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Sample records for born subventricular zone

  1. Subventricular zone microglia transcriptional networks.

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    Starossom, Sarah C; Imitola, Jaime; Wang, Yue; Cao, Li; Khoury, Samia J

    2011-07-01

    Microglia play an important role in inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system. There is evidence of microglial diversity with distinct phenotypes exhibiting either neuroprotection and repair or neurotoxicity. However the precise molecular mechanisms underlying this diversity are still unknown. Using a model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) we performed transcriptional profiling of isolated subventricular zone microglia from the acute and chronic disease phases of EAE. We found that microglia exhibit disease phase specific gene expression signatures, that correspond to unique gene ontology functions and genomic networks. Our data demonstrate for the first time, distinct transcriptional networks of microglia activation in vivo, that suggests a role as mediators of injury or repair.

  2. Subventricular zone cell migration: lessons from quantitative 2-photon microscopy

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    Rachel eJames

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuroblasts born in the adult subventricular zone (SVZ migrate long distances in the rostral migratory stream (RMS to the olfactory bulbs where they integrate into circuitry as functional interneurons. As very little was known about the dynamic parameters of SVZ neuroblast migration, we used two-photon time-lapse microscopy to analyze migration in acute slices. This involved analyzing 3-dimensional stacks of images over time and uncovered several novel aspects of SVZ migration: chains remain stable, cells can be immotile for extensive periods, morphology does not necessarily correlate with motility, neuroblasts exhibit local exploratory motility, dorsoventral migration occurs throughout the striatal SVZ and neuroblasts turn at distinctive angles. We investigated these novel findings in the SVZ and RMS from the population to the single cell level. In this review we also discuss some technical considerations when setting up a two-photon microscopic imaging system. Throughout the review we identify several unsolved questions about SVZ neuroblast migration that might be addressed with current or emerging techniques.

  3. Schisandrin A and B affect subventricular zone neurogenesis in mouse.

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    Sun, Yi-Xue; Cong, Yan-Long; Liu, Yang; Jin, Bo; Si, Lu; Wang, Ai-Bing; Cai, Huan; Che, Guan-Yu; Tang, Bo; Wang, Chun-Feng; Li, Zi-Yi; Zhang, Xue-Ming

    2014-10-05

    Schisandrin A and B (Sch A and B) are the main effective components extracted from the oriental medicine Schisandra chinensis which is traditionally used to enhance mental and intellectual function. Although their neuroprotective effects have been demonstrated, their influences on neurogenesis are still unknown. In the brain, new neural cells born in the subventricular zone (SVZ) next to the lateral ventricles migrate along the rostral migratory stream (RMS) to the olfactory bulb (OB). To investigate the effects of Sch A and B on neurogenesis in the SVZ-RMS-OB system, Sch A and B were intragastrically administrated at dosages of 1, 10 and 20 mg/kg d respectively. The dose of 10 mg/kg d was selected for further analysis based on the preliminary analysis. In the SVZ, significant increases of phosphohistone H3 positive proliferating cells and the intensity of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP+) cells were noticed in Sch B group. In the RMS, Sch A treatment augmented the intensity of doublecortin positive neuroblasts. In the OB, Sch A decreased tyrosine hydroxylase cells and Calbindin (CalB+) cells, while Sch B increased CalB+ cells and Calretinin (CalR+) cells. These results suggest that Sch B stimulates SVZ proliferation by enhancing GFAP+ cells and improves the survival of OB interneurons, while Sch A promotes neuroblast formation in the RMS but impairs the survival of OB interneurons. The present study provides the first evidence that Sch B exerts neuroprotective functions by enhancing neurogenesis, but Sch A mainly negatively regulates neurogenesis, in the adult SVZ-RMS-OB system.

  4. The outer subventricular zone and primate-specific cortical complexification.

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    Dehay, Colette; Kennedy, Henry; Kosik, Kenneth S

    2015-02-18

    Evolutionary expansion and complexification of the primate cerebral cortex are largely linked to the emergence of the outer subventricular zone (OSVZ), a uniquely structured germinal zone that generates the expanded primate supragranular layers. The primate OSVZ departs from rodent germinal zones in that it includes a higher diversity of precursor types, inter-related in bidirectional non-hierarchical lineages. In addition, primate-specific regulatory mechanisms are operating in primate cortical precursors via the occurrence of novel miRNAs. Here, we propose that the origin and evolutionary importance of the OSVZ is related to genetic changes in multiple regulatory loops and that cell-cycle regulation is a favored target for evolutionary adaptation of the cortex.

  5. Neuropeptide y promotes neurogenesis in murine subventricular zone

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    Agasse, Fabienne; Bernardino, Liliana; Christiansen, Søren H

    2008-01-01

    Stem cells of the subventricular zone (SVZ) represent a reliable source of neurons for cell replacement. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) promotes neurogenesis in the hippocampal subgranular layer and the olfactory epithelium and may be useful for the stimulation of SVZ dynamic in brain repair purposes. We...... describe that NPY promotes SVZ neurogenesis. NPY (1 microM) treatments increased proliferation at 48 hours and neuronal differentiation at 7 days in SVZ cell cultures. NPY proneurogenic properties are mediated via the Y1 receptor. Accordingly, Y1 receptor is a major active NPY receptor in the mouse SVZ......-Jun-NH(2)-terminal kinase signal in growing axons, consistent with axonogenesis. NPY, as a promoter of SVZ neurogenesis, is a crucial factor for future development of cell-based brain therapy. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article....

  6. Long-term hydrocephalus alters the cytoarchitecture of the adult subventricular zone.

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    Campos-Ordoñez, Tania; Herranz-Pérez, Vicente; Chaichana, Kaisorn L; Rincon-Torroella, Jordina; Rigamonti, Daniele; García-Verdugo, Jose M; Quiñones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Gonzalez-Perez, Oscar

    2014-11-01

    Hydrocephalus can develop secondarily to a disturbance in production, flow and/or absorption of cerebrospinal fluid. Experimental models of hydrocephalus, especially subacute and chronic hydrocephalus, are few and limited, and the effects of hydrocephalus on the subventricular zone are unclear. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of long-term obstructive hydrocephalus on the subventricular zone, which is the neurogenic niche lining the lateral ventricles. We developed a new method to induce hydrocephalus by obstructing the aqueduct of Sylvius in the mouse brain, thus simulating aqueductal stenosis in humans. In 120-day-old rodents (n=18 per group), the degree of ventricular dilatation and cellular composition of the subventricular zone were studied by immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. In adult patients (age>18years), the sizes of the subventricular zone, corpus callosum, and internal capsule were analyzed by magnetic resonance images obtained from patients with and without aqueductal stenosis (n=25 per group). Mice with 60-day hydrocephalus had a reduced number of Ki67+ and doublecortin+cells on immunofluorescence, as well as decreased number of neural progenitors and neuroblasts in the subventricular zone on electron microscopy analysis as compared to non-hydrocephalic mice. Remarkably, a number of extracellular matrix structures (fractones) contacting the ventricular lumen and blood vessels were also observed around the subventricular zone in mice with hydrocephalus. In humans, the widths of the subventricular zone, corpus callosum, and internal capsule in patients with aqueductal stenosis were significantly smaller than age and gender-matched patients without aqueductal stenosis. In summary, supratentorial hydrocephalus reduces the proliferation rate of neural progenitors and modifies the cytoarchitecture and extracellular matrix compounds of the subventricular zone. In humans, this similar process reduces the subventricular

  7. Implications of irradiating the subventricular zone stem cell niche

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    Vivian Capilla-Gonzalez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Radiation therapy is a standard treatment for brain tumor patients. However, it comes with side effects, such as neurological deficits. While likely multi-factorial, the effect may in part be associated with the impact of radiation on the neurogenic niches. In the adult mammalian brain, the neurogenic niches are localized in the subventricular zone (SVZ of the lateral ventricles and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, where the neural stem cells (NSCs reside. Several reports showed that radiation produces a drastic decrease in the proliferative capacity of these regions, which is related to functional decline. In particular, radiation to the SVZ led to a reduced long-term olfactory memory and a reduced capacity to respond to brain damage in animal models, as well as compromised tumor outcomes in patients. By contrast, other studies in humans suggested that increased radiation dose to the SVZ may be associated with longer progression-free survival in patients with high-grade glioma. In this review, we summarize the cellular and functional effects of irradiating the SVZ niche. In particular, we review the pros and cons of using radiation during brain tumor treatment, discussing the complex relationship between radiation dose to the SVZ and both tumor control and toxicity.

  8. Implications of irradiating the subventricular zone stem cell niche.

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    Capilla-Gonzalez, Vivian; Bonsu, Janice M; Redmond, Kristin J; Garcia-Verdugo, Jose Manuel; Quiñones-Hinojosa, Alfredo

    2016-03-01

    Radiation therapy is a standard treatment for brain tumor patients. However, it comes with side effects, such as neurological deficits. While likely multi-factorial, the effect may in part be associated with the impact of radiation on the neurogenic niches. In the adult mammalian brain, the neurogenic niches are localized in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, where the neural stem cells (NSCs) reside. Several reports showed that radiation produces a drastic decrease in the proliferative capacity of these regions, which is related to functional decline. In particular, radiation to the SVZ led to a reduced long-term olfactory memory and a reduced capacity to respond to brain damage in animal models, as well as compromised tumor outcomes in patients. By contrast, other studies in humans suggested that increased radiation dose to the SVZ may be associated with longer progression-free survival in patients with high-grade glioma. In this review, we summarize the cellular and functional effects of irradiating the SVZ niche. In particular, we review the pros and cons of using radiation during brain tumor treatment, discussing the complex relationship between radiation dose to the SVZ and both tumor control and toxicity.

  9. Modulation of subventricular zone oligodendrogenesis: a role for hemopressin?

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    Sara eXapelli

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem cells (NSCs from the subventricular zone (SVZ have been indicated as a source of new oligodendrocytes to use in regenerative medicine for myelin pathologies. Indeed, NSCs are multipotent cells that can self-renew and differentiate into all neural cell types of the central nervous system (CNS. In normal conditions, SVZ cells are poorly oligodendrogenic, nevertheless their oligodendrogenic potential is boosted following demyelination. Importantly, progressive restriction into the oligodendrocyte fate is specified by extrinsic and intrinsic factors, endocannabinoids being one of these factors. Although a role for endocannabinoids in oligodendrogenesis has already been foreseen, selective agonists and antagonists of cannabinoids receptors produce severe adverse side effects. Herein, we show that hemopressin, a modulator of CB1 receptors, increased oligodendroglial differentiation in SVZ neural stem/progenitor cell cultures derived from neonatal mice. The original results presented in this work suggest that hemopressin and derivatives may be of potential interest for the development of future strategies to treat demyelinating diseases.

  10. The path from the choroid plexus to the subventricular zone: go with the flow!

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    Ana Mendanha Falcao

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In adult mammals, under physiological conditions, neurogenesis, the process of generating new functional neurons from precursor cells, occurs mainly in two brain areas: the subgranular zone in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, and the subventricular zone (SVZ lining the walls of the brain lateral ventricles. Taking into account the location of the SVZ and the cytoarchitecture of this periventricular neural progenitor cell niche, namely the fact that the slow dividing primary progenitor cells (type B cells of the SVZ extend an apical primary cilium towards the brain ventricular space which is filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, it becomes likely that the composition of the CSF can modulate both self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation of SVZ neural stem cells. The major site of CSF synthesis is the choroid plexus (CP; quite surprisingly, however, it is still largely unknown the contribution of molecules specifically secreted by the adult CP as modulators of the SVZ adult neurogenesis. This is even more relevant in light of recent evidence showing the ability of the CP to adapt its transcriptome and secretome to various physiologic and pathologic stimuli. By giving particular emphasizes to growth factors and axonal guidance molecules we will illustrate how CP-born molecules might play an important role in the SVZ niche cell population dynamics.

  11. SSEA-4 and YKL-40 positive progenitor subtypes in the subventricular zone of developing human neocortex.

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    Brøchner, Christian B; Møllgård, Kjeld

    2016-01-01

    The glycosphingolipid SSEA-4 and the glycoprotein YKL-40 have both been associated with human embryonic and neural stem cell differentiation. We investigated the distribution of SSEA-4 and YKL-40 positive cells in proliferative zones of human fetal forebrain using immunohistochemistry and double-labeling immunofluorescence. A few small rounded SSEA-4 and YKL-40 labeled cells were present in the radial glial BLBP positive proliferative zones adjacent to the lateral ganglionic eminence from 12th week post conception. With increasing age, a similarly stained cell population appeared more widespread in the subventricular zone. At midgestation, the entire subventricular zone showed patches of SSEA-4, YKL-40, and BLBP positive cells. Co-labeling with markers for radial glial cells (RGCs) and neuronal, glial, and microglial markers tested the lineage identity of this subpopulation of radial glial descendants. Adjacent to the ventricular zone, a minor fraction showed overlap with GFAP but not with nestin, Olig2, NG2, or S100. No co-localization was found with neuronal markers NeuN, calbindin, DCX or with markers for microglial cells (Iba-1, CD68). Moreover, the SSEA-4 and YKL-40 positive cell population in subventricular zone was largely devoid of Tbr2, a marker for intermediate neuronal progenitor cells descending from RGCs. YKL-40 has recently been found in astrocytes in the neuron-free fimbria, and both SSEA-4 and YKL-40 are present in malignant astroglial brain tumors. We suggest that the population of cells characterized by immunohistochemical combination of antibodies against SSEA-4 and YKL-40 and devoid of neuronal and microglial markers represent a yet unexplored astrogenic lineage illustrating the complexity of astroglial development.

  12. A Model of Ischemia-Induced Neuroblast Activation in the Adult Subventricular Zone

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    Vergni, Davide; Castiglione, Filippo; Briani, Maya; Middei, Silvia; Alberdi, Elena; Reymann, Klaus G.; Natalini, Roberto; Volonté, Cinzia; Matute, Carlos; Cavaliere, Fabio

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a rat brain organotypic culture model, in which tissue slices contain cortex-subventricular zone-striatum regions, to model neuroblast activity in response to in vitro ischemia. Neuroblast activation has been described in terms of two main parameters, proliferation and migration from the subventricular zone into the injured cortex. We observed distinct phases of neuroblast activation as is known to occur after in vivo ischemia. Thus, immediately after oxygen/glucose deprivation (6–24 hours), neuroblasts reduce their proliferative and migratory activity, whereas, at longer time points after the insult (2 to 5 days), they start to proliferate and migrate into the damaged cortex. Antagonism of ionotropic receptors for extracellular ATP during and after the insult unmasks an early activation of neuroblasts in the subventricular zone, which responded with a rapid and intense migration of neuroblasts into the damaged cortex (within 24 hours). The process is further enhanced by elevating the production of the chemoattractant SDf-1α and may also be boosted by blocking the activation of microglia. This organotypic model which we have developed is an excellent in vitro system to study neurogenesis after ischemia and other neurodegenerative diseases. Its application has revealed a SOS response to oxygen/glucose deprivation, which is inhibited by unfavorable conditions due to the ischemic environment. Finally, experimental quantifications have allowed us to elaborate a mathematical model to describe neuroblast activation and to develop a computer simulation which should have promising applications for the screening of drug candidates for novel therapies of ischemia-related pathologies. PMID:19390597

  13. A model of ischemia-induced neuroblast activation in the adult subventricular zone.

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    Davide Vergni

    Full Text Available We have developed a rat brain organotypic culture model, in which tissue slices contain cortex-subventricular zone-striatum regions, to model neuroblast activity in response to in vitro ischemia. Neuroblast activation has been described in terms of two main parameters, proliferation and migration from the subventricular zone into the injured cortex. We observed distinct phases of neuroblast activation as is known to occur after in vivo ischemia. Thus, immediately after oxygen/glucose deprivation (6-24 hours, neuroblasts reduce their proliferative and migratory activity, whereas, at longer time points after the insult (2 to 5 days, they start to proliferate and migrate into the damaged cortex. Antagonism of ionotropic receptors for extracellular ATP during and after the insult unmasks an early activation of neuroblasts in the subventricular zone, which responded with a rapid and intense migration of neuroblasts into the damaged cortex (within 24 hours. The process is further enhanced by elevating the production of the chemoattractant SDf-1alpha and may also be boosted by blocking the activation of microglia. This organotypic model which we have developed is an excellent in vitro system to study neurogenesis after ischemia and other neurodegenerative diseases. Its application has revealed a SOS response to oxygen/glucose deprivation, which is inhibited by unfavorable conditions due to the ischemic environment. Finally, experimental quantifications have allowed us to elaborate a mathematical model to describe neuroblast activation and to develop a computer simulation which should have promising applications for the screening of drug candidates for novel therapies of ischemia-related pathologies.

  14. Local Administration of AAV-BDNF to Subventricular Zone Induces Functional Recovery in Stroke Rats

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    Seong-Jin Yu; Kuan-Yin Tseng; Hui Shen; Harvey, Brandon K.; Mikko Airavaara; Yun Wang

    2013-01-01

    Migration of new neuroprogenitor cells (NPCs) from the subventricular zone (SVZ) plays an important role in neurorepair after injury. Previous studies have shown that brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) enhances the migration of NPCs from SVZ explants in neonatal mice in vitro. The purpose of this study was to identify the role of BDNF in SVZ cells using AAV-BDNF in an animal model of stroke. BDNF protein production after AAV-BDNF infection was verified in primary neuronal culture. AAV-B...

  15. Neural progenitor cells isolated from the subventricular zone present hemichannel activity and form functional gap junctions with glial cells

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    Rocío eTalaverón

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The postnatal subventricular zone lining the walls of the lateral ventricles contains neural progenitor cells (NPCs that generate new olfactory bulb interneurons. Communication via gap junctions between cells in the subventricular zone is involved in NPC proliferation and in neuroblast migration towards the olfactory bulb. Subventricular zone NPCs can be expanded in vitro in the form of neurospheres that can be used for transplantation purposes after brain injury. We have previously reported that neurosphere-derived NPCs form heterocellular gap junctions with host glial cells when they are implanted after mechanical injury. To analyze functionality of NPC-glial cell gap junctions we performed dye coupling experiments in co-cultures of subventricular zone NPCs with astrocytes or microglia. Neurosphere-derived cells expressed mRNA for at least the hemichannel/gap junction channel proteins connexin 26 (Cx26, Cx43, Cx45 and pannexin 1. Dye coupling experiments revealed that gap junctional communication occurred among neurosphere cells (incidence of coupling: 100%. Moreover, hemichannel activity was also detected in neurosphere cells as evaluated in time-lapse measurements of ethidium bromide uptake. Heterocellular coupling between NPCs and glial cells was evidenced in co-cultures of neurospheres with astrocytes (incidence of coupling: 91.0 ± 4.7% or with microglia (incidence of coupling: 71.9 ± 6.7%. Dye coupling in neurospheres and in co-cultures was inhibited by octanol, a gap junction blocker. Altogether, these results suggest the existence of functional hemichannels and gap junction channels in postnatal subventricular zone neurospheres. In addition, they demonstrate that subventricular zone-derived NPCs can establish functional gap junctions with astrocytes or microglia. Therefore, cell-cell communication via gap junctions and hemichannels with host glial cells might subserve a role in the functional integration of NPCs after implantation in

  16. Oligodendrocyte lineage and subventricular zone response to traumatic axonal injury in the corpus callosum.

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    Sullivan, Genevieve M; Mierzwa, Amanda J; Kijpaisalratana, Naruchorn; Tang, Haiying; Wang, Yong; Song, Sheng-Kwei; Selwyn, Reed; Armstrong, Regina C

    2013-12-01

    Traumatic brain injury frequently causes traumatic axonal injury (TAI) in white matter tracts. Experimental TAI in the corpus callosum of adult mice was used to examine the effects on oligodendrocyte lineage cells and myelin in conjunction with neuroimaging. The injury targeted the corpus callosum over the subventricular zone, a source of neural stem/progenitor cells. Traumatic axonal injury was produced in the rostral body of the corpus callosum by impact onto the skull at the bregma. During the first week after injury, magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging showed that axial diffusivity decreased in the corpus callosum and that corresponding regions exhibited significant axon damage accompanied by hypertrophic microglia and reactive astrocytes. Oligodendrocyte progenitor proliferation increased in the subventricular zone and corpus callosum. Oligodendrocytes in the corpus callosum shifted toward upregulation of myelin gene transcription. Plp/CreER(T):R26IAP reporter mice showed normal reporter labeling of myelin sheaths 0 to 2 days after injury but labeling was increased between 2 and 7 days after injury. Electron microscopy revealed axon degeneration, demyelination, and redundant myelin figures. These findings expand the cell types and responses to white matter injuries that inform diffusion tensor imaging evaluation and identify pivotal white matter changes after TAI that may affect axon vulnerability vs. recovery after brain injury.

  17. RAE-1 is expressed in the adult subventricular zone and controls cell proliferation of neurospheres

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    Popa, Natalia; Cédile, Oriane; Pollet-Villard, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    playing either immune or nonimmune function. Among the latter, MHC functions in the central nervous system has started to receive recent interest. Here, our first goal was to investigate the potential relationship between MHC class I molecules and neurogenesis. For the first time, we report the expression......, and we demonstrate they persist in one of the main area of adult neurogenesis, the subventricular zone (SVZ). So far, RAE-1 is only known for its immune functions as a ligand of the activating receptor NKG2D expressed by natural killer (NK) cells, natural killer T, Tγδ, and some T CD8 lymphocytes. Here...... an unexpected role of RAE-1 in regulating adult SVZ neurogenesis by supporting stem/progenitor cells proliferation....

  18. Laminin regulates postnatal oligodendrocyte production by promoting oligodendrocyte progenitor survival in the subventricular zone.

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    Relucio, Jenne; Menezes, Michael J; Miyagoe-Suzuki, Yuko; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Colognato, Holly

    2012-10-01

    The laminin family of extracellular matrix proteins are expressed broadly during embryonic brain development, but are enriched at ventricular and pial surfaces where laminins mediate radial glial attachment during corticogenesis. In the adult brain, however, laminin distribution is restricted, yet is found within the vascular basal lamina and associated fractones of the ventricular zone (VZ)-subventricular zone (SVZ) stem cell niche, where laminins regulate adult neural progenitor cell proliferation. It remains unknown, however, if laminins regulate the wave of oligodendrogenesis that occurs in the neonatal/early postnatal VZ-SVZ. Here we report that Lama2, the gene that encodes the laminin α2-subunit, regulates postnatal oligodendrogenesis. At birth, Lama2-/- mice had significantly higher levels of dying oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) in the OPC germinal zone of the dorsal SVZ. This translated into fewer OPCs, both in the dorsal SVZ well as in an adjacent developing white matter tract, the corpus callosum. In addition, intermediate progenitor cells that give rise to OPCs in the Lama2-/- VZ-SVZ were mislocalized and proliferated nearer to the ventricle surface. Later, delays in oligodendrocyte maturation (with accompanying OPC accumulation), were observed in the Lama2-/- corpus callosum, leading to dysmyelination by postnatal day 21. Together these data suggest that prosurvival laminin interactions in the developing postnatal VZ-SVZ germinal zone regulate the ability, or timing, of oligodendrocyte production to occur appropriately.

  19. Human and monkey striatal interneurons are derived from the medial ganglionic eminence but not from the adult subventricular zone.

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    Wang, Congmin; You, Yan; Qi, Dashi; Zhou, Xing; Wang, Lei; Wei, Song; Zhang, Zhuangzhi; Huang, Weixi; Liu, Zhidong; Liu, Fang; Ma, Lan; Yang, Zhengang

    2014-08-13

    In adult rodent and monkey brains, newly born neurons in the subventricular zone (SVZ) in the wall of the lateral ventricle migrate into the olfactory bulb (OB) via the rostral migratory stream (RMS). A recent study reported that interneurons are constantly generating in the adult human striatum from the SVZ. In contrast, by taking advantage of the continuous expression of Sp8 from the neuroblast stage through differentiation into mature interneurons, we found that the adult human SVZ does not generate new interneurons for the striatum. In the adult human SVZ and RMS, very few neuroblasts were observed, and most of them expressed the transcription factor Sp8. Neuroblasts in the adult rhesus monkey SVZ-RMS-OB pathway also expressed Sp8. In addition, we observed that Sp8 was expressed by most adult human and monkey OB interneurons. However, very few Sp8+ cells were in the adult human striatum. This suggests that neuroblasts in the adult human SVZ and RMS are likely destined for the OB, but not for the striatum. BrdU-labeling results also revealed few if any newly born neurons in the adult rhesus monkey striatum. Finally, on the basis of transcription factor expression, we provide strong evidence that the vast majority of interneurons in the human and monkey striatum are generated from the medial ganglionic eminence during embryonic developmental stages, as they are in rodents. We conclude that, although a small number of neuroblasts exist in the adult human SVZ, they do not migrate into the striatum and become mature striatal interneurons.

  20. Imaging and recording subventricular zone progenitor cells in live tissue of postnatal mice

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    Benjamin Lacar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The subventricular zone (SVZ is one of two regions where neurogenesis persists in the postnatal brain. The SVZ, located along the lateral ventricle, is the largest neurogenic zone in the brain that contains multiple cell populations including astrocyte-like cells and neuroblasts. Neuroblasts migrate in chains to the olfactory bulb where they differentiate into interneurons. Here, we discuss the experimental approaches to record the electrophysiology of these cells and image their migration and calcium activity in acute slices. Although these techniques were in place for studying glial cells and neurons in mature networks, the SVZ raises new challenges due to the unique properties of SVZ cells, the cellular diversity, and the architecture of the region. We emphasize different methods, such as the use of transgenic mice and in vivo electroporation that permit identification of the different SVZ cell populations for patch clamp recording or imaging. Electroporation also permits genetic labeling of cells using fluorescent reporter mice and modification of the system using either RNA interference technology or floxed mice. In this review, we aim to provide conceptual and technical details of the approaches to perform electrophysiological and imaging studies of SVZ cells.

  1. Cytoarchitecture of mouse and human subventricular zone in developing cerebral neocortex.

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    Tabata, Hidenori; Yoshinaga, Satoshi; Nakajima, Kazunori

    2012-01-01

    During cerebral neocortical development, excitatory neurons are generated from radial glial cells in the ventricular zone (VZ) or from secondary progenitor cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ); these neurons then migrate toward the pial surface. We have observed that post-mitotic neurons generated directly in the VZ accumulated just above the VZ with a multipolar morphology, while secondary progenitor cells having a long ascending process left the VZ faster than the post-mitotic neurons. Recent observations of human developing neocortex have revealed the existence of radial glia-like progenitors (oRG cells) in the SVZ. This type of progenitor was first thought to be human specific; however, similar cells have also been found in mouse neocortex, and the morphology of these cells resembled that of some of the secondary progenitor cells that we had previously observed, suggesting the existence of a common architecture for the developing neocortex among mammals. In this review, we discuss the nature of the SVZ and its similarities and differences between humans and mice.

  2. NMDA modulates oligodendrocyte differentiation of subventricular zone cells through PKC activation

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    Fabio eCavaliere

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Multipotent cells from the juvenile subventricular zone (SVZ possess the ability to differentiate into new neural cells. Depending on local signals, SVZ can generate new neurons, astrocytes or oligodendrocytes. We previously demonstrated that activation of NMDA receptors in SVZ progenitors increases the rate of oligodendrocyte differentiation. Here we investigated the mechanisms involved in NMDA receptor-dependent differentiation. Using functional studies performed with the reporter gene luciferase we found that activation of NMDA receptor stimulates PKC. In turn, stimulation of PKC precedes the activation of NADPH oxidase (NOX as demonstrated by translocation of the p67phox subunit to the cellular membrane. We propose that NOX2 is involved in the transduction of the signal from NMDA receptors through PKC activation as the inhibitor gp91 reduced their pro-differentiation effect. In addition, our data and that from other groups suggest that signaling through the NMDA receptor/PKC/NOX2 cascade generates ROS that activate the PI3/mTOR pathway and finally leads to the generation of new oligodendrocytes.

  3. The Adult Ventricular-Subventricular Zone (V-SVZ) and Olfactory Bulb (OB) Neurogenesis.

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    Lim, Daniel A; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo

    2016-05-02

    A large population of neural stem/precursor cells (NSCs) persists in the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) located in the walls of the lateral brain ventricles. V-SVZ NSCs produce large numbers of neuroblasts that migrate a long distance into the olfactory bulb (OB) where they differentiate into local circuit interneurons. Here, we review a broad range of discoveries that have emerged from studies of postnatal V-SVZ neurogenesis: the identification of NSCs as a subpopulation of astroglial cells, the neurogenic lineage, new mechanisms of neuronal migration, and molecular regulators of precursor cell proliferation and migration. It has also become evident that V-SVZ NSCs are regionally heterogeneous, with NSCs located in different regions of the ventricle wall generating distinct OB interneuron subtypes. Insights into the developmental origins and molecular mechanisms that underlie the regional specification of V-SVZ NSCs have also begun to emerge. Other recent studies have revealed new cell-intrinsic molecular mechanisms that enable lifelong neurogenesis in the V-SVZ. Finally, we discuss intriguing differences between the rodent V-SVZ and the corresponding human brain region. The rapidly expanding cellular and molecular knowledge of V-SVZ NSC biology provides key insights into postnatal neural development, the origin of brain tumors, and may inform the development regenerative therapies from cultured and endogenous human neural precursors.

  4. Neurotoxic effects of ochratoxin A on the subventricular zone of adult mouse brain.

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    Paradells, Sara; Rocamonde, Brenda; Llinares, Cristina; Herranz-Pérez, Vicente; Jimenez, Misericordia; Garcia-Verdugo, Jose Manuel; Zipancic, Ivan; Soria, Jose Miguel; Garcia-Esparza, Ma Angeles

    2015-07-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA), a mycotoxin that was discovered as a secondary metabolite of the fungal species Aspergillus and Penicillium, is a common contaminant in food and animal feed. This mycotoxin has been described as teratogenic, carcinogenic, genotoxic, immunotoxic and has been proven a potent neurotoxin. Other authors have previously reported the effects of OTA in different structures of the central nervous system as well as in some neurogenic regions. However, the impact of OTA exposure in the subventricular zone (SVZ) has not been assessed yet. To elucidate whether OTA affects neural precursors of the mouse SVZ we investigated, in vitro and in vivo, the effects of OTA exposure on the SVZ and on the neural precursors obtained from this neurogenic niche. In this work, we prove the cumulative effect of OTA exposure on proliferation, differentiation and depletion of neural stem cells cultured from the SVZ. In addition, we corroborated these results in vivo by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. As a result, we found a significant alteration in the proliferation process, which was evidenced by a decrease in the number of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine-positive cells and glial cells, as well as, a significant decrease in the number of neuroblasts in the SVZ. To summarize, in this study we demonstrate how OTA could be a threat to the developing and the adult SVZ through its impact in cell viability, proliferation and differentiation in a dose-dependent manner.

  5. Traumatic brain injury reveals novel cell lineage relationships within the subventricular zone

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    Gretchen M. Thomsen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The acute response of the rodent subventricular zone (SVZ to traumatic brain injury (TBI involves a physical expansion through increased cell proliferation. However, the cellular underpinnings of these changes are not well understood. Our analyses have revealed that there are two distinct transit-amplifying cell populations that respond in opposite ways to injury. Mash1+ transit-amplifying cells are the primary SVZ cell type that is stimulated to divide following TBI. In contrast, the EGFR+ population, which has been considered to be a functionally equivalent progenitor population to Mash1+ cells in the uninjured brain, becomes significantly less proliferative after injury. Although normally quiescent GFAP+ stem cells are stimulated to divide in SVZ ablation models, we found that the GFAP+ stem cells do not divide more after TBI. We found, instead, that TBI results in increased numbers of GFAP+/EGFR+ stem cells via non-proliferative means—potentially through the dedifferentiation of progenitor cells. EGFR+ progenitors from injured brains only were competent to revert to a stem cell state following brief exposure to growth factors. Thus, our results demonstrate previously unknown changes in lineage relationships that differ from conventional models and likely reflect an adaptive response of the SVZ to maintain endogenous brain repair after TBI.

  6. Local administration of AAV-BDNF to subventricular zone induces functional recovery in stroke rats.

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    Seong-Jin Yu

    Full Text Available Migration of new neuroprogenitor cells (NPCs from the subventricular zone (SVZ plays an important role in neurorepair after injury. Previous studies have shown that brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF enhances the migration of NPCs from SVZ explants in neonatal mice in vitro. The purpose of this study was to identify the role of BDNF in SVZ cells using AAV-BDNF in an animal model of stroke. BDNF protein production after AAV-BDNF infection was verified in primary neuronal culture. AAV-BDNF or AAV-RFP was injected into the left SVZ region of adult rats at 14 days prior to right middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo. SVZ tissues were collected from the brain and placed in Metrigel cultures 1 day after MCAo. Treatment with AAV-BDNF significantly increased the migration of SVZ cells in the stroke brain in vitro. In another set of animals, AAV-GFP was co-injected with AAV-BDNF or AAV-RFP to label cells in left SVZ prior to right MCAo. Local administration of AAV-BDNF significantly enhanced recovery of locomotor function and migration of GFP-positive cells from the SVZ toward the lesioned hemisphere in stroke rats. Our data suggest that focal administration of AAV-BDNF to the SVZ increases behavioral recovery post stroke, possibly through the enhancement of migration of cells from SVZ in stroke animals. Regional manipulation of BDNF expression through AAV may be a novel approach for neurorepair in stroke brains.

  7. Local administration of AAV-BDNF to subventricular zone induces functional recovery in stroke rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Seong-Jin; Tseng, Kuan-Yin; Shen, Hui; Harvey, Brandon K; Airavaara, Mikko; Wang, Yun

    2013-01-01

    Migration of new neuroprogenitor cells (NPCs) from the subventricular zone (SVZ) plays an important role in neurorepair after injury. Previous studies have shown that brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) enhances the migration of NPCs from SVZ explants in neonatal mice in vitro. The purpose of this study was to identify the role of BDNF in SVZ cells using AAV-BDNF in an animal model of stroke. BDNF protein production after AAV-BDNF infection was verified in primary neuronal culture. AAV-BDNF or AAV-RFP was injected into the left SVZ region of adult rats at 14 days prior to right middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). SVZ tissues were collected from the brain and placed in Metrigel cultures 1 day after MCAo. Treatment with AAV-BDNF significantly increased the migration of SVZ cells in the stroke brain in vitro. In another set of animals, AAV-GFP was co-injected with AAV-BDNF or AAV-RFP to label cells in left SVZ prior to right MCAo. Local administration of AAV-BDNF significantly enhanced recovery of locomotor function and migration of GFP-positive cells from the SVZ toward the lesioned hemisphere in stroke rats. Our data suggest that focal administration of AAV-BDNF to the SVZ increases behavioral recovery post stroke, possibly through the enhancement of migration of cells from SVZ in stroke animals. Regional manipulation of BDNF expression through AAV may be a novel approach for neurorepair in stroke brains.

  8. Chromatin-based epigenetics of adult subventricular zone neural stem cells

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    Gabriel eGonzales-Roybal

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In specific regions of the adult mammalian brain, neural stem cells (NSCs generate new neurons throughout life. Emerging evidence indicate that chromatin-based transcriptional regulation is a key epigenetic mechanism for the life-long function of adult NSCs. In the adult mouse brain, NSCs in the subventricular zone (SVZ retain the ability to produce both neurons and glia for the life of the animal. In this review, we discuss the origin and function of SVZ NSCs as they relate to key epigenetic concepts of development and potential underlying mechanism of chromatin-based transcriptional regulation. A central point of discussion is how SVZ NSCs – which possess many characteristics of mature, non-neurogenic astrocytes – maintain a youthful ability to produce both neuronal and glial lineages. In addition to reviewing data regarding the function of chromatin-modifying factors in SVZ neurogenesis, we incorporate our growing understanding that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs serve as an important element to chromatin-based transcriptional regulation, including that of SVZ NSCs. Discoveries regarding the epigenetic mechanisms of adult SVZ NSCs may provide key insights into fundamental principles of adult stem cell biology as well as the more complex and dynamic developmental environment of the embryonic brain.

  9. Hedgehog Controls Quiescence and Activation of Neural Stem Cells in the Adult Ventricular-Subventricular Zone

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    Mathieu Daynac

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the mechanisms controlling quiescence and activation of neural stem cells (NSCs is crucial for understanding brain repair. Here, we demonstrate that Hedgehog (Hh signaling actively regulates different pools of quiescent and proliferative NSCs in the adult ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ, one of the main brain neurogenic niches. Specific deletion of the Hh receptor Patched in NSCs during adulthood upregulated Hh signaling in quiescent NSCs, progressively leading to a large accumulation of these cells in the V-SVZ. The pool of non-neurogenic astrocytes was not modified, whereas the activated NSC pool increased after a short period, before progressively becoming exhausted. We also showed that Sonic Hedgehog regulates proliferation of activated NSCs in vivo and shortens both their G1 and S-G2/M phases in culture. These data demonstrate that Hh orchestrates the balance between quiescent and activated NSCs, with important implications for understanding adult neurogenesis under normal homeostatic conditions or during injury.

  10. Changes in neural stem cells in the subventricular zone in a rat model of communicating hydrocephalus.

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    Li, Yan; Wu, Dongxue; Wu, Chunming; Qu, Zhenyun; Zhao, Yongshun; Li, Weihua; Wang, Jian; Li, Zhongmin

    2014-08-22

    Communicating hydrocephalus is a common type of hydrocephalus. At present, the prevalent treatment is to perform a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt, which, for reasons that are not clear, is sometimes ineffective. The subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles has been established as the primary site of adult neurogenesis. Following cerebral ischemia or brain injury, neural stem cells (NSCs) increase in the SVZ and can both differentiate into neurons and glial cells and respond to the injury. Neural stem cells, enabled by a complex repertoire of factors that precisely regulate the activation, proliferation, differentiation and integration of newborn cells, continuously generate new neurons. However, only a few systematic studies of the role of NSCs in hydrocephalus have been reported. In a rat model of communicating hydrocephalus, we recently showed that hydrocephalus caused the ventricular system to expand over time. We found that the number of NSCs in the SVZ peaked rapidly after hydrocephalus was established and decreased gradually over time until the cells disappeared. NSCs may be involved in the pathophysiology changes and repair process of hydrocephalus.

  11. Adult neural stem cells from the subventricular zone: a review of the neurosphere assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Perotín, Sara; Duran-Moreno, María; Cebrián-Silla, Arantxa; Ramírez, Mónica; García-Belda, Paula; García-Verdugo, José Manuel

    2013-09-01

    The possibility of obtaining large numbers of cells with potential to become functional neurons implies a great advance in regenerative medicine. A source of cells for therapy is the subventricular zone (SVZ) where adult neural stem cells (NSCs) retain the ability to proliferate, self-renew, and differentiate into several mature cell types. The neurosphere assay, a method to isolate, maintain, and expand these cells has been extensively utilized by research groups to analyze the biological properties of aNSCs and to graft into injured brains from animal models. In this review we briefly describe the neurosphere assay and its limitations, the methods to optimize culture conditions, the identity and the morphology of aNSC-derived neurospheres (including new ultrastructural data). The controversy regarding the identity and "stemness" of cells within the neurosphere is revised. The fine morphology of neurospheres, described thoroughly, allows for phenotypical characterization of cells in the neurospheres and may reveal slight changes that indirectly inform about cell integrity, cell damage, or oncogenic transformation. Along this review we largely highlight the critical points that researchers have to keep in mind before extrapolating results or translating experimental transplantation of neurosphere-derived cells to the clinical setting.

  12. Midbrain dopamine neurons associated with reward processing innervate the neurogenic subventricular zone.

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    Lennington, Jessica B; Pope, Sara; Goodheart, Anna E; Drozdowicz, Linda; Daniels, Stephen B; Salamone, John D; Conover, Joanne C

    2011-09-14

    Coordinated regulation of the adult neurogenic subventricular zone (SVZ) is accomplished by a myriad of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The neurotransmitter dopamine is one regulatory molecule implicated in SVZ function. Nigrostriatal and ventral tegmental area (VTA) midbrain dopamine neurons innervate regions adjacent to the SVZ, and dopamine synapses are found on SVZ cells. Cell division within the SVZ is decreased in humans with Parkinson's disease and in animal models of Parkinson's disease following exposure to toxins that selectively remove nigrostriatal neurons, suggesting that dopamine is critical for SVZ function and nigrostriatal neurons are the main suppliers of SVZ dopamine. However, when we examined the aphakia mouse, which is deficient in nigrostriatal neurons, we found no detrimental effect to SVZ proliferation or organization. Instead, dopamine innervation of the SVZ tracked to neurons at the ventrolateral boundary of the VTA. This same dopaminergic neuron population also innervated the SVZ of control mice. Characterization of these neurons revealed expression of proteins indicative of VTA neurons. Furthermore, exposure to the neurotoxin MPTP depleted neurons in the ventrolateral VTA and resulted in decreased SVZ proliferation. Together, these results reveal that dopamine signaling in the SVZ originates from a population of midbrain neurons more typically associated with motivational and reward processing.

  13. Phosphodiesterase7 Inhibition Activates Adult Neurogenesis in Hippocampus and Subventricular Zone In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Garcia, Jose A; Echeverry-Alzate, Victor; Alonso-Gil, Sandra; Sanz-SanCristobal, Marina; Lopez-Moreno, Jose A; Gil, Carmen; Martinez, Ana; Santos, Angel; Perez-Castillo, Ana

    2017-02-01

    The phosphodiesterase 7 (PDE7) enzyme is one of the enzymes responsible for controlling intracellular levels of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate in the immune and central nervous system. We have previously shown that inhibitors of this enzyme are potent neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory agents. In addition, we also demonstrated that PDE7 inhibition induces endogenous neuroregenerative processes toward a dopaminergic phenotype. Here, we show that PDE7 inhibition controls stem cell expansion in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus (SGZ) and the subventricular zone (SVZ) in the adult rat brain. Neurospheres cultures obtained from SGZ and SVZ of adult rats treated with PDE7 inhibitors presented an increased proliferation and neuronal differentiation compared to control cultures. PDE7 inhibitors treatment of neurospheres cultures also resulted in an increase of the levels of phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein, suggesting that their effects were indeed mediated through the activation of the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway. In addition, adult rats orally treated with S14, a specific inhibitor of PDE7, presented elevated numbers of proliferating progenitor cells, and migrating precursors in the SGZ and the SVZ. Moreover, long-term treatment with this PDE7 inhibitor shows a significant increase in newly generated neurons in the olfactory bulb and the hippocampus. Also a better performance in memory tests was observed in S14 treated rats, suggesting a functional relevance for the S14-induced increase in SGZ neurogenesis. Taken together, our results indicate for the first time that inhibition of PDE7 directly regulates proliferation, migration and differentiation of neural stem cells, improving spatial learning and memory tasks. Stem Cells 2017;35:458-472.

  14. Glioblastoma Recurrence Patterns After Radiation Therapy With Regard to the Subventricular Zone

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    Adeberg, Sebastian, E-mail: Sebastian.adeberg@med.uni-heidelberg [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); König, Laila; Bostel, Tilman; Harrabi, Semi; Welzel, Thomas [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Debus, Jürgen [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center, Heidelberg (Germany); DKFZ Clinical Cooperation Unit Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center Heidelberg (Germany); Combs, Stephanie E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: We evaluated the influence of tumor location and tumor spread in primary glioblastoma (GBM), with respect to the subventricular zone (SVZ), on recurrence behavior, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). Methods and Materials: 607 patients (376 male and 231 female) with a median age of 61.3 years (range, 3.0-87.9 years) and primary GBM treated with radiation therapy (RT) from 2004 to 2012 at a single institution were included in this retrospective study. Preoperative images and follow-up examination results were assessed to evaluate tumor location. Tumors were classified according to the tumor location in relation to the SVZ. Results: The median PFS of the study population was 5.2 months (range, 1-91 months), and the median OS was 13.8 months (range, 1-102 months). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that tumor location in close proximity to the SVZ was associated with a significant decline in PFS and OS (4.8 and 12.3 months, respectively; each P<.001). Furthermore, in cases where tumors were involved with the SVZ, distant cerebral progression (43.8%; P=.005) and multifocal progression (39.8%; P=.008) were more common. Interestingly, opening of the ventricle during the previous surgery showed no impact on PFS and OS. Conclusion: GBM in close proximity to the SVZ was associated with decreased survival and had a higher risk of multifocal or distant progression. Ventricle opening during surgery had no effect on survival rates.

  15. Enhancement of ventricular-subventricular zone-derived neurogenesis and oligodendrogenesis by erythropoietin and its derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Naoko; Kako, Eisuke; Sawamoto, Kazunobu

    2013-11-27

    In the postnatal mammalian brain, stem cells in the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) continuously generate neuronal and glial cells throughout life. Genetic labeling of cells of specific lineages have demonstrated that the V-SVZ is an important source of the neuroblasts and/or oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) that migrate toward injured brain areas in response to several types of insult, including ischemia and demyelinating diseases. However, this spontaneous regeneration is insufficient for complete structural and functional restoration of the injured brain, so interventions to enhance these processes are sought for clinical applications. Erythropoietin (EPO), a clinically applied erythropoietic factor, is reported to have cytoprotective effects in various kinds of insult in the central nervous system. Moreover, recent studies suggest that EPO promotes the V-SVZ-derived neurogenesis and oligodendrogenesis. EPO increases the proliferation of progenitors in the V-SVZ and/or the migration and differentiation of their progenies in and around injured areas, depending on the dosage, timing, and duration of treatment, as well as the type of animal model used. On the other hand, EPO has undesirable side effects, including thrombotic complications. We recently demonstrated that a 2-week treatment with the EPO derivative asialo-EPO promotes the differentiation of V-SVZ-derived OPCs into myelin-forming mature oligodendrocytes in the injured white matter of neonatal mice without causing erythropoiesis. Here we present an overview of the multifaceted effects of EPO and its derivatives in the V-SVZ and discuss the possible applications of these molecules in regenerative medicine.

  16. Enhancement of ventricular-subventricular zone-derived neurogenesis and oligodendrogenesis by erythropoietin and its derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko eKaneko

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the postnatal mammalian brain, stem cells in the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ continuously generate neuronal and glial cells throughout life. Genetic labeling of cells of specific lineages have demonstrated that the V-SVZ is an important source of the neuroblasts and/or oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs that migrate toward injured brain areas in response to several types of insult, including ischemia and demyelinating diseases. However, this spontaneous regeneration is insufficient for complete structural and functional restoration of the injured brain, so interventions to enhance these processes are sought for clinical applications. Erythropoietin (EPO, a clinically applied erythropoietic factor, is reported to have cytoprotective effects in various kinds of insult in the central nervous system. Moreover, recent studies suggest that EPO promotes the V-SVZ-derived neurogenesis and oligodendrogenesis. EPO increases the proliferation of progenitors in the V-SVZ and/or the migration and differentiation of their progenies in and around injured areas, depending on the dosage, timing, and duration of treatment, as well as the type of animal model used. On the other hand, EPO has undesirable side effects, including thrombotic complications. We recently demonstrated that a two-week treatment with the EPO derivative asialo-EPO promotes the differentiation of V-SVZ-derived OPCs into myelin-forming mature oligodendrocytes in the injured white matter of neonatal mice without causing erythropoiesis. Here we present an overview of the multifaceted effects of EPO and its derivatives in the V-SVZ and discuss the possible applications of these molecules in regenerative medicine.

  17. Bone marrow stromal cells can promote the neurogenesis in subventricular zone in the rat with focal cerebral ischemia

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    Pushuai Wen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available   Abstract Introdution: Stroke is one of the most common diseases caused by occlusion or rupture of blood vessels in brain. It brings heavily loads for families and societies. Although some new strategies including treatment of tissue plasminogen activator have been applied in the clinic, these methods do not have perfect effect. Accordingly, more effective therapeutic strategies need to be developed. This study was conducted to investigate the action of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC on the neural stem cells in the subventricular zone of the rat after focal cerebral ischemia. Methods: The rats were induced to permanent focal cerebral ischemia models with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCA0. Test groups consisted of three groups: MCAO alone, intravenous infusion of 1 ml PBS at 24 hours after MCAO, and intravenous infusion of 2×106 BMSCs 24 hours after MCAO. Then, the groups were divided to investigate at 7 and 14 days after MACO. Neurological functions were detected to use Zausinger evaluation; meanwhile, 5-bromodeoxyuridine was injected to label the proliferating cells in the subventricular zone, and double-immunofluoroscent technologies were used to identify the cell type.  Results: Neurological functional scores of BMSCs-treated group were higher than other two groups (p<0.05 at 7 and 14 days after MACO. BrdU-positive cells in SVZ of ipsilateral ischemia of BMSCs-treated group were more than two controls (p<0.05 at 14 days after MCAO; double-immunofluorescence label demonstrated that BrdU-positive cells co-located with markers of neuron and astrocyte.   Discussion: BMSCs can promote the neurological function of the rats with permanent focal cerebral ischemia, which may associate with the neurogenesis in the subventricular zone.

  18. Identification and culture of neural stem cells isolated from adult rat subventricular zone following fluid percussion brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Objective To analyze proliferation and differentiation of glial fibrillary acid protein(GFAP)-and nestin-positive(GFAP+/nestin+)cells isolated from the subventricular zone following fluid percussion brain injury to determine whether GFAP+/nestin+ cells exhibit characteristics of neural stem cells.Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats,aged 12 weeks and weighing 200-250 g,were randomly and evenly assigned to normal control group and model group.In the model group,a rat model of fluid percussion brain injury was es...

  19. Increased Subventricular Zone Radiation Dose Correlates With Survival in Glioblastoma Patients After Gross Total Resection

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    Chen, Linda [Department of Neurosurgery, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Guerrero-Cazares, Hugo [Department of Neurosurgery, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Ye, Xiaobu [Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Ford, Eric [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States); McNutt, Todd; Kleinberg, Lawrence [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Lim, Michael; Chaichana, Kaisorn [Department of Neurosurgery, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo, E-mail: aquinon2@jhmi.edu [Department of Neurosurgery, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Redmond, Kristin, E-mail: kjanson3@jhmi.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: Neural progenitor cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) have a controversial role in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) as potential tumor-initiating cells. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between radiation dose to the SVZ and survival in GBM patients. Methods and Materials: The study included 116 patients with primary GBM treated at the Johns Hopkins Hospital between 2006 and 2009. All patients underwent surgical resection followed by adjuvant radiation therapy with intensity modulated radiation therapy (60 Gy/30 fractions) and concomitant temozolomide. Ipsilateral, contralateral, and bilateral SVZs were contoured on treatment plans by use of coregistered magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography. Multivariate Cox regression was used to examine the relationship between mean SVZ dose and progression-free survival (PFS), as well as overall survival (OS). Age, Karnofsky Performance Status score, and extent of resection were used as covariates. The median age was 58 years (range, 29-80 years). Results: Of the patients, 12% underwent biopsy, 53% had subtotal resection (STR), and 35% had gross total resection (GTR). The Karnofsky Performance Status score was less than 90 in 54 patients and was 90 or greater in 62 patients. The median ipsilateral, contralateral, and bilateral mean SVZ doses were 48.7 Gy, 34.4 Gy, and 41.5 Gy, respectively. Among patients who underwent GTR, a mean ipsilateral SVZ dose of 40 Gy or greater was associated with a significantly improved PFS compared with patients who received less than 40 Gy (15.1 months vs 10.3 months; P=.028; hazard ratio, 0.385 [95% confidence interval, 0.165-0.901]) but not in patients undergoing STR or biopsy. The subgroup of GTR patients who received an ipsilateral dose of 40 Gy or greater also had a significantly improved OS (17.5 months vs 15.6 months; P=.027; hazard ratio, 0.385 [95% confidence interval, 0.165-0.895]). No association was found between SVZ radiation dose and PFS

  20. Carbon nanotubes impregnated with subventricular zone neural progenitor cells promotes recovery from stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon SU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sung Ung Moon,1,* Jihee Kim,1,2,* Kiran Kumar Bokara,1,* Jong Youl Kim,1 Dongwoo Khang,3,4 Thomas J Webster,3,4 Jong Eun Lee1,21Department of Anatomy, 2Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea; 3School of Engineering, 4Department of Orthopedics, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: The present in vivo study was conducted to evaluate whether hydrophilic (HL or hydrophobic (HP carbon nanotubes (CNTs impregnated with subventricular zone neural progenitor cells (SVZ NPCs could repair damaged neural tissue following stroke. For this purpose, stroke damaged rats were transplanted with HL CNT-SVZ NPCs, HP CNT-SVZ NPCs, or SVZ NPCs alone for 1, 3, 5, and 8 weeks. Results showed that the HP CNT-SVZ NPC transplants improved rat behavior and reduced infarct cyst volume and infarct cyst area compared with the experimental control and the HL CNT-SVZ NPC and SVZ NPCs alone groups. The transplantation groups showed an increase in the expression of nestin (cell stemness marker and proliferation which was evident with the increased number of doublecortin and bromodeoxyuridine double-stained immunopositive cells around the lesion site. But, these effects were more prominent in the HP CNT-SVZ NPC group compared with the other transplantation groups. The HP CNT-SVZ NPC and HL CNT-SVZ NPC transplants increased the number of microtubule-associated protein 2 (marker for neurons and decreased the number of glial fibrillary acidic protein (marker for astroglial cells positive cells within the injury epicenter. The majority of the transplanted HP CNT-SVZ NPCs collectively broadened around the ischemic injured region and the SVZ NPCs differentiated into mature neurons, attained the synapse morphology (TUJ1, synaptophysin, and decreased microglial activation (CD11b/c [OX-42]. For these reasons, this study provided the first evidence that CNTs can improve

  1. P2X7 receptors at adult neural progenitor cells of the mouse subventricular zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messemer, Nanette; Kunert, Christin; Grohmann, Marcus; Sobottka, Helga; Nieber, Karen; Zimmermann, Herbert; Franke, Heike; Nörenberg, Wolfgang; Straub, Isabelle; Schaefer, Michael; Riedel, Thomas; Illes, Peter; Rubini, Patrizia

    2013-10-01

    Neurogenesis requires the balance between the proliferation of newly formed progenitor cells and subsequent death of surplus cells. RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry demonstrated the presence of P2X7 receptor mRNA and immunoreactivity in cultured neural progenitor cells (NPCs) prepared from the adult mouse subventricular zone (SVZ). Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings showed a marked potentiation of the inward current responses both to ATP and the prototypic P2X7 receptor agonist dibenzoyl-ATP (Bz-ATP) at low Ca(2+) and zero Mg(2+) concentrations in the bath medium. The Bz-ATP-induced currents reversed their polarity near 0 mV; in NPCs prepared from P2X7(-/-) mice, Bz-ATP failed to elicit membrane currents. The general P2X/P2Y receptor antagonist PPADS and the P2X7 selective antagonists Brilliant Blue G and A-438079 strongly depressed the effect of Bz-ATP. Long-lasting application of Bz-ATP induced an initial current, which slowly increased to a steady-state response. In combination with the determination of YO-PRO uptake, these experiments suggest the dilation of a receptor-channel and/or the recruitment of a dye-uptake pathway. Ca(2+)-imaging by means of Fura-2 revealed that in a Mg(2+)-deficient bath medium Bz-ATP causes [Ca(2+)](i) transients fully depending on the presence of external Ca(2+). The MTT test indicated a concentration-dependent decrease in cell viability by Bz-ATP treatment. Correspondingly, Bz-ATP led to an increase in active caspase 3 immunoreactivity, indicating a P2X7-controlled apoptosis. In acute SVZ brain slices of transgenic Tg(nestin/EGFP) mice, patch-clamp recordings identified P2X7 receptors at NPCs with pharmacological properties identical to those of their cultured counterparts. We suggest that the apoptotic/necrotic P2X7 receptors at NPCs may be of particular relevance during pathological conditions which lead to increased ATP release and thus could counterbalance the ensuing excessive cell proliferation.

  2. Subcellular distribution of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor subunit 1 in neural stem cells within subventricular zone of adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhining Li; Wenlong Lü; Hongyan Dong; Hongbin Fan; Ruiguo Dong; Tiejun Xu

    2011-01-01

    The subcellular localization of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor subunit 1 in neural stem cells of the subventricular zone of adult rats was detected using electron microscopy, following immunohistochemistry and immunogold-silver double staining. Results confirmed the presence of neural stem cells in the subventricular zone, which is a key neurogenic region in the central nervous system of adult mammals. The expression of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor subunit 1 was higher than that of nestin and mainly distributed in the cell membrane, cytoplasm, rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex of neural stem cells.

  3. Isolation of neural progenitor cells from the human adult subventricular zone based on expression of the cell surface marker CD271

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Strien, Miriam E; Sluijs, Jacqueline A; Reynolds, Brent A; Steindler, Dennis A; Aronica, Eleonora; Hol, Elly M

    2014-01-01

    Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in the subventricular zone (SVZ) hold promise for future therapy for neurodegenerative disorders, because the stimulation of adult neurogenesis could potentially restore the function of degenerating neurons and glia. To obtain more knowledge on these NPCs, we developed

  4. Unmasking the responses of the stem cells and progenitors in the subventricular zone after neonatal and pediatric brain injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mariano Guardia Clausi; Ekta Kumari; Steven W.Levison

    2016-01-01

    There is great interest in the regenerative potential of the neural stem cells and progenitors that populate the subventricular zone (SVZ). However, a comprehensive understanding of SVZ cell responses to brain in-juries has been hindered by the lack of sensitive approaches to study the cellular composition of this niche. Here we review progress being made in deciphering the cells of the SVZ gleaned from the use of a recently designed lfow cytometry panel that allows SVZ cells to be parsed into multiple subsets of progenitors as well as putative stem cells. We review how this approach has begun to unmask both the heterogeneity of SVZ cells as well as the dynamic shifts in cell populations with neonatal and pediatric brain injuries. We also discuss how lfow cytometric analyses also have begun to reveal how speciifc cytokines, such as Leuke-mia inhibitory factor are coordinating SVZ responses to injury.

  5. Dystroglycan Suppresses Notch to Regulate Stem Cell Niche Structure and Function in the Developing Postnatal Subventricular Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClenahan, Freyja K; Sharma, Himanshu; Shan, Xiwei; Eyermann, Christopher; Colognato, Holly

    2016-09-12

    While the extracellular matrix (ECM) is known to regulate neural stem cell quiescence in the adult subventricular zone (SVZ), the function of ECM in the developing SVZ remains unknown. Here, we report that the ECM receptor dystroglycan regulates a unique developmental restructuring of ECM in the early postnatal SVZ. Dystroglycan is furthermore required for ependymal cell differentiation and assembly of niche pinwheel structures, at least in part by suppressing Notch activation in radial glial cells, which leads to the increased expression of MCI, Myb, and FoxJ1, transcriptional regulators necessary for acquisition of the multiciliated phenotype. Dystroglycan also regulates perinatal radial glial cell proliferation and transition into intermediate gliogenic progenitors, such that either acute or constitutive loss of function in dystroglycan results in increased oligodendrogenesis. These findings reveal a role for dystroglycan in orchestrating both the assembly and function of the SVZ neural stem cell niche.

  6. Epidermal growth factor treatment of the adult brain subventricular zone leads to focal microglia/macrophage accumulation and angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Olle R; Brederlau, Anke; Kuhn, H Georg

    2014-04-01

    One of the major components of the subventricular zone (SVZ) neurogenic niche is the specialized vasculature. The SVZ vasculature is thought to be important in regulating progenitor cell proliferation and migration. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a mitogen with a wide range of effects. When stem and progenitor cells in the rat SVZ are treated with EGF, using intracerebroventricular infusion, dysplastic polyps are formed. Upon extended infusion, blood vessels are recruited into the polyps. In the current study we demonstrate how polyps develop through distinct stages leading up to angiogenesis. As polyps progress, microglia/macrophages accumulate in the polyp core concurrent with increasing cell death. Both microglia/macrophage accumulation and cell death peak during angiogenesis and subsequently decline following polyp vascularization. This model of inducible angiogenesis in the SVZ neurogenic niche suggests involvement of microglia/macrophages in acquired angiogenesis and can be used in detail to study angiogenesis in the adult brain.

  7. A restricted period for formation of outer subventricular zone defined by Cdh1 and Trnp1 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Martínez, Maria Ángeles; De Juan Romero, Camino; Fernández, Virginia; Cárdenas, Adrián; Götz, Magdalena; Borrell, Víctor

    2016-06-06

    The outer subventricular zone (OSVZ) is a germinal layer playing key roles in the development of the neocortex, with particular relevance in gyrencephalic species such as human and ferret, where it contains abundant basal radial glia cells (bRGCs) that promote cortical expansion. Here we identify a brief period in ferret embryonic development when apical RGCs generate a burst of bRGCs that become founders of the OSVZ. After this period, bRGCs in the OSVZ proliferate and self-renew exclusively locally, thereby forming a self-sustained lineage independent from the other germinal layers. The time window for the brief period of OSVZ bRGC production is delineated by the coincident downregulation of Cdh1 and Trnp1, and their upregulation reduces bRGC production and prevents OSVZ seeding. This mechanism in cortical development may have key relevance in brain evolution and disease.

  8. The subventricular zone in the immature piglet brain: anatomy and exodus of neuroblasts into white matter after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costine, Beth A; Missios, Symeon; Taylor, Sabrina R; McGuone, Declan; Smith, Colin M; Dodge, Carter P; Harris, Brent T; Duhaime, Ann-Christine

    2015-01-01

    Stimulation of postnatal neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and robust migration of neuroblasts to the lesion site in response to traumatic brain injury (TBI) is well established in rodent species; however, it is not yet known whether postnatal neurogenesis plays a role in repair after TBI in gyrencephalic species. Here we describe the anatomy of the SVZ in the piglet for the first time and initiate an investigation into the effect of TBI on the SVZ architecture and the number of neuroblasts in the white matter. Among all ages of immaturity examined the SVZ contained a dense mesh network of neurogenic precursor cells (doublecortin+) positioned directly adjacent to the ependymal cells (ventricular SVZ, Vsvz) and neuroblasts organized into chains that were distinct from the Vsvz (abventricular SVZ, Asvz). Though the architecture of the SVZ was similar among ages, the areas of Vsvz and Asvz neuroblast chains declined with age. At postnatal day (PND) 14 the white matter tracts have a tremendous number of individual neuroblasts. In our scaled cortical impact model, lesion size increased with age. Similarly, the response of the SVZ to injury was also age dependent. The younger age groups that sustained the proportionately smallest lesions had the largest SVZ areas, which further increased in response to injury. In piglets that were injured at 4 months of age and had the largest lesions, the SVZ did not increase in response to injury. Similar to humans, swine have abundant gyri and gyral white matter, providing a unique platform to study neuroblasts potentially migrating from the SVZ to the lesioned cortex along these white matter tracts. In piglets injured at PND 7, TBI did not increase the total number of neuroblasts in the white matter compared to uninjured piglets, but redistribution occurred with a greater number of neuroblasts in the white matter of the hemisphere ipsilateral to the injury compared to the contralateral hemisphere. At 7 days after injury

  9. Altered speeds and trajectories of neurons migrating in the ventricular and subventricular zones of the reeler neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Joanne M; Tait, Karen J; Johnston, Leigh A; Hammond, Vicki E; Kalloniatis, Michael; Tan, Seong-Seng

    2011-05-01

    The Reelin signaling pathway is essential for proper cortical development, but it is unclear to whether Reelin function is primarily important for cortical layering or neuron migration. It has been proposed that Reelin is perhaps required only for somal translocation but not glial-dependent locomotion. This implies that the location of neurons responding to Reelin is restricted to the outer regions of the cortical plate (CP). To determine whether Reelin is required for migration outside of the CP, we used time-lapse imaging to track the behavior of cells undergoing locomotion in the germinal zones. We focused on the migratory activity in the ventricular/subventricular zones where the first transition of bipolar to multipolar migration occurs and where functional Reelin receptors are known to be expressed. Despite Reelin loss, neurons had no difficulty in undergoing radial migration and indeed displayed greater migratory speed. Additionally, compared with the wild-type, reeler neurons displayed altered trajectories with greater deviation from a radial path. These results suggest that Reelin loss has early consequences for migration in the germinal zones that are portrayed as defective radial trajectories and migratory speeds. Together, these abnormalities can give rise to the increased cell dispersion observed in the reeler cortex.

  10. Mechanisms of oligodendrocyte regeneration from ventricular-subventricular zone-derived progenitor cells in white matter diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takakuni eMaki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available White matter dysfunction is an important part of many CNS disorders including multiple sclerosis and vascular dementia. Within injured areas, myelin loss and oligodendrocyte death may trigger endogenous attempts at regeneration. However, during disease progression, remyelination failure may eventually occur due to impaired survival/proliferation, migration/recruitment, and differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs. The ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ and the subgranular zone are the main sources of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs, which can give rise to neurons as well as OPCs. Under normal conditions in the adult brain, the V-SVZ progenitors generate a large number of neurons with a small number of oligodendrocyte lineage cells. However, after demyelination, the fate of V-SVZ-derived progenitor cells shifts from neurons to OPCs, and these newly generated OPCs migrate to the demyelinating lesions to ease white matter damage. In this mini-review, we will summarize the recent studies on extrinsic (e.g., vasculature, extracellular matrix, cerebrospinal fluid and intrinsic (e.g., transcription factors, epigenetic modifiers factors, which mediate oligodendrocyte generation from the V-SVZ progenitor cells. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms that regulate the fate of V-SVZ progenitor cells may lead to new therapeutic approaches for ameliorating white matter dysfunction and damage in CNS disorders.

  11. Activated regulatory T cell regulates neural stem cell proliferation in the subventricular zone of normal and ischemic mouse brain through interleukin 10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixian eWang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated that the depletion of Regulatory T cells (Tregs inhibits neural progenitor cell migration after brain ischemia. However, whether Tregs affect neural stem/progenitor cell proliferation is unclear. We explored the effect of Tregs on neurogenesis in the subventricular zone after ischemia. Tregs were isolated and activated in vitro. Adult male C57BL/6 mice underwent 60 minutes transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO. Then Tregs (1x105 were injected into the left lateral ventricle of normal and ischemic mouse brain. Neurogenesis was determined by immunostaining. The mechanism was examined by inhibiting interleukin 10 (IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF- signaling. We found that the number of BrdU+ cells in the subventricular zone was significantly increased in the activated Tregs-treated mice. Double immunostaining showed that these BrdU+ cells expressed Mash1. Blocking IL-10 reduced the number of Mash1+/BrdU+ cells, but increased the amount of GFAP+/BrdU+ cells. Here we conclude that activated Tregs enhanced neural stem cell proliferation in the subventricular zone of normal and ischemic mice; blockage of IL-10 abolished Tregs-mediated neural stem cell proliferation in vivo and in vitro. Our results suggest that activated Tregs promoted neural stem cell proliferation via IL-10, which provides a new therapeutic approach for ischemic stroke.

  12. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment promotes neural stem cell proliferation in the subventricular zone of neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhichun; Liu, Jing; Ju, Rong

    2013-05-05

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for the treatment of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage has been used clinically for many years, but its effectiveness remains controversial. In addition, the mechanism of this potential neuroprotective effect remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the influence of hyperbaric oxygen on the proliferation of neural stem cells in the subventricular zone of neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats (7 days old) subjected to hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. Six hours after modeling, rats were treated with hyperbaric oxygen once daily for 7 days. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the number of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine positive and nestin positive cells in the subventricular zone of neonatal rats increased at day 3 after hypoxic-ischemic brain damage and peaked at day 5. After hyperbaric oxygen treatment, the number of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine positive and nestin positive cells began to increase at day 1, and was significantly higher than that in normal rats and model rats until day 21. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that hyperbaric oxygen treatment could attenuate pathological changes to brain tissue in neonatal rats, and reduce the number of degenerating and necrotic nerve cells. Our experimental findings indicate that hyperbaric oxygen treatment enhances the proliferation of neural stem cells in the subventricular zone of neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage, and has therapeutic potential for promoting neurological recovery following brain injury.

  13. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment promotes neural stem cell proliferation in the subventricular zone of neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhichun Feng; Jing Liu; Rong Ju

    2013-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for the treatment of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage has been used clinically for many years, but its effectiveness remains controversial. In addition, the mechanism of this potential neuroprotective effect remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the influence of hyperbaric oxygen on the proliferation of neural stem cells in the subventricular zone of neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats (7 days old) subjected to hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. Six hours after modeling, rats were treated with hyperbaric oxygen once daily for 7 days. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the number of 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine positive and nestin positive cells in the subventricular zone of neonatal rats increased at day 3 after hypoxic-ischemic brain damage and peaked at day 5. After hyperbaric oxygen treatment, the number of 5-bromo-2′- deoxyuridine positive and nestin positive cells began to increase at day 1, and was significantly higher than that in normal rats and model rats until day 21. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that hyperbaric oxygen treatment could attenuate pathological changes to brain tissue in neonatal rats, and reduce the number of degenerating and necrotic nerve cells. Our experimental findings indicate that hyperbaric oxygen treatment enhances the proliferation of neural stem cells in the subventricular zone of neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage, and has therapeutic potential for promoting neurological recovery following brain injury.

  14. Sequential activation of p75 and TrkB is involved in dendritic development of subventricular zone-derived neuronal progenitors in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascon, E; Vutskits, L; Zhang, H; Barral-Moran, M J; Kiss, P J; Mas, C; Kiss, J Z

    2005-01-01

    Dendritic arbor development of subventricular zone-derived interneurons is a critical step in their integration into functional circuits of the postnatal olfactory bulb. However, the mechanism and molecular control of this process remain unknown. In this study, we have developed a culture model where dendritic development of purified subventricular zone cells proceeds under serum-free conditions in the absence of added growth factors and non-neural cells. We demonstrate that the large majority of these cells in culture express GABA and elaborate dendritic arbors with spine-like protrusions but they do not possess axons. These neurons expressed receptors for neurotrophins including p75, TrkB and TrkC but not TrkA. Application of exogenous neurotrophins, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT3) and nerve growth factor (NGF), to cultures stimulated dendritic growth and led to more complex dendritic arbors during the initial 3 days in culture. Our results suggest that these effects are independent of Trk receptors and mediated by the p75/ceramide signaling pathway. We also show that brain-derived neurotrophic factor is the only neurotrophin that is able to influence late-phase dendritic development via TrkB receptor activation. These results suggest that dendritic arbor development of subventricular zone-derived cells may be regulated by neurotrophins through the activation of p75 and the TrkB receptor signaling pathways in a sequentially defined temporal pattern.

  15. Characterization of neural stem/progenitor cells expressing VEGF and its receptors in the subventricular zone of newborn piglet brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, Jahan; Fekete, Saskia; Zhu, Anli; Frank, Melissa

    2010-09-01

    Neural stem/progenitor cell (NSP) biology and neurogenesis in adult central nervous system (CNS) are important both towards potential future therapeutic applications for CNS repair, and for the fundamental function of the CNS. In the present study, we report the characterization of NSP population from subventricular zone (SVZ) of neonatal piglet brain using in vivo and in vitro systems. We show that the nestin and vimentin-positive neural progenitor cells are present in the SVZ of the lateral ventricles of neonatal piglet brain. In vitro, piglet NSPs proliferated as neurospheres, expressed the typical protein of neural progenitors, nestin and a range of well-established neurodevelopmental markers. Upon dissociation and subculture, piglet NSPs differentiated into neurons and glial cells. Clonal analysis demonstrates that piglet NSPs are multipotent and retain the capacity to generate both glia and neurons. These cells expressed VEGF, VEGFR1, VEGFR2 and Neuropilin-1 and -2 mRNAs. Real time PCR revealed that SVZ NSPs from newborn piglet expressed total VEGF and all VEGF splice variants. These findings show that piglet NSPs may be helpful to more effectively design growth factor based strategies to enhance endogenous precursor cells for cell transplantation studies potentially leading to the application of this strategy in the nervous system disease and injury.

  16. Optogenetic stimulation of glutamatergic neuronal activity in the striatum enhances neurogenesis in the subventricular zone of normal and stroke mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mingke; Yu, Shan Ping; Mohamad, Osama; Cao, Wenyuan; Wei, Zheng Zachory; Gu, Xiaohuan; Jiang, Michael Qize; Wei, Ling

    2017-02-01

    Neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the adult brain may contribute to tissue repair after brain injuries. Whether SVZ neurogenesis can be upregulated by specific neuronal activity in vivo and promote functional recovery after stroke is largely unknown. Using the spatial and cell type specific optogenetic technique combined with multiple approaches of in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo examinations, we tested the hypothesis that glutamatergic activation in the striatum could upregulate SVZ neurogenesis in the normal and ischemic brain. In transgenic mice expressing the light-gated channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) channel in glutamatergic neurons, optogenetic stimulation of the glutamatergic activity in the striatum triggered glutamate release into SVZ region, evoked membrane currents, Ca(2+) influx and increased proliferation of SVZ neuroblasts, mediated by AMPA receptor activation. In ChR2 transgenic mice subjected to focal ischemic stroke, optogenetic stimuli to the striatum started 5days after stroke for 8days not only promoted cell proliferation but also the migration of SVZ neuroblasts into the peri-infarct cortex with increased neuronal differentiation and improved long-term functional recovery. These data provide the first morphological and functional evidence showing a unique striatum-SVZ neuronal regulation via a semi-phasic synaptic mechanism that can boost neurogenic cascades and stroke recovery. The benefits from stimulating endogenous glutamatergic activity suggest a novel regenerative strategy after ischemic stroke and other brain injuries.

  17. Epidermal Growth Factor Treatment of the Adult Brain Subventricular Zone Leads to Focal Microglia/Macrophage Accumulation and Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olle R. Lindberg

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the major components of the subventricular zone (SVZ neurogenic niche is the specialized vasculature. The SVZ vasculature is thought to be important in regulating progenitor cell proliferation and migration. Epidermal growth factor (EGF is a mitogen with a wide range of effects. When stem and progenitor cells in the rat SVZ are treated with EGF, using intracerebroventricular infusion, dysplastic polyps are formed. Upon extended infusion, blood vessels are recruited into the polyps. In the current study we demonstrate how polyps develop through distinct stages leading up to angiogenesis. As polyps progress, microglia/macrophages accumulate in the polyp core concurrent with increasing cell death. Both microglia/macrophage accumulation and cell death peak during angiogenesis and subsequently decline following polyp vascularization. This model of inducible angiogenesis in the SVZ neurogenic niche suggests involvement of microglia/macrophages in acquired angiogenesis and can be used in detail to study angiogenesis in the adult brain.

  18. Changes of evoked potential and expression of nestin in subventricular zones in rats after focal cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jie; WANG Yong-tang; WANG Li-li; ZENG Ling; WU Ya-min; SHAO Yang

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To study the characteristics of latency of somatosensory evoked potential (SEP)and motor evoked potential (MEP) and the expression of nestin in subventricular zones (SVZ) after persistent focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Methods: The model of cerebral ischemia in rats was made by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). All animals of ischemia were sacrificed after 12 h, 1 d, 3 d, 7 d,and 14 d to observe the changes of latency of SEP and MEP and to detect the expression of nestin, with an immunohistochemical approach. Results: The latencies of P1 (positive wave 1), N1 (negative wave 1) and P2 (positive wave 2) in SEP were significantly prolonged after MCAO. The latencies of N1 and N2 waves in MEP were postponed gradually and no statistical difference of latency of N1 wave was found in rats at 7d and 14 d after MCAO. The expression of nestin increased at 12 h, and showed a significant augmentation at 3 d and peaked at 7 d, then declined slightly at 14 d after MCAO. Conclusion: The cerebral ischemia prolonged the latency of EP waves and the expression of nestin was up-regulated and reached the peak at 7d, showing the ischemia induced the proliferation of nervous stem cells. The SEP and MEP may evaluate the proliferation in SVZ after brain ischemia.

  19. Ontogeny of CX3CR1-EGFP expressing cells unveil microglia as an integral component of the postnatal subventricular zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lenice Ribeiro Xavier

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The full spectrum of cellular interactions within CNS neurogenic niches is still poorly understood. Only recently has the monocyte counterpart of the nervous system, the microglial cells, been described as an important cellular component in neurogenic niches. The present study sought to characterize the microglial population in the early postnatal subventricular zone (SVZ, the major site of postnatal neurogenesis, and in its anterior extension, the rostral migratory stream (RMS, a pathway for neuroblasts during their transit toward the olfactory bulb (OB layers. Analysis of the transgenic mice strain that has one of the locus of the constitutively expressed fractalkine CX3CR1 receptor replaced by the gene encoding the green fluorescent protein (EGFP circumvented the antigenic plasticity of the microglial cells. Here we show that common phenotypic markers of microglia do not reveal the full complement of these cells within the SVZ/RMS pathway. Remarkably, our analysis show that within the early SVZ/RMS pathway microglia are not proliferative and display a protracted development, retaining a more immature morphology than their counterparts outside germinal layers. Furthermore, during the first postnatal days microglia contact and phagocyte radial glia cells (RGs. Our results unveil microglial cells as a prominent component along the entire SVZ niche, together with neuroblasts and astroglial progenitors.

  20. Ontogeny of CX3CR1-EGFP expressing cells unveil microglia as an integral component of the postnatal subventricular zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Anna L; Lima, Flavia R S; Nedergaard, Maiken; Menezes, João R L

    2015-01-01

    The full spectrum of cellular interactions within CNS neurogenic niches is still poorly understood. Only recently has the monocyte counterpart of the nervous system, the microglial cells, been described as an integral cellular component of neurogenic niches. The present study sought to characterize the microglia population in the early postnatal subventricular zone (SVZ), the major site of postnatal neurogenesis, as well as in its anterior extension, the rostral migratory stream (RMS), a pathway for neuroblasts during their transit toward the olfactory bulb (OB) layers. Here we show that microglia within the SVZ/RMS pathway are not revealed by phenotypic markers that characterize microglia in other regions. Analysis of the transgenic mice strain that has one locus of the constitutively expressed fractalkine CX3CR1 receptor replaced by the gene encoding the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) circumvented the antigenic plasticity of the microglia, thus allowing us to depict microglia within the SVZ/RMS pathway during early development. Notably, microglia within the early SVZ/RMS are not proliferative and display a protracted development, retaining a more immature morphology than their counterparts outside germinal layers. Furthermore, microglia contact and phagocyte radial glia cells (RG) processes, thereby playing a role on the astroglial transformation that putative stem cells within the SVZ niche undergo during the first postnatal days.

  1. Indomethacin treatment reduces microglia activation and increases numbers of neuroblasts in the subventricular zone and ischaemic striatum after focal ischaemia

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ROSANA S LOPES; MARCELO M CARDOSO; ARTHUR O SAMPAIO; MARIO SANTOS BARBOSA Jr; CELICE C SOUZA; MICHELLE C DA SILVA; ELANE MAGNO N FERREIRA; MARCO AURELIOM FREIRE; RAFAEL RODRIGUES LIMA; WALACE GOMES-LEAL

    2016-09-01

    Neuroblasts from the subventricular zone (SVZ) migrate to striatum following stroke, but most of them die inthe ischaemic milieu and this can be related to exacerbated microglial activation. Here, we explored theeffects of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory indomethacin on microglial activation, neuronal preservation andneuroblast migration following experimental striatal stroke in adult rats. Animals were submitted toendothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced focal striatal ischaemia and were treated with indomethacin or sterile saline(i.p.) for 7 days, being perfused after 8 or 14 days. Immunohistochemistry was performed to assess neuronalloss (anti-NeuN), microglial activation (anti-Iba1, ED1) and migrating neuroblasts (anti-DCX) by countingNeuN, ED1 and DCX-positive cells in the ischaemic striatum or SVZ. Indomethacin treatment reducedmicroglia activation and the number of ED1^{+} cells in both 8 and 14 days post injury as compared withcontrols. There was an increase in the number of DCX^{+} cells in both SVZ and striatum at the same survivaltimes. Moreover, there was a decrease in the number of NeuN^{+} cells in indomethacin-treated animals ascompared with the control group at 8 days but not after 14 days post injury. Our results suggest thatindomethacin treatment modulates microglia activation, contributing to increased neuroblast proliferation inthe SVZ and migration to the ischaemic striatum following stroke.

  2. Severe instead of mild hyperglycemia inhibits neurogenesis in the subventricular zone of adult rats after transient focal cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, S; Zhi, P K; Luo, Z K; Shi, J

    2015-09-10

    Accumulated evidence suggests that enhanced neurogenesis stimulated by ischemic injury contributes to stroke outcome. However, it is unclear whether hyperglycemia, which is frequently tested positive in patients with acute ischemic stroke, influences stroke-induced neurogenesis. The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of hyperglycemia on stroke-induced neurogenesis in a rat model of transient focal cerebral ischemia. For this purpose, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (220-250 g) were subjected to 90 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Glucose was administered during ischemia to produce target blood levels ranging from 4.83 ± 0.94 mM (normoglycemia) to 20.76 ± 1.56 mM. To label proliferating cells in ischemic ipsilateral subventricular zone (SVZ) of lateral ventricles, 5'-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was injected 24h after MCAO. Brains were harvested 2h post-BrdU to evaluate the effects of hyperglycemia on infarct volume and SVZ cell proliferation. Rats that were severely hyperglycemic (19.26 ± 1.48 mM to 20.76 ± 1.56 mM) during ischemia had 24.26% increase in infarct volume (Phyperglycemia (9.43 ± 1.39-10.13 ± 1.24 mM). Our findings indicate that severe instead of mild hyperglycemia exacerbates ischemic injury and inhibits stroke-induced SVZ neurogenesis by a mechanism involving suppression of CREB and BDNF signaling.

  3. Delivery of In Vivo Acute Intermittent Hypoxia in Neonatal Rodents to Prime Subventricular Zone-derived Neural Progenitor Cell Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Heather H; Sandhu, Milap S; Sharififar, Sharareh; Fuller, David D

    2015-11-02

    Extended culture of neural stem/progenitor cells facilitates in vitro analyses to understand their biology while enabling expansion of cell populations to adequate numbers prior to transplantation. Identifying approaches to refine this process, to augment the production of all CNS cell types (i.e., neurons), and to possibly contribute to therapeutic cell therapy protocols is a high research priority. This report describes an easily applied in vivo "pre-conditioning" stimulus which can be delivered to awake, non-anesthetized animals. Thus, it is a non-invasive and non-stressful procedure. Specifically described are the procedures for exposing mouse or rat pups (aged postnatal day 1-8) to a brief (40-80 min) period of intermittent hypoxia (AIH). The procedures included in this video protocol include calibration of the whole-body plethysmography chamber in which pups are placed during AIH and the technical details of AIH exposure. The efficacy of this approach to elicit tissue-level changes in the awake animal is demonstrated through the enhancement of subsequent in vitro expansion and neuronal differentiation in cells harvested from the subventricular zone (SVZ). These results support the notion that tissue level changes across multiple systems could be observed following AIH, and support the continued optimization and establishment of AIH as a priming or conditioning modality for therapeutic cell populations.

  4. Identification and characterization of neuroblasts in the subventricular zone and rostral migratory stream of the adult human brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Congmin Wang; Qiangqiang Zhang; Yue Zhang; Rui Chen; Hongjun Song; Zhengang Yang; Fang Liu; Ying-Ying Liu; Cai-Hong Zhao; Yan You; Lei Wang; Jingxiao Zhang; Bin Wei; Tong Ma

    2011-01-01

    It is of great interest to identify new neurons in the adult human brain,but the persistence of neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the existence of the rostral migratory stream (RMS)-like pathway in the adult human forebrain remain highly controversial.In the present study,we have described the general configuration of the RMS in adult monkey,fetal human and adult human brains.We provide evidence that neuroblasts exist continuously in the anterior ventral SVZ and RMS of the adult human brain.The neuroblasts appear singly or in pairs without forming chains; they exhibit migratory morphologies and co-express the immature neuronal markers doublecortin,polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule and βI-tubulin.Few of these neuroblasts appear to be actively proliferating in the anterior ventral SVZ but none in the RMS,indicating that neuroblasts distributed along the RMS are most likely derived from the ventral SVZ.Interestingly,no neuroblasts are found in the adult human olfactory bulb.Taken together,our data suggest that the SVZ maintains the ability to produce neuroblasts in the adult human brain.

  5. SSEA-4 and YKL-40 positive progenitor subtypes in the subventricular zone of developing human neocortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøchner, Christian B; Møllgård, Kjeld

    2016-01-01

    The glycosphingolipid SSEA-4 and the glycoprotein YKL-40 have both been associated with human embryonic and neural stem cell differentiation. We investigated the distribution of SSEA-4 and YKL-40 positive cells in proliferative zones of human fetal forebrain using immunohistochemistry and double-...... characterized by immunohistochemical combination of antibodies against SSEA-4 and YKL-40 and devoid of neuronal and microglial markers represent a yet unexplored astrogenic lineage illustrating the complexity of astroglial development. GLIA 2015....

  6. Neural progenitor cells isolated from the subventricular zone present hemichannel activity and form functional gap junctions with glial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaverón, Rocío; Fernández, Paola; Escamilla, Rosalba; Pastor, Angel M.; Matarredona, Esperanza R.; Sáez, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    The postnatal subventricular zone (SVZ) lining the walls of the lateral ventricles contains neural progenitor cells (NPCs) that generate new olfactory bulb interneurons. Communication via gap junctions between cells in the SVZ is involved in NPC proliferation and in neuroblast migration towards the olfactory bulb. SVZ NPCs can be expanded in vitro in the form of neurospheres that can be used for transplantation purposes after brain injury. We have previously reported that neurosphere-derived NPCs form heterocellular gap junctions with host glial cells when they are implanted after mechanical injury. To analyze functionality of NPC-glial cell gap junctions we performed dye coupling experiments in co-cultures of SVZ NPCs with astrocytes or microglia. Neurosphere-derived cells expressed mRNA for at least the hemichannel/gap junction channel proteins connexin 26 (Cx26), Cx43, Cx45 and pannexin 1 (Panx1). Dye coupling experiments revealed that gap junctional communication occurred among neurosphere cells (incidence of coupling: 100%). Moreover, hemichannel activity was also detected in neurosphere cells as evaluated in time-lapse measurements of ethidium bromide uptake. Heterocellular coupling between NPCs and glial cells was evidenced in co-cultures of neurospheres with astrocytes (incidence of coupling: 91.0 ± 4.7%) or with microglia (incidence of coupling: 71.9 ± 6.7%). Dye coupling in neurospheres and in co-cultures was inhibited by octanol, a gap junction blocker. Altogether, these results suggest the existence of functional hemichannels and gap junction channels in postnatal SVZ neurospheres. In addition, they demonstrate that SVZ-derived NPCs can establish functional gap junctions with astrocytes or microglia. Therefore, cell-cell communication via gap junctions and hemichannels with host glial cells might subserve a role in the functional integration of NPCs after implantation in the damaged brain. PMID:26528139

  7. S phase entry of neural progenitor cells correlates with increased blood flow in the young subventricular zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Lacar

    Full Text Available The postnatal subventricular zone (SVZ contains proliferating neural progenitor cells in close proximity to blood vessels. Insults and drug treatments acutely stimulate cell proliferation in the SVZ, which was assessed by labeling cells entering S phase. Although G1-to-S progression is metabolically demanding on a minute-to-hour time scale, it remains unknown whether increased SVZ cell proliferation is accompanied by a local hemodynamic response. This neurovascular coupling provides energy substrates to active neuronal assemblies. Transcardial dye perfusion revealed the presence of capillaries throughout the SVZ that constrict upon applications of the thromboxane A(2 receptor agonist U-46119 in acute brain slice preparations. We then monitored in vivo blood flow using laser Doppler flowmetry via a microprobe located either in the SVZ or a mature network. U-46119 injections into the lateral ventricle decreased blood flow in the SVZ and the striatum, which are near the ventricle. A 1-hour ventricular injection of epidermal and basic fibroblast growth factor (EGF and bFGF significantly increased the percentage of Sox2 transcription factor-positive cells in S phase 1.5 hours post-injection. This increase was accompanied by a sustained rise in blood flow in the SVZ but not in the striatum. Direct growth factor injections into the cortex did not alter local blood flow, ruling out direct effects on capillaries. These findings suggest that an acute increase in the number of G1-to-S cycling SVZ cells is accompanied by neurometabolic-vascular coupling, which may provide energy and nutrient for cell cycle progression.

  8. Selective depletion of Mac-1-expressing microglia in rat subventricular zone does not alter neurogenic response early after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldmann, Ursula; Mine, Yutaka; Kokaia, Zaal; Ekdahl, Christine T; Lindvall, Olle

    2011-06-01

    Ischemic stroke induces migration of newly formed neuroblasts, generated by neural stem cells in the adult rat subventricular zone (SVZ), towards the injured striatum where they differentiate into mature neurons. Stroke also leads to accumulation of microglia in the SVZ but their role for neurogenesis is unclear. Here we developed a method for selective depletion of the macrophage antigen complex-1 (Mac-1)-expressing microglia population in the SVZ by intraventricular injection of the immunotoxin Mac-1-saporin in rats. We found that the vast majority of Mac-1+ cells were Iba-1+ microglia. The Mac-1+ population was heterogeneous and included both a small proliferative pool of cells, which was not affected by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and a larger subpopulation that changed morphologically into a semi-activated state in response to the insult. This subpopulation did not increase its expression of the phagocytic marker ED1 but exhibited high levels of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2 (TREM-2), associated with alternative microglia activation. A minor portion of the SVZ Mac-1+ cells originated from the blood early after stroke, but this macrophage population became much more substantial at later stages. Almost 80% reduction of Mac-1-expressing microglia, caused by Mac-1 saporin delivered just before and at 1 week after MCAO, did not alter the numbers of newly formed neuroblasts in the striatum or their migratory distance. These findings indicate that the Mac-1-expressing microglia in the SVZ do not play a major role either for the number of neuroblasts which exit the SVZ or their migration in the striatum early following stroke.

  9. Activation of type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R promotes neurogenesis in murine subventricular zone cell cultures.

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    Sara Xapelli

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoid system has been implicated in the modulation of adult neurogenesis. Here, we describe the effect of type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R activation on self-renewal, proliferation and neuronal differentiation in mouse neonatal subventricular zone (SVZ stem/progenitor cell cultures. Expression of CB1R was detected in SVZ-derived immature cells (Nestin-positive, neurons and astrocytes. Stimulation of the CB1R by (R-(+-Methanandamide (R-m-AEA increased self-renewal of SVZ cells, as assessed by counting the number of secondary neurospheres and the number of Sox2+/+ cell pairs, an effect blocked by Notch pathway inhibition. Moreover, R-m-AEA treatment for 48 h, increased proliferation as assessed by BrdU incorporation assay, an effect mediated by activation of MAPK-ERK and AKT pathways. Surprisingly, stimulation of CB1R by R-m-AEA also promoted neuronal differentiation (without affecting glial differentiation, at 7 days, as shown by counting the number of NeuN-positive neurons in the cultures. Moreover, by monitoring intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca(2+]i in single cells following KCl and histamine stimuli, a method that allows the functional evaluation of neuronal differentiation, we observed an increase in neuronal-like cells. This proneurogenic effect was blocked when SVZ cells were co-incubated with R-m-AEA and the CB1R antagonist AM 251, for 7 days, thus indicating that this effect involves CB1R activation. In accordance with an effect on neuronal differentiation and maturation, R-m-AEA also increased neurite growth, as evaluated by quantifying and measuring the number of MAP2-positive processes. Taken together, these results demonstrate that CB1R activation induces proliferation, self-renewal and neuronal differentiation from mouse neonatal SVZ cell cultures.

  10. Physical exercise rescues defective neural stem cells and neurogenesis in the adult subventricular zone of Btg1 knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrorilli, Valentina; Scopa, Chiara; Saraulli, Daniele; Costanzi, Marco; Scardigli, Raffaella; Rouault, Jean-Pierre; Farioli-Vecchioli, Stefano; Tirone, Felice

    2017-02-28

    Adult neurogenesis occurs throughout life in the dentate gyrus (DG) and the subventricular zone (SVZ), where glia-like stem cells generate new neurons. Voluntary running is a powerful neurogenic stimulus triggering the proliferation of progenitor cells in the DG but, apparently, not in the SVZ. The antiproliferative gene Btg1 maintains the quiescence of DG and SVZ stem cells. Its ablation causes intense proliferation of DG and SVZ stem/progenitor cells in young mice, followed, during adulthood, by progressive decrease of the proliferative capacity. We have previously observed that running can rescue the deficit of DG Btg1-null neurogenesis. Here, we show that in adult Btg1-null SVZ stem and neuroblast cells, the reduction of proliferation is associated with a longer cell cycle and a more frequent entry into quiescence. Notably, running increases proliferation in Btg1-null SVZ stem cells highly above the levels of sedentary wild-type mice and restores normal values of cell cycle length and quiescence in stem and neuroblast cells, without affecting wild-type cells. Btg1-null SVZ neuroblasts show also increased migration throughout the rostral migratory stream and a deficiency of differentiated neurons in the olfactory bulb, possibly a consequence of premature exit from the cycle; running, however, normalizes migration and differentiation, increasing newborn neurons recruited to the olfactory circuitry. Furthermore, running increases the self-renewal of Btg1-null SVZ-derived neurospheres and, remarkably, in aged Btg1-null mice almost doubles the proliferating SVZ stem cells. Altogether, this reveals that SVZ stem cells are endowed with a hidden supply of self-renewal capacity, coupled to cell cycle acceleration and emerging after ablation of the quiescence-maintaining Btg1 gene and following exercise.

  11. ChAT-positive neurons participate in subventricular zone neurogenesis after middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice.

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    Wang, Jianping; Fu, Xiaojie; Zhang, Di; Yu, Lie; Li, Nan; Lu, Zhengfang; Gao, Yufeng; Wang, Menghan; Liu, Xi; Zhou, Chenguang; Han, Wei; Yan, Bo; Wang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    The mechanisms of post-stroke neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) are unclear. However, neural stem cell-intrinsic and neurogenic niche mechanisms, as well as neurotransmitters, have been shown to play important roles in SVZ neurogenesis. Recently, a previously unknown population of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)(+) neurons residing in rodent SVZ were identified to have direct control over neural stem cell proliferation by indirectly activating fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR). This finding revealed possible neuronal control over SVZ neurogenesis. In this study, we assessed whether these ChAT(+) neurons also participate in stroke-induced neurogenesis. We used a permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model produced by transcranial electrocoagulation in mice, atropine (muscarinic cholinergic receptor [mAchR] antagonist), and donepezil (acetylcholinesterase inhibitor) to investigate the role of ChAT(+) neurons in stroke-induced neurogenesis. We found that mAchRs, phosphorylated protein kinase C (p-PKC), and p-38 levels in the SVZ were upregulated in mice on day 7 after MCAO. MCAO also significantly increased the number of BrdU/doublecortin-positive cells and protein levels of phosphorylated-neural cell adhesion molecule and mammalian achaete scute homolog-1. FGFR was activated in the SVZ, and doublecortin-positive cells increased in the peri-infarction region. These post-stroke neurogenic effects were enhanced by donepezil and partially decreased by atropine. Neither atropine nor donepezil affected peri-infarct microglial activation or serum concentrations of TNF-α, IFN-γ, or TGF-β on day 7 after MCAO. We conclude that ChAT(+) neurons in the SVZ may participate in stroke-induced neurogenesis, suggesting a new mechanism for neurogenesis after stroke.

  12. Neural progenitor cells isolated from the subventricular zone present hemichannel activity and form functional gap junctions with glial cells.

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    Talaverón, Rocío; Fernández, Paola; Escamilla, Rosalba; Pastor, Angel M; Matarredona, Esperanza R; Sáez, Juan C

    2015-01-01

    The postnatal subventricular zone (SVZ) lining the walls of the lateral ventricles contains neural progenitor cells (NPCs) that generate new olfactory bulb interneurons. Communication via gap junctions between cells in the SVZ is involved in NPC proliferation and in neuroblast migration towards the olfactory bulb. SVZ NPCs can be expanded in vitro in the form of neurospheres that can be used for transplantation purposes after brain injury. We have previously reported that neurosphere-derived NPCs form heterocellular gap junctions with host glial cells when they are implanted after mechanical injury. To analyze functionality of NPC-glial cell gap junctions we performed dye coupling experiments in co-cultures of SVZ NPCs with astrocytes or microglia. Neurosphere-derived cells expressed mRNA for at least the hemichannel/gap junction channel proteins connexin 26 (Cx26), Cx43, Cx45 and pannexin 1 (Panx1). Dye coupling experiments revealed that gap junctional communication occurred among neurosphere cells (incidence of coupling: 100%). Moreover, hemichannel activity was also detected in neurosphere cells as evaluated in time-lapse measurements of ethidium bromide uptake. Heterocellular coupling between NPCs and glial cells was evidenced in co-cultures of neurospheres with astrocytes (incidence of coupling: 91.0 ± 4.7%) or with microglia (incidence of coupling: 71.9 ± 6.7%). Dye coupling in neurospheres and in co-cultures was inhibited by octanol, a gap junction blocker. Altogether, these results suggest the existence of functional hemichannels and gap junction channels in postnatal SVZ neurospheres. In addition, they demonstrate that SVZ-derived NPCs can establish functional gap junctions with astrocytes or microglia. Therefore, cell-cell communication via gap junctions and hemichannels with host glial cells might subserve a role in the functional integration of NPCs after implantation in the damaged brain.

  13. BTG1 is required to maintain the pool of stem and progenitor cells of dentate gyrus and subventricular zone

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    Stefano eFarioli-Vecchioli

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Btg1 belongs to a family of cell cycle inhibitory genes. We observed that Btg1 is highly expressed in adult neurogenic niches, i.e., the dentate gyrus and subventricular zone (SVZ. Thus, we generated Btg1 knockout mice to analyze the role of Btg1 in the process of generation of adult new neurons.Ablation of Btg1 causes a transient increase of the proliferating dentate gyrus stem and progenitor cells at post-natal day 7; however, at two months of age the number of these proliferating cells, as well as of mature neurons, greatly decreases compared to wild-type controls. Remarkably, adult dentate gyrus stem and progenitor cells of Btg1-null mice exit cell cycle after completing the S phase, highly express p53 and p21, and within 5 days undergo apoptosis. In SVZ we observed an equivalent decrease, associated to apoptosis, of Btg1-null stem cells, neuroblasts and neurons; furthermore, neurospheres derived from SVZ stem cells showed an age-dependent decrease of the self-renewal and expansion capacity.We conclude that the ablation of Btg1 reduces the pool of dividing adult stem and progenitor cells in dentate gyrus and SVZ by decreasing their proliferative capacity and inducing apoptosis, likely reflecting the impairment of the control of the cell cycle transition from G1 to S phase. As a result, the ability of Btg1-null mice to discriminate among overlapping contextual memories was affected. Thus, Btg1 appears to be required for maintaining adult stem and progenitor cells quiescence and self-renewal.

  14. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling does not stimulate subventricular zone neurogenesis in adult mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, Rui P; Garcia-Verdugo, José Manuel; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo

    2008-12-10

    In rodents, the adult subventricular zone (SVZ) generates neuroblasts which migrate to the olfactory bulb (OB) and differentiate into interneurons. Recent work suggests that the neurotrophin Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) can enhance adult SVZ neurogenesis, but the mechanism by which it acts is unknown. Here, we analyzed the role of BDNF and its receptor TrkB in adult SVZ neurogenesis. We found that TrkB is the most prominent neurotrophin receptor in the mouse SVZ, but only the truncated, kinase-negative isoform (TrkB-TR) was detected. TrkB-TR is expressed in SVZ astrocytes and ependymal cells, but not in neuroblasts. TrkB mutants have reduced SVZ proliferation and survival and fewer new OB neurons. To test whether this effect is cell-autonomous, we grafted SVZ cells from TrkB knock-out mice (TrkB-KO) into the SVZ of wild-type mice (WT). Grafted progenitors generated neuroblasts that migrated to the OB in the absence of TrkB. The survival and differentiation of granular interneurons and Calbindin(+) periglomerular interneurons seemed unaffected by the loss of TrkB, whereas dopaminergic periglomerular neurons were reduced. Intra-ventricular infusion of BDNF yielded different results depending on the animal species, having no effect on neuron production from mouse SVZ, while decreasing it in rats. Interestingly, mice and rats also differ in their expression of the neurotrophin receptor p75. Our results indicate that TrkB is not essential for adult SVZ neurogenesis and do not support the current view that delivering BDNF to the SVZ can enhance adult neurogenesis.

  15. SSEA-4 and YKL-40 positive progenitor subtypes in the subventricular zone of developing human neocortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøchner, Christian B; Møllgård, Kjeld

    2016-01-01

    . Adjacent to the ventricular zone, a minor fraction showed overlap with GFAP but not with nestin, Olig2, NG2, or S100. No co-localization was found with neuronal markers NeuN, calbindin, DCX or with markers for microglial cells (Iba-1, CD68). Moreover, the SSEA-4 and YKL-40 positive cell population...... characterized by immunohistochemical combination of antibodies against SSEA-4 and YKL-40 and devoid of neuronal and microglial markers represent a yet unexplored astrogenic lineage illustrating the complexity of astroglial development. GLIA 2015....

  16. Metallic gold treatment reduces proliferation of inflammatory cells, increases expression of VEGF and FGF, and stimulates cell proliferation in the subventricular zone following experimental traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mie Østergaard; Larsen, Agnete; Pedersen, Dan Sonne

    2009-01-01

    -treated mice subjected to cryo-lesion served as controls. The effects of gold-treatment were investigated by examining gold-induced growth factor expression (VEGF and FGF) in the first two weeks after the insult, and the extent of the neurostimulatory effect of gold was explored by comparing cell proliferation...... in the subventricular zone as judged by immunohistochemical staining for CDC47. Vimentin staining revealed a decrease in activated microglia and a transient astrogliosis in response to the gold liberation. Moreover, gold ions significantly increase the expression of VEGF and FGF following trauma and a significant...

  17. Optimizing culture medium composition to improve oligodendrocyte progenitor cell yields in vitro from subventricular zone-derived neural progenitor cell neurospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Paula G; Pasquini, Juana M; Silvestroff, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells (NSC/NPC) are gathering tangible recognition for their uses in cell therapy and cell replacement therapies for human disease, as well as a model system to continue research on overall neural developmental processes in vitro. The Subventricular Zone is one of the largest NSC/NPC niches in the developing mammalian Central Nervous System, and persists through to adulthood. Oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) enriched cultures are usefull tools for in vitro studies as well as for cell replacement therapies for treating demyelination diseases. We used Subventricular Zone-derived NSC/NPC primary cultures from newborn mice and compared the effects of different growth factor combinations on cell proliferation and OPC yield. The Platelet Derived Growth Factor-AA and BB homodimers had a positive and significant impact on OPC generation. Furthermore, heparin addition to the culture media contributed to further increase overall culture yields. The OPC generated by this protocol were able to mature into Myelin Basic Protein-expressing cells and to interact with neurons in an in vitro co-culture system. As a whole, we describe an optimized in vitro method for increasing OPC.

  18. Functional electrical stimulation increases neural stem/progenitor cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the subventricular zone of rats with stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hui-hua; XIANG Yun; YAN Tie-bin; TAN Zhi-mei; LI Sheng-huo; HE Xiao-kuo

    2013-01-01

    Background Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is known to promote the recovery of motor function in rats with ischemia and to upregulate the expression of growth factors which support brain neurogenesis.In this study,we investigated whether postischemic FES could improve functional outcomes and modulate neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) after focal cerebral ischemia.Methods Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats with permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) were randomly assigned to the control group,the placebo stimulation group,and the FES group.The rats in each group were further assigned to one of four therapeutic periods (1,3,7,or 14 days).FES was delivered 48 hours after the MCAO procedure and divided into two 10-minute sessions on each day of treatment with a 10-minute rest between them.Two intraperitoneal injections of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) were given 4 hours apart every day beginning 48 hours after the MCAO.Neurogenesis was evaluated by immunofluorescence staining.Wnt-3 which is strongly implicated in the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) was investigated by Western blotting analysis.The data wera subjected to oneway analysis of variance (ANOVA),followed by a Tukey/Kramer or Dunnett post hoc test.Results FES significantly increased the number of BrdU-positive cells and BrdU/glial flbrillary acidic protein doublepositive neural progenitor cells in the SVZ on days 7 and 14 of the treatment (P <0.05).The number of BrdU/doublecortin (DCX) double-positive migrating neuroblast cells in the ipsilateral SVZ on day 14 of the FES treatment group ((522.77±33.32) cells/mm2) was significantly increased compared with the control group ((262.58±35.11) cells/mm2,P <0.05) and the placebo group ((266.17±47.98) cells/mm2,P <0.05).However,only a few BrdU/neuron-specific nuclear protein-positive cells were observed by day 14 of the treatment.At day 7,Wnt-3 was upregulated in the ipsilateral SVZs of the rats receiving

  19. The 5'-flanking region of the RP58 coding sequence shows prominent promoter activity in multipolar cells in the subventricular zone during corticogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtaka-Maruyama, C; Hirai, S; Miwa, A; Takahashi, A; Okado, H

    2012-01-10

    Pyramidal neurons of the neocortex are produced from progenitor cells located in the neocortical ventricular zone (VZ) and subventricular zone (SVZ) during embryogenesis. RP58 is a transcriptional repressor that is strongly expressed in the developing brain and plays an essential role in corticogenesis. The expression of RP58 is strictly regulated in a time-dependent and spatially restricted manner. It is maximally expressed in E15-16 embryonic cerebral cortex, localized specifically to the cortical plate and SVZ of the neocortex, hippocampus, and parts of amygdala during brain development, and found in glutamatergic but not GABAergic neurons. Identification of the promoter activity underlying specific expression patterns provides important clues to their mechanisms of action. Here, we show that the RP58 gene promoter is activated prominently in multipolar migrating cells, the first in vivo analysis of RP58 promoter activity in the brain. The 5.3 kb 5'-flanking genomic DNA of the RP58 coding region demonstrates promoter activity in neurons both in vitro and in vivo. This promoter is highly responsive to the transcription factor neurogenin2 (Ngn2), which is a direct upstream activator of RP58 expression. Using in utero electroporation, we demonstrate that RP58 gene promoter activity is first detected in a subpopulation of pin-like VZ cells, then prominently activated in migrating multipolar cells in the multipolar cell accumulation zone (MAZ) located just above the VZ. In dissociated primary cultured cortical neurons, RP58 promoter activity mimics in vivo expression patterns from a molecular standpoint that RP58 is expressed in a fraction of Sox2-positive progenitor cells, Ngn2-positive neuronal committed cells, and Tuj1-positive young neurons, but not in Dlx2-positive GABAergic neurons. Finally, we show that Cre recombinase expression under the control of the RP58 gene promoter is a feasible tool for conditional gene switching in post-mitotic multipolar migrating

  20. GABAA increases calcium in subventricular zone astrocyte-like cells through L- and T-type voltage-gated calcium channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Z Young

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In the adult neurogenic subventricular zone (SVZ, the behavior of astrocyte-like cells and some of their functions depend on changes in intracellular Ca2+ levels and tonic GABAA receptor activation. However, it is unknown whether, and if so how, GABAA receptor activity regulates intracellular Ca2+ dynamics in SVZ astrocytes. To monitor Ca2+ activity selectively in astrocyte-like cells, we used two lines of transgenic mice expressing either GFP fused to a Gq-coupled receptor or DsRed under the human glial fibrillary acidic protein (hGFAP promoter. GABAA receptor activation induced Ca2+ increases in 40-50% of SVZ astrocytes. GABAA-induced Ca2+ increases were prevented with nifedipine and mibefradil, blockers of L- and T-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC. The L-type Ca2+ channel activator BayK 8644 increased the percentage of GABAA-responding astrocyte-like cells to 75%, suggesting that the majority of SVZ astrocytes express functional VGCCs. SVZ astrocytes also displayed spontaneous Ca2+ activity, the frequency of which was regulated by tonic GABAA receptor activation. These data support a role for ambient GABA in tonically regulating intracellular Ca2+ dynamics through GABAA receptors and VGCC in a subpopulation of astrocyte-like cells in the postnatal SVZ.

  1. Activated regulatory T cell regulates neural stem cell proliferation in the subventricular zone of normal and ischemic mouse brain through interleukin 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jixian; Xie, Luokun; Yang, Chenqi; Ren, Changhong; Zhou, Kaijing; Wang, Brian; Zhang, Zhijun; Wang, Yongting; Jin, Kunlin; Yang, Guo-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the depletion of Regulatory T cells (Tregs) inhibits neural progenitor cell migration after brain ischemia. However, whether Tregs affect neural stem/progenitor cell proliferation is unclear. We explored the effect of Tregs on neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) after ischemia. Tregs were isolated and activated in vitro. Adult male C57BL/6 mice underwent 60 min transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). Then Tregs (1 × 105) were injected into the left lateral ventricle (LV) of normal and ischemic mouse brain. Neurogenesis was determined by immunostaining. The mechanism was examined by inhibiting interleukin 10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor (TGF-β) signaling. We found that the number of BrdU+ cells in the SVZ was significantly increased in the activated Tregs-treated mice. Double immunostaining showed that these BrdU+ cells expressed Mash1. Blocking IL-10 reduced the number of Mash1+/BrdU+ cells, but increased the amount of GFAP+/BrdU+ cells. Here, we conclude that activated Tregs enhanced neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation in the SVZ of normal and ischemic mice; blockage of IL-10 abolished Tregs-mediated NSC proliferation in vivo and in vitro. Our results suggest that activated Tregs promoted NSC proliferation via IL-10, which provides a new therapeutic approach for ischemic stroke. PMID:26441532

  2. RE1 silencing transcription factor/neuron-restrictive silencing factor regulates expansion of adult mouse subventricular zone-derived neural stem/progenitor cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldati, Chiara; Caramanica, Pasquale; Burney, Matthew J; Toselli, Camilla; Bithell, Angela; Augusti-Tocco, Gabriella; Stanton, Lawrence W; Biagioni, Stefano; Buckley, Noel J; Cacci, Emanuele

    2015-08-01

    Adult neural stem cell (aNSC) activity is tuned by external stimuli through the recruitment of transcription factors. This study examines the RE1 silencing transcription factor (REST) in neural stem/progenitor cells isolated from the subventricular zone of adult mouse brain and provides the first extensive characterization of REST-mediated control of the cellular and molecular properties. This study shows that REST knockdown affects the capacity of progenitor cells to generate neurospheres, reduces cell proliferation, and triggers cell differentiation despite the presence of growth factors. Genome- and transcriptome-wide analyses show that REST binding sites are significantly enriched in genes associated with synaptic transmission and nervous system development and function. Seeking candidate regulators of aNSC function, this study identifies a member of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family, BMP6, the mRNA and protein of which increased after REST knockdown. The results of this study extend previous findings, demonstrating a reciprocal control of REST expression by BMPs. Administration of exogenous BMP6 inhibits aNSC proliferation and induces the expression of the astrocytic marker glial fibrillary acidic protein, highlighting its antimitogenic and prodifferentiative effects. This study suggests that BMP6 produced in a REST-regulated manner together with other signals can contribute to regulation of NSC maintenance and fate.

  3. A Novel Biopsy Method for Isolating Neural Stem Cells from the Subventricular Zone of the Adult Rat Brain for Autologous Transplantation in CNS Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aligholi, Hadi; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza; Gorji, Ali; Azari, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Despite all attempts the problem of regeneration in damaged central nervous system (CNS) has remained challenging due to its cellular complexity and highly organized and sophisticated connections. In this regard, stem cell therapy might serve as a viable therapeutic approach aiming either to support the damaged tissue and hence to reduce the subsequent neurological dysfunctions and impairments or to replace the lost cells and re-establish damaged circuitries. Adult neural stem/progenitor cells (NS/PCs) are one of the outstanding cell sources that can be isolated from the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles. These cells can differentiate into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. Implanting autologous NS/PCs will greatly benefit the patients by avoiding immune rejection after implantation, better survival, and integration with the host tissue. Developing safe and efficient methods in small animal models will provide us with the opportunity to optimize procedures required to achieve successful human autologous NS/PC transplantation in near future. In this chapter, a highly controlled and safe biopsy method for harvesting stem cell containing tissue from the SVZ of adult rat brain is introduced. Then, isolation and expansion of NS/PCs from harvested specimen as well as the techniques to verify proliferation and differentiation capacity of the resulting NS/PCs are discussed. Finally, a method for assessing the biopsy lesion volume in the brain is described. This safe biopsy method in rat provides a unique tool to study autologous NS/PC transplantation in different CNS injury models.

  4. Cannabinoids modulate Olig2 and polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule expression in the subventricular zone of post-natal rats through cannabinoid receptor 1 and cannabinoid receptor 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arévalo-Martín, Angel; García-Ovejero, Daniel; Rubio-Araiz, Ana; Gómez, Oscar; Molina-Holgado, Francisco; Molina-Holgado, Eduardo

    2007-09-01

    The subventricular zone (SVZ) is a source of post-natal glial precursors that can migrate to the overlying white matter, where they may differentiate into oligodendrocytes. We showed that, in the post-natal SVZ ependymocytes, radial glia and astrocyte-like cells express cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1), whereas cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) is found in cells expressing the polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule. To study CB1 and CB2 function, post-natal rats were exposed to selective CB1 or CB2 agonists (arachidonyl-2-chloroethylamide and JWH-056, respectively) for 15 days. Accordingly, we found that CB1 activation increases the number of Olig2-positive cells in the dorsolateral SVZ, whereas CB2 activation increases polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule expression in this region. As intense myelination occurs during the first weeks of post-natal development, we examined how modulating these factors affected the expression of myelin basic protein. Pharmacological administration of agonists and antagonists of CB1 and CB2 showed that the activation of both receptors is needed to augment the expression of myelin basic protein in the subcortical white matter.

  5. Early Inflammatory Responses Following Cell Grafting in the CNS Trigger Activation of the Subventricular Zone: A Proposed Model of Sequential Cellular Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praet, Jelle; Santermans, Eva; Daans, Jasmijn; Le Blon, Debbie; Hoornaert, Chloé; Goossens, Herman; Hens, Niel; Van der Linden, Annemie; Berneman, Zwi; Ponsaerts, Peter

    2015-01-01

    While multiple rodent preclinical studies, and to a lesser extent human clinical trials, claim the feasibility, safety, and potential clinical benefit of cell grafting in the central nervous system (CNS), currently only little convincing knowledge exists regarding the actual fate of the grafted cells and their effect on the surrounding environment (or vice versa). Our preceding studies already indicated that only a minor fraction of the initially grafted cell population survives the grafting process, while the surviving cell population becomes invaded by highly activated microglia/macrophages and surrounded by reactive astrogliosis. In the current study, we further elaborate on early cellular and inflammatory events following syngeneic grafting of eGFP(+) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (mEFs) in the CNS of immunocompetent mice. Based on obtained quantitative histological data, we here propose a detailed mathematically derived working model that sequentially comprises hypoxia-induced apoptosis of grafted mEFs, neutrophil invasion, neoangiogenesis, microglia/macrophage recruitment, astrogliosis, and eventually survival of a limited number of grafted mEFs. Simultaneously, we observed that the cellular events following mEF grafting activates the subventricular zone neural stem and progenitor cell compartment. This proposed model therefore further contributes to our understanding of cell graft-induced cellular responses and will eventually allow for successful manipulation of this intervention.

  6. Abundant occurrence of basal radial glia in the subventricular zone of embryonic neocortex of a lissencephalic primate, the common marmoset Callithrix jacchus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelava, Iva; Reillo, Isabel; Murayama, Ayako Y; Kalinka, Alex T; Stenzel, Denise; Tomancak, Pavel; Matsuzaki, Fumio; Lebrand, Cécile; Sasaki, Erika; Schwamborn, Jens C; Okano, Hideyuki; Huttner, Wieland B; Borrell, Víctor

    2012-02-01

    Subventricular zone (SVZ) progenitors are a hallmark of the developing neocortex. Recent studies described a novel type of SVZ progenitor that retains a basal process at mitosis, sustains expression of radial glial markers, and is capable of self-renewal. These progenitors, referred to here as basal radial glia (bRG), occur at high relative abundance in the SVZ of gyrencephalic primates (human) and nonprimates (ferret) but not lissencephalic rodents (mouse). Here, we analyzed the occurrence of bRG cells in the embryonic neocortex of the common marmoset Callithrix jacchus, a near-lissencephalic primate. bRG cells, expressing Pax6, Sox2 (but not Tbr2), glutamate aspartate transporter, and glial fibrillary acidic protein and retaining a basal process at mitosis, occur at similar relative abundance in the marmoset SVZ as in human and ferret. The proportion of progenitors in M-phase was lower in embryonic marmoset than developing ferret neocortex, raising the possibility of a longer cell cycle. Fitting the gyrification indices of 26 anthropoid species to an evolutionary model suggested that the marmoset evolved from a gyrencephalic ancestor. Our results suggest that a high relative abundance of bRG cells may be necessary, but is not sufficient, for gyrencephaly and that the marmoset's lissencephaly evolved secondarily by changing progenitor parameters other than progenitor type.

  7. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels influence the balance of migration and differentiation of subventricular zone cells, but not guidance to the olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petridis, Athanasios K; El Maarouf, Abderrahman

    2011-02-01

    New progenitor cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) migrate rostrally and differentiate into interneurons in the olfactory bulb (OB) throughout life. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may influence the normal progression of this migration. In the present study, mouse SVZ explant cultures were used to investigate how BDNF modulates the behavior of these migrating progenitors. Concentrations of BDNF in the physiological range (e.g. 1ng/mL) stimulated migration, whereas doses of 10 ng/mL or higher induced SVZ cell differentiation and reduced migration. Pharmacological inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway blocked the BDNF-induced differentiation of SVZ progenitors, indicating that differentiation of SVZ progenitors in response to high-dose BDNF is initiated through MAPK. Physiological concentrations of BDNF, like the presence of polysialic acid in the tissue, stimulated migration of cells from the explant without affecting the speed at which this occurs. Interestingly, in vivo immunohistochemical and molecular analysis showed similar levels of BDNF in both the SVZ and OB; that is, there was no positive gradient attracting SVZ cells towards the OB. Our data show that SVZ cells respond differently to different concentrations of BDNF.

  8. Novel in vivo imaging techniques for trafficking the behavior of subventricular zone neural stem cells (SVZSC) and SVZSC induced functional repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anna-Liisa Brownell

    2003-11-28

    Adult progenitor cells hold promise for therapeutic treatment where there has been a disabling loss of function due to death of cells from trauma, disease or aging. However, it will be essential in clinical application to be able to follow the fate of the transplanted cells over time using in vivo tracking methods. We have developed protocol for labeling of progenitor cells to monitor cell trafficking by high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and super high resolution positron emission tomography (PET). We have transfected rat subventricular zone stem cells (SVZ, progenitor cell line) and another control cell line (PC12, pheochromocytoma cells) utilizing super paramagnetic iron oxide and poly-L-lysine complex for MR imaging or radiolabeling with 18F-fluor deoxy-D- glucose for PET imaging. The labeled cells were transplanted into the rostral migratory stream (RMS) or striatum of normal or 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned Spraque-Dawley rats. Longitudinal MRI studies (up to 40 days) showed that transplantation site has significant impact to the fate of the cells; when SVZ cells were transplanted into the RMS, cells migrated several centimeter into the olfactory bulb; after transplantation into the striatum, the migration was minimal, only 2 mm. PC 12 cells grew a massive tumor after the striatal implantation and significantly smaller tumor after the RMS implantation. PET studies conducted immediately after transplantation verified the transplantation site. MRI studies were able to show the whole path of migration in one image, since part of the cells die during migration and will get detected because of iron content. Endpoint histological studies verified the cell survival and immunohistochemical studies revealed the differentiation of the transplanted cells into astrocytes and neurons.

  9. Chemokines influence the migration and fate of neural precursor cells from the young adult and middle-aged rat subventricular zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, R J; Mehrabi, N F; Maucksch, C; Connor, B

    2012-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated a role for the chemokines MCP-1, MIP-1α and GRO-α in directing subventricular zone (SVZ)-derived neural precursor cell migration towards the site of cell death in the adult rodent brain. However the influence of chemokines such as MCP-1, MIP-1α and GRO-α on the differentiation of adult neural precursor cells has not previously been investigated. Further, as the majority of neurological disorders and injuries occur during ageing, it is important to investigate the effect of chemokines on adult neural precursor cell cultures obtained from the ageing brain. This study therefore examined the effect of MCP-1, MIP-1α and GRO-α on SVZ-derived neural precursor cell differentiation in vitro, and assessed whether precursor cells from the middle-aged rat brain (13 months old) follow the same migratory and differential profile as neural precursor cells obtained from the young adult rat brain (2 months old). We observed that each of the chemokines examined generated differing effects in regards to neuronal or glial differentiation. Further, both MIP-1α and GRO-α increased total cell number, suggesting an effect on precursor cell proliferation and/or survival. In agreement with cultures obtained from young adult brains, SVZ-derived neural precursor cells cultured from the middle-aged brain exhibited chemotactic migration in response to a concentration gradient. These results indicate that the chemokines MCP-1, MIP-1α and GRO-α can influence both the migration and fate choice of SVZ-derived neural precursor cells, as well as promoting cell viability. While a response to each of these chemokines is maintained in the middle-aged brain, a distinct age-related alteration in differential fate can be identified.

  10. Reduction in subventricular zone-derived olfactory bulb neurogenesis in a rat model of Huntington's disease is accompanied by striatal invasion of neuroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Kandasamy

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is an inherited progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expanded CAG repeat in exon 1 of the huntingtin gene (HTT. The primary neuropathology of HD has been attributed to the preferential degeneration of medium spiny neurons (MSN in the striatum. Reports on striatal neurogenesis have been a subject of debate; nevertheless, it should be considered as an endogenous attempt to repair the brain. The subventricular zone (SVZ might offer a close-by region to supply the degenerated striatum with new cells. Previously, we have demonstrated that R6/2 mice, a widely used preclinical model representing an early onset HD, showed reduced olfactory bulb (OB neurogenesis but induced striatal migration of neuroblasts without affecting the proliferation of neural progenitor cell (NPCs in the SVZ. The present study revisits these findings, using a clinically more relevant transgenic rat model of late onset HD (tgHD rats carrying the human HTT gene with 51 CAG repeats and mimicking many of the neuropathological features of HD seen in patients. We demonstrate that cell proliferation is reduced in the SVZ and OB of tgHD rats compared to WT rats. In the OB of tgHD rats, although cell survival was reduced, the frequency of neuronal differentiation was not altered in the granule cell layer (GCL compared to the WT rats. However, an increased frequency of dopamenergic neuronal differentiation was noticed in the glomerular layer (GLOM of tgHD rats. Besides this, we observed a selective proliferation of neuroblasts in the adjacent striatum of tgHD rats. There was no evidence for neuronal maturation and survival of these striatal neuroblasts. Therefore, the functional role of these invading neuroblasts still needs to be determined, but they might offer an endogenous alternative for stem or neuronal cell transplantation strategies.

  11. Comparison of cortical and white matter traumatic brain injury models reveals differential effects in the subventricular zone and divergent Sonic hedgehog signaling pathways in neuroblasts and oligodendrocyte progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierzwa, Amanda J; Sullivan, Genevieve M; Beer, Laurel A; Ahn, Sohyun; Armstrong, Regina C

    2014-01-01

    The regenerative capacity of the central nervous system must be optimized to promote repair following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and may differ with the site and form of damage. Sonic hedgehog (Shh) maintains neural stem cells and promotes oligodendrogenesis. We examined whether Shh signaling contributes to neuroblast (doublecortin) or oligodendrocyte progenitor (neural/glial antigen 2 [NG2]) responses in two distinct TBI models. Shh-responsive cells were heritably labeled in vivo using Gli1-CreER(T2);R26-YFP bitransgenic mice with tamoxifen administration on Days 2 and 3 post-TBI. Injury to the cerebral cortex was produced with mild controlled cortical impact. Yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) cells decreased in cortical lesions. Total YFP cells increased in the subventricular zone (SVZ), indicating Shh pathway activation in SVZ cells, including doublecortin-labeled neuroblasts. The alternate TBI model produced traumatic axonal injury in the corpus callosum. YFP cells decreased within the SVZ and were rarely double labeled as NG2 progenitors. NG2 progenitors increased in the cortex, with a similar pattern in the corpus callosum. To further test the potential of NG2 progenitors to respond through Shh signaling, Smoothened agonist was microinjected into the corpus callosum to activate Shh signaling. YFP cells and NG2 progenitors increased in the SVZ but were not double labeled. This result indicates that either direct Smoothened activation in NG2 progenitors does not signal through Gli1 or that Smoothened agonist acts indirectly to increase NG2 progenitors. Therefore, in all conditions, neuroblasts exhibited differential Shh pathway utilization compared with oligodendrocyte progenitors. Notably, cortical versus white matter damage from TBI produced opposite responses of Shh-activated cells within the SVZ.

  12. Comparison of Cortical and White Matter Traumatic Brain Injury Models Reveals Differential Effects in the Subventricular Zone and Divergent Sonic Hedgehog Signaling Pathways in Neuroblasts and Oligodendrocyte Progenitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda J. Mierzwa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The regenerative capacity of the central nervous system must be optimized to promote repair following traumatic brain injury (TBI and may differ with the site and form of damage. Sonic hedgehog (Shh maintains neural stem cells and promotes oligodendrogenesis. We examined whether Shh signaling contributes to neuroblast (doublecortin or oligodendrocyte progenitor (neural/glial antigen 2 [NG2] responses in two distinct TBI models. Shh-responsive cells were heritably labeled in vivo using Gli1-CreERT2;R26-YFP bitransgenic mice with tamoxifen administration on Days 2 and 3 post-TBI. Injury to the cerebral cortex was produced with mild controlled cortical impact. Yellow fluorescent protein (YFP cells decreased in cortical lesions. Total YFP cells increased in the subventricular zone (SVZ, indicating Shh pathway activation in SVZ cells, including doublecortin-labeled neuroblasts. The alternate TBI model produced traumatic axonal injury in the corpus callosum. YFP cells decreased within the SVZ and were rarely double labeled as NG2 progenitors. NG2 progenitors increased in the cortex, with a similar pattern in the corpus callosum. To further test the potential of NG2 progenitors to respond through Shh signaling, Smoothened agonist was microinjected into the corpus callosum to activate Shh signaling. YFP cells and NG2 progenitors increased in the SVZ but were not double labeled. This result indicates that either direct Smoothened activation in NG2 progenitors does not signal through Gli1 or that Smoothened agonist acts indirectly to increase NG2 progenitors. Therefore, in all conditions, neuroblasts exhibited differential Shh pathway utilization compared with oligodendrocyte progenitors. Notably, cortical versus white matter damage from TBI produced opposite responses of Shh-activated cells within the SVZ.

  13. Conical expansion of the outer subventricular zone and the role of neocortical folding in evolution and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric eLewitus

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available There is a basic rule to mammalian neocortical expansion: as it expands, so does it fold. The degree to which it folds, however, cannot strictly be attributed to its expansion. Across species, cortical volume does not keep pace with cortical surface area, but rather folds appear more rapidly than expected. As a result, larger brains quickly become disproportionately more convoluted than smaller brains. Both the absence (lissencephaly and presence (gyrencephaly of cortical folds is observed in all mammalian orders and, while there is likely some phylogenetic signature to the evolutionary appearance of gyri and sulci, there are undoubtedly universal trends to the acquisition of folds in an expanding neocortex. Whether these trends are governed by conical expansion of neocortical germinal zones, the distribution of cortical connectivity, or a combination of growth- and connectivity-driven forces remains an open question. But the importance of cortical folding for evolution of the uniquely mammalian neocortex, as well as for the incidence of neuropathologies in humans, is undisputed. In this hypothesis and theory article, we will summarize the development of cortical folds in the neocortex, consider the relative influence of growth- versus connectivity-driven forces for the acquisition of cortical folds between and within species, assess the genetic, cell-biological, and mechanistic implications for neocortical expansion, and discuss the significance of these implications for human evolution, development, and disease. We will argue that evolutionary increases in the density of neuron production, achieved via maintenance of a basal proliferative niche in the neocortical germinal zones, drive the conical migration of neurons towards the cortical surface and ultimately lead to the establishment of cortical folds in large-brained mammal species.

  14. Analysis of space-borne data for coastal zone information extraction of Goa Coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; Wagle, B.G.

    Space-borne data covering the coastal zone of Goa State were processed using digital and visual image-processing techniques to extract information about the coastal zone. Digital image processing of thematic data included principal component...

  15. Mosaic Subventricular Origins of Forebrain Oligodendrogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azim, Kasum; Berninger, Benedikt; Raineteau, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    In the perinatal as well as the adult CNS, the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the forebrain is the largest and most active source of neural stem cells (NSCs) that generates neurons and oligodendrocytes (OLs), the myelin forming cells of the CNS. Recent advances in the field are beginning to shed light regarding SVZ heterogeneity, with the existence of spatially segregated microdomains that are intrinsically biased to generate phenotypically distinct neuronal populations. Although most research has focused on this regionalization in the context of neurogenesis, newer findings underline that this also applies for the genesis of OLs under the control of specific patterning molecules. In this mini review, we discuss the origins as well as the mechanisms that induce and maintain SVZ regionalization. These come in the flavor of specific signaling ligands and subsequent initiation of transcriptional networks that provide a basis for subdividing the SVZ into distinct lineage-specific microdomains. We further emphasize canonical Wnts and FGF2 as essential signaling pathways for the regional genesis of OL progenitors from NSCs of the dorsal SVZ. This aspect of NSC biology, which has so far received little attention, may unveil new avenues for appropriately recruiting NSCs in demyelinating diseases. PMID:27047329

  16. Mosaic subventricular origins of forebrain oligodendroglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasum eAzim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the perinatal as well as the adult CNS, the subventricular zone (SVZ of the forebrain is the largest and most active source of neural stem cells (NSCs that generates neurons and oligodendrocytes (OLs, the myelin forming cells of the CNS. Recent advances in the field are beginning to shed light regarding SVZ heterogeneity, with the existence of spatially segregated microdomains that are intrinsically biased to generate phenotypically distinct neuronal populations. Although most research has focused on this regionalization in the context of neurogenesis, newer findings underline that this also applies for the genesis of OLs under the control of specific patterning molecules. In this mini review, we discuss the origins as well as the mechanisms that induce and maintain SVZ regionalization. These come in the flavor of specific signaling ligands and subsequent initiation of transcriptional networks that provide a basis for subdividing the SVZ into distinct lineage-specific microdomains. We further emphasize canonical Wnt and FGF2 as essential signaling pathways for the regional genesis of OL progenitors from NSCs of the dorsal SVZ. This aspect of NSC biology, which has so far received little attention, may unveil new avenues for appropriately recruiting NSCs in demyelinating diseases.

  17. 缺氧缺血对人类胚胎脑室管膜下区神经细胞亚群的影响%Effects of hypoxia-ischemia on different neural cells in subventricular zone of human fetus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕舞; 陈燕惠

    2008-01-01

    higher survival rate than neurons and oligodendrocyte progenitors.%目的 研究缺氧缺血对妊娠中期人类胚胎脑室管膜下区(subventricular zone,SVZ)神经细胞亚群的影响.方法 取即刻解离的妊娠中期人类胚胎脑SVZ细胞,分缺氧缺血组(HI组)和对照组短时培养.以氧糖缺失法(OGD)制备缺氧缺血损伤细胞模型.培养前以细胞成活率评价损伤程度,培养后以细胞特异性标志蛋白nestin、MAP2、GFAP、PDGFRa及RCA120的抗体通过免疫荧光细胞化学法分别鉴定神经干细胞(NSCs)、神经元、星形胶质细胞、少突胶质祖细胞及小胶质细胞,比较其百分含量.结果 HI组的细胞成活率(63.41%±0.06%),明显低于正常组(98.9%±0.01%)(P<0.001),短时培养后HI组中细胞亚群中含量最高的是GFAP(+)的星形胶质细胞56.48%±0.03%,其次为神经干细胞NSCs 22.47%±0.03%而PDGFRa(+)的少突胶质祖细胞含量最低;在对照组中最高则为MAP2(+)的神经元48.81%±0.03%,其次为GFAP(+)的星形胶质细胞32.31%±0.03%.含量最少的为小胶质细胞1.15%±0.01%.结论 妊娠中期人类胚胎脑SVZ含有NSCs、神经元、星形胶质细胞、少突胶质祖细胞和小胶质细胞,缺氧缺血对SVZ神经细胞损伤明显,不同细胞对缺氧缺血损伤的耐受性不同:NSCs、星形胶质细胞对缺氧缺血损伤的耐受性相对强于神经元、少突胶质祖细胞.

  18. 局灶缺血性脑卒中大鼠侧脑室下带Shh信号通路成分的动态表达%Dynamic Changes of the Expression of Sonic Hedgehog Signaling Pathway in the Subventricular Zone After Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范层层; 杨琴; 陈娜; 吴兆敏; 黄家贵

    2011-01-01

    通过研究Sonic hedgehog (Shh)信号通路成分在局灶缺血性脑卒中大鼠侧脑室下带(subventricular zone,SVZ)的动态表达,初步探讨该通路在局灶性缺血性脑卒中后神经再生的调控作用.将84只健康成年雄性SD大鼠随机分为正常组(n=12)、假手术组(n=12)、缺血6、12、24 h和3、7d,共7组(n=12).采用线栓法制备大鼠右侧大脑中动脉阻断(middle cerebral artery occlussion,MCAO)模型.分别应用逆转录聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)、免疫组化、免疫印迹法检测局灶脑缺血大鼠侧脑室下带Shh、Gli1 mRNA和蛋白变化.与正常组比较,Shh、Gli1mRNA和蛋白在假手术组表达变化不明显(P>0.05),模型组6h表达增高(P<0.01),24 h达峰值(P<0.01),3d时接近正常水平(P>0.05),7d表达又升高(P<0.01).缺血性脑卒中可以上调Shh信号通路成分在SVZ区的表达,提示Shh信号通路可能参与卒中后神经再生机制的调控.%To study the expression changes of Shh signaling pathway in the subventricular zone (SVZ) at different times after focal cerebral ischemia and find out whether the Shh pathway is involved in the regulation of the differentiation of the proliferated neural precursor cells in the SVZ under ischemic conditions. Eighty-four SD rats were divided into normal control group, sham operation group, experimental group at 6, 12, 24 h and 3, 7 d (n=l2 for time point) after surgery. Experimental group was made by filament occlusion of right middle cerebral artery. RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting were used to detect the mRNA and protein levels of Shh and Glil in the SVZ. Compared with the normal control group, the protein and mRNA expressions of Shh and Glil were not significantly changed in the sham operation (P>0.05). The protein and mRNA expressions of Shh and Glil were increased significantly at 6 h (P0.05) and increased significantly at 7 days (P<0.01) in experimental group. The up-regulation of the protein and mRNA levels

  19. The prevalence of serum antibodies to tick-borne infections in Mbale District, Uganda: The effect of agro-ecological zone, grazing management and age of cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rubaire-Akiiki

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Between August and October 2000, a cross-sectional study was conducted in smallholder dairy farms in Mbale District, Uganda to assess the prevalence of ticks and tick-borne diseases under different grazing systems and agro-ecological zones and understand the circumstances under which farmers operated. A questionnaire was administered to obtain information on dairy farm circumstances and practices. A total of 102 farms were visited and sera and ticks were collected from 478 animals. Sero-prevalence of tick-borne diseases was determined using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Acaricides were used indiscriminately but the intensity of their use varied with the grazing system and zone. Cattle from different farms mixed for various reasons. During the dry seasons farmers have to get additional fodder from outside their farms that can result in importation of ticks. The prevalence of ticks and serum antibodies to tick-borne infections differed across the grazing systems and zones. The highest serum antibody prevalence (>60% was recorded in the lowland zone under the free range and tethering grazing systems. The lowest tick challenge and serum antibody levels (<50% were recorded in the midland and upland zones under a zero-grazing system. These findings suggest that endemic stability to East Coast Fever, babesiosis and anaplasmosis is most likely to have existed in the lowland zone, particularly, under the tethering and free-range grazing systems. Also, endemic stability for babesiosis existed in the upland zones. Endemic instability for East Coast Fever existed in the midland and upland zones. These structured observational studies are instrumental in planning of control strategies for ticks and tick borne diseases since production systems and the cattle population at high risk of the diseases in the district have been identified.

  20. Urban Market Gardening and Rodent-Borne Pathogenic Leptospira in Arid Zones: A Case Study in Niamey, Niger.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauthier Dobigny

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis essentially affects human following contact with rodent urine-contaminated water. As such, it was mainly found associated with rice culture, recreational activities and flooding. This is also the reason why it has mainly been investigated in temperate as well as warm and humid regions, while arid zones have been only very occasionally monitored for this disease. In particular, data for West African countries are extremely scarce. Here, we took advantage of an extensive survey of urban rodents in Niamey, Niger, in order to look for rodent-borne pathogenic Leptospira species presence and distribution across the city. To do so, we used high throughput bacterial 16S-based metabarcoding, lipL32 gene-targeting RT-PCR, rrs gene sequencing and VNTR typing as well as GIS-based multivariate spatial analysis. Our results show that leptospires seem absent from the core city where usual Leptospira reservoir rodent species (namely R. rattus and M. natalensis are yet abundant. On the contrary, L. kirschneri was detected in Arvicanthis niloticus and Cricetomys gambianus, two rodent species that are restricted to irrigated cultures within the city. Moreover, the VNTR profiles showed that rodent-borne leptospires in Niamey belong to previously undescribed serovars. Altogether, our study points towards the importance of market gardening in maintain and circulation of leptospirosis within Sahelian cities. In Africa, irrigated urban agriculture constitutes a pivotal source of food supply, especially in the context of the ongoing extensive urbanization of the continent. With this in mind, we speculate that leptospirosis may represent a zoonotic disease of concern also in arid regions that would deserve to be more rigorously surveyed, especially in urban agricultural settings.

  1. Urban Market Gardening and Rodent-Borne Pathogenic Leptospira in Arid Zones: A Case Study in Niamey, Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobigny, Gauthier; Garba, Madougou; Tatard, Caroline; Loiseau, Anne; Galan, Max; Kadaouré, Ibrahima; Rossi, Jean-Pierre; Picardeau, Mathieu; Bertherat, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Leptospirosis essentially affects human following contact with rodent urine-contaminated water. As such, it was mainly found associated with rice culture, recreational activities and flooding. This is also the reason why it has mainly been investigated in temperate as well as warm and humid regions, while arid zones have been only very occasionally monitored for this disease. In particular, data for West African countries are extremely scarce. Here, we took advantage of an extensive survey of urban rodents in Niamey, Niger, in order to look for rodent-borne pathogenic Leptospira species presence and distribution across the city. To do so, we used high throughput bacterial 16S-based metabarcoding, lipL32 gene-targeting RT-PCR, rrs gene sequencing and VNTR typing as well as GIS-based multivariate spatial analysis. Our results show that leptospires seem absent from the core city where usual Leptospira reservoir rodent species (namely R. rattus and M. natalensis) are yet abundant. On the contrary, L. kirschneri was detected in Arvicanthis niloticus and Cricetomys gambianus, two rodent species that are restricted to irrigated cultures within the city. Moreover, the VNTR profiles showed that rodent-borne leptospires in Niamey belong to previously undescribed serovars. Altogether, our study points towards the importance of market gardening in maintain and circulation of leptospirosis within Sahelian cities. In Africa, irrigated urban agriculture constitutes a pivotal source of food supply, especially in the context of the ongoing extensive urbanization of the continent. With this in mind, we speculate that leptospirosis may represent a zoonotic disease of concern also in arid regions that would deserve to be more rigorously surveyed, especially in urban agricultural settings.

  2. 表皮生长因子和碱性成纤维细胞生长因子对人胎脑室下区神经干细胞增殖分化的影响%Effect of epidermal growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor on neural stem cells isolated from subventricular zone of human embryonic brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹晓娟; 封志纯

    2006-01-01

    differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) cause great difficulties for clinical application.Therefore, it is the key to solving the problem to investigate the proliferation and differentiation condition of NSCs.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF)and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells of human embryonic brain.DESIGN: A randomised and controlled experiment taking cultured human embryonic stem cells as subjects.SETTING: Department of Pediatrics of Zhujiang Hospital, the First Military Medical University of Chinese PLA.MATERIALS: This experiment was conducted at the Central Laboratory of the Department of Pediatrics of Chinese PLA from January to May 2004.Two 16-week embryos from induced labor by water bags voluntarily were chosen at random from the Department of Obstetrics in a tertiary hospital in Guangzhou (Informed consent was obtained from the parents of the fetuses). Then, cells in the subventricular zone were cultured in serum-free medium and serum medium, respectively.METHODS: Primary cells of subventricular zone of human embryonic brain were cultured with serum-free nedium containing EGF, bFGF and EGF + bFGF. The concentration of two growth factors was both 20 μg/L;experiment of differentiation was performed on the cell neurospheres cultured from the primary generation with serum culture medium; differentia tive cells were detected with immonohistochemical technique.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The number of neurospheres and the change of neurons and gliocytes from neurospheres in each group.RESULTS: ① There was no significant difference in the number of primary neurospheres between bFGF group and EGF+bFGF group [(150.3±14.9) /well vs (173.6±26.4)/we11, P > 0.05] , but the number in the two groups was both more than that in EGF group [(99.5±14.9)/we11, P < 0.01].② The neurons differentiated from neurospheres in bFGF group and EGF+bFGF group outnumbered those in EGF group

  3. 联合地塞米松治疗与肺炎链球菌脑膜炎室管膜下区碱性成纤维细胞生长因子表达的关系%The relationship between dexamethasone and the expression of basic fibroblast growth factor in subventricular zone of experimental streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秀英; 李玲; 廖锋; 向伟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between dexamethasone (DEX) and the expression of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in subventricular zone (SVZ) of experimental streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis. Methods Forty 3-week-old rats were used to develop the model of streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis, and were randomly divided into 4 groups of 10 rats each, antibiotic group, antibiotic plus DEX group, infection control group and normal control group. The expression level of bFGF in SVZ was detected by immunohistochemical staining. Results The expression level of bFGF in SVZ of rats in antibiotic group was similar to that of rats in infection control group (P>O.05). However, the expression level of bFGF in SVZ of rats in antibiotic plus DEX group was significantly higher than that of rats in antibiotic group and infection control group (P<0.01). Conclusions In the course of streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis, the combination therapy of antibiotics and DEX can up-regulate the expression level of bFGF in SVZ, which may promote neurogenesis and protect against brain injury in bacterial meningitis.%目的 探讨联合地塞米松(DEX)治疗与肺炎链球菌脑膜炎脑生发区域-室管膜下区(SVZ)碱性成纤维细胞生长因子(bFGF)表达的关系.方法 40只3周龄大鼠建立肺炎链球菌脑膜炎模型,分为抗生素组、抗生素联合DEX组、感染对照组、正常对照组,每组10只.免疫组化检测脑组织bFGF的表达.结果 抗生素组大鼠SVZ中的bFGF表达与感染对照组差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),而使用抗生素联合DEX组大鼠bFGF表达高于抗生素治疗组及感染对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 在肺炎链球菌脑膜炎病程中,联合DEX治疗可以上调bFGF在SVZ中的表达,可能有利于其促进神经生发,有利于抵御细菌性脑膜炎脑损伤.

  4. Artesunate promotes proliferation of rat neural stem cells from subventricular zone via PI3K-Akt pathway in vitro%青蒿琥酯通过PI3K-Akt通路促进大鼠室管膜下区神经干细胞增殖的体外研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛红飞; 左世伦; 李强; 谭亮; 吴江怡; 蒋周阳; 喻安永; 兰川; 胡荣

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨青蒿琥酯(artesunate,ART)对室管膜下区(subventricular zone,SVZ)神经干细胞(neural stem cells,NSCs)增殖的影响.方法 不同浓度的ART(400 nmol/L、800 nmol/L、1.6 μmol/L、3.2 μmol/L)作用于NSCs 24 h后,采用CCK-8法检测其对NSCs增殖的影响.促增殖作用明显的800 nmol/L ART组加入10 μmol/L PI3K-Akt通路阻断剂(LY294002),采用CCK-8法检测该通路对NSCs增殖的影响;分别设置空白对照组、LY294002组、800 nmol/L ART组、800 nmol/L ART+ LY294002组,待细胞培养24h时,行Ki-67免疫荧光染色观察ART对NSCs增殖的影响及PI3K-Akt通路在其中的作用,同时采用Western blot检测各组Nestin、Akt及p-Akt蛋白的表达水平.结果 ①CCK-8法检测结果显示800 nmol/L ART组在波长450 nm处的光密度值较空白对照组明显升高,在加入LY294002后,其光密度值明显下降(P<0.05),与空白对照组水平相当;②Ki-67免疫荧光染色结果提示800 nmol/L ART可促进NSCs增殖,LY294002可抑制这一作用;③Western blot检测结果显示:神经干细胞表面标志蛋白Nestin及p-Akt蛋白表达水平在800 nmol/L ART组明显上调,在加入LY294002后两者表达水平均下调(P<0.05).结论 ART可在体外促进SVZ区NSCs的增殖,其机制与PI3K-Akt信号通路相关.

  5. 蛋白酶体抑制剂MG132对脑室室管膜下区神经干细胞增殖潜能的影响%Effects of proteasome inhibitor MG132 on proliferation of neural stem cells in subventricular zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵云鹤; 张卫国; 朱茜; 杨桂姣; 陆利

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察侧脑室注射蛋白酶体抑制剂MG132对脑室室管膜下区(SVZ)神经干细胞(NSCs)增殖能力的影响,了解蛋白酶体对NSCs增殖潜能的调控作用,从而进一步探讨蛋白酶体在帕金森病(PD)等老年性疾病神经元损伤中的可能作用机制.方法:选90日龄健康BALB/c小鼠,左侧侧脑室注射10 μg MG132,于注射后3 d、7 d、14 d提取SVZ总蛋白,荧光酶标仪检测蛋白酶体活性.同时腹腔注射5-溴-2-脱氧尿嘧啶核苷(BrdU),BrdU免疫荧光染色标记NSCs,动态观察蛋白酶体活性改变对NSCs增殖能力的影响.另设溶剂对照组左侧侧脑室注射等剂量DMSO,进行上述实验.结果:侧脑室注射MG132 3 d、7 d后,SVZ蛋白酶体活性较DMSO对照组显著降低(P<0.05),同时SVZ BrdU+ NSCs也显著减少至21±4和22±3,与DMSO对照组相比差异显著(P<0.05).随着MG132注射时间延长,14 d后SVZ蛋白酶体活性恢复至正常水平(P>0.05),BrdU+ NSCs数量MG132组(82±4)与DMSO组(67±6)相比无显著差别(P>0.05).结论:应用蛋白酶体可逆性抑制剂MG132短时期内能显著抑制SVZ蛋白酶体活性,并且能够降低NSCs增殖能力,提示蛋白酶体活性与NSCs增殖潜能密切相关.%AIM: To investigate the role of proteasome in the degeneration of neuron in age - related diseases such as Parkinson disease ( PD ) by observing the effects of proteasome inhibitor MG132 on the proliferation of neural stem cells ( NSCs ) in the subventricular zone ( SVZ ).METHODS: Stereotaxic microinjection of proteasome inhibitor MG132 at a dose of 10 μg into the left lateral ventricle of 90 - day - old mice was performed.The control mice were received the same volume of DMSO into the left lateral ventricle.Three days, 7 days and 14 days after injection, the total proteins isolat from SVZ were subject to proteasome activity assay using the fluorescence microplate reader.Meanwhile, the mice were administered with 5 - bromo - 2' - deoxyuridine ( BrdU ) by

  6. Differentiation of neural stem cells isolated from subventricular zone and hippocampus of neonatal rats in serum-free medium%新生大鼠海马区及室管膜下区神经干细胞的诱导分化:无血清培养条件下观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石德金; 郭英; 梁朝峰; 胡黎平; 李燕

    2007-01-01

    observe the characteristics of isolation, proliferation and differentiation of in vitro NSCs from subventricular zone (SVZ) and hippocampus of neonatal rats.DESIGN: Single-sample trial.SETTING: Department of Neurosurgery in the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University.MATERIALS: Ten SD rats aged 3 days, of either gender, were offered from the Experimental Animal Center of Sun Yat-sen University. Nestin antibody (rabbit-anti-rat), neurofilament (NF-200) antibody (rabbit-anti-rat), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) antibody (mice-anti-rat) were all purchased from Sigma Company.METHODS: The experiment was carried out in the Laboratory of Histology and Embryology, Basic Medical College of Sun Yat-sen University from September to December in 2006. According to the ethical requirement, the serum-free DMEM/F12 medium containing basic fibroblast growth factor and epidermal growth factor was utilized to isolate and incubate NSCs from SVZ and hippocampus of neonatal rats. Then the proliferation and differentiation of NSCs in vitro were observed.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Fluorescence immunocytochemistry was applied to detect the antigen of nestin expressed from NSCs, NF expressed from neuron cells and GFAP expressed from astrocytes. The differentiation of NSCs was identified.RESULTS: The cells isolated from SVZ and hippocampus of neonatal rats possessed the ability of proliferation and self-renewal. Through inverted microscope, nestin positive cells could be found in the cell clone sphere at passage 20 of cells. Cells induced to differentiate could express antigen of NF and GFAP by the attached cell clone sphere.CONCLUSION: The NSCs successfully isolated from SVZ and hippocampi of neonatal rats possess the ability of self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation into neuron-like cells and astrocytes.

  7. Effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate Receptor Antagonist MK-801 on Expression of Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein in the Subventricular Zone of Neonatal Rat%NMDA受体拮抗剂MK-801对新生大鼠室管膜下区胶质纤维酸性蛋白表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓泉; 陈芳芳; 王伟; 来青伟; 耿德勤; 樊红彬

    2013-01-01

    Aim To investigate the effects of the N-methyl-D-aspartate(NMDA)-receptor antagonist MK801 on the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein(GFAP) in the subventricular zone(SVZ) of neonatal rat.Methods 40 neonatal SD rats were assigned into two groups,a MK-801 group and a control group.Each group was respectively divided into four time points,including P7 d (postnatal 7 days),P14 d,P21 d and P28 d.Rats in the experiment group were intraperitoneally injected selective non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 (10 mg·kg1),while rats in the control group were intraperitoneally injected saline.Immunohistochemical staining was used to assay the number of GFAP-positive cells in the SVZ.Results ① In the control group,the number of GFAP-positive cells increased at P14 d,and the number of GFAP-positive cells reached maximum at P21 d,positive cells decreased significantly at 28 d.② Compared with the control group,the number of GFAP-positive cells reduced significantly at P 14 d (65.40 ± 6.11) and P21 d (239.60 ± 12.92),and the number of GFAP-positive cells increased significantly [P14 d(79.20 ± 5.26),P21 d(265.20 ± 7.40)](P<0.01),while the number of positive cells without obvious changes at P7 d and P28 d in the MK-801 group.Conclusion NMDA-receptor antagonist MK-801 could reduce the expression of GFAP in the SVZ,and inhibit the neural stem cells proliferation and differentiation.%目的 研究N-甲基-D-天冬氨酸(NMDA)受体拮抗剂MK-801对新生7d大鼠室管膜下区(SVZ)胶质纤维酸性蛋白(GFAP)表达的影响.方法 将40只新生SD大鼠分成对照组和MK-801组,各组按出生后口(P)时间点再随机分成4个亚组:P7d、P14d、P21 d、P28d组.新生大鼠均于生后第3天给药,MK-801组腹腔注射MK-801 10 mg·kg-1;对照组腹腔注射同量生理盐水.通过免疫组化学方法观察大鼠SVZ区GFAP阳性细胞数.结果 ①对照组GFAP阳性细胞数于P14 d开始增加,至P21 d达最大值;但P28 d时阳

  8. Resistance of subventricular neural stem cells to chronic hypoxemia despite structural disorganization of the germinal center and impairment of neuronal and oligodendrocyte survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    d’Anglemont de Tassigny, Xavier; Sirerol-Piquer, M Salomé; Gómez-Pinedo, Ulises; Pardal, Ricardo; Bonilla, Sonia; Capilla-Gonzalez, Vivian; López-López, Ivette; De la Torre-Laviana, Francisco Javier; García-Verdugo, José Manuel; López-Barneo, José

    2015-01-01

    Chronic hypoxemia, as evidenced in de-acclimatized high-altitude residents or in patients with chronic obstructive respiratory disorders, is a common medical condition that can produce serious neurological alterations. However, the pathogenesis of this phenomenon is unknown. We have found that adult rodents exposed for several days/weeks to hypoxia, with an arterial oxygen tension similar to that of chronically hypoxemic patients, manifest a partially irreversible structural disarrangement of the subventricular neurogenic niche (subventricular zone) characterized by displacement of neurons and myelinated axons, flattening of the ependymal cell layer, and thinning of capillary walls. Despite these abnormalities, the number of neuronal and oligodendrocyte progenitors, neuroblasts, and neurosphere-forming cells as well as the proliferative activity in subventricular zone was unchanged. These results suggest that neural stem cells and their undifferentiated progeny are resistant to hypoxia. However, in vivo and in vitro experiments indicate that severe chronic hypoxia decreases the survival of newly generated neurons and oligodendrocytes, with damage of myelin sheaths. These findings help explain the effects of hypoxia on adult neurogenesis and provide new perspectives on brain responsiveness to persistent hypoxemia. PMID:27774479

  9. Experimental study of differentiatition of neural stem cells from anterior subventricular zone into GABAergic neurons%室管膜前下区神经干细胞诱导分化为γ-氨基丁酸能神经元的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛志成; 周政; 严稽文

    2009-01-01

    目的 研究骨形成蛋白-2(bone morphogenetic protein-2,BMP2)及星形胶质细胞条件培养液(astrocyte-conditioned mediarn.ACM)在室管膜前下区(anterior subventricular zolle,SVZa)神经干细胞分化为γ-氨基丁酸(gamma-aminobutyric acid,GABA)能神经元中的作用.方法 体外培养SVZa神经干细胞,分为对照组、BMP2组、ACM组、BMP2+ACM组分别予以诱导分化,通过免疫组化和流式细胞技术分别检测各组SVZa神经干细胞分化后GAD67+细胞的比例.结果 各实验组的GAD67+细胞的比例均明显高于对照组,其中BMP2+ACM组尤其显著,差异有显著性(P<0.05).结论 BMP2及ACM可以促进SVZa神经干细胞向GABA能神经元分化,而且BMP2与ACM有正协同作用.

  10. 离体培养的生后大鼠脑室下层神经元前体细胞免疫细胞化学和形态学研究%IMMUNOCYTOCHEMIICAL AND MORPHOMETRICAL STUDY OF THE NEURONAL PRECURSOR CELLS DERIVED FROM THE SUBVENTRICULAR ZONE OF THE POSTNATAL RAT FOREBRAIN IN VITRO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高殿帅; 张凤真; 王德广; 周长福

    2000-01-01

    In order to investigate the chemical and morphornetrical properties of the neuronal precursor cells derived from thesubventricular zone(SVZ) of the postnatal rat forebrain in vitro. The cell-type specific antibodies were used for the immunocy-tochemical staining ,and the morphometric parameters which were the mean soma diameter and the ellipticity index (i. e. , thesmallest soma diameter divided by the largest soma diameter) of every SVZ-derived cell were measured for identifying the pheno-types of the SVZ cells in vitro. The experiment animals were SD rats (weights: 100~ 150 g), the SVZ cells derived from thepostnatal rats were cultured on poly-D-lysine-coated 24-well glass chamber slides in the Neurobasal Medium supplemented withB27 in 5% CO2 at 37 C. The following results were obtained.. At 1 day in vitro, almost all SVZ cells (〉90%) from the postna-tal rat forebrain expressed Tujl, an antibody that recognizes neuron-specific tubulin. Likewise, the preponderance of the SVZcells expressed the polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-N-CAM) ; The majority of the SVZ Tujl-positive cells cul-tured were the cells that had oval-shaped bodies with two short, unbranched processes protruded from every two poles, theirmean soma diameter were 8.42±1.03μm and their ellipticity index were 0.57±0.12. Meanwhile, there were approximately20% of the SVZ cells in culture that were sphere-shaped cells with mean soma diameter 7.20±l.04 μm , and it might be observed that these cells connected with one another. As the time in culture went on, these sphere-shaped SVZ-derived cells alsotransformed to oval-shaped ones as described above, but it could be observed that the cells were still connected in the processesof them. By 3 and 5 days in culture, the SVZ cells had larger cell somas (average diameter 9. 07±1.07 μm), and often consider-ably longer processes but still with few branches. Immunocytochemical staining revealed that the majority of the SVZ cells in cul

  11. 弹载PD雷达主杂波盲区建模与仿真%Modeling and Simulation of Missile-borne Radar Main-lobe Clutter Blind Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔燕涛; 赵华超

    2014-01-01

    Pulse Doppler( PD)radar may engender main-lobe clutter blind zone due to its system. The former missile model did not take main-lobe clutter into account. Frequently,because the guidance system design does not take the main-lobe clutter model into account,the missile tracks false target in the aerial tether test. This paper works on the blind zone engendered by missile-borne radar,sets up model of the blind zone,then simulates and verifies the model by using the technology of virtual prototype. The results show that this mode meets designed requirements. This model can provide reliable basis for seeking meth-ods to circumvention main-lobe blind zone.%PD雷达由于体制原因将会出现主杂波盲区,以往的导弹模型一般不考虑主杂波的影响,由于在制导系统设计过程中未考虑主杂波模型导致空中系留试验甚至经常出现跟踪虚假目标的情况;对弹载PD雷达主杂波盲区进行研究,建立模型并利用虚拟样机技术进行仿真、验证,结果表明:该模型能够满足要求,将为寻求规避主杂波盲区的方法提供可靠依据。

  12. EFFECTS OF CEREBRAL CORTICAL CONCIS ON CELL PROLIFERATION OF THE SUBVENTRICULAR ZONE IN ADULT RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yuelin; Qiu Shudong; Zhang Pengbo; Shi Wei

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the proliferative response and time course of endogenous neural stem/progenitor cells after cerebral cortical concis in the adult rats. Methods Eighty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. Cumulative BrdU labeling was employed to detect the proliferating cells. At 1 d, 3 d, 7 d, 14 d, and 21 d after cerebral cortical concis, the rats were killed for BrdU immunohistochemical staining and cell counting in the injured ipsilateral SVZ. Results Little BrdU immunoreactivity cells was present in SVZ of the control rats from day 7 to day 21 after sham operation. The number of BrdU immunoreactivity cells in the injured ipsilateral SVZ increased at day 1 and peaked at day 7 after cerebral cortical concis. Conclusion After cerebral cortical concis of the adult rats, neural stem/progenitor cells in the injured ipsilateral SVZ markedly proliferated with a peak at day 7. This finding may be important for manipulating SVZ cells to promote the recovery from cerebral cortical concis.

  13. EFFECTS OF CEREBRAL CORTICAL CONCIS ON CELL PROLIFERATION OF THE SUBVENTRICULAR ZONE IN ADULT RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Mechanical injuries to the external regions ofthe brain including the cerebral cortex and otherparts of the telencephalon are common yet relativelyuntreatable[1].The predicament in recovery frombrain injury is that the adult central nervous systemis generally thought to be incapable of replacingdead neurons.As the SVZis nowknownto be neu-rogenic andis in close proxi mitytothe cerebral cor-tex and other functionally i mportant forebrain nu-clei,hope has risen that its neurogenesis may be co-opted for repair[...

  14. A Distinct Population of Microglia Supports Adult Neurogenesis in the Subventricular Zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro Xavier, Anna L.; Kress, Benjamin T.; Goldman, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    found that microglia residing in the SVZ and adjacent rostral migratory stream (RMS) comprise a morphologically and antigenically distinct phenotype of immune effectors. Whereas exhibiting characteristics of alternatively activated microglia, the SVZ/RMS microglia were clearly distinguished by their low...... STATEMENT: Microglial cells are a specialized population of macrophages in the CNS, playing key roles as immune mediators. As integral components in the CNS, the microglia stand out for using the same mechanisms, phagocytosis and cytochemokine release, to promote homeostasis, synaptic pruning, and neural...

  15. Novel primate miRNAs co-evolved with ancient target genes in germinal zone specific expression patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Arcila, ML; Betizeau, M; Cambronne, XA; Guzman, E.; Doerflinger, N; F. Bouhallier; H. Zhou; Wu, B.; N. Rani; Bassett, DS; Borello, U.; Huissoud, C; Goodman, RH; Dehay, C.; Kosik, KS

    2014-01-01

    Major nonprimate-primate differences in corticogenesis include the dimensions, precursor lineages, and developmental timing of the germinal zones (GZs). microRNAs (miRNAs) of laser-dissected GZ compartments and cortical plate (CP) from embryonic E80 macaque visual cortex were deep sequenced. The CP and the GZ including ventricular zone (VZ) and outer and inner subcompartments of the outer subventricular zone (OSVZ) in area 17 displayed unique miRNA profiles. miRNAs present in primate, but abs...

  16. Innovative Born Globals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Sascha; Brem, Alexander; Muench, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Internationalization is a hot topic in innovation management, whereby the phenomenon of “Born Globals” is still limited to research in the domains of Entrepreneurship and International Management. As business model design plays a key role for Born Globals, we link these two concepts. For this, we...

  17. Food-borne Zoonoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The awareness of food borne illness has shifted over the years as international agribusiness and transportation have steadily increased. At least 30 food borne agents have been identified, with one-third emerging in the last 3 decades. Despite an increased emphasis on control measures, t...

  18. Vector-borne Infections

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-18

    This podcast discusses emerging vector-borne pathogens, their role as prominent contributors to emerging infectious diseases, how they're spread, and the ineffectiveness of mosquito control methods.  Created: 4/18/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/27/2011.

  19. Tick-Borne Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Topics Tick-Borne Disease Hazards to Outdoor Workers Physical Hazards Heat Stress Cold Stress Sun Exposure Noise Biological Hazards Insects ... No Longer Available Lyme Disease Hazards to Outdoor Workers Physical Hazards Heat Stress Cold Stress Sun Exposure Noise Biological Hazards Insects ...

  20. Tick-Borne Encephalitis (TBE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Tick-borne Encephalitis (TBE) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... CDC.gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Tick-borne encephalitis, or TBE, is a human viral ...

  1. [Food-borne botulism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yuko; Sawada, Mikio; Ikeguchi, Kunihiko; Nakano, Imaharu

    2012-08-01

    Botulism is a neuroparalytic disease caused by neurotoxins produced by Clostridium botulinum, and classically presents as palsies of cranial nerves and acute descending flaccid paralysis. Food-borne botulism is the most common form of botulism, and caused by preformed neurotoxins produced by Clostridium botulinum. Electrophysiological studies play an important role in the early diagnosis. Confirmation of the diagnosis is based on the detection of botulinum toxins in the patient's serum or stool. In Japan, decades ago, botulism type E occurred, though only sporadically, almost every year, but in recent years, has dramatically decreased in frequency. Botulism is a curable disease when treated early and adequately. Differential diagnosis of cranial nerves and limb muscle palsies with rapid exacerbation should include food-borne botulism.

  2. Where was Joseph Babinski born?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H A G Teive

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is controversy in the neurological literature about where Joseph Babinski was born, including a myth propounded by various important authors that he was born in Lima, Peru. However, according to the most consistent biographical data, he was in fact born in Paris, France, and became a medical celebrity there and in Poland as well as around the world.

  3. Where was Joseph Babinski born?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teive, Hélio A G; Munhoz, Renato P; de Souza, Leonardo Cruz

    2011-01-01

    There is controversy in the neurological literature about where Joseph Babinski was born, including a myth propounded by various important authors that he was born in Lima, Peru. However, according to the most consistent biographical data, he was in fact born in Paris, France, and became a medical celebrity there and in Poland as well as around the world.

  4. Born-Infeld Cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    García-Salcedo, R; Garcia-Salcedo, Ricardo; Breton, Nora

    2000-01-01

    We present a model for an inhomogeneous and anisotropic early universe filled with a nonlinear electromagnetic field of Born-Infeld (BI) type. The effects of the BI field are compared with the linear case (Maxwell). Since the curvature invaria nts are well behaved then we conjecture that our model does not present an initial big bang singularity. The existence of the BI field modifies the curvature invariants at t=0 as well as sets bounds on the amplitude of the conformal metric function

  5. O efeito da metanfetamina na neurogénese da zona subventricular: morte celular, proliferação e diferenciação = The effect of methamphetamine on subventricular zone neurogenesis: cell death, proliferation and differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Bento, Ana Rita das Neves Lagarto

    2009-01-01

    A metanfetamina é um psicoestimulante muito tóxico e viciante consumido no mundo inteiro, sendo a segunda droga mais consumida a seguir à cannabis. Os consumidores de metanfetamina demonstram alterações significativas na função e na estrutura do cérebro. Além disso, o défice de memória frequentemente observado nos consumidores de metanfetamina sugere que, para além do seu efeito tóxico, a metanfetamina poderá alterar a neurogénese. A produção de novos neurónios ocorre no cér...

  6. Building a Subduction Zone Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan S.; Bodin, Paul; Bourgeois, Jody; Cashman, Susan; Cowan, Darrel; Creager, Kenneth C.; Crowell, Brendan; Duvall, Alison; Frankel, Arthur; Gonzalez, Frank; Houston, Heidi; Johnson, Paul; Kelsey, Harvey; Miller, Una; Roland, Emily C.; Schmidt, David; Staisch, Lydia; Vidale, John; Wilcock, William; Wirth, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Subduction zones contain many of Earth’s most remarkable geologic structures, from the deepest oceanic trenches to glacier-covered mountains and steaming volcanoes. These environments formed through spectacular events: Nature’s largest earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions are born here.

  7. Early Recollections of First-Borns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakouri, M. Ebrahim; Hafner, James L.

    1984-01-01

    Compared the early recollections of 50 first-borns and 98 later-borns. The first-borns mentioned significantly more nonfamily members, illness/injury, hospital/doctor's office. Later-borns mentioned significantly more siblings than did first-borns. Findings were discussed in the context of Adler's personality theory. (JAC)

  8. Born-Infeld cosmology with scalar Born-Infeld matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Soumya; Kar, Sayan

    2016-09-01

    Cosmology in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity is investigated using a scalar Born-Infeld field (e.g. tachyon condensate) as matter. In this way, both in the gravity and matter sectors we have Born-Infeld-like structures characterized by their actions and via two separate constants, κ and αT2 , respectively. With a particular choice of the form of ϕ ˙ (the time derivative of the Born-Infeld scalar), analytical cosmological solutions are found. Thereafter, we explore some of the unique features of the corresponding cosmological spacetimes. For κ >0 , our solution has a de Sitter-like expansion both at early and late times, with an intermediate deceleration sandwiched between the accelerating phases. On the other hand, when κ 0 solution are as good as in Λ CDM cosmology. However, the κ <0 solution has to be discarded due to the occurrence of a bounce at an unacceptably low redshift.

  9. Born : vastutustundlikud tulevikus edukad / Kerstin Born ; interv. Kristo Kiviorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Born, Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    Vastutustundliku ettevõtluse Euroopa organisatsiooni CSR Europe'i juht Kerstin Born vastab küsimustele ettevõtete vastutustundlikkuse kohta ühiskonnas. Vt. samas: Käivitus vastutustundliku ettevõtluse indeks

  10. Born-Infeld cosmology with scalar Born-Infeld matter

    CERN Document Server

    Jana, Soumya

    2016-01-01

    Cosmology in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity is investigated using a scalar Born-Infeld field (eg. tachyon condensate) as matter. In this way, both in the gravity and matter sectors we have Born-Infeld-like structures characterised by their actions and via two separate constants, $\\kappa$ and $\\alpha_T^2$ respectively. With a particular choice of the form of $\\dot{\\phi}$ (time derivative of the Born-Infeld scalar), analytical cosmological solutions are found. Thereafter, we explore some of the unique features of the corresponding cosmological spacetimes. For $\\kappa>0$, our solution has a de Sitter-like expansion both at early and late times, with an intermediate deceleration sandwiched between the accelerating phases. On the other hand, when $\\kappa0$ solution, are as good as in $\\Lambda$CDM cosmology. However, the $\\kappa<0$ solution has to be discarded due to the occurrence of a bounce at an unacceptably low redshift.

  11. Conditional reduction of adult born doublecortin-positive neurons reversibly impairs selective behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lillian eGarrett

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis occurs in the adult mammalian subventricular zone (SVZ along the walls of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone (SGZ of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. While a burgeoning body of research implicates adult neurogenesis in olfactory bulb (OB - and hippocampal-related behaviors, the precise function continues to elude. To further assess the behavioral importance of adult neurogenesis, we herein generated a novel inducible transgenic mouse model of adult neurogenesis reduction where mice with CreERT2 under doublecortin (DCX promoter control were crossed with mice where diphtheria toxin A (DTA was driven by the Rosa26 promoter. Activation of DTA, through the administration of tamoxifen (TAM, results in a specific reduction of DCX+ immature neurons in both the hippocampal dentate gyrus and OB. We show that the decrease of DCX+ cells causes impaired social discrimination ability in both young adult (from 3 months and middle (from 10 months aged mice. Furthermore, these animals showed an age-independent altered coping behavior in the Forced Swim Test without clear changes in anxiety-related behavior. Notably, these behavior changes were reversible on repopulating the neurogenic zones with DCX+ cells on cessation of the tamoxifen treatment, demonstrating the specificity of this effect. Overall, these results support the notion that adult neurogenesis plays a role in social memory and in stress coping but not necessarily in anxiety-related behavior.

  12. Antimicrobial Impacts of Essential Oils on Food Borne-Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozogul, Yesim; Kuley, Esmeray; Ucar, Yilmaz; Ozogul, Fatih

    2015-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of twelve essential oil (pine oil, eucalyptus, thyme, sage tea, lavender, orange, laurel, lemon, myrtle, lemon, rosemary and juniper) was tested by a disc diffusion method against food borne pathogens (Escherichia coli, Salmonella paratyphi A, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Yersinia enterocolitica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aeromonas hydrophila, Campylobacter jejuni, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus). The major components in essential oils were monoterpenes hydrocarbons, α-pinene, limonene; monoterpene phenol, carvacrol and oxygenated monoterpenes, camphor, 1,8-cineole, eucalyptol, linalool and linalyl acetate. Although the antimicrobial effect of essential oils varied depending on the chemical composition of the essential oils and specific microorganism tested, majority of the oils exhibited antibacterial activity against one or more strains. The essential oil with the lowest inhibition zones was juniper with the values varied from 1.5 to 6 mm. However, the components of essential oil of thyme and pine oil are highly active against food borne pathogen, generating the largest inhibition zones for both gram negative and positive bacteria (5.25-28.25 mm vs. 12.5-30 mm inhibition zones). These results indicate the possible use of the essential oils on food system as antimicrobial agents against food-borne pathogen. The article also offers some promising patents on applications of essential oils on food industry as antimicrobial agent.

  13. Born-Infeld gravity coupled to Born-Infeld electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Jana, Soumya

    2015-01-01

    We investigate spherically symmetric, static spacetimes in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity coupled to Born-Infeld electrodynamics. The two constants, $b^2$ and $\\kappa$ which parametrise the Born-Infeld structures in the electrodynamics (matter) and gravity sectors, characterise the features of our analytical solutions. Black holes or naked singularities are found to arise, depending on the values of $b^2$ and $\\kappa$, as well as charge and mass. Several such solutions are classified and understood through the analysis of the associated metric functions. Interestingly, for a particular relation between these two parameters, $b^2=1/{4\\kappa},\\, \\kappa >0$, we obtain a solution resembling the well-known Reissner-Nordstr\\" om line element, albeit some modifications. We study null geodesics and gravitational lensing using this particular solution. Among interesting features we note $(i)$ a decrease in the radius of the photon sphere with increasing $\\kappa$ and $(ii)$ a net negative contribution in the le...

  14. Adult Neurogenesis in the Mammalian Hippocampus: Why the Dentate Gyrus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Liam J.; Fusi, Stefano; Hen, René

    2013-01-01

    In the adult mammalian brain, newly generated neurons are continuously incorporated into two networks: interneurons born in the subventricular zone migrate to the olfactory bulb, whereas the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus integrates locally born principal neurons. That the rest of the mammalian brain loses significant neurogenic capacity…

  15. GABA(A) Increases Calcium in Subventricular Zone Astrocyte-Like Cells Through L- and T-Type Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, Stephanie Z; Platel, Jean-Claude; Nielsen, Jakob V;

    2010-01-01

    intracellular Ca(2+) dynamics in SVZ astrocytes. To monitor Ca(2+) activity selectively in astrocyte-like cells, we used two lines of transgenic mice expressing either GFP fused to a Gq-coupled receptor or DsRed under the human glial fibrillary acidic protein (hGFAP) promoter. GABA(A) receptor activation......-like cells to 75%, suggesting that the majority of SVZ astrocytes express functional VGCCs. SVZ astrocytes also displayed spontaneous Ca(2+) activity, the frequency of which was regulated by tonic GABA(A) receptor activation. These data support a role for ambient GABA in tonically regulating intracellular Ca...

  16. Bilateral Transplantation of Allogenic Adult Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells into the Subventricular Zone of Parkinson’s Disease: A Pilot Clinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Venkataramana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The progress of PD and its related disorders cannot be prevented with the medications available. In this study, we recruited 8 PD and 4 PD plus patients between 5 to 15 years after diagnosis. All patients received BM-MSCs bilaterally into the SVZ and were followed up for 12 months. PD patients after therapy reported a mean improvement of 17.92% during “on” and 31.21% during “off” period on the UPDRS scoring system. None of the patients increased their medication during the follow-up period. Subjectively, the patients reported clarity in speech, reduction in tremors, rigidity, and freezing attacks. The results correlated with the duration of the disease. Those patients transplanted in the early stages of the disease (less than 5 years showed more improvement and no further disease progression than the later stages (11–15 years. However, the PD plus patients did not show any change in their clinical status after stem cell transplantation. This study demonstrates the safety of adult allogenic human BM-MSCs transplanted into the SVZ of the brain and its efficacy in early-stage PD patients.

  17. The neural elements in the lining of the ventricular-subventricular zone: making an old story new by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haemmerle, Carlos Alexandre Dos Santos; Nogueira, Maria Inês; Watanabe, Ii-Sei

    2015-01-01

    The classical description of the neural elements that compose the lining of brain ventricles introduces us to the single layer of ependymal cells. However, new findings, especially in the lateral ventricle (LV)-the major niche for the generation of new neurons in the adult brain-have provided information about additional cell elements that influence the organization of this part of the ventricular system and produce important contributions to neurogenesis. To complement the cell neurochemistry findings, we present a three-dimensional in situ description that demonstrates the anatomical details of the different types of ciliated cells and the innervation of these elements. After processing adult rat brains for ultrastructural analysis by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) and transmission electron microscopy, we observed a heterogeneous pattern of cilia distribution at the different poles of the LV surface. Furthermore, we describe the particular three-dimensional aspects of the ciliated cells of the LV, in addition the fiber bundles and varicose axons surrounding these cells. Therefore, we provide a unique ultrastructural description of the three-dimensional in situ organization of the LV surface, highlighting its innervation, to corroborate the available neurochemical and functional findings regarding the factors that regulate this neurogenic niche.

  18. The neural elements in the lining of the ventricular-subventricular zone: making an old story new by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Dos Santos Haemmerle

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The classical description of the neural elements that compose the lining of brain ventricles introduces us to the single layer of ependymal cells. However, new findings, especially in the lateral ventricle - the major niche for the generation of new neurons in the adult brain - have provided information about additional cell elements that influence the organization of this part of the ventricular system and produce important contributions to neurogenesis. To complement the cell neurochemistry findings, we present a three-dimensional in situ description that demonstrates the anatomical details of the different types of ciliated cells and the innervation of these elements. After processing adult rat brains for ultrastructural analysis by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, we observed a heterogeneous pattern of cilia distribution at the different poles of the lateral ventricle surface. Furthermore, we describe the particular three-dimensional aspects of the ciliated cells of the lateral ventricle, in addition the fiber bundles and varicose axons surrounding these cells. Therefore, we provide a unique ultrastructural description of the three-dimensional in situ organization of the lateral ventricle surface, highlighting its innervation, to corroborate the available neurochemical and functional findings regarding the factors that regulate this neurogenic niche.

  19. Emerging food-borne parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorny, P; Praet, N; Deckers, N; Gabriel, S

    2009-08-07

    Parasitic food-borne diseases are generally underrecognised, however they are becoming more common. Globalization of the food supply, increased international travel, increase of the population of highly susceptible persons, change in culinary habits, but also improved diagnostic tools and communication are some factors associated with the increased diagnosis of food-borne parasitic diseases worldwide. This paper reviews the most important emerging food-borne parasites, with emphasis on transmission routes. In a first part, waterborne parasites transmitted by contaminated food such as Cyclospora cayetanensis, Cryptosporidium and Giardia are discussed. Also human fasciolosis, of which the importance has only been recognised in the last decades, with total numbers of reported cases increasing from less than 3000 to 17 million, is looked at. Furthermore, fasciolopsiosis, an intestinal trematode of humans and pigs belongs to the waterborne parasites as well. A few parasites that may be transmitted through faecal contamination of foods and that have received renewed attention, such as Toxoplasma gondii, or that are (re-)emerging, such as Trypanosoma cruzi and Echinococcus spp., are briefly reviewed. In a second part, meat-borne parasite infections are reviewed. Humans get infected by eating raw or undercooked meat infected with cyst stages of these parasites. Meat inspection is the principal method applied in the control of Taenia spp. and Trichinella spp. However, it is often not very sensitive, frequently not practised, and not done for T. gondii and Sarcocystis spp. Meat of reptiles, amphibians and fish can be infected with a variety of parasites, including trematodes (Opisthorchis spp., Clonorchis sinensis, minute intestinal flukes), cestodes (Diphyllobothrium spp., Spirometra), nematodes (Gnathostoma, spp., anisakine parasites), and pentastomids that can cause zoonotic infections in humans when consumed raw or not properly cooked. Another important zoonotic food-borne

  20. Born Reciprocity and Cosmic Accelerations

    CERN Document Server

    Bolognesi, S

    2015-01-01

    The trans-Planckian theory is a model that realizes concretely the Born reciprocity idea, which is the postulate of absolute equivalence between coordinate $x$ and momenta $p$. This model is intrinsically global, and thus it is naturally implemented in a cosmological setting. Cosmology and Born reciprocity are made for each other. Inflation provides the essential mechanism to suppress the terms coming from the dual part of the action. The trans-Planckian theory, on the other hand, provides an explanation for the accelerated periods of the universe scale factor, both the inflationary period and the present period dominated by dark energy. All of this is possible just considering a simple model that contains gravity, one gauge field plus one matter field (to be identified with dark matter) together with the reciprocity principle.

  1. Brand Building of Born Globals

    OpenAIRE

    Cederäng, Jesper; Norberg, Markus

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this thesis was to increase the understanding of two early internationalizing firms (Born Globals) brand building efforts. By performing case studies on these companies we wished to discover similarities and differences in their marketing efforts. The companies that we studied were CTEK Sweden AB, a battery charger manufacturer and POC Sweden AB, who designs advanced protective gear for the alpine ski market. The theoretical framework was divided according to the four ...

  2. Resonant-state expansion Born Approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Doost, M B

    2015-01-01

    The Born Approximation is a fundamental formula in Physics, it allows the calculation of weak scattering via the Fourier transform of the scattering potential. I extend the Born Approximation by including in the formula the Fourier transform of a truncated basis of the infinite number of appropriately normalised resonant states. This extension of the Born Approximation is named the Resonant-State Expansion Born Approximation or RSE Born Approximation. The resonant-states of the system can be calculated using the recently discovered RSE perturbation theory for electrodynamics and normalised correctly to appear in spectral Green's functions via the flux volume normalisation.

  3. Germinal zones in the developing cerebral cortex of ferret: ontogeny, cell cycle kinetics, and diversity of progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reillo, Isabel; Borrell, Víctor

    2012-09-01

    Expansion and folding of the cerebral cortex are landmark features of mammalian brain evolution. This is recapitulated during embryonic development, and specialized progenitor cell populations known as intermediate radial glia cells (IRGCs) are believed to play central roles. Because developmental mechanisms involved in cortical expansion and folding are likely conserved across phylogeny, it is crucial to identify features specific for gyrencephaly from those unique to primate brain development. Here, we studied multiple features of cortical development in ferret, a gyrencephalic carnivore, in comparison with primates. Analyzing the combinatorial expression of transcription factors, cytoskeletal proteins, and cell cycle parameters, we identified a combination of traits that distinguish in ferret similar germinal layers as in primates. Transcription factor analysis indicated that inner subventricular zone (ISVZ) and outer subventricular zone (OSVZ) may contain an identical mixture of progenitor cell subpopulations in ferret. However, we found that these layers emerge at different time points, differ in IRGC abundance, and progenitors have different cell cycle kinetics and self-renewal dynamics. Thus, ISVZ and OSVZ are likely distinguished by genetic differences regulating progenitor cell behavior and dynamics. Our findings demonstrate that some, but not all, features of primate cortical development are shared by the ferret, suggesting a conserved role in the evolutionary emergence of gyrencephaly.

  4. Guardians of New-Borns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    WITH 38 years of history, the Beijing Maternity Hospital gained fame as the birthplace of one-fifth of all Beijingers in the 1960s. Today, some 5,000 babies are born here each year. As Beijing’s oldest hospital specializing in gynaecology and obstetrics treatment and research, the Beijing Maternity Hospital ranks top among all maternity hospitals in China. Chen Wenshan. 52. oversees 272 nurses working at BMH. A vigorous and extremely strict woman. Chen is both respected and feared by the nurses on her staff. As the director of the Nursing

  5. Detection of Water Borne Protozoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Enemark, Heidi L.; Kurtzhals, J.A.L.

    Protozoa of several species play a key role in water borne outbreaks of diarrhea worldwide. Identification of such protozoa depends mainly on parasite detection. However, water contains several hundreds of thousands of microorganisms belonging to different taxa. The exact identification...... of pathogenic protozoa relies on selective isolation and detection that is conducted by experienced technicians. Advanced techniques such as immuno-fluorescent dyes, polymerase chain reaction, and many other techniques, may be used for species-specific identification of pathogenic protozoa. Each diagnostic...... parasitic protozoa from other organisms in the aquatic environment....

  6. We have "born digital" - now what about "born semantic"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadbetter, Adam; Fredericks, Janet

    2014-05-01

    The phrase "born-digital" refers to those materials which originate in a digital form. In Earth and Space Sciences, this is now very much the norm for data: analogue to digital converters sit on instrument boards and produce a digital record of the observed environment. While much effort has been put in to creating and curating these digital data, there has been little work on using semantic mark up of data from the point of collection - what we term 'born semantic'. In this presentation we report on two efforts to expand this area: Qartod-to-OGC (Q2O) and SenseOCEAN. These projects have taken a common approach to 'born semantic': create or reuse appropriate controlled vocabularies, published to World Wide Web Commission (W3C) standards use standards from the Open Geospatial Consortium's Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) initiative to describe instrument setup, deployment and/or outputs using terms from those controlled vocabularies embed URLs from the controlled vocabularies within the SWE documents in a "Linked Data" conformant approach Q2O developed best practices examples of SensorML descriptions of Original Equipment Manufacturers' metadata (model characteristics, capabilities, manufacturer contact, etc ...) set-up and deployment SensorML files; and data centre process-lineage using registered vocabularies to describe terms (including input, output, processes, parameters, quality control flags) One Q2O use case, the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory ADCP Waves instance, uses SensorML and registered vocabularies to fully describe the process of computing wave parameters from sensed properties, including quality control tests and associated results. The European Commission Framework Programme 7 project SenseOCEAN draws together world leading marine sensor developers to create a highly integrated multifunction and cost-effective in situ marine biogeochemical sensor system. This project will provide a quantum leap in the ability to measure crucial biogeochemical

  7. Conceptualizing Innovation in Born Global Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zijdemans, Erik; Tanev, Stoyan

    2014-01-01

    This research provides insights from recent literature on innovativeness in the environment of born globals. This article will be relevant to researchers interested in born globals and their business environments and, more specifically, the role that innovation plays in their foundation...... and development. After discussing the internationalization of born globals as an innovation itself and the positive effect that innovation and internationalization have on each other, this article elaborates on the effect of innovativeness on the development of the company and, more in depth, the role...... of knowledge acquisition, networking capabilities and the lean startup approach in born global innovation. Finally, the article addresses the issue of quantifying and measuring innovativeness....

  8. Horizon structure of rotating Einstein-Born-Infeld black holes and shadow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atamurotov, Farruh [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Inha University in Tashkent, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Ulugh Beg Astronomical Institute, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); National University of Uzbekistan, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Ghosh, Sushant G. [Jamia Millia Islamia, Centre for Theoretical Physics, New Delhi (India); University of Kwa-Zulu-Natal, Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, Private Bag 54001, Durban (South Africa); Ahmedov, Bobomurat [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Ulugh Beg Astronomical Institute, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); National University of Uzbekistan, Tashkent (Uzbekistan)

    2016-05-15

    We investigate the horizon structure of the rotating Einstein-Born-Infeld solution which goes over to the Einstein-Maxwell's Kerr-Newman solution as the Born-Infeld parameter goes to infinity (β → ∞). We find that for a given β, mass M, and charge Q, there exist a critical spinning parameter a{sub E} and r{sub H}{sup E}, which corresponds to an extremal Einstein-Born-Infeld black hole with degenerate horizons, and a{sub E} decreases and r{sub H}{sup E} increases with increase of the Born-Infeld parameter β, while a < a{sub E} describes a non-extremal Einstein-Born-Infeld black hole with outer and inner horizons. Similarly, the effect of β on the infinite redshift surface and in turn on the ergo-region is also included. It is well known that a black hole can cast a shadow as an optical appearance due to its strong gravitational field. We also investigate the shadow cast by the both static and rotating Einstein-Born-Infeld black hole and demonstrate that the null geodesic equations can be integrated, which allows us to investigate the shadow cast by a black hole which is found to be a dark zone covered by a circle. Interestingly, the shadow of an Einstein-Born-Infeld black hole is slightly smaller than for the Reissner-Nordstrom black hole, which consists of concentric circles, for different values of the Born-Infeld parameter β, whose radius decreases with increase of the value of the parameter β. Finally, we have studied observable distortion parameter for shadow of the rotating Einstein-Born-Infeld black hole. (orig.)

  9. PEOPLE BORN IN AUTUMN LIVE LONGER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梦华

    2004-01-01

    People born in the autumn live longer an those born in the spring and are less likely to fall chronically ill when they are older,according to an Austrian scientist.Using census data for more than one million people in Austria,Denmark and Australia,scien-

  10. Non-abelian Born-Infeld revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roo, M. de

    2002-01-01

    We discuss the non-abelian Born-Infeld action, including fermions, as a series in α'. We review recent work establishing the complete result to α'2, and its impact on our earlier attempts to derive the Born-Infeld action using κ-symmetry.

  11. Literacy Skills of Children Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Alison; Crosbie, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Most children born preterm are considered neurologically normal and free of disability. However in follow-up studies at school age, preterm children, born without major impairment, have been shown to have lower cognitive abilities and associated academic, social and behavioural difficulties. This study investigated the literacy, phonological…

  12. Thermodynamics of Born-Infeld black holes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chemissany, Wissam A.; de Roo, Mees; Panda, Sudhakar

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the horizon structure for Born-Infeld black holes in the context of Einstein-Born-Infeld gravity. We show that the entropy function formalism agrees with a direct calculation of the entropy. With the entropy function formalism we also obtain the entropy when an axion-dilaton system as wel

  13. The Effect of Zoning Laws on Housing Prices and BAH Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    the notable example ( Green et al., 2005). The result is that a significantly larger share of the zoning tax is borne by buyers (see Figure 3). The...A.   CALCULATION OF P WITHOUT ZONING TAX ..................................19   B.   CALCULATION OF Q WITHOUT ZONING TAX ...25   C.   CALCULATION OF DWL AND ZONING TAX ......................................31   D.   REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF DWL AND

  14. [Climate- and vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, I.C.; Schioler, K.L.; Konradsen, F.

    2009-01-01

    The predicted changes in climate have raised concerns that vector-borne diseases may emerge or expand in tempered regions. Malaria, leishmaniasis and tick-borne illnesses are discussed in terms of climate change and their endemic potential, especially in Denmark. While climate may play an important...... role in disease patterns, it is evident that transmission potential is governed by a complex of factors, including socio-economy, health-care capacity and ecology. In Denmark, malaria and leishmaniasis are unlikely to become public health problems, whereas the potential for tick-borne illnesses may...

  15. A brain slice culture model for studies of endogenous and exogenous precursor cell migration in the rostral migratory stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanvig, Mette; Blaabjerg, Morten; Andersen, Rikke K

    2009-01-01

    The rostral migratory stream (RMS) is the main pathway by which newly born subventricular zone (SVZ) cells reach the olfactory bulb (OB) in rodents. This migration has been well studied in vivo, but an organotypic in vitro model would facilitate more experimental investigations. Here we introduce...

  16. New neurons in the adult brain : The role of sleep and consequences of sleep loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerlo, Peter; Mistiberger, Ralph E.; Jacobs, Barry L.; Heller, H. Craig; McGinty, Dennis; Mistlberger, Ralph E.

    2009-01-01

    Research over the last few decades has firmly established that new neurons are generated in selected areas of the adult mammalian brain, particularly the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation and the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles. The function of adult-born neurons is still a ma

  17. Tick-Borne Diseases: The Big Two

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Ticks and Diseases Tick-borne Diseases: The Big Two Past Issues / Spring - ... on the skin where there has been a tick bite. Photo: CDC/James Gathany Lyme disease Lyme ...

  18. Aircraft propeller induced structure-borne noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, James F.

    1989-01-01

    A laboratory-based test apparatus employing components typical of aircraft construction was developed that would allow the study of structure-borne noise transmission due to propeller induced wake/vortex excitation of in-wake structural appendages. The test apparatus was employed to evaluate several aircraft installation effects (power plant placement, engine/nacelle mass loading, and wing/fuselage attachment methods) and several structural response modifications for structure-borne noise control (the use of wing blocking mass/fuel, wing damping treaments, and tuned mechanical dampers). Most important was the development of in-flight structure-borne noise transmission detection techniques using a combination of ground-based frequency response function testing and in-flight structural response measurement. Propeller wake/vortex excitation simulation techniques for improved ground-based testing were also developed to support the in-flight structure-borne noise transmission detection development.

  19. On Born approximation in black hole scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batic, D. [University of West Indies, Department of Mathematics, Kingston (Jamaica); Kelkar, N.G.; Nowakowski, M. [Universidad de los Andes, Departamento de Fisica, Bogota (Colombia)

    2011-12-15

    A massless field propagating on spherically symmetric black hole metrics such as the Schwarzschild, Reissner-Nordstroem and Reissner-Nordstroem-de Sitter backgrounds is considered. In particular, explicit formulae in terms of transcendental functions for the scattering of massless scalar particles off black holes are derived within a Born approximation. It is shown that the conditions on the existence of the Born integral forbid a straightforward extraction of the quasi normal modes using the Born approximation for the scattering amplitude. Such a method has been used in literature. We suggest a novel, well defined method, to extract the large imaginary part of quasinormal modes via the Coulomb-like phase shift. Furthermore, we compare the numerically evaluated exact scattering amplitude with the Born one to find that the approximation is not very useful for the scattering of massless scalar, electromagnetic as well as gravitational waves from black holes. (orig.)

  20. Born-Infeld action and Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, G A

    2000-01-01

    In the thesis we analize different problems related to the supersymmetric extension of the Dirac-Born-Infeld action. In chapter 2 we introduce the DBI action and show how it appears in string theory, we discuss also it's connection with Dp-branes. Chapter 3 is a self contained introduction to supersymmetry, with emphasis on BPS states. In chapter 4 we construct the N=2 supersymmetric extension of the Born-Infeld-Higgs in three space-time dimensions and discuss it's BPS states and Bogomol'nyi bounds. In chapter 5 we construct the N=1 supersymmetric extension of the non-abelian Born-Infeld theory in four space-time dimensions. Chapter 6 deals with the analisis of BPS and non-BPS solutions of the Dirac-Born-Infeld action and their interpretation in superstring theory. Chapter 7 is devoted to the conclusions. Three appendix complete the work.

  1. Difficulties in Diagnosing Food-Borne Botulism

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Botulism is a muscle-paralyzing disease caused by neurotoxins (types A–G) produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum. Symptoms of food-borne botulism most commonly appear 12–36 h after eating contaminated food, but the earliest neurological symptoms may in some cases start abruptly. Here, we report the cases of two patients with food-borne botulism who were admitted to the neurological emergency room as candidates for intravenous thrombolysis for acute stroke.

  2. Difficulties in diagnosing food-borne botulism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forss, Nina; Ramstad, Raimo; Bäcklund, Tom; Lindström, Miia; Kolho, Elina

    2012-05-01

    Botulism is a muscle-paralyzing disease caused by neurotoxins (types A-G) produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum. Symptoms of food-borne botulism most commonly appear 12-36 h after eating contaminated food, but the earliest neurological symptoms may in some cases start abruptly. Here, we report the cases of two patients with food-borne botulism who were admitted to the neurological emergency room as candidates for intravenous thrombolysis for acute stroke.

  3. Difficulties in Diagnosing Food-Borne Botulism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Forss

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Botulism is a muscle-paralyzing disease caused by neurotoxins (types A–G produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum. Symptoms of food-borne botulism most commonly appear 12–36 h after eating contaminated food, but the earliest neurological symptoms may in some cases start abruptly. Here, we report the cases of two patients with food-borne botulism who were admitted to the neurological emergency room as candidates for intravenous thrombolysis for acute stroke.

  4. Urbanization, land tenure security and vector-borne Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Michael Z; Barbu, Corentin M; Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Quispe-Machaca, Victor R; Ancca-Juarez, Jenny; Escalante-Mejia, Patricia; Borrini-Mayori, Katty; Niemierko, Malwina; Mabud, Tarub S; Behrman, Jere R; Naquira-Velarde, Cesar

    2014-08-22

    Modern cities represent one of the fastest growing ecosystems on the planet. Urbanization occurs in stages; each stage characterized by a distinct habitat that may be more or less susceptible to the establishment of disease vector populations and the transmission of vector-borne pathogens. We performed longitudinal entomological and epidemiological surveys in households along a 1900 × 125 m transect of Arequipa, Peru, a major city of nearly one million inhabitants, in which the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, the aetiological agent of Chagas disease, by the insect vector Triatoma infestans, is an ongoing problem. The transect spans a cline of urban development from established communities to land invasions. We find that the vector is tracking the development of the city, and the parasite, in turn, is tracking the dispersal of the vector. New urbanizations are free of vector infestation for decades. T. cruzi transmission is very recent and concentrated in more established communities. The increase in land tenure security during the course of urbanization, if not accompanied by reasonable and enforceable zoning codes, initiates an influx of construction materials, people and animals that creates fertile conditions for epidemics of some vector-borne diseases.

  5. Urbanization, land tenure security and vector-borne Chagas disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Michael Z.; Barbu, Corentin M.; Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Quispe-Machaca, Victor R.; Ancca-Juarez, Jenny; Escalante-Mejia, Patricia; Borrini-Mayori, Katty; Niemierko, Malwina; Mabud, Tarub S.; Behrman, Jere R.; Naquira-Velarde, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Modern cities represent one of the fastest growing ecosystems on the planet. Urbanization occurs in stages; each stage characterized by a distinct habitat that may be more or less susceptible to the establishment of disease vector populations and the transmission of vector-borne pathogens. We performed longitudinal entomological and epidemiological surveys in households along a 1900 × 125 m transect of Arequipa, Peru, a major city of nearly one million inhabitants, in which the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, the aetiological agent of Chagas disease, by the insect vector Triatoma infestans, is an ongoing problem. The transect spans a cline of urban development from established communities to land invasions. We find that the vector is tracking the development of the city, and the parasite, in turn, is tracking the dispersal of the vector. New urbanizations are free of vector infestation for decades. T. cruzi transmission is very recent and concentrated in more established communities. The increase in land tenure security during the course of urbanization, if not accompanied by reasonable and enforceable zoning codes, initiates an influx of construction materials, people and animals that creates fertile conditions for epidemics of some vector-borne diseases. PMID:24990681

  6. Foreign-born Peers and Academic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Dylan

    2015-04-01

    The academic performance of foreign-born youth in the United States is well studied, yet little is known about whether and how foreign-born students influence their classmates. In this article, I develop a set of expectations regarding the potential consequences of immigrant integration across schools, with a distinction between the effects of sharing schools with immigrants who are designated as English language learners (ELL) and those who are not. I then use administrative data on multiple cohorts of Florida public high school students to estimate the effect of immigrant shares on immigrant and native-born students' academic performance. The identification strategy pays careful attention to the selection problem by estimating the effect of foreign-born peers from deviations in the share foreign-born across cohorts of students attending the same school in different years. The assumption underlying this approach is that students choose schools based on the composition of the entire school, not on the composition of each entering cohort. The results of the analysis, which hold under several robustness checks, indicate that foreign-born peers (both those who are ELL and those who are non-ELL) have no effect on their high school classmates' academic performance.

  7. Zoning Districts, Zoning, Published in 2002, Freelance.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Zoning Districts dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2002. It is described as 'Zoning'. Data by this publisher are often...

  8. Blood Pressure in Young Adults Born at Very Low Birth Weight: Adults Born Preterm International Collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovi, P.; Vohr, B.; Ment, L.R.; Doyle, L.W.; McGarvey, L.; Morrison, K.M.; Evensen, K.A.I.; Pal, S. van der; Grunau, R.E.; Brubakk, A.M.; Andersson, S.; Saigal, S.; Kajantie, E.

    2016-01-01

    Adults born preterm at very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 g) have higher blood pressure than those born at term. It is not known whether all VLBW adults are at risk or whether higher blood pressure could be attributed to some of the specific conditions underlying or accompanying preterm birth. To id

  9. Projectile-Borne Video Reconnaissance System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海福; 张锋; 李向荣

    2004-01-01

    Aiming at applications as a projectile-borne video reconnaissance system, the overall design and prototype in principle of a mortar video reconnaissance system bomb were developed. Mortar launched test results show that the initial integrated system was capable of transmitting images through tens of kilometers with the image resolution identifying effectively tactical targets such as roads, hills, caverns, trees and rivers. The projectile-borne video reconnaissance system is able to meet the needs of tactical target identification and battle dage assessment for tactical operations. The study will provide significant technological support for further independent development.

  10. Pap Tests and Foreign-Born Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-26

    Foreign-born women living in the U.S. are less likely to have Pap tests to detect cervical cancer than women born in this country. The problem is worse for women from certain countries or regions. Find out why this is a disturbing trend, who these women are and why they are less likely to get a Pap test, and what CDC is doing about it.  Created: 11/26/2007 by National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.   Date Released: 12/7/2007.

  11. Spatial distribution and cellular composition of adult brain proliferative zones in the teleost, Gymnotus omarorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina eOlivera-Pasilio

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Proliferation of stem/progenitor cells during development provides for the generation of mature cell types in the CNS. While adult brain proliferation is highly restricted in the mammals, it is widespread in teleosts. The extent of adult neural proliferation in the weakly electric fish, Gymnotus omarorum has not yet been described. To address this, we used double thymidine analog pulse-chase labeling of proliferating cells to identify brain proliferation zones, characterize their cellular composition, and analyze the fate of newborn cells in adult G. omarorum. Short thymidine analog chase periods revealed the ubiquitous distribution of adult brain proliferation, similar to other teleosts, particularly Apteronotus leptorhynchus. Proliferating cells were abundant at the ventricular-subventricular lining of the ventricular-cisternal system, adjacent to the telencephalic subpallium, the diencephalic preoptic region and hypothalamus, and the mesencephalic tectum opticum and torus semicircularis. Extraventricular proliferation zones, located distant from the ventricular-cisternal system surface, were found in all divisions of the rombencephalic cerebellum. We also report a new adult proliferation zone at the caudal-lateral border of the electrosensory lateral line lobe. All proliferation zones showed a heterogeneous cellular composition. The use of short (24hs and long (30d chase periods revealed abundant fast cycling cells (potentially intermediate amplifiers, sparse slow cycling (potentially stem cells, cells that appear to have entered a quiescent state, and cells that might correspond to migrating newborn neural cells. Their abundance and migration distance differed among proliferation zones: greater numbers and longer range and/or pace of migrating cells were associated with subpallial and cerebellar proliferation zones.

  12. Dyons in Nonabelian Born-Infeld Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Balaz, A; Radovanovic, Voja

    2002-01-01

    We analyze a nonabelian extension of Born--Infeld action for the SU(2) group. In the class of spherically symmetric solutions we find that, besides the Gal'tsov--Kerner glueballs, only the analytic dyons have finite energy. The presented analytic and numerical investigation excludes the existence of pure magnetic monopoles of 't Hooft--Polyakov type.

  13. Extra-symmetric Born--Infeld theory

    CERN Document Server

    Palatnik, D

    2002-01-01

    This paper suggests a generalization of the Born--Infeld action (1932) for the case of electroweak and gravitational fields. Basic notions one deals with are Dirac matrices, $\\gamma_{a}$, and dimensionless covariant derivatives, $\\pi_{a} = - i\\ell \

  14. Topics in Born-Infeld Electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kerner, R; Galtsov, D V

    2001-01-01

    Classical version of Born-Infeld electrodynamics is recalled and its most important properties discussed. Then we analyze possible abelian and non-abelian generalizations of this theory, and show how certain soliton-like configurations can be obtained. The relationship with the Standard Model of electroweak interactions is also mentioned.

  15. Suppression of soil-borne plant pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agtmaal, van M.

    2015-01-01

    Soil borne plant pathogens considerably reduce crop yields worldwide and are difficult to control due to their ”masked” occurrence  in the heterogeneous soil environment. This hampers the efficacy of chemical - and microbiological control agents.   Outbreaks of crop diseas

  16. [Conflicts and vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, Ib Christian

    2010-01-01

    not available for most diseases. Promising preventive methods, including long-lasting impregnated bed-nets and tents, are available. War has been an impetus for disclosing life-cycles of vector-borne diseases and for control methods; peace, reconciliation and poverty reduction are required to achieve lasting...

  17. Risk based surveillance for vector borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Rene

    of samples and hence early detection of outbreaks. Models for vector borne diseases in Denmark have demonstrated dramatic variation in outbreak risk during the season and between years. The Danish VetMap project aims to make these risk based surveillance estimates available on the veterinarians smart phones...

  18. Tick-borne encephalitis virus subtypes emerged through rapid vector switches rather than gradual evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, Sergey Y; Mukhacheva, Tatyana A

    2014-11-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis is the most important human arthropod-borne virus disease in Europe and Russia, with an annual incidence of about 13 thousand people. Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is distributed in the natural foci of forest and taiga zones of Eurasia, from the Pacific to the Atlantic coast. Currently, there are three mutually exclusive hypotheses about the origin and distribution of TBEV subtypes, although they are based on the same assumption of gradual evolution. Recently, we have described the structure of TBEV populations in terms of a clusteron approach, a clusteron being a structural unit of viral population [Kovalev and Mukhacheva (2013) Infect. Genet. Evol., 14, 22-28]. This approach allowed us to investigate questions of TBEV evolution in a new way and to propose a hypothesis of quantum evolution due to a vector switch. We also consider a possible mechanism for this switch occurring in interspecific hybrids of ticks. It is necessarily accompanied by a rapid accumulation of mutations in the virus genome, which is contrary to the generally accepted view of gradual evolution in assessing the ages of TBEV populations. The proposed hypothesis could explain and predict not only the formation of new subtypes, but also the emergence of new vector-borne viruses.

  19. The Eco-Epidemiology of Tick-Borne Hemoparasitic Diseases Using Geographic Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Rafinejad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tick-borne diseases are of the most important diseases in the world including Iran. This survey was conducted to understand the eco-epidemiology of tick-borne hemoparasitic diseases in Qazvin province, Iran, using Geospatial Information System (GIS. Materials and Methods: DNA samples were extracted from livestock blood samples collected from different regions of Qazvin province. 18S rRNA-based PCR targeted Theileria/ Babesia species were done. Initial parameters for mapping the local tick-borne hemoparasitic diseases and raster files were obtained from Iran Meteorological Organization and Iranian Space Agency. Mapping of the parameters in relation to prevalence of these diseases were done. Statistical analysis was used for weighting parameters ranking and predicting spatial distribution in different climatic zones. Results: Vapor pressure, precipitation, and altitude are of several environmental factors correlated with tick abundances. Based on the generated maps and the results of this survey, some predicting results could be used for predicting tick-borne diseases and their control. 9.7% of ruminant blood samples (N=16 were infected with protozoa pathogens from the genera Theileria and all of the specimens were negative regarding to Babesia genera. Conclusion: Results showed that prediction of a very high prevalence of Theileria/ Babesia species and mapping endangered area is possible in different parts of Iran. Based on the environmental conditions, key factors exist for host-seeking and range expansion of ticks.

  20. Perinatal outcomes among foreign-born and US-born Chinese Americans, 1995-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Keith, Louis G; Kirby, Russell S

    2010-06-01

    This paper examines nativity differences in adverse perinatal outcomes of Chinese-American mothers. Singleton live births to US-resident Chinese women (150,620 foreign-born, 15,040 US-born) and a random sample of 150,620 non-Hispanic White mothers were selected from 1995 to 2000 national linked birth/infant death certificate files. Associations between maternal nativity status and adverse perinatal outcomes were assessed using multivariable logistic regressions. Compared to US-born Chinese mothers, foreign-born Chinese mothers were less likely to be unmarried, teen mothers, have a non-Hispanic White or other race partner, be rural residents, and more likely to be less educated, or utilize prenatal care inadequately. Controlling for these factors, foreign-born Chinese-American mothers had significantly lower risks for low birth weight, preterm birth, and small-for-gestational age, whereas risks for infant mortality, neonatal mortality, and post-neonatal mortality did not differ significantly from those of infants of US-born Chinese mothers. Chinese Americans exhibited clear nativity differentials for adverse birth outcomes.

  1. Investigation of Anti-bacterial Activity against Food-borne Pathogens among Korean Domestic Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-hyo Jang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explore algal species with anti-bacterial activity against six food-borne pathogens. Among 51 marine algae, Laurencia okamurae Yamada and Dictyopteris undulata Holmes was elucidated to have a potent anti-bacterial activity against food-borne pathogens. Laurencia okamurae Yamada showed the clear zone around agar well on B. cereus, S. aureusand L. monocytogenes-spreading agar plate. Dictyopteris undulata Holmes had the anti-bacterial activity against S. chorelaesuis, B. cereus, S. aureus and L. monocytogenes on bacterial spreading agar plates. Antibacterial activity of L. okamurae Yamada and D. undulata Holmes had specifically susceptibility for B. cereus, S. aureus and L. monocytogenes and were superior to streptomycin, the authentic antibiotics. It is anticipated that new food preservatives can be explored and developed on the basis of this study.

  2. Attitude determination for balloon-borne experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Gandilo, N N; Amiri, M; Angile, F E; Benton, S J; Bock, J J; Bond, J R; Bryan, S A; Chiang, H C; Contaldi, C R; Crill, B P; Devlin, M J; Dober, B; Dore, O P; Farhang, M; Filippini, J P; Fissel, L M; Fraisse, A A; Fukui, Y; Galitzki, N; Gambrel, A E; Golwala, S; Gudmundsson, J E; Halpern, M; Hasselfield, M; Hilton, G C; Holmes, W A; Hristov, V V; Irwin, K D; Jones, W C; Kermish, Z D; Klein, J; Korotkov, A L; Kuo, C L; MacTavish, C J; Mason, P V; Matthews, T G; Megerian, K G; Moncelsi, L; Morford, T A; Mroczkowski, T K; Nagy, J M; Netterfield, C B; Novak, G; Nutter, D; O'Brient, R; Pascale, E; Poidevin, F; Rahlin, A S; Reintsema, C D; Ruhl, J E; Runyan, M C; Savini, G; Scott, D; Shariff, J A; Soler, J D; Thomas, N E; Trangsrud, A; Truch, M D; Tucker, C E; Tucker, G S; Tucker, R S; Turner, A D; Ward-Thompson, D; Weber, A C; Wiebe, D V; Young, E Y

    2014-01-01

    An attitude determination system for balloon-borne experiments is presented. The system provides pointing information in azimuth and elevation for instruments flying on stratospheric balloons over Antarctica. In-flight attitude is given by the real-time combination of readings from star cameras, a magnetometer, sun sensors, GPS, gyroscopes, tilt sensors and an elevation encoder. Post-flight attitude reconstruction is determined from star camera solutions, interpolated by the gyroscopes using an extended Kalman Filter. The multi-sensor system was employed by the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol), an experiment that measures polarized thermal emission from interstellar dust clouds. A similar system was designed for the upcoming flight of SPIDER, a Cosmic Microwave Background polarization experiment. The pointing requirements for these experiments are discussed, as well as the challenges in designing attitude reconstruction systems for high altitude balloon flights. ...

  3. Born-Infeld-$f(R)$ gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Makarenko, Andrey N; Olmo, Gonzalo J

    2014-01-01

    We work out a gravity theory that combines the Born-Infeld gravity Lagrangian with an $f(R)$ piece. The theory is formulated within the Palatini approach. This construction provides more freedom to address a number of important questions such as the dynamics of the early universe and the cosmic accelerated expansion, among others. In particular, we consider the effect that adding an $f(R)=a R^2$ term has on the early-time cosmology. We find that bouncing solutions are robust against these modifications of the Lagrangian whereas the solutions with loitering behavior of the original Born-Infeld theory are very sensitive to the $R^2$ term. In fact, these solutions are modified in such a way that a plateau in the $H^2$ function may arise yielding a period of (approximately) de Sitter inflationary expansion. This inflationary behavior may be found even in a radiation dominated universe.

  4. Geometrical dynamics of Born-Infeld objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordero, Ruben [Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del I.P.N., Unidad Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Edificio 9, 07738 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Molgado, Alberto [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal DIaz del Castillo 340, Col. Villas San Sebastian, Colima (Mexico); Rojas, Efrain [Facultad de Fisica e Inteligencia Artificial, Universidad Veracruzana, 91000 Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2007-03-21

    We present a geometrically inspired study of the dynamics of Dp-branes. We focus on the usual non-polynomial Dirac-Born-Infeld action for the worldvolume swept out by the brane in its evolution in general background spacetimes. We emphasize the form of the resulting equations of motion which are quite simple and resemble Newton's second law, complemented with a conservation law for a worldvolume bicurrent. We take a closer look at the classical Hamiltonian analysis which is supported by the ADM framework of general relativity. The constraints and their algebra are identified as well as the geometrical role they play in phase space. In order to illustrate our results, we review the dynamics of a D1-brane immersed in a AdS{sub 3} x S{sup 3} background spacetime. We exhibit the mechanical properties of Born-Infeld objects paving the way to a consistent quantum formulation.

  5. Gravity a la Born-Infeld

    CERN Document Server

    Wohlfarth, M N R

    2004-01-01

    A simple technique for the construction of gravity theories in Born-Infeld style is presented, and the properties of some of these novel theories are investigated. They regularize the positive energy Schwarzschild singularity, and a large class of models allows for the cancellation of ghosts. The possible correspondence to low energy string theory is discussed. By including curvature corrections to all orders in alpha', the new theories nicely illustrate a mechanism that string theory might use to regularize gravitational singularities.

  6. Dynamics of Born-Infeld membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordero, R [Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del I.P.N., Unidad Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Edificio 9, 07738 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Molgado, A [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal DIaz del Castillo 340, Col. Villas San Sebastian, Colima (Mexico); Rojas, E [Facultad de Fisica e Inteligencia Artificial, Universidad Veracruzana, 91000 Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    We present a geometrical inspired study of the dynamics of Dp-branes. We focus on the usual nonpolynomial Dirac-Born-Infeld action for the worldvolume swept out by the brane in its evolution in general background spacetimes. We emphasize the form of the resulting equations of motion which are quite simple and resemble Newton's second law, complemented with a conservation law for a worldvolume bicurrent.

  7. Integrated epidemiology for vector-borne zoonoses

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The development and application of interventions for the control of vector-borne zoonoses requires broad understanding of epidemiological linkages between vector, animal infection and human infection. However, there are significant gaps in our understanding of these linkages and a lack of appropriate data poses a considerable barrier to addressing this issue. A move towards strengthened surveillance of vectors and disease in both animal and human hosts, in combination with linked human-animal...

  8. Spectrophotometric determination of substrate-borne polyacrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianhang; Wu, Laosheng

    2002-08-28

    Polyacrylamides (PAMs) have wide application in many industries and in agriculture. Scientific research and industrial applications manifested a need for a method that can quantify substrate-borne PAM. The N-bromination method (a PAM analytical technique based on N-bromination of amide groups and spectrophotometric determination of the formed starch-triiodide complex), which was originally developed for determining PAM in aqueous solutions, was modified to quantify substrate-borne PAM. In the modified method, the quantity of substrate-borne PAM was converted to a concentration of starch-triiodide complex in aqueous solution that was then measured by spectrophotometry. The method sensitivity varied with substrates due to sorption of reagents and reaction intermediates on the substrates. Therefore, separate calibration for each substrate was required. Results from PAM samples in sand, cellulose, organic matter burnt soils, and clay minerals showed that this method had good accuracy and reproducibility. The PAM recoveries ranged from 95.8% to 103.7%, and the relative standard deviations (n = 4) were <7.5% in all cases. The optimum range of PAM in each sample is 10-80 microg. The technique can serve as an effective tool in improving PAM application and facilitating PAM-related research.

  9. Alterations in Functional Connectivity for Language in Prematurely Born Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Robin J.; Lacadie, Cheryl; Vohr, Betty; Kesler, Shelli R.; Katz, Karol H.; Schneider, Karen C.; Pugh, Kenneth R.; Makuch, Robert W.; Reiss, Allan L.; Constable, R. Todd; Ment, Laura R.

    2009-01-01

    Recent data suggest recovery of language systems but persistent structural abnormalities in the prematurely born. We tested the hypothesis that subjects who were born prematurely develop alternative networks for processing language. Subjects who were born prematurely (n = 22; 600-1250 g birth weight), without neonatal brain injury on neonatal…

  10. The wild life of tick-borne pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeester, Tim R.

    2016-01-01

    Diseases that are transmitted by arthropod vectors from animal hosts to humans – so called zoonotic vector-borne diseases – have increased in incidence in the last decades. In North America and Europe, tick-borne pathogens cause the majority of vector-borne diseases, including Lyme borre

  11. A subpial, transitory germinal zone forms chains of neuronal precursors in the rabbit cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponti, Giovanna; Peretto, Paolo; Bonfanti, Luca

    2006-06-01

    Protracted neurogenesis occurs at different postnatal stages in different brain locations, whereby leading to site-specific adult neurogenesis in some cases. No spontaneous genesis of neurons occurs in the cerebellum after the postnatal genesis of granule cells from the external germinal layer (EGL), a transitory actively proliferating zone which is thought to be exhausted before puberty. Here, we show the protracted genesis of newly generated neuronal precursors in the cerebellar cortex of young rabbits, persisting beyond puberty. Neuroblasts generated within an actively proliferating subpial layer thus extending the postnatal EGL are arranged to form thousands of tangential chains reminiscent of those responsible for cell migration in the forebrain subventricular zone. These subpial chains cover the whole cerebellar surface from the 2nd to the 5th month of life, then disappearing after puberty. In addition, we describe the appearance of similar groups of cells at the end of granule cell genesis in the mouse cerebellum, here limited to the short period of EGL exhaustion (4-5 days). These results show common features do exist in the postnatal reorganization of secondary germinal layers of brain and cerebellum at specific stages, parallel to differences in the slowing down of cerebellar neurogenesis among mammalian species.

  12. High hopes for CB2 receptors in neurogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Downer, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    During life, new neurons are continually added to hippocampal circuitry, with evidence suggesting that these adult-born neurons are functionally linked to cognition and emotion. The mammalian brain contains actively dividing neural stem cells in discrete regions, including the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. Once mature, these neurons integrate into neuronal networks, forming synaptic connections with interneurons, mossy cells and C...

  13. Modulation of adult-born neurons in the inflamed hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim eBelarbi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Throughout life new neurons are continuously added to the hippocampal circuitry involved with spatial learning and memory. These new cells originate from neural precursors in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus, migrate into the granule cell layer and integrate into neural networks encoding spatial and contextual information. This process can be influenced by several environmental and endogenous factors and is modified in different animal models of neurological disorders. Neuroinflammation, as defined by the presence of activated microglia, is a common key factor to the progression of neurological disorders. Analysis of the literature shows that microglial activation impacts not only the production, but also the migration and the recruitment of new neurons. The impact of microglia on adult-born neurons appears much more multifaceted than ever envisioned before, combining both supportive and detrimental effects that are dependent upon the activation phenotype and the factors being released. The development of strategies aimed to change microglia toward states that promote functional neurogenesis could therefore offer novel therapeutic opportunities against neurological disorders associated with cognitive deficits and neuroinflammation. The present review summarizes the current knowledge on how production, distribution and recruitment of new neurons into behaviorally relevant neural networks are modified in the inflamed hippocampus.

  14. Waveform inversion of mantle Love waves: The born seismogram approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, T.

    1983-01-01

    Normal mode theory, extended to the slightly laterally heterogeneous Earth by the first-order Born approximation, is applied to the waveform inversion of mantle Love waves (200-500 sec) for the Earth's lateral heterogeneity at l=2 and a spherically symmetric anelasticity (Q sub mu) structure. The data are from the Global Digital Seismograph Network (GDSN). The l=2 pattern is very similar to the results of other studies that used either different methods, such as phase velocity measurements and multiplet location measurements, or a different data set, such as mantle Rayleigh waves from different instruments. The results are carefully analyzed for variance reduction and are most naturally explained by heterogeneity in the upper 420 km. Because of the poor resolution of the data set for the deep interior, however, a fairly large heterogeneity in the transition zones, of the order of up to 3.5% in shear wave velocity, is allowed. It is noteworthy that Love waves of this period range can not constrain the structure below 420 km and thus any model presented by similar studies below this depth are likely to be constrained by Rayleigh waves (spheroidal modes) only.

  15. Waveform inversion of mantle Love waves - The Born seismogram approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, T.

    1984-01-01

    Normal mode theory, extended to the slightly laterally heterogeneous earth by the first-order Born approximation, is applied to the waveform inversion of mantle Love waves (200-500 sec) for the earth's lateral heterogeneity at l = 2 and a spherically symmetric anelasticity (Q sub mu) structure. The data are from the Global Digital Seismograph Network (GDSN). The l = 2 pattern is very similar to the results of other studies that used either different methods, such as phase velocity measurements and multiplet location measurements, or a different data set, such as mantle Rayleigh waves from different instruments. The results are carefully analyzed for variance reduction and are most naturally explained by heterogeneity in the upper 420 km. Because of the poor resolution of the data set for the deep interior, however, a fairly large heterogeneity in the transition zones, of the order of up to 3.5 percent in shear wave velocity, is allowed. It is noteworthy that Love waves of this period range can not constrain the structure below 420 km and thus any model presented by similar studies below this depth are likely to be constrained by Rayleigh waves (spheroidal modes) only.

  16. Improved master equation approach to quantum transport: From Born to self-consistent Born approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Jinshuang, E-mail: jsjin@hznu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036 (China); Li, Jun [Department of Physics, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036 (China); College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Dezhou University, Dezhou 253023 (China); Liu, Yu [State Key Laboratory for Superlattices and Microstructures, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Li, Xin-Qi, E-mail: lixinqi@bnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Superlattices and Microstructures, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Yan, YiJing, E-mail: yyan@ust.hk [Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2014-06-28

    Beyond the second-order Born approximation, we propose an improved master equation approach to quantum transport under self-consistent Born approximation. The basic idea is to replace the free Green's function in the tunneling self-energy diagram by an effective reduced propagator under the Born approximation. This simple modification has remarkable consequences. It not only recovers the exact results for quantum transport through noninteracting systems under arbitrary voltages, but also predicts the challenging nonequilibrium Kondo effect. Compared to the nonequilibrium Green's function technique that formulates the calculation of specific correlation functions, the master equation approach contains richer dynamical information to allow more efficient studies for such as the shot noise and full counting statistics.

  17. Improved master equation approach to quantum transport: from Born to self-consistent Born approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jinshuang; Li, Jun; Liu, Yu; Li, Xin-Qi; Yan, YiJing

    2014-06-28

    Beyond the second-order Born approximation, we propose an improved master equation approach to quantum transport under self-consistent Born approximation. The basic idea is to replace the free Green's function in the tunneling self-energy diagram by an effective reduced propagator under the Born approximation. This simple modification has remarkable consequences. It not only recovers the exact results for quantum transport through noninteracting systems under arbitrary voltages, but also predicts the challenging nonequilibrium Kondo effect. Compared to the nonequilibrium Green's function technique that formulates the calculation of specific correlation functions, the master equation approach contains richer dynamical information to allow more efficient studies for such as the shot noise and full counting statistics.

  18. The germinal zones of the basal ganglia but not the septum generate GABAergic interneurons for the cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Anna N; Alfonsi, Fabienne; Humphreys, Michael P; Choi, Christina K P; Rocha, Susana F; Kessaris, Nicoletta

    2010-09-08

    Cortical interneurons originate from subpallial precursors and migrate into the cortex during development. Using genetic lineage tracing in transgenic mice we examine the contribution of two germinal zones, the septum and the lateral ganglionic eminence/caudal ganglionic eminence (LGE/CGE) to interneurons of the cortex. We find that the septal neuroepithelium does not generate interneurons for the neocortex. There is, however, clear migration of cells from the LGE/CGE to the cortex. Comparison of the dynamics of cortical colonization by the two major cohorts of interneurons originating in the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) and the LGE/CGE has shown differences in the timing of migration and initial route of entry into the cortex. LGE/CGE-derived interneurons enter the cortex later than the MGE-derived ones. They invade the cortex through the subventricular/intermediate zone route and only later disperse within the cortical plate and the marginal zone. During the first postnatal week MGE interneurons move extensively to acquire their laminar position within the cortical plate whereas LGE/CGE-derived cells remain largely within the upper layers of the cortex. The two populations intermingle in the adult cortex but have distinct neurochemical properties and different overall distributions. LGE/CGE-derived interneurons account for one third of the total GABAergic interneuron population in the adult cortex.

  19. Novel primate miRNAs coevolved with ancient target genes in germinal zone-specific expression patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcila, Mary L; Betizeau, Marion; Cambronne, Xiaolu A; Guzman, Elmer; Doerflinger, Nathalie; Bouhallier, Frantz; Zhou, Hongjun; Wu, Bian; Rani, Neha; Bassett, Danielle S; Borello, Ugo; Huissoud, Cyril; Goodman, Richard H; Dehay, Colette; Kosik, Kenneth S

    2014-03-19

    Major nonprimate-primate differences in cortico-genesis include the dimensions, precursor lineages, and developmental timing of the germinal zones (GZs). microRNAs (miRNAs) of laser-dissected GZ compartments and cortical plate (CP) from embryonic E80 macaque visual cortex were deep sequenced. The CP and the GZ including ventricular zone (VZ) and outer and inner subcompartments of the outer subventricular zone (OSVZ) in area 17 displayed unique miRNA profiles. miRNAs present in primate, but absent in rodent, contributed disproportionately to the differential expression between GZ subregions. Prominent among the validated targets of these miRNAs were cell-cycle and neurogenesis regulators. Coevolution between the emergent miRNAs and their targets suggested that novel miRNAs became integrated into ancient gene circuitry to exert additional control over proliferation. We conclude that multiple cell-cycle regulatory events contribute to the emergence of primate-specific cortical features, including the OSVZ, generated enlarged supragranular layers, largely responsible for the increased primate cortex computational abilities.

  20. Microbial control of arthropod-borne disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldaña, Miguel A; Hegde, Shivanand; Hughes, Grant L

    2017-01-01

    Arthropods harbor a diverse array of microbes that profoundly influence many aspects of host biology, including vector competence. Additionally, symbionts can be engineered to produce molecules that inhibit pathogens. Due to their intimate association with the host, microbes have developed strategies that facilitate their transmission, either horizontally or vertically, to conspecifics. These attributes make microbes attractive agents for applied strategies to control arthropod-borne disease. Here we discuss the recent advances in microbial control approaches to reduce the burden of pathogens such as Zika, Dengue and Chikungunya viruses, and Trypanosome and Plasmodium parasites. We also highlight where further investigation is warranted. PMID:28177042

  1. Gravity a la Born-Infeld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlfarth, Mattias N R [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2004-04-21

    A simple technique for the construction of gravity theories in Born-Infeld style is presented, and the properties of some of these novel theories are investigated. They regularize the positive energy Schwarzschild singularity, and a large class of models allows for the cancellation of ghosts. The possible correspondence with low-energy string theory is discussed. By including curvature corrections to all orders in {alpha}', the new theories nicely illustrate a mechanism that string theory might use to regularize gravitational singularities.

  2. Non-Abelian Born--Infeld cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Dyadichev, V V; Zorin, A G; Zotov, M Yu

    2002-01-01

    We investigate homogeneous and isotropic cosmological solutions supported by the SU(2) gauge field governed by the Born-Infeld lagrangian. In the framework of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology, with or without cosmological constant $\\lambda$, we derive dynamical systems that give rather complete description of the space of solutions. For $\\lambda=0$ the effective equation of state $\\ve(p)$ is shown to interpolate between $p=-\\ve/3$ in the regime of the strong field and $p=\\ve/3$ for the weak field. Correspondingly, the Universe starts with zero acceleration and gradually enters the decelerating regime, asymptotically approaching the Tolman solution.

  3. A balloon-borne integrating nephelometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G.S.; Apple, M.L. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Weiss, R.E. (Radiance Research, Seattle, WA (USA))

    1990-09-01

    A balloon-borne integrating nephelometer has been successfully developed and flown by Sandia National Laboratories and Radiance Research. This report details instrument design, calibration and data conversion procedure. Free and tethered balloon transport and telemetry systems are described. Data taken during March 1989 South-Central New Mexico free flight ascents are presented as vertical profiles of atmospheric particle scattering coefficient, temperature and balloon heading. Data taken during December 1989 Albuquerque, New Mexico tethered flights are also presented as vertical profiles. Data analysis shows superior instrument performance. 5 refs., 22 figs.

  4. Born with Protection against Whooping Cough

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-22

    This podcast provides information about whooping cough, a disease that can be deadly for babies, and CDC’s recommendation that all women receive the Tdap vaccine during the third trimester of every pregnancy so their babies can be born with protection from this serious disease.  Created: 1/22/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Meningitis and Vaccine Preventable Diseases Branch (MVPDB).   Date Released: 1/22/2015.

  5. Microbial control of arthropod-borne disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Saldaña

    Full Text Available Arthropods harbor a diverse array of microbes that profoundly influence many aspects of host biology, including vector competence. Additionally, symbionts can be engineered to produce molecules that inhibit pathogens. Due to their intimate association with the host, microbes have developed strategies that facilitate their transmission, either horizontally or vertically, to conspecifics. These attributes make microbes attractive agents for applied strategies to control arthropod-borne disease. Here we discuss the recent advances in microbial control approaches to reduce the burden of pathogens such as Zika, Dengue and Chikungunya viruses, and Trypanosome and Plasmodium parasites. We also highlight where further investigation is warranted.

  6. ZoneLib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Jan Jacob; Schiøler, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    We present a dynamic model for climate in a livestock building divided into a number of zones, and a corresponding modular Simulink library (ZoneLib). While most literature in this area consider air flow as a control parameter we show how to model climate dynamics using actual control signals...... development of ZoneLib....

  7. Generalized Fibonacci zone plates

    CERN Document Server

    Ke, Jie; Zhu, Jianqiang

    2015-01-01

    We propose a family of zone plates which are produced by the generalized Fibonacci sequences and their axial focusing properties are analyzed in detail. Compared with traditional Fresnel zone plates, the generalized Fibonacci zone plates present two axial foci with equal intensity. Besides, we propose an approach to adjust the axial locations of the two foci by means of different optical path difference, and further give the deterministic ratio of the two focal distances which attributes to their own generalized Fibonacci sequences. The generalized Fibonacci zone plates may allow for new applications in micro and nanophotonics.

  8. Shanghai's Development Zones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Since the early 1980s,development zones began appearing in China.Their Success largely stems from the preferential policies they offer and the safe investment environment they work hard to create.As zones have personalities themselves,it is essential to look beyond the pamphlets and published information and get down to the nittygritty.Shanghai has more State designated Economic and Technology Development Zones than any other city in China.In the following article,we have chosen development zones located around Shanghai and conducted a comparison.

  9. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SIMAROUBA GLAUCA LEAF EXTRACTS AGAINST FOOD BORNE SPOILAGE AND PATHOGENIC MICROORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. L. Jangale et al.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Crude ethanol and methanol extracts from dried and fresh leaves of Simarouba glauca were tested for their inhibitory activity against two food borne pathogenic microorganisms (Staphylococcus aeureus and Escherichia coli and two food spoilage microorganism (Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeurogenosa. Screening for antimicrobial activity using well diffusion assay showed the inhibition against entire tested microorganisms. On the other hand the maximum zone of inhibition was recorded of fresh leaves methanol extract (FLM about 11 mm against Escherichia coli and the lowest zone of inhibition was recorded of fresh leaves methanol extract (FLM about 2 mm against Bacillus subtilis. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC’s of extracts were determined using agar dilution method on the same test microorganisms. Fresh leaves methanol (FLM extract gave MIC value ranging from 160 to 10,240 parts per million (ppm. Result showed that the Bacillus subtilis was the most sensitive microorganism.

  10. Mosquito-borne Arbovirus Surveillance at Selected Sites in Diverse Ecological Zones of Kenya 2007 -- 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    Med Hyg 2008, 102(8):817–822. 5. Gould EA, Higgs S: Impact of climate change and other factors on emerging arbovirus diseases. Trans R Soc Trop...streptomycin and 1 µl/ml of Fungizone). Cells were incubated at 37°C and observed daily for cytopathic changes . Cell culture supernatants were...reference and research on arboviruses and haemorrhagic fever viruses. Dakar, Senegal : Institut Pasteur de Dakar; 2000. 8. Kalunda M, Lwanga-Ssozi C

  11. CMB-lensing beyond the Born approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marozzi, Giovanni; Fanizza, Giuseppe; Di Dio, Enea; Durrer, Ruth

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the weak lensing corrections to the cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies considering effects beyond the Born approximation. To this aim, we use the small deflection angle approximation, to connect the lensed and unlensed power spectra, via expressions for the deflection angles up to third order in the gravitational potential. While the small deflection angle approximation has the drawback to be reliable only for multipoles l lesssim 2500, it allows us to consistently take into account the non-Gaussian nature of cosmological perturbation theory beyond the linear level. The contribution to the lensed temperature power spectrum coming from the non-Gaussian nature of the deflection angle at higher order is a new effect which has not been taken into account in the literature so far. It turns out to be the leading contribution among the post-Born lensing corrections. On the other hand, the effect is smaller than corrections coming from non-linearities in the matter power spectrum, and its imprint on CMB lensing is too small to be seen in present experiments.

  12. CMB-lensing beyond the Born approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Marozzi, Giovanni; Di Dio, Enea; Durrer, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the weak lensing corrections to the cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies considering effects beyond the Born approximation. To this aim, we use the small deflection angle approximation, to connect the lensed and unlensed power spectra, via expressions for the deflection angles up to third order in the gravitational potential. While the small deflection angle approximation has the drawback to be reliable only for multipoles $\\ell\\lesssim 2500$, it allows us to consistently take into account the non-Gaussian nature of cosmological perturbation theory beyond the linear level. The contribution to the lensed temperature power spectrum coming from the non-Gaussian nature of the deflection angle at higher order is a new effect which has not been taken into account in the literature so far. It turns out to be the leading contribution among the post-Born lensing corrections. On the other hand, the effect is smaller than corrections coming from non-linearities in the matter power spectrum...

  13. On Multifield Born and Born-Infeld Theories and their non-Abelian Generalizations

    CERN Document Server

    Cerchiai, B L

    2016-01-01

    Starting from a recently proposed linear formulation in terms of auxiliary fields, we study $n$-field generalizations of Born and Born-Infeld theories. In this description the Lagrangian is quadratic in the vector field strengths and the symmetry properties (including the characteristic self-duality) of the corresponding non-linear theory are manifest as on-shell duality symmetries and depend on the choice of the (homogeneous) manifold spanned by the auxiliary scalar fields and the symplectic frame. By suitably choosing these defining properties of the quadratic Lagrangian, we are able to reproduce some known multi-field Born-Infeld theories and to derive new non-linear models, such as the $n$-field Born theory. We also discuss non-Abelian generalizations of these theories obtained by choosing the vector fields in the adjoint representation of an off-shell compact global symmetry group $K$ and replacing them by non-Abelian, $K$-covariant field strengths, thus promoting $K$ to a gauge group.

  14. On multifield Born and Born-Infeld theories and their non-Abelian generalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerchiai, Bianca L.; Trigiante, Mario

    2016-10-01

    Starting from a recently proposed linear formulation in terms of auxiliary fields, we study n-field generalizations of Born and Born-Infeld theories. In this description the Lagrangian is quadratic in the vector field strengths and the symmetry properties (including the characteristic self-duality) of the corresponding non-linear theory are manifest as on-shell duality symmetries and depend on the choice of the (homogeneous) manifold spanned by the auxiliary scalar fields and the symplectic frame. By suitably choosing these defining properties of the quadratic Lagrangian, we are able to reproduce some known multi-field Born-Infeld theories and to derive new non-linear models, such as the n-field Born theory. We also discuss non-Abelian generalizations of these theories obtained by choosing the vector fields in the adjoint representation of an off-shell compact global symmetry group K and replacing them by non-Abelian, K-covariant field strengths, thus promoting K to a gauge group.

  15. Role of BMP2 in differentiation of neural stem cells from anterior subventricular zone into GABAergic neurons%BMP2在SVZa神经干细胞向GABA能神经元分化中的调控作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈锦华; 杨辉; 尹昌林; 张治元; 刘仕勇; 何家全; 高方友

    2007-01-01

    目的 研究BMP2在SVZa神经干细胞向γ-氨基丁酸(GABA)能神经元分化中的调控作用.方法 体外分离培养P0昆明小鼠室管膜下区(SVZa)神经干细胞,纯化传代培养3代后,使用不同浓度BMP2诱导SVZa神经干细胞,采用流式细胞仪检测不同浓度BMP2作用下SVZa神经干细胞分化为GABA能神经元的比例;另外利用活体荧光GFP标记GAD67特异性启动子,动态地研究BMP2在SVZa神经干细胞向GABA能神经元分化中的作用.在此基础之上,采用RT-PCR检测不同浓度BMP2作用下Mash1的表达.结果 不同浓度BMP2作用组分化为GABA能神经元的比例均高于空白对照组,10 ng/ml浓度的BMP2组比例最高;10 ng/ml浓度BMP2组,GAD67-GFP标记阳性细胞数目明显高于对照组;10 ng/ml浓度BMP2组Mash1表达高于其他组.结论 BMP2促进SVZa神经干细胞向GABA能神经元的分化;10 ng/ml浓度的BMP2显著促进Mash1的表达.

  16. Subduction of fracture zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin Manea, Vlad; Gerya, Taras; Manea, Marina; Zhu, Guizhi; Leeman, William

    2013-04-01

    Since Wilson proposed in 1965 the existence of a new class of faults on the ocean floor, namely transform faults, the geodynamic effects and importance of fracture zone subduction is still little studied. It is known that oceanic plates are characterized by numerous fracture zones, and some of them have the potential to transport into subduction zones large volumes of water-rich serpentinite, providing a fertile water source for magma generated in subduction-related arc volcanoes. In most previous geodynamic studies, subducting plates are considered to be homogeneous, and there is no clear indication how the subduction of a fracture zone influences the melting pattern in the mantle wedge and the slab-derived fluids distribution in the subarc mantle. Here we show that subduction of serpentinized fracture zones plays a significant role in distribution of melt and fluids in the mantle wedge above the slab. Using high-resolution tree-dimensional coupled petrological-termomechanical simulations of subduction, we show that fluids, including melts and water, vary dramatically in the region where a serpentinized fracture zone enters into subduction. Our models show that substantial hydration and partial melting tend to concentrate where fracture zones are being subducted, creating favorable conditions for partially molten hydrous plumes to develop. These results are consistent with the along-arc variability in magma source compositions and processes in several regions, as the Aleutian Arc, the Cascades, the Southern Mexican Volcanic Arc, and the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone.

  17. Investigation of tick-borne bacteria (Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp. and Borrelia spp.) in ticks collected from Andean tapirs, cattle and vegetation from a protected area in Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Pesquera, Cristina; Portillo, Aránzazu; Palomar, Ana M.; Oteo, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Ixodid ticks play an important role in the transmission and ecology of infectious diseases. Information about the circulation of tick-borne bacteria in ticks is lacking in Ecuador. Our aims were to investigate the tick species that parasitize Andean tapirs and cattle, and those present in the vegetation from the buffer zone of the Antisana Ecological Reserve and Cayambe-Coca National Park (Ecuador), and to investigate the presence of tick-borne bacteria. Methods Tick species were i...

  18. Atopic diseases in twins born after assisted reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäderberg, Ida; Thomsen, Simon F; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2012-01-01

    Jäderberg I, Thomsen SF, Kyvik KO, Skytthe A, Backer V. Atopic diseases in twins born after assisted reproduction. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 2012; 26: 140-145. We examined the risk of atopic diseases in twins born after assisted reproduction. Data on atopic diseases and assisted...... reproduction in 9694 twin pairs, 3-20 years of age, from the Danish Twin Registry were collected via multidisciplinary questionnaires. The risk of atopic diseases in twins born after assisted reproduction was compared with the risk in twins born after spontaneous conception using logistic regression...

  19. [Autoradiographic investigations on postnatal proliferative activity of the telencephalic and diencephalic matrix-zones in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum), with special references to the olfactory organ (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, W; Kranz, D

    1981-01-01

    The localization and proliferative activity of the matrix-zones has been investigated in the telencephalon and in the diencephalon of 21 axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum) by means of autoradiographs, after injection of tritiated thymidine at different stages of the postnatal life. There are no previous detailed autoradiographical reports on postnatal brain development in the axolotl. Matrix-zones (i.e. ventricular and subventricular zone) exist in the dorsal part and in the ventral part of the telencephalon, we have found these also in the diencephalon in the wall of the preoptic recessus and ventrally of the habenula. The quantitative part of this study indicates high values of the labeling-index in the early postnatal stages. Then, the labeling-index decreases, but also in 3 years old specimens labeled cells were observed in the matrix-zones of the telencephalon; therefore a few of proliferative capacity remains in the central nervous system of adult axolotls. Labeled cells were also found in the olfactory organ of early postnatal and adult axolotls; these are neuroblasts which have relevance for the regeneration of the forebrain.

  20. Canine vector-borne diseases in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dantas-Torres Filipe

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs are highly prevalent in Brazil and represent a challenge to veterinarians and public health workers, since some diseases are of great zoonotic potential. Dogs are affected by many protozoa (e.g., Babesia vogeli, Leishmania infantum, and Trypanosoma cruzi, bacteria (e.g., Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis, and helminths (e.g., Dirofilaria immitis and Dipylidium caninum that are transmitted by a diverse range of arthropod vectors, including ticks, fleas, lice, triatomines, mosquitoes, tabanids, and phlebotomine sand flies. This article focuses on several aspects (etiology, transmission, distribution, prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis, control, prevention, and public health significance of CVBDs in Brazil and discusses research gaps to be addressed in future studies.

  1. Food-borne botulism: still actual topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brola, Waldemar; Fudala, Malgorzata; Gacek, Szymon; Gruenpeter, Pawel

    2013-01-01

    Even though since the mid-1990s the number of food-borne botulism cases has systematically decreased and it now occurs in Poland relatively rarely, it is still a real epidemiological problem. There are about 30 cases of botulism in Poland a year, which ranks Poland the first among the European Union. In most cases the symptomatology of botulism is typical, however it does not always fully coincide with the one described in medical manuals which emphasise the dramatic clinical course of botulism with its frequent fatal consequences. Diagnosis of botulism may be difficult because of its rare prevalence and a variable clinical course, especially in old patients. Authors of this paper describe two cases of botulism and diagnostic problems associated with it. PMID:23391950

  2. Balloon-borne gamma-ray polarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Pearce, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The physical processes postulated to explain the high-energy emission mechanisms of compact astrophysical sources often yield polarised soft gamma rays (X-rays). PoGOLite is a balloon-borne polarimeter operating in the 25-80 keV energy band. The polarisation of incident photons is reconstructed using Compton scattering and photoelectric absorption in an array of phoswich detector cells comprising plastic and BGO scintillators, surrounded by a BGO side anticoincidence shield. The polarimeter is aligned to observation targets using a custom attitude control system. The maiden balloon flight is scheduled for summer 2011 from the Esrange Space Centre with the Crab and Cygnus X-1 as the primary observational targets.

  3. Human sparganosis, a neglected food borne zoonosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quan; Li, Ming-Wei; Wang, Ze-Dong; Zhao, Guang-Hui; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-10-01

    Human sparganosis is a food borne zoonosis caused by the plerocercoid larvae (spargana) of various diphyllobothroid tapeworms of the genus Spirometra. Human infections are acquired by ingesting the raw or undercooked meat of snakes or frogs, drinking untreated water, or using raw flesh in traditional poultices. More than 1600 cases of sparganosis have been documented worldwide, mostly in east and southeast Asia. Sporadic cases have been reported in South America, Europe, and Africa, and several cases have been described in travellers returning from endemic regions. Epidemiological data suggest that the increased effect of sparganosis on human health is because of greater consumption of raw meat of freshwater frogs and snakes. This Review provides information about the Spirometra parasites and their lifecycles, summarises clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of human sparganosis, and describes geographical distribution and infection characteristics of Spirometra parasites in host animals.

  4. Integrated epidemiology for vector-borne zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardrop, Nicola A

    2016-02-01

    The development and application of interventions for the control of vector-borne zoonoses requires broad understanding of epidemiological linkages between vector, animal infection and human infection. However, there are significant gaps in our understanding of these linkages and a lack of appropriate data poses a considerable barrier to addressing this issue. A move towards strengthened surveillance of vectors and disease in both animal and human hosts, in combination with linked human-animal surveys, could form the backbone for epidemiological integration, enabling explicit assessment of the animal-human (and vector) interface, and subsequent implications for spill-over to human populations. Currently available data on the spatial distribution of human African trypanosomiasis allow an illustrative example.

  5. Born-Jordan quantization theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    de Gosson, Maurice A

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive mathematical study of the operators behind the Born–Jordan quantization scheme. The Schrödinger and Heisenberg pictures of quantum mechanics are equivalent only if the Born–Jordan scheme is used. Thus, Born–Jordan quantization provides the only physically consistent quantization scheme, as opposed to the Weyl quantization commonly used by physicists. In this book we develop Born–Jordan quantization from an operator-theoretical point of view, and analyze in depth the conceptual differences between the two schemes. We discuss various physically motivated approaches, in particular the Feynman-integral point of view. One important and intriguing feature of Born-Jordan quantization is that it is not one-to-one: there are infinitely many classical observables whose quantization is zero.

  6. Nanostructures: Scattering beyond the Born approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriev, S. V.; Syromyatnikov, A. V.; Chumakov, A. P.; Grigoryeva, N. A.; Napolskii, K. S.; Roslyakov, I. V.; Eliseev, A. A.; Petukhov, A. V.; Eckerlebe, H.

    2010-03-01

    The neutron scattering on a two-dimensional ordered nanostructure with the third nonperiodic dimension can go beyond the Born approximation. In our model supported by the exact theoretical solution a well-correlated hexagonal porous structure of anodic aluminum oxide films acts as a peculiar two-dimensional grating for the coherent neutron wave. The thickness of the film L (length of pores) plays important role in the transition from the weak to the strong scattering regimes. It is shown that the coherency of the standard small-angle neutron scattering setups suits to the geometry of the studied objects and often affects the intensity of scattering. The proposed theoretical solution can be applied in the small-angle neutron diffraction experiments with flux lines in superconductors, periodic arrays of magnetic or superconducting nanowires, as well as in small-angle diffraction experiments on synchrotron radiation.

  7. Prevalence of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen in US-Born and Foreign-Born Asian/Pacific Islander College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quang, Yen N.; Vu, Joanne; Yuk, Jihey; Li, Chin-Shang; Chen, Moon; Bowlus, Christopher L.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic hepatitis B (HBV) among college-age US-born Asian and Pacific Islanders (A/PI) is not well known. Objectives: To compare the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seropositivity in US-born to A/PI-born students at a public university. Participants: Undergraduate who self-identified themselves as A/PI. Results:…

  8. Weather, host and vector--their interplay in the spread of insect-borne animal virus diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, R F

    1980-08-01

    The spread of insect-borne animal virus diseases is influenced by a number of factors. Hosts migrate, move or are conveyed over long distances: vectors are carried on the wind for varying distances in search of hosts and breeding sites; weather and climate affect hosts and vectors through temperature, moisture and wind. As parasites of host and vector, viruses are carried by animals, birds and insects, and their spread can be correlated with the migration of hosts and the carriage of vectors on winds associated with the movements of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and warm winds to the north and south of the limits of the ITCZ. The virus is often transmitted from a local cycle to a migratory cycle and back again.Examples of insect-borne virus diseases and their spread are analysed. Japanese, Murray Valley, Western equine, Eastern equine and St Louis encephalitis represent viruses transmitted by mosquito-bird or pig cycles.THE AREAS EXPERIENCING INFECTION WITH THESE VIRUSES CAN BE DIVIDED INTO A NUMBER OF ZONES: A, B, C, D, E and F. In zone A there is a continuous cycle of virus in host and vector throughout the year; in zone B, there is an upsurge in the cycle during the wet season, but the cycle continues during the dry season; there is movement of infected vectors between and within zones A and B on the ITCZ and the virus is introduced to zone C by infected vectors on warm winds; persistence may occur in zone C if conditions are right. In zone D, virus is introduced each year by infected vectors on warm winds and the arrival of the virus coincides with the presence of susceptible nestling birds and susceptible piglets. The disappearance of virus occurs at the time when migrating mosquitoes and birds are returning to warmer climates. The virus is introduced to zone E only on occasions every 5-10 years when conditions are suitable. Infected hosts introduced to zone F do not lead to circulation of virus, since the climate is unsuitable for vectors. Zones A

  9. Microgravity silicon zoning investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, E. L.; Gill, G. L., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The flow instabilities in floating zones of silicon were investigated and methods for investigation of these instabilities in microgravity were defined. Three principal tasks were involved: (1) characterization of the float zone in small diameter rods; (2) investigation of melt flow instabilities in circular melts in silicon disks; and (3) the development of a prototype of an apparatus that could be used in near term space experiments to investigate flow instabilities in a molten zone. It is shown that in a resistance heated zoner with 4 to 7 mm diameter silicon rods that the critical Marangoni number is about 1480 compared to a predicted value of 14 indicative that viable space experiments might be performed. The prototype float zone apparatus is built and specifications are prepared for a flight zoner should a decision be reached to proceed with a space flight experimental investigation.

  10. The gray zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisner, H J

    1998-01-01

    Think for a minute about the terms equivocal and indeterminate. Equivocal is defined as "of uncertain significance", and indeterminate is defined as "indefinite, uncertain". Now think of the context in which laboratory results are reported: either by using the exact words equivocal or indeterminate or cloaked in technical jargon (e.g., cytologic diagnoses "ASCUS" or "AGUS"). Clinicians expect (or at least want) laboratory results to be black or white (i.e., bimodally distributed), whereas laboratorians strive for the perfect shade of gray because of data that often are bimodal but overlapping. A consequence of this color war is "the gray zone" (often confused with the "twilight zone"), a noncommittal zone that leaves laboratorians and clinicians alike plenty of wiggle room, allowing us to interpret results on either side of the fence. This article examines the root causes of the gray zone, with several clinical examples of how it permeates laboratory interpretation.

  11. Promise Zones for Applicants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This tool assists applicants to HUD's Promise Zone initiative prepare data to submit with their application by allowing applicants to draw the exact location of the...

  12. BLM Solar Energy Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Priority development areas for utility-scale solar energy facilities as identified in the Solar PEIS Record of Decision. An additional Solar Energy Zone identified...

  13. Simulated floating zone method

    OpenAIRE

    Ozawa, Ryo; Kato, Yasuyuki; Motome, Yukitoshi

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides the simulated floating zone (SFZ) method that is an efficient simulation technique to obtain thermal equilibrium states, especially useful when domain formation prevents the system from reaching a spatially-uniform stable state. In the SFZ method, the system is heated up locally, and the heated region is steadily shifted, similar to the floating zone method for growing a single crystal with less lattice defect and impurity in experiments. We demonstrate that the SFZ method...

  14. Type specimens of Pectinidae (Bivalvia) described by Ignaz von Born

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, H.H.

    2009-01-01

    Born described in two publications (1778, 1780) the molluscs in the collection of Empress Maria Theresa (1717-1780), now in the Natural History Museum at Vienna. In this paper the Pectinidae type material is described. Ten new species were introduced of which Argopecten nucleus (Born, 1778) and Minn

  15. Human to human transmission of arthropod-borne pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martina, Byron E.; Barzon, Luisa; Pijlman, Gorben P.; Fuente, de la José; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Wammes, Linda J.; Takken, Willem; Rij, van Ronald P.; Papa, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Human-to-human (H2H) transmitted arthropod-borne pathogens are a growing burden worldwide, with malaria and dengue being the most common mosquito-borne H2H transmitted diseases. The ability of vectors to get infected by humans during a blood meal to further propel an epidemic depends on complex i

  16. Screening for Dysregulation among Toddlers Born Very Low Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Sarah J.; MacLean, Peggy; Duvall, Susanne Woolsey; Lowe, Jean R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children born very low birth weight (VLBW) are at increased risk for regulatory difficulties. However, identifying toddlers at risk has been impeded by a lack of screening measures appropriate for this population. Methods: We studied the nature of dysregulation in toddlers born VLBW (N = 32) using the Infant-Toddler Social and…

  17. Perinatal outcomes in 375 children born after oocyte donation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchau, Sara S; Loft, Anne; Larsen, Elisabeth C;

    2013-01-01

    To describe perinatal outcomes in children born after oocyte donation (OD) compared with in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and spontaneous conception (SC).......To describe perinatal outcomes in children born after oocyte donation (OD) compared with in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and spontaneous conception (SC)....

  18. A Pilot Study of Compliment Responses of American-Born English Speakers and Chinese-Born English Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Belinda; Pochtrager, Fran

    This study investigated the ways in which Chinese-born speakers of English and American-born speakers of English differed or were similar in their responses to compliments on: (1) ability; (2) appearance; and (3) possessions. Subjects were 15 Chinese and 15 American individuals, controlled for gender and status. Subjects were asked to write their…

  19. Born Pupils? Natural Pedagogy and Cultural Pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2016-03-01

    The theory of natural pedagogy is an important focus of research on the evolution and development of cultural learning. It proposes that we are born pupils; that human children genetically inherit a package of psychological adaptations that make them receptive to teaching. In this article, I first examine the components of the package-eye contact, contingencies, infant-directed speech, gaze cuing, and rational imitation-asking in each case whether current evidence indicates that the component is a reliable feature of infant behavior and a genetic adaptation for teaching. I then discuss three fundamental insights embodied in the theory: Imitation is not enough for cumulative cultural inheritance, the extra comes from blind trust, and tweaking is a powerful source of cognitive change. Combining the results of the empirical review with these insights, I argue that human receptivity to teaching is founded on nonspecific genetic adaptations for social bonding and social learning and acquires its species- and functionally specific features through the operation of domain-general processes of learning in sociocultural contexts. We engage, not in natural pedagogy, but in cultural pedagogy.

  20. Food-borne botulism in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebagliati, Victoria; Philippi, Romina; Tornese, Mariela; Paiva, Analia; Rossi, Laura; Troncoso, Alcides

    2009-05-01

    Botulism is a severe neuroparalytic disease caused by Clostridium botulinum toxins. Although the disease is uncommon it is a cause of great concern due to its high rate of mortality. Food-borne outbreaks of botulism occur worldwide and require immediate public health attention and acute care resources. Analysis of outbreaks showed that the food products most often involved were fermented fish products in Alaska; home-canned food, oil preservation and restaurant sauce in the rest of the United States (US) and in London and; and home-canned vegetables, airtight packed food with inappropriate refrigeration, and aerosols in Argentina. The diagnosis is based only on clinical findings matching the disease and previous exposure to suspicious food. Botulism must be immediately identified as even one case suggests the start of an epidemic and should be treated as a public health emergency. Therefore, the purpose of the following review is to recognize the risks associated with the consumption of potentially dangerous foods, and to encourage prevention by seeking to make all public health professionals aware of the dangers of this potentially lethal disease.

  1. BAT-BORNE RABIES IN LATIN AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Escobar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The situation of rabies in America is complex: rabies in dogs has decreased dramatically, but bats are increasingly recognized as natural reservoirs of other rabies variants. Here, bat species known to be rabies-positive with different antigenic variants, are summarized in relation to bat conservation status across Latin America. Rabies virus is widespread in Latin American bat species, 22.5%75 of bat species have been confirmed as rabies-positive. Most bat species found rabies positive are classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as “Least Concern”. According to diet type, insectivorous bats had the most species known as rabies reservoirs, while in proportion hematophagous bats were the most important. Research at coarse spatial scales must strive to understand rabies ecology; basic information on distribution and population dynamics of many Latin American and Caribbean bat species is needed; and detailed information on effects of landscape change in driving bat-borne rabies outbreaks remains unassessed. Finally, integrated approaches including public health, ecology, and conservation biology are needed to understand and prevent emergent diseases in bats.

  2. The neonate was born with holoprosencephaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    reza saeidi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available holoprosencephaly is a rare congenital brain malformation resulting from failure of diverticulation and cleavage of primitive prosencephalon which occurs at 4 - 8th week of gestation and is usually associated with multiple midline facial anomalies. it is the most common forebrain developmental anomaly in humans with prevalence of 1/16,000 in live borns, an incidence as high as 1:250 in conceptuses, and a worldwide distribution6. The etiology of HPE is very heterogeneous. First, this pathology can be caused by environmental or metabolic factors. The only formally recognized environmental factors are insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (1% risk of HPE and maternal alcoholism with a risk that cumulates with smoking . Clinical expression is variable, extending in unbroken sequence from a small brain with a single cerebral ventricle and cyclopia to clinically unaffected carriers in familial holoprosencephaly. Here. we report a boy 39 weeks neonatal case of holoprosencephaly with Antenatal ultrasonographic diagnosis, with microcephaly, hypotelorism, flat nose, a single nostril, a midline cleft lip and palate microcephaly.

  3. Paratransgenic Control of Vector Borne Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivy Hurwitz, Annabeth Fieck, Amber Read, Heidi Hillesland, Nichole Klein, Angray Kang, Ravi Durvasula

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional methodologies to control vector borne diseases with chemical pesticides are often associated with environmental toxicity, adverse effects on human health and the emergence of insect resistance. In the paratransgenic strategy, symbiotic or commensal microbes of host insects are transformed to express gene products that interfere with pathogen transmission. These genetically altered microbes are re-introduced back to the insect where expression of the engineered molecules decreases the host's ability to transmit the pathogen. We have successfully utilized this strategy to reduce carriage rates of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, in the triatomine bug, Rhodnius prolixus, and are currently developing this methodology to control the transmission of Leishmania donovani by the sand fly Phlebotomus argentipes. Several effector molecules, including antimicrobial peptides and highly specific single chain antibodies, are currently being explored for their anti-parasite activities in these two systems. In preparation for eventual field use, we are actively engaged in risk assessment studies addressing the issue of horizontal gene transfer from the modified bacteria to environmental microbes.

  4. The neonate was born with holoprosencephaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    reza saeidi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available holoprosencephaly is a rare congenital brain malformation resulting from failure of diverticulation and cleavage of primitive prosencephalon which occurs at 4 - 8th week of gestation and is usually associated with multiple midline facial anomalies. it is the most common forebrain developmental anomaly in humans with prevalence of 1/16,000 in live borns, an incidence as high as 1:250 in conceptuses, and a worldwide distribution6. The etiology of HPE is very heterogeneous. First, this pathology can be caused by environmental or metabolic factors. The only formally recognized environmental factors are insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (1% risk of HPE and maternal alcoholism with a risk that cumulates with smoking . Clinical expression is variable, extending in unbroken sequence from a small brain with a single cerebral ventricle and cyclopia to clinically unaffected carriers in familial holoprosencephaly. Here. we report a boy 39 weeks neonatal case of holoprosencephaly with Antenatal ultrasonographic diagnosis, with microcephaly, hypotelorism, flat nose, a single nostril, a midline cleft lip and palate microcephaly.

  5. Entanglement in the Born-Oppenheimer Approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Izmaylov, Artur F

    2016-01-01

    The role of electron-nuclear entanglement on the validity of the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) approximation is investigated. While nonadiabatic couplings generally lead to entanglement and to a failure of the BO approximation, surprisingly the degree of electron-nuclear entanglement is found to be uncorrelated with the degree of validity of the BO approximation. This is because while the degree of entanglement of BO states is determined by their deviation from the corresponding states in the crude BO approximation, the accuracy of the BO approximation is dictated, instead, by the deviation of the BO states from the exact electron-nuclear states. In fact, in the context of a minimal avoided crossing model, extreme cases are identified where an adequate BO state is seen to be maximally entangled, and where the BO approximation fails but the associated BO state remains approximately unentangled. Further, the BO states are found to not preserve the entanglement properties of the exact electron-nuclear eigenstates, and t...

  6. Blood-Borne Infections in Tattooed People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemi-Shahri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Tattoos are associated with blood-borne infections that result from viruses such as the hepatitis B virus (HBV, the hepatitis C virus (HCV, and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. This association is equally evident among people without major risk factors and among those with major risk factors like injected drug users (IDUs. Objectives In this study we evaluated all tattooed patients admitted to our hospital (the Boo-Ali hospital in southeastern Iran between February 2006 to January 2015. Patients and Methods The patients enrolled in our study were admitted to infectious disease wards for different illnesses (e. g., Pneumonia, Sepsis, Tuberculosis, etc..We only studied the patients who agreed to be included in our study. When we found at least one tattooed area, regardless of its size, we took a blood sample and tested it for the presence of HIV, HBV, and HCV. Results Among the 63 patients with tattoos (21% female, 79% male, age range:16 to 79-years-old, four patients (6.3% tested positive for HBsAg and PCR-HBV, seven patients (11% tested positive for HCV, and five (7.9% tested positive for HIV. The last group consisted in IDUs and all five had several tattooed areas on their bodies. Conclusions Upon our results, tattooed people even with a small size of tattoo on the body are more at risk for HCV, HBV, and HIV infection.

  7. Genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from foreign-born and Japan-born residents in Tokyo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Miyazawa, M; Miyoshi-Akiyama, T; Kanno, Y; Takasaki, J; Kirikae, T; Kobayashi, N

    2015-03-01

    Sequences of the full genomes of 259 clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, obtained from foreign-born and Japan-born patients in Tokyo, Japan, were determined, and a phylogenetic tree constructed by concatenated single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sequences. The 259 isolates were clustered into four clades: Lineage 2 (East Asian or "Beijing" genotype; n = 182, 70.3%), Lineage 4 (Euro-American, n = 46, 17.8%), Lineage 1 (Indo-Oceanic, n = 23, 8.9%), and Lineage 3 (East African-Indian, n = 8, 3.1%). Of the 259, 36 (13.9%) were resistant to at least one drug. There was no multi-drug-resistant isolate. Drug resistance was greater for the strains in Lineage 2 than the non-Lineage 2. The proportion of Lineage 2 isolates was significantly smaller in foreign-born (n = 43/91, 47.3%) than in Japan-born (n = 139/168, 82.7%) patients, whereas the proportion of Lineage 1 isolates was significantly larger in foreign-born (n = 19/91, 20.9%) than in Japan-born (n = 4/168, 2.4%) patients. We also found eight SNPs specific to the typical Beijing sub-genotype in Lineage 2, including 4 non-synonymous SNPs. Of the 259 isolates, 244 had strain-specific SNP(s) and small (1-30-bp) insertions and deletions (indels). The numbers of strain-specific SNPs and indels per isolate were significantly larger from foreign-born (median 89, range 0-520) than from Japan-born (median 23, range 0-415) (p 3.66E-15) patients. These results suggested that M. tuberculosis isolates from foreign-born patients had more genetic diversity than those from Japan-born patients.

  8. Noncommutative Dirac-Born-Infeld Action for D-brane

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, T

    2000-01-01

    We derive the noncommutative Dirac-Born-Infeld action for the $D$-brane, which governs dynamics of $D$-brane with a NS-NS $B$-field in the low energy regime. Depending on some details of the path integral prescriptions, both ordinary Dirac-Born-Infeld action and noncommutative one can be obtained by evaluating the same Polyakov string path integral for the open string ending on the $D$-brane. Thus, it establishes the equivalence of the noncommutative Dirac-Born-Infeld action and the ordinary one.

  9. Zones of emotional labour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig

    2011-01-01

    is put forth among 25 Danish public family law caseworkers. The study points to personal, professional, and social zones of emotional labour through which the caseworkers carry out their work. Emotional labour zones mark emotion structures that may be challenging due to complex emotional intersections......The paper suggests that due to the difficult nature of their work public family law caseworkers are to be included in the definition of emotional labour even though they are omitted by Hochschild. Based upon a review of the structures involved in emotional labour an explorative qualitative study...

  10. First-born siblings show better second language skills than later born siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin eKeller

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined the extent to which three sibling structure variables number of siblings, birth order and presence of an older sibling at school age are linked to the second language skills of bilingual children. The research questions were tested using an ethnically heterogeneous sample of 1209 bilingual children with German as a second language. Controlling for children’s age, sex, nationality, number of children’s books at home, family language and parental German language skills, hierarchical regression analyses showed an inverse relationship between the number of siblings and second language skills: The more siblings a child had, the lower was his/her second language proficiency. This relationship was mediated by attendance in early education institutions. Moreover, first-born siblings showed better second language skills than later born siblings.The current study revealed that the resource dilution model, i.e., the decrease in resources for every additional sibling, holds for second language acquisition. Moreover, the results indicate that bilingual children from families with several children benefit from access to early education institutions.

  11. Monopoles in non-Abelian Born-Infeld-Higgs theory and Born-Infeld collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyadichev, V. V.; Gal'Tsov, D. V.

    2002-06-01

    Regular magnetic monopoles in the non-Abelian Born-Infeld-Higgs theory are known to exist in the region of the field strength parameter β>βcr, bounded from below. Beyond this region, only pointlike (embedded Abelian) monopoles exist, and we show that the transition from the regular to singular structure is reminiscent of gravitational collapse. Near the threshold behavior is characterized by the rapidly increasing negative pressure, which typically arises in the high density non-Abelian Born-Infeld (NBI) matter. Another feature, shared by both the NBI and gravitating monopoles, is the existence of excited states, which can be thought of as bound states of monopoles and sphalerons. These are labeled by the number N of nodes of the Yang-Mills function. Their masses are greater than the mass of the ground state monopole, and they are expected to be unstable. The sequence of masses MN rapidly converges to the mass of the embedded Abelian solution with a constant Higgs boson. The ratio of the sphaleron size to that of the monopole grows with decreasing β, and, at the same time, both fall down until the solutions cease to exist, again exhibiting a collapse to the point-like monopole. The results are presented and compared both for the ordinary and the symmetrized trace NBI actions.

  12. First-born siblings show better second language skills than later born siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Karin; Troesch, Larissa M; Grob, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We examined the extent to which three sibling structure variables number of siblings, birth order, and presence of an older sibling at school age are linked to the second language skills of bilingual children. The research questions were tested using an ethnically heterogeneous sample of 1209 bilingual children with German as a second language. Controlling for children's age, sex, nationality, number of children's books at home, family language and parental German language skills, hierarchical regression analyses showed an inverse relationship between the number of siblings and second language skills: the more siblings a child had, the lower was his/her second language proficiency. This relationship was mediated by attendance in early education institutions. Moreover, first-born siblings showed better second language skills than later born siblings. The current study revealed that the resource dilution model, i.e., the decrease in resources for every additional sibling, holds for second language acquisition. Moreover, the results indicate that bilingual children from families with several children benefit from access to early education institutions.

  13. Flexible 'zoning' aids adaptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corben, Simon

    2013-09-01

    Simon Corben, business development director at Capita Symonds' Health team, examines how 'clever use of zoning' when planning new healthcare facilities could improve hospital design, increase inherent flexibility, and reduce lifetime costs, and argues that a 'loose-fit, non-bespoke approach' to space planning will lead to 'more flexible buildings that are suitable for conversion to alternative uses'.

  14. DNS zones revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanrooij, van Ward; Pras, Aiko; Delgado Kloos, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    Recent research [Pap04b] suggests DNS reliability and performance is not up to the levels it should be due to misconfigurations. This paper checks the configuration of nameserver zones against additional requirements, recommendations and best-practices. It shows that almost one in four domains fails

  15. Quality of Cancer Care Among Foreign-Born and US-Born Patients With Lung or Colorectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Signe Smith; He, Yulei; Ayanian, John Z.

    2010-01-01

      BACKGROUND: Disparities in care have been documented for foreign-born cancer patients in the United States. However, few data are available regarding patients with lung and colorectal cancer. In the current study, the authors assessed whether patient-reported quality and receipt of recommended...... and radiotherapy for stage II/III rectal cancer (AOR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.12-0.99). Rates of other treatments did not differ significantly by nativity. CONCLUSIONS: Foreign-born cancer patients reported lower quality of care and were less likely to receive some cancer therapies than patients born in the Unites States...

  16. Surface-Borne Time-of-Reception Measurements (STORM) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Invocon proposes the Surface-borne Time-Of-Reception Measurements (STORM) system as a method to locate the position of lightning strikes on aerospace vehicles....

  17. [Current status of food-borne diseases in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Akemi

    2012-08-01

    The current status of food-borne diseases in Japan was described. Although the number of outbreaks caused by Salmonella, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Escherichia coli(except enterohaemorrhagic E. coli) is decreasing, outbreaks by Campylobacter or Norovirus are increasing.

  18. Thin-shell wormholes in Einstein-Born-Infeld theory

    CERN Document Server

    Eiroa, Ernesto F

    2015-01-01

    We construct spherically symmetric thin-shell wormholes with a generalized Chaplygin gas at the throat, in Born-Infeld electrodynamics coupled to Einstein gravity. We analyze their stability under radial perturbations.

  19. Classical glueballs in non-Abelian Born-Infeld theory

    CERN Document Server

    Galtsov, D V; Gal'tsov, Dmitri; Kerner, Richard

    2000-01-01

    It is shown that the Born-Infeld-type modification of the quadratic Yang-Mills action suggested by the superstring theory gives rise to classical particle-like solutions prohibited in the standard Yang-Mills theory. This becomes possible due to the scale invariance breaking by the Born-Infeld non-linearity. New classical glueballs are sphaleronic in nature and exhibit a striking similarity with the Bartnik-McKinnon solutions of the Yang-Mills theory coupled to gravity.

  20. Mulches reduce aphid-borne viruses and whiteflies in cantaloupe

    OpenAIRE

    Summers, Charles G.; Mitchell, Jeffrey P.; Stapleton, James J.

    2005-01-01

    We compared reflective plastic and wheat straw mulches with conventional bare soil for managing aphid-borne virus diseases and silverleaf whitefly in cantaloupe. The occurrence of aphid-borne virus diseases was significantly reduced with both mulches as opposed to bare soil, and reflective plastic performed better than wheat straw. Silverleaf whitefly numbers, both adults and nymphs, were reduced equally by plastic mulch and wheat straw, and were significantly lower than with bare soil. Refle...

  1. Resonant-state expansion Born Approximation applied to Schrodinger's Equation

    CERN Document Server

    Doost, M B

    2015-01-01

    The RSE Born Approximation is a new scattering formula in Physics, it allows the calculation of strong scattering via the Fourier transform of the scattering potential and Resonant-states. In this paper I apply the RSE Born Approximation to Schr\\"odinger's Equation. The resonant-states of the system can be calculated using the recently discovered RSE perturbation theory and normalised correctly to appear in spectral Green's functions via the flux volume normalisation.

  2. Interseismic deformation of the Shahroud fault system (NE Iran) from space-borne radar interferometry measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Z.; Pathier, E.; Walker, R. T.; Walpersdorf, A.; Tavakoli, F.; Nankali, H.; Sedighi, M.; Doin, M.-P.

    2015-07-01

    The Shahroud fault system is a major active structure in the Alborz range of NE Iran whose slip rate is not well constrained despite its potential high seismic hazard. In order to constrain the slip rate of the eastern Shahroud fault zone, we use space-borne synthetic aperture radar interferometry with both ascending and descending Envisat data to determine the rate of interseismic strain accumulation across the system. We invert the slip rate from surface velocity measurements using a half-space elastic dislocation model. The modeling results are consistent with a left-lateral slip rate of 4.75 ± 0.8 mm/yr on the Abr and Jajarm, strands of the Shahroud fault, with a 10 ± 4 km locking depth. This is in good agreement with the 4-6 mm/yr of left-lateral displacement rate accumulated across the total Shahroud fault system obtained from GPS measurements.

  3. Magic moment? Maternal marriage for children born out of wedlock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson-Davis, Christina

    2014-08-01

    To test the existence of the "magic moment" for parental marriage immediately post-birth and to inform policies that preferentially encourage biological over step parent marriage, this study estimates the incidence and stability of maternal marriage for children born out of wedlock. Data came from the National Survey of Family Growth on 5,255 children born non maritally. By age 15, 29 % of children born non maritally experienced a biological-father marriage, and 36 % experienced a stepfather marriage. Stepfather marriages occurred much later in a child's life-one-half occurred after the child turned age 7-and had one-third higher odds of dissolution. Children born to black mothers had qualitatively different maternal marriage experiences than children born to white or Hispanic mothers, with less biological-parent marriage and higher incidences of divorce. Findings support the existence of the magic moment and demonstrate that biological marriages were more enduring than stepfather marriages. Yet relatively few children born out of wedlock experienced stable, biological-parent marriages as envisioned by marriage promotion programs.

  4. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts - MDC_EnterpriseZone

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Polygon feature class of Miami Dade County Enterprise Zones. Enterprise Zones are special areas in the county where certain incentives from the State are available...

  5. Association between Diabetes Mellitus and Tuberculosis in United States-Born and Foreign-Born Populations in San Francisco

    OpenAIRE

    Gompol Suwanpimolkul; Grinsdale, Jennifer A.; Jarlsberg, Leah G.; Julie Higashi; Osmond, Dennis H.; Hopewell, Philip C; Midori Kato-Maeda

    2014-01-01

    Setting The impact of diabetes on tuberculosis in United States and foreign-born populations in San Francisco has not been studied. Objective To determine the characteristics, prevalence and temporal trends of diabetes in US and foreign-born persons attending the San Francisco Tuberculosis Clinic. Design We analyzed data from individuals seeking medical attention at the San Francisco Tuberculosis Clinic. We included patients with diagnosis of tuberculosis, latent infection, or not infected wi...

  6. Offending Behavior, Drug Use, and Mental Health Among Foreign-Born versus U.S. Born Latino Criminal Justice Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez, Gladys E; Agudo, Michelle; Martin, Steve S; O'Connell, Daniel J; Auf, Rehab; Sheehan, Diana M

    2016-12-30

    Little is known about the offending behavior and recidivism factors of Latinos by nativity (U.S. born, foreign-born). The present study focused on Latinos in community corrections (n = 201) in Miami, Florida, and examined differences in criminal activity, drug use, and mental health by nativity. Data were collected utilizing convenience sampling between June 2014 and December 2015. The research question was: what are the offending, drug use, and mental health histories of Latinos involved in community corrections? Participants were mostly male (n = 120; 59.7%), White (n = 105; 52.2%), and Cuban (n = 97; 48.3%). U.S. born community corrections clients (n = 141) were more likely to report more lifetime and recent criminal activity; and more likely to report lifetime and recent drug use behavior than foreign-born Latinos (n = 60). No differences were found in recent mental health. Correctional healthcare should tailor services such as substance abuse treatment differently toward U.S. born and foreign-born Latinos.

  7. The Habitable Zone Gallery

    CERN Document Server

    Kane, Stephen R

    2012-01-01

    The Habitable Zone Gallery (www.hzgallery.org) is a new service to the exoplanet community which provides Habitable Zone (HZ) information for each of the exoplanetary systems with known planetary orbital parameters. The service includes a sortable table with information on the percentage of orbital phase spent within the HZ, planetary effective temperatures, and other basic planetary properties. In addition to the table, we also plot the period and eccentricity of the planets with respect to their time spent in the HZ. The service includes a gallery of known systems which plot the orbits and the location of the HZ with respect to those orbits. Also provided are animations which aid in orbit visualization and provide the changing effective temperature for those planets in eccentric orbits. Here we describe the science motivation, the under-lying calculations, and the structure of the web site.

  8. ZONE OF COOPERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The China-ASEAN Economic Zone is attracting more and more investors from both Southeast Asia and China Compared with other countries that have established free trade areas with ASEAN, China owns millions of unique advantages. Millions, after all, is the quantity of Chinese living in ASEAN countries. "With ties of blood, geography and commerce, business people of Chinese descent can be the best candidates to pro-

  9. Ecological zones of California deserts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The dataset delineates ecological zones within California deserts. We derived ecological zones by reclassifying LANDFIRE vegetation biophysical setting types, plus...

  10. Radiant zone heated particulate filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-12-27

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter including an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A radiant zoned heater includes N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones includes M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones, restricts exhaust gas flow in a portion of the PM filter that corresponds to the selected one of the N zones, and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  11. The uncomfortable comfort zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Renato Zacharias

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Whenever we achieve the satisfaction of our expectations and anxiety dissolves, we feel as if we were in a comfort zone – safe, complete, free from risks and in peace with ourselves. We might even have a little taste of heaven when we feel that we have fulfilled our duty. And as a fact, scientists are entitled to this kind of reward… but not for too long! In science, to enter a comfort zone can be as pleasant as dangerous. On one hand we may have a safe ground available to develop new modes of reasoning, protocols and theories. And on the other, we may stay stuck in a conventional but fragile ground, missing opportunities to reveal novel secrets or to address edge issues. ... The community of HD researchers seems to have entered a new comfort zone when nanostructures were found in HD. Nanostructures have been raised to the level of ultimate evidence doing away with Avogadro’s limit and leading homeopathy and HD research into mainstream science. We really should enjoy this moment and collect more information about the HD phenomenon. However, we must be wary to not fall into a trap.

  12. Responses to a Modified Visual Cliff by Pre-Walking Infants Born Preterm and at Term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Shan; Reilly, Marie; Mercer, Vicki S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine, using a modified visual cliff apparatus, possible perceptual differences at crawling age between infants born preterm and infants born at term without documented visual or motor impairments. Sixteen infants born at term and 16 born preterm were encouraged to crawl to their caregivers on a modified visual…

  13. Subjective visual vertical and postural capability in children born prematurely.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pia Bucci

    Full Text Available We compared postural stability and subjective visual vertical performance in a group of very preterm-born children aged 3-4 years and in a group of age-matched full-term children.A platform (from TechnoConcept was used to measure postural control in children. Perception of subjective visual vertical was also recorded with posture while the child had to adjust the vertical in the dark or with visual perturbation. Two other conditions (control conditions were also recorded while the child was on the platform: for a fixation of the vertical bar, and in eyes closed condition.Postural performance was poor in preterm-born children compared to that of age-matched full-term children: the surface area, the length in medio-lateral direction and the mean speed of the center of pressure (CoP were significantly larger in the preterm-born children group (p < 0.04, p < 0.01, and p < 0.04, respectively. Dual task in both groups of children significantly affected postural control. The subjective visual vertical (SVV values were more variable and less precise in preterm-born children.We suggest that poor postural control as well as perception of verticality observed in preterm-born children could be due to immaturity of the cortical processes involved in the motor control and in the treatment of perception and orientation of verticality.

  14. Atopic diseases in twins born after assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäderberg, Ida; Thomsen, Simon F; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Skytthe, Axel; Backer, Vibeke

    2012-03-01

    We examined the risk of atopic diseases in twins born after assisted reproduction. Data on atopic diseases and assisted reproduction in 9694 twin pairs, 3-20 years of age, from the Danish Twin Registry were collected via multidisciplinary questionnaires. The risk of atopic diseases in twins born after assisted reproduction was compared with the risk in twins born after spontaneous conception using logistic regression and variance components analysis. Children born after assisted reproduction did not have a different risk of atopic outcomes (adjusted odds ratios [95% confidence intervals] for asthma: 0.95 [0.85, 1.07], P = 0.403; hay fever: 1.01 [0.86, 1.18], P = 0.918; and atopic dermatitis: 1.02 [0.81, 1.11], P = 0.773 respectively) compared with children born after spontaneous conception. Assisted reproduction did not modify the heritability of atopic diseases. This study does not support an association between assisted reproduction and development of atopic diseases. This result must be confirmed in subsequent studies, preferably of singleton populations.

  15. Firms' degree of born-globalness, international entrepreneurial orientation and export performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Servais, Per; Kuivalainen, Olli; Sundqvist, Sanna

    2007-01-01

    . This article begins with a review of the existing literature on born-globals, and subsequently explores the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation (EO) and two different born-global strategies, namely true born-global and apparently born-global (born-international), and the effectiveness of these two......Despite the recent increase in 'born-global' studies, there has been little research on how the scale and scope of being a born-global firm affects performance: most of the earlier research takes no account either the number of or the distances between the countries on firm or export performance...... born-global pathways. The results of our empirical study on 185 Finnish exporting firms show that those that qualified as true born-globals had better export performance. Furthermore, depending on the degree of born-globalness, different dimensions of EO were of importance....

  16. [Results of the 20-year study of tick-borne encephalitis in Crimea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evstaf'ev, I L

    2001-01-01

    The history of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) study in the Crimea was retraced and the possibility of introduction of TBE virus to the Crimea in the process of the acclimatization of vertebrates from areas enzootic for TBE is discussed. The foci of TBE were found throughout the whole of the mountain forest zone of the Crimea and coincided with the habitat area of lxodes ricinus, the main vector of TBE. Such ticks as Dermacentor reticulatus, D. marginatus and Hyalomma marginatum were also found to take part in the circulation of the virus. Among the residents of the mountain forest zone, 13.9% were found to have immunity to TBE, testifying to the wide contact of the population with the pathogen. TBE morbidity had pronounced seasonal character and the morbidity rate was low with the prevalence of mild clinical forms. The characteristic feature of the virus population was polymorphism: strains identical to the Far-Eastern strains Sofyin (about 60-70%) and strains differing in their antigenic structure circulated here.

  17. Smartphones and Time Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, William; Secrest, Jeffery; Padgett, Clifford; Johnson, Wayne; Hagrelius, Claire

    2016-09-01

    Using the Sun to tell time is an ancient idea, but we can take advantage of modern technology to bring it into the 21st century for students in astronomy, physics, or physical science classes. We have employed smartphones, Google Earth, and 3D printing to find the moment of local noon at two widely separated locations. By reviewing GPS time-stamped photos from each place, we are able to illustrate that local noon is longitude-dependent and therefore explain the need for time zones.

  18. Born reciprocity in string theory and the nature of spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freidel, Laurent, E-mail: lfreidel@perimeterinstitute.ca [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline St., N, Ontario N2L 2Y5, Waterloo (Canada); Leigh, Robert G., E-mail: rgleigh@uiuc.edu [Department of Physics, University of Illinois, 1110 West Green St., Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Minic, Djordje, E-mail: dminic@vt.edu [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

    2014-03-07

    After many years, the deep nature of spacetime in string theory remains an enigma. In this Letter we incorporate the concept of Born reciprocity in order to provide a new point of view on string theory in which spacetime is a derived dynamical concept. This viewpoint may be thought of as a dynamical chiral phase space formulation of string theory, in which Born reciprocity is implemented as a choice of a Lagrangian submanifold of the phase space, and amounts to a generalization of T-duality. In this approach the fundamental symmetry of string theory contains phase space diffeomorphism invariance and the underlying string geometry should be understood in terms of dynamical bi-Lagrangian manifolds and an apparently new geometric structure, somewhat reminiscent of para-quaternionic geometry, which we call Born geometry.

  19. The Alliance Capability of Technology-Based Born Globals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxtorp, Liliya Altshuler; Elg, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    A detailed investigation of the aspects comprising the alliance capability of technology-based born globals. Alliance capability is regarded as a set of organizational skills necessary from the decision to search for a partner for a technology collaboration, which may also involve a marketing...... aspect, through initiation and management of the alliance, up until its objectives are achieved, or otherwise. Originality/value of paper: While earlier research discussed networking and alliance strategies of born globals on a strategic level, this paper investigates and analyses the specific...... and risks of collaborating with MNEs.Methodology: A longitudinal process study of a Danish technology born global with three embedded cases of its R&D and marketing alliances with Asian MNEs.Findings: The organisational skills comprising the alliance capability are defined to be internal and external...

  20. Developmental delay at 12 months in children born extremely preterm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ane; Klamer, Anja; Jonsbo, Finn

    2005-01-01

    , Copenhagen, were interviewed by telephone when their child was 1 y of age, corrected for preterm birth. A fully structured questionnaire on psychomotor function was used (Revised Prescreening Developmental Questionnaire (R-PDQ)). The parents of 30 children born at term without complications were interviewed......AIM: To evaluate the feasibility and validity of a structured telephone interview to assess the development of children born extremely preterm. METHODS: The parents of 88 children born with a gestational age below 28 wk admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at Rigshospitalet...... for comparison. The interview was conducted by NICU staff. To validate the R-PDQ, parents of 22 children in the preterm group and parents of 19 children in the reference group conducted an Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) when their children had reached the age of 3-3(1/2) y. RESULTS: The R-PDQ was easy...

  1. Oral health of children born small for gestational age.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, A C

    2010-10-01

    We sought to evaluate the oral health status of children born small for gestational age (SGA). Children now aged 4-8 years who were born SGA (birth weight < -2 SDS) were examined using standardised criteria. The parents completed a structured oral health questionnaire. Twenty females and 25 males, mean age 72.1 months, and mean birth weight 2.1 kg, participated in the study. Poor appetite was a concern; 32 (71%) children snacked between meals and 14 (30%) used carbonated beverages more than 3 times daily. Erosion was present in 9 (20%) children. Dental decay occurred in 22 (47%) children with 92% being untreated. Eight children had more than 5 decayed teeth. It is essential that clinicians working with children born SGA include oral health within the general health surveillance and refer these children for a dental assessment within the first 2 years to support parents in establishing safe feeding patterns for their children.

  2. Quantum probabilities from quantum entanglement: experimentally unpacking the Born rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jérémie; Bouchard, Frédéric; Santamato, Enrico; Zurek, Wojciech H.; Boyd, Robert W.; Karimi, Ebrahim

    2016-05-01

    The Born rule, a foundational axiom used to deduce probabilities of events from wavefunctions, is indispensable in the everyday practice of quantum physics. It is also key in the quest to reconcile the ostensibly inconsistent laws of the quantum and classical realms, as it confers physical significance to reduced density matrices, the essential tools of decoherence theory. Following Bohr’s Copenhagen interpretation, textbooks postulate the Born rule outright. However, recent attempts to derive it from other quantum principles have been successful, holding promise for simplifying and clarifying the quantum foundational bedrock. A major family of derivations is based on envariance, a recently discovered symmetry of entangled quantum states. Here, we identify and experimentally test three premises central to these envariance-based derivations, thus demonstrating, in the microworld, the symmetries from which the Born rule is derived. Further, we demonstrate envariance in a purely local quantum system, showing its independence from relativistic causality.

  3. Smart antennas for space-borne synthetic aperture radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, F.; Gao, S.; Mao, C.; Wang, Z.; Patyuchenko, A.; Younis, M.; Krieger, G.

    2015-11-01

    This paper discusses smart antennas for space-borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR). First, some recent development in smart antennas for space-borne SAR is reviewed. Then, the paper presents a low-cost space-borne SAR system using digital beam forming on receive. The smart antenna system is also discussed, and some results are shown. The antenna system, consisting of a parabolic reflector and multi-feed array, is designed and optimized for dual-band dual-polarized digital beam-forming performance. The operating frequencies are at X and Ka bands with the center frequency of 9.6 and 35.75 GHz, respectively. The stacked dipoles and square patches with parasitic elements are employed as the feed elements at X and Ka bands. Dual-band antenna arrays are combined in the same aperture, which not only reduce the aperture of the feed array, but also coincide the center of dual-band feed arrays.

  4. Born approximation in linear-time invariant system

    CERN Document Server

    Gumjudpai, Burin

    2015-01-01

    Linear-time invariant (LTI) oscillation systems such as forced mechanical vibration, series RLC and parallel RLC circuits can be solved by using simplest initial conditions or employing of Green's function of which knowledge of initial condition of the force term is needed. Here we show a mathematical connection of the LTI system and the Helmholtz equation form of the time-independent Schr\\"{o}dinger equation in quantum mechanical scattering problem. We apply Born approximation in quantum mechanics to obtain LTI general solution in form of infinite Born series which can be expressed as a series of one-dimensional Feynman graphs. Conditions corresponding to the approximation are given for the case of harmonic driving force. The Born series of the harmonic forced oscillation case are derived by directly applying the approximation to the LTI system or by transforming the LTI system to Helmholtz equation prior to doing the approximation.

  5. Parapapillary atrophy: histological gamma zone and delta zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jost B Jonas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To examine histomorphometrically the parapapillary region in human eyes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The histomorphometric study included 65 human globes (axial length:21-37 mm. On anterior-posterior histological sections, we measured the distance Bruch's membrane end (BME-optic nerve margin ("Gamma zone", BME-retinal pigment epithelium (RPE ("Beta zone", BME-beginning of non-occluded choriocapillaris, and BME-beginning of photoreceptor layer. "Delta zone" was defined as part of gamma zone in which blood vessels of at least 50 µm diameter were not present over a length of >300 µm. Beta zone (mean length:0.35±0.52 mm was significantly (P = 0.01 larger in the glaucoma group than in the non-glaucomatous group. It was not significantly (P = 0.28 associated with axial length. Beta zone was significantly (P = 0.004 larger than the region with occluded choriocapillaris. Gamma zone (mean length:0.63±1.25 mm was associated with axial length (P50 µm diameter within gamma zone was present only in highly axially elongated globes and was not related with glaucoma. Beta zone (Bruch's membrane without RPE was correlated with glaucoma but not with globe elongation. Since the region with occluded choriocapillaris was smaller than beta zone, complete loss of RPE may have occurred before complete choriocapillaris closure.

  6. Perceived Job Skill Limitations and Participation in Education and Training Opportunities: Differences between Us Native-Born and Non-Native-Born Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. Cecil; Smith, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Data from the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy were examined to determine if non-native-born adults in the US differ from their native-born counterparts in (1) participation in work-related training or education, and (2) perceptions that specific skills limit their job opportunities. Results indicated that non-native-born persons were…

  7. Excessive Daytime Sleepiness among Hypertensive US-Born Blacks and Foreign-Born Blacks: Analysis of the CAATCH Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Williams

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Evidence shows that blacks exhibit greater daytime sleepiness compared with whites, based on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. In addition, sleep complaints might differ based on individuals’ country of origin. However, it is not clear whether individuals’ country of origin has any influence on excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS. Study Objectives. We tested the hypothesis that US-born blacks would show a greater level of EDS compared with foreign-born blacks. The potential effects of sociodemographic and medical risk were also determined. Design. We used the Counseling African-Americans to Control Hypertension (CAATCH data. CAATCH is a group randomized clinical trial that was conducted among 30 community healthcare centers in New York, yielding baseline data for 1,058 hypertensive black patients. Results. Results of univariate logistic regression analysis indicated that US-born blacks were nearly twice as likely as their foreign-born black counterparts to exhibit EDS (OR=1.87, 95% CI: 1.30–2.68, P<0.001. After adjusting for effects of age, sex, education, employment, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and smoking habit, US-born blacks were 69% more likely than their counterparts to exhibit EDS (OR=1.69, 95% CI: 1.11–2.57, P<0.01. Conclusion. Findings demonstrate the importance of considering individuals’ country of origin, in addition to their race and ethnicity, when analyzing epidemiologic sleep data.

  8. Neurosensory outcome of prematurely born children following intracranial hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velisavljev-Filipović Gordana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. More and more survival of newborns with small or extremely small body mass at birth, as well as increasing percent of prematurely born babies, have emphasized the significance of intracranial haemorrhage problem. Prematurely born infants are under increased risk for strabismus, amblyopia, blinding and hearing loss. Objective. Establishing the frequency of sensory damages (damage of sight and hearing in prematurely born infants with various degrees of intracranial haemorrhage. Methods. The study is prospective, controlled and included 120 prematurely born infants with diagnosed four different grade intracranial haemorrhage on ultrasonic examination of the central nervous system. The study excluded prematurely born children from twin pregnancies with congenital malformations and stoppage of intrauterine growth. Ophthalmological examination was done at 9, 12, and 36 months of postnatal age. Audilogical examination was done after delivery, at 2 months of age. Results. There are statistically significant differences (p<0.01 related to the presence of strabismus among groups of examinees with vairious hemorrhage degrees. Strabismus was present only in one premature infant with 1st and in 10 children (33.3% with the 4th degree. Amblyopia occurred only among examinees with 4th degree hemorrhage. There were statistically significant differences (p<0.01 related to the finding of transitory otoacoustic emission of the left ear and the right ear among the groups. The finding of the right ear was not usual in 7 examinees from the 4th degree hemorrhage. The finding of the left ear was not usual in 1 examinee from the third and in 7 examinees from the fourth group. Conclusion. Prematurely born children with a higher degree intracranial hemorrhage have a greater risk for the loss of hearing and development of visual handicap.

  9. Emerging vector borne diseases – incidence through vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eSavic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vector borne diseases use to be a major public health concern only in tropical and subtropical areas, but today they are an emerging threat for the continental and developed countries also. Nowdays, in intercontinetal countries, there is a struggle with emerging diseases which have found their way to appear through vectors. Vector borne zoonotic diseases occur when vectors, animal hosts, climate conditions, pathogens and susceptible human population exist at the same time, at the same place. Global climate change is predicted to lead to an increase in vector borne infectious diseases and disease outbreaks. It could affect the range and popultion of pathogens, host and vectors, transmission season, etc. Reliable surveilance for diseases that are most likely to emerge is required. Canine vector borne diseases represent a complex group of diseases including anaplasmosis, babesiosis, bartonellosis, borreliosis, dirofilariosis, erlichiosis, leishmaniosis. Some of these diseases cause serious clinical symptoms in dogs and some of them have a zoonotic potential with an effect to public health. It is expected from veterinarians in coordination with medical doctors to play a fudamental role at primeraly prevention and then treatment of vector borne diseases in dogs. The One Health concept has to be integrated into the struggle against emerging diseases.During a four year period, from 2009-2013, a total number of 551 dog samples were analysed for vector borne diseases (borreliosis, babesiosis, erlichiosis, anaplasmosis, dirofilariosis and leishmaniasis in routine laboratory work. The analysis were done by serological tests – ELISA for borreliosis, dirofilariosis and leishmaniasis, modified Knott test for dirofilariosis and blood smear for babesiosis, erlichiosis and anaplasmosis. This number of samples represented 75% of total number of samples that were sent for analysis for different diseases in dogs. Annually, on avarege more then half of the samples

  10. Persistence mechanisms in tick-borne diseases : tick-borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Barbet

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of new, highly sensitive diagnostic methods has revealed persistent infections to be a common feature of different tick-borne diseases, such as babesiosis, anaplasmosis and heartwater. Antigenic variation can contribute to disease persistence through the continual elaboration of new surface structures, and we know in several instances how this is achieved. Known or suspected mechanisms of persistence in babesial parasites include cytoadhesion and rapid variation of the adhesive ligand in Babesia bovis and genetic diversity in several merozoite stage proteins of different Babesia spp. In Anaplasma, extensive variation in the pfam01617 gene family accompanies cycling of organism levels in chronic infection. One result from the pioneering research at Onderstepoort is the definition of a related polymorphic gene family that is likely involved in immunity against heartwater disease. We are beginning to understand the sizes of the antigenic repertoires and full definition is close, with the possibility of applying simultaneous high-throughput sequencing to the order of 1 000 small genomes. We also, for the first time, can consider modifying these genomes and looking at effects on persistence and virulence. However, important biological questions remain unanswered; for example, why we are seeing a new emerging Anaplasma infection of humans and is infection of endothelial cells by Anaplasma significant to persistence in vivo.

  11. Born too soon: accelerating actions for prevention and care of 15 million newborns born too soon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawn, Joy E; Kinney, Mary V; Belizan, José M; Mason, Elizabeth Mary; McDougall, Lori; Larson, Jim; Lackritz, Eve; Friberg, Ingrid K; Howson, Christopher P

    2013-01-01

    Preterm birth complication is the leading cause of neonatal death resulting in over one million deaths each year of the 15 million babies born preterm. To accelerate change, we provide an overview of the comprehensive strategy required, the tools available for context-specifi c health system implementation now, and the priorities for research and innovation. There is an urgent need for action on a dual track: (1) through strategic research to advance the prevention of preterm birth and (2) improved implementation and innovation for care of the premature neonate. We highlight evidence-based interventions along the continuum of care, noting gaps in coverage, quality, equity and implications for integration and scale up. Improved metrics are critical for both burden and tracking programmatic change. Linked to the United Nation’s Every Women Every Child strategy, a target was set for 50% reduction in preterm deaths by 2025. Three analyses informed this target: historical change in high income countries, recent progress in best performing countries, and modelling of mortality reduction with high coverage of existing interventions. If universal coverage of selected interventions were to be achieved, then 84% or more than 921,000 preterm neonatal deaths could be prevented annually, with antenatal corticosteroids and Kangaroo Mother Care having the highest impact. Everyone has a role to play in reaching this target including government leaders, professionals, private sector, and of course families who are aff ected the most and whose voices have been critical for change in many of the countries with the most progress.

  12. On the NUT-Born-Infeld-$\\Lambda$ spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Bretón, Nora

    2014-01-01

    The stationary axisymmetric spacetime coupled to nonlinear Born-Infeld electrodynamics is studied. The solution was derived by Plebanski et al (1984) and it is characterized by six free parameters: mass, NUT charge, electric and magnetic charge, Born-Infeld parameter and cosmological constant. The geodesic and Lorentz force equations are integrated, and a qualitative analysis of the effect of varying the parameters in the effective potential is provided. Then the light and charged particle trajectories are discussed. The conditions that determine an extreme black hole are presented as well.

  13. Thermodynamics of Third Order Lovelock-Born-Infeld Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Peng; Yue, Rui-Hong; Zou, De-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    We here explore black holes in the third order Lovelock gravity coupling with nonlinear Born-Infeld electromagnetic field. Considering special second and third order coefficients ($\\hat{\\alpha}_2^2=3\\hat{\\alpha}_3=\\alpha^2$), we analyze the thermodynamics of third order Lovelock-Born-Infeld black holes and, in 7-dimensional AdS space-time, discuss the stability of black holes in different event horizon structures. We find that the cosmological constant $\\Lambda$ plays an important role in the...

  14. Thermodynamics of Third Order Lovelock-Born-Infeld Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Peng; Zou, De-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    We here explore black holes in the third order Lovelock gravity coupling with nonlinear Born-Infeld electromagnetic field. Considering special second and third order coefficients ($\\hat{\\alpha}_2^2=3\\hat{\\alpha}_3=\\alpha^2$), we analyze the thermodynamics of third order Lovelock-Born-Infeld black holes and, in 7-dimensional AdS space-time, discuss the stability of black holes in different event horizon structures. We find that the cosmological constant $\\Lambda$ plays an important role in the distribution of stable regions of black holes.

  15. Invasion mechanisms among emerging food-borne protozoan parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Nobuko; Tyler, Kevin M; Llewellyn, Martin S

    2011-10-01

    Food-borne parasitic diseases, many known to be more prevalent in poor countries with deficient sanitary conditions, are becoming common worldwide. Among the emerging protozoan parasites, the most prominent is Trypanosoma cruzi, rarely reported in the past to be transmitted by the oral route but currently responsible for frequent outbreaks of acute cases of Chagas disease contracted orally and characterized by high mortality. Several other food-borne protozoans considered emerging include the apicomplexans Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium, as well as Giardia and Entamoeba histolytica. Here, the interactions of these protozoans with the mucosal epithelia of the host are discussed.

  16. Thermodynamics of Third Order Lovelock-Born-Infeld Black Holes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏; 岳瑞宏; 邹德成

    2011-01-01

    We here explore black holes in the third order Lovelock gravity coupling with nonlinear Born-Infeld electro- magnetic field. Considering special second and third order coefficients (&g = 363 = a2), we analyze the thermodynamics of third order Lovelock-Born-Infeld black holes and, in 7-dimensional AdS space-time, discuss the stability of black holes in different event horizon structures. We find that the cosmological constant A plays an important role in the distribution of black hole stable regions.

  17. Development and Potential of Space-Borne Doppler Wind Lidar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhishen; SUN Dapeng; WU Dong; Juergen Streicher; Ines Leike

    2003-01-01

    The advantage of lidar over other wind sensors is presented in this paper. With more than 20 years research, the development of the space-borne wind lidar is reviewed. Longer-term investigation has made many technologies suitable for the wind lidar measurement from an orbital platform become mature. However, there are still some problems to be solved. In order to obtain the optimal performance in wind detection, great importance is being attached to the simulation of a virtual space-borne wind lidar system on computer as developed by NASA and ESA.

  18. Many Worlds, the Born Rule, and Self-Locating Uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Carroll, Sean M

    2014-01-01

    We provide a derivation of the Born Rule in the context of the Everett (Many-Worlds) approach to quantum mechanics. Our argument is based on the idea of self-locating uncertainty: in the period between the wave function branching via decoherence and an observer registering the outcome of the measurement, that observer can know the state of the universe precisely without knowing which branch they are on. We show that there is a uniquely rational way to apportion credence in such cases, which leads directly to the Born Rule. Our analysis generalizes straightforwardly to cases of combined classical and quantum self-locating uncertainty, as in the cosmological multiverse.

  19. The Near Zone to Far Zone Transformation (N2F)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackfield, Donald T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Poole, Brian R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-03-11

    N2F is a C/C++ code used to calculate the far zone electromagnetic (EM) field, given E and H near zone field data. The method used by N2F can be found in Ref. 1 and 2. N2F determines the far field EΦ and Eθ in spherical coordinates for near zone data calculated in either Cartesian or Cylindrical geometry.

  20. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts - Volusia County Enterprise Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Florida's Enterprise Zone Program encourages economic growth and investment in distressed areas by offering tax advantages and incentives to businesses that are...

  1. Management of ticks and tick-borne diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, H.S.; Stafford, K.C.; Goodman, J.L.; Dennis, D.T.; Sonenshine, D .E.

    2005-01-01

    The mainstays of tick management and protection from tick-borne diseases have traditionally been personal precautions and the application of acaricides. These techniques maintain their value, and current innovations hold considerable promise for future improvement in effective targeting of materials for tick control. Furthermore, an explosion of research in the past few decades has resulted in the development and expansion of several novel and potentially valuable approaches to tick control, including vaccination against tick-borne pathogen transmission and against tick attachment, host management, use of natural enemies (especially entomopathogenic fungi), and pheromone-based techniques. The situations that require tick management are diverse, and occur under varied ecological conditions. Therefore, the likelihood of finding a single ?magic bullet? for tick management is low. In practical terms, the approach to tick management or to management of tick-borne disease must be tailored to the specific conditions at hand. One area that needs increased attention is the decision-making process in applying IPM to tick control. Further development of novel tick control measures, and increased efficiency in their integration and application to achieve desired goals, holds great promise for effective future management of ticks and tick-borne diseases.

  2. It's Only Technology If It Happens after You Are Born

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Arthur; Dean, Diane R.

    2013-01-01

    A focus group of undergraduates at a university in the western US were asked how they were coping with the digital revolution, the tidal wave of new apps, devices, and communication choices. One student seemingly glibly dismissed the questions, saying, "It's only technology if it happens after you are born." In this regard, traditional…

  3. A cost benefit study of milk-borne salmonellosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, D. R.; Porter, I. A.; Reid, T M; Sharp, J. C.; Forbes, G I; Paterson, G. M.

    1983-01-01

    An estimate of the benefits which would result from a ban on the sale of non-pasteurized milk in Scotland has been assessed by costing a recent outbreak of milk-borne salmonellosis in the Grampian Region. The cost of such a ban would not exceed the benefits under any but the most severe assumptions about the values attached to intangible benefits.

  4. Perspectives on Egg and Food-Borne Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggs are a safe and nutritious food. In the mid-80s there was an increase in the incidence of outbreaks due to Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). A large percentage of those outbreaks were associated with consumption of eggs or foods that contained eggs. In recent years, efforts to diminish egg-borne i...

  5. Food-borne botulism in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLauchlin, Jim; Grant, K A; Little, C L

    2006-12-01

    Food-borne botulism is a rare but serious disease caused by ingestions of neurotoxin [botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs)] produced as a result of the growth of the bacterium Clostridium botulinum in foods before consumption. The disease is rare in the United Kingdom, and only 62 cases have been recognized between 1922 and 2005. This report provides a brief review of C. botulinum and food-borne botulism as well as descriptions of the six episodes (33 cases with three deaths) of this disease that occurred in the United Kingdom between 1989 and 2005. The six incidents illustrate the importance of the risk factors of poor processing or storage of commercially prepared foods, improper home preservation of foods and travel to countries where botulism is much more common than in the United Kingdom. Even small outbreaks of food-borne botulism can precipitate a national emergency and inundate public health and acute care provision. This report provides a reminder to public health professions of the occurrence, diagnosis, treatment and control of this rare but serious food-borne disease.

  6. Minimization of structure-borne noise in lightweight buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niu, Bin; Olhoff, Niels

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of minimizing the structure-borne noise induced in a room by machinery vibration. A generalized system consisting of the machine, the base plate, resilient mounts, the floor plate and the room cavity is developed for analysis and optimization. Topological design...

  7. Singular inflation from Born-Infeld-f(R) gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Elizalde, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Accelerating dynamics from Born-Infeld-$f(R)$ gravity are studied in a simplified conformal approach without matter. Explicit unification of inflation with late-time acceleration is realized within this singular inflation approach, which is similar to Odintsov-Oikonomou singular $f(R)$ inflation. Our model turns out to be consistent with the latest release of Planck data.

  8. Behaviour Difficulties and Cognitive Function in Children Born Very Prematurely

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayless, Sarah; Pit-ten Cate, Ineke M.; Stevenson, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Children born very prematurely are at risk of low average IQ and behaviour difficulties throughout childhood and adolescence. Associations among preterm birth, IQ and behaviour have been reported; however, the nature of the relationship among these outcomes is not fully understood. Some studies have proposed that the consequences of preterm birth,…

  9. Tick vaccines and the control of tick-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Octavio; Alberdi, Pilar; Pérez de la Lastra, José M; de la Fuente, José

    2013-01-01

    Ticks are obligate hematophagous ectoparasites that transmit a wide variety of pathogens to humans and animals. The incidence of tick-borne diseases has increased worldwide in both humans and domestic animals over the past years resulting in greater interest in the study of tick-host-pathogen interactions. Advances in vector and pathogen genomics and proteomics have moved forward our knowledge of the vector-pathogen interactions that take place during the colonization and transmission of arthropod-borne microbes. Tick-borne pathogens adapt from the vector to the mammalian host by differential gene expression thus modulating host processes. In recent years, studies have shown that targeting tick proteins by vaccination can not only reduce tick feeding and reproduction, but also the infection and transmission of pathogens from the tick to the vertebrate host. In this article, we review the tick-protective antigens that have been identified for the formulation of tick vaccines and the effect of these vaccines on the control of tick-borne pathogens.

  10. Transmission ecology of rodent-borne diseases: New frontiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordes, Frédéric; Blasdell, Kim; Morand, Serge

    2015-09-01

    Rodents are recognized reservoir hosts for many human zoonotic pathogens. The current trends resulting from anthropocene defaunation suggest that in the future they, along with other small mammals, are likely to become the dominant mammals in almost all human-modified environments. Recent intricate studies on bat-borne emerging diseases have highlighted that many gaps exist in our understanding of the zoonotic transmission of rodent-borne pathogens. This has emphasized the need for scientists interested in rodent-borne diseases to integrate rodent ecology into their analysis of rodent-borne pathogen transmission in order to identify in more detail the mechanisms of spillover and chains of transmission. Further studies are required to better understand the true impact of rodent abundance and the importance of pathogen sharing and circulation in multi-host- multi-pathogen communities. We also need to explore in more depth the roles of generalist and abundant species as the potential links between pathogen-sharing, co-infections and disease transmission.

  11. Determinants of oral bioavailability of soil-borne contaminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomen, Agnes Guadalupe

    2001-01-01

    Children ingest soil, either accidentally via hand-to-mouth behavior or deliberately. In this manner, a child ingests on average between 50 and 200 mg soil/day, although amounts of as much as 60 g/day have also been observed. Hence, soil ingestion can be a main route of exposure to soil-borne

  12. Imitation by Second-Borns in Adult-Sibling Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodapp, Albert F.; LaVoie, Joseph C.

    Five- to seven-year-old second-born children from white, middle-class, intact families were the subjects for this study. Older siblings served as role model for each child, and the parent surrogate models were selected from a pool and trained to act as the child's real parent. The imitation task emphasized verbal, postural, and motor responses of…

  13. The Development of Effortful Control in Children Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlmann, Julie; Schwichtenberg, A. J. Miller; Shah, Prachi E.; Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Hahn, Emily; Maleck, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    This prospective longitudinal study examined emerging effortful control skills at 24- and 36-months postterm in 172 children born preterm (less than 36 weeks gestation). Infant (neonatal health risks), family (sociodemographic risks), and maternal risk factors (depressive symptoms, anger expressions during play interactions) were assessed at six…

  14. The accidental internationalists : A theory of born globals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennart, J.M.A.

    2014-01-01

    The distinguishing characteristic of international new ventures/born globals (INVs/BGs) is that they have foreign sales from the outset, or very quickly afterward. I argue that this is due to their business model. INVs/BGs sell to spatially dispersed customers distinctive niche products that incur l

  15. Acrylic polymer nanocomposite resins for water borne coating applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nobel, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    Due to environmental and safety regulations the use of volatile organic components (VOC's) containing lacquers for exterior automotive purposes is under growing pressure. As a consequence there is a demand for more environmentally friendly alternatives like water borne coatings, high solid coatings,

  16. Possible Tick-Borne Human Enterovirus Resulting in Aseptic Meningitis

    OpenAIRE

    Freundt, Eric C.; Beatty, Douglas C.; Stegall-Faulk, Teresa; Wright, Stephen M.

    2005-01-01

    Enterovirus-specific genetic sequences were isolated from two Amblyomma americanum tick pools. Identical genetic sequences were later obtained from cerebrospinal fluid of a patient with aseptic meningitis and a recent history of tick attachment. These observations suggest the possibility of an emerging tick-borne human enterovirus associated with aseptic meningitis.

  17. Fish-borne parasitic zoonoses: status and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Jong-Yil; Darwin Murrell, K; Lymbery, Alan J

    2005-10-01

    The fish-borne parasitic zoonoses have been limited for the most part to populations living in low- and middle-income countries, but the geographical limits and populations at risk are expanding because of growing international markets, improved transportation systems, and demographic changes such as population movements. While many in developed countries will recognize meat-borne zoonoses such as trichinellosis and cysticercosis, far fewer are acquainted with the fish-borne parasitic zoonoses which are mostly helminthic diseases caused by trematodes, cestodes and nematodes. Yet these zoonoses are responsible for large numbers of human infections around the world. The list of potential fish-borne parasitic zoonoses is quite large. However, in this review, emphasis has been placed on liver fluke diseases such as clonorchiasis, opisthorchiasis and metorchiasis, as well as on intestinal trematodiasis (the heterophyids and echinostomes), anisakiasis (due to Anisakis simplex larvae), and diphyllobothriasis. The life cycles, distributions, epidemiology, clinical aspects, and, importantly, the research needed for improved risk assessments, clinical management and prevention and control of these important parasitic diseases are reviewed.

  18. Arthropod Borne Diseases in Imposed War during 1980-88

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Khoobdel

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Personnel of military forces have close contact with natural habitat and usually encounter with bite of arthropods and prone to be infected with arthropod borne diseases. The imposed war against Iran was one of the most important and the longest war in the Middle East and even in the world and military people faced various diseases. The aim of this study was to review prevalence of arthropod borne diseases and to collect relevant information and valuable experiences during the imposed war.Methods: The present survey is a historical research and cross-sectional study, focused on arthropod fauna, situation of different arthropod borne diseases and also the ways which military personnel used to protect themselves against them. The information was adopted from valid military health files and also interviewing people who participated in the war.Results: Scabies, cutaneous leishmaniasis, sandfly fever and pediculosis were more prevalent among other arthropod -borne diseases in Iran-Iraq war. Measures to control arthropods and diseases at wartime mainly included: scheduled spraying of pesticides, leishmanization and treatment of patients.Conclusion: Although measures used during the war to control arthropods were proper, however, due to needs and importance of military forces to new equipment and technologies, it is recommended to use deltamethrin-impreg­nated bed net, permethrin treated military uniforms and various insect repellents in future.

  19. Photosensitized inactivation of infectious blood-borne human parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judy, Millard M.; Sogandares-Bernal, Franklin M.; Matthews, James Lester

    1995-05-01

    Blood-borne viruses and protozoan parasites that are infectious to humans pose risk world-wide of infection transmission through blood and blood product transfusion. Blood-borne infectious viruses include human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-I), which causes AIDS; hepatitis C virus, which can cause chronic hepatitis; and cytomegalovirus, which can be dangerous to immunocompromised patients, e.g., the newborn, transplant recipients, and AIDS patients. Infectious blood-borne protozoan parasites include Trypanosoma cruzi, which causes Chagas' disease, endemic throughout Central and South America; the Trypanosoma species causing African sleeping sickness endemic in Central Africa; and Plasmodium falciparum, which causes malignant and increasingly drug- resistant human malaria prevalent throughout the tropics. Some researchers have focused on using photosensitizers to inactivate HIV-I and other viruses in whole blood, packed red cells, and platelet concentrates without compromising blood product function. Our group previously has reported photosensitized in vitro inactivation of P. falciparum and the mouse malaria organism Plasmodium berghei in whole blood using hematoporphyrin derivative (HPD) and of T. cruzi using benzoporphyrin derivatives BPDMA and BPDDA, dihematoporphyrin ether (DHE), and hydroxyethylvinyldeuteroporphyrin (HEVD). These results suggest that continued investigation is warranted to evaluate the potential for photosensitized inactivation of blood-borne parasites in blood banking.

  20. Saturated Zone Colloid Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. S. Viswanathan

    2004-10-07

    This scientific analysis provides retardation factors for colloids transporting in the saturated zone (SZ) and the unsaturated zone (UZ). These retardation factors represent the reversible chemical and physical filtration of colloids in the SZ. The value of the colloid retardation factor, R{sub col} is dependent on several factors, such as colloid size, colloid type, and geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, Eh, and ionic strength). These factors are folded into the distributions of R{sub col} that have been developed from field and experimental data collected under varying geochemical conditions with different colloid types and sizes. Attachment rate constants, k{sub att}, and detachment rate constants, k{sub det}, of colloids to the fracture surface have been measured for the fractured volcanics, and separate R{sub col} uncertainty distributions have been developed for attachment and detachment to clastic material and mineral grains in the alluvium. Radionuclides such as plutonium and americium sorb mostly (90 to 99 percent) irreversibly to colloids (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170025], Section 6.3.3.2). The colloid retardation factors developed in this analysis are needed to simulate the transport of radionuclides that are irreversibly sorbed onto colloids; this transport is discussed in the model report ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]). Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this scientific analysis especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste-degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and americium may be irreversibly attached to colloids for the time scales of interest. A section of this report will also discuss the validity of using microspheres as analogs to colloids in some of the lab and field experiments used to obtain the colloid retardation factors. In addition, a small fraction of colloids travels with the groundwater without any significant

  1. Learning About Intervention Target Zones

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Michael W; Karen K. Lewis

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides a framework for evaluating how market participants' beliefs about foreign exchange target zones change as they learn about central bank intervention policy. In order to examine this behavior, we first generalize the standard target zone model to allow for intra-marginal intervention. Intra-marginal intervention implies that the position of market participants' beliefs about the target zone can be determined from their beliefs about the likelihood of intervention. As an app...

  2. Practical solutions to implementing "Born Semantic" data systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadbetter, A.; Buck, J. J. H.; Stacey, P.

    2015-12-01

    The concept of data being "Born Semantic" has been proposed in recent years as a Semantic Web analogue to the idea of data being "born digital"[1], [2]. Within the "Born Semantic" concept, data are captured digitally and at a point close to the time of creation are annotated with markup terms from semantic web resources (controlled vocabularies, thesauri or ontologies). This allows heterogeneous data to be more easily ingested and amalgamated in near real-time due to the standards compliant annotation of the data. In taking the "Born Semantic" proposal from concept to operation, a number of difficulties have been encountered. For example, although there are recognised methods such as Header, Dictionary, Triples [3] for the compression, publication and dissemination of large volumes of triples these systems are not practical to deploy in the field on low-powered (both electrically and computationally) devices. Similarly, it is not practical for instruments to output fully formed semantically annotated data files if they are designed to be plugged into a modular system and the data to be centrally logged in the field as is the case on Argo floats and oceanographic gliders where internal bandwidth becomes an issue [2]. In light of these issues, this presentation will concentrate on pragmatic solutions being developed to the problem of generating Linked Data in near real-time systems. Specific examples from the European Commission SenseOCEAN project where Linked Data systems are being developed for autonomous underwater platforms, and from work being undertaken in the streaming of data from the Irish Galway Bay Cable Observatory initiative will be highlighted. Further, developments of a set of tools for the LogStash-ElasticSearch software ecosystem to allow the storing and retrieval of Linked Data will be introduced. References[1] A. Leadbetter & J. Fredericks, We have "born digital" - now what about "born semantic"?, European Geophysical Union General Assembly, 2014

  3. Zoning should promote public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschhorn, Joel S

    2004-01-01

    Legally, governments use their police powers to protect public health, safety, and welfare through zoning. This paper presents a case for revisiting zoning on the basis of increasing evidence that certain types of community design promote public health, as opposed to the dominant pattern of sprawl development, which does not. Zoning, and the land use planning linked to it, that prohibits or disfavors health-promoting community designs contradicts the inherent public policy goal on which it is based. If there is a paradigm shift underway, from traditional sprawl to health-promoting community designs, then health professionals and others should understand why zoning must be reassessed.

  4. Work Zone Data Collection Trailer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Work Zone Data Collection Trailer was designed and constructed to enhance data collection and analysis capabilities for the "Evaluating Roadway Construction Work...

  5. Tick-borne encephalitis virus infection in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrnjaković-Cvjetković Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Tick-borne meningoencephalitis virus is a flavivirus that causes the most important vector-borne central nervous system infection in many countries of Europe and Asia. There are three subtypes of tick-borne encephalitis virus: European, Siberian and the Far-Eastern subtype. Transmission. In endemic areas, the virus remains in transmissive cycles between Ixodes ticks and small rodents. Clinical picture. In most cases (70−98% infection goes asymptomatically. In about one-third of meningitis cases, meningoencephalitis or meningomyelitis is developed. Postencephalytic syndrome may be the complication of the infection, presenting with neurological symptoms. Diagnosis. Etiologic diagnosis of tick-borne meningoencephalitis is only made on basis of laboratory analyses. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction is used for determining the presence of virus in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Antibodies in blood and cerebrospinal fluid can be detected by serological tests. Prevention. The most efficient way to control this potentially severe disease with possible serious long-term consequences is vaccination. It should be recommended to persons who live or travel to endemic areas. Conclusion. In Serbia, tick-borne encephalitis virus infection belongs to the list of reportable diseases; however, there are no reported cases because the diagnostics is not performed routinely. We believe that the significance of this zoonosis must be examined in our country and some of its parts because of preliminary positive serological findings found out in Vojvodina as well as because of reported cases in neighboring countries such as Hungary and Croatia and its worldwide distribution.

  6. DNA microarray technique for detecting food-borne pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing GAO

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To study the application of DNA microarray technique for screening and identifying multiple food-borne pathogens. Methods The oligonucleotide probes were designed by Clustal X and Oligo 6.0 at the conserved regions of specific genes of multiple food-borne pathogens, and then were validated by bioinformatic analyses. The 5' end of each probe was modified by amino-group and 10 Poly-T, and the optimized probes were synthesized and spotted on aldehyde-coated slides. The bacteria DNA template incubated with Klenow enzyme was amplified by arbitrarily primed PCR, and PCR products incorporated into Aminoallyl-dUTP were coupled with fluorescent dye. After hybridization of the purified PCR products with DNA microarray, the hybridization image and fluorescence intensity analysis was acquired by ScanArray and GenePix Pro 5.1 software. A series of detection conditions such as arbitrarily primed PCR and microarray hybridization were optimized. The specificity of this approach was evaluated by 16 different bacteria DNA, and the sensitivity and reproducibility were verified by 4 food-borne pathogens DNA. The samples of multiple bacteria DNA and simulated water samples of Shigella dysenteriae were detected. Results Nine different food-borne bacteria were successfully discriminated under the same condition. The sensitivity of genomic DNA was 102 -103pg/ μl, and the coefficient of variation (CV of the reproducibility of assay was less than 15%. The corresponding specific hybridization maps of the multiple bacteria DNA samples were obtained, and the detection limit of simulated water sample of Shigella dysenteriae was 3.54×105cfu/ml. Conclusions The DNA microarray detection system based on arbitrarily primed PCR can be employed for effective detection of multiple food-borne pathogens, and this assay may offer a new method for high-throughput platform for detecting bacteria.

  7. Las Born Global: Empresas de Acelerada Internacionalización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grettel Brenes Leiva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Las born global son un grupo de pequeñas y medianasempresas emprendedoras que presentan unproceso de internacionalización acelerado, es decir,inician sus actividades comerciales en el mercadomundial justo apenas nacen o en un periodo muycercano a su nacimiento. Estas empresas ingresana los nuevos mercados obviando o se brincándosealgunas de las etapas del proceso tradicional de internacionalización,gradual o por etapas, conocidocomo “modelo Uppsala”. Son entes dinamizadoresde las economías que contribuyen en el desarrolloeconómico de los países, siempre y cuando se creael clima, las condiciones y la infraestructura indispensablepara que puedan alcanzar un desarrollosostenido de sus exportaciones. Este artículo intentacaracterizar a las born global partiendo de las definiciones,características, sostenibilidad y la selección ymodo de ingreso a los mercados globales.   ABSTRACT The born global is a group of small andmedium sized entrepreneurial companies that showan accelerated internationalization process, thatis, they start their commercial activity in worldmarkets just as they are born or in a period veryclose to their conception. These companies enternew markets paying no attention to, or disregardingsome of the steps of the traditional gradual orstepwise internationalization process known as the“Uppsala model”. They are dynamizing entities oftheir economies that contribute to the economicdevelopment of their countries, as long as the essentialoperating climate, conditions and infrastructure arecreated to allow them attain a sustained developmentin their exports. This article attempts to characterizethe born global companies starting from thedefinitions, characteristics, sustainability and theirchoice of ingress mode to global markets.

  8. Association between diabetes mellitus and tuberculosis in United States-born and foreign-born populations in San Francisco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gompol Suwanpimolkul

    Full Text Available The impact of diabetes on tuberculosis in United States and foreign-born populations in San Francisco has not been studied.To determine the characteristics, prevalence and temporal trends of diabetes in US and foreign-born persons attending the San Francisco Tuberculosis Clinic.We analyzed data from individuals seeking medical attention at the San Francisco Tuberculosis Clinic. We included patients with diagnosis of tuberculosis, latent infection, or not infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We assessed the temporal trend and the characteristics of individuals with and without diabetes.Between 2005 and 2012, there were 4371 (19.0% individuals without evidence of tuberculosis infection, 17,856 (77.6% with latent tuberculosis, and 791 (3.4% with tuberculosis. 66% were born in the United States, China, Mexico, and the Philippines. The prevalence of diabetes was the highest among individuals with tuberculosis and increased during the study period. Patients with tuberculosis and diabetes were more likely to be male, older than 45 years and born in the Philippines. There was a disproportionate association of TB and DM relative to LTBI and DM among Filipinos in individuals older than 45 years old.Our data suggest that Filipinos older than 45 years old are more likely to have tuberculosis probably due to a higher prevalence of diabetes. In San Francisco, tuberculosis-screening programs in individuals with diabetes and latent tuberculosis may be beneficial in patients older than 45 years old especially from the Philippines.

  9. Excavation damaged zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulain, S.; Sergeant, C.; Vesvres, M.H.; Simonoff, M.; Lavielle, B.; Thomas, B.; Gilabert, E. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., I and 2/CNRS and GdR FORPRO 0788, Nuclear Analytical and Bioenvironmental Chemistry 33 - Gradignan (France); Poulain, S.; Altmann, S.; Lenoir, N.; Barnichon, J.D.; Wileveau, Y.; Lebon, P. [ANDRA - Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs, 92 - Chatenay Malabry (France); Le Marrec, C. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., ISTAB, INRA, UMR Oenologie - ISVV, 33 - Talence (France); Vinsot, A.; Dewonck, S.; Wileveau, Y.; Armand, G.; Cruchaudet, P.; Rebours, H.; Morel, J. [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs, Lab. de Souterrain de Meuse/Haute-Marne, 55 - Bure (France); Lanyon, G.W. [Fracture Systems Ltd, Tregurrian, Ayr, St Ives, Cornwall (United Kingdom); Marschall, P.; Vietor, T. [NAGRA - National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste, Wettingen (Switzerland); Bourdeau, C.; Dedecker, F.; Billaux, D. [ITASCA Consultants, S.A.S., 69 - Ecully (France); Lenoir, N.; Desrues, J.; Viggiani, G.; Besuelle, P. [Laboratoire 3S-R - Sols Solides Structures-Risques, 38 - Grenoble (France); Bornert, M. [Ecole Polytechnique, LMS - Lab. de Mecanique des Solides, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Arson, C.; Gatmiri, B. [CERMES, Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussees, 77 - Marne-la-Vallee (France); Gatmiri, B. [University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bernier, F. [ESV EURIDICE GIE - European Underground Research Infrastructure for Disposal of Nuclear Waste in Clay Environment (Belgium); Nussbaum, C.; Mori, O. [Geotechnical Institute Ltd., Fabrique de Chaux, St-Ursanne (Switzerland); Bossart, P. [Swisstopo - Federal Office of Topography, Wabern (Switzerland); Schuster, K.; Alheid, H.J. [BGR - Bundesanstalt fur Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany); Lavanchy, J.M.; Croise, J.; Schwarz, R. [Colenco Power Engineering AG, Groundwater Protection and Waste Disposal, Baden (Switzerland)] [and others

    2007-07-01

    This session gathers 13 articles dealing with: autochthonous and colonizing microorganisms in argillaceous underground environments (S. Poulain, C. Sergeant, C. Le Marrec, M.H. Vesvres, A. Vinsot, S. Dewonck, M. Simonoff, S. Altmann); the discrete fracture network modelling of the Hg-a experiment at the Mont Terri rock Laboratory (G.W. Lanyon, P. Marschall, T. Vietor); the discrete modelling of drift behaviour in the Meuse/Haute-Marne URL, France (C. Bourdeau, F. Dedecker, D. Billaux); the fracturing in Callovo-Oxfordian argillite under triaxial compression studied by X-ray microtomography (N. Lenoir, J. Desrues, G. Viggiani, P. Besuelle, M. Bornert, J.D. Barnichon); a general review of the damage models for the EDZ creation (C. Arson, B. Gatmiri); similarities in the Hydro-Mechanical response of Callovo-Oxfordian clay and Boom clay during gallery excavation (Y. Wileveau, F. Bernier); the different geometries of the EDZ fracture networks in the Mont Terri and Meuse/Haute-Marne rock laboratories: Structural approach (C. Nussbaum, Y. Wileveau, P. Bossart, A. Moeri, G. Armand); the characterisation of the Excavation-Damaged Zone in the Meuse/Haute-Marne Underground Research Laboratory (G. Armand, P. Lebon, M. Cruchaudet, H. Rebours, J. Morel, Y. Wileveau); the EDZ characterisation with ultrasonic interval velocity measurements in the Meuse/Haute-Marne URL, performed between depth of 85 m and 504 m (K. Schuster, H.J. Alheid); the clay formation at the Meuse Haute Marne URL: evaluation of the impact of resin filled slots on flow paths characteristics within the EDZ (J.M. Lavanchy, J. Croise, R. Schwarz, G. Armand, M. Cruchaudet); the characterisation and evolution of EDZ by extraction and analyse of noble gases in pore waters in the Meuse/Haute Marne URL site (B. Lavielle, B. Thomas, E. Gilabert); in-situ gas test for the characterisation of Excavation Disturbed Zone at the Meuse/Haute Marne URL (H. Shao, K. Schuster, J. Soennke, V. Braeuer); and the flow and reactive

  10. International Network for Capacity Building for the Control of Emerging Viral Vector-Borne Zoonotic Diseases: Arbo-Zoonet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, J.; Bouloy, M.; Ergonul, O.; Fooks, A.R.; Paweska, J.; Chevalier, V.; Drosten, C.; Moormann, R.J.M.; Tordo, N.; Vatansever, Z.; Calistri, P.; Estrada-Pena, A.; Mirazimi, A.; Unger, H.; Yin, H.; Seitzer, U.

    2009-01-01

    Arboviruses are arthropod-borne viruses, which include West Nile fever virus (WNFV), a mosquito-borne virus, Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a mosquito-borne virus, and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a tick-borne virus. These arthropod-borne viruses can cause disease in different do

  11. Management of coastal zone vegetation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.

    stream_size 14 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_22.pdf.txt stream_source_info Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_22.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  12. Instrumentation for coastal zone management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.

    stream_size 11 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_91.pdf.txt stream_source_info Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_91.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  13. Zone refining of plutonium metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, Michael S. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)

    1994-08-01

    The zone refining process was applied to Pu metal containing known amounts of impurities. Rod specimens of plutonium metal were melted into and contained in tantalum boats, each of which was passed horizontally through a three-turn, high-frequency coil in such a manner as to cause a narrow molten zone to pass through the Pu metal rod 10 times. The impurity elements Co, Cr, Fe, Ni, Np, U were found to move in the same direction as the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. The elements Al, Am, and Ga moved in the opposite direction of the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. As the impurity alloy was zone refined, {delta}-phase plutonium metal crystals were produced. The first few zone refining passes were more effective than each later pass because an oxide layer formed on the rod surface. There was no clear evidence of better impurity movement at the slower zone refining speed. Also, constant or variable coil power appeared to have no effect on impurity movement during a single run (10 passes). This experiment was the first step to developing a zone refining process for plutonium metal.

  14. Volcanic Zone, New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham J. Weir

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A conceptual model of the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ is developed, to a depth of 25 km, formed from three constant density layers. The upper layer is formed from eruption products. A constant rate of eruption is assumed, which eventually implies a constant rate of extension, and a constant rate of volumetric creation in the middle and bottom layers. Tectonic extension creates volume which can accomodate magmatic intrusions. Spreading models assume this volume is distributed throughout the whole region, perhaps in vertical dykes, whereas rifting models assume the upper crust is thinned and the volume created lies under this upper crust. Bounds on the heat flow from such magmatic intrusions are calculated. Heat flow calculations are performed and some examples are provided which match the present total heat output from the TVZ of about 4200 MW, but these either have extension rates greater than the low values of about 8 ± 4 mm/a being reported from GPS measurements, or else consider extension rates in the TVZ to have varied over time.

  15. Perinatal outcomes of children born after frozen-thawed embryo transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wennerholm, Ulla-Britt; Henningsen, Anna-Karina Aaris; Romundstad, Liv Bente;

    2013-01-01

    What are the risks of adverse outcomes in singletons born after frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET)?......What are the risks of adverse outcomes in singletons born after frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET)?...

  16. Perceptions of vulnerability and variations in childrearing practices of parents of infants born preterm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartlett, D.J.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.; Fallang, B.; Fanning, J.K.; Doralp, S.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE: To determine differences in Canadian, Norwegian, and Dutch parents' perceptions of vulnerability of their infants born preterm and their childrearing practices. METHODS: This observational study included 62 infants born preterm (46% boys) and their parents. Parents complete

  17. Maternal and Paternal Perception of Child Vulnerability and Behaviour Problems in Very Preterm Born Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potharst, E.S.; Houtzager, B.A.; Wassenaar-Leemhuis, A.G.; Kok, J.H.; Koot, H.M.; Last, B.F.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm born children have more behaviour problems than term born children. Perinatal risks, current child functioning, sociodemographic characteristics, parental psychological distress and parental perceptions of child vulnerability (PCV) have been shown to be risk factors for behaviour problems. H

  18. Neonatal outcome and congenital malformations in children born after ICSI with testicular or epididymal sperm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedder, Jens; Loft, A; Parner, Erik Thorlund;

    2013-01-01

    Does neonatal outcome including congenital malformations in children born after ICSI with epididymal and testicular sperm [testicular sperm extraction (TESE)/percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA)/testicular sperm aspiration (TESA) (TPT)] differ from neonatal outcome in children born after...

  19. The what, why, and how of born-open data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouder, Jeffrey N

    2016-09-01

    Although many researchers agree that scientific data should be open to scrutiny to ferret out poor analyses and outright fraud, most raw data sets are not available on demand. There are many reasons researchers do not open their data, and one is technical. It is often time consuming to prepare and archive data. In response, my laboratory has automated the process such that our data are archived the night they are created without any human approval or action. All data are versioned, logged, time stamped, and uploaded including aborted runs and data from pilot subjects. The archive is GitHub, github.com, the world's largest collection of open-source materials. Data archived in this manner are called born open. In this paper, I discuss the benefits of born-open data and provide a brief technical overview of the process. I also address some of the common concerns about opening data before publication.

  20. Counterpoint: Is Clostridium difficile a food-borne disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jane W

    2013-06-01

    The increase in community associated Clostridium difficile disease paired with recent data on C. difficile in retail foods has led to speculation that C. difficile is a food-borne pathogen. However, there is no current epidemiologic evidence (i.e. restaurant or food-associated outbreaks) to support this hypothesis. Rates of C. difficile recovery from food vary widely across laboratories and may be due to a number of confounding factors. This commentary discusses the results of two published investigations and suggests that higher prevalence rates observed in some food studies may be due to laboratory contamination. The conclusions are that prevalence of C. difficile in retail foods is relatively low and further investigations are required to determine if C. difficile is food-borne.

  1. Rationale for wind-borne missile criteria for DOE facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, J R; Murray, R

    1999-09-01

    High winds tend to pick up and transport various objects and debris, which are referred to as wind-borne missiles or tornado missiles, depending on the type of storm. Missiles cause damage by perforating the building envelope or by collapsing structural elements such as walls, columns or frames. The primary objectives of this study are as follows: (1) to provide a basis for wind-borne or tornado missile criteria for the design and evaluation of DOE facilities, and (2) to provide guidelines for the design and evaluation of impact-resistant missile barriers for DOE facilities The first objective is accomplished through a synthesis of information from windstorm damage documentation experience and computer simulation of missile trajectories. The second objective is accomplished by reviewing the literature, which describes various missile impact tests, and by conducting a series of impact tests at a Texas Tech University facility to fill in missing information.

  2. Born Global Sourcers – buying internationally right from the inception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten; Servais, Per

    This article focuses on a particular type of international New Ventures (INV) the so-called Born Global Sourcers. Through the research development of the INV and by studying overview articles in the field it is concluded that nearly all research is centered on INV’s outward activities. At the same...... to a very limited serves foreign markets. From the article by Oviatt and McDougall (2005) the model for exploring the speed and scope of International New Ventures is adapted and modified to explore this particular type of International New Venture. The article concludes that this revised model could...... time researchers has identified various types of INV’s and based on the empirical work by Rasmussen et al (2010) a particular type of international new venture is isolated. The Born Global sourcers which is firms who conducts international purchasing from or near their establishment but who only...

  3. Anxiety in adolescents born preterm or with very low birthweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sømhovd, Mikael Julius; Hansen, Bo Mølholm; Brok, Jesper Sune

    2012-01-01

    Aim To determine if adolescents who are born very preterm (anxiety problems. Method We used a systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched the databases ISI Web...... of identified articles. We selected casecontrol studies of adolescents 11 to 20 years old who were very preterm/VLBW and had a matched reference group born at term with normal birthweight that reported a validated anxiety outcome measure. For data extraction, two authors independently reviewed titles, abstracts......, and full articles identified through the searches. Subsequently two authors independently extracted data. Results We included six studies with 1519 adolescents (787 very preterm/VLBW, 732 comparisons). The general risk of developing clinically significant anxiety problems was nearly doubled (p

  4. Cognitive ability in adolescents born small for gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rikke Beck; Juul, Anders; Larsen, Torben;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Small size at birth may be associated with impaired cognitive ability later in life. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of being born small for gestational age (SGA), with or without intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) on cognitive ability in late adolescence. STUDY...... was included. The original Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) was administered, and verbal, performance and full-scale Intelligence Quotient (IQ) scores were calculated. RESULTS: There was no difference in IQ between adolescents born SGA and AGA. FGV or IUGR during the third trimester did not influence...... cognitive ability in late adolescence. Full-scale IQ was positively related to head circumference (HC) in adolescence (B: 1.30, 95% CI: 0.32-2.28, p=0.01). HC at birth and three months was positively associated with full-scale IQ. Catch-up growth in the group of SGA children was associated...

  5. [Extremely prematurely born children's and their parents' need for support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjorn, B.H.; Madsen, B.M.; Munck, H.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: During the 1990s, knowledge on the psychosocial consequences of extremely preterm birth was requested. The Danish Paediatric Society therefore launched a prospective longitudinal study of all children born in Denmark in 1994-95 with a gestational age of ... of children and a group of children born at term were assessed at 5 years of age and the parents filled in a questionnaire. Quantitative data were analysed, qualitative data and impressions received through conversations with the parents were considered...... on the basis of a psychological understanding of loss and grief. RESULTS: During the first year of life, index children were more ill and were cared for in the home for a longer time than were reference children. From the 3rd year of life, differences in illness were minimal. Index parents received more...

  6. Topological vortices in generalized Born-Infeld-Higgs electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casana, R.; Hora, E. da; Rubiera-Garcia, D.; Santos, C. dos

    2015-08-01

    A consistent BPS formalism to study the existence of topological axially symmetric vortices in generalized versions of the Born-Infeld-Higgs electrodynamics is implemented. Such a generalization modifies the field dynamics via the introduction of three nonnegative functions depending only in the Higgs field, namely, , , and . A set of first-order differential equations is attained when these functions satisfy a constraint related to the Ampère law. Such a constraint allows one to minimize the system's energy in such way that it becomes proportional to the magnetic flux. Our results provides an enhancement of the role of topological vortex solutions in Born-Infeld-Higgs electrodynamics. Finally, we analyze a set of models entailing the recovery of a generalized version of Maxwell-Higgs electrodynamics in a certain limit of the theory.

  7. Topological vortices in generalized Born-Infeld-Higgs electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Casana, R; Rubiera-Garcia, D; Santos, C dos

    2015-01-01

    A consistent BPS formalism to study the existence of topological axially symmetric vortices in generalized versions of the Born-Infeld-Higgs electrodynamics is implemented. Such a generalization modifies the field dynamics via introduction of three non-negative functions depending only in the Higgs field, namely, $G(|\\phi|)$, $w(|\\phi|) $ and $V(|\\phi|)$. A set of first-order differential equations is attained when these functions satisfy a constraint related to the Ampere law. Such a constraint allows to minimize the system energy in such way that it becomes proportional to the magnetic flux. Our results provides an enhancement of topological vortex solutions in Born-Infeld-Higgs electrodynamics. Finally, we analyze a set of models such that a generalized version of Maxwell-Higgs electrodynamics is recovered in a certain limit of the theory.

  8. Topological vortices in generalized Born-Infeld-Higgs electrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casana, R. [Universidade Federal do Maranhao, Departamento de Fisica, Sao Luis, Maranhao (Brazil); Hora, E. da [Universidade Federal do Maranhao, Departamento de Fisica, Sao Luis, Maranhao (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Maranhao, Coordenadoria Interdisciplinar de Ciencia e Tecnologia, Sao Luis, Maranhao (Brazil); Rubiera-Garcia, D. [Fudan University, Department of Physics, Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics, Shanghai (China); Santos, C. dos [Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Centro de Fisica e Departamento de Fisica e Astronomia, Porto (Portugal)

    2015-08-15

    A consistent BPS formalism to study the existence of topological axially symmetric vortices in generalized versions of the Born-Infeld-Higgs electrodynamics is implemented. Such a generalization modifies the field dynamics via the introduction of three nonnegative functions depending only in the Higgs field, namely,G(vertical stroke φ vertical stroke), w(vertical stroke φ vertical stroke), and V (vertical stroke φ vertical stroke). A set of first-order differential equations is attained when these functions satisfy a constraint related to the Ampere law. Such a constraint allows one to minimize the system's energy in such way that it becomes proportional to the magnetic flux. Our results provides an enhancement of the role of topological vortex solutions in Born-Infeld-Higgs electrodynamics. Finally, we analyze a set of models entailing the recovery of a generalized version of Maxwell-Higgs electrodynamics in a certain limit of the theory. (orig.)

  9. Coulomb-Born-Oppenheimer approximation in Ps-H scattering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hasi Ray

    2006-02-01

    To improve the Coulomb-Born approximation (CBA) theory of ionization in positronium (Ps) and atom scattering, the effect of exchange is introduced. The nine-dimensional exchange amplitude for ionization of Ps in Ps-H scattering is reduced to a two-dimensional integral using the present Coulomb-Born-Oppenheimer approximation (CBOA). The methodology is extremely useful to evaluate ionization parameters for different target systems and for different types of ionization processes. It is then applied to evaluate the Ps-ionization cross-section and to estimate the effect of exchange on Ps-ionization in Ps-H system. We establish the importance of exchange at lower energy region.

  10. Electronic Flux Density beyond the Born-Oppenheimer Approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schild, Axel; Agostini, Federica; Gross, E K U

    2016-05-19

    In the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, the electronic wave function is typically real-valued and hence the electronic flux density (current density) seems to vanish. This is unfortunate for chemistry, because it precludes the possibility to monitor the electronic motion associated with the nuclear motion during chemical rearrangements from a Born-Oppenheimer simulation of the process. We study an electronic flux density obtained from a correction to the electronic wave function. This correction is derived via nuclear velocity perturbation theory applied in the framework of the exact factorization of electrons and nuclei. To compute the correction, only the ground state potential energy surface and the electronic wave function are needed. For a model system, we demonstrate that this electronic flux density approximates the true one very well, for coherent tunneling dynamics as well as for over-the-barrier scattering, and already for mass ratios between electrons and nuclei that are much larger than the true mass ratios.

  11. Salivary Biomarkers in the Control of Mosquito-Borne Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souleymane Doucoure

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Vector control remains the most effective measure to prevent the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases. However, the classical entomo-parasitological methods used to evaluate the human exposure to mosquito bites and the effectiveness of control strategies are indirect, labor intensive, and lack sensitivity in low exposure/transmission areas. Therefore, they are limited in their accuracy and widespread use. Studying the human antibody response against the mosquito salivary proteins has provided new biomarkers for a direct and accurate evaluation of the human exposure to mosquito bites, at community and individual levels. In this review, we discuss the development, applications and limits of these biomarkers applied to Aedes- and Anopheles-borne diseases.

  12. Large baby syndrome in singletons born after frozen embryo transfer (FET)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinborg, Anja; Henningsen, AA; Loft, A;

    2013-01-01

    Are singletons born after frozen embryo transfer (FET) at increased risk of being born large for gestational age (LGA) and if so, is this caused by intrinsic maternal factors or related to the freezing/thawing procedures?......Are singletons born after frozen embryo transfer (FET) at increased risk of being born large for gestational age (LGA) and if so, is this caused by intrinsic maternal factors or related to the freezing/thawing procedures?...

  13. Monopoles in Space-Time Noncommutative Born-Infeld theory

    OpenAIRE

    Aschieri, Paolo

    2001-01-01

    We transform static solutions of space-noncommutative Dirac-Born-Infeld theory (DBI) into static solutions of space-time noncommutative DBI. Via Seiberg-Witten map we match this symmetry transformation with a corresponding symmetry of commutative DBI. This allows to: 1) study new BPS type magnetic monopoles, with constant electric and magnetic background and describe them both in the commutative and in the noncommutative setting; 2) relate by S-duality space-noncommutative magnetic monopoles ...

  14. Properties of strongly dipolar Bose gases beyond the Born approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Ołdziejewski, Rafał

    2016-01-01

    Strongly dipolar Bose gases can form liquid droplets stabilized by quantum fluctuations. In theoretical description of this phenomenon, low energy scattering amplitude is utilized as an effective potential. We show that for magnetic atoms corrections with respect to Born approximation arise, and derive modified pseudopotential using realistic interaction model. We discuss the resulting changes in collective mode frequencies and droplet stability diagram. Our results are relevant for recent experiments with erbium and dysprosium atoms.

  15. The Nuclear Born Oppenheimer Method and Nuclear Rotations

    OpenAIRE

    Zettili, Nouredine

    2009-01-01

    We deal here with the application of the Nuclear Born Oppenheimer (NBO) method to the description of nuclear rotations. As an edifying illustration, we apply the NBO formalism to study the rotational motion of nuclei which are axially-symmetric and even, but whose shells are not closed. We focus, in particular, on the derivation of expressions for the rotational energy and for the moment of inertia. Additionally, we examine the connection between the NBO method and the self-consistent crankin...

  16. Majorana Fermions, Supersymmetry Breaking, and Born-Infeld Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Sergio; Yeranyan, Armen

    2015-01-01

    This review is devoted to highlight some aspects of the relevance of Majorana fermions in rigid supersymmetry breaking in four spacetime dimensions. After introducing some basic facts on spinors, and on their symmetries and reality properties, we consider Goldstino actions describing partial breaking of rigid supersymmetry, then focussing on Born-Infeld non-linear theory, its duality symmetry, and its supersymmetric extensions, also including multi-field generalizations exhibiting doubly self-duality.

  17. Mortality differences between the foreign-born and locally-born population in France (2004-2007).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulogne, Roxane; Jougla, Eric; Breem, Yves; Kunst, Anton E; Rey, Grégoire

    2012-04-01

    In contrast to the situation in many European countries, the mortality of immigrants in France has been little studied. The main reasons for the lack of studies are based on ethical and ideological considerations. The objective of this study is to explore mortality by country of birth in Metropolitan (i.e. 'mainland') France. Complete mortality data were used to study the relative risks of mortality of the foreign- and locally-born populations by gender, age and cause of death for the period 2004-2007 in Metropolitan France. Analyses were conducted by countries of birth grouped into geographic areas and by the Human Development Index (HDI). The differentials in mortality between foreign-born and locally-born populations were not homogeneous. The figures varied by age (higher foreign-born mortality for the young; lower mortality for migrants aged 15-64 years), gender (female migrants more frequently had higher relative mortality than men migrants), country of birth (Eastern European-born migrants had higher mortality, while those born in Morocco, Central Asia, 'other Asian countries' and America had lower mortality) and cause of death (migrant mortality was higher overall for deaths caused by infectious diseases and diabetes, and lower for violent death and neoplasm). Moreover, mortality relative risks for male, violent deaths and cancer were positively associated with country-of-birth HDI, while female mortality and infectious disease mortality were negatively associated with country-of-birth HDI. Some important caveats have to be considered because the study did not control for individuals socioeconomic position in France, or length of residence in the host country. A strong healthy migrant effect was suggested and its intensity varies with age and gender (which may reflect different reasons for migration). For some specific causes of death, a lifestyle effect seems to explain mortality differentials. The associations between HDI and mortality show that mortality

  18. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  19. Arthropod-borne infections in travelled dogs in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamel Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pet animal movement is ever increasing within the European Union and in that context canine vectorborne infections gained a considerable importance. Information on these infections in travelled dogs is nevertheless limited. A first prospective study on vector-borne infections was conducted in 106 dogs travelling from Germany to countries in South and South-East Europe. The dogs were screened prior to and consecutively up to three times after travel by haematological (Giemsa-stained buffy coat smears, Knott’s-Test, molecular biological (PCR as well as serological (IFAT, DiroChek®-ELISA methods for arthropod-borne infections. Seven animals were seropositive for antibodies against Babesia canis sspp., Leishmania spp. and/or Ehrlichia canis prior to travel to Italy, Spain, France, Croatia, Greece, or Hungary. In the consecutive screening after return there was no increase in the number of seropositive dogs. None was positive in direct methods. The mean duration of the stay was 17 days and 51% of the dogs were prophylactically treated with ectoparasiticidal formulations. Preliminary data from this study on canine vector-borne infections indicate a low risk for infection during a limited single stay in endemic countries.

  20. Critical behavior of Born-Infeld dilaton black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Dehghani, M H; Dayyani, Z

    2016-01-01

    We explore the critical behavior of (n+1)-dimensional topological Born-Infeld-dilaton black holes in an extended phase space. We treat the cosmological constant and the Born-Infeld (BI) parameter as the thermodynamic pressure and BI vacuum polarization which can vary. We obtain thermodynamic quantities of the system such as pressure, temperature, Gibbs free energy, and investigate the behaviour of these quantities. We also study the analogy of the van der Waals liquid-gas system with the Born-Infeld-dilaton black holes in canonical ensemble in which we can treat the black hole charge as a fixed external parameter. Moreover, we show that the critical values of pressure, temperature and volume are physical provided the coupling constant of dilaton gravity is less than one and the horizon is sphere. Finally, we calculate the critical xponents and show that although thermodynamic quantities depend on the dilaton oupling constant, BI parameter and the dimension of the spacetime, they are universal and are independ...

  1. Food-borne bacteremic illnesses in febrile neutropenic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Anselm Chi-Wai; Siao-Ping Ong, Nellie Dawn

    2011-08-31

    Bacteremia following febrile neutropenia is a serious complication in children with malignancies. Preventive measures are currently targeted at antimicrobial prophylaxis, amelioration of drug-induced neutropenia, and nosocomial spread of pathogens, with little attention to community-acquired infections. A retrospective study was conducted at a pediatric oncology center during a 3-year period to identify probable cases of food-borne infections with bacteremia. Twenty-one bacteremic illnesses affecting 15 children receiving chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation were reviewed. Three (14%) episodes were highly suspected of a food-borne origin: a 17-year-old boy with osteosarcoma contracted Sphingomonas paucimobilis septicemia after consuming nasi lemak bought from a street hawker; a 2-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia developed Chryseobacterium meningosepticum septicemia after a sushi dinner; a 2-year-old girl was diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and Lactobacillus bacteremia suspected to be of probiotic origin. All of them were neutropenic at the time of the infections and the bacteremias were cleared with antibiotic treatment. Food-borne sepsis may be an important, but readily preventable, cause of bloodstream infections in pediatric oncology patients, especially in tropical countries with an abundance of culinary outlets.

  2. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a food-borne pathogen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendlandt, Sarah; Schwarz, Stefan; Silley, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Prior to the 1990s, most methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was hospital-associated (HA-MRSA); community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) then began to cause infections outside the health-care environment. The third significant emergence of MRSA has been in livestock animals [livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA)]. The widespread and rapid growth in CA-MRSA and LA-MRSA has raised the question as to whether MRSA is indeed a food-borne pathogen. The observations on animal-to-animal and animal-to-human transfer of LA-MRSA have prompted research examining the origin of LA-MRSA and its capacity to cause zoonotic disease in humans. This review summarizes the current knowledge about MRSA from food-producing animals and foods with respect to the role of these organisms to act as food-borne pathogens and considers the available tools to track the spread of these organisms. It is clear that LA-MRSA and CA-MRSA and even HA-MRSA can be present in/on food intended for human consumption, but we conclude on the basis of the published literature that this does not equate to MRSA being considered a food-borne pathogen.

  3. Food-borne bacteremic illnesses in febrile neutropenic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselm Chi-wai Lee

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacteremia following febrile neutropenia is a serious complication in children with malignancies. Preventive measures are currently targeted at antimicrobial prophylaxis, amelioration of drug-induced neutropenia, and nosocomial spread of pathogens, with little attention to community-acquired infections. A retrospective study was conducted at a pediatric oncology center during a 3-year period to identify probable cases of food-borne infections with bacteremia. Twenty-one bacteremic illnesses affecting 15 children receiving chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation were reviewed. Three (14% episodes were highly suspected of a food-borne origin: a 17-year-old boy with osteosarcoma contracted Sphingomonas paucimobilis septicemia after consuming nasi lemak bought from a street hawker; a 2-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia developed Chryseobacterium meningosepticum septicemia after a sushi dinner; a 2-year-old girl was diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and Lactobacillus bacteremia suspected to be of probiotic origin. All of them were neutropenic at the time of the infections and the bacteremias were cleared with antibiotic treatment. Food-borne sepsis may be an important, but readily preventable, cause of bloodstream infections in pediatric oncology patients, especially in tropical countries with an abundance of culinary outlets.

  4. Review of vector-borne diseases in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Siu-keung Edmond; Wong, Wang Christine; Leung, Chi-wah Ryan; Lai, Sik-to Thomas; Lo, Yee-chi Janice; Wong, Kai-hay Howard; Chan, Man-chung; Que, Tak-lun; Chow, Ka-wai Mary; Yuen, Ming-chi; Lau, Tin-wai Winnie; Simon, John

    2011-05-01

    The epidemiology of vector-borne diseases in Hong Kong has changed over the past decade but still poses a significant public health risk. We provided a comprehensive review of the epidemiological information and analysed the trends of major vector-borne diseases, including the vector situation in Hong Kong. The incidence of malaria has dropped dramatically in the past few decades and is now mainly an imported disease acquired from malaria endemic countries. Locally acquired dengue fever occurred in 2002 and 2003, and thereafter all cases were imported, mainly from Southeast Asia areas. Only a few local cases of Japanese encephalitis were reported in the past decade. In contrast, there is a notable increase in scrub typhus and spotted fever cases. The emergence of chikungunya fever in Asia and Indian Ocean countries also resulted in importation of human cases. Given the heavy traffic between this international city and other parts of the world, as well as the presence of vectors in this densely populated area, vigilance should be maintained against these infections. Comprehensive public health measures encompassing disease surveillance, vector surveillance and control measures with support from all sectors of the community are required to combat the old and newly emerging vector-borne diseases in Hong Kong.

  5. Observational constraints on electromagnetic Born-Infeld cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretón, Nora; Montiel, Ariadna [Dpto. de Física, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del I.P.N., Apdo. 14–740, D.F. (Mexico); Lazkoz, Ruth, E-mail: nora@fis.cinvestav.mx, E-mail: amontiel@fis.cinvestav.mx [Dpto. de Física Teórica, Universidad del País Vasco, Apdo. 644, E-48080, Bilbao (Spain)

    2012-10-01

    The cosmological model consisting of an electromagnetic Born-Infeld (BI) field coupled to a Robertson-Walker geometry is tested with the standard probes of SNIa, GRBs and direct Hubble parameter. The analysis shows that the inclusion of the nonlinear electromagnetic component does not contribute in a significative way to the observed expansion. The BI electromagnetic matter is considered with an abundance of Ω{sub BI}, that our best fit leads to Ω{sub BI} = 0.037 when tested with SNIa and the Hubble parameter data (0.1 < z < 1.75); while when tested with GRBs the result is of Ω{sub BI} = 0.304, which may indicate that this electrodynamics was important at epochs close to the appearance of large structure (z ≈ 7), although this late result has not as much reliability as that corresponding to the first two probes, since we know that the dispersion in GRBs data is still considerable. In view of these results we can rule out the electromagnetic Born-Infeld matter as the origin of the present accelerated expansion, this conclusion concerns exclusively the Born-Infeld theory.

  6. Adult psychological functioning of individuals born with craniofacial anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwer, D B; Bartlett, S P; Whitaker, L A; Paige, K T; Pertschuk, M J; Wadden, T A

    1999-02-01

    This study represents an initial investigation into the adult psychological functioning of individuals born with craniofacial disfigurement. A total of 24 men and women born with a craniofacial anomaly completed paper and pencil measures of body image dissatisfaction, self-esteem, quality of life, and experiences of discrimination. An age- and gender-matched control group of 24 non-facially disfigured adults also completed the measures. As expected, craniofacially disfigured adults reported greater dissatisfaction with their facial appearance than did the control group. Craniofacially disfigured adults also reported significantly lower levels of self-esteem and quality of life. Dissatisfaction with facial appearance, self-esteem, and quality of life were related to self-ratings of physical attractiveness. More than one-third of craniofacially disfigured adults (38 percent) reported experiences of discrimination in employment or social settings. Among disfigured adults, psychological functioning was not related to number of surgeries, although the degree of residual facial deformity was related to increased dissatisfaction with facial appearance and greater experiences of discrimination. Results suggest that adults who were born with craniofacial disfigurement, as compared with non-facially disfigured adults, experience greater dissatisfaction with facial appearance and lower self-esteem and quality of life; however, these experiences do not seem to be universal.

  7. Foreign-Born Instructors in the U.S.: Intercultural Competence, Teaching Strategies, and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilik, Oksana

    2011-01-01

    This study examines intercultural competence, teaching strategies, and job satisfaction of foreign-born instructors in a small U.S. higher education institution. The research questions addressed by this study are: (1) How do foreign-born instructors score on intercultural competence? (2) How do foreign-born instructors' teaching strategies differ…

  8. School functioning in 8- to 18-year-old children born after in vitro fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, Karin; Ceelen, Manon; Weissenbruch, van Mirjam; Knol, Dirk; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette; Huisman, Jaap

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the school functioning of 8- to 18-year-old children born after in vitro fertilization (IVF). We compared 233 children born after IVF to 233 matched control children born spontaneously from parents with fertility problems on measures of education level, general c

  9. The Training Requirements of Foreign-Born Workers in Different Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Chris; Sinning, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    The training requirements of foreign-born workers may be different from those of native-born workers in similar jobs. Over recent decades Australian immigration policy has focused predominantly on accepting high-skilled migrants. Although this focus has resulted in the successful integration of foreign-born workers into the Australian labour…

  10. Phenotypic Differences in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder Born Preterm and at Term Gestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Katherine; Wink, Logan K.; Pottenger, Amy; McDougle, Christopher J.; Erickson, Craig

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to characterize the phenotype of males and females with autism spectrum disorder born preterm versus those born at term. Descriptive statistical analyses identified differences between male and female autism spectrum disorder subjects born preterm compared to term for several phenotypic characteristics and…

  11. Formalized morphostructural zoning of the mountain zone of the Andes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabrielov, A.M.; Gvishiani, A.D.; Zhidkov, M.P.

    1982-01-01

    A plan is presented for morphostructural zoning of the Andes compiled according to formalized signs for purposes of seismic forecasting. Characteristics are presented for the basic morphostructural subdivisions of the Andes.

  12. Chaotic zones around gravitating binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Shevchenko, Ivan I

    2014-01-01

    The extent of the continuous zone of chaotic orbits of a small-mass tertiary around a system of two gravitationally bound bodies (a double star, a double black hole, a binary asteroid, etc.) is estimated analytically, in function of the tertiary's orbital eccentricity. The separatrix map theory is used to demonstrate that the central continuous chaos zone emerges due to overlapping of the orbital resonances corresponding to the integer ratios p:1 between the tertiary and the binary periods. The binary's mass ratio, above which such a chaotic zone is universally present, is also estimated.

  13. Pharmacological activation of CB2 receptors counteracts the deleterious effect of ethanol on cell proliferation in the main neurogenic zones of the adult rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia eRivera

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic alcohol exposure reduces endocannabinoid activity and disrupts adult neurogenesis in rodents, which results in structural and functional alterations. Cannabinoid receptor agonists promote adult neural progenitor cell (NPC proliferation. We evaluated the protective effects of the selective CB1 receptor agonist ACEA, the selective CB2 receptor agonist JWH133 and the fatty-acid amide-hydrolase (FAAH inhibitor URB597, which enhances endocannabinoid receptor activity, on NPC proliferation in rats with forced consumption of ethanol (10% or sucrose liquid diets for two weeks. We performed immunohistochemical and stereological analyses of cells expressing the mitotic phosphorylation of histone-3 (phospho-H3+ and the replicating cell DNA marker 5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine (BrdU+ in the main neurogenic zones of adult brain: subgranular zone of dentate gyrus (SGZ, subventricular zone of lateral ventricles (SVZ and hypothalamus. Animals were allowed ad libitum ethanol intake (7.3±1.1 g/kg/day after a controlled isocaloric pair-feeding period of sucrose and alcoholic diets. Alcohol intake reduced the number of BrdU+ cells in SGZ, SVZ and hypothalamus. The treatments (URB597, ACEA, JWH133 exerted a differential increase in alcohol consumption over time, but JWH133 specifically counteracted the deleterious effect of ethanol on NPC proliferation in the SVZ and SGZ, and ACEA reversed this effect in the SGZ only. JWH133 also induced an increased number of BrdU+ cells expressing neuron-specific β3-tubulin in the SVZ and SGZ. These results indicated that the specific activation of CB2 receptors rescued alcohol-induced impaired NPC proliferation, which is a potential clinical interest for the risk of neural damage in alcohol dependence.

  14. Cellular organization of the central canal ependymal zone, a niche of latent neural stem cells in the adult mammalian spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, L K; Truong, M K V; Bednarczyk, M R; Aumont, A; Fernandes, K J L

    2009-12-15

    A stem cell's microenvironment, or "niche," is a critical regulator of its behaviour. In the adult mammalian spinal cord, central canal ependymal cells possess latent neural stem cell properties, but the ependymal cell niche has not yet been described. Here, we identify important similarities and differences between the central canal ependymal zone and the forebrain subventricular zone (SVZ), a well-characterized niche of neural stem cells. First, direct immunohistochemical comparison of the spinal cord ependymal zone and the forebrain SVZ revealed distinct patterns of neural precursor marker expression. In particular, ependymal cells in the spinal cord were found to be bordered by a previously uncharacterized sub-ependymal layer, which is relatively less elaborate than that of the SVZ and comprised of small numbers of astrocytes, oligodendrocyte progenitors and neurons. Cell proliferation surrounding the central canal occurs in close association with blood vessels, but unlike in the SVZ, involves mainly ependymal rather than sub-ependymal cells. These proliferating ependymal cells typically self-renew rather than produce transit-amplifying progenitors, as they generate doublets of progeny that remain within the ependymal layer and show no evidence of a lineage relationship to sub-ependymal cells. Interestingly, the dorsal pole of the central canal was found to possess a sub-population of tanycyte-like cells that express markers of both ependymal cells and neural precursors, and their presence correlates with higher numbers of dorsally proliferating ependymal cells. Together, these data identify key features of the spinal cord ependymal cell niche, and suggest that dorsal ependymal cells possess the potential for stem cell activity. This work provides a foundation for future studies aimed at understanding ependymal cell regulation under normal and pathological conditions.

  15. Pharmacological activation of CB2 receptors counteracts the deleterious effect of ethanol on cell proliferation in the main neurogenic zones of the adult rat brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Patricia; Blanco, Eduardo; Bindila, Laura; Alen, Francisco; Vargas, Antonio; Rubio, Leticia; Pavón, Francisco J.; Serrano, Antonia; Lutz, Beat; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Suárez, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Chronic alcohol exposure reduces endocannabinoid activity and disrupts adult neurogenesis in rodents, which results in structural and functional alterations. Cannabinoid receptor agonists promote adult neural progenitor cell (NPC) proliferation. We evaluated the protective effects of the selective CB1 receptor agonist ACEA, the selective CB2 receptor agonist JWH133 and the fatty-acid amide-hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor URB597, which enhances endocannabinoid receptor activity, on NPC proliferation in rats with forced consumption of ethanol (10%) or sucrose liquid diets for 2 weeks. We performed immunohistochemical and stereological analyses of cells expressing the mitotic phosphorylation of histone-3 (phospho-H3+) and the replicating cell DNA marker 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU+) in the main neurogenic zones of adult brain: subgranular zone of dentate gyrus (SGZ), subventricular zone of lateral ventricles (SVZ) and hypothalamus. Animals were allowed ad libitum ethanol intake (7.3 ± 1.1 g/kg/day) after a controlled isocaloric pair-feeding period of sucrose and alcoholic diets. Alcohol intake reduced the number of BrdU+ cells in SGZ, SVZ, and hypothalamus. The treatments (URB597, ACEA, JWH133) exerted a differential increase in alcohol consumption over time, but JWH133 specifically counteracted the deleterious effect of ethanol on NPC proliferation in the SVZ and SGZ, and ACEA reversed this effect in the SGZ only. JWH133 also induced an increased number of BrdU+ cells expressing neuron-specific β3-tubulin in the SVZ and SGZ. These results indicated that the specific activation of CB2 receptors rescued alcohol-induced impaired NPC proliferation, which is a potential clinical interest for the risk of neural damage in alcohol dependence. PMID:26483633

  16. Latin American Consensus: Children Born Small for Gestational Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanco Armando

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children born small for gestational age (SGA experience higher rates of morbidity and mortality than those born appropriate for gestational age. In Latin America, identification and optimal management of children born SGA is a critical issue. Leading experts in pediatric endocrinology throughout Latin America established working groups in order to discuss key challenges regarding the evaluation and management of children born SGA and ultimately develop a consensus statement. Discussion SGA is defined as a birth weight and/or birth length greater than 2 standard deviations (SD below the population reference mean for gestational age. SGA refers to body size and implies length-weight reference data in a geographical population whose ethnicity is known and specific to this group. Ideally, each country/region within Latin America should establish its own standards and make relevant updates. SGA children should be evaluated with standardized measures by trained personnel every 3 months during year 1 and every 6 months during year 2. Those without catch-up growth within the first 6 months of life need further evaluation, as do children whose weight is ≤ -2 SD at age 2 years. Growth hormone treatment can begin in SGA children > 2 years with short stature ( 14 years for girls and > 16 years for boys is reached. Blood glucose, thyroid function, HbA1c, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 should be monitored once a year. Monitoring insulin changes from baseline and surrogates of insulin sensitivity is essential. Reduced fetal growth followed by excessive postnatal catch-up in height, and particularly in weight, should be closely monitored. In both sexes, gonadal function should be monitored especially during puberty. Summary Children born SGA should be carefully followed by a multidisciplinary group that includes perinatologists, pediatricians, nutritionists, and pediatric endocrinologists since 10% to 15% will continue to have

  17. Measurement equivalence of four psychological questionnaires in native-born Germans, Russian-speaking immigrants, and native-born Russians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Oliver; Donner-Banzhoff, Norbert; Bachmann, Viktoria

    2013-07-01

    Psychological constructs depend on cultural context. It is therefore important to show the equivalence of measurement instruments in cross-cultural research. There is evidence that in Russian-speaking immigrants, cultural and language issues are important in health care. We examined measurement equivalence of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), the Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15), the Hamburg Self-Care Questionnaire (HamSCQ), and the questionnaire on communication preferences of patients with chronic illness (KOPRA) in native-born Germans, Russian-speaking immigrants living in Germany, and native-born Russians living in the former Soviet Union (FSU). All four questionnaires fulfilled requirements of measurement equivalence in confirmatory factor analyses and analyses of differential item functioning. The Russian translations can be used in Russian-speaking immigrants and native-born Russians. This offers further possibilities for cross-cultural research and for an improvement in health care research in Russian-speaking immigrants in Germany. The most pronounced differences occurred in the KOPRA, which point to differences in German and Russian health care systems.

  18. Comparing the relative importance of water-borne cues and direct grazing for the induction of defenses in the brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flöthe, Carla R; John, Uwe; Molis, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Some seaweed species have been shown to release water-borne cues after herbivore attack, for example, to attract natural enemies of the herbivore. These cues may also be sensed by neighboring seaweeds and used to adjust their defenses in anticipation of a possible herbivore attack. Several studies indicated information transfer between seaweed individuals in the past, including the brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus. Previous work showed induction of defenses in F. vesiculosus in response to water-borne cues released by isopod-grazed conspecifics. In contrast, another study on induced responses after exposure to cues from isopod-grazed neighbors using the same seaweed species yielded contradictory results. This study reassessed the ability of F. vesiculosus individuals to sense water-borne cues released by isopod-grazed neighbors in a series of experiments that monitored F. vesiculosus palatability in response to direct grazing by Idotea baltica and water-borne cues from isopod-grazed neighbors relative to unmanipulated seaweed pieces. Two-choice feeding assays were conducted with both fresh and reconstituted seaweed pieces. Direct grazing by I. baltica induced a chemical defense in F. vesiculosus, confirming results of previous studies. In contrast, evidence for increased herbivore resistance in seaweed pieces that were located downstream of isopod-grazed F. vesiculosus could not be provided. The lack of defense induction in response to grazing of conspecific neighbors may be explained by the environmental conditions and the scattered distribution of F. vesiculosus individuals in the intertidal zone of Helgoland, which may render resource investment in the emission and/or response to water-borne cues at this site unprofitable.

  19. Comparing the relative importance of water-borne cues and direct grazing for the induction of defenses in the brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla R Flöthe

    Full Text Available Some seaweed species have been shown to release water-borne cues after herbivore attack, for example, to attract natural enemies of the herbivore. These cues may also be sensed by neighboring seaweeds and used to adjust their defenses in anticipation of a possible herbivore attack. Several studies indicated information transfer between seaweed individuals in the past, including the brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus. Previous work showed induction of defenses in F. vesiculosus in response to water-borne cues released by isopod-grazed conspecifics. In contrast, another study on induced responses after exposure to cues from isopod-grazed neighbors using the same seaweed species yielded contradictory results. This study reassessed the ability of F. vesiculosus individuals to sense water-borne cues released by isopod-grazed neighbors in a series of experiments that monitored F. vesiculosus palatability in response to direct grazing by Idotea baltica and water-borne cues from isopod-grazed neighbors relative to unmanipulated seaweed pieces. Two-choice feeding assays were conducted with both fresh and reconstituted seaweed pieces. Direct grazing by I. baltica induced a chemical defense in F. vesiculosus, confirming results of previous studies. In contrast, evidence for increased herbivore resistance in seaweed pieces that were located downstream of isopod-grazed F. vesiculosus could not be provided. The lack of defense induction in response to grazing of conspecific neighbors may be explained by the environmental conditions and the scattered distribution of F. vesiculosus individuals in the intertidal zone of Helgoland, which may render resource investment in the emission and/or response to water-borne cues at this site unprofitable.

  20. Emergence of tick-borne encephalitis in new endemic areas in Austria: 42 years of surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, F X; Stiasny, K; Holzmann, H; Kundi, M; Sixl, W; Wenk, M; Kainz, W; Essl, A; Kunz, C

    2015-04-02

    Human infections with tick-borne encephalitis (TBE)virus are a public health concern in certain regions of Europe, central and eastern Asia. Expansions of endemic areas and increased incidences have been associated with different factors including ecological changes supporting tick reproduction, socioeconomic changes increasing human outdoor activities and climatic changes favouring virus circulation in natural foci. Austria is among the most strongly affected countries in Central Europe, but the annual number of cases has strongly declined due to vaccination. Here,we have analysed changes of the incidence of TBE in the unvaccinated population of all federal states of Austria over a period of 42 years. The overall incidence in Austria has remained constant, but new strongly affected endemic regions have emerged in alpine valleys in the west of Austria. In parallel, the incidence in low-land regions in the north-east of the country is decreasing. There is no evidence for a shift to higher altitudes of infection sites in the traditional TBE zones,but the average altitudes of some newly established endemic areas in the west are significantly higher. Our analyses underscore the focal nature of TBE endemic areas and the potential of TBE virus to emerge in previously unaffected regions.

  1. Epidemiology of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in Europe and its prevention by available vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amicizia, Daniela; Domnich, Alexander; Panatto, Donatella; Lai, Piero Luigi; Cristina, Maria Luisa; Avio, Ulderico; Gasparini, Roberto

    2013-05-01

    Tick-borne Encephalitis (TBE), which is caused by a Flavivirus, is the most common tick-transmitted disease in Central and Eastern Europe and Russia. Today, TBE is endemic in 27 European countries, and has become an international public health problem. The epidemiology of TBE is changing owing to various factors, such as improvements in diagnosis and case reporting, increased recreational activities in areas populated by ticks, and changes in climatic conditions affecting tick habitats. Vaccination remains the most effective protective measure against TBE for people living in risk zones, occupationally exposed subjects and travelers to endemic areas. The vaccines currently in use are FSME-Immun(®), Encepur(®), EnceVir(®) and TBE vaccine Moscow(®). The numerous studies performed on the efficacy and safety of these vaccines have shown a high level of immunogenicity and an excellent safety profile. Several studies have also shown a high level of cross-protection among strains belonging to different subtypes.   In the present paper we attempted to describe the continuously changing epidemiology of TBE in European States and to overview clinical development of available vaccines paying particular attention on cross-protection elicited by the vaccines.

  2. ShoreZone Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a point file showing GPS trackline data collected during a ShoreZone aerial imaging survey. This flight trackline is recorded at 1-second intervals...

  3. In situ vadose zone bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhener, Patrick; Ponsin, Violaine

    2014-06-01

    Contamination of the vadose zone with various pollutants is a world-wide problem, and often technical or economic constraints impose remediation without excavation. In situ bioremediation in the vadose zone by bioventing has become a standard remediation technology for light spilled petroleum products. In this review, focus is given on new in situ bioremediation strategies in the vadose zone targeting a variety of other pollutants such as perchlorate, nitrate, uranium, chromium, halogenated solvents, explosives and pesticides. The techniques for biostimulation of either oxidative or reductive degradation pathways are presented, and biotransformations to immobile pollutants are discussed in cases of non-degradable pollutants. Furthermore, research on natural attenuation in the vadose zone is presented.

  4. Offshore Wind Technology Depth Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coastal bathymetric depth, measured in meters at depth values of: -30, -60, -900 Shallow Zone (0-30m): Technology has been demonstrated on a commercial scale at...

  5. NEPR Geographic Zone Map 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This geographic zone map was created by interpreting satellite and aerial imagery, seafloor topography (bathymetry model), and the new NEPR Benthic Habitat Map...

  6. Development Zones Flourish in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Based on the Beijing Municipal Government's plans for developing the city and neighboring suburbs,and after more than 10 years in development,the Beijing Development Zones have taken shape,each with their own characteristics.

  7. Clinico-epidemiologichesky aspects of the mixed tick-borne infections in the endemic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Aleshkovskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Detection of clinico-epidemiological features of the mixed tick-borne infections – tick-borne Lyme disease and a human granulocytic anaplasmosis was the purpose of the conducted research. During the spring – summer period 146 patients with tick-borne borreliosis were surveyed. As a result at 45 (30,82% patients authentically diagnosed the mixed tick-borne infection. Features of clinical manifestations of a mixed tick-borne infection revealed: catarrhal phenomena (20%, liver defeats (33%, nephros (31, 7%, frequent secondary erythems (20%. Changes in haemogram defined: thrombocytopenia (42,2%, anemia (20%, leukopenia (13,3%.

  8. Demarcation of secondary hyperalgesia zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringsted, Thomas K; Enghuus, Casper; Petersen, Morten A;

    2015-01-01

    of analgesic drug effects in humans. However, since the methods applied in demarcating the secondary hyperalgesia zone seem inconsistent across studies, we examined the effect of a standardized approach upon the measurement of SHA following a first degree burn injury (BI). NEW METHOD: The study was a two...... presented. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to demonstrate that demarcation of secondary hyperalgesia zones depends on the developed pressure of the punctate stimulator used....

  9. Zoonotic mosquito-borne flaviviruses: worldwide presence of agents with proven pathogenicity and potential candidates of future emerging diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissenböck, H; Hubálek, Z; Bakonyi, T; Nowotny, N

    2010-01-27

    An update on the mosquito-borne flavivirus species including certain subtypes, as listed in the Eighth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, is given. Special emphasis is placed on viruses which have been shown to cause diseases in animals, and viruses for which no pathogenicity has been proven yet. Several recent examples (Usutu virus and lineage-2 West Nile virus in central Europe, Zika virus in Micronesia) have shown that sources providing information on such scientifically largely neglected viruses are valuable tools for scientists and public health officials having to deal with such disease emergences. Furthermore the effects of global warming will lead to introduction of competent mosquito vectors into temperate climate zones and will increase efficiency of viral replication in less competent vector species. This, facilitated by rising global travel and trade activities, will facilitate introduction and permanent establishment of mosquito-borne viruses, some of which may become of public health or veterinary concern, into novel environments, e.g. industrialized countries worldwide.

  10. Global climate change and its potential impact on disease transmission by salinity-tolerant mosquito vectors in coastal zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Ranjan; Surendran, Sinnathamby Noble

    2012-01-01

    Global climate change can potentially increase the transmission of mosquito vector-borne diseases such as malaria, lymphatic filariasis, and dengue in many parts of the world. These predictions are based on the effects of changing temperature, rainfall, and humidity on mosquito breeding and survival, the more rapid development of ingested pathogens in mosquitoes and the more frequent blood feeds at moderately higher ambient temperatures. An expansion of saline and brackish water bodies (water with 30 ppt salt are termed fresh, brackish, and saline respectively) will also take place as a result of global warming causing a rise in sea levels in coastal zones. Its possible impact on the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases has, however, not been adequately appreciated. The relevant impacts of global climate change on the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases in coastal zones are discussed with reference to the Ross-McDonald equation and modeling studies. Evidence is presented to show that an expansion of brackish water bodies in coastal zones can increase the densities of salinity-tolerant mosquitoes like Anopheles sundaicus and Culex sitiens, and lead to the adaptation of fresh water mosquito vectors like Anopheles culicifacies, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Aedes albopictus to salinity. Rising sea levels may therefore act synergistically with global climate change to increase the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases in coastal zones. Greater attention therefore needs to be devoted to monitoring disease incidence and preimaginal development of vector mosquitoes in artificial and natural coastal brackish/saline habitats. It is important that national and international health agencies are aware of the increased risk of mosquito-borne diseases in coastal zones and develop preventive and mitigating strategies. Application of appropriate counter measures can greatly reduce the potential for increased coastal transmission of mosquito-borne diseases

  11. Presence of bluetongue virus in the marginal zone of the spleen in acute infected sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Fan; Chen, Jiun-Liang; Lin, Chun-Ming; Wang, Fun-In

    2011-08-26

    Bluetongue virus, a member of the genus Orbivirus of the family Reoviridae, is the causative agent of bluetongue, which is a non-contagious Culicoides mediated blood-borne disease. The present study characterizes the pathogenicity of a Taiwan prototype BTV2/KM/2003 in Corriedale sheep inoculated subcutaneously into the ear pinna. Histologically, multifocal petechiated hemorrhage, with mild to moderate inflammation and edema, were present in the contralateral ear pinna, tongue, and facial skin, without remarkable lesions in lymphoid organs. By days post-infection (DPI) 7, viral VP7 antigen, detected by immunohistochemistry, presented in the spleen, chiefly located in the outer rim of macrophages bordering the marginal zone and red pulp, and T lymphocytes of the red pulp. By DPI 11, viral signals shifted from the marginal zone to macrophages and small lymphocytes within follicles of the spleen. In situ hybridization with VP7 gene probe detected strong signals in the spleen, chiefly spanning the whole width of 5-10 cell thickness of the marginal zone, including the marginal zone macrophages and marginal zone B cells, as well as macrophages of sheathed capillaries in the red pulp. This study demonstrates molecular as well as morphologic evidence of the presence of bluetongue virus in the marginal zone of the spleen, most likely associated with viremia in acute infection, as previously demonstrated by the authors.

  12. The global aftershock zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Thomas E.; Margaret Segou,; Warner Marzocchi,

    2014-01-01

    The aftershock zone of each large (M ≥ 7) earthquake extends throughout the shallows of planet Earth. Most aftershocks cluster near the mainshock rupture, but earthquakes send out shivers in the form of seismic waves, and these temporary distortions are large enough to trigger other earthquakes at global range. The aftershocks that happen at great distance from their mainshock are often superposed onto already seismically active regions, making them difficult to detect and understand. From a hazard perspective we are concerned that this dynamic process might encourage other high magnitude earthquakes, and wonder if a global alarm state is warranted after every large mainshock. From an earthquake process perspective we are curious about the physics of earthquake triggering across the magnitude spectrum. In this review we build upon past studies that examined the combined global response to mainshocks. Such compilations demonstrate significant rate increases during, and immediately after (~ 45 min) M > 7.0 mainshocks in all tectonic settings and ranges. However, it is difficult to find strong evidence for M > 5 rate increases during the passage of surface waves in combined global catalogs. On the other hand, recently published studies of individual large mainshocks associate M > 5 triggering at global range that is delayed by hours to days after surface wave arrivals. The longer the delay between mainshock and global aftershock, the more difficult it is to establish causation. To address these questions, we review the response to 260 M ≥ 7.0 shallow (Z ≤ 50 km) mainshocks in 21 global regions with local seismograph networks. In this way we can examine the detailed temporal and spatial response, or lack thereof, during passing seismic waves, and over the 24 h period after their passing. We see an array of responses that can involve immediate and widespread seismicity outbreaks, delayed and localized earthquake clusters, to no response at all. About 50% of the

  13. Cancer in children and young adults born after assisted reproductive technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundh, Karin Jerhamre; Henningsen, Anna-Karina A; Källen, Karin

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Do children and young adults born after assisted reproductive technology (ART) have an increased risk of cancer? SUMMARY ANSWER: Children born after ART showed no overall increase in the rate of cancer when compared with children born as a result of spontaneous conception. WHAT...... IS KNOWN ALREADY: Children born after ART have more adverse perinatal outcomes, i.e. preterm births, low birthweights and birth defects. Previous studies have shown divergent results regarding the risk of cancer among children born after ART. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A retrospective Nordic population......-based cohort study was performed, comprising all children born after ART in Sweden, Denmark, Finland and Norway between 1982 and 2007. The mean (±standard deviation) follow-up time was 9.5 (4.8) years. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Children born after ART (n = 91 796) were compared with a control...

  14. The galactic habitable zone of the Milky Way and M31 from chemical evolution models with gas radial flows

    CERN Document Server

    Spitoni, E; Sozzetti, A

    2014-01-01

    The galactic habitable zone is defined as the region with sufficient abundance of heavy elements to form planetary systems in which Earth-like planets could be born and might be capable of sustaining life, after surviving to close supernova explosion events. Galactic chemical evolution models can be useful for studying the galactic habitable zones in different systems. We apply detailed chemical evolution models including radial gas flows to study the galactic habitable zones in our Galaxy and M31. We compare the results to the relative galactic habitable zones found with "classical" (independent ring) models, where no gas inflows were included. For both the Milky Way and Andromeda, the main effect of the gas radial inflows is to enhance the number of stars hosting a habitable planet with respect to the "classical" model results, in the region of maximum probability for this occurrence, relative to the classical model results. These results are obtained by taking into account the supernova destruction process...

  15. Medical problems of foreign-born adopted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenista, J A; Chapman, D

    1987-03-01

    Over 8000 foreign-born children, almost all from third-world countries, are adopted by citizens of the United States each year. Most primary care practitioners do not have enough experience to evaluate and manage their problems efficiently. We reviewed the medical care of the foreign-born adoptees followed up in a single pediatric group practice. The 128 children arrived from one of eight countries in Asia or Latin America at ages ranging from 1 month to 10 years; 57% were female. The median duration of follow-up was 20 months. The most common problems identified included deficient immunizations (37%), intestinal parasites (29%), emotional or behavioral problems (22%), skin diseases (16%), estimated age (12%), scabies and/or lice (10%), and congenital anomales (10%). Twenty-one other classes of problems were identified, including developmental delay, lactose intolerance, vision and hearing deficits, and chronic hepatitis B carrier status. At arrival or within one month, 49% of the children had acute infectious diseases, including upper respiratory tract infection, otitis media, rubeola, varicella, and mumps. Nineteen percent of the children underwent surgical procedures ranging from circumcision to cleft lip-palate repair; 46% of these children were never screened for hepatitis B. Fourteen percent were hospitalized at least once, 5% within the first month after arrival. We developed a simple protocol to screen foreign-born adopted children, allowing rapid identification of treatable problems at the least cost and inconvenience to the family. Thirty-six percent of the families made at least one preadoption visit, permitting an explanation of the protocol and potential problems before the child's arrival.

  16. [Food-borne botulism: review of five cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Teresa; Costa, Manuela; Almeida, H Cristina; Guimarães, Mário

    2004-01-01

    Food-borne botulism is a disease caused by the ingestion of food contaminated with botulinum toxin, often present in smoked meat, canned food and preserved food; it can occur as sporadic case or as an outbreak. In the last decades there has been an increasing incidence of food-borne botulism in Portugal. The authors do a review of five cases of food-borne botulism, three isolated cases and 2 familiar. Four were associated with the ingestion of smoked ham and one of canned tunafish. The incubation period was 48 hours in one patient and 4 days in another, in the remaining patients it was not possible to determine this period. The clinical picture was dominated in all patients by diplopy, dysphagia, dizziness, blurred vision, dry mouth and constipation, and in two patients there were gastrointestinal complains. In one patient the electromyography findings were compatible with pre-synaptic neuromuscular blockage. A toxin type B was found in the serum of one patient and in the food involved in the two familiar cases. All patients experienced complete recovery with only symptomatic treatment. With this article the authors intend to call attention to this diagnosis, which is not rare, but difficult for someone not familiar with its presentation, being of notice that the diagnosis is essentially clinic with a strong epidemiological history, confirmed by typical electromyography findings and by the identification of the toxin involved. In Portugal there is only descriptions of clinical cases associated with the type B and the type E toxins, not being necessary the resource to the antitoxin therapy.

  17. Dietary Sodium Intakes and Food Sources of Sodium in Canadian-Born and Asian-Born Individuals of Chinese Ethnicity at a Canadian University Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan Han; Farmer, Anna; Mager, Diana; Willows, Noreen

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To document the sodium intake and food sources of sodium of Canadian-born Chinese (CBC) and Asian-born Chinese (ABC) individuals at a Canadian university campus. Participants: Healthy adults aged 18-58 years originating from Canada, China, Hong Kong, or Taiwan were recruited from the University of Alberta (n = 40 CBC, n = 41 ABC)…

  18. Life Expectancy Among U.S.-born and Foreign-born Older Adults in the United States: Estimates From Linked Social Security and Medicare Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Neil K; Elo, Irma T; Engelman, Michal; Lauderdale, Diane S; Kestenbaum, Bert M

    2016-08-01

    In recent decades, the geographic origins of America's foreign-born population have become increasingly diverse. The sending countries of the U.S. foreign-born vary substantially in levels of health and economic development, and immigrants have arrived with distinct distributions of socioeconomic status, visa type, year of immigration, and age at immigration. We use high-quality linked Social Security and Medicare records to estimate life tables for the older U.S. population over the full range of birth regions. In 2000-2009, the foreign-born had a 2.4-year advantage in life expectancy at age 65 relative to the U.S.-born, with Asian-born subgroups displaying exceptionally high longevity. Foreign-born individuals who migrated more recently had lower mortality compared with those who migrated earlier. Nonetheless, we also find remarkable similarities in life expectancy among many foreign-born subgroups that were born in very different geographic and socioeconomic contexts (e.g., Central America, western/eastern Europe, and Africa).

  19. Small Birth Size : Cardiovascular and metabolic profile of young adults born SGA who have been treated with growth hormone and young adults born preterm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.E. Breukhoven (Petra)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis doctoral thesis describes cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors in children en young adults with a small birth size, either due to being born small for gestational age (SGA) or due to prematurity. For those born SGA with persistent short stature, the short and long-term effects

  20. An Epidemiological Investigation of Male-Female Differences in Drinking and Drinking-Related Problems between US-Born and Foreign-Born Latino and Asian Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui G. Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It has been widely documented that males were more likely to drinking alcohol and have alcohol use disorders (AUD. The degrees of the male-female differences in drinking and AUD have varied across countries. The reasons behind these variations have not been fully understood. The current study compared the estimated male-female differences across US-born and foreign-born Latino and Asian Americans with respect to alcohol drinking behavior and AUD. Method. Data come from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS, a national household survey of adults with Latinos and Asian decent in the United States. Male-female differences were estimated for drinking behavior and AUD among drinkers for US-born and foreign-born individuals, respectively. Zero-inflated Poisson regressions were utilized to estimate male-female differences in the number of AUD clinical features once it occurs. Results. Larger male-female differences were found for foreign-born individuals as compared to US-born individuals, especially the occurrence of AUD among drinkers. Once AUD clinical feature occurs, there was no male-female difference for foreign-born individuals, while there was a males excess in the number of clinical features for US-born individuals. Conclusion. Results from this study supports the importance of sociocultural influence in drinking and AUD. Implications for prevention and intervention programs were discussed.

  1. 3D Born-Infeld gravity and supersymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergshoeff, Eric; Ozkan, Mehmet

    2014-08-01

    We construct the most general parity-even higher-derivative = 1 off-shell supergravity model in three dimensions with a maximum of six derivatives. Excluding terms quadratic in the curvature tensor with two explicit derivatives and requiring the absence of ghosts in a linearized approximation around an AdS3 background, we find that there is a unique supersymmetric invariant which we call supersymmetric `cubic extended' New Massive Gravity. The purely gravitational part of this invariant is in agreement with an earlier analysis based upon the holographic c-theorem and coincides with an expansion of Born-Infeld gravity to the required order.

  2. Pointing System for the Balloon-Borne Astronomical Payloads

    CERN Document Server

    Nirmal, K; Mathew, Joice; Sarpotdar, Mayuresh; Suresh, Ambily; Prakash, Ajin; Safonova, Margarita; Murthy, Jayant

    2016-01-01

    We describe the development and implementation of a light-weight, fully autonomous 2-axis pointing and stabilization system designed for balloon-borne astronomical payloads. The system is developed using off-the-shelf components such as Arduino Uno controller, HMC 5883L magnetometer, MPU-9150 Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and iWave GPS receiver unit. It is a compact and rugged system which can also be used to take images/video in a moving vehicle, or in areal photography. The system performance is evaluated from the ground, as well as in conditions simulated to imitate the actual flight by using a tethered launch.

  3. Rapid Identification of Vector-Borne Flaviviruses by Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    from a known titer and tested in replicates of 10. All six mosquito-borne primer sets (VIR2215, VIR2217, VIR2211, VIR2216, VIR1026, VIR1028) had 100...Flavivirus RT-PCR primer pairs. From a known West Nile virus (WNV) titer, the RNA was serially diluted ten-fold. Ten replicates were performed to...219e228 225 Author’s personal copy alphaviruses (assuming that 30 genome equivalents is approxi- mately equal to 3 PFU) [10]. One benefit of the pan

  4. Balloon-Borne System Would Aim Instrument Toward Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polites, M. E.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed system including digital control computer, control sensors, and control actuators aims telescope or other balloon-borne instrument toward Sun. Pointing system and instrument flown on gondola, suspended from balloon. System includes reaction wheel, which applies azimuthal control torques to gondola, and torque motor to apply low-frequency azimuthal torques between gondola and cable. Three single-axis rate gyroscopes measure yaw, pitch, and roll. Inclinometer measures roll angle. Two-axis Sun sensor measures deviation, in yaw and pitch, of attitude of instrument from line to apparent center of Sun. System provides initial coarse pointing, then maintains fine pointing.

  5. Pointing system for the balloon-borne astronomical payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmal, Kaipacheri; Sreejith, Aickara Gopinathan; Mathew, Joice; Sarpotdar, Mayuresh; Ambily, Suresh; Prakash, Ajin; Safonova, Margarita; Murthy, Jayant

    2016-10-01

    We describe the development and implementation of a light-weight, fully autonomous 2-axis pointing and stabilization system designed for balloon-borne astronomical payloads. The system is developed using off-the-shelf components such as Arduino Uno controller, HMC 5883L magnetometer, MPU-9150 inertial measurement unit, and iWave GPS receiver unit. It is a compact and rugged system which can also be used to take images/video in a moving vehicle or in real photography. The system performance is evaluated from the ground, as well as in conditions simulated to imitate the actual flight by using a tethered launch.

  6. Computing Optimum Heights for Balloon-Borne Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    ducting, a " radar hole" against other raytrace niodels (IREPS, could develop. Although the radar beam. EREPS) that are considered accurate. The may be...TD-1369, Naval Ocean Systems Center, San Diego, CA, October 1985. ,quires, M.F., Caribbean Basin Radar Network Raytrace Study, USAPETAC/PR-91/005...IlI-AFETAC/PR-93IoO5 * AD-A286 832 COMPUTING OPTIMUM HEIGHTS for BALLOON-BORNE RADAR by Michael F. Squires IjxEA NOVEMBER 1993 DTIC QUAI’ii E’T" 2T

  7. A Recursive Born Approach to Nonlinear Inverse Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Kamilov, Ulugbek S; Mansour, Hassan; Boufounos, Petros T

    2016-01-01

    The Iterative Born Approximation (IBA) is a well-known method for describing waves scattered by semi-transparent objects. In this paper, we present a novel nonlinear inverse scattering method that combines IBA with an edge-preserving total variation (TV) regularizer. The proposed method is obtained by relating iterations of IBA to layers of a feedforward neural network and developing a corresponding error backpropagation algorithm for efficiently estimating the permittivity of the object. Simulations illustrate that, by accounting for multiple scattering, the method successfully recovers the permittivity distribution where the traditional linear inverse scattering fails.

  8. Nutritional and Immunological Importance of Colostrum for the new born

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prajakta Kuralkar and S.V. Kuralkar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional and immunological importance of colostrum for the survival and development of the neonate is reviewed. A neonate is born with low body energy stores and devoid of serum immunoglobulins. Colostrum provides the neonates with both energy and maternal antibodies. Because of syndeschoroidal nature of the placenta, the neonates must acquire maternal immunoglobulins from ingested colostrum for passive immune protection until the immune system of the neonate is fully developed. [Vet. World 2010; 3(1.000: 46-47

  9. Solitons in Non-Abelian Born-Infeld Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Galtsov, D V

    2001-01-01

    Born-Infeld generalization of the Yang-Mills action suggested by the superstring theory gives rise to modification of previously known as well as to some new classical soliton solutions. Earlier it was shown that within the model with the usual trace over the group generators classical glueballs exist which form an infinite sequence similar to the Bartnik-McKinnon family of the Einstein-Yang-Mills solutions. Here we give the generalization of this result to the 'realistic' model with the symmetrized trace and show the existence of excited monopoles (in presence of triplet Higgs) which can be regarded as a non-linear superposition of monopoles and sphalerons.

  10. What About Quantum Theory? Bayes and the Born Interpretation

    CERN Document Server

    Tipler, F J

    2006-01-01

    I show that probabilities in quantum mechanics are a measure of belief in the presence of human ignorance, just like all other probabilities. The Born interpretation of the square of modulus of the wave function arises from the interaction of a quantum system with an observer, and probabilities will not arise unless the observer is unable to access all the information available in the system's wave function. Quantum mechanics generally does not permit all the information to be obtained, even in principle, just as in relativity information from outside the past light cone cannot be obtained. But probabilities do not imply indeterminism. Instead, quantum mechanics is more deterministic than classical mechanics.

  11. [Tick-borne encefalitis - pathogenesis and -therapeutic approaches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Růžek, D

    2015-10-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a major public health threat in large areas of Central and Eastern Europe and in Russia. This review summarizes the current data on the interactions between the TBE virus and the host, with a particular focus on the mechanisms of neuronal injury, immune response and immunopathology in the central nervous system (CNS), and factors that determine the course and outcome of TBE. Novel trends of experimental therapy of TBE are discussed. Combining small molecule inhibitors targeting viral replication with immunomodulatury agents might be a way to maximize viral clearance and minimize immunopathology in the CNS during TBE.

  12. The Nuclear Born Oppenheimer Method and Nuclear Rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettili, Nouredine

    2008-10-01

    In this presentation, we want to discuss how to apply the Nuclear Born Oppenheimer (NBO) formalism to the description of nuclear rotations. This application will be illustrated on nuclei that are axially-symmetric and even (but non-closed shell). We will focus, in particular, on the derivation of expressions for the energy and for the moment of inertia. In addition, we will examine the connection of the NBO method with the self-consistent cranking model. We will compare the moment of inertia generated by the NBO method with the Thouless-Valantin formula and hence establish a connection between the NBO method and the large body of experimental data.

  13. Air-borne sound generated by sea waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolin, Karl; Åbom, Mats

    2010-05-01

    This paper describes a semi-empiric model and measurements of air-borne sound generated by breaking sea waves. Measurements have been performed at the Baltic Sea. Shores with different slopes and sediment types have been investigated. Results showed that the sound pressure level increased from 60 dB at 0.4 m wave height to 78 dB at 2.0 m wave height. The 1/3 octave spectrum was dependent on the surf type. A scaling model based on the dissipated wave power and a surf similarity parameter is proposed and compared to measurements. The predictions show satisfactory agreement to the measurements.

  14. Determinants of oral bioavailability of soil-borne contaminants

    OpenAIRE

    Oomen, Agnes Guadalupe

    2001-01-01

    Children ingest soil, either accidentally via hand-to-mouth behavior or deliberately. In this manner, a child ingests on average between 50 and 200 mg soil/day, although amounts of as much as 60 g/day have also been observed. Hence, soil ingestion can be a main route of exposure to soil-borne contaminants to children. To estimate the health risk associated to this exposure route, and to assess intervention values for contaminants in soils, one needs to know the oral bioavailability of the soi...

  15. The Born rule as structure of spectral bundles (extended abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertfried Fauser

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Topos approaches to quantum foundations are described in a unified way by means of spectral bundles, where the base space is a space of contexts and each fibre is its spectrum. Differences in variance are due to the bundle being a fibration or opfibration. Relative to this structure, the probabilistic predictions of the Born rule in finite dimensional settings are then described as a section of a bundle of valuations. The construction uses in an essential way the geometric nature of the valuation locale monad.

  16. Food-borne parasitic zoonoses in China: perspective for control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peng; Chen, Ning; Zhang, Ren-Li; Lin, Rui-Qing; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2008-04-01

    Food-borne parasitic zoonoses (FBPZs) cause death and serious diseases in humans and animals worldwide, and are of both public health significance and socioeconomic importance. The FBPZ problem is severe in mainland China, where approximately 150 million people are suffering from FBPZs and more people are at risk. Here, the current status of the FBPZ problem in mainland China is reviewed and strategies and measures for effective control of FBPZs are proposed. Major parasitic zoonoses transmitted through consumption of infected or contaminated meat, fish, plants and/or water will be discussed.

  17. Particle detection technology for space-borne astroparticle experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Pohl, Martin

    2014-01-01

    I review the transfer of technology from accelerator-based equipment to space-borne astroparticle detectors. Requirements for detection, identification and measurement of ions, electrons and photons in space are recalled. The additional requirements and restrictions imposed by the launch process in manned and unmanned space flight, as well as by the hostile environment in orbit, are analyzed. Technology readiness criteria and risk mitigation strategies are reviewed. Recent examples are given of missions and instruments in orbit, under construction or in the planning phase.

  18. Zone and double zone diagrams in abstract spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Reem, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    A zone diagram of order $n$ is a relatively new concept which was first defined and studied by T. Asano, J. Matousek and T. Tokuyama. It can be interpreted as a state of equilibrium between $n$ mutually hostile kingdoms. Formally, it is a fixed point of a certain mapping. These authors considered the Euclidean plane and proved the existence and uniqueness of zone diagrams there. In the present paper we generalize this concept in various ways. We consider $m$-spaces (a simple generalization of metric spaces) and prove some existence and (non)uniqueness results there. In contrast to previous works, our proofs are based on purely order theoretic arguments. Many explicit examples are given, and some of them illustrate new phenomena which occur in the general case. We also re-interpret zone diagrams as a stable configuration in a certain combinatorial game, and provide an algorithm for finding this configuration in a particular case.

  19. Differing first year mortality rates of term births to White, African-American, and Mexican-American US-born and foreign-born mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, James W; Soskolne, Gayle R; Rankin, Kristin M; Bennett, Amanda C

    2013-12-01

    To determine whether maternal nativity (US-born versus foreign-born) is associated with the first year mortality rates of term births. Stratified and multivariable binomial regression analyses were performed on the 2003-2004 National Center for Health Statistics linked live birth-infant death cohort files. Only term (37-42 weeks) infants with non-Latina White, African-American, and Mexican-American mothers were studied. The infant mortality rate (mortality for non-LBW, term births to US-born (compared to foreign-born) for White, African-American, and Mexican-American mothers equaled 1.5 (1.3-1.7), 1.7 (1.5-2.1) and 1.6 (1.4-1.8), respectively. The IMR of term births to White, African-American, and Mexican-American mothers exceeds that of their counterparts with foreign-born mothers independent of traditional individual level risk factors.

  20. SEMIAUTOMATIC DETECTION OF TUMORAL ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzeddine Zagrouba

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a robust method based on the cooperation of fuzzy classification and regions segmentation algorithms, in order to detect the tumoral zone in the brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI. On one hand, the classification in fuzzy sets is done by the Fuzzy C-Means algorithm (FCM, where a study of its different parameters and its complexity has been previously realised, which led us to improve it. On the other hand, the segmentation in regions is obtained by an hierarchical method through adaptive thresholding. Then, an operator expert selects a germ in the tumoral zone, and the class containing the sick zone is localised in return for the FCM algorithm. Finally, the superposition of the two partitions of the image will determine the sick zone. The originality of our approach is the parallel exploitation of different types of information in the image by the cooperation of two complementary approaches. This allows us to carry out a pertinent approach for the detection of sick zone in MRI images.

  1. Childbearing characteristics of U.S.- and foreign-born Hispanic mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, S J; Taffel, S M

    1985-01-01

    This study compares maternal and infant health and sociodemographic characteristics of U.S.-born and foreign- or Puerto Rican-born Hispanic mothers and their babies, using data from the national vital statistics system and the 1980 National Natality Survey. While nearly half of all Hispanic mothers and Mexican and Puerto Rican mothers were born in the United States, less than 10 percent of Cuban and other Hispanic mothers were U.S. born. Compared with foreign- or Puerto Rican-born Hispanic mothers, U.S.-born mothers tended to be younger, to have had fewer high-order births, to be less likely to receive delayed or no prenatal care, to have higher educational attainment, and to be more likely to be unmarried. The incidence of low birth weight among infants born to Hispanic mothers, particularly Mexican and Cuban women, was relatively low. When the proportions of low birth weight were examined by nativity status, infants born to foreign- or Puerto Rican-born women were consistently less likely to be of low birth weight. In an effort to account for these findings, the mother's smoking status before and during pregnancy is examined. Compared with non-Hispanic mothers, Hispanic mothers were much less likely to have smoked before or during pregnancy. These data are examined to see if they account for the better outcome as measured by birth weight for Hispanic births, especially those to foreign- or Puerto Rican-born women.

  2. THE ROLE OF INTERNET IN THE BORN GLOBAL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius de Oliveira Brasil

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of internationalization of global companies occurs connected to the high integration through the nets of computers, especially the Internet. The technological advances have revolutionized the forms of transacting products and services. Innovation becomes the key word for this new phase established in the economy by the computer science in which the Internet is able to establish a larger integration among the enterprises, consumers and suppliers. How can the Internet contribute to the process of Internationalization of Born Globals? This theoretical paper aims to discuss the role of innovations with internet in Born Globals firms to the process of internationalization. The literature review on the subject shows that the advances of technology will require new studies about the internationalization’s process. In spite of that, the influence of the electronic business has progressed in commercial transactions. The global world requires workers who are more and more prepared to face such reality. The enterprises will have to adapt, otherwise they may fail to reduce costs and to improve their logistics. The consumers can have personalized products, while their needs are met in a more comfortable, immediate way and with less intermediates. The electronic markets revolutionize the economy by meeting old needs in a more modern and practical way.

  3. 3D Born-Infeld Gravity and Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Bergshoeff, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We construct the most general parity-even higher-derivative N=1 off-shell supergravity model in three dimensions with a maximum of six derivatives. Excluding terms quadratic in the curvature tensor with two explicit derivatives and requiring the absence of ghosts in a linearized approximation around an AdS_3 background, we find that there is a unique supersymmetric invariant which we call supersymmetric `cubic extended' New Massive Gravity. The purely gravitational part of this invariant is in agreement with an earlier analysis based upon the holographic c-theorem and coincides with an expansion of Born-Infeld gravity to the required order. Our results lead us to propose an expression for the bosonic part of off-shell N=1 Born-Infeld supergravity in three dimensions that is free of ghosts. We show that different truncations of a perturbative expansion of this expression gives rise to the bosonic part of (i) Einstein supergravity; (ii) supersymmetric New Massive Gravity and (iii) supersymmetric `cubic extended...

  4. Stability of a tick-borne flavivirus in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle K Offerdahl

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The tick-borne flaviviruses (TBFV occur worldwide and the tick-borne encephalitis virus members of the group (TBEV often cause severe, debilitating neurological disease in humans. Although the primary route of infection is through the bite of an infected tick, alimentary infection through the consumption of TBEV-contaminated dairy products is also well-documented and is responsible for some disease in endemic areas. Experimental infection of goats, cattle, and sheep with TBEV shows that virus can be excreted in the milk of infected animals. Additionally, the virus remains infectious after exposure to low pH levels, similar to those found in the stomach. To evaluate survival of virus in milk, we studied the stability of the BSL-2 TBFV, Langat virus, in unpasteurized goat milk over time and after different thermal treatments. Virus was stable in milk maintained under refrigeration conditions; however, there was a marked reduction in virus titer after incubation at room temperature. High temperature, short time pasteurization protocols completely inactivated the virus. Interestingly, simulation of a typical thermal regime utilized for cheese did not completely inactivate the virus in milk. These findings stress the importance of proper milk handling and pasteurization processes in areas endemic for TBEV.

  5. Missile-Borne SAR Raw Signal Simulation for Maneuvering Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijie Xia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available SAR raw signal simulation under the case of maneuver and high-speed has been a challenging and urgent work recently. In this paper, a new method based on one-dimensional fast Fourier transform (1DFFT algorithm is presented for raw signal simulation of maneuvering target for missile-borne SAR. Firstly, SAR time-domain raw signal model is given and an effective Range Frequency Azimuth Time (RFAT algorithm based on 1DFFT is derived. In this algorithm, the “Stop and Go” (SaG model is adopted and the wide radar scattering characteristic of target is taken into account. Furthermore, the “Inner Pulse Motion” (IPM model is employed to deal with high-speed case. This new RFAT method can handle the maneuvering cases, high-speed cases, and bistatic radar cases, which are all possible in the missile-borne SAR. Besides, this raw signal simulation adopts the electromagnetic scattering calculation so that we do not need a scattering rate distribution map as the simulation input. Thus, the multiple electromagnetic reflections can be considered. Simulation examples prove the effectiveness of our method.

  6. Dualities in M-theory and Born-Infeld Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brace, Daniel, M

    2001-08-01

    We discuss two examples of duality. The first arises in the context of toroidal compactification of the discrete light cone quantization of M-theory. In the presence of nontrivial moduli coming from the M-theory three form, it has been conjectured that the system is described by supersymmetric Yang-Mills gauge theory on a noncommutative torus. We are able to provide evidence for this conjecture, by showing that the dualities of this M-theory compactification, which correspond to T-duality in Type IIA string theory, are also dualities of the noncommutative supersymmetric Yang-Mills description. One can also consider this as evidence for the accuracy of the Matrix Theory description of M-theory in this background. The second type of duality is the self-duality of theories with U(1) gauge fields. After discussing the general theory of duality invariance for theories with complex gauge fields, we are able to find a generalization of the well known U(1) Born-Infeld theory that contains any number of gauge fields and which is invariant under the maximal duality group. We then find a supersymmetric extension of our results, and also show that our results can be extended to find Born-Infeld type actions in any even dimensional spacetime.

  7. On the Electrostatic Born-Infeld Equation with Extended Charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonheure, Denis; d'Avenia, Pietro; Pomponio, Alessio

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we deal with the electrostatic Born-Infeld equation -operatorname{div} (nablaφ/√{1-|nabla φ|^2} )= ρ quad{in} {R}^N, lim_{|x|to ∞} φ(x)= 0,. quad quad quad quad ({{BI}}) where {ρ} is an assigned extended charge density. We are interested in the existence and uniqueness of the potential {φ} and finiteness of the energy of the electrostatic field {-nabla φ}. We first relax the problem and treat it with the direct method of the Calculus of Variations for a broad class of charge densities. Assuming {ρ} is radially distributed, we recover the weak formulation of {({{BI}})} and the regularity of the solution of the Poisson equation (under the same smoothness assumptions). In the case of a locally bounded charge, we also recover the weak formulation without assuming any symmetry. The solution is even classical if {ρ} is smooth. Then we analyze the case where the density {ρ} is a superposition of point charges and discuss the results in (Kiessling, Commun Math Phys 314:509-523, 2012). Other models are discussed, as for instance a system arising from the coupling of the nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation with the Born-Infeld theory.

  8. HOW CAN NEWLY BORN RAPIDLY ROTATING NEUTRON STARS BECOME MAGNETARS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Quan; Yu, Yun-Wei, E-mail: yuyw@mail.ccnu.edu.cn [Institute of Astrophysics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China)

    2014-05-10

    In a newly born (high-temperature and Keplerian rotating) neutron star, r-mode instability can lead to stellar differential rotation, which winds the seed poloidal magnetic field (∼10{sup 11} G) to generate an ultra-high (∼10{sup 17} G) toroidal field component. Subsequently, by succumbing to the Tayler instability, the toroidal field could be partially transformed into a new poloidal field. Through such dynamo processes, the newly born neutron star with sufficiently rapid rotation could become a magnetar on a timescale of ∼10{sup 2} {sup –} {sup 3} s, with a surface dipolar magnetic field of ∼10{sup 15} G. Accompanying the field amplification, the star could spin down to a period of ∼5 ms through gravitational wave radiation due to the r-mode instability and, in particular, the non-axisymmetric stellar deformation caused by the toroidal field. This scenario provides a possible explanation for why the remnant neutron stars formed in gamma-ray bursts and superluminous supernovae could be millisecond magnetars.

  9. Child health education for the foreign-born parent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, R A

    2001-01-01

    Providing child health education for the foreign-born parent presents unique concerns related to language and culture. An innovative approach in a transcultural format used a presentation of basic child health information in English, with translators as facilitators. Foreign-born parents who need partial or complete language interpretation have ready access to translation support. The parents offer questions, comments, suggestions and evaluate the presentation through the translator. Each presentation can accommodate more than one language, since participants are grouped with the appropriate translator. The presentation is done in English and paced to allow for translation to be completed as material is offered. This type of presentation allows discussion of child health in a forum apart from the pediatric care setting. Because the presentation is the only focus, parents do not have the additional concern of immediate care of the child added to communication issues. Vocabulary relative to health care is developed from English into the parents' primary language, with the support of the translator. The pediatric nurse presenter has an opportunity to review health care practices that parents prefer, as well as interpret safety and efficacy.

  10. Cascading dust inflation in Born-Infeld gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Jimenez, Jose Beltran; Olmo, Gonzalo J; Ringeval, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of Born-Infeld inspired gravity theories, which deviates from General Relativity (GR) in the high curvature regime, we discuss the viability of Cosmic Inflation without scalar fields. For energy densities higher than the new mass scale of the theory, a gravitating dust component is shown to generically induce an accelerated expansion of the Universe. Within such a simple scenario, inflation gracefully exits when the GR regime is recovered, but the Universe would remain matter dominated. In order to implement a reheating era after inflation, we then consider inflation to be driven by a mixture of unstable dust species decaying into radiation. Because the speed of sound gravitates within the Born-Infeld model under consideration, our scenario ends up being predictive on various open questions of the inflationary paradigm. The total number of e-folds of acceleration is given by the lifetime of the unstable dust components and is related to the duration of reheating. As a result, inflation does n...

  11. Generational Change and Ethnicity among 1980s-born Taiwanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanguy Le Pesant

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to show that Taiwanese born in the 1980s constitute a “post-reform” generation whose perception of cultural difference and ethnicity may challenge the efficiency of the “four major ethnic groups” categorization as an analytical framework for research on Taiwanese youth’s identity, political behaviour and social interactions. Using quantitative data from a questionnaire distributed in 15 universities nationwide in 2010 and qualitative data from interviews, this paper first focuses on the attitudes of Taiwanese born in the 1980s toward what are generally considered the three core elements of ethnic group-making in a Chinese socio-cultural context: patrilineality, locality and language. Then it shows that the combined effects of democratization, Taiwanization and contacts with mainland China have decisively impregnated their life experiences and influenced their perceptions of cultural difference. Consequently, the different aspects/ factors that contributed to the formation and the deepening of ethnic boundaries and ethnic conflict up until the 1990s are not effective anymore, nor are they significant for Taiwanese in their twenties. This process is transforming ethnicity rather than erasing it. Thus “having an ethnic identity” is still considered important by a majority, but its meaning and salience have changed, leading to the necessity to redefine, a process that could be undertaken using the concept of “symbolic ethnicity”.

  12. Stability of a Tick-Borne Flavivirus in Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offerdahl, Danielle K; Clancy, Niall G; Bloom, Marshall E

    2016-01-01

    The tick-borne flaviviruses (TBFV) occur worldwide and the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) members of the group often cause severe, debilitating neurological disease in humans. Although the primary route of infection is through the bite of an infected tick, alimentary infection through the consumption of TBEV-contaminated dairy products is also well-documented and is responsible for some disease in endemic areas. Experimental infection of goats, cattle, and sheep with TBEV shows that the virus can be excreted in the milk of infected animals. Additionally, the virus remains infectious after exposure to low pH levels, similar to those found in the stomach. To evaluate the survival of virus in milk, we studied the stability of the BSL-2 TBFV, Langat virus, in unpasteurized goat milk over time and after different thermal treatments. Virus was stable in milk maintained under refrigeration conditions; however, there was a marked reduction in virus titer after incubation at room temperature. High temperature, short time pasteurization protocols completely inactivated the virus. Interestingly, simulation of a typical thermal regime utilized for cheese did not completely inactivate the virus in milk. These findings stress the importance of proper milk handling and pasteurization processes in areas endemic for TBEV.

  13. Observational constraints on electromagnetic Born-Infeld cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Bretón, Nora; Montiel, Ariadna

    2012-01-01

    The cosmological model consisting of an electromagnetic Born-Infeld (BI) field coupled to a Robertson-Walker geometry is tested with the standard probes of SNIa, GRBs and direct Hubble parameter. The analysis shows that the inclusion of the nonlinear electromagnetic component does not contribute in a significative way to the observed expansion. The BI electromagnetic matter is considered with an abundance of $\\Omega_{BI}$, that our best fit leads to $\\Omega_{BI}=0.037$ when tested with SNIa and the Hubble parameter data (0.1Born-Infeld matter as the origin of ...

  14. Tick-borne infections in human and animal population worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Brites-Neto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The abundance and activity of ectoparasites and its hosts are affected by various abiotic factors, such as climate and other organisms (predators, pathogens and competitors presenting thus multiples forms of association (obligate to facultative, permanent to intermittent and superficial to subcutaneous developed during long co-evolving processes. Ticks are ectoparasites widespread globally and its eco epidemiology are closely related to the environmental conditions. They are obligatory hematophagous ectoparasites and responsible as vectors or reservoirs at the transmission of pathogenic fungi, protozoa, viruses, rickettsia and others bacteria during their feeding process on the hosts. Ticks constitute the second vector group that transmit the major number of pathogens to humans and play a role primary for animals in the process of diseases transmission. Many studies on bioecology of ticks, considering the information related to their population dynamics, to the host and the environment, comes possible the application and efficiency of tick control measures in the prevention programs of vector-borne diseases. In this review were considered some taxonomic, morphological, epidemiological and clinical fundamental aspects related to the tick-borne infections that affect human and animal populations.

  15. Why Einstein (Had I been born in 1844!)?

    CERN Document Server

    Dadhich, N

    2005-01-01

    In his monumental discoveries, the driving force for Einstein was, I believe, consistency of concept and principle rather than conflict with experiment. In this spirit, I would like to look at the journey from the classical to the relativistic world as a simple and direct exercise first in recognition of universal character of universal entities and then carrying out the universalization. By this process not only the relativistic world follows most naturally but I would like to conjecture that if Einstein were born in 1844 (or had I been born in 1844 and had followed this line of thought as I do now!) it would have in fact been predicted including existence of a wave with universal constant velocity. That would have indeed been not only the greatest but most amazing and remarkable feat of human thought. Beating further on the same track of principle and concept driven ideas, we ponder over to see beyond Einstein, and ask the questions: in how many dimensions does gravity live, how many basic forces are there ...

  16. Dualities in M-theory and Born-Infeld Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brace, Daniel M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2001-01-01

    We discuss two examples of duality. The first arises in the context of toroidal compactification of the discrete light cone quantization of M-theory. In the presence of nontrivial moduli coming from the M-theory three form, it has been conjectured that the system is described by supersymmetric Yang-Mills gauge theory on a noncommutative torus. We are able to provide evidence for this conjecture, by showing that the dualities of this M-theory compactification, which correspond to T-duality in Type IIA string theory, are also dualities of the noncommutative supersymmetric Yang-Mills description. One can also consider this as evidence for the accuracy of the Matrix Theory description of M-theory in this background. The second type of duality is the self-duality of theories with U(1) gauge fields. After discussing the general theory of duality invariance for theories with complex gauge fields, we are able to find a generalization of the well known U(1) Born-Infeld theory that contains any number of gauge fields and which is invariant under the maximal duality group. We then find a supersymmetric extension of our results, and also show that our results can be extended to find Born-Infeld type actions in any even dimensional spacetime.

  17. Antibiosis of vineyard ecosystem fungi against food-borne microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva, Carolina; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria; Bartolomé, Begoña; Salazar, Óscar; Vicente, M Francisca; Bills, Gerald F

    2011-12-01

    Fermentation extracts from fungi isolated from vineyard ecosystems were tested for antimicrobial activities against a set of test microorganisms, including five food-borne pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus EP167, Acinetobacter baumannii (clinically isolated), Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, Escherichia coli O157:H7 (CECT 5947) and Candida albicans MY1055) and two probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum LCH17 and Lactobacillus brevis LCH23). A total of 182 fungi was grown in eight different media, and the fermentation extracts were screened for antimicrobial activity. A total of 71 fungi produced extracts active against at least one pathogenic microorganism, but not against any probiotic bacteria. The Gram-positive bacterium S. aureus EP167 was more susceptible to antimicrobial fungi broth extracts than Gram-negative bacteria and pathogenic fungi. Identification of active fungi based on internal transcribed spacer rRNA sequence analysis revealed that species in the orders Pleosporales, Hypocreales and Xylariales dominated. Differences in antimicrobial selectivity were observed among isolates from the same species. Some compounds present in the active extracts were tentatively identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Antimicrobial metabolites produced by vineyard ecosystem fungi may potentially limit colonization and spoilage of food products by food-borne pathogens, with minimal effect on probiotic bacteria.

  18. Born in Bradford, a cohort study of babies born in Bradford, and their parents: Protocol for the recruitment phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raynor Pauline

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bradford, one of the most deprived cities in the United Kingdom, has a wide range of public health problems associated with socioeconomic deprivation, including an infant mortality rate almost double that for England and Wales. Infant mortality is highest for babies of Pakistani origin, who comprise almost half the babies born in Bradford. The Born in Bradford cohort study aims to examine environmental, psychological and genetic factors that impact on health and development perinatally, during childhood and subsequent adult life, and those that influence their parents' health and wellbeing. This protocol outlines methods for the recruitment phase of the study. Methods Most Bradford women attend for antenatal care and give birth at the Bradford Royal Infirmary, which has approximately 5,800 births per year. Women are eligible for recruitment if they plan to give birth here. Babies born from March 2007 are eligible to participate, recruitment is planned to continue until 2010. Fathers of babies recruited are invited to participate. Women are usually recruited when they attend for a routine oral glucose tolerance test at 26–28 weeks gestation. Recruitment of babies is at birth. Fathers are recruited whenever possible during the antenatal period, or soon after the birth. The aim is to recruit 10,000 women, their babies, and the babies' fathers. At recruitment women have blood samples taken, are interviewed to complete a semi-structured questionnaire, weighed, and have height, arm circumference and triceps skinfold measured. Umbilical cord blood is collected at birth. Within two weeks of birth babies have their head, arm and abdominal circumference measured, along with subscapular and triceps skinfold thickness. Fathers self-complete a questionnaire at recruitment, have height and weight measured, and provide a saliva sample. Participants are allocated a unique study number. NHS numbers will be used to facilitate record linkage

  19. Plumes in stellar convection zones

    CERN Document Server

    Zahn, J P

    1999-01-01

    All numerical simulations of compressible convection reveal the presence of strong downwards directed flows. Thanks to helioseismology, such plumes have now been detected also at the top of the solar convection zone, on super- granular scales. Their properties may be crudely described by adopting Taylor's turbulent entrainment hypothesis, whose validity is well established under various conditions. Using this model, one finds that the strong density stratification does not prevent the plumes from traversing the whole convection zone, and that they carry upwards a net energy flux (Rieutord & Zahn 1995). They penetrate to some extent in the adjacent stable region, where they establish a nearly adiabatic stratification. These plumes have a strong impact on the dynamics of stellar convection zones, and they play probably a key role in the dynamo mechanism.

  20. 76 FR 7107 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ...-0997 New York, NY Security Zones (Part 165).... 9/23/2008 USCG-2008-0998 Puerto Rico Safety Zones (Part...-0358 Puerto Rico Safety Zones (Part 165)...... 5/31/2009 USCG-2009-0360 Cincinnati, OH Safety Zones...-1042 Baton Rouge, LA Safety Zones (Part 165)...... 12/4/2009 USCG-2009-1043 South Padre Island,...

  1. International Network for Capacity Building for the Control of Emerging Viral Vector-Borne Zoonotic Diseases: Arbo-Zoonet

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, J.; Bouloy, M.; Ergonul, O.; Fooks, A. R.; Paweska, J.; Chevalier, V.; Drosten, C.; Moormann, R. J. M.; Tordo, N.; Vatansever, Z.; Calistri, P.; Estrada-Pena, A.; Mirazimi, A; Unger, H; Yin, H.

    2009-01-01

    Arboviruses are arthropod-borne viruses, which include West Nile fever virus (WNFV), a mosquito-borne virus, Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a mosquito-borne virus, and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a tick-borne virus. These arthropod-borne viruses can cause disease in different domestic and wild animals and in humans, posing a threat to public health because of their epidemic and zoonotic potential. In recent decades, the geographical distribution of these diseases has expa...

  2. A survey of canine tick-borne diseases in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coleman Glen T

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are few published reports on canine Babesia, Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, Hepatozoon and haemotropic Mycoplasma infections in India and most describe clinical disease in individual dogs, diagnosed by morphological observation of the microorganisms in stained blood smears. This study investigated the occurrence and distribution of canine tick-borne disease (TBD pathogens using a combination of conventional and molecular diagnostic techniques in four cities in India. Results On microscopy examination, only Hepatozoon gamonts were observed in twelve out of 525 (2.3%; 95% CI: 1.2, 4 blood smears. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR, a total of 261 from 525 dogs (49.7%; 95% CI: 45.4, 54.1 in this study were infected with one or more canine tick-borne pathogen. Hepatozoon canis (30%; 95% CI: 26.0, 34.0 was the most common TBD pathogen found infecting dogs in India followed by Ehrlichia canis (20.6%; 95% CI: 17.2, 24.3, Mycoplasma haemocanis (12.2%; 95% CI: 9.5, 15.3, Anaplasma platys (6.5%; 95% CI: 4.5, 8.9, Babesia vogeli (5.5%, 95% CI: 3.7, 7.8 and Babesia gibsoni (0.2%, 95% CI: 0.01, 1.06. Concurrent infection with more than one TBD pathogen occurred in 39% of cases. Potential tick vectors, Rhipicephalus (most commonly and/or Haemaphysalis ticks were found on 278 (53% of dogs examined. Conclusions At least 6 species of canine tick-borne pathogens are present in India. Hepatozoon canis was the most common pathogen and ticks belonging to the genus Rhipicephalus were encountered most frequently. Polymerase chain reaction was more sensitive in detecting circulating pathogens compared with peripheral blood smear examination. As co-infections with canine TBD pathogens were common, Indian veterinary practitioners should be cognisant that the discovery of one such pathogen raises the potential for multiple infections which may warrant different clinical management strategies.

  3. Visual and visuocognitive development in children born very prematurely.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Janette; Braddick, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    Preterm birth is a risk factor for deficits of neurological and cognitive development. Four cohort studies are reported investigating the effects of very premature birth (development correlated with the severity of brain abnormality observed on structural MRI at and before term, and were sensitive predictors of neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years. The second study compared VERP measures for orientation-reversal and direction-reversal (DR) stimuli, from 2 to 5 months post-term age, in healthy very premature infants compared to infants born at term. The groups did not differ on the development of OR-VERP responses, but the development of the DR-VERP motion responses was delayed in the premature group despite the absence of any brain damage visible on ultrasound, consistent with the developmental vulnerability we have identified in the dorsal cortical stream. The third study used the Atkinson Battery of Child Development for Examining Functional Vision (ABCDEFV) to assess sensory, perceptual, cognitive and spatial visual functions, together with preschool tests of attention and executive function. The premature group showed delays on these tests in line with severity of observed perinatal brain damage on structural MRI at term age. Deficits on certain spatial tasks (e.g. block-construction copying) and executive function tests (e.g. the detour box task) were apparent even in children with minimal damage apparent on MRI. The fourth study tested a large cohort of 6- to 7-year old children born before 32 weeks gestation, across a wide range of cognitive domains, including new tests of spatial cognition and memory. The premature group as a whole showed significant deficits on both auditory and visual tests of attention and attentional control from the TEA-Ch battery, on tests of location memory, block construction and on many visuocognitive and visuomotor tests. Development was generally relatively normal on language tests and on WPPSI scores. Factor analysis showed

  4. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcal Food-Borne Disease: An Ongoing Challenge in Public Health

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcal food-borne disease (SFD) is one of the most common food-borne diseases worldwide resulting from the contamination of food by preformed S. aureus enterotoxins. It is one of the most common causes of reported food-borne diseases in the United States. Although several Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) have been identified, SEA, a highly heat-stable SE, is the most common cause of SFD worldwide. Outbreak investigations have found that improper food handling practices in the retail ...

  5. Adipokines in umbilical cord blood from children born large for gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Christiansen, Michael; Hedley, Paula Louise;

    2016-01-01

    of adipokines and their mutual relationship at birth in children born to non-diabetic mothers. METHODS: Adiponectin, leptin and sOB-R were measured using ELISA-based commercial kits in umbilical cord blood from 60 neonates (30 born large for gestational age [LGA] and 30 born appropriate for gestational age [AGA......]). Children exposed to maternal diabetes, chronic disease and preeclampsia were excluded. RESULTS: The LGA group exhibited significantly elevated concentrations of leptin (p

  6. Detection of water-borne E. coli O157 using the integrating waveguide biosensor☆

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Peixuan; Shelton, Daniel R.; Karns, Jeffrey S.; Sundaram, Appavu; Li, Shuhong; Amstutz, Pete; Tang, Cha-Mei

    2005-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7, the most common serotype of enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), is responsible for numerous food-borne and water-borne infections worldwide. An integrating waveguide biosensor is described for the detection of water-borne E. coli O157, based on a fluorescent sandwich immunoassay performed inside a glass capillary waveguide. The genomic DNA of captured E. coli O157 cells was extracted and quantitative real-time PCR subsequently performed to assess biosensor-capture effi...

  7. Identification of linear human B-cell epitopes of tick-borne encephalitis virus

    OpenAIRE

    Kuivanen, Suvi; Hepojoki, Jussi; Vene, Sirkka; Vaheri, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli

    2014-01-01

    Background Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a central nervous system infection transmitted to humans by ticks. The causative agent, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), belongs to the genus Flavivirus (family Flaviviridae), which includes globally important arthropod-borne viruses, such as dengue, Yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis and West Nile viruses. Flaviviruses are highly cross-reactive in serological tests that are currently based on viral envelope proteins. The envelope (E) protein ...

  8. Immigrant Latino neighborhoods and mortality among infants born to Mexican-origin Latina women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCamp, Lisa Ross; Choi, Hwajung; Fuentes-Afflick, Elena; Sastry, Narayan

    2015-06-01

    To compare the association between neighborhood Latino immigrant concentration and infant mortality by maternal nativity among singleton births to Mexican-origin women in Los Angeles County. Information about births, infant deaths, and infant and maternal characteristics were obtained from geocoded Los Angeles County vital statistics records (2002-2005). Linked data on neighborhood characteristics (census tracts) were obtained from the 2000 census. Logistic regression models were used to predict infant mortality while accounting for spatial clustering by census tract. Two-thirds of births to Mexican-origin mothers were to foreign-born women. Foreign-born mothers were older, had less education, and were more likely to have delivery costs paid by Medicaid than US-born mothers. Infants born to foreign-born women had a lower infant mortality rates than infants born to US-born women (3.8/1,000 live births vs. 4.6, p = .002). Among infants of foreign-born mothers, the odds of infant mortality increased with increasing immigrant concentration (OR 1.29; 95 % CI 1.01-1.66). There was a similar pattern of association between immigrant concentration and mortality for infants of US-born mothers (OR 1.29; 95 % CI 0.99-1.67). In Los Angeles County, the odds of infant mortality among foreign-born Mexican-origin Latina were higher in higher-density immigrant neighborhoods, with a similar trend among US-born mothers. Thus, living in immigrant enclaves likely does not help to explain the lower than expected infant mortality rate among infants born to Latina women. Instead, higher neighborhood Latino immigrant concentration may indicate a neighborhood with characteristics that negatively impact maternal and infant health for Latinos.

  9. Investigation on Satellite-borne High-power Solid-state Power Amplifier Technology and Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Xiao-po; Zhao Hai-yang; Xi Song-tao

    2014-01-01

    Based on the research and development efforts of satellite-borne lumped solid-state transmitters, the design of a satellite-borne high-power microwave amplifier module is introduced. Focusing on satellite-borne applications, aspects of the high-power density thermal design, multipactor proof design, EMC design and so on, which are critical technologies for a solid-state power amplifier, are discussed. Subsequently, experiments are used to verify the concept.

  10. Investigation on Satellite-borne High-power Solid-state Power Amplifier Technology and Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xiao-po

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the research and development efforts of satellite-borne lumped solid-state transmitters, the design of a satellite-borne high-power microwave amplifier module is introduced. Focusing on satellite-borne applications, aspects of the high-power density thermal design, multipactor proof design, EMC design and so on, which are critical technologies for a solid-state power amplifier, are discussed. Subsequently, experiments are used to verify the concept.

  11. Geology and geochemistry of radon in shear zones: End of year progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundersen, L.C.S.; Schultz, A.P.; Wanty, R.B.; Gates, A.E.; Crespi, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this project is to understand the geology of radon gas behavior in areas where shared fault zones cause localized, anomalously high concentrations of radon. Sheared fault zones in bedrock have been identified as the cause of some of the highest indoor radon and water borne radon problems recorded in the United States. This study will provide detailed geological and geochemical models of the processes that create high concentration of radon in shear zones. The main research goals are to: (1) characterize and quantify uranium enrichment in shear zones by examining the chemical and deformational processes involved; (2) develop predictive models that will identify severe radon occurrences by rock type, amount of deformation (shear strain), deformational style, and amount of radionuclide enrichment; (3) characterize and quantify the effect of deformation on the development of soils, permeability, radon migration and emanation, alteration, and radium distribution; (4) characterize and quantify the rock-water equilibria within shear zones that produce the extreme concentrations of radon in water derived from sheared rock aquifers, and examine the contribution of radon in water to indoor radon concentrations. 4 refs.

  12. ISOLDE target zone control room

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Operating the ISOLDE target handling robots from the dedicated control room in building 197. Monitors showing the movements of the robots (GPS in this case) in the target zone. The footage shows the actual operation by the operator as well as the different equipment such as camera electronics, camera motor controls, camera monitors and Kuka robot controls touch panel.

  13. Land Governance as Grey Zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette

    2017-01-01

    demonstrates that in Uganda, the need to maintain the ruling coalition in a clientelist political settlement to build electoral support, and the desire to attract economic investors, constitute political incentives to maintain land governance as a grey zone, even if there is apparent political...

  14. Cerebellar Zones: A Personal History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Voogd (Jan)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractCerebellar zones were there, of course, before anyone noticed them. Their history is that of young people, unhindered by preconceived ideas, who followed up their observations with available or new techniques. In the 1960s of the last century, the circumstances were fortunate because thr

  15. ShoreZone Mapped Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is a polyline file of mapped ShoreZone units which correspond with data records found in the Unit, Xshr, BioUnit, and BioBand tables of this...

  16. Objects as Temporary Autonomous Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Morton

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available From Hakim Bey's instructions on creating temporary autonomous zones we see an oscillation "between performance art and politics, circus clowning and revolution." In this essay Tim Morton discusses anarchist politics as, "the creation of fresh objects in a reality without a top or a bottom object, or for that matter a middle object."

  17. Objects as Temporary Autonomous Zones

    OpenAIRE

    Tim Morton

    2011-01-01

    From Hakim Bey's instructions on creating temporary autonomous zones we see an oscillation "between performance art and politics, circus clowning and revolution." In this essay Tim Morton discusses anarchist politics as, "the creation of fresh objects in a reality without a top or a bottom object, or for that matter a middle object."

  18. CHAOTIC ZONES AROUND GRAVITATING BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevchenko, Ivan I., E-mail: iis@gao.spb.ru [Pulkovo Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pulkovskoje ave. 65, St. Petersburg 196140 (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-20

    The extent of the continuous zone of chaotic orbits of a small-mass tertiary around a system of two gravitationally bound primaries of comparable masses (a binary star, a binary black hole, a binary asteroid, etc.) is estimated analytically, as a function of the tertiary's orbital eccentricity. The separatrix map theory is used to demonstrate that the central continuous chaos zone emerges (above a threshold in the primaries' mass ratio) due to overlapping of the orbital resonances corresponding to the integer ratios p:1 between the tertiary and the central binary periods. In this zone, the unlimited chaotic orbital diffusion of the tertiary takes place, up to its ejection from the system. The primaries' mass ratio, above which such a chaotic zone is universally present at all initial eccentricities of the tertiary, is estimated. The diversity of the observed orbital configurations of biplanetary and circumbinary exosystems is shown to be in accord with the existence of the primaries' mass parameter threshold.

  19. Priority Education Zones in Mauritius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mahadeo Santosh; Gurrib, Mahomed Aniff

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the Priority Education Zones project (ZEP) in Mauritius. The original and innovative dimensions of the project are described, together with the difficulties encountered during the setting-up of the ZEP schools. The article covers five main issues: the status of the ZEP project; the minimal conditions for success; the…

  20. Zone refining of plutonium metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate zone refining techniques for the purification of plutonium metal. The redistribution of 10 impurity elements from zone melting was examined. Four tantalum boats were loaded with plutonium impurity alloy, placed in a vacuum furnace, heated to 700{degrees}C, and held at temperature for one hour. Ten passes were made with each boat. Metallographic and chemical analyses performed on the plutonium rods showed that, after 10 passes, moderate movement of certain elements were achieved. Molten zone speeds of 1 or 2 inches per hour had no effect on impurity element movement. Likewise, the application of constant or variable power had no effect on impurity movement. The study implies that development of a zone refining process to purify plutonium is feasible. Development of a process will be hampered by two factors: (1) the effect on impurity element redistribution of the oxide layer formed on the exposed surface of the material is not understood, and (2) the tantalum container material is not inert in the presence of plutonium. Cold boat studies are planned, with higher temperature and vacuum levels, to determine the effect on these factors. 5 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  1. Ultrasonographic changes in dogs naturally infected with tick borne intracellular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Kalyan; Mondal, D B; Saravanan, M

    2016-06-01

    Tick-borne infectious diseases constitute an emerging problem in Veterinary Medicine. The study was undertaken to find out the ultrasonographic changes of liver and spleen in 101 positive cases of tick borne intracellular haemoparasitic diseases in dogs. Abdominal survey of ultrasonography revealed hypo echogenicity of liver, gall bladder distension, splenomegaly, hepato-splenomegaly and ascites in various tick born intracellular diseases viz. ehrlichiosis, babesiosis, anaplasmosis, hepatozoonosis and in mixed infection. Correlating these USG finding with other laboratory examination will be very much useful to spot the diseases condition and organ involvement in tick born intracellular diseases of dog.

  2. Born Global Firms: A Foreign Trade Related Study on Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aytaç GÖKMEN

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available With the comprehensive advent in information and communication technologies and worldwide ease of transportation, the volume of international trade and business increased profoundly. Within this process, a Born Global Firm (BGF, right from its initiation, aims at creating competitive advantage by marketing a large volume of its products in various international markets by utilizing technological advances. Therefore, the rational behind the idea of BGF is to become an international firm in a short period of time and making international business affairs core of its business activities. Thus, the aim of this study is to review the concept of BGF theoretically and relate the issue to foreign trade affairs resting on significant sources related to the Turkish case mainly focusing on trade statistics as to review the potential development of BGFs in Turkey.

  3. Millisecond newly born pulsars as efficient accelerators of electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Osmanov, Z; Machabeli, G; Chkheidze, N

    2015-01-01

    The newly born millisecond pulsars are investigated as possible energy sources for creating ultra-high energy electrons. The transfer of energy from the star rotation to high energy electrons takes place through the Landau damping of centrifugally driven (via a two stream instability) electrostatic Langmuir waves. Generated in the bulk magnetosphere plasma, such waves grow to high amplitudes, and then damp, very effectively, on relativistic electrons driving them to even higher energies. We show that the rate of transfer of energy is so efficient that no energy losses might affect the mechanism of particle acceleration; the electrons might achieve energies of the order of 10^{18}eV for parameters characteristic of a young star.

  4. Classical and quantum cosmology of Born-Infeld type models

    CERN Document Server

    Kamenshchik, Alexander; Kwidzinski, Nick

    2016-01-01

    We discuss Born-Infeld type fields (tachyon fields) in classical and quantum cosmology. We first partly review and partly extend the discussion of the classical solutions and focus in particular on the occurrence of singularities. For quantization, we employ geometrodynamics. In the case of constant potential, we discuss both Wheeler-DeWitt quantization and reduced quantization. We are able to give various solutions and discuss their asymptotics. For the case of general potential, we transform the Wheeler-DeWitt equation to a form where it leads to a difference equation. Such a difference equation was previously found in the quantization of black holes. We give explicit results for the cases of constant potential and inverse square potential and point out special features possessed by solutions of the difference equation.

  5. Classical and quantum cosmology of Born-Infeld type models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenshchik, Alexander; Kiefer, Claus; Kwidzinski, Nick

    2016-04-01

    We discuss Born-Infeld type fields (tachyon fields) in classical and quantum cosmology. We first partly review and partly extend the discussion of the classical solutions and focus in particular on the occurrence of singularities. For quantization, we employ geometrodynamics. In the case of constant potential, we discuss both Wheeler-DeWitt quantization and reduced quantization. We are able to give various solutions and discuss their asymptotics. For the case of general potential, we transform the Wheeler-DeWitt equation to a form where it leads to a difference equation. Such a difference equation was previously found in the quantization of black holes. We give explicit results for the cases of constant potential and inverse squared potential and point out special features possessed by solutions of the difference equation.

  6. Behavioral and social development of children born extremely premature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Hansen, Bo Mølholm; Munck, Hanne

    2004-01-01

    A cohort of extremely prematurely born children and matched term controls was assessed at 5 years of age. The parents completed a questionnaire on their behavioral and social development. The purpose was to illuminate whether the children's general intellectual ability and parental sensitivity were...... associated with behavioral and social development. The index children exhibited more hyperactive behavior and had poorer social skills than the controls. Lower Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) was associated with outward reacting and hyperactive behavior and poorer social skills. Sensitive parenting was associated...... with less outward reacting and less hyperactive behavior. When controlling for differences in FSIQ and parental sensitivity, the index children persisted to have an increased risk of exhibiting hyperactive behavior but not poorer social skills. The index children with normal intellectual development...

  7. Food-borne origins of Escherichia coli causing extraintestinal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manges, Amee R; Johnson, James R

    2012-09-01

    Most human extraintestinal Escherichia coli infections, including those involving antimicrobial resistant strains, are caused by the members of a limited number of distinctive E. coli lineages, termed extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC), that have a special ability to cause disease at extraintestinal sites when they exit their usual reservoir in the host's intestinal tract. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that many of the ExPEC strains encountered in humans with urinary tract infection, sepsis, and other extraintestinal infections, especially the most extensively antimicrobial-resistant strains, may have a food animal source, and may be transmitted to humans via the food supply. This review summarizes the evidence that food-borne organisms are a significant cause of extraintestinal E. coli infections in humans.

  8. Statefinder Diagnostic for Born-Infeld Type Dark Energy Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Zeng-Guang; LU Hui-Qing

    2008-01-01

    Using a new method called the statefinder diagnostics which can make one dark energy model differ from the others, we investigate the dynamics of Born-Infeld (B-I) type dark energy model. The evolution trajectory of B-I type dark energy with Mexican hat potential model with respect to e-folding time N is shown in the r (s) diagram, When the parameter of noncanonical kinetic energy term η→0 or kinetic energy ψ2→0, the B-I type dark energy (K-essence) model reduces to the quintessence model or the ACDM model corresponding to the statefinder pair {r, s}={1, 0} respectively. As a result, the evolution trajectory of our model in the r (s) diagram in Mexican hat potential is quite different from those of other dark energy models. The current values of parameters Ω,ψ and ω,ψ in this model meet the latest observations WMAP5 well.

  9. Common themes in changing vector-borne disease scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molyneux, David H

    2003-01-01

    The impact of climate change on disease patterns is controversial. However, global burden of disease studies suggest that infectious diseases will contribute a proportionately smaller burden of disease over the next 2 decades as non-communicable diseases emerge as public health problems. However, infectious diseases contribute proportionately more in the poorest quintile of the population. Notwithstanding the different views of the impact of global warming on vector-borne infections this paper reviews the conditions which drive the changing epidemiology of these infections and suggests that such change is linked by common themes including interactions of generalist vectors and reservoir hosts at interfaces with humans, reduced biodiversity associated with anthropogenic environmental changes, increases in Plasmodium falciparum: P. vivax ratios and well-described land use changes such as hydrological, urbanization, agricultural, mining and forest-associated impacts (extractive activities, road building, deforestation and migration) which are seen on a global scale.

  10. Born-infeld electrodynamics: Clifford number and spinor representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Chernitskii

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Clifford number formalism for Maxwell equations is considered. The Clifford imaginary unit for space-time is introduced as coordinate independent form of fully antisymmetric fourth-rank tensor. The representation of Maxwell equations in massless Dirac equation form is considered; we also consider two approaches to the invariance of Dirac equation with respect to the Lorentz transformations. According to the first approach, the unknown column is invariant and according to the second approach it has the transformation properties known as spinorial ones. The Clifford number representation for nonlinear electrodynamics equations is obtained. From this representation, we obtain the nonlinear like Dirac equation which is the form of nonlinear electrodynamics equations. As a special case we have the appropriate representations for Born-Infeld nonlinear electrodynamics.

  11. TianQin: a space-borne gravitational wave detector

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Jun; Duan, Hui-Zong; Gong, Yun-Gui; Hu, Shoucun; Ji, Jianghui; Liu, Qi; Mei, Jianwei; Milyukov, Vadim; Sazhin, Mikhail; Shao, Cheng-Gang; Toth, Viktor T; Tu, Hai-Bo; Wang, Yamin; Wang, Yan; Yeh, Hsien-Chi; Zhan, Ming-Sheng; Zhang, Yonghe; Zharov, Vladimir; Zhou, Ze-Bing

    2015-01-01

    TianQin is a proposal for a space-borne detector of gravitational waves in the millihertz frequencies. The experiment relies on a constellation of three drag-free spacecraft orbiting the Earth. Inter-spacecraft laser interferometry is used to monitor the distances between the test masses. The experiment is designed to be capable of detecting a signal with high confidence from a single source of gravitational waves within a few months of observing time. We describe the preliminary mission concept for TianQin, including the candidate source and experimental designs. We present estimates for the major constituents of the experiment's error budget and discuss the project's overall feasibility. Given the current level of technology readiness, we expect TianQin to be flown in the second half of the next decade.

  12. Geometrical Interpretation of Shannon's Entropy Based on the Born Rule

    CERN Document Server

    Jankovic, Marko V

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we will analyze discrete probability distributions in which probabilities of particular outcomes of some experiment (microstates) can be represented by the ratio of natural numbers (in other words, probabilities are represented by digital numbers of finite representation length). We will introduce several results that are based on recently proposed JoyStick Probability Selector, which represents a geometrical interpretation of the probability based on the Born rule. The terms of generic space and generic dimension of the discrete distribution, as well as, effective dimension are going to be introduced. It will be shown how this simple geometric representation can lead to an optimal code length coding of the sequence of signals. Then, we will give a new, geometrical, interpretation of the Shannon entropy of the discrete distribution. We will suggest that the Shannon entropy represents the logarithm of the effective dimension of the distribution. Proposed geometrical interpretation of the Shannon ...

  13. Energy Extraction from the Einstein-Born-Infeld Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Breton, Nora

    2016-01-01

    The energy extraction from a Einstein-Born-Infeld (EBI) black hole is addressed determining the extension of the ergosphere as well as the extractable energy using the irreducible mass concept. These results are compared with the Reissner-Nordstrom (RN) ones; RN is the linear electromagnetic counterpart of the BI black hole. It turns out that for a fixed charge Q, more energy can be extracted from the RN black hole than from the EBI one. The extreme case is investigated as well, presenting remarkable features, for instance that more energy can be extracted from extreme EBI black holes than from extreme RN, however, extreme EBI black holes lack of a linear electromagnetic black hole limit.

  14. The virial theorem in Eddington-Born-Infeld gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Noelia S

    2015-01-01

    We examine the possibility that the Eddington-Born-Infeld (EBI) modified gravity provides an alternative explanation for the mass discrepancy in clusters of galaxies. For this purpose we derive the modified Einstein field equations, finding an additional "geometrical mass" term which provides an effective contribution to the gravitational binding energy. Using some approximations and assumptions for week gravitational fields, and taking into account the collisionless relativistic Boltzmann equation, we derive a generalized version of the virial theorem in the framework of EBI gravity. We show that the "geometrical mass" term may account for the well known virial mass discrepancy in clusters of galaxies. We also derive the velocity dispersion relation for galaxies in the clusters, which could provide an efficient method for testing EBI gravity from astrophysical observations.

  15. The virial theorem in Eddington-Born-Infeld gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Noelia S.; Santos, Janilo

    2015-12-01

    We consider the possibility that the Eddington-Born-Infeld (EBI) modified gravity provides an alternative explanation for the mass discrepancy in clusters of galaxies. For this purpose we derive the modified Einstein field equations, finding an additional "geometrical mass" term which provides an effective contribution to the gravitational binding energy. Using some approximations and assumptions for weak gravitational fields, and taking into account the collisionless relativistic Boltzmann equation, we derive a generalized version of the virial theorem in the framework of EBI gravity. We show that the "geometrical mass" term may account for the well known virial mass discrepancy in clusters of galaxies. We also derive the velocity dispersion relation for galaxies in the clusters, which could provide an efficient method for testing EBI gravity from astrophysical observations.

  16. Corrected Born-Infeld theory of electroweak and gravitational fields

    CERN Document Server

    Palatnik, D

    1996-01-01

    This paper suggests a correction to the theory presented in quant-ph/9511021. The theory is a direct generalization of the Born--Infeld theory of electromagnetism (1932) on the case of electroweak and gravitational interactions. The main notions of the model are the Dirac matrices and connections, given in a spinorial multiplet's representation. The action is symmetric with respect to linear transformations imposed on pairs of corresponding Dirac matrices, $\\gamma_{a}$, and dimensionless `momentum' operators, $\\pi_{a} = - iL(\\partial_{a} - \\Gamma_{a})$, where $\\Gamma_{a}$ are connections and $L$ is a characteristic length of order $10^{-32}$ cm. Claiming this symmetry as fundamental, one arrives at the most natural co-existance between gravitational and electroweak action terms.

  17. Feeding considerations in infants born with cleft lip and palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Subramanya Shetty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Infants born with the congenital deformity of cleft lip and or palate suffer from varieties of complications since the day 1 of their life. The most important of which is the feeding difficulty which leads to insufficient food intake and thereby causing deleterious effects on their overall development leading to malnutrition and death in some cases. However, research into the anatomical variations of these infants in the region of lip and palate has led to the development of several types of feeders and their modifications which would help them thrive well in the initial days and also for later. Hence, it is worth important to know about them in detail and help these infants and their families psychologically so that the infants do not suffer from feeding difficulties anymore.

  18. Mycobacterium bovis meningitis in young Nigerian-born male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Lillebæk, Troels; Nielsen, Ming-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    dairy products in Nigeria but had no known contact with larger mammals. Before the development of meningitis, the patient had several contacts with the health system due to fever and non-specific symptoms. Finally, upon hospital admission, the patient was diagnosed with M. tuberculosis complex......In Denmark, tuberculous meningitis is rare. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement with Mycobacterium bovis is even rarer and has only been seen three times since 1992. We present a case of M. bovis meningitis in a previously healthy young Nigerian-born male, who had been exposed to unpasteurized...... meningitis and treated empirically. After 13 days he was discharged without neurological sequelae. Later, the culture revealed M. bovis and treatment was adjusted accordingly....

  19. Mycobacterium bovis meningitis in young Nigerian-born male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Lillebaek, Troels; Nielsen, Ming-Yuan; Nielsen, Susanne Dam

    2014-10-01

    In Denmark, tuberculous meningitis is rare. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement with Mycobacterium bovis is even rarer and has only been seen three times since 1992. We present a case of M. bovis meningitis in a previously healthy young Nigerian-born male, who had been exposed to unpasteurized dairy products in Nigeria but had no known contact with larger mammals. Before the development of meningitis, the patient had several contacts with the health system due to fever and non-specific symptoms. Finally, upon hospital admission, the patient was diagnosed with M. tuberculosis complex meningitis and treated empirically. After 13 days he was discharged without neurological sequelae. Later, the culture revealed M. bovis and treatment was adjusted accordingly.

  20. The Nuclear Born Oppenheimer Method and Nuclear Rotations

    CERN Document Server

    Zettili, Nouredine

    2009-01-01

    We deal here with the application of the Nuclear Born Oppenheimer (NBO) method to the description of nuclear rotations. As an edifying illustration, we apply the NBO formalism to study the rotational motion of nuclei which are axially-symmetric and even, but whose shells are not closed. We focus, in particular, on the derivation of expressions for the rotational energy and for the moment of inertia. Additionally, we examine the connection between the NBO method and the self-consistent cranking (SCC) model. Finally, we compare the moment of inertia generated by the NBO method with the Thouless-Valantin formula and hence establish a connection between the NBO method and the large body of experimental data.

  1. Validity of the nuclear Born-Oppenheimer method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zettili, N.; Villars, F.M.H.

    1987-07-20

    The validity of the adiabatic nuclear Born-Oppenheimer (NBO) approximation method is investigated by means of an analytically solvable model. The NBO equation of collective motion derived, when this method is applied to the model, is shown to have the structure of a Schroedinger equation. The NBO energy spectrum is then obtained by numerical integration of this equation and compared with the analytic energy spectrum. We show that the NBO approximation is very accurate in the description of the system's eigenstates. The time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) results, obtained in a previous publication for the solvable model, are compared with their NBO counterparts. We find that, although both methods describe the system's states very well, the NBO approximation is more accurate in the adiabatic domain.

  2. Nuclear Rotations and the Born-Oppenheimer Approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettili, Nouredine

    2011-10-01

    We deal here with the application of the Nuclear Born Oppenheimer (NBO) method to the description of nuclear rotations. As an edifying illustration, we apply the NBO formalism to study the rotational motion of nuclei which are axially-symmetric and even, but whose shells are not closed. We focus, in particular, on the derivation of expressions for the rotational energy and for the moment of inertia. Additionally, we examine the connection between the NBO method and the self-consistent cranking (SCC) model. Finally, we compare the moment of inertia generated by the NBO method with the Thouless-Valantin formula and hence establish a connection between the NBO method and the large body of experimental data.

  3. Validity of the nuclear Born-Oppenheimer method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettili, Nouredine; Villars, Felix M. H.

    1987-07-01

    The validity of the adiabatic nuclear Born-Oppenheimer (NBO) approximation method is investigated by means of an analytically solvable model. The NBO equation of collective motion derived, when this method is applied to the model, is shown to have the structure of a Schrödinger equation. The NBO energy spectrum is then obtained by numerical integration of this equation and compared with the analytic energy spectrum. We show that the NBO approximation is very accurate in the description of the system's eigenstates. The time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) results, obtained in a previous publication for the solvable model, are compared with their NBO counterparts. We find that, although both methods describe the system's states very well, the NBO approximation is more accurate in the adiabatic domain.

  4. Babies born dying: just bad karma? A discussion paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kain, Victoria J

    2014-12-01

    The paper examines the notion of being born dying and karma. Karma is a belief upheld by Buddhists and non-Buddhists: That is, karma follows people from their previous lives into their current lives. This raises a difficult question: Does karma mean that a baby's death is its own fault? While great peace can be found from a belief in karma, the notion of a baby's karma returning in some sort of retributive, universal justice can be de-emphasized and is considered "un-Buddhist." Having an understanding of karma is intrinsic to the spiritual care for the dying baby, not only from the perspective of parents and families who have these beliefs, but also for reconciling one's own beliefs as a healthcare practitioner.

  5. Memory processes in learning disability subtypes of children born preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Thomasin E; Conrad, Amy L; Richman, Lynn C; Nopoulos, Peg C; Bell, Edward F

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate immediate auditory and visual memory processes in learning disability subtypes of 40 children born preterm. Three subgroups of children were examined: (a) primary language disability group (n = 13), (b) perceptual-motor disability group (n = 14), and (c) no learning disability diagnosis group without identified language or perceptual-motor learning disability (n = 13). Between-group comparisons indicate no significant differences in immediate auditory or visual memory performances between language and perceptual-motor learning disability groups. Within-group comparisons revealed that both learning disability groups performed significantly lower on a task of immediate memory when the mode of stimulus presentation and mode of response were visual.

  6. Major congenital anomalies in babies born with Down syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morris, Joan K; Garne, Ester; Wellesley, Diana;

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that over 40% of babies with Down syndrome have a major cardiac anomaly and are more likely to have other major congenital anomalies. Since 2000, many countries in Europe have introduced national antenatal screening programs for Down syndrome. This study aimed...... to determine if the introduction of these screening programs and the subsequent termination of prenatally detected pregnancies were associated with any decline in the prevalence of additional anomalies in babies born with Down syndrome. The study sample consisted of 7,044 live births and fetal deaths with Down...... syndrome registered in 28 European population-based congenital anomaly registries covering seven million births during 2000-2010. Overall, 43.6% (95% CI: 42.4-44.7%) of births with Down syndrome had a cardiac anomaly and 15.0% (14.2-15.8%) had a non-cardiac anomaly. Female babies with Down syndrome were...

  7. TianQin: a space-borne gravitational wave detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jun; Chen, Li-Sheng; Duan, Hui-Zong; Gong, Yun-Gui; Hu, Shoucun; Ji, Jianghui; Liu, Qi; Mei, Jianwei; Milyukov, Vadim; Sazhin, Mikhail; Shao, Cheng-Gang; Toth, Viktor T.; Tu, Hai-Bo; Wang, Yamin; Wang, Yan; Yeh, Hsien-Chi; Zhan, Ming-Sheng; Zhang, Yonghe; Zharov, Vladimir; Zhou, Ze-Bing

    2016-02-01

    TianQin is a proposal for a space-borne detector of gravitational waves in the millihertz frequencies. The experiment relies on a constellation of three drag-free spacecraft orbiting the Earth. Inter-spacecraft laser interferometry is used to monitor the distances between the test masses. The experiment is designed to be capable of detecting a signal with high confidence from a single source of gravitational waves within a few months of observing time. We describe the preliminary mission concept for TianQin, including the candidate source and experimental designs. We present estimates for the major constituents of the experiment’s error budget and discuss the project’s overall feasibility. Given the current level of technological readiness, we expect TianQin to be flown in the second half of the next decade.

  8. Synapse formation on neurons born in the adult hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toni, Nicolas; Teng, E Matthew; Bushong, Eric A; Aimone, James B; Zhao, Chunmei; Consiglio, Antonella; van Praag, Henriette; Martone, Maryann E; Ellisman, Mark H; Gage, Fred H

    2007-06-01

    Although new and functional neurons are produced in the adult brain, little is known about how they integrate into mature networks. Here we explored the mechanisms of synaptogenesis on neurons born in the adult mouse hippocampus using confocal microscopy, electron microscopy and live imaging. We report that new neurons, similar to mature granule neurons, were contacted by axosomatic, axodendritic and axospinous synapses. Consistent with their putative role in synaptogenesis, dendritic filopodia were more abundant during the early stages of maturation and, when analyzed in three dimensions, the tips of all filopodia were found within 200 nm of preexisting boutons that already synapsed on other neurons. Furthermore, dendritic spines primarily synapsed on multiple-synapse boutons, suggesting that initial contacts were preferentially made with preexisting boutons already involved in a synapse. The connectivity of new neurons continued to change until at least 2 months, long after the formation of the first dendritic protrusions.

  9. SPIDER: A Balloon-borne Large-scale CMB Polarimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Crill, B P; Battistelli, E S; Benton, S; Bihary, R; Bock, J J; Bond, J R; Brevik, J; Bryan, S; Contaldi, C R; Dore, O; Farhang, M; Fissel, L; Golwala, S R; Halpern, M; Hilton, G; Holmes, W; Hristov, V V; Irwin, K; Jones, W C; Kuo, C L; Lange, A E; Lawrie, C; MacTavish, C J; Martin, T G; Mason, P; Montroy, T E; Netterfield, C B; Pascale, E; Riley, D; Ruhl, J E; Runyan, M C; Trangsrud, A; Tucker, C; Turner, A; Viero, M; Wiebe, D

    2008-01-01

    Spider is a balloon-borne experiment that will measure the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background over a large fraction of a sky at 1 degree resolution. Six monochromatic refracting millimeter-wave telescopes with large arrays of antenna-coupled transition-edge superconducting bolometers will provide system sensitivities of 4.2 and 3.1 micro K_cmb rt s at 100 and 150 GHz, respectively. A rotating half-wave plate will modulate the polarization sensitivity of each telescope, controlling systematics. Bolometer arrays operating at 225 GHz and 275 GHz will allow removal of polarized galactic foregrounds. In a 2-6 day first flight from Alice Springs, Australia in 2010, Spider will map 50% of the sky to a depth necessary to improve our knowledge of the reionization optical depth by a large factor.

  10. Vector-borne parasitic zoonoses: emerging scenarios and new perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, Douglas D; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Otranto, Domenico

    2011-11-24

    Changing climate is not the only driver for alterations in the dynamic interaction between arthropod vectors of zoonotic parasites and their hosts, including humans. A suite of other factors ranging from urbanization and deforestation to changing demographics in both developing and developed countries, the impact of the recent economic crisis, increased global movement of people and animals and follow-on effects of major catastrophes. This article reviews the most important vector-borne parasites of zoonotic concern that are changing/expanding their distribution patterns in both endemic and/or previously non-endemic areas. We include the discussion of the changing aspects of malaria, leishmaniasis, babesiosis, Chagas disease as well as of some spirurid and filarioid nematodes.

  11. Cascading dust inflation in Born-Infeld gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán Jiménez, Jose; Heisenberg, Lavinia; Olmo, Gonzalo J.; Ringeval, Christophe

    2015-11-01

    In the framework of Born-Infeld inspired gravity theories, which deviates from General Relativity (GR) in the high curvature regime, we discuss the viability of Cosmic Inflation without scalar fields. For energy densities higher than the new mass scale of the theory, a gravitating dust component is shown to generically induce an accelerated expansion of the Universe. Within such a simple scenario, inflation gracefully exits when the GR regime is recovered, but the Universe would remain matter dominated. In order to implement a reheating era after inflation, we then consider inflation to be driven by a mixture of unstable dust species decaying into radiation. Because the speed of sound gravitates within the Born-Infeld model under consideration, our scenario ends up being predictive on various open questions of the inflationary paradigm. The total number of e-folds of acceleration is given by the lifetime of the unstable dust components and is related to the duration of reheating. As a result, inflation does not last much longer than the number of e-folds of deceleration allowing a small spatial curvature and large scale deviations to isotropy to be observable today. Energy densities are self-regulated as inflation can only start for a total energy density less than a threshold value, again related to the species' lifetime. Above this threshold, the Universe may bounce thereby avoiding a singularity. Another distinctive feature is that the accelerated expansion is of the superinflationary kind, namely the first Hubble flow function is negative. We show however that the tensor modes are never excited and the tensor-to-scalar ratio is always vanishing, independently of the energy scale of inflation.

  12. Arthropod-Borne Diseases: The Camper's Uninvited Guests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckett, Gregory

    2015-08-01

    Arthropod-borne diseases are a major problem whenever outdoor activities bring arthropods and people into contact. The arthropods discussed here include arachnids (ticks) and insects. Most arthropod bites and stings are minor, with the notable exception being bee-sting anaphylaxis. Ticks cause the most disease transmission. Key hard tick vectors include black-legged (Ixodes), dog (Dermacentor), and lone star (Amblyomma) ticks, which transmit Lyme and various rickettsial diseases. Insect repellents, permethrin sprays, and proper tick inspection reduce this risk significantly. Lyme disease and the milder southern-tick-associated rash illness (STARI) are characterized by the erythema migrans rash followed, in the case of Lyme disease, by early, disseminated, and late systemic symptoms. Treatment is with doxycycline or ceftriaxone. Indefinite treatment of "chronic Lyme disease" based on subjective symptoms is not beneficial. Rickettsial diseases include ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis, and Rocky Mountain spotted fever, which are characterized by fever, headache, and possible rash and should be empirically treated with doxycycline while awaiting laboratory confirmation. Tularemia is a bacterial disease (Francisella) spread by ticks and rabbits and characterized by fever and adenopathy. Treatment is with gentamicin or streptomycin. Babesiosis is a protozoal disease, mimicking malaria, that causes a self-limited flu-like disease in healthy hosts but can be life threatening with immune compromise. Treatment is with atovaquone and azithromycin. Other tick-related conditions include viral diseases (Powassan, Colorado tick fever, heartland virus), tick-borne relapsing fever (Borrelia), and tick paralysis (toxin). Mosquitoes, lice, fleas, and mites are notable for their annoying bites but are increasingly significant disease vectors even in the United States.

  13. Epidemiology and control of malaria and other arthropod born diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. López-Antuñano

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria and other arthropod born diseases remain a serious public health problem affecting the lives and health of certain social groups when the two basic strategies to control fail due to : (1 the lack of effective chemoprophylaxis/chemotherapy or the rapid development of drug resistance of the infectious agents and (2 the ineffectiveness of pesticides or the arthropod vectors develop resistance to them. These situations enhances the need for the design and implementation of other alternatives for sustainable health programmes. The application of the epidemiological methods is essential not only for analyzing the relevant data for the understanding of the biological characteristics of the infectious agents, their reservoirs and vectors and the methods for their control, but also for the assessment of the human behaviour, the environmental, social and economic factors involved in disease transmission and the capacity of the health systems to implement interventions for both changes in human behaviour and environmental management to purpose guaranteed prevention and control of malaria and other arthropod born diseases with efficiency, efficacy and equity. This paper discuss the evolution of the malaria arthropod diseases programmes in the American Region and the perspectives for their integration into health promotion programs and emphasis is made in the need to establish solid basis in the decision-making process for the selection of intervention strategies to remove the risk factors determining the probability to get sick or die from ABDs. The implications of the general planning and the polices to be adopted in an area should be analyzed in the light of programme feasibility at the local level, in the multisectoral context specific social groups and taking in consideration the principles of stratification and equity

  14. Economic downturn results in tick-borne disease upsurge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randolph Sarah E

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence of zoonoses is due both to changes in human activities and to changes in their natural wildlife cycles. One of the most significant vector-borne zoonoses in Europe, tick-borne encephalitis (TBE, doubled in incidence in 1993, largely as a consequence of the socio-economic transition from communism to capitalism and associated environmental changes. Methods To test the effect of the current economic recession, unemployment in 2009 and various socio-economic indices were compared to weather indices (derived from principal component analyses as predictors for the change in TBE case numbers in 2009 relative to 2004-08, for 14 European countries. Results Greatest increases in TBE incidence occurred in Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (91, 79 and 45%, respectively. The weather was rejected as an explanatory variable. Indicators of high background levels of poverty, e.g. percent of household expenditure on food, were significant predictors. The increase in unemployment in 2009 relative to 2008 together with 'in-work risk of poverty' is the only case in which a multivariate model has a second significant term. Conclusion Background socio-economic conditions determine susceptibility to risk of TBE, while increased unemployment triggered a sudden increase in risk. Mechanisms behind this result may include reduced resistance to infection through stress; reduced uptake of costly vaccination; and more exposure of people to infected ticks in their forest habitat as they make greater use of wild forest foods, especially in those countries, Lithuania and Poland, with major marketing opportunities in such products. Recognition of these risk factors could allow more effective protection through education and a vaccination programme targeted at the economically most vulnerable.

  15. Balloon-Borne Infrasound Detection of Energetic Bolide Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Eliot F.; Ballard, Courtney; Klein, Viliam; Bowman, Daniel; Boslough, Mark

    2016-10-01

    Infrasound is usually defined as sound waves below 20 Hz, the nominal limit of human hearing. Infrasound waves propagate over vast distances through the Earth's atmosphere: the CTBTO (Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization) has 48 installed infrasound-sensing stations around the world to detect nuclear detonations and other disturbances. In February 2013, several CTBTO infrasound stations detected infrasound signals from a large bolide that exploded over Chelyabinsk, Russia. Some stations recorded signals that had circumnavigated the Earth, over a day after the original event. The goal of this project is to improve upon the sensitivity of the CTBTO network by putting microphones on small, long-duration super-pressure balloons, with the overarching goal of studying the small end of the NEO population by using the Earth's atmosphere as a witness plate.A balloon-borne infrasound sensor is expected to have two advantages over ground-based stations: a lack of wind noise and a concentration of infrasound energy in the "stratospheric duct" between roughly 5 - 50 km altitude. To test these advantages, we have built a small balloon payload with five calibrated microphones. We plan to fly this payload on a NASA high-altitude balloon from Ft Sumner, NM in August 2016. We have arranged for three large explosions to take place in Socorro, NM while the balloon is aloft to assess the sensitivity of balloon-borne vs. ground-based infrasound sensors. We will report on the results from this test flight and the prospects for detecting/characterizing small bolides in the stratosphere.

  16. Unsaturated Zone and Saturated Zone Transport Properties (U0100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Conca

    2000-12-20

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) summarizes transport properties for the lower unsaturated zone hydrogeologic units and the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain and provides a summary of data from the Busted Butte Unsaturated Zone Transport Test (UZTT). The purpose of this report is to summarize the sorption and transport knowledge relevant to flow and transport in the units below Yucca Mountain and to provide backup documentation for the sorption parameters decided upon for each rock type. Because of the complexity of processes such as sorption, and because of the lack of direct data for many conditions that may be relevant for Yucca Mountain, data from systems outside of Yucca Mountain are also included. The data reported in this AMR will be used in Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) calculations and as general scientific support for various Process Model Reports (PMRs) requiring knowledge of the transport properties of different materials. This report provides, but is not limited to, sorption coefficients and other relevant thermodynamic and transport properties for the radioisotopes of concern, especially neptunium (Np), plutonium (Pu), Uranium (U), technetium (Tc), iodine (I), and selenium (Se). The unsaturated-zone (UZ) transport properties in the vitric Calico Hills (CHv) are discussed, as are colloidal transport data based on the Busted Butte UZTT, the saturated tuff, and alluvium. These values were determined through expert elicitation, direct measurements, and data analysis. The transport parameters include information on interactions of the fractures and matrix. In addition, core matrix permeability data from the Busted Butte UZTT are summarized by both percent alteration and dispersion.

  17. Will integrated surveillance systems for vectors and vector-borne diseases be the future of controlling vector-borne diseases? A practical example from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y; Ling, F; Hou, J; Guo, S; Wang, J; Gong, Z

    2016-07-01

    Vector-borne diseases are one of the world's major public health threats and annually responsible for 30-50% of deaths reported to the national notifiable disease system in China. To control vector-borne diseases, a unified, effective and economic surveillance system is urgently needed; all of the current surveillance systems in China waste resources and/or information. Here, we review some current surveillance systems and present a concept for an integrated surveillance system combining existing vector and vector-borne disease monitoring systems. The integrated surveillance system has been tested in pilot programmes in China and led to a 21·6% cost saving in rodent-borne disease surveillance. We share some experiences gained from these programmes.

  18. Differences in Sexual Risk Behavior and HIV/AIDS Risk Factors Among Foreign-Born and US-Born Hispanic Women

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo-Mancilla, Jose; Allshouse, Amanda; Collins, Caitilin; Hastings-Tolsma, Marie; Campbell, Thomas B.; MaWhinney, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    Hispanic women in the United States (US) are disproportionately affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. There are very limited data on the sexual risk differences among US-born Hispanic women (USBHW) and foreign-born Hispanic women (FBHW). Sexually active USBHW and FBHW were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire. Demographics, sexual history, testing for HIV or sexually transmitted infection (STI), condom use, partner sexual risk and alcohol/substance use were ...

  19. TASK 2: QUENCH ZONE SIMULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fusselman, Steve

    2015-09-30

    Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR) has developed an innovative gasifier concept incorporating advanced technologies in ultra-dense phase dry feed system, rapid mix injector, and advanced component cooling to significantly improve gasifier performance, life, and cost compared to commercially available state-of-the-art systems. A key feature of the AR gasifier design is the transition from the gasifier outlet into the quench zone, where the raw syngas is cooled to ~ 400°C by injection and vaporization of atomized water. Earlier pilot plant testing revealed a propensity for the original gasifier outlet design to accumulate slag in the outlet, leading to erratic syngas flow from the outlet. Subsequent design modifications successfully resolved this issue in the pilot plant gasifier. In order to gain greater insight into the physical phenomena occurring within this zone, AR developed a cold flow simulation apparatus with Coanda Research & Development with a high degree of similitude to hot fire conditions with the pilot scale gasifier design, and capable of accommodating a scaled-down quench zone for a demonstration-scale gasifier. The objective of this task was to validate similitude of the cold flow simulation model by comparison of pilot-scale outlet design performance, and to assess demonstration scale gasifier design feasibility from testing of a scaled-down outlet design. Test results did exhibit a strong correspondence with the two pilot scale outlet designs, indicating credible similitude for the cold flow simulation device. Testing of the scaled-down outlet revealed important considerations in the design and operation of the demonstration scale gasifier, in particular pertaining to the relative momentum between the downcoming raw syngas and the sprayed quench water and associated impacts on flow patterns within the quench zone. This report describes key findings from the test program, including assessment of pilot plant configuration simulations relative to actual

  20. Zone Denmark - gasell Taanist / Reet Krause

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Krause, Reet, 1967-

    2006-01-01

    Taanis Viborgis asuva firma Zone Company Denmark, kaubamärgi Zone Denmark ja firma disainerite tutvustus. Ettevõte valmistab disainitooteid roostevabast terasest, klaasist, puidust, kummist jm. Disainer Naja Utzon Popov endast, oma loomingust