Structure functions of electroweak boson and leptons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Slominski, W.; Szwed, J.
1996-01-01
The QCD structure of the electroweak bosons is reviewed and the lepton structure function is defined and calculated. The leading order splitting functions of electron into quarks are extracted, showing an important contribution from γ-Z interference. Leading logarithmic QCD evolution equations are constructed and solved in the asymptotic region where log 2 behavior of the Parton densities is observed. Possible applications with clear manifestation of ''resolved'' photon and weak bosons are discussed. 8 refs., 3 figs
Boson structure functions from inelastic electron scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Jager, C.W.
1986-01-01
The even /sup 104-110/Pd isotopes and /sup 196/Pt have been investigated at NIKHEF-K by high-resolution inelastic electron scattering. A new IBA-2 calculation has been performed for the Pd isotopes, in which the ratio of the proton and neutron coupling constants is taken from pion scattering. One set of boson structure functions sufficed for the description of the first and second E2-excitations in all Pd isotopes. The data showed no sensitivity for different structure functions for proton and neutron bosons. A preliminary analysis of a number of negative parity states (3/sup -/,5/sup -/ and 7/sup -/), observed in /sup 196/Pt, was performed through the introduction of an f-boson. The first E4-excitation in the palladium isotopes can be reasonably described with a β-structure function, but all other E4-excitations require the introduction of g-boson admixtures
Intrinsic polarization of the high energy W-boson structure functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ralston, J.P.; Olness, F.
1986-01-01
Several new issues are presented that are to be incorporated into a consistent treatment of high-energy transverse effective-W boson structure functions. The issues included the numerical importance of the proper choice of scale, and the q 2 evolution of the boson structure functions in an Altarelli-Parisi framework. We investigate a novel effect of the V-A coupling which produces a sizable intrinsic polarization of the W distributions. A preliminary estimate yields a left- to right-helicity structure function ratio W/sub L// + W/sub R/ + ≅ 1 - 21/(1 - x) + 21/(1 - x) 2 . For x ≥ 0.06, there are two lift-handed W + 's for every right-handed one in an unpolarized proton. 11 refs., 2 figs
Tests of structure functions using leptons at CDF: The charge asymmetry in W-boson decays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DeBarbaro, P.
1994-08-01
The charge asymmetry of W-bosons produced in p bar p collisions has been measured using 19 039 W → eν and W → μν decays recorded by the CDF detector during the 1992--93 Tevatron collider run. The asymmetry is sensitive to the slope of the proton's d/u quark distribution ratio down to x 2 ∼ M W 2 , where nonperturbative QCD effects are minimal. Of recent parton distribution functions, those of Martin, Roberts and Stirling are favored over those of the CTEQ collaboration. This difference is seen even though both sets agree, at the level of the nuclear shadowing corrections, with the recent NMC measurements of F 2 μn /F 2 μp
Domains of bosonic functional integrals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Botelho, Luiz C.L.; Para Univ., Belem, PA
1998-07-01
We propose a mathematical framework for bosonic Euclidean quantum field functional integrals based on the theory of integration on the dual algebraic vector space of classical field sources. We present a generalization of the Minlos-Dao Xing theorem and apply it to determine exactly the domain of integration associated to the functional integral representation of the two-dimensional quantum electrodynamics Schwinger generating functional. (author)
Microscopic structure of an interacting boson model in terms of the dyson boson mapping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geyer, H.B.; Lee, S.Y.
1982-01-01
In an application of the generalized Dyson boson mapping to a shell model Hamiltonian acting in a single j shell, a clear distinction emerges between pair bosons and kinematically determined seniority bosons. As in the Otsuka-Arima-Iachello method it is found that the latter type of boson determines the structure of an interactive boson-model-like Hamiltonian for the single j-shell model. It is furthermore shown that the Dyson boson mapping formalism is equally well suited for investigating possible interactive boson-model-like structures in a multishell case, where dynamical considerations are expected to play a much more important role in determining the structure of physical bosons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Druce, C.H.; Moszkowski, S.A.
1986-01-01
The surface delta interaction is used as an effective nucleon-nucleon interaction to investigate the structure and interaction of the bosons in the interacting boson model. We have obtained analytical expressions for the coefficients of a multipole expansion of the neutron-boson-proton-boson interaction for the case of degenerate orbits. A connection is made between these coefficients and the parameters of the interaction boson model Hamiltonian. A link between the latter parameters and the single boson energies is suggested
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Druce, C.H.; Moszkowski, S.A.
1986-01-01
The surface delta interaction is used as an effective nucleon-nucleon interaction to investigate the structure and interaction of the bosons in the interacting boson model. We have obtained analytical expressions for the coefficients of a multipole expansion of the neutron-boson-proton-boson interaction for the case of degenerate orbits. A connection is made between these coefficients and the parameters of the interaction boson model Hamiltonian. A link between the latter parameters and the single boson energies is suggested.
CKP Hierarchy, Bosonic Tau Function and Bosonization Formulae
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Johan W. van de Leur
2012-06-01
Full Text Available We develop the theory of CKP hierarchy introduced in the papers of Kyoto school [Date E., Jimbo M., Kashiwara M., Miwa T., J. Phys. Soc. Japan 50 (1981, 3806-3812] (see also [Kac V.G., van de Leur J.W., Adv. Ser. Math. Phys., Vol. 7, World Sci. Publ., Teaneck, NJ, 1989, 369-406]. We present appropriate bosonization formulae. We show that in the context of the CKP theory certain orthogonal polynomials appear. These polynomials are polynomial both in even and odd (in Grassmannian sense variables.
Q-boson interferometry and generalized Wigner function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Q.H.; Padula, Sandra S.
2004-01-01
Bose-Einstein correlations of two identically charged Q bosons are derived considering these particles to be confined in finite volumes. Boundary effects on single Q-boson spectrum are also studied. We illustrate the effects on the spectrum and on the two-Q-boson correlation function by means of two toy models. We also derive a generalized expression for the Wigner function depending on the deformation parameter Q, which is reduced to its original functional form in the limit of Q→1
Modular invariant partition functions for toroidally compactified bosonic string
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ardalan, F.; Arfaei, H.
1988-06-01
We systematically find all the modular invariant partition functions for the toroidally compactified closed bosonic string defined on a subset of a simply laced simple Lie algebra lattice, or equivalently for the closed bosonic string moving on a group manifold with the WZW coefficient k=1. We examine the relation between modular invariance of partition function and the possibility of describing it by an even Lorentzian self dual lattice in our context. (author). 23 refs
1994-01-01
Bosonization is a useful technique for studying systems of interacting fermions in low dimensions. It has applications in both particle and condensed matter physics.This book contains reprints of papers on the method as used in these fields. The papers range from the classic work of Tomonaga in the 1950's on one-dimensional electron gases, through the discovery of fermionic solitons in the 1970's, to integrable systems and bosonization on Riemann surfaces. A four-chapter pedagogical introduction by the editor should make the book accessible to graduate students and experienced researchers alik
New One-Boson-Exchange Potential functions | Fiase | Journal of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A new one-boson-exchange potential (OBEP) is derived by fitting the oscillator matrix elements of the sum of the OBEP functions to those of the matrix elements derived by the lowest order constrained variational (LOCV) technique. The results give a reasonable fit to the OBEP model. Journal of the Nigerian Association of ...
Partition function of a chiral boson on a 2-torus from the Floreanini–Jackiw Lagrangian
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Wei-Ming; Ho, Pei-Ming; Kao, Hsien-chung; Khoo, Fech Scen; Matsuo, Yutaka
2014-01-01
We revisit the problem of quantizing a chiral boson on a torus. The conventional approach is to extract the partition function of a chiral boson from the path integral of a non-chiral boson. Instead we compute it directly from the chiral boson Lagrangian of Floreanini and Jackiw modified by topological terms involving an auxiliary field. A careful analysis of the gauge-fixing condition for the extra gauge symmetry reproduces the correct results for the free chiral boson, and has the advantage of being applicable to a wider class of interacting chiral boson theories
The theta-structure in string theories - 1: bosonic strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Miao.
1985-09-01
We explored the theta-structures in bosonic string theories which are similar to those in gauge field theories. The theta-structure of string is due to the multiply connected spatial compact subspace of space-time. The work of this paper shows that there is an energy band E(theta) in the string theory and one may move the tachyon out in theory by choosing some proper theta parameters. (author)
Search for a bosonic component in the neutrino wave function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tornow, W.
2010-01-01
Recently, Dolgov and Smirnov speculated that neutrinos may not obey the principle named after their inventor, the Pauli Principle. The neutrino wave function may contain a bosonic component. In principle, two-neutrino double-beta (2ν2β) decay data could be used to check on the conjecture that neutrinos violate the Pauli Principle. Recent 2ν2β data on 100 Mo to both the ground state and excited states in 100 Ru will be used to illustrate the procedure.
Search for a bosonic component in the neutrino wave function
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tornow, W. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) and Duke University Department of Physics, P.O. Box 90308, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States)
2010-11-01
Recently, Dolgov and Smirnov speculated that neutrinos may not obey the principle named after their inventor, the Pauli Principle. The neutrino wave function may contain a bosonic component. In principle, two-neutrino double-beta (2{nu}2{beta}) decay data could be used to check on the conjecture that neutrinos violate the Pauli Principle. Recent 2{nu}2{beta} data on {sup 100}Mo to both the ground state and excited states in {sup 100}Ru will be used to illustrate the procedure.
Boson-exchange nucleon-nucleon potential and nuclear structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grange, Pierre.
1976-01-01
A fully momentum-dependent one-boson-exchange potential is derived which takes into account the mesons, π, eta, sigma, rho, ω and phi. Scattering bound states and nuclear matter properties are studied in momentum space. The use of such potential is shown to be as easy as the use of more simple phenomenological interactions. In nuclear matter the formalism of Bethe-Goldstone is chosen to compute the binding energy versus density in the approximation of two-body and three-body correlations. The three-body correlated wave function obtained is then used [fr
A functional integral approach without slave bosons to the Anderson model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen Ngoc Thuan; Nguyen Toan Thang; Coqblin, B.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Hoang Anh Tuan.
1994-06-01
We developed the technique of the functional integral method without slave bosons for the Periodic Anderson Model (PAM) suggested by Sarker for treating the Hubbard Model. This technique allowed us to obtain an analytical expression of Green functions containing U-dependence that is omitted in the formalism with slave bosons. (author). 9 refs
Correlation function of weakly interacting bosons in a disordered lattice
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deissler, B; Lucioni, E; Modugno, M; Roati, G; Tanzi, L; Zaccanti, M; Inguscio, M; Modugno, G, E-mail: deissler@lens.unifi.it, E-mail: modugno@lens.unifi.it [LENS and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Firenze, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)
2011-02-15
One of the most important issues in disordered systems is the interplay of the disorder and repulsive interactions. Several recent experimental advances on this topic have been made with ultracold atoms, in particular the observation of Anderson localization and the realization of the disordered Bose-Hubbard model. There are, however, still questions as to how to differentiate the complex insulating phases resulting from this interplay, and how to measure the size of the superfluid fragments that these phases entail. It has been suggested that the correlation function of such a system can give new insights, but so far very little experimental investigation has been performed. Here, we show the first experimental analysis of the correlation function for a weakly interacting, bosonic system in a quasiperiodic lattice. We observe an increase in the correlation length as well as a change in the shape of the correlation function in the delocalization crossover from Anderson glass to coherent, extended state. In between, the experiment indicates the formation of progressively larger coherent fragments, consistent with a fragmented BEC, or Bose glass.
Correlation function of weakly interacting bosons in a disordered lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deissler, B; Lucioni, E; Modugno, M; Roati, G; Tanzi, L; Zaccanti, M; Inguscio, M; Modugno, G
2011-01-01
One of the most important issues in disordered systems is the interplay of the disorder and repulsive interactions. Several recent experimental advances on this topic have been made with ultracold atoms, in particular the observation of Anderson localization and the realization of the disordered Bose-Hubbard model. There are, however, still questions as to how to differentiate the complex insulating phases resulting from this interplay, and how to measure the size of the superfluid fragments that these phases entail. It has been suggested that the correlation function of such a system can give new insights, but so far very little experimental investigation has been performed. Here, we show the first experimental analysis of the correlation function for a weakly interacting, bosonic system in a quasiperiodic lattice. We observe an increase in the correlation length as well as a change in the shape of the correlation function in the delocalization crossover from Anderson glass to coherent, extended state. In between, the experiment indicates the formation of progressively larger coherent fragments, consistent with a fragmented BEC, or Bose glass.
Diquarks and nucleon structure functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Linkevich, A.D.; Savrin, V.I.; Skachkov, N.B.
1982-01-01
Formulae for structure functions of the deep-inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering are obtained through relativistic wave functions of systems composed of particles with spins 0, 1/2 and 1, 1/2. These wave functions are solutions of covariant two-particle single-time equations describing the nucleon as a system formed out of a quark and a diquark. Diquark is considered as a boson with the spin 0 and 1. The expressions for the nucleon structure functions are obtained by using the matrix elements of the current operator corresponding to the elastic scattering of the photon on a quark and on a diquark [ru
Schwinger's formula and the partition function for the bosonic and fermionic harmonic oscillators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albuquerque, L.C. de; Farina, C.; Rabello, S.J.
1994-01-01
We use Schwinger's formula, introduced by himself in the early fifties to compute effective actions for Qed, and recently applied to the Casimir effect, to obtain the partition functions for both the bosonic and fermionic harmonic oscillators. (author)
Two-Q-boson interferometry and generalization of the Wigner function
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Padula, Sandra S. [Instituto de Fisica Teorica (IFT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: padula@ift.unesp.br; Zhang, Q.H. [McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada). Physics Dept.
2004-07-01
Bose-Einstein correlations of two identically charged Q-bosons are derived considering those particles to be confined in finite volumes. Boundary effects on single Q-boson spectrum are also studied. We illustrate these effects by two examples: a toy model (one-dimensional box) and a confining sphere. We also confined a generalized expression for the Wigner function depending on the deformation parameter Q, which is reduced to its original functional form in the limit Q {yields} 1. (author)
Two-Q-boson interferometry and generalization of the Wigner function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Padula, Sandra S.; Zhang, Q.H.
2004-01-01
Bose-Einstein correlations of two identically charged Q-bosons are derived considering those particles to be confined in finite volumes. Boundary effects on single Q-boson spectrum are also studied. We illustrate these effects by two examples: a toy model (one-dimensional box) and a confining sphere. We also derive a generalized expression for the Wigner function depending on the deformation parameter Q, which is reduced to its original functional form in the limit Q → 1
Two-Q-boson interferometry and generalization of the Wigner function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Padula, Sandra S.; Zhang, Q.H.
2004-01-01
Bose-Einstein correlations of two identically charged Q-bosons are derived considering those particles to be confined in finite volumes. Boundary effects on single Q-boson spectrum are also studied. We illustrate these effects by two examples: a toy model (one-dimensional box) and a confining sphere. We also confined a generalized expression for the Wigner function depending on the deformation parameter Q, which is reduced to its original functional form in the limit Q → 1. (author)
Microscopic bosonization of band structures: x-ray processes beyond the Fermi edge
Snyman, Izak; Florens, Serge
2017-11-01
Bosonization provides a powerful analytical framework to deal with one-dimensional strongly interacting fermion systems, which makes it a cornerstone in quantum many-body theory. However, this success comes at the expense of using effective infrared parameters, and restricting the description to low energy states near the Fermi level. We propose a radical extension of the bosonization technique that overcomes both limitations, allowing computations with microscopic lattice Hamiltonians, from the Fermi level down to the bottom of the band. The formalism rests on the simple idea of representating the fermion kinetic term in the energy domain, after which it can be expressed in terms of free bosonic degrees of freedom. As a result, one- and two-body fermionic scattering processes generate anharmonic boson-boson interactions, even in the forward channel. We show that up to moderate interaction strengths, these non-linearities can be treated analytically at all energy scales, using the x-ray emission problem as a showcase. In the strong interaction regime, we employ a systematic variational solution of the bosonic theory, and obtain results that agree quantitatively with an exact diagonalization of the original one-particle fermionic model. This provides a proof of the fully microscopic character of bosonization, on all energy scales, for an arbitrary band structure. Besides recovering the known x-ray edge singularity at the emission threshold, we find strong signatures of correlations even at emission frequencies beyond the band bottom.
The comparison of bosonic and fermionic descriptions of collective nuclear structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baktybaev, K.
2004-01-01
Full text: Bosonic and fermionic descriptions for the nuclear many body system are complementary. The archetypical bosonic algebra is the original interacting boson model [1]. Without distinguishing between proton and neutron bosons, it gave rise to successful phenomenology for medium and heavy nuclei, and is built from the concept of dynamical symmetry whose genesis is a group chain. The fermionic algebra on the other hand, such as the fermion dynamical symmetry model (FDSM) [2], is necessarily more complex because it originates from the shell structure and uses protons and neutrons as building blocks. We have presented two complementary pictures of bosons and fermions to describe the normal and the exotic states. We find that the bosonic concepts of symmetry and mixed- symmetry can subtly be interpreted within the fermion picture as well. However, there is one important dichotomy. In the fermion description, the n-p quadrupole interaction is responsible for splitting these two type of states and produces strong M1 transitions. This phenomenon is in close analogy to the L-S splitting of orbital and spin spaces. The examples given in the paper show that many 2 + normal and exotic states are in fact 'partners' for n-p quadrupole coupling and there fore must split in its presence. We would like to emphasize that the proper placement of the positions of the exotic states and the prediction of their respective transitions must be another stringent constraint on the effective interactions of the Hamiltonian
Structure functions from chiral soliton models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weigel, H.; Reinhardt, H.; Gamberg, L.
1997-01-01
We study nucleon structure functions within the bosonized Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model where the nucleon emerges as a chiral soliton. We discuss the model predictions on the Gottfried sum rule for electron-nucleon scattering. A comparison with a low-scale parametrization shows that the model reproduces the gross features of the empirical structure functions. We also compute the leading twist contributions of the polarized structure functions g 1 and g 2 in this model. We compare the model predictions on these structure functions with data from the E143 experiment by GLAP evolving them from the scale characteristic for the NJL-model to the scale of the data
Critical dimension of bosonic string theory and zeta-function regularization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vanzo, L.; Zerbini, S.; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Povo
1988-01-01
A derivation of the critical dimension of the Polyakov bosonic string is presented. It is based on the use of the anholonomic formalism, a ghost-anti-ghost symmetric action, zeta-function regularization and the Seeley method of pseudo-differential operators. (orig.)
Massive boson-fermion degeneracy and the early structure of the universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kounnas, C.
2008-01-01
The existence of a new kind of massive boson-fermion symmetry is shown explicitly in the framework of the heterotic, type II and type II orientifold superstring theories. The target space-time is two-dimensional. Higher dimensional models are defined via large marginal deformations of J anti J-type. The spectrum of the initial undeformed two dimensional vacuum consists of massless boson degrees of freedom, while all massive boson and fermion degrees of freedom exhibit a new Massive Spectrum Degeneracy Symmetry (MSDS). This precise property, distinguishes the MSDS theories from the well known supersymmetric SUSY-theories. Some proposals are stated in the framework of these theories concerning the structure of: (i) The Early Non-singular Phase of the Universe, (ii) The two dimensional boundary theory of AdS 3 Black-Holes, (iii) Plausible applications of the MSDS theories in particle physics, alternative to SUSY. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
Bosonic Spectral Function and the Electron-Phonon Interaction in HTSC Cuprates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maksimov, E. G.; Tamm, I. E.; Kulic, M.L.; Kulic, M.L.; Dolgov, O. V.
2010-01-01
In this paper we discuss experimental evidence related to the structure and origin of the bosonic spectral function a2F(ο) in high-temperature superconducting (HTSC) cuprates at and near optimal doping. Global properties of a2F(ο), such as number and positions of peaks, are extracted by combining optics, neutron scattering, ARPES and tunnelling measurements. These methods give evidence for strong electron-phonon interaction (EPI) with 1<λep <3.5 in cuprates near optimal doping. We clarify how these results are in favor of the modified Migdal-Eliashberg (ME) theory for HTSC cuprates near optimal doping. In Section 2 we discuss theoretical ingredients such as strong EPI, strong correlations which are necessary to explain the mechanism of d-wave pairing in optimally doped cuprates. These comprise the ME theory for EPI in strongly correlated systems which give rise to the forward scattering peak. The latter is supported by the long-range part of EPI due to the weakly screened Madelung interaction in the ionic-metallic structure of layered HTSC cuprates. In this approach EPI is responsible for the strength of pairing while the residual Coulomb interaction and spin fluctuations trigger the d-wave pairing.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nomura, K.; Vretenar, D.; Niksic, T.; Otsuka, T.; Shimizu, N.
2011-01-01
Microscopic energy density functionals have become a standard tool for nuclear structure calculations, providing an accurate global description of nuclear ground states and collective excitations. For spectroscopic applications, this framework has to be extended to account for collective correlations related to restoration of symmetries broken by the static mean field, and for fluctuations of collective variables. In this paper, we compare two approaches to five-dimensional quadrupole dynamics: the collective Hamiltonian for quadrupole vibrations and rotations and the interacting boson model (IBM). The two models are compared in a study of the evolution of nonaxial shapes in Pt isotopes. Starting from the binding energy surfaces of 192,194,196 Pt, calculated with a microscopic energy density functional, we analyze the resulting low-energy collective spectra obtained from the collective Hamiltonian, and the corresponding IBM Hamiltonian. The calculated excitation spectra and transition probabilities for the ground-state bands and the γ-vibration bands are compared to the corresponding sequences of experimental states.
Phenomenology of the electron structure function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Slominski, W.; Szwed, J.
2001-01-01
The advantages of introducing the electron structure function (ESF) in electron induced processes are demonstrated. Contrary to the photon structure function it is directly measured in such processes. At present energies, a simultaneous analysis of both the electron and the photon structure functions gives an important test of the experimentally applied methods. Estimates of the ESF at LEP momenta are given. At very high momenta contributions from W and Z bosons together with γ-Z interference can be observed. Predictions for the next generation of experiments are given. (orig.)
Green’s functions for spin boson systems: Beyond conventional perturbation theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Junjie [State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Xu, Hui [Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Wu, Chang-Qin [State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)
2016-12-20
Unraveling general properties of Green’s functions of quantum dissipative systems is of both experimental relevance and theoretical interest. Here, we study the spin-boson model as a prototype. By utilizing the Majorana-fermion representation together with the polaron transformation, we establish a theoretical approach to analyze Green’s functions of the spin-boson model. In contrast to conventional perturbation theories either in the tunneling energy or in the system-bath coupling strength, the proposed scheme gives reliable results over wide regimes of the coupling strength, bias, as well as temperature. To demonstrate the utility of the approach, we consider the susceptibility as well as the symmetrized spin correlation function (SSCF) which can be expressed in terms of Green’s functions. Thorough investigations are made on systems embedded in Ohmic or sub-Ohmic bosonic baths. We found the so-obtained SSCF is the same as that of the non-interacting blip approximation (NIBA) in unbiased systems while it is applicable for a wider range of temperature in the biased systems compared with the NIBA. We also show that a previous perturbation result is recovered as a weak coupling limit of the so-obtained SSCF. Furthermore, by studying the quantum criticality of the susceptibility, we confirm the validity of the quantum-to-classical mapping in the whole sub-Ohmic regime.
Dynamical correlation functions of the quadratic coupling spin-Boson model
Zheng, Da-Chuan; Tong, Ning-Hua
2017-06-01
The spin-boson model with quadratic coupling is studied using the bosonic numerical renormalization group method. We focus on the dynamical auto-correlation functions {C}O(ω ), with the operator \\hat{O} taken as {\\hat{{{σ }}}}x, {\\hat{{{σ }}}}z, and \\hat{X}, respectively. In the weak-coupling regime α qualitatively, showing enhanced dephasing at the spin flip point. Project supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB921704), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11374362), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China, and the Research Funds of Renmin University of China (Grant No. 15XNLQ03).
Correlation functions of one-dimensional bosons at low temperature
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kozlowski, K.K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Maillet, J.M. [CNRS, ENS Lyon (France). Lab. de Physique; Slavnov, N.A. [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2010-12-15
We consider the low-temperature limit of the long-distance asymptotic behavior of the finite temperature density-density correlation function in the one-dimensional Bose gas derived recently in the algebraic Bethe Ansatz framework. Our results confirm the predictions based on the Luttinger liquid and conformal field theory approaches. We also demonstrate that the amplitudes arising in this asymptotic expansion at low-temperature coincide with the amplitudes associated with the so-called critical form factors. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kanakoglou, K; Daskaloyannis, C
2008-01-01
Parabosonic algebra in finite or infinite degrees of freedom is considered as a Z 2 -graded associative algebra, and is shown to be a Z 2 -graded (or super) Hopf algebra. The super-Hopf algebraic structure of the parabosonic algebra is established directly without appealing to its relation to the osp(1/2n) Lie superalgebraic structure. The notion of super-Hopf algebra is equivalently described as a Hopf algebra in the braided monoidal category CZ 2 M. The bosonization technique for switching a Hopf algebra in the braided monoidal category H M (where H is a quasitriangular Hopf algebra) into an ordinary Hopf algebra is reviewed. In this paper, we prove that for the parabosonic algebra P B , beyond the application of the bosonization technique to the original super-Hopf algebra, a bosonization-like construction is also achieved using two operators, related to the parabosonic total number operator. Both techniques switch the same super-Hopf algebra P B to an ordinary Hopf algebra, thus producing two different variants of P B , with an ordinary Hopf structure
Continuous-variable quantum teleportation in bosonic structured environments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
He Guangqiang; Zhang Jingtao; Zhu Jun; Zeng Guihua [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Optical Communication Systems and Networks, Department of Electronic Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)
2011-09-15
The effects of dynamics of continuous-variable entanglement under the various kinds of environments on quantum teleportation are quantitatively investigated. Only under assumption of the weak system-reservoir interaction, the evolution of teleportation fidelity is analytically derived and is numerically plotted in terms of environment parameters including reservoir temperature and its spectral density, without Markovian and rotating wave approximations. We find that the fidelity of teleportation is a monotonically decreasing function for Markovian interaction in Ohmic-like environments, while it oscillates for non-Markovian ones. According to the dynamical laws of teleportation, teleportation with better performances can be implemented by selecting the appropriate time.
Jost, Jürgen
2007-01-01
This book presents a mathematical treatment of Bosonic string theory from the point of view of global geometry. As motivation, Jost presents the theory of point particles and Feynman path integrals. He provides detailed background material, including the geometry of Teichmüller space, the conformal and complex geometry of Riemann surfaces, and the subtleties of boundary regularity questions. The high point is the description of the partition function for Bosonic strings as a finite-dimensional integral over a moduli space of Riemann surfaces. Jost concludes with some topics related to open and closed strings and D-branes. Bosonic Strings is suitable for graduate students and researchers interested in the mathematics underlying string theory.
On the zeros of the Husimi functions of the spin boson model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cibils, M.B.; Cuche, Y.; Leboeuf, P.; Wreszinski, W.F.
1992-03-01
The distribution of zeros of the Husimi functions for the spin-boson model is studied, following an approach introduced by Leboeuf and Voros. The interest lies in the model's double feature of possessing both a classical integrable to chaotic transition and an unbounded four-dimensional phase space. The latter gives rise to several new questions regarding the Husimi zeros which are discussed and partially answered. Some significant results occur in spite of the fact that the case of spin one-half is treated. (authors) 20 refs., 4 figs
Use of W-boson longitudinal-transverse interference in top quark spin-correlation functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nelson, C.A.; Barbagiovanni, E.G.; Berger, J.J.; Pueschel, E.K.; Wickman, J.R.
2006-01-01
Most of this paper consists of the derivation of general beam-referenced stage-two spin-correlation functions for the analysis of top-antitop pair production at the Tevatron, at the Large Hadron Collider, and/or at an International Linear Collider. However, for the charged-lepton plus jets reaction q anti q→t anti t→(W + b)(W - anti b)→(l + νb)(W - anti b), there is a simple three-angle spin-correlation function for the determination of the relative sign of or for the measurement of a possible non-trivial phase between the two dominant λ b =-1/2 helicity amplitudes for the t→W + b decay mode. For the CP-conjugate case, there is an analogous function and tests for anti t →W - anti b decay. These results make use of W-boson longitudinal-transverse interference. (orig.)
Photon structure function - theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bardeen, W.A.
1984-12-01
The theoretical status of the photon structure function is reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the hadronic mixing problem and the ability of perturbative QCD to make definitive predictions for the photon structure function. 11 references
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khan, H.
1990-01-01
This thesis explores deep inelastic scattering of a lepton beam from a polarized nuclear target with spin J=1. After reviewing the formation for spin-1/2, the structure functions for a spin-1 target are defined in terms of the helicity amplitudes for forward compton scattering. A version of the convolution model, which incorporates relativistic and binding energy corrections is used to calculate the structure functions of a neutron target. A simple parameterization of these structure functions is given in terms of a few neutron wave function parameters and the free nucleon structure functions. This allows for an easy comparison of structure functions calculated using different neutron models. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martin, F.
1981-03-01
The x dependence of hadron structure functions is investigated. If quarks can exist in very low mass states (10 MeV for d and u quarks) the pion structure function is predicted to behave like (1-x) and not (1-x) 2 in a x-region around 1. Relativistic and non-relativistic quark bound state pictures of hadrons are considered together with their relation with the Q 2 evolution of structure functions. Good agreement with data is in general obtained
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bardeen, W.A.
1980-11-01
Theoretical understanding of the photon structure function is reviewed. As an illustration of the pointlike component, the parton model is briefly discussed. However, the systematic study of the photon structure function is presented through the framework of the operator product expansion. Perturbative QCD is used as the theoretical basis for the calculation of leading contributions to the operator product expansion. The influence of higher order QCD effects on these results is discussed. Recent results for the polarized structure functions are discussed
Unpolarized Structure Functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christy, M.E.; Melnitchouk, W.
2011-01-01
Over the past decade measurements of unpolarized structure functions with unprecedented precision have significantly advanced our knowledge of nucleon structure. These have for the first time allowed quantitative tests of the phenomenon of quark-hadron duality, and provided a deeper understanding of the transition from hadron to quark degrees of freedom in inclusive scattering. Dedicated Rosenbluth-separation experiments have yielded high-precision transverse and longitudinal structure functions in regions previously unexplored, and new techniques have enabled the first glimpses of the structure of the free neutron, without contamination from nuclear effects.
Introduction to structure functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kwiecinski, J.
1996-07-01
The theory of deep inelastic scattering structure functions is reviewed with an emphasis put on the QCD expectations of their behaviour in the region of small values of Bjorken parameter x. (author). 56 refs
McGraw, John T [Placitas, NM; Zimmer, Peter C [Albuquerque, NM; Ackermann, Mark R [Albuquerque, NM
2012-01-24
Methods and apparatus for a structure function monitor provide for generation of parameters characterizing a refractive medium. In an embodiment, a structure function monitor acquires images of a pupil plane and an image plane and, from these images, retrieves the phase over an aperture, unwraps the retrieved phase, and analyzes the unwrapped retrieved phase. In an embodiment, analysis yields atmospheric parameters measured at spatial scales from zero to the diameter of a telescope used to collect light from a source.
Purely Functional Structured Programming
Obua, Steven
2010-01-01
The idea of functional programming has played a big role in shaping today's landscape of mainstream programming languages. Another concept that dominates the current programming style is Dijkstra's structured programming. Both concepts have been successfully married, for example in the programming language Scala. This paper proposes how the same can be achieved for structured programming and PURELY functional programming via the notion of LINEAR SCOPE. One advantage of this proposal is that m...
Chromatin Structure and Function
Wolffe, Alan P
1999-01-01
The Third Edition of Chromatin: Structure and Function brings the reader up-to-date with the remarkable progress in chromatin research over the past three years. It has been extensively rewritten to cover new material on chromatin remodeling, histone modification, nuclear compartmentalization, DNA methylation, and transcriptional co-activators and co-repressors. The book is written in a clear and concise fashion, with 60 new illustrations. Chromatin: Structure and Function provides the reader with a concise and coherent account of the nature, structure, and assembly of chromatin and its active
The microscopic structure and group theory of the interacting boson model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lipkin, H.J.
1980-01-01
The chains of groups used in calssifying states of the IBM are compared with the chains used in a composite model with j = 3/2 fermion pairs. Many similarities are found, along with differences due to Pauli principle effects in continuum fermion pairs. The classifications are shown to be characterized by several different seniority numbers, which are physically similar but formally different in the two cases because fermion pair and boson pair states used to define seniority in each model correspond to single bosons and four-fermion clusters, respectively, in the other model. The SO(6) and SO(5) groups which define boson pair seniorities in the boson sextet model are isomorphic, respectively, to SU(4) and Sp(4) which have simple physical interpretations in fermion quartet models. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Virchaux, M.
1992-11-01
The present status of experimental measurements of the nucleon structure functions is reviewed. The results from nearly all deep inelastic experiments are in good mutual agreement. Principles of the analysis of these structure function data in the framework of QCD are described. The specific features of the perturbative QCD predictions are observed in the data. This provides quantitative tests of the validity of QCD as well as determinations of the various parton distributions in the nucleon and some of the most precise measurements of the strong coupling constant αs. The future of this field of experimental physics is sketched
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belvedere, L.V.; Souza Dutra, A. de; Natividade, C.P.; Queiroz, A.F. de
2002-01-01
Using a synthesis of the functional integral and operator approaches we discuss the fermion-boson mapping and the role played by the Bose field algebra in the Hilbert space of two-dimensional gauge and anomalous gauge field theories with massive fermions. In QED 2 with quartic self-interaction among massive fermions, the use of an auxiliary vector field introduces a redundant Bose field algebra that should not be considered as an element of the intrinsic algebraic structure defining the model. In anomalous chiral QED 2 with massive fermions the effect of the chiral anomaly leads to the appearance in the mass operator of a spurious Bose field combination. This phase factor carries no fermion selection rule and the expected absence of Θ-vacuum in the anomalous model is displayed from the operator solution. Even in the anomalous model with massive Fermi fields, the introduction of the Wess-Zumino field replicates the theory, changing neither its algebraic content nor its physical content
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sinden, Richard R.; E. Pearson, Christopher; N. Potaman, Vladimir
1998-01-01
This chapter discusses the structure and function of DNA. DNA occupies a critical role in cells, because it is the source of all intrinsic genetic information. Chemically, DNA is a very stable molecule, a characteristic important for a macromolecule that may have to persist in an intact form...
Moskvin, A. S.; Panov, Yu. D.; Rybakov, F. N.; Borisov, A. B.
2017-11-01
We have used high-performance parallel computations by NVIDIA graphics cards applying the method of nonlinear conjugate gradients and Monte Carlo method to observe directly the developing ground state configuration of a two-dimensional hard-core boson system with decrease in temperature, and its evolution with deviation from a half-filling. This has allowed us to explore unconventional features of a charge order—superfluidity phase transition, specifically, formation of an irregular domain structure, emergence of a filamentary superfluid structure that condenses within of the charge-ordered phase domain antiphase boundaries, and formation and evolution of various topological structures.
Lee, SangEun
2014-01-01
A measurement is presented of the Z boson production differential cross section as a function of Z transverse momentum. The sample of proton-proton collisions collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV corresponds to an integrated luminosity of $18.4~\\pm 0.5$~\\pbinv. The Z bosons are identified via their decay to do-lepton pairs. The measured cross sections are well described by theoretical predictions.
On the twist-2 contributions to polarized structure functions and new sum rules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bluemlein, J.; Kochelev, N.
1996-03-01
The twist-2 contributions to the polarized structure functions in deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering are calculated including the exchange of weak bosons and using both the operator product expansion and the covariant parton model. A new relation between two structure functions leading to a sequence of new sum rules is found. The light quark mass corrections to the structure functions are derived in lowest order QCD. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
March, N.H.
2007-08-01
After a brief summary of some basic properties of ideal gases of bosons and of fermions, two many-body Hamiltonians are cited for which ground-state wave functions allow the generation of excited states. But because of the complexity of ground-state many-body wave functions, we then consider properties of reduced density matrices, and in particular, the diagonal element of the second-order density matrix. For both the homogeneous correlated electron liquid and for an assembly of charged bosons, the ground-state pair correlation function g(r) has fingerprints of the zero-point energy of the plasmon modes. These affect crucially the static structure factor S(k), in the long wavelength limit. This is best understood by means of the Ornstein-Zernike direct correlation function c(r), which plays an important role throughout this article. Turning from such charged liquids, both boson and fermion, to superfluid 4 He, the elevated temperature (T) structure factor S(k, T) is related, albeit approximately, to its zero-temperature counterpart, via the velocity of sound, reflecting the collective phonon excitations, and the superfluid density. Finally some future directions are pointed. (author)
Plasmodesmata: Structure and Function
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thomas David Geydan
2006-07-01
Full Text Available Plasmodesmata are channels that transverse the cell wall and membrane. These specialized and non passive channels act like gates that facilitate and regulate both communication and transportation of molecules such as water, nutrients, metabolites and macromolecules between plant cells. In the last decade a new point of view of plasmodesmata has emerged, and studies have demonstrated that these channels are more complex. In this brief note, we pretend to expose the actual knowledge of plasmodesmata, focusing on their structure and function.
Use of W-boson longitudinal-transverse interference in top quark spin-correlation functions: II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nelson, C.A.; Berger, J.J.; Wickman, J.R.
2006-01-01
This continuation of the derivation of general beam-referenced stage-two spin-correlation functions is for the analysis of top-antitop pair-production at the Tevatron and at the Large Hadron Collider. Both the gluon-production and the quark-production contributions are included for the charged-lepton-plus-jets reaction pp or p anti p→anti t→(W + b) (W - anti b)→(l + ν b)(W - anti b). There is a simple 4-angle beam-referenced spin-correlation function for determination of the relative sign of or for measurement of a possible non-trivial phase between the two dominant λ b =-1/2 helicity amplitudes for the t→W + b decay mode. There is an analogous function and tests for anti t→ W - anti b decay. This signature requires use of the (t anti t) c.m. energy of the hadronically decaying W-boson, or the kinematically equivalent cosine of the polar angle of W -+ emission in the antitop (top) decay frame. Spinors and their outer-products are constructed so that the helicity-amplitude phase convention of Jacob and Wick can be used throughout for the fixing of the signs associated with this large W-boson longitudinal-transverse interference effect. (orig.)
Multi-functional composite structures
Mulligan, Anthony C.; Halloran, John; Popovich, Dragan; Rigali, Mark J.; Sutaria, Manish P.; Vaidyanathan, K. Ranji; Fulcher, Michael L.; Knittel, Kenneth L.
2004-10-19
Fibrous monolith processing techniques to fabricate multifunctional structures capable of performing more than one discrete function such as structures capable of bearing structural loads and mechanical stresses in service and also capable of performing at least one additional non-structural function.
Nuclear correlations and structure functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hu Guoju; Irvine, J.M.
1989-01-01
It is argued that the search for a mass number dependence of the nuclear structure function per nucleon is profitably directed to the region of Bjorken scaling variable x > 1. We show that in the convolution model of the nuclear structure function the nuclear momentum distribution and energy spectrum generated by cluster expansion techniques, here realised in the correlated basis function method, invoking tensor correlations and short-range density-dependent repulsions adequately describes the structure function for 12 C in the region x > 1. The results of structure functions for a number of light-, medium- and heavy-mass nuclei are presented. (author)
Calculations of nucleon structure functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Signal, A.I.
1990-01-01
We present a method of calculating deep inelastic nucleon structure functions using bag model wavefunctions. Our method uses the Peierls - Yoccoz projection to form translation invariant bag states. We obtain the correct support for the structure functions and satisfy the positivity requirements for quark and anti-quark distribution functions. (orig.)
Spin dependent photon structure functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Manohar, A.V.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge
1989-01-01
Spin dependent structure functions of the photon are studied using the operator product expansion. There are new twist-two photon and gluon operators which contribute. The structure functions g 1 and F 3 are calculable in QCD, but differ from their free quark values. The corrections to F 3 are suppressed by 1/log Q 2 . The calculation is an extension of the analysis of Witten for the spin averaged structure functions F 1 and F 2 . (orig.)
Jafarizadeh, M. A.; Ranjbar, Z.; Fouladi, N.; Ghapanvari, M.
2018-01-01
In this paper, a successful algebraic method based on the dual algebraic structure for three level pairing model in the framework of sdg IBM is proposed for transitional nuclei which show transitional behavior from spherical to gamma-unstable quantum shape phase transition. In this method complicated sdg Hamiltonian, which is a three level pairing Hamiltonian is determined easily via the exactly solvable method. This description provides a better interpretation of some observables such as BE (4) in nuclei which exhibits the necessity of inclusion of g boson in the sd IBM, while BE (4) cannot be explained in the sd boson model. Some observables such as Energy levels, BE (2), BE (4), the two neutron separation energies signature splitting of the γ-vibrational band and expectation values of the g-boson number operator are calculated and examined for 46 104 - 110Pd isotopes.
Structure of Even-Even 218-230 Ra Isotopes within the Interacting Boson Approximation Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Diab S. M.
2008-01-01
Full Text Available A good description of the excited positive and negative parity states of radium nuclei (Z=88, N=130-142 is achieved using the interacting boson approximation model (IBA-1. The potential energy surfaces, energy levels, parity shift, electromagnetic transition rates B(E1, B(E2 and electric monopole strength X(E0/E2 are calculated for each nucleus. The analysis of the eigenvalues of the model Hamiltonian reveals the presence of an interaction between the positive and negative parity bands. Due to this interaction the $Delta I = 1$ staggering effect, between the energies of the ground state band and the negative parity state band, is produced including beat patterns.
Interacting boson model with surface delta interaction between nucleons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Druce, C.; Moszkowski, S.A.
1984-01-01
The surface delta interaction is used as an effective nucleon-nucleon interaction to investigate the structure and interaction of the bosons in the interacting boson model. The authors have obtained analytical expressions for the coefficients of a multipole expansion of the neutron-boson proton-boson interaction for the case of degenerate orbits
Study of quark structure functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dao, F.T.; Flaminio, E.; Lai, K.; Metcalf, M.; Wang, L.
1977-01-01
The quark structure functions of the proton are determined through a combined analysis of the reactions pN → ll-barX and eN → eX. The valence-quark structure function of the pion is also given by analyzing the πN → μμ-barX data measured by the Branson et al
Kondo length in bosonic lattices
Giuliano, Domenico; Sodano, Pasquale; Trombettoni, Andrea
2017-09-01
Motivated by the fact that the low-energy properties of the Kondo model can be effectively simulated in spin chains, we study the realization of the effect with bond impurities in ultracold bosonic lattices at half filling. After presenting a discussion of the effective theory and of the mapping of the bosonic chain onto a lattice spin Hamiltonian, we provide estimates for the Kondo length as a function of the parameters of the bosonic model. We point out that the Kondo length can be extracted from the integrated real-space correlation functions, which are experimentally accessible quantities in experiments with cold atoms.
A general approach to bosonization
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
As the term suggests, 'bosonization' is an effort to recast theories involving ... to use this formula to calculate the Green functions of interacting systems in one ..... this picks up a contribution similar to the one suggested upon time evolution with.
Miller, Tristan L.; Zhang, Wentao; Ma, Jonathan; Eisaki, Hiroshi; Moore, Joel E.; Lanzara, Alessandra
2018-04-01
Because of the important role of electron-boson interactions in conventional superconductivity, it has long been asked whether any similar mechanism is at play in high-temperature cuprate superconductors. Evidence for strong electron-boson coupling is observed in cuprates with angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), in the form of a dispersion kink and peak-dip-hump structure. What is missing is evidence of a causal relation to superconductivity. Here we revisit the problem using the technique of time-resolved ARPES on Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 +δ . We focus on the peak-dip-hump structure, and show that laser pulses shift spectral weight into the dip as superconductivity is destroyed on picosecond time scales. We compare our results to simulations of Eliashberg theory in a superconductor with an Einstein boson, and find that the magnitude of the shift in spectral weight depends on the degree to which the bosonic mode contributes to superconductivity. Further study could address one of the longstanding mysteries of high-temperature superconductivity.
The boson expansion theory as the nuclear structure theory for the heavy nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, H.B.
1987-01-01
Sometime sago, Kishimoto and Tamura developed a formalism of boson expansion theory (BET), and then Weeks and Tamura showed that it fitted many experimental data of collective nuclei. This formalism has recently been simplified significantly be Pedrocchi, Jamaluddin and Tamura. The new and old theories are very closely related but are not exactly the same. It has thus been desired to see whether the new theory can also fit data, and to show that it indeed works well constitutes a major part of this thesis. It is in fact seen that a number of data of Sm, Os and Pt isotopes are explained nicely. Since the new form of the theory is rather simple, it permits us to take into account easily the effects of noncollective states to the behavior of collective states. This thesis shows that are remarkably improved fit to data of magnetic moments of SM isotopes is achieved in this way. The thesis discusses one additional subject. It is a result of an effort made to improve the BET by removing as much as possible the error due to the use of the BCS theory. This was done by applying a method developed by Li to the Dyson form of BET. A way to develop this work further is suggested
The Infrared Structure of Nambu-Goldstone Bosons arXiv
Low, Ian
The construction of effective actions for Nambu-Goldstone bosons, and the nonlinear sigma model, usually requires a target coset space $G/H$. Recent progresses uncovered a new formulation using only IR data, without reference to $G/H$, by imposing the Adler's zero condition, which can be seen to originate from the superselection rule in the space of degenerate vacua. The IR construction imposes a nonlinear shift symmetry on the Lagrangian to enforce the correct single soft limit amid constraints of the unbroken group $H$. We present a systematic study on the consequence of the Adler's zero condition in correlators of nonlinear sigma model, by deriving the conserved current and the Ward identity associated with the nonlinear shift symmetry, and demonstrate how the old-fashioned current algebra emerges. The Ward identity leads to a new representation of on-shell amplitudes, which amounts to bootstrapping the higher point amplitudes from lower point amplitudes and adding new vertices to satisfy the Adler's condi...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berger, C.
1984-01-01
In principle we have to distinguish between three cases: In no-tag experiments, none of the outgoing leptons e + e - is detected. The photon flux is completely dominated by transversely polarized photons, which are practically on-mass-shell. In single-tag experiments, either the outgoing e - or e + is detected in a forward spectrometer. Sometimes the tagging information is only used for separating a multihadronic twophoton final state from e + e - annihilation states. On the other hand, the information from the forward detectors can be used to investigate the Q 2 behaviour of the cross-section. A combination of tagging on one side with antitagging on the other allows an easy interpretation of the results in terms of electron scattering off a real photon target. In double-tag experiments, both outgoing leptons are measured. In principle, the full kinematical structure of the process can be studied, but we are still a long way from starting to tackle this difficult task
Mind, brain, structure and function
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aleksander, I
1982-01-01
The author discusses the type of problem one encounters when trying to formalise the nature of a state structure associated with the brain and the origins of this state structure. The paper first defines in broad terms the nature of the structure function problem, and then goes on to separate out those parts of a structure that lead to the variational and adaptive nature of the state structure. It is argued that the relationship between the structure that leads to adaptation and its embedding in an external environment are crucial areas for further study. 4 references.
Precision measurements with an electroweak boson in the final state with the ATLAS detector
Lang, Valerie Susanne; The ATLAS collaboration
2018-01-01
Measurements of the Drell-Yan production of $W$ and $Z/\\gamma^*$ bosons at the LHC provide a benchmark of our understanding of perturbative QCD and probe the proton structure in a unique way. The ATLAS collaboration has performed new measurements for $W^+$, $W^-$ and $Z/\\gamma^*$ boson production, reaching unprecedented precision and strong constraints on parton distribution functions, in particular the strange quark density. Studying jet production in association with a vector boson, perturbative QCD predictions can be tested in a multi-scale environment. Once the QCD aspects of the vector boson production are understood, high precision measurements aim at the tests of the electroweak sector, such as measuring the $W$ boson mass. Here, a selection of recent ATLAS measurements, as presented at the \\emph{21st Particles and Nuclei International Conference}, in September 2017 in Beijing, China, is discussed.
Signature for g bosons from medium energy proton scattering experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuyucak, S.
1993-01-01
We apply the recently developed algebraic (1/N expansion) scattering formalism to medium energy proton scattering from 154 Sm and 176 Yb. The nuclear structure effects in this formalism are described by the interacting boson model generalized to arbitrary interactions and types of bosons i.e. s,d,g, etc. We find that, in the sd boson model, a consistent description of cross sections is possible only for the 0 + and 2 + states. The failure of the model with regard to the 4 + states indicates that the effective hexadecapole operator used in the sd model is inadequate. In contrast, the data for scattering to the 0 + , 2 + and 4 + states could be consistently described in the sdg boson model. The spectroscopic data for the low-lying levels usually can not distinguish between the sd and sdg models due to renormalization of parameters, and one has to look at high spin or energy data for evidence of g bosons. The inelastic proton scattering experiments, on the other hand, directly probe the wave functions, and hence could provide a signature for g bosons even in the ground band states
Proton and neutron structure functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rock, S.
1991-01-01
New result on charged lepton scattering from hydrogen and deuterium targets by the BCDMS, NMC and SLAC collaborations have greatly increased our knowledge of the structure functions of protons and neutrons. The disagreement between the high energy muon scattering cross sections obtained by the EMC and BCDMS collaborations have been almost completely resolved by comparison with a global analysis of old and new SLAC data and a reanalysis of EMC data. We now have a consistent set of structure functions which covers an approximate range 1 ≤ Q 2 ≤ 200 (GeV/c) 2 and 0.07 ≤ x ≤ 0.7. The ratio of neutron to proton structure functions decreases with increasing Q 2 for values of x ≥ 0.1. The difference between proton and neutron structure functions approaches zero as x decreases, consistent with the expected √x behavior. (orig.)
Measurements of the vector boson production with the ATLAS detector
Lapertosa, A.
2018-01-01
Measurements of the Drell-Yan production of W and Z bosons at the LHC provide a benchmark of our understanding of perturbative QCD and probe the proton structure in a unique way. The ATLAS collaboration has performed new high precision measurements at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. The measurements are performed for W+, W- and Z bosons integrated and as a function of the boson or lepton rapidity and the Z mass. Unprecedented precision is reached and strong constraints on Parton Distribution Functions, in particular the strange density are found. Z boson cross sections are also measured at center-of-mass energies of 8 TeV and 13 TeV, and cross-section ratios to the top-quark pair production have been derived. This ratio measurement leads to a cancellation of systematic effects and allows for a high precision comparison to the theory predictions. The production of jets in association with vector bosons is a further important process to study perturbative QCD in a multi-scale environment. The ATLAS collaboration has performed new measurements of Z boson plus jets cross sections, differential in several kinematic variables, in proton-proton collision data taken at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The measurements are compared to state-of-the art theory predictions. They are sensitive to higher-order pQCD effects, probe flavour and mass schemes and can be used to constrain the proton structure. In addition, a new measurement of the splitting scales of the kt jet-clustering algorithm for final states containing a Z boson candidate at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV is presented.
Functional Insights from Structural Genomics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Forouhar,F.; Kuzin, A.; Seetharaman, J.; Lee, I.; Zhou, W.; Abashidze, M.; Chen, Y.; Montelione, G.; Tong, L.; et al
2007-01-01
Structural genomics efforts have produced structural information, either directly or by modeling, for thousands of proteins over the past few years. While many of these proteins have known functions, a large percentage of them have not been characterized at the functional level. The structural information has provided valuable functional insights on some of these proteins, through careful structural analyses, serendipity, and structure-guided functional screening. Some of the success stories based on structures solved at the Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium (NESG) are reported here. These include a novel methyl salicylate esterase with important role in plant innate immunity, a novel RNA methyltransferase (H. influenzae yggJ (HI0303)), a novel spermidine/spermine N-acetyltransferase (B. subtilis PaiA), a novel methyltransferase or AdoMet binding protein (A. fulgidus AF{_}0241), an ATP:cob(I)alamin adenosyltransferase (B. subtilis YvqK), a novel carboxysome pore (E. coli EutN), a proline racemase homolog with a disrupted active site (B. melitensis BME11586), an FMN-dependent enzyme (S. pneumoniae SP{_}1951), and a 12-stranded {beta}-barrel with a novel fold (V. parahaemolyticus VPA1032).
Functional Generalized Structured Component Analysis.
Suk, Hye Won; Hwang, Heungsun
2016-12-01
An extension of Generalized Structured Component Analysis (GSCA), called Functional GSCA, is proposed to analyze functional data that are considered to arise from an underlying smooth curve varying over time or other continua. GSCA has been geared for the analysis of multivariate data. Accordingly, it cannot deal with functional data that often involve different measurement occasions across participants and a large number of measurement occasions that exceed the number of participants. Functional GSCA addresses these issues by integrating GSCA with spline basis function expansions that represent infinite-dimensional curves onto a finite-dimensional space. For parameter estimation, functional GSCA minimizes a penalized least squares criterion by using an alternating penalized least squares estimation algorithm. The usefulness of functional GSCA is illustrated with gait data.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tichy, Malte C.; Bouvrier, P. Alexander; Mølmer, Klaus
2013-01-01
Composite bosons made of two bosonic constituents exhibit deviations from ideal bosonic behavior due to their substructure. This deviation is reflected by the normalization ratio of the quantum state of N composites. We find a set of saturable, efficiently evaluable bounds for this indicator, which...... quantifies the bosonic behavior of composites via the entanglement of their constituents. We predict an abrupt transition between ordinary and exaggerated bosonic behavior in a condensate of two-boson composites....
Higgs Boson Properties in the Standard Model and its Supersymmetric Extensions
Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Zwirner, F; Ellis, John; Ridolfi, Giovanni; Zwirner, Fabio
2007-01-01
We review the realization of the Brout-Englert-Higgs mechanism in the electroweak theory and describe the experimental and theoretical constraints on the mass of the single Higgs boson expected in the minimal Standard Model. We also discuss the couplings of this Higgs boson and its possible decay modes as functions of its unknown mass. We then review the structure of the Higgs sector in the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM), noting the importance of loop corrections to the masses of its five physical Higgs bosons. Finally, we discuss some non-minimal models.
Higgs boson properties in the Standard Model and its supersymmetric extensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ellis, J.; Ridolfi, G.; Zwirner, F.
2007-01-01
We review the realization of the Brout-Englert-Higgs mechanism in the electroweak theory and describe the experimental and theoretical constraints on the mass of the single Higgs boson expected in the minimal Standard Model. We also discuss the couplings of this Higgs boson and its possible decay modes as functions of its unknown mass. We then review the structure of the Higgs sector in the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM), noting the importance of loop corrections to the masses of its 5 physical Higgs bosons. Finally, we discuss some non-minimal models. (authors)
Structure functions and parton distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martin, A.D.; Stirling, W.J.; Roberts, R.G.
1995-01-01
The MRS parton distribution analysis is described. The latest sets are shown to give an excellent description of a wide range of deep-inelastic and other hard scattering data. Two important theoretical issues-the behavior of the distributions at small x and the flavor structure of the quark sea-are discussed in detail. A comparison with the new structure function data from HERA is made, and the outlook for the future is discussed
Collagens - structure, function and biosynthesis.
Gelse, K; Poschl, E; Aigner, T
2003-01-01
The extracellular matrix represents a complex alloy of variable members of diverse protein families defining structural integrity and various physiological functions. The most abundant family is the collagens with more than 20 different collagen types identified so far. Collagens are centrally involved in the formation of fibrillar and microfibrillar networks of the extracellular matrix, basement membranes as well as other structures of the extracellular matrix. This review focuses on the dis...
Measurements of the vector boson production with the ATLAS detector
Lapertosa, Alessandro; The ATLAS collaboration
2017-01-01
Measurements of the Drell-Yan production of $W$ and $Z$ bosons at the LHC provide a benchmark of our understanding of perturbative QCD and probe the proton structure in a unique way. The ATLAS collaboration has performed new high precision measurements at center-of-mass energies of 7 TeV. The measurements are performed for $W^+$, $W^{-}$ and $Z$ bosons integrated and as a function of the boson or lepton rapidity and the $Z$ mass. Unprecedented precision is reached and strong constraints on Parton Distribution Functions, in particular the strange density are found. $Z$ boson cross sections are also measured at a center-of-mass energies of 8 TeV and 13 TeV, and cross-section ratios to the top-quark pair production have been derived. This ratio measurement leads to a cancellation of systematic effects and allows for a high precision comparison to the theory predictions. The production of jets in association with vector bosons is a further important process to study perturbative QCD in a multi-scale environment. ...
Chiral bosonization on a Riemann surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eguchi, Tohru; Ooguri, Hirosi
1987-01-01
We point out that the basic addition theorem of θ-functions, Fay's identity, implies an equivalence between bosons and chiral fermions on Riemann surfaces with arbitrary genus. We present a rule for a bosonized calculation of correlation functions. We also discuss ghost systems of n and (1-n) tensors and derive formulas for their chiral determinants. (orig.)
Structure functions and parton distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olness, F.; Tung, Wu-Ki
1991-04-01
Activities of the structure functions and parton distributions group is summarized. The impact of scheme-dependence of parton distributions (especially sea-quarks and gluons) on the quantitative formulation of the QCD parton model is highlighted. Recent progress on the global analysis of parton distributions is summarized. Issues on the proper use of the next-to-leading parton distributions are stressed
Rise in proton structure function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fazal-e-Aleem; Rashid, H.; Ali, S.
1996-08-01
By the choice of a new scale factor we obtain a good qualitative fit to the HERA data for the proton structure function in the small x region which exhibits double asymptotic scaling. Any scaling violations in the future measurements when made in smaller bins will be of immense value. (author). 19 refs, 6 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roeck, A.De.
2000-01-01
Deep recent data and phenomenology on low-x structure functions are discussed inelastic scattering. We will be interested primordially in the regions Q 2 → 0 i.e. the transition from γp to, and x → 10 -4 - 10 -6 i.e. the region of high parton densities
Fermions and bosons in a unified framework. III. Mathematical structures and physical questions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Macrae, K.I.
1978-01-01
By examining the implications of the usual physical assumptions for gauge theories we are led to a number of interesting structures which can be formulated in terms of moving frames. The first problem we consider is Faddeev's fiber bundle procedure for removal of gauge degeneracies from quantum fields. We show how the theory of moving frames can be related to the theory of fiber bundles. In the fiber bundle extra displacements and extra components of the gauge fields are included. These precisely remove the gauge degeneracies. The algebra of forms in four dimensions and their associated operations are detailed. We then show how to form the action for the SO(3) fiber bundle and how to quantize in a fiber bundle. Next we examine the question of choice of local symmetry structure. First we consider a space whose local ''rotations'' do not form a group. By generalizing the structure equations for manifolds, we can study such a space. Second, in general relativity it is assumed that at any point one can choose an orthonormal basis and a vanishing connection. This corresponds to giving the zeroth, first, and second coefficient of a Taylor's expansion of the coordinate system. But manifolds flatter than those of general relativity do exist for which the structure is carried in the higher coefficients. We show how to give an action principle for them. Third, algebras more general than Lie algebras are possible local symmetries, e.g., superalgebras, the octonian algebra, and others violating the Jacobi relation. An action is given for a one-parameter family of quasi-Lie algebras which reduces to that of U(1) + SU(2) in the zero limit of the parameter. Fourth, simple examples of actions for gauged superalgebras are given which do not include the full complexity of general relativity. Fifth, an easy derivation of the supergravity action is made; then generalized to a supergravity Weinberg-Salam-type model
The notochord: structure and functions.
Corallo, Diana; Trapani, Valeria; Bonaldo, Paolo
2015-08-01
The notochord is an embryonic midline structure common to all members of the phylum Chordata, providing both mechanical and signaling cues to the developing embryo. In vertebrates, the notochord arises from the dorsal organizer and it is critical for proper vertebrate development. This evolutionary conserved structure located at the developing midline defines the primitive axis of embryos and represents the structural element essential for locomotion. Besides its primary structural function, the notochord is also a source of developmental signals that patterns surrounding tissues. Among the signals secreted by the notochord, Hedgehog proteins play key roles during embryogenesis. The Hedgehog signaling pathway is a central regulator of embryonic development, controlling the patterning and proliferation of a wide variety of organs. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on notochord structure and functions, with a particular emphasis on the key developmental events that take place in vertebrates. Moreover, we discuss some genetic studies highlighting the phenotypic consequences of impaired notochord development, which enabled to understand the molecular basis of different human congenital defects and diseases.
AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00364294; The ATLAS collaboration
2018-01-01
Measurements of the Drell-Yan production of $W$ and $Z/\\gamma^*$ bosons at the LHC provide a benchmark of our understanding of perturbative QCD and probe the proton structure in a unique way. The ATLAS collaboration has performed new high precision measurements at centre-of-mass energies of $7$ TeV. The measurements are performed for $W^+$, $W^-$ and $Z/\\gamma^*$ bosons integrated and differentially as a function of the boson or lepton rapidity and the $Z/\\gamma^*$ mass. Unprecedented precision is reached and strong constraints on parton distribution functions, in particular the strange quark density, are derived.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hanninger, Guilherme Nunes
2012-01-01
Full text: The Standard Model of particle physics (SM) has been extremely successful describing the elementary particles and their interactions. It also features a theory describing the origin of particle masses: the 'Higgs mechanism', which postulates the existence of a new particle called the 'Higgs boson'. In 2011 and 2012, tantalising hints of the Higgs boson were reported by the experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The results of the search for the Standard Model Higgs Boson with the ATLAS detector in proton-proton collisions at the LHC at 7 and 8 TeV center-of-mass energies are presented. A large number of the Higgs Boson decay channels, such as photon, tau, W and Z pairs, as well as for combined channels in the mass range from 110 GeV to 600 GeV are reviewed and discussed. The combined upper limits on the production cross section as a function of the Higgs Boson mass are derived. Practical methods to estimate the backgrounds using control samples in real data are discussed. Validation of some of the data driven background estimation methods using the early 7 TeV ATLAS data at the LHC is also presented. In addition, searches for Higgs Bosons in scenarios beyond the Standard Model (BSM) lead to improved constraints on the Higgs sector of BSM theories such as Supersymmetry. (author)
Huh, Joonsuk; Yung, Man-Hong
2017-08-07
Molecular vibroic spectroscopy, where the transitions involve non-trivial Bosonic correlation due to the Duschinsky Rotation, is strongly believed to be in a similar complexity class as Boson Sampling. At finite temperature, the problem is represented as a Boson Sampling experiment with correlated Gaussian input states. This molecular problem with temperature effect is intimately related to the various versions of Boson Sampling sharing the similar computational complexity. Here we provide a full description to this relation in the context of Gaussian Boson Sampling. We find a hierarchical structure, which illustrates the relationship among various Boson Sampling schemes. Specifically, we show that every instance of Gaussian Boson Sampling with an initial correlation can be simulated by an instance of Gaussian Boson Sampling without initial correlation, with only a polynomial overhead. Since every Gaussian state is associated with a thermal state, our result implies that every sampling problem in molecular vibronic transitions, at any temperature, can be simulated by Gaussian Boson Sampling associated with a product of vacuum modes. We refer such a generalized Gaussian Boson Sampling motivated by the molecular sampling problem as Vibronic Boson Sampling.
Structure and function of wood
Alex Wiedenhoeft
2010-01-01
Wood is a complex biological structure, a composite of many chemistries and cell types acting together to serve the needs of a living plant. Attempting to understand wood in the context of wood technology, we have often overlooked the key and basic fact that wood evolved over the course of millions of years to serve three main functions in plantsâ conduction of water...
Amusia, M. Ya.; Chernysheva, L. V.
2018-01-01
We investigate ground state properties of atoms, in which substitute fermions - electrons by bosons, namely π --mesons. We perform some calculations in the frame of modified Hartree-Fock (HF) equation. The modification takes into account symmetry, instead of anti-symmetry of the pair identical bosons wave function. The modified HF approach thus enhances (doubles) the effect of self-action for the boson case. Therefore, we accordingly modify the HF equations by eliminating the self-action terms "by hand". The contribution of meson-meson and meson-nucleon non-Coulomb interaction is inessential at least for atoms with low and intermediate nuclear charge, which is our main subject. We found that the binding energy of pion negative ions A π - , pion atoms A π , and the number of extra bound pions ΔN π increases with the growth of nuclear charge Z. For e.g. Xe ΔN π = 4. As an example of a simple process with a pion atom, we consider photoionization that differs essentially from that for electron atoms. Namely, it is not monotonic decreasing from the threshold but has instead a prominent maximum above threshold. We study also elastic scattering of pions by pion atoms.
The unmasking of thermal Goldstone bosons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buchholz, D.; Bros, J.
1996-08-01
The problem of extracting the modes of Goldstone bosons from a thermal background is reconsidered in the framework of relativistic quantum field theory. It is shown that in the case of spontaneous breakdown of an internal bosonic symmetry a recently established decomposition of thermal correlation functions contains certain specific contributions which can be attributed to a scalar particle of zero mass. (orig.)
ATLAS measurement of Electroweak Vector Boson production
AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00453010; The ATLAS collaboration
2017-01-01
The measurements of the Drell-Yan production of W and Z/γ⁎ bosons at the LHC provide a benchmark of our understanding of the perturbative QCD and probe the proton structure in a unique way. The ATLAS collaboration has performed new high precision measurements of the double differential cross-sections as a function of the dilepton mass and rapidity. The measurements are compared to state of calculations at NNLO in QCD and constrain the photon content of the proton. The angular distributions of the Drell-Yan lepton pairs around the Z-boson mass peak probe the underlying QCD dynamics of the Z-boson production mechanisms. The complete set of angular coefficients describing these distributions is presented and compared to theoretical predictions highlighting different approaches of the QCD and EW modelling. First precise inclusive measurements of W and Z production at 13 TeV are presented. $W/Z$ and $W^{+}/W^{−}$ ratios profit from a cancellation of experimental uncertainties.
CYCLOPHILIN A: STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. A. Kalinina
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Cyclophilins belong to a large family of ancient conservative proteins with peptidyl-prolyl-cis-trans isomerase activity. The main member of this family – cyclophilin A – was discovered as an intracellular ligand for cyclosporine A. Further investigations revealed a wide range of functions of cyclophilin A. Cyclophilin A is involved in T-cell signaling, it takes part in folding, assembly and intracellular transport of proteins, as well as acts as an antioxidant. Different cell types secrete cyclophilin A under infection or oxidative stress. Cyclophilin A is one of the main factors involved in inflammation and pathogenesis of autoimmune, cardiovascular and other diseases. This protein is thought to take part in tumor progression. In this review we describe the structure of cyclophilin A and its main known functions in health and disease.
Supramolecular Structure and Function 9
Pifat-Mrzljak, Greta
2007-01-01
The book is based on International Summer Schools on Biophysics held in Croatia which, contrary to other workshops centered mainly on one topic or technique, has very broad scope providing advanced training in areas related to biophysics. This volume is presenting papers in the field of biophysics for studying biological phenomena by using physical methods (NMR, EPR, FTIR, Mass Spectrometry, etc.) and/or concepts (predictions of protein-protein interactions, virtual ligand screening etc.). The interrelationship of supramolecular structures and there functions is enlightened by applications of principals of these physical methods in the biophysical and molecular biology context.
Functional nanometer-scale structures
Chan, Tsz On Mario
Nanometer-scale structures have properties that are fundamentally different from their bulk counterparts. Much research effort has been devoted in the past decades to explore new fabrication techniques, model the physical properties of these structures, and construct functional devices. The ability to manipulate and control the structure of matter at the nanoscale has made many new classes of materials available for the study of fundamental physical processes and potential applications. The interplay between fabrication techniques and physical understanding of the nanostructures and processes has revolutionized the physical and material sciences, providing far superior properties in materials for novel applications that benefit society. This thesis consists of two major aspects of my graduate research in nano-scale materials. In the first part (Chapters 3--6), a comprehensive study on the nanostructures based on electrospinning and thermal treatment is presented. Electrospinning is a well-established method for producing high-aspect-ratio fibrous structures, with fiber diameter ranging from 1 nm--1 microm. A polymeric solution is typically used as a precursor in electrospinning. In our study, the functionality of the nanostructure relies on both the nanostructure and material constituents. Metallic ions containing precursors were added to the polymeric precursor following a sol-gel process to prepare the solution suitable for electrospinning. A typical electrospinning process produces as-spun fibers containing both polymer and metallic salt precursors. Subsequent thermal treatments of the as-spun fibers were carried out in various conditions to produce desired structures. In most cases, polymer in the solution and the as-spun fibers acted as a backbone for the structure formation during the subsequent heat treatment, and were thermally removed in the final stage. Polymers were also designed to react with the metallic ion precursors during heat treatment in some
Overview of Measurements with Electroweak Gauge Bosons at the ATLAS Detector
Baldin, Evgenii; The ATLAS collaboration
2017-01-01
In this talk, we will give an overview of several recent measurements, performed at the ATLAS detector, which test the electroweak sector of the Standard Model to highest precision and allow for precision tests of perturbative QCD predictions. Cross section measurements of multi boson final states test the gauge structure of the Standard Model. Differential cross-section measurements of single vector bosons in the final state, also in association with jets, have been performed at all available center of mass energies and provide important information for advanced theoretical predictions as well as the parton density functions of the boson. These measurements build the basis for the first precision measurement of the W boson mass at the LHC.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iachello, F.; Arima, A.
1987-01-01
The book gives an account of some of the properties of the interacting boson model. The model was introduced in 1974 to describe in a unified way the collective properties of nuclei. The book presents the mathematical techniques used to analyse the structure of the model. The mathematical framework of the model is discussed in detail. The book also contains all the formulae that have been developed throughout the years to account for collective properties of nuclei. These formulae can be used by experimentalists to compare their data with the predictions of the model. (U.K.)
Veltman, Martinus J. G.
1986-01-01
Reports recent findings related to the particle Higgs boson and examines its possible contribution to the standard mode of elementary processes. Critically explores the strengths and uncertainties of the Higgs boson and proposed Higgs field. (ML)
Search for a Higgs Boson Decaying to Weak Boson Pairs at LEP
Achard, P; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldew, S V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biglietti, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; de la Cruz, B; Cucciarelli, S; van Dalen, J A; De Asmundis, R; Déglon, P L; Debreczeni, J; Degré, A; Dehmelt, K; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, M; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Duda, M; Echenard, B; Eline, A; El-Hage, A; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Extermann, P; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, M; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Fisher, W; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gentile, S; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, G; Grimm, O; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; van Gulik, R; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hakobyan, R S; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Hohlmann, M; Holzner, G; Hou, S R; Hu, Y; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Käfer, D; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopal, M; Koutsenko, V F; Kräber, M H; Krämer, R W; Krüger, A; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Levtchenko, M; Levchenko, P M; Li, C; Likhoded, S; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mangeol, D J J; Mans, J; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Mihul, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Muanza, G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Nagy, S; Natale, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nisati, A; Nowak, H; Ofierzynski, R A; Organtini, G; Palomares, C; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pioppi, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Pothier, J; Prokofiev, D O; Prokofev, D; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A V; Razis, P A; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rosenbleck, C; Roux, B; Rubio, J A; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Sakharov, A; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Sanders, M P; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Sciacca, C; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Son, D; Souga, C; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Tang, X W; Tarjan, P; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vásquez, R; Veszpremi, V; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, Gert M; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Wadhwa, M; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, M; Wienemann, P; Wilkens, H; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, J; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Yeh, S C; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zhuang, H L; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, B; Zöller, M
2003-01-01
A Higgs particle produced in association with a Z boson and decaying into weak boson pairs is searched for in 336.4 1/pb of data collected by the L3 experiment at LEP at centre-of-mass energies from 200 to 209 GeV. Limits on the branching fraction of the Higgs boson decay into two weak bosons as a function of the Higgs mass are derived. These results are combined with the L3 search for a Higgs boson decaying to photon pairs. A Higgs produced with a Standard Model e+e- --> Zh cross section and decaying only into electroweak boson pairs is excluded at 95% CL for a mass below 107 GeV.
Particle-hole symmetry in the interacting-boson model: Fermion and boson aspects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, A.B.; Vincent, C.M.
1985-01-01
We show that the S-D subspaces, which are used in the Otsuka-Arima-Iachello microscopic derivation of the interacting-boson model, form a particle-hole-symmetric family. Consequently, there exist particle-hole-symmetric prescriptions for determining the structure of the S and D pairs. This result holds independently of whether the Hamiltonian conserves generalized seniority. Nevertheless, there are deviations from particle-hole symmetry when boson matrix elements involving more than two d bosons are calculated in lowest order using the boson mapping procedure of Otsuka, Arima, and Iachello. These deviations are used to estimate the inaccuracies introduced by the lowest-order mapping
Precision measurements with an electroweak boson in the final state with the ATLAS detector
Lang, Valerie Susanne; The ATLAS collaboration
2017-01-01
Measurements of the Drell-Yan production of W and Z/gamma* bosons at the LHC provide a benchmark of our understanding of perturbative QCD and probe the proton structure in a unique way. The ATLAS collaboration has performed new high precision measurements for W+, W- and Z/gamma* bosons integrated and as a function of the boson or lepton rapidity and the Z/gamma* mass. Also a new three dimensional cross-section measurement of Z boson vs. its invariant mass, the absolute dilepton rapidity, and the angular variable between the lepton and the quark in the Collins-Soper frame will be discussed. Unprecedented precision is reached and strong constraints on Parton Distribution functions, in particular the strange density are found. When also studying light and heavy quark iniated jet production in association with vector bosons, perturbative QCD prediction in a multi-scale environment can be tested. Once the QCD aspects of the vector boson production are understood, high precision measurements aiming at the tests of ...
Measurements of the Vector boson production with the ATLAS Detector
Lapertosa, Alessandro; The ATLAS collaboration
2017-01-01
Measurements of the Drell-Yan production of W and Z/γ bosons at the LHC provide a benchmark of our understanding of perturbative QCD and probe the proton structure in a unique way. The ATLAS collaboration has performed new high precision measurements at center-of-mass energies of 7 TeV. The measurements are performed for W+, W− and Z/γ bosons integrated and as a function of the boson or lepton rapidity and the Z/γ∗ mass. Unprecedented precision is reached and strong constraints on Parton Distribution functions, in particular the strange density are found. Z cross sections are also measured at a center-of-mass energies of 8 TeV and 13 TeV, and cross-section ratios to the top-quark pair production have been derived. This ratio measurement leads to a cancellation of systematic effects and allows for a high precision comparison to the theory predictions. The production of jets in association with vector bosons is a further important process to study perturbative QCD in a multi-scale environment. The ATLAS ...
Latest LHCb measurements of Electroweak Boson Production in Run-1
CERN. Geneva
2015-01-01
We present the latest LHCb measurements of forward Electroweak Boson Production using proton-proton collisions recorded in LHC Run-1. The seminar shall discuss measurements of the 8 TeV W & Z boson production cross-sections. These results make use of LHCb's excellent integrated luminosity determination to provide constraints on the parton distribution functions which describe the inner structure of the proton. These LHCb measurements probe a region of phase space at low Bjorken-x where the other LHC experiments have limited sensitivity. We also present measurements of cross-section ratios, and ratios of results in 7 TeV and 8 TeV proton-proton collisions. These results provide precision tests of the Standard Model. The seminar shall also present a measurement of the forward-backward asymmetry (A_FB) in Z boson decays to two muons. This result allows for precision tests of the coupling of the Z boson to left and right handed particles, providing sensitivity to the effective weak mixing angle (...
Disgust: Evolved function and structure
Tybur, J.M.; Lieberman, D.; Kurzban, R.; DeScioli, P.
2013-01-01
Interest in and research on disgust has surged over the past few decades. The field, however, still lacks a coherent theoretical framework for understanding the evolved function or functions of disgust. Here we present such a framework, emphasizing 2 levels of analysis: that of evolved function and
Bosonic behavior of entangled fermions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
C. Tichy, Malte; Alexander Bouvrie, Peter; Mølmer, Klaus
2012-01-01
Two bound, entangled fermions form a composite boson, which can be treated as an elementary boson as long as the Pauli principle does not affect the behavior of many such composite bosons. The departure of ideal bosonic behavior is quantified by the normalization ratio of multi-composite-boson st......Two bound, entangled fermions form a composite boson, which can be treated as an elementary boson as long as the Pauli principle does not affect the behavior of many such composite bosons. The departure of ideal bosonic behavior is quantified by the normalization ratio of multi...
Gauge boson/Higgs boson unification: The Higgs bosons as superpartners of massive gauge bosons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fayet, P.
1984-01-01
We show how one can use massive gauge superfields to describe, simultaneously, gauge bosons (Wsup(+-), Z, ...) and Higgs bosons (wsup(+-), z, ...) together with their spin-1/2 partners (pairs of winos, zinos, ...), despite their different electroweak properties. This provides a manifestly supersymmetric formulation of spontaneously broken supersymmetric gauge theories, and makes explicit the relations between massive gauge bosons and Higgs bosons. It raises, however, the following question: if the gauge bosons Wsup(+-) and Z and the Higgs bosons wsup(+-) and z are related by supersymmetry, how it is possible that the former couple to leptons and quarks proportionately to g or g', and the latter proportionately to gsub(F)sup(1/2) m (fermions). The paradox is solved as follows: when the Higgs bosons are described by massive gauge superfields, the lagrangian density is non-polynomial and field redefinitions have to be performed, in particular: lepton or quark field -> lepton or quark field + (approx.= Gsub(F)sup(1/2) Higgs field) (lepton or quark field). They automatically regenerate, from the lepton and quark supersymmetric mass terms, the correct Yukawa couplings of Higgs bosons proportional to fermion masses. We also apply this method to the case in which an extra U(1) group is gauged, the standard Higgs boson h 0 being then the superpartner of the new neutral gauge boson U. (orig.)
An introduction to the interacting boson model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iachello, F.
1981-01-01
This chapter introduces an alternative, algebraic, description of the properties of nuclei with several particles outside the closed shells. Focuses on the group theory of the interacting boson model. Discusses the group structure of the boson Hamiltonian; subalgebras; the classification of states; dynamical symmetry; electromagnetic transition rates; transitional classes; and general cases. Omits a discussion of the latest developments (e.g., the introduction of proton and neutron degrees of freedom); the spectra of odd-A nuclei; and the bosonfermion model. Concludes that the major new feature of the interacting boson model is the introduction and systematic exploitation of algebraic techniques, which allows a simple and detailed description of many nuclear properties
Three-dimensional topological insulators and bosonization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cappelli, Andrea [INFN, Sezione di Firenze,Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino - Firenze (Italy); Randellini, Enrico [INFN, Sezione di Firenze,Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino - Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze,Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino - Firenze (Italy); Sisti, Jacopo [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati (SISSA),Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy)
2017-05-25
Massless excitations at the surface of three-dimensional time-reversal invariant topological insulators possess both fermionic and bosonic descriptions, originating from band theory and hydrodynamic BF theory, respectively. We analyze the corresponding field theories of the Dirac fermion and compactified boson and compute their partition functions on the three-dimensional torus geometry. We then find some non-dynamic exact properties of bosonization in (2+1) dimensions, regarding fermion parity and spin sectors. Using these results, we extend the Fu-Kane-Mele stability argument to fractional topological insulators in three dimensions.
Polarized DIS Structure Functions from Neural Networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Del Debbio, L.; Guffanti, A.; Piccione, A.
2007-01-01
We present a parametrization of polarized Deep-Inelastic-Scattering (DIS) structure functions based on Neural Networks. The parametrization provides a bias-free determination of the probability measure in the space of structure functions, which retains information on experimental errors and correlations. As an example we discuss the application of this method to the study of the structure function g 1 p (x,Q 2 )
The structural science of functional materials.
Catlow, C Richard A
2018-01-01
The growing complexity of functional materials and the major challenges this poses to structural science are discussed. The diversity of structural materials science and the contributions that computation is making to the field are highlighted.
Structure and Function of Your Skin
... Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Structure & Function of Your Skin Share | What It Looks Like . . . ... in the dermis. What It Does . . . The major function of skin is to provide a barrier between ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miranda, E.
2003-01-01
This is a pedagogical introduction to the general technique of bosonization of one-dimensional systems starting from scratch and assuming very little besides basic quantum mechanics and second quantization. The formalism is developed in a self-contained fashion and applied to the spinless and spin-1/2 Luttinger models, working out both single and two particle correlation functions. The implications of these results for the specific cases of the (anisotropic) Heisenberg and the Hubbard models are discussed. Although everything in these notes can be found in the published literature, detailed and explicit calculations of most of the results are given, which may prove useful to beginning graduate students or researchers in this area. (author)
High Precision Measurement of the differential W and Z boson cross-sections
Gasnikova, Ksenia; The ATLAS collaboration
2017-01-01
Measurements of the Drell-Yan production of W and Z/gamma bosons at the LHC provide a benchmark of our understanding of perturbative QCD and probe the proton structure in a unique way. The ATLAS collaboration has performed new high precision measurements at center-of-mass energies of 7. The measurements are performed for W+, W- and Z/gamma bosons integrated and as a function of the boson or lepton rapidity and the Z/gamma* mass. Unprecedented precision is reached and strong constraints on Parton Distribution functions, in particular the strange density are found. Z cross sections are also measured at a center-of-mass energies of 8TeV and 13TeV, and cross-section ratios to the top-quark pair production have been derived. This ratio measurement leads to a cancellation of several systematic effects and allows therefore for a high precision comparison to the theory predictions.
Stone, Michael
The following sections are included: * Introduction * Free Fermi Fields * Free Bosons * The Bosonization Rules * A Quantum Pythagoras Theorem * Appendix 1A. Complex Coordinates * Appendix IB. Conformal Symmetry * References
Structural symmetry and protein function.
Goodsell, D S; Olson, A J
2000-01-01
The majority of soluble and membrane-bound proteins in modern cells are symmetrical oligomeric complexes with two or more subunits. The evolutionary selection of symmetrical oligomeric complexes is driven by functional, genetic, and physicochemical needs. Large proteins are selected for specific morphological functions, such as formation of rings, containers, and filaments, and for cooperative functions, such as allosteric regulation and multivalent binding. Large proteins are also more stable against denaturation and have a reduced surface area exposed to solvent when compared with many individual, smaller proteins. Large proteins are constructed as oligomers for reasons of error control in synthesis, coding efficiency, and regulation of assembly. Symmetrical oligomers are favored because of stability and finite control of assembly. Several functions limit symmetry, such as interaction with DNA or membranes, and directional motion. Symmetry is broken or modified in many forms: quasisymmetry, in which identical subunits adopt similar but different conformations; pleomorphism, in which identical subunits form different complexes; pseudosymmetry, in which different molecules form approximately symmetrical complexes; and symmetry mismatch, in which oligomers of different symmetries interact along their respective symmetry axes. Asymmetry is also observed at several levels. Nearly all complexes show local asymmetry at the level of side chain conformation. Several complexes have reciprocating mechanisms in which the complex is asymmetric, but, over time, all subunits cycle through the same set of conformations. Global asymmetry is only rarely observed. Evolution of oligomeric complexes may favor the formation of dimers over complexes with higher cyclic symmetry, through a mechanism of prepositioned pairs of interacting residues. However, examples have been found for all of the crystallographic point groups, demonstrating that functional need can drive the evolution of
Structure and Function of Lipase
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skjold-Jørgensen, Jakob
.e. the waterlipidinterface. For Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (TlL) and related lipases, activation of the enzymeinvolves a rearrangement of a structural domain, called the “lid”, which covers the active site inhomogenous aqueous solution. At the water-lipid interface, the lid is displaced from the active site andmoves...... the water-lipid interface, structural movements occurring during activation have been difficult to probeexperimentally. In this work, novel variants of TlL were constructed based on rational design with amutated lid-region in order to elucidate the impact of the lid-residue composition and characteristics...... onthe activation mechanism. From characterization studies of these variants we have shown (Paper I) thatthe lid-region plays a crucial role in governing interfacial activation and enzymatic activity. Specifically,using a combination of spectroscopic and enzymatic activity-based methods we have...
Structure and function in biology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirs, C.H.W.
1976-01-01
A summary is given of the history of the developments of structural chemistry in biology beginning with the work of the bacteriologist Ehrlich leading to a comprehensive examination of the influence of size and configuration on the interaction between specific antibodies and side-chain determinants. Recent developments include the recognition of a higher order of specificity in the interaction of proteins with one another
Electroweak boson production at LHCb
Sestini, Lorenzo
2018-01-01
The LHCb experiment offers a complementary phase space to ATLAS and CMS to study electroweak processes, thanks to the forward acceptance and the large bandwidth of the trigger allowing low energy thresholds. For this reason electroweak measurements at LHCb can provide unique constraints to the Parton Distribution Functions. Moreover these measurements can be used to validate reconstruction techniques. In these proceedings the latest measurements on W and Z bosons production performed during the LHC Run I and Run II data taking are presented.
Higgs bosons in extra dimensions
Quiros, Mariano
2015-05-01
In this paper, motivated by the recent discovery of a Higgs-like boson at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) with a mass mH≃125 GeV, we review different models where the hierarchy problem is solved by means of a warped extra dimension. In the Randall-Sundrum (RS) model electroweak observables provide very strong bounds on the mass of KK modes which motivates extensions to overcome this problem. Two extensions are briefly discussed. One particular extension is based on the deformation of the metric such that it strongly departs from the AdS5 structure in the IR region while it goes asymptotically to AdS5 in the UV brane. This model has the IR brane close to a naked metric singularity (which is outside the physical interval) characteristic of soft-walls constructions. The proximity of the singularity provides a strong wave function renormalization for the Higgs field which suppresses the T and S parameters. The second class of considered extensions are based on the introduction of an extra gauge group in the bulk such that the custodial SU(2)R symmetry is gauged and protects the T parameter. By further enlarging the bulk gauge symmetry one can find models where the Higgs is identified with the fifth component of gauge fields and for which the Higgs potential along with the Higgs mass can be dynamically determined by the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism.
Structure functions and correlations in nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fantoni, S.
1988-01-01
In this paper the results obtained for the static structure function S(k) and the longitudinal structure function S L (k) of 3 H, 3 He and 4 He nuclei and nuclear matter are presented and discussed. The calculations have been performed using realistic wave functions obtained from Faddeev and variational theories. The Monte Carlo method has been used to calculate the structure functions of finite systems, and the FHNC/SOC method for nuclear matter. The results for the 3 He nucleus are in agreement with the recent Saclay data. The results for nuclear matter are compared with the experimental data relative to heavier nuclei, like e.g. 40 Ca
Duality and bosonization in Schwinger–Keldysh formulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saraví, R E Gamboa; Naón, C M; Schaposnik, F A
2014-01-01
We present a path-integral bosonization approach for systems out of equilibrium based on a duality transformation of the original Dirac fermion theory combined with the Schwinger–Keldysh time closed contour technique, to handle the non-equilibrium situation. The duality approach to bosonization that we present is valid for D ≥ 2 space–time dimensions leading for D = 2 to exact results. In this last case we present the bosonization rules for fermion currents, calculate current–current correlation functions and establish the connection between the fermionic and bosonic distribution functions in a generic, non-equilibrium situation. (paper)
Charged Higgs production via vector-boson fusion at NNLO in QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zaro, Marco; Maltoni, Fabio
2010-12-01
We present the total cross sections at next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) in the strong coupling for single and double charged Higgs production via weak boson fusion. Results are obtained via the structure function approach, which builds upon the approximate, though very accurate, factorization of the QCD corrections between the two quark lines. The theoretical uncertainty on the total cross sections at the LHC from higher order corrections and the parton distribution uncertainties are estimated at the 2% level each for a wide range of Higgs boson masses. (orig.)
Higgs production via vector-boson fusion at NNLO in QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bolzoni, Paolo; Moch, Sven-Olaf; Maltoni, Fabio; Zaro, Marco
2010-03-01
We present the total cross sections at next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) in the strong coupling for Higgs production via weak boson fusion. Our results are obtained via the structure function approach, which builds upon the approximate, though very accurate, factorization of the QCD corrections between the two quark lines. The theoretical uncertainty on the total cross sections at the LHC from higher order corrections and the parton distribution uncertainties are estimated at the 2% level each for a wide range of Higgs boson masses. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Acosta, D.; Affolder, Anthony A.; Albrow, M.G.; Ambrose, D.; Amidei, D.; Anikeev, K.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Ashmanskas, W.; Azfar, F.; Azzi-Bacchetta, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Bachacou, H.; Badgett, W.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V.E.; Barnett, B.A.; Baroiant, S.; Barone, M.; /Taiwan, Inst. Phys. /Argonne /INFN,
2005-04-01
We present the first measurement of the A{sub 2} and A{sub 3} angular coefficients of the W boson produced in proton-antiproton collisions. We study W {yields} ev{sub e} and W {yields} {mu}{nu}{sub {mu}} candidate events produced in association with at least one jet at CDF, during Run Ia and Run Ib of the Tevatron at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV. The corresponding integrated luminosity was 110 pb{sup -1}. The jet balances the transverse momentum of the W and introduces QCD effects in W boson production. The extraction of the angular coefficients is achieved through the direct measurement of the azimuthal angle of the charged lepton in the Collins-Soper rest-frame of the W boson. The angular coefficients are measured as a function of the transverse momentum of the W boson. The electron, muon, and combined results are in good agreement with the Standard Model prediction, up to order {alpha}{sub s}{sup 2} in QCD.
Seniority mappings for probing phenomenological nuclear boson models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Kock, E.A.
1988-12-01
The interacting boson model (IBM) and interacting boson-fermion model (IBFM) are discussed. The main ideas of boson mapping of fermion systems are introduced using Holstein-Primakoff and Dyson-Maleev mappings of angular momentum operators. Generalized Dyson-Maleev (GDM) and Holstein-Primakoff (GHP) mappings are included. In fermoin problems, the degrees of freedom of collective motion are described by a collective subalgebra of the complete bifermion subalgebra. GDM mapping of Sp(6) generators, the transformation to collect bosons and truncation to these bosons led to collective sd-boson realization of Sp(6) algebra. This resulted in an IBM-like description of the collective subspace. Non-hermitian and existing hermitian forms are indicated in the assumed structure of an IBM Hamiltonian Boson mapping based on seniority considerations and involving single-j shell approximations of the shell model are examined. One method utilized truncation of a shell model space to a space spanned by monopole (S) and quadrupole (D) pairs. The association between states in truncated fermion and sd-boson spaces constructs boson images of fermion operators by equating boson and fermion matrix elements. To obtain boson images with IBM-like structures, a zero-order approximation was adopted. This approximation retains only N-body terms in the images of N-body fermion operators. A similarity transformation re-expressing GDM images of single-j shell fermion operators in seniority bosons was applied to the GDM image of a general shell model Hamiltonian. Numerical results for the surface-delta interaction show that truncation to s- and d-bosons in the seniority image of a two-body operator is not allowed if N≥2. This transformation was extended to odd fermion systems and applied to the image of the quadrupole pairing interaction. 79 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs
2008-01-01
Quantum physicists think they know the answer. Probabilistic calculations reveal than the data provided by previous experiments has been miscalculated and that the Higgs boson has in fact been discovered. Weird! The Higgs boson is the only particle predicted by the Standard Model that hasn't been discovered yet.
Seniority bosons from similarity transformations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geyer, H.B.
1986-01-01
The requirement of associating in the boson space seniority with twice the number of non-s bosons defines a similarity transformation which re-expresses the Dyson pair boson images in terms of seniority bosons. In particular the fermion S-pair creation operator is mapped onto an operator which, unlike the pair boson image, does not change the number of non-s bosons. The original results of Otsuka, Arima and Iachello are recovered by this procedure while at the same time they are generalized to include g-bosons or even bosons with J>4 as well as any higher order boson terms. Furthermore the seniority boson images are valid for an arbitrary number of d- or g-bosons - a result which is not readily obtainable within the framework of the usual Marumori- or OAI-method
Interferons: between structure and function
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Katarzyna Bandurska
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Interferons are a family of proteins that are released by a variety of cells in response to infections caused by viruses. Currently, we distinguish three types of interferons. They are classified based on the nucleotide sequence, interaction with specific receptors, chromosomal location, structure and physicochemical properties. The following interferons are classified as type I: α, β, ω, κ, ε, ζ, τ, δ, ν. They are recognized and bound by a receptor formed by two peptides, IFN-αR1 and IFN-αR2. Representative of type II interferons is interferon-γ. It binds to a receptor composed of chains IFNGR-1 and IFNGR-2. The recently classified type III interferons comprise IFN-λ1, IFN-λ2, and IFN-λ3. They act on receptors formed by λR1 IFN-and IL-10R2 subunits. A high level of antiviral protection is achieved by IFN-α, IFN-β and IFN-λ. Antiviral activity of interferons is based on the induction and regulation of innate and acquired immune mechanisms. By binding to transmembrane receptors, IFN interacts with target cells mainly by activating the JAK/STAT, but also other signaling pathways. This leads to induction and activation of many antiviral agents, such as protein kinase RNA-activated (PKR, ribonuclease 2-5A pathway, and Mx proteins, as well as numerous apoptotic pathways. As a result of the protective effect of interferons, the virus binding to cells and viral particles penetration into cells is stopped, and the release of the nucleocapsid from an envelope is suppressed. Disruption of transcription and translation processes of the structural proteins prevents the formation of virions or budding of viruses, and as a result degradation of the viral mRNA; the started processes inhibit the chain synthesis of viral proteins and therefore further stimulate the immune system cells.
Localized bound states of fermions interacting via massive vector bosons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ionescu, D.C.; Reinhardt, J.; Mueller, B.; Greiner, W.; Soff, G.
1988-11-01
A model for composite consisting of fermions with internal degrees of freedom interacting via intermediate vector bosons (IVB) is constructed. We find highly localized, low-mass bound states in the Hartree-Fock approximation. We investigate the dependence of these states as function of the coupling constant and vector boson mass. In the limit of infinite vector boson mass the interaction is described by Fermi-type contact forces. (orig.)
Functional materials discovery using energy-structure-function maps.
Pulido, Angeles; Chen, Linjiang; Kaczorowski, Tomasz; Holden, Daniel; Little, Marc A; Chong, Samantha Y; Slater, Benjamin J; McMahon, David P; Bonillo, Baltasar; Stackhouse, Chloe J; Stephenson, Andrew; Kane, Christopher M; Clowes, Rob; Hasell, Tom; Cooper, Andrew I; Day, Graeme M
2017-03-30
Molecular crystals cannot be designed in the same manner as macroscopic objects, because they do not assemble according to simple, intuitive rules. Their structures result from the balance of many weak interactions, rather than from the strong and predictable bonding patterns found in metal-organic frameworks and covalent organic frameworks. Hence, design strategies that assume a topology or other structural blueprint will often fail. Here we combine computational crystal structure prediction and property prediction to build energy-structure-function maps that describe the possible structures and properties that are available to a candidate molecule. Using these maps, we identify a highly porous solid, which has the lowest density reported for a molecular crystal so far. Both the structure of the crystal and its physical properties, such as methane storage capacity and guest-molecule selectivity, are predicted using the molecular structure as the only input. More generally, energy-structure-function maps could be used to guide the experimental discovery of materials with any target function that can be calculated from predicted crystal structures, such as electronic structure or mechanical properties.
Two-dimensional thermofield bosonization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amaral, R.L.P.G.; Belvedere, L.V.; Rothe, K.D.
2005-01-01
The main objective of this paper was to obtain an operator realization for the bosonization of fermions in 1 + 1 dimensions, at finite, non-zero temperature T. This is achieved in the framework of the real-time formalism of Thermofield Dynamics. Formally, the results parallel those of the T = 0 case. The well-known two-dimensional Fermion-Boson correspondences at zero temperature are shown to hold also at finite temperature. To emphasize the usefulness of the operator realization for handling a large class of two-dimensional quantum field-theoretic problems, we contrast this global approach with the cumbersome calculation of the fermion-current two-point function in the imaginary-time formalism and real-time formalisms. The calculations also illustrate the very different ways in which the transmutation from Fermi-Dirac to Bose-Einstein statistics is realized
Introduction to bosonic string theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nunez, Carmen [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Buenos Aires (Argentina)], e-mail: carmen@iafe.uba.ar
2009-07-01
This is an introductory set of five lectures on bosonic string theory. The first one deals with the classical theory of bosonic strings. The second and third lectures cover quantization. Three basic quantization methods are sketched: the old covariant formalism, the light-cone gauge quantization, where the spectrum is derived and the Polyakov path integral formalism and in particular the partition function at one loop. Finally, the last lecture covers interactions, low energy effective action, the general idea of compactification and in particular toroidal compactification. The notes are based on books by Green, Schwarz and Witten, Polchinski, Lust and Theissen and Kaku and review papers by D'Hocker and Phong and O. Alvarez. (author)
Fermion boson metamorphosis in field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ha, Y.K.
1982-01-01
In two-dimensional field theories many features are especially transparent if the Fermi fields are represented by non-local expressions of the Bose fields. Such a procedure is known as boson representation. Bilinear quantities appear in the Lagrangian of a fermion theory transform, however, as simple local expressions of the bosons so that the resulting theory may be written as a theory of bosons. Conversely, a theory of bosons may be transformed into an equivalent theory of fermions. Together they provide a basis for generating many interesting equivalences between theories of different types. In the present work a consistent scheme for constructing a canonical Fermi field in terms of a real scalar field is developed and such a procedure is valid and consistent with the tenets of quantum field theory is verified. A boson formulation offers a unifying theme in understanding the structure of many theories. This is illustrated by the boson formulation of a multifermion theory with chiral and internal symmetries. The nature of dynamical generation of mass when the theory undergoes boson transmutation and the preservation of continuous chiral symmetry in the massive case are examined. The dynamics of the system depends to a great extent on the specific number of fermions and different models of the same system can have very different properties. Many unusual symmetries of the fermion theory, such as hidden symmetry, duality and triality symmetries, are only manifest in the boson formulation. The underlying connections between some models with U(N) internal symmetry and another class of fermion models built with Majorana fermions which have O(2N) internal symmetry are uncovered
Four RNA families with functional transient structures.
Zhu, Jing Yun A; Meyer, Irmtraud M
2015-01-01
Protein-coding and non-coding RNA transcripts perform a wide variety of cellular functions in diverse organisms. Several of their functional roles are expressed and modulated via RNA structure. A given transcript, however, can have more than a single functional RNA structure throughout its life, a fact which has been previously overlooked. Transient RNA structures, for example, are only present during specific time intervals and cellular conditions. We here introduce four RNA families with transient RNA structures that play distinct and diverse functional roles. Moreover, we show that these transient RNA structures are structurally well-defined and evolutionarily conserved. Since Rfam annotates one structure for each family, there is either no annotation for these transient structures or no such family. Thus, our alignments either significantly update and extend the existing Rfam families or introduce a new RNA family to Rfam. For each of the four RNA families, we compile a multiple-sequence alignment based on experimentally verified transient and dominant (dominant in terms of either the thermodynamic stability and/or attention received so far) RNA secondary structures using a combination of automated search via covariance model and manual curation. The first alignment is the Trp operon leader which regulates the operon transcription in response to tryptophan abundance through alternative structures. The second alignment is the HDV ribozyme which we extend to the 5' flanking sequence. This flanking sequence is involved in the regulation of the transcript's self-cleavage activity. The third alignment is the 5' UTR of the maturation protein from Levivirus which contains a transient structure that temporarily postpones the formation of the final inhibitory structure to allow translation of maturation protein. The fourth and last alignment is the SAM riboswitch which regulates the downstream gene expression by assuming alternative structures upon binding of SAM. All
The God's particle - In the search for the Higgs boson
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baggot, Jim
2013-01-01
This document briefly presents a book in which the author reports the quest of scientists in the elaboration of a model which could explain matter structure at its most elementary level, until the discovery of the famous Higgs boson at the LHC in July 2012. He explains the nature of the Higgs boson and why its discovery is so important because it confirms a model which has been progressively elaborated, discovery after discovery, and which also predicted the existence of a boson giving their mass to the other particles. In other words, without this boson, the universe could not just be what it is
Network structure shapes spontaneous functional connectivity dynamics.
Shen, Kelly; Hutchison, R Matthew; Bezgin, Gleb; Everling, Stefan; McIntosh, Anthony R
2015-04-08
The structural organization of the brain constrains the range of interactions between different regions and shapes ongoing information processing. Therefore, it is expected that large-scale dynamic functional connectivity (FC) patterns, a surrogate measure of coordination between brain regions, will be closely tied to the fiber pathways that form the underlying structural network. Here, we empirically examined the influence of network structure on FC dynamics by comparing resting-state FC (rsFC) obtained using BOLD-fMRI in macaques (Macaca fascicularis) to structural connectivity derived from macaque axonal tract tracing studies. Consistent with predictions from simulation studies, the correspondence between rsFC and structural connectivity increased as the sample duration increased. Regions with reciprocal structural connections showed the most stable rsFC across time. The data suggest that the transient nature of FC is in part dependent on direct underlying structural connections, but also that dynamic coordination can occur via polysynaptic pathways. Temporal stability was found to be dependent on structural topology, with functional connections within the rich-club core exhibiting the greatest stability over time. We discuss these findings in light of highly variable functional hubs. The results further elucidate how large-scale dynamic functional coordination exists within a fixed structural architecture. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/355579-10$15.00/0.
Dipole rescattering and the nuclear structure function
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carvalho, F. [Depto de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Goncalves, V. P. [Instituto de Fisica e Matematica, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Caixa Postal 354, CEP 96010-900, Pelotas, RS (Brazil); Navarra, F. S.; Oliveira, E. G. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, 05508-090 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)
2013-03-25
In the framework of the dipole model, we study the effects of the dipole multiple scatterings in a nuclear target and compute the nuclear structure function. We compare different unitarization schemes and confront our results with the E665 data.
Structure and Structure-activity Relationship of Functional Organic Molecules
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2011-01-01
@@ Research theme The group is made up of junior scientists from the State Key Laboratory of Elemento-organic Chemistry, Nankai University.The scientists focus their studis on the structure and structure-activity relationship of functional organic molecules not only because it has been the basis of their research, but also because the functional study of organic compounds is now a major scientific issue for organic chemists around the world.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mondaini, Leonardo; Marino, E.C.
2011-01-01
Full text: Despite the fact that quantum field theories are usually formulated in coordinate space, calculations, in both T = 0 and T ≠ 0 cases, are almost always performed in momentum space. However, when we are faced with the exact calculation of correlation functions we are naturally led to the problem of finding closed-form expressions for Green functions in coordinate space. In the present work, we derive an exact closed-form representation for the Euclidian thermal Green function of the two-dimensional (2D) free massless scalar field in coordinate space. This can be interpreted as the real part of a complex analytic function of a variable that conformally maps the infinite strip -∞ < x < ∞ (0 < τ < β of the z = x + iτ (τ: imaginary time) plane into the upper-half-plane. Use of the Cauchy-Riemann conditions, then allows us to identify the dual thermal Green function as the imaginary part of that function. Using both the thermal Green function and its dual, we obtain an explicit series expression for the fermionic correlation functions of the massive Thirring model (MTM) at a finite temperature. (author)
Proton structure functions at small x
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hentschinski, Martin
2015-01-01
Proton structure functions are measured in electron-proton collision through inelastic scattering of virtual photons with virtuality Q on protons; x denotes the momentum fraction carried by the struck parton. Proton structure functions are currently described with excellent accuracy in terms of scale dependent parton distribution functions, defined in terms of collinear factorization and DGLAP evolution in Q. With decreasing x however, parton densities increase and are ultimately expected to saturate. In this regime DGLAP evolution will finally break down and non-linear evolution equations w.r.t x are expected to take over. In the first part of the talk we present recent result on an implementation of physical DGLAP evolution. Unlike the conventional description in terms of parton distribution functions, the former describes directly the Q dependence of the measured structure functions. It is therefore physical insensitive to factorization scheme and scale ambiguities. It therefore provides a more stringent test of DGLAP evolution and eases the manifestation of (non-linear) small x effects. It however requires a precise measurement of both structure functions F 2 and F L , which will be only possible at future facilities, such as an Electron Ion Collider. In the second part we present a recent analysis of the small x region of the combined HERA data on the structure function F 2 . We demonstrate that (linear) next-to-leading order BFKL evolution describes the effective Pomeron intercept, determined from the combined HERA data, once a resummation of collinear enhanced terms is included and the renormalization scale is fixed using the BLM optimal scale setting procedure. We also provide a detailed description of the Q and x dependence of the full structure functions F 2 in the small x region, as measured at HERA. Predictions for the structure function F L are found to be in agreement with the existing HERA data. (paper)
Quantum thermodynamics for driven dissipative bosonic systems
Ochoa, Maicol A.; Zimbovskaya, Natalya; Nitzan, Abraham
2018-02-01
We investigate two prototypical dissipative bosonic systems under slow driving and arbitrary system-bath coupling strength, recovering their dynamic evolution as well as the heat and work rates, and we verify that thermodynamic laws are respected. Specifically, we look at the damped harmonic oscillator and the damped two-level system. For the former, we study independently the slow time-dependent perturbation in the oscillator frequency and in the coupling strength. For the latter, we concentrate on the slow modulation of the energy gap between the two levels. Importantly, we are able to find the entropy production rates for each case without explicitly defining nonequilibrium extensions for the entropy functional. This analysis also permits the definition of phenomenological friction coefficients in terms of structural properties of the system-bath composite.
Akiyama, Y.; Heyde, K.; Arima, A.; Yoshinaga, N.
1986-05-01
Extending the interacting boson model by incorporating besides s and d, also the g-boson, we can describe the population of positive parity states of 168Er in the 166Er(t,P) 168Er reaction rather well. In particular, the excitation of I,Kπi = 4,3 +1; 2,2 +2; 0,0 +3 and 0,0 +4 states is much improved over the sd-IBM approach.
AGE STRUCTURE OR FUNCTIONAL RESPONSE? RECONCILING ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
... surplus production that differ from traditional single-species management models. ... Specifically, while the ECOSIM “Arena” functional response and the von ... as a proxy for age structure rather than as a function of predator/prey behaviour, ...
2004 Structural, Function and Evolutionary Genomics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Douglas L. Brutlag Nancy Ryan Gray
2005-03-23
This Gordon conference will cover the areas of structural, functional and evolutionary genomics. It will take a systematic approach to genomics, examining the evolution of proteins, protein functional sites, protein-protein interactions, regulatory networks, and metabolic networks. Emphasis will be placed on what we can learn from comparative genomics and entire genomes and proteomes.
Correlations in charged bosons systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Almeida Caparica, A. de.
1985-02-01
The two and three-dimensional charge Bose gas have been studied. In the bidimensional case two different types of interaction were considered: l/r and l n(r). The method of self-consistent-field was applied to these systems, which takes into account the short range correlations between the bosons through a local-field correction. By using self-consistent numerical calculations, the structure factor S(k → ) was determined. The pair-correlation function, the ground-state energy, the pressure of the gas and the spectrum of elementary excitations were obtained from S (k → ). The screening density induced by a fixed charged impurity was calculated. In the high-density limit our calculations reproduce the results given by Bogoliubov's perturbation theory. In the intermediate-density region, corresponding to the strongly coupled systems, the results are in very good agreement with calculations based on HNC approximation as well as Monte Carlo method. The results are compared in several situations with RPA results showing that the self-consistent method is much more accurate. The two-dimensional systems showed to be more correlated than the three-dimensional systems showed to be more correlated than the three-dimensional one; the gas with interaction l/r is also more correlated than the logarithmic one at high densities, but it begins to be less correlated than this one in the low-density region. The thermodynamic functions of the two and three-dimensional systems at finite temperatures near absolute zero are calculated based upon the gas excitation spectra at zero temperature. (author)
Structure functions in the chiral bag model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanjose, V.; Vento, V.; Centro Mixto CSIC/Valencia Univ., Valencia
1989-01-01
We calculate the structure functions of an isoscalar nuclear target for the deep inelastic scattering by leptons in an extended version of the chiral bag model which incorporates the qanti q structure of the pions in the cloud. Bjorken scaling and Regge behavior are satisfied. The model calculation reproduces the low-x behavior of the data but fails to explain the medium- to large-x behavior. Evolution of the quark structure functions seem inevitable to attempt a connection between the low-energy models and the high-energy behavior of quantum chromodynamics. (orig.)
Structure functions in the chiral bag model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sanjose, V.; Vento, V.
1989-07-13
We calculate the structure functions of an isoscalar nuclear target for the deep inelastic scattering by leptons in an extended version of the chiral bag model which incorporates the qanti q structure of the pions in the cloud. Bjorken scaling and Regge behavior are satisfied. The model calculation reproduces the low-x behavior of the data but fails to explain the medium- to large-x behavior. Evolution of the quark structure functions seem inevitable to attempt a connection between the low-energy models and the high-energy behavior of quantum chromodynamics. (orig.).
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Keith Ulmer
... new scalar particle. The Gauge field 'ate' the Goldsone boson, thereby acquiring both a mass ... Production rate is very very low in comparison with other physics process, need. ➢ ..... origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently ...
Strongly interacting Higgs bosons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Appelquist, T.; Bernard, C.
1980-01-01
The sensitivity of present-energy weak interactions to a strongly interacting heavy-Higgs-boson sector is discussed. The gauged nonlinear sigma model, which is the limit of the linear model as the Higgs-boson mass goes to infinity, is used to organize and catalogue all possible heavy-Higgs-boson effects. As long as the SU(2)/sub L/ x SU(2)/sub R/ symmetry of the Higgs sector is preserved, these effects are found to be small, of the order of the square of the gauge coupling times logarithms (but not powers) of the Higgs-boson mass divided by the W mass. We work in the context of a simplified model with gauge group SU(2)/sub L/; the extension to SU(2)/sub L/ x U(1) is briefly discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1979-01-01
The possibility of the production of weak bosons in the proton-antiproton colliding beam facilities which are currently being developed, is discussed. The production, decay and predicted properties of these particles are described. (W.D.L.).
Introduction to interacting boson model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goutte, D.
1986-01-01
A very simple presentation of the interacting boson model is first given. The two computerized models which are presented allow, with few parameters, to reproduce an impressive quantity of data characterizing the deformed nuclei. Their excitation spectra, the reduced transition probabilities, the quadrupolar moments, the two nucleon transfer experiment results, ... Then a specific application of the model is given: radial extension reproduction of nuclear functions. It is shown first how the electron inelastic scattering allows to measure observables related to these radial functions, the transition charge densities, then, on some examples, how the model allows to reproduce them [fr
Structure functions and correlations in nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schiavilla, R.; Lewart, D.S.; Pandharipande, V.R.
1987-01-01
The static longitudinal structure function S l (k) and the static structure function S(k) of 3 H, 3 He and 4 He nuclei and nuclear matter are calculated using realistic wave functions obtained from Faddeev and variational calculations. In order to study the variation of the structure function with the number of particles in the system we also calculate S(k) of atomic helium liquid drops containing 4, 8, 20, 40, 70, 168 and 240 atoms. Monte Carlo integration is used to calculate the structure functions of finite systems, while those of nuclear matter are calculated with chain summation methods. The behaivior of S(k) and S l (k) at small values of k is discussed. We find that the recent Saclay data on S l (k) of the 3 He nucleus are in agreement with theory. Though the data indicate the the existence of correlations between the two protons in the 3 He nucleus, they are not accurate enough to draw interesting conclusions about the repulsive core in the nucleon-nucleon interaction. The structure functions of atomic helium liquid drops indicate a smooth variation of S(k) with the number of atoms in the drop. The S L (k) of the 4 He nucleus and nuclear matter are very similar for k > 1.5 fm -1 , and it appears plausible that S L (k) of nuclei having A > 3 may not depend significantly on A when k > 1.5 fm -1 . (orig.)
Effective constraint algebras with structure functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bojowald, Martin; Brahma, Suddhasattwa
2016-01-01
This article presents the result that fluctuations and higher moments of a state, by themselves, do not imply quantum corrections in structure functions of constrained systems. Moment corrections are isolated from other types of quantum effects, such as factor-ordering choices and regularization, by introducing a new condition with two parts: (i) having a direct (or faithful) quantization of the classical structure functions, (ii) free of factor-ordering ambiguities. In particular, it is assumed that the classical constraints can be quantized in an anomaly free way, so that properties of the resulting constraint algebras can be derived. If the two-part condition is not satisfied, effective constraints can still be evaluated, but quantum effects may be stronger. Consequences for canonical quantum gravity, whose structure functions encode space–time structure, are discussed. In particular, deformed algebras found in models of loop quantum gravity provide reliable information even in the Planck regime. (paper)
Magnetism and Structure in Functional Materials
Planes, Antoni; Saxena, Avadh
2005-01-01
Magnetism and Structure in Functional Materials addresses three distinct but related topics: (i) magnetoelastic materials such as magnetic martensites and magnetic shape memory alloys, (ii) the magnetocaloric effect related to magnetostructural transitions, and (iii) colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) and related magnanites. The goal is to identify common underlying principles in these classes of materials that are relevant for optimizing various functionalities. The emergence of apparently different magnetic/structural phenomena in disparate classes of materials clearly points to a need for common concepts in order to achieve a broader understanding of the interplay between magnetism and structure in this general class of new functional materials exhibiting ever more complex microstructure and function. The topic is interdisciplinary in nature and the contributors correspondingly include physicists, materials scientists and engineers. Likewise the book will appeal to scientists from all these areas.
Structure functions are not parton probabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brodsky, Stanley J.; Hoyer, Paul; Sannino, Francesco; Marchal, Nils; Peigne, Stephane
2002-01-01
The common view that structure functions measured in deep inelastic lepton scattering are determined by the probability of finding quarks and gluons in the target is not correct in gauge theory. We show that gluon exchange between the fast, outgoing partons and target spectators, which is usually assumed to be an irrelevant gauge artifact, affects the leading twist structure functions in a profound way. This observation removes the apparent contradiction between the projectile (eikonal) and target (parton model) views of diffractive and small x B phenomena. The diffractive scattering of the fast outgoing quarks on spectators in the target causes shadowing in the DIS cross section. Thus the depletion of the nuclear structure functions is not intrinsic to the wave function of the nucleus, but is a coherent effect arising from the destructive interference of diffractive channels induced by final state interactions. This is consistent with the Glauber-Gribov interpretation of shadowing as a rescattering effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bastianelli, F.
1991-01-01
We examine the bosonization of chiral fermions in a gravitational background, using a path integral approach. The bosonic model is given by an action proposed some time ago by Floreanini and Jackiw, suitably coupled to gravity. We use a regulator for the path integral measure obtained from the general construction of Diaz, Hatsuda, Troost, van Nieuwenhuizen and Van Proeyen. We show that the effective actions are identical. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akama, K.; Hattori, T.; Yasue, M.
1991-01-01
An exotic composite vector boson V is introduced in two dynamical models of composite quarks, leptons, W, and Z. One is based on four-Fermi interactions, in which composite vector bosons are regarded as fermion-antifermion bound states and the other is based on the confining SU(2) L gauge model, in which they are given by scalar-antiscalar bound states. Both approaches describe the same effective interactions for the sector of composite quarks, leptons, W, Z, γ, and V
Casimir energy for twisted piecewise uniform bosonic strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu, J.; Huang, B.; Shanghai, Teachers Univ.
1998-01-01
The Casimir energy for the transverse oscillations of piecewise uniform bosonic strings with either untwisted or twisted continuous conditions is discussed. After calculating the analytic values of zeros of the dispersion function under certain conditions, is obtained the Casimir energy for both open and closed bosonic strings composed of two or three segments
The chiral bosonization in non-Abelian gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andrianov, A.A.; Novozhilov, Y.
1985-01-01
The chiral bosonization in non-Abelian gauge theories is described starting directly from the QCD functional. For a given mass scale Λ, the QCD may be equivalently represented by colour chiral fields, gauge fields and high energy fermions. The effective action for colour chiral fields may admit the existence of a colour Skyrmion-boson with the baryon number 2/3. (author)
Structure and Functions of Linker Histones.
Lyubitelev, A V; Nikitin, D V; Shaytan, A K; Studitsky, V M; Kirpichnikov, M P
2016-03-01
Linker histones such as variants H1, H5, and other similar proteins play an important role in regulation of chromatin structure and dynamics. However, interactions of linker histones with DNA and proteins, as well as specific functions of their different variants, are poorly studied. This is because they acquire tertiary structure only when interacting with a nucleosome, and because of limitations of currently available methods. However, deeper investigation of linker histones and their interactions with other proteins will address a number of important questions - from structure of compacted chromatin to regulation of early embryogenesis. In this review, structures of histone H1 variants and its interaction with chromatin DNA are considered. A possible functional significance of different H1 variants, a role of these proteins in maintaining interphase chromatin structure, and interactions of linker histones with other cellular proteins are also discussed.
Stefania Pandolfi
2016-01-01
CERN celebrated the fourth anniversary of the historical Higgs boson announcement with special pizzas. 400 pizzas were served on Higgs pizza day in Restaurant 1 at CERN to celebrate the fourth anniversary of the announcement of the discovery of the Higgs Boson (Image: Maximilien Brice/ CERN) What do the Higgs boson and a pizza have in common? Pierluigi Paolucci, INFN and CMS collaboration member, together with INFN president Fernando Ferroni found out the answer one day in Naples: the pizza in front of them looked exactly like a Higgs boson event display. A special recipe was then created in collaboration with the chef of the historic “Ettore” pizzeria in the St. Lucia area of Naples, and two pizzas were designed to resemble two Higgs boson decay channel event displays. The “Higgs Boson Pizza Day” was held on Monday, 4 July 2016, on the fourth anniversary of the announcement of the discovery of the Higgs boso...
HNC variational calculations of boson matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lantto, L.J.; Jackson, A.D.; Siemens, P.J.
1977-01-01
A simple and reliable numerical technique is given for determining the two-body distribution function which minimizes the HNC energy of boson matter. Numerical results are presented for the neutron matter homework problem and the 4 He Lennard-Jones potential. The resulting distribution function is found to have proper asymptotic behaviour and yields reasonable binding energies. (Auth.)
Resonance contribution to electromagnetic structure functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bowling, A.L. Jr.
1974-01-01
The part of the pion and proton electromagnetic structure functions due to direct channel resonances in the virtual Compton amplitude is discussed. After a phenomenological discussion, based on the work of Bloom and Gilman, of resonance production in inelastic electroproduction, the single resonance contribution to the pion and proton structure functions is expressed in terms of transition form factors. Froissart-Gribov representations of the Compton amplitude partial waves are presented and are used to specify the spin dependence of the transition form factors. The dependence of the form factors on momentum transfer and resonance mass is assumed on the basis of the behavior of exclusive resonance electroproduction. The single resonance contributions are summed in the Bjorken limit, and the result exhibits Bjorken scaling. Transverse photons are found to dominate in the Bjorken limit, and the threshold behavior of the resonant part of the structure functions is related to the asymptotic behavior of exclusive form factors at large momentum transfer. The resonant parts of the annihilation structure functions are not in general given by simple analytic continuation in the scaling vari []ble ω' of the electroproduction structure functions. (Diss. Abstr. Int., B)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dicus, D.A.; Willenbrock, S.D.; Imbo, T.D.; Keung, W.Y.; Rizzo, T.G.
1986-04-01
We determine the width for radiative decay of heavy Higgs bosons H → W + W - γ for hard photons as a function of the Higgs boson mass and the photon-energy cutoff, and correct the result of a previous calculation
The Structure-Function Linkage Database.
Akiva, Eyal; Brown, Shoshana; Almonacid, Daniel E; Barber, Alan E; Custer, Ashley F; Hicks, Michael A; Huang, Conrad C; Lauck, Florian; Mashiyama, Susan T; Meng, Elaine C; Mischel, David; Morris, John H; Ojha, Sunil; Schnoes, Alexandra M; Stryke, Doug; Yunes, Jeffrey M; Ferrin, Thomas E; Holliday, Gemma L; Babbitt, Patricia C
2014-01-01
The Structure-Function Linkage Database (SFLD, http://sfld.rbvi.ucsf.edu/) is a manually curated classification resource describing structure-function relationships for functionally diverse enzyme superfamilies. Members of such superfamilies are diverse in their overall reactions yet share a common ancestor and some conserved active site features associated with conserved functional attributes such as a partial reaction. Thus, despite their different functions, members of these superfamilies 'look alike', making them easy to misannotate. To address this complexity and enable rational transfer of functional features to unknowns only for those members for which we have sufficient functional information, we subdivide superfamily members into subgroups using sequence information, and lastly into families, sets of enzymes known to catalyze the same reaction using the same mechanistic strategy. Browsing and searching options in the SFLD provide access to all of these levels. The SFLD offers manually curated as well as automatically classified superfamily sets, both accompanied by search and download options for all hierarchical levels. Additional information includes multiple sequence alignments, tab-separated files of functional and other attributes, and sequence similarity networks. The latter provide a new and intuitively powerful way to visualize functional trends mapped to the context of sequence similarity.
Zakharchuk, Nataliia; The ATLAS collaboration
2017-01-01
Measurements of the Drell-Yan production of W and Z/gamma* bosons at the LHC provide a benchmark of our understanding of perturbative QCD and probe the proton structure in a unique way. The ATLAS collaboration has performed new high precision measurements at center-of-mass energies of 7 TeV The measurements are performed for W+, W- and Z/gamma* bosons integrated and as a function of the boson or lepton rapidity and the Z/gamma* mass. This measurement allows for strong constraints on Parton Distribution functions, in particular the strange quark density. Z cross sections are also measured at a center-of-mass energies of 8 TeV and 13 TeV, and cross-section ratios to the top-quark pair production have been derived. This ratio measurement leads to a cancellation of several systematic effects and allows therefore for a high precision comparison to theory predictions.
Vortex structure and characterization of quasiperiodic functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dana, Itzhack; Chernov, Vladislav E
2002-01-01
Quasiperiodic functions (QPFs) are characterized by their full vortex structure in one unit cell. This characterization is much finer and more sensitive than the topological one given by the total vorticity per unit cell (the 'Chern index'). It is shown that QPFs with an arbitrarily prescribed vortex structure exist by constructing explicitly such a 'standard' QPF. Two QPFs with the same vortex structure are equivalent, in the sense that their ratio is a function which is strictly periodic, nonvanishing and at least continuous. A general QPF can then be approximately reconstructed from its vortex structure on the basis of the standard QPF and the equivalence concept. As another application of this concept, a simple method is proposed for calculating the quasiperiodic eigenvectors of periodic matrices. Possible applications to the quantum-chaos problem on a phase-space torus are briefly discussed
Transparent wood for functional and structural applications
Li, Yuanyuan; Fu, Qiliang; Yang, Xuan; Berglund, Lars
2017-12-01
Optically transparent wood combines mechanical performance with optical functionalities is an emerging candidate for applications in smart buildings and structural optics and photonics. The present review summarizes transparent wood preparation methods, optical and mechanical performance, and functionalization routes, and discusses potential applications. The various challenges are discussed for the purpose of improved performance, scaled-up production and realization of advanced applications. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue `New horizons for cellulose nanotechnology'.
Clustering aspects in nuclear structure functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirai, M.; Saito, K.; Watanabe, T.; Kumano, S.
2011-01-01
For understanding an anomalous nuclear effect experimentally observed for the beryllium-9 nucleus at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, clustering aspects are studied in structure functions of deep inelastic lepton-nucleus scattering by using momentum distributions calculated in antisymmetrized (or fermionic) molecular dynamics (AMD) and also in a simple shell model for comparison. According to AMD, the 9 Be nucleus consists of two α-like clusters with a surrounding neutron. The clustering produces high-momentum components in nuclear wave functions, which affects nuclear modifications of the structure functions. We investigated whether clustering features could appear in the structure function F 2 of 9 Be along with studies for other light nuclei. We found that nuclear modifications of F 2 are similar in both AMD and shell models within our simple convolution description although there are slight differences in 9 Be. It indicates that the anomalous 9 Be result should be explained by a different mechanism from the nuclear binding and Fermi motion. If nuclear-modification slopes d(F 2 A /F 2 D )/dx are shown by the maximum local densities, the 9 Be anomaly can be explained by the AMD picture, namely by the clustering structure, whereas it certainly cannot be described in the simple shell model. This fact suggests that the large nuclear modification in 9 Be should be explained by large densities in the clusters. For example, internal nucleon structure could be modified in the high-density clusters. The clustering aspect of nuclear structure functions is an unexplored topic which is interesting for future investigations.
The effects of detector descoping and neutral boson mixing on new gauge boson physics at the SSC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hewett, J.L.; Rizzo, T.G.
1992-06-01
We examine how the abilities of an SDC-like detector to discover and identify the origin of a new neutral gauge boson are affected by Z 1 - Z 2 mixing and by variations in detector parameters such as lepton pair mass resolution, particle identification efficiency, and rapidity coverage. Also examined is the sensitivity of these results to variations in structure function uncertainties and uncertainties in the machine integrated luminosity. Such considerations are of importance when dealing with the issues of detector descoping and design
Progress on nuclear modifications of structure functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kumano S.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We report progress on nuclear structure functions, especially on their nuclear modifications and a new tensor structure function for the deuteron. To understand nuclear structure functions is an important step toward describing nuclei and QCD matters from low to high densities and from low to high energies in terms of fundamental quark and gluon degrees of freedom beyond conventional hadron and nuclear physics. It is also practically important for understanding new phenomena in high-energy heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and LHC. Furthermore, since systematic errors of current neutrinooscillation experiments are dominated by uncertainties of neutrino-nucleus interactions, such studies are valuable for finding new physics beyond current framework. Next, a new tensor-polarized structure function b1 is discussed for the deuteron. There was a measurement by HERMES; however, its data are inconsistent with the conventional convolution estimate based on the standard deuteron model with D-state admixture. This fact suggests that a new hadronic phenomenon should exist in the tensor-polarized deuteron at high energies, and it will be experimentally investigated at JLab from the end of 2010’s.
Structure and function of mammalian cilia
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Satir, Peter; Christensen, Søren T
2008-01-01
In the past half century, beginning with electron microscopic studies of 9 + 2 motile and 9 + 0 primary cilia, novel insights have been obtained regarding the structure and function of mammalian cilia. All cilia can now be viewed as sensory cellular antennae that coordinate a large number...
Kotwal, Ashutosh V
2016-01-01
The measurement of the W boson mass has been growing in importance as its precision has improved, along with the precision of other electroweak observables and the top quark mass. Over the last decade, the measurement of the W boson mass has been led at hadron colliders. Combined with the precise measurement of the top quark mass at hadron colliders, the W boson mass helped to pin down the mass of the Standard Model Higgs boson through its induced radiative correction on the W boson mass. With the discovery of the Higgs boson and the measurement of its mass, the electroweak sector of the Standard Model is over-constrained. Increasing the precision of the W boson mass probes new physics at the TeV-scale. We summarize an extensive Tevatron (1984–2011) program to measure the W boson mass at the CDF and Dø experiments. We highlight the recent Tevatron measurements and prospects for the final Tevatron measurements.
Collagens--structure, function, and biosynthesis.
Gelse, K; Pöschl, E; Aigner, T
2003-11-28
The extracellular matrix represents a complex alloy of variable members of diverse protein families defining structural integrity and various physiological functions. The most abundant family is the collagens with more than 20 different collagen types identified so far. Collagens are centrally involved in the formation of fibrillar and microfibrillar networks of the extracellular matrix, basement membranes as well as other structures of the extracellular matrix. This review focuses on the distribution and function of various collagen types in different tissues. It introduces their basic structural subunits and points out major steps in the biosynthesis and supramolecular processing of fibrillar collagens as prototypical members of this protein family. A final outlook indicates the importance of different collagen types not only for the understanding of collagen-related diseases, but also as a basis for the therapeutical use of members of this protein family discussed in other chapters of this issue.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Akiyama, Y.; Heyde, K.; Arima, A.; Yoshinaga, N.
1986-05-29
Extending the interacting boson model by incorporating besides s and d, also the g-boson, we can describe the population of positive parity states of /sup 168/Er in the /sup 166/Er(t,P)/sup 168/Er reaction rather well. In particular, the excitation of I,Ksub(i)sup(..pi..) = 4,3/sub 1//sup +/; 2,2/sub 2//sup +/; 0,0/sub 3//sup +/ and 0,0/sub 4//sup +/ states is much improved over the sd-IBM appraoch.
MRI in Optic Neuritis: Structure, Function, Interactions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fuglø, Dan
2011-01-01
resonance imaging (MRI), and the visual evoked potential (VEP) continues to show a delayed P100 indicating persistent demyelination. The explanation for this apparent discrepancy between structure and function could be due to either a redundancy in the visual pathways so that some degree of signal loss...... will have very few or no clinical symptoms, or it could be due to compensatory mechanisms in the visual pathway or the visual cortex. In order to understand the pathophysiology and recovery processes in ON it is essential to have sensitive methods to asses both structure and function. These methods...... are low. Functional MRI (fMRI) is a non-invasive technique that can measure brain activity with a high spatial resolution. Recently, technical and methodological advancements have made it feasible to record VEPs and fMRI simultaneously and the relationship between averaged VEPs and averaged fMRI signals...
Generalized functions, convergence structures, and their applications
Pap, Endre; Pilipović, Stevan; Vladimirov, Vasilij; International Conference "Generalized functions, convergence structures and their applications" (GFCA-87)
1988-01-01
This Proceedings consists of a collection of papers presented at the International Conference "Generalized functions, convergence structures and their applications" held from June 23-27, 1987 in Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia (GFCA-87): 71 participants from 21 countr~es from allover the world took part in the Conference. Proceedings reflects the work of the Conference. Plenary lectures of J. Burzyk, J. F. Colombeau, W. Gahler, H. Keiter, H. Komatsu, B. Stankovic, H. G. Tillman, V. S. Vladimirov provide an up-to-date account of the cur rent state of the subject. All these lectures, except H. G. Tillman's, are published in this volume. The published communications give the contemporary problems and achievements in the theory of generalized functions, in the theory of convergence structures and in their applications, specially in the theory of partial differential equations and in the mathematical physics. New approaches to the theory of generalized functions are presented, moti vated by concrete problems of applicat...
Search for Charged Higgs Bosons at LEP
Achard, P.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, Valery P.; Anselmo, F.; Arefev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Bajo, A.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Baldew, S.V.; Banerjee, S.; Barczyk, A.; Barillere, R.; Bartalini, P.; Basile, M.; Batalova, N.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bellucci, L.; Berbeco, R.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B.L.; Biasini, M.; Biglietti, M.; Biland, A.; Blaising, J.J.; Blyth, S.C.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bohm, A.; Boldizsar, L.; Borgia, B.; Bottai, S.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Braccini, S.; Branson, J.G.; Brochu, F.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Cai, X.D.; Capell, M.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A.; Casaus, J.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo, M.; Chang, Y.H.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G.M.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chiefari, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Costantini, S.; de la Cruz, B.; Cucciarelli, S.; van Dalen, J.A.; de Asmundis, R.; Deglon, P.; Debreczeni, J.; Degre, A.; Dehmelt, K.; Deiters, K.; della Volpe, D.; Delmeire, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; De Salvo, A.; Diemoz, M.; Dierckxsens, M.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Doria, A.; Dova, M.T.; Duchesneau, D.; Duda, M.; Echenard, B.; Eline, A.; El Hage, A.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F.J.; Extermann, P.; Falagan, M.A.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J.H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P.H.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, I.; Forconi, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Iouri; Ganguli, S.N.; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gataullin, M.; Gentile, S.; Giagu, S.; Gong, Z.F.; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Grimm, O.; Gruenewald, M.W.; Guida, M.; van Gulik, R.; Gupta, V.K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L.J.; Haas, D.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Herve, Alain; Hirschfelder, J.; Hofer, H.; Hohlmann, M.; Holzner, G.; Hou, S.R.; Hu, Y.; Jin, B.N.; Jones, Lawrence W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberria, I.; Kafer, D.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M.N.; Kim, J.K.; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; Konig, A.C.; Kopal, M.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraber, M.; Kraemer, R.W.; Kruger, A.; Kunin, A.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Laktineh, I.; Landi, G.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Le Goff, J.M.; Leiste, R.; Levtchenko, M.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Likhoded, S.; Lin, C.H.; Lin, W.T.; Linde, F.L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z.A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y.S.; Luci, C.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W.G.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Mana, C.; Mans, J.; Martin, J.P.; Marzano, F.; Mazumdar, K.; McNeil, R.R.; Mele, S.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W.J.; Mihul, A.; Milcent, H.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Mohanty, G.B.; Muanza, G.S.; Muijs, A.J.M.; Musicar, B.; Musy, M.; Nagy, S.; Natale, S.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Nisati, A.; Novak, T.; Kluge, Hannelies; Ofierzynski, R.; Organtini, G.; Pal, I.; Palomares, C.; Paolucci, P.; Paramatti, R.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, Thomas Cantzon; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pedace, M.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Petersen, B.; Piccolo, D.; Pierella, F.; Pioppi, M.; Piroue, P.A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Pothier, J.; Prokofev, D.; Quartieri, J.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rahaman, Mohammad Azizur; Raics, P.; Raja, N.; Ramelli, R.; Rancoita, P.G.; Ranieri, R.; Raspereza, A.; Razis, P.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Riemann, S.; Riles, Keith; Roe, B.P.; Romero, L.; Rosca, A.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Roth, Stefan; Rosenbleck, C.; Roux, B.; Rubio, J.A.; Ruggiero, G.; Rykaczewski, H.; Sakharov, A.; Saremi, S.; Sarkar, S.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Schafer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D.J.; Sciacca, C.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Son, D.; Souga, C.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D.P.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L.Z.; Sushkov, S.; Suter, H.; Swain, J.D.; Szillasi, Z.; Tang, X.W.; Tarjan, P.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Tellili, B.; Teyssier, D.; Timmermans, Charles; Ting, Samuel C.C.; Ting, S.M.; Tonwar, S.C.; Toth, J.; Tully, C.; Tung, K.L.; Ulbricht, J.; Valente, E.; Van de Walle, R.T.; Vasquez, R.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Vicinanza, D.; Viertel, G.; Villa, S.; Vivargent, M.; Vlachos, S.; Vodopianov, I.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobev, I.; Vorobyov, A.A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wang, Q.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Z.M.; Weber, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wilkens, H.; Wynhoff, S.; Xia, L.; Xu, Z.Z.; Yamamoto, J.; Yang, B.Z.; Yang, C.G.; Yang, H.J.; Yang, M.; Yeh, S.C.; Zalite, A.; Zalite, Yu.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhao, J.; Zhu, G.Y.; Zhu, R.Y.; Zhuang, H.L.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Zoller, M.
2003-01-01
A search for pair-produced charged Higgs bosons is performed with the L3 detector at LEP using data collected at centre-of-mass energies between 189 and 209GeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 629.4/pb. Decays into a charm and a strange quark or into a tau lepton and its neutrino are considered. No significant excess is observed and lower limits on the mass of the charged Higgs boson are derived at the 95% confidence level. They vary from 76.5 to 82.7GeV, as a function of the H->tv branching ratio.
Gauge boson production at the Tevatron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cecilia E Gerber
2003-01-01
We present measurements on gauge boson production from data taken during 1994-1996 by the D0 and CDF detectors: the differential production cross section of the W boson as a function of the transverse momentum [1,2], the ratio of W and Z differential cross sections [3,4], direct photon cross-sections at √s = 630 and 1800 GeV [5,6], and studies of Drell-Yan production [7,8]. All measurements are in good agreement with currently available theoretical predictions in most of the measured kinematic range
Bosonization methods in string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdalla, E.
1988-02-01
The use of bosonization/fermionization techniques to convert non-linear operators of the dual, is discussed. Non abelian bosonization to the case where the central charge of the Kac-Moody algebra is not unity, is generalized. In particular, using this generalization of non-abelian bosonization, the bosonic string vertex of the compactified theory; turns out to be fundamental field of thre fermionic theory, or bound states of it thus permiting explicit computations easily. (author) [pt
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Steven L. Liebling
2012-05-01
Full Text Available The idea of stable, localized bundles of energy has strong appeal as a model for particles. In the 1950s, John Wheeler envisioned such bundles as smooth configurations of electromagnetic energy that he called geons, but none were found. Instead, particle-like solutions were found in the late 1960s with the addition of a scalar field, and these were given the name boson stars. Since then, boson stars find use in a wide variety of models as sources of dark matter, as black hole mimickers, in simple models of binary systems, and as a tool in finding black holes in higher dimensions with only a single Killing vector. We discuss important varieties of boson stars, their dynamic properties, and some of their uses, concentrating on recent efforts.
Sphericity in the interacting boson model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ogata, H.
1977-01-01
The interacting boson model (IBM) of Arima and Iachello is examined. The transition between the rotational and vibrational modes of even-even nuclei is presented as a function of a sphericity parameter, which is determined primarily from yrast band spectra. The backbending feature is reasonably reproduced. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dawson, S.; Haber, H.E.; Rindani, S.D.
1989-05-01
This is the summary report of the Higgs Boson Working Group. We discuss a variety of search techniques for a Higgs boson which is lighter than the Z. The processes K → πH, η prime → ηH,Υ → Hγ and e + e - → ZH are examined with particular attention paid to theoretical uncertainties in the calculations. We also briefly examine new features of Higgs phenomenology in a model which contains Higgs triplets as well as the usual doublet of scalar fields. 33 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab
Recognition of functional sites in protein structures.
Shulman-Peleg, Alexandra; Nussinov, Ruth; Wolfson, Haim J
2004-06-04
Recognition of regions on the surface of one protein, that are similar to a binding site of another is crucial for the prediction of molecular interactions and for functional classifications. We first describe a novel method, SiteEngine, that assumes no sequence or fold similarities and is able to recognize proteins that have similar binding sites and may perform similar functions. We achieve high efficiency and speed by introducing a low-resolution surface representation via chemically important surface points, by hashing triangles of physico-chemical properties and by application of hierarchical scoring schemes for a thorough exploration of global and local similarities. We proceed to rigorously apply this method to functional site recognition in three possible ways: first, we search a given functional site on a large set of complete protein structures. Second, a potential functional site on a protein of interest is compared with known binding sites, to recognize similar features. Third, a complete protein structure is searched for the presence of an a priori unknown functional site, similar to known sites. Our method is robust and efficient enough to allow computationally demanding applications such as the first and the third. From the biological standpoint, the first application may identify secondary binding sites of drugs that may lead to side-effects. The third application finds new potential sites on the protein that may provide targets for drug design. Each of the three applications may aid in assigning a function and in classification of binding patterns. We highlight the advantages and disadvantages of each type of search, provide examples of large-scale searches of the entire Protein Data Base and make functional predictions.
Inclusive and differential vector boson (W, Z) measurements from CMS
Ocalan, Kadir
2018-01-01
Weak vector boson (W, Z) production is one of the most prominent hard scattering processes at the LHC. Measurements of W and Z boson provide precision tests for the Standard Model including substantial inputs for parton distribution functions. The latest results on W and Z boson and their productions in association with jets are presented based on proton-proton collision data recorded by the CMS detector at center-of-mass energies of 8 TeV and 13 TeV. Precision measurements involving inclusive and differential production cross sections and their ratios for W and Z boson are reported as well as for W and Z boson produced in association with jets. The results are compared to predictions from various Monte Carlo event generators and theoretical calculations.
Flavour Independent Search for Neutral Higgs Bosons at LEP
Achard, P; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldew, S V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biglietti, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; de la Cruz, B; Cucciarelli, S; van Dalen, J A; De Asmundis, R; Déglon, P L; Debreczeni, J; Degré, A; Dehmelt, K; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, M; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Duda, M; Echenard, B; Eline, A; El-Hage, A; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Extermann, P; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, M; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, F; Fisher, P H; Fisher, W; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gentile, S; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, G; Grimm, O; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; van Gulik, R; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Hohlmann, M; Holzner, G; Hou, S R; Hu, Y; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Käfer, D; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopal, M; Koutsenko, V F; Kräber, M H; Krämer, R W; Krüger, A; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Levtchenko, M; Levchenko, P M; Li, C; Likhoded, S; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mans, J; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Mihul, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Muanza, G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Nagy, S; Natale, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nisati, A; Novák, T; Nowak, H; Ofierzynski, R A; Organtini, G; Pal, I; Palomares, C; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pioppi, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Pothier, J; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A V; Razis, P A; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosenbleck, C; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rubio, J A; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Sakharov, A; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Sciacca, C; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Son, D; Souga, C; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Tang, X W; Tarjan, P; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vásquez, R; Veszpremi, V; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, Gert M; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Wadhwa, M; Wang, Q; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, M; Wienemann, P; Wilkens, H; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, J; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Yeh, S C; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zhuang, H L; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, B; Zöller, M
2004-01-01
A flavour independent search for the CP-even and CP-odd neutral Higgs bosons h and A is performed in 624/pb of data collected with the L3 detector at LEP at centre-of-mass energies between 189 and 209GeV. Higgs boson production through the e^+e^- -> Z h and the e^+e^- ->h A processes is considered and decays of the Higgs bosons into hadrons are studied. No significant signal is observed and 95% confidence level limits on the hZZ and hAZ couplings are derived as a function of the Higgs boson masses. Assuming the Standard Model cross section for the Higgs-strahlung process and a 100% branching fraction into hadrons, a 95% confidence level lower limit on the mass of the Higgs boson is set at 110.3GeV.
Bosonic Confinement and Coherence in Disordered Nanodiamond Arrays.
Zhang, Gufei; Samuely, Tomas; Du, Hongchu; Xu, Zheng; Liu, Liwang; Onufriienko, Oleksandr; May, Paul W; Vanacken, Johan; Szabó, Pavol; Kačmarčík, Jozef; Yuan, Haifeng; Samuely, Peter; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E; Hofkens, Johan; Moshchalkov, Victor V
2017-11-28
In the presence of disorder, superconductivity exhibits short-range characteristics linked to localized Cooper pairs which are responsible for anomalous phase transitions and the emergence of quantum states such as the bosonic insulating state. Complementary to well-studied homogeneously disordered superconductors, superconductor-normal hybrid arrays provide tunable realizations of the degree of granular disorder for studying anomalous quantum phase transitions. Here, we investigate the superconductor-bosonic dirty metal transition in disordered nanodiamond arrays as a function of the dispersion of intergrain spacing, which ranges from angstroms to micrometers. By monitoring the evolved superconducting gaps and diminished coherence peaks in the single-quasiparticle density of states, we link the destruction of the superconducting state and the emergence of bosonic dirty metallic state to breaking of the global phase coherence and persistence of the localized Cooper pairs. The observed resistive bosonic phase transitions are well modeled using a series-parallel circuit in the framework of bosonic confinement and coherence.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beaumier, Michael J. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States)
2016-08-01
This thesis discusses the process of extracting the longitudinal asymmetry, A$W±\\atop{L}$ describing W → μ production in forward kinematic regimes. This asymmetry is used to constrain our understanding of the polarized parton distribution functions characterizing $\\bar{u}$ and $\\bar{d}$ sea quarks in the proton. This asymmetry will be used to constrain the overall contribution of the sea-quarks to the total proton spin. The asymmetry is evaluated over the pseudorapidity range of the PHENIX Muon Arms, 2.1 < |η| 2.6, for longitudinally polarized proton-proton collisions at 510 GeV √s. In particular, I will discuss the statistical methods used to characterize real muonic W decays and the various background processes is presented, including a discussion of likelihood event selection and the Extended Unbinned Maximum Likelihood t. These statistical methods serve estimate the yields of W muonic decays, which are used to calculate the longitudinal asymmetry.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kitazawa, Masakiyo; Kunihiro, Teiji; Nemoto, Yukio
2007-01-01
Motivated by the observation that there may exist hadronic excitations even in the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) phase, we investigate how the properties of quarks, especially within the quasi-particle picture, are affected by the coupling with bosonic excitations at finite temperature (T), employing Yukawa models with a massive scalar (pseudoscalar) and vector (axial-vector) boson of mass m. The quark spectral function and the quasi-dispersion relations are calculated at one-loop order. We find that there appears at three-peak structure in the quark spectral function with a collective nature when T is comparable with m, irrespective of the type of boson considered. Such a multi-peak structure was first found in a chiral model yielding scalar composite bosons with a decay width. We elucidate the mechanism through which the new quark collective excitations are realized in terms of the Landau damping of a quark (an antiquark) induced by scattering with the thermally excited boson, which gives rise to mixing and hence a level repulsion between a quark (antiquark) and an antiquark-hole (quark-hole) in the thermally excited antiquark (quark) distribution. Our results suggest that the quarks in the QGP phase can be described within an interesting quasi-particle picture with a multi-peak spectral function. Because the models employed here are rather generic, our findings may represent a universal phenomenon for fermions coupled to a massive bosonic excitation with a vanishing or small width. The relevance of these results to other fields of physics, such as neutrino physics, is also briefly discussed. In addition, we describe a new aspect of the plasmino excitation obtained in the hard-thermal loop approximation. (author)
Plethystic vertex operators and boson-fermion correspondences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fauser, Bertfried; Jarvis, Peter D; King, Ronald C
2016-01-01
We study the algebraic properties of plethystic vertex operators, introduced in (2010 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 43 405202), underlying the structure of symmetric functions associated with certain generalized universal character rings of subgroups of the general linear group, defined to stabilize tensors of Young symmetry type characterized by a partition of arbitrary shape π . Here we establish an extension of the well-known boson-fermion correspondence involving Schur functions and their associated (Bernstein) vertex operators: for each π , the modes generated by the plethystic vertex operators and their suitably constructed duals, satisfy the anticommutation relations of a complex Clifford algebra. The combinatorial manipulations underlying the results involve exchange identities exploiting the Hopf-algebraic structure of certain symmetric function series and their plethysms. (paper)
Plethystic vertex operators and boson-fermion correspondences
Fauser, Bertfried; Jarvis, Peter D.; King, Ronald C.
2016-10-01
We study the algebraic properties of plethystic vertex operators, introduced in (2010 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 43 405202), underlying the structure of symmetric functions associated with certain generalized universal character rings of subgroups of the general linear group, defined to stabilize tensors of Young symmetry type characterized by a partition of arbitrary shape π. Here we establish an extension of the well-known boson-fermion correspondence involving Schur functions and their associated (Bernstein) vertex operators: for each π, the modes generated by the plethystic vertex operators and their suitably constructed duals, satisfy the anticommutation relations of a complex Clifford algebra. The combinatorial manipulations underlying the results involve exchange identities exploiting the Hopf-algebraic structure of certain symmetric function series and their plethysms.
Oblique photon expansion of QED structure functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chahine, C.
1986-01-01
In the oblique photon expansion, the collinear part of photon emission is summed up to all orders in perturbation theory. The number of oblique or non-collinear photons is the expansion order. Unlike in perturbation theory, every term of the expansion is both infrared finite and gauge invariant. The zero oblique photon contribution to the electromagnetic structure tensor in QED is computed in detail. The behaviors of the structure functions F1 and F2 are discussed in the soft and ultra-soft limits
Structure of β-decay strength functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naumov, Y.V.; Bykov, A.A.; Izosimov, I.N.
1983-01-01
The experimental and theoretical studies on the structure of the Gamow--Teller β-decay strength functions are reviewed. Also considered are processes such as M1 γ decay of analog states, the emission of delayed protons, neutrons, and α particles, delayed fission, and the (p, n) reaction at proton energies 100--200 MeV. The results of measurements of the strength functions by γ-ray total absorption are analyzed. It is shown that the β + decay of nuclei far from the stability band exhibits a new type of collective charge-exchange excitation: Gamow--Teller resonance with μ/sub tau/ = +1
Structure of BRS-invariant local functionals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brandt, F.
1993-01-01
For a large class of gauge theories a nilpotent BRS-operator s is constructed and its cohomology in the space of local functionals of the off-shell fields is shown to be isomorphic to the cohomology of s=s+d on functions f(C,T) of tensor fields T and of variables C which are constructed of the ghosts and the connection forms. The result allows general statements about the structure of invariant classical actions and anomaly cadidates whose BRS-variation vanishes off-shell. The assumptions under which the result holds are thoroughly discussed. (orig.)
NAC transcription factors: structurally distinct, functionally diverse
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, Addie Nina; Ernst, Heidi A; Leggio, Leila Lo
2005-01-01
level and localization, and to the first indications of NAC participation in transcription factor networks. The recent determination of the DNA and protein binding NAC domain structure offers insight into the molecular functions of the protein family. Research into NAC transcription factors has......NAC proteins constitute one of the largest families of plant-specific transcription factors, and the family is present in a wide range of land plants. Here, we summarize the biological and molecular functions of the NAC family, paying particular attention to the intricate regulation of NAC protein...
Proteins with Novel Structure, Function and Dynamics
Pohorille, Andrew
2014-01-01
Recently, a small enzyme that ligates two RNA fragments with the rate of 10(exp 6) above background was evolved in vitro (Seelig and Szostak, Nature 448:828-831, 2007). This enzyme does not resemble any contemporary protein (Chao et al., Nature Chem. Biol. 9:81-83, 2013). It consists of a dynamic, catalytic loop, a small, rigid core containing two zinc ions coordinated by neighboring amino acids, and two highly flexible tails that might be unimportant for protein function. In contrast to other proteins, this enzyme does not contain ordered secondary structure elements, such as alpha-helix or beta-sheet. The loop is kept together by just two interactions of a charged residue and a histidine with a zinc ion, which they coordinate on the opposite side of the loop. Such structure appears to be very fragile. Surprisingly, computer simulations indicate otherwise. As the coordinating, charged residue is mutated to alanine, another, nearby charged residue takes its place, thus keeping the structure nearly intact. If this residue is also substituted by alanine a salt bridge involving two other, charged residues on the opposite sides of the loop keeps the loop in place. These adjustments are facilitated by high flexibility of the protein. Computational predictions have been confirmed experimentally, as both mutants retain full activity and overall structure. These results challenge our notions about what is required for protein activity and about the relationship between protein dynamics, stability and robustness. We hypothesize that small, highly dynamic proteins could be both active and fault tolerant in ways that many other proteins are not, i.e. they can adjust to retain their structure and activity even if subjected to mutations in structurally critical regions. This opens the doors for designing proteins with novel functions, structures and dynamics that have not been yet considered.
Latest results on Z boson production from LHCb
CERN. Geneva
2013-01-01
Recent measurements of Z boson production using data collected at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV by the LHCb experiment are presented. These measurements test QCD and electroweak theory and can provide constraints on the proton parton distribution functions. Inclusive and differential cross-section measurements for Z bosons, decaying into di-muon, di-electron, and di-tau final states, and a measurement of the production of jets of particles in association with a Z boson are presented. The results are found to be in agreement with theoretical predictions with recently calculated parton distribution functions.
Functional and structural responses to marine urbanisation
Mayer-Pinto, M.; Cole, V. J.; Johnston, E. L.; Bugnot, A.; Hurst, H.; Airoldi, L.; Glasby, T. M.; Dafforn, K. A.
2018-01-01
Urban areas have broad ecological footprints with complex impacts on natural systems. In coastal areas, growing populations are advancing their urban footprint into the ocean through the construction of seawalls and other built infrastructure. While we have some understanding of how urbanisation might drive functional change in terrestrial ecosystems, coastal systems have been largely overlooked. This study is one of the first to directly assess how changes in diversity relate to changes in ecosystem properties and functions (e.g. productivity, filtration rates) of artificial and natural habitats in one of the largest urbanised estuaries in the world, Sydney Harbour. We complemented our surveys with an extensive literature search. We found large and important differences in the community structure and function between artificial and natural coastal habitats. However, differences in diversity and abundance of organisms do not necessarily match observed functional changes. The abundance and composition of important functional groups differed among habitats with rocky shores having 40% and 70% more grazers than seawalls or pilings, respectively. In contrast, scavengers were approximately 8 times more abundant on seawalls than on pilings or rocky shores and algae were more diverse on natural rocky shores and seawalls than on pilings. Our results confirm previous findings in the literature. Oysters were more abundant on pilings than on rocky shores, but were also smaller. Interestingly, these differences in oyster populations did not affect in situ filtration rates between habitats. Seawalls were the most invaded habitats while pilings supported greater secondary productivity than other habitats. This study highlights the complexity of the diversity-function relationship and responses to ocean sprawl in coastal systems. Importantly, we showed that functional properties should be considered independently from structural change if we are to design and manage artificial
Geometrical scaling in charm structure function ratios
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boroun, G.R.; Rezaei, B.
2014-01-01
By using a Laplace-transform technique, we solve the next-to-leading-order master equation for charm production and derive a compact formula for the ratio R c =F L cc ¯ /F 2 cc ¯ , which is useful for extracting the charm structure function from the reduced charm cross section, in particular, at DESY HERA, at small x. Our results show that this ratio is independent of x at small x. In this method of determining the ratios, we apply geometrical scaling in charm production in deep inelastic scattering (DIS). Our analysis shows that the renormalization scales have a sizable impact on the ratio R c at high Q 2 . Our results for the ratio of the charm structure functions are in a good agreement with some phenomenological models
Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases: Function, structure, and inhibition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boura, Evzen; Nencka, Radim
2015-01-01
The phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases (PI4Ks) synthesize phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P), a key member of the phosphoinositide family. PI4P defines the membranes of Golgi and trans-Golgi network (TGN) and regulates trafficking to and from the Golgi. Humans have two type II PI4Ks (α and β) and two type III enzymes (α and β). Recently, the crystal structures were solved for both type II and type III kinase revealing atomic details of their function. Importantly, the type III PI4Ks are hijacked by +RNA viruses to create so-called membranous web, an extensively phosphorylated and modified membrane system dedicated to their replication. Therefore, selective and potent inhibitors of PI4Ks have been developed as potential antiviral agents. Here we focus on the structure and function of PI4Ks and their potential in human medicine
Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases: Function, structure, and inhibition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boura, Evzen, E-mail: boura@uochb.cas.cz; Nencka, Radim, E-mail: nencka@uochb.cas.cz
2015-10-01
The phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases (PI4Ks) synthesize phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P), a key member of the phosphoinositide family. PI4P defines the membranes of Golgi and trans-Golgi network (TGN) and regulates trafficking to and from the Golgi. Humans have two type II PI4Ks (α and β) and two type III enzymes (α and β). Recently, the crystal structures were solved for both type II and type III kinase revealing atomic details of their function. Importantly, the type III PI4Ks are hijacked by +RNA viruses to create so-called membranous web, an extensively phosphorylated and modified membrane system dedicated to their replication. Therefore, selective and potent inhibitors of PI4Ks have been developed as potential antiviral agents. Here we focus on the structure and function of PI4Ks and their potential in human medicine.
Theoretical analysis of polarized structure functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Altarelli, G.; ); Ball, R.D.; Forte, S.; Ridolfi, G.
1998-01-01
We review the analysis of polarized structure function data using perturbative QCD and NLO We use the most recent experimental data to obtain updated results for polarized parton distributions, first moments and the strong coupling. We also discuss several theoretical issues involving in this analysis and in the interpretation of its results. Finally, we compare our results with other similar analyses in the recent literature. (author)
Theoretical Analysis of Polarized Structure Functions
Altarelli, Guido; Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, G
1998-01-01
We review the analysis of polarized structure function data using perturbative QCD at next-to-leading order. We use the most recent experimental data to obtain updated results for polarized parton distributions, first moments and the strong coupling. We also discuss several theoretical issues involved in this analysis and in the interpretation of its results. Finally, we compare our results with other similar analyses in the recent literature.
Ecosocial System: Structure, Development Laws and Functioning
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. I. Alekseev
2004-01-01
Full Text Available The paper substantiates necessity to develop a unified system of socio-ecological knowledge. Ecosophy being a forming component of dialectic-materialistic philosophy has been proposed as such system. Structure, development laws and functioning of eco-social system are considered as a part of ecosophy theory. Standard laws and ecological principles being widely recognized by ecologically orientated theorists are stated in the paper.
Neuropsychological functioning and brain structure in schizophrenia.
Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Barbadillo, Laura; Pelayo-Terán, José Maria; Rodríguez-Sánchez, José Manuel
2007-08-01
Cognitive deficits are core features of schizophrenia that are already evident at early phases of the illness. The study of specific relationships between cognition and brain structure might provide valuable clues about neural basis of schizophrenia and its phenomenology. The aim of this article was to review the most consistent findings of the studies exploring the relationships between cognitive deficits and brain anomalies in schizophrenia. Besides several important methodological shortcomings to bear in mind before drawing any consistent conclusion from the revised literature, we have attempted to systematically summarize these findings. Thus, this review has revealed that whole brain volume tends to positively correlate with a range of cognitive domains in healthy volunteers and female patients. An association between prefrontal morphological characteristics and general inability to control behaviour seems to be present in schizophrenia patients. Parahippocampal volume is related to semantic cognitive functions. Thalamic anomalies have been associated with executive deficits specifically in patients. Available evidence on the relationship between cognitive functions and cerebellar structure is still contradictory. Nonetheless, a larger cerebellum appears to be associated with higher IQ in controls and in female patients. Enlarged ventricles, including lateral and third ventricles, are associated with deficits in attention, executive and premorbid cognitive functioning in patients. Several of these reported findings seem to be counterintuitive according to neural basis of cognitive functioning drawn from animal, lesion, and functional imaging investigations. Therefore, there is still a great need for more methodologically stringent investigations that would help in the advance of our understanding of the cognition/brain structure relationships in schizophrenia.
Industrial entrepreneurial network: Structural and functional analysis
Medvedeva, M. A.; Davletbaev, R. H.; Berg, D. B.; Nazarova, J. J.; Parusheva, S. S.
2016-12-01
Structure and functioning of two model industrial entrepreneurial networks are investigated in the present paper. One of these networks is forming when implementing an integrated project and consists of eight agents, which interact with each other and external environment. The other one is obtained from the municipal economy and is based on the set of the 12 real business entities. Analysis of the networks is carried out on the basis of the matrix of mutual payments aggregated over the certain time period. The matrix is created by the methods of experimental economics. Social Network Analysis (SNA) methods and instruments were used in the present research. The set of basic structural characteristics was investigated: set of quantitative parameters such as density, diameter, clustering coefficient, different kinds of centrality, and etc. They were compared with the random Bernoulli graphs of the corresponding size and density. Discovered variations of random and entrepreneurial networks structure are explained by the peculiarities of agents functioning in production network. Separately, were identified the closed exchange circuits (cyclically closed contours of graph) forming an autopoietic (self-replicating) network pattern. The purpose of the functional analysis was to identify the contribution of the autopoietic network pattern in its gross product. It was found that the magnitude of this contribution is more than 20%. Such value allows using of the complementary currency in order to stimulate economic activity of network agents.
EFFECTIVE HYPERFINE-STRUCTURE FUNCTIONS OF AMMONIA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Augustovičová, L.; Soldán, P.; Špirko, V., E-mail: spirko@marge.uochb.cas.cz [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Department of Chemical Physics and Optics, Ke Karlovu 3, CZ-12116 Prague 2 (Czech Republic)
2016-06-20
The hyperfine structure of the rotation-inversion ( v {sub 2} = 0{sup +}, 0{sup −}, 1{sup +}, 1{sup −}) states of the {sup 14}NH{sub 3} and {sup 15}NH{sub 3} ammonia isotopomers is rationalized in terms of effective (ro-inversional) hyperfine-structure (hfs) functions. These are determined by fitting to available experimental data using the Hougen’s effective hyperfine-structure Hamiltonian within the framework of the non-rigid inverter theory. Involving only a moderate number of mass independent fitting parameters, the fitted hfs functions provide a fairly close reproduction of a large majority of available experimental data, thus evidencing adequacy of these functions for reliable prediction. In future experiments, this may help us derive spectroscopic constants of observed inversion and rotation-inversion transitions deperturbed from hyperfine effects. The deperturbed band centers of ammonia come to the forefront of fundamental physics especially as the probes of a variable proton-to-electron mass ratio.
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Le Bihan, A-C; Van Hove, P; Gadrat, S; Beauceron, S; Beaupere, N; Boudoul, G; Brochet, S; Carrillo Montoya, C A; Chasserat, J; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Depasse, P; El Mamouni, H; Fan, J; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Gouzevitch, M; Ille, B; Kurca, T; Lethuillier, M; Mirabito, L; Perries, S; Ruiz Alvarez, J D; Sgandurra, L; Sordini, V; Vander Donckt, M; Verdier, P; Viret, S; Xiao, H; Tsamalaidze, Z; Autermann, C; Beranek, S; Bontenackels, M; Calpas, B; Edelhoff, M; Feld, L; Hindrichs, O; Klein, K; Ostapchuk, A; Perieanu, A; Raupach, F; Sammet, J; Schael, S; Sprenger, D; Weber, H; Wittmer, B; Zhukov, V; Ata, M; Caudron, J; Dietz-Laursonn, E; Duchardt, D; Erdmann, M; Fischer, R; Güth, A; Hebbeker, T; Heidemann, C; Hoepfner, K; Klingebiel, D; Knutzen, S; Kreuzer, P; Merschmeyer, M; Meyer, A; Olschewski, M; Padeken, K; Papacz, P; Reithler, H; Schmitz, S A; Sonnenschein, L; Teyssier, D; Thüer, S; Weber, M; Cherepanov, V; Erdogan, Y; Flügge, G; Geenen, H; Geisler, M; Haj Ahmad, W; Hoehle, F; Kargoll, B; 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Blobel, V; Centis Vignali, M; Enderle, H; Erfle, J; Garutti, E; Goebel, K; Görner, M; Gosselink, M; Haller, J; Höing, R S; Kirschenmann, H; Klanner, R; Kogler, R; Lange, J; Lapsien, T; Lenz, T; Marchesini, I; Ott, J; Peiffer, T; Pietsch, N; Rathjens, D; Sander, C; Schettler, H; Schleper, P; Schlieckau, E; Schmidt, A; Seidel, M; Sibille, J; Sola, V; Stadie, H; Steinbrück, G; Troendle, D; Usai, E; Vanelderen, L; Barth, C; Baus, C; Berger, J; Böser, C; Butz, E; Chwalek, T; De Boer, W; Descroix, A; Dierlamm, A; Feindt, M; Guthoff, M; Hartmann, F; Hauth, T; Held, H; Hoffmann, K H; Husemann, U; Katkov, I; Kornmayer, A; Kuznetsova, E; Lobelle Pardo, P; Martschei, D; Mozer, M U; Müller, Th; Niegel, M; Nürnberg, A; Oberst, O; Quast, G; Rabbertz, K; Ratnikov, F; Röcker, S; Schilling, F-P; Schott, G; Simonis, H J; Stober, F M; Ulrich, R; Wagner-Kuhr, J; Wayand, S; Weiler, T; Wolf, R; Zeise, M; Anagnostou, G; Daskalakis, G; Geralis, T; Giakoumopoulou, V A; Kesisoglou, S; Kyriakis, A; Loukas, D; Markou, A; Markou, C; Psallidas, A; Topsis-Giotis, I; Gouskos, L; Panagiotou, A; Saoulidou, N; Stiliaris, E; Aslanoglou, X; Evangelou, I; Flouris, G; Foudas, C; Jones, J; Kokkas, P; Manthos, N; Papadopoulos, I; Paradas, E; Bencze, G; Hajdu, C; Hidas, P; Horvath, D; Sikler, F; Veszpremi, V; Vesztergombi, G; Zsigmond, A J; Beni, N; Czellar, S; Molnar, J; Palinkas, J; Szillasi, Z; Karancsi, J; Raics, P; Trocsanyi, Z L; Ujvari, B; Swain, S K; Beri, S B; Bhatnagar, V; Dhingra, N; Gupta, R; Kalsi, A K; Kaur, M; Mittal, M; Nishu, N; Sharma, A; Singh, J B; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, S; Bhardwaj, A; Choudhary, B C; Kumar, A; Malhotra, S; Naimuddin, M; Ranjan, K; Sharma, V; Shivpuri, R K; Banerjee, S; Bhattacharya, S; Chatterjee, K; Dutta, S; Gomber, B; Jain, Sa; Jain, Sh; Khurana, R; Modak, A; Mukherjee, S; Roy, D; Sarkar, S; Sharan, M; Singh, A P; Abdulsalam, A; Dutta, D; Kailas, S; Kumar, V; Mohanty, A K; Pant, L M; Shukla, P; Topkar, A; Aziz, T; Chatterjee, R M; Ganguly, S; Ghosh, S; Guchait, M; 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Merlo, J-P; Mermerkaya, H; Mestvirishvili, A; Moeller, A; Nachtman, J; Ogul, H; Onel, Y; Ozok, F; Penzo, A; Rahmat, R; Sen, S; Tan, P; Tiras, E; Wetzel, J; Yetkin, T; Yi, K; Barnett, B A; Blumenfeld, B; Bolognesi, S; Fehling, D; Gritsan, A V; Maksimovic, P; Martin, C; Swartz, M; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Benelli, G; Gray, J; Kenny, R P; Murray, M; Noonan, D; Sanders, S; Sekaric, J; Stringer, R; Wang, Q; Wood, J S; Barfuss, A F; Chakaberia, I; Ivanov, A; Khalil, S; Makouski, M; Maravin, Y; Saini, L K; Shrestha, S; Svintradze, I; Gronberg, J; Lange, D; Rebassoo, F; Wright, D; Baden, A; Calvert, B; Eno, S C; Gomez, J A; Hadley, N J; Kellogg, R G; Kolberg, T; Lu, Y; Marionneau, M; Mignerey, A C; Pedro, K; Skuja, A; Temple, J; Tonjes, M B; Tonwar, S C; Apyan, A; Barbieri, R; Bauer, G; Busza, W; Cali, I A; Chan, M; Di Matteo, L; Dutta, V; Gomez Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; Gulhan, D; Klute, M; Lai, Y S; Lee, Y-J; Levin, A; Luckey, P D; Ma, T; Paus, C; Ralph, D; Roland, C; Roland, G; Stephans, G S F; 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Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Morse, D M; Pearson, T; Planer, M; Ruchti, R; Slaunwhite, J; Valls, N; Wayne, M; Wolf, M; Woodard, A; Antonelli, L; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Flowers, S; Hill, C; Hughes, R; Kotov, K; Ling, T Y; Puigh, D; Rodenburg, M; Smith, G; Vuosalo, C; Winer, B L; Wolfe, H; Wulsin, H W; Berry, E; Elmer, P; Halyo, V; Hebda, P; Hunt, A; Jindal, P; Koay, S A; Lujan, P; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Piroué, P; Quan, X; Raval, A; Saka, H; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, J S; Zenz, S C; Zuranski, A; Brownson, E; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Ramirez Vargas, J E; Alagoz, E; Benedetti, D; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; De Mattia, M; Everett, A; Hu, Z; Jha, M K; Jones, M; Jung, K; Kress, M; Leonardo, N; Lopes Pegna, D; Maroussov, V; Merkel, P; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Radburn-Smith, B C; Shipsey, I; Silvers, D; Svyatkovskiy, A; Wang, F; Xie, W; Xu, L; Yoo, H D; Zablocki, J; Zheng, Y; Parashar, N; Stupak, J; Adair, A; Akgun, B; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Li, W; Michlin, B; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Zabel, J; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Covarelli, R; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Eshaq, Y; Ferbel, T; Garcia-Bellido, A; Goldenzweig, P; Han, J; Harel, A; Miner, D C; Petrillo, G; Vishnevskiy, D; Zielinski, M; Bhatti, A; Ciesielski, R; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Lungu, G; Malik, S; Mesropian, C; Arora, S; Barker, A; Chou, J P; Contreras-Campana, C; Contreras-Campana, E; Duggan, D; Ferencek, D; Gershtein, Y; Gray, R; Halkiadakis, E; Hidas, D; Lath, A; Panwalkar, S; Park, M; Patel, R; Rekovic, V; Robles, J; Salur, S; Schnetzer, S; Seitz, C; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Thomassen, P; Walker, M; Rose, K; Spanier, S; Yang, Z C; York, A; Bouhali, O; Eusebi, R; Flanagan, W; Gilmore, J; Kamon, T; Khotilovich, V; Krutelyov, V; Montalvo, R; Osipenkov, I; Pakhotin, Y; Perloff, A; Roe, J; Rose, A; Safonov, A; Sakuma, T; Suarez, I; Tatarinov, A; Toback, D; Akchurin, N; Cowden, C; Damgov, J; Dragoiu, C; Dudero, P R; Faulkner, J; Kovitanggoon, K; Kunori, S; Lee, S W; Libeiro, T; Volobouev, I; Appelt, E; Delannoy, A G; Greene, S; Gurrola, A; Johns, W; Maguire, C; Mao, Y; Melo, A; Sharma, M; Sheldon, P; Snook, B; Tuo, S; Velkovska, J; Arenton, M W; Boutle, S; Cox, B; Francis, B; Goodell, J; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Li, H; Lin, C; Neu, C; Wood, J; Gollapinni, S; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C; Lamichhane, P; Belknap, D A; Borrello, L; Carlsmith, D; Cepeda, M; Dasu, S; Duric, S; Friis, E; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Herndon, M; Hervé, A; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Levine, A; Loveless, R; Mohapatra, A; Ojalvo, I; Perry, T; Pierro, G A; Polese, G; Ross, I; Sarangi, T; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Woods, N
A search for invisible decays of Higgs bosons is performed using the vector boson fusion and associated ZH production modes. In the ZH mode, the Z boson is required to decay to a pair of charged leptons or a [Formula: see text] quark pair. The searches use the 8┬á[Formula: see text] pp collision dataset collected by the CMS detector at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of up to 19.7┬á[Formula: see text]. Certain channels include data from 7┬á[Formula: see text] collisions corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.9┬á[Formula: see text]. The searches are sensitive to non-standard-model invisible decays of the recently observed Higgs boson, as well as additional Higgs bosons with similar production modes and large invisible branching fractions. In all channels, the observed data are consistent with the expected standard model backgrounds. Limits are set on the production cross section times invisible branching fraction, as a function of the Higgs boson mass, for the vector boson fusion and ZH production modes. By combining all channels, and assuming standard model Higgs boson cross sections and acceptances, the observed (expected) upper limit on the invisible branching fraction at [Formula: see text]┬á[Formula: see text] is found to be 0.58┬á(0.44) at 95┬á% confidence level. We interpret this limit in terms of a Higgs-portal model of dark matter interactions.
Multiscale Persistent Functions for Biomolecular Structure Characterization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xia, Kelin [Nanyang Technological University (Singapore). Division of Mathematical Sciences, School of Physical, Mathematical Sciences and School of Biological Sciences; Li, Zhiming [Central China Normal University, Wuhan (China). Key Laboratory of Quark and Lepton Physics (MOE) and Institute of Particle Physics; Mu, Lin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Computer Science and Mathematics Division
2017-11-02
Here in this paper, we introduce multiscale persistent functions for biomolecular structure characterization. The essential idea is to combine our multiscale rigidity functions (MRFs) with persistent homology analysis, so as to construct a series of multiscale persistent functions, particularly multiscale persistent entropies, for structure characterization. To clarify the fundamental idea of our method, the multiscale persistent entropy (MPE) model is discussed in great detail. Mathematically, unlike the previous persistent entropy (Chintakunta et al. in Pattern Recognit 48(2):391–401, 2015; Merelli et al. in Entropy 17(10):6872–6892, 2015; Rucco et al. in: Proceedings of ECCS 2014, Springer, pp 117–128, 2016), a special resolution parameter is incorporated into our model. Various scales can be achieved by tuning its value. Physically, our MPE can be used in conformational entropy evaluation. More specifically, it is found that our method incorporates in it a natural classification scheme. This is achieved through a density filtration of an MRF built from angular distributions. To further validate our model, a systematical comparison with the traditional entropy evaluation model is done. Additionally, it is found that our model is able to preserve the intrinsic topological features of biomolecular data much better than traditional approaches, particularly for resolutions in the intermediate range. Moreover, by comparing with traditional entropies from various grid sizes, bond angle-based methods and a persistent homology-based support vector machine method (Cang et al. in Mol Based Math Biol 3:140–162, 2015), we find that our MPE method gives the best results in terms of average true positive rate in a classic protein structure classification test. More interestingly, all-alpha and all-beta protein classes can be clearly separated from each other with zero error only in our model. Finally, a special protein structure index (PSI) is proposed, for the first
Yuan, Li; The ATLAS collaboration
2015-01-01
This talk will review the status of what has been learned from LHC run-1 about the properties of the observed Higgs boson mostly from the bosonic decay channels, but also from latest/final inclusive analyses of the coupling structure. The focus of the talk should be the measurement of the Higgs boson mass (with focus on the combination of ATLAS and CMS), the status of the spin and CP properties and the analysis of the coupling structure. The talk is aimed to present the final LHC run-1 results from ATLAS and CMS.
Bosonization and quantum hydrodynamics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
thereby completing the formalism introduced earlier [10]. It is worth emphasizing that it is the slow part of the field operator that is easily expressed in terms of the bosons rather than the full field as was implied in one of the author's earlier work. [5]. The present approach, together with the action mentioned in the abstract, can.
Duplantier, Bertrand; Rivasseau, Vincent
2017-01-01
This volume provides a detailed description of the seminal theoretical construction in 1964, independently by Robert Brout and Francois Englert, and by Peter W. Higgs, of a mechanism for short-range fundamental interactions, now called the Brout-Englert-Higgs (BEH) mechanism. It accounts for the non-zero mass of elementary particles and predicts the existence of a new particle - an elementary massive scalar boson. In addition to this the book describes the experimental discovery of this fundamental missing element in the Standard Model of particle physics. The H Boson, also called the Higgs Boson, was produced and detected in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of CERN near Geneva by two large experimental collaborations, ATLAS and CMS, which announced its discovery on the 4th of July 2012. This new volume of the Poincaré Seminar Series, The H Boson, corresponds to the nineteenth seminar, held on November 29, 2014, at Institut Henri Po incaré in Paris.
Statistical sum of bosonic string, compactified on an orbifold
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morozov, A.; Ol'shanetskij, M.
1986-01-01
Expression for statistical sum of bosonic string, compactified on a singular orbifold, is presented. All the information about the orbifold is encoded the specific combination of theta-functions, which the statistical sum is expressed through
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu Zengqiang; Zhai Hui; Zhang Shizhong
2011-01-01
We study the properties of dilute bosons immersed in a single-component Fermi sea across a broad boson-fermion Feshbach resonance. The stability of the mixture requires that the bare interaction between bosons exceeds a critical value, which is a universal function of the boson-fermion scattering length, and exhibits a maximum in the unitary region. We calculate the quantum depletion, momentum distribution, and the boson contact parameter across the resonance. The transition from condensate to molecular Fermi gas is also discussed.
Structure functions of nucleons and nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bentz, Wolfgang; Ito, Takuya [Department of Physics, Tokai University, Kanagawa (Japan); Cloet, Ian [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle (United States); Thomas, Anthony [Jefferson Lab., Newport News, VA (United States); Yazaki, Koichi [RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama (Japan)
2009-07-01
We use an effective chiral quark theory to calculate the quark distributions and structure functions of nucleons and nuclei. The description of the single nucleon is based on the Faddeev framework, and nuclear systems are described in the mean field approximation. Particular amphasis is put on the prediction of the polarized EMC effect in nuclei, and on applications to deep inelastic neutrino-nucleus scattering. Concerning the polarized EMC effect, we discuss the quenching of the quark spin sum in nuclei and its implications for the spin dependent nuclear structure functions, and present results for several nuclei where an experimental observation is feasible. Concerning the case of deep inelastic neutrino-nucleus scattering, we estimate the effect of medium modifications of the quark distribution functions on the measured cross sections, and discuss an interesting resolution of the so called NuTeV anomaly. Finally, we discuss extensions of our model to describe fragmentation functions for semi-inclusive processes. The connection between our effective quark model description and the jet model of Field and Feynman is discussed.
Threshold resummation of the structure function FL
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moch, S.; Vogt, A.
2009-02-01
The behaviour of the quark coefficient function for the longitudinal structure function F L in deepinelastic scattering is investigated for large values of the Bjorken variable x. We combine a highly plausible conjecture on the large-x limit of the physical evolution kernel for this quantity with our explicit three-loop results to derive the coefficients of the three leading large-x logarithms, α s n ln 2n-1-k (1-x), k=1,2,3, to all orders in the strong coupling constant α s . Corresponding results are derived for the non-C F part of the gluon coefficient function suppressed by a factor 1-x, and for the analogous subleading (1-x)ln k (1-x) contributions in the quark case. Our results appear to indicate an obstacle for an exponentiation with a higher logarithmic accuracy. (orig.)
Structural and regulatory functions of keratins
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Magin, Thomas M.; Vijayaraj, Preethi; Leube, Rudolf E.
2007-01-01
The diversity of epithelial functions is reflected by the expression of distinct keratin pairs that are responsible to protect epithelial cells against mechanical stress and to act as signaling platforms. The keratin cytoskeleton integrates these functions by forming a supracellular scaffold that connects at desmosomal cell-cell adhesions. Multiple human diseases and murine knockouts in which the integrity of this system is destroyed testify to its importance as a mechanical stabilizer in certain epithelia. Yet, surprisingly little is known about the precise mechanisms responsible for assembly and disease pathology. In addition to these structural aspects of keratin function, experimental evidence accumulating in recent years has led to a much more complex view of the keratin cytoskeleton. Distinct keratins emerge as highly dynamic scaffolds in different settings and contribute to cell size determination, translation control, proliferation, cell type-specific organelle transport, malignant transformation and various stress responses. All of these properties are controlled by highly complex patterns of phosphorylation and molecular associations
General analysis of the intermediate vector boson production in hadron collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rekalo, M.P.
1981-01-01
Polarization states of intermediate vector W(Z) bosons produced in inclusive hadron-hadron collisions, a 1 +a 2 →W(Z)+X, where a 1 a 2 are some nonpolarized hadrons, X is a nondetected particle assembly are studied in general. Since spatial parity in these processes is not preserved, polarized W(Z) boson production must be determined by 9 real structural functions, 4 of which characterize the effects of invariance violation in relation to spatial reflections. Three structural functions (P-odd) for pole W(Z) production mechanisms in the quantum chromodynamics should exactly equal zero (with regard to the gluon errors). The relation of the W(Z) matrix elements with the structural functions in different coordinate systems used while discussing the angular distributions of W(Z) boson decay products is established. Decription of the W(Z) polarization properties is analyzed in terms of the 4-vector of spin and tenzor of quadrupole polarization [ru
Psychedelics Promote Structural and Functional Neural Plasticity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Calvin Ly
2018-06-01
Full Text Available Summary: Atrophy of neurons in the prefrontal cortex (PFC plays a key role in the pathophysiology of depression and related disorders. The ability to promote both structural and functional plasticity in the PFC has been hypothesized to underlie the fast-acting antidepressant properties of the dissociative anesthetic ketamine. Here, we report that, like ketamine, serotonergic psychedelics are capable of robustly increasing neuritogenesis and/or spinogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. These changes in neuronal structure are accompanied by increased synapse number and function, as measured by fluorescence microscopy and electrophysiology. The structural changes induced by psychedelics appear to result from stimulation of the TrkB, mTOR, and 5-HT2A signaling pathways and could possibly explain the clinical effectiveness of these compounds. Our results underscore the therapeutic potential of psychedelics and, importantly, identify several lead scaffolds for medicinal chemistry efforts focused on developing plasticity-promoting compounds as safe, effective, and fast-acting treatments for depression and related disorders. : Ly et al. demonstrate that psychedelic compounds such as LSD, DMT, and DOI increase dendritic arbor complexity, promote dendritic spine growth, and stimulate synapse formation. These cellular effects are similar to those produced by the fast-acting antidepressant ketamine and highlight the potential of psychedelics for treating depression and related disorders. Keywords: neural plasticity, psychedelic, spinogenesis, synaptogenesis, depression, LSD, DMT, ketamine, noribogaine, MDMA
Psychedelics Promote Structural and Functional Neural Plasticity.
Ly, Calvin; Greb, Alexandra C; Cameron, Lindsay P; Wong, Jonathan M; Barragan, Eden V; Wilson, Paige C; Burbach, Kyle F; Soltanzadeh Zarandi, Sina; Sood, Alexander; Paddy, Michael R; Duim, Whitney C; Dennis, Megan Y; McAllister, A Kimberley; Ori-McKenney, Kassandra M; Gray, John A; Olson, David E
2018-06-12
Atrophy of neurons in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a key role in the pathophysiology of depression and related disorders. The ability to promote both structural and functional plasticity in the PFC has been hypothesized to underlie the fast-acting antidepressant properties of the dissociative anesthetic ketamine. Here, we report that, like ketamine, serotonergic psychedelics are capable of robustly increasing neuritogenesis and/or spinogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. These changes in neuronal structure are accompanied by increased synapse number and function, as measured by fluorescence microscopy and electrophysiology. The structural changes induced by psychedelics appear to result from stimulation of the TrkB, mTOR, and 5-HT2A signaling pathways and could possibly explain the clinical effectiveness of these compounds. Our results underscore the therapeutic potential of psychedelics and, importantly, identify several lead scaffolds for medicinal chemistry efforts focused on developing plasticity-promoting compounds as safe, effective, and fast-acting treatments for depression and related disorders. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The structure and function of presynaptic endosomes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jähne, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.jaehne1@stud.uni-goettingen.de [Department of Neuro- and Sensory Physiology, University of Göttingen Medical Center, Cluster of Excellence Nanoscale Microscopy and Molecular Physiology of the Brain, Humboldtallee 23, 37073 Göttingen (Germany); International Max Planck Research School for Neurosciences, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Rizzoli, Silvio O. [Department of Neuro- and Sensory Physiology, University of Göttingen Medical Center, Cluster of Excellence Nanoscale Microscopy and Molecular Physiology of the Brain, Humboldtallee 23, 37073 Göttingen (Germany); Helm, Martin S., E-mail: martin.helm@med.uni-goettingen.de [Department of Neuro- and Sensory Physiology, University of Göttingen Medical Center, Cluster of Excellence Nanoscale Microscopy and Molecular Physiology of the Brain, Humboldtallee 23, 37073 Göttingen (Germany); International Max Planck Research School for Molecular Biology, 37077 Göttingen (Germany)
2015-07-15
The function of endosomes and of endosome-like structures in the presynaptic compartment is still controversial. This is in part due to the absence of a consensus on definitions and markers for these compartments. Synaptic endosomes are sometimes seen as stable organelles, permanently present in the synapse. Alternatively, they are seen as short-lived intermediates in synaptic vesicle recycling, arising from the endocytosis of large vesicles from the plasma membrane, or from homotypic fusion of small vesicles. In addition, the potential function of the endosome is largely unknown in the synapse. Some groups have proposed that the endosome is involved in the sorting of synaptic vesicle proteins, albeit others have produced data that deny this possibility. In this review, we present the existing evidence for synaptic endosomes, we discuss their potential functions, and we highlight frequent technical pitfalls in the analysis of this elusive compartment. We also sketch a roadmap to definitely determine the role of synaptic endosomes for the synaptic vesicle cycle. Finally, we propose a common definition of synaptic endosome-like structures.
The structure and function of presynaptic endosomes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jähne, Sebastian; Rizzoli, Silvio O.; Helm, Martin S.
2015-01-01
The function of endosomes and of endosome-like structures in the presynaptic compartment is still controversial. This is in part due to the absence of a consensus on definitions and markers for these compartments. Synaptic endosomes are sometimes seen as stable organelles, permanently present in the synapse. Alternatively, they are seen as short-lived intermediates in synaptic vesicle recycling, arising from the endocytosis of large vesicles from the plasma membrane, or from homotypic fusion of small vesicles. In addition, the potential function of the endosome is largely unknown in the synapse. Some groups have proposed that the endosome is involved in the sorting of synaptic vesicle proteins, albeit others have produced data that deny this possibility. In this review, we present the existing evidence for synaptic endosomes, we discuss their potential functions, and we highlight frequent technical pitfalls in the analysis of this elusive compartment. We also sketch a roadmap to definitely determine the role of synaptic endosomes for the synaptic vesicle cycle. Finally, we propose a common definition of synaptic endosome-like structures
Catchment Classification: Connecting Climate, Structure and Function
Sawicz, K. A.; Wagener, T.; Sivapalan, M.; Troch, P. A.; Carrillo, G. A.
2010-12-01
Hydrology does not yet possess a generally accepted catchment classification framework. Such a classification framework needs to: [1] give names to things, i.e. the main classification step, [2] permit transfer of information, i.e. regionalization of information, [3] permit development of generalizations, i.e. to develop new theory, and [4] provide a first order environmental change impact assessment, i.e., the hydrologic implications of climate, land use and land cover change. One strategy is to create a catchment classification framework based on the notion of catchment functions (partitioning, storage, and release). Results of an empirical study presented here connects climate and structure to catchment function (in the form of select hydrologic signatures), based on analyzing over 300 US catchments. Initial results indicate a wide assortment of signature relationships with properties of climate, geology, and vegetation. The uncertainty in the different regionalized signatures varies widely, and therefore there is variability in the robustness of classifying ungauged basins. This research provides insight into the controls of hydrologic behavior of a catchment, and enables a classification framework applicable to gauged and ungauged across the study domain. This study sheds light on what we can expect to achieve in mapping climate, structure and function in a top-down manner. Results of this study complement work done using a bottom-up physically-based modeling framework to generalize this approach (Carrillo et al., this session).
FACTOR STRUCTURE OF FUNCTIONAL CAPABILITIES OF BODYBUILDERS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Predrag Milenović
2007-05-01
Full Text Available It is evident that researches in the fi eld of kineziology and sports sciences on the topic of body-building here are very rare mainly and probably because of its place in the system of hyerarchy of sports. Lack of interest in body-building and its insuffi cient popularization springs probably, among other things, from its different interpretation and, according to some people, from its ultimate goals which are not justifi ed by many. Others, experts from the fi eld of body-building, starting from the basic principles of its exercising point out its numerous positive characteristics and sides. Undoubtedly, characteristics of functional capabilities of sportspeople are specifi c for each sport or discipline. In body-building the functional sphere is bordered and defi ned by the nature of the sport’s activity itself, as well as by genetics and internal and external factors in a very complex training process of a bodu-builder. The goal of this research was determining the structure of the functional sphere of a body-builder. It was performed on the sample of 30 selected sportsmen, body-builders, of chronological age between 17 and 19 ( 6 months, members of the Sports' Club Strength ''Leskovac'', the Weight Lifters' Club '' Dubočica'' and the Body-building Club '' Dubočica'' from Leskovac. All the examiees have been submitted to training processes during a period longer than a year. For the purpose of determining the structure of the morphological sphere the Factor Analysis has been applied. Based on the data from the matrix of the Factor Structure the isolated factors can be interpreted in the following manner: The fi rst isolated factor in the sphere of applied functional variables is best defi ned by the variable of pulse under stress (FPUOP and the variable of maximum Oxygen consumption in liters per minute (FOLM. This isolated factor can be defi ned as a dimension of the transportation system of Oxygen. The second isolated factor in the
Higgs-boson contributions to gauge-boson mass shifts in extended electroweak models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moore, S.R.
1985-10-01
In the minimal standard model, the difference between the tree-level and one-loop-corrected predictions for the gauge-boson masses, known as the mass shifts, are of the order of 4%. The dominant contribution is from light-fermion loops. The Higgs-dependent terms are small, even if the Higgs boson is heavy. We have analyzed the mass shifts for models with a more complicated Higgs sector. We use the on-shell renormalization scheme, in which the parameters of the theory are the physical masses and couplings. We have considered the 2-doublet, n-doublet, triplet and doublet-triplet models. We have found that the Z-boson mass prediction has a strong dependence on the charged-Higgs mass. In the limit that the charged Higgs is much heavier than the gauge bosons, the Higgs-dependent terms become significant, and may even cancel the light-fermion terms. In the models with a Higgs triplet, there is also a strong dependence on the neutral-Higgs masses, although this contribution tends to be suppressed in realistic models. The W-boson mass shift does not have a strong Higgs dependence. If we use the Z mass as input in determining the parameters of the theory, a scenario which will become attractive as the mass of the Z is accurately measured in the next few years, we find that the W-boson mass shift exhibits the same sort of behavior, differing from the minimal model for the case of the charged Higgs being heavy. We have found that when radiative corrections are taken into account, models with extended Higgs sectors may differ significantly from the minimal standard model in their predictions for the gauge-boson masses. Thus, an accurate measurement of the masses will help shed light on the structure of the Higgs sector. 68 refs
Summary of the Photon Structure Functions - Measurements at LEP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Przybycien, M.
2002-01-01
The present status of the photon structure functions measurements at LEP is discussed. The short introduction to the kinematics and theoretical framework of the structure functions measurements at LEP is given first. Then follow presentations of the most important measurements, ranging from the QED photon structure function, through the hadronic structure functions of real and virtual photons, and at the end the first measurement of the electron structure function is shown. (author)
Quantum Kinematics of Bosonic Vortex Loops
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goldin, G.A.; Owczarek, R.; Sharp, D.H.
1999-01-01
Poisson structure for vortex filaments (loops and arcs) in 2D ideal incompressible fluid is analyzed in detail. Canonical coordinates and momenta on coadjoint orbits of the area-preserving diffeomorphism group, associated with such vortices, are found. The quantum space of states in the simplest case of ''bosonic'' vortex loops is built within a geometric quantization approach to the description of a quantum fluid. Fock-like structure and non-local creation and annihilation operators of quantum vortex filaments are introduced
Measurements of the Vector boson production with the ATLAS Detector
Weber, Stephen Albert; The ATLAS collaboration
2018-01-01
Measurements of the Drell-Yan production of W and Z bosons at the LHC are an essential part of the ATLAS standard model physics program. These processes are a probe to understand perturbative QCD and the structure of the proton. Differential measurements of the Z boson cross section produced in association with jets can be compared to different LO and NLO MC generators to test the accuracy of these predictions. A selection of recent results are presented on varying studies of W and Z boson production.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kappes, A.
2001-12-01
The 16 pb -1 of e - p data taken with the ZEUS detector during the 1998/99 running period of HERA have been used to measure neutral current single- and double-differential cross sections in deep inelastic e - p scattering in the range 200 GeV 2 2 2 and 3.7.10 -3 2 is visible. A comparison of the measured e - p cross sections to those from e + p clearly reveals the influence of the Z-boson contribution for Q 2 >or∼ M Z 2 . This dependence is exploited to determine the mass of the Z boson, M Z , and by combining the e - p and e + p cross sections the parity violating structure function xF 3 is extracted for the first time in deep-inelastic ep scattering at ZEUS. (orig.)
Charged boson bound states in the kerr-newman metric
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Yuanjie; Zhang Duanming
1986-01-01
Charged boson bound states in Kerr-Newman metric are discussed. It is found that massless boson cannot be attracted by Kerr-Newman black hole to form bound states. For the massive boson, the condition of the nonbound states when 0 2 - Q 2 and both the condition and wave functions of the bound states when a = √M 2 - Q 2 are obtained. The energy mode of the bound states is single, E = (m√M 2 - Q 2 + eQM)/(2M 2 - Q 2 ). When Q = 0 or e = 0, the conclusion is in agreement with that of Zhang Shiwei and Su Rukeng
Threshold region for Higgs boson production in gluon fusion.
Bonvini, Marco; Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, Giovanni
2012-09-07
We provide a quantitative determination of the effective partonic kinematics for Higgs boson production in gluon fusion in terms of the collider energy at the LHC. We use the result to assess, as a function of the Higgs boson mass, whether the large m(t) approximation is adequate and Sudakov resummation advantageous. We argue that our results hold to all perturbative orders. Based on our results, we conclude that the full inclusion of finite top mass corrections is likely to be important for accurate phenomenology for a light Higgs boson with m(H)~125 GeV at the LHC with √s=14 TeV.
Measurement of the nucleon structure functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gordon, B.A.; Loomis, W.A.; Pipkin, F.M.; Pordes, S.H.; Sessoms, A.L.; Shambroom, W.D.; Tao, C.; Verhey, L.J.; Wilson, R.; Anderson, H.L.; Fine, R.M.; Heisterberg, R.H.; Kinnison, W.W.; Matis, H.S.; Mo, L.W.; Myrianthopoulos, L.C.; Wright, S.C.; Francis, W.R.; Hicks, R.G.; Kirk, T.B.W.; Quirk, T.W.; Bharadwaj, V.K.; Booth, N.E.; Kirkbride, G.I.; Proudfoot, J.; Skuja, A.; Staton, M.A.; Williams, W.S.C.
1979-01-01
Measurements have been made of the inclusive scattering of 96, 147, and 219 GeV muons from hydrogen, and of 147 GeV muons from deuterium. Results are presented for the nucleon structure function F 2 (x,Q 2 ) [equivalentνW 2 (x,Q 2 )] for 10 2 2 . The value of F 2 rises with Q 2 at small x, and falls with Q 2 at large x, in agreement with the ideas of quantum chromodynamics. An average value of the ratio sigma/sub L//sigma/sub T/ equivalent R = 0.52 +- 0.35 has been obtained for the region 0.003 2 2 . The values of F 2 from this experiment have been combined with those from other charged-lepton scattering experiments to determine moments of the structure functions. The variation with Q 2 of these moments is used to derive values for Λ, taking into account corrections up to second order in α/sub s/. The fit to the data is very good
Structural and functional intermetallics - an overview
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Varin, R.A.
2000-01-01
This overview presents the current status of the research and development of both structural and functional intermetallics. On the one hand, the discussion is focused on commercialization and existing industrial applications of intermetallics. Within this frame the applications of titanium aluminides (TiAl) for turbocharger rotors and exhaust valves in automotive industry are being discussed. Advances in the applications of TiAl alloys for the next generation of turbine blades in aerospace/aircraft segment are also presented. The entire spectrum of nickel and iron aluminide alloys developed commercially by the Oak Ridge national Laboratory (USA) and the examples of their application in various segments of industry are thoroughly discussed. Some inroads made in the application of directionally solidified (DS) multiphase niobium silicides (Nb 3 Si+Nb 5 Si 3 ) in situ intermetallic composites with the goal of pushing the service temperature envelope of turbine blades to ∼ 1200-1300 o C are also discussed. On the other hand, various topics in basic or curiosity driven research of titanium aluminides and trialuminides, iron aluminides and high temperature structural silicides are discussed. Some very recent findings on the improvements in fracture toughness and strength of titanium trialuminides and magnetic behaviour of unconventionally cold - worked iron aluminides are highlighted. The topic of functional intermetallics is limited to the systems must suitable for hydrogen storage applications. A perspective on the directions of future research and development of intermetallics is also provided. (author)
Hemmer, Sabine
2018-01-01
Poster di ATLAS sul bosone di Higgs indirizzato al pubblico generico, che spiega il meccanismo di Brout-Englert-Higgs e la sua importanza. Spiega anche il ruolo del Bosone di Higgs, come viene cercato, il percorso della sua scoperta e cosa viene dopo la scoperta. Disponibile anche in Francese (http://cds.cern.ch/record/1697501) e Inglese (http://cds.cern.ch/record/1697389). Non esitate a utilizzarlo nelle sedi dei vostri Istituti e negli eventi divulgativi! Il poster è in formato A0. Cliccate sull'immagine per scaricare il .pdf ad alta qualità e stamparlo dove preferite. Per qualisasi domanda o commento potete contattare atlas-outreach-coordination@cern.ch
Diaz, Victor Alfonzo; Giusti, Andrea
2018-03-01
The aim of this paper is to present a simple generalization of bosonic string theory in the framework of the theory of fractional variational problems. Specifically, we present a fractional extension of the Polyakov action, for which we compute the general form of the equations of motion and discuss the connection between the new fractional action and a generalization the Nambu-Goto action. Consequently, we analyze the symmetries of the modified Polyakov action and try to fix the gauge, following the classical procedures. Then we solve the equations of motion in a simplified setting. Finally, we present a Hamiltonian description of the classical fractional bosonic string and introduce the fractional light-cone gauge. It is important to remark that, throughout the whole paper, we thoroughly discuss how to recover the known results as an "integer" limit of the presented model.
The primate fovea: Structure, function and development.
Bringmann, Andreas; Syrbe, Steffen; Görner, Katja; Kacza, Johannes; Francke, Mike; Wiedemann, Peter; Reichenbach, Andreas
2018-03-30
A fovea is a pitted invagination in the inner retinal tissue (fovea interna) that overlies an area of photoreceptors specialized for high acuity vision (fovea externa). Although the shape of the vertebrate fovea varies considerably among the species, there are two basic types. The retina of many predatory fish, reptilians, and birds possess one (or two) convexiclivate fovea(s), while the retina of higher primates contains a concaviclivate fovea. By refraction of the incoming light, the convexiclivate fovea may function as image enlarger, focus indicator, and movement detector. By centrifugal displacement of the inner retinal layers, which increases the transparency of the central foveal tissue (the foveola), the primate fovea interna improves the quality of the image received by the central photoreceptors. In this review, we summarize ‒ with the focus on Müller cells of the human and macaque fovea ‒ data regarding the structure of the primate fovea, discuss various aspects of the optical function of the fovea, and propose a model of foveal development. The "Müller cell cone" of the foveola comprises specialized Müller cells which do not support neuronal activity but may serve optical and structural functions. In addition to the "Müller cell cone", structural stabilization of the foveal morphology may be provided by the 'z-shaped' Müller cells of the fovea walls, via exerting tractional forces onto Henle fibers. The spatial distribution of glial fibrillary acidic protein may suggest that the foveola and the Henle fiber layer are subjects to mechanical stress. During development, the foveal pit is proposed to be formed by a vertical contraction of the centralmost Müller cells. After widening of the foveal pit likely mediated by retracting astrocytes, Henle fibers are formed by horizontal contraction of Müller cell processes in the outer plexiform layer and the centripetal displacement of photoreceptors. A better understanding of the molecular, cellular
Sirunyan, Albert M; CMS Collaboration; Adam, Wolfgang; Asilar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Krammer, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; König, Axel; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rad, Navid; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Strauss, Josef; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Dvornikov, Oleg; Makarenko, Vladimir; Mossolov, Vladimir; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Zykunov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Alderweireldt, Sara; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Lauwers, Jasper; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Lowette, Steven; Moortgat, Seth; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Skovpen, Kirill; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Parijs, Isis; Brun, Hugues; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Delannoy, Hugo; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Goldouzian, Reza; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Luetic, Jelena; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Randle-conde, Aidan; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Vannerom, David; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Cornelis, Tom; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Gul, Muhammad; Khvastunov, Illia; Poyraz, Deniz; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Schöfbeck, Robert; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Verbeke, Willem; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; De Visscher, Simon; Delaere, Christophe; Delcourt, Martin; Francois, Brieuc; Giammanco, Andrea; Jafari, Abideh; Komm, Matthias; Krintiras, Georgios; Lemaitre, Vincent; Magitteri, Alessio; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Wertz, Sébastien; Beliy, Nikita; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Hensel, Carsten; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, Felipe; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Shopova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Fang, Wenxing; Gao, Xuyang; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Tongguang; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Leggat, Duncan; Liu, Zhenan; Romeo, Francesco; Ruan, Manqi; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Yazgan, Efe; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhao, Jingzhou; Ban, Yong; Chen, Geng; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; González Hernández, Carlos Felipe; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Sculac, Toni; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Ferencek, Dinko; Kadija, Kreso; Mesic, Benjamin; Susa, Tatjana; Ather, Mohsan Waseem; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Mohammed, Yasser; Salama, Elsayed; Kadastik, Mario; Perrini, Lucia; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Jarvinen, Terhi; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Ghosh, Saranya; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Kucher, Inna; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Chapon, Emilien; Charlot, Claude; Davignon, Olivier; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Jo, Mihee; Lisniak, Stanislav; Lobanov, Artur; Miné, Philippe; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Stahl Leiton, Andre Govinda; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Zghiche, Amina; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Courbon, Benoit; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Finco, Linda; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Grenier, Gérald; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Popov, Andrey; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Khvedelidze, Arsen; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Feld, Lutz; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Preuten, Marius; Schomakers, Christian; Schulz, Johannes; Verlage, Tobias; Albert, Andreas; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hamer, Matthias; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Knutzen, Simon; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Mukherjee, Swagata; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Flügge, Günter; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Müller, Thomas; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Arndt, Till; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Beernaert, Kelly; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bin Anuar, Afiq Aizuddin; Borras, Kerstin; Campbell, Alan; Connor, Patrick; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Eren, Engin; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Grados Luyando, Juan Manuel; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gunnellini, Paolo; Harb, Ali; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Karacheban, Olena; Kasemann, Matthias; Keaveney, James; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Lelek, Aleksandra; Lenz, Teresa; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Ntomari, Eleni; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Roland, Benoit; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Spannagel, Simon; Stefaniuk, Nazar; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Dreyer, Torben; Garutti, Erika; Gonzalez, Daniel; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Junkes, Alexandra; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Kurz, Simon; Lapsien, Tobias; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Meyer, Mareike; Niedziela, Marek; Nowatschin, Dominik; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Scharf, Christian; Schleper, Peter; Schmidt, Alexander; Schumann, Svenja; Schwandt, Joern; Sonneveld, Jory; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Stöver, Marc; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baur, Sebastian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Butz, Erik; Caspart, René; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Fink, Simon; Freund, Benedikt; Friese, Raphael; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Haitz, Dominik; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Kassel, Florian; Katkov, Igor; Kudella, Simon; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Röcker, Steffen; Roscher, Frank; Schröder, Matthias; Shvetsov, Ivan; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Ulrich, Ralf; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Williamson, Shawn; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Loukas, Nikitas; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Triantis, Frixos A; Filipovic, Nicolas; Pasztor, Gabriella; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Makovec, Alajos; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Choudhury, Somnath; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Bahinipati, Seema; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Nayak, Aruna; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Kumari, Priyanka; Mehta, Ankita; Mittal, Monika; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Keshri, Sumit; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Sharma, Varun; Bhattacharya, Rajarshi; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dey, Sourav; Dutt, Suneel; Dutta, Suchandra; Ghosh, Shamik; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Nandan, Saswati; Purohit, Arnab; Roy, Ashim; Roy, Debarati; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Thakur, Shalini; Behera, Prafulla Kumar; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Netrakanti, Pawan Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Dugad, Shashikant; Kole, Gouranga; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Ganguly, Sanmay; Guchait, Monoranjan; Jain, Sandhya; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Sarkar, Tanmay; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Hegde, Vinay; Kapoor, Anshul; Kothekar, Kunal; Pandey, Shubham; Rane, Aditee; Sharma, Seema; Chenarani, Shirin; Eskandari Tadavani, Esmaeel; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Caputo, Claudio; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Sharma, Archana; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Albergo, Sebastiano; Costa, Salvatore; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Russo, Lorenzo; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Strom, Derek; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Monge, Maria Roberta; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Brianza, Luca; Brivio, Francesco; Ciriolo, Vincenzo; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malberti, Martina; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Pigazzini, Simone; Ragazzi, Stefano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; De Nardo, Guglielmo; Di Guida, Salvatore; Fabozzi, Francesco; Fienga, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Carlin, Roberto; Carvalho Antunes De Oliveira, Alexandra; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Rossin, Roberto; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Fallavollita, Francesco; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Ressegotti, Martina; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Leonardi, Roberto; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Mariani, Valentina; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fedi, Giacomo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Cipriani, Marco; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Marzocchi, Badder; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bartosik, Nazar; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Cenna, Francesca; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Monteno, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Ravera, Fabio; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Shchelina, Ksenia; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Traczyk, Piotr; Belforte, Stefano; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Zanetti, Anna; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Lee, Jeongeun; Lee, Sangeun; Lee, Seh Wook; Oh, Young Do; Sekmen, Sezen; Son, Dong-Chul; Yang, Yu Chul; Lee, Ari; Kim, Hyunchul; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Tae Jeong; Cho, Sungwoong; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Ha, Seungkyu; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Youngkwon; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Lim, Jaehoon; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Almond, John; Kim, Junho; Lee, Haneol; Oh, Sung Bin; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Seo, Seon-hee; Yang, Unki; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Yu, Geum Bong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Hwang, Chanwook; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Zolkapli, Zukhaimira; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Mejia Guisao, Jhovanny; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Carpinteyro, Severiano; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Uribe Estrada, Cecilia; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Saddique, Asif; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Waqas, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bozena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Pyskir, Andrzej; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Calpas, Betty; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Gallinaro, Michele; Hollar, Jonathan; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Seixas, Joao; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Voytishin, Nikolay; Zarubin, Anatoli; Chtchipounov, Leonid; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Sulimov, Valentin; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Toms, Maria; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Aushev, Tagir; Bylinkin, Alexander; Chistov, Ruslan; Danilov, Mikhail; Polikarpov, Sergey; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Terkulov, Adel; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Bunichev, Viacheslav; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Blinov, Vladimir; Skovpen, Yuri; Shtol, Dmitry; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Elumakhov, Dmitry; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Cirkovic, Predrag; Devetak, Damir; Dordevic, Milos; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Barrio Luna, Mar; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Cuevas, Javier; Erice, Carlos; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; González Fernández, Juan Rodrigo; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Sanchez Cruz, Sergio; Suárez Andrés, Ignacio; Vischia, Pietro; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Curras, Esteban; Fernandez, Marcos; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Trevisani, Nicolò; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Botta, Cristina; Camporesi, Tiziano; Castello, Roberto; Cepeda, Maria; Cerminara, Gianluca; Chen, Yi; Cimmino, Anna; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Gruttola, Michele; De Roeck, Albert; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dorney, Brian; Du Pree, Tristan; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Everaerts, Pieter; Fartoukh, Stephane; Franzoni, Giovanni; Fulcher, Jonathan; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Gulhan, Doga; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kieseler, Jan; Kirschenmann, Henning; Knünz, Valentin; Kornmayer, Andreas; Kortelainen, Matti J; Krammer, Manfred; Lange, Clemens; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Martelli, Arabella; Meijers, Frans; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Neugebauer, Hannes; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuel; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Racz, Attila; Reis, Thomas; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Seidel, Markus; Selvaggi, Michele; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Steggemann, Jan; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Tosi, Mia; Treille, Daniel; Triossi, Andrea; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veckalns, Viesturs; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Verweij, Marta; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Zagozdzinska, Agnieszka; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Rohe, Tilman; Wiederkehr, Stephan Albert; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Casal, Bruno; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Kasieczka, Gregor; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marionneau, Matthieu; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meinhard, Maren Tabea; Meister, Daniel; Micheli, Francesco; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrin, Gaël; Perrozzi, Luca; Quittnat, Milena; Rossini, Marco; Schönenberger, Myriam; Starodumov, Andrei; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Aarrestad, Thea Klaeboe; Amsler, Claude; Caminada, Lea; Canelli, Maria Florencia; De Cosa, Annapaola; Donato, Silvio; Galloni, Camilla; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Pinna, Deborah; Rauco, Giorgia; Robmann, Peter; Salerno, Daniel; Seitz, Claudia; Yang, Yong; Zucchetta, Alberto; Candelise, Vieri; Doan, Thi Hien; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Konyushikhin, Maxim; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Yu, Shin-Shan; Kumar, Arun; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Fiori, Francesco; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Paganis, Efstathios; Psallidas, Andreas; Tsai, Jui-fa; Asavapibhop, Burin; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Boran, Fatma; Cerci, Salim; Damarseckin, Serdal; Demiroglu, Zuhal Seyma; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kara, Ozgun; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Kiminsu, Ugur; Oglakci, Mehmet; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Topakli, Huseyin; Turkcapar, Semra; Zorbakir, Ibrahim Soner; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Bilin, Bugra; Isildak, Bora; Karapinar, Guler; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Yetkin, Elif Asli; Yetkin, Taylan; Cakir, Altan; Cankocak, Kerem; Sen, Sercan; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Aggleton, Robin; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Burns, Douglas; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Sakuma, Tai; Seif El Nasr-storey, Sarah; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Calligaris, Luigi; Cieri, Davide; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Bundock, Aaron; Casasso, Stefano; Citron, Matthew; Colling, David; Corpe, Louie; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; De Wit, Adinda; Della Negra, Michel; Di Maria, Riccardo; Dunne, Patrick; Elwood, Adam; Futyan, David; Haddad, Yacine; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; James, Thomas; Lane, Rebecca; Laner, Christian; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Penning, Bjoern; Pesaresi, Mark; Raymond, David Mark; Richards, Alexander; Rose, Andrew; Scott, Edward; Seez, Christopher; Summers, Sioni; Tapper, Alexander; Uchida, Kirika; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wright, Jack; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Borzou, Ahmad; Call, Kenneth; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Pastika, Nathaniel; Bartek, Rachel; Dominguez, Aaron; Buccilli, Andrew; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; West, Christopher; Arcaro, Daniel; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Gastler, Daniel; Rankin, Dylan; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Benelli, Gabriele; Cutts, David; Garabedian, Alex; Hakala, John; Heintz, Ulrich; Hogan, Julie Managan; Jesus, Orduna; Kwok, Ka Hei Martin; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Piperov, Stefan; Sagir, Sinan; Spencer, Eric; Syarif, Rizki; Breedon, Richard; Burns, Dustin; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Flores, Chad; Funk, Garrett; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mclean, Christine; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Shalhout, Shalhout; Shi, Mengyao; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tos, Kyle; Tripathi, Mani; Bachtis, Michail; Bravo, Cameron; Cousins, Robert; Dasgupta, Abhigyan; Florent, Alice; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Mccoll, Nickolas; Saltzberg, David; Schnaible, Christian; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Bouvier, Elvire; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Ghiasi Shirazi, Seyyed Mohammad Amin; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Paneva, Mirena Ivova; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Si, Weinan; Wei, Hua; Wimpenny, Stephen; Yates, Brent; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; Derdzinski, Mark; Gerosa, Raffaele; Holzner, André; Klein, Daniel; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Welke, Charles; Wood, John; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Amin, Nick; Bhandari, Rohan; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Gran, Jason; Heller, Ryan; Incandela, Joe; Mullin, Sam Daniel; Ovcharova, Ana; Qu, Huilin; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; Suarez, Indara; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Anderson, Dustin; Bendavid, Joshua; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Lawhorn, Jay Mathew; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Andrews, Michael Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Sun, Menglei; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Weinberg, Marc; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Mulholland, Troy; Stenson, Kevin; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Mcdermott, Kevin; Mirman, Nathan; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Soffi, Livia; Tan, Shao Min; Tao, Zhengcheng; Thom, Julia; Tucker, Jordan; Wittich, Peter; Zientek, Margaret; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Apollinari, Giorgio; Apresyan, Artur; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Cremonesi, Matteo; Duarte, Javier; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Harris, Robert M; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hirschauer, James; Hu, Zhen; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Lammel, Stephan; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Magini, Nicolo; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; O'Dell, Vivian; Pedro, Kevin; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rakness, Gregory; Ristori, Luciano; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Stoynev, Stoyan; Strait, James; Strobbe, Nadja; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vernieri, Caterina; Verzocchi, Marco; Vidal, Richard; Wang, Michael; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Whitbeck, Andrew; Wu, Yujun; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Carnes, Andrew; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; Field, Richard D; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Low, Jia Fu; Ma, Peisen; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Rank, Douglas; Shchutska, Lesya; Sperka, David; Thomas, Laurent; Wang, Jian; Wang, Sean-Jiun; Yelton, John; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bein, Samuel; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Kolberg, Ted; Perry, Thomas; Prosper, Harrison; Santra, Arka; Yohay, Rachel; Baarmand, Marc M; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Hohlmann, Marcus; Noonan, Daniel; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Cavanaugh, Richard; Chen, Xuan; Evdokimov, Olga; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hangal, Dhanush Anil; Hofman, David Jonathan; Jung, Kurt; Kamin, Jason; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Trauger, Hallie; Varelas, Nikos; Wang, Hui; Wu, Zhenbin; Zhang, Jingyu; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Blumenfeld, Barry; Cocoros, Alice; Eminizer, Nicholas; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Roskes, Jeffrey; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; You, Can; Al-bataineh, Ayman; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Boren, Samuel; Bowen, James; Castle, James; Forthomme, Laurent; Khalil, Sadia; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Majumder, Devdatta; Mcbrayer, William; Murray, Michael; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Tapia Takaki, Daniel; Wang, Quan; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Maravin, Yurii; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Toda, Sachiko; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Anelli, Christopher; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferraioli, Charles; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kellogg, Richard G; Kunkle, Joshua; Mignerey, Alice; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Abercrombie, Daniel; Allen, Brandon; Apyan, Aram; Azzolini, Virginia; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bi, Ran; Bierwagen, Katharina; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Demiragli, Zeynep; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hsu, Dylan; Iiyama, Yutaro; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Maier, Benedikt; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Narayanan, Siddharth; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stephans, George; Tatar, Kaya; Velicanu, Dragos; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Benvenuti, Alberto; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Evans, Andrew; Hansen, Peter; Kalafut, Sean; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Claes, Daniel R; Fangmeier, Caleb; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Kravchenko, Ilya; Malta Rodrigues, Alan; Monroy, Jose; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Stieger, Benjamin; Alyari, Maral; Dolen, James; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; Iashvili, Ia; Nguyen, Duong; Parker, Ashley; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Roozbahani, Bahareh; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Charaf, Otman; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Dev, Nabarun; Hildreth, Michael; Hurtado Anampa, Kenyi; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Marinelli, Nancy; Meng, Fanbo; Mueller, Charles; Musienko, Yuri; Planer, Michael; Reinsvold, Allison; Ruchti, Randy; Rupprecht, Nathaniel; Smith, Geoffrey; Taroni, Silvia; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Alimena, Juliette; Antonelli, Louis; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Francis, Brian; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Ji, Weifeng; Liu, Bingxuan; Luo, Wuming; Puigh, Darren; Winer, Brian L; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Cooperstein, Stephane; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Lange, David; Luo, Jingyu; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mei, Kelvin; Ojalvo, Isabel; Olsen, James; Palmer, Christopher; Piroué, Pierre; Stickland, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Tully, Christopher; Malik, Sudhir; Barker, Anthony; Barnes, Virgil E; Folgueras, Santiago; Gutay, Laszlo; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Andreas Werner; Khatiwada, Ajeeta; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Sun, Jian; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Chen, Zhenyu; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Guilbaud, Maxime; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Northup, Michael; Padley, Brian Paul; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Duh, Yi-ting; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Han, Jiyeon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Lo, Kin Ho; Tan, Ping; Verzetti, Mauro; Agapitos, Antonis; Chou, John Paul; Gershtein, Yuri; Gómez Espinosa, Tirso Alejandro; Halkiadakis, Eva; Heindl, Maximilian; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Kyriacou, Savvas; Lath, Amitabh; Montalvo, Roy; Nash, Kevin; Osherson, Marc; Saka, Halil; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Delannoy, Andrés G; Foerster, Mark; Heideman, Joseph; Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; Thapa, Krishna; Bouhali, Othmane; Celik, Ali; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Huang, Tao; Juska, Evaldas; Kamon, Teruki; Mueller, Ryan; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Perniè, Luca; Rathjens, Denis; Safonov, Alexei; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Damgov, Jordan; De Guio, Federico; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Gurpinar, Emine; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Peltola, Timo; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Wang, Zhixing; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Sheldon, Paul; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Barria, Patrizia; Cox, Bradley; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Neu, Christopher; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Sun, Xin; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Xia, Fan; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Sturdy, Jared; Zaleski, Shawn; Belknap, Donald; Buchanan, James; Caillol, Cécile; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Hussain, Usama; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ruggles, Tyler; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Woods, Nathaniel
2017-10-04
A search for charged Higgs bosons produced in vector boson fusion processes and decaying into W and Z A search for charged Higgs bosons produced via vector boson fusion and decaying into W and Z bosons using proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}= $ 13 TeV is presented. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 15.2 fb$^{-1}$ collected with the CMS detector in 2015 and 2016. The event selection requires three leptons (electrons or muons), two jets with large pseudorapidity separation and high dijet mass, and missing transverse momentum. The observation agrees with the standard model prediction. Limits on the vector boson fusion production cross section times branching fraction for new charged physical states are reported as a function of mass from 200 to 2000 GeV and interpreted in the context of Higgs triplet models.
Electroweak boson production in Pb+Pb
Balestri, T; The ATLAS collaboration
2013-01-01
Lead-lead collisions at the LHC are capable of producing a system of deconfined quarks and gluons at unprecedented energy density and temperature. Partonic-level interactions and energy-loss mechanisms in the medium can be studied with the aid of electroweak bosons which carry important information about the properties of the medium. Electroweak bosons form a class of unique high-$p_{T}$ probes because their decay products do not interact with the strongly-coupled medium, providing a benchmark for a variety of other phenomena measured with strongly interacting particles. The ATLAS experiment measures isolated high-$p_{T}$ photons, W and Z bosons via different decay channels. New analyses of experimental data obtained at the LHC with lead-lead beams at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV. This talk will present a comprehensive study of the scaling properties of electroweak bosons showing linear proportionality of production rates to the nuclear thickness function; rapidity distributions W-decays directly sensitivity to...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Navratil, P.; Dobes, J.
1992-01-01
Methods of boson mapping are tested in calculations for a simple model system of four protons and four neutrons in single-j distinguishable orbits. Two-body terms in the boson images of the fermion operators are considered. Effects of the seniority v=4 states are thus included. The treatment of unphysical states and the influence of boson space truncation are particularly studied. Both the Dyson boson mapping and the seniority boson mapping as dictated by the similarity transformed Dyson mapping do not seem to be simply amenable to truncation. This situation improves when the one-body form of the seniority image of the quadrupole operator is employed. Truncation of the boson space is addressed by using the effective operator theory with a notable improvement of results
Functions and structures of eukaryotic recombination proteins
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ogawa, Tomoko
1994-01-01
We have found that Rad51 and RecA Proteins form strikingly similar structures together with dsDNA and ATP. Their right handed helical nucleoprotein filaments extend the B-form DNA double helixes to 1.5 times in length and wind the helix. The similarity and uniqueness of their structures must reflect functional homologies between these proteins. Therefore, it is highly probable that similar recombination proteins are present in various organisms of different evolutional states. We have succeeded to clone RAD51 genes from human, mouse, chicken and fission yeast genes, and found that the homologues are widely distributed in eukaryotes. The HsRad51 and MmRad51 or ChRad51 proteins consist of 339 amino acids differing only by 4 or 12 amino acids, respectively, and highly homologous to both yeast proteins, but less so to Dmcl. All of these proteins are homologous to the region from residues 33 to 240 of RecA which was named ''homologous core. The homologous core is likely to be responsible for functions common for all of them, such as the formation of helical nucleoprotein filament that is considered to be involved in homologous pairing in the recombination reaction. The mouse gene is transcribed at a high level in thymus, spleen, testis, and ovary, at lower level in brain and at a further lower level in some other tissues. It is transcribed efficiently in recombination active tissues. A clear functional difference of Rad51 homologues from RecA was suggested by the failure of heterologous genes to complement the deficiency of Scrad51 mutants. This failure seems to reflect the absence of a compatible partner, such as ScRad52 protein in the case of ScRad51 protein, between different species. Thus, these discoveries play a role of the starting point to understand the fundamental gene targeting in mammalian cells and in gene therapy. (J.P.N.)
Structure-function relationships of human meniscus.
Danso, Elvis K; Oinas, Joonas M T; Saarakkala, Simo; Mikkonen, Santtu; Töyräs, Juha; Korhonen, Rami K
2017-03-01
Biomechanical properties of human meniscus have been shown to be site-specific. However, it is not known which meniscus constituents at different depths and locations contribute to biomechanical properties obtained from indentation testing. Therefore, we investigated the composition and structure of human meniscus in a site- and depth-dependent manner and their relationships with tissue site-specific biomechanical properties. Elastic and poroelastic properties were analyzed from experimental stress-relaxation and sinusoidal indentation measurements with fibril reinforced poroelastic finite element modeling. Proteoglycan (PG) and collagen contents, as well as the collagen orientation angle, were determined as a function of tissue depth using microscopic and spectroscopic methods, and they were compared with biomechanical properties. For all the measurement sites (anterior, middle and posterior) of lateral and medial menisci (n=26), PG content and collagen orientation angle increased as a function of tissue depth while the collagen content had an initial sharp increase followed by a decrease across tissue depth. The highest values (pmeniscus. This location had also higher (pmeniscus, higher (pmeniscus) significantly higher (pmeniscus modulus and/or nonlinear permeability. This study suggests that nonlinear biomechanical properties of meniscus, caused by the collagen network and fluid, may be strongly influenced by tissue osmotic swelling from the deep meniscus caused by the increased PG content, leading to increased collagen fibril tension. These nonlinear biomechanical properties are suggested to be further amplified by higher collagen content at all tissue depths and superficial collagen fibril orientation. However, these structure-function relationships are suggested to be highly site-specific. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Structure, dynamics, and function of biomolecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frauenfelder, H.; Berendzen, J.R.; Garcia, A.; Gupta, G.; Olah, G.A.; Terwilliger, T.C.; Trewhella, J.; Wood, C.C.; Woodruff, W.H.
1998-01-01
This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The authors enhanced Los Alamos' core competency in Bioscience and Biotechnology by building on present strengths in experimental techniques, theory, high-performance computing, modeling, and simulation applied to biomolecular structure, dynamics, and function. Specifically, the authors strengthened their capabilities in neutron/x-ray scattering, x-ray crystallography, NMR, laser, and optical spectroscopies. Initially they focused on supporting the Los alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) in the design and implementation of new neutron scattering instrumentation, they developed new methods for analysis of scattering data, and they developed new projects to study the structures of biomolecular complexes. The authors have also worked to strengthen interactions between theory and experiment, and between the biological and physical sciences. They sponsored regular meetings of members from all interested LANL technical divisions, and supported two lecture series: ''Biology for Physicists'' and ''Issues in Modern Biology''. They also supported the formation of interdisciplinary/inter-divisional teams to develop projects in science-based bioremediation and an integrated structural biology resource. Finally, they successfully worked with a multidisciplinary team to put forward the Laboratory's Genome and Beyond tactical goal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gleiser, M.
1988-01-01
Boson stars are gravitationally bound, spherically symmetric equilibrium configurations of cold, free, or interacting complex scalar fields phi. As these equilibrium configurations naturally present local anisotropy, it is sensible to expect departures from the well-known stability criteria for fluid stars. With this in mind, I investigate the dynamical instability of boson stars against charge-conserving, small radial perturbations. Following the method developed by Chandrasekhar, a variational base for determining the eigenfrequencies of the perturbations is found. This approach allows one to find numerically an upper bound for the central density where dynamical instability occurs. As applications of the formalism, I study the stability of equilibrium configurations obtained both for the free and for the self-interacting [with V(phi) = (λ/4)chemical bondphichemical bond 4 ] massive scalar field phi. Instabilities are found to occur not for the critical central density as in fluid stars but for central densities considerably higher. The departure from the results for fluid stars is sensitive to the coupling λ; the higher the value of λ, the more the stability properties of boson stars approach those of a fluid star. These results are linked to the fractional anisotropy at the radius of the configuration
Gauge equivalence between two-boson KP hierarchies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aratyn, H.
1994-01-01
In this paper it is explained the status of the two-boson KP hierarchy, which appears in this setting as an invariant subspace of the coadjoint orbit within the KP l=1 hierarchy. We will work with two main cases of two-boson KP hierarchies, one defined within KP l=1 hierarchy will be called Faa di Bruno KP hierarchy, while the second defined within KP hierarchy for a quadratic two-boson KP hierarchy. It will be established for them the gauge invariance playing the role of generalized Miura transformations. It is emphasized the symplectic character of equivalence of KP l=1 and KP. It is also made a point that the gauge equivalence established for two-boson systems is valid for an arbitrary n-th Poisson bracket structure and not only the first Poisson bracket structure. (author). 7 refs
Photon-photon collisions and photon structure functions at LEP
Patt, J
2000-01-01
The present knowledge of the structure of the photon based on measurements of photon structure functions is discussed. This review covers recent results on QED structure functions and on the hadronic structure function F/sub 2//sup gamma /. (13 refs).
New insights into apoptosome structure and function.
Dorstyn, Loretta; Akey, Christopher W; Kumar, Sharad
2018-05-15
The apoptosome is a platform that activates apical procaspases in response to intrinsic cell death signals. Biochemical and structural studies in the past two decades have extended our understanding of apoptosome composition and structure, while illuminating the requirements for initiator procaspase activation. A number of studies have now provided high-resolution structures for apoptosomes from C. elegans (CED-4), D. melanogaster (Dark), and H. sapiens (Apaf-1), which define critical protein interfaces, including intra and interdomain interactions. This work also reveals interactions of apoptosomes with their respective initiator caspases, CED-3, Dronc and procaspase-9. Structures of the human apoptosome have defined the requirements for cytochrome c binding, which triggers the conversion of inactive Apaf-1 molecules to an extended, assembly competent state. While recent data have provided a detailed understanding of apoptosome formation and procaspase activation, they also highlight important evolutionary differences with functional implications for caspase activation. CARD/CARD interactions in the CED-4, Dark and Apaf-1 apoptosomes. Type I, II and III interfaces that stabilize CARD-CARD interactions are indicated (left column). Note that the Type I interface appears to be unique to Apaf-1/pc-9 CARD interactions. Middle column shows cartoons of the active states of the CARD-CARD disks, illustrating the two CED-4 tetrameric ring layers (top) and the recruitment of 8 Dronc CARDs and between 3-4 pc-9 CARDs, to the Dark and Apaf-1 apoptosomes respectively (middle and lower panels). Ribbon diagrams of the CED-4, Dark and Apaf-1 apoptosomes are shown (right column).
New remarks on chiral bosonization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Souza Dutra, A. de
1992-01-01
We discuss a certain duality between the constraints appearing in ordinary Lagrangian density and its first order counterpart for the gauged Siegel chiral boson. It is demonstrated the equivalence, at the classical level, of the two versions of the gauged Siegel chiral boson to its corresponding gauged Floreanini-Jackiw chiral bosons. It is also argued that the most general constrained Lagrangian density, that leads to a bosonic field obeying a first order differential equation of motion and preserve simultaneously Lorentz invariance, is just the Floreanini-Jackiw one. (author)
A possible form of the pion's structure function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Long Ming; Huang Tao
1986-01-01
The pion's structure function behaviour is discussed by using the Fock state expansion of the hadronic wave function in QCD in this paper. As an example, we employ a model wave function of the Fock state in the light-cone and assume a Regge behaviour of a weight function for higher Fock states, and we get a possible form of the pion's structure function. This form is consistent with experimental data of the pion's structure function
A comparison of the Higgs sectors of the CMSSM and NMSSM for a 126 GeV Higgs boson
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beskidt, C.; Boer, W. de; Kazakov, D.I.
2013-01-01
The recent discovery of a Higgs-like boson at the LHC with a mass of 126 GeV has revived the interest in supersymmetric models, which predicted a Higgs boson mass below 130 GeV long before its discovery. We compare systematically the allowed parameter space in the constrained Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (CMSSM) and the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Model (NMSSM) by minimizing the χ 2 function with respect to all known constraints from accelerators and cosmology using GUT scale parameters. For the CMSSM the Higgs boson mass at tree level is below the Z 0 boson mass and large radiative corrections are needed to obtain a Higgs boson mass of 126 GeV, which requires stop squark masses in the multi-TeV range. In contrast, for the NMSSM light stop quarks are allowed, since in the NMSSM at tree level the Higgs boson mass can be above the Z 0 boson mass from mixing with the additional singlet Higgs boson. Predictions for the scalar boson masses are given in both models with emphasis on the unique signatures of the NMSSM, where the heaviest scalar Higgs boson decays in the two lighter scalar Higgs bosons with a significant branching ratio, in which case one should observe double Higgs boson production at the LHC. Such a signal is strongly suppressed in the CMSSM. In addition, since the LSP is higgsino-like, Higgs boson decays into LSPs can be appreciable, thus leading to invisible Higgs decays
Boson-mediated quantum spin simulators in transverse fields: X Y model and spin-boson entanglement
Wall, Michael L.; Safavi-Naini, Arghavan; Rey, Ana Maria
2017-01-01
The coupling of spins to long-wavelength bosonic modes is a prominent means to engineer long-range spin-spin interactions, and has been realized in a variety of platforms, such as atoms in optical cavities and trapped ions. To date, much of the experimental focus has been on the realization of long-range Ising models, but generalizations to other spin models are highly desirable. In this work, we explore a previously unappreciated connection between the realization of an X Y model by off-resonant driving of a single sideband of boson excitation (i.e., a single-beam Mølmer-Sørensen scheme) and a boson-mediated Ising simulator in the presence of a transverse field. In particular, we show that these two schemes have the same effective Hamiltonian in suitably defined rotating frames, and analyze the emergent effective X Y spin model through a truncated Magnus series and numerical simulations. In addition to X Y spin-spin interactions that can be nonperturbatively renormalized from the naive Ising spin-spin coupling constants, we find an effective transverse field that is dependent on the thermal energy of the bosons, as well as other spin-boson couplings that cause spin-boson entanglement not to vanish at any time. In the case of a boson-mediated Ising simulator with transverse field, we discuss the crossover from transverse field Ising-like to X Y -like spin behavior as a function of field strength.
Superconductivity in mixed boson-fermion systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ioffe, L.; Larkin, A.I.; Ovchinnikov, Yu.N.; Yu, L.
1989-12-01
The superconductivity of mixed boson-fermion systems is studied using a simple boson-fermion transformation model. The critical temperature of the superconducting transition is calculated over a wide range of the narrow boson band position relative to the Fermi level. The BCS scenario and boson condensation picture are recovered in two limiting cases of high and low positions of boson band, respectively, with modifications due to boson-fermion interaction. (author). 11 refs
Structure-Function Relationships of Ferroelectric Polymers.
Pavlopoulou, Eleni; Maiz, Jon; Spampinato, Nicoletta; Maglione, Mario; Hadziioannou, Georges
Poly(vinylidene fluoride), PVDF, and its copolymers with trifluoroethylene, P(VDF-co-TrFE) have been long appreciated for their excellent ferroelectric properties. Although they have been mainly studied in the 80s and 90s, understanding their performance is still lacking. Yet the increasing use of P(VDF-co-TrFE) thin films in organic electronic devices during the last ten years revives the need for apprehending the function of these materials. In this work we investigate the structure of P(VDF-co-TrFE) films and correlate it to their ferroelectric properties. Our results show that ferroelectric performance is solely driven by the fraction of polymer that has been crystallized in the ferroelectric phases of PVDF. The relations between remnant polarization, coercive field and dipole switching rate of P(VDF-co-TrFE) with the ferroelectric crystallinity are demonstrated. The French Research Agency (ANR), the Aquitaine Region, Arkema and STMicroelectronics are kindly acknowledged for financial support.
Measuring structure functions at SSC energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morfin, J.G.; Owens, J.F.
1985-01-01
Topics discussed include measuring Λ, tests of QCD using hard scattering processes, and measuring parton distributions. In each case, any opportunities and advantages afforded by the unique features of the SSC are emphasized. The working group on structure functions was charged with investigating two specific questions: (1) How well are the various parton distributions known in the kinematic region relevant to calculations for the SSC. (2) What new information can be learned about parton distributions at the SSC. Especially for this working group, the advantages of having a fixed-target facility at the SSC for the measurement of the parton distributions with multi-TeV leptons, were to be examined. 15 references
Interference of identical particles from entanglement to boson-sampling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tichy, Malte C
2014-01-01
Progress in the reliable preparation, coherent propagation and efficient detection of many-body states has recently brought collective quantum phenomena of many identical particles into the spotlight. This tutorial introduces the physics of many-boson and many-fermion interference required for the description of current experiments and for the understanding of novel approaches to quantum computing. The field is motivated via the two-particle case, for which the uncorrelated, classical dynamics of distinguishable particles is compared to the quantum behaviour of identical bosons and fermions. Bunching of bosons is opposed to anti-bunching of fermions, while both species constitute equivalent sources of bipartite two-level entanglement. The realms of indistinguishable and distinguishable particles are connected by a monotonic transition, on a scale defined by the coherence length of the interfering particles. As we move to larger systems, any attempt to understand many particles via the two-particle paradigm fails: in contrast to two-particle bunching and anti-bunching, the very same signatures can be exhibited by bosons and fermions, and coherent effects dominate over statistical behaviour. The simulation of many-boson interference, termed boson-sampling, entails a qualitatively superior computational complexity when compared to fermions. The problem can be tamed by an artificially designed symmetric instance, which allows a systematic understanding of coherent bosonic and fermionic signatures for arbitrarily large particle numbers, and a means to stringently assess many-particle interference. The hierarchy between bosons and fermions also characterizes multipartite entanglement generation, for which bosons again clearly outmatch fermions. Finally, the quantum-to-classical transition between many indistinguishable and many distinguishable particles features non-monotonic structures, which dismisses the single-particle coherence length as unique indicator for
Structure and functionality of bromine doped graphite.
Hamdan, Rashid; Kemper, A F; Cao, Chao; Cheng, H P
2013-04-28
First-principles calculations are used to study the enhanced in-plane conductivity observed experimentally in Br-doped graphite, and to study the effect of external stress on the structure and functionality of such systems. The model used in the numerical calculations is that of stage two doped graphite. The band structure near the Fermi surface of the doped systems with different bromine concentrations is compared to that of pure graphite, and the charge transfer between carbon and bromine atoms is analyzed to understand the conductivity change along different high symmetry directions. Our calculations show that, for large interlayer separation between doped graphite layers, bromine is stable in the molecular form (Br2). However, with increased compression (decreased layer-layer separation) Br2 molecules tend to dissociate. While in both forms, bromine is an electron acceptor. The charge exchange between the graphite layers and Br atoms is higher than that with Br2 molecules. Electron transfer to the Br atoms increases the number of hole carriers in the graphite sheets, resulting in an increase of conductivity.
Structure, Function, and Evolution of Rice Centromeres
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jiang, Jiming
2010-02-04
The centromere is the most characteristic landmark of eukaryotic chromosomes. Centromeres function as the site for kinetochore assembly and spindle attachment, allowing for the faithful pairing and segregation of sister chromatids during cell division. Characterization of centromeric DNA is not only essential to understand the structure and organization of plant genomes, but it is also a critical step in the development of plant artificial chromosomes. The centromeres of most model eukaryotic species, consist predominantly of long arrays of satellite DNA. Determining the precise DNA boundary of a centromere has proven to be a difficult task in multicellular eukaryotes. We have successfully cloned and sequenced the centromere of rice chromosome 8 (Cen8), representing the first fully sequenced centromere from any multicellular eukaryotes. The functional core of Cen8 spans ~800 kb of DNA, which was determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) using an antibody against the rice centromere-specific H3 histone. We discovered 16 actively transcribed genes distributed throughout the Cen8 region. In addition to Cen8, we have characterized eight additional rice centromeres using the next generation sequencing technology. We discovered four subfamilies of the CRR retrotransposon that is highly enriched in rice centromeres. CRR elements are constitutively transcribed and different CRR subfamilies are differentially processed by RNAi. These results suggest that different CRR subfamilies may play different roles in the RNAi-mediated pathway for formation and maintenance of centromeric chromatin.
The Structural and Functional Organisation of Cognition.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter John Snow
2016-10-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes that what have been historically and contemporarily defined as different domains of human cognition are served by one of four functionally- and structurally-distinct areas of the prefrontal cortex. Their contributions to human intelligence are as follows: (a BA9, enables our emotional intelligence, engaging the psychosocial domain, (b BA47, enables our practical intelligence, engaging the material domain, (c BA46 (or BA46-9/46, enables our abstract intelligence, engaging the hypothetical domain and (d BA10, enables our temporal intelligence, engaging in planning within any of the other three domains. Given their unique contribution to human cognition, it is proposed that these areas be called the, social (BA9, material (BA47, abstract (BA46-9/46 and temporal (BA10 mind. The evidence that BA47 participates strongly in verbal and gestural communication suggests that language evolved primarily as a consequence of the extreme selective pressure for practicality; an observation supported by the functional connectivity between BA47 and orbital areas that negatively reinforce lying. It is further proposed that the abstract mind (BA46-9/46 is the primary seat of metacognition charged with creating adaptive behavioral strategies by generating higher-order concepts (hypotheses from lower-order concepts originating both from our perceptual representations and the other three domains of cognition.
Zero-range approximation for two-component boson systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sogo, T.; Fedorov, D.V.; Jensen, A.S.
2005-01-01
The hyperspherical adiabatic expansion method is combined with the zero-range approximation to derive angular Faddeev-like equations for two-component boson systems. The angular eigenvalues are solutions to a transcendental equation obtained as a vanishing determinant of a 3 x 3 matrix. The eigenfunctions are linear combinations of Jacobi functions of argument proportional to the distance between pairs of particles. We investigate numerically the influence of two-body correlations on the eigenvalue spectrum, the eigenfunctions and the effective hyperradial potential. Correlations decrease or increase the distance between pairs for effectively attractive or repulsive interactions, respectively. New structures appear for non-identical components. Fingerprints can be found in the nodal structure of the density distributions of the condensates. (author)
QCD dipole prediction for dis and diffractive structure functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Royon, CH.
1996-01-01
The F 2 , F G , R = F L /F T proton structure functions are derived in the QCD dipole picture of BFKL dynamics. We get a three parameter fit describing the 1994 H1 proton structure function F 2 data in the low x, moderate Q 2 range. Without any additional parameter, the gluon density and the longitudinal structure functions are predicted. The diffractive dissociation processes are also discussed, and a new prediction for the proton diffractive structure function is obtained. (author)
Mixtures of bosonic and fermionic atoms in optical lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albus, Alexander; Illuminati, Fabrizio; Eisert, Jens
2003-01-01
We discuss the theory of mixtures of bosonic and fermionic atoms in periodic potentials at zero temperature. We derive a general Bose-Fermi Hubbard Hamiltonian in a one-dimensional optical lattice with a superimposed harmonic trapping potential. We study the conditions for linear stability of the mixture and derive a mean-field criterion for the onset of a bosonic superfluid transition. We investigate the ground-state properties of the mixture in the Gutzwiller formulation of mean-field theory, and present numerical studies of finite systems. The bosonic and fermionic density distributions and the onset of quantum phase transitions to demixing and to a bosonic Mott-insulator are studied as a function of the lattice potential strength. The existence is predicted of a disordered phase for mixtures loaded in very deep lattices. Such a disordered phase possessing many degenerate or quasidegenerate ground states is related to a breaking of the mirror symmetry in the lattice
Search for the Standard Model Higgs Boson at LEP
Barate, R.; De Bonis, I.; Decamp, D.; Goy, C.; Jezequel, S.; Lees, J.P.; Martin, F.; Merle, E.; Minard, M.N.; Pietrzyk, B.; Trocme, B.; Boix, G.; Bravo, S.; Casado, M.P.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J.M.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Garrido, L.; Grauges, E.; Lopez, J.; Martinez, M.; Merino, G.; Miquel, R.; Mir, L.M.; Pacheco, A.; Paneque, D.; Ruiz, H.; Heister, A.; Schael, S.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; De Filippis, N.; de Palma, M.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Tricomi, A.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Quyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Abbaneo, D.; Azzurri, P.; Barklow, T.; Buchmuller, O.; Cattaneo, M.; Cerutti, F.; Clerbaux, B.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R.W.; Frank, M.; Gianotti, F.; Greening, T.C.; Hansen, J.B.; Harvey, J.; Hutchcroft, D.E.; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Kado, M.; Maley, P.; Mato, P.; Moutoussi, A.; Ranjard, F.; Rolandi, Gigi; Schlatter, D.; 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Dornan, P.J.; Girone, M.; Hill, R.D.; Marinelli, N.; Nowell, J.; Przysiezniak, H.; Rutherford, S.A.; Sedgbeer, J.K.; Thompson, J.C.; White, R.; Ghete, V.M.; Girtler, P.; Kneringer, E.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Bouhova-Thacker, E.; Bowdery, C.K.; Clarke, D.P.; Ellis, G.; Finch, A.J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jones, R.W.L.; Pearson, M.R.; Robertson, N.A.; Smizanska, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Blumenschein, U.; Holldorfer, F.; Jakobs, K.; Kayser, F.; Kleinknecht, K.; Muller, A.S.; Quast, G.; Renk, B.; Sander, H.G.; Schmeling, S.; Wachsmuth, H.; Zeitnitz, C.; Ziegler, T.; Bonissent, A.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; Ealet, A.; Fouchez, D.; Leroy, O.; Kachelhoffer, T.; Payre, P.; Rousseau, D.; Tilquin, A.; Ragusa, F.; David, A.; Dietl, H.; Ganis, G.; Huttmann, K.; Lutjens, G.; Mannert, C.; Manner, W.; Moser, H.G.; Settles, R.; Wolf, G.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.F.; Heusse, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Loomis, C.; Serin, L.; Veillet, J.J.; de Vivie de Regie, J.B.; Yuan, C.; 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Camporesi, T.; Canale, V.; Carena, F.; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cavallo, F.; Chapkin, M.; Charpentier, P.; Checchia, P.; Chierici, R.; Chliapnikov, P.; Chudoba, J.; Chung, S.U.; Cieslik, K.; Collins, P.; Contri, R.; Cosme, G.; Cossutti, F.; Costa, M.J.; Crawley, B.; Crennell, D.; Cuevas, J.; DHondt, J.; Dalmau, J.; da Silva, T.; Da Silva, W.; Della Ricca, G.; De Angelis, A.; De Boer, W.; De Clercq, C.; De Lotto, B.; De Maria, N.; De Min, A.; de Paula, L.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Simone, A.; Doroba, K.; Drees, J.; Dris, M.; Eigen, G.; Ekelof, T.; Ellert, M.; Elsing, M.; Espirito Santo, M.C.; Fanourakis, G.; Fassouliotis, D.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J.; Ferrer, A.; Ferro, F.; Flagmeyer, U.; Foeth, H.; Fokitis, E.; Fulda-Quenzer, F.; Fuster, J.; Gandelman, M.; Garcia, C.; Gavillet, P.; Gazis, Evangelos; Gokieli, R.; Golob, B.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncalves, P.; Graziani, E.; Grosdidier, G.; Grzelak, K.; Guy, J.; Haag, C.; Hallgren, A.; Hamacher, K.; Hamilton, K.; Hansen, J.; Haug, S.; Hauler, F.; Hedberg, V.; Hennecke, M.; Herr, H.; Hoffman, J.; Holmgren, S.O.; Holt, P.J.; Houlden, M.A.; Hultqvist, K.; Jackson, John Neil; Jarlskog, G.; Jarry, P.; Jeans, D.; Johansson, Erik Karl; Johansson, P.D.; Jonsson, P.; Joram, C.; Jungermann, L.; Kapusta, Frederic; Katsanevas, S.; Katsoufis, E.; Kernel, G.; Kersevan, B.P.; Kiiskinen, A.; King, B.T.; Kjaer, N.J.; Kluit, P.; Kokkinias, P.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Kouznetsov, O.; Krumstein, Z.; Kucharczyk, M.; Lamsa, J.; Leder, G.; Ledroit, Fabienne; Leinonen, L.; Leitner, R.; Lemonne, J.; Lepeltier, V.; Lesiak, T.; Liebig, W.; Liko, D.; Lipniacka, A.; Lopes, J.H.; Lopez, J.M.; Loukas, D.; Lutz, P.; Lyons, L.; MacNaughton, J.; Malek, A.; Maltezos, S.; Mandl, F.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Marechal, B.; Margoni, M.; Marin, J.C.; Mariotti, C.; Markou, A.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Masik, J.; Mastroyiannopoulos, N.; Matorras, F.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mazzucato, F.; Mazzucato, M.; McNulty, R.; Meroni, C.; Meyer, W.T.; Migliore, E.; Mitaroff, W.; Mjoernmark, U.; Moa, T.; Moch, M.; Monig, Klaus; Monge, R.; Montenegro, J.; Moraes, D.; Moreno, S.; Morettini, P.; Mueller, U.; Muenich, K.; Mulders, M.; Mundim, L.; Murray, W.; Muryn, B.; Myatt, G.; Myklebust, T.; Nassiakou, M.; Navarria, F.; Nawrocki, K.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nikolenko, M.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Olshevski, A.; Onofre, A.; Orava, R.; Osterberg, K.; Ouraou, A.; Oyanguren, A.; Paganoni, M.; Paiano, S.; Palacios, J.P.; Palka, H.; Papadopoulou, T.D.; Pape, L.; Parkes, C.; Parodi, F.; Parzefall, U.; Passeri, A.; Passon, O.; Peralta, L.; Perepelitsa, V.; Perrotta, A.; Petrolini, A.; Piedra, J.; Pieri, L.; Pierre, F.; Pimenta, M.; Piotto, E.; Podobnik, T.; Poireau, V.; Pol, M.E.; Polok, G.; Poropat, P.; Pozdniakov, V.; Pukhaeva, N.; Pullia, A.; Rames, J.; Ramler, L.; Read, Alexander L.; Rebecchi, P.; Rehn, J.; Reid, D.; Reinhardt, R.; Renton, P.; Richard, F.; Ridky, J.; Rivero, M.; Rodriguez, D.; Romero, A.; Ronchese, P.; Rosenberg, E.; Roudeau, P.; Rovelli, T.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Ryabtchikov, D.; Sadovsky, A.; Salmi, L.; Salt, J.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schwickerath, U.; Segar, A.; Sekulin, R.; Siebel, M.; Sisakian, A.; Smadja, G.; Smirnova, O.; Sokolov, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sosnowski, R.; Spassov, T.; Stanitzki, M.; Stocchi, A.; Strauss, J.; Stugu, B.; Szczekowski, M.; Szeptycka, M.; Szumlak, T.; Tabarelli, T.; Taffard, A.C.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Timmermans, Jan; Tkatchev, L.; Tobin, M.; Todorovova, S.; Tome, B.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortosa, P.; Travnicek, P.; Treille, D.; Tristram, G.; Trochimczuk, M.; Troncon, C.; Turluer, M.L.; Tyapkin, I.A.; Tyapkin, P.; Tzamarias, S.; Uvarov, V.; Valenti, G.; Van Dam, Piet; Van Eldik, J.; Van Lysebetten, A.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Vulpen, I.; Vegni, G.; Veloso, F.; Venus, W.; Verbeure, F.; Verdier, P.; Verzi, V.; Vilanova, D.; Vitale, L.; Vrba, V.; Wahlen, H.; Washbrook, A.J.; Weiser, C.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Winter, M.; Witek, M.; Yushchenko, O.; Zalewska, A.; Zalewski, P.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zimine, N.I.; Zintchenko, A.; Zupan, M.; 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Zimmermann, B.; Zoller, M.; Abbiendi, G.; Ainsley, C.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Amaral, P.; Anagnostou, G.; Anderson, K.J.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Bailey, I.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, R.J.; Batley, R.J.; Bechtle, P.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bell, P.J.; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Benelli, G.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Boeriu, O.; Bock, P.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Buesser, K.; Burckhart, H.J.; Campana, S.; Carnegie, R.K.; Caron, B.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Csilling, A.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Dallison, S.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Elfgren, E.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Feld, L.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Furtjes, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, John William; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giunta, Marina; Goldberg, J.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Gupta, A.; Hajdu, C.; Hamann, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Harin-Dirac, M.; Hauschild, M.; Hauschildt, J.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Hensel, C.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Homer, R.J.; Horvath, D.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jeremie, H.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanaya, N.; Kanzaki, J.; Karapetian, G.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kim, D.H.; Klein, K.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kormos, Laura L.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kramer, T.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Krop, D.; Kruger, K.; Kupper, M.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Layter, J.G.; Leins, A.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Lillich, J.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, J.; Macpherson, A.; Mader, W.; Marcellini, S.; Marchant, T.E.; Martin, A.J.; Masetti, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.J.; McKenna, J.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Mendez-Lorenzo, P.; Menges, W.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Moed, S.; Mohr, W.; Mori, T.; Mutter, A.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; ONeale, S.W.; Oh, A.; Okpara, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pahl, C.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poli, B.; Polok, J.; Pooth, O.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rabbertz, K.; Rembser, C.; Renkel, P.; Rick, H.; Roney, J.M.; Rosati, S.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sarkisyan, E.K.G.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spagnolo, S.; Spano, F.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Tarem, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Taylor, R.J.; Teuscher, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Toya, D.; Tran, P.; Trefzger, T.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Ujvari, B.; Vachon, B.; Vollmer, C.F.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Waller, D.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wetterling, D.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zer-Zion, D.; Zivkovic, Lidija; Heinemeyer, S.; Weiglein, G.
2003-01-01
The four LEP collaborations, ALEPH, DELPHI, L3 and OPAL, have collected a total of 2461 pb-1 of e+e- collision data at centre-of-mass energies between 189 and 209 GeV. The data are used to search for the Standard Model Higgs boson. The search results of the four collaborations are combined and examined in a likelihood test for their consistency with two hypotheses: the background hypothesis and the signal plus background hypothesis. The corresponding confidences have been computed as functions of the hypothetical Higgs boson mass. A lower bound of 114.4 GeV/c2 is established, at the 95% confidence level, on the mass of the Standard Model Higgs boson. The LEP data are also used to set upper bounds on the HZZ coupling for various assumptions concerning the decay of the Higgs boson.
Quantum Glass of Interacting Bosons with Off-Diagonal Disorder
Piekarska, A. M.; Kopeć, T. K.
2018-04-01
We study disordered interacting bosons described by the Bose-Hubbard model with Gaussian-distributed random tunneling amplitudes. It is shown that the off-diagonal disorder induces a spin-glass-like ground state, characterized by randomly frozen quantum-mechanical U(1) phases of bosons. To access criticality, we employ the "n -replica trick," as in the spin-glass theory, and the Trotter-Suzuki method for decomposition of the statistical density operator, along with numerical calculations. The interplay between disorder, quantum, and thermal fluctuations leads to phase diagrams exhibiting a glassy state of bosons, which are studied as a function of model parameters. The considered system may be relevant for quantum simulators of optical-lattice bosons, where the randomness can be introduced in a controlled way. The latter is supported by a proposition of experimental realization of the system in question.
Ouraou, Ahmimed; The ATLAS collaboration
2016-01-01
Latest results on the measurement of gauge boson couplings, from ATLAS and CMS at the LHC, are presented. This review starts with an introduction to boson couplings, then the measurements of Triple and Quartic Couplings are described. And finally, limits on anomalous couplings are summarized.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dawson, S.
1988-01-01
Experimental limits on light Higgs bosons (M/sub H/ < 5 GeV) are examined. Particular attention is paid to the process K → πH. It is shown that there may be an allowed window for light Higgs bosons between about 100 and 210 MeV. 13 refs., 2 figs
QCD predictions for weak neutral current structure functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu Jimin
1987-01-01
Employing the analytic expression (to the next leading order) for non-singlet component of structure function which the author got from QCD theory and putting recent experiment result of neutral current structure function at Q 2 = 11 (GeV/C) 2 as input, the QCD prediction for neutral current structure function of their scaling violation behaviours was given
An approach to the structure function for nucleon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Long Ming
1986-01-01
The structure function for nucleon is discussed by using the method given in a previous paper. The formula are compared with the experimental data from low Q 2 to high Q 2 . The results show that the way that the structure function for nucleon can be obtained from the hadronic wavefunction is a possible approach of investigating structure functions for hadron
Bluj, Michal Jacek
2018-01-01
In this report we review recent Higgs boson results obtained with pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=\\,$13 TeV recorded by the CMS detector in 2016 for an integrated luminosity of 35.9fb$^{\\text{-1}}$. The 2016 data allowed the observation of the $H \\to \\tau\\tau$ and $H \\to WW$ decays with high significance. We also present a combined measurement based on a full set of CMS analyses performed with 2016 data. These results are compatible with the standard model predictions with precision of several measurements exceeding results from combination of ATLAS and CMS data collected in 2011 and 2012.
Crustal Structure beneath Alaska from Receiver Functions
Zhang, Y.; Li, A.
2017-12-01
The crustal structure in Alaska has not been well resolved due to the remote nature of much of the state. The USArray Transportable Array (TA), which is operating in Alaska and northwestern Canada, significantly increases the coverage of broadband seismic stations in the region and allows for a more comprehensive study of the crust. We have analyzed P-receiver functions from earthquake data recorded by 76 stations of the TA and AK networks. Both common conversion point (CCP) and H-K methods are used to estimate the mean crustal thickness. The results from the CCP stacking method show that the Denali fault marks a sharp transition from thick crust in the south to thin crust in the north. The thickest crust up to 52 km is located in the St. Elias Range, which has been formed by oblique collision between the Yakutat microplate and North America. A thick crust of 48 km is also observed beneath the eastern Alaska Range. These observations suggest that high topography in Alaska is largely compensated by the thick crust root. The Moho depth ranges from 28 km to 35 km beneath the northern lowlands and increases to 40-45 km under the Books Range. The preliminary crustal thickness from the H-K method generally agrees with that from the CCP stacking with thicker crust beneath high mountain ranges and thinner crust beneath lowlands and basins. However, the offshore part is not well constrained due to the limited coverage of stations. The mean Vp/Vs ratio is around 1.7 in the Yukon-Tanana terrane and central-northern Alaska. The ratio is about 1.9 in central and southern Alaska with higher values at the Alaska Range, Wrangell Mountains, and St. Elias Range. Further data analyses are needed for obtaining more details of the crustal structure in Alaska to decipher the origin and development of different tectonic terranes.
A brief review of measurements of electroweak bosons at the LHCb experiment in LHC Run 1
INSPIRE-00340962
2016-09-15
The LHCb experiment is one of four major experiments at the LHC. Despite being designed for the study of beauty and charm particles, it has made important contributions in other areas, such as the production and decay of $W$ and $Z$ bosons. Such measurements can be used to study and constrain parton distribution functions, as well as to test perturbative quantum chromodynamics in hard scattering processes. The angular structure of $Z$ boson decays to leptons can also be studied and used to measure the weak mixing angle. The phase space probed by LHCb is particularly sensitive to this quantity, and the LHCb measurement using the dimuon final state is currently the most precise determination of $\\sin^2\\theta^\\text{lept.}_\\text{eff.}$ at the LHC. LHCb measurements made using data collected during the first period of LHC operations (LHC Run 1) are discussed in this review. The article also considers the potential impact of related future measurements.
Partially composite Goldstone Higgs boson
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alanne, Tommi; Franzosi, Diogo Buarque; Frandsen, Mads T.
2017-01-01
We consider a model of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking with a partially composite Goldstone Higgs boson. The model is based on a strongly interacting fermionic sector coupled to a fundamental scalar sector via Yukawa interactions. The SU(4)×SU(4) global symmetry of these two sectors...... is broken to a single SU(4) via Yukawa interactions. Electroweak symmetry breaking is dynamically induced by condensation due to the strong interactions in the new fermionic sector which further breaks the global symmetry SU(4)→Sp(4). The Higgs boson arises as a partially composite state which is an exact...... Goldstone boson in the limit where SM interactions are turned off. Terms breaking the SU(4) global symmetry explicitly generate a mass for the Goldstone Higgs boson. The model realizes in different limits both (partially) composite Higgs and (bosonic) technicolor models, thereby providing a convenient...
Significance tests for functional data with complex dependence structure
Staicu, Ana-Maria; Lahiri, Soumen N.; Carroll, Raymond J.
2015-01-01
We propose an L (2)-norm based global testing procedure for the null hypothesis that multiple group mean functions are equal, for functional data with complex dependence structure. Specifically, we consider the setting of functional data with a
Dendritic Actin Cytoskeleton: Structure, Functions, and Regulations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anja Konietzny
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Actin is a versatile and ubiquitous cytoskeletal protein that plays a major role in both the establishment and the maintenance of neuronal polarity. For a long time, the most prominent roles that were attributed to actin in neurons were the movement of growth cones, polarized cargo sorting at the axon initial segment, and the dynamic plasticity of dendritic spines, since those compartments contain large accumulations of actin filaments (F-actin that can be readily visualized using electron- and fluorescence microscopy. With the development of super-resolution microscopy in the past few years, previously unknown structures of the actin cytoskeleton have been uncovered: a periodic lattice consisting of actin and spectrin seems to pervade not only the whole axon, but also dendrites and even the necks of dendritic spines. Apart from that striking feature, patches of F-actin and deep actin filament bundles have been described along the lengths of neurites. So far, research has been focused on the specific roles of actin in the axon, while it is becoming more and more apparent that in the dendrite, actin is not only confined to dendritic spines, but serves many additional and important functions. In this review, we focus on recent developments regarding the role of actin in dendrite morphology, the regulation of actin dynamics by internal and external factors, and the role of F-actin in dendritic protein trafficking.
Retroviral RNA Dimerization: From Structure to Functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Noé Dubois
2018-03-01
Full Text Available The genome of the retroviruses is a dimer composed by two homologous copies of genomic RNA (gRNA molecules of positive polarity. The dimerization process allows two gRNA molecules to be non-covalently linked together through intermolecular base-pairing. This step is critical for the viral life cycle and is highly conserved among retroviruses with the exception of spumaretroviruses. Furthermore, packaging of two gRNA copies into viral particles presents an important evolutionary advantage for immune system evasion and drug resistance. Recent studies reported RNA switches models regulating not only gRNA dimerization, but also translation and packaging, and a spatio-temporal characterization of viral gRNA dimerization within cells are now at hand. This review summarizes our current understanding on the structural features of the dimerization signals for a variety of retroviruses (HIVs, MLV, RSV, BLV, MMTV, MPMV…, the mechanisms of RNA dimer formation and functional implications in the retroviral cycle.
Structure and function of DNA polymerase μ
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsumoto, Takuro; Maezawa, So
2013-01-01
DNA polymerases are enzymes playing the central role in DNA metabolism, including DNA replication, DNA repair and recombination. DNA polymerase μ (pol μ DNA polymerase λ (pol λ) and terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase (TdT) in X family DNA polymerases function in non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), which is the predonmiant repair pathway for DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). NHEJ involves enzymes that capture both ends of the broken DNA strand, bring them together in a synaptic DNA-protein complex, and repair the DSB. Pol μ and pol λ fill in the gaps at the junction to maintain the genomic integrity. TdT synthesizes N region at the junction during V(D)J recombination and promotes diversity of immunoglobulin or T-cell receptor gene. Among these three polymerases, the regulatory mechanisms of pol μ remain rather unclear. We have approached the mechanism of pol μ from both sides of structure and cellular dynamics. Here, we propose some new insights into pol μ and the probable NHEJ model including our findings. (author)
Neisserial surface lipoproteins: structure, function and biogenesis.
Hooda, Yogesh; Shin, Hyejin E; Bateman, Thomas J; Moraes, Trevor F
2017-03-01
The surface of many Gram-negative bacteria contains lipidated protein molecules referred to as surface lipoproteins or SLPs. SLPs play critical roles in host immune evasion, nutrient acquisition and regulation of the bacterial stress response. The focus of this review is on the SLPs present in Neisseria, a genus of bacteria that colonise the mucosal surfaces of animals. Neisseria contains two pathogens of medical interest, namely Neisseria meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae. Several SLPs have been identified in Neisseria and their study has elucidated key strategies used by these pathogens to survive inside the human body. Herein, we focus on the identification, structure and function of SLPs that have been identified in Neisseria. We also survey the translocation pathways used by these SLPs to reach the cell surface. Specifically, we elaborate on the strategies used by neisserial SLPs to translocate across the outer membrane with an emphasis on Slam, a novel outer membrane protein that has been implicated in SLP biogenesis. Taken together, the study of SLPs in Neisseria illustrates the widespread roles played by this family of proteins in Gram-negative bacteria. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Sung-Hou; Shin, Dong Hae; Hou, Jingtong; Chandonia, John-Marc; Das, Debanu; Choi, In-Geol; Kim, Rosalind; Kim, Sung-Hou
2007-09-02
Advances in sequence genomics have resulted in an accumulation of a huge number of protein sequences derived from genome sequences. However, the functions of a large portion of them cannot be inferred based on the current methods of sequence homology detection to proteins of known functions. Three-dimensional structure can have an important impact in providing inference of molecular function (physical and chemical function) of a protein of unknown function. Structural genomics centers worldwide have been determining many 3-D structures of the proteins of unknown functions, and possible molecular functions of them have been inferred based on their structures. Combined with bioinformatics and enzymatic assay tools, the successful acceleration of the process of protein structure determination through high throughput pipelines enables the rapid functional annotation of a large fraction of hypothetical proteins. We present a brief summary of the process we used at the Berkeley Structural Genomics Center to infer molecular functions of proteins of unknown function.
Operator bosonization on Riemann surfaces: new vertex operators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Semikhatov, A.M.
1989-01-01
A new formalism is proposed for the construction of an operator theory of generalized ghost systems (bc theories of spin J) on Riemann surfaces (loop diagrams of the theory of closed strings). The operators of the bc system are expressed in terms of operators of the bosonic conformal theory on a Riemann surface. In contrast to the standard bosonization formulas, which have meaning only locally, operator Baker-Akhiezer functions, which are well defined globally on a Riemann surface of arbitrary genus, are introduced. The operator algebra of the Baker-Akhiezer functions generates explicitly the algebraic-geometric τ function and correlation functions of bc systems on Riemann surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bluemlein, J.; Ravindran, V.
2005-01-01
We calculate the Mellin moments of the next-to-next-to leading order coefficient functions for the Drell-Yan and Higgs production cross sections. The results can be expressed in terms of multiple finite harmonic sums of maximal weight w=4. Using algebraic and structural relations between harmonic sums one finds that besides the single harmonic sums only five basic sums and their derivatives w.r.t. the summation index contribute. This representation reduces the large complexity being present in x-space calculations and is well suited for fast numerical implementations. (orig.)
QCD dipole predictions for DIS and diffractive structure functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Royon, C.
1997-01-01
The proton structure function F 2 , the gluon density F G , and the longitudinal structure function F L are derived in the QCD dipole picture of BFKL dynamics. We use a three parameter fit to describe the 1994 H1 proton structure function F 2 data in the low x, moderate Q 2 range. Without any additional parameter, the gluon density and the longitudinal structure functions are predicted. The diffractive dissociation processes are also discussed within the same framework, and a new prediction for the proton diffractive structure function is obtained
Structural and Functional View of Polypharmacology.
Moya-García, Aurelio; Adeyelu, Tolulope; Kruger, Felix A; Dawson, Natalie L; Lees, Jon G; Overington, John P; Orengo, Christine; Ranea, Juan A G
2017-08-31
Protein domains mediate drug-protein interactions and this principle can guide the design of multi-target drugs i.e. polypharmacology. In this study, we associate multi-target drugs with CATH functional families through the overrepresentation of targets of those drugs in CATH functional families. Thus, we identify CATH functional families that are currently enriched in drugs (druggable CATH functional families) and we use the network properties of these druggable protein families to analyse their association with drug side effects. Analysis of selected druggable CATH functional families, enriched in drug targets, show that relatives exhibit highly conserved drug binding sites. Furthermore, relatives within druggable CATH functional families occupy central positions in a human protein functional network, cluster together forming network neighbourhoods and are less likely to be within proteins associated with drug side effects. Our results demonstrate that CATH functional families can be used to identify drug-target interactions, opening a new research direction in target identification.
Constraints on anomalous Higgs boson couplings in production and decay $\\mathrm{H}\\to4\\ell$
CMS Collaboration
2017-01-01
The study of the anomalous interactions of the recently discovered Higgs boson is performed using the decay information $\\mathrm{H}\\to 4\\ell$ and information from associated production of two quark jets, originating either from vector boson fusion or associated vector boson. The full dataset recorded by the CMS experiment during 2016 of the LHC $\\mathrm{Run~2}$ is used, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $35.9\\,\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ at $13\\,\\mathrm{TeV}$. Novel techniques are used for the study of associated VBF and VH production and its combination with analysis of decay information using optimal approaches based on matrix element techniques. The tensor structure of the interactions of the spin-zero Higgs boson with two vector bosons either in production or in decay is investigated and constraints are set on anomalous HVV interactions. All observations are consistent with the expectations for the standard model Higgs boson.
A new approach to shortest paths on networks based on the quantum bosonic mechanism
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jiang Xin; Wang Hailong; Tang Shaoting; Ma Lili; Zhang Zhanli; Zheng Zhiming, E-mail: jiangxin@ss.buaa.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Mathematics, Informatics and Behavioral Semantics, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 100191 Beijing (China)
2011-01-15
This paper presents quantum bosonic shortest path searching (QBSPS), a natural, practical and highly heuristic physical algorithm for reasoning about the recognition of network structure via quantum dynamics. QBSPS is based on an Anderson-like itinerant bosonic system in which a boson's Green function is used as a navigation pointer for one to accurately approach the terminals. QBSPS is demonstrated by rigorous mathematical and physical proofs and plenty of simulations, showing how it can be used as a greedy routing to seek the shortest path between different locations. In methodology, it is an interesting and new algorithm rooted in the quantum mechanism other than combinatorics. In practice, for the all-pairs shortest-path problem in a random scale-free network with N vertices, QBSPS runs in O({mu}(N) ln ln N) time. In application, we suggest that the corresponding experimental realizations are feasible by considering path searching in quantum optical communication networks; in this situation, the method performs a pure local search on networks without requiring the global structure that is necessary for current graph algorithms.
High Precision Measurement of the differential vector boson cross-sections with the ATLAS detector
Armbruster, Aaron James; The ATLAS collaboration
2017-01-01
Measurements of the Drell-Yan production of W and Z/gamma bosons at the LHC provide a benchmark of our understanding of perturbative QCD and probe the proton structure in a unique way. The ATLAS collaboration has performed new high precision measurements at center-of-mass energies of 7. The measurements are performed for W+, W- and Z/gamma bosons integrated and as a function of the boson or lepton rapidity and the Z/gamma* mass. Unprecedented precision is reached and strong constraints on Parton Distribution functions, in particular the strange density are found. Z cross sections are also measured at center-of-mass energies of 8 eV and 13TeV, and cross-section ratios to the top-quark pair production have been derived. This ratio measurement leads to a cancellation of systematic effects and allows for a high precision comparison to the theory predictions. The cross section of single W events has also been measured precisely at center-of-mass energies of 8TeV and 13TeV and the W charge asymmetry has been determ...
A search for the standard model Higgs boson using the DELPHI detector at LEP2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sheridan, A.E.
1998-11-01
A search for the Standard Model Higgs boson is performed using the 51.59 pb -1 of data collected by the DELPHI detector at a centre-of-mass energy of 182.7 GeV. A search is made for the production of Higgs bosons with an on-shell Z boson, with the Higgs boson decaying to b-quarks and the Z to either a dielectron or dimuon pair. No significant excess is seen in the data and hence a 95% CL upper cross- section limit is set as a function of the Higgs boson mass. The results from these leptonic channels are combined with those from other Higgs and Z decay channel analyses using DELPHI data and a 95% CL lower mass limit for the Higgs boson of 87.6 GeV/c 2 is set. This limit significantly improves the limit obtained with previous data. (author)
Higgs-boson contributions to gauge-boson mass shifts in extended electroweak models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moore, S.R.
1985-01-01
The author analyzed the mass shifts for models with a more complicated Higgs sector. He uses the on-shell renormalization scheme, in which the parameters of the theory are the physical masses and couplings. The author has considered the 2-doublet, n-doublet, triplet and doublet-triplet models. He has found that the Z-boson mass prediction has a strong dependence on the charged-Higgs mass. In the limit that the charged Higgs is much heavier than the gauge bosons, the Higgs-dependent terms become significant, and may even cancel the light-fermion terms. If the author uses the Z mass as input in determining the parameters of the theory, a scenario which will become attractive as the mass of the Z is accurately measured in the next few years, it is found that the W-boson mass shift exhibits the same sort of behavior, differing from the minimal model for the case of the charged Higgs being heavy. The author has found that when the radiative corrections are taken into account, models with extended Higgs sectors may differ significantly from the minimal standard model in this predictions for the gauge-boson masses. Thus, an accurate measurement of the masses will help shed light on the structure of the Higgs sector
Search for a Higgs Boson Decaying into Two Photons at LEP
Achard, P.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, Valery P.; Anselmo, F.; Arefev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Bajo, A.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Baldew, S.V.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Barczyk, A.; Barillere, R.; Bartalini, P.; Basile, M.; Batalova, N.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bellucci, L.; Berbeco, R.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B.L.; Biasini, M.; Biglietti, M.; Biland, A.; Blaising, J.J.; Blyth, S.C.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bohm, A.; Boldizsar, L.; Borgia, B.; Bottai, S.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Braccini, S.; Branson, J.G.; Brochu, F.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Cai, X.D.; Capell, M.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A.; Casaus, J.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo, M.; Chang, Y.H.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G.M.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chiefari, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Costantini, S.; de la Cruz, B.; Cucciarelli, S.; van Dalen, J.A.; de Asmundis, R.; Deglon, P.; Debreczeni, J.; Degre, A.; Deiters, K.; della Volpe, D.; Delmeire, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; De Salvo, A.; Diemoz, M.; Dierckxsens, M.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Doria, A.; Dova, M.T.; Duchesneau, D.; Echenard, B.; Eline, A.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F.J.; Ewers, A.; Extermann, P.; Falagan, M.A.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J.H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P.H.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, I.; Forconi, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Iouri; Ganguli, S.N.; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gataullin, M.; Gentile, S.; Giagu, S.; Gong, Z.F.; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Grimm, O.; Gruenewald, M.W.; Guida, M.; van Gulik, R.; Gupta, V.K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L.J.; Haas, D.; Hakobyan, R.S.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Herve, Alain; Hirschfelder, J.; Hofer, H.; Hohlmann, M.; Holzner, G.; Hou, S.R.; Hu, Y.; Jin, B.N.; Jones, Lawrence W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberria, I.; Kafer, D.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M.N.; Kim, J.K.; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; Konig, A.C.; Kopal, M.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraber, M.; Kraemer, R.W.; Krenz, W.; Kruger, A.; Kunin, A.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Laktineh, I.; Landi, G.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Le Goff, J.M.; Leiste, R.; Levtchenko, M.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Likhoded, S.; Lin, C.H.; Lin, W.T.; Linde, F.L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z.A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y.S.; Lubelsmeyer, K.; Luci, C.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W.G.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Mana, C.; Mangeol, D.; Mans, J.; Martin, J.P.; Marzano, F.; Mazumdar, K.; McNeil, R.R.; Mele, S.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W.J.; Mihul, A.; Milcent, H.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Mohanty, G.B.; Muanza, G.S.; Muijs, A.J.M.; Musicar, B.; Musy, M.; Nagy, S.; Natale, S.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Niessen, T.; Nisati, A.; Kluge, Hannelies; Ofierzynski, R.; Organtini, G.; Palomares, C.; Pandoulas, D.; Paolucci, P.; Paramatti, R.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, Thomas Cantzon; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pedace, M.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Petersen, B.; Piccolo, D.; Pierella, F.; Pioppi, M.; Piroue, P.A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Pothier, J.; Prokofev, D.O.; Prokofiev, D.; Quartieri, J.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rahaman, M.A.; Raics, P.; Raja, N.; Ramelli, R.; Rancoita, P.G.; Ranieri, R.; Raspereza, A.; Razis, P.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Riemann, S.; Riles, Keith; Roe, B.P.; Romero, L.; Rosca, A.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Roth, Stefan; Rosenbleck, C.; Roux, B.; Rubio, J.A.; Ruggiero, G.; Rykaczewski, H.; Sakharov, A.; Saremi, S.; Sarkar, S.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Sanders, M.P.; Schafer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schmidt-Kaerst, S.; Schmitz, D.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D.J.; Schwering, G.; Sciacca, C.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Siedenburg, T.; Son, D.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D.P.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L.Z.; Sushkov, S.; Suter, H.; Swain, J.D.; Szillasi, Z.; Tang, X.W.; Tarjan, P.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Tellili, B.; Teyssier, D.; Timmermans, Charles; Ting, Samuel C.C.; Ting, S.M.; Tonwar, S.C.; Toth, J.; Tully, C.; Tung, K.L.; Ulbricht, J.; Valente, E.; Van de Walle, R.T.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Vicinanza, D.; Viertel, G.; Villa, S.; Vivargent, M.; Vlachos, S.; Vodopianov, I.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobev, I.; Vorobyov, A.A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wallraff, W.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Z.M.; Weber, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wilkens, H.; Wynhoff, S.; Xia, L.; Xu, Z.Z.; Yamamoto, J.; Yang, B.Z.; Yang, C.G.; Yang, H.J.; Yang, M.; Yeh, S.C.; Zalite, A.; Zalite, Yu.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhao, J.; Zhu, G.Y.; Zhu, R.Y.; Zhuang, H.L.; Zichichi, A.; Zilizi, G.; Zimmermann, B.; Zoller, M.
2002-01-01
A Higgs particle produced in association with a Z boson and decaying into two photons is searched for in the data collected by the L3 experiment at LEP. All possible decay modes of the Z boson are investigated. No signal is observed in 447.5 pb^-1 of data recorded at centre-of-mass energies up to 209 GeV. Limits on the branching fraction of the Higgs boson decay into two photons as a function of the Higgs mass are derived. A lower limit on the mass of a fermiophobic Higgs boson is set at 105.4 GeV at 95% confidence level.
Vector boson scattering at CLIC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kilian, Wolfgang; Fleper, Christian [Department Physik, Universitaet Siegen, 57068 Siegen (Germany); Reuter, Juergen [DESY Theory Group, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Sekulla, Marco [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)
2016-07-01
Linear colliders operating in a range of multiple TeV are able to investigate the details of vector boson scattering and electroweak symmetry breaking. We calculate cross sections with the Monte Carlo generator WHIZARD for vector boson scattering processes at the future linear e{sup +} e{sup -} collider CLIC. By finding suitable cuts, the vector boson scattering signal processes are isolated from the background. Finally, we are able to determine exclusion sensitivities on the non-Standard Model parameters of the relevant dimension eight operators.
Inorganic pyrophosphatases: structural diversity serving the function
Samygina, V. R.
2016-05-01
The review is devoted to ubiquitous enzymes, inorganic pyrophosphatases, which are essential in all living organisms. Despite the long history of investigations, these enzymes continue to attract interest. The review focuses on the three-dimensional structures of various representatives of this class of proteins. The structural diversity, the relationship between the structure and some properties of pyrophosphatases and various mechanisms of enzyme action related to the structural diversity of these enzymes are discussed. Interactions of pyrophosphatase with other proteins and possible practical applications are considered. The bibliography includes 56 references.
Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Milhano, José Guilherme; Pablos, Daniel; Rajagopal, Krishna
2016-01-01
We have previously introduced a hybrid strong/weak coupling model for jet quenching in heavy ion collisions that describes the production and fragmentation of jets at weak coupling, using PYTHIA, and describes the rate at which each parton in the jet shower loses energy as it propagates through the strongly coupled plasma, dE/dx, using an expression computed holographically at strong coupling. The model has a single free parameter that we fit to a single experimental measurement. We then confront our model with experimental data on many other jet observables, focusing here on boson-jet observables, finding that it provides a good description of present jet data. Next, we provide the predictions of our hybrid model for many measurements to come, including those for inclusive jet, dijet, photon-jet and Z-jet observables in heavy ion collisions with energy $\\sqrt{s}=5.02$ ATeV coming soon at the LHC. As the statistical uncertainties on near-future measurements of photon-jet observables are expected to be much sm...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nelson, Ann E.; Walsh, Jonathan
2008-01-01
We show that for a force mediated by a vector particle coupled to a conserved U(1) charge, the apparent range and strength can depend on the size and density of the source, and the proximity to other sources. This chameleon effect is due to screening from a light charged scalar. Such screening can weaken astrophysical constraints on new gauge bosons. As an example we consider the constraints on chameleonic gauged B-L. We show that although Casimir measurements greatly constrain any B-L force much stronger than gravity with range longer than 0.1 μm, there remains an experimental window for a long-range chameleonic B-L force. Such a force could be much stronger than gravity, and long or infinite range in vacuum, but have an effective range near the surface of the earth which is less than a micron.
Brunet, S
2014-01-01
ATLAS Higgs poster targeted to general public, explaining the Brout-Englert-Higgs mechanism and why it is important. It also explains the role of the Higgs Boson, how we look for it, the journey of the discovery and what comes after the discovery. Also available in French (http://cds.cern.ch/record/1697501). Don’t hesitate to use it in your institute’s corridors and in your outreach events! The poster is in A0 format. You can click on the image to download the high-quality .pdf version and print it at your favorite printshop. For any questions or comments you can contact atlas-outreach-coordination@cern.ch.
Vector boson fusion NNLO in QCD. SM Higgs and beyond
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bolzoni, Paolo [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Maltoni, Fabio; Zaro, Marco [Catholique Univ. Louvain-la-Neuve (BE). Center for Cosmology, Particle Phyics and Phenomenology (CP3); Moch, Sven-Olaf [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)
2011-09-15
Weak vector boson fusion provides a unique channel to directly probe the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking at hadron colliders. We present a method that allows to calculate total cross sections to next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) in QCD for an arbitrary V{sup *}V{sup *}{yields}X process, the so-called structure function approach. By discussing the case of Higgs production in detail, we estimate several classes of previously neglected contributions and we argue that such method is accurate at a precision level well above the typical residual scale and PDF uncertainties at NNLO. Predictions for cross sections at the Tevatron and the LHC are presented for a variety of cases: the Standard Model Higgs (including anomalous couplings), neutral and charged scalars in extended Higgs sectors and (fermiophobic) vector resonance production. Further results can be easily obtained through the public use of the VBF rate at NNLO code. (orig.)
Goldstone bosons in a crystalline chiral phase
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schramm, Marco
2017-07-24
The phase diagram of strong interaction matter is expected to exhibit a rich structure. Different models have shown, that crystalline phases with a spatially varying chiral condensate can occur in the regime of low temperatures and moderate densities, where they replace the first-order phase transition found for spatially constant order parameters. We investigate this inhomogeneous phase, where in addition to the chiral symmetry, translational and rotational symmetry are broken as well, in a two flavor Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model. The main goal of this work is to describe the Goldstone bosons in this phase, massless excitations that occur for spontaneously broken symmetries. We take one of the simplest possible modulations, the chiral density wave, and show how to derive the quark propagator of the theory analytically, by means of transformations in chiral and momentum space. We apply this to a test case for the gap equation. We show the derivation of Nambu-Goldstone modes in the inhomogeneous phase and find, that for our case only three different modes have to be taken into account. We proceed to calculate the Goldstone boson related to the breaking of spatial symmetry, which can be related to the neutral pion. By evaluating a Bethe-Salpeter equation, we can show, that we have indeed found a Goldstone boson and give its dispersion relation in terms of momenta perpendicular, as well as parallel to the mass modulation.
Goldstone bosons in a crystalline chiral phase
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schramm, Marco
2017-01-01
The phase diagram of strong interaction matter is expected to exhibit a rich structure. Different models have shown, that crystalline phases with a spatially varying chiral condensate can occur in the regime of low temperatures and moderate densities, where they replace the first-order phase transition found for spatially constant order parameters. We investigate this inhomogeneous phase, where in addition to the chiral symmetry, translational and rotational symmetry are broken as well, in a two flavor Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model. The main goal of this work is to describe the Goldstone bosons in this phase, massless excitations that occur for spontaneously broken symmetries. We take one of the simplest possible modulations, the chiral density wave, and show how to derive the quark propagator of the theory analytically, by means of transformations in chiral and momentum space. We apply this to a test case for the gap equation. We show the derivation of Nambu-Goldstone modes in the inhomogeneous phase and find, that for our case only three different modes have to be taken into account. We proceed to calculate the Goldstone boson related to the breaking of spatial symmetry, which can be related to the neutral pion. By evaluating a Bethe-Salpeter equation, we can show, that we have indeed found a Goldstone boson and give its dispersion relation in terms of momenta perpendicular, as well as parallel to the mass modulation.
ATLAS measurements of vector boson production
Vittori, Camilla; The ATLAS collaboration
2016-01-01
Measurements of the DrellYan production of W and Z/gamma* bosons at the LHC provide a benchmark of our understanding of perturbative QCD and probe the proton structure in a unique way. The ATLAS collaboration has performed new high precision measurements at centerofmass energies of 8 and 13 TeV. In the 8 TeV data, we present recent measurements in the dilepton mass range up to the TeV scale, doubledifferentially in dilepton mass and rapidity(separation). The measurements are compared to stateoftheart calculations at NNLO in QCD and constrain the photon content of the proton. First precise inclusive measurements of W and Z production at 13 TeV are presented. W/Z and W charge ratios profit from a cancellation of experimental uncertainties. The angular distributions of the DrellYan lepton pairs around the Zboson mass peak probe the underlying QCD dynamic of the Zboson production mechanisms. We present a measurement of the complete set of angular coefficients describing these distributions...
A Mapping Between Structural and Functional Brain Networks.
Meier, Jil; Tewarie, Prejaas; Hillebrand, Arjan; Douw, Linda; van Dijk, Bob W; Stufflebeam, Steven M; Van Mieghem, Piet
2016-05-01
The relationship between structural and functional brain networks is still highly debated. Most previous studies have used a single functional imaging modality to analyze this relationship. In this work, we use multimodal data, from functional MRI, magnetoencephalography, and diffusion tensor imaging, and assume that there exists a mapping between the connectivity matrices of the resting-state functional and structural networks. We investigate this mapping employing group averaged as well as individual data. We indeed find a significantly high goodness of fit level for this structure-function mapping. Our analysis suggests that a functional connection is shaped by all walks up to the diameter in the structural network in both modality cases. When analyzing the inverse mapping, from function to structure, longer walks in the functional network also seem to possess minor influence on the structural connection strengths. Even though similar overall properties for the structure-function mapping are found for different functional modalities, our results indicate that the structure-function relationship is modality dependent.
Higgs boson transverse momentum distribution
CERN. Geneva
2018-01-01
I will review the recent progress in understanding Higgs boson transverse momentum distribution focusing on effects that go beyond the point-like approximation for the Higgs-glue interaction vertex.
Nucleon structure functions, resonance form factors, and duality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davidovsky, V.V.; Struminsky, B.V.
2003-01-01
The behavior of nucleon structure functions in the resonance region is explored. For form factors that describe resonance production, expressions are obtained that are dependent on the photon virtuality Q 2 , which have a correct threshold behavior, and which take into account available experimental data on resonance decay. Resonance contributions to nucleon structure functions are calculated. The resulting expressions are used to investigate quark-hadron duality in electron-nucleon scattering by taking the example of the structure function F 2
Nuclear enhanced power corrections to DIS structure functions
Guo, Xiaofeng; Qiu, Jianwei; Zhu, Wei
2001-01-01
We calculate nuclear enhanced power corrections to structure functions measured in deeply inelastic lepton-nucleus scattering in Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). We find that the nuclear medium enhanced power corrections at order of $O(\\alpha_s/Q^2)$ enhance the longitudinal structure function $F_L$, and suppress the transverse structure function $F_1$. We demonstrate that strong nuclear effects in $\\sigma_A/\\sigma_D$ and $R_A/R_D$, recently observed by HERMES Collaboration, can be explained in ...
Universal Four-Boson System: Dimer-Atom-Atom Efimov Effect and Recombination Reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deltuva, A.
2013-01-01
Recent theoretical developments in the four-boson system with resonant interactions are described. Momentum-space scattering equations for the four-particle transition operators are used. The properties of unstable tetramers with approximate dimer-atom-atom structure are determined. In addition, the three- and four-cluster recombination processes in the four-boson system are studied. (author)
Types and Functions of Coastal Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Burcharth, H. F.; A. Hughes, Steven
2003-01-01
Coastal structures are used in coastal defence schemes with the objective of preventing shoreline erosion and flooding of the hinterland. Other objectives include sheltering of harbour basins and harbour entrances against waves, stabilization of navigation channels at inlets, and protection...
Structure and function of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
VLADIMIR LESKOVAC
2000-04-01
Full Text Available 1. Introduction 2. Isoenzymes of YADH 3. Substrate specificity 4. Kinetic mechanism 5. Primary structure 6. The active site 7. Mutations in the yeast enzyme 8. Chemical mechanism 9. Binding of coenzymes 10. Hydride transfer
Fermion to boson mappings revisited
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ginocchio, J.N.; Johnson, C.W.
1996-01-01
We briefly review various mappings of fermion pairs to bosons, including those based on mapping operators, such as Belyaev-Zelevinskii, and those on mapping states, such as Marumori; in particular we consider the work of Otsuka-Arima-Iachello, aimed at deriving the Interacting Boson Model. We then give a rigorous and unified description of state-mapping procedures which allows one to systematically go beyond Otsuka-Arima-Iachello and related approaches, along with several exact results. (orig.)
Super boson-fermion correspondence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kac, V.G.; Leur van de, J.W.
1987-01-01
Since the pioneering work of Skyrme, the boson-fermion correspondence has been playing an increasingly important role in 2-dimensional quantum field theory. More recently, it has become an important ingredient in the work of the Kyoto school on the KP hierarchy of soliton equations. In the present paper we establish a super boson-fermion correspondence, having in mind its applications to super KP hierarchies
An exotic composite vector boson
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akama, Keiichi; Hattori, Takashi; Yasue, Masaki.
1990-08-01
An exotic composite vector boson, V, is introduced in two dynamical models of composite quarks, leptons, W and Z. One is based on four Fermi interactions, in which composite vector bosons are regarded as fermion-antifermion bound states and the other is based on the confining SU(2) L gauge model, in which they are given by scalar-antiscalar bound states. Both approaches describe the same effective interactions for the sector of composite quarks, leptons, W, Z, γ and V. (author)
Protein Function Prediction Based on Sequence and Structure Information
Smaili, Fatima Z.
2016-01-01
operate. In this master thesis project, we worked on inferring protein functions based on the primary protein sequence. In the approach we follow, 3D models are first constructed using I-TASSER. Functions are then deduced by structurally matching
Relativistic density functional for nuclear structure
2016-01-01
This book aims to provide a detailed introduction to the state-of-the-art covariant density functional theory, which follows the Lorentz invariance from the very beginning and is able to describe nuclear many-body quantum systems microscopically and self-consistently. Covariant density functional theory was introduced in nuclear physics in the 1970s and has since been developed and used to describe the diversity of nuclear properties and phenomena with great success. In order to provide an advanced and updated textbook of covariant density functional theory for graduate students and nuclear physics researchers, this book summarizes the enormous amount of material that has accumulated in the field of covariant density functional theory over the last few decades as well as the latest developments in this area. Moreover, the book contains enough details for readers to follow the formalism and theoretical results, and provides exhaustive references to explore the research literature.
Synthesis, Crystal Structure, Density Function Theory, Molecular ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research February 2016; 15 (2): 385-392 ... tested for its antimicrobial activities and computational studies including density function test (DFT) and docking ... agonists [4], selective dopamine D3 and D4 ...
Derivation of equations for high-Tc by means of slave boson technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen Van Hieu; Ha Vinh Tan; Nguyen Toan Thang
1988-07-01
The ''slave boson'' technique is applied for studying the superconductivity of the system of strongly correlated electrons with the Hubbard Hamiltonian. On the basis of the equations of the Green functions for the new boson and fermion operators we derive the dynamical equations determining the order parameters of the given RVB model. (author). 4 refs
Second-order QCD analysis of the photon structure function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antoniadis, I.; Grunberg, G.
1983-01-01
The QCD predictions for the photon structure function are reexamined with particular emphasis on the small-x behavior. A simple parametrization of the real photon structure function, free of 1/x singularity, is derived. The structure function is found to be sensitive at small x to the non-perturbatively calculable constant term in the n=2 moment, and we show that the problem of a negative structure function can be solved on the basis of the knowledge of this single non-perturbative parameter. (orig.)
Generalization of boson-fermion equivalence and Fay's addition theorem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kato, Hideyuki; Saito, Satoru
1989-01-01
Generalizations of Fay's addition theorem for Abel functions are obtained by using generalized boson-fermion equivalence of off-shell string amplitudes. A simple example of such generalizations is presented explicitly which relates derivatives of a Riemann θ-function to its determinant. (orig.)
Functional and planning structures of education institutions areas
Соколова, Юлія Віталіївна; Ковальська, Гелена Леонідівна
2014-01-01
The article discusses the main aspects of functional and planning organization of the education institutions. The features of the schools stationing in the city structure and its future extension are also defined. The major functional subdivisions are considered and the role of each of it in the education institution structure is investigated. The ratio of the functional zones depending on the specialization of educational institution is determined. The advantages of the functional zone coope...
Higgs bosons and sleptons in an alternative left-right model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roszkowski, L.
1990-01-01
The phenomenological structure of the combined Higgs-boson--slepton sector of the alternative left-right-supersymmetric model introduced by Ma is explored. Constraints upon and relations between Higgs-boson and slepton masses are derived and a tightly constrained mass spectrum is found. In general, one neutral Higgs boson is never heavier than 98 GeV, one neutral Higgs boson is always nearly degenerate in mass with the extra neutral gauge boson Z 2 0 , and the charged Higgs boson can in principle be as light as 22 GeV. Further constraints require large ratios of Higgs vacuum expectation values, strongly favor the W R mass above ∼423 GeV, predict one Higgs-boson mass to be always very close to 98 GeV, and masses of the other Higgs bosons and the sleptons to be bounded from above and preferably not much above the Z mass. In addition, the possibility of detecting light Higgs bosons at CERN LEP and the SLAC Linear Collider is briefly discussed
Two-dimensional thermofield bosonization II: Massive fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amaral, R.L.P.G.; Belvedere, L.V.; Rothe, K.D.
2008-01-01
We consider the perturbative computation of the N-point function of chiral densities of massive free fermions at finite temperature within the thermofield dynamics approach. The infinite series in the mass parameter for the N-point functions are computed in the fermionic formulation and compared with the corresponding perturbative series in the interaction parameter in the bosonized thermofield formulation. Thereby we establish in thermofield dynamics the formal equivalence of the massive free fermion theory with the sine-Gordon thermofield model for a particular value of the sine-Gordon parameter. We extend the thermofield bosonization to include the massive Thirring model
MRI to assess renal structure and function.
Artunc, Ferruh; Rossi, Cristina; Boss, Andreas
2011-11-01
In addition to excellent anatomical depiction, MRI techniques have expanded to study functional aspects of renal physiology, such as renal perfusion, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) or tissue oxygenation. This review will focus on current developments with an emphasis on clinical applicability. The method of GFR determination is largely heterogeneous and still has weaknesses. However, the technique of employing liver disappearance curves has been shown to be accurate in healthy persons and patients with chronic kidney disease. In potential kidney donors, complete evaluation of kidney anatomy and function can be accomplished in a single-stop investigation. Techniques without contrast media can be utilized to measure renal tissue oxygenation (blood oxygen level-dependent MRI) or perfusion (arterial spin labeling) and could aid in the diagnosis and treatment of ischemic renal diseases, such as renal artery stenosis. Diffusion imaging techniques may provide information on spatially restricted water diffusion and tumor cellularity. Functional MRI opens new horizons in studying renal physiology and pathophysiology in vivo. Although extensively utilized in research, labor-intensive postprocessing and lack of standardization currently limit the clinical applicability of functional MRI. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the clinical value of functional magnetic resonance techniques for early discovery and characterization of kidney disease.
Photon structure function ﬁt with the xFitter framework
Schulte, Sebastian
2017-01-01
The theory of the strong interaction, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), is one of the main constituents of the Standard Model of elementary particle physics. Particularly interesting is the strong coupling constant αs, the only fundamental QCD parameter, which can be only determined by experimental in- vestigations. Therefore, the precise knowledge of αs has been subject of many investigations, using several diﬀerent methods, like for example the Z- and τ- decays at LEP. The current world average value of αs(mZ) = 0.1172 ± 0.0020, where mZ = 91.1876 GeV denotes the mass of the Z-boson [1]. In terms of QCD, the photon oﬀers particular interesting investigation possibilities, which can be shown by Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) of electrons and photons. Despite the assumption, that the photon is a point-like particle, hadron production can be observed. This is leading to the introduction of structure functions, as for DIS electron-nucleon scattering and can be explained by quantum ﬂuctuations due to Hei...
Controlling Function and Structure with DNA
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tørring, Thomas
2011-01-01
and ideas are presented. The second research topic concerns our contributions to the field of DNA origami. This includes investigations of single molecule reactions on a DNA origami platform. The reaction between an amine and an activated ester, as well as the Huisgen-Meldal-Sharpless reaction were...... investigated on a two dimensional DNA origami platform. This was done by incorporating functional groups on the surface of the origami, and reacting these with biotin analogues carrying the complementary functional groups. Successful reactions could then be observed using atomic force microscopy after addition...... of the protein streptavidin. While the implementation of chemical functionalities on origami can be achieved during automated DNA synthesis, this is laborious and costly. In a separate research project we aimed at improving the accessibility by applying an enzymatic labelling method. We demonstrated that the DNA...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chatrchyan, Serguei; et al.
2013-11-01
Results are reported from a search for non-standard-model Higgs boson decays to pairs of new light bosons, each of which decays into the μ^{+}μ^{-} final state. The new bosons may be produced either promptly or via a decay chain. The data set corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5.3 fb^{-1} of proton–proton collisions at √s = 7 TeV, recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC in 2011. Such Higgs boson decays are predicted in several scenarios of new physics, including supersymmetric models with extended Higgs sectors or hidden valleys. Thus, the results of the search are relevant for establishing whether the new particle observed in Higgs boson searches at the LHC has the properties expected for a standard model Higgs boson. No excess of events is observed with respect to the yields expected from standard model processes. A model-independent upper limit of 0.86±0.06 fb on the product of the cross section times branching fraction times acceptance is obtained. Finally, the results, which are applicable to a broad spectrum of new physics scenarios, are compared with the predictions of two benchmark models as functions of a Higgs boson mass larger than 86 GeV/c^{2} and of a new light boson mass within the range 0.25–3.55 GeV/c^{2}.
Nodal Structure of the Electronic Wigner Function
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schmider, Hartmut; Dahl, Jens Peder
1996-01-01
On the example of several atomic and small molecular systems, the regular behavior of nodal patterns in the electronic one-particle reduced Wigner function is demonstrated. An expression found earlier relates the nodal pattern solely to the dot-product of the position and the momentum vector......, if both arguments are large. An argument analogous to the ``bond-oscillatory principle'' for momentum densities links the nuclear framework in a molecule to an additional oscillatory term in momenta parallel to bonds. It is shown that these are visible in the Wigner function in terms of characteristic...
Connectivity and functional profiling of abnormal brain structures in pedophilia.
Poeppl, Timm B; Eickhoff, Simon B; Fox, Peter T; Laird, Angela R; Rupprecht, Rainer; Langguth, Berthold; Bzdok, Danilo
2015-06-01
Despite its 0.5-1% lifetime prevalence in men and its general societal relevance, neuroimaging investigations in pedophilia are scarce. Preliminary findings indicate abnormal brain structure and function. However, no study has yet linked structural alterations in pedophiles to both connectional and functional properties of the aberrant hotspots. The relationship between morphological alterations and brain function in pedophilia as well as their contribution to its psychopathology thus remain unclear. First, we assessed bimodal connectivity of structurally altered candidate regions using meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM) and resting-state correlations employing openly accessible data. We compared the ensuing connectivity maps to the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) maps of a recent quantitative meta-analysis of brain activity during processing of sexual stimuli. Second, we functionally characterized the structurally altered regions employing meta-data of a large-scale neuroimaging database. Candidate regions were functionally connected to key areas for processing of sexual stimuli. Moreover, we found that the functional role of structurally altered brain regions in pedophilia relates to nonsexual emotional as well as neurocognitive and executive functions, previously reported to be impaired in pedophiles. Our results suggest that structural brain alterations affect neural networks for sexual processing by way of disrupted functional connectivity, which may entail abnormal sexual arousal patterns. The findings moreover indicate that structural alterations account for common affective and neurocognitive impairments in pedophilia. The present multimodal integration of brain structure and function analyses links sexual and nonsexual psychopathology in pedophilia. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Synthesis, Crystal Structure, Density Function Theory, Molecular ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ... Purpose: To determine the exact structure and antimicrobial activity of 2-(3-(4 phenylpiperazin-1-yl) ... Besides HOMO– LUMO energy gap was performed at B3LYP/6-31G (d,p) level of theory.
Enhanced functional and structural domain assignments using
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Unknown
using remote similarity detection procedures for proteins encoded in the genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv” (J. Biosci. 29 (3) 245–. 259, 2004) by Seema Namboori, Natasha Mhatre, Sentivel Sujatha,. Narayanaswamy Srinivasan and Shashi Bhushan Pandit. The three-dimensional structure and subcellular ...
The structure of dual Green functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Green, M.B.
1976-01-01
A simple relationship between the position space and momentum space singularity structure of off-shell dual amplitudes is exhibited. This scheme is naturally described in terms of amplitudes which couple to the external sources via pairs of 'confined' states. (Auth.)
Structural and functional properties of designed globins
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
De novo design of artificial proteins is an essential approach to elucidate the principles of protein architecture and to understand specific functions of natural proteins and also to yield novel molecules for medical and industrial aims. We have designed artificial sequences of 153 amino acids to fit the main-chain framework of ...
Loss functions for structural flood mitigation measures
African Journals Online (AJOL)
drinie
2001-01-01
Jan 1, 2001 ... for spillways, levees, tramlines, public roads, drains and bridges. Introduction. The aim of this paper is to discuss the ... In the third section the steps that were followed to determine loss functions for ... Wilson's Cannal-, 31/2-, Low Level- and Monzi Bridge, are also maintained by the co-operative. A tramline ...
The structure and function of endophilin proteins
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kjaerulff, Ole; Brodin, Lennart; Jung, Anita
2011-01-01
Members of the BAR domain protein superfamily are essential elements of cellular traffic. Endophilins are among the best studied BAR domain proteins. They have a prominent function in synaptic vesicle endocytosis (SVE), receptor trafficking and apoptosis, and in other processes that require...
Structural and functional imaging: Particularities in children
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chiron, C.; Hertz-Pannier, L.; Chiron, C.; Hertz-Pannier, L.; Chiron, C.; Hertz-Pannier, L.
2008-01-01
Surgery of partial epilepsies in childhood has largely benefited from the recent advances of imaging techniques, which carry a triple goal: (1) to contribute to the localization of the epilepsy onset zone, (2) to detect and delineate an underlying lesion, and (3) to study the spatial relationship between the epileptogenic zone and the neighboring functional cortex, in order to select patients and plan the resection. This noninvasive pre-surgical imaging workup must be compared to clinical and electrical data to estimate the postoperative prognosis, while invasive techniques such as SEEG, cortical stimulations, and IAT often remain indispensable in difficult cases, i.e., in cryptogenic epilepsies. As in adults, advances in MRI allow us to detect more and more subtle underlying lesions, but this requires repeating MR studies during early childhood and using adapted sequence parameters to account for ongoing myelination. Ictal SPECT and PET imaging prove especially useful in planning depth electrode placement when video-EEG is not contributive, when MRI looks normal or shows multiple abnormalities, or in cases of discrepant findings. Multimodal imaging greatly enhances the sensitivity of all of these techniques. Finally, functional MRI of motor and language functions provide noninvasive cortical mapping of essential functions, using age-adapted paradigms, in cooperating children from age five to six and from IQs around 60. (authors)
Structure, Function, and Training the Rehabilitation Team.
Settles, Robert B.; Crisler, Jack R.
The traditional team concept in rehabilitation is a differentiated team in which each member performs a different function. In practice, such teams are rarely cooperative and their additive services are disjointed. Presented is the philosophic rationale for the revitalization of a large rehabilitation center serving mental patients. Reorganization…
Structural and functional imaging: Particularities in children
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chiron, C.; Hertz-Pannier, L. [Hop Necker Enfants Malad, INSERM, Serv Neuropediat, U663, F-75015 Paris (France); Chiron, C.; Hertz-Pannier, L. [UnivParis 05, F-75005 Paris (France); Chiron, C.; Hertz-Pannier, L. [CEA, I2BM, Neurospin, SHFJ, F-91191 Orsay (France)
2008-07-01
Surgery of partial epilepsies in childhood has largely benefited from the recent advances of imaging techniques, which carry a triple goal: (1) to contribute to the localization of the epilepsy onset zone, (2) to detect and delineate an underlying lesion, and (3) to study the spatial relationship between the epileptogenic zone and the neighboring functional cortex, in order to select patients and plan the resection. This noninvasive pre-surgical imaging workup must be compared to clinical and electrical data to estimate the postoperative prognosis, while invasive techniques such as SEEG, cortical stimulations, and IAT often remain indispensable in difficult cases, i.e., in cryptogenic epilepsies. As in adults, advances in MRI allow us to detect more and more subtle underlying lesions, but this requires repeating MR studies during early childhood and using adapted sequence parameters to account for ongoing myelination. Ictal SPECT and PET imaging prove especially useful in planning depth electrode placement when video-EEG is not contributive, when MRI looks normal or shows multiple abnormalities, or in cases of discrepant findings. Multimodal imaging greatly enhances the sensitivity of all of these techniques. Finally, functional MRI of motor and language functions provide noninvasive cortical mapping of essential functions, using age-adapted paradigms, in cooperating children from age five to six and from IQs around 60. (authors)
Orbitofrontal cortex function and structure in depression.
Drevets, Wayne C
2007-12-01
The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of major depression by evidence obtained using neuroimaging, neuropathologic, and lesion analysis techniques. The abnormalities revealed by these techniques show a regional specificity, and suggest that some OFC regions which appear cytoarchitectonically distinct also are functionally distinct with respect to mood regulation. For example, the severity of depression correlates inversely with physiological activity in parts of the posterior lateral and medial OFC, consistent with evidence that dysfunction of the OFC associated with cerebrovascular lesions increases the vulnerability for developing the major depressive syndrome. The posterior lateral and medial OFC function may also be impaired in individuals who develop primary mood disorders, as these patients show grey-matter volumetric reductions, histopathologic abnormalities, and altered hemodynamic responses to emotionally valenced stimuli, probabilistic reversal learning, and reward processing. In contrast, physiological activity in the anteromedial OFC situated in the ventromedial frontal polar cortex increases during the depressed versus the remitted phases of major depressive disorder to an extent that is positively correlated with the severity of depression. Effective antidepressant treatment is associated with a reduction in activity in this region. Taken together these data are compatible with evidence from studies in experimental animals indicating that some orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal cortex regions function to inhibit, while others function to enhance, emotional expression. Alterations in the functional balance between these regions and the circuits they form with anatomically related areas of the temporal lobe, striatum, thalamus, and brain stem thus may underlie the pathophysiology of mood disorders, such as major depression.
Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases: Function, structure, and inhibition
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Bouřa, Evžen; Nencka, Radim
2015-01-01
Roč. 337, č. 2 (2015), s. 136-145 ISSN 0014-4827 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ15-21030Y; GA MŠk LO1302; GA ČR GA15-09310S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 333916 - STARPI4K Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase * inhibitor * crystal structure * virus Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.378, year: 2015
Nuclear matrix - structure, function and pathogenesis.
Wasąg, Piotr; Lenartowski, Robert
2016-12-20
The nuclear matrix (NM), or nuclear skeleton, is the non-chromatin, ribonucleoproteinaceous framework that is resistant to high ionic strength buffers, nonionic detergents, and nucleolytic enzymes. The NM fulfills a structural role in eukaryotic cells and is responsible for maintaining the shape of the nucleus and the spatial organization of chromatin. Moreover, the NM participates in several cellular processes, such as DNA replication/repair, gene expression, RNA transport, cell signaling and differentiation, cell cycle regulation, apoptosis and carcinogenesis. Short nucleotide sequences called scaffold/matrix attachment regions (S/MAR) anchor the chromatin loops to the NM proteins (NMP). The NMP composition is dynamic and depends on the cell type and differentiation stage or metabolic activity. Alterations in the NMP composition affect anchoring of the S/MARs and thus alter gene expression. This review aims to systematize information about the skeletal structure of the nucleus, with particular emphasis on the organization of the NM and its role in selected cellular processes. We also discuss several diseases that are caused by aberrant NM structure or dysfunction of individual NM elements.
Animal Structures and Functions, Science (Experimental): 5314.13.
Silver, Barbara A.
This unit of instruction was designed to introduce the student to the relationship between structure and function in the animal kingdom, with emphasis given to: (1) the evolution of physiological systems in the major animal phyla, (2) the complementarity of structure and function, and (3) the concept of homeostasis. The booklet lists the relevant…
Soil-Borne Microbial Functional Structure across Different Land Uses
Kuramae, E.E.; Zhou, J.Z.; Kowalchuk, G.A.; van Veen, J.A..
2014-01-01
Land use change alters the structure and composition of microbial communities. However, the links between environmental factors and microbial functions are not well understood. Here we interrogated the functional structure of soil microbial communities across different land uses. In a multivariate
QCD analysis of structure functions in terms of Jacobi polynomials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krivokhizhin, V.G.; Kurlovich, S.P.; Savin, I.A.; Sidorov, A.V.; Skachkov, N.B.; Sanadze, V.V.
1987-01-01
A new method of QCD-analysis of singlet and nonsinglet structure functions based on their expansion in orthogonal Jacobi polynomials is proposed. An accuracy of the method is studied and its application is demonstrated using the structure function F 2 (x,Q 2 ) obtained by the EMC Collaboration from measurements with an iron target. (orig.)
Soil-borne microbial functional structure across different land uses
Kuramae, Eiko E; Zhou, Jizhong Z; Kowalchuk, George A; van Veen, Johannes A
2014-01-01
Land use change alters the structure and composition of microbial communities. However, the links between environmental factors and microbial functions are not well understood. Here we interrogated the functional structure of soil microbial communities across different land uses. In a multivariate
Comparison of parton distributions and structure functions for the proton
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abramowicz, H.; Charchula, K.; Krawczyk, M.; Levy, A.
1990-09-01
A comparative study of the most popular parton parametrizations is presented. The individual parton distributions as well as the F 2 structure function are discussed with a particular emphasis on the low x region, 10 -4 -2 . The predictions of these parametrizations for the F 2 structure function have a wide spread which persists also in the HERA kinematical region. (orig.)
The contact activation proteins: a structure/function overview
Meijers, J. C.; McMullen, B. A.; Bouma, B. N.
1992-01-01
In recent years, extensive knowledge has been obtained on the structure/function relationships of blood coagulation proteins. In this overview, we present recent developments on the structure/function relationships of the contact activation proteins: factor XII, high molecular weight kininogen,
Brain Structure-function Couplings (FY11)
2012-01-01
importance of context in the differential engagement of neural resources during task performance (Foerde et al., 2006), and further stressed that to better...sigmoid function. 4.3.3.1 Neural Mass Region State Space Formally, the NMM el is a dynamical system composed of six coupled first-order differential ...8, 1148–1150. Berger, H. Uber das elektrenkephalogramm des menschen. Archiv fur Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten 1929, 87, 527. Börner, K
Galactosaminoglycan Function and Oligosaccharide Structure Determination
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniela G. Seidler
2007-01-01
Full Text Available This review will discuss the importance of sequencing long chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate chains specifically derived from decorin. Decorin is a member of the small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycans and ubiquitously expressed primarily in the skin. Sequence information and diverse function of glycosaminoglycans is further influenced by variable expression through the core protein indicating the importance to analyse glycosaminoglycans from specific proteoglycans.
Tortello, M; Daghero, D; Ummarino, G A; Stepanov, V A; Jiang, J; Weiss, J D; Hellstrom, E E; Gonnelli, R S
2010-12-03
Directional point-contact Andreev-reflection measurements in Ba(Fe(1-x)Co(x))2As2 single crystals (T(c) = 24.5 K) indicate the presence of two superconducting gaps with no line nodes on the Fermi surface. The point-contact Andreev-reflection spectra also feature additional structures related to the electron-boson interaction, from which the characteristic boson energy Ω(b)(T) is obtained, very similar to the spin-resonance energy observed in neutron scattering experiments. Both the gaps and the additional structures can be reproduced within a three-band s ± Eliashberg model by using an electron-boson spectral function peaked at Ω(0) = 12 meV ≃ Ω(b)(0).
Fukushima, Makoto; Betzel, Richard F; He, Ye; van den Heuvel, Martijn P; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Sporns, Olaf
2018-04-01
Structural white matter connections are thought to facilitate integration of neural information across functionally segregated systems. Recent studies have demonstrated that changes in the balance between segregation and integration in brain networks can be tracked by time-resolved functional connectivity derived from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data and that fluctuations between segregated and integrated network states are related to human behavior. However, how these network states relate to structural connectivity is largely unknown. To obtain a better understanding of structural substrates for these network states, we investigated how the relationship between structural connectivity, derived from diffusion tractography, and functional connectivity, as measured by rs-fMRI, changes with fluctuations between segregated and integrated states in the human brain. We found that the similarity of edge weights between structural and functional connectivity was greater in the integrated state, especially at edges connecting the default mode and the dorsal attention networks. We also demonstrated that the similarity of network partitions, evaluated between structural and functional connectivity, increased and the density of direct structural connections within modules in functional networks was elevated during the integrated state. These results suggest that, when functional connectivity exhibited an integrated network topology, structural connectivity and functional connectivity were more closely linked to each other and direct structural connections mediated a larger proportion of neural communication within functional modules. Our findings point out the possibility of significant contributions of structural connections to integrative neural processes underlying human behavior.
Analysis of Lamellar Structures with Application of Generalized Functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kipiani Gela
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Theory of differential equations in respect of the functional area is based on the basic concepts on generalized functions and splines. There are some basic concepts related to the theory of generalized functions and their properties are considered in relation to the rod systems and lamellar structures. The application of generalized functions gives the possibility to effectively calculate step-variable stiffness lamellar structures. There are also widely applied structures, in that several in which a number of parallel load bearing layers are interconnected by discrete-elastic links. For analysis of system under study, such as design diagrams, there are applied discrete and discrete-continual models.
Photon structure functions at small x in holographic QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Watanabe, Akira; Li, Hsiang-nan
2015-01-01
We investigate the photon structure functions at small Bjorken variable x in the framework of the holographic QCD, assuming dominance of the Pomeron exchange. The quasi-real photon structure functions are expressed as convolution of the Brower–Polchinski–Strassler–Tan (BPST) Pomeron kernel and the known wave functions of the U(1) vector field in the five-dimensional AdS space, in which the involved parameters in the BPST kernel have been fixed in previous studies of the nucleon structure functions. The predicted photon structure functions, as confronted with data, provide a clean test of the BPST kernel. The agreement between theoretical predictions and data is demonstrated, which supports applications of holographic QCD to hadronic processes in the nonperturbative region. Our results are also consistent with those derived from the parton distribution functions of the photon proposed by Glück, Reya, and Schienbein, implying realization of the vector meson dominance in the present model setup.
GH62 arabinofuranosidases: Structure, function and applications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wilkens, Casper; Andersen, Susan; Dumon, Claire
2017-01-01
Motivated by industrial demands and ongoing scientific discoveries continuous efforts are made to identify and create improved biocatalysts dedicated to plant biomass conversion. α-1,2 and α-1,3 arabinofuranosyl specific α-l-arabinofuranosidases (EC 3.2.1.55) are debranching enzymes catalyzing...... exclusively α-l-arabinofuranosidases and these are of fungal and bacterial origin. Twenty-two GH62 enzymes out of 223 entries in the CAZy database have been characterized and very recently new knowledge was acquired with regard to crystal structures, substrate specificities, and phylogenetics, which overall...
Structure of DNA-Functionalized Dendrimer Nanoparticles
Kumar, Mattaparthi Venkata Satish; Maiti, Prabal K
2012-01-01
Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out to reveal the characteristic features of ethylenediamine (EDA) cored protonated poly amido amine (PAMAM) dendrimers of generation 3 (G3) and 4 (G4) that are functionalized with single stranded DNAs (ssDNAs). The four ssDNA strands that are attached via alkythiolate [-S (CH2)6-] linker molecule to the free amine groups on the surface of the PAMAM dendrimers observed to undergo a rapid conformational change during the 25 ns long sim...
Turner syndrome: neuroimaging findings: structural and functional.
LENUS (Irish Health Repository)
Mullaney, Ronan
2009-01-01
Neuroimaging studies of Turner syndrome can advance our understanding of the X chromosome in brain development, and the modulatory influence of endocrine factors. There is increasing evidence from neuroimaging studies that TX individuals have significant differences in the anatomy, function, and metabolism of a number of brain regions; including the parietal lobe; cerebellum, amygdala, hippocampus; and basal ganglia; and perhaps differences in "connectivity" between frontal and parieto-occipital regions. Finally, there is preliminary evidence that genomic imprinting, sex hormones and growth hormone have significant modulatory effects on brain maturation in TS.
Small catalytic RNA: Structure, function and application
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Monforte, Joseph Albert [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
1991-04-01
We have utilized a combination of photochemical cross-linking techniques and site-directed mutagenesis to obtain secondary and tertiary structure information for the self-cleaving, self-ligating subsequence of RNA from the negative strand of Satellite Tobacco Ringspot Virus. We have found that the helical regions fold about a hinge to promoting four different possible tertiary interactions, creating a molecular of similar shape to a paperclip. A model suggesting that the ``paperclip`` and ``hammerhead`` RNAs share a similar three dimensional structure is proposed. We have used a self-cleaving RNA molecule related to a subsequence of plant viroids, a ``hammerhead,`` to study the length-dependent folding of RNA produced during transcription by RNA polymerase. We have used this method to determine the length of RNA sequestered within elongating E. coli and T7 RNA polymerase complexes. The data show that for E. coli RNA polymerase 121±s are sequestered within the ternary complex, which is consistent with the presence of an RNA-DNA hybrid within the transcription bubble, as proposed by others. The result for T7 RNA polymerase differs from E. coli RNA polymerase, with only 10{plus_minus}1 nucleotides sequestered within the ternary complex, setting a new upper limit for the minimum RNA-DNA required for a stable elongating complex. Comparisons between E. coli and T7 RNA polymerase are made. The relevance of the results to models or transcription termination, abortive initiation, and initiation to elongation mode transitions are discussed.
Structural and Functional Plasticity in the Maternal Brain Circuitry
Pereira, Mariana
2016-01-01
Parenting recruits a distributed network of brain structures (and neuromodulators) that coordinates caregiving responses attuned to the young's affect, needs, and developmental stage. Many of these structures and connections undergo significant structural and functional plasticity, mediated by the interplay between maternal hormones and social…
Ageing without detailed balance in the bosonic contact and pair-contact processes: exact results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baumann, Florian; Henkel, Malte; Pleimling, Michel; Richert, Jean
2005-01-01
Ageing in systems without detailed balance is studied in the exactly solvable bosonic contact process and the critical bosonic pair-contact process. The two-time correlation function and the two-time response function are explicitly found. In the ageing regime, the dynamical scaling of these is analysed and exact results for the ageing exponents and the scaling functions are derived. For the critical bosonic pair-contact process, the autocorrelation and autoresponse exponents agree but the ageing exponents a and b are shown to be distinct
Small catalytic RNA: Structure, function and application
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Monforte, J.A.
1991-04-01
We have utilized a combination of photochemical cross-linking techniques and site-directed mutagenesis to obtain secondary and tertiary structure information for the self-cleaving, self-ligating subsequence of RNA from the negative strand of Satellite Tobacco Ringspot Virus. We have found that the helical regions fold about a hinge to promoting four different possible tertiary interactions, creating a molecular of similar shape to a paperclip. A model suggesting that the paperclip'' and hammerhead'' RNAs share a similar three dimensional structure is proposed. We have used a self-cleaving RNA molecule related to a subsequence of plant viroids, a hammerhead,'' to study the length-dependent folding of RNA produced during transcription by RNA polymerase. We have used this method to determine the length of RNA sequestered within elongating E. coli and T7 RNA polymerase complexes. The data show that for E. coli RNA polymerase 12{plus minus}1 nucleotides are sequestered within the ternary complex, which is consistent with the presence of an RNA-DNA hybrid within the transcription bubble, as proposed by others. The result for T7 RNA polymerase differs from E. coli RNA polymerase, with only 10{plus minus}1 nucleotides sequestered within the ternary complex, setting a new upper limit for the minimum RNA-DNA required for a stable elongating complex. Comparisons between E. coli and T7 RNA polymerase are made. The relevance of the results to models or transcription termination, abortive initiation, and initiation to elongation mode transitions are discussed.
Distinguishing a SM-like MSSM Higgs boson from SM Higgs boson ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We explore the possibility of distinguishing the SM-like MSSM Higgs boson from the SM Higgs boson via Higgs boson pair production at future muon collider. We study the behavior of the production cross-section in SM and MSSM with Higgs boson mass for various MSSM parameters tan and A. We observe that at fixed ...
Boson mappings for elementary excitations in fermion systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geyer, H.B.
1981-07-01
The boson mapping formalism is presented with a dual purpose in mind. It is first demonstrated to constitute a microscopic formalism leading to the introduction of collective variables into the many-fermion problem in an exact and consistent manner. Secondly it is shown to present ideal exploring ground with a view to the reconciliation of phenomenological collective nuclear models and microscopic considerations. Of the various existing possibilities for the construction of a boson mapping, we single out the finite, non-unitary Dyson-Maleev mapping, emphasising the convenience of its finiteness, especially in investigations concerning formal aspects of the boson mapping formalism. A contribution to the theory of Dyson-Maleev mappinigs for fermion operators is made by introducing the construction of a consistent mapping for single fermion operators which is free of limitations previously imposed on such a mapping. In various fermion models studies it is shown how the Dyson-Maleev mapping can be utilized to obtain equivalent boson models which, however, can be restricted to yield information about the collective subspace only. As far as phenomenological models are concerned, some new light from a microscopic viewpiont is shed on the assumption underlying the interacting boson model as well as on the calculational procedures usually adopted in this model. The most important observation concerns the assumed structure of the IBM hamiltonian where a non-hermitian form, rather than the existing hermitian form, is indicated
Finite boson mappings of fermion systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, C.W.; Ginocchio, J.N.
1994-01-01
We discuss a general mapping of fermion pairs to bosons that preserves Hermitian conjugation, with an eye towards producing finite and usable boson Hamiltonians that approximate well the low-energy dynamics of a fermion Hamiltonian
The search for a heavy Higgs boson
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dawson, S.
1989-02-01
Theoretical limits on the mass of the Higgs boson from vacuum stability and perturbative unitarity are examined. Search techniques for heavy Higgs bosons, M/sub H/ > 200 GeV, are also reviewed. 8 refs., 5 figs
Boson forbidden transitions and their manifestation in spherical nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stoyanov, Ch.
2002-01-01
For the correct description of the 'boson forbidden' transitions it is necessary to go beyond the quasi-boson approximation and to take into account the fermion structure of the phonons. Once it done it is quantitative description of the transitions is possible within the simplest model based on the separable residual interactions. Calculations of the forbidden E1-transitions in 120 Sn, 144 Sm and 144 Nd are presented. Analysis of some low-energy M1-transitions is made using IBM-2. The discussed examples reveal the complex properties of the low-lying excited states
An alternative prescription for Gauging Floreanini-Jackiw chiral bosons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dias, S.A.; Souza Dutra, A. de.
1991-01-01
We seek new couplings of chiral bosons to U (1) gauge fields. Lorentz covariance of the resulting constrained Lagrangian is checked with the help of a procedure based in the first-order formalism of Faddeev and Jackiw. We find Harada's constraint and another local one not previously considered, besides infinite non-local couplings.We analyze the constraint structure and part of the spectrum of this second solution and show that it is equivalent to an explicitly covariant coupling of Siegel's chiral boson to gauge fields, which preserves chirality under gauge transformations. (author)
Full NLO massive gauge boson pair production at the LHC
Baglio, Julien; Weber, Marcus M
2013-01-01
Electroweak gauge boson pair production is a very important process at the LHC as it probes the non-abelian structure of electroweak interactions and is a background process for many searches. We present full next-to-leading order predictions for the production cross sections and distributions of on-shell massive gauge boson pair production in the Standard Model, including both QCD and electroweak corrections. The hierarchy between the ZZ, WW and WZ channels, observed in the transverse momentum distributions, will be analyzed. We will also present a comparison with experimental data for the total cross sections including a study of the theoretical uncertainties.
Production of electroweak bosons at hadron colliders: theoretical aspects
Mangano, Michelangelo L.
2016-01-01
Since the W and Z discovery, hadron colliders have provided a fertile ground, in which continuously improving measurements and theoretical predictions allow to precisely determine the gauge boson properties, and to probe the dynamics of electroweak and strong interactions. This article will review, from a theoretical perspective, the role played by the study, at hadron colliders, of electroweak boson production properties, from the better understanding of the proton structure, to the discovery and studies of the top quark and of the Higgs, to the searches for new phenomena beyond the Standard Model.
Search for Higgs bosons beyond the Standard Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mankel Rainer
2015-01-01
Full Text Available While the existence of a Higgs boson with a mass near 125 GeV has been clearly established, the detailed structure of the entire Higgs sector is yet unclear. Beyond the standard model interpretation, various scenarios for extended Higgs sectors are being considered. Such options include the minimal and next-to-minimal supersymmetric extensions (MSSM and NMSSM of the standard model, more generic Two-Higgs Doublet models (2HDM, as well as truly exotic Higgs bosons decaying e.g. into totally invisible final states. This article presents recent results from the CMS experiment.
Calculation of CWKB envelope in boson and fermion productions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biswas, S.; Chowdhury, I.
2007-01-01
We present the calculation of envelope of boson and of both low-and high-mass fermion production at the end of inflation when the coherently oscillating inflations decay into bosons and fermions. We consider three different models of inflation and use CWKB technique to calculate the envelope to understand the structure of resonance band formation. We observe that though low-mass fermion production is not effective in preheating because of Pauli blocking, it is quite probable for high-mass fermion to take part in pre heating. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
2005-08-01
Full Text Available The bias in protein structure and function space resulting from experimental limitations and targeting of particular functional classes of proteins by structural biologists has long been recognized, but never continuously quantified. Using the Enzyme Commission and the Gene Ontology classifications as a reference frame, and integrating structure data from the Protein Data Bank (PDB, target sequences from the structural genomics projects, structure homology derived from the SUPERFAMILY database, and genome annotations from Ensembl and NCBI, we provide a quantified view, both at the domain and whole-protein levels, of the current and projected coverage of protein structure and function space relative to the human genome. Protein structures currently provide at least one domain that covers 37% of the functional classes identified in the genome; whole structure coverage exists for 25% of the genome. If all the structural genomics targets were solved (twice the current number of structures in the PDB, it is estimated that structures of one domain would cover 69% of the functional classes identified and complete structure coverage would be 44%. Homology models from existing experimental structures extend the 37% coverage to 56% of the genome as single domains and 25% to 31% for complete structures. Coverage from homology models is not evenly distributed by protein family, reflecting differing degrees of sequence and structure divergence within families. While these data provide coverage, conversely, they also systematically highlight functional classes of proteins for which structures should be determined. Current key functional families without structure representation are highlighted here; updated information on the "most wanted list" that should be solved is available on a weekly basis from http://function.rcsb.org:8080/pdb/function_distribution/index.html.
Coulomb crystallites from harmonically confined charged bosons in two dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mese, A I; Okan, S E; Capuzzi, P; Akdeniz, Z; Tosi, M P
2008-01-01
We exploit rotational-symmetry breaking in the one-body density to examine the formation of structures in systems of N strongly coupled charged bosons with logarithmic repulsions inside isotropic two-dimensional harmonic traps, with N in the range from 2 to 7. The results serve as a map for ordered arrangements of vortices in a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate. Two types of N-body wavefunctions are assumed: (i) a permanent |ψ WM > of N identical Gaussian orbitals centred at variationally determined sites, and (ii) a permanent |ψ SM > of N orthogonal orbitals built from harmonic-oscillator energy eigenstates. With increasing coupling strength, the bosons in the |ψ WM > orbitals localize into polygonal-ringlike crystalline patterns ('Wigner molecules'), whereas the wavefunctions |ψ SM / describe low energy excited states containing delocalized bosons as in supersolid crystallites ('supermolecules'). For N = 2 at strong coupling both states describe a Wigner dimer
Landauer current and mutual information in a bosonic quantum dot
Shashikant Sable, Hrushikesh; Singh Bhakuni, Devendra; Sharma, Auditya
2018-02-01
We study the quantum transport of bosons through a quantum dot coupled to two macroscopic heat baths L and R, held at fixed temperatures TL and TR respectively. We manage to cast the particle as well as the heat current into the Landauer form. Following the correlation matrix approach, we compute the time-dependent mutual information of the dot with the baths. We find that mutual information goes logarithmically as the number of bosons, and at low temperatures, it is possible to set up the parameters in such a way that in steady-state, the mutual information goes quadratically as a function of current.
Component separation in harmonically trapped boson-fermion mixtures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nygaard, Nicolai; Mølmer, Klaus
1999-01-01
We present a numerical study of mixed boson-fermion systems at zero temperature in isotropic and anise tropic harmonic traps. We investigate the phenomenon of component separation as a function of the strength ut the interparticle interaction. While solving a Gross-Pitaevskii mean-field equation ...... for the boson distribution in the trap, we utilize two different methods to extract the density profile of the fermion component; a semiclassical Thomas-Fermi approximation and a quantum-mechanical Slater determinant Schrodinger equation....
Interacting fermions and bosons with definite total momentum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alon, Ofir E.; Streltsov, Alexej I.; Cederbaum, Lorenz S.
2005-01-01
Any exact eigenstate with a definite momentum of a many-body Hamiltonian can be written as an integral over a symmetry-broken function Φ. For two particles, we exactly express Φ in terms of (single-particle) orbitals for all energy levels and any interparticle interaction. Especially for the ground state, Φ is given by the simple Hartree-Fock and Hartree Ansaetze for fermions and bosons, respectively. Implications for several and many particles as well as a numerical example for interacting bosons are provided
Number fluctuations of cold, spatially split bosonic objects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakmann, Kaspar; Streltsov, Alexej I.; Cederbaum, Lorenz S.; Alon, Ofir E.
2011-01-01
We investigate the number fluctuations of spatially split many-boson systems employing a theorem about the maximally and minimally attainable variances of an observable. The number fluctuations of many-boson systems are given for different numbers of lattice sites and both mean-field and many-body wave functions. It is shown which states maximize the particle number fluctuations, both in lattices and double wells. The fragmentation of the states is discussed, and it is shown that the number fluctuations of some fragmented states are identical to those of fully condensed states.
Airway structure and function in Eisenmenger's syndrome.
McKay, K O; Johnson, P R; Black, J L; Glanville, A R; Armour, C L
1998-10-01
The responsiveness of airways from patients with Eisenmenger's syndrome (n = 5) was compared with that in airways from organ donors (n = 10). Enhanced contractile responses to cholinergic stimulation were found in airways from patients with Eisenmenger's syndrome. The maximal responses to acetylcholine, carbachol, and parasympathetic nerve stimulation in airway tissue from these patients were 221%, 139%, and 152%, respectively, of the maximal responses obtained in donor tissue. Further, relaxation responses to isoproterenol and levocromakalim were absent (n = 2) or markedly impaired (n = 3) in airways from patients with Eisenmenger's syndrome. This attenuated relaxation response was nonspecific in that it was also absent after vasoactive intestinal peptide, sodium nitroprusside, papaverine, and electrical field application. These observations can most likely be explained by a decrease in intrinsic smooth muscle tone, as precontraction of airways revealed relaxation responses that were equivalent to those obtained in donor tissues. Morphometric analysis of tissues used for the functional studies revealed no differences in the airway dimensions (internal perimeter) or airway wall components (e.g., smooth muscle, cartilage) or total area to explain these observations. Although the mechanism for this observed decrease in intrinsic airway smooth muscle tone is not certain, it may be due to alteration in the substructure of the airway wall or, alternatively, may result from the continued release of depressant factors in the vicinity of the smooth muscle which permanently alters smooth muscle responsiveness.
A structural self-regulation of functioning macromolecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khristoforov, L.N.
1998-01-01
An approach to describing the functional structural changes of macromolecules processing the flows of low-mass agents is formulated. The latter appear as a source of a discrete noise whose defining parameters depend on structural variables. We derive a forward evolution equation and then, by adiabatic elimination, effective Fokker-Planck's equation for the structural modes. Within the dichotomous case, we discuss noise-induced nonequilibrium phase transitions reflecting the regulatory role of the structural subsystem
Search for heavy neutral gauge bosons at D-Zero
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abbott, B.
1997-10-01
We report preliminary results of a search for a heavy neutral gauge boson, Z', using the decay channel Z' → ee . The data were collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron during the 1994-1995 p anti p collider run at √s = 1.8 TeV and correspond to an integrated luminosity of ∼ 90 pb -1 . Limits are set on the cross section times branching ratio for the process anti pp → Z' → ee as a function of the Z' mass. We exclude the existence of a heavy neutral gauge boson of mass less than 660 GeV/c 2 (95% CL), assuming a Z' with the same coupling strengths to quarks and leptons as the standard model Z boson. Combining this analysis with DO's 1992-1993 data set increases the limit to m Z' > 670 GeV/c 2
Gauge boson exchange in AdSd+1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
D'Hoker, Eric; Freedman, Daniel Z.
1999-01-01
We study the amplitude for exchange of massless gauge bosons between pairs of massive scalar fields in anti-de Sitter space. In the AdS/CFT correspondence this amplitude describes the contribution of conserved flavor symmetry currents to 4-point functions of scalar operators in the boundary conformal theory. A concise, covariant, Y2K compatible derivation of the gauge boson propagator in AdS d+ 1 is given. Techniques are developed to calculate the two bulk integrals over AdS space leading to explicit expressions or convenient, simple integral representations for the amplitude. The amplitude contains leading power and sub-leading logarithmic singularities in the gauge boson channel and leading logarithms in the crossed channel. The new methods of this paper are expected to have other applications in the study of the Maldacena conjecture
Spectroscopy of samarium isotopes in the sdg interacting boson model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Devi, Y.D.; Kota, V.K.B.
1992-01-01
Successful spectroscopic calculations for the 0 1 + , 2 1 + , and 4 1 + levels in 146-158 Sm are carried out in sdg boson space with the restriction that the s-boson number n s ≥2 and the g-boson number n g ≤2. Observed energies, quadrupole and magnetic moments, E2 and E4 transition strengths, nuclear radii, and two-nucleon transfer intensities are reproduced with a simple two-parameter Hamiltonian. For a good simultaneous description of ground, β, and γ bands, a Hamiltonian interpolating the dynamical symmetries in the sdg model is employed. Using the resulting wave functions, in 152,154 Sm, the observed B(E4;0 1 + →4 γ + ) values are well reproduced and E4 strength distributions are predicted. Moreover, a particular ratio scrR involving two-nucleon transfer strengths showing a peak at neutron number 90 is well described by the calculations
LHCb - Search for hidden-sector bosons at LHCb
Mauri, Andrea
2016-01-01
A search is presented for a hidden-sector boson, $\\chi$, produced in the decay $B^0 \\rightarrow K^* (892)^0 \\chi$, with $K^* (892)^0 \\rightarrow K^+ \\pi^-$ and $\\chi \\rightarrow \\mu^+ \\mu^-$ . The search is performed using a $pp$-collision data sample collected at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ and 8 TeV with the LHCb detector, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 1 and 2 fb$^{-1}$ respectively. No significant signal is observed in the mass range $214 \\le m_\\chi \\le 4350$ MeV, and upper limits are placed on the branching fraction product $\\mathcal{B}(B^0 \\rightarrow K^* (892)^0 \\chi) \\times \\mathcal{B}(\\chi \\rightarrow \\mu^+ \\mu^- )$ as a function of the mass and lifetime of the $\\chi$ boson. These limits place the most stringent constraints to date on many theories that predict the existence of additional low-mass dark bosons.
Working Group Report: Higgs Boson
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dawson, Sally; Gritsan, Andrei; Logan, Heather; Qian, Jianming; Tully, Chris; Van Kooten, Rick [et al.
2013-10-30
This report summarizes the work of the Energy Frontier Higgs Boson working group of the 2013 Community Summer Study (Snowmass). We identify the key elements of a precision Higgs physics program and document the physics potential of future experimental facilities as elucidated during the Snowmass study. We study Higgs couplings to gauge boson and fermion pairs, double Higgs production for the Higgs self-coupling, its quantum numbers and $CP$-mixing in Higgs couplings, the Higgs mass and total width, and prospects for direct searches for additional Higgs bosons in extensions of the Standard Model. Our report includes projections of measurement capabilities from detailed studies of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC), a Gamma-Gamma Collider, the International Linear Collider (ILC), the Large Hadron Collider High-Luminosity Upgrade (HL-LHC), Very Large Hadron Colliders up to 100 TeV (VLHC), a Muon Collider, and a Triple-Large Electron Positron Collider (TLEP).
Search for intermediate vector bosons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cline, D.B.; Rubbia, C.; van der Meer, S.
1982-01-01
Over the past 15 years a new class of unified theories has been developed to describe the forces acting between elementary particles. The most successful of the new theories establishes a link between electromagnetism and the weak force. A crucial prediction of this unified electroweak theory is the existence of three massive particles called intermediate vector bosons. If these intermediate vector bosons exist and if they have properties attributed to them by electroweak theory, they should soon be detected, as the world's first particle accelerator with enough energy to create such particles has recently been completed at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva. The accelerator has been converted to a colliding beam machine in which protons and antiprotons collide head on. According to electroweak theory, intermediate vector bosons can be created in proton-antiproton collisions. (SC)
Search for intermediate vector bosons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klajn, D.B.; Rubbia, K.; Meer, S.
1983-01-01
Problem of registration and search for intermediate vector bosons is discussed. According to weak-current theory there are three intermediate vector bosons with +1(W + )-1(W - ) and zero (Z 0 ) electric charges. It was suggested to conduct the investigation into particles in 1976 by cline, Rubbia and Makintair using proton-antiproton beams. Major difficulties of the experiment are related to the necessity of formation of sufficient amount of antiparticles and the method of antiproton beam ''cooling'' for the purpose of reduction of its random movements. The stochastic method was suggested by van der Meer in 1968 as one of possible cooling methods. Several large detectors were designed for searching intermediate vector bosons
Pair distribution function and structure factor of spherical particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Howell, Rafael C.; Proffen, Thomas; Conradson, Steven D.
2006-01-01
The availability of neutron spallation-source instruments that provide total scattering powder diffraction has led to an increased application of real-space structure analysis using the pair distribution function. Currently, the analytical treatment of finite size effects within pair distribution refinement procedures is limited. To that end, an envelope function is derived which transforms the pair distribution function of an infinite solid into that of a spherical particle with the same crystal structure. Distributions of particle sizes are then considered, and the associated envelope function is used to predict the particle size distribution of an experimental sample of gold nanoparticles from its pair distribution function alone. Finally, complementing the wealth of existing diffraction analysis, the peak broadening for the structure factor of spherical particles, expressed as a convolution derived from the envelope functions, is calculated exactly for all particle size distributions considered, and peak maxima, offsets, and asymmetries are discussed
Significance tests for functional data with complex dependence structure.
Staicu, Ana-Maria; Lahiri, Soumen N; Carroll, Raymond J
2015-01-01
We propose an L 2 -norm based global testing procedure for the null hypothesis that multiple group mean functions are equal, for functional data with complex dependence structure. Specifically, we consider the setting of functional data with a multilevel structure of the form groups-clusters or subjects-units, where the unit-level profiles are spatially correlated within the cluster, and the cluster-level data are independent. Orthogonal series expansions are used to approximate the group mean functions and the test statistic is estimated using the basis coefficients. The asymptotic null distribution of the test statistic is developed, under mild regularity conditions. To our knowledge this is the first work that studies hypothesis testing, when data have such complex multilevel functional and spatial structure. Two small-sample alternatives, including a novel block bootstrap for functional data, are proposed, and their performance is examined in simulation studies. The paper concludes with an illustration of a motivating experiment.
Significance tests for functional data with complex dependence structure
Staicu, Ana-Maria
2015-01-01
We propose an L (2)-norm based global testing procedure for the null hypothesis that multiple group mean functions are equal, for functional data with complex dependence structure. Specifically, we consider the setting of functional data with a multilevel structure of the form groups-clusters or subjects-units, where the unit-level profiles are spatially correlated within the cluster, and the cluster-level data are independent. Orthogonal series expansions are used to approximate the group mean functions and the test statistic is estimated using the basis coefficients. The asymptotic null distribution of the test statistic is developed, under mild regularity conditions. To our knowledge this is the first work that studies hypothesis testing, when data have such complex multilevel functional and spatial structure. Two small-sample alternatives, including a novel block bootstrap for functional data, are proposed, and their performance is examined in simulation studies. The paper concludes with an illustration of a motivating experiment.
Some applications of renormalized RPA in bosonic field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hansen, H.; Chanfray, G.
2003-01-01
We present some applications of the renormalized RPA in bosonic field theories. We first present some developments for the explicit calculation of the total energy in Φ 4 theory and discuss its phase structure in 1 + 1 dimensions. We also demonstrate that the Goldstone theorem is satisfied in the O(N) model within the renormalized RPA. (authors)
Multiloop divergences in the closed bosonic string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gava, E.; Iengo, R.; Jayaraman, T.; Ramachandran, R.
1985-12-01
We discuss the structure of the divergences in the multiloop vacuum diagrams for the closed bosonic strings in the framework of the Polyakov covariant formalism. We find, by an explicit computation, that all the divergences in the theory may be interpreted as due to tadpole diagrams in which the dilation goes into the vacuum. (author)
Cellular regulation of the structure and function of aortic valves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ismail El-Hamamsy
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The aortic valve was long considered a passive structure that opens and closes in response to changes in transvalvular pressure. Recent evidence suggests that the aortic valve performs highly sophisticated functions as a result of its unique microscopic structure. These functions allow it to adapt to its hemodynamic and mechanical environment. Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in normal valve physiology is essential to elucidate the mechanisms behind valve disease. We here review the structure and developmental biology of aortic valves; we examine the role of its cellular parts in regulating its function and describe potential pathophysiological and clinical implications.
Deep inelastic structure functions in the chiral bag model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanjose, V.; Vento, V.; Centro Mixto CSIC/Valencia Univ., Valencia
1989-01-01
We calculate the structure functions for deep inelastic scattering on baryons in the cavity approximation to the chiral bag model. The behavior of these structure functions is analyzed in the Bjorken limit. We conclude that scaling is satisfied, but not Regge behavior. A trivial extension as a parton model can be achieved by introducing the structure function for the pion in a convolution picture. In this extended version of the model not only scaling but also Regge behavior is satisfied. Conclusions are drawn from the comparison of our results with experimental data. (orig.)
Deep inelastic structure functions in the chiral bag model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sanjose, V. (Valencia Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Didactica de las Ciencias Experimentales); Vento, V. (Valencia Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; Centro Mixto CSIC/Valencia Univ., Valencia (Spain). Inst. de Fisica Corpuscular)
1989-10-02
We calculate the structure functions for deep inelastic scattering on baryons in the cavity approximation to the chiral bag model. The behavior of these structure functions is analyzed in the Bjorken limit. We conclude that scaling is satisfied, but not Regge behavior. A trivial extension as a parton model can be achieved by introducing the structure function for the pion in a convolution picture. In this extended version of the model not only scaling but also Regge behavior is satisfied. Conclusions are drawn from the comparison of our results with experimental data. (orig.).
MODY - calculation of ordered structures by symmetry-adapted functions
Białas, Franciszek; Pytlik, Lucjan; Sikora, Wiesława
2016-01-01
In this paper we focus on the new version of computer program MODY for calculations of symmetryadapted functions based on the theory of groups and representations. The choice of such a functional frame of coordinates for description of ordered structures leads to a minimal number of parameters which must be used for presentation of such structures and investigations of their properties. The aim of this work is to find those parameters, which are coefficients of a linear combination of calculated functions, leading to construction of different types of structure ordering with a given symmetry. A spreadsheet script for simplification of this work has been created and attached to the program.
Deep inelastic singlet structure functions and scaling violation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wen-zhu, Li; Bing-xun, Hu
1984-02-01
The flavour singlet structure functions of deep inelastic scattering processes can yield more decisive tests of QCD than the non-singlet. We give analytical expression for flavour singlet structure functions through analysing the lepton-nucleon deep inelastic scattering processes by means of QCD and using Jacobi polynomials. This expression contains 4 to 5 parameters and shows the changes of the singlet structure functions with x and Q/sup 2/ very well. In QCD leading order, the conclusion is in reasonable agreement with experimental data.
Characterization of technical surfaces by structure function analysis
Kalms, Michael; Kreis, Thomas; Bergmann, Ralf B.
2018-03-01
The structure function is a tool for characterizing technical surfaces that exhibits a number of advantages over Fourierbased analysis methods. So it is optimally suited for analyzing the height distributions of surfaces measured by full-field non-contacting methods. The structure function is thus a useful method to extract global or local criteria like e. g. periodicities, waviness, lay, or roughness to analyze and evaluate technical surfaces. After the definition of line- and area-structure function and offering effective procedures for their calculation this paper presents examples using simulated and measured data of technical surfaces including aircraft parts.
Generalized fluid impulse functions for oscillating marine structures
Janardhanan, K.; Price, W. G.; Wu, Y.
1992-03-01
A selection of generalized impulse response functions is presented for a variety of rigid and flexible marine structures (i.e. mono-hull, SWATH, floating drydock and twin dock, fixed flexible pile). These functions are determined from calculated and experimental frequency-dependent hydrodynamic data, and the characteristics of these data depend on the type of structure considered. This information is reflected in the shape and duration of the generalized impulse response functions which are pre-requisites for a generalized integro-differential mathematical model describing the dynamic behaviour of the structures to seaway excitation.
Thermodynamic aspects of light boson conjectures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ray, P.S.; Miller, D.E.
1984-01-01
Gauge theories have often led to the hypothesis for new particles (light bosons) in order to overcome their unpleasant features. Then one faces the dilemma of not observing these experimentally. We consider a many body system under thermal equilibrium which could emit the light bosons and point out the criterion for existence of the Bose-Einstein condensate for these new bosons
Fermions and bosons : a 'spinless' approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oliveira, P.M.C. de; Ribeiro, S.C.
1980-07-01
The fundamental difference between fermions and bosons is presented. The treatment used is based only on indistinguishability and its related implications on interference, with no mention to spin. Comparison between indistinguishable (fermions or bosons) and distinguishable identical particles are also made, yielding the enhancement (bosons) or inhibition (fermions) factors which determine the quantum distribution equations. (Author) [pt
Introduction to the physics of Higgs bosons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dawson, S.
1994-11-01
A basic introduction to the physics of the Standard Model Higgs boson is given. We discuss Higgs boson production in e + e - and hadronic collisions and survey search techniques at future accelerators. The Higgs bosons of the minimal SUSY model are briefly considered. Indirect limits from triviality arguments, vacuum stability and precision measurements at LEP are also presented
Quantization of bosonic closed strings and the Liouville model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paycha, S.
1988-01-01
The author shows that by means of a reasonable interpretation of the Lebesgue measure describing the partition function the quantization of closed bosonic strings described by compact surfaces of genus p>1 can be related to that of the Liouville model. (HSI)
On bosonization in 3 dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barci, D.G.; Fosco, C.D.; Oxman, L.E.
1995-08-01
A recently proposed path-integral bosonization scheme for massive fermions in 3 dimensions is extended by keeping the full momentum-dependence of the one-loop vacuum polarization tensor. This makes it possible to discuss both the massive and massless fermion cases on an equal footing, and moreover the results it yields for massless fermions are consistent with the ones of another, seemingly different, canonical quantization approach to the problem of bosonization for a massless fermionic field in 3 dimensions. (author). 10 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ekspong, G.
1981-11-01
Among possible production reactions for neutral Higgs bosons it is known that e + e - →Z 0 +H 0 offers advantages of relatively high production cross section and low background from other reactions. With Z 0 decaying to two electrons, which are measured, the existence of a Higgs candidate will be seen as a peak in the missing mass spectrum. It is shown that a sufficiently good mass resolution is obtainable to make a search for Higgs feasible at LEP. In its first phase, the energy of LEP limits the search to Higgs bosons of mass around 10 GeV. (Auth.)
Long range correlation in Higgs boson plus two jets production at the LHC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sun, Peng [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Nuclear Science Division; Yuan, C. -P. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Yuan, Feng [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Nuclear Science Division
2016-09-09
Here, we study Higgs boson plus two high energy jets production at the LHC in the kinematics where the two jets are well separated in rapidity. The partonic processes are dominated by the t-channel weak boson fusion (WBF) and gluon fusion (GF) contributions. We derive the associated QCD resummation formalism for the correlation analysis where the total transverse momentum q⊥ of the Higgs boson and two jets is small. Because of different color structures, the resummation results lead to distinguished behaviors: the WBF contribution peaks at relative low q⊥ while all GF channel contributions are strongly de-correlated and spread to a much wider q⊥ range. Furthermore, by applying a kinematic cut on q⊥, one can effectively increase the WBF signal to the GF background by a significant factor. This, then strengthens the ability to investigate the WBF channel in Higgs boson production and study the couplings of Higgs to electroweak bosons.
Lectures on Higgs Boson Physics in the Standard Model and Beyond
Wells, James D
2009-01-01
These lectures focus on the structure of various Higgs boson theories. Topics in the first lectures include: mass generation in chiral theories, spontaneous symmetry breaking, neutrino masses, perturbative unitarity, vacuum stability, vacuum alignment, flavor changing neutral current solutions with multiple Higgs doublets, analysis of type I theory with Z2 symmetry, and rephasing symmetries. After an Essay on the Hierarchy Problem, additional topics are covered that more directly relate to naturalness of the electroweak theory. Emphasis is on their connection to Higgs boson physics. Topics in these later lectures include: supersymmetry, supersymmetric Higgs sector in the Runge basis, leading-order radiative corrections of supersymmetric light Higgs boson mass, theories of extra dimensions, and radion mixing with the Higgs boson in warped extra dimensions. And finally, one lecture is devoted to Higgs boson connections to the hidden sector.
Factor structure of functional state of primary school age children
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Davidenko O.V.
2011-02-01
Full Text Available The examination of primary school children to determine the ranking of significant factors that determine the structure of their functional state depending on the level of physical health. It is shown that the main factor in the structure of the functional state of younger schoolchildren in low-and lower-middle level of physical fitness is selected morpho-functional status, which characterizes the functions of the body at rest. For children with average or above average level of physical fitness is a leading factor in physical fitness of schoolchildren.
Search for Higgs boson decays to neutralinos and gravitinos using the ATLAS detector
Karthik, Krishnaiyengar
This thesis describes the search for exotic Higgs boson decays to neutralinos and gravitinos as predicted by some Supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model. The analysis is done using 20.3 fb-1 of √ s = 8 TeV proton-proton collision data recorded by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The analysis searches for decays of the Higgs boson produced along with two forward jets, as enhanced by vector boson fusion Higgs boson production, leading to a final state of at least one photon, missing transverse momentum, and two forward jets. The study finds no statistically significant deviation from the Standard Model prediction and places 95% confidence-level upper limits on the branching fraction of the Higgs boson to neutralinos and gravitinos as a function of neutralino masses.
Evidence of Higgs Boson Production through Vector Boson Fusion
AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00333580
The discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012 provided confirmation of the proposed mechanism for preserving the electroweak $SU(2) \\times U(1)$ gauge symmetry of the Standard Model of particle physics. It also heralded in a new era of precision Higgs physics. This thesis presents a measurement of the rate at which the Higgs boson is produced by vector boson fusion in the \\wwlnln decay channel. With gauge boson couplings in both the production and decay vertices, a VBF measurement in this channel is a powerful probe of the $VVH$ vertex strength. Using $4.5$~fb$^{-1}$ and $20.3$~fb$^{-1}$ of $pp$ collision data collected at respective center-of-mass energies of 7 and $8 \\tev$ in the ATLAS detector, measurements of the statistical significance and the signal strength are carried out in the Higgs mass range $100 \\leq m_H \\leq 200 \\gev$. These measurements are enhanced with a boosted decision tree that exploits the correlations between eight kinematic inputs in order to separate signal and background processes. At the...
State orthogonality, boson bunching parameter and bosonic enhancement factor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marchewka, A.; Granot, E.
2016-01-01
Bosons bunching is the tendency of bosons to bunch together with respect to distinguishable particles. It is emphasized that the bunching parameter β = p_B/p_D, i.e. the ratio between the probability to measure 2 bosons and 2 distinguishable particles at the same state, is a constant of motion and depends only on the overlap between the initial wavefunctions. This ratio is equal to β = 2/(1 + l"2), where l is the overlap integral between the initial wavefunctions. That is, only when the initial wavefunctions are orthogonal this ratio is equal to 2, however, this bunching ratio can be reduced to 1, when the two wavefunctions are identical. This simple equation explains the experimental evidences of a beam splitter. A straightforward conclusion is that by measuring the local bunching parameter β (at any point in space and time) it is possible to evaluate a global parameter l (the overlap between the initial wavefunctions). The bunching parameter is then generalized to arbitrary number of particles, and in an analogy to the two-particles scenario, the well-known bosonic enhancement appears only when all states are orthogonal
Extinction order and altered community structure rapidly disrupt ecosystem functioning.
Larsen, Trond H; Williams, Neal M; Kremen, Claire
2005-05-01
By causing extinctions and altering community structure, anthropogenic disturbances can disrupt processes that maintain ecosystem integrity. However, the relationship between community structure and ecosystem functioning in natural systems is poorly understood. Here we show that habitat loss appeared to disrupt ecosystem functioning by affecting extinction order, species richness and abundance. We studied pollination by bees in a mosaic of agricultural and natural habitats in California and dung burial by dung beetles on recently created islands in Venezuela. We found that large-bodied bee and beetle species tended to be both most extinction-prone and most functionally efficient, contributing to rapid functional loss. Simulations confirmed that extinction order led to greater disruption of function than predicted by random species loss. Total abundance declined with richness and also appeared to contribute to loss of function. We demonstrate conceptually and empirically how the non-random response of communities to disturbance can have unexpectedly large functional consequences.
Z boson as ''the standard candle'' for high-precision W boson physics at LHC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krasny, M.W.; Fayette, F.; Placzek, W.; Siodmok, A.
2007-01-01
In this paper we propose a strategy for measuring the inclusive W boson production processes at LHC. This strategy exploits simultaneously the unique flexibility of the LHC collider in running variable beam particle species at variable beam energies, and the configuration flexibility of the LHC detectors. We propose their concrete settings for a precision measurement of the standard model parameters. These dedicated settings optimise the use of the Z boson and Drell-Yan-pair production processes as ''the standard reference candles''. The presented strategy allows one to factorise and to directly measure those of the QCD effects that affect differently the W and Z production processes. It reduces to a level of O(10 -4 ) the impact of uncertainties in the partonic distribution functions (PDFs) and in the transverse momentum of the quarks on the measurement precision. Last but not the least, it reduces by a factor of 10 the impact of systematic measurement errors, such as the energy scale and the measurement resolution, on the W boson production observables. (orig.)
Towards a lattice calculation of the nucleon structure functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goeckeler, M.; Ilgenfritz, M.; Perlt, H.; Rakow, P.; Schierholz, G.; Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH; Schiller, A.
1994-12-01
We have initiated a programme to compute the lower moments of the unpolarised and polarised deep inelastic structure functions of the nucleon in the quenched approxiation. We review our progress to date. (orig.)
Personification in discourse: linguistic forms, conceptual structures and communicative functions.
Dorst, A.G.
2011-01-01
Drawing on examples from a corpus of 14 excerpts from novels, this article aims to present a systematic investigation of the different linguistic forms, conceptual structures and communicative functions of personification in discourse. The Metaphor Identification Procedure (Pragglejaz Group, 2007)
Analysis of the Changing Functional Structure of Major Urban ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
user
Changes in Urban Functional Structure in Ethiopia. EJBE Vol. ... primary engines of economic growth, social wellbeing, centers of creativity, innovation and ... economic as well as commercial and business activities were confined to the capital ...
Simulation of Protein Structure, Dynamics and Function in Organic Media
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Daggett, Valerie
1998-01-01
The overall goal of our ONR-sponsored research is to pursue realistic molecular modeling strudies pertinnent to the related properties of protein stability, dynamics, structure, function, and folding in aqueous solution...
Nonlinear correction to the longitudinal structure function at small x
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boroun, G.R.
2010-01-01
We computed the longitudinal proton structure function F L , using the nonlinear Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi (NLDGLAP) evolution equation approach at small x. For the gluon distribution, the nonlinear effects are related to the longitudinal structure function. As the very small-x behavior of the gluon distribution is obtained by solving the Gribov, Levin, Ryskin, Mueller and Qiu (GLR-MQ) evolution equation with the nonlinear shadowing term incorporated, we show that the strong rise that corresponds to the linear QCD evolution equations can be tamed by screening effects. Consequently, the obtained longitudinal structure function shows a tamed growth at small x. We computed the predictions for all details of the nonlinear longitudinal structure function in the kinematic range where it has been measured by the H1 Collaboration and made comparisons with the computation by Moch, Vermaseren and Vogt at the second order with input data from the MRST QCD fit. (orig.)
Structure functions in electron-nucleon deep inelastic scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saleem, M.; Fazal-E-Aleem (University of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan). Dept. of Physics)
1982-06-26
The phenomenological expressions for the structure functions in electron-nucleon deep inelastic scattering are proposed and are shown to satisfy the experimental data as well as a number of sum rules.
Conflict between object structural and functional affordances in peripersonal space.
Kalénine, Solène; Wamain, Yannick; Decroix, Jérémy; Coello, Yann
2016-10-01
Recent studies indicate that competition between conflicting action representations slows down planning of object-directed actions. The present study aims to assess whether similar conflict effects exist during manipulable object perception. Twenty-six young adults performed reach-to-grasp and semantic judgements on conflictual objects (with competing structural and functional gestures) and non-conflictual objects (with similar structural and functional gestures) presented at difference distances in a 3D virtual environment. Results highlight a space-dependent conflict between structural and functional affordances. Perceptual judgments on conflictual objects were slower that perceptual judgments on non-conflictual objects, but only when objects were presented within reach. Findings demonstrate that competition between structural and functional affordances during object perception induces a processing cost, and further show that object position in space can bias affordance competition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Left ventricular structure and function in black normotensive type 2 ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Keywords: Black normotensive patients, left ventricular function, type 2 DM. Résumé ... sickle cell disease and structural heart disease were excluded ... Pulmonary venous flow (PVF) velocity ... had abnormal ECG pattern compared with 30%.
Experimental investigation of Lagrangian structure functions in turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berg, Jacob; Ott, Søren; Mann, Jakob
2009-01-01
Lagrangian properties obtained from a particle tracking velocimetry experiment in a turbulent flow at intermediate Reynolds number are presented. Accurate sampling of particle trajectories is essential in order to obtain the Lagrangian structure functions and to measure intermittency at small...
Kinetic-energy density functional: Atoms and shell structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcia-Gonzalez, P.; Alvarellos, J.E.; Chacon, E.
1996-01-01
We present a nonlocal kinetic-energy functional which includes an anisotropic average of the density through a symmetrization procedure. This functional allows a better description of the nonlocal effects of the electron system. The main consequence of the symmetrization is the appearance of a clear shell structure in the atomic density profiles, obtained after the minimization of the total energy. Although previous results with some of the nonlocal kinetic functionals have given incipient structures for heavy atoms, only our functional shows a clear shell structure for most of the atoms. The atomic total energies have a good agreement with the exact calculations. Discussion of the chemical potential and the first ionization potential in atoms is included. The functional is also extended to spin-polarized systems. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Small-x Resummation and HERA Structure Function Data
Altarelli, Guido; Forte, Stefano; Altarelli, Guido; Ball, Richard D.; Forte, Stefano
2001-01-01
We apply our systematic NLO small x resummation of singlet splitting functions to the scaling violations of structure functions and compare the results with data. We develop various theoretical tools which are needed in order to relate resummed parton distributions to measurable structure functions, and we present results from a variety of fits to HERA data for the structure functions F_2 and F_L using the resummation. The behaviour of the singlet splitting functions at small x and fixed Q^2 is effectively parametrized as x^{-lambda}. We find that, for lambda small or negative, the resummed description of scaling violations may be phenomenologically as good as or even better than the standard next-to-leading order treatment. However, the best fit gluon density and value of alpha_s can be significantly modified by the resummation.
Proton structure functions in the dipole picture of BFKL dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Navelet, H.; Peschanski, R.; Wallon, S.; Royon, Ch.
1996-06-01
The proton structure functions are derived in the QCD dipole picture. Assuming k T and renormalization-group factorization, deep-inelastic proton scattering is related to deep-inelastic onium scattering. A three parameter fit of the 1994 H1 data in the low-x, moderate Q 2 range has been obtained. The dipole picture of BFKL dynamics is shown to provide a relevant model for quantitatively describing the proton structure functions at HERA. (author)
An introduction about precise measurements of QED γ structure functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Courau, A.
1989-11-01
Pure QED processes are theoretically exactly computable. However precise measurements and theoretical expectations of QED γ structure functions within a given experimental acceptance are not so trivial. Yet such a study is quite interesting. It supplies on the one hand a good QED test and, on the other hand, a good exercise for testing the procedure used for the determination of the hadronic γ structure functions
A knowledge representation view on biomedical structure and function.
Schulz, Stefan; Hahn, Udo
2002-01-01
In biomedical ontologies, structural and functional considerations are of outstanding importance, and concepts which belong to these two categories are highly interdependent. At the representational level both axes must be clearly kept separate in order to support disciplined ontology engineering. Furthermore, the biaxial organization of physical structure (both by a taxonomic and partonomic order) entails intricate patterns of inference. We here propose a layered encoding of taxonomic, partonomic and functional aspects of biomedical concepts using description logics. PMID:12463912
The photon structure function at large Q2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cordier, A.
1987-01-01
LEP II offers the unique opportunity to measure the photon structure function over a large Q 2 range up to ∼ 2000 GeV 2 . Two crucial predictions of QCD can be tested in this experiment: the linear rise in log Q 2 as a consequence of asymptotic freedom, and the large renormalization O(1) of the shape of the structure function due to gluon bremsstrahlung, unperturbed by higher-twist effects
Structural and functional correlates of epileptogenesis — Does gender matter?
Savic, Ivanka; Engel, Jerome
2016-01-01
In the majority of neuropsychiatric conditions, marked gender-based differences have been found in the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and therapy of disease. One possible reason is that sex differences in cerebral morphology, structural and functional connections, render men and women differentially vulnerable to various disease processes. The present review addresses this issue with respect to the functional and structural correlates to some forms of epilepsy. PMID:24943053
Structure functions of hadrons in the QCD effective theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shigetani, Takayuki
1996-01-01
We study the structure functions of hadrons with the low energy effective theory of QCD. We try to clarify a link between the low energy effective theory, where non-perturbative dynamics is essential, and the high energy deep inelastic scattering experiment. We calculate the leading twist matrix elements of the structure function at the low energy model scale within the effective theory. Calculated structure functions are evoluted to the high momentum scale with the help of the perturbative QCD, and compared with the experimental data. Through the comparison of the model calculations with the experiment, we discuss how the non-perturbative dynamics of the effective theory is reflected in the deep inelastic phenomena. We first evaluate the structure functions of the pseudoscalar mesons using the NJL model. The resulting structure functions show reasonable agreements with experiments. We study then the quark distribution functions of the nucleon using a covariant quark-diquark model. We calculate three leading twist distribution functions, spin-independent f 1 (x), longitudinal spin distribution g 1 (x), and chiral-odd transversity spin distribution h 1 (x). The results for f 1 (x) and g 1 (x) turn out to be consistent with available experiments because of the strong spin-0 diquark correlation. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Katagiri, Hideki; Shimoi, Yukihiro; Abe, Shuji
2004-01-01
Backbone structures of polydiacetylene are studied with first-principles electronic structure method using plane-waves within generalized gradient approximation (GGA) of density functional theory. In spin-restricted calculations a coarse k-point sampling gives a potential energy curve with two local minima corresponding to acetylene and butatriene structures. However, the potential barrier between the two structures rapidly decreases with increasing number of k-points, which results in destabilization of the butatriene structure. Spin polarization effects also destabilize the butatriene structure, inducing atom-centered spin-density-wave state. These potential energies were compared with those obtained by Hartree-Fock, density functional within local density approximation (LDA) and GGA, and hybrid density functional methods using a gaussian basis set. The comparison shows that the density functional methods within LDA and GGA favor the destabilization of the butatriene structure in contrast to the Hartree-Fock method
Myoglobin Structure and Function: A Multiweek Biochemistry Laboratory Project
Silverstein, Todd P.; Kirk, Sarah R.; Meyer, Scott C.; Holman, Karen L. McFarlane
2015-01-01
We have developed a multiweek laboratory project in which students isolate myoglobin and characterize its structure, function, and redox state. The important laboratory techniques covered in this project include size-exclusion chromatography, electrophoresis, spectrophotometric titration, and FTIR spectroscopy. Regarding protein structure,…
Heme isomers substantially affect heme's electronic structure and function
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kepp, Kasper Planeta
2017-01-01
Inspection of heme protein structures in the protein data bank reveals four isomers of heme characterized by different relative orientations of the vinyl side chains; remarkably, all these have been reported in multiple protein structures. Density functional theory computations explain this as du...
Higgs boson properties in ATLAS
Mansoulie, Bruno; The ATLAS collaboration
2017-01-01
The measurement by the ATLAS collaboration of Higgs boson properties is presented, in terms of production cross-sections, simplified template cross-sections, couplings. The measurements are based on the analysis of the H decay channels to diphoton and 4 leptons, using 36.1 fb-1 of 13 TeV data recorded in 2015 and 2016.
Computing the Partition Function for Kinetically Trapped RNA Secondary Structures
Lorenz, William A.; Clote, Peter
2011-01-01
An RNA secondary structure is locally optimal if there is no lower energy structure that can be obtained by the addition or removal of a single base pair, where energy is defined according to the widely accepted Turner nearest neighbor model. Locally optimal structures form kinetic traps, since any evolution away from a locally optimal structure must involve energetically unfavorable folding steps. Here, we present a novel, efficient algorithm to compute the partition function over all locally optimal secondary structures of a given RNA sequence. Our software, RNAlocopt runs in time and space. Additionally, RNAlocopt samples a user-specified number of structures from the Boltzmann subensemble of all locally optimal structures. We apply RNAlocopt to show that (1) the number of locally optimal structures is far fewer than the total number of structures – indeed, the number of locally optimal structures approximately equal to the square root of the number of all structures, (2) the structural diversity of this subensemble may be either similar to or quite different from the structural diversity of the entire Boltzmann ensemble, a situation that depends on the type of input RNA, (3) the (modified) maximum expected accuracy structure, computed by taking into account base pairing frequencies of locally optimal structures, is a more accurate prediction of the native structure than other current thermodynamics-based methods. The software RNAlocopt constitutes a technical breakthrough in our study of the folding landscape for RNA secondary structures. For the first time, locally optimal structures (kinetic traps in the Turner energy model) can be rapidly generated for long RNA sequences, previously impossible with methods that involved exhaustive enumeration. Use of locally optimal structure leads to state-of-the-art secondary structure prediction, as benchmarked against methods involving the computation of minimum free energy and of maximum expected accuracy. Web server
Computing the partition function for kinetically trapped RNA secondary structures.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
William A Lorenz
Full Text Available An RNA secondary structure is locally optimal if there is no lower energy structure that can be obtained by the addition or removal of a single base pair, where energy is defined according to the widely accepted Turner nearest neighbor model. Locally optimal structures form kinetic traps, since any evolution away from a locally optimal structure must involve energetically unfavorable folding steps. Here, we present a novel, efficient algorithm to compute the partition function over all locally optimal secondary structures of a given RNA sequence. Our software, RNAlocopt runs in O(n3 time and O(n2 space. Additionally, RNAlocopt samples a user-specified number of structures from the Boltzmann subensemble of all locally optimal structures. We apply RNAlocopt to show that (1 the number of locally optimal structures is far fewer than the total number of structures--indeed, the number of locally optimal structures approximately equal to the square root of the number of all structures, (2 the structural diversity of this subensemble may be either similar to or quite different from the structural diversity of the entire Boltzmann ensemble, a situation that depends on the type of input RNA, (3 the (modified maximum expected accuracy structure, computed by taking into account base pairing frequencies of locally optimal structures, is a more accurate prediction of the native structure than other current thermodynamics-based methods. The software RNAlocopt constitutes a technical breakthrough in our study of the folding landscape for RNA secondary structures. For the first time, locally optimal structures (kinetic traps in the Turner energy model can be rapidly generated for long RNA sequences, previously impossible with methods that involved exhaustive enumeration. Use of locally optimal structure leads to state-of-the-art secondary structure prediction, as benchmarked against methods involving the computation of minimum free energy and of maximum expected
Higher-order corrected Higgs bosons in FeynHiggs2.4
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
treatment of loop-corrected Higgs-boson mass eigenstates as external (on-shell) or internal .... This gives rise to finite wave function normalization factors. [22]. .... The elements of Un can be interpreted as effective couplings of internal Higgs.
The Structure and Function of Male Thomas Langur Loud Calls
Wich, Serge Alexander
2002-01-01
This study has addressed the acoustical structure of male loud calls and their function in Thomas langur social organisation. Thomas langurs are medium sized primate that lives in Sumatra, Indonesia. Ome of the characteristics of this species is the loud call of males. Several functions for loud
Hierarchical structure of correlation functions for single jets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lupia, S.; Giovannini, A.; Ugoccioni, R.
1993-01-01
Theoretical basis of void scaling function properties of hierarchical structure in rapidity and p T intervals are explored. Their phenomenological consequences are analyzed at single jet level by using Monte Carlo methods in e + e - annihilation. It is found that void scaling function study provides an interesting alternative approach for characterizing single jets of different origin. (orig.)
Hierarchical structure of correlation functions for single jets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lupia, S. (Dipt. di Fisica Teorica, Univ. di Torino, and INFN, Sezione di Torino (Italy)); Giovannini, A. (Dipt. di Fisica Teorica, Univ. di Torino, and INFN, Sezione di Torino (Italy)); Ugoccioni, R. (Dipt. di Fisica Teorica, Univ. di Torino, and INFN, Sezione di Torino (Italy))
1993-08-01
Theoretical basis of void scaling function properties of hierarchical structure in rapidity and p[sub T] intervals are explored. Their phenomenological consequences are analyzed at single jet level by using Monte Carlo methods in e[sup +]e[sup -] annihilation. It is found that void scaling function study provides an interesting alternative approach for characterizing single jets of different origin. (orig.)
Spin-dependent parton distributions and structure functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bentz, W.; Ito, T.; Cloet, I.C.; Thomas, A.W.; Yazaki, K.
2008-01-01
Nuclear parton distributions and structure functions are determined in an effective chiral quark theory. We also discuss an extension of our model to fragmentation functions. Presented at the 20th Few-Body Conference, Pisa, Italy, 10-14 September 2007. (author)
Whole-brain functional connectivity predicted by indirect structural connections
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Røge, Rasmus; Ambrosen, Karen Marie Sandø; Albers, Kristoffer Jon
2017-01-01
Modern functional and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and dMRI) provide data from which macro-scale networks of functional and structural whole brain connectivity can be estimated. Although networks derived from these two modalities describe different properties of the human brain, the...
Network-level structure-function relationships in human neocortex
Miŝic, Bratislav; Betzel, Richard F.; De Reus, Marcel A.; Van Den Heuvel, Martijn P.; Berman, Marc G.; McIntosh, Anthony R.; Sporns, Olaf
2016-01-01
The dynamics of spontaneous fluctuations in neural activity are shaped by underlying patterns of anatomical connectivity. While numerous studies have demonstrated edge-wise correspondence between structural and functional connections, much less is known about how large-scale coherent functional
Enhancing the functionality of photovoltaic and photonic biointerfaces through structuration
Wenzel, Tobias
2017-01-01
This two-part thesis focuses on biointerfaces of two different biological systems. It specifically examines the interplay of structure and functionality in these biointerfaces. Part one studies photo-bio-electrochemically active bacteria and the strong dependence of their electrical current generation on electrode structure and pigment organisation. Part two uncovers surprising design principles of photonic structures on flower petals and presents research tools to study disordered optical sy...
Kiiskinen, A P
2004-01-01
This thesis describes direct searches for pair production of charged Higgs bosons performed in the data collected by the DELPHI detector at the LEP collider at CERN. In addition, the possibilities to discover and study heavy charged Higgs bosons at possible future high-energy linear colliders are presented. The existence of charged Higgs bosons is predicted by many extensions of the Standard Model. A possible discovery of these particles would be a solid proof for physics beyond the Standard Model. Discovery of charged Higgs bosons, and measurement of their properties, would also provide useful information about the structure of the more general theory. New analysis methods were developed for the searches performed at LEP. A large, previously unexplored, mass range for cover but no evidence for the existence of the charged Higgs bosons was found. This allowed setting new lower mass limits for the charged Higgs boson within the framework of general two Higgs doublet models. Results have been interpreted and pr...
Theoretical estimation of Z´ boson mass
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maji, Priya; Banerjee, Debika; Sahoo, Sukadev
2016-01-01
The discovery of Higgs boson at the LHC brings a renewed perspective in particle physics. With the help of Higgs mechanism, standard model (SM) allows the generation of particle mass. The ATLAS and CMS experiments at the LHC have predicted the mass of Higgs boson as m_H=125-126 GeV. Recently, it is claimed that the Higgs boson might interact with dark matter and there exists relation between the Higgs boson and dark matter (DM). Hertzberg has predicted a correlation between the Higgs mass and the abundance of dark matter. His theoretical result is in good agreement with current data. He has predicted the mass of Higgs boson as GeV. The Higgs boson could be coupled to the particle that constitutes all or part of the dark matter in the universe. Light Z´ boson could have important implications in dark matter phenomenology
Using the structure-function linkage database to characterize functional domains in enzymes.
Brown, Shoshana; Babbitt, Patricia
2014-12-12
The Structure-Function Linkage Database (SFLD; http://sfld.rbvi.ucsf.edu/) is a Web-accessible database designed to link enzyme sequence, structure, and functional information. This unit describes the protocols by which a user may query the database to predict the function of uncharacterized enzymes and to correct misannotated functional assignments. The information in this unit is especially useful in helping a user discriminate functional capabilities of a sequence that is only distantly related to characterized sequences in publicly available databases. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Matrix Transfer Function Design for Flexible Structures: An Application
Brennan, T. J.; Compito, A. V.; Doran, A. L.; Gustafson, C. L.; Wong, C. L.
1985-01-01
The application of matrix transfer function design techniques to the problem of disturbance rejection on a flexible space structure is demonstrated. The design approach is based on parameterizing a class of stabilizing compensators for the plant and formulating the design specifications as a constrained minimization problem in terms of these parameters. The solution yields a matrix transfer function representation of the compensator. A state space realization of the compensator is constructed to investigate performance and stability on the nominal and perturbed models. The application is made to the ACOSSA (Active Control of Space Structures) optical structure.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aranda, A.; Balazs, C.; Diaz-Cruz, J.L.
2003-01-01
Electroweak precision measurements indicate that the standard model Higgs boson is light and that it could have already been discovered at LEP 2, or might be found at the Tevatron run 2. In the context of a TeV -1 size extra-dimensional model, we argue that the Higgs boson production rates at LEP and the Tevatron are suppressed, while they might be enhanced at the LHC or at CLIC. This is due to the possible mixing between brane and bulk components of the Higgs boson, that is, the non-trivial brane-bulk 'location' of the lightest Higgs. To parametrize this mixing, we consider two Higgs doublets, one confined to the usual space dimensions and the other propagating in the bulk. Calculating the production and decay rates for the lightest Higgs boson, we find that compared to the standard model (SM), the cross section receives a suppression well below but an enhancement close to and above the compactification scale M c . This impacts the discovery of the lightest (SM like) Higgs boson at colliders. To find a Higgs signal in this model at the Tevatron run 2 or at the LC with √s=1.5 TeV, a higher luminosity would be required than in the SM case. Meanwhile, at the LHC or at CLIC with √s∼3-5 TeV one might find highly enhanced production rates. This will enable the latter experiments to distinguish between the extra-dimensional and the SM for M c up to about 6 TeV
Sirunyan, A M; Tumasyan, A; Adam, W; Asilar, E; Bergauer, T; Brandstetter, J; Brondolin, E; Dragicevic, M; Erö, J; Flechl, M; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hartl, C; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; König, A; Krätschmer, I; Liko, D; Matsushita, T; Mikulec, I; Rabady, D; Rad, N; Rahbaran, B; Rohringer, H; Schieck, J; Strauss, J; Waltenberger, W; Wulz, C-E; Dvornikov, O; Makarenko, V; Mossolov, V; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Zykunov, V; Shumeiko, N; Alderweireldt, S; De Wolf, E A; Janssen, X; Lauwers, J; Van De Klundert, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Van Spilbeeck, A; Abu Zeid, S; Blekman, F; D'Hondt, J; Daci, N; De Bruyn, I; Deroover, K; Lowette, S; Moortgat, S; Moreels, L; Olbrechts, A; Python, Q; Skovpen, K; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Van Parijs, I; Brun, H; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Delannoy, H; Fasanella, G; Favart, L; Goldouzian, R; Grebenyuk, A; Karapostoli, G; Lenzi, T; Léonard, A; Luetic, J; Maerschalk, T; Marinov, A; Randle-Conde, A; Seva, T; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Vannerom, D; Yonamine, R; Zenoni, F; Zhang, F; Cornelis, T; Dobur, D; Fagot, A; Gul, M; Khvastunov, I; Poyraz, D; Salva, S; Schöfbeck, R; Tytgat, M; Van Driessche, W; Verbeke, W; Zaganidis, N; Bakhshiansohi, H; Bondu, O; Brochet, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, A; De Visscher, S; Delaere, C; Delcourt, M; Francois, B; Giammanco, A; Jafari, A; Komm, M; Krintiras, G; Lemaitre, V; Magitteri, A; Mertens, A; Musich, M; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Vidal Marono, M; Wertz, S; Beliy, N; Aldá Júnior, W L; Alves, F L; Alves, G A; Brito, L; Hensel, C; Moraes, A; Pol, M E; Rebello Teles, P; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E; Carvalho, W; Chinellato, J; Custódio, A; Da Costa, E M; Da Silveira, G G; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Huertas Guativa, L M; Malbouisson, H; Matos Figueiredo, D; Mora Herrera, C; Mundim, L; Nogima, H; Prado Da Silva, W L; Santoro, A; Sznajder, A; Tonelli Manganote, E J; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, F; Vilela Pereira, A; Ahuja, S; Bernardes, C A; Dogra, S; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Gregores, E M; Mercadante, P G; Moon, C S; Novaes, S F; Padula, Sandra S; Romero Abad, D; Ruiz Vargas, J C; Aleksandrov, A; Hadjiiska, R; Iaydjiev, P; Rodozov, M; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Vutova, M; Dimitrov, A; Glushkov, I; Litov, L; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Fang, W; Gao, X; Ahmad, M; Bian, J G; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Chen, M; Chen, Y; Cheng, T; Jiang, C H; Leggat, D; Liu, Z; Romeo, F; Ruan, M; Shaheen, S M; Spiezia, A; Tao, J; Wang, C; Wang, Z; Yazgan, E; Zhang, H; Zhao, J; Ban, Y; Chen, G; Li, Q; Liu, S; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Wang, D; Xu, Z; Avila, C; Cabrera, A; Chaparro Sierra, L F; Florez, C; Gomez, J P; González Hernández, C F; Ruiz Alvarez, J D; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, D; Puljak, I; Ribeiro Cipriano, P M; Sculac, T; Antunovic, Z; Kovac, M; Brigljevic, V; Ferencek, D; Kadija, K; Mesic, B; Susa, T; Ather, M W; Attikis, A; Mavromanolakis, G; Mousa, J; Nicolaou, C; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Rykaczewski, H; Finger, M; Finger, M; Carrera Jarrin, E; Abdelalim, A A; Mohammed, Y; Salama, E; Kadastik, M; Perrini, L; Raidal, M; Tiko, A; Veelken, C; Eerola, P; Pekkanen, J; Voutilainen, M; Härkönen, J; Järvinen, T; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Tuominiemi, J; Tuovinen, E; Wendland, L; Talvitie, J; Tuuva, T; Besancon, M; Couderc, F; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Favaro, C; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Ghosh, S; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Kucher, I; Locci, E; Machet, M; Malcles, J; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Titov, M; Abdulsalam, A; Antropov, I; Baffioni, S; Beaudette, F; Busson, P; Cadamuro, L; Chapon, E; Charlot, C; Davignon, O; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Jo, M; Lisniak, S; Lobanov, A; Miné, P; Nguyen, M; Ochando, C; Ortona, G; Paganini, P; Pigard, P; Regnard, S; Salerno, R; Sirois, Y; Stahl Leiton, A G; Strebler, T; Yilmaz, Y; Zabi, A; Zghiche, A; Agram, J-L; Andrea, J; Bloch, D; Brom, J-M; Buttignol, M; Chabert, E C; 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Burt, K; Clare, R; Ellison, J; Gary, J W; Ghiasi Shirazi, S M A; Hanson, G; Heilman, J; Jandir, P; Kennedy, E; Lacroix, F; Long, O R; Olmedo Negrete, M; Paneva, M I; Shrinivas, A; Si, W; Wei, H; Wimpenny, S; Yates, B R; Branson, J G; Cerati, G B; Cittolin, S; Derdzinski, M; Gerosa, R; Holzner, A; Klein, D; Krutelyov, V; Letts, J; Macneill, I; Olivito, D; Padhi, S; Pieri, M; Sani, M; Sharma, V; Simon, S; Tadel, M; Vartak, A; Wasserbaech, S; Welke, C; Wood, J; Würthwein, F; Yagil, A; Zevi Della Porta, G; Amin, N; Bhandari, R; Bradmiller-Feld, J; Campagnari, C; Dishaw, A; Dutta, V; Franco Sevilla, M; George, C; Golf, F; Gouskos, L; Gran, J; Heller, R; Incandela, J; Mullin, S D; Ovcharova, A; Qu, H; Richman, J; Stuart, D; Suarez, I; Yoo, J; Anderson, D; Bendavid, J; Bornheim, A; Bunn, J; Lawhorn, J M; Mott, A; Newman, H B; Pena, C; Spiropulu, M; Vlimant, J R; Xie, S; Zhu, R Y; Andrews, M B; Ferguson, T; Paulini, M; Russ, J; Sun, M; Vogel, H; Vorobiev, I; Weinberg, M; Cumalat, J P; Ford, W T; Jensen, F; Johnson, A; Krohn, M; Leontsinis, S; Mulholland, T; Stenson, K; Wagner, S R; Alexander, J; Chaves, J; Chu, J; Dittmer, S; Mcdermott, K; Mirman, N; Patterson, J R; Rinkevicius, A; Ryd, A; Skinnari, L; Soffi, L; Tan, S M; Tao, Z; Thom, J; Tucker, J; Wittich, P; Zientek, M; Winn, D; Abdullin, S; Albrow, M; Apollinari, G; Apresyan, A; Banerjee, S; Bauerdick, L A T; Beretvas, A; Berryhill, J; Bhat, P C; Bolla, G; Burkett, K; Butler, J N; Cheung, H W K; Chlebana, F; Cihangir, S; Cremonesi, M; Duarte, J; Elvira, V D; Fisk, I; Freeman, J; Gottschalk, E; Gray, L; Green, D; Grünendahl, S; Gutsche, O; Harris, R M; Hasegawa, S; Hirschauer, J; Hu, Z; Jayatilaka, B; Jindariani, S; Johnson, M; Joshi, U; Klima, B; Kreis, B; Lammel, S; Linacre, J; Lincoln, D; Lipton, R; Liu, M; Liu, T; Lopes De Sá, R; Lykken, J; Maeshima, K; Magini, N; Marraffino, J M; Maruyama, S; Mason, D; McBride, P; Merkel, P; Mrenna, S; Nahn, S; O'Dell, V; Pedro, K; Prokofyev, O; Rakness, G; Ristori, L; Sexton-Kennedy, E; Soha, A; Spalding, W J; Spiegel, L; Stoynev, S; Strait, J; Strobbe, N; Taylor, L; Tkaczyk, S; Tran, N V; Uplegger, L; Vaandering, E W; Vernieri, C; Verzocchi, M; Vidal, R; Wang, M; Weber, H A; Whitbeck, A; Wu, Y; Acosta, D; Avery, P; Bortignon, P; Bourilkov, D; Brinkerhoff, A; Carnes, A; Carver, M; Curry, D; Das, S; Field, R D; Furic, I K; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Low, J F; Ma, P; Matchev, K; Mei, H; Mitselmakher, G; Rank, D; Shchutska, L; Sperka, D; Thomas, L; Wang, J; Wang, S; Yelton, J; Linn, S; Markowitz, P; Martinez, G; Rodriguez, J L; Ackert, A; Adams, T; Askew, A; Bein, S; Hagopian, S; Hagopian, V; Johnson, K F; Kolberg, T; Perry, T; Prosper, H; Santra, A; Yohay, R; Baarmand, M M; Bhopatkar, V; Colafranceschi, S; Hohlmann, M; Noonan, D; Roy, T; Yumiceva, F; Adams, M R; Apanasevich, L; Berry, D; Betts, R R; Cavanaugh, R; Chen, X; Evdokimov, O; Gerber, C E; Hangal, D A; Hofman, D J; Jung, K; Kamin, J; Sandoval Gonzalez, I D; Trauger, H; Varelas, N; Wang, H; Wu, Z; Zhang, J; Bilki, B; Clarida, W; Dilsiz, K; Durgut, S; Gandrajula, R P; Haytmyradov, M; Khristenko, V; Merlo, J-P; Mermerkaya, H; Mestvirishvili, A; Moeller, A; Nachtman, J; Ogul, H; Onel, Y; Ozok, F; Penzo, A; Snyder, C; Tiras, E; Wetzel, J; Yi, K; Blumenfeld, B; Cocoros, A; Eminizer, N; Fehling, D; Feng, L; Gritsan, A V; Maksimovic, P; Roskes, J; Sarica, U; Swartz, M; Xiao, M; You, C; Al-Bataineh, A; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Boren, S; Bowen, J; Castle, J; Forthomme, L; Khalil, S; Kropivnitskaya, A; Majumder, D; Mcbrayer, W; Murray, M; Sanders, S; Stringer, R; Tapia Takaki, J D; Wang, Q; Ivanov, A; Kaadze, K; Maravin, Y; Mohammadi, A; Saini, L K; Skhirtladze, N; Toda, S; Rebassoo, F; Wright, D; Anelli, C; Baden, A; Baron, O; Belloni, A; Calvert, B; Eno, S C; Ferraioli, C; Hadley, N J; Jabeen, S; Jeng, G Y; Kellogg, R G; Kunkle, J; Mignerey, A C; Ricci-Tam, F; Shin, Y H; Skuja, A; Tonjes, M B; Tonwar, S C; Abercrombie, D; Allen, B; Apyan, A; Azzolini, V; Barbieri, R; Baty, A; Bi, R; Bierwagen, K; Brandt, S; Busza, W; Cali, I A; D'Alfonso, M; Demiragli, Z; Gomez Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; Hsu, D; Iiyama, Y; Innocenti, G M; Klute, M; Kovalskyi, D; Krajczar, K; Lai, Y S; Lee, Y-J; Levin, A; Luckey, P D; Maier, B; Marini, A C; Mcginn, C; Mironov, C; Narayanan, S; Niu, X; Paus, C; Roland, C; Roland, G; Salfeld-Nebgen, J; Stephans, G S F; Tatar, K; Velicanu, D; Wang, J; Wang, T W; Wyslouch, B; Benvenuti, A C; Chatterjee, R M; Evans, A; Hansen, P; Kalafut, S; Kao, S C; Kubota, Y; Lesko, Z; Mans, J; Nourbakhsh, S; Ruckstuhl, N; Rusack, R; Tambe, N; Turkewitz, J; Acosta, J G; Oliveros, S; Avdeeva, E; Bloom, K; Claes, D R; Fangmeier, C; Gonzalez Suarez, R; Kamalieddin, R; Kravchenko, I; Malta Rodrigues, A; Monroy, J; Siado, J E; Snow, G R; Stieger, B; Alyari, M; Dolen, J; Godshalk, A; Harrington, C; Iashvili, I; Nguyen, D; Parker, A; Rappoccio, S; Roozbahani, B; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Hortiangtham, A; Massironi, A; Morse, D M; Nash, D; Orimoto, T; Teixeira De Lima, R; Trocino, D; Wang, R-J; Wood, D; Bhattacharya, S; Charaf, O; Hahn, K A; Mucia, N; Odell, N; Pollack, B; Schmitt, M H; Sung, K; Trovato, M; Velasco, M; Dev, N; Hildreth, M; Hurtado Anampa, K; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kellams, N; Lannon, K; Marinelli, N; Meng, F; Mueller, C; Musienko, Y; Planer, M; Reinsvold, A; Ruchti, R; Rupprecht, N; Smith, G; Taroni, S; Wayne, M; Wolf, M; Woodard, A; Alimena, J; Antonelli, L; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Flowers, S; Francis, B; Hart, A; Hill, C; Ji, W; Liu, B; Luo, W; Puigh, D; Winer, B L; Wulsin, H W; Cooperstein, S; Driga, O; Elmer, P; Hardenbrook, J; Hebda, P; Lange, D; Luo, J; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mei, K; Ojalvo, I; Olsen, J; Palmer, C; Piroué, P; Stickland, D; Svyatkovskiy, A; Tully, C; Malik, S; Barker, A; Barnes, V E; Folgueras, S; Gutay, L; Jha, M K; Jones, M; Jung, A W; Khatiwada, A; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Schulte, J F; Sun, J; Wang, F; Xie, W; Parashar, N; Stupak, J; Adair, A; Akgun, B; Chen, Z; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Guilbaud, M; Li, W; Michlin, B; Northup, M; Padley, B P; Roberts, J; Rorie, J; Tu, Z; Zabel, J; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Duh, Y T; Ferbel, T; Galanti, M; Garcia-Bellido, A; Han, J; Hindrichs, O; Khukhunaishvili, A; Lo, K H; Tan, P; Verzetti, M; Agapitos, A; Chou, J P; Gershtein, Y; Gómez Espinosa, T A; Halkiadakis, E; Heindl, M; Hughes, E; Kaplan, S; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R; Kyriacou, S; Lath, A; Montalvo, R; Nash, K; Osherson, M; Saka, H; Salur, S; Schnetzer, S; Sheffield, D; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Thomassen, P; Walker, M; Delannoy, A G; Foerster, M; Heideman, J; Riley, G; Rose, K; Spanier, S; Thapa, K; Bouhali, O; Celik, A; Dalchenko, M; De Mattia, M; Delgado, A; Dildick, S; Eusebi, R; Gilmore, J; Huang, T; Juska, E; Kamon, T; Mueller, R; Pakhotin, Y; Patel, R; Perloff, A; Perniè, L; Rathjens, D; Safonov, A; Tatarinov, A; Ulmer, K A; Akchurin, N; Damgov, J; De Guio, F; Dragoiu, C; Dudero, P R; Faulkner, J; Gurpinar, E; Kunori, S; Lamichhane, K; Lee, S W; Libeiro, T; Peltola, T; Undleeb, S; Volobouev, I; Wang, Z; Greene, S; Gurrola, A; Janjam, R; Johns, W; Maguire, C; Melo, A; Ni, H; Sheldon, P; Tuo, S; Velkovska, J; Xu, Q; Arenton, M W; Barria, P; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Li, H; Neu, C; Sinthuprasith, T; Sun, X; Wang, Y; Wolfe, E; Xia, F; Clarke, C; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Sturdy, J; Zaleski, S; Belknap, D A; Buchanan, J; Caillol, C; Dasu, S; Dodd, L; Duric, S; Gomber, B; Grothe, M; Herndon, M; Hervé, A; Hussain, U; Klabbers, P; Lanaro, A; Levine, A; Long, K; Loveless, R; Pierro, G A; Polese, G; Ruggles, T; Savin, A; Smith, N; Smith, W H; Taylor, D; Woods, N
2017-10-06
A search for charged Higgs bosons produced via vector boson fusion and decaying into W and Z bosons using proton-proton collisions at sqrt[s]=13 TeV is presented. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 15.2 fb^{-1} collected with the CMS detector in 2015 and 2016. The event selection requires three leptons (electrons or muons), two jets with large pseudorapidity separation and high dijet mass, and missing transverse momentum. The observation agrees with the standard model prediction. Limits on the vector boson fusion production cross section times branching fraction for new charged physical states are reported as a function of mass from 200 to 2000 GeV and interpreted in the context of Higgs triplet models.
Functional clustering in hippocampal cultures: relating network structure and dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feldt, S; Dzakpasu, R; Olariu, E; Żochowski, M; Wang, J X; Shtrahman, E
2010-01-01
In this work we investigate the relationship between gross anatomic structural network properties, neuronal dynamics and the resultant functional structure in dissociated rat hippocampal cultures. Specifically, we studied cultures as they developed under two conditions: the first supporting glial cell growth (high glial group), and the second one inhibiting it (low glial group). We then compared structural network properties and the spatio-temporal activity patterns of the neurons. Differences in dynamics between the two groups could be linked to the impact of the glial network on the neuronal network as the cultures developed. We also implemented a recently developed algorithm called the functional clustering algorithm (FCA) to obtain the resulting functional network structure. We show that this new algorithm is useful for capturing changes in functional network structure as the networks evolve over time. The FCA detects changes in functional structure that are consistent with expected dynamical differences due to the impact of the glial network. Cultures in the high glial group show an increase in global synchronization as the cultures age, while those in the low glial group remain locally synchronized. We additionally use the FCA to quantify the amount of synchronization present in the cultures and show that the total level of synchronization in the high glial group is stronger than in the low glial group. These results indicate an interdependence between the glial and neuronal networks present in dissociated cultures
Solving crystal structures with the symmetry minimum function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Estermann, M.A.
1995-01-01
Unravelling the Patterson function (the auto-correlation function of the crystal structure) (A.L. Patterson, Phys. Rev. 46 (1934) 372) can be the only way of solving crystal structures from neutron and incomplete diffraction data (e.g. powder data) when direct methods for phase determination fail. The negative scattering lengths of certain isotopes and the systematic loss of information caused by incomplete diffraction data invalidate the underlying statistical assumptions made in direct methods. In contrast, the Patterson function depends solely on the quality of the available diffraction data. Simpson et al. (P.G. Simpson et al., Acta Crystallogr. 18 (1965) 169) showed that solving a crystal structure with a particular superposition of origin-shifted Patterson functions, the symmetry minimum function, is advantageous over using the Patterson function alone, for single-crystal X-ray data.This paper describes the extension of the Patterson superposition approach to neutron data and powder data by (a) actively using the negative regions in the Patterson map caused by negative scattering lengths and (b) using maximum entropy Patterson maps (W.I.F. David, Nature 346 (1990) 731). Furthermore, prior chemical knowledge such as bond lengths and angles from known fragments have been included. Two successful structure solutions of a known and a previously unknown structure (M. Hofmann, J. Solid State Chem., in press) illustrate the potential of this new development. ((orig.))
Altered resting brain function and structure in professional badminton players.
Di, Xin; Zhu, Senhua; Jin, Hua; Wang, Pin; Ye, Zhuoer; Zhou, Ke; Zhuo, Yan; Rao, Hengyi
2012-01-01
Neuroimaging studies of professional athletic or musical training have demonstrated considerable practice-dependent plasticity in various brain structures, which may reflect distinct training demands. In the present study, structural and functional brain alterations were examined in professional badminton players and compared with healthy controls using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and resting-state functional MRI. Gray matter concentration (GMC) was assessed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), and resting-brain functions were measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and seed-based functional connectivity. Results showed that the athlete group had greater GMC and ALFF in the right and medial cerebellar regions, respectively. The athlete group also demonstrated smaller ALFF in the left superior parietal lobule and altered functional connectivity between the left superior parietal and frontal regions. These findings indicate that badminton expertise is associated with not only plastic structural changes in terms of enlarged gray matter density in the cerebellum, but also functional alterations in fronto-parietal connectivity. Such structural and functional alterations may reflect specific experiences of badminton training and practice, including high-capacity visuo-spatial processing and hand-eye coordination in addition to refined motor skills.
Molecular structures and functional relationships in clostridial neurotoxins.
Swaminathan, Subramanyam
2011-12-01
The seven serotypes of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins (A-G) are the deadliest poison known to humans. They share significant sequence homology and hence possess similar structure-function relationships. Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) act via a four-step mechanism, viz., binding and internalization to neuronal cells, translocation of the catalytic domain into the cytosol and finally cleavage of one of the three soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNARE) causing blockage of neurotransmitter release leading to flaccid paralysis. Crystal structures of three holotoxins, BoNT/A, B and E, are available to date. Although the individual domains are remarkably similar, their domain organization is different. These structures have helped in correlating the structural and functional domains. This has led to the determination of structures of individual domains and combinations of them. Crystal structures of catalytic domains of all serotypes and several binding domains are now available. The catalytic domains are zinc endopeptidases and share significant sequence and structural homology. The active site architecture and the catalytic mechanism are similar although the binding mode of individual substrates may be different, dictating substrate specificity and peptide cleavage selectivity. Crystal structures of catalytic domains with substrate peptides provide clues to specificity and selectivity unique to BoNTs. Crystal structures of the receptor domain in complex with ganglioside or the protein receptor have provided information about the binding of botulinum neurotoxin to the neuronal cell. An overview of the structure-function relationship correlating the 3D structures with biochemical and biophysical data and how they can be used for structure-based drug discovery is presented here. Journal compilation © 2011 FEBS. No claim to original US government works.
Vector boson tagged jets and jet substructure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vitev Ivan
2018-01-01
Full Text Available In these proceedings, we report on recent results related to vector boson-tagged jet production in heavy ion collisions and the related modification of jet substructure, such as jet shapes and jet momentum sharing distributions. Z0-tagging and γ-tagging of jets provides new opportunities to study parton shower formation and propagation in the quark-gluon plasma and has been argued to provide tight constrains on the energy loss of reconstructed jets. We present theoretical predictions for isolated photon-tagged and electroweak boson-tagged jet production in Pb+Pb collisions at √sNN = 5.02 TeV at the LHC, addressing the modification of their transverse momentum and transverse momentum imbalance distributions. Comparison to recent ATLAS and CMS experimental measurements is performed that can shed light on the medium-induced radiative corrections and energy dissipation due to collisional processes of predominantly quark-initiated jets. The modification of parton splitting functions in the QGP further implies that the substructure of jets in heavy ion collisions may differ significantly from the corresponding substructure in proton-proton collisions. Two such observables and the implication of tagging on their evaluation is also discussed.
QCD's Partner Needed for Mass Spectra and Parton Structure Functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Y.S.
2009-01-01
as in the case of the hydrogen atom, bound-state wave functions are needed to generate hadronic spectra. For this purpose, in 1971, Feynman and his students wrote down a Lorentz-invariant harmonic oscillator equation. This differential equation has one set of solutions satisfying the Lorentz-covariant boundary condition. This covariant set generates Lorentz-invariant mass spectra with their degeneracies. Furthermore, the Lorentz-covariant wave functions allow us to calculate the valence parton distribution by Lorentz-boosting the quark-model wave function from the hadronic rest frame. However, this boosted wave function does not give an accurate parton distribution. The wave function needs QCD corrections to make a contact with the real world. Likewise, QCD needs the wave function as a starting point for calculating the parton structure function. (author)
Radiative corrections to W+jet production at hadron colliders with a leptonic decay of the W boson
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kasprzik, Tobias
2009-08-31
The production of W bosons and additional jets at hadron colliders is a topic of great phenomenological interest, because such processes have large cross sections and, owing to the clear decay signature of the W boson, can for instance be used to monitor and calibrate the collider's luminosity, as well as for a precise determination of the W-boson mass and width. Thus, a profound theoretical understanding of this process class is mandatory. In order to improve the accuracy of the theoretical predictions, this thesis is devoted to the calculation of the electroweak radiative corrections to the production of one W boson with one associated jet at the LHC and the Tevatron within the Standard Model. Since these corrections are at first evaluated on the parton level in a perturbative approach, we work in the parton model, where the hadronic cross section is obtained by folding the partonic contributions with the parton distribution functions that contain the non-perturbative information of the proton structure and have to be determined by experiment. We provide results for a stable W boson that is produced on its mass shell as well as for an intermediate (off-shell) W boson decaying into a charged lepton and a neutrino. For a consistent calculation of the next-to-leading order corrections, we have to take into account the virtual one-loop contributions, as well as the real bremsstrahlung corrections caused by radiation of one additional photon. Within both contributions, mass singularities appear that have to be treated with care within the numerical evaluation. In the calculation with a stable W boson in the final state, we use the method of phase-space slicing in order to exclude such singularities from the numerical phase-space integration and calculate them analytically in the problematic phase-space regions. For the off-shell calculation, however, we use the more sophisticated dipole subtraction technique to subtract the infrared-singular structures on the
Radiative corrections to W+jet production at hadron colliders with a leptonic decay of the W boson
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kasprzik, Tobias
2009-01-01
The production of W bosons and additional jets at hadron colliders is a topic of great phenomenological interest, because such processes have large cross sections and, owing to the clear decay signature of the W boson, can for instance be used to monitor and calibrate the collider's luminosity, as well as for a precise determination of the W-boson mass and width. Thus, a profound theoretical understanding of this process class is mandatory. In order to improve the accuracy of the theoretical predictions, this thesis is devoted to the calculation of the electroweak radiative corrections to the production of one W boson with one associated jet at the LHC and the Tevatron within the Standard Model. Since these corrections are at first evaluated on the parton level in a perturbative approach, we work in the parton model, where the hadronic cross section is obtained by folding the partonic contributions with the parton distribution functions that contain the non-perturbative information of the proton structure and have to be determined by experiment. We provide results for a stable W boson that is produced on its mass shell as well as for an intermediate (off-shell) W boson decaying into a charged lepton and a neutrino. For a consistent calculation of the next-to-leading order corrections, we have to take into account the virtual one-loop contributions, as well as the real bremsstrahlung corrections caused by radiation of one additional photon. Within both contributions, mass singularities appear that have to be treated with care within the numerical evaluation. In the calculation with a stable W boson in the final state, we use the method of phase-space slicing in order to exclude such singularities from the numerical phase-space integration and calculate them analytically in the problematic phase-space regions. For the off-shell calculation, however, we use the more sophisticated dipole subtraction technique to subtract the infrared-singular structures on the
The interacting boson model: its formulation, application, extension and interpretation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barrett, B.R.
1981-01-01
The goal of this article is to review the present status of the Interacting Boson Model (IBM) for describing the collective properties of medium and heavy mass nuclei, with particular emphasis being given to the work on the IBM at the University of Arizona. First, a concise review of the basic phenomenological IBM, as developed by Arima and Iachello for only one kind of boson, is presented. Next, the extension of the IBM to both proton and neutron bosons is outlined. This latter model is known as the IBM-2. The application of the IBM-2 to the tungsten isotopes by the University of Arizona group is discussed, followed by their calculations for the mercury isotopes. In the case of the mercury isotopes an extended form of the IBM-2 is developed in order to treat the configuration mixing of two entirely different structures which occur in the same energy region. The relationship between the bosons and the underlying fermionic structure of the nucleus is discussed using the generalized seniority scheme of Talmi. Work by the Arizona group to calculate the phenomenological parameters of the IBM-2 using these generalized seniority ideas is described, along with their results, which agree quite well with the empirical values. Efforts by the University of Arizona group to determine the influence of terms left out of the basic IBM, such as the g boson, using second-order perturbation theory are described. In conclusion, a discussion of the limitations as well as the usefulness of the IBM is given along with its exciting possibilities for the future of nuclear structure physics. (author)
General quadratic gauge theory: constraint structure, symmetries and physical functions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gitman, D M [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Tyutin, I V [Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2005-06-17
How can we relate the constraint structure and constraint dynamics of the general gauge theory in the Hamiltonian formulation to specific features of the theory in the Lagrangian formulation, especially relate the constraint structure to the gauge transformation structure of the Lagrangian action? How can we construct the general expression for the gauge charge if the constraint structure in the Hamiltonian formulation is known? Whether we can identify the physical functions defined as commuting with first-class constraints in the Hamiltonian formulation and the physical functions defined as gauge invariant functions in the Lagrangian formulation? The aim of the present paper is to consider the general quadratic gauge theory and to answer the above questions for such a theory in terms of strict assertions. To fulfil such a programme, we demonstrate the existence of the so-called superspecial phase-space variables in terms of which the quadratic Hamiltonian action takes a simple canonical form. On the basis of such a representation, we analyse a functional arbitrariness in the solutions of the equations of motion of the quadratic gauge theory and derive the general structure of symmetries by analysing a symmetry equation. We then use these results to identify the two definitions of physical functions and thus prove the Dirac conjecture.
Renormalized sum rules for structure functions of heavy meson decays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grozin, A.G.; Korchemsky, G.P.
1996-01-01
We consider the properties of the structure functions of inclusive heavy meson decays B→X c and treat the c quark mass as a free parameter. We show that in two extreme cases of heavy and light c quarks the structure functions of heavy-heavy and heavy-light transitions are given by a Fourier transform of the matrix elements of Wilson lines containing a timelike and a lightlike segment, correspondingly. Using the renormalization properties of Wilson lines we find the dependence of the structure functions on the factorization scale, the structure function of the heavy-heavy transition is renormalized multiplicatively, while that of the heavy-light transition obeys the GLAP-type evolution equation. We propose a generalization of the sum rules for the moments of the structure functions (Bjorken, Voloshin, and the open-quote open-quote third close-quote close-quote sum rules) with a soft exponential factorization cutoff, which correctly incorporates both perturbative and nonperturbative effects. We analyze nonperturbative corrections by first considering infrared renormalon contributions to the Wilson lines. Uncertainties induced by the leading renormalon pole at u=1/2 are exactly canceled by a similar uncertainty in the heavy quark pole mass. The leading nonperturbative corrections associated with the next renormalon at u=1 are parametrized by the matrix element μ π 2 which is proportional to the heavy quark kinetic energy. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Symmetric structures of coherent states in superfluid helium-4
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmad, M.
1981-02-01
Coherent States in superfluid helium-4 are discussed and symmetric structures are assigned to these states. Discrete and continuous series functions are exhibited for such states. Coherent State structure has been assigned to oscillating condensed bosons and their inter-relations and their effects on the superfluid system are analysed. (author)
Lekala, M. L.; Chakrabarti, B.; Das, T. K.; Rampho, G. J.; Sofianos, S. A.; Adam, R. M.; Haldar, S. K.
2017-05-01
We study the ground-state and the low-lying excitations of a trapped Bose gas in an isotropic harmonic potential for very small (˜ 3) to very large (˜ 10^7) particle numbers. We use the two-body correlated basis functions and the shape-dependent van der Waals interaction in our many-body calculations. We present an exhaustive study of the effect of inter-atomic correlations and the accuracy of the mean-field equations considering a wide range of particle numbers. We calculate the ground-state energy and the one-body density for different values of the van der Waals parameter C6. We compare our results with those of the modified Gross-Pitaevskii results, the correlated Hartree hypernetted-chain equations (which also utilize the two-body correlated basis functions), as well as of the diffusion Monte Carlo for hard sphere interactions. We observe the effect of the attractive tail of the van der Waals potential in the calculations of the one-body density over the truly repulsive zero-range potential as used in the Gross-Pitaevskii equation and discuss the finite-size effects. We also present the low-lying collective excitations which are well described by a hydrodynamic model in the large particle limit.
The interacting boson model with the high spin bosons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mizusaki, T.; Otsuka, T.; Yoshinaga, N.
1991-01-01
The phenomenological study in the Ra region was carried out from the view of the sdg-IBM2. The sdg hamiltonian whose parameters are almost kept constant for the isotopes can successfully describe the spherical-deformed phase transition of the Ra isotopes and the enhancement of the moment of inertia of the β band. We emphasize that the role of the g boson is important in the actinide region. (author)
Weak boson emission in hadron collider processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baur, U.
2007-01-01
The O(α) virtual weak radiative corrections to many hadron collider processes are known to become large and negative at high energies, due to the appearance of Sudakov-like logarithms. At the same order in perturbation theory, weak boson emission diagrams contribute. Since the W and Z bosons are massive, the O(α) virtual weak radiative corrections and the contributions from weak boson emission are separately finite. Thus, unlike in QED or QCD calculations, there is no technical reason for including gauge boson emission diagrams in calculations of electroweak radiative corrections. In most calculations of the O(α) electroweak radiative corrections, weak boson emission diagrams are therefore not taken into account. Another reason for not including these diagrams is that they lead to final states which differ from that of the original process. However, in experiment, one usually considers partially inclusive final states. Weak boson emission diagrams thus should be included in calculations of electroweak radiative corrections. In this paper, I examine the role of weak boson emission in those processes at the Fermilab Tevatron and the CERN LHC for which the one-loop electroweak radiative corrections are known to become large at high energies (inclusive jet, isolated photon, Z+1 jet, Drell-Yan, di-boson, tt, and single top production). In general, I find that the cross section for weak boson emission is substantial at high energies and that weak boson emission and the O(α) virtual weak radiative corrections partially cancel
Adaptation of brain functional and structural networks in aging.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Annie Lee
Full Text Available The human brain, especially the prefrontal cortex (PFC, is functionally and anatomically reorganized in order to adapt to neuronal challenges in aging. This study employed structural MRI, resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI, and high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI, and examined the functional and structural reorganization of the PFC in aging using a Chinese sample of 173 subjects aged from 21 years and above. We found age-related increases in the structural connectivity between the PFC and posterior brain regions. Such findings were partially mediated by age-related increases in the structural connectivity of the occipital lobe within the posterior brain. Based on our findings, it is thought that the PFC reorganization in aging could be partly due to the adaptation to age-related changes in the structural reorganization of the posterior brain. This thus supports the idea derived from task-based fMRI that the PFC reorganization in aging may be adapted to the need of compensation for resolving less distinctive stimulus information from the posterior brain regions. In addition, we found that the structural connectivity of the PFC with the temporal lobe was fully mediated by the temporal cortical thickness, suggesting that the brain morphology plays an important role in the functional and structural reorganization with aging.
Adaptation of brain functional and structural networks in aging.
Lee, Annie; Ratnarajah, Nagulan; Tuan, Ta Anh; Chen, Shen-Hsing Annabel; Qiu, Anqi
2015-01-01
The human brain, especially the prefrontal cortex (PFC), is functionally and anatomically reorganized in order to adapt to neuronal challenges in aging. This study employed structural MRI, resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI), and high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI), and examined the functional and structural reorganization of the PFC in aging using a Chinese sample of 173 subjects aged from 21 years and above. We found age-related increases in the structural connectivity between the PFC and posterior brain regions. Such findings were partially mediated by age-related increases in the structural connectivity of the occipital lobe within the posterior brain. Based on our findings, it is thought that the PFC reorganization in aging could be partly due to the adaptation to age-related changes in the structural reorganization of the posterior brain. This thus supports the idea derived from task-based fMRI that the PFC reorganization in aging may be adapted to the need of compensation for resolving less distinctive stimulus information from the posterior brain regions. In addition, we found that the structural connectivity of the PFC with the temporal lobe was fully mediated by the temporal cortical thickness, suggesting that the brain morphology plays an important role in the functional and structural reorganization with aging.
Population structure analysis using rare and common functional variants
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ding Lili
2011-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Next-generation sequencing technologies now make it possible to genotype and measure hundreds of thousands of rare genetic variations in individuals across the genome. Characterization of high-density genetic variation facilitates control of population genetic structure on a finer scale before large-scale genotyping in disease genetics studies. Population structure is a well-known, prevalent, and important factor in common variant genetic studies, but its relevance in rare variants is unclear. We perform an extensive population structure analysis using common and rare functional variants from the Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 mini-exome sequence. The analysis based on common functional variants required 388 principal components to account for 90% of the variation in population structure. However, an analysis based on rare variants required 532 significant principal components to account for similar levels of variation. Using rare variants, we detected fine-scale substructure beyond the population structure identified using common functional variants. Our results show that the level of population structure embedded in rare variant data is different from the level embedded in common variant data and that correcting for population structure is only as good as the level one wishes to correct.
Rare decays of the Higgs boson with the CMS detector
Marini, Andrea Carlo
2018-01-01
The CMS collaboration reports the latest update on the searches of invisible and rare decays of the Higgs boson. The searches for the standard model Higgs boson decaying into two muons, for the standard model Higgs boson decaying into $\\ell\\ell\\gamma$, and for invisible decay of the Higgs boson in the vector boson fusion production channel are presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jamil, U.; Sarma, J.K.
2011-01-01
Evolution of gluon structure function from Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi (DGLAP) evolution equations upto next-to-leading order at low-x is presented assuming the Regge behaviour of structure functions. We compare our results of gluon structure function with GRV 98 global parameterization and show the compatibility of Regge behaviour of structure functions with PQCD. (author)
Rudolf, Volker H W; Rasmussen, Nick L
2013-05-01
A central challenge in community ecology is to understand the connection between biodiversity and the functioning of ecosystems. While traditional approaches have largely focused on species-level diversity, increasing evidence indicates that there exists substantial ecological diversity among individuals within species. By far, the largest source of this intraspecific diversity stems from variation among individuals in ontogenetic stage and size. Although such ontogenetic shifts are ubiquitous in natural communities, whether and how they scale up to influence the structure and functioning of complex ecosystems is largely unknown. Here we take an experimental approach to examine the consequences of ontogenetic niche shifts for the structure of communities and ecosystem processes. In particular we experimentally manipulated the stage structure in a keystone predator, larvae of the dragonfly Anax junius, in complex experimental pond communities to test whether changes in the population stage or size structure of a keystone species scale up to alter community structure and ecosystem processes, and how functional differences scale with relative differences in size among stages. We found that the functional role of A. junius was stage-specific. Altering what stages were present in a pond led to concurrent changes in community structure, primary producer biomass (periphyton and phytoplankton), and ultimately altered ecosystem processes (respiration and net primary productivity), indicating a strong, but stage-specific, trophic cascade. Interestingly, the stage-specific effects did not simply scale with size or biomass of the predator, but instead indicated clear ontogenetic niche shifts in ecological interactions. Thus, functional differences among stages within a keystone species scaled up to alter the functioning of entire ecosystems. Therefore, our results indicate that the classical approach of assuming an average functional role of a species can be misleading because
Collective and boson mapping description of a system of N Josephson junctions in a resonant cavity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ballesteros, A.; Civitarese, O.; Herranz, F.J.; Reboiro, M.
2003-01-01
A system of N two-level Josephson junctions, interacting between themselves and with a single-mode cavity field, is described in terms of the superposition of fermionic and bosonic excitations. The results of the exact diagonalization are compared with the results of the Tamm-Dancoff approximation and with the results of a boson mapping. It is found that the boson mapping provides a suitable description of the spectrum, sum rules, and response function of the system. The dependence of the results upon the number of junctions, the excitation of the cavity modes, and the coupling strengths is investigated
Induced boson self couplings in four-fermion and Yukawa theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tamvakis, K.K.
1978-01-01
Theories of self-interacting fermion fields are expanded in a mean field expansion in terms of boson collective variables. Divergences can be absorbed in a renormalized mass and a renormalized Yukawa-type coupling to all orders in the mean field expansion. The cubic and quartic collective boson self-couplings required by renormalization are fixed in terms of the renormalized Yukawa coupling. This fixing is demonstrated by use of the Callan-Symanzik equations. These theories are formally equivalent to Yukawa-type theories, expanded the same way, with the boson self-couplings constrained to be functions of the Yukawa coupling
Proton-neutron sdg boson model and spherical-deformed phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Otsuka, Takaharu; Sugita, Michiaki
1988-01-01
The spherical-deformed phase transition in nuclei is described in terms of the proton-neutron sdg interacting boson model. The sdg hamiltonian is introduced to model the pairing + quadrupole interaction. The phase transition is reproduced in this framework as a function of the boson number in the Sm isotopes, while all parameters in the hamiltonian are kept constant at values reasonable from the shell-model point of view. The sd IBM is derived from this model through the renormalization of g-boson effects. (orig.)
Proton-neutron sdg boson model and spherical-deformed phase transition
Otsuka, Takaharu; Sugita, Michiaki
1988-12-01
The spherical-deformed phase transition in nuclei is described in terms of the proton-neutron sdg interacting boson model. The sdg hamiltonian is introduced to model the pairing+quadrupole interaction. The phase transition is reproduced in this framework as a function of the boson number in the Sm isotopes, while all parameters in the hamiltonian are kept constant at values reasonable from the shell-model point of view. The sd IBM is derived from this model through the renormalization of g-boson effects.
Proton-neutron sdg boson model and spherical-deformed phase transition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Otsuka, Takaharu; Sugita, Michiaki
1988-12-15
The spherical-deformed phase transition in nuclei is described in terms of the proton-neutron sdg interacting boson model. The sdg hamiltonian is introduced to model the pairing + quadrupole interaction. The phase transition is reproduced in this framework as a function of the boson number in the Sm isotopes, while all parameters in the hamiltonian are kept constant at values reasonable from the shell-model point of view. The sd IBM is derived from this model through the renormalization of g-boson effects.
Electroweak bosons in heavy-ion collisions measured with the ATLAS detector
Perepelitsa, Dennis; The ATLAS collaboration
2017-01-01
Electroweak bosons do not interact strongly with the dense and hot medium formed in nuclear collisions, and thus are sensitive to the nuclear modification of parton distribution functions (nPDFs). The ATLAS detector, optimised to search for new physics in proton-proton interactions, is well equipped to measure photons, W and Z bosons in the high occupancy environment produced in heavy-ion collisions. Results from the ATLAS experiment on photons, W, and Z boson yields in lead-lead and proton-lead collisions are presented. These results have particular importance in the context of understanding the collision geometry and nuclear initial state.
Studying Membrane Protein Structure and Function Using Nanodiscs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Huda, Pie
The structure and dynamic of membrane proteins can provide valuable information about general functions, diseases and effects of various drugs. Studying membrane proteins are a challenge as an amphiphilic environment is necessary to stabilise the protein in a functionally and structurally relevant...... form. This is most typically achieved through the use of detergent based reconstitution systems. However, time and again such systems fail to provide a suitable environment causing aggregation and inactivation. Nanodiscs are self-assembled lipoproteins containing two membrane scaffold proteins...... and a lipid bilayer in defined nanometer size, which can act as a stabiliser for membrane proteins. This enables both functional and structural investigation of membrane proteins in a detergent free environment which is closer to the native situation. Understanding the self-assembly of nanodiscs is important...
Structure and functions of organizational trust in employees’ notions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marina M. Zavartseva
2016-06-01
Full Text Available This article investigates the structure and functions of organizational trust, examining the content of employees’ subjective notions about organizational trust and it’s role in organization’s functioning. The combination of direct (R.B.Shaw’s trust assessment survey and indirect (the semantic differential scale; the contentanalysis of the checklist of trust structural components methods was used. Using data on 378 employees of different organizations (commercial, medical, educational we distinguished subjective images of organization in groups with opposite estimation of organizational trust’s level. The study indicated that organizational trust’s structure is not linear, and exposed two main functions of high level of organizational trust – idealization and positive emotional estimation both of actual organization (that is currently place of employment. Obtained data provide basis for express-diagnostic of trust in organization and might be used for design of psychological training aiming high organization’s efficacy.
Structure functions of longitudinal virtual photons at low virtualities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ioffe, B.L.; Shushpanov, I.A.
1996-01-01
The structure functions F L 1 and F L 2 of longitudinal virtual photons at low virtualities are calculated in the framework of chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) in the zero and first order of ChPT. It is assumed that the virtuality of a target longitudinal photon p 2 is much less than the virtuality of the hard projectile photon Q 2 and both are less than the characteristic ChPT scale. In this approximation the structure functions are determined by the production of two pions in γγ collisions. The numerical results for F L 2 and F L 1 are presented (the upper index refers to the longitudinal polarization of the virtual target photon). The possibilities of measurements of these structure functions are briefly discussed. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Performance analysis, quality function deployment and structured methods
Maier, M. W.
Quality function deployment, (QFD), an approach to synthesizing several elements of system modeling and design into a single unit, is presented. Behavioral, physical, and performance modeling are usually considered as separate aspects of system design without explicit linkages. Structured methodologies have developed linkages between behavioral and physical models before, but have not considered the integration of performance models. QFD integrates performance models with traditional structured models. In this method, performance requirements such as cost, weight, and detection range are partitioned into matrices. Partitioning is done by developing a performance model, preferably quantitative, for each requirement. The parameters of the model become the engineering objectives in a QFD analysis and the models are embedded in a spreadsheet version of the traditional QFD matrices. The performance model and its parameters are used to derive part of the functional model by recognizing that a given performance model implies some structure to the functionality of the system.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bronner, Johanna
2014-01-01
The vector boson fusion production rate of the Standard Model Higgs boson has been measured in decays into two W bosons, each subsequently decaying into an electron or muon and a neutrino, with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The vector boson fusion production cross section in the Standard Model is about an order of magnitude smaller than the dominant Higgs boson production cross section from gluon fusion. Proton-proton collision data at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV delivered by the LHC recorded with the ATLAS detector corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 21 fb -1 have been analyzed. Motivated by the recent discovery of a Higgs-like boson with a mass of (125.5±0.6) GeV and (125.7±0.4) GeV by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations at the LHC, the analysis is optimized for this mass. An excess of events, compatible with the Standard Model expectation for a Higgs boson with m H =125 GeV, is observed with a significance of 2.8 standard deviations when compared to the background-only expectation. The corresponding signal strength, the observed event rate relative to the Standard Model prediction of m H =125 GeV is 2.1 -0.8 +1.0 . A Higgs boson produced via vector boson fusion is excluded with 95% confidence level in the mass range between 152 GeV and 185 GeV. When combined with measurements of other Higgs boson production and decay channels by ATLAS, evidence for vector boson fusion production with a significance of 3.3 standard deviations is observed. All measurements of Higgs boson couplings to Standard Model particles are in agreement with the predictions of the Standard Model.
Integrative structure and functional anatomy of a nuclear pore complex
Kim, Seung Joong; Fernandez-Martinez, Javier; Nudelman, Ilona; Shi, Yi; Zhang, Wenzhu; Raveh, Barak; Herricks, Thurston; Slaughter, Brian D.; Hogan, Joanna A.; Upla, Paula; Chemmama, Ilan E.; Pellarin, Riccardo; Echeverria, Ignacia; Shivaraju, Manjunatha; Chaudhury, Azraa S.; Wang, Junjie; Williams, Rosemary; Unruh, Jay R.; Greenberg, Charles H.; Jacobs, Erica Y.; Yu, Zhiheng; de La Cruz, M. Jason; Mironska, Roxana; Stokes, David L.; Aitchison, John D.; Jarrold, Martin F.; Gerton, Jennifer L.; Ludtke, Steven J.; Akey, Christopher W.; Chait, Brian T.; Sali, Andrej; Rout, Michael P.
2018-03-01
Nuclear pore complexes play central roles as gatekeepers of RNA and protein transport between the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm. However, their large size and dynamic nature have impeded a full structural and functional elucidation. Here we determined the structure of the entire 552-protein nuclear pore complex of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae at sub-nanometre precision by satisfying a wide range of data relating to the molecular arrangement of its constituents. The nuclear pore complex incorporates sturdy diagonal columns and connector cables attached to these columns, imbuing the structure with strength and flexibility. These cables also tie together all other elements of the nuclear pore complex, including membrane-interacting regions, outer rings and RNA-processing platforms. Inwardly directed anchors create a high density of transport factor-docking Phe-Gly repeats in the central channel, organized into distinct functional units. This integrative structure enables us to rationalize the architecture, transport mechanism and evolutionary origins of the nuclear pore complex.
Integrative structure and functional anatomy of a nuclear pore complex.
Kim, Seung Joong; Fernandez-Martinez, Javier; Nudelman, Ilona; Shi, Yi; Zhang, Wenzhu; Raveh, Barak; Herricks, Thurston; Slaughter, Brian D; Hogan, Joanna A; Upla, Paula; Chemmama, Ilan E; Pellarin, Riccardo; Echeverria, Ignacia; Shivaraju, Manjunatha; Chaudhury, Azraa S; Wang, Junjie; Williams, Rosemary; Unruh, Jay R; Greenberg, Charles H; Jacobs, Erica Y; Yu, Zhiheng; de la Cruz, M Jason; Mironska, Roxana; Stokes, David L; Aitchison, John D; Jarrold, Martin F; Gerton, Jennifer L; Ludtke, Steven J; Akey, Christopher W; Chait, Brian T; Sali, Andrej; Rout, Michael P
2018-03-22
Nuclear pore complexes play central roles as gatekeepers of RNA and protein transport between the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm. However, their large size and dynamic nature have impeded a full structural and functional elucidation. Here we determined the structure of the entire 552-protein nuclear pore complex of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae at sub-nanometre precision by satisfying a wide range of data relating to the molecular arrangement of its constituents. The nuclear pore complex incorporates sturdy diagonal columns and connector cables attached to these columns, imbuing the structure with strength and flexibility. These cables also tie together all other elements of the nuclear pore complex, including membrane-interacting regions, outer rings and RNA-processing platforms. Inwardly directed anchors create a high density of transport factor-docking Phe-Gly repeats in the central channel, organized into distinct functional units. This integrative structure enables us to rationalize the architecture, transport mechanism and evolutionary origins of the nuclear pore complex.
Class I Cytokine Receptors: Structure and function in the Membrane
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bugge, Katrine Østergaard
bilayer via structural characterizations of TMD representatives. To enable structural studies of these domains, an organic-extraction based strategy for efficient production of isotope-labeled TMDs with or without short intrinsically disordered regions was developed. This strategy successfully provided...... of these challenging domains. Supplemented by a review of the current collection of TMD structures from single-pass transmembrane receptors, the thesis as a whole provides important insights on the structure and function in the membrane as well as highlight the open questions to be addressed in the years to come.......Class I cytokine receptors are involved in important biological functions of both physiological and pathological nature in mammals. However, the molecular details of the cross-membrane signal transduction through these receptors remain obscure. One of the major reasons for this is the lack...
Many Activities, One Structure: Functional Plasticity of Ribozyme Folds
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matthew W.L. Lau
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Catalytic RNAs, or ribozymes, are involved in a number of essential biological processes, such as replication of RNA genomes and mobile genetic elements, RNA splicing, translation, and RNA degradation. The function of ribozymes requires the formation of active sites decorated with RNA functional groups within defined three-dimensional (3D structures. The genotype (sequence of RNAs ultimately determines what 3D structures they adopt (as a function of their environmental conditions. These 3D structures, in turn, give rise to biochemical activity, which can further elaborate them by catalytic rearrangements or association with other molecules. The fitness landscape of a non-periodic linear polymer, such as RNA, relates its primary structure to a phenotype. Two major challenges in the analysis of ribozymes is to map all possible genotypes to their corresponding catalytic activity (that is, to determine their fitness landscape experimentally, and to understand whether their genotypes and three-dimensional structures can support multiple different catalytic functions. Recently, the combined results of experiments that employ in vitro evolution methods, high-throughput sequencing and crystallographic structure determination have hinted at answers to these two questions: while the fitness landscape of ribozymes is rugged, meaning that their catalytic activity cannot be optimized by a smooth trajectory in sequence space, once an RNA achieves a stable three-dimensional fold, it can be endowed with distinctly different biochemical activities through small changes in genotype. This functional plasticity of highly structured RNAs may be particularly advantageous for the adaptation of organisms to drastic changes in selective pressure, or for the development of new biotechnological tools.
Nucleon structure functions from lattice operator product expansion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chambers, A.J.; Somfleth, K.; Young, R.D.; Zanotti, J.M. [Adelaide Univ., SA (Australia). CSSM, Dept. of Physics; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Nakamura, Y. [RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science, Kobe (Japan); Perlt, H.; Schiller, A. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Div.; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2017-03-15
Deep-inelastic scattering, in the laboratory and on the lattice, is most instructive for understanding how the nucleon is built from quarks and gluons. The long-term goal is to compute the associated structure functions from first principles. So far this has been limited to model calculations. In this Letter we propose a new method to compute the structure functions directly from the virtual, all-encompassing Compton amplitude, utilizing the operator product expansion. This overcomes issues of renormalization and operator mixing, which so far have hindered lattice calculations of power corrections and higher moments.
Photon structure functions with heavy particle mass effects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Uematsu, Tsuneo, E-mail: uematsu@scphys.kyoto-u.jp [Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan); Maskawa Institute for Science and Culture, Kyoto Sangyo University, Kamigamo, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan)
2013-01-15
In the framework of the perturbative QCD we investigate heavy particle mass effects on the unpolarized and polarized photon structure functions, F{sub 2}{sup γ} and g{sub 1}{sup γ}, respectively. We present our basic formalism to treat heavy particle mass effects to NLO in perturbative QCD. We also study heavy quark effects on the QCD sum rule for the first moment of g{sub 1}{sup γ}, which is related to axial anomaly. The photon structure function in supersymmetric QCD is also briefly discussed.
Quark-hadron duality of nucleon spin structure function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dong, Y.B.
2005-01-01
Bloom-Gilman quark-hadron duality of nuclear spin structure function is studied by comparing the integral of g 1 from perturbative QCD prediction in the scaling region to the moment of g 1 in the resonance region. The spin structure function in the resonance region is estimated by the parametrization forms of non-resonance background and of resonance contributions. The uncertainties of our calculations due to those parametrization forms are discussed. Moreover, the effect of the Δ(1232)-resonance in the first resonance region and the role of the resonances in the second resonance region are explicitly shown. Elastic peak contribution to the duality is also analyzed. (orig.)
The Candida albicans Biofilm Matrix: Composition, Structure and Function.
Pierce, Christopher G; Vila, Taissa; Romo, Jesus A; Montelongo-Jauregui, Daniel; Wall, Gina; Ramasubramanian, Anand; Lopez-Ribot, Jose L
2017-03-01
A majority of infections caused by Candida albicans -the most frequent fungal pathogen-are associated with biofilm formation. A salient feature of C. albicans biofilms is the presence of the biofilm matrix. This matrix is composed of exopolymeric materials secreted by sessile cells within the biofilm, in which all classes of macromolecules are represented, and provides protection against environmental challenges. In this review, we summarize the knowledge accumulated during the last two decades on the composition, structure, and function of the C. albicans biofilm matrix. Knowledge of the matrix components, its structure, and function will help pave the way to novel strategies to combat C. albicans biofilm infections.
Structural and functional characterization of human complement factor P
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Dennis
not yet been resolved. This PhD-thesis provide structural understanding of the FP mediated stabilization of the AP C3 convertase. Furthermore, functional studies involving oligomeric and monomeric FP variants have helped us to understand the importance of FP oligomerization for the primary functions of FP...... of complement by stabilizing the C3 convertase complex (C3bBb). FP has also been suggested to serve as a pattern recognition molecule for the initiation of the alternative pathway. However, the molecular mechanisms of FP remain unclear due to its oligomeric nature and hence the atomic structure of FP has...
Nucleon structure functions from lattice operator product expansion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chambers, A.J.; Somfleth, K.; Young, R.D.; Zanotti, J.M.; Perlt, H.; Schiller, A.
2017-03-01
Deep-inelastic scattering, in the laboratory and on the lattice, is most instructive for understanding how the nucleon is built from quarks and gluons. The long-term goal is to compute the associated structure functions from first principles. So far this has been limited to model calculations. In this Letter we propose a new method to compute the structure functions directly from the virtual, all-encompassing Compton amplitude, utilizing the operator product expansion. This overcomes issues of renormalization and operator mixing, which so far have hindered lattice calculations of power corrections and higher moments.
Nucleon Structure Functions from Operator Product Expansion on the Lattice.
Chambers, A J; Horsley, R; Nakamura, Y; Perlt, H; Rakow, P E L; Schierholz, G; Schiller, A; Somfleth, K; Young, R D; Zanotti, J M
2017-06-16
Deep-inelastic scattering, in the laboratory and on the lattice, is most instructive for understanding how the nucleon is built from quarks and gluons. The long-term goal is to compute the associated structure functions from first principles. So far this has been limited to model calculations. In this Letter we propose a new method to compute the structure functions directly from the virtual, all-encompassing Compton amplitude, utilizing the operator product expansion. This overcomes issues of renormalization and operator mixing, which so far have hindered lattice calculations of power corrections and higher moments.
Functional and Structural Brain Changes Associated with Methamphetamine Abuse
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bruce R. Russell
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Methamphetamine (MA is a potent psychostimulant drug whose abuse has become a global epidemic in recent years. Firstly, this review article briefly discusses the epidemiology and clinical pharmacology of methamphetamine dependence. Secondly, the article reviews relevant animal literature modeling methamphetamine dependence and discusses possible mechanisms of methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity. Thirdly, it provides a critical review of functional and structural neuroimaging studies in human MA abusers; including positron emission tomography (PET and functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. The effect of abstinence from methamphetamine, both short- and long-term within the context of these studies is also reviewed.
Functional Annotation of Ion Channel Structures by Molecular Simulation.
Trick, Jemma L; Chelvaniththilan, Sivapalan; Klesse, Gianni; Aryal, Prafulla; Wallace, E Jayne; Tucker, Stephen J; Sansom, Mark S P
2016-12-06
Ion channels play key roles in cell membranes, and recent advances are yielding an increasing number of structures. However, their functional relevance is often unclear and better tools are required for their functional annotation. In sub-nanometer pores such as ion channels, hydrophobic gating has been shown to promote dewetting to produce a functionally closed (i.e., non-conductive) state. Using the serotonin receptor (5-HT 3 R) structure as an example, we demonstrate the use of molecular dynamics to aid the functional annotation of channel structures via simulation of the behavior of water within the pore. Three increasingly complex simulation analyses are described: water equilibrium densities; single-ion free-energy profiles; and computational electrophysiology. All three approaches correctly predict the 5-HT 3 R crystal structure to represent a functionally closed (i.e., non-conductive) state. We also illustrate the application of water equilibrium density simulations to annotate different conformational states of a glycine receptor. Copyright Â© 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Structural and functional hyperconnectivity within the sensorimotor system in xenomelia.
Hänggi, Jürgen; Vitacco, Deborah A; Hilti, Leonie M; Luechinger, Roger; Kraemer, Bernd; Brugger, Peter
2017-03-01
Xenomelia is a rare condition characterized by the persistent and compulsive desire for the amputation of one or more physically healthy limbs. We highlight the neurological underpinnings of xenomelia by assessing structural and functional connectivity by means of whole-brain connectome and network analyses of regions previously implicated in empirical research in this condition. We compared structural and functional connectivity between 13 xenomelic men with matched controls using diffusion tensor imaging combined with fiber tractography and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Altered connectivity in xenomelia within the sensorimotor system has been predicted. We found subnetworks showing structural and functional hyperconnectivity in xenomelia compared with controls. These subnetworks were lateralized to the right hemisphere and mainly comprised by nodes belonging to the sensorimotor system. In the connectome analyses, the paracentral lobule, supplementary motor area, postcentral gyrus, basal ganglia, and the cerebellum were hyperconnected to each other, whereas in the xenomelia-specific network analyses, hyperconnected nodes have been found in the superior parietal lobule, primary and secondary somatosensory cortex, premotor cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus, and insula. Our study provides empirical evidence of structural and functional hyperconnectivity within the sensorimotor system including those regions that are core for the reconstruction of a coherent body image. Aberrant connectivity is a common response to focal neurological damage. As exemplified here, it may affect different brain regions differentially. Due to the small sample size, our findings must be interpreted cautiously and future studies are needed to elucidate potential associations between hyperconnectivity and limb disownership reported in xenomelia.
Sharma, Vivek
2016-01-01
The recent observation of the Higgs boson has been hailed as the scientific discovery of the century and led to the 2013 Nobel Prize in physics. This book describes the detailed science behind the decades-long search for this elusive particle at the Large Electron Positron Collider at CERN and at the Tevatron at Fermilab and its subsequent discovery and characterization at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. Written by physicists who played leading roles in this epic search and discovery, this book is an authoritative and pedagogical exposition of the portrait of the Higgs boson that has emerged from a large number of experimental measurements. As the first of its kind, this book should be of interest to graduate students and researchers in particle physics.
Structure functions and low Q2 physics at HERA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roeck, A. de; Klein, M.
1991-12-01
Important new insights into the hadron structure are expected from the data which will be collected at the electron-proton storage ring HERA at DESY, Hamburg. In this paper the physics opportunities for cross section related measurements at HERA are reviewed. Emphasis is put on the derivation of the proton structure functions, on the QCD effects expected in the newly accessible low χ region and on almost real photoproduction physics. (orig.)
Nondiffraction photoproduction of vector mesons and the photon structure function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Badalyan, R.G.; Gulkanyan, H.R.
1988-01-01
In the framework of the recombination model of hadron production a self-consistent description of the available data on the inclusive spectra of the nondiffraction photoproduction of vector mesons in the fragmentation region of photons at high energies is obtained. The parameters of parton distribution in the hadron component of a photon are estimated and its structure is compared with the measurements of the photon structure function in γγ-interactions at low Q 2 . 15 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab
Linking structural features of protein complexes and biological function.
Sowmya, Gopichandran; Breen, Edmond J; Ranganathan, Shoba
2015-09-01
Protein-protein interaction (PPI) establishes the central basis for complex cellular networks in a biological cell. Association of proteins with other proteins occurs at varying affinities, yet with a high degree of specificity. PPIs lead to diverse functionality such as catalysis, regulation, signaling, immunity, and inhibition, playing a crucial role in functional genomics. The molecular principle of such interactions is often elusive in nature. Therefore, a comprehensive analysis of known protein complexes from the Protein Data Bank (PDB) is essential for the characterization of structural interface features to determine structure-function relationship. Thus, we analyzed a nonredundant dataset of 278 heterodimer protein complexes, categorized into major functional classes, for distinguishing features. Interestingly, our analysis has identified five key features (interface area, interface polar residue abundance, hydrogen bonds, solvation free energy gain from interface formation, and binding energy) that are discriminatory among the functional classes using Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test. Significant correlations between these PPI interface features amongst functional categories are also documented. Salt bridges correlate with interface area in regulator-inhibitors (r = 0.75). These representative features have implications for the prediction of potential function of novel protein complexes. The results provide molecular insights for better understanding of PPIs and their relation to biological functions. © 2015 The Protein Society.
High taxonomic variability despite stable functional structure across microbial communities.
Louca, Stilianos; Jacques, Saulo M S; Pires, Aliny P F; Leal, Juliana S; Srivastava, Diane S; Parfrey, Laura Wegener; Farjalla, Vinicius F; Doebeli, Michael
2016-12-05
Understanding the processes that are driving variation of natural microbial communities across space or time is a major challenge for ecologists. Environmental conditions strongly shape the metabolic function of microbial communities; however, other processes such as biotic interactions, random demographic drift or dispersal limitation may also influence community dynamics. The relative importance of these processes and their effects on community function remain largely unknown. To address this uncertainty, here we examined bacterial and archaeal communities in replicate 'miniature' aquatic ecosystems contained within the foliage of wild bromeliads. We used marker gene sequencing to infer the taxonomic composition within nine metabolic functional groups, and shotgun environmental DNA sequencing to estimate the relative abundances of these groups. We found that all of the bromeliads exhibited remarkably similar functional community structures, but that the taxonomic composition within individual functional groups was highly variable. Furthermore, using statistical analyses, we found that non-neutral processes, including environmental filtering and potentially biotic interactions, at least partly shaped the composition within functional groups and were more important than spatial dispersal limitation and demographic drift. Hence both the functional structure and taxonomic composition within functional groups of natural microbial communities may be shaped by non-neutral and roughly separate processes.
The γ total cross section and the photon structure functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alexander, G.
1986-01-01
A review on the current experimental status of the photon-photon total hadronic cross section as a function of energy and Q 2 is given in addition to the results obtained for the leptonic and hadronic photon structure functions. The results are discussed in terms of the point-like part of the photon and non-perturbative VDM part. It is shown that the cross section at Q 2 = 0 is well described by VDM derived models