence in 7 days of follow-up was independently associated to fibrinogen >400 mg/dL [AOR = 4.78 (95%CI = 2.17 to 10.55; p44 IU/L [AOR = 2.52 (95%CI = 1.06 to 5.98; p = 0.037)], C-reactive protein >6.5 mg/L [AOR = 2.98 (95%CI = 1.40 to 6.35; p = 0.005)], moderate pain [AOR = 24

  10. Isolation of bothrasperin, a disintegrin with potent platelet aggregation inhibitory activity, from the venom of the snake Bothrops asper

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    Adrián Pinto

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The venom of Bothrops asper induces severe coagulation disturbances in accidentally envenomed humans. However, only few studies have been conducted to identify components that interact with the hemostatic system in this venom. In the present work, we fractionated B. asper venom in order to investigate the possible presence of inhibitors of platelet aggregation. Using a combination of gel filtration, anion-exchange chromatography, and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography, we isolated an acidic protein which shows a single chain composition, with a molecular mass of ~8 kDa, estimated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Its N-terminal sequence has high similarity to disintegrins isolated from different snake venoms, which are known to bind to cellular integrins such as the GPIIb/IIIa fibrinogen receptor on platelets. The purified protein exerted potent aggregation inhibitory activity on ADP-stimulated human platelets in vitro, with an estimated IC50 of 50 nM. This biological activity, together with the biochemical characteristics observed, demonstrate that the protein isolated from B. asper venom is a disintegrin, hereby named "bothrasperin". This is the first disintegrin isolated from Central American viperid snake species.El veneno de la serpiente Bothrops asper induce graves alteraciones de la coagulación en los humanos accidentalmente envenenados. Sin embargo, se han realizado pocos estudios para identificar los componentes del veneno que interactúan con el sistema hemostático. En el presente trabajo, fraccionamos el veneno de B. asper para investigar la posible presencia de inhibidores de la agregación plaquetaria. Empleando una combinación de técnicas cromatográficas (filtración en gel, intercambio aniónico y cromatografía líquida de alto desempeño en fase reversa, aislamos una proteína acídica de cadena simple, con una masa molecular de ~8 kDa, estimada mediante electroforesis en gel de poliacrilamida con

  11. Structural and biophysical studies with the MjTX-I, a Lys49-phospholipase A{sub 2} homologue from Bothrops moojeni venom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvador, G.H.M.; Fernandes, C.A.H.; Fernandez, R.M.; Fontes, M.R.M. [UNESP, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Marchi-Salvador, D.P. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Soares, A.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP-RP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, C.L.P [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Phospholipases A{sub 2} (PLA{sub 2}) are small proteins found in a great diversity of organisms and belong to a superfamily of proteins involved in many important pharmacological processes, such as neurotoxicity, myotoxicity, platelet aggregation, and anticoagulant activity. Ophidic accidents caused by snakes from Bothrops genus are not efficiently neutralized by conventional serum therapy, and then detailed studies with this class of proteins may be very important to supplement this conventional therapy. Miotoxin-I (MjTX-I) is a basic Lys49-PLA{sub 2}, isolated from Bothrops moojeni snake venom, which induces a drastic local myonecrosis. Crystal structure of MjTX-I shows four molecules in the asymmetric unit, an unusually oligomeric conformation for snake venom Lys49-PLA{sub 2}s. However, bioinformatics techniques indicate a dimer as the biological oligomeric conformation. To get additional information of its biological conformation, we also performed Dynamic Light Scattering, Size Exclusion Chromatography and Small Angle X-ray Scattering experiments. These techniques showed a monomer as the most probable biological conformation in water; however small changes in pH and ionic strength result in different oligomeric assemblies. These novel information for Lys49-PLA{sub 2}s may result in important conclusions for this intriguing class of toxins. (author)

  12. Effect of Diterpenes Isolated of the Marine Alga Canistrocarpus cervicornis against Some Toxic Effects of the Venom of the Bothrops jararaca Snake

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    Thaisa Francielle Souza Domingos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Snake venoms are composed of a complex mixture of active proteins and peptides which induce a wide range of toxic effects. Envenomation by Bothrops jararaca venom results in hemorrhage, edema, pain, tissue necrosis and hemolysis. In this work, the effect of a mixture of two secodolastane diterpenes (linearol/isolinearol, previously isolated from the Brazilian marine brown alga, Canistrocarpus cervicornis, was evaluated against some of the toxic effects induced by B. jararaca venom. The mixture of diterpenes was dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide and incubated with venom for 30 min at room temperature, and then several in vivo (hemorrhage, edema and lethality and in vitro (hemolysis, plasma clotting and proteolysis assays were performed. The diterpenes inhibited hemolysis, proteolysis and hemorrhage, but failed to inhibit clotting and edema induced by B. jararaca venom. Moreover, diterpenes partially protected mice from lethality caused by B. jararaca venom. The search for natural inhibitors of B. jararaca venom in C. cervicornis algae is a relevant subject, since seaweeds are a rich and powerful source of active molecules which are as yet but poorly explored. Our results suggest that these diterpenes have the potential to be used against Bothropic envenomation accidents or to improve traditional treatments for snake bites.

  13. Neutralization of pharmacological and toxic activities of Bothrops jararacussu snake venom and isolated myotoxins by Serjania erecta methanolic extract and its fractions

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    RS Fernandes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the snakebites recorded in Brazil are caused by the Bothrops genus. Given that the local tissue damage caused by this genus cannot be treated by antivenom therapy, numerous studies are focusing on supplementary alternatives, such as the use of medicinal plants. Serjania erecta has already demonstrated anti-inflammatory, antiseptic and healing properties. In the current study, the aerial parts of S. erecta were extracted with methanol, then submitted to chromatographic fractionation on a Sephadex LH20 column and eluted with methanol, which resulted in four main fractions. The crude extract and fractions neutralized the toxic activities of Bothrops jararacussu snake venom and isolated myotoxins (BthTX-I and II. Results showed that phospholipase A2, fibrinogenolytic, myotoxic and hemorrhagic activities were inhibited by the extract. Moreover, the myotoxic and edematous activities induced by BthTX-I, and phospholipase A2 activity induced by BthTX-II, were inhibited by the extract of S. erecta and its fraction. The clotting time on bovine plasma was significantly prolonged by the inhibitory action of fractions SF3 and SF4. This extract is a promising source of natural inhibitors, such as flavonoids and tannins, which act by forming complexes with metal ions and proteins, inhibiting the action of serineproteases, metalloproteases and phospholipases A2.

  14. Examination of biochemical and biological activities of Bothrops jararaca (Serpentes: Viperidae; Wied-Neuwied 1824) snake venom after up to 54 years of storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Daniela M; de Morais-Zani, Karen; Serino-Silva, Caroline; Grego, Kathleen F; Sant'Anna, Savio S; Fernandes, Wilson; Aniz, Patrícia A E A; Torquato, Ricardo J S; Tanaka, Aparecida S; Sanz, Libia; Calvete, Juan J; Tanaka-Azevedo, Anita M

    2018-01-01

    The number of snakes donated to the Brazilian Instituto Butantan has been decreasing in the past 10 years. This circumstance motivated us to compare the properties of five venom pools of Bothrops jararaca snake stored for up to 54 years. Results showed differences among venom pools regarding enzymatic and other biological activities, such as caseinolytic, phospholipase A2, hemorrhagic and coagulant activities, as well as antigenicity. Protein content, reverse-phase chromatographic profile, and immunorecognition by commercial Bothrops antivenom were comparable for all venom pools, although lethality of the most recent preparations was higher. Since the lowest functional activities did not always correspond to older venoms, differences among venom pools used for antivenom production during the period 1963-2008 may correlate with the different proportions of venoms from different localities used in their generation, rather than to long-term storage. We conclude that B. jararaca venoms properly stored for long periods of time retain their structural and pharmacological activities, thus representing useful materials for scientific research and antivenom production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Acidentes ofidicos causados por Bothrops moojeni: correlação do quadro clínico com o tamanho da serpente

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    João Aris Kouyoumdjian

    1989-04-01

    Full Text Available Durante um período de 19 meses (março 1986 a setembro 1987 foram estudados 22 casos de acidentes ofídicos causados por Bothrops moojeni na região de São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, nos quais o tamanho da serpente foi sistematicamente medido. Foram constituídos dois grupos de pacientes de acordo com o tamanho da serpente: grupo I - 9 casos de serpentes pequenas (30 a 53 cm e grupo II - 13 casos de serpentes grandes (80 a 147 cm. Os resultados mostraram: 1. efeitos locais iniciais - dor e edema - mais leves no grupo I; 2. tempo de coagulação prolongado/incoagulável levemente mais freqüente no grupo I; 3. complicações locais - necrose, infecção e síndrome compartimentai - exclusivamente, e em mais da metade dos casos do grupo II, apesar da terapia com antiveneno ter sido mais rápida e em doses maiores nesse grupo. Conclui-se que as serpentes Bothrops moojeni maiores apresentam grande incremento nas suas ações locais - edema, necrose e infecção secundária - e leve perda em sua ação coagulante.

  16. Snakebites and ethnobotany in the northwest region of Colombia. Part III: neutralization of the haemorrhagic effect of Bothrops atrox venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, R; Núñez, V; Barona, J; Fonnegra, R; Jiménez, S L; Osorio, R G; Saldarriaga, M; Díaz, A

    2000-11-01

    Thirty-one of 75 extracts of plants used by traditional healers for snakebites, had moderate or high neutralizing ability against the haemorrhagic effect of Bothrops atrox venom from Antioquia and Chocó, north-western Colombia. After preincubation of several doses of every extract (7.8-4000 microg/mouse) with six minimum haemorrhagic doses (10 microg) of venom, 12 of them demonstrated 100% neutralizing capacity when the mixture was i.d. injected into mice (18-20 g). These were the stem barks of Brownea rosademonte (Caesalpiniaceae) and Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae); the whole plants of Pleopeltis percussa (Polypodiaceae), Trichomanes elegans (Hymenophyllaceae) and Senna dariensis (Caesalpiniaceae); rhizomes of Heliconia curtispatha (Heliconiaceae); leaves and branches of Bixa orellana (Bixaceae), Philodendron tripartitum (Araceae), Struthanthus orbicularis (Loranthaceae) and Gonzalagunia panamensis (Rubiaceae); the ripe fruits of Citrus limon (Rutaceae); leaves, branches and stem of Ficus nymphaeifolia (Moraceae). Extracts of another 19 species showed moderate neutralization (21-72%) at doses up to 4 mg/mouse, e.g. the whole plants of Aristolochia grandiflora (Aristolochiaceae), Columnea kalbreyeriana (Gesneriaceae), Sida acuta (Malvaceae), Selaginella articulata (Selaginellaceae) and Pseudoelephantopus spicatus (Asteraceae); rhizomes of Renealmia alpinia (Zingiberaceae); the stem of Strychnos xinguensis (Loganiaceae); leaves, branches and stems of Hyptis capitata (Lamiaceae), Ipomoea cairica (Convolvulaceae), Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae), Ocimum micranthum (Lamiaceae), Piper pulchrum (Piperaceae), Siparuna thecaphora (Monimiaceae), Castilla elastica (Moraceae) and Allamanda cathartica (Apocynaceae); the macerated ripe fruits of Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae); the unripe fruits of Crescentia cujete (Bignoniaceae); leaves and branches of Piper arboreum (Piperaceae) and Passiflora quadrangularis (Passifloraceae). When the extracts were independently administered

  17. Flow cytometric characterization of peripheral blood leukocyte populations of 3 neotropical snake species: Boa constrictor, Bothrops jararaca, and Crotalus durissus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Marcelo P N; Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, Nicolle G T; Massoco, Cristina O; Rossi, Silmara; Sant'Anna, Sávio S; Catão-Dias, José L; Grego, Kathleen F

    2016-06-01

    The reptilian immune system is represented by innate, humoral, and cell-mediated mechanisms, involving different types of blood leukocytes. The development of optimized methods for the advanced study of origin and function of reptilian blood leukocytes is needed. The purpose of the study was to optimize leukocyte density gradient isolation protocols from snake peripheral blood samples, and characterize recovered cells by flow cytometry based on size and internal complexity for a qualitative and semi-quantitative assessment of leukocyte populations in one boa (Boa constrictor), and 2 viper species (Bothrops jararaca, Crotalus durissus). Blood samples from 30 snakes (10 from each species, 5 males and 5 females) were collected in tubes with sodium heparin. Fresh blood was centrifuged with either ficoll-paque PLUS or percoll density gradients for leukocyte isolation. Flow cytometric leukocyte gates were defined based on size (forward scatter [FSC]) and internal complexity (side scatter [SSC]). Relative leukocyte differential counts after sorting the cells in these gates in one snake for each species were compared to conventional light microscopic differential counts on unsorted isolated leukocytes. There was no statistical difference in the relative leukocyte populations, including heterophils, azurophils, and small and large lymphocytes between samples isolated by ficoll or percoll. Four leukocyte gates were identified based on their location in FSC/SSC cytograms. The relative leukocyte differential counts after sorting in single animals showed some agreement with the light microscopy differential count on unsorted cells. Based on FSC and SSC, 4 distinct leukocyte populations were found in ficoll or percoll density gradient isolated leukocytes from peripheral blood from boa and viper species. Further optimization of the technique should allow the performance of functional assays. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  18. Structural and functional studies of a bothropic myotoxin complexed to rosmarinic acid: new insights into Lys49-PLA₂ inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana I Dos Santos

    Full Text Available Snakebite envenoming is an important public health problem in many tropical and subtropical countries, and is considered a neglected tropical disease by the World Health Organization. Most severe cases are inflicted by species of the families Elapidae and Viperidae, and lead to a number of systemic and local effects in the victim. One of the main problems regarding viperidic accidents is prominent local tissue damage whose pathogenesis is complex and involves the combined actions of a variety of venom components. Phospholipases A₂ (PLA₂s are the most abundant muscle-damaging components of these venoms. Herein, we report functional and structural studies of PrTX-I, a Lys49-PLA₂ from Bothops pirajai snake venom, and the influence of rosmarinic acid (RA upon this toxin's activities. RA is a known active component of some plant extracts and has been reported as presenting anti-myotoxic properties related to bothopic envenomation. The myotoxic activity of Lys49-PLA₂s is well established in the literature and although no in vivo neurotoxicity has been observed among these toxins, in vitro neuromuscular blockade has been reported for some of these proteins. Our in vitro studies show that RA drastically reduces both the muscle damage and the neuromuscular blockade exerted by PrTX-I on mice neuromuscular preparations (by ∼80% and ∼90%, respectively. These results support the hypothesis that the two effects are closely related and lead us to suggest that they are consequences of the muscle membrane-destabilizing activity of the Lys49-PLA₂. Although the C-terminal region of these proteins has been reported to comprise the myotoxic site, we demonstrate by X-ray crystallographic studies that RA interacts with PrTX-I in a different region. Consequently, a new mode of Lys49-PLA₂ inhibition is proposed. Comparison of our results with others in the literature suggests possible new ways to inhibit bothropic snake venom myotoxins and improve serum

  19. The inhibitory potential of the condensed-tannin-rich fraction of Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (Fabaceae) against Bothrops atrox envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Valéria Mourão; da Silva, Wania Cristina Rodrigues; Raposo, Juliana D A; Freitas-de-Sousa, Luciana A; Dos-Santos, Maria Cristina; de Oliveira, Ricardo Bezerra; Veras Mourão, Rosa Helena

    2016-05-13

    Ethnobotanical studies have shown that Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (Fabaceae) has been widely used in cases of snake envenomation, particularly in Northern Brazil. In light of this, the aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory potential of the condensed-tannin-rich fraction obtained from the bark of P. reticulata against the main biological activities induced by Bothrops atrox venom (BaV). The chemical composition of the aqueous extract of P. reticulata (AEPr) was first investigated by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and the extract was then fractionated by column chromatography on Sephadex LH-20. This yielded five main fractions (Pr1, Pr2, Pr3, Pr4 and Pr5), which were analyzed by colorimetry to determine their concentrations of total phenolics, total tannins and condensed tannins and to assess their potential for blocking the phospholipase activity of BaV. The Pr5 fraction was defined as the fraction rich in condensed tannins (CTPr), and its inhibitory potential against the activities of the venom was evaluated. CTPr was evaluated in different in vivo and in vitro experimental protocols. The in vivo protocols consisted of (1) pre-incubation (venom:CTPr, w/w), (2) pre-treatment (orally administered) and (3) post-treatment (orally administered) to evaluate the effect on the hemorrhagic and edematogenic activities of BaV; in the in vitro protocol the effect on phospholipase and coagulant activity using pre-incubation in both tests was evaluated. There was statistically significant inhibition (psource of natural inhibitors of the components of snake venom responsible for inducing local inflammation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Isotopic change in the tissues of Bothrops atrox in captivity collected from environments of the eastern Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, M. G.; Chalkidis, H. D.; Amazonas, D. R.; da Silva, A. M.; De Oliveira, R., Jr.; Camargo, P. B.

    2013-12-01

    The Bothrops atrox is little studied because it is sympatric Amazonian animals, and very little is known about the ecology and natural history of this species. It has a generalist diet and the distribution of this species is very wide. The adult animals forage mostly on the ground, while the younger animals prefer to stay on the vegetation. They are easily find in the rainy months in areas near lakes and seasonally flooded and are difficult to find in the driest months, a period where there is less availability of preys in these environments. Due to its aggressiveness, is considered one of the most feared snakes in South America and in the eastern Amazon, being responsible for the largest number of snakebites in the region. Through stable isotope carbon-13 and nitrogen-15, is intended to characterize the variations of the feeding habits of these collected animals in different environments and also when they are kept in captivity, feeding the animal's bioterium. The serpents were collected in environments with different land uses, such as native forest, savannah, pasture and have been brought to the serpentarium Integrated College Tapajos (FIT), being retained in order to Samplings throughout the experiment with feeding mice's own bioterium. When these snakes came from different locations, samples were collected scales and blood (T0), before receiving the new supply (captive), and every time we fed the mice the vivarium, new tissue samples were collected, (T1, T2, T3) to exchange all the nature of food for the food captivity.Based on the results of δ13C and δ15N, the samples collected in the tissues of snakes of different environments (nature and captivity), it was observed that changes in food sources reflect changes in tissues (blood and scales), also reflecting the production of poison different periods of turnover of absorbed material in those tissues, contributing to the study of animal ecology and behavior in relation to habitat.

  1. Biotechnological application of protein Leuc-B isolated from Bothrops leucurus venom as a prototype for antitumoral radiopharmaceutical;Aplicacao biotecnologica da proteina Leuc-B isolada da peconha de Bothrops leucurus como prototipo de radiofarmaco antitumoral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel, Lucilene Marcia

    2010-07-01

    According to the report of the International Agency for Research on Cancer, the growth of this disease implies the death of 17 million people a year by 2030. Although the knowledge on development of cancer is growing considerably, just a few advances in the diagnosis and therapy has been achieved. Faced with this scenario, it is clear the need for new substances more specifics with low toxicity to the patient, which can be used for diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Membrane receptors over expressed in tumor cells are promising target candidates for development of diagnostic and therapeutical tools. Integrins are a family of hetero dimeric cell surface adhesion receptors able to recognize and bind to proteins in the extracellular matrix (ECM). This recognition is mainly through the RGD domains presents in both the cell surface as in the protein from the ECM. Various integrins have been identified as regulators of tumor progression. The RGD domain is also found in some snake venoms named disintegrins. Disintegrins inhibit cell-matrix and a cell-cell interactions mediated by integrins and it has been shown that these proteins are able to inhibit metastasis in processes dependent on integrin. The disintegrin-like (ECD), as well as RGD-disintegrin are also able to bind to cell surface integrins and inhibit their adhesion to the natural ligands. In this work it was purified from Bothrops leucurus venom (VBL), a metalloproteinase-class P-III with disintegrin-like domain (ECD), Leucurolisina B (Leuc-B). This metalloproteinase and the crude venom were used to evaluate their applicability in the differential detection of tumors. In vitro results demonstrated that both VBL and Leuc-B have potent antitumoral effect on several cancer cell lines: U87, T98, RT2 (glioblastoma), MCF7 (breast), Ehrlich and UACC (melanoma) with IC{sub 50} values of approximately 0.6 muM. The morphological changes observed in these strains when treated with Leuc-B, and data from the DAPI staining

  2. Diversity of metalloproteinases in Bothrops neuwiedi snake venom transcripts: evidences for recombination between different classes of SVMPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) are widely distributed in snake venoms and are versatile toxins, targeting many important elements involved in hemostasis, such as basement membrane proteins, clotting proteins, platelets, endothelial and inflammatory cells. The functional diversity of SVMPs is in part due to the structural organization of different combinations of catalytic, disintegrin, disintegrin-like and cysteine-rich domains, which categorizes SVMPs in 3 classes of precursor molecules (PI, PII and PIII) further divided in 11 subclasses, 6 of them belonging to PII group. This heterogeneity is currently correlated to genetic accelerated evolution and post-translational modifications. Results Thirty-one SVMP cDNAs were full length cloned from a single specimen of Bothrops neuwiedi snake, sequenced and grouped in eleven distinct sequences and further analyzed by cladistic analysis. Class P-I and class P-III sequences presented the expected tree topology for fibrinolytic and hemorrhagic SVMPs, respectively. In opposition, three distinct segregations were observed for class P-II sequences. P-IIb showed the typical segregation of class P-II SVMPs. However, P-IIa grouped with class P-I cDNAs presenting a 100% identity in the 365 bp at their 5' ends, suggesting post-transcription events for interclass recombination. In addition, catalytic domain of P-IIx sequences segregated with non-hemorrhagic class P-III SVMPs while their disintegrin domain grouped with other class P-II disintegrin domains suggesting independent evolution of catalytic and disintegrin domains. Complementary regions within cDNA sequences were noted and may participate in recombination either at DNA or RNA levels. Proteins predicted by these cDNAs show the main features of the correspondent classes of SVMP, but P-IIb and P-IIx included two additional cysteines cysteines at the C-termini of the disintegrin domains in positions not yet described. Conclusions In B. neuwiedi venom gland

  3. Structural and Functional Studies of a Bothropic Myotoxin Complexed to Rosmarinic Acid: New Insights into Lys49-PLA2 Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Juliana I.; Cardoso, Fábio F.; Soares, Andreimar M.; dal Pai Silva, Maeli; Gallacci, Márcia; Fontes, Marcos R. M.

    2011-01-01

    Snakebite envenoming is an important public health problem in many tropical and subtropical countries, and is considered a neglected tropical disease by the World Health Organization. Most severe cases are inflicted by species of the families Elapidae and Viperidae, and lead to a number of systemic and local effects in the victim. One of the main problems regarding viperidic accidents is prominent local tissue damage whose pathogenesis is complex and involves the combined actions of a variety of venom components. Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) are the most abundant muscle-damaging components of these venoms. Herein, we report functional and structural studies of PrTX-I, a Lys49-PLA2 from Bothops pirajai snake venom, and the influence of rosmarinic acid (RA) upon this toxin's activities. RA is a known active component of some plant extracts and has been reported as presenting anti-myotoxic properties related to bothopic envenomation. The myotoxic activity of Lys49-PLA2s is well established in the literature and although no in vivo neurotoxicity has been observed among these toxins, in vitro neuromuscular blockade has been reported for some of these proteins. Our in vitro studies show that RA drastically reduces both the muscle damage and the neuromuscular blockade exerted by PrTX-I on mice neuromuscular preparations (by ∼80% and ∼90%, respectively). These results support the hypothesis that the two effects are closely related and lead us to suggest that they are consequences of the muscle membrane-destabilizing activity of the Lys49-PLA2. Although the C-terminal region of these proteins has been reported to comprise the myotoxic site, we demonstrate by X-ray crystallographic studies that RA interacts with PrTX-I in a different region. Consequently, a new mode of Lys49-PLA2 inhibition is proposed. Comparison of our results with others in the literature suggests possible new ways to inhibit bothropic snake venom myotoxins and improve serum therapy. PMID:22205953

  4. Crystal structure of myotoxin-II: a myotoxic phospholipase A{sub 2} - homologue from Bothrops moojeni venom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, W.F.; Ward, R.J.; Lombardi, F.R.; Arni, R.K. [UNESP, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias, Letras e Ciencias Exatas; Soares, A.M.; Giglio, J.R. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Escola de Medicina; Fontes, M.R.M. [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Inst. Biofisica

    1997-12-31

    Full text. Phospho lipases A2 (PLA{sub 2}; E C 3.1.1.4, phosphatides s n-2 acyl hydrolases) hydrolysis the s n-2 ester bond of phospholipids showing enhanced activity at lamellar or membrane surfaces. Intracellular PLA{sub 2} s are involved at phospholipid metabolism and signal transduction, whereas extracellular PLA{sub 2} s are found in mammalian pancreatic juices, the venoms of snakes, lizards and insects. Based on their high primary sequence similarity, extracellular PLA{sub 2} s are separated into Classes I, II and III. Class II PLA{sub 2} s are found in snake venoms of Crotalidae an Viperidae species, and include the sub-family of Lys PLA{sub 2} s homologue. he coordination of the Ca{sup 2+} ion in the PLA{sub 2} calcium-binding loop includes and aspartate at position 49. In the catalytically active PLA{sub 2} s, this calcium ion plays a critical role in the stabilization of the tetrahedral transition state intermediate in the catalytic mechanism. The conservative substitution Asp49-Lys results in a decreased calcium affinity with a concomitant loss of catalytic activity, and naturally occurring PLA{sub 2} s-homologues showing the same substitution are catalytically inactive. However, the Lys PLA{sub 2} s possess cytolytic and myotoxic activities and furthermore retain the ability to disrupt the integrity of both plasma membranes and model lipid layers by a ca{sup 2+}-independent mechanism for which there is no evidence of lipid hydrolysis. Lys 49 PLA{sub 2} homologues have been isolated from several Bothrops spp. venoms including B. moojeni. Therefore, in order to improve our understanding of the molecular basis of the myotoxic and Ca{sup 2+} independent membrane damaging activities we have determined the crystal structure of MjTX-II, a Lys 49 homologue from the venom of B. moojeni. The model presented has been determined at 2.0 A resolution and refined to a crystallographic residual of 19.7% (R{sub f}ree=28.1%). (author)

  5. Inhibition of proteases and phospholipases A2 from Bothrops atrox and Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venoms by ascorbic acid, vitamin E, and B-complex vitamins

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    CARLOS H.M. OLIVEIRA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The enzyme inhibition by natural and/ or low-cost compounds may represent a valuable adjunct to traditional serotherapy performed in cases of snakebite, mainly with a view to mitigate the local effects of envenoming. The objective of this study was to evaluate possible interactions between vitamins and enzymes that comprise Bothrops atrox and Crotalus durissus terrificus venoms, in vitro. Proteolysis inhibition assays (substrates: azocasein, collagen, gelatin and fibrinogen, hemolysis, coagulation, hemagglutination were carried out using different proportions of vitamins in face of to inhibit minimum effective dose of each venom. The vitamins were responsible for reducing 100% of breaking azocasein by C.d.t. venom, thrombolysis induced by B. atrox and fibrinogenolysis induced by both venoms. It is suggested the presence of interactions between vitamin and the active site of enzymes, for example the interactions between hydrophobic regions present in the enzymes and vitamin E, as well as the inhibitions exercised by antioxidant mechanism.

  6. Inhibition of proteases and phospholipases A2 from Bothrops atrox and Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venoms by ascorbic acid, vitamin E, and B-complex vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Carlos H M; Simão, Anderson A; Trento, Marcus V C; César, Pedro H S; Marcussi, Silvana

    2016-01-01

    The enzyme inhibition by natural and/ or low-cost compounds may represent a valuable adjunct to traditional serotherapy performed in cases of snakebite, mainly with a view to mitigate the local effects of envenoming. The objective of this study was to evaluate possible interactions between vitamins and enzymes that comprise Bothrops atrox and Crotalus durissus terrificus venoms, in vitro. Proteolysis inhibition assays (substrates: azocasein, collagen, gelatin and fibrinogen), hemolysis, coagulation, hemagglutination were carried out using different proportions of vitamins in face of to inhibit minimum effective dose of each venom. The vitamins were responsible for reducing 100% of breaking azocasein by C.d.t. venom, thrombolysis induced by B. atrox and fibrinogenolysis induced by both venoms. It is suggested the presence of interactions between vitamin and the active site of enzymes, for example the interactions between hydrophobic regions present in the enzymes and vitamin E, as well as the inhibitions exercised by antioxidant mechanism.

  7. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of a Lys49-phospholipase A2 homologue from Bothrops pirajai venom complexed with rosmarinic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Juliana I.; Santos-Filho, Norival A.; Soares, Andreimar M.; Fontes, Marcos R. M.

    2010-01-01

    PrTX-I, a noncatalytic and myotoxic Lys49-phospholipase A2 from Bothrops pirajai venom, was crystallized in the presence of the inhibitor rosmarinic acid (RA). This is the active compound in the methanolic extract of Cordia verbenacea, a plant that is largely used in Brazilian folk medicine. The crystals diffracted X-rays to 1.8 Å resolution and the structure was solved by molecular-replacement techniques, showing electron density that corresponds to RA molecules at the entrance to the hydrophobic channel. The crystals belong to space group P212121, indicating conformational changes in the structure after ligand binding: the crystals of all apo Lys49-phospholipase A2 structures belong to space group P3121, while the crystals of complexed structures belong to space groups P21 or P212121. PMID:20516603

  8. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of myotoxin I, a Lys49-phospholipase A{sub 2} from Bothrops moojeni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchi-Salvador, D. P. [Departamento de Física e Biofísica-IB, UNESP, CP 510, CEP 18618-000, Botucatu-SP (Brazil); Silveira, L. B.; Soares, A. M. [Departamento de Biotecnologia, UNAERP, Ribeirão Preto/SP (Brazil); Fontes, M. R. M., E-mail: fontes@ibb.unesp.br [Departamento de Física e Biofísica-IB, UNESP, CP 510, CEP 18618-000, Botucatu-SP (Brazil)

    2005-10-01

    A new myotoxic Lys49-phospholipase from B. moojeni has been crystallized and X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.18 Å resolution. Preliminary analysis indicates the presence of four molecules in the asymmetric unit, leading to a possible new oligomeric structure for Lys49-PLA{sub 2}s. A new myotoxic Lys49-phospholipase A{sub 2} isolated from Bothrops moojeni snake venom has been crystallized. The crystals diffracted to 2.18 Å resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source and belong to space group C2. The unit-cell parameters are a = 56.8, b = 125.0, c = 64.7 Å, β = 105.5°. Preliminary analysis indicates the presence of four molecules in the asymmetric unit. This may suggest a new quaternary structure for this Lys49-phospholipase A{sub 2} in contrast to the dimeric and monomeric structures solved so far for this class of proteins.

  9. Digenetic trematodes infection in a Bothrops moojeni (Viperidae population from a fauna rescue in Porto Primavera, São Paulo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrella T.H.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo é descrita a infecção por trematódeos digenéticos parasitas da cavidade oral e esôfago em uma população de serpentes Bothrops moojeni provenientes de resgate de fauna em Porto Primavera, Estado de São Paulo. Foi observada prevalência de infecção de 68%. O grau de infecção (número de trematódeos por serpente variou de 2 a 51 helmintos. Os trematódeos encontrados foram Ophisthogonimus spp. e Sticholecitha serpentis. A alta prevalência de infecção foi associada com a drástica alteração ambiental e o estresse multi-fatorial aos quais os animais foram submetidos, que poderiam ter favorecido o ciclo dos parasitas.

  10. Sarcophagidae and Calliphoridae related to Rhinella schneideri (Anura, Bufonidae, Bothrops moojeni (Reptilia, Serpentes and Mabuya frenata (Reptilia, Lacertilia carcasses in Brasília, Brazil

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    Roger Maia Dias Ledo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarcophagidae and Calliphoridae related to Rhinella schneideri (Anura, Bufonidae, Bothrops moojeni (Reptilia, Serpentes and Mabuya frenata (Reptilia, Lacertilia carcasses in Brasília, Brazil. This paper presents a list of necrophagous insects associated with small size carrions of two reptiles and one amphibian, found in areas of riparian forests and Cerrado sensu stricto physiognomies in a Conservation Unit located in Brasilia, Distrito Federal. We found seven species of insects related to these carcasses, being five Sarcophagidae, one Calliphoridae and one Braconidae parasitoid wasp. Lucilia eximia and Peckia (Pattonella intermutans were the most abundant species in the study, corroborating with other studies that suggests that these species have specializations for colonization of small size animal carcasses.

  11. Inhibitory Effects of Hydroethanolic Leaf Extracts of Kalanchoe brasiliensis and Kalanchoe pinnata (Crassulaceae against Local Effects Induced by Bothrops jararaca Snake Venom.

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    Júlia Morais Fernandes

    Full Text Available The species Kalanchoe brasiliensis and Kalanchoe pinnata, both known popularly as "Saião," are used interchangeably in traditional medicine for their antiophidic properties. Studies evaluating the anti-venom activity of these species are scarce. This study aims to characterize the chemical constituents and evaluate the inhibitory effects of hydroethanolic leaf extracts of K. brasiliensis and K. pinnata against local effects induced by Bothrops jararaca snake venom. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC and High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Diode Array Detection and Electrospray Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS/MS were performed for characterization of chemical markers of the extracts from these species. For antiophidic activity evaluation, B. jararaca venom-induced paw edema and skin hemorrhage in mice were evaluated. In both models, hydroethanolic extracts (125-500 mg/kg were administered intraperitoneally in different protocols. Inhibition of phospholipase enzymatic activity of B. jararaca was evaluated. The HPLC-DAD-MS/MS chromatographic profile of extracts showed some particularities in the chemical profile of the two species. K. brasileinsis exhibited major peaks that have UV spectra similar to flavonoid glycosides derived from patuletin and eupafolin, while K. pinnata showed UV spectra similar to flavonoids glycosides derived from quercetin and kaempferol. Both extracts significantly reduced the hemorrhagic activity of B. jararaca venom in pre-treatment protocol, reaching about 40% of inhibition, while only K. pinnata was active in post-treatment protocol (about 30% of inhibition. In the antiedematogenic activity, only K. pinnata was active, inhibiting about 66% and 30% in pre and post-treatment protocols, respectively. Both extracts inhibited phospholipase activity; however, K. pinnata was more active. In conclusion, the results indicate the potential antiophidic activity of Kalanchoe species against local effects induced by B

  12. Neutralización del efecto hemorrágico inducido por veneno de Bothrops asper (Serpentes: Viperidae por extractos de plantas tropicales

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    Oscar Castro

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la capacidad de extractos orgánicos de 48 especies de plantas costarricenses para neutralizar la actividad hemorrágica del veneno de la serpiente Bothrops asper (terciopelo. Los extractos se evaluaron mediante un bioensayo basado en inyecciones intradérmicas de veneno en ratones, o de mezclas veneno-extracto, seguidas de la cuantificación macroscópica de la hemorragia. Se observó una inhibición total de la hemorragia con los extractos etanólico, de acetato de etilo y acuoso de Bursera simaruba, Clusia torresii, C. palmana, Croton draco, Persea americana, Phoebe brenesii, Pimenta dioica, Sapindus saponaria, Smilax cuculmeca y Virola koschnyi. El análisis químico de estos extractos permitió identificar catequinas, flavonas, antocianinas y taninos condensados, los cuales podrían jugar un papel en la inhibición del efecto hemorrágico debido a la capacidad de quelar el ion zinc requerido por las metaloproteinasas hemorrágicas para su acción.Organic extracts representing 48 species included in 30 families of Costa Rican tropical plants were evaluated for their ability to neutralize hemorrhagic activity induced by the venom of the snake Bothrops asper. A bioassay in mice was used, based on intradermal injection of either venom or venom-extract mixtures followed by the measurement of hemorrhagic areas. Total inhibition of hemorrhage was observed with the ethanolic, ethyl acetate and aquous extracts of Bursera simaruba, Clusia torresii, C. palmana, Croton draco, Persea americana, Phoebe brenesii, Pimenta dioica, Sapindus saponaria, Smilax cuculmeca and Virola koschnyi. Chemical analysis of these extracts identified catequines, flavones, anthocyanines and condensated tannins, which may be responsible for the inhibitory effect observed, probably owing to the chelation of the zinc required for the catalytic activity of venom’s hemorrhagic metalloproteinases.

  13. Caracterización de la enzima similar a trombina del veneno de Bothrops pictus "jergón de costa

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    Dan Vivas-Ruiz

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Realizar una caracterización bioquímica y molecular del principio coagulante del veneno de Bothrops pictus. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó la amplificación del gen a partir de cDNA, se analizó la homología de la secuencia nucleotídica y de la proteína deducida. Se procedió a purificar la enzima para los análisis de secuenciación directa N terminal de los primeros 20 aminoácidos y los ensayos de coagulación sobre plasma humano y fibrinógeno humano, por otro lado, se evaluó el patrón de corte del fibrinógeno por medio de PAGE SDS y la actividad defibrinogenante en roedores albinos (18-22 g. Se determinó el contenido de carbohidratos asociados, el efecto de inhibidores clásicos de proteasas y el efecto de iones bajo la forma de cloruros. Resultados. La enzima mostró homología en la estructura primaria con otras TLEs reportadas para la familia Viperidae, la dosis coagulante mínima (DCM sobre plasma y fibrinógeno humano fue de 18 y 6 µg respectivamente y su potencia coagulante fue de 131,1 NHI unidades de trombina. La enzima se mostró estable a condiciones fisiológicas y prescinde de iones para su actividad. Los carbohidratos asociados detectados fueron hexosas (25,76%, hexosaminas (13,1% y ácido siálico (0,76%. Los agentes fluoruro de fenil metil sulfonil floruro (PMSF ditiotreitol (DTT fueron los principales inhibidores de la actividad enzimática en tanto que la heparina no tuvo efecto inhibidor. Conclusiones. El principio coagulante del veneno de Bothrops pictus es una enzima similar a trombina

  14. A randomized blinded clinical trial of two antivenoms, prepared by caprylic acid or ammonium sulphate fractionation of IgG, in Bothrops and Porthidium snake bites in Colombia: correlation between safety and biochemical characteristics of antivenoms

    OpenAIRE

    Otero, Rafael; Gutiérrez, José María; Rojas, Gustavo; Núñez, Vitelbina; Díaz, Abel; Miranda, E.; Uribe, A. F.; Silva, Juan F.; Ospina, J. G.; Medina, Y.; Toro, María Fabiola; García, Martha E.; León, Guillermo; García, M.; Lizano, Sergio

    1999-01-01

    A randomized blinded clinical trial was performed in 53 patients bitten by Bothrops sp. and Porthidium sp. in Antioquia and Chocó, Colombia, in order to compare the efficacy and safety of two antivenoms made of whole IgG obtained by either ammonium sulphate (monovalent anti-B. atrox) or caprylic acid (polyvalent) fractionation. Additionally, antivenoms were compared by electrophoretic and chromatographic analyses and anticomplementary activity in vitro. With a protocol of 2, 4 and 6 antivenom...

  15. Avaliação da eficácia do antiveneno botrópico administrado no local da inoculação intramuscular do veneno de Bothrops jararaca: estudo experimental em camundongos Assessment of the efficacy of antivenom injection at the site of the intramuscular inoculation of Bothrops jararaca venom in mice

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    Carla Lilian Agostini Utescher

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi determinada, em camundongos de 18 a 20 g, a dose efetiva 50% do antiveneno botrópico, por via intraperitoneal (ip, imediatamente (DE50 Oh e 30 minutos (DE50 30' após a inoculação de 2 DL50 do veneno de B. jararaca, por via intramuscular (im. A DE50 30' foi três vezes maior do que a DE50 Oh. A eficácia do antiveneno administrado no local da inoculação do veneno foi avaliada inoculando-se duas DL50 do veneno, por via im, e administrando-se a DE50 do antiveneno imediatamente (DE50 Oh e 30 minutos após (DE50 30', de duas formas a saber: totalmente por via ip (1ª e metade por via ip e metade por via im (2ª, no mesmo local da inoculação do veneno. O antiveneno ofereceu, por via ip, maior proteção aos camundongos (menor taxa de óbito em 48 horas do que quando metade do mesmo foi administrado, por via im, no local da inoculação do veneno. Conclui-se que, neste modelo experimental, quando se inicia o tratamento tardiamente há necessidade de maior dose de antiveneno botrópico e que não há benefício em administrá-lo no local da picada.The 50% effective intraperitoneal (ip dose of Bothrops jararaca antivenom (ED50 was assessed in mice immediately (ED50 Oh and thirty minutes (ED50 30' after the intramuscular (im injection of two 50% lethal dose (LD50 of Bothrops jararaca venom. The efficacy of the antivenom injected at the venom inoculation site was assessed by the inoculation of two LD50 of the venom by im route, followed immediately (ED50 Oh and 30 minutes later (ED50 30' by administration of the ED50 of the antivenom either entirely by the ip route or 50 percent ip plus 50 percent im, at the same inoculation site. It was shown that the ED50 30' was 3 times greater, than the ED50 Oh and that the antivenom was more protective to mice (lower death rate in 48 hours when given entirely ip. It was concluded that, in this experimental model, a higher dose of bothropic antivenom is needed when the treatment is started lately, and that

  16. Sarcophagidae and Calliphoridae related to Rhinella schneideri (Anura, Bufonidae, Bothrops moojeni (Reptilia, Serpentes and Mabuya frenata (Reptilia, Lacertilia carcasses in Brasília, Brazil Sarcophagidae e Calliphoridae associados às carcaças de Rhinella schneideri (Anura, Bufonidae, Bothrops moojeni (Reptilia, Serpentes e Mabuya frenata (Reptilia, Lacertilia em Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brasil

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    Roger Maia Dias Ledo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarcophagidae and Calliphoridae related to Rhinella schneideri (Anura, Bufonidae, Bothrops moojeni (Reptilia, Serpentes and Mabuya frenata (Reptilia, Lacertilia carcasses in Brasília, Brazil. This paper presents a list of necrophagous insects associated with small size carrions of two reptiles and one amphibian, found in areas of riparian forests and Cerrado sensu stricto physiognomies in a Conservation Unit located in Brasilia, Distrito Federal. We found seven species of insects related to these carcasses, being five Sarcophagidae, one Calliphoridae and one Braconidae parasitoid wasp. Lucilia eximia and Peckia (Pattonella intermutans were the most abundant species in the study, corroborating with other studies that suggests that these species have specializations for colonization of small size animal carcasses.Sarcophagidae e Calliphoridae associados às carcaças de Rhinella schneideri (Anura, Bufonidae, Bothrops moojeni (Reptilia, Serpentes e Mabuya frenata (Reptilia, Lacertilia em Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brasil. Este trabalho apresenta uma lista de insetos decompositores associados a carcaças de pequeno porte de dois répteis e de um anfíbio, encontrados em áreas de matas de galeria e de cerrado sensu stricto em unidades de conservação do Distrito Federal. Foram encontradas sete espécies de insetos associados a essas carcaças, sendo cinco sarcofagídeos, um califorídeo e uma vespa parasitóide Braconidae. Lucilia eximia e Peckia (Pattonella intermutans foram as espécies mais abundantes, corroborando com outros estudos que sugerem que estas espécies apresentam especializações para a colonização de carcaças menores.

  17. Uso do habitat e alimentação em juvenis de Bothrops jararaca (Serpentes, Viperidae na Mata Atlântica do sudeste do Brasil

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    Paulo Afonso Hartmann

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereins we describe habitat use, diet and subjugation behavior of prey in juveniles of Bothrops jararaca that occur in steams in the Atlantic Forest, north coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Adittional information on juveniles of B. jararacussu found in similar situations to those of B. jararaca are also discussed. Individuals of B. jararaca were observed mainly on the ground during the day, and on the ground and also on vegetation at night. The majority of prey were diurnal anurans that inhabit the marginal rocks of streams. Juveniles of B. jararaca hold the prey after the bite, and use parts of the body to subjugate it. The frequent use of streams seems to be related to prey availability, and the use of vegetation at night may protect juveniles from terrestrial predators. Considering that some individuals were resting on the vegetation at night we can infer that juveniles of B. jararaca forage mainly on the ground during the day at the study site. Juveniles of B. jararacussu also use stream margins during the day to search for prey and apparently, similar to juveniles of B. jararaca, forage at times and places where frogs are active.

  18. Sexual dimorphism in development and venom production of the insular threatened pit viper Bothrops insularism (Serpentes: Viperidae of Queimada Grande Island, Brazil

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    S.R. Travaglia-Cardoso

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Bothrops insularis is a threatened snake endemic to Queimada Grande Island, southern coast of São Paulo, Brazil, and the occurrence of sexual abnormalities in females (females with functional ovaries and rudimentary hemipenis has been reported in this population. To date there are few data regarding developmental features of this particular species. The aim of this study was to follow some developmental features in specimens maintained in captivity for seven years in the Herpetology Laboratory at Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, Brazil. We verified a pronounced sexual dimorphism in development and venom production in the specimens analyzed. In this regard, females showed greater length, mass and amount of venom in comparison to males. Our results suggest a possible niche partitioning between the sexes that reduces (or minimizes intraspecific disharmonic interactions (eg. competition on their small living area (Queimada Grande Island. Taken together, our data suggest that males and females probably are divergent in their diets, with females feeding preferentially on endothermic prey (such as migratory birds, while males maintain the juvenile diet (with the major items being ectothermic prey.

  19. Venom peptide analysis of Vipera ammodytes meridionalis (Viperinae) and Bothrops jararacussu (Crotalinae) demonstrates subfamily-specificity of the peptidome in the family Viperidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munawar, Aisha; Trusch, Maria; Georgieva, Dessislava; Spencer, Patrick; Frochaux, Violette; Harder, Sönke; Arni, Raghuvir K; Duhalov, Deyan; Genov, Nicolay; Schlüter, Hartmut; Betzel, Christian

    2011-12-01

    Snake venom peptidomes are valuable sources of pharmacologically active compounds. We analyzed the peptidic fractions (peptides with molecular masses Viperidae family: BPPs are the major peptide component of the Crotalinae venom peptidome lacking Kunitz-type inhibitors (with one exception) while the Viperinae venom, in addition to BPPs, can contain peptides of the bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor family. We found indications for a post-translational phosphorylation of serine residues in Bothrops jararacussu venom BPP (S[combining low line]QGLPPGPPIP), which could be a regulatory mechanism in their interactions with ACE, and might influence the hypotensive effect. Homology between venom BPPs from Viperidae snakes and venom natriuretic peptide precursors from Elapidae snakes suggests a structural similarity between the respective peptides from the peptidomes of both snake families. The results demonstrate that the venoms of both snakes are rich sources of peptides influencing important physiological systems such as blood pressure regulation and hemostasis. The data can be used for pharmacological and medical applications.

  20. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a myotoxic Lys49-PLA{sub 2} from Bothrops jararacussu venom complexed with p-bromophenacyl bromide

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    Marchi-Salvador, D. P.; Fernandes, C. A. H. [Departamento de Física e Biofísica, Instituto de Biociências, UNESP, CP 510, CEP 18618-000, Botucatu-SP (Brazil); Amui, S. F.; Soares, A. M. [Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Toxicológicas e Bromatológicas, FCFRP, USP, Ribeirão Preto/SP (Brazil); Fontes, M. R. M., E-mail: fontes@ibb.unesp.br [Departamento de Física e Biofísica, Instituto de Biociências, UNESP, CP 510, CEP 18618-000, Botucatu-SP (Brazil)

    2006-06-01

    A non-catalytic and myotoxic Lys49-PLA{sub 2} from B. jararacussu venom was crystallized with BPB inhibitor and X-ray diffraction data were collected. Preliminary analysis indicates that the ligand is bound to the His48 residue. Structure determination may provide insights into the myotoxic and cytotoxic mechanisms of Lys49-PLA{sub 2}s. For the first time, a non-catalytic and myotoxic Lys49-PLA{sub 2} (BthTX-I from Bothrops jararacussu venom) has been crystallized with BPB inhibitor. X-ray diffraction data were collected and electron-density calculations showed that the ligand is bound to the His48 residue. BthTX-I with His48 chemically modified by BPB shows strongly reduced myotoxic and cytotoxic activities. This suggests a biological correlation between the modification of His48, which is associated with catalytic activity of PLA{sub 2}s, and other toxicological activities of Lys49-PLA{sub 2}s.

  1. Coagulant thrombin-like enzyme (barnettobin) from Bothrops barnetti venom: molecular sequence analysis of its cDNA and biochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivas-Ruiz, Dan E; Sandoval, Gustavo A; Mendoza, Julio; Inga, Rosalina R; Gontijo, Silea; Richardson, Michael; Eble, Johannes A; Yarleque, Armando; Sanchez, Eladio F

    2013-07-01

    The thrombin-like enzyme from Bothrops barnetti named barnettobin was purified. We report some biochemical features of barnettobin including the complete amino acid sequence that was deduced from the cDNA. Snake venom serine proteases affect several steps of human hemostasis ranging from the blood coagulation cascade to platelet function. Barnettobin is a monomeric glycoprotein of 52 kDa as shown by reducing SDS-PAGE, and contains approx. 52% carbohydrate by mass which could be removed by N-glycosidase. The complete amino acid sequence was deduced from the cDNA sequence. Its sequence contains a single chain of 233 amino acid including three N-glycosylation sites. The sequence exhibits significant homology with those of mammalian serine proteases e.g. thrombin and with homologous TLEs. Its specific coagulant activity was 251.7 NIH thrombin units/mg, releasing fibrinopeptide A from human fibrinogen and showed defibrinogenating effect in mouse. Both coagulant and amidolytic activities were inhibited by PMSF. N-deglycosylation impaired its temperature and pH stability. Its cDNA sequence with 750 bp encodes a protein of 233 residues. Indications that carbohydrate moieties may play a role in the interaction with substrates are presented. Barnettobin is a new defibrinogenating agent which may provide an opportunity for the development of new types of anti-thrombotic drugs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Gamma radiation affects the anti-Leishmania activity of Bothrops moojeni venom and correlates with L-amino acid oxidase activity

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    Tempone, A.G.; Lourenco, C.O.; Spencer, P.J.; Rogero, J.R.; Nascimento, N. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Div. de Radiobiologia; Andrade Junior, H.F. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Inst. de Medicina Tropical

    1999-11-01

    Leishmania causes human disfiguring skin disease in endemic areas of Amazon and North Eastern Brazil. Those parasites present a remarkable resistance to most treatments, except those using toxic antimonial salts. We detected a specific anti-Leishmania activity in snake venoms, using an in vitro promastigote assay. In this report, we analyzed the activity of Bothrops moojeni venom against L. Amazonensis, using whole venom or fractions of L-amino acid oxidase (L-AO). Crude venom of B.moojeni, was fractionated by molecular exclusion chromatography. Activity against promastigotes was detected by respiratory oxidative conversion of MTT in a colorimetric assay and L-AO activity was detected by a colorimetric assay with peroxidase and OPD as revealing reagents. Crude venom was irradiated with 500, 1000, and 2000 Gy in a {sup 60} Co gamma radiation source. The venom had an anti-Leishmania activity of 33 pg/promastigote and the active fraction migrates as 100-150 kDa, close to the size described for L-AOs, and also presented L-AO activity. The radiation reduces both the L-AO and anti-Leishmania activity in a dose dependent effect. Those data suggests the anti-Leishmania activity in this venom is closely related to the L-amino acid oxidase activity and also that radiation could be used as a tool to detect specific activities reduction in water solutions, similarly to observed in dry preparations. (author) 13 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Purification and partial characterization of phospholipases A2 from Bothrops asper (barba amarilla snake venom from Chiriguaná (Cesar, Colombia

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    J. Ramírez-Avila

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Components with phospholipase A2 activity were isolated by gel filtration and cationic exchange chromatography from the venom of Bothrops asper snakes from Chiriguaná, Colombia (9°22´N; 73°37´W. Five fractions were obtained by the gel filtration, and PLA2 activity was found in fraction 3 (F3. In the cationic exchange chromatography, F3 showed eight components with PLA2 activity. Six of these components appeared as one band in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. Fractions II and VII exhibited an optimal activity at pH 9 and 52ºC. The optimum calcium concentration for fraction II was 48 mM and for fraction VII, 384 mM. Both fractions showed thermal stability. Fraction II was stable at pH values between 2.5 and 9, and fraction VII, between 2.5 and 8. The Michaelis Menten constant (K M was 3.5x10-3 M for fraction II and 1.6x10-3 M for fraction VII. The molecular weight was 16,000 Dalton for fraction II and 17,000 Dalton for fraction VII. Both isoenzymes did not show any toxic activity (DL50 at 5.3 and 4 µg/g. The two fractions showed different kinetic constant (K M, calcium requirement, and substrate specificity for haemolytic activity.

  4. Morphometric and phylogenetic analyses of Serpentirhabdias viperidicus n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae) from the lancehead snake Bothrops moojeni Hoge, 1966 (Reptilia: Serpentes: Viperidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, D H; Aguiar, A; Müller, M I; Narciso, R B; da Silva, L A F; da Silva, R J

    2017-05-01

    Serpentirhabdias viperidicus n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae) is described from the lungs of the 'Brazilian lancehead' Bothrops moojeni (Hoge, 1966) from the savannah in São Paulo State, Brazil. The new species is the eighth species of Serpentirhabdias described in the Neotropical region, and differs from other species mainly by a combination of characters: lips slightly notable, presence of fine striations at posterior ends, presence of two parallel lines with intercalated pores, a pore-shaped phasmid situated at the level of the anal aperture and another two in the posterior half of the tail. It is the first species of Serpentirhabdias reported in this snake host and the second species of this genus found parasitizing South American viperidian snakes. Molecular phylogenetic analysis using ribosomal (ITS and 28S partial) genes confirms Serpentirhabdias viperidicus n. sp. as a new species that clustered in the Serpentirhabdias clade, sister taxon to Serpentirhabdias fuscovenosa and Serpentirhabdias elaphe. This is the first description of Serpentirhabdias species from Brazil using molecular approaches and morphological characters to confirm the monophyly of this recent genus.

  5. Quadros clínico-patológicos do envenenamento ofídico por Crotalus durissus terrificus e Bothrops spp. em animais de produção

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    Carlos Hubinger Tokarnia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizada uma revisão dos quadros clínico-patológicos causados pelos venenos de Crotalus durissus terrificus e Bothrops spp. em bovinos, búfalos, ovinos equinos e suínos. Foram compilados os dados obtidos pela experimentação em animais de produção encontrados na literatura e os obtidos através de experimentação realizada por nossa equipe. Também foram revisados os casos naturais de envenenamento ofídico comunicados. Em dois Quadros foram lançados os mais importantes dados dessas revisões, que revelou diversos aspectos interessantes: 1 em nossos experimentos, o veneno de Crotalus durissus terrificus, quando injetado por via subcutânea em cavalos, causou um edema acentuado no local da aplicação, ao contrário do que tem sido observado em todas as outras espécies animais, aspecto não relatado na literatura; 2 em nossos experimentos, o veneno de diversas espécies de Bothrops, quando injetado por via subcutânea em bovinos, ovinos e equinos, não causou edema como em geral é relatado na literatura, e sim hemorragias subcutâneas acentuadas no local da aplicação. Nos casos não fatais este sangue era reabsorvido em poucos dias sem deixar sequelas. Exceção foi a reação ao veneno de Bothrops jararacussu, que causou edema nos ovinos experimentais, e tumefação acentuada que resultou em fístula com eliminação de líquido seroso nos equinos experimentais. O objetivo do presente estudo visa contribuir para o aperfeiçoamento do diagnóstico de acidentes ofídicos em animais de produção.

  6. Snake venomics and antivenomics of Bothrops atrox venoms from Colombia and the Amazon regions of Brazil, Perú and Ecuador suggest the occurrence of geographic variation of venom phenotype by a trend towards paedomorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Vitelbina; Cid, Pedro; Sanz, Libia; De La Torre, Pilar; Angulo, Yamileth; Lomonte, Bruno; Gutiérrez, José María; Calvete, Juan J

    2009-11-02

    The venom proteomes of Bothrops atrox from Colombia, Brazil, Ecuador, and Perú were characterized using venomic and antivenomic strategies. Our results evidence the existence of two geographically differentiated venom phenotypes. The venom from Colombia comprises at least 26 different proteins belonging to 9 different groups of toxins. PI-metalloproteinases and K49-PLA(2) molecules represent the most abundant toxins. On the other hand, the venoms from Brazilian, Ecuadorian, and Peruvian B. atrox contain predominantly PIII-metalloproteinases. These toxin profiles correlate with the venom phenotypes of adult and juvenile B. asper from Costa Rica, respectively, suggesting that paedomorphism represented a selective trend during the trans-Amazonian southward expansion of B. atrox through the Andean Corridor. The high degree of crossreactivity of a Costa Rican polyvalent (Bothrops asper, Lachesis stenophrys, Crotalus simus) antivenom against B. atrox venoms further evidenced the close evolutionary kinship between B. asper and B. atrox. This antivenom was more efficient immunodepleting proteins from the venoms of B. atrox from Brazil, Ecuador, and Perú than from Colombia. Such behaviour may be rationalized taking into account the lower content of poorly immunogenic toxins, such as PLA(2) molecules and PI-SVMPs in the paedomorphic venoms. The immunological profile of the Costa Rican antivenom strongly suggests the possibility of using this antivenom for the management of snakebites by B. atrox in Colombia and the Amazon regions of Ecuador, Perú and Brazil.

  7. Comparison of the effect of Crotalus simus and Crotalus durissus ruruima venoms on the equine antibody response towards Bothrops asper venom: implications for the production of polyspecific snake antivenoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos-Santos, Maria Cristina; Arroyo, Cynthia; Solano, Sergio; Herrera, María; Villalta, Mauren; Segura, Alvaro; Estrada, Ricardo; Gutiérrez, José María; León, Guillermo

    2011-02-01

    Antivenoms are preparations of immunoglobulins purified from the plasma of animals immunized with snake venoms. Depending on the number of venoms used during the immunization, antivenoms can be monospecific (if venom from a single species is used) or polyspecific (if venoms from several species are used). In turn, polyspecific antivenoms can be prepared by purifying antibodies from the plasma of animals immunized with a mixture of venoms, or by mixing antibodies purified from the plasma of animals immunized separately with single venom. The suitability of these strategies to produce polyspecific antibothropic-crotalic antivenoms was assessed using as models the venoms of Bothrops asper, Crotalus simus and Crotalus durissus ruruima. It was demonstrated that, when used as co-immunogen, C. simus and C. durissus ruruima venoms exert a deleterious effect on the antibody response towards different components of B. asper venom and in the neutralization of hemorrhagic and coagulant effect of this venom when compared with a monospecific B. asper antivenom. Polyspecific antivenoms produced by purifying immunoglobulins from the plasma of animals immunized with venom mixtures showed higher antibody titers and neutralizing capacity than those produced by mixing antibodies purified from the plasma of animals immunized separately with single venom. Thus, despite the deleterious effect of Crotalus sp venoms on the immune response against B. asper venom, the use of venom mixtures is more effective than the immunization with separate venoms for the preparation of polyspecific bothropic-crotalic antivenoms. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Padrões de atividade locomotora diária de Bothrops jararacussu (Serpentes: Viperidae: Uma resposta relacionada às condições ambientais de luminosidade ou a ritmos endógenos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Geraldo Pereira da Cruz

    2008-01-01

    pelos ciclos exógenos, foi testada experimentalmente em Bothrops jararacussu. Neste estudo, investigamos a atividade locomotora sobre condições de luminosidade e escuro constantes durante 24 dias e comparamos com os controles, submetidos ao um ciclo de claro/escuro. Sob um ciclo claro/escuro foi observado um pico de atividade durante a fase noturna do ciclo, ritmo circadiano típico de espécies noturnas. Em condições constantes de luminosidade, espécimes de Bothrops jararacussu exibiram significativa fragmentação com aumento global na atividade locomotora e, em escuro constante, signifi cativa supressão da atividade. Provavelmente, o ritmo circadiano é endógeno, primariamente sincronizado pela alternância de claro e escuro. Luminosidade constante induz desincronização e escuro constante bloqueio dos relógios circadianos. O significado funcional destas alterações circadianas sugere pequena flexibilidade na organização circadiana em resposta às condições do ambiente.

  9. Comparison of venoms from wild and long-term captive Bothrops atrox snakes and characterization of Batroxrhagin, the predominant class PIII metalloproteinase from the venom of this species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas-de-Sousa, L A; Amazonas, D R; Sousa, L F; Sant'Anna, S S; Nishiyama, M Y; Serrano, S M T; Junqueira-de-Azevedo, I L M; Chalkidis, H M; Moura-da-Silva, A M; Mourão, R H V

    2015-11-01

    Comparisons between venoms from snakes kept under captivity or collected at the natural environment are of fundamental importance in order to obtain effective antivenoms to treat human victims of snakebites. In this study, we compared composition and biological activities of Bothrops atrox venom from snakes collected at Tapajós National Forest (Pará State, Brazil) or maintained for more than 10 years under captivity at Instituto Butantan herpetarium after have been collected mostly at Maranhão State, Brazil. Venoms from captive or wild snakes were similar except for small quantitative differences detected in peaks correspondent to phospholipases A2 (PLA2), snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMP) class PI and serine proteinases (SVSP), which did not correlate with fibrinolytic and coagulant activities (induced by PI-SVMPs and SVSPs). In both pools, the major toxic component corresponded to PIII-SVMPs, which were isolated and characterized. The characterization by mass spectrometry of both samples identified peptides that matched with a single PIII-SVMP cDNA characterized by transcriptomics, named Batroxrhagin. Sequence alignments show a strong similarity between Batroxrhagin and Jararhagin (96%). Batroxrhagin samples isolated from venoms of wild or captive snakes were not pro-coagulant, but inhibited collagen-induced platelet-aggregation, and induced hemorrhage and fibrin lysis with similar doses. Results suggest that in spite of environmental differences, venom variability was detected only among the less abundant components. In opposition, the most abundant toxin, which is a PIII-SVMP related to the key effects of the venom, is structurally conserved in the venoms. This observation is relevant for explaining the efficacy of antivenoms produced with venoms from captive snakes in human accidents inflicted at distinct natural environments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  10. Use of a synthetic biosensor for neutralizing activity-biased selection of monoclonal antibodies against atroxlysin-I, an hemorrhagic metalloproteinase from Bothrops atrox snake venom.

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    Francisco Santos Schneider

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The snake Bothrops atrox is responsible for the majority of envenomings in the northern region of South America. Severe local effects, including hemorrhage, which are mainly caused by snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs, are not fully neutralized by conventional serum therapy. Little is known about the immunochemistry of the P-I SVMPs since few monoclonal antibodies (mAbs against these molecules have been obtained. In addition, producing toxin-neutralizing mAbs remains very challenging. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report on the set-up of a functional screening based on a synthetic peptide used as a biosensor to select neutralizing mAbs against SVMPs and the successful production of neutralizing mAbs against Atroxlysin-I (Atr-I, a P-I SVMP from B. atrox. Hybridomas producing supernatants with inhibitory effect against the proteolytic activity of Atr-I towards the FRET peptide Abz-LVEALYQ-EDDnp were selected. Six IgG1 Mabs were obtained (named mAbatr1 to mAbatr6 and also two IgM. mAbatrs1, 2, 3 and 6 were purified. All showed a high specific reactivity, recognizing only Atr-I and B. atrox venom in ELISA and a high affinity, showing equilibrium constants in the nM range for Atr-I. These mAbatrs were not able to bind to Atr-I overlapping peptides, suggesting that they recognize conformational epitopes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: For the first time a functional screening based on a synthetic biosensor was successfully used for the selection of neutralizing mAbs against SVMPs.

  11. Snakebites and ethnobotany in the northwest region of Colombia: Part II: neutralization of lethal and enzymatic effects of Bothrops atrox venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, R; Núñez, V; Jiménez, S L; Fonnegra, R; Osorio, R G; García, M E; Díaz, A

    2000-08-01

    Twelve of 74 ethanolic extracts of plants used by traditional healers for snakebites in the northwest region of Colombia, were active against lethal effect of Bothrops atrox venom when they were i.p. injected into mice (18-20 g). After preincubation of sublethal doses of every extract (0.5-4.0 mg/mouse) with 1.5 i.p. lethal dose 50% (LD50) (99.3 microg) of venom, seven of them demonstrated 100% neutralizing capacity within 48 h. These were the stem barks of Brownea rosademonte (Caesalpiniaceae) and Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae); rhizomes of Renealmia alpinia (Zingiberaceae) and Heliconia curtispatha (Heliconiaceae); the whole plants of Pleopeltis percussa (Polypodiaceae) and Trichomanes elegans (Hymenophyllaceae); and the ripe fruits of Citrus limon (Rutaceae). The other five extracts showing partial neutralization (45-80%; 10-30% survival rate in the control group receiving the venom alone; PBixa orellana (Bixaceae) and Struthanthus orbicularis (Loranthaceae). When the extracts were independently administered per oral or i.p. route 60 min before an i.m. venom injection (204 microg=1.5 i.m. LD50), C. limon, T. elegans, B. orellana and T. rosea extracts had partial and significant neutralizing capacity against B. atrox venom lethal effect. C. limon extract was also partially effective when it was administered either i.v. 15 min before or i.p. 5 min after an i.m. venom injection. Three of the 12 extracts with anti-lethal effect (C. limon, D. croatii and S. acuta) were devoid of antiphospholipase A2 activity, when they were tested against one minimum indirect hemolytic dose of B. atrox venom (2 microg) in agarose-erythrocyte-egg yolk gels.

  12. Actividad in vitro de los venenos de Lachesis muta y Bothrops atrox sobre la viabilidad y desarrollo embrionario de los huevos de Ascaris suum

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    Claudia Paredes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Los venenos de serpientes son concentrados polienzimáticos cuya actividad biológica sobre algunas bacterias y protozoos ha sido comprobada. El objetivo principal del presente trabajo fue estudiar la actividad in vitro de los venenos totales de las serpientes Lachesis muta y Bothrops atrox sobre la viabilidad y el desarrollo embrionario de los huevos de Ascaris suum. Se emplearon los venenos totales en concentraciones de 2, 4, 8 y 16 mg/mL sobre huevos no embrionados y larvados in vitro. Se comparó la actividad de los venenos con la de otras sustancias como el hipoclorito de sodio al 5,25%, Albendazol (solución comercial y solución salina. Ambos venenos, en concentraciones de 4, 8 y 16 mg/mL, inhibieron la blastulación de estos huevos; hasta el sexto día de incubación; en cambio en concentración de 2 mg/mL la inhibición se dio hasta el cuarto día. Posteriormente iniciaron un proceso de embrionación aparentemente normal hasta la formación del estadio infectante. El veneno de B. atrox fue el que presentó el mayor efecto inhibitorio en concentración de 16 mg/mL. El hipoclorito de sodio destruyó el 100% de los huevos, mientras el albendazol ocasionó que los huevos iniciaran un proceso de segmentación anormal que originó su degeneración. Se concluye que los venenos de L. muta y B. atrox muestran actividad inhibitoria al inicio de la blastulación de los huevos de A. suum y no ejercen ningún efecto en los huevos larvados.

  13. Crystal structure of pira toxin-I: a calcium-independent, myotoxic phospholipase A{sub 2} - homologue from Bothrops pirajai venom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canduri, R.J.; Ward, R.J.; Azevedo Junior, G.W.F. de; Arni, R.K. [UNESP, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias, Letras e Ciencias Exatas; Soares, A.M.; Giglio, J.R. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Escola de Medicina

    1997-12-31

    Full text. Phospho lipases A2 (PLA{sub 2}) are small enzymes that specifically hydrolysed the sn-2 ester bond of phospholipids, preferentially in lamellar or micellar aggregates at membrane surfaces. These enzymes are widely distributed in nature and have been extensively studied. Toxic proteins from venoms from Bothrops species include catalytically active PLA{sub 2}s and calcium independent PLA{sub 2L}ys 49 homologues. The substitution of Asp49 by Lys greatly diminishes the ability of these PLA{sub 2} to bind calcium, an ion that plays a critical role in the stabilization of the tetrahedral transition state intermediate in the catalytic mechanism. The Lys 49 PLA{sub 2} homologues and therefore catalytically inactive yet maintain cytolytic and myotoxic activities and furthermore retain the ability to disrupt the integrity of both plasma membranes and model lipid bilayers by a poorly understood Ca {sup 2+} independente mechanism. Lys49 PLA{sub 2} homologues demonstrate a specific toxic activity against skeletal muscle, affecting only muscle fibers and leaving other tissue structure such as connective tissue, nerves and vessels essentially unharmed. In order to improve our understanding of the molecular basis of the myotoxic and Ca {sup 2+} -independent membrane damaging activities, we have determined the crystal structure of Pr TX-I, a Lys49 variant from the venom of B. pirajai. The model presented has been determined at 2.8 angstrom resolution and refined to a crystallographic residual of 19.7% (R{sub free}=29.7%). (author)

  14. Características bioquímicas y acción biológica de una hemorragina del veneno de Bothrops brazili

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    Martín Isla

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Caracterizar la hemorragina aislada de B. brazili y determinar si el suero antibotrópico polivalente es capaz de neutralizarlo. Material y Métodos: Se ha purificado una hemorragina del veneno de Bothrops brazili a través de dos pasos cromatográficos en Sephadex G-100 y CM Sephadex C-50, usando buffer acetato de amonio 0,05M pH 7. En este último sistema, la proteína fue eluida con NaCl 0,3M y el análisis electroforético en PAGE-SDS mostró una sola banda proteica. Usando caseína como substrato se determinó una purificación de 8,4 veces, habiéndose calculado la dosis hemorrágica mínima (DHM en 6,61 ug usando ratones albinos. Resultados: El análisis de carbohidratos asociados a la hemorragina reveló un contenido de 8,05% de hexosas, 11,62% de hexosamina y 0,69% de ácido siálico, en tanto que su resistencia térmica fue registrada hasta 50°C por 10 minutos, ya que temperaturas mayores la inactivaron. La hemorragina fue muy inestable a pH 5,0 mientras que el tratamiento con EDTA, ácido glutámico y glutatión 5 mM también produjeron una severa inhibición, tanto en su acción hemorrágica como en su actividad caseinolítica. En cambio, por adición de iones calcio (10mM se incrementó la intensidad del área hemorrágica. Conclusiones: Los ensayos de inmunodifusión e inmunoelectroforesis demostraron que el suero antibotrópico polivalente (Instituto Nacional de Salud [INS] - Lima reconoció a la fracción hemorrágica y las pruebas de neutralización in vivo dieron como resultado la inhibición del veneno crudo, pero no de la hemorragina purificada.

  15. Identificación molecular y actividad sobre sustratos cromogénicos de la venombina A del veneno de la serpiente peruana Bothrops atrox

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    Gustavo A. Sandoval

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se ha realizado la identificación molecular de la enzima similar a trombina (EST del veneno de Bothrops atrox y se ha evaluado su actividad enzimática sobre diversos sustratos sintéticos. La enzima fue purificada utilizando tres pasos cromatrográficos, sobre Sephadex G-75, CM-Sephadex C-50 y Agarosa-PAB, determinándose su peso molecular por PAGE-SDS. La identificación molecular de la enzima aislada se realizó por la técnica de peptide mass fingerprinting basada en espectrometría de masas MALDI-TOF y posterior análisis in silico. Las actividades fibrinocoagulante y amidolítica fueron ensayadas sobre fibrinó- geno bovino y BApNA, respectivamente, así como la hidrólisis sobre los sustratos cromogénicos específicos S-2238, S-2251 y S-2266. Como resultado de los ensayos bioquímicos y estructurales, la EST del veneno de B. atrox, presentó un peso molecular de 29,6 kDa. El análisis mediante espectrometría de masas de los péptidos obtenidos, permitió identificar a esta enzima como una venombina A, presentando una identidad del 75%. Del análisis de actividad enzimática, se obtuvo que la EST de B. atrox produjo coagulación del fibrinógeno bovino y presentó actividad sobre BApNA, S-2238 y S-2266, siendo incapaz de hidrolizar el sustrato S-2251. El empleo de estas aproximaciones estructurales y funcionales ha permitido lograr la identificación molecular del principal componente del veneno de B. atrox relacionado con su acción coagulante, así como evaluar en detalle la naturaleza de su actividad enzimática sobre diversos sustratos.

  16. Efeitos da MT-I, uma fosfolipase A2, isolada do veneno de Bothrops asper em mastócitos: ativação e sinalização intracelular envolvida na desgranulação.

    OpenAIRE

    Marlos Cortez Sampaio

    2015-01-01

    Os efeitos da MT-I, uma fosfolipase A2 isolada do veneno de Bothrops asper (VBa), foram avaliados em mastócitos (MC) em cultura, quanto à: i) desgranulação e liberação de prostaglandina E2 (PGE2); ii) papel da atividade catalítica na desgranulação; iii) papel da PLD, PLC, cPLA2, iPLA2, PI3K, MAPK, PKC, PTK, ERK1/2, Junk, Gαi, Gαq e do cálcio na desgranulação; iv) expressão gênica de citocinas Th1 e Th2, e v) alterações ultraestruturais em MC. Os resultados mostraram que a MT-I, e...

  17. Evaluación biológica preliminar de extractos vegetales utilizados en la medicina tradicional de la Sierra Nevada deSanta Marta contra el veneno de la Bothrops asper

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    Willinton Barranco Pérez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Title: Preliminary biological evaluation of plants extracts used in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta against the snake Bothrops asper venom.ResumenLa mordedura de serpientes constituye un problema de salubridad importante en muchos países tropicales y subtropicales, con un estimado de 2,5 millones de personas envenenadas cada año. En Colombia las especies Bothropsasper y Bothropsatrox son las causantes del 70 al 90 % de los accidentes registrados. Se estima que el 60% de estos accidentes son inicialmente tratados por curanderos tradicionales utilizando plantas medicinales en diferentes preparaciones. Este estudio evaluó la capacidad inhibitoria de cinco especies contra el efecto proteolítico y hemolítico indirecto inducido por el veneno de B. asper en ensayos in vitro.Las especies, que fueron seleccionadas de acuerdo a su uso en la medicina tradicional por parte de las comunidades campesinas de la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, fueron, Aristolochia máxima, Cissampelospareira, Equisetumbogotense, Mucunacfpruriens y una especie de la familia Asteraceae. La planta E. bogotense mostró los mayores porcentaje de inhibición contra la actividad de las fosfolipasas A2(42,29 %, así como la mayor precipitación de las proteínas en un rango de masas moleculares de 28,2 y 94,43 KDa. Al fraccionar el extracto de E. bogotense se obtuvieron cinco fracciones, las cuales presentaron un porcentaje de inhibición de 36,6 ± 1,07 a 46,1 ± 13,6. Adicionalmente se detectaron por métodos cualitativos núcleos como, alcaloides, esteroides y/o triterpenos, taninos, cumarinas y leucoantocianidinas. En estudio se reporta la actividad antiofídica en ensayos in vitro de la especie E. bogotense contra el veneno de la especie B.asper. (DUAZARY 2012 No. 2, 140 - 150AbstractIn Colombia the species Bothrops asper and Bothrops atrox are responsible for 70 to 90% of the snakebite accidents. Around 60% of these injuries are initially treated by traditional healers; they

  18. Action of Bothrops moojeni venom and its L-amino acid oxidase fraction, treated with {sup 60}Co gamma rays, in Leishmania spp; Acao do veneno de Bothrops moojeni e sua fracao L-aminoacido oxidase, submetida ao tratamento com raios gama de {sup 60}Co, em Leishmania spp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Andre Gustavo Tempone

    1999-07-01

    Bothrops moojeni venom showed an anti leishmania activity in vitro, as determined by a cell viability assay using the reduction of MTT. After venom purification, by chromatography techniques, the fractions with anti leishmania and L-amino acid oxidase activities, eluted in the same positions. The molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated to be 140 kDa by molecular exclusion chromatography, and 69 kDa, by SDS-PAGE, migrating as a single band, with an isoelectric point of 4.8 as determined by isoelectric focusing. The purified LAO from B. moojeni venom, 135-fold more active than crude venom, showed homo dimeric constitution, and was active against Leishmania spp from the New World, with an effective concentration against L(L). amazonensis of 1.80 {mu}g/ml (EC{sub 50}), L.(V.) panamensis (0.78 |{mu}g/ml) and L.(L.) chagasi (0.63 ({mu}g/ml). Ultrastructural studies of promastigotes affected by LAO demonstrated cell death, with edema in several organelles such as mitochondria and nuclear membrane, before cell disruption and necrosis. The action of LAO was demonstrated to be hydrogen peroxide-dependent. Studies with LLCMK-2 cells, treated with LAO, showed a toxic effect, with an EC{sub 50} of 11|{mu}g/ml. Irradiation of LAO with 6{sup 0C}o gamma rays, did not affect its whole oxidative activity, neither detoxified the enzyme. Amastigotes treated with LAO were not affected by its hydrogen peroxide, otherwise, the exogenous product, killed amastigotes with an EC{sub 50} of 0.67mM. These data could be of help in the development of alternative therapeutic approaches to the treatment of leishmaniasis. (author)

  19. The potential of aqueous extracts of Bellucia dichotoma Cogn. (Melastomataceae) to inhibit the biological activities of Bothrops atrox venom: A comparison of specimens collected in the states of Pará and Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Valéria Mourão; de Souza, Luana Yamille Andrade; da Costa Guimarães, Noranathan; Dos Santos, Ilia Gilmara Carvalho; de Almeida, Patrícia Danielle Oliveira; de Oliveira, Ricardo Bezerra; Mourão, Rosa Helena Veras; Dos-Santos, Maria Cristina

    2017-01-20

    The effectiveness of aqueous extract of Bellucia dichotoma Cogn. (Melastomataceae) specimems collected in Santarém, PA, against some biological activities of Bothrops atrox venom (BaV) has been scientifically proven. Here, we analyzed the components and assessed the anti-snakebite potential of aqueous extracts of bark of B. dichotoma collected in Manaus, AM, (AEBd-MAO) and Santarém, PA, (AEBd-STM), both in Brazil. The phytochemical profiles of the aqueous extracts were identified using thin layer chromatography (TLC), and the concentrations of phenolics were determined by colorimetric assay. The inhibitory potential of the extracts was tested against the phospholipase A 2 , coagulant and gelatinolytic activities of BaV in vitro and its defibrinating and edema-inducing activities in vivo. Interaction between BaV and the extracts was investigated using SDS-Page electrophoresis and Western blotting. Extract cytotoxicity and antioxidant potential were assessed using the human fibroblast cell line MRC-5 and the DPPH assay in cell culture, respectively. While there was no difference between the phytochemical profiles of the extracts, AEBd-MAO had higher concentrations of total phenolics, total tannins and hydrolysable tannins. The extracts inhibited 100% of the phospholipase and coagulant activity of BaV when pre-incubated. Without pre-incubation, however, there was no reduction in phospholipase activity, although significant inhibition of coagulant activity was observed. In the doses used in folk medicine, without pre-incubation, both extracts inhibited 100% of the coagulant activity of BaV. In vivo, the extracts were unable to inhibit the defibrinating activity of the venom but were effective in inhibiting its edema-inducing activity. In the profiles of the extracts pre-incubated with BaV, not all the protein bands revealed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot were observed. Both extracts had a high antioxidant potential and neither had a cytotoxic effect. Although the

  20. Interaction between TNF and BmooMP-Alpha-I, a Zinc Metalloprotease Derived from Bothrops moojeni Snake Venom, Promotes Direct Proteolysis of This Cytokine: Molecular Modeling and Docking at a Glance

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    Maraisa Cristina Silva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor (TNF is a major cytokine in inflammatory processes and its deregulation plays a pivotal role in several diseases. Here, we report that a zinc metalloprotease extracted from Bothrops moojeni venom (BmooMP-alpha-I inhibits TNF directly by promoting its degradation. This inhibition was demonstrated by both in vitro and in vivo assays, using known TLR ligands. These findings are supported by molecular docking results, which reveal interaction between BmooMP-alpha-I and TNF. The major cluster of interaction between BmooMP-alpha-I and TNF was confirmed by the structural alignment presenting Ligand Root Mean Square Deviation LRMS = 1.05 Å and Interactive Root Mean Square Deviation IRMS = 1.01 Å, this result being compatible with an accurate complex. Additionally, we demonstrated that the effect of this metalloprotease on TNF is independent of cell cytotoxicity and it does not affect other TLR-triggered cytokines, such as IL-12. Together, these results indicate that this zinc metalloprotease is a potential tool to be further investigated for the treatment of inflammatory disorders involving TNF deregulation.

  1. Purificación y caracterización de la l-amino ácido oxidasa del veneno de la serpiente Bothrops brazili "jergón shushupe"

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    Christian Solís

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se ha purificado y caracterizado parcialmente la L-aminoácido oxidasa de la serpiente Bothrops brazili. El aislamiento se realizó usando técnicas cromatográficas en Sephadex G-100 y CM-Sephadex C-50, utilizando como eluyente buffer acetato de amonio 0,1M pH 6. La enzima fue purificada 29,3 veces con un rendimiento de 30,9%. Usando electroforesis en gel de poliacrilamida con dodecil sulfato de sodio (PAGE-SDS en condiciones reductoras y no reductoras, así como las técnicas de inmunodifusión e inmunoelectroforesis, se demostró la presencia de una sola banda proteica. La enzima fue caracterizada como una glicoproteína ácida con un peso molecular de 125,7 kd formada por dos subunidades de 59,9 kd unidas por enlaces débiles, con un pH óptimo entre 7,5 y 9, dependiendo del aminoácido usado como substrato; siendo termoestable hasta los 550 C y lábil a pH alcalino. Asimismo, los ensayos por el método del cilindro en placa de Grove demostraron el efecto antibacteriano de la proteína aislada en cepas estandarizadas de Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae y Streptococcus faecalis.

  2. Moojenactivase, a novel pro-coagulant PIIId metalloprotease isolated from Bothrops moojeni snake venom, activates coagulation factors II and X and induces tissue factor up-regulation in leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartim, Marco A; Costa, Tassia R; Laure, Helen J; Espíndola, Milena S; Frantz, Fabiani G; Sorgi, Carlos A; Cintra, Adélia C O; Arantes, Eliane C; Faccioli, Lucia H; Rosa, José C; Sampaio, Suely V

    2016-05-01

    Coagulopathies following snakebite are triggered by pro-coagulant venom toxins, in which metalloproteases play a major role in envenomation-induced coagulation disorders by acting on coagulation cascade, platelet function and fibrinolysis. Considering this relevance, here we describe the isolation and biochemical characterization of moojenactivase (MooA), a metalloprotease from Bothrops moojeni snake venom, and investigate its involvement in hemostasis in vitro. MooA is a glycoprotein of 85,746.22 Da, member of the PIIId group of snake venom metalloproteases, composed of three linked disulfide-bonded chains: an N-glycosylated heavy chain, and two light chains. The venom protease induced human plasma clotting in vitro by activating on both blood coagulation factors II (prothrombin) and X, which in turn generated α-thrombin and factor Xa, respectively. Additionally, MooA induced expression of tissue factor (TF) on the membrane surface of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), which led these cells to adopt pro-coagulant characteristics. MooA was also shown to be involved with production of the inflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-8 and MCP-1, suggesting an association between MooA pro-inflammatory stimulation of PBMC and TF up-regulation. We also observed aggregation of washed platelets when in presence of MooA; however, the protease had no effect on fibrinolysis. Our findings show that MooA is a novel hemostatically active metalloprotease, which may lead to the development of coagulopathies during B. moojeni envenomation. Moreover, the metalloprotease may contribute to the development of new diagnostic tools and pharmacological approaches applied to hemostatic disorders.

  3. Variaciones ontogénicas y geográficas en los efectos tóxicos y en las características inmunoquímicas del veneno de serpientes del grupo Bothrops atrox del Meta y Antioquia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fabiola Toro

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available

    El accidente ofídico es un problema de salud pública frecuente en algunos lugares del mundo. En Latinoamérica, el género Bothrops es el causante del 90% de los accidentes ofídicos y en Colombia el grupo Bothrops atrox es responsable del 50% o más de los casos que se reportan anualmente (2000 casos. Este grupo se encuentra distribuido en la mayor parte del territorio nacional colombiano, incluyendo el este y oeste de los Andes, vertiente Pacífica y Atlántica, además de los valles interandinos.

    El veneno del grupo Bothrops atrox induce un complejo cuadro de alteraciones fisiopatológicas locales y sistémicas, como mionecrosis, dermonecrosis, edema, hemorragia, dolor, coagulopatías, choque cardiovascular, nefrotoxicidad, actividad proteolítica y hemolítica indirecta.

    En diversos países se han realizado estudios sobre la variabilidad de los venenos de diferentes especies de serpientes. Se han encontrado diferencias en todos los niveles taxonómicos, siendo de mayor importancia la variabilidad intraespecífica. Con este estudio se pretende determinar la variabilidad ontogénica y geográfica del veneno de Bothrops atrox procedente de dos regiones colombianas, mediante pruebas biológicas e inmunoquímicas. Los resultados previos muestran que existe una variación ontogénica en el veneno de la especie Bothrops atrox del departamento del Meta con respecto a la letalidad, y a las actividades hemorrágica, coagulante y edematizante. Las serpientes recién nacidas tienen una mayor letalidad (DL50 = 51.8 ± 5.6 mg de veneno con respecto a los adultos (81.4±

  4. Glycolic acid inhibits enzymatic, hemorrhagic and edema-inducing activities of BaP1, a P-I metalloproteinase from Bothrops asper snake venom: insights from docking and molecular modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereañez, Jaime Andrés; Patiño, Arley Camilo; Rey-Suarez, Paola; Núñez, Vitelbina; Henao Castañeda, Isabel Cristina; Rucavado, Alexandra

    2013-09-01

    Glycolic acid (GA) (2-Hydroxyethanoic acid) is widely used as chemical peeling agent in Dermatology and, more recently, as a therapeutic and cosmetic compound in the field of skin care and disease treatment. In this work we tested the inhibitory ability of glycolic acid on the enzymatic, hemorrhagic and edema-inducing activities of BaP1, a P-I metalloproteinase from Bothrops asper venom, which induces a variety of toxic actions. Glycolic acid inhibited the proteolytic activity of BaP1 on azocasein, with an IC₅₀ of 1.67 mM. The compound was also effective at inhibiting the hemorrhagic activity of BaP1 in skin and muscle in experiments involving preincubation of enzyme and inhibitor prior to injection. When BaP1 was injected i.m. and then, at the same site, different concentrations of glycolic acid were administered at either 0 or 5 min, 7 mM solutions of the inhibitor partially abrogated hemorrhagic activity when administered at 0 min. Moreover, glycolic acid inhibited, in a concentration-dependent manner, edema-forming activity of BaP1 in the footpad. In order to have insights on the mode of action of glycolic acid, UV-vis and intrinsic fluorescence studies were performed. Results of these assays suggest that glycolic acid interacts directly with BaP1 and chelates the Zn²⁺ ion at the active site. These findings were supported by molecular docking results, which suggested that glycolic acid forms hydrogen bonds with residues Glu143, Arg110 and Ala111 of the enzyme. Additionally, molecular modeling results suggest that the inhibitor chelates Zn²⁺, with a distance of 3.58 Å, and may occupy part of substrate binding cleft of BaP1. Our results suggest that glycolic acid is a candidate for the development of inhibitors to be used in snakebite envenomation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  6. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced, as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  7. Accidente bothrópico en Colombia: estudio multicéntrico de la eficacia y seguridad de Antivipmyn-Tri®, un antiveneno polivalente producido en México Bothrops bites in Colombia: a multicenter study on the efficacy and safety of Antivipmyn-Tri®, a polyvalent antivenom produced in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Fernando Jaramillo Delgado

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Colombia es un país con dos productores de antivenenos de IgG, pero hay un mercado insatisfecho por diferentes razones técnicas. Objetivos: evaluar la eficacia y la seguridad de un antiveneno F(ab´2 polivalente (Antivipmyn-Tri® producido en México, y un nuevo esquema de dosis en accidente bothrópico en Colombia. Métodos: se realizaron durante 9 meses un ensayo clínico-terapéutico y cuantificaciones de veneno y antiveneno sérico (ELISA en 53 pacientes. Resultados: cuarenta y cuatro pacientes fueron mordidos por Bothrops asper en Antioquia y Chocó y 9 por B. atrox en Amazonas; todos tenían sangre incoagulable al ingreso, 30 (56,6% con sangrado local y 24 (45,3% con sangrado sistémico. El grado final de envenenamiento fue leve en 13 (24,5%, moderado en 30 (56,6% y grave en 10 pacientes (18,9%. A las dosis recomendadas de 5 frascos para los casos leves o moderados y 10 para los graves, Antivipmyn-Tri® fue 100% eficaz para disminuir significativamente las concentraciones séricas de veneno en la primera hora de tratamiento y para detener el sangrado en las primeras 6-12 horas, 96,2% eficaz para normalizar la coagulación en 24 horas y 100% en 48 horas. Hubo 2 casos (3,8% de recurrencia de coagulopatía sin sangrado y 12 recurrencias de antigenemia sin implicaciones clínicas. Diez pacientes (18,9% presentaron reacciones tempranas adversas (leves a la faboterapia. No hubo muertes, y cuatro pacientes (7,5% tuvieron secuelas. Conclusión: a las dosis utilizadas en este estudio, Antivipmyn-Tri® fue eficaz y seguro para el tratamiento del envenenamiento bothrópico en Colombia. Introduction: Colombia is a country with two whole IgG antivenom producers, but the expectancy of all the market are not fulfilled by different technical reasons. Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a F(ab´2 polyvalent antivenom produced in Mexico and of a new dosage regimen for Bothrops bites in Colombia. Methods: A clinical trial

  8. VARIACIONES EN L COMPOSICIÓN PROTEICA, ACTIVIDADES ENZIMÁTICAS Y BIOLÓGICAS DEL VENENO DE LA SERPIENTE BOTHROPS ATROX (VIPEREIDAE EN RELACIÓN CON LA EDAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Málaga

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available La serpiente Bothrops atrox, que habita en la Selva Amazónica del Perú, es responsable del mayor número de accidentes ofídicos y constituye un problema de salud pública. Por esta razón, se ha realizado un estudio de las variaciones en la composición y actividad del veneno en tres grupos de especimenes en cautiverio, que corresponden a juveniles de 1 y 2 años, así como ejemplares adultos mayores de 5 años. Los venenos obtenidos fueron liofilizados para su conservación y diluidos en concentraciones iniciales de 1 mg/ml en solución salina o en el buffer apropiado. Con estas muestras se efectuaron los análisis de concentración de proteína por D. 0. 280 nm y por el método de Lowry, determinándose además el número de bandas proteicas por electroforesis en gel de poliacrilamida con dodecil sulfato de sodio (PAGE-SIDS. Con las mismas muestras se hicieron ensayos para medir las siguientes actividades enzimáticas: caseinolítica, amidolftica, coagulante, hialuronidasa, L-aminocácido oxidasa (LAO y fosfolipasa A, adicionalmente se determinó la actividad hemorrágica y el efecto edemático con ratones albinos. Los resultados mostraron que la mayor concentración proteica (0,938mg de proteína/mg de veneno así como el número máximo de bandas proteicas (8 bandas se obtuvieron con los venenos de juveniles de 2 años. Asimismo se encontró que algunas actividades enzimáticas como la amidolítica, fosfolipásica y L-aminoácido oxidasa fueron más altas en los juveniles de 2 años, además de los efectos hemorrágico y edemático. En cambio, las actividades coagulante y proteolítica sobre caseína se elevaron progresivamente con la edad de los ejemplares. Sin embargo, la enzima hialuronidasa tuvo su máximo valor en los juveniles de 1 año, decreciendo notablemente en los adultos. Es interesante señalar también que fosfolipasa A2 en los adultos sólo tuvo una actividad de 6,4% con respecto al valor más alto encontrado en el veneno

  9. Phospholipase A(2) enhances the endothelial cell detachment effect of a snake venom metalloproteinase in the absence of catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustillo, Soledad; García-Denegri, María Emilia; Gay, Carolina; Van de Velde, Andrea C; Acosta, Ofelia; Angulo, Yamileth; Lomonte, Bruno; Gutiérrez, José María; Leiva, Laura

    2015-10-05

    Microvessel disruption leading to hemorrhage stands among the most dangerous consequences of envenomings by snakes of the family Viperidae. A PIII metalloproteinase (SVMP), balteragin, purified from the venom of the snake Bothrops alternatus, displays a potent hemorrhagic effect, and a moderate myotoxicity in vivo. Previous studies described the ability of this SVMP to induce the detachment of C2C12 myoblasts in culture, without causing cytolysis. Surprisingly, a purified acidic phospholipase A2 (PLA2) from the same venom was found to increase this detaching activity of the SVMP on myoblasts. Since endothelial cells are a natural target of SVMPs in vivo, the possibility that this synergistic effect is also observed on this cell type was explored in the present work. In addition, a first approach of the mechanism of action of this effect was studied. Results clearly confirm that the acidic PLA2, despite lacking toxicity towards endothelial cells, significantly enhances the detaching effect of the SVMP even at a concentration as low as 1 μg/mL. Inhibition of enzymatic activity of the PLA2 by chemical modification with p-bromophenacyl bromide did not affect the synergistic activity, suggesting that this effect is not dependent on phospholipase enzymatic activity and may instead be the consequence of an interaction of the PLA2 with endothelial cell plasma membrane. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a synergistic action of a non toxic PLA2 in enhancing the detachment of endothelial cells induced by a metalloproteinase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Endocannabinoid signaling mechanisms in the substantia nigra pars reticulata modulate GABAergic nigrotectal pathways in mice threatened by urutu-cruzeiro venomous pit viper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almada, R C; Roncon, C M; Elias-Filho, D H; Coimbra, N C

    2015-09-10

    The substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr) is rich in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic neurons and connected to the mesencephalic tectum (MT) structures, such as the superior colliculus and dorsal periaqueductal gray matter. The SNpr presents a high density of cannabinoid receptors (CBRs), suggesting a possible regulatory role that is played by endocannabinoids (eCBs) in the ventral mesencephalon. The present study investigated the involvement of SNpr eCB mechanisms in nigrotectal pathways in the expression of defensive behavior associated with instinctive fear and panic reactions in mice that are confronted with the venomous Viperidae snake Bothrops alternatus. The localization of CB1 receptors (CB1RS) and synaptophysin glycoprotein in the SNpr was also evaluated. Administration of the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline in the MT increased defensive responses to the snake that are related to panic, such as freezing and non-oriented escape reactions, sometimes toward the snake itself. Mice that were pretreated with anandamide (5 or 50pmol) in the SNpr, followed by an injection of physiological saline or bicuculline in the MT, exhibited significant decreases in the expression of alertness, freezing, and escape responses. Immunofluorescence showed the presence of fibers that were rich in CB1RS and synaptophysin in the SNpr, indicating that these receptors appear to be located mainly in presynaptic terminals in the striatonigral pathway. These findings suggest that eCB mechanisms in the SNpr facilitate the activity of nigrotectal GABAergic pathways, modulating the activity of striatonigral links during the elaboration and organization of innate fear and panic-like responses in threatening situations. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Increasingly minimal bias routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataineh, Abdulla; Court, Thomas; Roweth, Duncan

    2017-02-21

    A system and algorithm configured to generate diversity at the traffic source so that packets are uniformly distributed over all of the available paths, but to increase the likelihood of taking a minimal path with each hop the packet takes. This is achieved by configuring routing biases so as to prefer non-minimal paths at the injection point, but increasingly prefer minimal paths as the packet proceeds, referred to herein as Increasing Minimal Bias (IMB).

  12. Increasing SLEDed Linac Gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, Zoltan D

    2001-11-08

    This note will show how to increase the SLED [1] gradient by varying Q{sub e}, the external Q of the SLED cavity, by increasing its Q{sub 0} and by increasing the compression ratio. If varying the external Q is to be effective, then the copper losses should be small so that Q{sub 0} >> Q{sub e}. Methods of varying Q{sub e} will be indicated but no experimental data will be presented. If we increase the klystron pulse width from 3.5 to 5 {micro}S and increase Q{sub 0} from the present 100000 to 300000, then the gradient increases by 19% and the beam energy increases from 50 to 60 GeV. This note will also discuss SLED operation at 11424 MHz, the NLC frequency. Without Q{sub e} switching, using SLED at 11424 MHz increases the SLAC gradient from 21 MV/m to 34 MV/m, and at the same repetition rate, uses about 1/5 of rf average power. If we also double the compression ratio, we reach 47 MV/m and over 100 GeV beam energy.

  13. Increasing Public Expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Ben Zaed

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze and interpret the phenomenon of increased public expenditures and test explanatory theories as well as to analyze Abstract the relationship between public spending and GDP in the short and long term where you see the Wagner hypothesis that causal heading of GDP to government spending while there is a causal relationship analysis positive trending of government spending to GDP according to the Keynesian hypothesis in this study will be used descriptive analytical method to validate these hypotheses. Results in the short and long term made it clear that there is a difference in the outcome of Applied Studies where we find that each supports a relationship Wagner in the sense that the causal trending of real GDP to government spending and more precisely to increase the economic growth lead to increased aggregate demand which leads in turn increasing the need to increase government spending and to increase the resources available to the government sector to finance the increase in spending by the additional resources resulting from the economic growth while others opines opposes the existence of the relationship.

  14. Increased intracranial pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by pressing on important structures and by restricting blood flow into the brain. Many conditions can increase intracranial pressure. Common causes include: Aneurysm rupture and subarachnoid hemorrhage Brain tumor Encephalitis Head ...

  15. Increasing productivity: Another approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, F.J.

    1996-06-10

    An engineering information (EI) and information technology (IT) organization that must improve its productivity should work to further its business goals. This paper explores a comprehensive model for increasing EI/IT productivity by supporting organizational objectives.

  16. Increased urinary orosomucoid excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, M S; Iversen, K; Larsen, C T

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In a previous study, urinary orosomucoid excretion rate (UOER) independently predicted cardiovascular mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. The aim of the present study was to determine whether increased UOER is associated with cardiovascular risk factors such as inflammation......, impaired left ventricular function and endothelial dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of 41 patients with type 2 diabetes (17 patients with normal UOER and 24 with increased UOER) with no history of cardiovascular disease and 21 healthy...... with type 2 diabetes, UOER was independently associated with increasing values of IL-6 (1.43 (1.06-1.93)) and tPA (1.82 (1.20-2.77)). Measurements by echocardiography showed no signs of cardiac dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: Asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes and increased UOER displayed signs of chronic...

  17. Meeting increased demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Andrew

    2004-07-01

    New Zealand is a little country with a little economy but with a population that's rapidly aging. New Zealand's population is only 4.3 million people. It's GDP is only $US58.6 billion (2002). New Zealand's expenditure on health as a percentage of GDP is not out of line with that of other countries. As a nation we have been increasing expenditure on health over recent years. In 1990 we spent 7% of GDP on health. In 1995 that increased to 7.65% and is now 8.3%. However, in per capita terms our expenditure on health does not compare so well with like countries. The size of New Zealand's economy is restricting what our country spends on health. Health is already the second highest demand on the New Zealand tax dollar. The tolerance of New Zealanders would be challenged if a Government attempted to increase taxes further to meet the growing demands for expenditure on health, but at the same time the population's expectations are increasing. This is the challenging situation we face today. What lies ahead? Like all industrialized countries New Zealand is facing an aging population. The population below age 40 is decreasing, but it is increasing significantly over that age. 16% of the population is currently aged over 60. By 2051 this proportion will almost double to just over 31%. Coupled with the aging population is increased awareness and expectations, as access to options for treatment and technology becomes readily accessible to the population through such media as the internet. The extent of the impact of the aging population can be clearly represented by focusing on one specialty such as orthopaedics. The New Zealand Orthopaecic Association undertook a study in July 2003 which concluded (among other things) that as a result of the projected aging of the population, over the next 50 years: Musculo-skeletal operations will increase by over 30%. The number of hip replacements will nearly double. The incidence of osteoporosis will increase by a massive 201%. The number

  18. Increasing income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Poulsen, Odile

    In recent decades most developed countries have experienced an increase in income inequality. In this paper, we use an equilibrium search framework to shed additional light on what is causing an income distribution to change. The major benefit of the model is that it can accommodate shocks...... to the skill composition in the market, employee bargaining power and productivity. Further, when our model is subjected to skill-upgrading and changes in employee bargaining power, it is capable of predicting the recent changes observed in the Danish income distribution. In addition, the model emphasizes...... that shocks to the employees' relative productivity, i.e., skill-biased technological change, are unlikely to have caused the increase in income inequality....

  19. Nifedipine increases fetoplacental perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahanoglu, Ertugrul; Altinboga, Orhan; Akpinar, Funda; Demirdag, Erhan; Ozdemirci, Safak; Akyol, Aysegul; Yalvac, Serdar

    2017-01-01

    Our aim is to evaluate the effect of nifedipine on fetoplacental hemodynamic parameters. A retrospective study was conducted at a tertiary center with 30 patients for whom nifedipine treatment was used as a tocolytic therapy for preterm labor. Initiation of this treatment was at 31.6±2.5 weeks of gestation. We combined the pulse Doppler imaging parameters with grayscale imaging via the Bernoulli theorem, which is called the "continuity equation", to get the fetoplacental perfusion (FPP). Evaluated parameters were the resistance index (RI), the pulsatility index (PI), systole/diastole ratios (S/D), the velocity-time integral of the umbilical artery (VTI), the radius of the umbilical artery, the peak systolic velocity and the mean pressure gradient in the umbilical artery. From these parameters, the FPP was acquired. We found that the RI, the PI and the S/D ratio did not change after treatment with nifedipine. The mean pressure gradient, the VTI and the peak systolic velocity increased after treatment with nifedipine. Nifedipine increases FPP from 166±73.81 beat.cm3/min to 220±83.3 beat.cm3/min. Although nifedipine had no effect on the PI, the RI or the S/D, it increased the mean pressure gradient, the VTI and FPP.

  20. Increasing student success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Gay; Stewart, John

    2013-03-01

    A more scientifically literate society benefits all STEM disciplines, as well as society as a whole. It is best realized by better serving all undergraduate STEM students. In better-serving all students, a physics department also benefits. The University of Arkansas, Fayetteville physics department has seen a drastic change in number of majors, the number of students active in research and the number of graduates pursuing graduate work, while also increasing the number of majors who decide to teach. Prior to our involvement with the Physics Teacher Education Coalition, graduation rates had increased by more than a factor of 4 in 4 years. After the increased efforts when we became a part of PhysTEC (http://PhysTEC.org) our graduation numbers doubled again. Specific attention to class policy to impact student learning in our introductory courses and strong preparation of the graduate teaching assistants, and quality advising were our primary areas of emphasis. What worked to build these numbers and strengthen these resources at Arkansas will be discussed. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation and through the Physics Teacher Education Coalition.

  1. Global Increases in Individualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Henri C; Varnum, Michael E W; Grossmann, Igor

    2017-09-01

    Individualism appears to have increased over the past several decades, yet most research documenting this shift has been limited to the study of a handful of highly developed countries. Is the world becoming more individualist as a whole? If so, why? To answer these questions, we examined 51 years of data on individualist practices and values across 78 countries. Our findings suggest that individualism is indeed rising in most of the societies we tested. Despite dramatic shifts toward greater individualism around the world, however, cultural differences remain sizable. Moreover, cultural differences are primarily linked to changes in socioeconomic development, and to a lesser extent to shifts in pathogen prevalence and disaster frequency.

  2. Increasing Possibilities of Nanosuspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Bishwajit Sutradhar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, a very large proportion of new drug candidates emerging from drug discovery programmes are water insoluble and thus poorly bioavailable. To avoid this problem, nanotechnology for drug delivery has gained much interest as a way to improve the solubility problems. Nano refers to particles size range of 1–1000 nm. The reduction of drug particles into the submicron range leads to a significant increase in the dissolution rate and therefore enhances bioavailability. Nanosuspensions are part of nanotechnology. This interacts with the body at subcellular (i.e., molecular scales with a high degree of specificity and can be potentially translated into targeted cellular and tissue-specific clinical applications designed to achieve maximal therapeutic efficacy with minimal side effects. Production of drugs as nanosuspensions can be developed for drug delivery systems as an oral formulation and nonoral administration. Here, this review describes the methods of pharmaceutical nanosuspension production including advantages and disadvantages, potential benefits, characterization tests, and pharmaceutical applications in drug delivery.

  3. Stress increases periodontal inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    RIVERA, CÉSAR; MONSALVE, FRANCISCO; SUAZO, IVÁN; BECERRA, JAVIERA

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of chronic restraint stress (RS) on the severity of experimental periodontal disease in rats. A total of 32 male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were divided into four groups: i) Rats receiving two treatment regimens, chronic stress induced by movement restriction in acrylic cylinders for 1–1.5 h daily and induction of experimental periodontal disease, using a nylon ligature which was placed around the first left mandibular molars (n=8); ii) induction of periodontal disease, without RS (n=8); iii) RS (n=8) and iv) control (n=8). After 15 days, blood samples were obtained, and blood glucose levels and the corticosterone concentration were measured as stress markers. The severity of periodontal disease was analyzed according to the level of gingival and bone inflammation, leading to compromise of the teeth involved. Chronic stress was induced with movement restriction (P≤0.05, Mann-Whitney U-test) and increased the severity (P≤0.05, Mann-Whitney U-test) of experimental perio dontal disease in rats, according to the level of gingival and bone inflammation around the first left mandibular molars. The results of the present study showed that RS modulates periodontal inflammation and that the rat model described herein is suitable for investigating the association between stress and periodontal disease. PMID:23226743

  4. Protistas "incerta sedis" de ofídios do Brasil: Toddia França, 1912 e Pirhemocyton Chatton & Blanc, 1914: estudo comparativo "Incerta sedis" Portists from Brazilian snakes: Toddia França, 1912 and Pirhemocyton Chatton & Blanc, 1914: comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auxiliadora de Sousa

    1973-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentre 683 serpentes procedentes de diferentes pontos do Brasil, 16 (2,4% apresentaram em seu sangue (em glóbulos vermelhos maturos e imaturos Toddia ou Pirhemocyton. Denominamos provisoriamente Toddia os parasitos encontrados em Bothrops moojeni, B. pradoi, B. jararaca e Chironius flavolineatus e Pirhemocyton os encontrados em B. alternatus; fornecemos a primeira referência nestes hospedeiros. Estes parasitos foram estudados comparativamente com o objetivo de estabelecermos a extensão de suas afinidades. Com Toddia de B. moojeni realizamos técnica citoquímica para caracterização de ácidos nucleicos e encontramos positividade apenas para DNA. As maiores afinidades entre os parasitos estudados residiam nas características dos corpúsculos cromáticos e alterações celulares que determinam; observarmos quase total identidade nas maneiras como os parasitos da mesma espécie de serpente se apresentaram. Constatamos a coexistência de inclusões globóides, cristalóides e formas intermediárias associada aos parasitos de B. pradoi e B. alternatus; em C. flavolineatus encotnramos além dos cristais, raríssimas formas intermediárias entre estes e globóides. Afinidades entre Toddia e Pirhemocyton abrangendo o tipo de inclusão contrariam as descrições originais, tornando pouco válida esta separação genérica. Discutimos também os fundamentos da criação das espécies e a possível natureza virótica destes parasitos.Among 683 snakes from several localities of Brazil, 16 (2,4% presented in their blood (in mature or immature red cells Toddia or Pirhemocyton. We named provisorily Toddia the parasites found in Bothrops moojeni, B. pradoi, B. jararaca and Chironius flavolineatus and Pirhemocyton those found in B. alternatus; we give the first reference in these hosts. These parasites were comparatively studied in view to establish the range of their relationship. With Toddia from B. moojeni we attempted nucleic acids by cytochemical

  5. Increasing tobacco taxes : A cheap tool to increase public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baal, Pieter H. M.; Brouwer, Werner B. F.; Hoogenveen, Rudolf T.; Feenstra, Talitha L.

    Introduction: Several studies have estimated health effects resulting from tobacco tax increases. However, studies on the cost effectiveness of tobacco taxes are scarce. The aim of this study was to estimate the cost effectiveness of tobacco tax increases from a health care perspective, explicitly

  6. Increased atherosclerosis in mice with increased vascular biglycan content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Joel C; Tang, Tao; Wilson, Patricia G; Yoder, Meghan H; Tannock, Lisa R

    2014-07-01

    The response to retention hypothesis of atherogenesis proposes that atherosclerosis is initiated via the retention of atherogenic lipoproteins by vascular proteoglycans. Co-localization studies suggest that of all the vascular proteoglycans, biglycan is the one most closely co-localized with LDL. The goal of this study was to determine if over-expression of biglycan in hyperlipidemic mice would increase atherosclerosis development. Transgenic mice were developed by expressing biglycan under control of the smooth muscle actin promoter, and were crossed to the LDL receptor deficient (C57BL/6 background) atherosclerotic mouse model. Biglycan transgenic and non-transgenic control mice were fed an atherogenic Western diet for 4-12 weeks. LDL receptor deficient mice overexpressing biglycan under control of the smooth muscle alpha actin promoter had increased atherosclerosis development that correlated with vascular biglycan content. Increased vascular biglycan content predisposes to increased lipid retention and increased atherosclerosis development. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  7. RESTAURANT NO. 2: PRICE INCREASES

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    'DSR', the concession holder of Restaurant no. 2 (bldg. 504 - Meyrin site), has submitted to the Restaurant Supervisory Committee a request to increase certain prices. After close examination, the Committee has established that the proposed increases are compatible with the relevant price indexing mechanisms and other contractual conditions. The new prices will apply as from Monday, June 30, 2003.

  8. RESTAURANT NO. 3: PRICE INCREASES

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    'AVENANCE', the concession holder of Restaurant no. 3 (bldg. 866 - Prévessin site), has submitted to the Restaurant Supervisory Committee a request to increase its prices. After close examination, the Committee has established that the proposed increases are compatible with the relevant price indexing mechanisms and other contractual conditions. The new prices will apply as from Monday, June 2, 2003.

  9. Assessing and Increasing Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, Carole M.; Hayes, Lynda B.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing physical activity is a crucial component of any comprehensive approach to combat the growing obesity epidemic. This review summarizes recent behavioral research on the measurement of physical activity and interventions aimed at increasing physical activity and provides directions for future research.

  10. Social Power Increases Interoceptive Accuracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moeini-Jazani, Mehrad; Knoeferle, Klemens; de Moliere, Laura; Gatti, Elia; Warlop, Luk

    2017-01-01

    Building on recent psychological research showing that power increases self-focused attention, we propose that having power increases accuracy in perception of bodily signals, a phenomenon known as interoceptive accuracy. Consistent with our proposition, participants in a high-power experimental

  11. Volatiles Which Increase Magma Viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, S.

    2015-12-01

    The standard model of an erupting volcano is one in which the viscosity of a decompressing magma increases as the volatiles leave the melt structure to form bubbles. It has now been observed that the addition of the "volatiles" P, Cl and F result in an increase in silicate melt viscosity. This observation would mean that the viscosity of selected degassing magmas would decrease rather than increase. Here we look at P, Cl and F as three volatiles which increase viscosity through different structural mechanisms. In all three cases the volatiles increase the viscosity of peralkaline composition melts, but appear to always decrease the viscosity of peraluminous melts. Phosphorus causes the melt to unmix into a Na-P rich phase and a Na-poor silicate phase. Thus as the network modifying Na (or Ca) are removed to the phosphorus-rich melt, the matrix melt viscosity increases. With increasing amounts of added phosphorus (at network modifying Na ~ P) the addition of further phosphorus causes a decrease in viscosity. The addition of chlorine to Fe-free aluminosilicate melts results in an increase in viscosity. NMR data on these glass indicates that the chlorine sits in salt-like structures surrounded by Na and/or Ca. Such structures would remove network-modifying atoms from the melt structure and thus result in an increase in viscosity. The NMR spectra of fluorine-bearing glasses shows that F takes up at least 5 different structural positions in peralkaline composition melts. Three of these positions should result in a decrease in viscosity due to the removal of bridging oxygens. Two of the structural positons of F, however, should result in an increase in viscosity as they require the removal of network-modifying atoms from the melt structure (with one of the structures being that observed for Cl). This would imply that increasing amounts of F might result in an increase in viscosity. This proposed increase in viscosity with increasing F has now been experimentally confirmed.

  12. Employee benefits or wage increase?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Duda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper comes from a survey done during the years 2007–2009. It focused on employee satisfaction with the provision of employee benefits. The research included 21 companies, 7 companies were from the engineering sector, 7 companies from the food industry, 3 companies represented the budgetary sphere, 3 companies the services sector and one company operates in pharmaceutical industry.The questionnaire survey consisted of 14 questions, including 5 identification-questions. The paper presents results of the questions on dealing with employees’ awareness of employee benefits and on choosing between employees’ preferences of wage increase or increase in value of benefits provided.Employees are informed about all options of providing employee benefits. Only in 3 cases employees stated dissatisfaction with information. This answer was related with the responses to the second monitored question. Employees of these companies preferred pay increases before benefits’ increases. There was no effect of gender of the respondents, neither the influence of the sector of operation, in the preference of increases in wages or in benefits. Exceptions were the employees of companies operating in the financial sector, who preferred employee benefits before a wage increase. It was found that employees of companies who participated in research in 2009, preferred wage increases before the extension of employee benefits, although the value of the net wage increase is lower than the monetary value of benefits increase.The paper is a part of solution of the research plan MSM 6215648904 The Czech economy in the process of integration and globalization, and the development of agricultural sector and the sector of services under the new conditions of the integrated European market.

  13. Low calorie dieting increases cortisol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tomiyama, A Janet; Mann, Traci; Vinas, Danielle; Hunger, Jeffrey M; Dejager, Jill; Taylor, Shelley E

    2010-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that dieting, or the restriction of caloric intake, is ineffective because it increases chronic psychological stress and cortisol production--two factors that are known to cause weight gain...

  14. Paraplegia increases skeletal muscle autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Christopher S; Drummond, Micah J; Lujan, Heidi L; DiCarlo, Stephen E; Rasmussen, Blake B

    2012-11-01

    Paraplegia results in significant skeletal muscle atrophy through increases in skeletal muscle protein breakdown. Recent work has identified a novel SIRT1-p53 pathway that is capable of regulating autophagy and protein breakdown. Soleus muscle was collected from 6 male Sprague-Dawley rats 10 weeks after complete T4-5 spinal cord transection (paraplegia group) and 6 male sham-operated rats (control group). We utilized immunoblotting methods to measure intracellular proteins and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to measure the expression of skeletal muscle microRNAs. SIRT1 protein expression was 37% lower, and p53 acetylation (LYS379) was increased in the paraplegic rats (P paraplegia group compared with controls (P paraplegia appears to increase skeletal muscle autophagy independent of SIRT1 signaling. We conclude that chronic paraplegia may cause an increase in autophagic cell death and negatively impact skeletal muscle protein balance. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Increasing incidence of pyogenic spondylodiscitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehrer, Michala; Pedersen, Court; Jensen, Thøger G

    2014-01-01

    Smaller studies indicate that the incidence of pyogenic spondylodiscitis is increasing, possible related to a growing elderly population. Data supporting this is sparse, and we therefore studied patient characteristics and changes in spondylodiscitis incidence 1995-2008.......Smaller studies indicate that the incidence of pyogenic spondylodiscitis is increasing, possible related to a growing elderly population. Data supporting this is sparse, and we therefore studied patient characteristics and changes in spondylodiscitis incidence 1995-2008....

  16. Increasing instruction time in school does increase learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Calmar; Humlum, Maria; Nandrup, Anne Brink

    2016-01-01

    Increasing instruction time in school is a central element in the attempts of many governments to improve student learning, but prior research—mainly based on observational data—disputes the effect of this approach and points out the potential negative effects on student behavior. Based on a large...

  17. Pulsed electric field increases reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagopoulos, Dimitris J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To study the effect of pulsed electric field - applied in corona discharge photography - on Drosophila melanogaster reproduction, possible induction of DNA fragmentation, and morphological alterations in the gonads. Materials and methods Animals were exposed to different field intensities (100, 200, 300, and 400 kV/m) during the first 2-5 days of their adult lives, and the effect on reproductive capacity was assessed. DNA fragmentation during early- and mid-oogenesis was investigated by application of the TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling) assay. Sections of follicles after fixation and embedding in resins were observed for possible morphological/developmental abnormalities. Results The field increased reproduction by up to 30% by increasing reproductive capacity in both sexes. The effect increased with increasing field intensities. The rate of increase diminished at the strongest intensities. Slight induction of DNA fragmentation was observed exclusively in the nurse (predominantly) and follicle cells, and exclusively at the two most sensitive developmental stages, i.e., germarium and predominantly stage 7-8. Sections of follicles from exposed females at stages of early and mid-oogennesis other than germarium and stages 7-8 did not reveal abnormalities. Conclusions (1) The specific type of electric field may represent a mild stress factor, inducing DNA fragmentation and cell death in a small percentage of gametes, triggering the reaction of the animal's reproductive system to increase the rate of gametogenesis in order to compensate the loss of a small number of gametes. (2) The nurse cells are the most sensitive from all three types of egg chamber cells. (3) The mid-oogenesis checkpoint (stage 7-8) is more sensitive to this field than the early oogenesis one (germarium) in contrast to microwave exposure. (4) Possible therapeutic applications, or applications in increasing fertility, should be investigated.

  18. Increased chromosome radiosensitivity during pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricoul, Michelle; Sabatier, Laure; Dutrillaux, Bernard [Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, Laboratoire de Radiobiologie et Oncologie, DRR, DSV, Fontenay aux roses (France)

    1997-03-04

    It was necessary to consider the risks of exposure of pregnant women, not only in relation to the child, but also in relation to their own hypersensitivity. We have demonstrated that pregnancy increases radiosensitivity of chromosome in the mouse at the end of gestation. This is of importance since it may have implications on radioprotection of pregnant women and give experimental guidelines to the problems of hypersensitivity to drugs and cancer aggravation during pregnancy. Blood obtained from women at various times of pregnancy was exposed to ionizing radiations. By comparison to non-pregnant women, an increase in chromosome breakage was observed in metaphases from lymphocytes, after short-term culture in the presence of the serum of the same donor. Immediately after delivery, this increase in radiosensitivity disappeared. In a prospective study, serial analyses showed a very strong correlation between the amount of pregnancy hormones, progesterone in particular, and the increase in radiosensitivity. Pregnant women may have an increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation during the second half of their pregnancy. This study provides the first evidence in human that radiosensitivity may vary in relation to physiological conditions.

  19. Increasing work-time influence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Garde, Anne Helene; Aust, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study investigated how an intervention aiming at increasing eldercare workers' influence on their working hours affected the flexibility, variability, regularity and predictability of the working hours. We used baseline (n = 296) and follow-up (n = 274) questionnaire data......-operation with colleagues. In subgroup B and C, the participants ended up discussing the potential consequences of more work-time influence without actually implementing any changes. PRACTITIONER SUMMARY: Employee work-time influence may buffer the adverse effects of shift work. However, our intervention study suggested...... that while increasing the individual flexibility, increasing work-time influence may also result in decreased regularity of the working hours and less continuity in the care of clients and co-operation with colleagues....

  20. Electromigration early resistance increase measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niehof, J.; Flinn, P.A.; Maloney, T.J.

    1993-01-01

    An early resistance change measurement set-up, using an AC bridge technique, has been developed, and measurements have been performed. Large sample-to-sample variations occur. The characteristic time for the resistance change curve is shorter for resistance increase (under current stress) than for

  1. Carbohydrase and protease supplementation increased ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2014-09-15

    Sep 15, 2014 ... Department of Animal and Wildlife Sciences, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Science ... control birds was 12% higher than that of the positive control, while diets supplemented with single enzyme ... The inclusion of exogenous proteases in maize-soya-based diets increases protein digestion by.

  2. increased larval competitive ability without

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-06-01

    Jun 1, 2016 ... tion at high density should result in the increase of efficiency of conversion of food to biomass, and were better interpreted through the lens of α-selection. We show here that populations of D. ananassae and D. n. nasuta subjected to extreme larval crowding evolve greater competitive ability and pre-adult ...

  3. Direct observation of increasing CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heuven, S.M.A.C.; Hoppema, M.; Huhn, O.; Slagter, H.A.; de Baar, H.J.W.

    2011-01-01

    The World Ocean takes up a large portion of the anthropogenic CO2 emitted into the atmosphere. Determining the resulting increase in dissolved inorganic carbon (C-T, expressed in mu mol kg(-1)) is challenging, particularly in the sub-surface and deep Southern Ocean where the time rate of change of

  4. Cellular traction stresses increase with increasing metastatic potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey M Kraning-Rush

    Full Text Available Cancer cells exist in a mechanically and chemically heterogeneous microenvironment which undergoes dynamic changes throughout neoplastic progression. During metastasis, cells from a primary tumor acquire characteristics that enable them to escape from the primary tumor and migrate through the heterogeneous stromal environment to establish secondary tumors. Despite being linked to poor prognosis, there are no direct clinical tests available to diagnose the likelihood of metastasis. Moreover, the physical mechanisms employed by metastatic cancer cells to migrate are poorly understood. Because metastasis of most solid tumors requires cells to exert force to reorganize and navigate through dense stroma, we investigated differences in cellular force generation between metastatic and non-metastatic cells. Using traction force microscopy, we found that in human metastatic breast, prostate and lung cancer cell lines, traction stresses were significantly increased compared to non-metastatic counterparts. This trend was recapitulated in the isogenic MCF10AT series of breast cancer cells. Our data also indicate that increased matrix stiffness and collagen density promote increased traction forces, and that metastatic cells generate higher forces than non-metastatic cells across all matrix properties studied. Additionally, we found that cell spreading for these cell lines has a direct relationship with collagen density, but a biphasic relationship with substrate stiffness, indicating that cell area alone does not dictate the magnitude of traction stress generation. Together, these data suggest that cellular contractile force may play an important role in metastasis, and that the physical properties of the stromal environment may regulate cellular force generation. These findings are critical for understanding the physical mechanisms of metastasis and the role of the extracellular microenvironment in metastatic progression.

  5. Increased bactericidal/permeability increasing protein in patients with cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Ruiz, Armando; Casafont, Fernando; Cobo, Marta; Terán, Alvaro; de-la-Peña, Joaquín; Estebanez, Angel; Pons-Romero, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    High levels of endotoxin in patients with cirrhosis are thought to be responsible for the activation of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF)-alpha-mediated pro-inflammatory pathways involved in haemodynamic alterations. Bactericidal/permeability increasing protein (BPI) is a protein found in neutrophils with endotoxin-binding and neutralization capacity. It is not known whether defective BPI production or release is present in cirrhosis. We investigated the levels of BPI in cirrhotic patients and its relation to other endotoxin-binding proteins and inflammatory markers. Plasmatic levels of BPI, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, soluble CD14, TNF-alpha and BPI mRNA expression in neutrophils were determined in 130 patients and 30 healthy controls. The capacity of patients' plasma to inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated TNF-alpha production by monocytes from healthy donors was assessed in vitro. Patients with cirrhosis exhibited an increase in BPI mRNA and plasma level of BPI when compared with healthy controls (P<0.05). Child C group displayed the highest frequency of patients with a high concentration of BPI. A positive correlation was found between TNF-alpha and plasma levels of BPI (P<0.01). High levels of BPI in plasma were able to significantly reduce in vitro TNF-alpha release by monocytes after a challenge with LPS (8.54 +/- 1.04 vs. 10.44 +/- 0.85 pg/ml, P=0.028). BPI is increased in cirrhotic patients, especially in those with more severe liver disease. The amount of BPI in the plasma correlated with the TNF-alpha level and was able to reduce LPS-mediated TNF production by monocytes. BPI possibly plays a regulatory role by antagonizing the pro-inflammatory mechanisms mediated by TNF-alpha.

  6. Heavier smoking increases coffee consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørngaard, Johan H; Nordestgaard, Ask Tybjærg; Taylor, Amy E

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is evidence for a positive relationship between cigarette and coffee consumption in smokers. Cigarette smoke increases metabolism of caffeine, so this may represent a causal effect of smoking on caffeine intake. Methods: We performed Mendelian randomization analyses in the UK...... Biobank ( N  = 114 029), the Norwegian HUNT study ( N  = 56 664) and the Copenhagen General Population Study (CGPS) ( N  = 78 650). We used the rs16969968 genetic variant as a proxy for smoking heaviness in all studies and rs4410790 and rs2472297 as proxies for coffee consumption in UK Biobank and CGPS....... Analyses were conducted using linear regression and meta-analysed across studies. Results: Each additional cigarette per day consumed by current smokers was associated with higher coffee consumption (0.10 cups per day, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.17). There was weak evidence for an increase in tea consumption per...

  7. Lead exposure increases blood pressure by increasing angiotensinogen expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Jiandong; Wang, Miaomiao; Wang, Yiqing; Sun, Na; Li, Chunping

    2016-01-01

    Lead exposure can induce increased blood pressure. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain lead-induced hypertension. Changes in angiotensinogen (AGT) expression levels or gene variants may also influence blood pressure. In this study, we hypothesized that AGT expression levels or gene variants contribute to lead-induced hypertension. A preliminary HEK293 cell model experiment was performed to analyze the association between AGT expression and lead exposure. In a population-based study, serum AGT level was measured in both lead-exposed and control populations. To further detect the influence of AGT gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in lead-induced hypertension, two SNPs (rs699 and rs4762) were genotyped in a case-control study including 219 lead-exposed subjects and 393 controls. Lead exposure caused an increase in AGT expression level in HEK 293 cell models (P lead-free cells, and individuals exposed to lead had higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure (P Lead-exposed individuals had higher serum AGT levels compared to controls (P lead exposure. Nevertheless, the change in AGT expression level may play an important role in the development of lead-induced hypertension.

  8. Mechanical properties of wood disproportionately increase with increasing density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklas, Karl J; Spatz, Hanns-Christof

    2012-01-01

    Prior work using a large data set has shown that the mechanical properties of wood disproportionately increase with increasing wood density across diverse species, e.g., stems composed of denser wood are stiffer and stronger than stems with equivalent cross-sections composed of less dense wood. However, an alternative approach, introducing the precondition of constant construction cost for the same data set, adduces that for any given construction cost, stems composed of lesser dense woods are stiffer and stronger then stems composed of denser woods. We evaluated these two approaches using generic allometric principles and the same large data set. This evaluation shows that construction costs cannot be constant over an entire ensemble of stems composed of different species of wood. For any specified construction cost (denoted by a k-value), only a particular subgroup of stems is addressed. The conclusions derived for this subgroup cannot be generalized to the entire ensemble of stems composed of different species of wood. Stems composed of denser wood are, on average as stiff and strong, or stiffer and stronger than stems with equivalent cross-sections composed of less dense wood. Denser wood may have a higher carbon construction cost, but its mechanical benefits likely outweigh the extra cost.

  9. Increased Body Mass Index Associated with Increased Risky Sexual Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Lonna P; Diaz, Angela; Soghomonian, Christine; Nucci-Sack, Anne T; Weiss, Jocelyn M; Strickler, Howard D; Burk, Robert D; Schlecht, Nicolas F; Ochner, Christopher N

    2016-02-01

    The increasing prevalence of adolescent obesity has led to consideration of the potential effect of obesity on risky sexual behaviors. In the current study we examined whether body mass index (BMI) was related to age at sexual debut, type of sexual behavior, partner number, and condom use in a population of adolescent women at high risk for obesity and risky sexual behaviors. Cross-sectional examination of 860 sexually active, predominantly minority, adolescent women who received medical care at an urban health center from 2007 through 2013. Self-reported age at sexual debut, types of sexual intercourse, number of partners and condom use was compared with clinically assessed BMI. BMI was positively associated with number of sexual partners (P = .001) and history of attempted anal intercourse (P = .002). An inverse association was observed with age at first anal intercourse (P = .040). In this sample of adolescent women, increased BMI was associated with riskier sexual practices at a younger age. Results of this study suggest that overweight and obese adolescents are a vulnerable population who might need targeted sexual health counseling. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Low Calorie Dieting Increases Cortisol

    OpenAIRE

    Tomiyama, AJ; Mann, T.; Vinas, D; Hunger, JM; Dejager, J; Taylor, SE

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that dieting, or the restriction of caloric intake, is ineffective because it increases chronic psychological stress and cortisol production-two factors that are known to cause weight gain; and to examine the respective roles of the two main behaviors that comprise dieting-monitoring one's caloric intake and restricting one's caloric intake-on psychological and biological stress indicators. METHODS: In a 2 (monitoring vs. not) × 2 (restricting vs. not) fully ...

  11. Increasing East Africa's Nonproliferation Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Center on Contemporary Conflict

    2013-01-01

    FY 2013-2014. Project Lead: Brian Finlay In East Africa, small arms trafficking, organized crime, human trafficking, terrorist activity, underdevelopment, and nuclear proliferation all share a common denominator: border insecurity. Bridging the security interests of the global North (nonproliferation) and the global South (development) could reduce WMD proliferation supply chains and increase international security. The project aims to address the challenge of porous borders by developin...

  12. Low calorie dieting increases cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyama, A Janet; Mann, Traci; Vinas, Danielle; Hunger, Jeffrey M; Dejager, Jill; Taylor, Shelley E

    2010-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that dieting, or the restriction of caloric intake, is ineffective because it increases chronic psychological stress and cortisol production--two factors that are known to cause weight gain; and to examine the respective roles of the two main behaviors that comprise dieting--monitoring one's caloric intake and restricting one's caloric intake--on psychological and biological stress indicators. In a 2 (monitoring vs. not) x 2 (restricting vs. not) fully crossed, controlled experiment, 121 female participants were assigned randomly to one of four dietary interventions for 3 weeks. The monitoring + restricting condition tracked their caloric intake and restricted their caloric intake (1200 kcal/day); the monitoring only condition tracked their caloric intake but ate normally; the restricting only condition was provided 1200 kcal/day of food but did not track their calories, and the control group ate normally and did not track their intake. Before and after the interventions, participants completed measures of perceived stress and 2 days of diurnal saliva sampling to test for cortisol. Restricting calories increased the total output of cortisol, and monitoring calories increased perceived stress. Dieting may be deleterious to psychological well-being and biological functioning, and changes in clinical recommendations may be in order.

  13. High Heels Increase Women's Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguen, Nicolas

    2015-11-01

    Research has found that the appearance of women's apparel helps increase their attractiveness as rated by men and that men care more about physical features in potential opposite-sex mates. However, the effect of sartorial appearance has received little interest from scientists. In a series of studies, the length of women's shoe heels was examined. A woman confederate wearing black shoes with 0, 5, or 9 cm heels asked men for help in various circumstances. In Study 1, she asked men to respond to a short survey on gender equality. In Study 2, the confederate asked men and women to participate in a survey on local food habit consumption. In Study 3, men and women in the street were observed while walking in back of the female confederate who dropped a glove apparently unaware of her loss. It was found that men's helping behavior increased as soon as heel length increased. However, heel length had no effect on women's helping behavior. It was also found that men spontaneously approached women more quickly when they wore high-heeled shoes (Study 4). Change in gait, foot-size judgment, and misattribution of sexiness and sexual intent were used as possible explanations.

  14. Interventions to Increase Walking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David M.; Matthews, Charles; Rutt, Candace; Napolitano, Melissa A.; Marcus, Bess H.

    2009-01-01

    Walking is the most prevalent and preferred method of physical activity for both work and leisure purposes, thus making it a prime target for physical activity promotion interventions. We identified 14 randomized controlled trials, which tested interventions specifically targeting and assessing walking behavior. Results show that among self-selected samples intensive interventions can increase walking behavior relative to controls. Brief telephone prompts appear to be as effective as more substantial telephone counseling. Although more research is needed, individual studies support prescriptions to walk 5–7 d/wk versus 3–5 d/wk and at a moderate (versus vigorous) intensity pace, with no differences in total walking minutes when single or multiple daily walking bouts are prescribed. Mediated interventions delivering physical activity promotion materials through non-face-to-face channels may be ideal for delivering walking promotion interventions and have shown efficacy in promoting overall physical activity, especially when theory-based and individually tailored. Mass media campaigns targeting broader audiences, including those who may not intend to increase their physical activity, have been successful at increasing knowledge and awareness about physical activity, but are often too diffuse to successfully impact individual behavior change. Incorporating individually tailored programs into broader mass media campaigns may be an important next step, and the Internet could be a useful vehicle. PMID:18562974

  15. Seven ways to increase power without increasing N.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, W B; Collins, L M

    1994-01-01

    overemphasis on sample size (N) as the only, or even the best, way to increase statistical power. It is easy to see how this overemphasis has come about. Sample size is easy to manipulate, has the advantage of being related to power in a straight-forward way, and usually is under the direct control of the researcher, except for limitations imposed by finances or subject availability. Another option for increasing power is to increase the alpha used for hypothesis-testing but, as very few researchers seriously consider significance levels much larger than the traditional .05, this strategy seldom is used. Of course, sample size is important, and the authors of this chapter are not recommending that researchers cease choosing sample sizes carefully. Rather, they argue that researchers should not confine themselves to increasing N to enhance power. It is important to take additional measures to maintain and improve power over and above making sure the initial sample size is sufficient. The authors recommend two general strategies. One strategy involves attempting to maintain the effective initial sample size so that power is not lost needlessly. The other strategy is to take measures to maximize the third factor that determines statistical power: effect size.

  16. A importância dos acidentes ofídicos como causa de mortes em bovinos no Brasil The importance of snake bites as cause of cattle death in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Hubinger Tokarnia

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A revisão da literatura pertinente indica que as opiniões sobre a importância dos acidentes ofídicos, como causa de mortes em bovinos no Brasil, são divergentes no meio veterinário. Enquanto alguns acreditam que são pouco importantes, ou que têm menor significado do que lhes é atribuído, outros são da opinião que esses acidentes são freqüentes. Verificou-se que só foi relatado diagnóstico fundamentado de dois casos fatais de envenenamento por Bothrops spp em bovinos, e de nenhum por Crotalus spp. Um questionário por nós submetido a patologistas e clínicos veterinários que atuam em diversos Estados do país, revelou apenas raros casos suspeitos de envenenamento ofídico fatal em bovinos no Brasil. Em nossas viagens de estudo e nos trabalhos de diagnóstico nunca estabelecemos o diagnóstico de morte por acidente ofídico em bovinos. Os casos tidos como envenenamento ofídico, na sua grande maioria, são apenas suposições, sem embasamento. Esses "diagnósticos", em geral, são feitos à distância dos animais que morreram, à revelia de exame clínico, necropsia e estudo histopatológico. Importante foi a constatação de que, no Brasil, embora algumas serpentes do gênero Bothrops possam, teoricamente, produzir quantidades suficientes de veneno para matar um bovino adulto, em experimentos realizados, apenas Bothrops alternatus foi capaz de levar a morte um dos três bovinos experimentalmente por ela picados; esse animal tinha apenas 279 kg. Já as serpentes do gênero Crotalus poderiam inocular quantidades letais de veneno para bovinos adultos. Mesmo assim, tanto para Bothrops spp, como para Crotalus spp, há que se considerar que as serpentes, em geral, só inoculam parte do veneno disponível. Esse estudo indica que é necessário melhor investigar as mortes suspeitas de terem sido causadas por acidente ofídico em bovinos no Brasil. O estabelecimento do diagnóstico de morte por envenenamento ofídico, porém, só é poss

  17. Oral microbiota of Brazilian captive snakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MG Fonseca

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to determine the oral microbiotic composition of snakes from São José do Rio Preto city, São Paulo State, Brazil. Ten snake species, comprising the families Boidae, Colubridae, Elapidae and Viperidae, were submitted to microbiological examination of their oral cavity, which indicated positivity for all buccal samples. Gram-negative bacilli, gram-negative cocci bacilli, gram-positive bacilli and gram-positive cocci were isolated from the snakes. Among isolated bacterium species, the occurrence of coagulase-negative staphylococci in the buccal cavity of Crotalus durissus (Viperiade, Eunectes murinus (Boidae, Mastigodryas bifossatus (Colubridae and Bacillus subtilis, common to oral cavity of Bothrops alternatus (Viperidae and Phalotris mertensi (Colubridae, was detected. It was observed higher diversity of isolated bacteria from the oral cavity of Micrurus frontalis (Elapidae and Philodryas nattereri (Colubridae, as well as the prevalence of gram-positive baccillus and gram-positive cocci. The composition of the oral microbiota of the studied snakes, with or without inoculating fangs, is diverse and also related to the formation of abscesses at the bite site in the victims of the ophidian accidents, and to pathogenic processes in the snakes that host these microorganisms.

  18. Increase Productivity Through Knowledge Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrikova, N. A.; Dolgih, I. N.; Dyrina, E. N.

    2016-04-01

    Increase in competition level requires companies to improve the efficiency of work force use characterized by labor productivity. Professional knowledge of staff and its experience play the key role in it. The results of Extrusion Line operator’s working time analysis are performed in this article. The analysis revealed that the reasons of working time ineffective use connected with inadequate information exchange and knowledge management in the company. Authors suggest the way to solve this problem: the main sources of knowledge in engineering enterprise have been defined, the conditions of success and the stages of knowledge management control have been stated.

  19. USA: Organic demand to increase

    OpenAIRE

    Paull, John

    2013-01-01

    The demand for organic food will continue to increase driven by health conscious consumers, according to a new survey of 1500 US consumers. The 155 page report by Technomic Inc advises food service executives, operators and suppliers to “consider re-evaluating their product mix to appeal to this no-longer-niche market". A key finding of the Healthy Eating Consumer Trend Report is that "the vast majority [of consumers] say that health is a priority for them and they at least try to eat hea...

  20. Increasing production at Cerrejon Central

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Climent, J.; Alvarez, M.

    1997-12-01

    Colombian coal miner Prodeco is hoping to increase production of its opencast Cerrejon Central mine from 3.1 Mt in 1996 to 10 Mt by 2002. This article discusses how this is to be achieved. The development programme, presently in Phase II of three phases, will affect not only the mine itself but also include improvements to loading facilities at Santa Marta port, at the company`s head office, and construction of a new port nearby. 3 figs., 2 tabs., 3 photos.

  1. Increasing Coverage of Appropriate Vaccinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Verughese; Chattopadhyay, Sajal K.; Hopkins, David P.; Morgan, Jennifer Murphy; Pitan, Adesola A.; Clymer, John

    2016-01-01

    Context Population-level coverage for immunization against many vaccine-preventable diseases remains below optimal rates in the U.S. The Community Preventive Services Task Force recently recommended several interventions to increase vaccination coverage based on systematic reviews of the evaluation literature. The present study provides the economic results from those reviews. Evidence acquisition A systematic review was conducted (search period, January 1980 through February 2012) to identify economic evaluations of 12 interventions recommended by the Task Force. Evidence was drawn from included studies; estimates were constructed for the population reach of each strategy, cost of implementation, and cost per additional vaccinated person because of the intervention. Analyses were conducted in 2014. Evidence synthesis Reminder systems, whether for clients or providers, were among the lowest-cost strategies to implement and the most cost effective in terms of additional people vaccinated. Strategies involving home visits and combination strategies in community settings were both costly and less cost effective. Strategies based in settings such as schools and managed care organizations that reached the target population achieved additional vaccinations in the middle range of cost effectiveness. Conclusions The interventions recommended by the Task Force differed in reach, cost, and cost effectiveness. This systematic review presents the economic information for 12 effective strategies to increase vaccination coverage that can guide implementers in their choice of interventions to fit their local needs, available resources, and budget. PMID:26847663

  2. Social Power Increases Interoceptive Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrad Moeini-Jazani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Building on recent psychological research showing that power increases self-focused attention, we propose that having power increases accuracy in perception of bodily signals, a phenomenon known as interoceptive accuracy. Consistent with our proposition, participants in a high-power experimental condition outperformed those in the control and low-power conditions in the Schandry heartbeat-detection task. We demonstrate that the effect of power on interoceptive accuracy is not explained by participants’ physiological arousal, affective state, or general intention for accuracy. Rather, consistent with our reasoning that experiencing power shifts attentional resources inward, we show that the effect of power on interoceptive accuracy is dependent on individuals’ chronic tendency to focus on their internal sensations. Moreover, we demonstrate that individuals’ chronic sense of power also predicts interoceptive accuracy similar to, and independent of, how their situationally induced feeling of power does. We therefore provide further support on the relation between power and enhanced perception of bodily signals. Our findings offer a novel perspective–a psychophysiological account–on how power might affect judgments and behavior. We highlight and discuss some of these intriguing possibilities for future research.

  3. Revising probability estimates: Why increasing likelihood means increasing impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglio, Sam J; Polman, Evan

    2016-08-01

    Forecasted probabilities rarely stay the same for long. Instead, they are subject to constant revision-moving upward or downward, uncertain events become more or less likely. Yet little is known about how people interpret probability estimates beyond static snapshots, like a 30% chance of rain. Here, we consider the cognitive, affective, and behavioral consequences of revisions to probability forecasts. Stemming from a lay belief that revisions signal the emergence of a trend, we find in 10 studies (comprising uncertain events such as weather, climate change, sex, sports, and wine) that upward changes to event-probability (e.g., increasing from 20% to 30%) cause events to feel less remote than downward changes (e.g., decreasing from 40% to 30%), and subsequently change people's behavior regarding those events despite the revised event-probabilities being the same. Our research sheds light on how revising the probabilities for future events changes how people manage those uncertain events. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Propofol directly increases tau phosphorylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Whittington

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Alzheimer's disease (AD and other tauopathies, the microtubule-associated protein tau can undergo aberrant hyperphosphorylation potentially leading to the development of neurofibrillary pathology. Anesthetics have been previously shown to induce tau hyperphosphorylation through a mechanism involving hypothermia-induced inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A activity. However, the effects of propofol, a common clinically used intravenous anesthetic, on tau phosphorylation under normothermic conditions are unknown. We investigated the effects of a general anesthetic dose of propofol on levels of phosphorylated tau in the mouse hippocampus and cortex under normothermic conditions. Thirty min following the administration of propofol 250 mg/kg i.p., significant increases in tau phosphorylation were observed at the AT8, CP13, and PHF-1 phosphoepitopes in the hippocampus, as well as at AT8, PHF-1, MC6, pS262, and pS422 epitopes in the cortex. However, we did not detect somatodendritic relocalization of tau. In both brain regions, tau hyperphosphorylation persisted at the AT8 epitope 2 h following propofol, although the sedative effects of the drug were no longer evident at this time point. By 6 h following propofol, levels of phosphorylated tau at AT8 returned to control levels. An initial decrease in the activity and expression of PP2A were observed, suggesting that PP2A inhibition is at least partly responsible for the hyperphosphorylation of tau at multiple sites following 30 min of propofol exposure. We also examined tau phosphorylation in SH-SY5Y cells transfected to overexpress human tau. A 1 h exposure to a clinically relevant concentration of propofol in vitro was also associated with tau hyperphosphorylation. These findings suggest that propofol increases tau phosphorylation both in vivo and in vitro under normothermic conditions, and further studies are warranted to determine the impact of this anesthetic on the acceleration of

  5. Dividing Attention Increases Operational Momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koleen McCrink

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available When adding or subtracting two quantities, adults often compute an estimated outcome that is larger or smaller, respectively, than the actual outcome, a bias referred to as “operational momentum”. The effects of attention on operational momentum were investigated. Participants viewed a display in which two arrays of objects were added, or one array was subtracted from another array, and judged whether a subsequent outcome (probe array contained the correct or incorrect number of objects. In a baseline condition, only the arrays to be added or subtracted were viewed. In divided attention conditions, participants simultaneously viewed a sequence of colors or shapes, and judged which color (a non-spatial judgment or shape (a spatial judgment was repeated. Operational momentum occurred in all conditions, but was higher in divided attention conditions than in the baseline condition, primarily for addition problems. This pattern suggests that dividing attention, rather than decreasing operational momentum by decreasing attentional shifts, actually increased operational momentum. These results are consistent with a heightened use of arithmetic heuristics under conditions of divided attention.

  6. Scientific progress as increasing verisimilitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niiniluoto, Ilkka

    2014-06-01

    According to the foundationalist picture, shared by many rationalists and positivist empiricists, science makes cognitive progress by accumulating justified truths. Fallibilists, who point out that complete certainty cannot be achieved in empirical science, can still argue that even successions of false theories may progress toward the truth. This proposal was supported by Karl Popper with his notion of truthlikeness or verisimilitude. Popper's own technical definition failed, but the idea that scientific progress means increasing truthlikeness can be expressed by defining degrees of truthlikeness in terms of similarities between states of affairs. This paper defends the verisimilitude approach against Alexander Bird who argues that the "semantic" definition (in terms of truth or truthlikeness alone) is not sufficient to define progress, but the "epistemic" definition referring to justification and knowledge is more adequate. Here Bird ignores the crucial distinction between real progress and estimated progress, explicated by the difference between absolute (and usually unknown) degrees of truthlikeness and their evidence-relative expected values. Further, it is argued that Bird's idea of returning to the cumulative model of growth requires an implausible trick of transforming past false theories into true ones.

  7. The increasing burden of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lépine J-P

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Pierre Lépine1, Mike Briley21Hôpital Lariboisière Fernand Widal, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris Unité INSERM 705 CNRS UMR 8206, Université Paris Diderot, Paris, France; 2NeuroBiz Consulting and Communication, Castres, FranceAbstract: Recent epidemiological surveys conducted in general populations have found that the lifetime prevalence of depression is in the range of 10% to 15%. Mood disorders, as defined by the World Mental Health and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, have a 12-month prevalence which varies from 3% in Japan to over 9% in the US. A recent American survey found the prevalence of current depression to be 9% and the rate of current major depression to be 3.4%. All studies of depressive disorders have stressed the importance of the mortality and morbidity associated with depression. The mortality risk for suicide in depressed patients is more than 20-fold greater than in the general population. Recent studies have also shown the importance of depression as a risk factor for cardiovascular death. The risk of cardiac mortality after an initial myocardial infarction is greater in patients with depression and related to the severity of the depressive episode. Greater severity of depressive symptoms has been found to be associated with significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality including cardiovascular death and stroke. In addition to mortality, functional impairment and disability associated with depression have been consistently reported. Depression increases the risk of decreased workplace productivity and absenteeism resulting in lowered income or unemployment. Absenteeism and presenteeism (being physically present at work but functioning suboptimally have been estimated to result in a loss of $36.6 billion per year in the US. Worldwide projections by the World Health Organization for the year 2030 identify unipolar major depression as the leading cause of disease burden

  8. Canopy Venom: Proteomic Comparison among New World Arboreal Pit-Viper Venoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debono, Jordan; Cochran, Chip; Kuruppu, Sanjaya; Nouwens, Amanda; Rajapakse, Niwanthi W; Kawasaki, Minami; Wood, Kelly; Dobson, James; Baumann, Kate; Jouiaei, Mahdokht; Jackson, Timothy N W; Koludarov, Ivan; Low, Dolyce; Ali, Syed A; Smith, A Ian; Barnes, Andrew; Fry, Bryan G

    2016-07-08

    Central and South American pitvipers, belonging to the genera Bothrops and Bothriechis, have independently evolved arboreal tendencies. Little is known regarding the composition and activity of their venoms. In order to close this knowledge gap, venom proteomics and toxin activity of species of Bothriechis, and Bothrops (including Bothriopsis) were investigated through established analytical methods. A combination of proteomics and bioactivity techniques was used to demonstrate a similar diversification of venom composition between large and small species within Bothriechis and Bothriopsis. Increasing our understanding of the evolution of complex venom cocktails may facilitate future biodiscoveries.

  9. Canopy Venom: Proteomic Comparison among New World Arboreal Pit-Viper Venoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Debono

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Central and South American pitvipers, belonging to the genera Bothrops and Bothriechis, have independently evolved arboreal tendencies. Little is known regarding the composition and activity of their venoms. In order to close this knowledge gap, venom proteomics and toxin activity of species of Bothriechis, and Bothrops (including Bothriopsis were investigated through established analytical methods. A combination of proteomics and bioactivity techniques was used to demonstrate a similar diversification of venom composition between large and small species within Bothriechis and Bothriopsis. Increasing our understanding of the evolution of complex venom cocktails may facilitate future biodiscoveries.

  10. Pregnancy outcomes according to increasing maternal age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jin Koo

    2012-03-01

    Conclusion: Increasing maternal age is an independent and substantial risk factor for adverse perinatal and obstetric outcomes. These adverse outcomes become more common as increasing maternal age without a clear cutoff age.

  11. 3 Ways to Increase Positive Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Nervous System 3 Ways to Increase Positive Emotions KidsHealth > For Teens > 3 Ways to Increase Positive ... to give yourself a boost. Track Your Positive Emotions Name the positive emotions you're already familiar ...

  12. The alarming increase of incapacity for work

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thibaut, P

    2013-01-01

    The alarming increase of incapacity for work The increase of incapacity for work in Belgium and in Europe is not a new phenomenon but only the transposition of an experience already lived on others continents (Canada--USA...

  13. The ratio and concentration of two monoterpenes mediate fecundity of the pinewood nematode and growth of its associated fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Niu

    Full Text Available The pinewood nematode (PWN Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, vectored primarily by the sawyer beetle, Monochamus alternatus, is an important invasive pest and causal agent of pine wilt disease of Chinese Masson pine, Pinus massoniana. Previous work demonstrated that the ratios and concentrations of α-pinene:β-pinene differed between healthy trees and those trees containing blue-stain fungus (and M. alternatus pupae. However, the potential influence of the altered monoterpene ratios and concentrations on PWN and associated fungi remained unknown. Our current results show that low concentrations of the monoterpenes within petri dishes reduced PWN propagation, whereas the highest concentration of the monoterpenes increased PWN propagation. The propagation rate of PWN treated with the monoterpene ratio representative of blue-stain infected pine (α-pinene:β-pinene = 1:0.8, 137.6 mg/ml was significantly higher than that (α-pinene:β-pinene = 1:0.1, 137.6 mg/ml representative of healthy pines or those damaged by M. alternatus feeding, but without blue stain. Furthermore, inhibition of mycelial growth of associated fungi increased with the concentration of the monoterpenes α-pinene and β-pinene. Additionally, higher levels of β-pinene (α-pinene:β-pinene = 1:0.8 resulted in greater inhibition of the growth of the associated fungi Sporothrix sp.2 and Ophiostoma ips strains, but had no significant effects on the growth of Sporothrix sp.1, which is the best food resource for PWN. These results suggest that host monoterpenes generally reduce the reproduction of PWN. However, PWN utilizes high monoterpene concentrations and native blue-stain fungus Sporothrix sp.1 to improve its own propagation and overcome host resistance, which may provide clues to understanding the ecological mechanisms of PWN's successful invasion.

  14. Increasing ideological tolerance in social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbar, Yoel; Lammers, Joris

    2015-01-01

    We argue that recognizing current ideological diversity in social psychology and promoting tolerance of minority views is just as important as increasing the number of non-liberal researchers. Increasing tolerance will allow individuals in the minority to express dissenting views, which will improve psychological science by reducing bias. We present four recommendations for increasing tolerance.

  15. Are diseases increasing in the ocean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Porter, James W.; Ford, Susan E.

    2004-01-01

    Many factors (climate warming, pollution, harvesting, introduced species) can contribute to disease outbreaks in marine life. Concomitant increases in each of these makes it difficult to attribute recent changes in disease occurrence or severity to any one factor. For example, the increase in disease of Caribbean coral is postulated to be a result of climate change and introduction of terrestrial pathogens. Indirect evidence exists that (a) warming increased disease in turtles; (b) protection, pollution, and terrestrial pathogens increased mammal disease; (c) aquaculture increased disease in mollusks; and (d) release from overfished predators increased sea urchin disease. In contrast, fishing and pollution may have reduced disease in fishes. In other taxa (e.g., sea grasses, crustaceans, sharks), there is little evidence that disease has changed over time. The diversity of patterns suggests there are many ways that environmental change can interact with disease in the ocean.

  16. Increased muscle glucose uptake during contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Thorkil; Galbo, Henrik; Richter, Erik

    1984-01-01

    We reinvestigated the prevailing concept that muscle contractions only elicit increased muscle glucose uptake in the presence of a so-called "permissive" concentration of insulin (Berger et al., Biochem. J. 146: 231-238, 1975; Vranic and Berger, Diabetes 28: 147-163, 1979). Hindquarters from rats...... in severe ketoacidosis were perfused with a perfusate containing insulin antiserum. After 60 min perfusion, electrical stimulation increased glucose uptake of the contracting muscles fivefold. Also, subsequent contractions increased glucose uptake in hindquarters from nondiabetic rats perfused for 1.5 h......-methylglucose uptake increased during contractions and glucose uptake was negative at rest and zero during contractions. An increase in muscle transport and uptake of glucose during contractions does not require the presence of insulin. Furthermore, glucose transport in contracting muscle may only increase if glycogen...

  17. Taurine increases hippocampal neurogenesis in aging mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Gebara

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with increased inflammation and reduced hippocampal neurogenesis, which may in turn contribute to cognitive impairment. Taurine is a free amino acid found in numerous diets, with anti-inflammatory properties. Although abundant in the young brain, the decrease in taurine concentration with age may underlie reduced neurogenesis. Here, we assessed the effect of taurine on hippocampal neurogenesis in middle-aged mice. We found that taurine increased cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus through the activation of quiescent stem cells, resulting in increased number of stem cells and intermediate neural progenitors. Taurine had a direct effect on stem/progenitor cells proliferation, as observed in vitro, and also reduced activated microglia. Furthermore, taurine increased the survival of newborn neurons, resulting in a net increase in adult neurogenesis. Together, these results show that taurine increases several steps of adult neurogenesis and support a beneficial role of taurine on hippocampal neurogenesis in the context of brain aging.

  18. Increased rheumatoid factor and deep venous thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer-Olesen, Christine L; Nielsen, Sune F; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The risk of deep venous thrombosis is increased in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. We tested the hypothesis that increased concentrations of rheumatoid factor are associated with increased risk of deep venous thrombosis in individuals without autoimmune rheumatic disease in the ge......BACKGROUND: The risk of deep venous thrombosis is increased in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. We tested the hypothesis that increased concentrations of rheumatoid factor are associated with increased risk of deep venous thrombosis in individuals without autoimmune rheumatic disease...... in the general population. METHODS: We included 54628 participants from the Copenhagen City Heart Study (1981-83) and the Copenhagen General Population Study (2004-12), all with a measured concentration of IgM rheumatoid factor and without autoimmune rheumatic disease or venous thromboembolism. The main outcome...... was incident deep venous thrombosis. There were no losses to follow-up. RESULTS: During 368381 person-years, 670 individuals developed deep venous thrombosis. A rheumatoid factor concentration ≥ vs

  19. Exergames: Increasing Physical Activity through Effective Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudella, Jennifer L.; Butz, Jennifer V.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the growing obesity epidemic in the United States, educators must consider new ways to increase physical activity in an effort to address obesity. There are a variety of ways educators can increase physical activity in the classroom, and exergames--video games that require physical movement in order to play--are a modern-day approach to…

  20. Does Twitter Increase Perceived Police Legitimacy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimmelikhuijsen, Stephan G; Meijer, Albert J

    2015-01-01

    Social media use has become increasingly popular among police forces. The literature suggests that social media use can increase perceived police legitimacy by enabling transparency and participation. Employing data from a large and representative survey of Dutch citizens (N = 4,492), this article

  1. Effective Strategies for Increasing Citation Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahim, Nader Ale; Salehi, Hadi; Embi, Mohamed Amin; Tanha, Farid Habibi; Gholizadeh, Hossein; Motahar, Seyed Mohammad; Ordi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Due to the effect of citation impact on The Higher Education (THE) world university ranking system, most of the researchers are looking for some helpful techniques to increase their citation record. This paper by reviewing the relevant articles extracts 33 different ways for increasing the citations possibilities. The results show that the article…

  2. Employees, sustainability and motivation: Increasing employee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An increasing number of academic studies indicate that we as humans are exploiting the planet earth to an extent that is no longer bearable. Put differently, we are actively destroying our very own basis of existence, especially considering the generations to come. It is therefore becoming increasingly significant for ...

  3. FORUM Models for increasing the health workforce

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    professional councils cannot be effected, increased operational costs. (especially transport costs linked to distant clinical training), and a dwindling academic health workforce. Although the Infrastructure and Efficiency Grant and Clinical Training Grant earmarked for increasing the quantity of health professional graduates ...

  4. Cyberbullying: An Increasing Challenge for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Marees, Nandoli; Petermann, Franz

    2012-01-01

    The use of information and communication technology (ICT) has not only brought advantages to mankind. One downside is the emergence and increase of cyberbullying in schools. Affecting students of all ages, teachers, parents, and other educators, this special form of bullying is an increasing challenge for schools. This article offers an overview…

  5. Is competition between regions welfare increasing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerdink, G.C. (Gerhard); Stauvermann, P.J. (Peter)

    2010-01-01

    It is generally assumed that competition increases welfare. The main idea behind this assumption is that competition in a market is the best incentive mechanism to produce efficient market outcomes. This is good for social welfare and therefore stimulating competition is welfare increasing.

  6. Separating Fact from Fiction: Increasing Running Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgia, Carla

    2008-01-01

    From a biomechanical point of view, this article explores the common belief that one must increase stride length and frequency in order to increase running speed. The limb length, explosive power, and anaerobic capacity of the athlete, as well as the type of running (sprinting vs. long distance) must be considered before making such a…

  7. Improved sulphate removal rates at increased sulphide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improved sulphate removal rates at increased sulphide concentration in the sulphidogenic bioreactor. ... The results of three investigations operating a continuous reactor, a column reactor and batch-test reactors have shown that increased sulphide concentrations have resulted in improved biological sulphate reduction.

  8. Stomatal conductance increases with rising temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Josef; Ingwers, Miles; McGuire, Mary Anne; Teskey, Robert O

    2017-08-03

    Stomatal conductance directly modifies plant water relations and photosynthesis. Many environmental factors affecting the stomatal conductance have been intensively studied but temperature has been largely neglected, even though it is one of the fastest changing environmental variables and it is rising due to climate change. In this study, we describe how stomata open when the temperature increases. Stomatal conductance increased by ca 40% in a broadleaf and a coniferous species, poplar (Populus deltoides x nigra) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) when temperature was increased by 10 °C, from 30 °C to 40 °C at a constant vapor pressure deficit of 1 kPa. The mechanism of regulating stomatal conductance by temperature was, at least partly, independent of other known mechanisms linked to water status and carbon metabolism. Stomatal conductance increased with rising temperature despite the decrease in leaf water potential, increase in transpiration, increase in intercellular CO2 concentration and was decoupled from photosynthesis. Increase in xylem and mesophyll hydraulic conductance coming from lower water viscosity may to some degree explain temperature dependent opening of stomata. The direct stomatal response to temperature allows plants to benefit from increased evaporative cooling during the heat waves and from lower stomatal limitations to photosynthesis but they may be jeopardized by faster depletion of soil water.

  9. Employee responses to health insurance premium increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Dana P; Leibowitz, Arleen A; Robalino, David A

    2004-01-01

    To determine the sensitivity of employees' health insurance decisions--including the decision to not choose health maintenance organization or fee-for-service coverage--during periods of rapidly escalating healthcare costs. A retrospective cohort study of employee plan choices at a single large firm with a "cafeteria-style" benefits plan wherein employees paid all the additional cost of purchasing more generous insurance. We modeled the probability that an employee would drop coverage or switch plans in response to employee premium increases using data from a single large US company with employees across 47 states during the 3-year period of 1989 through 1991, a time of large premium increases within and across plans. Premium increases induced substantial plan switching. Single employees were more likely to respond to premium increases by dropping coverage, whereas families tended to switch to another plan. Premium increases of 10% induced 7% of single employees to drop or severely cut back on coverage; 13% to switch to another plan; and 80% to remain in their existing plan. Similar figures for those with family coverage were 11%, 12%, and 77%, respectively. Simulation results that control for known covariates show similar increases. When faced with a dramatic increase in premiums--on the order of 20%--nearly one fifth of the single employees dropped coverage compared with 10% of those with family coverage. Employee coverage decisions are sensitive to rapidly increasing premiums, and single employees may be likely to drop coverage. This finding suggests that sustained premium increases could induce substantial increases in the number of uninsured individuals.

  10. Neutralizacion del efecto hemorragico inducido por veneno de Bothrops asper por extractos de plantas tropicales

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Castro, Oscar; Gutierrez, Jose Maria; Barrios, Mariano; Castro, Ian; Romero, Marjorie; Umana, Eduardo

    1999-01-01

    ... cuculmeca y Virola koschnyi. El analisis quimico de estos extractos permitio identificar catequinas, flavonas, antocianinas y taninos condensados, los cuales podrian jugar un papel en la inhibicion del efecto hemorragico debido a la capacidad de quelar el ion zinc requerido por las metaloproteinasas hemorragicas para su accion. Abstract: Organic extracts rep...

  11. Bothrops jararaca venom gland secretory cells in culture: Effects of noradrenaline on toxin production and secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Luciana Godoy; Valente, Richard Hemmi; Heluany, Cíntia Scucuglia; Souza-Imberg, Andreia; Luna, Milene Schmidt; Perales, Jonas; Yamanouye, Norma

    2017-07-01

    Primary culture of snake venom gland secretory cells could be a good model to study the mechanism(s) of toxin(s) production. These cells can produce and secrete venom to the medium with a hemorrhagic activity comparable to that induced by venom collected from snakes. Production of new venom is triggered by the sympathetic outflow, through the release of noradrenaline, but the importance of this neurotransmitter on toxin synthesis has not been addressed. This work led to the identification and comparison of the toxin panel produced by cultured secretory cells, during a 12-day time-course analysis, as well as to the effects of noradrenaline on the process. The results showed that in our culture model the synthesis of new toxins is asynchronous, mimicking data previously published from proteomic analyses of venom glands harvested from animal experimentation. Furthermore, noradrenaline did regulate the synthesis and/or secretion of venom toxins over the analyzed period. Finally, we demonstrated that snake venom metalloproteinases present in these cultured cells secretome were mostly in their zymogen forms; consequently, processing occurs after secretion to the gland lumen. Overall, the data support the use of venom gland secretory cells as a reliable model to investigate the mechanism(s) of toxin(s) synthesis and secretion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Depletion of Plasma Albumin for Proteomic Analysis of Bothrops jararaca Snake Plasma

    OpenAIRE

    de Morais-Zani, Karen; Grego, Kathleen Fernandes; Tanaka, Aparecida Sadae; Tanaka-Azevedo, Anita Mitico

    2011-01-01

    The proteomic analysis of plasma samples represents a challenge as a result of the presence of highly abundant proteins such as albumin. To enable the detection of biomarkers, which are commonly low-abundance proteins, in complex blood fluids, it is necessary to remove high-abundance proteins efficiently. Moreover, there is a range of about 10 orders of magnitude for the abundance of different protein species in serum. Here, we describe for the first time a study of reptilian albumin depletio...

  13. Increasing trends of herpes zoster in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raina MacIntyre

    Full Text Available Increasing trends in incidence of herpes zoster (HZ have been reported in Australia and internationally. This may reflect the impact of childhood VZV vaccination programs introduced universally in Australia in late 2005. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in incidence of HZ and PHN in Australia over time, and associated healthcare resource utilisation.Australian data on general practice (GP encounters for HZ, specific antiviral prescribing data from the pharmaceutical benefits scheme, emergency department presentations from the states of NSW and Victoria and national hospitalisation data for HZ were analysed for time trends using regression models. Two time periods (2000-2006 and 2006-2013 were compared which correspond broadly with the pre- and post- universal VZV vaccination period.All data sources showed increasing rates of HZ with age and over time. The GP database showed a significant annual increase in encounters for HZ of 2.5 per 100,000 between 1998 and 2013, and the rates of prescriptions for HZ increased by 4.2% per year between 2002 and 2012. In the 60+ population HZ incidence was estimated to increase from 11.9 to 15.4 per 1,000 persons using GP data or from 12.8 to 14.2 per 1,000 persons using prescription data (p<0.05, between the two periods. Hospitalisation data did not show the same increasing trend over time, except for the age group ≥80 years. Most emergency visits for HZ were not admitted, and showed significant increases over time.The burden of HZ in Australia is substantial, and continues to increase over time. This increase is seen both pre- and post-universal VZV vaccination in 2005, and is most prominent in the older population. The substantial burden of HZ, along with ageing of the Australian population and the importance of healthy ageing, warrants consideration of HZ vaccination for the elderly.

  14. Increasing mental health literacy via narrative advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chingching

    2008-01-01

    This research explored the effectiveness of narrative advertising and argument advertising in increasing mental illness (depression) literacy. Results showed that narrative advertising was more effective than argument advertising at engaging participants in experiential immersion, resulting in greater sympathy toward those suffering from depression. In addition, narrative advertising better involved participants in issue elaboration and increased willingness to seek professional help. Finally, in comparison with argument advertising, narrative advertisements were rated higher in providing vivid information, resulting in an increase in participants' perceived efficacy in recognizing friends or family suffering from depression.

  15. Tobacco use increases susceptibility to bacterial infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demuth Donald R

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Active smokers and those exposed to secondhand smoke are at increased risk of bacterial infection. Tobacco smoke exposure increases susceptibility to respiratory tract infections, including tuberculosis, pneumonia and Legionnaires disease; bacterial vaginosis and sexually transmitted diseases, such as chlamydia and gonorrhoea; Helicobacter pylori infection; periodontitis; meningitis; otitis media; and post-surgical and nosocomial infections. Tobacco smoke compromises the anti-bacterial function of leukocytes, including neutrophils, monocytes, T cells and B cells, providing a mechanistic explanation for increased infection risk. Further epidemiological, clinical and mechanistic research into this important area is warranted.

  16. The Aging Kidney: Increased Susceptibility to Nephrotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhui Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Three decades have passed since a series of studies indicated that the aging kidney was characterized by increased susceptibility to nephrotoxic injury. Data from these experimental models is strengthened by clinical data demonstrating that the aging population has an increased incidence and severity of acute kidney injury (AKI. Since then a number of studies have focused on age-dependent alterations in pathways that predispose the kidney to acute insult. This review will focus on the mechanisms that are altered by aging in the kidney that may increase susceptibility to injury, including hemodynamics, oxidative stress, apoptosis, autophagy, inflammation and decreased repair.

  17. The world-wide increase in tuberculosis: how demographic changes, HIV infection and increasing numbers in poverty are increasing tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Peter D O

    2003-01-01

    After more than a century of decline, in the mid 1980s tuberculosis began to increase in some developed countries. Health care workers were then forced to look to the developing world, where they found tuberculosis to be out of control, in many countries. It is now appreciated that tuberculosis is not only increasing globally but is likely to do so beyond the next decade for three principal reasons. First, demographically as the expected population increase will be greatest in areas of the world where tuberculosis is most prevalent, particularly middle Africa and South Asia. Secondly, the increase of HIV, which renders the host uniquely susceptible to tuberculosis, is occurring in the same areas of the world and is already causing an increase in tuberculosis case rates of up to tenfold. Thirdly, as more and more people are forced to live in poverty, where poor nutrition and crowded conditions lead to the spread of tuberculosis, the disease risk will be compounded. Sound medical management, particularly the use of the five components of directly observed therapy, will relieve the situation. But until world conditions of poverty and HIV spread are addressed, it is unlikely that tuberculosis can be controlled.

  18. Increasing incidence of diabetes after gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauenborg, Jeannet; Hansen, Torben; Jensen, Dorte Møller

    2004-01-01

    To study the incidence of diabetes among women with previous diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the light of the general increasing incidence of overweight and diabetes and to identify risk factors for the development of diabetes....

  19. Increasing difficulties for scientific publication in Venezuela

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ryder, Elena

    2014-01-01

    A very important increase in the costs of the edition of scientific journals has taken place in Venezuela, due to difficulties in obtaining imported free acid paper and other materials used for handling documents...

  20. Ethanologenic bacteria with increased resistance to furfural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elliot Norman; Jarboe, Laura R.; Yomano, Lorraine P.; York, Sean W.; Shanmugam, Keelnatham; Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal

    2015-10-06

    The invention relates to bacterium that have increased resistance to furfural and methods of preparation. The invention also relates to methods of producing ethanol using the bacterium and corresponding kits.

  1. Online Mathematics Homework Increases Student Achievement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roschelle, Jeremy; Feng, Mingyu; Murphy, Robert F; Mason, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    .... Assigning homework is common yet sometimes controversial. Building on prior research on formative assessment and adaptive teaching, we predicted that combining an online homework tool with teacher training could increase learning...

  2. Writing autobiographical narratives increases political conservatism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, J.; Proulx, T.

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments show that writing chronological autobiographical narratives increases political conservatism, defined as an ideology of resistance to social change. When writing chronological autobiographical narratives, we hypothesized that people would re-experience the events of their life in a

  3. Autism overflows: increasing prevalence and proliferating theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterhouse, Lynn

    2008-12-01

    This selective review examines the lack of an explanation for the sharply increasing prevalence of autism, and the lack of any synthesis of the proliferating theories of autism. The most controversial and most widely disseminated notion for increasing prevalence is the measles-mumps-rubella/thimerosal vaccine theory. Less controversial causes that have been proposed include changes in autism diagnostic criteria, increasing services for autism, and growing awareness of the disorder. Regardless of its causes, the increasing prevalence of autism has put pressure on the field of autism research to generate productive and predictive theories of autism. However, the heterogeneity of brain deficits, impaired behaviors, and genetic variants in autism have challenged researchers and theorists, and despite 45 years of research, no standard causal synthesis has emerged. Research going forward should assume that autism is an aggregation of myriad independent disorders of impaired sociality, social cognition, communication, and motor and cognitive skills.

  4. Increased backcrossing has reduced the usefulness of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increased backcrossing has reduced the usefulness of morphological and allozyme data for identifying Oreochromis niloticus , O. mossambicus (Teleostei: Cichlidae) and their hybrids in the Pafuri reach of the Luvuvhu River in the Kruger National Park, South Africa.

  5. Big increase in Spanish reseach funding

    CERN Multimedia

    Bosch, X

    1998-01-01

    The Spanish government plans to increase spending on civilian science research and development by between 8 and 10 per cent. The exact figure is unclear since it has been included in the budget along with military research projects (1 page).

  6. Increased aldosterone: mechanism of hypertension in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Colleen

    2014-05-01

    The prevalence of both obesity and hypertension are increasing worldwide. Hypertension is a common consequence of obesity. Increased central adiposity is associated with increased aldosterone levels and blood pressure in human beings. A number of small studies have shown an association between obesity-mediated hypertension and mechanisms directly linked to increased levels of aldosterone. These studies have shown a trend toward relatively greater blood pressure reduction using aldosterone-receptor blockers compared with other classes of antihypertensive agents. Other than treatment for weight loss, treatment of hypertension with specific antihypertensive medications that block or reduce aldosterone action are appropriate in obese patients. Further research is needed to understand the exact role of the adipocyte in obesity-mediated hypertension. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. increases in cross-sectional samples

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-03-27

    Mar 27, 1971 ... P. J. SMIT, Department of Physical Education, University of Pretoria. SUMMARY. Total percenTage ..... Bantu males lag behind in maturity' is their slow rate of increase in .... from the rural areas. \\vhere poverty is common, the.

  8. Reduced Dietary Sodium Intake Increases Heart Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels A; Hubeck-Graudal, Thorbjørn; Jürgens, Gesche

    2016-01-01

    Reduced dietary sodium intake (sodium reduction) increases heart rate in some studies of animals and humans. As heart rate is independently associated with the development of heart failure and increased risk of premature death a potential increase in heart rate could be a harmful side......-effect of sodium reduction. The purpose of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of sodium reduction on heart rate. Relevant studies were retrieved from an updated pool of 176 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in the period 1973-2014. Sixty-three of the RCTs including 72 study...... populations reported data on heart rate. In a meta-analysis of these data sodium reduction increased heart rate with 1.65 beats per minute [95% CI: 1.19, 2.11], p heart rate. This effect was independent of baseline blood pressure. In conclusion sodium reduction...

  9. The ways of SOFC systems efficiency increasing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demin, A.K.; Timofeyeva, N.

    1996-04-01

    The efficiency of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) is described. This paper considers methods to lift the fuel utilization and/or the average cell voltage with the goal of increasing the cell efficiency by improved cell designs.

  10. Physical activity increases bone mass during growth

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Magnus K.; Nordvist, Anders; Karlsson, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    Background: The incidence of fragility fractures has increased during the last half of the 1900?s. One important determinant of fractures is the bone mineral content (BMC) or bone mineral density (BMD), the amount of mineralised bone. If we could increase peak bone mass (the highest value of BMC reached during life) and/or decrease the age-related bone loss, we could possibly improve the skeletal resistance to fracture. Objective: This review evaluates the importance of exercise as a strategy...

  11. Increasing incidence of diabetes after gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauenborg, Jeannet; Hansen, Torben; Jensen, Dorte Møller

    2004-01-01

    To study the incidence of diabetes among women with previous diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the light of the general increasing incidence of overweight and diabetes and to identify risk factors for the development of diabetes.......To study the incidence of diabetes among women with previous diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the light of the general increasing incidence of overweight and diabetes and to identify risk factors for the development of diabetes....

  12. Tourism: a Soft Touch for Increased Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, Frank

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the changes which are taking place internationally in the taxation of the tourism industry and the reasons why tourism is especially susceptible to increased taxation. It compares VAT rates in European countries and assesses the relationship between those rates and increases in international tourism receipts, concluding that there is not the direct, negative relationship which hotel associations frequently cited in their submissions to government. The canons of taxation, fi...

  13. Wind increases leaf water use efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schymanski, Stanislaus J; Or, Dani

    2016-07-01

    A widespread perception is that, with increasing wind speed, transpiration from plant leaves increases. However, evidence suggests that increasing wind speed enhances carbon dioxide (CO2 ) uptake while reducing transpiration because of more efficient convective cooling (under high solar radiation loads). We provide theoretical and experimental evidence that leaf water use efficiency (WUE, carbon uptake per water transpired) commonly increases with increasing wind speed, thus improving plants' ability to conserve water during photosynthesis. Our leaf-scale analysis suggests that the observed global decrease in near-surface wind speeds could have reduced WUE at a magnitude similar to the increase in WUE attributed to global rise in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, there is indication that the effect of long-term trends in wind speed on leaf gas exchange may be compensated for by the concurrent reduction in mean leaf sizes. These unintuitive feedbacks between wind, leaf size and water use efficiency call for re-evaluation of the role of wind in plant water relations and potential re-interpretation of temporal and geographic trends in leaf sizes. © 2015 The Authors. Plant, Cell & Environment published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Antioxidants can increase melanoma metastasis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gal, Kristell; Ibrahim, Mohamed X; Wiel, Clotilde; Sayin, Volkan I; Akula, Murali K; Karlsson, Christin; Dalin, Martin G; Akyürek, Levent M; Lindahl, Per; Nilsson, Jonas; Bergo, Martin O

    2015-10-07

    Antioxidants in the diet and supplements are widely used to protect against cancer, but clinical trials with antioxidants do not support this concept. Some trials show that antioxidants actually increase cancer risk and a study in mice showed that antioxidants accelerate the progression of primary lung tumors. However, little is known about the impact of antioxidant supplementation on the progression of other types of cancer, including malignant melanoma. We show that administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) increases lymph node metastases in an endogenous mouse model of malignant melanoma but has no impact on the number and size of primary tumors. Similarly, NAC and the soluble vitamin E analog Trolox markedly increased the migration and invasive properties of human malignant melanoma cells but did not affect their proliferation. Both antioxidants increased the ratio between reduced and oxidized glutathione in melanoma cells and in lymph node metastases, and the increased migration depended on new glutathione synthesis. Furthermore, both NAC and Trolox increased the activation of the small guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) RHOA, and blocking downstream RHOA signaling abolished antioxidant-induced migration. These results demonstrate that antioxidants and the glutathione system play a previously unappreciated role in malignant melanoma progression. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Taurine increases hippocampal neurogenesis in aging mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebara, Elias; Udry, Florian; Sultan, Sébastien; Toni, Nicolas

    2015-05-01

    Aging is associated with increased inflammation and reduced hippocampal neurogenesis, which may in turn contribute to cognitive impairment. Taurine is a free amino acid found in numerous diets, with anti-inflammatory properties. Although abundant in the young brain, the decrease in taurine concentration with age may underlie reduced neurogenesis. Here, we assessed the effect of taurine on hippocampal neurogenesis in middle-aged mice. We found that taurine increased cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus through the activation of quiescent stem cells, resulting in increased number of stem cells and intermediate neural progenitors. Taurine had a direct effect on stem/progenitor cells proliferation, as observed in vitro, and also reduced activated microglia. Furthermore, taurine increased the survival of newborn neurons, resulting in a net increase in adult neurogenesis. Together, these results show that taurine increases several steps of adult neurogenesis and support a beneficial role of taurine on hippocampal neurogenesis in the context of brain aging. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Taxocenose de serpentes no Planalto Médio do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Taxocenosis of snakes in the middle plateau region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noeli Zanella

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido na Fazenda da Brigada (28º14'39"S, 52º14'42"W, Passo Fundo, Planalto Médio do Rio Grande do Sul, e teve como objetivo contribuir com informações sobre riqueza, abundância de serpentes e comparação entre os métodos de amostragem. O estudo foi desenvolvido em duas áreas, floresta e campo, no período de janeiro de 2001 a março de 2003. Para a coleta de dados foram utilizados os seguintes métodos: procura limitada por tempo (PLT, encontros ocasionais por terceiros (EOT, encontros ocasionais pela equipe (EOE e armadilhas de interceptação e queda (AQ. Com a utilização dos quatro métodos foi possível registrar 19 espécies de serpentes, distribuídas em três famílias (Colubridae, Elapidae e Viperidae e coletar 284 indivíduos, sendo 128 por EOT, 36 por PLT, 112 por AQ e 8 por EOE. Utilizando todos os métodos, as três espécies mais abundantes foram: Thamnodynastes strigatus (Günther, 1858 (16,9%, Echinanthera cyanopleura (Cope, 1885 (15,2% e Bothrops alternatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854 (13,4%. O estudo dessa taxocenose revela importantes características da ecologia de serpentes e poderá subsidiar futuros estudos de conservação para a área.The present study was conducted on the Brigada Farm (28º14'39"S, 52º14'42"W, Passo Fundo, middle plateau region of Rio Grande do Sul. The objective of the study was to provide data regarding the richness and abundance of snakes and to compare sampling methods. The study was carried out in two areas, i.e., forest and field, between January 2001 and March 2003. Data were collected using the following methods: time-constrained search (TCS, occasional encounters by local collectors (OEC, occasional encounters by the team (OET, and by pitfall traps (PT. Using the four methods, 19 snake species belonging to three families (Colubridae, Elapidae and Viperidae were recorded, and 284 individuals were collected, including 128 by OEC, 36 by TCS, 112 by PT, and

  17. Exploring Increased Productivity Through Employee Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Wayne K., Jr.

    Disengaged employees cost U.S. companies billions of dollars annually in lowered productivity, a cost which has been compounded by the difficult economic situations in the country. The potential for increasing productivity through increased employee engagement was examined in this study. Using personal engagement theory and the theory of planned behavior, the purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore how the experiences of salaried aerospace employees affected productivity and the financial performance of an organization. Interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 20 aerospace employees whose responses were codified and analyzed to identify themes. The analysis indicated that (a) the lived experiences of employees influenced employee engagement, (b) employee engagement affects organizational commitment and performance, and (c) trust and respect and leadership are essential components to keep employees engaged. Eighty percent of the participants indicated that as employee engagement increases so too does organizational performance. The implications for positive social change include new insights for leaders seeking to increase productivity and financial performance, and to support employee engagement for maintaining sustainability, retaining talent, increasing profits, and improving the economy.

  18. Ghrelin Increases Lymphocytes in Chronic Normobaric Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Mirzaie Bavil

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Hypoxia is a condition of decreased availability of oxygen. To adapt hypoxia, some changes in blood cells occur in the body. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ghrelin on different types of blood cell in normobaric hypoxia situation. Methods: Thirty-two animals were divided in 4 groups (n=8: control (C, ghrelin (G, hypoxia (H, and hypoxic animals that received ghrelin (H+G. Hypoxia (11% was induced by an Environmental Chamber System GO2 Altitude. Animals in ghrelin groups received a subcutaneous injection of ghrelin (150 μg/kg/day for 14 days. Results: Our results show that ghrelin significantly (p<0.05 increased RBC and Hct levels, whereas it significantly (p<0.05 decreased lymphocytes in the blood. RBC, Hct, Hb concentration, platelet and MCV increased significantly (p<0.05 in hypoxic conditions but lymphocytes, monocytes and Polymorphonuclears did not show any significant changes. Platelets had a significant (p<0.05 decrease in hypoxic conditions and ghrelin administration in hypoxic conditions could increase lymphocyte levels significantly (p<0.05. Conclusion: Effect of ghrelin on blood cells could be related to blood oxygen level. Ghrelin in normal oxygen conditions increases RBC and Hct levels but decreases lymphocytes, whereas in hypoxic conditions, ghrelin increases blood lymphocytes.

  19. Birch Stands Growth Increase in Western Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Kuzmichev, Valeriy V.; Im, Sergey T.; Ranson, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Birch (Betula pendula Roth) growth within the Western Siberia forest-steppe was analyzed based on long-term (1897-2006) inventory data (height, diameter at breast height [dbh], and stand volume). Analysis of biometry parameters showed increased growth at the beginning of twenty-first century compared to similar stands (stands age = 40-60 years) at the end of nineteenth century. Mean height, dbh, and stem volume increased from 14 to 20 m, from 16 to 22 cm, and from approx. 63 to approx. 220 cu m/ha, respectively. Significant correlations were found between the stands mean height, dbh, and volume on the one hand, and vegetation period length (r(sub s) = 0.71 to 0.74), atmospheric CO2 concentration (r(sub s) = 0.71 to 0.76), and drought index (Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index, r(sub s) = -0.33 to -0.51) on the other hand. The results obtained have revealed apparent climate-induced impacts (e.g. increase of vegetation period length and birch habitat drying due to drought increase) on the stands growth. Along with this, a high correlation of birch biometric parameters and [CO2] in ambient air indicated an effect of CO2 fertilization. Meanwhile, further drought increase may switch birch stand growth into decline and greater mortality as has already been observed within the Trans-Baikal forest-steppe ecotone.

  20. Increasing vaccine production using pulsed ultrasound waves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jida Xing

    Full Text Available Vaccination is a safe and effective approach to prevent deadly diseases. To increase vaccine production, we propose that a mechanical stimulation can enhance protein production. In order to prove this hypothesis, Sf9 insect cells were used to evaluate the increase in the expression of a fusion protein from hepatitis B virus (HBV S1/S2. We discovered that the ultrasound stimulation at a frequency of 1.5 MHz, intensity of 60 mW/cm2, for a duration of 10 minutes per day increased HBV S1/S2 by 27%. We further derived a model for transport through a cell membrane under the effect of ultrasound waves, tested the key assumptions of the model through a molecular dynamics simulation package, NAMD (Nanoscale Molecular Dynamics program and utilized CHARMM force field in a steered molecular dynamics environment. The results show that ultrasound waves can increase cell permeability, which, in turn, can enhance nutrient / waste exchange thus leading to enhanced vaccine production. This finding is very meaningful in either shortening vaccine production time, or increasing the yield of proteins for use as vaccines.

  1. Smoking prevalence increases following Canterbury earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erskine, Nick; Daley, Vivien; Stevenson, Sue; Rhodes, Bronwen; Beckert, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    A magnitude 7.1 earthquake hit Canterbury in September 2010. This earthquake and associated aftershocks took the lives of 185 people and drastically changed residents' living, working, and social conditions. To explore the impact of the earthquakes on smoking status and levels of tobacco consumption in the residents of Christchurch. Semistructured interviews were carried out in two city malls and the central bus exchange 15 months after the first earthquake. A total of 1001 people were interviewed. In August 2010, prior to any earthquake, 409 (41%) participants had never smoked, 273 (27%) were currently smoking, and 316 (32%) were ex-smokers. Since the September 2010 earthquake, 76 (24%) of the 316 ex-smokers had smoked at least one cigarette and 29 (38.2%) had smoked more than 100 cigarettes. Of the 273 participants who were current smokers in August 2010, 93 (34.1%) had increased consumption following the earthquake, 94 (34.4%) had not changed, and 86 (31.5%) had decreased their consumption. 53 (57%) of the 93 people whose consumption increased reported that the earthquake and subsequent lifestyle changes as a reason to increase smoking. 24% of ex-smokers resumed smoking following the earthquake, resulting in increased smoking prevalence. Tobacco consumption levels increased in around one-third of current smokers.

  2. Increased transvascular lipoprotein transport in diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jan Skov; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2005-01-01

    CONTEXT: Diabetes is associated with a highly increased risk of atherosclerosis, especially if hypertension or albuminuria is present. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that the increased transvascular lipoprotein transport in diabetes may be further accelerated if hypertension or albuminuria is present...... of transvascular transport. RESULTS: Transvascular LDL transport was 1.8 (1.6-2.0), 2.3 (2.0-2.6), and 2.6 (1.3-4.0)%/[h x (liter/m2)] in healthy controls, diabetic controls, and diabetes patients with systolic hypertension or albuminuria, respectively (P = 0.013; F = 4.5; df =2; ANOVA). These differences most...... likely were not caused by altered hepatic LDL receptor expression, glycosylation of LDL, small LDL size, or medicine use. CONCLUSIONS: Transvascular LDL transport is increased in patients with diabetes mellitus, especially if systolic hypertension or albuminuria is present. Accordingly, lipoprotein flux...

  3. Are rates of pediatric bipolar disorder increasing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2014-01-01

    for pediatric mania/bipolar disorder changed during the calendar period (1995 to 2003 versus 2004 to 2012), and (3) whether the diagnosis is more often made at first psychiatric contact in recent time compared to earlier according to gender. Totally, 346 patients got a main diagnosis of a manic episode (F30......Studies from the USA suggest that rates of pediatric bipolar disorder have increased since the mid-90s, but no study outside the USA has been published on the rates of pediatric bipolar disorder. Further, it is unclear whether an increase in rates reflects a true increase in the illness or more...... diagnostic attention. Using nationwide registers of all inpatients and outpatients contacts to all psychiatric hospitals in Denmark, we investigated (1) gender-specific rates of incident pediatric mania/bipolar disorder during a period from 1995 to 2012, (2) whether age and other characteristics...

  4. Nutrient enrichment increases mortality of mangroves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E Lovelock

    Full Text Available Nutrient enrichment of the coastal zone places intense pressure on marine communities. Previous studies have shown that growth of intertidal mangrove forests is accelerated with enhanced nutrient availability. However, nutrient enrichment favours growth of shoots relative to roots, thus enhancing growth rates but increasing vulnerability to environmental stresses that adversely affect plant water relations. Two such stresses are high salinity and low humidity, both of which require greater investment in roots to meet the demands for water by the shoots. Here we present data from a global network of sites that documents enhanced mortality of mangroves with experimental nutrient enrichment at sites where high sediment salinity was coincident with low rainfall and low humidity. Thus the benefits of increased mangrove growth in response to coastal eutrophication is offset by the costs of decreased resilience due to mortality during drought, with mortality increasing with soil water salinity along climatic gradients.

  5. Barriers to increasing market-oriented activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisp, Søren

    product development. Despite the increasing evidence of a positive relationship between above average business performance and a high level of market-oriented activity, normative recommendations on how to increase the level of market-oriented activity is sparse. The scientific contribution of the present......Introduction: The Danish food processing industry faces a situation in which intensified competition in its primary markets and product categories forces several companies to rethink their relative focus in terms of marketing rather than production, or, in other words, in terms of value adding...... innovation rather than supplying large volumes of consistent quality products. One recommendation from policy-makers and academia to industry is to increase its market-oriented activity. A major reason for the recommendation is that market-oriented activity is considered a major contributor to successful...

  6. Increased health care utilisation in international adoptees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, Heidi Jeannet; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Kragstrup, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    after adoption. Our study aimed to theassess health-care utilisation of international adoptees inprimary and secondary care for somatic and psychiatricdiagnoses in a late post-adoption period. Is there an increaseduse of the health-care system in this period, evenwhen increased morbidity in the group...... comprised internationallyadopted children (n = 6,820), adopted between 1994 and2005, and all non-adopted children (n = 492,374) who couldbe matched with the adopted children on sex, age, municipalityand family constellation at the time of adoption. Results: International adoption increased the use...... of allservices in primary care, while in secondary care only fewareas showed an increased long-term morbidity. Conclusion: International adoptees use medical servicesin primary care at a higher rate than non-adoptees someyears after adoption. Excess use of services in secondarycare is also present, but only...

  7. Poor Semen Quality Predicts Increased Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Bostofte, Erik; Jacobsen, Rune

    Objective: Over recent decades a possible decrease in semen quality and an increase in the incidence of testicular cancer have been reported. In addition, men with poor semen quality have been reported to be at increased risk of developing testicular cancer whereas the risk of other cancers...... is not increased. The long-term survival of men with poor semen quality is, however, unknown. We therefore studied the associations between semen characteristics and subsequent mortality. Back to Top Material and Methods: The Copenhagen Sperm Analysis Laboratory is one of several public semen analysis laboratories...... in Denmark and examines semen samples mostly from men in the area of Copenhagen. Men are referred to the clinic by general practitioners and urologists, and the investigations are paid for through the public health system. A total of 34.442 men had a semen analysis done at the laboratory during 1963 to 1995...

  8. Arterial pressure suffices to increase liver stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piecha, Felix; Peccerella, Teresa; Bruckner, Tom; Seitz, Helmut-Karl; Rausch, Vanessa; Mueller, Sebastian

    2016-11-01

    Noninvasive measurement of liver stiffness (LS) has been established to screen for liver fibrosis. Since LS is also elevated in response to pressure-related conditions such as liver congestion, this study was undertaken to learn more about the role of arterial pressure on LS. LS was measured by transient elastography (μFibroscan platform, Echosens, Paris, France) during single intravenous injections of catecholamines in anesthetized rats with and without thioacetamide (TAA)-induced fibrosis. The effect of vasodilating glycerol trinitrate (GTN) on LS was also studied. Pressures in the abdominal aorta and caval and portal veins were measured in real time with the PowerLab device (AD Instruments, Dunedin, New Zealand). Baseline LS values in all rats (3.8 ± 0.5 kPa, n = 25) did not significantly differ from those in humans. Epinephrine and norepinephrine drastically increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) from 82 to 173 and 156 mmHg. Concomitantly, LS almost doubled from 4 to 8 kPa, while central venous pressure remained unchanged. Likewise, portal pressure only showed a slight and delayed increase. In the TAA-induced fibrosis model, LS increased from 9.5 ± 1.0 to 25.6 ± 14.7 kPa upon epinephrine injection and could efficiently be decreased by GTN. We finally show a direct association in humans in a physiological setting of elevated cardiac output and MAP. During continuous spinning at 200 W, MAP increased from 84 ± 8 to 99 ± 11 mmHg while LS significantly increased from 4.4 ± 1.8 to 6.7 ± 2.1 kPa. In conclusion, our data show that arterial pressure suffices to increase LS. Moreover, lowering MAP efficiently decreases LS in fibrotic livers that are predominantly supplied by arterial blood. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Increasing dominance of IT in ICT convergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Tadayoni, Reza

    The aim of the paper is to examine the increasing dominance of IT companies in the converging ICT industry and, on the basis of this development, to contribute to extending the theoretical understanding of market and industry convergence in the ICT area.......The aim of the paper is to examine the increasing dominance of IT companies in the converging ICT industry and, on the basis of this development, to contribute to extending the theoretical understanding of market and industry convergence in the ICT area....

  10. Skill asymmetries, increasing wage inequality and unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Skott, Peter; Auerbach, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Using a simple model with two levels of skill, we assume that high-skill workers who fail to get high-skill jobs may accept low-skill positions; low-skill workers do not have the analogous option of filling high-skill positions. This asymmetry implies that a slowdown in Hicks-neutral technical change (or other adverse, skill-neutral shocks) may cause an increase in wage inequality, both between and within skill categories, as well as an increase in unemployment, especially among low-skill wor...

  11. Codon optimizing for increased membrane protein production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzadeh, K.; Toddo, S.; Nørholm, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Reengineering a gene with synonymous codons is a popular approach for increasing production levels of recombinant proteins. Here we present a minimalist alternative to this method, which samples synonymous codons only at the second and third positions rather than the entire coding sequence...

  12. Increasing operating room efficiency through parallel processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, David M; Sokal, Suzanne M; Chang, Yuchiao; Berger, David L

    2006-01-01

    Because of rising costs and shrinking reimbursements, hospitals must continually find ways to improve efficiency and productivity. This study attempts to increase caseloads in ambulatory surgery operating rooms while maintaining patient satisfaction and safety. In most hospitals, patients move through their operative day in a linear fashion, starting at registration and finishing in the recovery room. Given this pattern, only 1 patient may occupy the efforts of the operating room team at a time. By processing patients in a parallel fashion, operating room efficiency and patient throughput are increased while costs remain stable. Patients undergoing hernia repairs under local anesthesia with intravenous sedation were divided into a control group and an experimental group. Patients in the control group received their local anesthesia in the operating room at the start of the surgery. The experimental group patients received their local anesthesia in the induction room by the surgeon while the operating room was being cleaned and set up. While operative time for the control group and the experimental group were nearly identical, the turnover time and the induction time were significantly shorter for the experimental group. The cumulative reduction in time during the operative day was sufficient to allow the addition of new operative cases. This study demonstrates a system of increasing operating room efficiency by changing patient flow rather than simply working to streamline existing steps. This increase in efficiency is not associated with the expansion of hospital budgets or a decrease in patient safety or satisfaction.

  13. Increased Bone Marrow Fat in Anorexia Nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Bredella, Miriam A.; Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Miller, Karen K.; Misra, Madhusmita; Torriani, Martin; Thomas, Bijoy J.; Ghomi, Reza Hosseini; Rosen, Clifford J.; Klibanski, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Context: Although women with anorexia nervosa (AN) have severe depletion of body fat, a paradoxical increase in bone marrow fat has been described. Recent data suggest that marrow fat measured by 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in combination with bone mineral density (BMD) may be more valuable than either parameter alone in detecting bone weakness.

  14. Increase Student Motivation with More Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Sophie Lampard

    2017-01-01

    When students are offered choices within assignments it increases buy-in and, therefore, motivation toward the task--and ultimately for the class itself. As a professor in an academic setting in which many millennials seem to be suffering from a persistent lack of motivation, it was a no-brainer for the author to consider creating a way to offer…

  15. Island Species Richness Increases with Habitat Diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortal, J.; Triantis, K.A.; Meiri, S.; Thebault, E.M.C.; Sfenthourakis, S.

    2009-01-01

    Species richness is commonly thought to increase with habitat diversity. However, a recent theoretical model aiming to unify niche and island biogeography theories predicted a hump-shaped relationship between richness and habitat diversity. Given the contradiction between model results and previous

  16. GERD: Can Certain Medications Increase Severity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... increase severity? I've heard that some medications can aggravate the symptoms of GERD. Can you tell me more? Answers from Michael F. Picco, M.D. Certain medications and dietary supplements can irritate the lining of your esophagus, causing heartburn ...

  17. Substantial increase in listeriosis, Denmark 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne Kvistholm; Ethelberg, S; Smith, B

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, 97 cases of listeriosis were reported in Denmark (1.8 per 100,000), a significant rise over the previous year. The increase was seen both in cases of bacteraemia and meningitis and affected mainly people aged 70 years and older. A foodborne outbreak of eight cases was identified by pulsed...

  18. ICT in higher education: increased student engagement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zweekhorst, M.B.M.; Maas, J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – In general, active participation increases learning outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to explore how: information and communication technologies (ICT) can be used to improve the participation of students during lectures and the effect of ICT on the learning outcomes of students.

  19. Pathophysiology of Increased Fetal Nuchal Translucency Thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Increased fetal nuchal translucency thickness is associated with trisomy 13, trisomy 18, trisomy 21, Turner syndrome, other sex chromosome abnormalities, as well as many fetal anomalies and genetic syndromes. This article provides a comprehensive review of the cardinal proposed pathophysiology including altered composition of the extracellular matrix, abnormalities of the heart and great arteries, and disturbed or delayed lymphatic development.

  20. Robotic Bipedal Running : Increasing disturbance rejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karssen, J.G.D.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the research presented in this thesis is to increase the understanding of the human running gait. The understanding of the human running gait is essential for the development of devices, such as prostheses and orthoses, that enable disabled people to run or that enable able people to

  1. (SRI) to Increase Rice Water Productivity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , and 40x40 for T5 were ... cultivation by changing the management of plants, ..... Sustainability of. System of Rice Intensification: Benefits of SRI focusing on effects of intermittent irrigation on yield increase and water savings. In: Proceeding of ...

  2. Increasing Homework Completion through Positive Reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzelt, Karen E.

    A behavior modification program designed to increase the rate of mathematics homework completion by a learning-disabled student is reported. The 9-year-old subject habitually failed to complete daily math homework assignments and had not responded to a classroom behavior modification program. The subject and teacher created a 3-week contract and…

  3. Employees, sustainability and motivation: Increasing employee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    organisations are the main cause for environmental problems. (Renwick, Redman & Maguire, 2012, p. 8) and these in turn are very often the cause of social problems (World Wildlife. Fund, 2012). Besides all this, the world of employment is facing a radical change. Employees are increasingly questioning the meaning of ...

  4. Fullerene derivatives with increased dielectric constants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahani, Fatemeh; Torabi, Solmaz; Chiechi, Ryan C; Koster, L Jan Anton; Hummelen, Jan C

    2014-01-01

    The invention of new organic materials with high dielectric constants is of extreme importance for the development of organic-based devices such as organic solar cells. We report on a synthetic way to increase the dielectric constant of fullerene derivatives. It is demonstrated that introducing

  5. Pharmacovigilance: Tiens Slimming Tea Causes Increased Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Pharmacovigilance: Tiens Slimming Tea Causes Increased Blood Pressure. SEO Oriaifo, AA Omokhafe, JO Ohaju-Obodo, RI Okoli. Abstract. Imported herbal products that did not go through the official channel of laboratory testing ...

  6. Using information communication technologies to increase the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using information communication technologies to increase the institutional capacity of local health organisations in Africa: a case study of the Kenya Civil Society Portal for ... Results: satisfaction with the portal was consistently high, with 99% finding the quality and relevance of the content very good or good for institutional ...

  7. Increased Participation and Conversation Using Networked Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Christopher; Meyer, Dan

    2016-01-01

    For many the phrase "teaching math online" evokes a vision of teaching and learning that is not based in physical classrooms. Perhaps teachers and students are even interacting asynchronously. In math classrooms in the United States, the increasing availability of devices (e.g. laptops, Chromebooks™, smartphones, and tablets) and…

  8. Emphasizing Business Analysis to Increase IS Enrollments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizior, Ronald J.; Hidding, Gezinus J.

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes a proposal to increase enrollments in undergraduate Information Systems programs in Business Schools. In the face of Y2K overhang, the dot com bubble, and the popular press describing the off-shoring of Information Technology, this paper describes a proposal to stimulate interest in Information Systems as an undergraduate field…

  9. Is increased blinking a form of blepharospasm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Antonella; Defazio, Giovanni; Ferrazzano, Gina; Hallett, Mark; Macerollo, Antonella; Fabbrini, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether increased blink rate (BR) is part of the clinical spectrum of primary blepharospasm (BSP). Methods: We enrolled 40 patients (16 patients with an increased BR but without typical orbicularis oculi [OO] spasms, and 24 patients with typical involuntary OO spasms) and 18 healthy subjects. The BR, blink reflex recovery cycle, and somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold (STDT) were tested in patients and controls. Results: Patients who had typical OO spasms had an altered R2 recovery cycle whereas those who had an increased BR alone had a normal blink reflex recovery cycle. STDT values were higher in patients than in healthy subjects and no difference was found in the STDT abnormalities in the 2 groups of patients. Conclusions: Our study shows that, despite the similar STDT abnormalities, the different changes in the R2 recovery cycle in patients with BSP and those with increased BR alone suggest that these disorders arise from different pathologic mechanisms. PMID:23751916

  10. Pharmacovigilance: Tiens Slimming Tea Causes Increased Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... possible link between the constituents of the slimming tea and increased blood pressure and also provide evidence of other possible harmful effects that may occur with the use of the slimming tea. Keywords: Pharmacovigilance, hypertension, slimming tea. West African Journal of Pharmacology and Drug Research Vol.

  11. Determination of hormonal combination for increased multiplication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    In Uganda, the use of tissue culture is a new technique in seed potato production, therefore, appropriate media composition for rapid multiplication of potato tissue culture plantlets has not been optimised. Thus, the objective of this study was to optimize hormonal combinations for increased multiplication of tissue culture.

  12. Oral alprazolam acutely increases nucleus accumbens perfusion

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Daniel H.; Pinkham, Amy E.; Satterthwaite, Theodore D.; Ruparel, Kosha; Elliott, Mark A.; Valdez, Jeffrey; Smith, Mark A.; Detre, John A.; Gur, Ruben C.; Gur, Raquel E.

    2012-01-01

    Benzodiazepines treat anxiety, but can also produce euphoric effects, contributing to abuse. Using perfusion magnetic resonance imaging, we provide the first direct evidence in humans that alprazolam (Xanax) acutely increases perfusion in the nucleus accumbens, a key reward-processing region linked to addiction.

  13. Increasing the lifetime of fuel cell catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latsuzbaia, R.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, I discuss a novel idea of fuel cell catalyst regeneration to increase lifetime of the PEM fuel cell electrode/catalyst operation and, therefore, reduce the catalyst costs. As many of the catalyst degradation mechanisms are difficult to avoid, the regeneration is alternative option to

  14. The Increase in Death and Disease under

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellman, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    The crude death rate rose from 10.5 in 1987 to 14.6 in 1993. As a result, male life expectancy dropped by seven years. Morbidity has also increased significantly, e.g., for diphtheria, syphilis, and tuberculosis. The health of pregnant women and the newly born has continued to deteriorate. This

  15. Aged mice have increased inflammatory monocyte concentration ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [Strohacker K, Breslin WL, Carpenter KC and McFarlin BK 2012 Aged mice have increased inflammatory monocyte concentration and altered expression of ... 2007). Conversely, when little to no inflammation is present, classic monocytes ..... Strohacker) received from the Texas Obesity Research Center. (Houston, Texas).

  16. Age Increases Monocyte Adhesion on Collagen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaji, Samira; Zondler, Lisa; Kleinjan, Fenneke; Nolte, Ulla; Mulaw, Medhanie A.; Danzer, Karin M.; Weishaupt, Jochen H.; Gottschalk, Kay-E.

    2017-05-01

    Adhesion of monocytes to micro-injuries on arterial walls is an important early step in the occurrence and development of degenerative atherosclerotic lesions. At these injuries, collagen is exposed to the blood stream. We are interested whether age influences monocyte adhesion to collagen under flow, and hence influences the susceptibility to arteriosclerotic lesions. Therefore, we studied adhesion and rolling of human peripheral blood monocytes from old and young individuals on collagen type I coated surface under shear flow. We find that firm adhesion of monocytes to collagen type I is elevated in old individuals. Pre-stimulation by lipopolysaccharide increases the firm adhesion of monocytes homogeneously in older individuals, but heterogeneously in young individuals. Blocking integrin αx showed that adhesion of monocytes to collagen type I is specific to the main collagen binding integrin αxβ2. Surprisingly, we find no significant age-dependent difference in gene expression of integrin αx or integrin β2. However, if all integrins are activated from the outside, no differences exist between the age groups. Altered integrin activation therefore causes the increased adhesion. Our results show that the basal increase in integrin activation in monocytes from old individuals increases monocyte adhesion to collagen and therefore the risk for arteriosclerotic plaques.

  17. Increased health care use in cancer survivors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heins, M.J.; Rijken, P.M.; Schellevis, F.G.; Hoek, L. van der; Korevaar, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: As the number of cancer survivors increases and these patients often experience long-lasting consequences of cancer and its treatment, more insight into primary health care use of cancer survivors is needed. We aimed to determine how often and for which reasons do adult cancer patients

  18. Increases health care use in cancer survivors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heins, M.J.; Rijken, P.M.; Schellevis, F.G.; Hoek, L. van der; Korevaar, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: As the number of cancer survivors increases and these patients often experience longlasting consequences of cancer and its treatment, more insight into primary health care use of cancer survivors is needed. Research question: How often and for which reasons do adult cancer patients

  19. Increasing millet production in South Asia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF), aims to increase production and consumption of minor millets, pulses, and oil seeds in eight regions in India, ... Conservation of threatened millet varieties and development of a breeding program. • Development of tool kits on sustainable agricultural practices.

  20. Increasing security in inter-chip communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Nathan J.; Hamlet, Jason; Bauer, Todd; Helinski, Ryan

    2017-08-01

    An apparatus for increasing security in inter-chip communication includes a sending control module, a communication bus, and a receiving control module. The communication bus is coupled between the sending control module and the receiving control module. The sending control module operates to send data on the communication bus, disable the communication bus when threats are detected, or both.

  1. Online Mathematics Homework Increases Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roschelle, Jeremy; Feng, Mingyu; Murphy, Robert F.; Mason, Craig A.

    2016-01-01

    In a randomized field trial with 2,850 seventh-grade mathematics students, we evaluated whether an educational technology intervention increased mathematics learning. Assigning homework is common yet sometimes controversial. Building on prior research on formative assessment and adaptive teaching, we predicted that combining an online homework…

  2. Increased incidence of cancer in chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, G; Gaia, E; Iuliano, R; Caselle, M T; Rocca, N; Calcamuggi, G; Emanuelli, G

    1987-04-01

    Patients affected by chronic pancreatitis were followed between 1970 and 1984 in a study set up to evaluate the natural history of the disease. The study population included 172 consecutive patients diagnosed as having chronic pancreatitis in the Gastroenterology Unit of the S. Giovanni Battista Hospital in Torino, Italy. Of them, 23 were found to be affected by cancer during the 14-year follow-up period. The incidence calculated using the person-year method was compared with data from the General Population Cancer Registry of Piemonte Region. The age-specific relative risks of cancer were increased manifold. Sex- and age-specific relative risks were markedly increased for liver, tongue, lip, and rectum tumors in males, and for liver, bone, and breast tumors in females. Selection bias did not seem to be an adequate explanation of this association. Survival curves were plotted by the estimation methods of Cutler-Ederer with year intervals for the complete study population and for the different type of cancer. Known risk factors and indicators for the expected tumors were evaluated by the Cox Proportional Hazard Regression Model. The incidence of cancer increases significantly with age but not with smoking, alcohol use, and diabetes. Our epidemiological study suggests an increased risk of pancreatic as well as extrapancreatic cancer in patients with chronic pancreatitis compared with the general population. Cancer seems to be a main determinant in the natural history of the disease.

  3. management of natural resources – increasing social

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... has contributed to increasing social and ecological resilience in Sainte Luce and ... Development Index (UNDP 2013). Access to trade and .... (Plummer and Armitage 2007: 3). ACM shares much conceptual common ground with theories of resilience and its antonym, vulnerability. Resilience describes the ...

  4. Sex Equity: Increasing Girls' Use of Computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockheed, Marlaine E.; Frakt, Steven B.

    1984-01-01

    Indicates that although computer science has been free of male domination, the stereotype of computers as male machines is emerging with increasing growth in microcomputer use by children. Factors that account for this development and some strategies teachers can adopt to equalize computer use by boys and girls are presented. (MBR)

  5. Potential transgenic routes to increase tree biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubouzet, Joseph G; Strabala, Timothy J; Wagner, Armin

    2013-11-01

    Biomass is a prime target for genetic engineering in forestry because increased biomass yield will benefit most downstream applications such as timber, fiber, pulp, paper, and bioenergy production. Transgenesis can increase biomass by improving resource acquisition and product utilization and by enhancing competitive ability for solar energy, water, and mineral nutrients. Transgenes that affect juvenility, winter dormancy, and flowering have been shown to influence biomass as well. Transgenic approaches have increased yield potential by mitigating the adverse effects of prevailing stress factors in the environment. Simultaneous introduction of multiple genes for resistance to various stress factors into trees may help forest trees cope with multiple or changing environments. We propose multi-trait engineering for tree crops, simultaneously deploying multiple independent genes to address a set of genetically uncorrelated traits that are important for crop improvement. This strategy increases the probability of unpredictable (synergistic or detrimental) interactions that may substantially affect the overall phenotype and its long-term performance. The very limited ability to predict the physiological processes that may be impacted by such a strategy requires vigilance and care during implementation. Hence, we recommend close monitoring of the resultant transgenic genotypes in multi-year, multi-location field trials. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Marketers weigh increased product storage proposals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-12-01

    A special study asked the monthly reporting panel to think about ways of increasing heating oil storage - both at the refiner and retail level. Concern is expressed that with refiner stocks below what they were a year ago, the same escalation in price that hurt the industry last January could occur again.

  7. Increasing silicon concentrations in Bohemian Forest lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Veselý

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term trends of dissolved silicon (Si concentrations in five glacial lakes in the Bohemian Forest, Czech Republic, recovering from acidification show higher mobility of Si from the soil to surface waters despite lower atmospheric deposition of acids. Si increased by 0.95 to 1.95 µmol yr-1 (36 to 51% from 1986-2004 and with increasing pH. A change in soil solution conditions because of a sharp decrease in acidic deposition has led to marked decline in Al mobility and to considerable decreases in dissolved Al, especially Al3+. The increase in Si may be related to: (1 unblocking of the inhibitory effect of dissolved Al on weathering of aluminosilicates, (2 biogenic opal (phytoliths dissolving faster, and/or (3 lower Si precipitation as secondary aluminosilicates in soil. The change in Al speciation on the dissolution rate of biogenic silica is critical. A lack of change in Si at sites outside central Europe may be explained by small or no decline in mobility of dissolved Al. The effect of a long-term increase in temperature was probably minor.

  8. Increasing security in inter-chip communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Nathan J; Hamlet, Jason; Bauer, Todd; Helinski, Ryan

    2014-10-28

    An apparatus for increasing security in inter-chip communication includes a sending control module, a communication bus, and a receiving control module. The communication bus is coupled between the sending control module and the receiving control module. The sending control module operates to send data on the communication bus, disable the communication bus when threats are detected, or both.

  9. Personality scale validities increase throughout medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievens, Filip; Ones, Deniz S; Dilchert, Stephan

    2009-11-01

    Admissions and personnel decisions rely on stable predictor-criterion relationships. The authors studied the validity of Big Five personality factors and their facets for predicting academic performance in medical school across multiple years, investigating whether criterion-related validities change over time. In this longitudinal investigation, an entire European country's 1997 cohort of medical students was studied throughout their medical school career (Year 1, N = 627; Year 7, N = 306). Over time, extraversion, openness, and conscientiousness factor and facet scale scores showed increases in operational validity for predicting grade point averages. Although there may not be any advantages to being open and extraverted for early academic performance, these traits gain importance for later academic performance when applied practice increasingly plays a part in the curriculum. Conscientiousness, perhaps more than any other personality trait, appears to be an increasing asset for medical students: Operational validities of conscientiousness increased from .18 to .45. In assessing the utility of personality measures, relying on early criteria might underestimate the predictive value of personality variables. Implications for personality measures to predict work performance are discussed.

  10. Depression prevalence: is it really increasing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, Graeme; Goldney, Robert; Taylor, Anne W

    2008-07-01

    There is conflicting evidence as to whether depression prevalence is increasing or is stable. Although birth cohort analysis studies show increasing prevalence, longitudinal studies do not. To date there are no published Australian studies providing long-term estimates of depression prevalence. The aim of the present study was to examine the increasing depression prevalence hypothesis in an Australian context. Data from the 1998 and 2004 South Australian Health Omnibus Surveys were re-analysed. In each survey there were >3000 participants who were interviewed. The data were weighted to achieve representativeness prior to analysis. Depression status was classified by the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders scale (the PRIME-MD) into major, other and no depressions. Both univariate and multivariable analyses were used to examine depression trends over time and to adjust the data for significant background variables. There was no significant increase in the cases of patients classified with major depression between 1998 and 2004; there was, however, a significant decrease in other depression. The overall unadjusted prevalence of major depression was 7.4% (6.8% in 1998 and 8.0% in 2004) and for other depression it was 9.5% (10.6% in 1998 and 8.4% in 2004). The highest levels of depression, both major and other, were observed among females aged 15-29 years, and the lowest levels among those aged > or =50 years. The strongest predictor of depression was poor overall health status. It is time for the conventional wisdom that depression is increasing to be reconsidered, and for a more realistic perspective, developed from evidence-based analyses, to be accepted.

  11. Increased cerebral water content in hemodialysis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Reetz

    Full Text Available Little information is available on the impact of hemodialysis on cerebral water homeostasis and its distribution in chronic kidney disease. We used a neuropsychological test battery, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and a novel technique for quantitative measurement of localized water content using 3T MRI to investigate ten hemodialysis patients (HD on a dialysis-free day and after hemodialysis (2.4±2.2 hours, and a matched healthy control group with the same time interval. Neuropsychological testing revealed mainly attentional and executive cognitive dysfunction in HD. Voxel-based-morphometry showed only marginal alterations in the right inferior medial temporal lobe white matter in HD compared to controls. Marked increases in global brain water content were found in the white matter, specifically in parietal areas, in HD patients compared to controls. Although the global water content in the gray matter did not differ between the two groups, regional increases of brain water content in particular in parieto-temporal gray matter areas were observed in HD patients. No relevant brain hydration changes were revealed before and after hemodialysis. Whereas longer duration of dialysis vintage was associated with increased water content in parieto-temporal-occipital regions, lower intradialytic weight changes were negatively correlated with brain water content in these areas in HD patients. Worse cognitive performance on an attention task correlated with increased hydration in frontal white matter. In conclusion, long-term HD is associated with altered brain tissue water homeostasis mainly in parietal white matter regions, whereas the attentional domain in the cognitive dysfunction profile in HD could be linked to increased frontal white matter water content.

  12. Amphetamine enhances endurance by increasing heat dissipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, Ekaterina; Yoo, Yeonjoo; Behrouzvaziri, Abolhassan; Zaretskaia, Maria; Rusyniak, Daniel; Zaretsky, Dmitry; Molkov, Yaroslav

    2016-09-01

    Athletes use amphetamines to improve their performance through largely unknown mechanisms. Considering that body temperature is one of the major determinants of exhaustion during exercise, we investigated the influence of amphetamine on the thermoregulation. To explore this, we measured core body temperature and oxygen consumption of control and amphetamine-trea ted rats running on a treadmill with an incrementally increasing load (both speed and incline). Experimental results showed that rats treated with amphetamine (2 mg/kg) were able to run significantly longer than control rats. Due to a progressively increasing workload, which was matched by oxygen consumption, the control group exhibited a steady increase in the body temperature. The administration of amphetamine slowed down the temperature rise (thus decreasing core body temperature) in the beginning of the run without affecting oxygen consumption. In contrast, a lower dose of amphetamine (1 mg/kg) had no effect on measured parameters. Using a mathematical model describing temperature dynamics in two compartments (the core and the muscles), we were able to infer what physiological parameters were affected by amphetamine. Modeling revealed that amphetamine administration increases heat dissipation in the core. Furthermore, the model predicted that the muscle temperature at the end of the run in the amphetamine-treated group was significantly higher than in the control group. Therefore, we conclude that amphetamine may mask or delay fatigue by slowing down exercise-induced core body temperature growth by increasing heat dissipation. However, this affects the integrity of thermoregulatory system and may result in potentially dangerous overheating of the muscles. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  13. Myeloperoxidase Inhibition Increases Neurogenesis after Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, HyeonJu; Wei, Ying; Lee, Ji Yong; Wu, Yue; Zheng, Yi; Moskowitz, Michael A; Chen, John W

    2016-11-01

    The relationship between inflammation and neurogenesis in stroke is currently not well understood. Focal ischemia enhances cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the neurogenic regions, including the subventricular zone (SVZ), dentate gyrus, as well as the non-neurogenic striatum, and cortex in the ischemic hemisphere. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a potent oxidizing enzyme secreted during inflammation by activated leukocytes, and its enzymatic activity is highly elevated after stroke. In this study, we investigated whether the inhibition of MPO activity by a specific irreversible inhibitor, 4-aminobenzoic acid hydrazide (ABAH) (MPO(-/-) mice) can increase neurogenesis after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice. ABAH administration increased the number of proliferating bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells expressing markers for neural stems cells, astrocytes, neuroprogenitor cells (Nestin), and neuroblasts (doublecortin) in the ischemic SVZ, anterior SVZ, striatum, and cortex. MPO inhibition also increased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (Ser133), acetylated H3, and NeuN to promote neurogenesis in the ischemic SVZ. ABAH treatment also increased chemokine CXC receptor 4 expression in the ischemic SVZ. MPO-deficient mice treated with vehicle or ABAH both showed similar effects on the number of BrdU(+) cells in the ischemic hemisphere, demonstrating that ABAH is specific to MPO. Taken together, our results underscore a detrimental role of MPO activity to postischemia neurogenesis and that a strategy to inhibit MPO activity can increase cell proliferation and improve neurogenesis after ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  14. Fire increases dust production from chaparral soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabet, Emmanuel J.

    2014-07-01

    By altering the physical and chemical properties of a landscape, fire may increase its vulnerability to erosive processes. Whereas sediment transport by surface runoff after fires has been often investigated, less is known about the role of wind erosion in burned terrain. To examine how fire might increase a soil's vulnerability to aeolian transport, intact soil samples were collected from a chaparral landscape in southern California and heated with a propane torch with temperatures ranging from 250 to 1025 °C and for durations of 5-60 min to simulate a variety of burn severities. The samples were then subjected to simulated wind and the amounts of eroded sediment were measured. Results indicate a linear increase in the production of wind-erodible sediment with applied heat up to ~ 10 MJ/m2. The increase was not due to a reduction in the threshold shear velocity of the soil surface but, instead, to the role of heat in detaching erodible material. In these soils, organic material may be an important binding agent destroyed at high temperatures. The relationship between fire and erodibility is complex, however, because heating may also help to aggregate soil particles. Experiments performed here also suggest a synergistic effect between fire and rain whereby heated soils are more vulnerable to the erosive power of raindrop impacts. Additionally, the soil heating experiments were used to measure and compare the thermal conductivities of intact and disturbed soils. Finally, it is concluded that soil heating may increase the emission of dust through the detachment of erodible particles, a result that may help in the anticipation of respiratory problems for those living downwind of burned areas.

  15. Increasing muscle extensibility: a matter of increasing length or modifying sensation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weppler, Cynthia Holzman; Magnusson, S Peter; Weppler, Cynthia Holzman

    2010-01-01

    Various theories have been proposed to explain increases in muscle extensibility observed after intermittent stretching. Most of these theories advocate a mechanical increase in length of the stretched muscle. More recently, a sensory theory has been proposed suggesting instead that increases in ...

  16. Increased muscle glucose uptake after exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Ploug, Thorkil; Galbo, Henrik

    1985-01-01

    It has recently been shown that insulin sensitivity of skeletal muscle glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis is increased after a single exercise session. The present study was designed to determine whether insulin is necessary during exercise for development of these changes found after exercise....... Diabetic rats and controls ran on a treadmill and their isolated hindquarters were subsequently perfused at insulin concentrations of 0, 100, and 20,000 microU/ml. Exercise increased insulin sensitivity of glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis equally in diabetic and control rats, but insulin...... responsiveness of glucose uptake was noted only in controls. Analysis of intracellular glucose-6-phosphate, glucose, glycogen synthesis, and glucose transport suggested that the exercise effect on responsiveness might be due to enhancement of glucose disposal. After electrical stimulation of diabetic...

  17. Leptospirosis: a globally increasing zoonotic disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rock, Clare

    2010-01-01

    A 27-year-old previously healthy man was admitted to the intensive care unit with severe jaundice, dyspnoea with haemoptysis, anaemia, thrombocytopenia and acute renal injury. He had no recent history of foreign travel but had been building a shed in his back garden in Cork, Ireland, for the preceding week. The patient\\'s history, clinical observations, haematological and radiological results were all consistent with icteric leptospirosis or Weil\\'s disease. This was confirmed on serological testing. He completed 7 days intravenous ceftriaxone and made a complete recovery. While endemic in tropical climates, leptospirosis incidence is increasing in temperate climates. Recent cases seen in temperate climates can be severe, particularly with pulmonary manifestations. The report of this case serves to increase awareness of this re-emerging potentially fatal infectious disease.

  18. Playing violent video games increases intergroup bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown how, why, and for whom violent video game play is related to aggression and aggression-related variables. In contrast, less is known about whether some individuals are more likely than others to be the target of increased aggression after violent video game play. The present research examined the idea that the effects of violent video game play are stronger when the target is a member of an outgroup rather than an ingroup. In fact, a correlational study revealed that violent video game exposure was positively related to ethnocentrism. This relation remained significant when controlling for trait aggression. Providing causal evidence, an experimental study showed that playing a violent video game increased aggressive behavior, and that this effect was more pronounced when the target was an outgroup rather than an ingroup member. Possible mediating mechanisms are discussed.

  19. Optogenetic stimulation of MCH neurons increases sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konadhode, Roda Rani; Pelluru, Dheeraj; Blanco-Centurion, Carlos; Zayachkivsky, Andrew; Liu, Meng; Uhde, Thomas; Glen, W Bailey; van den Pol, Anthony N; Mulholland, Patrick J; Shiromani, Priyattam J

    2013-06-19

    Melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) is a cyclic neuropeptide present in the hypothalamus of all vertebrates. MCH is implicated in a number of behaviors but direct evidence is lacking. To selectively stimulate the MCH neurons the gene for the light-sensitive cation channel, channelrhodopsin-2, was inserted into the MCH neurons of wild-type mice. Three weeks later MCH neurons were stimulated for 1 min every 5 min for 24 h. A 10 Hz stimulation at the start of the night hastened sleep onset, reduced length of wake bouts by 50%, increased total time in non-REM and REM sleep at night, and increased sleep intensity during the day cycle. Sleep induction at a circadian time when all of the arousal neurons are active indicates that MCH stimulation can powerfully counteract the combined wake-promoting signal of the arousal neurons. This could be potentially useful in treatment of insomnia.

  20. Do Fat Supplements Increase Physical Performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Di Felice

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Fish oil and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA belong to a popular class of food supplements known as “fat supplements”, which are claimed to reduce muscle glycogen breakdown, reduce body mass, as well as reduce muscle damage and inflammatory responses. Sport athletes consume fish oil and CLA mainly to increase lean body mass and reduce body fat. Recent evidence indicates that this kind of supplementation may have other side-effects and a new role has been identified in steroidogenensis. Preliminary findings demonstrate that fish oil and CLA may induce a physiological increase in testosterone synthesis. The aim of this review is to describe the effects of fish oil and CLA on physical performance (endurance and resistance exercise, and highlight the new results on the effects on testosterone biosynthesis. In view of these new data, we can hypothesize that fat supplements may improve the anabolic effect of exercise.

  1. INCREASING COMPLIANCE THROUGH EFFICIENT PUBLIC CAMPAIGNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie BANU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper starts from the assumption that the degree of compliance of the taxpayer increases in direct proportion to the effectiveness of public campaigns carried out by the tax device. Information campaigns with a view to increase voluntary compliance can be carried out in various ways. They can emphasize either the potential benefits that taxpayers would receive if the compliance were full, or the potential losses when the degree of compliance is reduced. In theory, these campaigns are effective when intersecting with the promotion or warning of taxpayers about certain fiscal aspects. Following the presentation of campaigns carried out in other states, we propose the initiation of a campaign in Romania as well. Corporate taxpayers will choose out of several campaigns and in the end we will present the results of the research based on the methods of the questionnaire and of the interview.

  2. Increased mortality in depressive disorders: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuijpers, Pim; Schoevers, Robert A

    2004-12-01

    Several factors have been proposed to explain the relationship between excess mortality and depressive disorders. These include mechanisms such as increased suicide rates, hazardous health behavior (smoking, alcohol use, unhealthy eating), psychologic reactions to developing a medical illness, biological dysregulations (hyperactivity of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal, neuro-immune dysregulation, sympathoadrenergic dysregulation), and noncompliance with medical treatment. The evidence supporting the role of each of these mechanisms in excess mortality varies considerably. The causal direction in most of the mechanisms is not clear. It is possible that the explanatory factors, such as smoking, compliance, or biological mechanisms, cause depression, or that depression causes these factors, or that both are explained by a third, underlying factor. We will summarize the evidence supporting these mechanisms, and propose options for possible interventions aimed at reducing the increased risk of dying.

  3. Power Curve Measurements, quantify the production increase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Vesth, Allan

    The purpose of this report is to quantify the production increase on a given turbine with respect to another given turbine. The used methodology is the “side by side” comparison method, provided by the client. This method involves the use of two neighboring turbines and it is based on the assumpt...... on the assumption that the wind field in front of the tested turbines is statistically the same (i.e. has in average the same mean wind speed conditions in front of both turbines). The method is only used for the evaluation of a relative change in the AEP, not the AEP itself.......The purpose of this report is to quantify the production increase on a given turbine with respect to another given turbine. The used methodology is the “side by side” comparison method, provided by the client. This method involves the use of two neighboring turbines and it is based...

  4. Rfq With An Increased Energy Gain

    CERN Document Server

    Kapin, Valery

    2004-01-01

    The radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linacs are widely used in the initial part of ion accelerators. For industrial and medical applications, the size of RFQ linac as well as the construction and operation costs are important. Therefore, there is a interest to design a compact RFQ linac. In this paper, RFQ linac is studied with the aim of increasing the energy gain. Parameters of a conventional RFQ linac are usually chosen to ensure beam acceleration and stability, providing the autophasing and strong quadrupole focusing in the longitudinal and transverse directions simultaneously. As results, the accelerating efficiency of RFQ is limited by the transverse defocusing effect, and its value is below of a maximum value, which can be provided by RFQ electrodes. To facilitate these limitations, the well-known idea of alternating phase focusing (APF) is utilized. The APF effects boost transverse focusing, allowing to increase an accelerating efficiency, electrode voltage and decreasing average value of the synchron...

  5. Increasing the Size of Microwave Popcorn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoyer, Justin

    2005-03-01

    Each year Americans consume approximately 17 billion quarts of popcorn. Since the 1940s, microwaves have been the heating source of choice for most. By treating the popcorn mechanism as a thermodynamic system, it has been shown mathematically and experimentally that reducing the surrounding pressure of the unpopped kernels, results in an increased volume of the kernels [Quinn et al, http://xxx.lanl.gov/abs/cond-mat/0409434 v1 2004]. In this project an alternate method of popping with the microwave was used to further test and confirm this hypothesis. Numerous experimental trials where run to test the validity of the theory. The results show that there is a significant increase in the average kernel size as well as a reduction in the number of unpopped kernels.

  6. [The alarming increase of incapacity for work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibaut, P

    2013-09-01

    The alarming increase of incapacity for work The increase of incapacity for work in Belgium and in Europe is not a new phenomenon but only the transposition of an experience already lived on others continents (Canada--USA). The bio-psycho-social model proves to be, on the international level, as the more efficient view for the understanding of the mechanisms production of the disability and therefore of the incapacity for work. Following this approach, the chronic pain is the result of the dynamic interaction between physiological, psychological and social factors. It mentions also an existing link between the pain and the depression itself being a determining factor in the persistence of the incapacity for work. The bio-psycho-social model can only be conceived in the interdisciplinary approach, and will for sure allow to optimize the support and the use of medicines with a painkiller and depressive aim. The socio-economic impact created represents actually a real health problem.

  7. Technology trends for business productivity increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albeiro Patiño Builes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This reflection paper aims to summarize some of the technology trends that companies can use in their business processes to increase productivity and improve the competitiveness of the sector and country. It is based mainly on an official documentation study of both national and international authorized entities. First, some characteristics of the ICT and its influence in companies over the last years are shown; and finally, the conceptualization and benefits that Internet, Telework, e-Learning and Cloud computing represent today to companies in the productive sector are analyzed. It is concluded that ICT, and trends based on them, can make simpler and more agile processes in companies, and also, strengthen their skills to face increasingly demanding markets, whenever globalization and Free Trade Agreements (FTA call to companies from all sectors to be more effective and efficient.

  8. Has risk associated with smoking increased?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Osler, M; Andersen, P K

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Two recent much cited publications have raised the concern that risk associated with cigarette smoking has so far been underestimated. In this study we wish to determine whether excess all-cause mortality associated with smoking has increased during the last 20-30 years in a study...... population representative of the general Danish population and whether any such changes relate to changes in smoking behaviour. METHODS: Pooled data from three prospective population studies conducted in Copenhagen with detailed information on smoking habits. A total of 31,194 subjects, 17,669 males and 13....... RESULTS: Male smokers' exposure did not change during the study period whereas female smokers' exposure to tobacco increased in terms of age at smoking onset, quantity smoked and depth of inhalation. During follow-up 5744 males and 2900 females died. In males, death rate ratios (comparing continuous...

  9. Can increased organic consumption mitigate climate changes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, Lennart Ravn; Andersen, Laura Mørch; Christensen, Tove

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the evidence for a positive correlation between increased consumption of organic products and potential climate change mitigation via decreased consumption of meat and it is discussed to what extent organic consumption is motivated by climate...... correlation between increasing organic budget shares and decreasing meat budget shares is found. People include food-related behaviour such as the purchase of organic food and reduced meat consumption as ways to mitigate climate change. However, other behavioural modifications such as reduction of car usage...... data would supplement the analyses. Practical implications – Demand-side policies aiming at climate-friendly consumption could be a central factor in combating climate change. Already, food-related mitigation strategies such as lowered meat consumption are established practices among a group of organic...

  10. Circulating Gastrin is Increased in Hemochromatosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Kelly A; Kovac, Suzana; ANDERSON, GREGORY J.; Shulkes, Arthur; Baldwin, Graham S.

    2006-01-01

    Gastric acid production is important in intestinal iron absorption. The peptide hormone gastrin exists in both amidated and non-amidated forms, which stimulate and potentiate gastric acid secretion, respectively. Since non-amidated gastrins require ferric ions for biological activity in vitro, this study investigated the connection between iron status and gastrin by measurement of circulating gastrin concentrations in mice and humans with hemochromatosis. Gastrin concentrations are increased ...

  11. Increased mercury emissions from modern dental amalgams

    OpenAIRE

    Bengtsson, Ulf; Hylander, Lars D.

    2017-01-01

    All types of dental amalgams contain mercury, which partly is emitted as mercury vapor. All types of dental amalgams corrode after being placed in the oral cavity. Modern high copper amalgams exhibit two new traits of increased instability. Firstly, when subjected to wear/polishing, droplets rich in mercury are formed on the surface, showing that mercury is not being strongly bonded to the base or alloy metals. Secondly, high copper amalgams emit substantially larger amounts of mercury vapor ...

  12. Foreign Aid: Are We Increasing Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    that the United States is currently in an era of atrophy. While the U.S. gross domestic product (GDP) has continued to climb , so has the national debt...require strengthening core institutions and governance processes to make them more inclusive, responding to the expectations of the population for...Quarterly article, author Neil Narang argues “that aid can inadvertently increase each combatant’s uncertainty about the other side’s relative strength ”57

  13. Possible causes of the increase of autism

    OpenAIRE

    Tomašovičová, Katarína

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on depicting potential causes of the increase in autism. The theoretical part includes a definition of autism, a historical development in the understanding of autism, a development of diagnostic criteria and their potential effect on autism prevalence. The differences between the global classification systems ICD and DSM are also described. Later, the difficulty of ASD diagnosis alone is discussed. The next section presents views on the etiology of autism which are divided...

  14. Increasing HIV Testing in Inpatient Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumway, Martha; Mangurian, Christina; Carraher, Noah; Momenzadeh, Amanda; Leary, Mark; Lee, Emily K; Dilley, James W

    2017-10-23

    People with serious mental illness (SMI) are at elevated risk of HIV infection, but do not receive HIV tests regularly. Inpatient psychiatric admissions provide opportunities for HIV testing. This study retrospectively examined the impact of three sequential interventions designed to increase HIV testing on an acute inpatient psychiatry service: (1) advocacy by an administrative champion, (2) an on-site HIV counselor, and (3) a clinician championing HIV testing. Demographic and HIV testing data were extracted from hospital data systems for 11,360 admissions of HIV-negative patients to an inpatient psychiatry service between 2006 and 2012. Relationships among interventions, length of stay, patient demographics, and receipt of an HIV test were examined using general estimating equation methods. In the year prior to the intervention, 7.2% of psychiatric inpatients received HIV tests. After 1 year of administrative advocacy, 11.2% received tests. Following the HIV counseling intervention, 25.1% of patients were tested. After the counseling intervention ended, continued administrative and clinical advocacy was associated with further increases in testing. In the final year studied, 30.3% of patients received HIV tests. Patients with shorter inpatient stays and those of Black or Asian race/ethnicity were less likely to be tested. Further, 1.6% of HIV tests were positive. Three interventions of varying intensity were associated with a 5-fold increase in HIV testing on an acute inpatient psychiatry service. Nonetheless, 70% of inpatients were not tested. Continued efforts are needed to increase HIV testing in inpatient psychiatric settings. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Increased health care use in cancer survivors.

    OpenAIRE

    Heins, M.J.; Rijken, P.M.; Schellevis, F.G.; Hoek, L. van der; Korevaar, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: As the number of cancer survivors increases and these patients often experience long-lasting consequences of cancer and its treatment, more insight into primary health care use of cancer survivors is needed. We aimed to determine how often and for which reasons do adult cancer patients contact their Primary Care Physician (PCP) 2-5 years after diagnosis. Methods: Using data from the Netherlands Information Network of Primary Care (LINH), we determined the volume and diagnoses made...

  16. Increases health care use in cancer survivors.

    OpenAIRE

    Heins, M.J.; Rijken, P.M.; Schellevis, F.G.; Hoek, L. van der; Korevaar, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: As the number of cancer survivors increases and these patients often experience longlasting consequences of cancer and its treatment, more insight into primary health care use of cancer survivors is needed. Research question: How often and for which reasons do adult cancer patients contact their Primary Care Physician (PCP) 2-5 years after diagnosis. Methods: Using data from the Netherlands Information Network of Primary Care (LINH), we determined the volume and diagnoses made dur...

  17. BCG Adenitis—Need for Increased Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Krishna Kumar; Chai, Feng Yih

    2011-01-01

    Bacille Calmette–Guerin (BCG) vaccination for protection against tuberculosis has been in use for long. Although the vaccine is safe, its administration can result in complications such as BCG adenitis. We report here a series of children with BCG adenitis with a view to recognise and manage this condition. It is hoped that this case series would encourage the increased identification of this condition. PMID:22135589

  18. A short proof of increased parabolic regularity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Pankavich

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a short proof of the increased regularity obtained by solutions to uniformly parabolic partial differential equations. Though this setting is fairly introductory, our new method of proof, which uses a priori estimates and an inductive method, can be extended to prove analogous results for problems with time-dependent coefficients, advection-diffusion or reaction diffusion equations, and nonlinear PDEs even when other tools, such as semigroup methods or the use of explicit fundamental solutions, are unavailable.

  19. Aridity under conditions of increased CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, Peter; Roderick, Micheal L.; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2016-04-01

    A string of recent of studies led to the wide-held assumption that aridity will increase under conditions of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and associated global warming. Such results generally build upon analyses of changes in the 'aridity index' (the ratio of potential evaporation to precipitation) and can be described as a direct thermodynamic effect on atmospheric water demand due to increasing temperatures. However, there is widespread evidence that contradicts the 'warmer is more arid' interpretation, leading to the 'global aridity paradox' (Roderick et al. 2015, WRR). Here we provide a comprehensive assessment of modeled changes in a broad set of dryness metrics (primarily based on a range of measures of water availability) over a large range of realistic atmospheric CO2 concentrations. We use an ensemble of simulations from of state-of-the-art climate models to analyse both equilibrium climate experiments and transient historical simulations and future projections. Our results show that dryness is, under conditions of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and related global warming, generally decreasing at global scales. At regional scales we do, however, identify areas that undergo changes towards drier conditions, located primarily in subtropical climate regions and the Amazon Basin. Nonetheless, the majority of regions, especially in tropical and mid- to northern high latitudes areas, display wetting conditions in a warming world. Our results contradict previous findings and highlight the need to comprehensively assess all aspects of changes in hydroclimatological conditions at the land surface. Roderick, M. L., P. Greve, and G. D. Farquhar (2015), On the assessment of aridity with changes in atmospheric CO2, Water Resour. Res., 51, 5450-5463

  20. Sensors Increase Productivity in Harsh Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    California's San Juan Capistrano-based Endevco Corporation licensed three patents covering high-temperature, harsh-environment silicon carbide (Si-C) pressure sensors from Glenn Research Center. The company is exploring their use in government markets, as well as in commercial markets, including commercial jet testing, deep well drilling applications where pressure and temperature increase with drilling depth, and in automobile combustion chambers.

  1. Bioavailability of labetalol increases with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, J G; McGarry, K; O'Malley, K; O'Brien, E T

    1982-01-01

    The antihypertensive drug labetalol was administered orally and intravenously to ten hypertensive patients aged between 28 and 75 years. There was a significant increase with age in both bioavailability and half-life of labetalol. Clearance tended to be lower in the elderly subjects. First pass metabolism results in variable oral bioavailability of labetalol which is greater in the elderly and this should be borne in mind when using the drug in this age group. PMID:7104187

  2. Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea: An increased problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina Soto, Leticia; García Ávila, Sara; Córdoba Alonso, Ana Isabel; Roiz Mesones, M Pía; Arnaiz García, Ana M; Valero Díaz de Lamadrid, M Carmen

    2016-12-16

    Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea is a major health problem that seems to be on the increase. In our study, we analyse the changes in the incidence of this infection over the last 11 years. A descriptive study in hospitalised patients with Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea in University Hospital Marqués de Valdecilla (Santander, Spain) from 2004 to 2014. A total of 244 adults were identified [53% men; 66 (SD 15) years]. The cases of nosocomial acquisition (80%), with respect to community acquired Clostridium difficile infection, were older [67 (SD 15) years vs. 63 (19) years; P=.01), high comorbidity (86% vs. 75%; P=.01), use of antibiotics (95% vs. 75%; P<.001) and proton pump inhibitors (87% vs. 48% P<.001). There has been an increasing incidence of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea in our hospital over an 11-year period. The clinical profile of patients with Clostridium difficile diarrhoea varies by place of acquisition of infection. The prevalence of this disease is increasing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Do oral contraceptives increase epileptic seizures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Doodipala Samba

    2017-02-01

    Hormonal contraceptives are used by over 100 million people worldwide. Recently, there has been an emerging interest in studying the potential impact of oral contraceptives (OCs) on certain neurological conditions. It has been suspected for some time that hormonal birth control increases seizure activity in women with epilepsy, but there is little supportive data. Areas covered: Literature from PubMed and online sources was analyzed with respect to hormonal contraception and epilepsy or seizures. New evidence indicates that OCs can cause an increase in seizures in women with epilepsy. The epilepsy birth control registry, which surveyed women with epilepsy, found that those using hormonal contraceptives self-reported 4.5 times more seizures than those that did not use such contraceptives. A preclinical study confirmed these outcomes wherein epileptic animals given ethinyl estradiol, the primary component of OCs, had more frequent seizures that are more likely to be resistant. Expert commentary: OC pills may increase seizures in women with epilepsy and such refractory seizures are more likely to cause neuronal damage in the brain. Thus, women of child bearing age with epilepsy should consider using non-hormonal forms of birth control to avoid risks from OC pills. Additional research into the mechanisms and prospective clinical investigation are needed.

  4. D-serine increases adult hippocampal neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien eSultan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Adult hippocampal neurogenesis results in the continuous formation of new neurons and is a process of brain plasticity involved in learning and memory. The neurogenic niche regulates the stem cell proliferation and the differentiation and survival of new neurons and a major contributor to the neurogenic niche are astrocytes. Among the molecules secreted by astrocytes, D-serine is an important gliotransmitter and is a co-agonist of the glutamate, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor. D-serine has been shown to enhance the proliferation of neural stem cells in vitro, but its effect on adult neurogenesis in vivo is unknown. Here, we tested the effect of exogenous administration of D-serine on adult neurogenesis in the mouse dentate gyrus. We found that 1 week of treatment with D-serine increased cell proliferation in vivo and in vitro and increased the density of neural stem cells and transit amplifying progenitors. Furthermore, D-serine increased the survival of newborn neurons. Together, these results indicate that D-serine treatment resulted in the improvement of several steps of adult neurogenesis in vivo.

  5. Alcoholic Cirrhosis Increases Risk for Autoimmune Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Lisbet; Vilstrup, Hendrik; Deleuran, Bent

    2015-01-01

    IRR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.26-1.92), celiac disease (aIRR, 5.12; 95% CI, 2.58-10.16), pernicious anemia (aIRR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.50-3.68), and psoriasis (aIRR, 4.06; 95% CI, 3.32-4.97). There was no increase in the incidence rate for rheumatoid arthritis (aIRR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.69-1.15); the incidence rate......BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alcoholic cirrhosis is associated with hyperactivation and dysregulation of the immune system. In addition to its ability to increase risk for infections, it also may increase the risk for autoimmune diseases. We studied the incidence of autoimmune diseases among patients...... (controls) of the same sex and age. The incidence rates of various autoimmune diseases were compared between patients with cirrhosis and controls and adjusted for the number of hospitalizations in the previous year (a marker for the frequency of clinical examination). RESULTS: Of the 24,679 patients...

  6. Increasing Incidence of Canine Leptospirosis in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Andrea; Schweighauser, Ariane; Francey, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    A marked increase in canine leptospirosis was observed in Switzerland over 10 years with a peak incidence of 28.1 diagnosed cases/100,000 dogs/year in the most affected canton. With 95% affected dogs living at altitudes 90% cases being diagnosed between May and October. The increasing yearly incidence however was only weakly correlated with climatic data including number of summer (r2 0.25) or rainy days (r2 0.38). Serovars Australis and Bratislava showed the highest seropositivity rates with 70.5% and 69.1%, respectively. Main clinical manifestations included renal (99.6%), pulmonary (76.7%), hepatic (26.0%), and hemorrhagic syndromes (18.2%), leading to a high mortality rate (43.3%). Similar to the human disease, liver involvement had the strongest association with negative outcome (OR 16.3). Based on these data, canine leptospirosis presents similar features and severity as the human infection for which it therefore can be considered a model. Its re-emergence in a temperate country with very high incidence rates in canines should thus be viewed as a warning and emphasize the need for increased awareness in other species. PMID:25032740

  7. Global warming without global mean precipitation increase?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzmann, Marc

    2016-06-01

    Global climate models simulate a robust increase of global mean precipitation of about 1.5 to 2% per kelvin surface warming in response to greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing. Here, it is shown that the sensitivity to aerosol cooling is robust as well, albeit roughly twice as large. This larger sensitivity is consistent with energy budget arguments. At the same time, it is still considerably lower than the 6.5 to 7% K(-1) decrease of the water vapor concentration with cooling from anthropogenic aerosol because the water vapor radiative feedback lowers the hydrological sensitivity to anthropogenic forcings. When GHG and aerosol forcings are combined, the climate models with a realistic 20th century warming indicate that the global mean precipitation increase due to GHG warming has, until recently, been completely masked by aerosol drying. This explains the apparent lack of sensitivity of the global mean precipitation to the net global warming recently found in observations. As the importance of GHG warming increases in the future, a clear signal will emerge.

  8. Happiness increases distraction by auditory deviant stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Unguetti, Antonia Pilar; Parmentier, Fabrice B R

    2016-08-01

    Rare and unexpected changes (deviants) in an otherwise repeated stream of task-irrelevant auditory distractors (standards) capture attention and impair behavioural performance in an ongoing visual task. Recent evidence indicates that this effect is increased by sadness in a task involving neutral stimuli. We tested the hypothesis that such effect may not be limited to negative emotions but reflect a general depletion of attentional resources by examining whether a positive emotion (happiness) would increase deviance distraction too. Prior to performing an auditory-visual oddball task, happiness or a neutral mood was induced in participants by means of the exposure to music and the recollection of an autobiographical event. Results from the oddball task showed significantly larger deviance distraction following the induction of happiness. Interestingly, the small amount of distraction typically observed on the standard trial following a deviant trial (post-deviance distraction) was not increased by happiness. We speculate that happiness might interfere with the disengagement of attention from the deviant sound back towards the target stimulus (through the depletion of cognitive resources and/or mind wandering) but help subsequent cognitive control to recover from distraction. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Increasing cardiac interventions among the aged.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Groarke, J D

    2010-11-01

    Ireland\\'s over 65 year population is growing. As incidence of coronary events rises with age, there is a growing population of elderly patients with cardiac disease. The changing age profile of patients treated by a tertiary hospital\\'s Cardiology service was quantified using Hospital Inpatient Enquiry data. 53% of CCU admissions were aged > or = 65 years, with admissions aged > or = 85 years in 2008 four times greater than in 2002. Percentages of patients undergoing diagnostic coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary interventions in 1997 aged > or = 70 years were 19% and 18% respectively. By 2007, these percentages had risen to 31% and 34% respectively--greatest increases were in the very elderly age categories. The proportion of ICD recipients aged > 70 years increased from 8% in 2003 to 25% by 2008. The proportion of elderly patients receiving advanced cardiac care is increasing. This trend will continue and has clear resource implications. Outcomes of interventions in the very old need further investigation, since the \\'old old\\' are under-represented in clinical trials.

  10. Clusters - Tourism Activity Increase Competitiveness Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen IORDACHE

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Tourism represents one of those areas with the greatest potential of global expansion. Tourism development strategy in terms of maximizing its positive effects on regional economic increase and implicitly on the national one starts from the premise that in global economy value is created in regions which are defined as particular geographical entities, separated by geographical reasons and not as political-administrative structures, and economic increase is centrally cumulated and valued according to the economic policy and the national legal system.Regional economic system approach based on “cluster” concept is explained by the fact that the regional activities portfolio is based on an inter and intra-industry networking grouped by cluster, in which is created the value that increases as the activity results are leading to the final consumers.This type of communication aims to highlight the tourism role as a factor in regional development, the clustering process significance in obtaining some competitiveness advantages, clusters development in tourism beginnings, and also the identification methodology used to select one touristic area to create the cluster.

  11. The increased risk of predation enhances cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krams, Indrikis; Bērziņš, Arnis; Krama, Tatjana; Wheatcroft, David; Igaune, Kristīne; Rantala, Markus J.

    2010-01-01

    Theory predicts that animals in adverse conditions can decrease individual risks and increase long-term benefits by cooperating with neighbours. However, some empirical studies suggest that animals often focus on short-term benefits, which can reduce the likelihood that they will cooperate with others. In this experimental study, we tested between these two alternatives by evaluating whether increased predation risk (as a correlate of environmental adversity) enhances or diminishes the occurrence of cooperation in mobbing, a common anti-predator behaviour, among breeding pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca. We tested whether birds would join their mobbing neighbours more often and harass a stuffed predator placed near their neighbours' nests more intensely in areas with a higher perceived risk of predation. Our results show that birds attended mobs initiated by their neighbours more often, approached the stuffed predator significantly more closely, and mobbed it at a higher intensity in areas where the perceived risk of predation was experimentally increased. In such high-risk areas, birds also were more often involved in between-pair cooperation. This study demonstrates the positive impact of predation risk on cooperation in breeding songbirds, which might help in explaining the emergence and evolution of cooperation. PMID:19846454

  12. Increased intensity performance of the Brookhaven AGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raka, E.; Ahrens, L.; Frey, W.; Gill, E.; Glenn, J.W.; Sanders, R.; Weng, W.

    1985-05-01

    With the advent of H/sup -/ injection into the Brookhaven AGS, circulating beams of up to 3 x 10/sup 13/ protons at 200 MeV have been obtained. Rf capture of 2.2 x 10/sup 13/ and acceleration of 1.73 x 10/sup 13/ up to the transition energy (approx. = 8 GeV) and 1.64 x 10/sup 13/ to full energy (approx. = 29 GeV) has been achieved. This represents a 50% increase over the best performance obtained with H/sup +/ injection. The increase in circulation beam current is obtained without filling the horizontal aperture. This allows the rf capture process to utilize a larger longitudinal phase space area (approx. = 1 eV sec/bunch vs less than or equal to 0.6 eV sec with H/sup +/ operation). The resulting reduction in relative longitudinal density partially offsets the increase in space charge effects at higher currents. In order to make the capture process independent of injected beam current, a dynamic beam loading compensation loop was installed on the AGS rf system. This is the only addition to the synchrotron itself that was required to reach the new intensity records. A discussion of injection, the rf capture process, and space charge effects is presented. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  13. An increased {sup 18}F radionuclide production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panico, M. [CNR, Centro per la Medicina Nucleare-Napoli (Italy); Salvadore, M.; Randazzo, G. [Universita Federico II degli Studi di Napoli (Italy); Roma, R.; Green, A.; Calicchio, G.F. [Instituto Nazionale Tumori, Fond. G. Pascale, Napoli (Italy)

    1999-07-01

    In the {sup 18}F daily preparation a diminished yield of radioisotopic production is often found. This fact, most times, is connected to the altered internal surface of the PEE and teflon lines for the {sup 18}F transferring to the hot cells because of radiations. This anomaly is due to an H{sub 2} {sup 18}O insufficient filling into the target. In fact a target foils bombardment causing the release of radioactive Ag+ ions sets in. These ions passing through the transferring line damage it. This problem has been solved by an increased H{sub 2} {sup 18}O filling, from 0.7 to 1.3 mL. A further steady increasing in the {sup 18}F production is due to the features of the new target: back plane : integrated in the silver flange; water cooling surface: enlarged with fins; target connections: high pressure fittings. In conclusion a careful filling of the new target has increased the fluorine-18 average daily production from 7.4 GBq to 18.5 GBq, using recovered water (time: thirty minutes; beam: 15 mA) and allows to replace teflon lines every year instead of every three months. (authors)

  14. Amphetamine increases errors during episodic memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Michael Edward; Gallo, David A; de Wit, Harriet

    2014-02-01

    Moderate doses of stimulant drugs are known to enhance memory encoding and consolidation, but their effects on memory retrieval have not been explored in depth. In laboratory animals, stimulants seem to improve retrieval of emotional memories, but comparable studies have not been carried out in humans. In the present study, we examined the effects of dextroamphetamine (AMP) on retrieval of emotional and unemotional stimuli in healthy young adults, using doses that enhanced memory formation when administered before encoding in our previous study. During 3 sessions, healthy volunteers (n = 31) received 2 doses of AMP (10 and 20 mg) and placebo in counterbalanced order under double-blind conditions. During each session, they first viewed emotional and unemotional pictures and words in a drug-free state, and then 2 days later their memory was tested, 1 hour after AMP or placebo administration. Dextroamphetamine did not affect the number of emotional or unemotional stimuli remembered, but both doses increased recall intrusions and false recognition. Dextroamphetamine (20 mg) also increased the number of positively rated picture descriptions and words generated during free recall. These data provide the first evidence that therapeutic range doses of stimulant drugs can increase memory retrieval errors. The ability of AMP to positively bias recollection of prior events could contribute to its potential for abuse.

  15. Symbiosis increases coral tolerance to ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohki, S.; Irie, T.; Inoue, M.; Shinmen, K.; Kawahata, H.; Nakamura, T.; Kato, A.; Nojiri, Y.; Suzuki, A.; Sakai, K.; van Woesik, R.

    2013-04-01

    Increasing the acidity of ocean waters will directly threaten calcifying marine organisms such as reef-building scleractinian corals, and the myriad of species that rely on corals for protection and sustenance. Ocean pH has already decreased by around 0.1 pH units since the beginning of the industrial revolution, and is expected to decrease by another 0.2-0.4 pH units by 2100. This study mimicked the pre-industrial, present, and near-future levels of pCO2 using a precise control system (±5% pCO2), to assess the impact of ocean acidification on the calcification of recently-settled primary polyps of Acropora digitifera, both with and without symbionts, and adult fragments with symbionts. The increase in pCO2 of 100 μatm between the pre-industrial period and the present had more effect on the calcification rate of adult A. digitifera than the anticipated future increases of several hundreds of micro-atmospheres of pCO2. The primary polyps with symbionts showed higher calcification rates than primary polyps without symbionts, suggesting that (i) primary polyps housing symbionts are more tolerant to near-future ocean acidification than organisms without symbionts, and (ii) corals acquiring symbionts from the environment (i.e. broadcasting species) will be more vulnerable to ocean acidification than corals that maternally acquire symbionts.

  16. Another call to increase STEM education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-07-01

    As science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education becomes increasingly important, U.S. students are lagging behind other nations on international assessments, according to a recent Trends in International Mathematics and Science study. A 22 June report from the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) calls for increasing the focus on STEM education in the United States. “To make progress in improving STEM education for all students, policy makers at the national, state, and local levels should elevate science to the same level of importance as reading and mathematics,” states the report, “Successful K-12 STEM Education: Identifying Effective Approaches in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics.” It outlines several goals: expand the number of students who pursue advanced degrees and careers in STEM fields; expand the STEM-capable workforce, while also broadening the participation of women and minorities; and increase STEM literacy for all students, whether or not they pursue STEM-related careers or additional study in those areas.

  17. MILK CANDIES WITH INCREASED SHELF LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Technology for producing milk candies on molasses with increased shelf-life, molded by "extrusion" with a vacuum syringe of continuous action used in the meat industry, into metallized film like "flow-pack" is considered. Rheological characteristics of candy mass: strength, toughness, organoleptic, physical and chemical quality are determined. While increasing the temperature of milk mass the colour, texture, mass fraction of reducing substances and solids change. It was found out that molasses based milk mass is easily molded at a moisture content of 10-11 % and temperature of 60 ºС. The advantages of the new method of forming products are: manufactured products have individual package, which increases the shelf life and improves the quality of products, extend the range of use, the technological equipment has a high productivity, it is compact and reliable. According to the consumer qualities the product surpasses all known analogs. Possibility of using a single-piece product while gathering dinners and breakfasts in public catering, establishments and transport. The technological process is simplified. Energy value of products on molasses in comparison with the control samples on sugar is calculated. It is 51 kcal less than in the control sample on sugar. Thus, the technology of functional milk candies with reduced sugar content is developed. The products will be useful for anyone who leads a healthy lifestyle.

  18. Polyploidization increases meiotic recombination frequency in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehmsmeier Marc

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyploidization is the multiplication of the whole chromosome complement and has occurred frequently in vascular plants. Maintenance of stable polyploid state over generations requires special mechanisms to control pairing and distribution of more than two homologous chromosomes during meiosis. Since a minimal number of crossover events is essential for correct chromosome segregation, we investigated whether polyploidy has an influence on the frequency of meiotic recombination. Results Using two genetically linked transgenes providing seed-specific fluorescence, we compared a high number of progeny from diploid and tetraploid Arabidopsis plants. We show that rates of meiotic recombination in reciprocal crosses of genetically identical diploid and autotetraploid Arabidopsis plants were significantly higher in tetraploids compared to diploids. Although male and female gametogenesis differ substantially in meiotic recombination frequency, both rates were equally increased in tetraploids. To investigate whether multivalent formation in autotetraploids was responsible for the increased recombination rates, we also performed corresponding experiments with allotetraploid plants showing strict bivalent pairing. We found similarly increased rates in auto- and allotetraploids, suggesting that the ploidy effect is independent of chromosome pairing configurations. Conclusions The evolutionary success of polyploid plants in nature and under domestication has been attributed to buffering of mutations and sub- and neo-functionalization of duplicated genes. Should the data described here be representative for polyploid plants, enhanced meiotic recombination, and the resulting rapid creation of genetic diversity, could have also contributed to their prevalence.

  19. [Eosinophilic esophagitis: increasing incidence in paediatric population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga-Tavares, Hugo; Teles, Andreia; Nogueira, Rosete; Cardoso Rodrigues, Fernando; Costa, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophilic Esophagitis has been increasingly diagnosed and results from a chronic esophagic inflammation with eosinophilic infiltrate. Evaluation of the diagnosed paediatric cases in our centre between 2004 and 2008 and revision of current literature on this subject. Four caucasian boys, aged eight to fifteen years old, were diagnosed with Eosinophilic Esophagitis. They presented with disphagia and food impaction and endoscopic findings included multiple concentric rings (pseudo-trachea pattern) and friable mucosa. All of them had mucosal eosinophil counts higher than 20 eosinophils/high-powered field and were given corticosteroids, either topic or systemic (one case) with therapeutic success. The diagnosis of Eosinophilic Esophagitis must be considered in presence of disphagia, food impaction or gastroesophageal reflux symptoms refractory to treatment. Endoscopic evaluation may be normal and the diagnosis is based on histological findings, making biopsy mandatory whenever clinically suspected. The increasing incidence of the last years associated with the high recurrence rate will lead to future prevalence increased both in child and adulthood.

  20. Does soil compaction increase floods? A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaoui, Abdallah; Rogger, Magdalena; Peth, Stephan; Blöschl, Günter

    2018-02-01

    Europe has experienced a series of major floods in the past years which suggests that flood magnitudes may have increased. Land degradation due to soil compaction from crop farming or grazing intensification is one of the potential drivers of this increase. A literature review suggests that most of the experimental evidence was generated at plot and hillslope scales. At larger scales, most studies are based on models. There are three ways in which soil compaction affects floods at the catchment scale: (i) through an increase in the area affected by soil compaction; (ii) by exacerbating the effects of changes in rainfall, especially for highly degraded soils; and (iii) when soil compaction coincides with soils characterized by a fine texture and a low infiltration capacity. We suggest that future research should focus on better synthesising past research on soil compaction and runoff, tailored field experiments to obtain a mechanistic understanding of the coupled mechanical and hydraulic processes, new mapping methods of soil compaction that combine mechanical and remote sensing approaches, and an effort to bridge all disciplines relevant to soil compaction effects on floods.

  1. Increased Science Instrumentation Funding Strengthens Mars Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Lee D.; Graff, T. G.

    2012-01-01

    As the strategic knowledge gaps mature for the exploration of Mars, Mars sample return (MSR), and Phobos/Deimos missions, one approach that becomes more probable involves smaller science instrumentation and integrated science suites. Recent technological advances provide the foundation for a significant evolution of instrumentation; however, the funding support is currently too small to fully utilize these advances. We propose that an increase in funding for instrumentation development occur in the near-term so that these foundational technologies can be applied. These instruments would directly address the significant knowledge gaps for humans to Mars orbit, humans to the Martian surface, and humans to Phobos/ Deimos. They would also address the topics covered by the Decadal Survey and the Mars scientific goals, objectives, investigations and priorities as stated by the MEPAG. We argue that an increase of science instrumentation funding would be of great benefit to the Mars program as well as the potential for human exploration of the Mars system. If the total non-Earth-related planetary science instrumentation budget were increased 100% it would not add an appreciable amount to the overall NASA budget and would provide the real potential for future breakthroughs. If such an approach were implemented in the near-term, NASA would benefit greatly in terms of science knowledge of the Mars, Phobos/Deimos system, exploration risk mitigation, technology development, and public interest.

  2. Antenatal breastfeeding education for increasing breastfeeding duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumbiganon, Pisake; Martis, Ruth; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Festin, Mario R; Ho, Jacqueline J; Hakimi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding (BF) is well recognised as the best food for infants. The impact of antenatal BF education on the duration of BF has not been evaluated. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of antenatal BF education for increasing BF initiation and duration. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (21 April 2010), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1966 to April 2010) and SCOPUS (January 1985 to April 2010). We contacted experts and searched reference lists of retrieved articles. We updated the search of the Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register on 28 September 2011 and added the results to the awaiting classification section of the review. Selection criteria All identified published, unpublished and ongoing randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of formal antenatal BF education or comparing two different methods of formal antenatal BF education, on duration of BF. We excluded RCTs that also included intrapartum or postpartum BF education. Data collection and analysis We assessed all potential studies identified as a result of the search strategy. Two review authors extracted data from each included study using the agreed form and assessed risk of bias. We resolved discrepancies through discussion. Main results We included 17 studies with 7131 women in the review and 14 studies involving 6932 women contributed data to the analyses. We did not do any meta-analysis because there was only one study for each comparison. Five studies compared a single method of BF education with routine care. Peer counselling significantly increased BF initiation. Three studies compared one form of BF education versus another. No intervention was significantly more effective than another intervention in increasing initiation or duration of BF. Seven studies compared multiple methods versus a single method of BF education. Combined BF educational interventions were not

  3. Antenatal breastfeeding education for increasing breastfeeding duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumbiganon, Pisake; Martis, Ruth; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Festin, Mario R; Ho, Jacqueline J; Hakimi, Mohammad

    2012-09-12

    Breastfeeding (BF) is well recognised as the best food for infants. The impact of antenatal BF education on the duration of BF has not been evaluated. To evaluate the effectiveness of antenatal BF education for increasing BF initiation and duration. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (2 December 2011), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 11), MEDLINE (1966 to 30 November 2011) and Scopus (January 1985 to 30 November 2011). We contacted experts and searched reference lists of retrieved articles. All identified published, unpublished and ongoing randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of formal antenatal BF education or comparing two different methods of formal antenatal BF education, on duration of BF. We excluded RCTs that also included intrapartum or postpartum BF education. We assessed all potential studies identified as a result of the search strategy. Two review authors extracted data from each included study using the agreed form and assessed risk of bias. We resolved discrepancies through discussion. We included 19 studies with 8506 women in the review and 16 studies involving 8262 women contributed data to the analyses. We did not carry out any meta-analysis because there was only one study for each comparison.Five studies compared a single method of BF education with routine care. Peer counselling significantly increased BF initiation.Three studies compared one form of BF education versus another. No intervention was significantly more effective than another intervention in increasing initiation or duration of BF.Seven studies compared multiple methods versus a single method of BF education. Combined BF educational interventions were not significantly better than a single intervention in initiating or increasing BF duration. However, in one trial a combined BF education significantly reduced nipple pain and trauma.One study compared different combinations of interventions. There was a marginally

  4. Pregnancy outcomes according to increasing maternal age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Yu-Jin; Ryu, Hyun-Mee; Yang, Jae-Hyug; Lim, Ji-Hyae; Lee, Ji-Eun; Kim, Moon-Young; Chung, Jin-Hoon

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the risks of increasing maternal age on the perinatal and obstetric outcomes. Information about 29,760 singleton pregnancies delivered between 2005 and 2008 was extracted from our database. Patients were categorized into four groups according to age: 20-29 years, 30-34 years, 35-39 years, and ≥40 years. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the adjusted odd ratios (AORs) of adverse pregnancy outcomes according to maternal age after adjusting for parity, body mass index, medical history and use of in vitro fertilization. The majority of adverse perinatal outcomes were associated with a maternal age ≥35 years as follows: low birth weight (AOR 1.2 and 1.6 for women aged 35-39 years and ≥40 years, respectively); Apgar score anomaly (AOR: 2.7 and 12.3). However, women aged ≥30 years also had greater risks for adverse maternal outcomes such as: gestational diabetes (AOR: 2.0, 3.6 and 5.1 for women aged 30-34 years, 35-39 years and ≥40 years, respectively); placenta previa (AOR: 1.6, 2.1 and 3.6); and cesarean delivery (AOR: 1.5, 2.3, and 4.1), as well as adverse fetal outcomes such as: preterm delivery (AOR: 1.2, 1.4 and 1.8) and neonatal intensive care unit transfer (AOR: 1.1, 1.2, and 1.6). Increasing maternal age is an independent and substantial risk factor for adverse perinatal and obstetric outcomes. These adverse outcomes become more common as increasing maternal age without a clear cutoff age. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Fasting Circulating Glicentin Increases After Bariatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffort, Juliette; Panaïa-Ferrari, Patricia; Lareyre, Fabien; Bayer, Pascale; Staccini, Pascal; Fénichel, Patrick; Chinetti, Giulia

    2017-06-01

    Bariatric surgery including the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and the laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is a well-established therapeutic option for patients with morbid or severe obesity. Metabolic modifications observed after bariatric surgery are thought to be, at least partly, linked to hormonal changes. While variation of several proglucagon-derived peptides during bariatric surgery is well documented, little is known about glicentin. The aim of this study was to investigate circulating glicentin variations after bariatric surgery. Thirty patients eligible for bariatric surgery (18 RYGB and 12 LSG procedures) were prospectively included in the University Hospital of Nice. Clinical data and fasting biological parameters were recorded preoperatively, at 3, 6, and 12 months after bariatric surgery. The median age of patients was 51 years (35-56) with 33.3% men. Fasting glicentin concentration increased progressively after bariatric surgery from 6 months and was more marked at 12 months (14 ± 3.6 pmol/L at baseline vs 19.7 ± 2.7 pmol/L at 12 months for RYGB and 12.5 ± 1.4 vs 16.4 ± 1.8 pmol/L for LSG, respectively). Compared to preoperative values, the fold increase of glicentin at 12 months was 2 ± 0.2 in the RYGB group and 1.6 ± 0.3 in the LSG group. Glicentin variation after surgery did not correlate with anthropometric, glycemic, or lipid parameter modifications. Fasting glicentin level increases after bariatric surgery suggesting the potential interest of this peptide as a player and/or a marker of physiological changes after bariatric surgery.

  6. Response of Stream Biodiversity to Increasing Salinization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, C. P.; Vander Laan, J. J.; Olson, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    We used a large data set of macroinvertebrate samples collected from streams in both reference-quality (n = 68) and degraded (n = 401) watersheds in the state of Nevada, USA to assess relationships between stream biodiversity and salinity. We used specific electrical conductance (EC)(μS/cm) as a measure of salinity, and applied a previously developed EC model to estimate natural, baseflow salinity at each stream. We used the difference between observed and predicted salinity (EC-Diff) as a measure of salinization associated with watershed degradation. Observed levels of EC varied between 22 and 994 μS/cm across reference sites and 22 to 3,256 uS/cm across non-reference sites. EC-Diff was as high as 2,743 μS/cm. We used a measure of local biodiversity completeness (ratio of observed to expected number of taxa) to assess ecological response to salinity. This O/E index decreased nearly linearly up to about 25% biodiversity loss, which occurred at EC-Diff of about 300 μS/cm. Too few sites had EC-Diff greater than 300 μS/cm to draw reliable inferences regarding biodiversity response to greater levels of salinization. EC-Diff increased with % agricultural land use, mine density, and % urban land use in the watersheds implying that human activities have been largely responsible for increased salinization in Nevada streams and rivers. Comparison of biological responses to EC and other stressors indicates that increased salinization may be the primary stressor causing biodiversity loss in these streams and that more stringent salinity water quality standards may be needed to protect aquatic life.

  7. DDT increases hepatic testosterone metabolism in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra-Santoyo, Adolfo; Albores, Arnulfo; Cebrian, Mariano E. [Cinvestav-IPN, Seccion de Toxicologia, Mexico (Mexico); Hernandez, Manuel [Cinvestav-IPN, Departamento de Biologia Celular (Mexico)

    2005-01-01

    DDT and its metabolites are considered as endocrine disruptors able to promote hormone-dependent pathologies. We studied the effects of technical-grade DDT on hepatic testosterone metabolism and testosterone hydroxylase activity ratios in the rat. Male and female Wistar rats were treated by gavage with a single dose of technical-grade DDT (0, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 mg/kg body weight) and killed 24 h later. Hepatic microsomes were incubated with [4-{sup 14}C]-testosterone and the metabolites were separated by thin-layer chromatography and quantified by radio scanning. DDT increased testosterone biotransformation and modified the profile of metabolites produced in a sex-dependent manner. Males treated with a representative dose (10 mg/kg) produced relatively less androstenedione (AD), 2{alpha}-hydroxytestosterone (OHT), and 16{alpha}-OHT but higher 6{beta}-OHT whereas treated females produced less 7{alpha}-OHT and AD but higher 6{beta}-OHT and 6{alpha}-OHT than their respective controls. In both sexes DDT decreased the relative proportion of AD and increased that of 6{beta}-OHT suggesting that the androgen-saving pathway was affected. The testosterone 6{alpha}-/15{alpha}-OHT ratio, a proposed indicator of demasculinization, was increased in treated males. This effect was in agreement with the demasculinizing ability proposed for DDT. The effects on 6{alpha}-/16{alpha}-OHT and 6-dehydrotestosterone/16{alpha}-OHT ratios followed a similar tendency, with the ratio 6{alpha}-/16{alpha}-OHT being the most sensitive marker. Interestingly, these ratios were reduced in treated females suggesting that technical-grade DDT shifted testosterone hydroxylations toward a more masculine pattern. Thus, technical-grade DDT altered the hepatic sexual dimorphism in testosterone metabolism and decreased the metabolic differences between male and female rats. (orig.)

  8. Sadness increases distraction by auditory deviant stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Unguetti, Antonia P; Parmentier, Fabrice B R

    2014-02-01

    Research shows that attention is ineluctably captured away from a focal visual task by rare and unexpected changes (deviants) in an otherwise repeated stream of task-irrelevant auditory distractors (standards). The fundamental cognitive mechanisms underlying this effect have been the object of an increasing number of studies but their sensitivity to mood and emotions remains relatively unexplored despite suggestion of greater distractibility in negative emotional contexts. In this study, we examined the effect of sadness, a widespread form of emotional distress and a symptom of many disorders, on distraction by deviant sounds. Participants received either a sadness induction or a neutral mood induction by means of a mixed procedure based on music and autobiographical recall prior to taking part in an auditory-visual oddball task in which they categorized visual digits while ignoring task-irrelevant sounds. The results showed that although all participants exhibited significantly longer response times in the visual categorization task following the presentation of rare and unexpected deviant sounds relative to that of the standard sound, this distraction effect was significantly greater in participants who had received the sadness induction (a twofold increase). The residual distraction on the subsequent trial (postdeviance distraction) was equivalent in both groups, suggesting that sadness interfered with the disengagement of attention from the deviant sound and back toward the target stimulus. We propose that this disengagement impairment reflected the monopolization of cognitive resources by sadness and/or associated ruminations. Our findings suggest that sadness can increase distraction even when distractors are emotionally neutral. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Spironolactone increases permeability of visceral sheep peritoneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karioti, Aggeliki; Hatzoglou, Chrissi; Zarogiannis, Sotirios; Deligiorgi, Triantafyllia; Kourti, Panagiota; Giannopoulou, Myrto; Arampatzis, Spyros; Liakopoulos, Vassilios; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos; Molyvdas, Paschalis-Adam; Stefanidis, Ioannis

    2009-01-01

    Aldosterone is a key component of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and spironolactone, an aldosterone receptor blocker, shows beneficial effects in patients with end-stage renal disease and heart failure. The aim of the present study was to investigate by means of Ussing chamber technique the effect of spironolactone on the transmesothelial permeability of visceral sheep peritoneum in vitro. Peritoneal samples from the omentum of adult sheep were collected immediately after slaughter in a cooled and oxygenated Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate (KRB) solution. Isolated intact sheets of peritoneum were mounted in an Ussing-type chamber. Spironolactone (10(-5) mol/L) was added apically and basolaterally to the KRB solution. The transmesothelial resistance (R) was measured before and serially for 30 minutes after the addition of the substances. Data present the mean +/- standard error of 6 experiments in each case. The control R was 19.8 +/- 0.36 omega x cm2. The addition of spironolactone resulted in a reduction in the R, which became significant on both sides of the membrane within 10 minutes and remained significantly different thereafter. The maximum reduction of R (deltaR%) reached 24.8% +/- 2.3% (p < 0.01) apically and 26.3% +/- 3.2% (p < 0.01) basolaterally. Our data clearly show that spironolactone increases the permeability of visceral sheep peritoneum in a lasting manner. Increased peritoneal permeability could result in increased sodium removal, which has acknowledged beneficial effects both in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis and in patients with heart failure. Further clinical studies investigating the effect of spironolactone on sodium removal in peritoneal dialysis are justified.

  10. Interventions for increasing uptake in screening programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Droste, Sigrid

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Opportunities for the early detection of disease are not sufficiently being taken advantage of. Specific interventions could increase the uptake of prevention programmes. A comprehensive analysis of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of these interventions with reference to Germany is still needed. Objectives: This report aimed to describe and assess interventions to increase uptake in primary and secondary prevention and to explore the assessment of their cost-effectiveness. Methods: 29 scientific databases were systematically searched in a wide strategy. Additional references were located from bibliographies. All published systematic reviews and primary studies were assessed for inclusion without language restrictions. Teams of two reviewers identified the literature, extracted data and assessed the quality of the publications independently. Results: Four HTA reports and 22 systematic reviews were identified for the medical evaluation covering a variety of interventions. The economic evaluation was based on two HTA-reports, one meta-analysis and 15 studies. The evidence was consistent for the effectiveness of invitations and reminders aimed at users, and for prompts aimed at health care professionals. These interventions were the most commonly analysed. (Financial Incentives for users and professionals were identified in a small number of studies. Limited evidence was available for cost-effectiveness showing incremental costs for follow-up reminders and invitations by telephone. Evidence for ethical, social and legal aspects pointed to needs in vulnerable populations. Discussion: The material was heterogeneous regarding interventions used, study populations and settings. The majority of references originated from the United States and focused on secondary prevention. Approaching all target groups by invitations and reminders was recommended to increase uptake in prevention programmes in general. Conclusions: Further research

  11. Training Modalities to Increase Sensorimotor Adaptability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Brady, R.; Audas, C.; Cohen, H. S.

    2009-01-01

    During the acute phase of adaptation to novel gravitational environments, sensorimotor disturbances have the potential to disrupt the ability of astronauts to perform required mission tasks. The goal of our current series of studies is develop a sensorimotor adaptability (SA) training program designed to facilitate recovery of functional capabilities when astronauts transition to different gravitational environments. The project has conducted a series of studies investigating the efficacy of treadmill training combined with a variety of sensory challenges (incongruent visual input, support surface instability) designed to increase adaptability. SA training using a treadmill combined with exposure to altered visual input was effective in producing increased adaptability in a more complex over-ground ambulatory task on an obstacle course. This confirms that for a complex task like walking, treadmill training contains enough of the critical features of overground walking to be an effective training modality. SA training can be optimized by using a periodized training schedule. Test sessions that each contain short-duration exposures to multiple perturbation stimuli allows subjects to acquire a greater ability to rapidly reorganize appropriate response strategies when encountering a novel sensory environment. Using a treadmill mounted on top of a six degree-of-freedom motion base platform we investigated locomotor training responses produced by subjects introduced to a dynamic walking surface combined with alterations in visual flow. Subjects who received this training had improved locomotor performance and faster reaction times when exposed to the novel sensory stimuli compared to control subjects. Results also demonstrate that individual sensory biases (i.e. increased visual dependency) can predict adaptive responses to novel sensory environments suggesting that individual training prescription can be developed to enhance adaptability. These data indicate that SA

  12. Cigarette Tax Increase and Infant Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Stephen W; Warner, Kenneth E; Pordes, Elisabeth; Davis, Matthew M

    2016-01-01

    Maternal smoking increases the risk for preterm birth, low birth weight, and sudden infant death syndrome, which are all causes of infant mortality. Our objective was to evaluate if changes in cigarette taxes and prices over time in the United States were associated with a decrease in infant mortality. We compiled data for all states from 1999 to 2010. Time-series models were constructed by infant race for cigarette tax and price with infant mortality as the outcome, controlling for state per-capita income, educational attainment, time trend, and state random effects. From 1999 through 2010, the mean overall state infant mortality rate in the United States decreased from 7.3 to 6.2 per 1000 live births, with decreases of 6.0 to 5.3 for non-Hispanic white and 14.3 to 11.3 for non-Hispanic African American infants (P infant deaths of -0.19 (95% confidence interval -0.33 to -0.05) per 1000 live births overall, including changes of -0.21 (-0.33 to -0.08) for non-Hispanic white infants and -0.46 (-0.90 to -0.01) for non-Hispanic African American infants. Models for cigarette price yielded similar findings. Increases in cigarette taxes and prices are associated with decreases in infant mortality rates, with stronger impact for African American infants. Federal and state policymakers may consider increases in cigarette taxes as a primary prevention strategy for infant mortality. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. ISLAMIC CARING MODEL ON INCREASE PATIENT SATISFACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muh. Abdurrouf

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patient satisfaction was important aspect that must be considered by health service providers, patients who were not satisfied will leave the hospital and be a competitor's customers so be able caused a decrease in sales of products/services and in turn could reduce and even loss of profit, therefore, the hospital must provided the best service so that it could increase patient satisfaction. The purpose of this study was to exams the effect of Islamic caring model on increase patient satisfaction.. Method: This study was used pre-experimental design, the respondents were 31 patients in the treatment group assigned Islamic caring and 31 patients with a kontrol group that were not given Islamic caring Inpatient Surgical Sultan Agung Islamic Hospital Semarang by using consecutive sampling techniques, patient satisfaction data collected through questionnaires and analyzed with Mann-Whitney test, as for finding out the Islamic caring for patient satisfaction were analyzed with spearmen's rho test. Result: The results showed that there was a significant influence of Islamic caring for perceived disconfirmation (p=0,000 there was a perceived disconfirmation influence on patient satisfaction significantly (p=0,000, there was a significant influence of Islamic caring for patient satisfaction in the treatment group with a kontrol group (p=0.001. Discussion: Discussion of this study was Islamic caring model effect on the increase perceived disconfirmation and patient satisfaction, Perceived disconfirmation effect on patient satisfaction, patient satisfaction who given Islamic caring was increase, patients given Islamic caring had higher satisfaction levels than patients who not given Islamic caring. Suggestions put forward based on the results of the study of Islamic caring model could be applied in Sultan Agung Islamic Hospital as a model of nursing care, Islamic caring behavior can be learned and improved through training and commitment and

  14. DNA methylation increases throughout Arabidopsis development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-García, L; Cervera, M T; Martínez-Zapater, J M

    2005-10-01

    We used amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) to analyze the stability of DNA methylation throughout Arabidopsis development. AFLP can detect genome-wide changes in cytosine methylation produced by DNA demethylation agents, such as 5-azacytidine, or specific mutations at the DDM1 locus. In both cases, cytosine demethylation is associated with a general increase in the presence of amplified fragments. Using this approach, we followed DNA methylation at methylation sensitive restriction sites throughout Arabidopsis development. The results show a progressive DNA methylation trend from cotyledons to vegetative organs to reproductive organs.

  15. Final Technical Report: Increasing Prediction Accuracy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Bruce Hardison [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hansen, Clifford [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stein, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    PV performance models are used to quantify the value of PV plants in a given location. They combine the performance characteristics of the system, the measured or predicted irradiance and weather at a site, and the system configuration and design into a prediction of the amount of energy that will be produced by a PV system. These predictions must be as accurate as possible in order for finance charges to be minimized. Higher accuracy equals lower project risk. The Increasing Prediction Accuracy project at Sandia focuses on quantifying and reducing uncertainties in PV system performance models.

  16. Circulating Gastrin is Increased in Hemochromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kelly A.; Kovac, Suzana; Anderson, Gregory J.; Shulkes, Arthur; Baldwin, Graham S.

    2006-01-01

    Gastric acid production is important in intestinal iron absorption. The peptide hormone gastrin exists in both amidated and non-amidated forms, which stimulate and potentiate gastric acid secretion, respectively. Since non-amidated gastrins require ferric ions for biological activity in vitro, this study investigated the connection between iron status and gastrin by measurement of circulating gastrin concentrations in mice and humans with hemochromatosis. Gastrin concentrations are increased in the plasma and gastric mucosa of Hfe-/- mice, and in the sera of humans with HFE-related hemochromatosis. The discovery of a relationship between iron status and circulating gastrin concentrations opens a new perspective on the mechanisms of iron homeostasis. PMID:17064691

  17. Increasing nontuberculous mycobacteria infection in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-On, Ophir; Mussaffi, Huda; Mei-Zahav, Meir; Prais, Dario; Steuer, Guy; Stafler, Patrick; Hananya, Shai; Blau, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are emerging infections in the CF population. To assess NTM infection prevalence and associated features in our CF clinic population. Patient records, 2002-2011, were reviewed for NTM infection. FEV1, pancreatic function, sputum microbiology, and serum cytokines were compared in patients with and without NTM infection. Incidence rate of NTM infection increased from 0 in 2002 to 8.7% in 2011 (p<0.001). NTM infection prevalence increased 3-fold from 5% (4/79) in 2003 to 14.5% (16/110) in 2011 (p=0.05). Prevalence of chronic NTM lung disease has decreased somewhat since a peak in 2009, with institution of aggressive triple therapy. Of NTM-infected compared to uninfected patients, 88.2% vs. 60.3% had a known 'severe' CFTR genotype (p=0.04), 88.2% vs. 58.9% were pancreatic insufficient (p=0.02); 70.6% vs. 43.8% had chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa (p=0.06); 75% vs. 32% had Aspergillus infection (p=0.007) and 23.5% vs 2.7% had allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (p=0.01). Patients infected with Mycobacterium abscessus had increased TGF-β, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-5 levels (p<0.05). There was no difference in cytokine levels for all NTM infected compared to uninfected patients. M. abscessus comprised 46% of all NTM infections. Comparing M. abscessus versus other NTM, duration was 10.5 (1-118) months versus 1 (1-70) month, median (range) (p=0.004); lung disease occurred in 69% versus 17% (p=0.0004), with sputum conversion in 4/11 versus 5/6, respectively (NS). NTM incidence and prevalence have increased dramatically in our CF clinic, associated with a severe CF genotype and phenotype. M. abscessus, the most prevalent NTM, caused prolonged infection despite therapy. There has been some decrease in the prevalence of NTM lung disease since 2009. Copyright © 2014 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Increasing Receipt of Women's Preventive Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jared

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The receipt of clinical preventive services is important for health promotion and prevention of illness, death, and disability for women in the United States. Today, the Affordable Care Act makes a variety of evidence-based preventive services available with no out-of-pocket cost to women with certain health insurance plans. Nevertheless, available service receipt data suggest receipt of the services for all American adults remains suboptimal. This article seeks to raise awareness about the critical gaps in the delivery of preventive services to women and highlight opportunities for women, primary care providers, and public health professionals to increase receipt of clinical preventive services among women. PMID:26447836

  19. Emerin increase in regenerating muscle fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Squarzoni

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The fate of emerin during skeletal muscle regeneration was investigated in an animal model by means of crush injury. Immunofluorescence, immunoblotting and mRNA analysis demonstrated that emerin level is increased in regenerating rat muscle fibers with respect to normal mature myofibers. This finding suggests an involvement of emerin during the muscle fiber regeneration process, in analogy with its reported involvement in muscle cell differentiation in vitro. The impairment of skeletal muscle physiological regeneration or reorganization could be a possible pathogenetic mechanism for Emery Dreifuss muscular dystrophy.

  20. Homocysteine increases the risk associated with hyperlipidaemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Daly, Caroline

    2009-04-01

    The European Concerted Action Project \\'Homocysteine and Vascular Disease\\' showed that an elevated homocysteine is associated with a substantially increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and particularly when combined with other factors such as smoking, hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential interactions between homocysteine and individual lipid subfractions. In addition, it was hypothesized that HDL cholesterol may protect against hyperhomocysteinaemia because HDL cholesterol is associated with the enzyme paroxonase, which reduces oxidization of homocysteine to the harmful metabolite, homocysteine thiolactonase.

  1. Infection increases mortality in necrotizing pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werge, Mikkel; Novovic, Srdjan; Schmidt, Palle N

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the influence of infection on mortality in necrotizing pancreatitis. METHODS: Eligible prospective and retrospective studies were identified through manual and electronic searches (August 2015). The risk of bias was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). Meta...... sterile necrosis and organ failure was associated with a mortality of 19.8%. If the patients had infected necrosis without organ failure the mortality was 1.4%. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with necrotizing pancreatitis are more than twice as likely to die if the necrosis becomes infected. Both organ failure...... and infected necrosis increase mortality in necrotizing pancreatitis....

  2. Does getting a dog increase recreational walking?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knuiman Matthew W

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examines changes in socio-demographic, environmental and intrapersonal factors associated with dog acquisition in non-dog owners at baseline to 12-months follow-up and the effect of dog acquisition on minutes per week of recreational walking. Methods RESIDE study participants completed self-administered questionnaires (baseline and 12-months follow-up measuring physical activity, dog ownership, dog walking behavior as well as environmental, intrapersonal and socio-demographic factors. Analysis was restricted to 'Continuing non-owners' (i.e., non-owners at both baseline and follow-up; n = 681 and 'New dog owners' (i.e., non-owners who acquired a dog by follow-up; n = 92. Results Overall, 12% of baseline non-owners had acquired a dog at follow-up. Dog acquisition was associated with working and having children at home. Those who changed from single to couple marital status were also more likely to acquire a dog. The increase in minutes of walking for recreation within the neighborhood from baseline to follow-up was 48 minutes/week for new dog owners compared with 12 minutes/week for continuing non-owners (p p p > 0.05 after further adjustment for change in baseline to follow-up variables. Increase in intention to walk was the main factor contributing to attenuation of the effect of dog acquisition on recreational walking. Conclusion This study used a large representative sample of non-owners to examine the relationship between dog acquisition and recreational walking and provides evidence to suggest that dog acquisition leads to an increase in walking. The most likely mechanism through which dog acquisition facilitates increased physical activity is through behavioral intention via the dog's positive effect on owner's cognitive beliefs about walking, and through the provision of motivation and social support for walking. The results suggest that behavioral intention mediates the relationship between dog acquisition

  3. Circulating omentin concentration increases after weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricart Wifredo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Omentin-1 is a novel adipokine expressed in visceral adipose tissue and negatively associated with insulin resistance and obesity. We aimed to study the effects of weight loss-induced improved insulin sensitivity on circulating omentin concentrations. Methods Circulating omentin-1 (ELISA concentration in association with metabolic variables was measured in 35 obese subjects (18 men, 17 women before and after hypocaloric weight loss. Results Baseline circulating omentin-1 concentrations correlated negatively with BMI (r = -0.58, p Conclusion As previously described with adiponectin, circulating omentin-1 concentrations increase after weight loss-induced improvement of insulin sensitivity.

  4. Increasing Sales in a Hotel Lobby Shop

    OpenAIRE

    Ruhala, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Small shops and café areas connected to a hotel’s lobby have become increasingly popular within the hospitality industry. The customers have become more accustomed to spending time within the hotel premises and not only in their hotel room. Cumulus Koskikatu hotel, located in the Tampere city center, also opened their own hotel lobby shop hotel lobby area. As the hotel lobby shop is still a relatively new addition to the hotel operations, very little research has been done in the terms of ho...

  5. Increasing Incidence of Juvenile Thyrotoxicosis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, R. H.; Andersen, M. S.; Hansen, D.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine in a Danish nationwide study whether the incidence rate (IR) of thyrotoxicosis in children below 15 years of age has increased between 1998 and 2012 and to compare the results with previously published national data from 1982 to 1988. Furthermore, we...... intended to conduct a descriptive study of children diagnosed with Graves' disease (GD) between 2008 and 2012. Methods: Children diagnosed with thyrotoxicosis between 1998 and 2012 were identified through the Danish National Patient Registry. All medical records were reviewed to verify the diagnosis...

  6. Seizing an opportunity: increasing use of cessation services following a tobacco tax increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Paula A; Greenseid, Lija O; Christenson, Matthew; Boyle, Raymond G; Schillo, Barbara A

    2015-04-10

    Tobacco tax increases are associated with increases in quitline calls and reductions in smoking prevalence. In 2013, ClearWay Minnesota(SM) conducted a six-week media campaign promoting QUITPLAN® Services (QUITPLAN Helpline and quitplan.com) to leverage the state's tax increase. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the association of the tax increase and media campaign on call volumes, web visits, and enrollments in QUITPLAN Services. In this observational study, call volume, web visits, enrollments, and participant characteristics were analyzed for the periods June-August 2012 and June-August 2013. Enrollment data and information about media campaigns were analyzed using multivariate regression analysis to determine the association of the tax increase on QUITPLAN Services while controlling for media. There was a 160% increase in total combined calls and web visits, and an 81% increase in enrollments in QUITPLAN Services. Helpline call volumes and enrollments declined back to prior year levels approximately six weeks after the tax increase. Visits to and enrollments in quitplan.com also declined, but increased again in mid-August. The tax increase and media explained over 70% of variation in enrollments in the QUITPLAN Helpline, with media explaining 34% of the variance and the tax increase explaining an additional 36.1% of this variance. However, media explained 64% of the variance in quitplan.com enrollments, and the tax increase explained an additional 7.6% of this variance. Since tax increases occur infrequently, these policy changes must be fully leveraged as quickly as possible to help reduce prevalence.

  7. MARKETING STRATEGY TO INCREASE BED OCCUPANCY RATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwaningsih Purwaningsih

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A hospital is an institution for health care providing treatment by specialized staff and equipment, more often but not always providing for longer-term patient stays. Today, hospitals are very complex institution, not only survive in dynamic environment but also make a profit based on their services. The aimed of this research was to know marketing mix concept (product, price, place, promotion, people, process and provision of customer service in formulating marketing strategy to increased Bed Occupancy Rate of Obstetric Gynecology Ward 2. Method: The population are health care personnel including midwife, midwife associate, administrator and also client or consumer. The variable were product, price, place, promotion, people, process and provision of customer service. Data were collected by using structured questionnaire. Result: The result showed that product (type of services, infrastructure and facility, relative price, comfortable and safe place, targeted promotion, trained human resources, standard process and provision of customer service are an important aspect to implement strategy marketing to increase Bed Occupancy Rate. Analysis: The result of this study has enlightened the importance of strategy marketing in health care services based on seven principle of marketing mix. Discussion: Implementation of marketing mix in obstetric gynecology ward 2 need to be considered.

  8. Transgenic plants with increased calcium stores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Sarah (Inventor); Tsou, Pei-Lan (Inventor); Robertson, Dominique (Inventor); Boss, Wendy (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    The present invention provides transgenic plants over-expressing a transgene encoding a calcium-binding protein or peptide (CaBP). Preferably, the CaBP is a calcium storage protein and over-expression thereof does not have undue adverse effects on calcium homeostasis or biochemical pathways that are regulated by calcium. In preferred embodiments, the CaBP is calreticulin (CRT) or calsequestrin. In more preferred embodiments, the CaBP is the C-domain of CRT, a fragment of the C-domain, or multimers of the foregoing. In other preferred embodiments, the CaBP is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum by operatively associating the transgene encoding the CaBP with an endoplasmic reticulum localization peptide. Alternatively, the CaBP is targeted to any other sub-cellular compartment that permits the calcium to be stored in a form that is biologically available to the plant. Also provided are methods of producing plants with desirable phenotypic traits by transformation of the plant with a transgene encoding a CaBP. Such phenotypic traits include increased calcium storage, enhanced resistance to calcium-limiting conditions, enhanced growth and viability, increased disease and stress resistance, enhanced flower and fruit production, reduced senescence, and a decreased need for fertilizer production. Further provided are plants with enhanced nutritional value as human food or animal feed.

  9. Extensive Atrophic Gastritis Increases Intraduodenal Hydrogen Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihisa Urita

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Gastric acid plays an important part in the prevention of bacterial colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. If these bacteria have an ability of hydrogen (H2 fermentation, intraluminal H2 gas might be detected. We attempted to measure the intraluminal H2 concentrations to determine the bacterial overgrowth in the gastrointestinal tract. Patients and methods. Studies were performed in 647 consecutive patients undergoing upper endoscopy. At the time of endoscopic examination, we intubated the stomach and the descending part of the duodenum without inflation by air, and 20 mL of intraluminal gas samples of both sites was collected through the biopsy channel. Intraluminal H2 concentrations were measured by gas chromatography. Results. Intragastric and intraduodenal H2 gas was detected in 566 (87.5% and 524 (81.0% patients, respectively. The mean values of intragastric and intraduodenal H2 gas were 8.5±15.9 and 13.2±58.0 ppm, respectively. The intraduodenal H2 level was increased with the progression of atrophic gastritis, whereas the intragastric H2 level was the highest in patients without atrophic gastritis. Conclusions. The intraduodenal hydrogen levels were increased with the progression of atrophic gastritis. It is likely that the influence of hypochlorhydria on bacterial overgrowth in the proximal small intestine is more pronounced, compared to that in the stomach.

  10. Increasing certification through unit-based education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer-Cartlidge, Erica; Mahon, Suzanne

    2014-04-01

    Certification has been identified by multiple organizations as an important component and means of elevating the level of nursing care provided to patients and demonstrating to the public that the nursing staff has subspecialty knowledge. Certification may lead to improved patient satisfaction and outcomes as well as increased nurse satisfaction and retention. Despite the known potential benefits associated with certification, institutions struggle to improve certification rates. One possible method to overcome system barriers to certification is the implementation of a unit-based study course to prepare nurses for the Certified Breast Care Nurse (CBCN) examination. Data collected by an author-developed tool as one institution created and executed a unit-based study course suggest that such an approach increased certification rates and improved disease-specific knowledge and confidence among the staff, despite no official data existing on the tool's reliability and validity. Implementation of similar programs may be successful in improving certification at other institutions seeking to raise certification rates.

  11. Exercise-associated increases in cardiac biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharhag, Jürgen; George, Keith; Shave, Rob; Urhausen, Axel; Kindermann, Wilfried

    2008-08-01

    At present, the risk of myocardial damage by endurance exercise is under debate because of reports on exercise-associated increases in cardiac biomarkers troponin and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP); these markers are typically elevated in patients with acute myocardial infarction and chronic heart failure, respectively. Exercise-associated elevations of cardiac biomarkers can be present in elite and in recreational athletes, especially after prolonged and strenuous endurance exercise bouts (e.g., marathon and ultratriathlon). However, in contrast to cardiac patients, it is still unclear if the exercise-associated appearance or increase in cardiac biomarkers in obviously healthy athletes represents clinically significant cardiac insult or is indeed part of the physiological response to endurance exercise. In addition, elevations in cardiac biomarkers in athletes after exercise may generate difficulties for clinicians in terms of differential diagnosis and may result in inappropriate consequences. Therefore, the aim of this article is to provide an overview of exercise-associated alterations of the cardiac biomarkers troponin T and I, ischemia-modified albumin, BNP, and its cleaved inactive fragment N-terminal pro BNP for the athlete, coach, scientist, and clinician.

  12. Increased mortality in hypernatremic burned patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namdar, Thomas; Siemers, Frank; Stollwerck, Peter L.; Stang, Felix H.; Mailänder, Peter; Lange, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: In-hospital hypernatremia develops usually iatrogenically from inadequate or inappropriate fluid prescription. In severely burned patient an extensive initial fluid resuscitation is necessary for burn shock survival. After recovering of cellular integrity the circulating volume has to be normalized. Hereby extensive water and electrolyte shifts can provoke hypernatremia. Purpose: Is a hypernatremic state associated with increased mortality? Method: Retrospective study for the incidence of hypernatremia and survival in 40 patients with a totally burned surface area (TBSA) >10%. Age, sex, TBSA, ABSI-Score and fluid resuscitation within the first 24 hours were analyzed. Patients were separated in two groups without (Group A) or with (Group B) hypernatremia. Results: Hypernatremia occurred on day 5±1.4. No significant difference for age, sex, TBSA, ABSI-Score and fluid resuscitation within the first 24 hours were calculated. In Group A all patients survived, while 3 of the hypernatremic patient in Group B died during ICU-stay (Odds-ratio = 1.25; 95% CI 0.971–1.61; p=0.046). Conclusion: Burned patients with an in-hospital acquired hypernatremia have an increased mortality risk. In case of a hypernatremic state early intervention is obligatory. There is a need of a fluid removal strategy in severely burned patient to avoid water imbalance. PMID:20577644

  13. Increased mortality in hypernatremic burned patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lange, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In-hospital hypernatremia develops usually iatrogenically from inadequate or inappropriate fluid prescription. In severely burned patient an extensive initial fluid resuscitation is necessary for burn shock survival. After recovering of cellular integrity the circulating volume has to be normalized. Hereby extensive water and electrolyte shifts can provoke hypernatremia. Purpose: Is a hypernatremic state associated with increased mortality? Method: Retrospective study for the incidence of hypernatremia and survival in 40 patients with a totally burned surface area (TBSA >10%. Age, sex, TBSA, ABSI-Score and fluid resuscitation within the first 24 hours were analyzed. Patients were separated in two groups without (Group A or with (Group B hypernatremia. Results: Hypernatremia occurred on day 5±1.4. No significant difference for age, sex, TBSA, ABSI-Score and fluid resuscitation within the first 24 hours were calculated. In Group A all patients survived, while 3 of the hypernatremic patient in Group B died during ICU-stay (Odds-ratio = 1.25; 95% CI 0.971–1.61; p=0.046. Conclusion: Burned patients with an in-hospital acquired hypernatremia have an increased mortality risk. In case of a hypernatremic state early intervention is obligatory. There is a need of a fluid removal strategy in severely burned patient to avoid water imbalance.

  14. Increasing the thermal efficiency of boiler plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uyanchinov Evgeniy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal efficiency increase of boiler plant is actual task of scientific and technical researches. The optimization of boiler operating conditions is task complex, which determine by most probable average load of boiler, operating time and characteristics of the auxiliary equipment. The work purpose – the determination of thermodynamic efficiency increase ways for boiler plant with a gas-tube boiler. The tasks, solved at the research are the calculation of heat and fuel demand, the exergetic analysis of boilerhouse and heat network equipment, the determination of hydraulic losses and exergy losses due to restriction. The calculation was shown that the exergy destruction can be reduced by 2.39% due to excess air reducing to 10%; in addition the oxygen enrichment of air can be used that leads to reducing of the exergy destruction rate. The processes of carbon deposition from the side of flame and processes of scale formation on the water side leads to about 4.58% losses of fuel energy at gas-tube boiler. It was shown that the exergy losses may be reduced by 2.31% due to stack gases temperature reducing to 148 °C.

  15. Smoking increases the requirement for rocuronium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautoma, P; Svartling, N

    1998-07-01

    To compare the potency of rocuronium in non-smokers and smokers during general anaesthesia. In a randomized, open clinical study, 40 patients, 17-62 yr of age, were anaesthetized with propofol, alfentanil and nitrous oxide in oxygen. After obtaining individual dose-response curves for rocuronium, bolus doses of rocuronium were given to maintain neuromuscular block at 90-99% for 60 min. Evoked adductor pollicis electromyography (EMG) was used to monitor neuromuscular block. The ED95 values (+/- SEM) for rocuronium were 460.5 +/- 28.9 and 471.5 +/- 22.1 micrograms.kg-1 for non-smokers and smokers, respectively (P:NS). However, doses of rocuronium to maintain 90-99% neuromuscular block (+/- SEM) were 620.1 +/- 46.7 and 747.4 +/- 56.0 micrograms.kg-1.hr-1 for non-smokers and smokers, respectively (P = 0.0504). The results may indicate increased metabolism of rocuronium in smokers rather than increased requirement of rocuronium at the receptor site.

  16. Increased mercury emissions from modern dental amalgams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Ulf G; Hylander, Lars D

    2017-04-01

    All types of dental amalgams contain mercury, which partly is emitted as mercury vapor. All types of dental amalgams corrode after being placed in the oral cavity. Modern high copper amalgams exhibit two new traits of increased instability. Firstly, when subjected to wear/polishing, droplets rich in mercury are formed on the surface, showing that mercury is not being strongly bonded to the base or alloy metals. Secondly, high copper amalgams emit substantially larger amounts of mercury vapor than the low copper amalgams used before the 1970s. High copper amalgams has been developed with focus on mechanical strength and corrosion resistance, but has been sub-optimized in other aspects, resulting in increased instability and higher emission of mercury vapor. This has not been presented to policy makers and scientists. Both low and high copper amalgams undergo a transformation process for several years after placement, resulting in a substantial reduction in mercury content, but there exist no limit for maximum allowed emission of mercury from dental amalgams. These modern high copper amalgams are nowadays totally dominating the European, US and other markets, resulting in significant emissions of mercury, not considered when judging their suitability for dental restoration.

  17. Osteoporosis: an increasing concern in pediatric dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Fonseca, Marcio A

    2011-01-01

    Increasing numbers of children are being affected by low bone density and osteoporosis. Bone fractures are the main reason for hospitalization between 10 and 14 years of age and, over the past 3 decades, there has been an increase in the incidence of fractures in children. Childhood factors such as lifestyle, diet, chronic illness, and medications have a vital short-term impact on bone health and a long-term effect on the achievement of peak bone mass, with the potential for morbidity in adulthood. The primary forms of osteoporosis consist of rare inherited conditions, but the secondary forms are becoming more common given that chronically ill children are surviving longer. This subject should be of interest to pediatric dentists, because low mineral density and osteoporosis, together with drugs used to treat them (eg, bisphosphonates), may cause adverse effects in the oral cavity. Furthermore, the pediatric dentist is an important health care professional to counsel patients about healthy lifestyles that can help prevent the condition from an early age.

  18. The Increasing Value of Education to Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Dana; Smith, James P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses how the relationship between health and educational attainment has changed over the last three decades. We examine trends in disease prevalence and self-reporte health using the US National Health Interview Survey for five chronic conditions—arthritis, diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, and lung diseases. The sample is limited to non-Hispanic Whites ages 40–64 to focus on the value of education and not changing representation of minority populations. We find that health benefits associated with additional schooling rose over time by more than ten percentage points as measured by self-reported health status. This can be attributed to both a growing disparity by education in the probability of having major chronic diseases during middle age, and better health outcomes for those with each disease. The value of education in achieving better health has increased over the last 25 years; both in protecting against onset of disease and promoting better health outcomes amongst those with a disease. Besides better access to health insurance, the more educated increasingly adapted better health behaviors, particularly not smoking and engaging in vigorous excercise, and reaped the benefits of improving medical technology. Rising health disparities by education are an important social concern which may require targeted interventions. PMID:21555176

  19. Environmental implications of increased biomass energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, T.R. Sr.; Miles, T.R. Jr. (Miles (Thomas R.), Portland, OR (United States))

    1992-03-01

    This study reviews the environmental implications of continued and increased use of biomass for energy to determine what concerns have been and need to be addressed and to establish some guidelines for developing future resources and technologies. Although renewable biomass energy is perceived as environmentally desirable compared with fossil fuels, the environmental impact of increased biomass use needs to be identified and recognized. Industries and utilities evaluating the potential to convert biomass to heat, electricity, and transportation fuels must consider whether the resource is reliable and abundant, and whether biomass production and conversion is environmentally preferred. A broad range of studies and events in the United States were reviewed to assess the inventory of forest, agricultural, and urban biomass fuels; characterize biomass fuel types, their occurrence, and their suitability; describe regulatory and environmental effects on the availability and use of biomass for energy; and identify areas for further study. The following sections address resource, environmental, and policy needs. Several specific actions are recommended for utilities, nonutility power generators, and public agencies.

  20. [Increasing difficulties for scientific publication in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Elena

    2014-03-01

    A very important increase in the costs of the edition of scientific journals has taken place in Venezuela, due to difficulties in obtaining imported free acid paper and other materials used for handling documents. Like other journals, Investigaci6n Clinica has been considering switching completely to a digital publication format; however there are several reasons that prevent us to doing it at this time: the journal is distributed in printed form to many national institutions, which do not have immediate access to digital information. In addition, there exists a commitment of shipment of printed issues for some international indices and in exchange with other national and foreign journals, whose printed format we receive. Another important aspect is that our University maintains a weak technological platform that makes difficult the immediacy required for the interchange with authors and consulted referees of received papers; and there is a latent danger of limitations in the use of digital technologies, due to current national politic problems. Consequently, we need to continue with the printed format, but must reduce the amount of printed issues, so as not to limit the number of papers published in each edition. Nevertheless, there is an ever increasing number of contributions from foreign researches and Investigaci6n Clinica has been recently included in two new international indices, the SEIIC from Argentina and the Infobase Index from India, reasons that obligate us to maintain our levels of excellence and commitment to our authors and readers.