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Sample records for borehole plugging program

  1. Borehole Plugging-Materials Development Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulick, C.W. Jr.

    1978-06-01

    This report discusses the background and first year's results of the grouting materials development program for plugging boreholes associated with the Nuclear Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The grouts are to be pumpable, impermeable, and durable for many thousands of years. The work was done at the Concrete Laboratory of the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES), Vicksburg, Mississippi. The workability, strength, porosity, bonding, expansion, and permeability data are summarized and discussed. The work is continuing at WES

  2. Borehole Plugging Program. Plugging of ERDA No. 10 drill hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulick, C.W. Jr.

    1979-06-01

    A requirement exists to plug exploratory drill holes located in the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant area of Southeastern New Mexico. Sandia Laboratories, in cooperation with the US Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station, Concrete Laboratory, developed pumpable and durable cement grouts. These grouts were successfully used to plug an existing drill hole in the area. Results of this project are presented, along with comments and conclusions

  3. Waste isolation pilot plant (WIPP) borehole plugging program description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, C.L.; Hunter, T.O.

    1979-08-01

    The tests and experiments described attempt to provide a mix of borehole (with limited access) and in-mine (with relatively unlimited access) environments in which assessment of the various issues involved can be undertaken. The Bell Canyon Test provides the opportunity to instrument and analyze a plug in a high pressure region. The Shallow Hole Test permits application of best techniques for plugging and then access to both the top and bottom of the plug for further analysis. The Diagnostic Test Hole permits recovery of bench scale size samples for analysis and establishes an in-borehole laboratory in which to conduct testing and analysis in all strata from the surface into the salt horizon. The additional in mine experiments provide the opportunity to investigate in more detail specific effects on plugs in the salt region and allows evaluation of instrumentation systems

  4. Instrumentation development for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) borehole plugging program (BHP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, C.W.

    1979-11-01

    This report discusses the instrumentation development needs of the borehole testing program as it now exists. Although requirements may change as the program progresses, the items indicated are basic to any borehole plugging program. Instrumentation is discussed both for the plug environment and for the plug itself. For the plug environment, a probe for measuring the disturbed region and a coordinate logging tool are required. For the plug itself, instrumentation includes measurements above, within, and below the plug. Instrumentation for most measurements above the plug is currently available; for measurements within and below the plug, however, further development is required. Specifically, resistivity, induction, and acoustic probes; an in situ stressmeter; and a hardwire, feedthrough system need to be developed

  5. Test plan: Potash Core Test. WIPP experimental program borehole plugging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, C.L.

    1979-09-01

    The Potash Core Test will utilize a WIPP emplaced plug to obtain samples of an in-situ cured plug of known mix constituents for bench scale testing. An earlier effort involved recovery at the salt horizon of Plug 217, a 17 year old plug in a potash exploration hole for bond testing, but the lack of particulars in the emplacement precluded significant determination of plug performance

  6. Downhole television (DHTV) applications in borehole plugging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, C.L.; Statler, R.D.; Peterson, E.W.

    1980-05-01

    The Borehole Plugging (BHP) Program is a part of the Sandia experimental program to support the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The Sandia BHP program is an Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI)-funded program designed to provide inputs to the generic plugging program while simultaneously acquiring WIPP-specific data. For this reason a close liaison is maintained between the Sandia WIPP project and the ONWI generic program. Useful technology developed within the Sandia BHP to support WIPP is made available and considered for further development and application to the generic Borehole Plugging and Repository Sealing Program at ONWI. The purpose of this report is to illustrate the usefulness of downhole television (DHTV) observations of a borehole to plan plugging operations. An indication of the wellbore conditions observed is provided. The equipment and setup procedure used in the evaluation of AEC-7 for the Bell Canyon test series are illustrated. A sequence of pictures at various depths as the DHTV rig is lowered through the wellbore is presented. Sample photographs taken with both dry and underwater lamps for illumination are included. The caliper logs for the same depth are included for comparison. General comments are provided on the illustrations

  7. Borehole plugging by compaction process. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, R.; MacGowan, C.; Nolan, E.; Morey, R.; Palty, A.

    1976-08-01

    The requirements of an overall program to preserve the integrity of a repository formation are documented. The repository is intended to be in stable earth stratum used as a safe and permanent storage area for nuclear waste material. These wastes represent an environmental hazard for a period of up to 200,000 years. An engineering analysis, a reliability and quality-assurance program, and a development program for borehole plugging by compaction process, using natural earthen materials, are presented. Part 1 provides the engineering analysis of downhole compaction methods and related instrumentation along with a recommended development plan from concept through a pilot in-situ experiment. Part 2 provides a reliability and quality-assurance program from laboratory testing of materials through an in-situ experiment

  8. Field-test programs of borehole plugs in southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, C.L.; Peterson, E.W.

    1981-01-01

    This paper gives a general overview of the repository-sealing field test effort being conducted by Sandia National Laboratories in support of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in southeast New Mexico. Summary descriptions of supporting activities, such as performance assessment and plugging materials development, are included to create the connection between modeling and laboratory activities as they relate to field results. Results of tests on a portion of a 17-year-old plug (Plug 217) recovered from a mine horizon and the Bell Canyon Test, in which a cement plug was emplaced to isolate a naturally pressurized aquifer, are given. Conclusions from these field plugging tests are included

  9. Recommended analysis plan for the borehole plugging program potash core test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, S.J.

    1980-05-01

    A four-year old plugged potash core hole near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site in southeastern New Mexico has been proposed for overcoring, in order to examine the behavior of known grout mix constituents in contact with a variety of rock types during an extended grout-curing interval. This report recommends that various geochemical analyses be applied to the core samples containing both grout and rock and the interface between the two. The methods to be used include optical petrography, electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, x-ray diffraction, thermal analysis (TGA, DSC, DTA) with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and bulk chemical analysis. These analyses would allow identification of phases which have developed during grout curing, and provide evidence of reactions which may have taken place among constituents in the system grout-rock-groundwater. These reactions, and their sequence of occurrence will be compared with reactions predicted by thermodynamic modeling as the system seeks its lowest Gibbs' free energy. Identification of reactions which have the potential for compromising the integrity of a grout plug will receive special attention. Since not all such detrimental reactions can be observed directly in a human lifetime, due to kinetic inhibitions, and since a capability of time-dependent prediction of their degree of occurrence cannot be developed, thermodynamic modeling is the only known way of evaluating the long-term stability of a grout plug. The analysis of the plug-rock system will give an indication of in situ curing history of grout plug, and will allow an early occurrence of potentially detrimental reactions to be detected. Thus, this activity will be a case-study of suitability of certain grout mixtures for use in evaporites, as an example of evaluation of grouts for long-term compatability with a variety of rock types

  10. Borehole Plugging Program. Status report, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, C.L.; Cook, C.W.; Gulick, C.W.

    1980-01-01

    This program is in support of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) proposed for southeastern New Mexico. Current-year activities cover management, materials, instrumentation, and field tests. Proposed FY 80 activities are also outlined

  11. Bond strength of cementitious borehole plugs in welded tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akgun, H.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1991-02-01

    Axial loads on plugs or seals in an underground repository due to gas, water pressures and temperature changes induced subsequent to waste and plug emplacement lead to shear stresses at the plug/rock contact. Therefore, the bond between the plug and rock is a critical element for the design and effectiveness of plugs in boreholes, shafts or tunnels. This study includes a systematic investigation of the bond strength of cementitious borehole plugs in welded tuff. Analytical and numerical analysis of borehole plug-rock stress transfer mechanics is performed. The interface strength and deformation are studied as a function of Young's modulus ratio of plug and rock, plug length and rock cylinder outside-to-inside radius ratio. The tensile stresses in and near an axially loaded plug are analyzed. The frictional interface strength of an axially loaded borehole plug, the effect of axial stress and lateral external stress, and thermal effects are also analyzed. Implications for plug design are discussed. The main conclusion is a strong recommendation to design friction plugs in shafts, drifts, tunnels or boreholes with a minimum length to diameter ratio of four. Such a geometrical design will reduce tensile stresses in the plug and in the host rock to a level which should minimize the risk of long-term deterioration caused by excessive tensile stresses. Push-out tests have been used to determine the bond strength by applying an axial load to cement plugs emplaced in boreholes in welded tuff cylinders. A total of 130 push-out tests have been performed as a function of borehole size, plug length, temperature, and degree of saturation of the host tuff. The use of four different borehole radii enables evaluation of size effects. 119 refs., 42 figs., 20 tabs

  12. Borehole plugging by hydrothermal transport. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, D.M.; White, W.B.

    1976-02-28

    Calcium silicate--and aluminosilicate--compositions based on mixtures of fine grained quartz with various cements or calcium silicate compounds have been investigated under hydrothermal conditions in the temperature range 110-250/sup 0/C and pressure range 1,000-10,000 psi, pressures which are always in excess of that required to maintain liquid H/sub 2/O, and approximate the confining pressures which might be anticipated in deep boreholes. All silicate cement combinations investigated produce materials having adequate strength after reaction times of 1 day or longer. The calcium aluminate cement was also adequate with respect to strength but would need to be investigated more extensively for overall properties because of its highly reactive chemistry. The mini-rock cylinder-cement plug hydrothermal experiments in both limestone and sandstone resulted in reasonable magnitudes of bonding strength. The typical shear strength of a hydrothermally treated cement-sandstone plug is 1030 psi, and the compressive strength of the extruded cement plug is 9550 psi. Reactions having a potential for producing calcium carbonate plugs in holes drilled in carbonate rocks were studied. It should be noted that most cements are calcium silicate systems and are chemically compatible with the CaCO/sub 3/ and CaMg(CO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ in the rock walls of the hole. A side benefit from this research is some insight into the suitability of massive carbonate rocks as disposal sites. Carbonate rocks by themselves are highly impermeable, have low exchange capacity, and a low water content--all properties that are desirable in the storage medium. A major drawback is the presence of secondary permeability in the form of solutionally modified joints, fractures, and bedding planes.

  13. Borehole plugging by hydrothermal transport. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, D.M.; White, W.B.

    1976-01-01

    Calcium silicate--and aluminosilicate--compositions based on mixtures of fine grained quartz with various cements or calcium silicate compounds have been investigated under hydrothermal conditions in the temperature range 110-250 0 C and pressure range 1,000-10,000 psi, pressures which are always in excess of that required to maintain liquid H 2 O, and approximate the confining pressures which might be anticipated in deep boreholes. All silicate cement combinations investigated produce materials having adequate strength after reaction times of 1 day or longer. The calcium aluminate cement was also adequate with respect to strength but would need to be investigated more extensively for overall properties because of its highly reactive chemistry. The mini-rock cylinder-cement plug hydrothermal experiments in both limestone and sandstone resulted in reasonable magnitudes of bonding strength. The typical shear strength of a hydrothermally treated cement-sandstone plug is 1030 psi, and the compressive strength of the extruded cement plug is 9550 psi. Reactions having a potential for producing calcium carbonate plugs in holes drilled in carbonate rocks were studied. It should be noted that most cements are calcium silicate systems and are chemically compatible with the CaCO 3 and CaMg(CO 3 ) 2 in the rock walls of the hole. A side benefit from this research is some insight into the suitability of massive carbonate rocks as disposal sites. Carbonate rocks by themselves are highly impermeable, have low exchange capacity, and a low water content--all properties that are desirable in the storage medium. A major drawback is the presence of secondary permeability in the form of solutionally modified joints, fractures, and bedding planes

  14. Cement technology for borehole plugging: an interim report on permeability measurements of cementitious solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniel, E.W.

    1980-01-01

    The permeability of borehole plug solids and plug-wall rock junctions is a property of major interest in the Borehole Plugging Program. This report describes the equipment and techniques used to determine the permeabilities of possible borehole plugging materials and presents results from tests on various cementitious solids and plug-rock combinations. The cementitious solids were made from mixtures of cement, sand, salt, fly ash, and water. Three different types of cement and four different fly ashes were used. Permeabilities ranged from a high value of 3 x 10 -4 darcy for a neat cement paste to a low of 5 x 10 -8 darcy for a saltcrete containing 30 wt % sodium chloride. Miniature boreholes were made in the following four different types of rock: Westerly granite, Dresser basalt, Sioux quartzite, and St. Cloud granodiorite. These small holes were plugged with a mix consisting of 23 wt % Type I Portland cement, 20 wt % bituminous fy ash, 43.2 wt % sand, and 13.8 wt % water. After curing for 91 days at ambient temperature, the permeability of the plug-wall rock junctions ranged from 3 x 10 -5 to -8 darcy. Three of the four miniature plugged boreholes exhibited permeabilities of < 10 microdarcys

  15. Proceedings of the workshop on borehole and shaft plugging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Geologic disposal of radioactive waste relies on the capability of many geological formations to provide long-term containment of the waste. The disposal operations could significantly modify the original conditions. In addition to the underground excavations and the thermal input of the waste their is the problem of boreholes and shafts that constitute a potential by-pass of the geological barriers. It is therefore essential to develop techniques and procedures for effective plugging of all penetrations connecting the disposal zone with the surface or with water bearing layers. It will be necessary to produce plugs which effectively restore the original characteristics of the isolating formations. In addition these plugs must be chemically stable in the existing geochemical environment in order to remain effective for very long periods of time and the plugs of disposal holes can be exposed to high temperatures and radiation doses. All countries with geologic disposal programmes will have to face the problem of borehole and shapt plugging

  16. Borehole plugging of man-made accesses to a basalt repository: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.L.; Anttonen, G.J.; O'Rourke, J.E.; Niccum, M.R.

    1979-09-01

    This report describes the status of work currently in progress for the Basalt Borehole Plugging Program (BBPP). The primary objectives of the BBPP outlined in this report have been met during this first phase of work. These objectives included: (1) the preparation of a preliminary list of candidate plug materials; (2) a description of available machinery capable of placing candidate plug materials; and (3) the development of physical and geochemical testing programs to help evaluate the chemical stability and physical properties of candidate plug materials. The most significant finding from work to date is that given reasonable regulatory criteria, nothing has been identified which would prevent design of a plug system to seal manmade openings leading to a nuclear waste repository in Columbia River basalt for significantly long periods of time (on the order of thousands of years). Work accomplished to date indicates that this plug system can be designed using both natural and manufactured materials and can be emplaced with existing placement machinery and modifications of that machinery. The objectives of Task II are to conduct laboratory tests to evaluate the suitability of preferred candidate materials for plugging boreholes in the proposed repository, select plug system(s), initiate preconceptual machinery design for the placement of materials in plug system(s), and prepare a preliminary Task II report. As with Task I project organization, Task II is divided into subtasks that are identified by written subtask work summaries

  17. Borehole plugging by hydrothermal transport. A feasibility report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, D.M.; White, W.B.

    1975-01-01

    The possibility of forming borehole plugs by hydrothermal transport was examined with respect to five systems, utilizing available literature data. In general, it would appear possible to create plugs with hydrothermal cements, with hydrothermally transported quartz, and with carbonates precipitated in-situ using carbon dioxide or carbon dioxide and water as reacting fluids. Hydrothermal cements appear to be most feasible from an engineering and economic point of view using a slurry with a lime-alumina-silica composition carried into the hole in a single pipe at temperatures in the range of 200 0 C and requiring only enough pressure to drive the mixture into the hole. Quartz or chalcedony plugs would be the most impervious, have the lowest chemical reactivity with groundwater, the lowest thermal expansion, and be most compatible with the wall rock. Deposition is likely to be slow, and there are severe engineering problems associated with a single pipe system carrying silica-rich solutions at temperatures in excess of 500 0 C at pressure of 2000 bars (30,000 psi). Calcite plugs could be formed as compatible plug materials in contact with a limestone or dolomite wall rock. It is not known whether non-porous plugs can be readily formed and there is also a problem of chemical reaction with percolating groundwater. The clay-water and sulfur-water systems do not appear to be viable plug systems. In-situ reconstitution of the wall rock does not appear to be an economically feasible possibility

  18. Geochemical factors in borehole-shaft plug longevity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    Geochemical investigations that address factors controlling the longevity of repository sealing materials in a geochemical environment are discussed. Studies are being made of cement-based materials as major candidates for seals for borehole plugging, and shaft and tunnel sealing in certain potential repository environments. Factors controlling the extent of attainment of equilibrium of the plug components with time and the rate of approach to a state of stable equilibrium of the plug component chemical subsystem within the total system are discussed. The effect of these factors on changes in physical, mechanical and thermal properties of a seal system, and the consequent effectiveness of the seal in preventing transport of radioactive waste species are the dominant features to be determined. Laboratory experiments on the effects of anticipated temperature, pressure, and environmental factors (including chemical composition and specific rock type) are described. Thermodynamic studies are used to determine the potentially stable reaction products under conditions similar to those anticipated for the repository boreholes, shafts, and tunnels during and after the operating stage. Multitemperature reaction series are studied, and reaction kinetics are investigated for the purpose of predicting the course of likely reactions. Detailed studies of permeability, diffusion, and interfacial properties and chemical and microphase characterization of the products of experiments are carried out. Characterization studies of old and ancient cements, mortars, and concretes and prototype man-made seal materials are performed to further assess the factors associated with longevity

  19. Borehole plugging experiment in OL-KR24 at Olkiluoto, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautio, T.

    2006-04-01

    Sealing of investigation boreholes has been studied by Svensk Koernbroenslehantering AB (SKB) and Posiva Oy (Posiva) as a part of final disposal research. The proposed principle is that investigation boreholes drilled at a site must not act as a continuous flow path for groundwater but be sealed to become as tight as the surrounding rock. As a part of the investigations SKB and Posiva started the third phase of the joint project 'Cleaning and sealing of investigation boreholes' in 2005. One of the sub-projects was the plugging experiment in borehole OL-KR24 at Olkiluoto. The aim of the experiment was to test all main procedures of borehole sealing concept in practise in a deep borehole. Borehole KR24 was drilled to the depth of 551.11 metres in 2003 and it was located inside the shaft profile in Onkalo. From the surface to the depth of about 120 m the borehole diameter is 98 mm. The rest of the borehole is 75.7 mm in diameter. The borehole is vertical and the inclination is quite accurately 90 degrees. The plugging experiment in borehole OL-KR24 consisted of four main activities: (1) cleaning of the borehole, (2) characterization of the borehole (3) selective stabilisation of the borehole, and (4) emplacement of plugs. The comprehensive cleaning of the borehole was to be done in the first stage to provide the basis for other activities. The aim of characterization was to study the borehole in order to determine the sections for selective stabilisation and the locations for plugs. The characterization phase consisted of caliper measurements, dummy probing and optical borehole imaging (OBI). The aim of selective stabilisation was to show that selected borehole sections can be stabilised using new techniques and methods. One borehole section was reamed from Ω 76 mm to Ω 98 mm. The reamed borehole section should have been filled with sufficient amount of cement-based material to achieve a stable 'concrete tube' after redrilling, but due to encountered problems and

  20. Status of borehole plugging and shaft sealing for geologic isolation of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Activities in programs devoted to disposal of radioactive waste in deep geologic formations are reported. Research on borehole plugging and shaft sealing is emphasized. Past and current activities related to penetration sealing were assessed through an exhaustive literature review and contacts with industrial, governmental, and research organizations. Cited references are included along with a bibliography assembled for this study. Evaluation of literature reviewed and presentation of information obtained from personal contacts are summarized. Technical considerations for penetration sealing as related to nuclear waste isolation, but which may differ from conventional technology, are presented and research needs are identified

  1. Borehole plugging by hydrothermal transport: an interim report on experimental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, D.M.; White, W.B.

    1975-01-01

    Five possible systems that might lead to borehole plugs were considered with respect to replacement of the original rock with a material of essentially the same chemical composition and mineralogical makeup or with the introduction of other materials that might be chemically compatible with the surrounding wall rock. The five systems were: Quartz or chalcedony plugs from the SiO 2 -water system, replacement of shale rock by transport in the ''clay''-water system, hydrothermal cement systems, carbonate plugs in limestone and dolomite, and sulfur plugs by transport in the system sulfur-water. Hydrothermal cements appear to be most feasible from an engineering and economic point of view. Pressures and temperatures for reactions in the systems CaO-Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 -H 2 O are modest and there is evidence that the plug formed would have a lower porosity and permeability than those derived from more conventional cement systems. Further, the mineral phases, principally tobermorite, are likely to be compatible with expected shale, sandstone, and limestone wall rock materials. Calcite (but not dolomite) plugs could be formed in limestone or dolomite rock. Less is known about carbonate plugs and the porosity, permeability, and possible reactions with circulating groundwater. Quartz or chalcedony plugs would be the most impervious, have the lowest chemical reactivity with groundwater, the lowest thermal expansion, and be the most compatible with the wall rock but would be extremely difficult to form in place. It was concluded that replacement of shales by clay, mica, or other layer silicate transport in hydrothermal solution was limited by the extremely sluggish kinetics of these reactions and that a practical plug of such materials is not feasible. Likewise, the sulfur-water system was found to be unlikely to yield a plug material

  2. Characterization of samples of a cement-borehole plug in bedded evaporites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheetz, B.E.; Grutzeck, M.W.; Wakeley, L.D.; Roy, D.M.

    1979-07-01

    This report describes the laboratory characterization of a section of an eighteen-year-old cement-based plug emplaced to seal a four-inch (ten-centimeter) borehole in the Salado Formation near Carlsbad, NM. The dominantly halite salt strata contain a horizon rich in potassium-bearing minerals such as langbeinite, in the plug region. Other host rock minerals identified include illite, kainite, magnesite, syngenite and polyhalite. Identified in the plug were: the cement phase calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H having an intermediate degree of crystallinity), Friedel's salt, halite, sylvite and portlandite. The plug, though intact, unfractured on a macroscale, and forming an adequate physical bond with the salt formation, was weak and permeable relative to the surrounding bedded salt. Characterization of the plug and rock was carried out by a combination of measurements: compressive strength, permeability, density and porosity, thermal measurements (DTA, TGA), x-ray diffractometry, SEM and optical (including thin section) microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis for chemical composition

  3. Cement technology for plugging boreholes in radioactive-waste-repository sites. Progress report, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, J.G.; Morgan, M.T.; McDaniel, E.W.; Greene, H.B.; West, G.A.

    1980-08-01

    Laboratory evaluations were made of several borehole plug formulations proposed for the Bell Canyon field test. Measurements included compressive strength, permeability, density, and thermal conductivity. A few preliminary tests with saltcrete formulations showed no significant difference in physical properties of the solid as a function of fly ash or cement composition. The saltcrete proposed for the field test gave acceptable pushout strength and permeability values using miniature borehole plugs in anhydrite. Similar laboratory tests made with a freshwater formulation indicated high permeability. Electron micrographs showed dissolution cavities or cracks at the plug-wall interface. These studies showed that the reactions occurring between the borehole plug and the adjacent rock wall are an important factor in obtaining a good seal and that laboratory tests are useful to indicate the possibility of success or failure of field tests

  4. Exploratory borehole Leuggern. Working program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    An extensive geophysical borehole logging programme will serve to verify the results of the core analysis and complement the core data. Numerous borehole logs are to be registered with different types of tools. These allow one to determine various parameters essential for the full description of the rock sequences penetrated. A first category of logs enables the petrographical identification of the different rock types and indicates porous zones that are either water- or hydrocarbon-bearing. A second category provides data e.g. on the degree of pore and fracture fill, rock density and rock temperature, natural gamma radiation and rock-mechanical properties. Other logs measure strike and dip of the sedimentary layers and the position of rock fractures. A fourth category provides information on the diameter and the deviation of the borehole, the quality of casing cementations and the position of casing joints. In addition, well shooting surveys will supply exact values of seismic velocities for the various rock units; data that are needed for the depth correction of the reflection profiles from Nagra's regional seismic network. With numerous hydrological tests ranging from a production tests of the Muschelkalk and Buntsandstein aquifers to labelled slug-tests in low-permeability crystalline sections, the hydraulic conditions of deep groundwater flow will be investigated. The recovered water samples will undergo full physical and geochemical analysis. Furthermore, their isotope content is to be measured in order to estimate the age of the various formation waters and their time of residence in the subsurface. To round off the scientific investigations, a series of rock-mechanical and geotechnical laboratory tests will provide characteristic values to be applied eventually in the design and construction of shafts and caverns for an underground repository

  5. Expansive stresses of a grout plug on the walls of borehole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licastro, P.H.; Malek, R.I.A.; Roy, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    The primary function of a concrete plug in a repository seal system is to provide a viable seal at the interface with the host rock by developing and maintaining a positive normal stress across the interface. While standards do exist for unrestrained and restrained expansion of mortar and concrete there are few systems that permit calculation of stress for a stimulated borehole geometry. A system was designed to determine the radial stresses introduced by expansive, cementitious grout on the borehole. It consists of a strain gage instrumented cell and its associated signal conditioner/amplifier. Cell material and thickness can be varied to simulate restraining conditions at given depths. Prior to sample emplacement the cell/system is calibrated by fluid pressurization. Special cell design eliminates the effects of longitudinal stresses during calibration. An analog output as a function of time is recorded, in conjunction with surface temperature of the cylinder. The cell containing grout is maintained under controlled temperature conditions which can be varied from 25 0 C to 90 0 C. Pressure can be applied to the grout column to simulate hydrostatic/geostatic load conditions. Using the equipment described, several expansive grout formulations were studied at 38 0 C. Results obtained for expansive stresses as a function of time are presented together with implications on repository-seal durability

  6. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Backfill and Plug test. Hydraulic testing of core drilled boreholes in the ZEDEX drift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludvigson, Jan-Erik; Nordqvist, Rune; Ekman, Lennart; Hansson, Kent (GEOSIGMA AB, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2009-07-01

    The present report documents the performance and results of hydraulic testing in selected core boreholes in the Zedex drift. The holes will be used as rock instrumentation boreholes during the Backfill and Plug Test at Aespoe HRL. The testing involves both 1 m long boreholes with 56 mm diameter as well as longer boreholes c. 5 m, 8 m and 25 m long with 56 mm or 76 mm diameter. Only single-hole tests were performed. The tests were carried out as short-time constant head injection tests since all boreholes tested (except one) were non-flowing before tests. The injection phase was followed by a pressure recovery phase. Furthermore, the tests were carried out as single-packer tests. A specially designed test system was used for the tests. The main evaluation of the tests was performed on data from the recovery phase by a new approach based on a non-linear regression technique combined with a flow simulation model (SUTRA). The tests in the 1 m-holes (testing the interval c. 0.3-0.7 m in the rock perpendicular to the tunnel face) show that the hydraulic conductivity of the superficial rock around the Zedex drift in general is low. However, during testing in some boreholes, visible leakage in the rock occurred through superficial fractures into the tunnel. These fractures were mainly located in the floor of the Zedex drift and are probably blast-induced. These fractures have a high hydraulic conductivity. The tests in the longer boreholes show that the hydraulic conductivity further into the rock in general is below c. 1x10-10 m/s. Increased hydraulic conductivity (c.1.5x10-8 m/s) was only observed in the flowing borehole KXZSD8HL.

  7. Working program for deep borehole investigations. HDB-6,7,8, borehole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hama, Katsuhiro; Takahashi, Kazuharu; Ishii, Eiichi; Takeuchi, Ryuji; Sasaki, Manabu; Kunimaru, Takanori; Eki, Nobuhiro; Matsui, Hiroya

    2003-08-01

    optimized program for deep borehole (HDB-6, 7, 8) investigations has been drawn-up. This program addresses the general issues and provides input to the subsequent investigation programs and design for the shaft and experimental drifts. This document mainly describes the planned working program for the HDB-6, 7, 8 borehole investigations including associated laboratory programs during and after drilling. The working program is divided into the following investigation fields: borehole drilling geology, geophysics, hydrogeology, hydrochemistry, rock mechanics and long-term monitoring. Post-HDB borehole investigations; a VSP (Vertical Seismic Profiling) survey are planned in the surface-based investigations phase. (author)

  8. Fiscal Year 1993 Well Plugging and Abandonment Program Summary Report Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    This report is a synopsis of the progress of the well plugging and abandonment program at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from October 1993 through August 1994. A total of 57 wells and borings were plugged and abandoned during the period of time covered in this report. All wells and borings were plugged and abandoned in accordance with the Monitoring Well Plugging and Abandonment Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

  9. Fiscal year 1993 well plugging and abandonment program, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This report is a synopsis of the progress of the well plugging and abandonment program at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from December 1992 through August 20, 1993. A total of 70 wells and borings were plugged and abandoned during the period of time covered in this report. All wells and borings were plugged and abandoned in accordance with the Monitoring Well Plugging and Abandonment Plan for the US Department of Energy, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (HSW, Inc. 1991).

  10. Vertical boreholes in salt - An industrial demonstration program -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollingerfehr, W.; Filbert, W.

    2006-01-01

    In order to synchronize and optimize the emplacement technologies used for both categories of waste (vitrified waste and spent fuel) the borehole emplacement technique for consolidated spent fuel was reconsidered in Germany. The appropriate design resulted in a fuel rod canister of the type 'BSK 3'. This BSK 3 steel canister is of the same diameter as the standard HLW-canister which allows the use of a common transfer and handling technique. The canister is tightly sealed by welding and designed to withstand petrostatic pressure. Thermal calculations showed that the emplacement of a BSK 3-canister into a vertical borehole in a salt repository is possible after only about 3 to 7 years after reactor unloading of the fuel assemblies. Thus, the emplacement of BSK 3-canisters allows a complete revision of the schedule of spent fuel disposal concepts and may lead to a considerable reduction of time and costs. Accordingly, a research program was launched in 2004 within the framework of the 6th European Research Program to develop the transport and emplacement components, the functionality and reliability of which are to be tested in a one-year demonstration phase which will commence at the beginning of 2008. (author)

  11. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant borehole data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    Data pertaining to all the surface boreholes used at the WIPP site for site characterization hydrological testing and resource evaluation exist in numerous source documents. This project was initiated to develop a comprehensive data base that would include the data on all WIPP related surface boreholes from the Atomic Energy Commission, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Energy Research and Development Administration, Department of Energy, and Hydrologic Test Borehole Programs. The data compiled from each borehole includes: operator, permit number, location, total depth, type of well, driller, drilling record, casing record, plugging schedule, and stratigraphic summary. There are six groups of boreholes contained in this data base, they are as follows: Commercially Drilled Potash Boreholes, Energy Department Wells, Geologic Exploration Boreholes, Hydrologic Test Boreholes, Potash Boreholes, and Subsurface Exploration Boreholes. There were numerous references which contained borehole data. In some cases the data found in one document was inconsistent with data in another document. In order to ensure consistency and accuracy in the data base, the same references were used for as many of the boreholes as possible. For example, all elevations and locations were taken from Compilation and Comparison of Test-Hole Location Surveys in the Vicinity of the WIPP Site. SAND 88-1065, Table 3-5. There are some sections where a data field is left blank. In this case, the information was either not applicable or was unavailable

  12. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant borehole data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    Data pertaining to all the surface boreholes used at the WIPP site for site characterization hydrological testing and resource evaluation exist in numerous source documents. This project was initiated to develop a comprehensive data base that would include the data on all WIPP related surface boreholes from the Atomic Energy Commission, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Energy Research and Development Administration, Department of Energy, and Hydrologic Test Borehole Programs. The data compiled from each borehole includes: operator, permit number, location, total depth, type of well, driller, drilling record, casing record, plugging schedule, and stratigraphic summary. There are six groups of boreholes contained in this data base, they are as follows: Commercially Drilled Potash Boreholes, Energy Department Wells, Geologic Exploration Boreholes, Hydrologic Test Boreholes, Potash Boreholes, and Subsurface Exploration Boreholes. There were numerous references which contained borehole data. In some cases the data found in one document was inconsistent with data in another document. In order to ensure consistency and accuracy in the data base, the same references were used for as many of the boreholes as possible. For example, all elevations and locations were taken from Compilation and Comparison of Test-Hole Location Surveys in the Vicinity of the WIPP Site. SAND 88-1065, Table 3-5. There are some sections where a data field is left blank. In this case, the information was either not applicable or was unavailable.

  13. Fiscal year 1996 well plugging and abandonment program Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This report is a synopsis of the progress of the well plugging and abandonment program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from August 1995 through August 1996. A total of 27 wells, piezometers, and borings were plugged and abandoned during the period of time covered in this report. All wells and borings were plugged and abandoned in accordance with the Monitoring Well Plugging and Abandonment Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (HSW, Inc. 1991).

  14. City of Las Vegas Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-12-31

    The City of Las Vegas was awarded Department of Energy (DOE) project funding in 2009, for the City of Las Vegas Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program. This project allowed the City of Las Vegas to purchase electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and associated electric vehicle charging infrastructure. The City anticipated the electric vehicles having lower overall operating costs and emissions similar to traditional and hybrid vehicles.

  15. Fiscal year 1995 well plugging and abandonment program Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This report is a synopsis of the progress of the well plugging and abandonment program at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from September 1994 through August 1995. A total of 67 wells, piezometers, and borings were plugged and abandoned during the period of time covered in this report. All wells and borings were plugged and abandoned if (1) its construction did not meet current standards (substandard construction); (2) it was irreparably damaged or had deteriorated beyond practical repair; (3) its location interfered with or otherwise impeded site operations, construction, or closure activities; or (4) special circumstances existed as defined on a case-by-case basis and approved by the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) Manager. This summary report contains: general geologic setting of the Y-12 Plant and vicinity; discussion of well plugging and abandonment methods, grouting procedures, and waste management practices (a Waste Management Plan for Drilling Activities is included in Appendix C); summaries of plugging and abandonment activities at each site; and quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) and health and safety protocols used during the FY 1995 Plugging and Abandonment Program

  16. Fiscal year 1995 well plugging and abandonment program Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This report is a synopsis of the progress of the well plugging and abandonment program at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from September 1994 through August 1995. A total of 67 wells, piezometers, and borings were plugged and abandoned during the period of time covered in this report. All wells and borings were plugged and abandoned if (1) its construction did not meet current standards (substandard construction); (2) it was irreparably damaged or had deteriorated beyond practical repair; (3) its location interfered with or otherwise impeded site operations, construction, or closure activities; or (4) special circumstances existed as defined on a case-by-case basis and approved by the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) Manager. This summary report contains: general geologic setting of the Y-12 Plant and vicinity; discussion of well plugging and abandonment methods, grouting procedures, and waste management practices (a Waste Management Plan for Drilling Activities is included in Appendix C); summaries of plugging and abandonment activities at each site; and quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) and health and safety protocols used during the FY 1995 Plugging and Abandonment Program.

  17. Borehole Plugging Program (Waste Disposal). Report 1. Initial Investigations and Preliminary Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    on current technology, they are believed to be capable of being developed to have physical and chemical properties compatible with the various earth...attack, low permeability to both water and gas, and controlled expansive characteristics along with the normal properties of hardened and unhardened...American Admixtures Co. Sika Chemical Corp. Diamond Shamrock Chemical Co. Halliburton Co. * Natural pozzolans: Filter-Cel is uncalcined diatomite

  18. Programs and procedures for assessing quality of spectral gamma-ray borehole data for the UGTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conaway, J.G.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the procedures and computer programs used to process spectral gamma-ray borehole logging data in the UGTA (UnderGround Test Area) program at the NTS (Nevada Test Site) to assess data quality. These programs and procedures were used to analyze data from five boreholes in the UGTA program. Development of these computer programs and procedures required considerable effort and the primary purpose of this report is to provide continuity with future activities related to spectral gamma-ray borehole logging in the UGTA program. This is especially important because of the long time interval between cessation of logging in April, 1996 and the next round of activity, which has not yet occurred. This report should also be useful if any quality control issues arise regarding past or forthcoming spectral gamma-ray log analyses. In the characterization work underway at the Nevada Test Site Underground Test Area, the logging contractor, Western Atlas, agreed to identify five artificial nuclides based on their gamma-ray signatures. Those nuclides are 60 Co, 106 Ru, 125 Sb, 134 Cs, and 137 Cs. In the case of 106 Ru, which is not a gamma emitter, any detected gamma rays come from the daughter nuclide 106 Rh which has a half-life of 30 s. With such a short half-life, 106 Rh can be considered to be in equilibrium with 106 Ru under most conditions so the result is the same as if the gamma rays were emitted by the 106 Ru. The Western Atlas spectral gamma-ray curve plots from a given borehole present detailed qualitative information on the apparent distribution of natural and artificial nuclides with depth in the borehole. The computer programs and procedures described in this report were used to provide a quality analysis of the contractor's processed data and to work with the contractor to validate and/or refine their existing automatic processing. This was done using a procedure that was developed and tested successfully in earlier work at the NTS; the revised

  19. Work program. Borehole PPG-1 and seismical velocity profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    The topic of this report is to give the detailed work program of the foreseen drillings and to describe the investigations and measurements connected with it. It is based on the results of the advertisements and commission's negotiations as well as on the discussions with cantonal and communal authorities. The aim of the work is primarily the judgement of the geological and hydrogeological forecasts which have led to the choice of the area Piz Pian Grand as a potential site. 5 figs., 1 tab

  20. Preconceptual systems and equipment for plugging of man-made accesses to a repository in basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.L.; O'Rourke, J.E.; Allirot, D.; O'Connor, K.

    1980-09-01

    This report presents results of a study leading to preconceptual designs for plugging boreholes, shafts, and tunnels to a nuclear waste repository in basalt. Beginning design criteria include a list of preferred plug materials and plugging machines that were selected to suit the environmental conditions, and depths, diameters, and orientations of the accesses to a nuclear waste repository in the Columbia River basalts located in eastern Washington State. The environmental conditions are described. The fiscal year 1979-1980 Task II work is presented in two parts: preliminary testing of materials for plugging of man-made accesses to a repository in basalt (described in a separate report); and preconceptual systems and equipment for plugging of man-made accesses to a repository in basalt (described in this report). To fulfill the scope of the Task II work, Woodward-Clyde Consultants (WCC) was requested to: provide preconceptual systems for plugging boreholes, tunnels, and shafts in basalt; describe preconceptual borehole plugging equipment for placing the selected materials in man-made accesses; utilize the quality assurance program, program plan and schedule, and work plans previously developed for Task II; and prepare a preliminary report

  1. Workplace Charging Challenge Mid-Program Review: Employees Plug In

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-12-31

    The EV Everywhere Workplace Charging Challenge aims to have 500 U.S. employers offering workplace charging by 2018. These reports describe the progress made in the Challenge. In 2015, the Workplace Charging Challenge celebrated a major milestone – it reached the halfway point to its goal of 500 Challenge partners committed to installing workplace charging by 2018. More than 250 employers have joined as Challenge partners and the installation of workplace charging as a sustainable business practice is growing across the country. Their efforts have resulted in more than 600 workplaces with over 5,500 charging stations accessible to nearly one million employees. In 2015, more than 9,000 PEV-driving employees charged at these worksites on a regular basis. Our Workplace Charging Challenge Mid-Program Review reports this progress and other statistics related to workplace charging, including employee satisfaction and charger usage.

  2. FD_BH: a program for simulating electromagnetic waves from a borehole antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellefsen, Karl J.

    2002-01-01

    Program FD_BH is used to simulate the electromagnetic waves generated by an antenna in a borehole. The model representing the antenna may include metallic parts, a coaxial cable as a feed to the driving point, and resistive loading. The program is written in the C programming language, and the program has been tested on both the Windows and the UNIX operating systems. This Open-File Report describes • The contents and organization of the Zip file (section 2). • The program files, the installation of the program, the input files, and the execution of the program (section 3). • Address to which suggestions for improving the program may be sent (section 4).

  3. FLOZ-the computer program for the primary interpretation of nuclear borehole logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorski, T.

    1979-01-01

    This work presents the FLOZ program for nuclear well logging data interpretation. Program has been written in FORTRAN 1900 language for ODRA 1300 computers. The description of the program possibilities and the ways of its application are given. Short presentation of the interpretation method used here and the description of the program work with its complete listing, together with the explanatory commentaries are also presented. The type of interpretation performed by the program depends upon the kind of nuclear logging of interest. For neutron-gamma and gamma-gamma logging the program introduces the corrections for the following disturbing factors: the ratemeter time constant, the logging speed, the apparatus dead time, the gamma-ray background. The gamma-ray logging is corrected for the following disturbing factors: ratemeter time constant, the logging speed, the apparatus dead time of tool, borehole radius, gamma-ray absorbtion in the borehole liquid and the finite thickness of the layers. The calibration constant for gamma-ray probe can be introduced for calculations of radioactivity ore grades. The log deflections being the input data for the FLOZ program, are taken from specially prepared magnetic tape. The results of interpretation are written on magnetic tape, according to the X3GY system for the ODRA 1300 computers. The method of interpretation which is applicated in program FLOZ was elaborated by Prof. J.A. Czubek from Institute of Nuclear Physics in Cracow. (author)

  4. Geomechanical Considerations for the Deep Borehole Field Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, B. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste is under consideration as a potential alternative to shallower mined repositories. The disposal concept consists of drilling a borehole into crystalline basement rocks to a depth of 5 km, emplacement of canisters containing solid waste in the lower 2 km, and plugging and sealing the upper 3 km of the borehole. Crystalline rocks such as granites are particularly attractive for borehole emplacement because of their low permeability and porosity at depth, and high mechanical strength to resist borehole deformation. In addition, high overburden pressures contribute to sealing of some of the fractures that provide transport pathways. We present geomechanical considerations during construction (e.g., borehole breakouts, disturbed rock zone development, and creep closure), relevant to both the smaller-diameter characterization borehole (8.5") and the larger-diameter field test borehole (17"). Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  5. Design approaches for access plugs in a basalt repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Rourke, J.; Allirot, D.; O'Connor, K.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes research, laboratory testing, and analytical approaches taken toward the development of designs for sealing boreholes, shafts, and tunnels penetrating from ground surface to a deep, mined nuclear waste repository in basalt. A material selection process leading to identification of preferred sealing materials is discussed, and the laboratory testing program to define the geochemical and geotechnical performance of these materials is described. Analysis of the environmental conditions in the Columbia Plateau basalt flows leads to identification of tentative design criteria for plug systems. These design criteria include performance of the plug as a hydraulic barrier and as a radionuclide barrier. An important problem for effective performance of a plug system as a hydraulic barrier is shown to be a potentially disturbed zone surrounding the excavation in the stressed and jointed host rock. An idealized one-dimensional numerical model is described for analyzing the performance of the plug as a barrier to radionuclide transport. The preliminary analyses led to the conclusion that the composition and dimensions of practical candidate plugs can satisfy both hydraulic and radionuclide barrier criteria. Examples of candidate designs are shown for boreholes, shafts, and tunnels. 9 references, 6 figures, 6 tables

  6. A borehole instrumentation program for characterization of unsaturated-zone percolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, J.; Rousseau, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    A borehole instrumentation and monitoring program has been designed by the US Geological Survey to support site characterization of unsaturated-zone percolation at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. This program provides a means of defining the unsaturated-zone fluid flow (liquid and gas) potential field in a setting that incorporates large-scale stratigraphic and structural features, and the influences of geothermal heat flow and atmospheric pressure changes. Data derived from this program will be used to evaluate the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a mined geologic-repository for the storage of high-level, radioactive waste. These data include in-situ temperature, pneumatic pressure, and water potential. In addition, the instrumentation program provides facilities for gas-sampling, gas-tracer diffusion testing, water-injection testing, water-level monitoring, neutron moisture-meter monitoring, temperature profiling, and in-situ recalibration of the downhole sensors. The program included testing and development of: (1) precision sensors for measurement; (2) a downhole instrumentation-station-apparatus to house the sensors, recalibrate sensors in-situ, and allow access to instrument stations for other testing purposes; and (3) surface-based support and instrumentation facilities

  7. Development of the Simulation Program for the In-Vessel Fuel Handling System of Double Rotating Plug Type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. H.; Kim, J. B.

    2011-01-01

    In-vessel fuel handling machines are the main equipment of the in-vessel fuel handling system, which can move the core assembly inside the reactor vessel along with the rotating plug during refueling. The in vessel fuel handling machines for an advanced sodium cooled fast reactor(SFR) demonstration plant are composed of a direct lift machine(DM) and a fixed arm machine(FM). These machines should be able to access all areas above the reactor core by means of the rotating combination of double rotating plugs. Thus, in the in vessel fuel handling system of the double rotating plug type, it is necessary to decide the rotating plug size and evaluate the accessibility of in-vessel fuel handling machines in given core configuration. In this study, the simulation program based on LABVIEW which can effectively perform the arrangement design of the in vessel fuel handling system and simulate the rotating plug motion was developed. Fig. 1 shows the flow chart of the simulation program

  8. Borehole logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, H.

    1995-01-01

    Numerous ground water investigations have been accomplished by means of borehole logging. Borehole logging can be applied to establish new water recovery wells, to control the existing water producing wells and source areas and to estimate ground water quality. (EG)

  9. KINKFOLD—an AutoLISP program for construction of geological cross-sections using borehole image data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkaya, Sait Ismail

    2002-04-01

    KINKFOLD is an AutoLISP program designed to construct geological cross-sections from borehole image or dip meter logs. The program uses the kink-fold method for cross-section construction. Beds are folded around hinge lines as angle bisectors so that bedding thickness remains unchanged. KINKFOLD may be used to model a wide variety of parallel fold structures, including overturned and faulted folds, and folds truncated by unconformities. The program accepts data from vertical or inclined boreholes. The KINKFOLD program cannot be used to model fault drag, growth folds, inversion structures or disharmonic folds where the bed thickness changes either because of deformation or deposition. Faulted structures and similar folds can be modelled by KINKFOLD by omitting dip measurements within fault drag zones and near axial planes of similar folds.

  10. Borehole stability in densely welded tuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuenkajorn, K.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1992-07-01

    The stability of boreholes, or more generally of underground openings (i.e. including shafts, ramps, drifts, tunnels, etc.) at locations where seals or plugs are to be placed is an important consideration in seal design for a repository (Juhlin and Sandstedt, 1989). Borehole instability or borehole breakouts induced by stress redistribution could negate the effectiveness of seals or plugs. Breakout fractures along the wall of repository excavations or exploratory holes could provide a preferential flowpath for groundwater or gaseous radionuclides to bypass the plugs. After plug installation, swelling pressures exerted by a plug could induce radial cracks or could open or widen preexisting cracks in the rock at the bottom of the breakouts where the tangential compressive stresses have been released by the breakout process. The purpose of the work reported here is to determine experimentally the stability of a circular hole in a welded tuff sample subjected to various external boundary loads. Triaxial and biaxial borehole stability tests have been performed on densely welded Apache Leap tuff samples and Topopah Spring tuff samples. The nominal diameter of the test hole is 13.3 or 14.4 mm for triaxial testing, and 25.4 mm for biaxial testing. The borehole axis is parallel to one of the principal stress axes. The boreholes are drilled through the samples prior to applying external boundary loads. The boundary loads are progressively increased until breakouts occur or until the maximum load capacity of the loading system has been reached. 74 refs

  11. Radioactive waste disposal: testing and control for setting of plugging and sealing materials in reduced scale models, in boreholes or in shaft excavations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    In the case of an underground disposal of radioactive waste, the free space between the storage containers and the rock embedment must be backfilled in order to restore both mechanical and thermal continuity of the dug out material and to form a physico-chemical barrier against the diffusion into the subsoil of the radionucleides which may be released by the possible failure of a container. The aim of this research program is to formulate a hydraulic binder based sealing material, whose rheological properties at fresh state allow an easy placing and whose mechanical and physico-chemical properties at hardened state guarantee the effectiveness of the impervious barrier. A first part, done in laboratory, pointed out the formulations to be tested on scale models. These models simulate a storage in vertical shafts (high level radioactive waste) and in galleries (medium level radioactive waste), show the efficiency of placing techniques and the behaviour of the sealing submitted to the heat generated by the waste. The sorptive mortar PETRISOL, patented by SOLETANCHE, brings over a solution meeting not only the technical requirements but also the public expectations as far as environmental protection is concerned. 13 figs.; 14 tabs

  12. Plugging wells for abandonment: a state-of-the-art study and recommended procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herndon, J.; Smith, D.K.

    1976-09-01

    The state-of-the-art of borehole plugging of abandoned oil wells and the tools and materials used are discussed. Special problems encountered are considered and several case studies are outlined. The special procedures which must be followed if the plugged borehole is to be considered as a repository for radioactive wastes are discussed and special recommendations are made. A state-by-state summary is given of the regulatory requirements for borehole plugging

  13. Tube plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafred, P. R.

    1985-01-01

    The tube plug comprises a one piece mechanical plug having one open end and one closed end which is capable of being inserted in a heat exchange tube and internally expanded into contact with the inside surface of the heat exchange tube for preventing flow of a coolant through the heat exchange tube. The tube plug also comprises a groove extending around the outside circumference thereof which has an elastomeric material disposed in the groove for enhancing the seal between the tube plug and the tube

  14. Borehole project - Final report of phase 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.; Ramqvist, G.

    2008-03-01

    The report describes borehole plugging techniques for use in deep boreholes extending from the ground surface, and construction and placement of plugs in holes of different lengths and orientations bored from the repository rooms. The principle employed is the one proposed in earlier phases of the project, i.e. to tightly seal those parts of boreholes where the rock has few fractures and a low hydraulic conductivity, and filling of those parts that intersect water-bearing fracture zones with physically stable material that does not need to be low-permeable. Four methods for tight plugging have been identified and tested and a technique has been found for filling boreholes that are intersected by fracture zones. The upper end of boreholes extending from the ground surface needs a 'mechanical' seal for which copper metal and concrete work well. The experience from plugging of a 550 m deep borehole at Olkiluoto (OL-KR24) has been compiled and plans worked out for sampling and testing of contacting clay and concrete in this hole and in short holes in the Aespoe URL. (orig.)

  15. Performance and Economics of Catalytic Glow Plugs and Shields in Direct Injection Natural Gas Engines for the Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle Program: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, J. P.; Bezaire, D.; Sriramulu, S.; Weber, R.

    2003-08-01

    Subcontractor report details work done by TIAX and Westport to test and perform cost analysis for catalytic glow plugs and shields for direct-injection natural gas engines for the Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle Program.

  16. ITER Port Plug Engineering Trainee Program: Design, manufacturing and integration of structural components (analysis of the attachment)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeile, Christian; Neuberger, Heiko; Dolensky, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    The structural connection of helium cooled plasma facing components in ITER to the water cooled structural port plug shield requires an attachment system, which is able to cope with two main contradicting requirements: The attachment system has to be rigid in order to withstand mechanical loads, e.g. due to the deadweight or static and transient electro-magnetic loads. On the other hand, the attachment system has to be flexible in order to compensate the different thermal strains in between the plasma facing test devices (300-550 deg. C) and the port plug structure (∼120 deg. C). The paper presents the latest developments of an attachment system consisting of flexible attachment blocks with lamellae. The optimization steps as well as the connection to the shield are described. The results of the thermo-mechanical analyses under a defined worst-case scenario confirm the feasibility of the lamella design. This work has been performed in the frame of the EFDA goal orientated trainee program on port plug engineering.

  17. Borehole sealing. Final report, March 1, 1973--October 31, 1973

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eilers, L.H.

    1977-01-01

    A program to evaluate existing materials and techniques to permanently plug boreholes penetrating salt strata near prospective radioactive waste depository sites is described. A new subcontract No. 78X-33542C has been issued to seal a borehole near Lyons, Kansas, using the materials and techniques recommended in this report. It is recommended that the well be thoroughly cleaned including removing any casing penetrating the critical salt strata. Following this, any fluid-bearing zones should be grouted using the best grout available. Silica gel was recommended for porous zones backed up by Portland cement to seal fractures and vugs. Recommendations were made to use sulfate resistant Chem Comp or sulfate resistant regular Portland (Type V) as the primary sealing material in the areas where anhydrite strata are present such as the existing wells at Lyons, Kansas, or the prospective wells near Carlsbad, New Mexico. This would be modified to meet existing conditions such as salt saturated slurry through the salt strata or added powdered silica in the zones which might exceed 230/sup 0/F at any time. A short epoxy plug was recommended at the top and bottom of the salt strata and a short Seal Ring plug at the base of any extensive water zones. Extensive water zones are not expected in the New Mexico area, however.

  18. Borehole Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature derived from boreholes drilled into the Earth crust. Parameter keywords describe what was measured in this data set. Additional summary...

  19. Cleaning of boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautio, T.; Alaverronen, M.; Lohva, K.; Teivaala, V.

    2004-09-01

    In terms of long-term safety it is a risk that the boreholes can eventually function as short-circuits between the repository and ground surface. Therefore sealing of investigation boreholes is an important issue for the long- term safety of high-level nuclear waste repositories. In order to seal a borehole properly, the conditions of the borehole have to meet certain predetermined requirements. One of the requirements is that no instruments or materials endangering the plugging operation or the long-term function of the sealing materials, are allowed to be left in the borehole. Sometimes drilling equipment will be left in the hole or it cannot be recovered from the hole with the given constraints of time, cost and resources in spite of attempts. Additionally various measurements may be carried out in the holes after the drilling has been completed and measuring devices may get stuck in holes. Consequently cleaning of the borehole is carried out as an essential activity before sealing can be implemented. There are two common reasons identified for the drill strings to get stuck in holes. First the drill string may get stuck due to acute drilling problems. The second case is where rods are left as casing in a hole either based on the structure of the upper part of the hole or in order to support the hole. To remove the drilling or measuring equipment lost in a borehole, special techniques and professional skill must be applied. Removing measuring equipment from a hole is often demanding and time consuming work. A vital part of the cleaning operation is planning the work in advance. In order to make the plan and to select the suitable methods it is important to know the condition of the stuck material. It is also important to know the exact depth where the equipment are stuck and to have an estimate of the reasons why they have got stuck. It is also very important to know the correct dimensions of the equipment or drill string before commencing the cleaning work

  20. Deep Borehole Disposal Concept: Development of Universal Canister Concept of Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigali, Mark J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Applied Systems Analysis and Research; Price, Laura L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Applied Systems Analysis and Research

    2016-08-01

    This report documents key elements of the conceptual design for deep borehole disposal of radioactive waste to support the development of a universal canister concept of operations. A universal canister is a canister that is designed to be able to store, transport, and dispose of radioactive waste without the canister having to be reopened to treat or repackage the waste. This report focuses on the conceptual design for disposal of radioactive waste contained in a universal canister in a deep borehole. The general deep borehole disposal concept consists of drilling a borehole into crystalline basement rock to a depth of about 5 km, emplacing WPs in the lower 2 km of the borehole, and sealing and plugging the upper 3 km. Research and development programs for deep borehole disposal have been ongoing for several years in the United States and the United Kingdom; these studies have shown that deep borehole disposal of radioactive waste could be safe, cost effective, and technically feasible. The design concepts described in this report are workable solutions based on expert judgment, and are intended to guide follow-on design activities. Both preclosure and postclosure safety were considered in the development of the reference design concept. The requirements and assumptions that form the basis for the deep borehole disposal concept include WP performance requirements, radiological protection requirements, surface handling and transport requirements, and emplacement requirements. The key features of the reference disposal concept include borehole drilling and construction concepts, WP designs, and waste handling and emplacement concepts. These features are supported by engineering analyses.

  1. Rotary plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Keiji.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: In a rotating plug of a reactor using a liquid metal as a coolant as in the case of a fbr type reactor, to prevent the ingress of Na vapor into the sliding surface of the rotating plug. Constitution: A rotating plug comprising a large disc covering the upper part of a reactor pressure vessel containing therein a liquid metal and forming surfaces for mounting a shielding device and various other devices, and at least one or more of small discs provided rotatably and eccentrically within said large disc, which is characterized in that an elastic member consisting of bellows and a sealing is interposed between said large disc and said small discs. (Nakamura, S.)

  2. VMD-SS: A graphical user interface plug-in to calculate the protein secondary structure in VMD program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahyavi, Masoumeh; Falsafi-Zadeh, Sajad; Karimi, Zahra; Kalatarian, Giti; Galehdari, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    The investigation on the types of secondary structure (SS) of a protein is important. The evolution of secondary structures during molecular dynamics simulations is a useful parameter to analyze protein structures. Therefore, it is of interest to describe VMD-SS (a software program) for the identification of secondary structure elements and its trajectories during simulation for known structures available at the Protein Data Bank (PDB). The program helps to calculate (1) percentage SS, (2) SS occurrence in each residue, (3) percentage SS during simulation, and (4) percentage residues in all SS types during simulation. The VMD-SS plug-in was designed using TCL script and stride to calculate secondary structure features. The database is available for free at http://science.scu.ac.ir/HomePage.aspx?TabID=13755.

  3. Borehole geophysical measurements for Hole UE25a-3, Nevada Test Site, Nuclear Waste Isolation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, J.J.; Scott, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    Borehole geophysical measurements made in drill hole UE25a-3 with a US Geological Survey research well-logging truck are presented in this paper. The purpose of these logging measurements is to provide in-situ physical properties information that is not commercially available on drill hole UE25a-3. Well logs are presented in this paper for dual-detector density, normal resistivity, gamma-ray, neutron-neutron, induced polarization, and magnetic susceptibility measurements. These data are analyzed correlations with the core lithology. Hole-to-surface measurements made from drill hole UE25a-3 indicate the presence of two resistive bodies at depth. The deeper resistive anomaly may be related to a granitic intrusion

  4. Plugging solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharipov, A U; Yangirov, I Z

    1982-01-01

    A clay-powder, cement, and water-base plugging solution is proposed having reduced solution viscosity characteristics while maintaining tensile strength in cement stone. This solution utilizes silver graphite and its ingredients, by mass weight, are as follows: cement 51.2-54.3%; claypowder 6.06-9.1%; silver graphite 0.24-0.33%; with water making up the remainder.

  5. Borehole television survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, J.S.O.

    1980-01-01

    The borehole television survey can provide a measure of the orientation, depth, width and aperture of any planar discontinuity intersected by a borehole and a technique is in an advanced stage of development by the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) to make such measurements. Much of its practical application to date has been in crystalline rocks (plutons) at research areas pertaining to the Nuclear Waste Disposal Program in Canada. It also has many other engineering applications where bedrock stability is of particular concern. The equipment required to carry out the survey can be readily transported by two panel trucks with trailers. The components consist of a camera probe, control unit, cable storage reel, cable drive, video-tape recorder, TV monitor and two electrical generators. An inclined planar structure intersected by a borehole appears as an elliptical trace on the wall of the borehole. Such an intersection line shows on the TV monitor as a sinusoidal curve with a high point and a low point as the camera rotates through an angle of 360 degrees. The azimuth of the low point, measured by a compass in the camera probe, represents the direction of the dip of the planar structure. The angle of dip is measured midway between the high and low points or is computed from the maximum-to-minimum distance of the sinusoid and the hole diameter. These observations provide the true orientation of the planar structure if the borehole is vertical. However, if the borehole is inclined, direct observations will only provide the apparent orientation. The true orientation must thus be obtained either by means of stereographic projection or spherical trigonometry. A computer program has been written to calculate the true orientation from the apparent orientation. In the field, observation data are recorded directly on a data record sheet for keypunching and input into the computer

  6. Energy management of a power-split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle based on genetic algorithm and quadratic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zheng; Mi, Chris Chunting; Xiong, Rui; Xu, Jun; You, Chenwen

    2014-02-01

    This paper introduces an online and intelligent energy management controller to improve the fuel economy of a power-split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). Based on analytic analysis between fuel-rate and battery current at different driveline power and vehicle speed, quadratic equations are applied to simulate the relationship between battery current and vehicle fuel-rate. The power threshold at which engine is turned on is optimized by genetic algorithm (GA) based on vehicle fuel-rate, battery state of charge (SOC) and driveline power demand. The optimal battery current when the engine is on is calculated using quadratic programming (QP) method. The proposed algorithm can control the battery current effectively, which makes the engine work more efficiently and thus reduce the fuel-consumption. Moreover, the controller is still applicable when the battery is unhealthy. Numerical simulations validated the feasibility of the proposed controller.

  7. Plug Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, A. [Plug Power Inc., New York, NY (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation described Plug Power's GenDrive hydrogen fuel cell unit that supplies the power needs for folk lift trucks used in high-throughput distribution and high-volume manufacturing operations. The system offers an alternative to lead acid batteries, providing maximum performance at all times during use. The system is particularly useful in the material handling industry, where the revenue generated is based on operator uptime and lift truck productivity. The use of the system allows customers to reduce operational costs and expand valuable floor space by eliminating batteries and associated recharging infrastructure. Fuel cell units also reduce the wear on truck motors. Truck operators can easily and safely refuel at hydrogen fueling stations in 1-5 minutes. GenDrive works with all major OEM lift trucks, making the transition seamless. Commercial customers are investing in this solution to improve their current operations. In 2008, Plug Power sold to Wal-Mart, Bridgestone Firestone and Nestle. Most notably, Central Grocers purchased 220 fuel cell units for a new greenfield distribution center. Plug Power currently has more than 380 systems in operation.

  8. Shielding plugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makishima, Kenji.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: In shielding plugs of an LMFBR type reactor, to restrain natural convection of heat in an annular space between a thermal shield layer and a shield shell, to prevent the lowering of heat-insulation performance, and to alleviate a thermal stress in a reactor container and the shield shell. Constitution: A ring-like leaf spring split in the direction of height is disposed in an annular space between a thermal shield layer and a shield shell. In consequence, the space is partitioned in the direction of height and, therefore, if axial temperature conditions and space width are the same and the space is low, the natural convection is hard to occur. Thus the rise of upper surface temperature of the shielding plugs can prevent the lowering of the heat insulation performance which will result in the increment of shielding plug cooling capacity, thereby improving reliability. In the meantime, since there is mounted an earthquake-resisting support, the thermal shield layer will move for a slight gap in case of an earthquake, being supported by the earthquake-resisting support, and the movement of the thermal shield layer is restricted, thereby maintaining integrity without increasing the stroke of the ring-like spring. (Kawakami, Y.)

  9. Site study plan for Exploratory shaft facilities design foundation boreholes (shaft surface facility foundation borings), Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Surface-based geotechnical field program: Preliminary draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    This site study plan describes the Exploratory Shaft Facilities (ESF) Design Foundation Boreholes field activities to be conducted during early stages of Site Characterization at the Deaf Smith County, Texas, site. The field program has been designed to provide data useful in addressing information/data needs resulting from federal/state/local regulations, and repository program requirements. Approximately 50 foundation boreholes will be drilled within the ESP location to provide data necessary for design of the ESF and to satisfy applicable shaft permitting requirements. Soils and subsurface rock will be sampled as the foundation boreholes are advanced. Soil samples or rock core will be taken through the Blackwater Draw and Ogallala Formations and the Dockum Group. Hydrologic testing will be performed in boreholes that penetrates the water table. In-situ elastic properties will be determined from both the soil strata and rock units along the length of the boreholes. Field methods/tests are chosen that provide the best or only means of obtaining the required data. The Salt Repository Project (SRP) Networks specify the schedule under which the program will operate. Drilling will not begin until after site ground water baseline conditions have been established. The Technical Field Services Contractor is responsible for conducting the field program of drilling and testing. Samples and data will be handled and reported in accordance with established SRP procedures. A quality assurance program will be utilized to assure that activities affecting quality are performed correctly and that the appropriate documentation is maintained. 25 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs

  10. U.S. DOE Geopressured/Geothermal Program: Final report on well plug and abandonment operations and well site restoration, Louisiana and Texas wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1994-08-30

    Some of the critical operations conducted during the plugging and abandonment of the three producing wells of the U.S. DOE GEOPRESSURED/GEOTHERL PROGRAM were witnessed by D-O-R Engineering personnel. All operations witnessed by D-O-R personnel were in compliance with the respective state regulations and were conducted as per D-O-R's recommendations to the Department of Energy and their prime contractor, EG&G Idaho. It is our belief that competent cement plugs were left in all three wells. The following describes the work actually witnessed by D-O-R personnel.

  11. Method of measuring material properties of rock in the wall of a borehole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overmier, David K.

    1985-01-01

    To measure the modulus of elasticity of the rock in the wall of a borehole, a plug is cut in the borehole wall. The plug, its base attached to the surrounding rock, acts as a short column in response to applied forces. A loading piston is applied to the top of the plug and compression of the plug is measured as load is increased. Measurement of piston load and plug longitudinal deformation are made to determine the elastic modulus of the plug material. Poisson's ratio can be determined by simultaneous measurements of longitudinal and lateral deformation of the plug in response to loading. To determine shear modulus, the top of the plug is twisted while measurements are taken of torsional deformation.

  12. Experimental research on sealing of boreholes, shafts and ramps in welded tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuenkajorn, K.

    1996-01-01

    Laboratory and in-situ experiments have been conducted to determine the mechanical and hydraulic performance of cement borehole seals in densely welded Apache Leap tuff. Test results indicate that under saturated conditions, commercial expansive cement can provide good bond strength and adequate hydraulic performance for borehole seal under changing stress conditions. The cement seal should be installed at the intact portion of the opening, and should have a length-to-diameter ratio greater than four. Drying increases borehole plug permeability and decreases mechanical and hydraulic bonds at the plug-rock interface. In-situ testing indicates that installation procedure may significantly affect the cement plug performance

  13. Directional borehole antenna - Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, L.

    1992-02-01

    A directional antenna has been developed for the borehole radar constructed during phase 2 of the Stripa project. The new antenna can determine the azimuth of a strong reflector with an accuracy of about 3 degrees as confirmed during experiments in Stripa, although the ratio of borehole diameter to wavelength is small, about 0.03. The antenna synthesizes the effect of a loop antenna rotating in the borehole from four signals measured in turn by a stationary antenna. These signals are also used to calculate an electric dipole signal and a check sum which is used to examine the function of the system. The theory of directional antennas is reviewed and used to design an antenna consisting of four parallel wires. The radiation pattern of this antenna is calculated using transmission line theory with due regard to polarization, which is of fundamental importance for the analysis of directional data. In particular the multipole expansion of the field is calculated to describe the antenna radiation pattern. Various sources of error, e.g. the effect of the borehole, are discussed and the methods of calibrating the antenna are reviewed. The ambiguity inherent in a loop antenna can be removed by taking the phase of the signal into account. Typical reflectors in rock, e.g. fracture zones an tunnels, may be modelled as simple geometrical structures. The corresponding analysis is described and exemplified on measurements from Stripa. Radar data is nowadays usually analyzed directly on the computer screen using the program RADINTER developed within the Stripa project. An algorithm for automatic estimation of the parameters of a reflector have been tested with some success. The relation between measured radar data and external coordinates as determined by rotational indicators is finally expressed in terms of Euler angles. (au)

  14. Concentration of elements in whole-body fish, fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and fish eggs from the 2008 Missouri Department of Conservation General Contaminant Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.; Brumbaugh, William G.; McKee, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results of a contaminant monitoring survey conducted annually by the Missouri Department of Conservation to examine the levels of selected elemental contaminants in whole-body fish, fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and fish eggs. Whole-body, fillet, or egg samples of catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, Ictalurus furcatus, Pylodictis olivaris), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), walleye (Sander vitreus), crappie (Pomoxis annularis, Pomoxis nigromaculatus), shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus), northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans), and Missouri saddled darter (Etheostoma tetrazonum) were collected from 23 sites as part of the Missouri Department of Conservation's Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program. Fish dorsal muscle plugs also were collected from walleye (Sander vitreus) at one of the sites.

  15. Concentrations of elements in fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and crayfish from the 2007 Missouri Department of Conservation General Contaminant Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.; Brumbaugh, William G.; McKee, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results of a contaminant monitoring survey conducted annually by the Missouri Department of Conservation to examine the levels of selected elemental contaminants in fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and crayfish. Fillets of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), bass (Micropterus salmoides, Micropterus dolomieu, Morone chrysops), walleye (Sander vitreus), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans), and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were collected from 21 sites as part of the Department's Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program. Long-pincered crayfish (Orconectes longidigitus) were collected from one site to assess trophic transfer of metals to fish. Fish muscle plugs were collected from smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) at two different locations from one site.

  16. California Publicly-Owned Utilities (POUs) – LBNL ‘Beyond Widgets’ Project. Task: ambient lighting and occupancy-based plug load control. System Program Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Alastair; Mathew, Paul A.; Regnier, Cynthia; Schwartz, Peter; Schakelford, Jordan; Walter, Travis

    2017-09-01

    This program manual contains detailed technical information for implementing an incentive program for task-ambient lighting and occupancy-based plug load control. This manual was developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, in collaboration with the California Publicly-Owned Utilities (CA POUs) as a partner in the ‘Beyond Widgets’ program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Office. The primary audience for this manual is the program staff of the various CA POUs. It may also be used by other utility incentive programs to help develop similar programs. It is anticipated that the content of this manual be utilized by the CA POU staff for developing related documents such as the Technical Resource Manual and other filings pertaining to the rollout of an energy systems-based rebate incentive program.

  17. Inferring the lithology of borehole rocks by applying neural network classifiers to downhole logs: an example from the Ocean Drilling Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaouda, D.; Wadge, G.; Whitmarsh, R. B.; Rothwell, R. G.; MacLeod, C.

    1999-02-01

    In boreholes with partial or no core recovery, interpretations of lithology in the remainder of the hole are routinely attempted using data from downhole geophysical sensors. We present a practical neural net-based technique that greatly enhances lithological interpretation in holes with partial core recovery by using downhole data to train classifiers to give a global classification scheme for those parts of the borehole for which no core was retrieved. We describe the system and its underlying methods of data exploration, selection and classification, and present a typical example of the system in use. Although the technique is equally applicable to oil industry boreholes, we apply it here to an Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) borehole (Hole 792E, Izu-Bonin forearc, a mixture of volcaniclastic sandstones, conglomerates and claystones). The quantitative benefits of quality-control measures and different subsampling strategies are shown. Direct comparisons between a number of discriminant analysis methods and the use of neural networks with back-propagation of error are presented. The neural networks perform better than the discriminant analysis techniques both in terms of performance rates with test data sets (2-3 per cent better) and in qualitative correlation with non-depth-matched core. We illustrate with the Hole 792E data how vital it is to have a system that permits the number and membership of training classes to be changed as analysis proceeds. The initial classification for Hole 792E evolved from a five-class to a three-class and then to a four-class scheme with resultant classification performance rates for the back-propagation neural network method of 83, 84 and 93 per cent respectively.

  18. Multi-azimuth Anisotropic Velocity Measurements in Fractured Crystalline Rock From the International Continental Drilling Program Outokumpu Borehole, Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schijns, H.; Duo, X.; Heinonen, S.; Schmitt, D. R.; Kukkonen, I. T.; Heikkinen, P.

    2008-12-01

    A high resolution seismic survey consisting of a multi-depth multi-azimuth VSP, a zero-offset VSP and a reflection/refraction survey was conducting in May, 2006, near the town of Outokumpu, Finland, using the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program 2.5 km deep fully cored scientific borehole. The survey was undertaken in order to create an anisotropic velocity model for future micro-seism studies as well as to provide a higher resolution reflection profile through the area than was previously available. The seismic survey high frequency seismic vibrator as a source, employing 8 s linear taper sweeps from 15-250 Hz at 20 m shot spacing. Receivers were 14 Hz single component geophones on the surface and a three component geophone downhole. The walk-away VSP included measurements over two azimuths with the receiver at depths of 1000, 1750 and 2500 m, while the zero-offset VSP used a 2 m depth increment. Surface geophones were located along the same seismic lines as employed in the walk-away VSP and were nominally 4 m apart. The survey area is located on the Fennoscandian shield, and the glacial history of the area required significant static corrections to account for the variable overburden overlying the mica-rich schist and pegmatitic granite composing the bedrock. These were calculated using travel-time inversion of the refraction data and were applied to the walk-away VSP and reflection profiles, significantly improving the quality of both. Anisotropic velocity analysis was performed using a plane-wave decomposition of the processed walk-away VSP. The maximum anisotropy was observed in the walk-away VSPs along the Southeastern azimuth, with the P-wave phase velocity ranging from 5330-5950 m/s between 50-1000 m in depth, and up to 6150 m/s between 1000-1750 m in depth. Shear wave splitting was observed in the Northeastern direction. Preliminary analysis of the zero-offset VSP has revealed shown good agreement with the relevant portions of the

  19. Concentrations of elements in fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and crayfish from the 2011 Missouri Department of Conservation general contaminant monitoring program

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.; Brumbaugh, William G.; McKee, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents the results of a contaminant monitoring survey conducted annually by the Missouri Department of Conservation to examine the levels of selected elemental contaminants in fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and crayfish. Fillet samples of yellow bullhead (Ameiurus natalis), golden redhorse (Moxostoma erythrurum), longear sunfish (Lepomis megalotis), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were collected from six sites as part of the Missouri Department of Conservation’s Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program. Fish dorsal muscle plugs were collected from largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) at eight of the sites, and crayfish from two sites. Following preparation and analysis of the samples, highlights of the data were as follows: cadmium and lead residues were most elevated in crayfish tissue samples from the Big River at Cherokee Landing, with 1 to 8 micrograms per gram dry weight and 22 to 45 micrograms per gram dry weight, respectively. Some dorsal muscle plugs from largemouth bass collected from Clearwater Lake, Lake St. Louis, Noblett Lake, Hazel Creek Lake, and Harrison County Lake contained mercury residues (1.7 to 4.7 micrograms per gram dry weight) that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Water Quality Criterion of 1.5 micrograms per gram dry weight of fish tissue (equivalent to 0.30 micrograms per gram wet weight).

  20. Laboratory studies of fluid flow through borehole seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    Boreholes in the vicinity of a nuclear waste repository must be reliably sealed to prevent rapid migration of radionuclide contaminated water from the vicinity of the repository to the accessible environment. Few data currently exist regarding the effectiveness of borehole sealing. The objective of this research was to assess the performance of borehole seals under laboratory conditions, particularly with regard to varying stress fields. The approach used to evaluate borehole seals was to compare flow through a sealed borehole with flow through intact rock. Granite, basalt, and tuff were tested, using either cement or bentonite as the seal material. The main conclusions reached as a result of the experiments is that currently existing materials are capable of forming high quality seals when placed under laboratory conditions. Variation of triaxial stress state about a borehole does not significantly affect seal performance if the rock is stiffer than the seal material. Temperature/moisture variations (drying) degraded the quality of cement seals significantly. Performance partially recovered upon resaturation. Significant remaining questions include field emplacement techniques; field vertification of plug quality; plug performance over long time periods, particularly with respect to temperature/moisture variations and chemical stability; and radionuclide sorption capabilities. Scale effects are also important, as shafts and drifts must be sealed as well as larger diameter boreholes

  1. Radiation borehole logging method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wylie, A.; Mathew, P.J.

    1977-01-01

    A method of obtaining an indication of the diameter of a borehole is described. The method comprises subjecting the walls of the borehole to monoenergetic gamma radiation and making measurements of the intensity of gamma radiation backscattered from the walls. The energy of the radiation is sufficiently high for the shape to be substantially independent of the density and composition of the borehole walls

  2. Shielding plug device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orii, Shoichi; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Makishima, Kenji.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To reduce the size of and extend the life of a revolving bearing and facilitate the laying of driving cables and duct lines, this being accomplished by providing plug raising means of a fast breeder on a stationary plug mounting base so as to prevent the shearing force of sodium from acting upon the revolving bearing. Structure: The shield plug means comprises a stationary plug secured to the open end of the reactor container, a rotary plug rotatable with respect to the stationary plug, an annular base formed on top of the stationary plug so as to cover the rotary plug, a bearing secured to the rotary plug edge lower face and upper and lower locking plates. At the time of the rotation of the rotary plug, the upper locking plate is withdrawn, the stationary plug is raised to release the seal structure, and the lower locking plate is inserted between the bearing and stationary plug. In this way, smooth rotation of the rotary plug can be obtained. (Horiuchi, T.)

  3. Two BASIC computer programs for the determination of in situ stresses using the CSIRO hollow inclusion stress cell and the USBM borehole deformation gage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W.K.

    1982-01-01

    The mathematical method of determining in-situ stresses by overcoring, using either the U.S. Bureau of Mines Borehole Deformation Gage or the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Hollow Inclusion Stress Cell, is summarized, and data reduction programs for each type of instrument, written in BASIC, are presented. The BASIC programs offer several advantages over previously available FORTRAN programs. They can be executed on a desk-top microcomputer at or near the field site, allowing the investigator to assess the quality of the data and make decisions on the need for additional testing while the crew is still in the field. Also, data input is much simpler than with currently available FORTRAN programs; either English or SI units can be used; and standard deviations of the principal stresses are computed as well as those of the geographic components.

  4. Utility service entrance in boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This study evaluates alternatives for utility service entrances to the repository. We determined the requirements for a repository utility supply. These requirements were defined as safety, maintainability, flexibility, reliability, cost efficiency, voltage regulation, and simplicity of operation. The study showed that repository shafts can best satisfy all requirements for location of the utility supply without the use of borehole penetrations into the repository. It is recommended that the shafts be utilized for utility distribution to the repository, and that the current NWTS program position to minimize the number of boreholes penetrating the repository horizon be maintained. 42 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Mixture for plugging absorption zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitinkov, G V; Kovalenko, N G; Makarov, L V; Zinnatulchin, Ts Kh

    1981-01-17

    A mixture is proposed for plugging absorption zones. The mixture contains synthetic polymer and a solvent. So as to increase the penetrability of the mixture through a reduction in its viscosity and an increase in insulation properties, the compound contains either Capron or Neilon as the synthetic polyamide resin polmyer, and concentrated chloride as the solvent. The mixture is prepared in a special AzINMASh-30 unit (acid cart). After the mixture has been produced, it is injected into the borehole by means of an acid cart pump. So as to prevent coaggulation at the point when the mixture in injected into the stratum through tubes, the mixture is placed betwen chemically inert fluids, for example, a clay mortar. The inert and compressed fluids are injected by means of a cementing unit. The entire process of production and application of the mixture is simple and fully automated through the use of well-known equipment.

  6. Study on sealing of boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    A bibliographical research on the problem of the backfilling and sealing of boreholes, shafts and tunnels for radioactive waste disposal has been carried out. Various materials - both natural and artificial - like clay, industrial cement, polymer concrete, geothermical and magnesium cement have been examined. Their main physico-chemical and durability characteristics have been examined. The problem of the interaction between the sealing and the geological environment has been also dealt. The final subject discussed in the bibliography is the damage caused to the host formation by the excavation of shafts and tunnels. The laboratory tests have been performed on a natural clay and other types of material (cement grout, cement grout with expansive additive, cement mortar and remoulded clay) which have been used as plug materials. The main conclusions obtained from the tests are the following: - The permeability of the cement is lower than the permeability of the clay; - no adhesion was observed between clay and cement mortar, with or without expansive additive, when cured under different ambient conditions, but without any application of load; - When curing took place under load, good adhesion was observed between the clay and the cement mortar; - The flow of water in a specimen consisting of a clay core surrounded by remoulded clay is larger than in the natural clay. These results seem to be caused by the different permeabilities of the remoulded and undisturbed clay and not to depend on flow at the contact between the two materials. A remote instrumentation package for the in situ evaluation of the performance of a plug, has been developed. In order to get rid of the uncertainty associated with the infiltration of the cables through the plug a wireless data transmission system, based on acoustic waves, has been developed

  7. Reactor vessel sealing plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dooley, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to an apparatus and method for sealing the cold leg nozzles of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel from a remote location during maintenance and inspection of associated steam generators and pumps while the pressure vessel and refueling canal are filled with water. The apparatus includes a sealing plug for mechanically sealing the cold leg nozzle from the inside of a reactor pressure vessel. The sealing plugs include a primary and a secondary O-ring. An installation tool is suspended within the reactor vessel and carries the sealing plug. The tool telescopes to insert the sealing plug within the cold leg nozzle, and to subsequently remove the plug. Hydraulic means are used to activate the sealing plug, and support means serve to suspend the installation tool within the reactor vessel during installation and removal of the sealing plug

  8. Drill pipe bridge plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winslow, D.W.; Brisco, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a method of stopping flow of fluid up through a pipe bore of a pipe string in a well. It comprises: lowering a bridge plug apparatus on a work string into the pipe string to a position where the pipe bore is to be closed; communicating the pipe bore below a packer of the bridge plug apparatus through the bridge plug apparatus with a low pressure zone above the packer to permit the fluid to flow up through the bridge plug apparatus; engaging the bridge plug apparatus with an internal upset of the pipe string; while the fluid is flowing up through the bridge plug apparatus, pulling upward on the work string and the bridge plug apparatus and thereby sealing the packer against the pipe bore; isolating the pipe bore below the packer from the low pressure zone above the packer and thereby stopping flow of the fluid up through the pipe bore; disconnecting the work string from the bridge plug apparatus; and maintaining the bridge plug apparatus in engagement with the internal upset and sealed against the pipe bore due to an upward pressure differential applied to the bridge plug apparatus by the fluid contained therebelow

  9. The DOPAS full-scale demonstation of plugs and seals project and related GRS national RD and D programs. A retrospective view on 24-month of investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czaikowski, Oliver; Meyer, Thorsten; Miehe, Ruediger [GRS mbH, Braunschweig (Germany). Final Repository Safety Div.

    2015-07-01

    The DOPAS Full-Scale Demonstration of Plugs and Seals project consisting of 14 beneficiaries from 8 European countries brings forward important demonstration activities in plugging and sealing. These activities are also a part of each participants national long-term RD and D programm and are therefore jointly funded by Euratom's Seventh Framework Programme and national funding organizations. The Demonstration experiments which will be partially or wholly implemented during the DOPAS project are a full-scale seal (FSS) implemented in Saint-Dizier in France, an experimental pressure sealing plug (EPSP) underground in the Josef Gallery in Czech Republic, a deposition tunnel dome plug (DOMPLU) in the AespoeHard Rock Laboratory in Sweden, a deposition tunnel wedge plug (POPLU) in the underground rock characterization facility ONKALO (future spent fuel repository) in Finland, and components of a shaft sealing system (ELSA) in Germany (Dopas 2012). ELSA is a program of laboratory and in-situ experiments that will be used to further develop the reference shaft seal for the German disposal concept for a repository in rock salt and to develop reference shaft seals for a repository in clay host rocks (Kudla et al. 2013). On behalf of BMWi, the national funding organization for R and D work related to radioactive waste management, facing the ELSA project phase 3, GRS is investigating sealing and backfilling materials planned to be utilized in salt and clay formations. The program aims at providing experimental data needed for the theoretical analysis of the long-term sealing capacity of these sealing materials. According to current R and D work on the salt option, the shaft and drift seal components considered in Germany comprise seal components consisting of MgO and cement based salt concrete (Mueller-Hoeppe et al. 2012). In order to demonstrate hydro-mechanical material stability under representative load scenarios, the sealing capacity of the seal system and the impact

  10. Global Optimal Energy Management Strategy Research for a Plug-In Series-Parallel Hybrid Electric Bus by Using Dynamic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwen He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy management strategy influences the power performance and fuel economy of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles greatly. To explore the fuel-saving potential of a plug-in hybrid electric bus (PHEB, this paper searched the global optimal energy management strategy using dynamic programming (DP algorithm. Firstly, the simplified backward model of the PHEB was built which is necessary for DP algorithm. Then the torque and speed of engine and the torque of motor were selected as the control variables, and the battery state of charge (SOC was selected as the state variables. The DP solution procedure was listed, and the way was presented to find all possible control variables at every state of each stage in detail. Finally, the appropriate SOC increment is determined after quantizing the state variables, and then the optimal control of long driving distance of a specific driving cycle is replaced with the optimal control of one driving cycle, which reduces the computational time significantly and keeps the precision at the same time. The simulation results show that the fuel economy of the PEHB with the optimal energy management strategy is improved by 53.7% compared with that of the conventional bus, which can be a benchmark for the assessment of other control strategies.

  11. Online Energy Management of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles for Prolongation of All-Electric Range Based on Dynamic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyu Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The employed energy management strategy plays an important role in energy saving performance and exhausted emission reduction of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs. An application of dynamic programming for optimization of power allocation is implemented in this paper with certain driving cycle and a limited driving range. Considering the DP algorithm can barely be used in real-time control because of its huge computational task and the dependence on a priori driving cycle, several online useful control rules are established based on the offline optimization results of DP. With the above efforts, an online energy management strategy is proposed finally. The presented energy management strategy concerns the prolongation of all-electric driving range as well as the energy saving performance. A simulation study is deployed to evaluate the control performance of the proposed energy management approach. All-electric range of the plug-in HEV can be prolonged by up to 2.86% for a certain driving condition. The energy saving performance is relative to the driving distance. The presented energy management strategy brings a little higher energy cost when driving distance is short, but for a long driving distance, it can reduce the energy consumption by up to 5.77% compared to the traditional CD-CS strategy.

  12. Borehole sealing literature review of performance requirements and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccinin, D.; Hooton, R.D.

    1985-02-01

    To ensure the safe disposal of nuclear wastes, all potential pathways for radionuclide release to the biosphere must be effectively sealed. This report presents a summary of the literature up to August 1982 and outlines the placement, mechanical property and durability-stability requirements for borehole sealing. An outline of the materials that have been considered for possible use in borehole sealing is also included. Cement grouts are recommended for further study since it is indicated in the literature that cement grouts offer the best opportunity of effectively sealing boreholes employing present technology. However, new and less well known materials should also be researched to ensure that the best possible borehole plugging system is developed. 78 refs

  13. Condensed listing of surface boreholes at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Project through 31 December 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, L.R.; Aguilar, R.; Mercer, J.W.; Newman, G.

    1997-01-01

    This report contains a condensed listing of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project surface boreholes drilled for the purpose of site selection and characterization through 31 December 1995. The US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored the drilling activities, which were conducted primarily by Sandia National Laboratories. The listing provides physical attributes such as location (township, range, section, and state-plane coordinates), elevation, and total borehole depth, as well as the purpose for the borehole, drilling dates, and information about extracted cores. The report also presents the hole status (plugged, testing, monitoring, etc.) and includes salient findings and references. Maps with borehole locations and times-of-drilling charts are included

  14. Tube plug removal machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    In a nuclear steam generator wherein some faulty tubes have been isolated by mechanical plugging, to remove a selected plug without damaging the associated tube, a plug removal machine is used. The machine drills into a plug portion with a tap drill bit having a drill portion a tap portion and a threaded portion, engaging that plug portion with the threaded portion after the drilled hole has been threaded by the tap portion thereof, and removing a portion of the plug in the tube with a counterbore drill bit mounted concentrically about the tap drill bit. A trip pin and trip spline disengage the tap drill bit from the motor. The counterbore drill bit is thereafter self-centered with respect to the tube and plug about the now stationary tap drill bit. After a portion of the plug has been removed by the counterbore drill bit, pulling on the top drill bit by grippers on slots will remove the remaining plug portion from the tube. (author)

  15. Geophysical logging of the Harwell boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brightman, M.A.

    1983-08-01

    A comprehensive geophysical borehole logging survey was carried out on each of three deep boreholes drilled at the Harwell research site. KOALA and PETRA computer programs were used to analyse and interpret the logs to obtain continuous quantitative estimates of the geological and hydrogeological properties of the sequences penetrated at the Harwell site. Quantitative estimates of the mineral composition and porosity of the cores samples were made. (UK)

  16. Comparisons of Energy Management Methods for a Parallel Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle between the Convex Optimization and Dynamic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renxin Xiao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a comparison study of energy management methods for a parallel plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV. Based on detailed analysis of the vehicle driveline, quadratic convex functions are presented to describe the nonlinear relationship between engine fuel-rate and battery charging power at different vehicle speed and driveline power demand. The engine-on power threshold is estimated by the simulated annealing (SA algorithm, and the battery power command is achieved by convex optimization with target of improving fuel economy, compared with the dynamic programming (DP based method and the charging depleting–charging sustaining (CD/CS method. In addition, the proposed control methods are discussed at different initial battery state of charge (SOC values to extend the application. Simulation results validate that the proposed strategy based on convex optimization can save the fuel consumption and reduce the computation burden obviously.

  17. Final report on decommissioning boreholes and wellsite restoration, Gulf Coast Interior Salt Domes of Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    In 1978, eight salt domes in Texas, Louisiana, and Mississippi were identified for study as potential locations for a nuclear waste repository as part of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program. Three domes were selected in Mississippi for ''area characterization'' phase study as follows: Lampton Dome near Columbia, Cypress Creek Dome near New Augusta, and Richton Dome near Richton. The purpose of the studies was to acquire geologic and geohydrologic information from shallow and deep drilling investigations to enable selection of sites suitable for more intensive study. Eleven deep well sites were selected for multiple-well installations to acquire information on the lithologic and hydraulic properties of regional aquifers. In 1986, the Gulf Coast salt domes were eliminated from further consideration for repository development by the selection of three candidate sites in other regions of the country. In 1987, well plugging and restoration of these deferred sites became a closeout activity. The primary objectives of this activity are to plug and abandon all wells and boreholes in accordance with state regulations, restore all drilling sites to as near original condition as feasible, and convey to landowners any wells on their property that they choose to maintain. This report describes the activities undertaken to accomplish these objectives, as outlines in Activity Plan 1--2, ''Activity Plan for Well Plugging and Site Restoration of Test Hole Sites in Mississippi.''

  18. Sealing of investigation boreholes, Phase 4 - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, Roland [Drawrite AB, Luleaa Technical University, Luleaa (Sweden); Ramqvist, Gunnar [El-Tekno AB, Figeholm (Sweden); Bockgaard, Niclas [Golder Associates, Goeteborg (Sweden); Ekman, Lennart [LE Geokonsult AB, Baelinge (Sweden)

    2011-09-15

    The report describes the outcome of Phase 4 of the project 'Sealing of investigation boreholes', which deals with 1) characterization and planning of borehole sealing, 2) performance and quality assessment, 3) sealing of large diameter holes, and 4) interaction of clay and concrete plugs. A specific goal was to find ways to characterize, plan and seal of boreholes so that their impact on the overall hydraulic performance of the repository rock can predicted and controlled. The work comprised selection of representative 'reference holes' at the Laxemar and Forsmark sites for development of a general programme for planning and simulating implementation of borehole plugging campaigns, considering also cost issues. A second aim was to define and quantify the role of seals in the reference holes for finding out how important sealing really is. A third was to test a practical way to seal large diameter boreholes and a fourth to find out how concrete matures and performs in contact with smectite clay. The study demonstrated, in conclusion, the need for developing techniques for preparing deep boreholes before lasting seals are installed in them, since poor sealing can short-circuit hydraulically important fracture zones intersected by the holes. The practically oriented sealing activities showed that the technique developed for tight sealing of large-diameter boreholes is practical and feasible. The issue of chemical stability was investigated by testing the performance and constitution of a plug consisting of CBI concrete in contact with smectite-rich seals for almost three years. This study showed that none of them underwent substantial degradation in this period of time, but chemical reactions and thereby generated changes in physical behaviour of the plug components had taken place, particularly in the clay. The rate of degradation is, however, not yet known. It was concluded from this study that it is suitable to carry out a corresponding

  19. Sealing of investigation boreholes, Phase 4 - Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, Roland; Ramqvist, Gunnar; Bockgaard, Niclas; Ekman, Lennart

    2011-09-01

    The report describes the outcome of Phase 4 of the project 'Sealing of investigation boreholes', which deals with 1) characterization and planning of borehole sealing, 2) performance and quality assessment, 3) sealing of large diameter holes, and 4) interaction of clay and concrete plugs. A specific goal was to find ways to characterize, plan and seal of boreholes so that their impact on the overall hydraulic performance of the repository rock can predicted and controlled. The work comprised selection of representative 'reference holes' at the Laxemar and Forsmark sites for development of a general programme for planning and simulating implementation of borehole plugging campaigns, considering also cost issues. A second aim was to define and quantify the role of seals in the reference holes for finding out how important sealing really is. A third was to test a practical way to seal large diameter boreholes and a fourth to find out how concrete matures and performs in contact with smectite clay. The study demonstrated, in conclusion, the need for developing techniques for preparing deep boreholes before lasting seals are installed in them, since poor sealing can short-circuit hydraulically important fracture zones intersected by the holes. The practically oriented sealing activities showed that the technique developed for tight sealing of large-diameter boreholes is practical and feasible. The issue of chemical stability was investigated by testing the performance and constitution of a plug consisting of CBI concrete in contact with smectite-rich seals for almost three years. This study showed that none of them underwent substantial degradation in this period of time, but chemical reactions and thereby generated changes in physical behaviour of the plug components had taken place, particularly in the clay. The rate of degradation is, however, not yet known. It was concluded from this study that it is suitable to carry out a corresponding investigation of the plugs

  20. Removable pipeline plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassalotti, M.; Anastasi, F.

    1984-01-01

    A removable plugging device for a pipeline, and particularly for pressure testing a steam pipeline in a boiling water reactor, wherein an inflatable annular sealing member seals off the pipeline and characterized by radially movable shoes for holding the plug in place, each shoe being pivotally mounted for self-adjusting engagement with even an out-of-round pipeline interior

  1. Retained Herrick Plug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin B. Hellman

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A 79-year-old female with a history of keratoconjunctivitis sicca presented with several years of epiphora of both eyes. Thirteen years earlier, intracanalicular Herrick lacrimal plugs (Lacrimedics, Eastsound, WA, USA had been placed in both eyes to treat her dry eye syndrome. After 13 years the patient felt the epiphora was intolerable and underwent endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR of the left, then the right side. Intraoperatively, during the right endoscopic DCR, a Herrick lacrimal plug was found in the common canaliculus into the lacrimal sac. Postoperatively, the patient did well with improved epiphora. The Herrick plug is designed to be intracanalicular, and this case illustrates that the plug can migrate and be retained for many years. Collared punctal plugs have a lower risk of this type of complication.

  2. Friction Pull Plug Welding in Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, Shane A.; Bradford, Vann

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has recently invested much time and effort into the process development of Friction Pull Plug Welding (FPPW). FPPW, is a welding process similar to Friction Push Plug Welding in that, there is a small rotating part (plug) being spun and simultaneously pulled (forged) into a larger part. These two processes differ, in that push plug welding requires an internal reaction support, while pull plug welding reacts to the load externally. FPPW was originally conceived as a post proof repair technique for the Space Shuttle fs External Tank. FPPW was easily selected as the primary weld process used to close out the termination hole on the Constellation Program's ARES I Upper Stage circumferential Self-Reacting Friction Stir Welds (SR-FSW). The versatility of FPPW allows it to also be used as a repair technique for both SR-FSW and Conventional Friction Stir Welds. To date, all MSFC led development has been concentrated on aluminum alloys (2195, 2219, and 2014). Much work has been done to fully understand and characterize the process's limitations. A heavy emphasis has been spent on plug design, to match the various weldland thicknesses and alloy combinations. This presentation will summarize these development efforts including weld parameter development, process control, parameter sensitivity studies, plug repair techniques, material properties including tensile, fracture and failure analysis.

  3. U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program: Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christophersen, Jon P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office. It is based on technical targets for commercial viability established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, future revisions including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures are expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices. The DOE-United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) supported the development of the manual. Technical Team points of contact responsible for its development and revision are Renata M. Arsenault of Ford Motor Company and Jon P. Christophersen of the Idaho National Laboratory. The development of this manual was funded by the Unites States Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Technical direction from DOE was provided by David Howell, Energy Storage R&D Manager and Hybrid Electric Systems Team Leader. Comments and questions regarding the manual should be directed to Jon P. Christophersen at the Idaho National Laboratory (jon.christophersen@inl.gov).

  4. Borehole induction coil transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Gale; Wilt, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    A borehole induction coil transmitter which is a part of a cross-borehole electromagnetic field system that is used for underground imaging applications. The transmitter consists of four major parts: 1) a wound ferrite or mu-metal core, 2) an array of tuning capacitors, 3) a current driver circuit board, and 4) a flux monitor. The core is wound with several hundred turns of wire and connected in series with the capacitor array, to produce a tuned coil. This tuned coil uses internal circuitry to generate sinusoidal signals that are transmitted through the earth to a receiver coil in another borehole. The transmitter can operate at frequencies from 1-200 kHz and supplies sufficient power to permit the field system to operate in boreholes separated by up to 400 meters.

  5. Recent developments in plugging of steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buhay, S.; Abucay, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    Mechanical Plugging capability has been developed for Bruce Nuclear Generating Station (BNGS) steam generator (SG) tubes and Darlington Nuclear Generating Station (DNGS) SG tubes and tubesheet holes. The plug concept was a modified ABB/Combustion Engineering Inconel 690 plug with a nickel band, rolled into the tube or tubesheet hole from the primary side of the tubesheet. The qualification program included analytical justification of the plug body and experimental testing to verify the leak tightness of the rolled joint under conditions which meet or exceed all service or design requirements. Tools and procedures were developed and tested for manual and remote/robotic installation and removal of the mechanical plugs. Additionally, tools and procedures were developed to plug tubes/tubesheet holes at DNGS in the event the steam generator is recalled to service to act as a heat sink. A crew of Ontario Hydro personnel were trained and qualified for the installation of mechanical plugs for permanent and recall applications. During the DNGS Unit 4 spring 1995 outage, 6 tubes were plugged and the 'Recall Plugging Capability' was deployed and ready for use during a primary side SG tube removal. The mechanical plugs were installed manually with a typical 3 minute/plug in-bowl duration time with an average radiation dose of 12.5 mrem per plug. This compares favourably with manual plug welding during the same outage in the same SG bowl at approximately 15-30 minutes/plug in-bowl duration with an average radiation dose of 117 mrem/plug. (author)

  6. Plug Load Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We provide MATLAB binary files (.mat) and comma separated values files of data collected from a pilot study of a plug load management system that allows for the...

  7. Final report on decommissioning of wells, boreholes, and tiltmeter sites, Gulf Coast Interior Salt Domes of Louisiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    In the late 1970s, test holes were drilled in northern Louisiana in the vicinity of Vacherie and Rayburn's Salt Domes as part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) (rename the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (CRWM)) program. The purpose of the program was to evaluate the suitability of salt domes for long term storage or disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The Institute for Environmental Studies at Louisiana State University (IES/LSU) and Law Engineering Testing Company (LETCo) of Marietta, Georgia performed the initial field studies. In 1982, DOE awarded a contract to the Earth Technology Corporation (TETC) of Long Beach, California to continue the Gulf Coast Salt Dome studies. In 1986, DOE deferred salt domes from further consideration as repository sites. This report describes test well plugging and site abandonment activities performed by SWEC in accordance with Activity Plan (AP) 1--3, Well Plugging and Site Restoration of Work Sites in Louisiana. The objective of the work outlined in this AP was to return test sites to as near original condition as possible by plugging boreholes, removing equipment, regrading, and seeding. Appendices to this report contain forms required by State of Louisiana, used by SWEC to document decommissioning activities, and pertinent documentation related to lease/access agreements

  8. Final report on decommissioning of wells, boreholes, and tiltmeter sites, Gulf Coast Interior Salt Domes of Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-07-01

    In the late 1970s, test holes were drilled in northern Louisiana in the vicinity of Vacherie and Rayburn`s Salt Domes as part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) (rename the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (CRWM)) program. The purpose of the program was to evaluate the suitability of salt domes for long term storage or disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The Institute for Environmental Studies at Louisiana State University (IES/LSU) and Law Engineering Testing Company (LETCo) of Marietta, Georgia performed the initial field studies. In 1982, DOE awarded a contract to the Earth Technology Corporation (TETC) of Long Beach, California to continue the Gulf Coast Salt Dome studies. In 1986, DOE deferred salt domes from further consideration as repository sites. This report describes test well plugging and site abandonment activities performed by SWEC in accordance with Activity Plan (AP) 1--3, Well Plugging and Site Restoration of Work Sites in Louisiana. The objective of the work outlined in this AP was to return test sites to as near original condition as possible by plugging boreholes, removing equipment, regrading, and seeding. Appendices to this report contain forms required by State of Louisiana, used by SWEC to document decommissioning activities, and pertinent documentation related to lease/access agreements.

  9. PLUGGING AND UNPLUGGING OF WASTE TRANSFER PIPELINES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    This project, which began in FY97, involves both the flow loop research on plugging and unplugging of waste transfer pipelines, and the large-scale industrial equipment test of plugging locating and unplugging technologies. In FY98, the related work was performed under the project name ''Mixing, Settling, and Pipe Unplugging of Waste Transfer Lines.'' The mixing, settling, and pipeline plugging and unplugging are critical to the design and maintenance of a waste transfer pipeline system, especially for the High-Level Waste (HLW) pipeline transfer. The major objective of this work is to recreate pipeline plugging conditions for equipment testing of plug locating and removal and to provide systematic operating data for modification of equipment design and enhancement of performance of waste transfer lines used at DOE sites. As the waste tank clean-out and decommissioning program becomes active at the DOE sites, there is an increasing potential that the waste slurry transfer lines will become plugged and unable to transport waste slurry from one tank to another or from the mixing tank to processing facilities. Transfer systems may potentially become plugged if the solids concentration of the material being transferred increases beyond the capability of the prime mover or if upstream mixing is inadequately performed. Plugging can occur due to the solids' settling in either the mixing tank, the pumping system, or the transfer lines. In order to enhance and optimize the slurry's removal and transfer, refined and reliable data on the mixing, sampling, and pipe unplugging systems must be obtained based on both laboratory-scale and simulated in-situ operating conditions

  10. Measuring depth in boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodson, G.M.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to a method of determining the depth of rock strata and other features of a borehole. It may be employed with particular advantage when access to the top of the borehole is difficult, for example in underwater operations. A radioactive marker, such as a source of gamma rays, is positioned near the top of the riser of a sub-sea wellhead structure. A radiation detector is lowered between the marker and a radioactive stratum and the length of line supplied is measured on the floating platform. This enables the depth of the stratum to be measured irrespective of tidal variations of the height of the platform. (U.K.)

  11. Deep boreholes; Tiefe Bohrloecher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracke, Guido [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit gGmbH Koeln (Germany); Charlier, Frank [NSE international nuclear safety engineering gmbh, Aachen (Germany); Geckeis, Horst [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany). Inst. fuer Nukleare Entsorgung; and others

    2016-02-15

    The report on deep boreholes covers the following subject areas: methods for safe enclosure of radioactive wastes, requirements concerning the geological conditions of possible boreholes, reversibility of decisions and retrievability, status of drilling technology. The introduction covers national and international activities. Further chapters deal with the following issues: basic concept of the storage in deep bore holes, status of the drilling technology, safe enclosure, geomechanics and stability, reversibility of decisions, risk scenarios, compliancy with safe4ty requirements and site selection criteria, research and development demand.

  12. Plug-in Hybrid Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, Angie; Moore, Ray; Rowden, Tim

    2013-09-27

    Our main project objective was to implement Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) and charging infrastructure into our electric distribution service territory and help reduce barriers in the process. Our research demonstrated the desire for some to be early adopters of electric vehicles and the effects lack of education plays on others. The response of early adopters was tremendous: with the initial launch of our program we had nearly 60 residential customers interested in taking part in our program. However, our program only allowed for 15 residential participants. Our program provided assistance towards purchasing a PEV and installation of Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE). The residential participants have all come to love their PEVs and are more than enthusiastic about promoting the many benefits of driving electric.

  13. Rotary plug seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Koji; Abiko, Yoshihiro.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To enable fuel exchange even upon failure of regular seals and also to enable safety seal exchange by the detection of the reduction in the contact pressure of a rotary plug seal. Constitution: If one of a pair of regular tube seals for the rotary plug is failed during ordinary operation of a FBR type reactor, the reduction in the contact pressure of the seal to the plug gibbousness is detected by a pressure gauge and a solenoid valve is thereby closed. Thus, a back-up-tube seal provided above or below the tube seal is press-contacted by way of argon gas to the gibbousness to enter into operation state and lubricants are supplied from an oil tank. In such a structure, the back-up-tube seal is operated before the failure of the tube seal to enable to continue the fuel exchange work, as well as safety exchange for the tube seal. (Moriyama, K.)

  14. Core barrel plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolino, R.W.; Hopkins, R.J.; Congleton, R.L.; Popalis, C.H.

    1986-01-01

    A plug is described for preventing flow through a port in a core barrel of a pressurized water nuclear reactor which consists of: a substantially cylindrical body formed with a cylindrical portion and a flange and defining a tapered leading open end with the other end being closed by an end plug attached to the flange, the body defining a bore therein extending from the open end to the end plug with the bore having a smaller diameter near the open end than near the end plug, the cylindrical portion having a lip near the open end and being formed with longitudinal slots extending from the open end toward the flange and extending entirely through the thickness of the cylindrical portion, the cylindrical portion having a circumferential first groove on the outer surface thereof located near the forwardmost portion of the cylindrical portion but not in the section of the cylindrical portion that has the slots therein, and a plurality of circumferential second grooves on the outer surface thereof located in the section of the cylindrical portion that has the slots therein, the first and second grooves establishing a seal between the cylindrical portion and the inside surface of the port when the cylindrical portion is expanded, and the flange and the end plug having a passageway defined therein for introducing a fluid into the body; a metal ring disposed in each of the second grooves; a mandrel slidably disposed and captured in the body and capable of being moved toward the open end of the body when the fluid is introduced through the passageway, thereby causing the cylindrical portion to be expanded into contact with the inside surface of the port; and a locking mechanism disposed in the end plug for preventing inadvertent movement of the mandrel

  15. Borehole DC-12 hydrostratigraphic chart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gephart, R.E.

    1981-09-01

    This hydrostratigraphic chart identifies the basic stratigraphy and preliminary hydrologic testing results for Borehole DC-12. This borehole was cored through the Saddle Mountains and Wanapum basalt formations and into the Grande Ronde. Selected zones were hydrologically tested during coring

  16. Borehole DC-14 hydrostratigraphic chart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gephart, R.E.

    1981-09-01

    This hydrostratigraphic chart identifies the basic stratigraphy and preliminary hydrologic testing results for Borehole DC-14. This borehole was cored through the Saddle Mountains and Wanapum basalt formations and into the Grande Ronde. Selected zones were hydrologically tested during coring

  17. Borehole DC-15 hydrostratigraphic chart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gephart, R.E.

    1981-09-01

    This hydrostratigraphic chart identifies the basic stratigraphy and preliminary hydrologic testing results for Borehole DC-15. This borehole was cored through the Saddle Mountains and Wanapum basalt formations and into the Grande Ronde. Selected zones were hydrologically tested during coring

  18. Borehole logging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, L.S.

    1988-01-01

    A radioactive borehole logging tool employs an epithermal neutron detector having a neutron counter surrounded by an inner thermal neutron filter and an outer thermal neutron filter. Located between the inner and outer filters is a neutron moderating material for extending the lifetime of epithermal neutrons to enhance the counting rate of such epithermal neutrons by the neutron counter

  19. Geophysical borehole logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCann, D.; Barton, K.J.; Hearn, K.

    1981-08-01

    Most of the available literature on geophysical borehole logging refers to studies carried out in sedimentary rocks. It is only in recent years that any great interest has been shown in geophysical logging in boreholes in metamorphic and igneous rocks following the development of research programmes associated with geothermal energy and nuclear waste disposal. This report is concerned with the programme of geophysical logging carried out on the three deep boreholes at Altnabreac, Caithness, to examine the effectiveness of these methods in crystalline rock. Of particular importance is the assessment of the performance of the various geophysical sondes run in the boreholes in relation to the rock mass properties. The geophysical data can be used to provide additional in-situ information on the geological, hydrogeological and engineering properties of the rock mass. Fracturing and weathering in the rock mass have a considerable effect on both the design parameters for an engineering structure and the flow of water through the rock mass; hence, the relation between the geophysical properties and the degree of fracturing and weathering is examined in some detail. (author)

  20. Interaction of clay and concrete plugs - Plugging of 5 m deep hole KA1621G01 at Aespoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, Roland [Drawrite AB, Lund (Sweden); Luleaa Technical Univ., Luleaa (Sweden); Ramqvist, Gunnar [Eltekno AB, Figeholm (Sweden)

    2011-11-15

    Sealing of deep boreholes in repository rock is planned to be made by installing dense smectite clay plugs where the rock is low-permeable and casting concrete where the holes intersect water-bearing fracture zones. Such zones have to be stabilized before sealing starts because fragments of rock can otherwise fall off and make it difficult to bring equipment for concrete casting and clay plug units down. These parts of the holes are filled with concrete and clay plugs are then inserted up to the nearest fracture zone where concrete is filled to the required level etc. The role of the concrete in the hole and in the closest part of the surrounding fracture zone is to provide stable parts that are sufficiently fine-porous to prevent clay particles from contacting clay plugs to migrate into the fractures and be lost by erosion. While the larger parts of long clay plugs are believed to stay largely intact chemically for hundreds of thousands of years, the parts adjacent to concrete plugs may undergo changes and so can the concrete plugs themselves. The objective of the presently reported project was to identify the detailed processes and quantify associated changes in physical properties by investigating samples of clay and concrete from a 2.5 m long plug of clay over which an equally long concrete plug had been cast and left to rest for 3 years. The outcome of the investigations was that significant chemically induced changes in mineralogy and physical performance had occurred within a few centimetres distance from the clay/concrete contact but that virtually no changes had taken place at larger distance. A comprehensive laboratory study including X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and electron microscopy study (SEM and TEM) on the sample material was performed including also dual beam (combined ion and electron) microscopy. It was found that the clay had infiltrated the contacting concrete plug after filling of the borehole since clay was detected both

  1. Interaction of clay and concrete plugs - Plugging of 5 m deep hole KA1621G01 at Aespoe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, Roland; Ramqvist, Gunnar

    2011-11-01

    Sealing of deep boreholes in repository rock is planned to be made by installing dense smectite clay plugs where the rock is low-permeable and casting concrete where the holes intersect water-bearing fracture zones. Such zones have to be stabilized before sealing starts because fragments of rock can otherwise fall off and make it difficult to bring equipment for concrete casting and clay plug units down. These parts of the holes are filled with concrete and clay plugs are then inserted up to the nearest fracture zone where concrete is filled to the required level etc. The role of the concrete in the hole and in the closest part of the surrounding fracture zone is to provide stable parts that are sufficiently fine-porous to prevent clay particles from contacting clay plugs to migrate into the fractures and be lost by erosion. While the larger parts of long clay plugs are believed to stay largely intact chemically for hundreds of thousands of years, the parts adjacent to concrete plugs may undergo changes and so can the concrete plugs themselves. The objective of the presently reported project was to identify the detailed processes and quantify associated changes in physical properties by investigating samples of clay and concrete from a 2.5 m long plug of clay over which an equally long concrete plug had been cast and left to rest for 3 years. The outcome of the investigations was that significant chemically induced changes in mineralogy and physical performance had occurred within a few centimetres distance from the clay/concrete contact but that virtually no changes had taken place at larger distance. A comprehensive laboratory study including X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and electron microscopy study (SEM and TEM) on the sample material was performed including also dual beam (combined ion and electron) microscopy. It was found that the clay had infiltrated the contacting concrete plug after filling of the borehole since clay was detected both

  2. Final report of the borehole, shaft and tunnel sealing test. Vol.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.; Boergesson, L.; Ramqvist, G.

    1987-01-01

    The Borehole Plugging Experiment comprised field tests of the sealing function and the practicality in handling and application of plugs consisting of segments of perforated metal casings filled with cylindrical blocks of highly compacted sodium bentonite. Preparative tests had shown that the clay swells out through the perforation and embeds the casings. The field tests demonstrated that even very long holes can be effectively sealed by such plugs and that the clay becomes very homogeneous and forms a tight contact with the rock in a relatively short time. By that the plugs become practically impervious and the flow along the clay/rock contact will be insignificant. The longevity of such plugs extends over several thousand years under the conditions that usually prevail in crystalline rock. (authors)

  3. Excess plutonium disposition: The deep borehole option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, K.L.

    1994-01-01

    This report reviews the current status of technologies required for the disposition of plutonium in Very Deep Holes (VDH). It is in response to a recent National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report which addressed the management of excess weapons plutonium and recommended three approaches to the ultimate disposition of excess plutonium: (1) fabrication and use as a fuel in existing or modified reactors in a once-through cycle, (2) vitrification with high-level radioactive waste for repository disposition, (3) burial in deep boreholes. As indicated in the NAS report, substantial effort would be required to address the broad range of issues related to deep bore-hole emplacement. Subjects reviewed in this report include geology and hydrology, design and engineering, safety and licensing, policy decisions that can impact the viability of the concept, and applicable international programs. Key technical areas that would require attention should decisions be made to further develop the borehole emplacement option are identified

  4. Providing free autopoweroff plugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten Lynge; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Fjordbak, Troels

    2012-01-01

    Experimental evidence of the effect of providing households with cheap energy saving technology is sparse. We present results from a field experiment in which autopoweroff plugs were provided free of charge to randomly selected households. We use propensity score matching to find treatment effects...

  5. Fuel rod end plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGeary, R.K.; Bucher, G.D.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes an end plug for welded disposition within the end of a tube. It comprises a circumferentially extending, axially oriented land surface, having a radial extent defined by means of a first predetermined dimension, for disposition within the end of the tube; a circumferentially extending, axially oriented land surface, having a radial extent defined by means of a second predetermined dimension which is greater than the first predetermined dimension, for disposition outside of the end of the tube. The second land surface being disposed upstream of the first land surface; an annularly extending, radially oriented shoulder portion, defined at the downstream end of the second land surface and having a radially inward depth which is greater than the difference defined between the first and second radial dimensions of the first and second land surfaces, for engaging the end of the tube in a butt contact fashion; and annular groove means defined between the upstream end of the first land surface and the shoulder portion of the end plug, for eliminating porosity defects normally developed within a weldment defined between the tube end and the end plug when the end plug is welded within the tube end, and including a conical surface which extends radially outwardly from the innermost radial depth extent of the shoulder portion to the upstream end of the first land surface

  6. Borehole sealing with highly compactd Na bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.

    1981-12-01

    This report describes the use of highly compacted Na bentonite for borehole plugging. Bentonites have an extremely low permeability and a low diffusivity, and a swelling ability which produces a nonleaching boundary between clay and rock if the initial bulk density of the bentonite is sufficiently high. The suggested technique, which is applicable to long vertical, and inclined, as well as horizontal boreholes, is based on the use of perforated copper pipes to insert elements of compacted bentonite. Such pipe segments are connected at the rock surface and successively inserted in the hole. When the hole is equipped, the clay takes up water spontaneously and swells through the perforation, and ultimately forms an almost completely homogenous clay core. It embeds the pipe which is left in the hole. Several tests were conducted in the laboratory and one field test was run in Stripa. They all showed that a gel soon fills the slot between the pipe and the confinement which had the form of metal pipes in the laboratory investigations. Subsequently, more clay migrates through the perforation and produces a stiff clay filling in the slot. The redistribution of minerals, leading ultimately to a high degree of homogeneity, can be described as a diffusion process. The rate of redistribution depends on the joint geometry and water flow pattern in the rock. In the rock with an average joint frequence of one per meter or higher, very good homogeneity and sealing ability of the clay are expected within a few months after the application of the plug. (author)

  7. Neutron borehole logging correction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, L.H.

    1978-01-01

    In accordance with an illustrative embodiment of the present invention, a method and apparatus is disclosed for logging earth formations traversed by a borehole in which an earth formation is irradiated with neutrons and gamma radiation produced thereby in the formation and in the borehole is detected. A sleeve or shield for capturing neutrons from the borehole and producing gamma radiation characteristic of that capture is provided to give an indication of the contribution of borehole capture events to the total detected gamma radiation. It is then possible to correct from those borehole effects the total detected gamma radiation and any earth formation parameters determined therefrom

  8. Vascular plugs - A key companion to Interventionists - 'Just Plug it'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Sivasubramanian

    2015-01-01

    Vascular plugs are ideally suited to close extra-cardiac, high flowing vascular communications. The family of vascular plugs has expanded. Vascular plugs in general have a lower profile and the newer variants can be delivered even through a diagnostic catheter. These features make them versatile and easy to use. The Amplatzer vascular plugs are also used for closing intracardiac defects including coronary arterio-venous fistula and paravalvular leakage in an off-label fashion. In this review, the features of currently available vascular plugs are reviewed along with tips and tricks of using them in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Single-borehole techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, D.; Moser, H.; Trimborn, P.

    1978-01-01

    Proceeding on the theoretical considerations and on the experience and practice derived from laboratory and field testing, a system consisting of tracer injection units, detector units, measuring probe units and packers is presented, from which the different borehole probes required can be combined. A couple of examples of recent applications shows the position of the Single-Borehole Techniques with respect to the traditional methods used for the measurement of the ground-water flow. A confrontation of the permeabilities of different aquifers consents, both on the basis of the Single-Borehole Techniques as by pumping experiments, the determination of the reliability of the Point-Dilution-Method. The Point-Dilution-Method is giving information about the vertical and horizontal distribution of the permeabilities in an aquifer. By measuring the vertical current in two karst wells, the tributary horizons of a well have been determined, which gave valuable information for the subsequent well construction. Local leakages could be detected by measuring the vertical flow rate through observation wells arranged along a grout curtain erected on both sides of the retaining barrage of the Keban dam. (orig.) [de

  10. Borehole disposal design concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RANDRIAMAROLAHY, J.N.

    2007-01-01

    In Madagascar, the sealed radioactive sources are used in several socioeconomic sectors such as medicine, industry, research and agriculture. At the end of their useful lives, these radioactive sources become radioactive waste and can be still dangerous because they can cause harmful effects to the public and the environment. This work entitled 'Borehole disposal design concept' consists in putting in place a site of sure storage of the radioactive waste, in particular, sealed radioactive sources. Several technical aspects must be respected to carry out such a site like the geological, geomorphologic, hydrogeologic, geochemical, meteorological and demographic conditions. This type of storage is favorable for the developing countries because it is technologically simple and economic. The cost of construction depends on the volume of waste to store and the depth of the Borehole. The Borehole disposal concept provides a good level of safety to avoid the human intrusion. The future protection of the generations against the propagation of the radiations ionizing is then assured. [fr

  11. Reactor vessel sealing plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dooley, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    An apparatus is described for sealing a cold leg nozzle of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel from a remote location comprising: at least one sealing plug for mechanically sealing the nozzle from the inside of the reactor pressure vessel. The sealing plug includes a plate and a cone assembly having an end part receptive in the nozzle, the plate being axially moveable relative to the cone assembly. The plate and cone assembly have confronting bevelled edges defining an opening therebetween. A primary O-ring is disposed about the opening and is supported on the bevelled edges, the plate being guidably mounted to the cone assembly for movement toward the cone assembly to radially expand the primary O-ring into sealing engagement with the nozzle. A means is included for providing relative movement between the outer plate and the cone assembly

  12. Hydrological and hydrogeochemical investigations in boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, L.; Olsson, T.

    1985-07-01

    Underground investigations in boreholes are presumed to be an important investigation technique for the detailed design of a final repository for nuclear waste. The siting of the repository will be based on surface investigations, but for detailed investigations when the access shafts are sunk, investigations in underground boreholes from the initial shafts and tunnels will be of importance. The hydrogeological investigations in boreholes aimed at testing and developing of hydrogeological techniques and instruments for use in an underground environment in order to reflect actual working and testing conditions. This report is the final report from the hydrogeological investigations in boreholes, and it summarizes the different activities carried out during the course of the program. Most of the included activities are reported in separate internal reports, and therefore only the most important results are included, together with the experiences and conclusions gained during the investigations. The hydrogeochemical part of the program is in a separate final report, consequently no hydrogeochemical information is in the current report. (Author)

  13. Reference design and operations for deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrick, Courtney Grant; Brady, Patrick Vane; Pye, Steven; Arnold, Bill Walter; Finger, John Travis; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    A reference design and operational procedures for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in deep boreholes have been developed and documented. The design and operations are feasible with currently available technology and meet existing safety and anticipated regulatory requirements. Objectives of the reference design include providing a baseline for more detailed technical analyses of system performance and serving as a basis for comparing design alternatives. Numerous factors suggest that deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste is inherently safe. Several lines of evidence indicate that groundwater at depths of several kilometers in continental crystalline basement rocks has long residence times and low velocity. High salinity fluids have limited potential for vertical flow because of density stratification and prevent colloidal transport of radionuclides. Geochemically reducing conditions in the deep subsurface limit the solubility and enhance the retardation of key radionuclides. A non-technical advantage that the deep borehole concept may offer over a repository concept is that of facilitating incremental construction and loading at multiple perhaps regional locations. The disposal borehole would be drilled to a depth of 5,000 m using a telescoping design and would be logged and tested prior to waste emplacement. Waste canisters would be constructed of carbon steel, sealed by welds, and connected into canister strings with high-strength connections. Waste canister strings of about 200 m length would be emplaced in the lower 2,000 m of the fully cased borehole and be separated by bridge and cement plugs. Sealing of the upper part of the borehole would be done with a series of compacted bentonite seals, cement plugs, cement seals, cement plus crushed rock backfill, and bridge plugs. Elements of the reference design meet technical requirements defined in the study. Testing and operational safety assurance requirements are also defined. Overall

  14. Reference design and operations for deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrick, Courtney Grant; Brady, Patrick Vane; Pye, Steven; Arnold, Bill Walter; Finger, John Travis; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2011-10-01

    A reference design and operational procedures for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in deep boreholes have been developed and documented. The design and operations are feasible with currently available technology and meet existing safety and anticipated regulatory requirements. Objectives of the reference design include providing a baseline for more detailed technical analyses of system performance and serving as a basis for comparing design alternatives. Numerous factors suggest that deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste is inherently safe. Several lines of evidence indicate that groundwater at depths of several kilometers in continental crystalline basement rocks has long residence times and low velocity. High salinity fluids have limited potential for vertical flow because of density stratification and prevent colloidal transport of radionuclides. Geochemically reducing conditions in the deep subsurface limit the solubility and enhance the retardation of key radionuclides. A non-technical advantage that the deep borehole concept may offer over a repository concept is that of facilitating incremental construction and loading at multiple perhaps regional locations. The disposal borehole would be drilled to a depth of 5,000 m using a telescoping design and would be logged and tested prior to waste emplacement. Waste canisters would be constructed of carbon steel, sealed by welds, and connected into canister strings with high-strength connections. Waste canister strings of about 200 m length would be emplaced in the lower 2,000 m of the fully cased borehole and be separated by bridge and cement plugs. Sealing of the upper part of the borehole would be done with a series of compacted bentonite seals, cement plugs, cement seals, cement plus crushed rock backfill, and bridge plugs. Elements of the reference design meet technical requirements defined in the study. Testing and operational safety assurance requirements are also defined. Overall

  15. Borehole sealing method and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.N.; Jansen, G. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for sealing boreholes in the earth. The borehole is blocked at the sealing level, and a sealing apparatus capable of melting rock and earth is positioned in the borehole just above seal level. The apparatus is heated to rock-melting temperature and powdered rock or other sealing material is transported down the borehole to the apparatus where it is melted, pooling on the mechanical block and allowed to cool and solidify, sealing the hole. Any length of the borehole can be sealed by slowly raising the apparatus in the borehole while continuously supplying powdered rock to the apparatus to be melted and added to the top of the column of molten and cooling rock, forming a continuous borehole seal. The sealing apparatus consists of a heater capable of melting rock, including means for supplying power to the heater, means for transporting powdered rock down the borehole to the heater, means for cooling the apparatus and means for positioning the apparatus in the borehole. 5 claims, 1 figure

  16. Rock-welding materials for deep borehole nuclear waste disposal.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Pin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rodriguez, Mark A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brady, Patrick Vane [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swift, Peter N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The concept of deep borehole nuclear waste disposal has recently been proposed. Effective sealing of a borehole after waste emplacement is generally required. In a high temperature disposal mode, the sealing function will be fulfilled by melting the ambient granitic rock with waste decay heat or an external heating source, creating a melt that will encapsulate waste containers or plug a portion of the borehole above a stack of the containers. However, there are certain drawbacks associated with natural materials, such as high melting temperatures, slow crystallization kinetics, the resulting sealing materials generally being porous with low mechanical strength, insufficient adhesion to waste container surface, and lack of flexibility for engineering controls. Here we show that natural granitic materials can be purposefully engineered through chemical modifications to enhance the sealing capability of the materials for deep borehole disposal. This work systematically explores the effect of chemical modification and crystallinity (amorphous vs. crystalline) on the melting and crystallization processes of a granitic rock system. A number of engineered granitic materials have been obtained that have decreased melting points, enhanced viscous densification, and accelerated recrystallization rates without compromising the mechanical integrity of the materials.

  17. Maintenance and plugging technology for CANDU steam generator tubing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, J.; Nicholson, A.; Hare, J.; McGoey, L.; Stafford, T.; Gowthorpe, P.

    2006-01-01

    In order to keep aging steam generators in service and to successfully manage the life of these critical components, the capability must exist to perform tube plugging and other complex maintenance activities in-situ. In the early days of CANDU steam generator operation, the only option was to perform these activities manually, which had inherent safety and quality risks. The challenge was to be able to perform these activities remotely thus eliminating some of the confined space and radiological exposure risks. The additional challenge was to develop equipment and techniques which would result in significantly improved quality, particularly for the completed plug welds which would be returned to service. Over the past fifteen years, this technology has matured and has produced remarkable results in field application. Some 14000 tube plugs have been successfully installed to date using automated plugging techniques. This paper presents an overview of the development of techniques available to utilities for steam generator tube plugging as well as some highlights of other steam generator tube maintenance activities such as primary side tube removal and tube end damage repair. Aspects covered in the paper include plug and procedure development, automated equipment and manipulators for tool deployment, process controls and personnel requirements. Recently, the steam generator tube plugging performed by OPG has been incorporated into a formal quality program under the requirements of ASME NCA 4000. An overview of the quality program will be presented and details of some of the important aspects of the quality program will be discussed. (author)

  18. A plugging solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gen, O P; Azhigaliyev, G K; Dodonova, S Ye; Dyaltlova, N M; Novokhatskaya, I D; Ryabova, L I

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the invention is to increase the durability of cement stone at 150 to 200C. The patent covers a plugging solution which consists of Portlandcement, sand and water. It additionally contains metal organic complexes of nitrylotrimethylphosphonic acid and organosiliconates of alkali or alkaline earth metals with the following component relationship in percent by mass: Portland cement, 42 to 43; sand, 27 to 28; metal organic complexes of nitrylotrimethylphosphonic acid, 0.01 to 1.5; organosiliconates of alkaline or alkaline earthmetals, 0.0025 to 0.375 and water, the remainder.

  19. Double-plug seismic connector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annoot, I.R.

    1984-01-01

    The double-plug seismic electric connector comprises an elongated insulating body. A male connector plug is at one end of the body and a female connector plug is at the opposite end of the body. Each plug has a pair of male and female contacts. A pair of spaced axial conductors is embedded within the insulating body for interconnecting the opposite male and female contacts. The inner end of a double-wire cable is embedded within the insulating body and each wire inner end is connected to one of the conductors

  20. Grooved tube plug rolls in

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krausser, P.

    1991-01-01

    The removable plugs used to date by the Power Generation Group (KWU) of Siemens to seal defective steam generator tubes have a good track record. Their sealing principle is based on the elastic tensioning of three seal disks against the inside wall of the tube. Now a further removable plug is available -a roll-in plug with a metal-coated surface. It is particularly suitable for use in the roller-expanded zone of the tubes at the tube sheet. The plugs can be used in both Siemens-KWU steam generators and in steam generators manufactured in compliance with the guidelines of the ASME Code. (author)

  1. Borehole DC-6 hydrostratigraphic chart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gephart, R.E.

    1981-09-01

    This hydrostratigraphic chart for Borehole DC-6 identifies the basic stratigraphy and preliminary hydrologic test results. This borehole was cored for obtaining stratigraphic data and only that portion within the Grande Ronde formation remains open for hydrologic testing. The upper two formations were cased and cemented off

  2. Deep Borehole Field Test Laboratory and Borehole Testing Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brady, Patrick V. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); MacKinnon, Robert J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Heath, Jason E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Herrick, Courtney G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jensen, Richard P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gardner, W. Payton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sevougian, S. David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jang, Je-Hun [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stein, Emily R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bauer, Stephen J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Daley, Tom [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Freifeld, Barry M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Birkholzer, Jens [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Spane, Frank A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-19

    Deep Borehole Disposal (DBD) of high-level radioactive wastes has been considered an option for geological isolation for many years (Hess et al. 1957). Recent advances in drilling technology have decreased costs and increased reliability for large-diameter (i.e., ≥50 cm [19.7”]) boreholes to depths of several kilometers (Beswick 2008; Beswick et al. 2014). These advances have therefore also increased the feasibility of the DBD concept (Brady et al. 2009; Cornwall 2015), and the current field test design will demonstrate the DBD concept and these advances. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Strategy for the Management and Disposal of Used Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste (DOE 2013) specifically recommended developing a research and development plan for DBD. DOE sought input or expression of interest from States, local communities, individuals, private groups, academia, or any other stakeholders willing to host a Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT). The DBFT includes drilling two boreholes nominally 200m [656’] apart to approximately 5 km [16,400’] total depth, in a region where crystalline basement is expected to begin at less than 2 km depth [6,560’]. The characterization borehole (CB) is the smaller-diameter borehole (i.e., 21.6 cm [8.5”] diameter at total depth), and will be drilled first. The geologic, hydrogeologic, geochemical, geomechanical and thermal testing will take place in the CB. The field test borehole (FTB) is the larger-diameter borehole (i.e., 43.2 cm [17”] diameter at total depth). Surface handling and borehole emplacement of test package will be demonstrated using the FTB to evaluate engineering feasibility and safety of disposal operations (SNL 2016).

  3. Borehole Muon Detector Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneville, A.; Flygare, J.; Kouzes, R.; Lintereur, A.; Yamaoka, J. A. K.; Varner, G. S.

    2015-12-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations have spurred investigation into carbon sequestration methods. One of the possibilities being considered, storing super-critical CO2 in underground reservoirs, has drawn more attention and pilot projects are being supported worldwide. Monitoring of the post-injection fate of CO2 is of utmost importance. Generally, monitoring options are active methods, such as 4D seismic reflection or pressure measurements in monitoring wells. We propose here to develop a 4-D density tomography of subsurface CO2 reservoirs using cosmic-ray muon detectors deployed in a borehole. Muon detection is a relatively mature field of particle physics and there are many muon detector designs, though most are quite large and not designed for subsurface measurements. The primary technical challenge preventing deployment of this technology in the subsurface is the lack of miniaturized muon-tracking detectors capable of fitting in standard boreholes and that will resist the harsh underground conditions. A detector with these capabilities is being developed by a collaboration supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. Current simulations based on a Monte Carlo modeling code predict that the incoming muon angle can be resolved with an error of approximately two degrees, using either underground or sea level spectra. The robustness of the design comes primarily from the use of scintillating rods as opposed to drift tubes. The rods are arrayed in alternating layers to provide a coordinate scheme. Preliminary testing and measurements are currently being performed to test and enhance the performance of the scintillating rods, in both a laboratory and a shallow underground facility. The simulation predictions and data from the experiments will be presented.

  4. Mechanics Model of Plug Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Q. K.; Nunes, A. C., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    An analytical model has been developed for the mechanics of friction plug welding. The model accounts for coupling of plastic deformation (material flow) and thermal response (plastic heating). The model predictions of the torque, energy, and pull force on the plug were compared to the data of a recent experiment, and the agreements between predictions and data are encouraging.

  5. A strategy for evaluating the long-term stability of hole-plugging materials in their geological environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, S.J.

    1980-01-01

    Material used to plug boreholes will not in general be in chemical equilibrium with its host rock. Adverse long-term performance of a plug can involve changes in phase assemblage in the plug/rock system which are difficult to observe at low temperatures in real time. The thermodynamics of multiphase equilibria provides a technique of predicting what phase changes might occur. The thermodynamic treatment of plug/rock systems utilizes (1) a formulation of possible chemical reactions among phases in the system and (2) determinations of changes in values of Gibbs' free energies for the hypothetical reactions, to identify the theoretically-permitted reactions which could degrade plug performance. Time-dependent prediction of phase changes requires a knowledge of rate laws and constants for specific reactions whose mechanisms are well known

  6. Strategy for evaluating the long-term stability of hole-plugging materials in their geological environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, S.J.

    1980-01-01

    Material used to plug boreholes will not in general be in chemical equilibrium with its host rock. Adverse long-term performance of a plug can involve changes in phase assemblage in the plug/rock system which are difficult to observe at low temperatures in real time. The thermodynamics of multiphase equilibria provides a technique of predicting what phase changes might occur. The thermodynamic treatment of plug/rock systems utilizes (1) a formulation of possible chemical reactions among phases in the system and (2) determinations of changes in values of Gibbs' free energies for the hypothetical reactions, to identify the theoretically-permitted reactions which could degrade plug performance. Time-dependent prediction of phase changes requires a knowledge of rate laws and constants for specific reactions whose mechanisms are well known

  7. Optimization of Deep Borehole Systems for HLW Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, Michael; Baglietto, Emilio; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Lester, Richard; Brady, Patrick; Arnold, B. W.

    2015-01-01

    This is the final report on a project to update and improve the conceptual design of deep boreholes for high level nuclear waste disposal. The effort was concentrated on application to intact US legacy LWR fuel assemblies, but conducted in a way in which straightforward extension to other waste forms, host rock types and countries was preserved. The reference fuel design version consists of a vertical borehole drilled into granitic bedrock, with the uppermost kilometer serving as a caprock zone containing a diverse and redundant series of plugs. There follows a one to two kilometer waste canister emplacement zone having a hole diameter of approximately 40-50 cm. Individual holes are spaced 200-300 m apart to form a repository field. The choice of verticality and the use of a graphite based mud as filler between the waste canisters and the borehole wall liner was strongly influenced by the expectation that retrievability would continue to be emphasized in US and worldwide repository regulatory criteria. An advanced version was scoped out using zinc alloy cast in place to fill void space inside a disposal canister and its encapsulated fuel assembly. This excludes water and greatly improves both crush resistance and thermal conductivity. However the simpler option of using a sand fill was found adequate and is recommended for near-term use. Thermal-hydraulic modeling of the low permeability and porosity host rock and its small (@@@ 1%) saline water content showed that vertical convection induced by the waste's decay heat should not transport nuclides from the emplacement zone up to the biosphere atop the caprock. First order economic analysis indicated that borehole repositories should be cost-competitive with shallower mined repositories. It is concluded that proceeding with plans to drill a demonstration borehole to confirm expectations, and to carry out priority experiments, such as retention and replenishment of in-hole water is in order.

  8. Optimization of Deep Borehole Systems for HLW Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driscoll, Michael [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Baglietto, Emilio [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Buongiorno, Jacopo [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Lester, Richard [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Brady, Patrick [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Arnold, B. W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-09

    This is the final report on a project to update and improve the conceptual design of deep boreholes for high level nuclear waste disposal. The effort was concentrated on application to intact US legacy LWR fuel assemblies, but conducted in a way in which straightforward extension to other waste forms, host rock types and countries was preserved. The reference fuel design version consists of a vertical borehole drilled into granitic bedrock, with the uppermost kilometer serving as a caprock zone containing a diverse and redundant series of plugs. There follows a one to two kilometer waste canister emplacement zone having a hole diameter of approximately 40-50 cm. Individual holes are spaced 200-300 m apart to form a repository field. The choice of verticality and the use of a graphite based mud as filler between the waste canisters and the borehole wall liner was strongly influenced by the expectation that retrievability would continue to be emphasized in US and worldwide repository regulatory criteria. An advanced version was scoped out using zinc alloy cast in place to fill void space inside a disposal canister and its encapsulated fuel assembly. This excludes water and greatly improves both crush resistance and thermal conductivity. However the simpler option of using a sand fill was found adequate and is recommended for near-term use. Thermal-hydraulic modeling of the low permeability and porosity host rock and its small (≤ 1%) saline water content showed that vertical convection induced by the waste’s decay heat should not transport nuclides from the emplacement zone up to the biosphere atop the caprock. First order economic analysis indicated that borehole repositories should be cost-competitive with shallower mined repositories. It is concluded that proceeding with plans to drill a demonstration borehole to confirm expectations, and to carry out priority experiments, such as retention and replenishment of in-hole water is in order.

  9. Evaluation of geophysical borehole studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brotzen, O.; Duran, O.; Magnusson, K.Aa.

    Four studies concerning geophysical investigations and TV inspection in boreholes in connection with KBS studies at Finnsjoe, Karlshamn, Kraakemaala and Stripa and PRAV's studies at Studsvik have been evaluated. This has led to proposals concerning the choice of instruments and methods for future studies and a review of future work required. The evaluation has shown that the following borehole measurements are of primary interest in the continued work: Determinations of temperature and resistivity of the borehole liquid, resistance and resistivity measurements, SP, Sonic, Caliper and VLF. TV inspection, IP and gamma-gamma should also be included in the arsenal of available test methods.(author)

  10. Borehole Seismology: Fundamentals and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohnhoff, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Because boring in itself is very expensive and instrumentation is required to endure high temperatures and pressures, deep borehole observation was accompanied by an economic risk. However, it has great advantages with respect to micro-earthquake observation, which is enriched with a short period vibration signal, because deep borehole observation greatly reduces short period noise. These kind advantages were explained by referring to the relationship between earthquake size and frequency range. Examples of seismic observation in a borehole in a geothermal field in El Salvador and a CO 2 confinement project in the western part of Canada were introduced. (authors)

  11. Core-logs of borehole VI down to 505 m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, L.; Olsson, T.; Stejskal, V.

    1981-01-01

    In the hydrogeological program of the Stripa project the vertical borehole V1 has been drilled 505.5 m. The drillcore has been logged with regard to rock characteristic, fracture frequency, dipping and filling. The results presented as cumulative fracture diagram have formed the base for subdivision of the borehole according to fracture frequency. The variation in the fracture dipping was also taken into account. Chlorite is the most common of the infilling material in the fractures. For the borehole 0-466 m the average fracture frequency is 1.46 fractures/m. Below 466 m the core is highly fractured and crushed indicating that the borehole has entered a crushed zone. Because of this the drilling is temporarily stopped. (Auth.)

  12. Oman Drilling Project Phase I Borehole Geophysical Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matter, J. M.; Pezard, P. A.; Henry, G.; Brun, L.; Célérier, B.; Lods, G.; Robert, P.; Benchikh, A. M.; Al Shukaili, M.; Al Qassabi, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Oman Drilling Project (OmanDP) drilled six holes at six sites in the Samail ophiolite in the southern Samail and Tayin massifs. 1500-m of igneous and metamorphic rocks were recovered at four sites (GT1, GT2, GT3 and BT1) using wireline diamond core drilling and drill cuttings at two sites (BA1, BA2) using air rotary drilling, respectively. OmanDP is an international collaboration supported by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program, the Deep Carbon Observatory, NSF, NASA, IODP, JAMSTEC, and the European, Japanese, German and Swiss Science Foundations, and with in-kind support in Oman from Ministry of Regional Municipalities and Water Resources, Public Authority of Mining, Sultan Qaboos University and the German University of Technology. A comprehensive borehole geophysical survey was conducted in all the OmanDP Phase I boreholes shortly after drilling in April 2017. Following geophysical wireline logs, using slim-hole borehole logging equipment provided and run by the Centre National De La Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and the Université de Montpellier/ Géosciences Montpellier, and logging trucks from the Ministry of Regional Municipalities and Water Resources, were collected in most of the holes: electrical resistivity (dual laterolog resistivity, LLd and LLs), spectral gamma ray (K, U, and Th contents), magnetic susceptibility, total natural gamma ray, full waveform sonic (Vp and Vs), acoustic borehole wall imaging, optical borehole wall imaging, borehole fluid parameters (pressure, temperature, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, pH, redox potential, non-polarized spontaneous electrical potential), and caliper (borehole diameter). In addition, spinner flowmeter (downhole fluid flow rate along borehole axis) and heatpulse flow meter logs (dowhole fluid flow rate along borehole axis) were collected in BA1 to characterize downhole fluid flow rates along borehole axis. Unfortuantely, only incomplete wireline logs are available for

  13. Geophysical borehole logging and optical imaging of the boreholes KR34, KR35 and KR36, at Olkiluoto 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majapuro, J. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-09-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical borehole logging and optical imaging surveys of the boreholes KR34, KR35 and KR36 at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during May - June 2005. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The methods applied are magnetic susceptibility, natural gamma radiation, gamma-gamma density, single point resistance, Wenner-resistivity, borehole radar, full waveform sonic and optical imaging. The assignment included the field work of all surveys, interpretation and processing of the acoustic and borehole radar data. The report describes the field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD and Excel format. (orig.)

  14. Geophysical borehole logging and optical imaging of the boreholes KR34, KR35 and KR36, at Olkiluoto 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majapuro, J.

    2005-09-01

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical borehole logging and optical imaging surveys of the boreholes KR34, KR35 and KR36 at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during May - June 2005. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The methods applied are magnetic susceptibility, natural gamma radiation, gamma-gamma density, single point resistance, Wenner-resistivity, borehole radar, full waveform sonic and optical imaging. The assignment included the field work of all surveys, interpretation and processing of the acoustic and borehole radar data. The report describes the field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD and Excel format. (orig.)

  15. Drilling a borehole for LEP

    CERN Multimedia

    1981-01-01

    Boreholes were drilled along the earlier proposed line of the LEP tunnel under the Jura to find out the conditions likely to be encountered during the construction of the LEP tunnel (Annual Report 1981 p. 106, Fig. 10).

  16. Borehole closure in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuenkajorn, K.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1988-12-01

    Constitutive law parameters are determined from salt behavior characterization experiments. The results are applied to predict creep (time-dependent) closure of boreholes in salt specimens subjected to various loading configurations. Rheological models (linear and nonlinear viscoelastic and viscoplastic models), empirical models, and physical theory models have been formulated from the results of uniaxial creep tests, strain and stress rate controlled uniaxial tests, constant strain rate triaxial tests, cyclic loading tests, and seismic velocity measurements. Analytical solutions for a thick-walled cylinder subjected to internal and external pressures and for a circular hole in an infinite plate subjected to a biaxial or uniaxial stressfield have been derived from each of the linear viscoelastic models and from one of the empirical laws. The experimental results indicate that the salt samples behave as an elastic-viscoplastic material. The elastic behavior tends to be linear and time-independent. The plastic deformation is time-dependent. The stress increment to strain rate increment ratio gradually decreases as the stress level increases. The transient potential creep law seems to give the simplest satisfactory governing equation describing the viscoplastic behavior of salt during the transient phase. 204 refs., 27 figs., 29 tabs

  17. CDF End Plug calorimeter Upgrade Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apollinari, G.; de Barbaro, P.; Mishina, M.

    1994-01-01

    We report on the status of the CDF End Plug Upgrade Project. In this project, the CDF calorimeters in the end plug and the forward regions will be replaced by a single scintillator based calorimeter. After an extensive R ampersand D effort on the tile/fiber calorimetry, we have now advanced to a construction phase. We review the results of the R ampersand D leading to the final design of the calorimeters and the development of tooling devised for this project. The quality control program of the production of the electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters is described. A shower maximum detector for the measurement of the shower centroid and the shower profile of electrons, γ and π 0 has been designed. Its performance requirements, R ampersand D results and mechanical design are discussed

  18. U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program -- Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity -- Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Morrow; Donald Darner; James Francfort

    2008-11-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are under evaluation by various stake holders to better understand their capability and potential benefits. PHEVs could allow users to significantly improve fuel economy over a standard HEV and in some cases, depending on daily driving requirements and vehicle design, have the ability to eliminate fuel consumption entirely for daily vehicle trips. The cost associated with providing charge infrastructure for PHEVs, along with the additional costs for the on-board power electronics and added battery requirements associated with PHEV technology will be a key factor in the success of PHEVs. This report analyzes the infrastructure requirements for PHEVs in single family residential, multi-family residential and commercial situations. Costs associated with this infrastructure are tabulated, providing an estimate of the infrastructure costs associated with PHEV deployment.

  19. Research borehole drilling activity for boreholes DH-18, DH-19, DC-12, DC-13, DC-14, DC-15, and deepening of existing borehole DC-7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    This report is an environmental evaluation of the impacts of proposed borehole drilling activities at the Hanford Site, northwest of Richland, Washington. The proposed action is to drill six research boreholes ranging in depth from 137 to 1372 meters (m) [250 to 4500 +- feet (ft)]. In addition, an existing borehole (DC-7) will be extended from 1249 to 1524 m (4099 to 5000 +- ft). The purpose of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) borehole drilling activities is to collect data on in situ rock formations that are considered potentialy suitable for nuclear waste repositories. The technical program efforts necessary to identify and qualify specific underground waste facility sites in candidate rock formations include geologic and hydrologic studies (seismicity and tectonics, rock structure and stratigraphy, lithology, etc.). Borehole drilling is an integral part of the geological studies and is essential to a thorough understanding of potentially suitable geologic formations. The purpose of the proposed drilling activities is to obtain data for evaluating Columbia River basalts that are being evaluated by the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program to determine their suitability potential for nuclear waste repositories. Unavoidable impact to the environment is limited primarily to the clearing of land needed for access and drilling operations. Considerations exercised during site preparation, drilling, and subsequent site restoration will limit modification of the natural environment to the minimum required for accomplishment of test objectives

  20. Strategic decision analysis applied to borehole seismology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menke, M.M.; Paulsson, B.N.P.

    1994-01-01

    Strategic Decision Analysis (SDA) is the evolving body of knowledge on how to achieve high quality in the decision that shapes an organization's future. SDA comprises philosophy, process concepts, methodology, and tools for making good decisions. It specifically incorporates many concepts and tools from economic evaluation and risk analysis. Chevron Petroleum Technology Company (CPTC) has applied SDA to evaluate and prioritize a number of its most important and most uncertain R and D projects, including borehole seismology. Before SDA, there were significant issues and concerns about the value to CPTC of continuing to work on borehole seismology. The SDA process created a cross-functional team of experts to structure and evaluate this project. A credible economic model was developed, discrete risks and continuous uncertainties were assessed, and an extensive sensitivity analysis was performed. The results, even applied to a very restricted drilling program for a few years, were good enough to demonstrate the value of continuing the project. This paper explains the SDA philosophy concepts, and process and demonstrates the methodology and tools using the borehole seismology project example. SDA is useful in the upstream industry not just in the R and D/technology decisions, but also in major exploration and production decisions. Since a major challenge for upstream companies today is to create and realize value, the SDA approach should have a very broad applicability

  1. Design of a borehole data-acquisition/transmission system. Final report, Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, R.L.; Bowden, J.C.

    1981-06-01

    Objective of the BDATS program was to design, construct, and demonstrate a borehole probe and associated uphole modules that would allow downhole collection of data from any of several borehole probes and would allow digital transmission of that data uphole to a computer. Specifically, the system was electrically and mechanically configured to interface to six separate borehole probes and a computer in a R and D logging vehicle. However, the system can be used with other types of probes

  2. Permeameter studies of water flow through cement and clay borehole seals in granite, basalt and tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South, D.L.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1986-10-01

    Boreholes near a repository must be sealed to prevent rapid migration of radionuclide-contaminated water to the accessible environment. The objective of this research is to assess the performance of borehole seals under laboratory conditions, particularly with regard to varying stress fields. Flow through a sealed borehole is compared with flow through intact rock. Cement or bentonite seals have been tested in granite, basalt, and welded tuff. The main conclusion is that under laboratory conditions, existing commercial materials can form high quality seals. Triaxial stress changes about a borehole do not significantly affect seal performance if the rock is stiffer than the seal. Temperature but especially moisture variations (drying) significantly degrade the quality of cement seals. Performance partially recovers upon resaturation. A skillfully sealed borehole may be as impermeable as the host rock. Analysis of the influence of relative seal-rock permeabilities shows that a plug with permeability one order of magnitude greater than that of the rock results in a flow increase through the hole and surrounding rock of only 1-1/2 times compared to the undisturbed rock. Since a borehole is only a small part of the total rock mass, the total effect is even less pronounced. The simplest and most effective way to decrease flow through a rock-seal system is to increase the seal length, assuming it can be guaranteed that no dominant by-pass flowpath through the rock exists

  3. Permeameter studies of water flow through cement and clay borehole seals in granite, basalt and tuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    South, D.L.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1986-10-01

    Boreholes near a repository must be sealed to prevent rapid migration of radionuclide-contaminated water to the accessible environment. The objective of this research is to assess the performance of borehole seals under laboratory conditions, particularly with regard to varying stress fields. Flow through a sealed borehole is compared with flow through intact rock. Cement or bentonite seals have been tested in granite, basalt, and welded tuff. The main conclusion is that under laboratory conditions, existing commercial materials can form high quality seals. Triaxial stress changes about a borehole do not significantly affect seal performance if the rock is stiffer than the seal. Temperature but especially moisture variations (drying) significantly degrade the quality of cement seals. Performance partially recovers upon resaturation. A skillfully sealed borehole may be as impermeable as the host rock. Analysis of the influence of relative seal-rock permeabilities shows that a plug with permeability one order of magnitude greater than that of the rock results in a flow increase through the hole and surrounding rock of only 1-1/2 times compared to the undisturbed rock. Since a borehole is only a small part of the total rock mass, the total effect is even less pronounced. The simplest and most effective way to decrease flow through a rock-seal system is to increase the seal length, assuming it can be guaranteed that no dominant by-pass flowpath through the rock exists.

  4. Plug testing and removal tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baric, T.J.; Kauric, C.E.; Garcia, C.N.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes an apparatus for testing and removing a plug from an aperture in the cylindrical core barrel wall of a nuclear reactor. The plug has an enlarged head disposed along the wall in a narrow annular access space between the wall and a surrounding cylindrical thermal neutron shield. The apparatus comprises: fixed jaw means; movable jaw means pivotally connected to the fixed jaw means for movement with respect thereto between an open position accommodating reception of the plug head between the fixed and movable jaw means and a closed position for securely gripping the plug head between the fixed and movable jaw means; drive means carried by the fixed jaw means and coupled to the movable jaw means for effecting movement thereof between the open and closed positions thereof; and tensioning means carried by the jaw means for engagement with the core barrel when the jaw means are disposed in gripping engagement with the plug head for exerting on the jaw means and the gripped plug a predetermined force in a direction radially outwardly of the wall. The jaw means and the drive means and the tensioning means all have dimensions radially of the wall substantially less than the radial thickness of the access space to permit insertion into, movement within and removal from the access space

  5. Rock Melt Borehole Sealing System, Final Technical Report for SBIR Phase I Grant No. DE-SC0011888

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osnes, John D. [RE/SPEC Inc., Argonne, IL (United States); Vining, Cody A. [RE/SPEC Inc., Argonne, IL (United States); Nopola, Jay R. [RE/SPEC Inc., Argonne, IL (United States); Roggenthen, William M. [South Dakota School of Mines & Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States)

    2015-03-19

    Purpose of Research Deep borehole disposal is one option that has received attention in recent years as a possible strategy for long-term disposal of the tens of thousands of tons of spent nuclear fuel. The feasibility of the deep borehole option relies upon designing and constructing an effective seal within the borehole to ensure that the waste package does not communicate with the shallow subsurface biosphere through the borehole itself. Some of the uncertainty associated with the long-term suitability of the deep borehole option is related to (1) the degradation of traditional sealing materials over time and (2) the inability of traditional sealing methods to adequately seal a Disturbed Rock Zone surrounding the borehole. One possible system to address these concerns consists of encapsulating the waste in a melt generated from either the waste itself or a plug above the waste. This current project expanded on previous work to further advance the deep borehole disposal concept. Research Objectives & Findings The overarching objective of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of constructing a downhole heater that is capable of meeting the technical and logistical requirements to melt rock. This ultimate objective was accomplished by two primary approaches. The first approach was to define the heater requirements and conceptually design a system that is capable of melting rock. The second approach was to determine the feasibility of conducting an in situ, field-scale melting experiment to validate the suitability of the rock melt seal concept. The evaluation and conceptual design of the heater system resulted in the following primary findings: • Borehole wall temperatures capable of producing a partial melt are achievable under most expected thermal conductivities with a 12-kilowatt heater. • Commercially available components have been identified that meet the requirements of the heater system, including resistive elements that are capable of providing the

  6. Thermal modelling of borehole heat exchangers and borehole thermal energy stores; Zur thermischen Modellierung von Erdwaermesonden und Erdsonden-Waermespeichern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Dan

    2011-07-15

    The thermal use of the underground for heating and cooling applications can be done with borehole heat exchangers. This work deals with the further development of the modelling of thermal transport processes inside and outside the borehole as well as with the application of the further developed models. The combination of high accuracy and short computation time is achieved by the development of three-dimensional thermal resistance and capacity models for borehole heat exchangers. Short transient transport processes can be calculated by the developed model with a considerable higher dynamic and accuracy than with known models from literature. The model is used to evaluate measurement data of a thermal response test by parameter estimation technique with a transient three-dimensional model for the first time. Clear advantages like shortening of the test duration are shown. The developed borehole heat exchanger model is combined with a three-dimensional description of the underground in the Finite-Element-Program FEFLOW. The influence of moving groundwater on borehole heat exchangers and borehole thermal energy stores is then quantified.

  7. Radiological consequences of accidents during disposal of spent nuclear fuel in a deep borehole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundfelt, Bertil

    2013-07-01

    In this report, an analysis of the radiological consequences of potential accidents during disposal of spent nuclear fuel in deep boreholes is presented. The results presented should be seen as coarse estimates of possible radiological consequences of a canister being stuck in a borehole during disposal rather than being the results of a full safety analysis. In the concept for deep borehole disposal of spent nuclear fuel developed by Sandia National Laboratories, the fuel is assumed to be encapsulated in mild steel canisters and stacked between 3 and 5 km depth in boreholes that are cased with perforated mild steel casing tubes. The canisters are joined together by couplings to form strings of 40 canisters and lowered into the borehole. When a canister string has been emplaced in the borehole, a bridge plug is installed above the string and a 10 metres long concrete plug is cast on top of the bridge plug creating a floor for the disposal of the next sting. In total 10 canister strings, in all 400 canisters, are assumed to be disposed of at between 3 and 5 kilometres depth in one borehole. An analysis of potential accidents during the disposal operations shows that the potentially worst accident would be that a canister string is stuck above the disposal zone of a borehole and cannot be retrieved. In such a case, the borehole may have to be sealed in the best possible way and abandoned. The consequences of this could be that one or more leaking canisters are stuck in a borehole section with mobile groundwater. In the case of a leaking canister being stuck in a borehole section with mobile groundwater, the potential radiological consequences are likely to be dominated by the release of the so-called Instant Release Fraction (IRF) of the radionuclide inventory, i.e. the fraction of the radionuclides that as a consequence of the in-core conditions are present in the annulus between the fuel pellets and the cladding or on the grain boundaries of the UO 2 matrix. The

  8. Radiological consequences of accidents during disposal of spent nuclear fuel in a deep borehole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grundfelt, Bertil [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-07-15

    In this report, an analysis of the radiological consequences of potential accidents during disposal of spent nuclear fuel in deep boreholes is presented. The results presented should be seen as coarse estimates of possible radiological consequences of a canister being stuck in a borehole during disposal rather than being the results of a full safety analysis. In the concept for deep borehole disposal of spent nuclear fuel developed by Sandia National Laboratories, the fuel is assumed to be encapsulated in mild steel canisters and stacked between 3 and 5 km depth in boreholes that are cased with perforated mild steel casing tubes. The canisters are joined together by couplings to form strings of 40 canisters and lowered into the borehole. When a canister string has been emplaced in the borehole, a bridge plug is installed above the string and a 10 metres long concrete plug is cast on top of the bridge plug creating a floor for the disposal of the next sting. In total 10 canister strings, in all 400 canisters, are assumed to be disposed of at between 3 and 5 kilometres depth in one borehole. An analysis of potential accidents during the disposal operations shows that the potentially worst accident would be that a canister string is stuck above the disposal zone of a borehole and cannot be retrieved. In such a case, the borehole may have to be sealed in the best possible way and abandoned. The consequences of this could be that one or more leaking canisters are stuck in a borehole section with mobile groundwater. In the case of a leaking canister being stuck in a borehole section with mobile groundwater, the potential radiological consequences are likely to be dominated by the release of the so-called Instant Release Fraction (IRF) of the radionuclide inventory, i.e. the fraction of the radionuclides that as a consequence of the in-core conditions are present in the annulus between the fuel pellets and the cladding or on the grain boundaries of the UO{sub 2} matrix

  9. Borehole logging in uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, N.H.

    1992-01-01

    The ultimate objective of exploration by drilling as far as Atomic Minerals Division is concerned is to locate the ore zone in the subsurface, draw samples and analyze them for their metal content. The presence of the ore zone is also indicated by gamma-ray logging of the borehole. A gamma-ray detector is lowered in the borehole and precise depth and grade of the ore zone is established. This helps the geologist in correlating the ore horizon with the surface outcrop or the ore zone intercepted in adjoining boreholes and in deciding about further drilling and location of boreholes. Most commonly, total gamma measurements are made although some units capable of measuring the gamma-ray spectrum are also in use. It is possible to know if the mineralization is due to uranium without waiting for the laboratory results. The present write up gives a brief account of the principles, equipment and methods of borehole gamma-ray logging including density and self-potential logging. (author). 8 refs., 5 figs

  10. Stratigraphy of the Harwell boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallois, R.W.; Worssam, B.C.

    1983-12-01

    Seven boreholes, five of them partially cored, were drilled at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment at Harwell as part of a general investigation to assess the feasibility of storing low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste in underground cavities. Two of the deeper boreholes were almost wholly cored to provide samples for hydrogeological, hydrochemical, mineralogical, geochemical, geotechnical, sedimentological and stratigraphical studies to enable variations in lithology and rock properties to be assessed, both vertically and laterally, and related to their regional geological setting. This report describes the lithologies, main faunal elements and stratigraphy of the Cretaceous, Jurassic, Triassic and Carboniferous sequences proved in the boreholes. More detailed stratigraphical accounts of the late Jurassic and Cretaceous sequences will be prepared when current studies of the faunal assemblages are complete. (author)

  11. Radiometric calipers for borehole logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbucinski, J.; Wylie, A.W.; Jarrett, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    Two versions of a radiometric-type caliper for measuring borehole diameter are described. One, based on the bow-spring principle, is suitable for percussion (exploration) drill holes. The other, which utilizes hemispherical wall contactors actuated by springs, is suitable for blast holes. Both utilize low-power radioactive sources and employ a scintillation detector to measure the 'inverse-square law' response of the device to changes in borehole radius. The performance of the device is examined and examples of its use are illustrated. (author)

  12. Hydraulic effects of unsealed boreholes. Numerical groundwater flow modelling of the Forsmark and Laxemar sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockgaard, Niclas

    2011-06-01

    numerical groundwater modelling code DarcyTools was used for the simulations. Continuum hydraulic property fields for the flow simulations were generated from the deterministic deformation zones and the modelled DFN. DarcyTools has a special routine for simulation of open boreholes. A reference borehole plugging scheme and a simplified version were applied for the reference boreholes. The concept for borehole sealing included alternating sections of silica-concrete and bentonite along the borehole. In the models, appropriate values of hydraulic conductivity were assigned to the grid cells representing the studied boreholes to accommodate simulation of the borehole sealing. The hydraulic impacts on the groundwater flow conditions of the open (unsealed) and poorly sealed boreholes were investigated by steady-state simulations. No salinity and no density effects were included in the simulations. The variables that were investigated were changes in the hydraulic head and flow fields around the boreholes at repository depth, the total flow through a defined rock volume surrounding the boreholes, and the flow along the boreholes. Also, in order to study the impact on advective travel time for water and solutes between repository depth and surface, particle tracking was performed between a horizontal plane at -600 m and the -50 m level. The simulations indicated that the open boreholes have a considerable hydraulic influence, especially on hydraulic heads at large depths. There was a difference in the hydraulic function of the open boreholes when comparing the two sites studied for the present-day hydraulic boundary conditions. In Forsmark, as a discharge area for deeper groundwater, open boreholes acted as easy path ways for groundwater from repository depth to surface. In Laxemar, on the other hand, being in part a recharge area for deeper groundwater, open boreholes acted as paths from surface to depth. The open boreholes increased the groundwater turnover in the borehole site

  13. Hydraulic effects of unsealed boreholes. Numerical groundwater flow modelling of the Forsmark and Laxemar sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bockgaard, Niclas [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-06-15

    numerical groundwater modelling code DarcyTools was used for the simulations. Continuum hydraulic property fields for the flow simulations were generated from the deterministic deformation zones and the modelled DFN. DarcyTools has a special routine for simulation of open boreholes. A reference borehole plugging scheme and a simplified version were applied for the reference boreholes. The concept for borehole sealing included alternating sections of silica-concrete and bentonite along the borehole. In the models, appropriate values of hydraulic conductivity were assigned to the grid cells representing the studied boreholes to accommodate simulation of the borehole sealing. The hydraulic impacts on the groundwater flow conditions of the open (unsealed) and poorly sealed boreholes were investigated by steady-state simulations. No salinity and no density effects were included in the simulations. The variables that were investigated were changes in the hydraulic head and flow fields around the boreholes at repository depth, the total flow through a defined rock volume surrounding the boreholes, and the flow along the boreholes. Also, in order to study the impact on advective travel time for water and solutes between repository depth and surface, particle tracking was performed between a horizontal plane at -600 m and the -50 m level. The simulations indicated that the open boreholes have a considerable hydraulic influence, especially on hydraulic heads at large depths. There was a difference in the hydraulic function of the open boreholes when comparing the two sites studied for the present-day hydraulic boundary conditions. In Forsmark, as a discharge area for deeper groundwater, open boreholes acted as easy path ways for groundwater from repository depth to surface. In Laxemar, on the other hand, being in part a recharge area for deeper groundwater, open boreholes acted as paths from surface to depth. The open boreholes increased the groundwater turnover in the borehole site

  14. Development of a stress gauge for borehole using photoelasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massal, P.; Caye, R.; Recan, M.

    1986-01-01

    In the framework of the research and development program on storage and disposal in geologic formation stresses in boreholes are measured by overcoring. The principle is stress release by coring around the rock where determinations are carried out. The aim of the present work is the realisation in laboratory of a gauge model based on this principle and measuring deformations by photoelasticity

  15. Experimental investigations regarding the use of sand as an inhibitor of air convection in deep seismic boreholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, L. Gary; Sandoval, Leo; Hutt, Bob

    1998-01-01

    in long period data. However, low levels of tilt noise persisted even at great depth; this noise was caused by air convection in the vault in which the sensors were installed. Over the years, methods were developed to control the air motion with mechanical barriers (boxes) around the sensors and by stratifying (creating a situation in which the air temperature increases with height) the air in the vault near the seismometer. These methods decreased tilt noise in deep mines to very low levels. However, deep mines, that are economically and environmentally suitable and accessible to seismology, are not plentiful and are not evenly distributed over the earth's surface. Therefore, the borehole deployable Teledyne Geotech KS-36000 and later the KS-54000 sensor systems were developed to fulfill the need for instruments that could be installed at depth wherever high quality long period data was desired. Early in the development program, it became evident to the Teledyne Geotech personnel that air convection within the borehole was going to be a significant problem in KS deployments. Experimental and theoretical investigations conducted by Teledyne Geotech (see Douze and Sherwin, 1975, and Sherwin and Cook, 1976) produced a list of recommended installation procedures for reducing the effects of air convection. These procedures consisted of wrapping the sensor in a relatively thin layer of foam insulation, filling the free space volume in the vicinity of the centralizer-bail assembly with foam insulation, and the installation of styrofoam hole plugs immediately above the cable strain relief assembly at the top of the sensor package and at the top of the borehole. This technology has performed quite satisfactorily for over 20 years but evidence of tilt noise in the system output has persisted throughout the KS deployment program (the evidence was that the horizontal components were usually noisier than the vertical components) even in deep boreholes. Some deep borehole sites

  16. Aspergillus fumigatus colonization of punctal plugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbara, Khalid F

    2007-01-01

    Punctal plugs are used in patients with dry eye syndrome to preserve the tears. In this report, I present two cases of Aspergillus fumigatus colonization of punctal plugs. Observational series of two cases. Approval was obtained from the institutional review board. Two men aged 29 and 31 years developed black spots inside the hole of punctal plug, which looked like eyeliner deposits. The deposits inside the hole of the plug in each patient were removed and cultured. Cultures of the two punctal plugs black deposits grew A fumigatus. Bacterial cultures were negative. Colonization of the punctal plug hole with A fumigatus was observed in two cases. It is recommended that punctal plugs be removed in patients undergoing refractive or intraocular procedures or in patients who are receiving topical corticosteroids. Current punctal plugs should be redesigned to avoid the presence of an inserter hole.

  17. Simple, Affordable and Sustainable Borehole Observatories for Complex Monitoring Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf, A.; Hammerschmidt, S.; Davis, E.; Saffer, D.; Wheat, G.; LaBonte, A.; Meldrum, R.; Heesemann, M.; Villinger, H.; Freudenthal, T.; Ratmeyer, V.; Renken, J.; Bergenthal, M.; Wefer, G.

    2012-04-01

    Around 20 years ago, the scientific community started to use borehole observatories, so-called CORKs or Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kits, which are installed inside submarine boreholes, and which allow the re-establishment and monitoring of in situ conditions. From the first CORKs which allowed only rudimentary fluid pressure and temperature measurements, the instruments evolved to multi-functional and multi-level subseafloor laboratories, including, for example, long-term fluid sampling devices, in situ microbiological experiments or strainmeter. Nonetheless, most boreholes are still left uninstrumented, which is a major loss for the scientific community. In-stallation of CORKs usually requires a drillship and subsequent ROV assignments for data download and instru-ment maintenance, which is a major logistic and financial effort. Moreover, the increasing complexity of the CORK systems increased not only the expenses but led also to longer installation times and a higher sensitivity of the in-struments to environmental constraints. Here, we present three types of Mini-CORKs, which evolved back to more simple systems yet providing a wide range of possible in situ measurements. As a regional example the Nankai Trough is chosen, where repeated subduction thrust earthquakes with M8+ occurred. The area has been investigated by several drilling campaigns of the DSDP, ODP and IODP, where boreholes were already instrumented by different CORKs. Unfortunately, some of the more complex systems showed incomplete functionality, and moreover, the increased ship time forced IODP to rely on third party funds for the observatories. Consequently, the need for more affordable CORKs arose, which may be satisfied by the systems presented here. The first type, the so-called SmartPlug, provides two pressure transducers and four temperature sensors, and monitors a hydrostatic reference section and an isolated zone of interest. It was already installed at the Nankai Trough accretionary

  18. Conceptual waste packaging options for deep borehole disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Jiann -Cherng [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hardin, Ernest L. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This report presents four concepts for packaging of radioactive waste for disposal in deep boreholes. Two of these are reference-size packages (11 inch outer diameter) and two are smaller (5 inch) for disposal of Cs/Sr capsules. All four have an assumed length of approximately 18.5 feet, which allows the internal length of the waste volume to be 16.4 feet. However, package length and volume can be scaled by changing the length of the middle, tubular section. The materials proposed for use are low-alloy steels, commonly used in the oil-and-gas industry. Threaded connections between packages, and internal threads used to seal the waste cavity, are common oilfield types. Two types of fill ports are proposed: flask-type and internal-flush. All four package design concepts would withstand hydrostatic pressure of 9,600 psi, with factor safety 2.0. The combined loading condition includes axial tension and compression from the weight of a string or stack of packages in the disposal borehole, either during lower and emplacement of a string, or after stacking of multiple packages emplaced singly. Combined loading also includes bending that may occur during emplacement, particularly for a string of packages threaded together. Flask-type packages would be fabricated and heat-treated, if necessary, before loading waste. The fill port would be narrower than the waste cavity inner diameter, so the flask type is suitable for directly loading bulk granular waste, or loading slim waste canisters (e.g., containing Cs/Sr capsules) that fit through the port. The fill port would be sealed with a tapered, threaded plug, with a welded cover plate (welded after loading). Threaded connections between packages and between packages and a drill string, would be standard drill pipe threads. The internal flush packaging concepts would use semi-flush oilfield tubing, which is internally flush but has a slight external upset at the joints. This type of tubing can be obtained with premium, low

  19. Geophysical borehole logging of the boreholes KR23 extension, KR29 and KR29b at Olkiluoto 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahti, M.; Heikkinen, E.

    2005-04-01

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical borehole logging of the boreholes KR23 extension, KR25b, KR29 and KR29b at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during October 2004. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and processing of the acoustic data. The report describes the field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD and Excel format. (orig.)

  20. Geophysical borehole logging of the boreholes KR23 extension, KR29 and KR29b at Olkiluoto 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahti, M. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland); Heikkinen, E. [JP-Fintact Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    2005-04-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical borehole logging of the boreholes KR23 extension, KR25b, KR29 and KR29b at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during October 2004. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and processing of the acoustic data. The report describes the field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD and Excel format. (orig.)

  1. Geophysical borehole logging of the boreholes KR37, KR37B and KR38, at Olkiluoto 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majapuro, J.

    2006-03-01

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical borehole logging of the boreholes KR37, KR37b and KR38 at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during September and October 2005. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and processing of the acoustic data. The report describes the field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD and Excel format. (orig.)

  2. RCC Plug Repair Thermal Tools for Shuttle Mission Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Alvaro C.; Anderson, Brian P.

    2010-01-01

    A thermal math model for the Space Shuttle Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) Plug Repair was developed to increase the confidence in the repair entry performance and provide a real-time mission support tool. The thermal response of the plug cover plate, local RCC, and metallic attach hardware can be assessed with this model for any location on the wing leading edge. The geometry and spatial location of the thermal mesh also matches the structural mesh which allows for the direct mapping of temperature loads and computation of the thermoelastic stresses. The thermal model was correlated to a full scale plug repair radiant test. To utilize the thermal model for flight analyses, accurate predictions of protuberance heating were required. Wind tunnel testing was performed at CUBRC to characterize the heat flux in both the radial and angular directions. Due to the complexity of the implementation of the protuberance heating, an intermediate program was developed to output the heating per nodal location for all OML surfaces in SINDA format. Three Design Reference Cases (DRC) were evaluated with the correlated plug thermal math model to bound the environments which the plug repair would potentially be used.

  3. Experimental assessment of borehole wall drilling damage in basaltic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuenkajorn, K.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1986-06-01

    Ring tension tests, permeability tests, and microscopic fracture studies have been performed to investigate the borehole damage induced at low confining pressure by three drilling techniques (diamond, percussion and rotary). Specimens are drilled with three hole sizes (38, 76, and 102 mm diameter) in Pomona basalt and Grande basaltic andesite. The damaged zone is characterized in terms of fractures and fracture patterns around the hole, and in terms of tensile strength reduction of the rock around the holes. Experimental results show that the thickness of the damaged zone around the hole ranges from 0.0 to 1.7 mm. A larger drill bit induces more wall damage than does a smaller one. Different drilling techniques show different damage characteristics (intensity and distribution). Damage characteristics are governed not only by drilling parameters (bit size, weight on bit, rotational speed, diamond radius, and energy), but also by properties of the rock. The weaker rock tends to show more intense damage than does the stronger one. Cracks within grains or cleavage fractures are predominant in slightly coarser grained rock (larger than 0.5 mm grain size) while intergranular cracks are predominant in very fine grained rock (smaller than 0.01 mm grain size). The damaged zones play no significant role in the flow path around a borehole plug

  4. Automated borehole gravity meter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautzenhiser, Th.V.; Wirtz, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    An automated borehole gravity meter system for measuring gravity within a wellbore. The gravity meter includes leveling devices for leveling the borehole gravity meter, displacement devices for applying forces to a gravity sensing device within the gravity meter to bring the gravity sensing device to a predetermined or null position. Electronic sensing and control devices are provided for (i) activating the displacement devices, (ii) sensing the forces applied to the gravity sensing device, (iii) electronically converting the values of the forces into a representation of the gravity at the location in the wellbore, and (iv) outputting such representation. The system further includes electronic control devices with the capability of correcting the representation of gravity for tidal effects, as well as, calculating and outputting the formation bulk density and/or porosity

  5. The Antartic Ice Borehole Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, A.; Carsey, F.; Lane, A.; Engelhardt, H.

    2000-01-01

    The Antartic Ice Borehole Probe mission is a glaciological investigation, scheduled for November 2000-2001, that will place a probe in a hot-water drilled hole in the West Antartic ice sheet. The objectives of the probe are to observe ice-bed interactions with a downward looking camera, and ice inclusions and structure, including hypothesized ice accretion, with a side-looking camera.

  6. U.S. Department of Energy's EV Everywhere Workplace Charging Challenge, Mid-Program Review: Employees Plug In

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-12-01

    This Program Review takes an unprecedented look at the state of workplace charging in the United States -- a report made possible by U.S. Department of Energy leadership and valuable support from our partners as they share their progress in developing robust workplace charging programs. Through the Workplace Charging Challenge, more than 250 participants are accelerating the development the nation's worksite PEV charging infrastructure and are supporting cleaner, more convenient transportation options within their communities. Challenge partners are currently providing access to PEV charging stations at more than 440 worksites across the country and are influencing countless other organizations to do the same.

  7. Exploratory boreholes Juchlistock-Grimsel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, W.; Keusen, H.R.

    1981-11-01

    The aim of the investigation was the completion of missing geological, hydrogeological and rock-mechanical data about a suitable site for the intended Nagra rock laboratory at Grimsel. To this aim, 6 horizontal boreholes of 100 m length and 86 mm diameter were drilled. The cores, extracted practically without loss, and mechanical data for the main investigation was an extensive evaluation of the lithographic discontinuities and anisotropies, because they are the main determinant of the hydrogeological conditions of the locality. The area is dominated by granites and granodiorite which are of variable biotite content, lamprophyres and aplites. The largest part of the investigated mountain region consists of compact unclefted rock. 478 of the 600 bore meters, i.e. about 80 % of the drilled mountain, have no open clefts. Only 22 of the 600 bore meters (3.6 %0 contain more than five clefts per meter, at which the open clefts in the boreholes SB1 and SB5 appear more frequently. At the remaining exploratory boreholes in 90 % of the mountain ther are no open clefts. 15 refs., 52 figs., 15 tabs

  8. Electromagnetic fields in cased borehole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ki Ha; Kim, Hee Joon; Uchida, Toshihiro

    2001-01-01

    Borehole electromagnetic (EM) measurements, using fiberglass-cased boreholes, have proven useful in oil field reservoir characterization and process monitoring (Wilt et al., 1995). It has been presumed that these measurements would be impossible in steel-cased wells due to the very large EM attenuation and phase shifts. Recent laboratory and field studies have indicated that detection of EM signals through steel casing should be possible at low frequencies, and that these data provide a reasonable conductivity image at a useful scale. Thus, we see an increased application of this technique to mature oilfields, and an immediate extension to geothermal industry as well. Along with the field experiments numerical model studies have been carried out for analyzing the effect of steel casing to the EM fields. The model used to be an infinitely long uniform casing embedded in a homogeneous whole space. Nevertheless, the results indicated that the formation signal could be accurately recovered if the casing characteristics were independently known (Becker et al., 1998; Lee el al., 1998). Real steel-cased wells are much more complex than the simple laboratory models used in work to date. The purpose of this study is to develop efficient numerical methods for analyzing EM fields in realistic settings, and to evaluate the potential application of EM technologies to cross-borehole and single-hole environment for reservoir characterization and monitoring

  9. Shielding plug for LMFBR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashiguchi, Ko.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To enable effective removal of liquid metals deposited, if any, in the gaps between a rotary plug and a fixed plug in LMFBR type reactors. Constitution: A plate incorporated with a heater and capable of projecting in a gap between a rotary plug and a fixed plug, and a scraper connected in perpendicular to it are provided to the rotary plug. Solidified liquid metals such as sodium deposited in the gap are effectively removed by the heating with the heater and the scraping action due to the rotation. (Horiuchi, T.)

  10. Plugging criteria for WWER SG tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, L.; Wilam, M. [Vitkovice NPP Services (Switzerland); Herman, M. [Vuje, Trnava (Slovakia)

    1997-12-31

    At operated Czech and Slovak nuclear power plants the 80 % criteria for crack or other bulk defect depth is used for steam generator heat exchanging tubes plugging. This criteria was accepted as the recommendation of designer of WWER steam generators. Verification of this criteria was the objective of experimental program performed by Vitkovice, J.S.C., UJV Rez, J.S.C. and Vuje Trnava, J.S.C .. Within this program the following factors were studied: (1) Influence of secondary water chemistry on defects initiation and propagation, (2) Statistical evaluation of corrosion defects progression at operated SG, and (3) Determination of critical pressure for tube rupture as a function of eddy current indications. In this presentation items (2) and (3) are considered.

  11. Plugging criteria for WWER SG tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, L; Wilam, M [Vitkovice NPP Services (Switzerland); Herman, M [Vuje, Trnava (Slovakia)

    1998-12-31

    At operated Czech and Slovak nuclear power plants the 80 % criteria for crack or other bulk defect depth is used for steam generator heat exchanging tubes plugging. This criteria was accepted as the recommendation of designer of WWER steam generators. Verification of this criteria was the objective of experimental program performed by Vitkovice, J.S.C., UJV Rez, J.S.C. and Vuje Trnava, J.S.C .. Within this program the following factors were studied: (1) Influence of secondary water chemistry on defects initiation and propagation, (2) Statistical evaluation of corrosion defects progression at operated SG, and (3) Determination of critical pressure for tube rupture as a function of eddy current indications. In this presentation items (2) and (3) are considered.

  12. Deep Space Habitat Wireless Smart Plug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Joseph A.; Porter, Jay; Rojdev, Kristina; Carrejo, Daniel B.; Colozza, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    NASA has been interested in technology development for deep space exploration, and one avenue of developing these technologies is via the eXploration Habitat (X-Hab) Academic Innovation Challenge. In 2013, NASA's Deep Space Habitat (DSH) project was in need of sensors that could monitor the power consumption of various devices in the habitat with added capability to control the power to these devices for load shedding in emergency situations. Texas A&M University's Electronic Systems Engineering Technology Program (ESET) in conjunction with their Mobile Integrated Solutions Laboratory (MISL) accepted this challenge, and over the course of 2013, several undergraduate students in a Capstone design course developed five wireless DC Smart Plugs for NASA. The wireless DC Smart Plugs developed by Texas A&M in conjunction with NASA's Deep Space Habitat team is a first step in developing wireless instrumentation for future flight hardware. This paper will further discuss the X-Hab challenge and requirements set out by NASA, the detailed design and testing performed by Texas A&M, challenges faced by the team and lessons learned, and potential future work on this design.

  13. Borehole Stability in High-Temperature Formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chuanliang; Deng, Jingen; Yu, Baohua; Li, Wenliang; Chen, Zijian; Hu, Lianbo; Li, Yang

    2014-11-01

    In oil and gas drilling or geothermal well drilling, the temperature difference between the drilling fluid and formation will lead to an apparent temperature change around the borehole, which will influence the stress state around the borehole and tend to cause borehole instability in high geothermal gradient formations. The thermal effect is usually not considered as a factor in most of the conventional borehole stability models. In this research, in order to solve the borehole instability in high-temperature formations, a calculation model of the temperature field around the borehole during drilling is established. The effects of drilling fluid circulation, drilling fluid density, and mud displacement on the temperature field are analyzed. Besides these effects, the effect of temperature change on the stress around the borehole is analyzed based on thermoelasticity theory. In addition, the relationships between temperature and strength of four types of rocks are respectively established based on experimental results, and thermal expansion coefficients are also tested. On this basis, a borehole stability model is established considering thermal effects and the effect of temperature change on borehole stability is also analyzed. The results show that the fracture pressure and collapse pressure will both increase as the temperature of borehole rises, and vice versa. The fracture pressure is more sensitive to temperature. Temperature has different effects on collapse pressures due to different lithological characters; however, the variation of fracture pressure is unrelated to lithology. The research results can provide a reference for the design of drilling fluid density in high-temperature wells.

  14. Analysis and interpretation of borehole hydraulic tests in deep boreholes: principles, model development, and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickens, J.F.; Grisak, G.E.; Avis, J.D.; Belanger, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    A review of the literature on hydraulic testing and interpretive methods, particularly in low-permeability media, indicates a need for a comprehensive hydraulic testing interpretive capability. Physical limitations on boreholes, such as caving and erosion during continued drilling, as well as the high costs associated with deep-hole rigs and testing equipment, often necessitate testing under nonideal conditions with respect to antecedent pressures and temperatures. In these situations, which are common in the high-level nuclear waste programs throughout the world, the interpretive requirements include the ability to quantitatively account for thermally induced pressure responses and borehole pressure history (resulting in a time-dependent pressure profile around the borehole) as well as equipment compliance effects in low-permeability intervals. A numerical model was developed to provide the capability to handle these antecedent conditions. Sensitivity studies and practical applications are provided to illustrate the importance of thermal effects and antecedent pressure history. It is demonstrated theoretically and with examples from the Swiss (National Genossenschaft fuer die Lagerung radioaktiver Abfaelle) regional hydrogeologic characterization program that pressure changes (expressed as hydraulic head) of the order of tens to hundreds of meters can results from 1 0 to 2 0 C temperature variations during shut-in (packer isolated) tests in low-permeability formations. Misinterpreted formation pressures and hydraulic conductivity can also result from inaccurate antecedent pressure history. Interpretation of representative formation properties and pressures requires that antecedent pressure information and test period temperature data be included as an integral part of the hydraulic test analyses

  15. Multiple position borehole extensometer procedure: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-08-01

    The purpose of the Multiple Position Borehole Extensometer Procedure is to provide detailed information for MPBXs installed at the salt Deaf Smith County ESF. This procedure includes design of equipment, installation, instructions, instrument locations, measurement requirements, support requirements, quality assurance procedures, and data acquisition requirements. Data reduction procedures are also discussed; however, the relevance of the data is discussed elsewhere in the appropriate test plans. Sufficient detail is provided in this procedure to allow for integrating the requirements of this procedure into both the facility construction and overall underground testing programs; identifying necessary equipment for procurement; determining data acquisition requirements as input to Automatic Data Acquisition System (ADAS) design; providing step-by-step procedures for training personnel as well as for directing field operations; establishing quality assurance (QA) checkpoints and implementation methods; and defining data reduction methods and providing the anticipated accuracy of the system. 11 refs., 14 figs

  16. New experiences in borehole dilution techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umesh Chandra

    1977-01-01

    A study of filtration rate and direction of groundwater flow was made at various depths in borehole using bromine-82 as groundwater tracer. The filtration rates were found to vary along the depth of borehole. Vertical flow in the borehole was observed in an alluvial aquifer even after sealing the borehole by rubber packers. The filtration rates, obtained without the packer at various depths, were much less than those obtained with packer. Microscopic hydrological information was obtained around the borehole which was useful in planning a drainage system in the area. A depth was located in the borehole where vertical flow was in opposite directions. At another depth a zone of horizontal flow was observed where vertical flow was in opposite directions. The improved instrumentation used rendered the field work extremely easy quick and readily reproducible. (author)

  17. Refueling system with small diameter rotatable plugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritz, W.C.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a liquid-metal fastbreeder nuclear reactor comprising a reactor pressure vessel and closure head therefor, a reactor core barrel disposed within the reactor vessel and enclosing a reactor core having therein a large number of closely spaced fuel assemblies, and the reactor core barrel and the reactor core having an approximately concentric circular cross-sectional configuration with a geometric center in predetermined location within the reactor vessel. The improved refueling system described here comprises: a large controllably rotatable plug means comprising the substantial portion of the closure head, a reactor upper internals structure mounted from the large rotatable plug means. The large rotatable plug means has an approximately circular configuration which approximates the cross-sectional configuration of the reactor core barrel with a center of rotation positioned a first predetermined distance from the geometric center of the reactor core barrel so that the large rotatable plug means rotates eccentrically with respect to the reactor core barrel; a small controllably rotatable plug means affixed to the large rotatable plug means and rotatable with respect thereto. The small rotatable plug means has a center of rotation which is offset a second predetermined distance from the rotational center of the large rotatable plug means so that the small rotatable plug means rotates eccentrically with respect to the large rotatable plug means

  18. Cement thickness measurements in cased boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, J.S.; Schuster, N.A.

    1978-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for logging a borehole having solid matter along at least a portion of the wall thereof. Gamma radiation is emitted from the borehole into the surrounding media, and the amount of radiation which returns to the borehole is measured by three detectors located at different distances from the source of radiation, so as to be primarily sensitive to radiation which has respectively penetrated to three different depths in the surrounding media. The thickness of the solid matter on the borehole wall is then determined from the three gamma radiation measurements

  19. The sonic borehole logging tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1990-09-01

    This report deals with the sonic borehole tool. First a review of the various elastic wave types is given and velocity values of compressional waves in various materials listed. Next follows a discussion of 3 models for the relation between transit time and porosity, and a comparison between the 3 models is made. The design of sonic tools is described including their geometry. The path of the sonic signals is discussed. Also the effect of environmental factors on the results of the tools are considered. Finally a number of applications are described. In two appendices the mechanics of deformable bodies and formulas for the velocity of sound are reviewed. (author)

  20. Longevity of borehole and shaft sealing materials: characterization of cement-based ancient building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, D.M.; Langton, C.A.

    1982-09-01

    Durability and long-term stability of cements, mortars, and/or concretes utilized as borehole plugging and shaft sealing materials are of present concern in the national effort to isolate and contain nuclear waste within deep geological repositories. The present study consists of a preliminary examination of selected ancient, old, and modern building materials (14 specimens) and was intended to document and explain the remarkable durability of these portland cement-related materials. This study has provided insights into reasons for the durability of certain structures and also into the long-term stability of calcium silicate binders (cements) used in archaeologic materials. These data were combined with knowledge obtained from the behavior of modern portland cements and natural materials to evaluate the potential for longevity of such materials in a borehole environment. A multimethod analysis was used and included: macroscopic and microscopic (petrographic and SEM) analyses, chemical analyses, and x-ray diffraction analyses. 61 figures, 11 tables

  1. Borehole Summary Report for Core Hole C4998 – Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, D. BRENT; Garcia, Benjamin J.

    2006-12-15

    Seismic borehole C4998 was cored through the upper portion of the Columbia River Basalt Group and Ellensburg Formation to provide detailed lithologic information and intact rock samples that represent the geology at the Waste Treatment Plant. This report describes the drilling of borehole C4998 and documents the geologic data collected during the drilling of the cored portion of the borehole.

  2. Longevity of borehole and shaft sealing materials: characterization of ancient cement based building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langton, C.A.; Roy, D.M.

    1983-01-01

    Durability and long-term stability of cements in plasters, mortars, and/or concretes utilized as borehole plugging and shaft sealing materials are of present concern in the national effort to isolate nuclear waste within deep geological repositories. The present study consists of an examination of selected ancient building materials and provides insights into the durability of certain ancient structures. These data were combined with knowledge obtained from the behavior of modern portland cements and natural materials to evaluate the potential for longevity of such materials in a borehold environment. Analyses were conducted by petrographic, SEM, chemical, and x-ray diffraction techniques. 7 references, 5 figures, 2 tables

  3. Plug Load Behavioral Change Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, I.; Kandt, A.; VanGeet, O.

    2011-08-01

    This report documents the methods and results of a plug load study of the Environmental Protection Agency's Region 8 Headquarters in Denver, Colorado, conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The study quantified the effect of mechanical and behavioral change approaches on plug load energy reduction and identified effective ways to reduce plug load energy. Load reduction approaches included automated energy management systems and behavioral change strategies.

  4. Final report of the borehole, shaft, and tunnel sealing test. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.; Boergesson, L.; Ramqvist, G.

    1987-02-01

    Like the borehole and shaft plugging tests, the tunnel test gave evidence of the very effective sealing power of Na betonite. The test arrangement consisted of a 9 m long 1.5 m diameter steel tube surrounded by sand and cast in concrete plugs at each end. These plugs contained bentonite forming 'O-ring' sealings at the concrete/rock interface. The test had the form of injecting water into the sand and measuring the leakage that took place through the adjacent rock and along the plug. It was concluded that the drop in leakage from more than 200 l at 100 kPa water pressure early in the test to 75 l at 3 MPa pressure at the end was due partly to the swelling pressure exerted by the bentonite on the rock and by penetration of bentonite into water-bearing rock fractures. The major sealing process appears to be the establishment of a very tight bentonite/rock interface. (orig./HP)

  5. Nuclear fuel rod end plug weld inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, M. A.; Patrick, S. S.; Rice, G. F.

    1985-01-01

    Apparatus and method for testing TIG (tungsten inert gas) welds of end plugs on a sealed nuclear reactor fuel rod. An X-ray fluorescent spectrograph testing unit detects tungsten inclusion weld defects in the top end plug's seal weld. Separate ultrasonic weld inspection system testing units test the top end plug's seal and girth welds and test the bottom end plug's girth weld for penetration, porosity and wall thinning defects. The nuclear fuel rod is automatically moved into and out from each testing unit and is automatically transported between the testing units by rod handling devices. A controller supervises the operation of the testing units and the rod handling devices

  6. Multimeediaetendus : Opera Gets Plugged / Eve Arpo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arpo, Eve

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Muusika- ja Teatriakadeemia lühiooperite õhtul "Opera Gets Plugged" etendunud lavastustest - Monika Mattieseni "DMeeter" ja Age Hirve "Tuleloitsija": Mõlema lavastaja ja projektijuht Liis Kolle

  7. Friction Pull Plug and Material Configuration for Anti-Chatter Friction Pull Plug Weld

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, Justin Anderson (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A friction pull plug is provided for use in forming a plug weld in a hole in a material. The friction pull plug includes a shank and a series of three frustoconical sections. The relative sizes of the sections assure that a central one of the sections defines the initial contact point between the hole's sides. The angle defined by the central one of the sections reduces or eliminates chatter as the plug is pulled into the hole.

  8. 30 CFR 75.1318 - Loading boreholes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... protect persons shall be done in the working place or other area where blasting is to be performed. (c) When loading boreholes drilled at an angle of 45 degrees or greater from the horizontal in solid rock... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1318 Loading boreholes. (a...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1322 - Stemming boreholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1322 Stemming boreholes (a... deep shall be stemmed for at least half the depth of the borehole. (f) When blasting off the solid in... water stemming bag shall be within 1/4 of an inch of the diameter of the drill bit used to drill the...

  10. Climate reconstruction from borehole temperatures influenced by groundwater flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurylyk, B.; Irvine, D. J.; Tang, W.; Carey, S. K.; Ferguson, G. A. G.; Beltrami, H.; Bense, V.; McKenzie, J. M.; Taniguchi, M.

    2017-12-01

    Borehole climatology offers advantages over other climate reconstruction methods because further calibration steps are not required and heat is a ubiquitous subsurface property that can be measured from terrestrial boreholes. The basic theory underlying borehole climatology is that past surface air temperature signals are reflected in the ground surface temperature history and archived in subsurface temperature-depth profiles. High frequency surface temperature signals are attenuated in the shallow subsurface, whereas low frequency signals can be propagated to great depths. A limitation of analytical techniques to reconstruct climate signals from temperature profiles is that they generally require that heat flow be limited to conduction. Advection due to groundwater flow can thermally `contaminate' boreholes and result in temperature profiles being rejected for regional climate reconstructions. Although groundwater flow and climate change can result in contrasting or superimposed thermal disturbances, groundwater flow will not typically remove climate change signals in a subsurface thermal profile. Thus, climate reconstruction is still possible in the presence of groundwater flow if heat advection is accommodated in the conceptual and mathematical models. In this study, we derive a new analytical solution for reconstructing surface temperature history from borehole thermal profiles influenced by vertical groundwater flow. The boundary condition for the solution is composed of any number of sequential `ramps', i.e. periods with linear warming or cooling rates, during the instrumented and pre-observational periods. The boundary condition generation and analytical temperature modeling is conducted in a simple computer program. The method is applied to reconstruct climate in Winnipeg, Canada and Tokyo, Japan using temperature profiles recorded in hydrogeologically active environments. The results demonstrate that thermal disturbances due to groundwater flow and climate

  11. Nuclear determination of saturation profiles in core plugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sletsgaard, J.; Oelgaard, P.L.

    1997-01-01

    A method to determine liquid saturations in core plugs during flooding is of importance when the relative permeability and capillary pressure function are to be determined. This part of the EFP-95 project uses transmission of γ-radiation to determine these saturations. In γ-transmission measurements, the electron density of the given substance is measured. This is an advantage as compared to methods that use electric conductivity, since neither oil nor gas conducts electricity. At the moment a single 137 Cs-source is used, but a theoretical investigation of whether it is possible to determine three saturations, using two radioactive sources with different γ-energies, has been performed. Measurements were made on three core plugs. To make sure that the measurements could be reproduced, all the plugs had a point of reference, i.e. a mark so that it was possible to place the plug same way every time. Two computer programs for calculation of saturation and porosity and the experimental setup are listed. (EG)

  12. Alternative technical summary report for direct disposition in deep boreholes: Direct disposal of plutonium metal/plutonium dioxide in compound canisters, Version 4.0. Fissile Materials Disposition Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijesinghe, A.M.

    1996-08-23

    This report summarizes and compares the Immobilized and Direct Beep Borehole Disposition Alternatives. The important design concepts, facility features and operational procedures are briefly described, and a discussion of the issues that affect the evaluation of each alternative against the programmatic assessment criteria that have been established for selecting the preferred alternatives for plutonium disposition.

  13. Borehole imaging tool detects well bore fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, T.A.; Bigelow, E.L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports on borehole imaging data which can provide high quality geological and petrophysical information to improve fracture identification, dip computations, and lithology determinations in a well bore. The ability to visually quantify the area of a borehole wall occupied by fractures and vugs enhances reservoir characterization and well completion operations. The circumferential borehole imaging log (CBIL) instrument is an acoustic logging device designed to produce a map of the entire borehole wall. The visual images can confirm computed dips and the geological features related to dip. Borehole geometry, including breakout, are accurately described by complete circumferential caliper measurements, which is important information for drilling and completion engineers. In may reservoirs, the images can identify porosity type, bedding characteristics, and petrophysical parameters

  14. Principle plug design for deposition tunnels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaramo, M.; Lehtonen, A.

    2009-06-01

    This report examines the plug structures to be built in the deposition tunnels of the repository. The deposition tunnels located below the depth of 400 metres have been used as input data. Each plug consists of a massive concrete structure. The planned maximum pressure acting on the plug is 7.5 MPa. It consists of 4.5 MPa of groundwater pressure and 3 MPa of swelling pressure of the backfill. Five different plug types have been examined. Two of them (butt and irregular plug) turned out to be difficult from the point of view of other works in the central and deposition tunnels. One type (straight plug) requires a lot of construction material. Wedge-shaped and dome plugs have been examined more carefully. The wedge shaped plug has advantageous properties in comparison with the dome plug, such as a three dimensional state of stress, the wedging effect which increases strength as pressure increases and larger tolerances for the excavation of the slot. Leakage water has a longer path through the wedge shaped plug than through the dome plug. Pressure load affects the wedge shaped plug, creating normal stresses, which are compressive along each coordinate axis. The long-term rise in temperature in the deposition tunnels can produce high extra stresses in all the plug alternatives. These stresses make it necessary to increase the strength of the concrete or the distance between the plug and the nearest deposition hole. The stability effects of different plug distances and deposition tunnel orientations have been examined. The plug does not significantly affect stresses in the surrounding bedrock or the stability of the bedrock. Stresses caused by excavation and temperature rise are decisive factors. A groundwater chloride content of 0-3% in the environment of the repository is used as input data. It affects the tightness of the concrete and the quality of the cement. Cement has to be sulphate resistant with a low pH value. Low pH results in the weakening of the corrosion

  15. Deep borehole disposal of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibb, F. G. F.; Taylor, K. J.; Burakov, B. E.

    2008-01-01

    Excess plutonium not destined for burning as MOX or in Generation IV reactors is both a long-term waste management problem and a security threat. Immobilisation in mineral and ceramic-based waste forms for interim safe storage and eventual disposal is a widely proposed first step. The safest and most secure form of geological disposal for Pu yet suggested is in very deep boreholes and we propose here that the key to successful combination of these immobilisation and disposal concepts is the encapsulation of the waste form in small cylinders of recrystallized granite. The underlying science is discussed and the results of high pressure and temperature experiments on zircon, depleted UO 2 and Ce-doped cubic zirconia enclosed in granitic melts are presented. The outcomes of these experiments demonstrate the viability of the proposed solution and that Pu could be successfully isolated from its environment for many millions of years. (authors)

  16. Deep Borehole Disposal Safety Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeze, Geoffrey A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stein, Emily [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Price, Laura L. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); MacKinnon, Robert J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tillman, Jack Bruce [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This report presents a preliminary safety analysis for the deep borehole disposal (DBD) concept, using a safety case framework. A safety case is an integrated collection of qualitative and quantitative arguments, evidence, and analyses that substantiate the safety, and the level of confidence in the safety, of a geologic repository. This safety case framework for DBD follows the outline of the elements of a safety case, and identifies the types of information that will be required to satisfy these elements. At this very preliminary phase of development, the DBD safety case focuses on the generic feasibility of the DBD concept. It is based on potential system designs, waste forms, engineering, and geologic conditions; however, no specific site or regulatory framework exists. It will progress to a site-specific safety case as the DBD concept advances into a site-specific phase, progressing through consent-based site selection and site investigation and characterization.

  17. Mastering Eclipse plug-in development

    CERN Document Server

    Blewitt, Alex

    2014-01-01

    If you are a Java developer who is familiar with the Eclipse plug-in environment, this book covers the advanced concepts that you need to know to achieve true expertise. Prior experience in creating Eclipse plug-ins is assumed for this book.

  18. Plugging regime in the pump limiter throat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghendrih, P.; Grosman, A.; Samain, A.; Capes, H.; Morera, J.P.

    1988-08-01

    The plugging regime -with no outstreaming neutral flux- is studied for a closed configuration pump limiter (throat). We derive the plugging length and the neutral density build-up at the neutralizer plate. The analytical expressions are supported by numerical evidence. We find an improved efficiency related to the throat effect mainly due to neutral-sidewall interactions

  19. Plug-In Tutor Agents: Still Pluggin'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Steven

    2016-01-01

    "An Architecture for Plug-in Tutor Agents" (Ritter and Koedinger 1996) proposed a software architecture designed around the idea that tutors could be built as plug-ins for existing software applications. Looking back on the paper now, we can see that certain assumptions about the future of software architecture did not come to be, making…

  20. Multiservice utility plug for remote fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldmann, L.H. Jr.; Jensen, D.A.

    1979-10-01

    This paper presents the design of a multiservice utility plug and drive system to be used for reliably engaging and disengaging all utility connections automatically that serve large portable equipment modules. The modules are arranged into a fuel processing production line within the Fuels and Materials Examination Laboratory. The utility plugs allow the modules to be easily replaced, rearranged or removed for maintenance

  1. Explosive plugging of nuclear heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossland, B.; Bahrani, A.S.; Townsley, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    Explosive welding is a well established process for cladding one metal on another or for welding tubes to tubeplates or lap welding, etc. Recently, the process has been adapted to plugging of heat exchangers in conventional and nuclear power plant, where it has already been accepted especially in situations where the access is difficult and remote from the site of plugging. The paper describes the explosive plugging techniques developed in the Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering of The Queen's University of Belfast for the reheater and superheater of the PFR, and for the reheater of the AGR. For the PFR a point charge system has been used which causes a spherical expansion of the plug, which gives two zones of welding. Initially for the much larger plug required for the AGR it was proposed to use a parallel stand-off welding set-up, but it proved difficult or impossible to avoid a crevice. Consequently, a rim charge set-up has been developed which gives a circular ring expansion of the plug with two zones of welding. Besides the problem of the design of the plug and explosive charge geometry it has also been necessary to consider the distortion of holes adjoining the hole in which a plug is welded. Bunging of adjoining holes in order to reduce the distortion has also been investigated

  2. Glow plug ignitor tests in H2 mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liparulo, N.J.; Olhoeft, J.E.; Paddleford, D.F.

    1981-01-01

    The AEP, TVA and DUKE Electric Power companies, in cooperation with Westinghouse Electric Corporation have defined a testing program to determine the effectiveness of a glow plug hydrogen ignition system. The ignitor's capability was demonstrated for both static and dynamic conditions. Tests were performed with both spray addition and fan induced turbulence. It ignited hydrogen for all tests performed. The results of tests did not differ significantly from similar tests data previously reported. This report presents a discussion of the test results

  3. Mitigation of Syngas Cooler Plugging and Fouling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bockelie, Michael J. [Reaction Engineering International, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2015-06-29

    This Final Report summarizes research performed to develop a technology to mitigate the plugging and fouling that occurs in the syngas cooler used in many Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants. The syngas cooler is a firetube heat exchanger located downstream of the gasifier. It offers high thermal efficiency, but its’ reliability has generally been lower than other process equipment in the gasification island. The buildup of ash deposits that form on the fireside surfaces in the syngas cooler (i.e., fouling) lead to reduced equipment life and increased maintenance costs. Our approach to address this problem is that fouling of the syngas cooler cannot be eliminated, but it can be better managed. The research program was funded by DOE using two budget periods: Budget Period 1 (BP1) and Budget Period 2 (BP2). The project used a combination of laboratory scale experiments, analysis of syngas cooler deposits, modeling and guidance from industry to develop a better understanding of fouling mechanisms and to develop and evaluate strategies to mitigate syngas cooler fouling and thereby improve syngas cooler performance. The work effort in BP 1 and BP 2 focused on developing a better understanding of the mechanisms that lead to syngas cooler plugging and fouling and investigating promising concepts to mitigate syngas cooler plugging and fouling. The work effort focused on the following: • analysis of syngas cooler deposits and fuels provided by an IGCC plant collaborating with this project; • performing Jet cleaning tests in the University of Utah Laminar Entrained Flow Reactor to determine the bond strength between an ash deposit to a metal plate, as well as implementing planned equipment modifications to the University of Utah Laminar Entrained Flow Reactor and the one ton per day, pressurized Pilot Scale Gasifier; • performing Computational Fluid Dynamic modeling of industrially relevant syngas cooler configurations to develop a better

  4. Effects of the deviation characteristics of nuclear waste emplacement boreholes on borehole liner stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glowka, D.A.

    1990-09-01

    This report investigates the effects of borehole deviation on the useability of lined boreholes for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste at the proposed Yucca Mountain Repository in Nevada. Items that lead to constraints on borehole deviation include excessive stresses that could cause liner failure and possible binding of a waste container inside the liner during waste emplacement and retrieval operations. Liner stress models are developed for two general borehole configurations, one for boreholes drilled with a steerable bit and one for boreholes drilled with a non-steerable bit. Procedures are developed for calculating liner stresses that arise both during insertion of the liner into a borehole and during the thermal expansion process that follows waste emplacement. The effects of borehole curvature on the ability of the waste container to pass freely inside the liner without binding are also examined. Based on the results, specifications on borehole deviation allowances are developed for specific vertical and horizontal borehole configurations of current interest. 11 refs., 22 figs., 4 tabs

  5. Predictions of hydrate plug dissociation with electrical heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, S.R.; Ivanic, J.; Sloan, E.D.

    2005-07-01

    The rate of dissociation for cylindrical hydrate plugs by the application of radial electrical heating was investigated for structure I and structure II hydrates for pressures of 7 MPa (1000 psia) and 14 MPa (2000 psia). Heating rates of 2.3 kWm{sup -3}, 4.5 kWm-3 and 6.8 kWm{sup -3} were investigated for a plug 91.4 cm (36 inches) in length and 2.54 cm (1 inch) in diameter. A heat transfer model was developed in cylindrical coordinates based on Fourier's Law with a boundary condition of constant heat flux at the pipe wall. The equation set was solved numerically using a finite difference grid and the standard explicit scheme. The model was found to replicate well the experimental observations with no fitted parameters. A computer program was formulated to allow the practicing engineer to simulate the dissociation of industrial hydrates with minimal complexity. This program was incorporated into the latest version of our CSMPlug program which has been used by a number of energy companies to predict hydrate plug dissociation rates in the field. (Author)

  6. Geophysical borehole logging test procedure: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    The purpose of geophysical borehole logging from the At-Depth Facility (ADF) is to provide information which will assist in characterizing the site geologic conditions and in classifying the engineering characteristics of the rock mass in the vicinity of the ADF. The direct goals of borehole logging include identification of lithologic units and their correlation from hole to hole, identification of fractured or otherwise porous or permeable zones, quantitative or semi-quantitative estimation of various formation properties, and evaluation of factors such as the borehole diameter and orientation. 11 figs., 4 tabs

  7. Alternative technical summary report for immobilized disposition in deep boreholes: Immobilized disposal of plutonium in coated ceramic pellets in grout without canisters, Version 4.0. Fissile materials disposition program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijesinghe, A.M.

    1996-08-23

    This paper summarizes and compares the immobilized and direct borehole disposition alternatives previously presented in the alternative technical summary. The important design concepts, facility features and operational procedures are first briefly described. This is followed by a discussion of the issues that affect the evaluation of each alternative against the programmatic assessment criteria that have been established for selecting the preferred alternatives for plutonium disposition.

  8. Alternative technical summary report for immobilized disposition in deep boreholes: Immobilized disposal of plutonium in coated ceramic pellets in grout without canisters, Version 4.0. Fissile materials disposition program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijesinghe, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes and compares the immobilized and direct borehole disposition alternatives previously presented in the alternative technical summary. The important design concepts, facility features and operational procedures are first briefly described. This is followed by a discussion of the issues that affect the evaluation of each alternative against the programmatic assessment criteria that have been established for selecting the preferred alternatives for plutonium disposition

  9. Geophysical borehole logging, dummy-sonding and optical imaging of the borehole OL-KR24 at Olkiluoto 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majapuro, J.

    2006-03-01

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical borehole logging, dummy-sonding and optical imaging surveys of the borehole OL-KR24 at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during 1.10.2005 - 4.10.2005. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The methods applied are caliper survey and optical imaging. The assignment included the field work of surveys, interpretation and processing of the data. The report describes the field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD and Excel format. (orig.)

  10. Plug cementing: Horizontal to vertical conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvert, D.G.; Heathman, J.F.; Griffith, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents an in-depth study of cement plug placement that was conducted with large-scale models for the improvement of plug cementing practices and plug integrity. Common hole and workstring geometries were examined with various rheology and density ratios between the drilling fluid and cement. The critical conditions dictating the difference between success and failure for various wellbore angles and conditions were explored, and the mechanisms controlling slurry movement before and after placement are now better understood. An understanding of these mechanisms allows the engineer to better tailor a design to specific hole conditions. Controversial concepts regarding plug-setting practices have been examined and resolved. The cumulative effects of density, rheology, and hole angle are major factors affecting plug success. While the Boycott effect and an extrusion effect were observed to be predominant in inclined wellbores, a spiraling or {open_quotes}roping{close_quotes} effect controls slurry movement in vertical wellbores. Ultimate success of a cement plug can be obtained if allowances are made for these effects in the job design, provided all other previously published recommended placement practices are followed. Results of this work can be applied to many sidetracking and plug-to-abandon operations. Additionally, the understanding of the fluid movement (creep) mechanisms holds potential for use in primary and remedial cementing work, and in controlling the placement of noncementitious fluids in the wellbore.

  11. Crosshole investigations - results from borehole radar investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, O.; Falk, L.; Sandberg, E.; Forslund, O.; Lundmark, L.

    1987-05-01

    A new borehole radar system has been designed, built and tested. The system consists of borehole transmitter and receiver probes, a signal control unit for communication with the borehole probes, and a computer unit for storage and display of data. The system can be used both in singlehole and crosshole modes and probing ranges of 115 m and 300 m, respectively, have been obtained at Stripa. The borehole radar is a short pulse system which uses center frequencies in the range 20 to 60 MHz. Single hole reflection measurements have been used to identify fracture zones and to determine their position and orientation. The travel time and amplitude of the first arrival measured in a crosshole experiment can be used as input data in a tomographic analysis. (orig./DG)

  12. EBR-II rotating plug seal maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, K.J.

    1986-01-01

    The EBR-II rotating plug seals require frequent cleaning and maintenance to keep the plugs from sticking during fuel handling. Time consuming cleaning on the cover gas and air sides of the dip ring seal is required to remove oxidation and sodium reaction products that accumulate and stop plug rotation. Despite severely limited access, effective seal cleaning techniques have removed 11 800 lb (5 352 kg) of deposits from the seals since 1964. Temperature control modifications and repairs have also required major maintenance work. Suggested seal design recommendations could significantly reduce maintenance on future similar seals

  13. FE-study for lithostatic pressure measurement in the 600 m borehole experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.F.M.; Benneker, P.B.J.M.

    1990-05-01

    In the Asse-2 salt mine an experiment is set up by ECN in the 600 m borehole to perform in-situ convergence measurements which can be used to validate or to determine the constitutive relations between stresses and deformations of the rocksalt. An experiment is planned in which the convergence of the borehole can be measured with different pressures created in the borehole. For this experiment a device has been developed at ECN which also will be used to measure the in-situ elasticity of the salt. This measuring device is designed in such a way that a pressure can be realized in the borehole and the deformation of the hole can be measured at the same time. In this report analyses are presented that are used to adjust the design of the pressure unit to the specific needs induced by the fact that the depth of the borehole is only 300 m due to drilling problems instead of the intended 600 m. Since the lithostatic pressure at this depth is smaller the convergence rate of the borehole is reduced. From the results presented in this report it can be concluded that it is not necessary to change the basic concept of the measurement as it was planned in the 600 m deep borehole. After the device has been placed into the borehole at a distance of 3 m from the bottom the empty space must be filled up with salt concrete up to 3 m above the pressure unit. In this way the interaction with the borehole bottom and the transition between the open and the filled borehole can be neglected. Some changes in the design are necessary to be able to measure the deformations of the borehole with enough accuracy. Based on these changes a measuring program has been defined in such a way that the experimental period is optimally used and the expected evolution of the volume change and pressure can be measured with enough accuracy. For three different constitutive models a prediction is made for the evolution of the pressure and the volume change resulting from the defined measuring program

  14. Interim reclamation report, Basalt Waste Isolation project: Boreholes, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Hefty, M.G.

    1990-03-01

    In 1968, a program was started to assess the feasibility of storing Hanford Site defense waste in deep caverns constructed in basalt. This program was expanded in 1976 to include investigations of the Hanford Site as a potential location for a mined commercial nuclear waste repository. An extensive site characterization program was begun to determine the feasibility of using the basalts beneath the Hanford Site for the repository. Site research focused primarily on determining the direction and speed of groundwater movement, the uniformity of basalt layers, and tectonic stability. Some 98 boreholes were sited, drilled, deepened, or modified by BWIP between 1977 and 1988 to test the geologic properties of the Site. On December 22, 1987, President Reagan signed into law the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, which effectively stopped all repository-related activities except reclamation of disturbed lands at the Hanford Site. This report describes the development of the reclamation program for the BWIP boreholes, its implementation, and preliminary estimates of its success. The goal of the reclamation program is to return sites disturbed by the repository program as nearly as practicable to their original conditions using native plant species. 48 refs., 28 figs., 14 tabs

  15. Dimensioning of Boreholes for Geothermal Heat Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryška Jiøí

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with determination of borehole depths for geothermal heat pumps. Basic formulae are stated for heat convection in rocks. Software EED 2.0 was used for calculation of borehole depth depending on different entering parameters. The crucial parameter is thermal conductivity of rocks. The thermal conductivity could be very variable for the same kind of rock. Therefore its in-situ determination by means of formation thermal conductivity testing is briefly described.

  16. Using boreholes as windows into groundwater ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P R Sorensen

    Full Text Available Groundwater ecosystems remain poorly understood yet may provide ecosystem services, make a unique contribution to biodiversity and contain useful bio-indicators of water quality. Little is known about ecosystem variability, the distribution of invertebrates within aquifers, or how representative boreholes are of aquifers. We addressed these issues using borehole imaging and single borehole dilution tests to identify three potential aquifer habitats (fractures, fissures or conduits intercepted by two Chalk boreholes at different depths beneath the surface (34 to 98 m. These habitats were characterised by sampling the invertebrates, microbiology and hydrochemistry using a packer system to isolate them. Samples were taken with progressively increasing pumped volume to assess differences between borehole and aquifer communities. The study provides a new conceptual framework to infer the origin of water, invertebrates and microbes sampled from boreholes. It demonstrates that pumping 5 m(3 at 0.4-1.8 l/sec was sufficient to entrain invertebrates from five to tens of metres into the aquifer during these packer tests. Invertebrates and bacteria were more abundant in the boreholes than in the aquifer, with associated water chemistry variations indicating that boreholes act as sites of enhanced biogeochemical cycling. There was some variability in invertebrate abundance and bacterial community structure between habitats, indicating ecological heterogeneity within the aquifer. However, invertebrates were captured in all aquifer samples, and bacterial abundance, major ion chemistry and dissolved oxygen remained similar. Therefore the study demonstrates that in the Chalk, ecosystems comprising bacteria and invertebrates extend from around the water table to 70 m below it. Hydrogeological techniques provide excellent scope for tackling outstanding questions in groundwater ecology, provided an appropriate conceptual hydrogeological understanding is applied.

  17. Borehole disposal design concept in Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randriamarolahy, J.N.; Randriantseheno, H.F.; Andriambololona, Raoelina

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In Madagascar, sealed radioactive sources are used in several socio-economic sectors such as medicine, industry, research and agriculture. At the end of their useful lives, these radioactive sources become ionizing radiations waste and can be still dangerous because they can cause harmful effects to the public and the environment. 'Borehole disposal design concept' is needed for sitting up a safe site for storage of radioactive waste, in particular, sealed radioactive sources. Borehole disposal is an option for long-term management of small quantities of radioactive waste in compliance with the internationally accepted principles for radioactive waste management. Several technical aspects must be respected to carry out such a site like the geological, geomorphologic, hydrogeology, geochemical, meteorological and demographic conditions. Two sites are most acceptable in Madagascar such as Ankazobe and Fanjakana. A Borehole will be drilled and constructed using standard techniques developed for water abstraction, oil exploration. At the Borehole, the sealed radioactive sources are encapsulated. The capsule is inserted in a container. This type of storage is benefit for the developing countries because it is technologically simple and economic. The construction cost depends on the volume of waste to store and the Borehole depth. The borehole disposal concept provides a good level of safety to avoid human intrusion. The future protection of the generations against the propagation of the ionizing radiations is then assured. (author)

  18. Acoustic and Optical Televiewer Borehole Logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Hasnulhadi Che Kamaruddin; Nik Marzukee Nik Ibrahim; Zaidi Ibrahim; Nurul Wahida Ahmad Khairuddin; Azmi Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    This review paper is focused on Borehole Televiewer. Borehole Televiewer or (BHTV) was used to obtain high-resolution acoustical images from the borehole wall. A probe with a high resolution downward looking camera is used. The camera has specific optics (a conical mirror with a ring of bulbs) with just one shot needed to capture the entire borehole circumference as a 360 panoramic view. Settings similar to traditional cameras (exposure, quality, light, frame rate and resolution) make it effective in almost any type of borehole fluid. After each shot, a series of horizontal pixel strings are acquired, giving a rasterized RGB picture in real-time which is transmitted to the console and finally to a monitor. The orientation device embedded in the tool, which is made of 3 inclinometers and 3 magnetometers, allows the inclination and azimuth of the probe to be computed in real-time, correctly orienting the borehole images. Besides, Acoustic and Optical Televiewer has been introduced as its advanced in technological research. Its logging has been successfully applied to geotechnical investigations and mineral exploration (Schepers et al., 2001) due to advances in beam focusing, increased dynamic range, digital recording techniques, and digital data processing (Schepers, 1991). Thus, this paper will go through to the basic principle of (BHTV) as one type of data collection today. (author)

  19. Experiments on stress dependent borehole acoustic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chaur-Jian; Kane, Michael R; Winkler, Kenneth; Wang, Canyun; Johnson, David Linton

    2011-10-01

    In the laboratory setup, a borehole traverses a dry sandstone formation, which is subjected to a controlled uniaxial stress in the direction perpendicular to the borehole axis. Measurements are made in a single loading-unloading stress cycle from zero to 10 MPa and then back down to zero stress. The applied stress and the presence of the borehole induce anisotropy in the bulk of the material and stress concentration around the borehole, both azimuthally and radially. Acoustic waves are generated and detected in the water-filled borehole, including compressional and shear headwaves, as well as modes of monopole, dipole, quadrupole, and higher order azimuthal symmetries. The linear and non-linear elastic parameters of the formation material are independently quantified, and utilized in conjunction with elastic theories to predict the characteristics of various borehole waves at zero and finite stress conditions. For example, an analytic theory is developed which is successfully used to estimate the changes of monopole tube mode at low frequency resulted from uniaxial stress, utilizing the measured material third order elasticity parameters. Comparisons between various measurements as well as that between experiments and theories are also presented. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  20. Analysis of groundwater from deep boreholes in Gideaa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, S.

    1983-03-01

    Groundwaters from two boreholes in granitic rock at an ivestigation site in Gideaa has been sampled and analysed. This is part of a larger program of geological, geophysical and hydrogeological investigations aimed at finding a suitable site for a high level radioactive waste respository. Five water-bearing levels in each borehole down to the deepest at about 500 m in the first and about 600 m in the second borehole were selected. Prior to sampling, the waterbearing level is isolated between packer sleeves. The water is then pumped to the surface where sensitive parameters such as redox potential, pH, sulphide and oxygen content are measured electrochemically on the flowing water in a system isolated from the air. Water, filter and gas samples are sent to several laboratories for further analysis. The present report is a presentation of the groundwater analysis. The reliability of the results is discussed but there is no evaluation relation to geology and hydrogeology. This report presents the basic results from the groundwater analyses to be further evaluated by experts in different fields. (Forf)

  1. Sealing of 300 mm boreholes KXTT3 and KXTT4 at Aespoe HRL. Report of Subproject 3 of Borehole sealing Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, Roland [Drawrite AB, Lund (Sweden); Luleaa Technical Univ., Luleaa (Sweden); Ramqvist, Gunnar [Eltekno AB, Figeholm (Sweden)

    2011-11-15

    Sealing of two moderately dipping 300 mm diameter holes that had been bored from a niche adjacent to the ramp in the Aespoe URL in conjunction with earlier geohydrological investigations (TRUE Project, Winberg et al. 2000) was successfully completed in early 2010. The work was preceded by a pilot test on the ground surface for investigating if a simple version of sealing by pressing down clay pellets into clay mud is feasible. The borehole was simulated by a steel tube that was filled with smectite mud in which a cage filled with clay pellets was moved down. The experience from this experiment was that the mud used was somewhat too stiff and that strong vibration significantly reduced its viscosity but not sufficiently much. The predicted average density at water saturation was 1,780 kg/m{sup 3} (dry density 1,240 kg/m{sup 3}). The finally selected sealing method comprised casting of concrete plugs where the inflow of water was significant (up to 30 l/min), and to install precompacted blocks of smectite-rich clay where the rock was 'dry'. The finally matured clay plugs will have a density of around 2,000 kg/m{sup 3} (dry density 1,580 kg/m{sup 3}) and a hydraulic conductivity of less than E-12 m/s, which is estimated to be at least one order of magnitude lower than the bulk conductivity of the surrounding rock mass (Pusch 2008). This provides excellent sealing of all parts of the holes deeper than about 1-2 m below the tunnel floor. Groundwater flow in the rock around the clay plugs can cause some minor erosion but this effect is deemed negligible considering the coagulating effect on released clay particles by the brackish Aespoe water. Inspection of the closed upper borehole ends showed accumulation of some very dilute mineral suspension after a few days. A careful analysis of the mineral content showed that it did not contain smectite particles, hence certifying that erosion of the clay plugs in the holes had not taken place. The particles were

  2. Sealing of 300 mm boreholes KXTT3 and KXTT4 at Aespoe HRL. Report of Subproject 3 of Borehole sealing Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, Roland; Ramqvist, Gunnar

    2011-11-01

    Sealing of two moderately dipping 300 mm diameter holes that had been bored from a niche adjacent to the ramp in the Aespoe URL in conjunction with earlier geohydrological investigations (TRUE Project, Winberg et al. 2000) was successfully completed in early 2010. The work was preceded by a pilot test on the ground surface for investigating if a simple version of sealing by pressing down clay pellets into clay mud is feasible. The borehole was simulated by a steel tube that was filled with smectite mud in which a cage filled with clay pellets was moved down. The experience from this experiment was that the mud used was somewhat too stiff and that strong vibration significantly reduced its viscosity but not sufficiently much. The predicted average density at water saturation was 1,780 kg/m 3 (dry density 1,240 kg/m 3 ). The finally selected sealing method comprised casting of concrete plugs where the inflow of water was significant (up to 30 l/min), and to install precompacted blocks of smectite-rich clay where the rock was 'dry'. The finally matured clay plugs will have a density of around 2,000 kg/m 3 (dry density 1,580 kg/m 3 ) and a hydraulic conductivity of less than E-12 m/s, which is estimated to be at least one order of magnitude lower than the bulk conductivity of the surrounding rock mass (Pusch 2008). This provides excellent sealing of all parts of the holes deeper than about 1-2 m below the tunnel floor. Groundwater flow in the rock around the clay plugs can cause some minor erosion but this effect is deemed negligible considering the coagulating effect on released clay particles by the brackish Aespoe water. Inspection of the closed upper borehole ends showed accumulation of some very dilute mineral suspension after a few days. A careful analysis of the mineral content showed that it did not contain smectite particles, hence certifying that erosion of the clay plugs in the holes had not taken place. The particles were concluded to represent fracture

  3. Experiment on thermal insulation and sodium deposition of shield plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashiguchi, K.; Honda, M.; Shiratori, H.; Ozaki, O.; Suzuki, M.

    1986-01-01

    A series of experiments on temperature distribution and thermal insulation characteristics was conducted using a reduced scale model of LMFBR shield plug. Observation and measurement of sodium deposition were also conducted on the model after the experiment. The effect of annulus natural convection was clarified for temperature and the thermal insulation characteristics from evaluating the result. Temperature distribution analysis was conducted successfully by combining the general purpose structural analysis program NASTRAN and vertical annulus natural convection analysis program VANAC. Moreover, significant effect was substantiated for the annulus convection barrier to increase the thermal insulation performance, narrow horizontal gap structure to prevent sodium deposition and thermal insulation plates. (author)

  4. Storage shaft definitive closure plug and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dardaine, M.

    1992-01-01

    A definitive closure plug system for radioactive waste storage at any deepness, is presented. The inherent weight of the closure materials is used to set in the plug: these materials display an inclined sliding surface in such a way that when the closure material rests on a stable surface of the shaft storage materials, the relative sliding of the different materials tends to spread them towards the shaft internal wall so as to completely occlude the shaft

  5. Evaluation of technology for large- and small-diameter boreholes to characterize crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-05-01

    Testing methods that have been used in large- and small-diameter boreholes (152 and 76 mm [6 and 3 in.]) were evaluated on their ability to characterize crystalline rocks. The methods evaluated included in-hole geomechanical, geophysical, and geohydrologic techniques and associated laboratory core tests; specific emphasis was on techniques that might be used in a field characterization program involving a small number of deep (up to 1500 m [5000 ft]) boreholes. Each technique was evaluated with regard to its effectiveness and limitations, applicability to the acquisition of data for anticipated rock conditions, and adequacy for assessing the required rock/hydrologic characteristics. Many pertinent case histories that helped to assess applicability were reviewed. A principal objective of the evaluations was to assess whether the techniques would be equally useful in both large- and small-diameter boreholes. Of the techniques evaluated, most are suitable for use in both large- and small-diameter boreholes. Borehole logging, hydrologic testing, and core-testing techniques provide suitable results in both borehole diameters. Geomechanical testing techniques provide suitable data in smaller diameter boreholes and have been designed for application at primarily shallow depths. The results of this study will be of use to the Office of Crystalline Repository Development (OCRD) in determining to what degree it is appropriate to use drilling, sampling, and testing techniques in small-diameter boreholes as opposed to large-diameter methods, while at the same time collecting adequate data for characterizing crystalline rock environments for potential use as a high-level radioactive waste repository. Additionally, further developmental work and specific testing techniques are recommended

  6. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Basics | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Basics Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Basics Imagine being able to one that's in a standard hybrid electric vehicle. The larger battery pack allows plug-in hybrids to between fill-ups) that's very similar to the range of a conventional vehicle. A plug-in hybrid vehicle's

  7. Flow induced vibration studies on PFBR control plug components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, V., E-mail: prakash@igcar.gov.in [Fast Reactor Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu (India); Kumar, P. Anup; Anandaraj, M.; Thirumalai, M.; Anandbabu, C.; Rajan, K.K. [Fast Reactor Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu (India)

    2012-09-15

    susceptible to flow induced vibrations. Since control plug is partially immersed in hot sodium, the reactor transients are felt by the components, hence it is very much essential to understand the vibration response of the control plug components. The main vibration excitation mechanisms are vortex shedding, turbulence buffeting, fluid-elastic instability, etc. In order to assess the susceptibility of CP internals against flow induced vibrations (FIVs), to measure structural response and to validate the analytical codes developed for FIV analysis of CP along with the assumptions of supports for various CP internals therein, a flow induced vibration testing program was formulated in 1:4 scale model of PFBR CP. As the first phase of this program, experimental modal analysis of CP internals was carried out in air to estimate the modal parameters. Subsequently, flow induced vibration studies were conducted in the 1:4 scale model of CP in water. In this model, size of the tubes, shell and plates are reduced to Vulgar-Fraction-One-Quarter size of the PFBR CP. The stiffness of CP parts is reduced by 4 times and mass decreased by 64 times which results in scaling up of modal frequencies by 4 times. The CP internals in the model were instrumented with accelerometers and strain gages. The studies were conducted in water with flows derived on the basis of velocity similitude. The output signals from the sensors were acquired and analyzed to obtain frequency spectra, overall vibration amplitude and strain values at various locations inside CP. The study carried out confirms the absence of resonance due to flow induced vibration mechanisms for the entire operating range. This paper elucidates the modeling details, similitude criteria, instrumentation employed and experimental results obtained with discussion on results.

  8. Geophysical borehole logging of the boreholes KR30, KR31, KR31b, KR32, KR33, KR33b and KR24 Upper Part, at Olkiluoto 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majapuro, J.

    2005-12-01

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical borehole logging of the boreholes KR30, KR31, KR31B, KR32, KR33, KR33B and KR24 upper part at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during December 2004, January, February and September 2005. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and processing of the acoustic data. The report describes the field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD and Excel format. (orig.)

  9. Optimal experimental design for placement of boreholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padalkina, Kateryna; Bücker, H. Martin; Seidler, Ralf; Rath, Volker; Marquart, Gabriele; Niederau, Jan; Herty, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Drilling for deep resources is an expensive endeavor. Among the many problems finding the optimal drilling location for boreholes is one of the challenging questions. We contribute to this discussion by using a simulation based assessment of possible future borehole locations. We study the problem of finding a new borehole location in a given geothermal reservoir in terms of a numerical optimization problem. In a geothermal reservoir the temporal and spatial distribution of temperature and hydraulic pressure may be simulated using the coupled differential equations for heat transport and mass and momentum conservation for Darcy flow. Within this model the permeability and thermal conductivity are dependent on the geological layers present in the subsurface model of the reservoir. In general, those values involve some uncertainty making it difficult to predict actual heat source in the ground. Within optimal experimental the question is which location and to which depth to drill the borehole in order to estimate conductivity and permeability with minimal uncertainty. We introduce a measure for computing the uncertainty based on simulations of the coupled differential equations. The measure is based on the Fisher information matrix of temperature data obtained through the simulations. We assume that the temperature data is available within the full borehole. A minimization of the measure representing the uncertainty in the unknown permeability and conductivity parameters is performed to determine the optimal borehole location. We present the theoretical framework as well as numerical results for several 2d subsurface models including up to six geological layers. Also, the effect of unknown layers on the introduced measure is studied. Finally, to obtain a more realistic estimate of optimal borehole locations, we couple the optimization to a cost model for deep drilling problems.

  10. Preliminary geochemical and physical testing of materials for plugging of man-made accesses to a repository in basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.L.; Anttonen, G.J.; O'Rourke, J.E.; Allirot, D.

    1980-04-01

    The available data on environmental conditions (both natural and man-made) at the Hanford Site are sufficient for preconceptual plug system design. Results of the geochemical testing program indicate that preferred candidate plug materials are chemically nonreactive during laboratory tests that simulated some of the expected environmental conditions. Agitated, crushed-basalt samples and mixtures containing basalt were found to be self-cementing under the hydrothermal conditions. Materials considered most suitable for consideration in future test programs and preconceptual plug design are mixtures of natural materials (basalt, clay, glaciofluvial sand, gravel, and zeolite) and processed natural materials

  11. Preliminary geochemical and physical testing of materials for plugging of man-made accesses to a repository in basalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, C.L.; Anttonen, G.J.; O' Rourke, J.E.; Allirot, D.

    1980-04-01

    The available data on environmental conditions (both natural and man-made) at the Hanford Site are sufficient for preconceptual plug system design. Results of the geochemical testing program indicate that preferred candidate plug materials are chemically nonreactive during laboratory tests that simulated some of the expected environmental conditions. Agitated, crushed-basalt samples and mixtures containing basalt were found to be self-cementing under the hydrothermal conditions. Materials considered most suitable for consideration in future test programs and preconceptual plug design are mixtures of natural materials (basalt, clay, glaciofluvial sand, gravel, and zeolite) and processed natural materials (portland cement Type V and grouts plus additives).

  12. Fissile Material Disposition Program: Deep Borehole Disposal Facility PEIS data input report for direct disposal. Direct disposal of plutonium metal/plutonium dioxide in compound metal canisters. Version 3.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijesinghe, A.M.; Shaffer, R.J.

    1996-01-15

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is examining options for disposing of excess weapons-usable nuclear materials [principally plutonium (Pu) and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] in a form or condition that is substantially and inherently more difficult to recover and reuse in weapons production. This report is the data input report for the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). The PEIS examines the environmental, safety, and health impacts of implementing each disposition alternative on land use, facility operations, and site infrastructure; air quality and noise; water, geology, and soils; biotic, cultural, and paleontological resources; socioeconomics; human health; normal operations and facility accidents; waste management; and transportation. This data report is prepared to assist in estimating the environmental effects associated with the construction and operation of a Deep Borehole Disposal Facility, an alternative currently included in the PEIS. The facility projects under consideration are, not site specific. This report therefore concentrates on environmental, safety, and health impacts at a generic site appropriate for siting a Deep Borehole Disposal Facility.

  13. Fissile Material Disposition Program: Deep Borehole Disposal Facility PEIS data input report for direct disposal. Direct disposal of plutonium metal/plutonium dioxide in compound metal canisters. Version 3.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijesinghe, A.M.; Shaffer, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is examining options for disposing of excess weapons-usable nuclear materials [principally plutonium (Pu) and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] in a form or condition that is substantially and inherently more difficult to recover and reuse in weapons production. This report is the data input report for the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). The PEIS examines the environmental, safety, and health impacts of implementing each disposition alternative on land use, facility operations, and site infrastructure; air quality and noise; water, geology, and soils; biotic, cultural, and paleontological resources; socioeconomics; human health; normal operations and facility accidents; waste management; and transportation. This data report is prepared to assist in estimating the environmental effects associated with the construction and operation of a Deep Borehole Disposal Facility, an alternative currently included in the PEIS. The facility projects under consideration are, not site specific. This report therefore concentrates on environmental, safety, and health impacts at a generic site appropriate for siting a Deep Borehole Disposal Facility

  14. TV borehole inspection and vacuum testing of roof strata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herget, G.

    1982-01-01

    To improve quality control of roof conditions, a program was carried out at Elliot Lake uranium mines in Ontario, Canada to test a portable TV camera system. This camera has a 29 mm diameter probe and is capable of identifying crack locations, crack width and approximate dip direction. The extent of fractures in the roof was checked with the aid of a vacuum system by placing packers in various boreholes and checking for communication. The removal of some rock bolts indicated an increase in fracture extent

  15. Optical imaging of borehole PR10 at Olkiluoto 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarvainen, A.-M.

    2007-03-01

    Suomen Malmi Oy carried out optical imaging of borehole PR10 at Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during December 2006. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and the data processing. This report describes the field operation, the equipment as well as the processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD and PDF format. (orig.)

  16. Ford Plug-In Project: Bringing PHEVs to Market Demonstration and Validation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Annunzio, Julie [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Slezak, Lee [U.S. DOE Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Conley, John Jason [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States)

    2014-03-26

    This project is in support of our national goal to reduce our dependence on fossil fuels. By supporting efforts that contribute toward the successful mass production of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, our nation’s transportation-related fuel consumption can be offset with energy from the grid. Over four and a half years ago, when this project was originally initiated, plug-in electric vehicles were not readily available in the mass marketplace. Through the creation of a 21 unit plug-in hybrid vehicle fleet, this program was designed to demonstrate the feasibility of the technology and to help build cross-industry familiarity with the technology and interface of this technology with the grid. Ford Escape PHEV Demonstration Fleet 3 March 26, 2014 Since then, however, plug-in vehicles have become increasingly more commonplace in the market. Ford, itself, now offers an all-electric vehicle and two plug-in hybrid vehicles in North America and has announced a third plug-in vehicle offering for Europe. Lessons learned from this project have helped in these production vehicle launches and are mentioned throughout this report. While the technology of plugging in a vehicle to charge a high voltage battery with energy from the grid is now in production, the ability for vehicle-to-grid or bi-directional energy flow was farther away than originally expected. Several technical, regulatory and potential safety issues prevented progressing the vehicle-to-grid energy flow (V2G) demonstration and, after a review with the DOE, V2G was removed from this demonstration project. Also proving challenging were communications between a plug-in vehicle and the grid or smart meter. While this project successfully demonstrated the vehicle to smart meter interface, cross-industry and regulatory work is still needed to define the vehicle-to-grid communication interface.

  17. VTT test borehole for bedrock investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okko, O.; Hassinen, P.; Front, K.

    1994-02-01

    A borehole of depth 150 m and diameter 56 mm has been drilled in the area adjacent to the premises of the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) at Otaniemi, Espoo, for the purposes of calibrating geophysical measurements devices. This report presents the test results obtained so far and illustrates the processing of these, in which the various measurements are plotted as curves and combinations of curves. The interpretations provided so far consists of analyses of lithological variations, bedrock fracturing, the nature and occurrence of fracture zones and groundwater flow patterns. Samples were taken from those parts of the core shown by the borehole measurements to be homogenous and thin sections made from these for mineralogical determinations. The rock mechanical and petrophysical properties of the same points were examined. The core is in the possession of VTT, and the hole itself is available to outsiders for the calibration and testing of borehole measurement equipment. (orig.). (21 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.)

  18. Developments of borehole strain observation outside China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱泽华; 石耀霖

    2004-01-01

    Borehole strain observation is playing an increasingly important role in the study on the crustal movements. It hasbeen used by many countries such as China, USA, Japan, Peru, Australia, South Africa, Iceland and Italy, in research fields of plate tectonics, earthquake, volcanic eruption, dam safety, oil field subsidence, mining collapse andso on. Borehole strainmeter has been improved rapidly and tends to get more and more components included inone probe. Based on observations by this kind of instruments, studies on seismic strain step, slow earthquake,earthquake precursor and volcanic eruption forecasting have made remarkable achievements. In the coming years,borehole strain observation is going to become one major geodetic means, together with GPS and InSAR.

  19. Site Characterization Of Borehole Disposal Facility (BOSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamarudin Samuding; Mohd Abd Wahab Yusof; Mohd Muzamil; Nazran Harun; Nurul Fairuz Diyana Bahrudin; Ismail, C. Mohamad; Kalam

    2014-01-01

    Site characterization study is one of the major components in assessing the potential site for borehole disposal facility. The main objectives of this study are to obtain the geology, geomorphology, hydrogeology and geochemistry information in order to understand the regional geological setting, its past evolution and likely future natural evolution over the assessment time frame. This study was focused on the geological information, borehole log and hydrogeological information. Geological information involve general geology, lineament, topography, structure geology, geological terrain. Whereas Borehole log information consists of lithology, soil and rock formation, gamma logging data and physical properties of soil and rock. Hydrogeological information was emphasized on the groundwater flow, physical parameter as well as geochemical data. Geological mapping shows the study area is underlain by metamorphic rock of the Kenny Hill Formation. Lithologically, it composed of psammitic schist of sandstone origin and phyllite. Based on the borehole log profile, the study area is covered by thick layer of residual soil and estimated not less than 10 m. Those foliated rocks tend to break or split along the foliation planes. The foliation or schistosity may also serve as conduit for groundwater migration. Main structural geology features in the study area trend predominantly in North to Northeast directions. Major fault, the UKM Fault trends in NE-SW direction about 0.5 km located to the east of the proposed borehole site. The groundwater flow direction is influenced by the structure and bedding of the rock formation. Whereas the groundwater flow velocity in the borehole ranges 2.15 - 5.24 x 10 -4 m/ sec. All the data that are obtained in this study is used to support the Safety Assessment and Safety Case report. (author)

  20. Site response assessment using borehole seismic records

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Donghee; Chang, Chunjoong; Choi, Weonhack [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In regions with high seismic activity, such as Japan, the Western United States and Taiwan, borehole seismometers installed deep underground are used to monitor seismic activity during the course of seismic wave propagation at various depths and to study the stress changes due to earthquakes and analyze the connection to fault movements. The Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) and the Korea Institute of Geology and Mining (KIGAM) have installed and are operating borehole seismometers at a depth of 70∼100 meters for the precise determination of epicenters. Also, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) has installed and is operating 2 borehole seismic stations near Weolseong area to observe at a depth of 140 meters seismic activities connected to fault activity. KHNP plans to operate in the second half of 2014 a borehole seismic station for depths less than 300 and 600 meters in order to study the seismic response characteristics in deep strata. As a basic study for analyzing ground motion response characteristics at depths of about 300 to 600 meters in connection with the deep geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel, the present study examined the background noise response characteristics of the borehole seismic station operated by KHNP. In order to analyze the depth-dependent impact of seismic waves at deeper depths than in Korea, seismic data collected by Japan's KIK-net seismic stations were used and the seismic wave characteristics analyzed by size and depth. In order to analyze the borehole seismic observation data from the seismic station operated by KHNP, this study analyzed the background noise characteristics by using a probability density function.

  1. Site response assessment using borehole seismic records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Donghee; Chang, Chunjoong; Choi, Weonhack

    2014-01-01

    In regions with high seismic activity, such as Japan, the Western United States and Taiwan, borehole seismometers installed deep underground are used to monitor seismic activity during the course of seismic wave propagation at various depths and to study the stress changes due to earthquakes and analyze the connection to fault movements. The Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) and the Korea Institute of Geology and Mining (KIGAM) have installed and are operating borehole seismometers at a depth of 70∼100 meters for the precise determination of epicenters. Also, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) has installed and is operating 2 borehole seismic stations near Weolseong area to observe at a depth of 140 meters seismic activities connected to fault activity. KHNP plans to operate in the second half of 2014 a borehole seismic station for depths less than 300 and 600 meters in order to study the seismic response characteristics in deep strata. As a basic study for analyzing ground motion response characteristics at depths of about 300 to 600 meters in connection with the deep geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel, the present study examined the background noise response characteristics of the borehole seismic station operated by KHNP. In order to analyze the depth-dependent impact of seismic waves at deeper depths than in Korea, seismic data collected by Japan's KIK-net seismic stations were used and the seismic wave characteristics analyzed by size and depth. In order to analyze the borehole seismic observation data from the seismic station operated by KHNP, this study analyzed the background noise characteristics by using a probability density function

  2. Borehole radar and BIPS investigations in boreholes at the Boda area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsten, S.; Straahle, A. [GEOSIGMA AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2000-12-01

    As part of the studies conducted in the Boda area, measurements with borehole radar, borehole TV (BIPS) and deviation measurements were performed during May 2000. The investigations were carried out in four percussion-drilled boreholes with a total length of 514 m. Two boreholes are vertical and two are directed into and below the cave area. The BIPS measurement showed the presence of 14 open fractures. Largest apparent aperture width of open fractures was 133 mm. In the lowest part in boreholes 2, 3, and 4, particles in suspension deteriorated the visibility. BIPS has revealed a dominating subhorizontal fracture set and another striking NW to N-S with a dip close to vertical. Possible but very uncertain is a third fracture set striking NE and dipping steeply towards S. The open and partly open fractures forms an average block size 11 m wide and 6 m high, while the length of the block is uncertain. Of 98 borehole radar reflectors interpreted to intersect within BIPS-mapped sections, 90 were possible to combine with BIPS-mapped structures, i.e. 92% of the radar reflectors. The fractured rock around Boda is a shallow feature, since borehole radar and BIPS measurements shows no evidence of increased fracturing or the presence of caves at larger depth in the Boda area. The result indicates that the formation of the superficial fracture system (with caves included) at Boda in all probability is connected to glacial action, such as banking.

  3. Borehole radar and BIPS investigations in boreholes at the Boda area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsten, S.; Straahle, A.

    2000-12-01

    As part of the studies conducted in the Boda area, measurements with borehole radar, borehole TV (BIPS) and deviation measurements were performed during May 2000. The investigations were carried out in four percussion-drilled boreholes with a total length of 514 m. Two boreholes are vertical and two are directed into and below the cave area. The BIPS measurement showed the presence of 14 open fractures. Largest apparent aperture width of open fractures was 133 mm. In the lowest part in boreholes 2, 3, and 4, particles in suspension deteriorated the visibility. BIPS has revealed a dominating subhorizontal fracture set and another striking NW to N-S with a dip close to vertical. Possible but very uncertain is a third fracture set striking NE and dipping steeply towards S. The open and partly open fractures forms an average block size 11 m wide and 6 m high, while the length of the block is uncertain. Of 98 borehole radar reflectors interpreted to intersect within BIPS-mapped sections, 90 were possible to combine with BIPS-mapped structures, i.e. 92% of the radar reflectors. The fractured rock around Boda is a shallow feature, since borehole radar and BIPS measurements shows no evidence of increased fracturing or the presence of caves at larger depth in the Boda area. The result indicates that the formation of the superficial fracture system (with caves included) at Boda in all probability is connected to glacial action, such as banking

  4. Characterization of crystalline rocks in deep boreholes. The Kola, Krivoy Rog and Tyrnauz boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    SKB studies, as one alternative, the feasibility of disposing of spent nuclear fuel in very deep boreholes. As a part of this work NEDRA has compiled geoscientific data from three superdeep boreholes within the former Soviet Union. The holes considered were: the Kola borehole, 12261 m deep and located on the Kola Peninsula, the Krivoy Rog borehole, 5000 m deep and located in Ukraine, and the Tyrnauz borehole, 4001 m deep and located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. These boreholes all penetrate crystalline formations, but major differences are found when their tectonic environments are compared. Excluding the uppermost horizon affected by surface phenomena, data do not indicate any general correlation between depth and the state of rock fracturing, which is instead governed by site specific, lithological and tectonical factors. This applies also to fracture zones, which are found at similar frequencies at all depths. As opposed to the structural data, the hydrogeological and hydrochemical information reveals a vertical zonation, with clear similarities between the three boreholes. An upper zone with active circulation and fresh or slightly mineralized groundwaters reaches down 1000-2000 m. The interval from 1000-2000 m down to 4000-5000 m can be characterized as a transition zone with lower circulation rates and gradually increasing mineralisation. Below 4000-5000 m, strongly mineralized, stagnant, juvenile or metamorphogenic waters are found. Geothermal data verify the existence of this zonation. 28 figs, 30 tabs

  5. Borehole tool outrigger arm displacement control mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    As the outrigger arms of a borehole logging tool are flexed inwardly and outwardly according to the diameter of the borehole opening through which they pass, the corresponding axial displacements of the ends of the arms are controlled to determine the axial positions of the arms relative to the tool. Specifically, as the arm ends move, they are caused to rotate by a cam mechanism. The stiffness of the arms causes the arm ends to rotate in unison, and the exact positions of the arms on the tool are then controlled by the differential movements of the arm ends in the cams

  6. Borehole temperature variability at Hoher Sonnblick, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Georg; Schöner, Wolfgang; Prinz, Rainer; Pfeiler, Stefan; Reisenhofer, Stefan; Riedl, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    The overarching aim of the project 'Atmosphere - permafrost relationship in the Austrian Alps - atmospheric extreme events and their relevance for the mean state of the active layer (ATMOperm)' is to improve the understanding of the impacts of atmospheric extreme events on the thermal state of the active layer using a combined measurement and modeling approach as the basis for a long-term monitoring strategy. For this purpose, the Sonnblick Observatory at the summit of Hoher Sonnblick (3106 m.a.s.l) is particularly well-suited due to its comprehensive long-term atmospheric and permafrost monitoring network (i.a. three 20 m deep boreholes since 2007). In ATMOperm, a robust and accurate permanent monitoring of active layer thickness at Hoher Sonnblick will be set up using innovative monitoring approaches by automated electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). The ERT monitoring is further supplemented by additional geophysical measurements such as ground penetrating radar, refraction seismic, electromagnetic induction and transient electromagnetics in order to optimally complement the gained ERT information. On the other hand, atmospheric energy fluxes over permafrost ground and their impact on the thermal state of permafrost and active layer thickness with a particular focus on atmospheric extreme events will be investigated based on physically-based permafrost modeling. For model evaluation, the borehole temperature records will play a key role and, therefore, an in-depth quality control of the borehole temperatures is an important prerequisite. In this study we will show preliminary results regarding the borehole temperature variability at Hoher Sonnblick with focus on the active layer. The borehole temperatures will be related to specific atmospheric conditions using the rich data set of atmospheric measurements of the site in order to detect potential errors in the borehole temperature measurements. Furthermore, we will evaluate the potential of filling gaps in

  7. comparison of performance of public and private boreholes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    comparison of the performance of three categories of boreholes namely: public operated boreholes ... Port Harcourt in River State of Nigeria is a fast developing state. ..... World. Bank. Dujam, Consultants (1988). Nation-wide water. Supply and.

  8. Geothermal Well Site Restoration and Plug and Abandonment of Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinehart, Ben N.

    1994-08-01

    A report is presented on the final phase of an energy research program conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) involving two geothermal well sites in the State of Louisiana-the Gladys McCall site and the Willis Hulin site. The research program was intended to improve geothermal technology and to determine the efficacy of producing electricity commercially from geopressured resource sites. The final phase of the program consisted of plug and abandonment (P&A) of the wells and restoration of the well sites. Restoration involved (a) initial soil and water sampling and analysis; (b) removal and disposal of well pads, concrete, utility poles, and trash; (c) plugging of monitor and freshwater wells; and (d) site leveling and general cleanup. Restoration of the McCall site required removal of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), which was costly and time-consuming. Exhibits are included that provide copies of work permits and authorizations, P&A reports and procedures, daily workover and current conditions report, and cost and salvage reports. Site locations, grid maps, and photographs are provided.

  9. DISTRIBUTION OF BOREHOLES IN RESIDENTIAL LAYOUTS AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IPPIS NAU

    2017-07-01

    Jul 1, 2017 ... Lack of adequate public water supply to the inhabitants of Awka urban area since the urban water supply scheme at Imo ... investigate the distribution pattern of boreholes in some new settlements within the urban area to see whether their ..... The urban sprawl has resulted in the conversion of hitherto rural ...

  10. Method for orienting a borehole core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, W.

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for longitudinally orienting a borehold core with respect to the longitudinal axis of the drill string which drilled said borehold core in such a manner that the original longitudinal attitude of said borehold core within the earth may be determined. At least a portion of said borehold core is partialy demagnetized in steps to thereby at least partially remove in steps the artificial remanent magnetism imparted to said borehole core by said drill string. The artifical remanent magnetism is oriented substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of said drill string. The direction and intensity of the total magnetism of said borehold core is measured at desired intervals during the partial demagnetizing procedure. An artificial remanent magnetism vector is established which extends from the final measurement of the direction and intensity of the total magnetism of said borehole core taken during said partial demagnetizing procedure towards the initial measurement of the direction and intensity of the total magnetism of said borehold core taken during said partial demagnetizing procedure. The borehold core is oriented in such a manner that said artificial remanent magnetism vector points at least substantially downwardly towards the bottom of said borehold core for a borehold in the northern hemisphere and points at least substantailly upwardly towards the top of said borehole core for a borehole in the southern hemisphere

  11. Experiences from the design and construction of plug II in the Prototype Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlstroem, Lars-Olof (NCC Teknik (Sweden))

    2009-12-15

    factory and was ready for installation when arrival on site. Parallel to the installation of the reinforcement bars, the cooling system was installed together with measurement gauges and cables. The plug was casted with Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) mixed at the factory and continuously delivered on site. Mixing and Casting SCC is more complex than standard concrete and requires experienced and accurate personnel and a well developed control program. It is important to use correct procedures and well known ingredients when mixing SCC. After a controlled curing, the plug was cooled down to a temperature about 10 degrees below the ambient temperature in order to facilitate better penetration and filling of grout during contact grouting process. Contact grouting is performed through pre-installed grouting tubes. Mechanical measurements have been performed in order to monitor and verify the function and the behaviour of the plug. Stresses and deformations are not perfectly correlated between the calculated and the measured. However, the measurements show that the plug behaves as expected and that the entire plug is compressed, which was the purpose of its design

  12. Experiences from the design and construction of plug II in the Prototype Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlstroem, Lars-Olof

    2009-12-01

    installation when arrival on site. Parallel to the installation of the reinforcement bars, the cooling system was installed together with measurement gauges and cables. The plug was casted with Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) mixed at the factory and continuously delivered on site. Mixing and Casting SCC is more complex than standard concrete and requires experienced and accurate personnel and a well developed control program. It is important to use correct procedures and well known ingredients when mixing SCC. After a controlled curing, the plug was cooled down to a temperature about 10 degrees below the ambient temperature in order to facilitate better penetration and filling of grout during contact grouting process. Contact grouting is performed through pre-installed grouting tubes. Mechanical measurements have been performed in order to monitor and verify the function and the behaviour of the plug. Stresses and deformations are not perfectly correlated between the calculated and the measured. However, the measurements show that the plug behaves as expected and that the entire plug is compressed, which was the purpose of its design

  13. Deep Borehole Field Test Research Activities at LBNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobson, Patrick [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tsang, Chin-Fu [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kneafsey, Timothy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Borglin, Sharon [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Piceno, Yvette [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Andersen, Gary [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Nakagawa, Seiji [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Nihei, Kurt [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rutqvist, Jonny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Doughty, Christine [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Reagan, Matthew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-08-19

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy Used Fuel Disposition’s (UFD) Deep Borehole Field Test is to drill two 5 km large-diameter boreholes: a characterization borehole with a bottom-hole diameter of 8.5 inches and a field test borehole with a bottom-hole diameter of 17 inches. These boreholes will be used to demonstrate the ability to drill such holes in crystalline rocks, effectively characterize the bedrock repository system using geophysical, geochemical, and hydrological techniques, and emplace and retrieve test waste packages. These studies will be used to test the deep borehole disposal concept, which requires a hydrologically isolated environment characterized by low permeability, stable fluid density, reducing fluid chemistry conditions, and an effective borehole seal. During FY16, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory scientists conducted a number of research studies to support the UFD Deep Borehole Field Test effort. This work included providing supporting data for the Los Alamos National Laboratory geologic framework model for the proposed deep borehole site, conducting an analog study using an extensive suite of geoscience data and samples from a deep (2.5 km) research borehole in Sweden, conducting laboratory experiments and coupled process modeling related to borehole seals, and developing a suite of potential techniques that could be applied to the characterization and monitoring of the deep borehole environment. The results of these studies are presented in this report.

  14. Deep Borehole Field Test Research Activities at LBNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, Patrick; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Kneafsey, Timothy; Borglin, Sharon; Piceno, Yvette; Andersen, Gary; Nakagawa, Seiji; Nihei, Kurt; Rutqvist, Jonny; Doughty, Christine; Reagan, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy Used Fuel Disposition's (UFD) Deep Borehole Field Test is to drill two 5 km large-diameter boreholes: a characterization borehole with a bottom-hole diameter of 8.5 inches and a field test borehole with a bottom-hole diameter of 17 inches. These boreholes will be used to demonstrate the ability to drill such holes in crystalline rocks, effectively characterize the bedrock repository system using geophysical, geochemical, and hydrological techniques, and emplace and retrieve test waste packages. These studies will be used to test the deep borehole disposal concept, which requires a hydrologically isolated environment characterized by low permeability, stable fluid density, reducing fluid chemistry conditions, and an effective borehole seal. During FY16, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory scientists conducted a number of research studies to support the UFD Deep Borehole Field Test effort. This work included providing supporting data for the Los Alamos National Laboratory geologic framework model for the proposed deep borehole site, conducting an analog study using an extensive suite of geoscience data and samples from a deep (2.5 km) research borehole in Sweden, conducting laboratory experiments and coupled process modeling related to borehole seals, and developing a suite of potential techniques that could be applied to the characterization and monitoring of the deep borehole environment. The results of these studies are presented in this report.

  15. Site characterization and validation - drift and borehole fracture data. Stage 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, J.; Straahle, A.

    1988-09-01

    This report describes the procedures used in mapping fractures intersecting seven scanlines along the southern and eastern boundaries of the Site Characterization and Validation (SCV) site and the procedures used in logging and orienting the fractures intersecting the core from six 'boundary boreholes' that were drilled as part of the site characterization program for the SCV site at the 360 m level in the Stripa mine. Scanline mapping along the mine drifts provided a detailed description of the fracture geomentry on the boundaries of the SCV site. The cores from the boundary boreholes have been logged, reconstructed and oriented using a borehole Televiewer and a borehole TV camera and the true fracture orientations calcilated. This has provide additional data on the fracture geometry within the SCV site. The fractire data from both the scanlines and the core logging are presented in the appendices. In addition, an initial analysis has been completed of the fracture orientations, trace lengths and spacings. Based on the variation in fracture orientations over the SCV site, there are two strong subvertical fracture sets or or clusters and a poorly represented sub-horizontal fracture set. An empirical approach, based on the 'blind zone' concept has been used to correct for orientation bias and to predict the orientations of the fracture system that will be intersected by the C and D boreholes in stage III. (33 figs., 6 tabl., 19 refs.)

  16. Site characterization and validation - Borehole radar investigations stage 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandberg, E.; Olsson, O.; Falk, L.

    1989-11-01

    The borehole radar investigation program Stage 3 of the SCV-site has comprised single hole reflection measurements with centre frequencies of 22 and 60 MHz. Single hole reflection measurement with both omni-directional and directional antennas have been performed in the boreholes C1, C2, C3 and the D-holes. Crosshole tomographic measurements as well as cross- hole reflection measurement have been made between the bore- holes C1-C2, W1-C1 and W1-C2. The range obtained in the single hole reflection measurements was approximately 100 m for the lower frequency and about 60-70 m for the centre frequency 60 MHz. In the crosshole measurements transmitter-receiver separations from 20 to 120 m have been used. The Stage 3 radar investigations have essentially confirmed the three dimensional description of the structures at the SCV-site. The conceptual model of the site which was produced based on the Stage 1 data included three major zones, two minor zones and a circular feature. The major features are considered to be the most significant at the site and are all observed in the Stage 3 boreholes close to their predicted locations. The circular feature has also been found in two of the additional tomograms at the predicted location. The results indicate that the zones are not homogeneous but rather that they are highly irregular containing parts of considerably increased fracturing and parts where their contrast to the background rock is quite small. The zones appear to be approximately planar at least at the scale of the site. At a smaller scale the zones can appear quite irregular

  17. An optimization procedure for borehole emplacement in fractured media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billaux, D.; Guerin, F.

    1998-01-01

    Specifying the position and orientation of the 'next borehole(s)' in a fractured medium, from prior incomplete knowledge of the fracture field and depending on the objectives assigned to this new borehole(s), is a crucial point in the iterative process of site characterization. The work described here explicitly includes site knowledge and specific objectives in a tractable procedure that checks possible borehole characteristics, and rates all trial boreholes according to their compliance with objectives. The procedure is based on the following ideas : Firstly, the optimization problem is strongly constrained, since feasible borehole head locations and borehole dips are generally limited. Secondly, a borehole is an 'access point' to the fracture network. Finally, when performing a flow or tracer test, the information obtained through the monitoring system will be best if this system detects the largest possible share of the flow induced by the test, and if it cuts the most 'interesting' flow paths. The optimization is carried out in four steps. 1) All possible borehole configurations are defined and stored. Typically, several hundred possible boreholes are created. Existing boreholes are also specified. 2) Stochastic fracture networks reproducing known site characteristics are generated. 3) A purely geometrical rating of all boreholes is used to select the 'geometrically best' boreholes or groups of boreholes. 4) Among the boreholes selected by the geometrical rating, the best one(s) is chosen by simulating the experiment for which it will be used and checking flowrates through possible boreholes. This method is applied to study the emplacement of a set of five monitoring boreholes prior to the sinking of a shaft for a planned underground laboratory in a granite massif in France (Vienne site). Twelve geometrical parameters are considered for each possible borehole. A detailed statistical study helps decide on the shape of a minimization function. This is then used

  18. Key Factors to Determine the Borehole Spacing in a Deep Borehole Disposal for HLW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jongyoul; Choi, Heuijoo; Lee, Minsoo; Kim, Geonyoung; Kim, Kyeongsoo

    2015-01-01

    Deep fluids also resist vertical movement because they are density stratified and reducing conditions will sharply limit solubility of most dose critical radionuclides at the depth. Finally, high ionic strengths of deep fluids will prevent colloidal transport. Therefore, as an alternative disposal concept, i.e., deep borehole disposal technology is under consideration in number of countries in terms of its outstanding safety and cost effectiveness. In this paper, the general concept for deep borehole disposal of spent fuels or high level radioactive wastes which has been developed by some countries according to the rapid advance in the development of drilling technology, as an alternative method to the deep geological disposal method, was reviewed. After then an analysis on key factors for the distance between boreholes for the disposal of HLW was carried out. In this paper, the general concept for deep borehole disposal of spent fuels or HLW wastes, as an alternative method to the deep geological disposal method, were reviewed. After then an analysis on key factors for the determining the distance between boreholes for the disposal of HLW was carried out. These results can be used for the development of the HLW deep borehole disposal system

  19. Key Factors to Determine the Borehole Spacing in a Deep Borehole Disposal for HLW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jongyoul; Choi, Heuijoo; Lee, Minsoo; Kim, Geonyoung; Kim, Kyeongsoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Deep fluids also resist vertical movement because they are density stratified and reducing conditions will sharply limit solubility of most dose critical radionuclides at the depth. Finally, high ionic strengths of deep fluids will prevent colloidal transport. Therefore, as an alternative disposal concept, i.e., deep borehole disposal technology is under consideration in number of countries in terms of its outstanding safety and cost effectiveness. In this paper, the general concept for deep borehole disposal of spent fuels or high level radioactive wastes which has been developed by some countries according to the rapid advance in the development of drilling technology, as an alternative method to the deep geological disposal method, was reviewed. After then an analysis on key factors for the distance between boreholes for the disposal of HLW was carried out. In this paper, the general concept for deep borehole disposal of spent fuels or HLW wastes, as an alternative method to the deep geological disposal method, were reviewed. After then an analysis on key factors for the determining the distance between boreholes for the disposal of HLW was carried out. These results can be used for the development of the HLW deep borehole disposal system.

  20. Analyses of the deep borehole drilling status for a deep borehole disposal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Youl; Choi, Heui Joo; Lee, Min Soo; Kim, Geon Young; Kim, Kyung Su [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The purpose of disposal for radioactive wastes is not only to isolate them from humans, but also to inhibit leakage of any radioactive materials into the accessible environment. Because of the extremely high level and long-time scale radioactivity of HLW(High-level radioactive waste), a mined deep geological disposal concept, the disposal depth is about 500 m below ground, is considered as the safest method to isolate the spent fuels or high-level radioactive waste from the human environment with the best available technology at present time. Therefore, as an alternative disposal concept, i.e., deep borehole disposal technology is under consideration in number of countries in terms of its outstanding safety and cost effectiveness. In this paper, the general status of deep drilling technologies was reviewed for deep borehole disposal of high level radioactive wastes. Based on the results of these review, very preliminary applicability of deep drilling technology for deep borehole disposal analyzed. In this paper, as one of key technologies of deep borehole disposal system, the general status of deep drilling technologies in oil industry, geothermal industry and geo scientific field was reviewed for deep borehole disposal of high level radioactive wastes. Based on the results of these review, the very preliminary applicability of deep drilling technology for deep borehole disposal such as relation between depth and diameter, drilling time and feasibility classification was analyzed.

  1. Full-scale borehole sealing test in salt under simulated downhole conditions. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheetz, B.E.; Licastro, P.H.; Roy, D.M.

    1986-05-01

    Large-scale testing of the permeability by brine of a salt/grout sample designed to simulate a borehole plug was conducted. The results of these tests showed that a quantity of fluid equivalent to a permeability of 3 microdarcys was collected during the course of the test. This flow rate was used to estimate the smooth bore aperture. Details of this test ware presented in Volume 1 of this report. This report, Volume 2, covers post-test characterization including a detailed study of the salt/grout interface, as well as determination of the physical/mechanical properties of grout samples molded at Terra Tek, Inc. at the time of the large-scale test. Additional studies include heat of hydration, radial stress, and longitudinal volume changes for an equivalent grout mixture

  2. Geophysical borehole logging and optical imaging of the pilot hole ONK-PH2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahti, M.; Heikkinen, E.

    2005-01-01

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical borehole logging and optical imaging surveys of pilot hole ONK-PH2 in ONKALO tunnel at the Olkiluoto site in December 2004. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The methods applied are magnetic susceptibility, natural gamma radiation, gamma-gamma density, single point resistance, Wenner-resistivity, borehole radar, full waveform sonic and optical imaging. The assignment included the field work of all the surveys, integration of the data as well as interpretation of the acoustic and borehole radar data. The report describes the field operation, equipment, processing procedures, interpretation results and shows the obtained geophysical and image data. The data as well as the interpretation results are delivered digitally in WellCAD and Excel format. (orig.)

  3. Geophysical borehole logging and optical imaging of the pilot hole ONK-PH2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahti, M. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland); Heikkinen, E. [JP-Fintact Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    2005-01-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical borehole logging and optical imaging surveys of pilot hole ONK-PH2 in ONKALO tunnel at the Olkiluoto site in December 2004. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The methods applied are magnetic susceptibility, natural gamma radiation, gamma-gamma density, single point resistance, Wenner-resistivity, borehole radar, full waveform sonic and optical imaging. The assignment included the field work of all the surveys, integration of the data as well as interpretation of the acoustic and borehole radar data. The report describes the field operation, equipment, processing procedures, interpretation results and shows the obtained geophysical and image data. The data as well as the interpretation results are delivered digitally in WellCAD and Excel format. (orig.)

  4. FY-1979 progress report. Hydrotransport plugging study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyler, L.L.; Lombardo, N.J.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of the Hydrotransport Plugging Study is to investigate phenomena associated with predicting the onset and occurrence of plugging in pipeline transport of coal. This study addresses large particle transport plugging phenomena that may be encountered in run-of-mine operations. The project is being conducted in four tasks: review and analysis of current capabilities and available data, analytical modeling, experimental investigations, and unplugging and static start-up. This report documents work completed in FY-1979 as well as work currently in progress. A review of currently available prediction methods was completed. Applicability of the methods to large particle hydrotransport and the prediction of plugging was evaluated. It was determined that available models were inadequate, either because they are empirical and tuned to a given solid or because they are simplified analytical models incapable of accounting for a wide range of parameters. Complicated regression curve fit models lacking a physical basis cannot be extrapolated with confidence. Several specific conclusions were reached: Recent developments in mechanistic modeling, describing flow conditions at the limit of stationary deposition, provide the best basis for prediction and extrapolation of large particle flow. Certain modeled phenomena require further analytical and experimental investigation to improve confidence levels. Experimental work needs to be performed to support modeling and to provide an adequate data base for comparison purposes. No available model permits treatment of solids mixtures such as coal and rock.

  5. An Overview of the HomePlug AV2 Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry Yonge

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available HomePlug AV2 is the solution identified by the HomePlug Alliance to achieve the improved data rate performance required by the new generation of multimedia applications without the need to install extra wires. Developed by industry-leading participants in the HomePlug AV Technical Working Group, the HomePlug AV2 technology provides Gigabit-class connection speeds over the existing AC wires within home. It is designed to meet the market demands for the full set of future in-home networking connectivity. Moreover, HomePlug AV2 guarantees backward interoperability with other HomePlug systems. In this paper, the HomePlug AV2 system architecture is introduced and the technical details of the key features at both the PHY and MAC layers are described. The HomePlug AV2 performance is assessed, through simulations reproducing real home scenarios.

  6. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle R&D plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2007-06-01

    FCVT, in consultation with industry and other appropriate DOE offices, developed the Draft Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle R&D Plan to accelerate the development and deployment of technologies critical for plug-in hybrid vehicles.

  7. An optimal design for millimeter-wide facture plugging zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yili Kang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lost circulation control in millimeter-wide fractures has been a challenge in well drilling all the time. Low pressure-bearing capacity of a plugging zone will result in excessive consumption of lost circulation materials (LCMs and extra down time. In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted on the plugging of millimeter-wide fractures to evaluate the plugging effects of different types of LCM including rigid granules, elastic particles and fiber. Maximum plugging pressure, total loss volume before sealing and plugging time were taken as the evaluation index of the LCM plugging effect. According to the experimental results, the synergistic plugging mechanisms of different LCM combinations were also analyzed. Experimental results showed that the total loss volume of the plugging zone formed by rigid and elastic particle combination was generally greater than 400 mL, and the maximum plugging pressure of the plugging zone formed by elastic particle and fiber combination was generally less than 6 MPa. In contrast, the plugging zone formed by the combination of the three types of LCMs has the maximum plugging pressure of up to 13 MPa and total loss volume before sealing of 75 mL. In the synergistic plugging process, rigid granules form a frame with high pressure-bearing capacity in the narrower parts of the fractures; elastic particles generate elastic force through elastic deformation to increase the friction between a fracture and a plugging zone to make the plugging zone more stable; fibers filling in the pore space between the particles increase the tightness and integrity of the plugging zone. The experimental results can provide guidance for the optimal design of LCMs used in the field.

  8. A Fiber-Optic Borehole Seismic Vector Sensor System for Geothermal Site Characterization and Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulsson, Bjorn N.P. [Paulsson, Inc., Van Nuys, CA (United States); Thornburg, Jon A. [Paulsson, Inc., Van Nuys, CA (United States); He, Ruiqing [Paulsson, Inc., Van Nuys, CA (United States)

    2015-04-21

    Seismic techniques are the dominant geophysical techniques for the characterization of subsurface structures and stratigraphy. The seismic techniques also dominate the monitoring and mapping of reservoir injection and production processes. Borehole seismology, of all the seismic techniques, despite its current shortcomings, has been shown to provide the highest resolution characterization and most precise monitoring results because it generates higher signal to noise ratio and higher frequency data than surface seismic techniques. The operational environments for borehole seismic instruments are however much more demanding than for surface seismic instruments making both the instruments and the installation much more expensive. The current state-of-the-art borehole seismic instruments have not been robust enough for long term monitoring compounding the problems with expensive instruments and installations. Furthermore, they have also not been able to record the large bandwidth data available in boreholes or having the sensitivity allowing them to record small high frequency micro seismic events with high vector fidelity. To reliably achieve high resolution characterization and long term monitoring of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) sites a new generation of borehole seismic instruments must therefore be developed and deployed. To address the critical site characterization and monitoring needs for EGS programs, US Department of Energy (DOE) funded Paulsson, Inc. in 2010 to develop a fiber optic based ultra-large bandwidth clamped borehole seismic vector array capable of deploying up to one thousand 3C sensor pods suitable for deployment into ultra-high temperature and high pressure boreholes. Tests of the fiber optic seismic vector sensors developed on the DOE funding have shown that the new borehole seismic sensor technology is capable of generating outstanding high vector fidelity data with extremely large bandwidth: 0.01 – 6,000 Hz. Field tests have shown

  9. Deep Drilling Into the Chicxulub Impact Crater: Pemex Oil Exploration Boreholes Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucugauchi, J. U.; Perez-Cruz, L.

    2007-05-01

    The Chicxulub structure was recognized in the 1940´s from gravity anomalies in oil exploration surveys by Pemex. Geophysical anomalies occur over the carbonate platform in NW Yucatan, where density and magnetic susceptibility contrasts with the carbonates suggested a buried igneous complex or basement uplift. The exploration program developed afterwards included several boreholes, starting with the Chicxulub-1 in 1952 and eventually comprising eight deep boreholes completed through the 1970s. The investigations showing Chicxulub as a large impact crater formed at the K/T boundary have relayed on the Pemex decades-long exploration program. Despite frequent reference to Pemex information, original data have not been openly available for detailed evaluation and incorporation with results from recent efforts. Logging data and core samples remain to be analyzed, reevaluated and integrated in the context of recent marine, aerial and terrestrial geophysical surveys and the drilling/coring projects of UNAM and ICDP. In this presentation we discuss the paleontological data, stratigraphic columns and geophysical logs for the Chicxulub-1 (1582m), Sacapuc-1 (1530m), Yucatan-6 (1631m) and Ticul-1 (3575m) boreholes. These boreholes remain the deepest ones drilled in Chicxulub and the only ones providing samples of the melt-rich breccias and melt sheet. Other boreholes include the Y1 (3221m), Y2 (3474m), Y4 (2398m) and Y5A (3003m), which give information on pre-impact stratigraphy and crystalline basement. We concentrate on log and microfossil data, stratigraphic columns, lateral correlation, integration with UNAM and ICDP borehole data, and analyses of sections of melt, impact breccias and basal Paleocene carbonates. Current plans for deep drilling in Chicxulub crater focus in the peak ring zone and central sector, with proposed marine and on-land boreholes to the IODP and ICDP programs. Future ICDP borehole will be located close to Chicxulub-1 and Sacapuc-1, which intersected

  10. Innovations for ISS Plug-In Plan (IPiP) Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    Limited resources and increasing requirements will continue to influence decisions on ISS. The ISS Plug-In Plan (IPiP) supports power and data for utilization, systems, and daily operations through the Electrical Power System (EPS) Secondary Power/Data Subsystem. Given the fluid launch schedule, the focus of the Plug-In Plan has evolved to anticipate future requirements by judicious development and delivery of power supplies, power strips, Alternating Current (AC) power inverters, along with innovative deployment strategies. A partnership of ISS Program Office, Engineering Directorate, Mission Operations, and International Partners poses unique solutions with existing on-board equipment and resources.

  11. Analysis of groundwater from deep boreholes in Svartboberget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, S.

    1983-06-01

    Groundwater from two boreholes in granitic rock at an investigation site in Svartboberget has been sampled and analysed. This is part of a larger program of geological, geophysical and hydrogeological investigations aimed at finding a suitable site for a high level radioactive waste repository. Four water-bearing levels in each borehole down to the deepest at about 600m were selected. Prior to sampling, the water-bearing level is isolated between packer sleeves. The water is then pumped to the surface where sensitive parameters such as redox potential, pH, sulphide and oxygen content are measured electrochemically on the flowing water in a system isolated from the air. Water, filter and gas samples are sent to several laboratories for further analysis. The present report is a presentation of the results of the groundwater analyses. The reliability of the results is discussed but there is no evaluation in relation to geology and hydrogeology. This report presents the basic results from the groundeater analyses to be further evaluated by experts in different fields. (author)

  12. Installation of the backfill and plug test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunnarsson, D.; Borgesson, L.; Hokmark, H.; Hohannesson, L.E.; Sanden, T.

    2003-01-01

    The Backfill and Plug Test is a full scale test of backfill material, backfilling technique and a tunnel plug. The main objectives of the Backfill and Plug Test are: - to develop and test different materials and compaction techniques for backfilling of tunnels excavated by blasting; - to test the function of the backfill and its interaction with the surrounding rock in a tunnel excavated by blasting; - to develop technique for building tunnel plugs and to test the function. The installation was made in the Swedish underground laboratory, Aspo HRL, during 1999. The inner part of the tunnel is not used for the test but was filled with drainage material. The test volume, which is about 28 m long, can be divided into the following three parts: - the inner part filled with backfill containing 30% bentonite; - the outer part filled with backfill without bentonite and bentonite blocks and pellets at the roof; - the plug. Permeable layers divide the test volume into 11 test sections. The permeable layers are used for increasing the water saturation rate in the backfill and for applying hydraulic gradients between the layers for studying the flow of water in the backfill and in the near field rock. The permeable layers were installed every 2.2 m and each layer is divided into three units in order to separately measure the flow close to the roof, in the central areas of the tunnel and close to the floor. The outer part ends with a wall of prefabricated concrete beams that were used for temporary support of the backfill during the casting of the plug. The upper volume close to the plug is filled with bentonite pellets and blocks consisting of 20% bentonite and 80% sand. The backfill is instrumented with 34 pore water pressure cells, 21 total pressure cells, 57 sensors for monitoring the water saturation and 13 gauges for measuring the local hydraulic conductivity. The water pressures in the permeable mats are measured in all sections. Four pressure cylinders, 2 in the roof

  13. Borehole stoneley waves and permeability: Laboratory results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, K.W.; Plona, T.J.; Froelich, B.; Liu, H.L.

    1987-01-01

    Recent interest in full waveform sonic logging has created the need for full waveform laboratory experiments on model boreholes. Of particular interest is the investigation of Stoneley waves and their interaction with permeable formations. The authors describe experimental results that show how Stoneley wave slowness and attenuation are affected by formation permeability. Both slowness and attenuation (1/Q) are observed to increase with formation permeability. This increase is frequency dependent, being greatest at low frequencies. The presence of simulated mudcakes on the borehole wall reduces the permeability effect on Stoneley waves, but does not eliminate it. The mudcake effect is frequency dependent, being greatest at low frequencies. In our experiments on rocks, the laboratory data is in qualitative agreement with theoretical predictions. In a very well characterized synthetic porous material, theory and experiment are in good quantitative agreement

  14. Borehole instrument for scintillation gamma spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinitsyn, A.Ya.; Gabitov, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    Described are a schematic diagram and main specifications of a borehole instrument with autostabilization of energy scale measure by gamma bench-mark of 137 Cs, intended for the application in a logging gamma spectrometer to determine separately the concentrations of nature radioactive elements. The instrument may be connected to the KOBDFM-2 cable of 600 m length. It contains a scintillation counter for gamma quanta consisting of 30x70 mm NaI(Tl) crystal and a FEU-85 photoamplifier, an input conforming stage, a diagram of threshold pulse formation and regulating high-voltage generator. The borehole instrument has been proved under laboratory and field conditions at 10-40 deg C

  15. Plugging of feed inlet tube upstands with Ni/Ti shape memory alloy plugs - Heysham 1 power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    The paper contains a description of a new approach for Plugging feed inlet tubes of Gas-Cooled Reactors. Instead of utilizing the original explosive method plugging by fitting a shape memory alloy plug into the upstand is being described. (author)

  16. Nuclear borehole logging for oil exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1989-01-01

    Reactor physics can be applied to the logging of boreholes for the exploration of oil and gas and the results obtained can be interpreted more correctly by use of reactor physics models, e.g. one-dimensional multi-group diffusion theory adapted for gamma quanta. The standard nuclear logging tools are: natural gamma, gamma density, neutron porosity and the pulsed-neutron tool. The models and interpretation procedures are discussed. 1 fig

  17. Compact Fluorescent Plug-In Ballast-in-a-Socket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebecca Voelker

    2001-12-21

    The primary goal of this program was to develop a ballast system for plug-in CFLs (compact fluorescent lamps) that will directly replace standard metal shell, medium base incandescent lampholders (such as Levition No. 6098) for use with portable lamp fixtures, such as floor, table and desk lamps. A secondary goal was to identify a plug-in CFL that is optimized for use with this ballast. This Plug-in CFL Ballastin-a-Socket system will allow fixture manufacturers to easily manufacture CFL-based high-efficacy portable fixtures that provide residential and commercial consumers with attractive, cost-effective, and energy-efficient fixtures for use wherever portable incandescent fixtures are used today. The advantages of this proposed system over existing CFL solutions are that the fixtures can only be used with high-efficacy CFLs, and they will be more attractive and will have lower life-cycle costs than screw-in or adapter-based CFL retrofit solutions. These features should greatly increase the penetration of CFL's into the North American market. Our work has shown that using integrated circuits it is quite feasible to produce a lamp-fixture ballast of a size comparable to the current Edison-screw 3-way incandescent fixtures. As for price points for BIAS-based fixtures, end-users polled by the Lighting Research Institute at RPI indicated that they would pay as much as an additional $10 for a lamp containing such a ballast. The ballast has been optimized to run with a 26 W amalgam triple biax lamp in the base-down position, yet can accept non-amalgam versions of the lamp. With a few part alterations, the ballast can be produced to support 32 W lamps as well. The ballast uses GE's existing L-Comp[1] power topology in the circuit so that the integrated circuit design would be a design that could possibly be used by other CFL and EFL products with minor modifications. This gives added value by reducing cost and size of not only the BIAS, but also possibly other

  18. Deep Borehole Field Test Conceptual Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Ernest L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-30

    This report documents conceptual design development for the Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT), including test packages (simulated waste packages, not containing waste) and a system for demonstrating emplacement and retrieval of those packages in the planned Field Test Borehole (FTB). For the DBFT to have demonstration value, it must be based on conceptualization of a deep borehole disposal (DBD) system. This document therefore identifies key options for a DBD system, describes an updated reference DBD concept, and derives a recommended concept for the DBFT demonstration. The objective of the DBFT is to confirm the safety and feasibility of the DBD concept for long-term isolation of radioactive waste. The conceptual design described in this report will demonstrate equipment and operations for safe waste handling and downhole emplacement of test packages, while contributing to an evaluation of the overall safety and practicality of the DBD concept. The DBFT also includes drilling and downhole characterization investigations that are described elsewhere (see Section 1). Importantly, no radioactive waste will be used in the DBFT, nor will the DBFT site be used for disposal of any type of waste. The foremost performance objective for conduct of the DBFT is to demonstrate safe operations in all aspects of the test.

  19. Experiments on the risk of sump plugging on French PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armand, Y.; Mattei, J.M.; Vicena, I.; Gubco, V.; Batalik, J.; Murani, J.; Davydov, M.; Melikhov, O.I.; Blinkov, V.N.

    2003-01-01

    The 'Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire' has decided to perform an experimental program of studies on the risk of sump plugging in a 900 MWe pressurized water reactor (PWR). A general overview of the literature has been conducted between October 1999 and November 2000, ending by the definition of an approach methodology and the written of technical specifications. The problem identified gave rise to an European call for tenders leading to four contracts signed in november 2001. Three contracts are managed by VUEZ (Slovakia), the last by EREC (Russia). The methodology and the facilities devoted to these studies are presented in this paper, the preliminary results observed are also presented. The objectives for 2003 to finalize the program and the safety assessment are presented. (authors)

  20. Geophysical borehole logging in Lavia borehole - results and interpretation of sonic and tube wave measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, P.; Stenberg, L.

    1985-02-01

    Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, SKB has been contracted by Industrial Power Company LTD, TVO to perform geophysical logging in a borehole at Lavia in Western Finland. The logging has been conducted by Swedish Geological Co, SGAB in accordance with an agreement for cooperation with SKB. The depth of the borehole is 1001 m, diameter 56 mm and inclination 10-20 degrees to the vertical. The aim of the logging was to determine the various geophysical parameters in the borehole in order to interpret and understand the rock mass properties in the vicinity of the borehole. According to the contract the report covers the following main objectives: a technical description of the field work and the equipment used; a review of the theoretical base for the sonic and tube wave methods; an interpretation and presentation of the results obtained by sonic and tube wave mesurements. The evaluation of the sonic and tube wave measurements shows good correlation. On a qualitative basis there seems to be a correlation between tube wave generating points, the relative tube wave amplitudes and the hydraulic conductivity measurements performed as hydraulical tests between packers in the borehole. The low velocity anamalies in the sonic log are mainly caused by tectonic features like fractures and fracture zones but to some extent also by contacts between granite and diorite. The estimation of elastic properties of the rock mass from observation of tube wave velocity are in accordance with laboratory determinations made on core samples. (author)

  1. A Proposed Borehole Scientific Laboratory in Quay County, New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Dennis; Eckels, Marc; Mast, Peter; Zellman, Mark; Creed, Robert

    2017-04-01

    Our team has received funding from the US Department of Energy to initiate a Deep Borehole Field Test that will develop a subsurface test site to evaluate the drilling and scientific aspects of deep borehole disposal of nuclear waste in crystalline rock. Phase 1 of the project will focus on Public Outreach and land acquisition whereas Phase 2 will generate a drilling and testing plan and secure regulatory approvals. Phase 3 will complete the Drilling and Testing Plan and Phase 4 will include the drilling and testing. Phase 5 will be devoted to borehole science and experiments with emplacement technology. Although we are specifically considering issues associated with the disposal of waste, this project is a proof of concept, and no waste will be emplaced at our site. In brief, the concept envisions an 8-1/2 inch open-hole completion at a depth of 5000 m in crystalline rock. There will be an extensive program of sample collection (including core) and analysis as well as geophysical logging and borehole testing. Critical issues will be low permeability in the crystalline rock as well as the ability to manage borehole quality. Our team has proposed a site in Quay County, New Mexico that has an 850 meter thick Paleozoic section overlying homogeneous Precambrian granite. A subsequent phase of the project may drill a second hole with a 17-1/2 inch completion located about 200 m from the first. Our long-term plan is that this site will be managed as a deep scientific observatory that also provides a facility for scientific experiments and testing of borehole infrastructure and drilling equipment.

  2. Subseafloor seawater-basalt-microbe reactions: Continuous sampling of borehole fluids in a ridge flank environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat, C. Geoffrey; Jannasch, Hans W.; Fisher, Andrew T.; Becker, Keir; Sharkey, Jessica; Hulme, Samuel

    2010-07-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Hole 1301A was drilled, cased, and instrumented with a long-term, subseafloor observatory (CORK) on the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge in summer 2004. This borehole is located 1 km south of ODP Hole 1026B and 5 km north of Baby Bare outcrop. Hole 1301A penetrates 262 m of sediment and 108 m of the uppermost 3.5 Ma basaltic basement in an area of warm (64°C) hydrothermal circulation. The borehole was instrumented, and those instruments were recovered 4 years later. Here we report chemical data from two continuous fluid samplers (OsmoSamplers) and temperature recording tools that monitored changes in the state of borehole (formation) fluids. These changes document the effects of drilling, fluid overpressure and flow, seawater-basalt interactions, and microbial metababolic activity. Initially, bottom seawater flowed into the borehole through a leak between concentric CORK casing strings. Eventually, the direction of flow reversed, and warm, altered formation fluid flowed into the borehole and discharged at the seafloor. This reversal occurred during 1 week in September 2007, 3 years after drilling operations ceased. The composition of the formation fluid around Hole 1301A generally lies within bounds defined by springs on Baby Bare outcrop (to the south) and fluids that discharged from Hole 1026B (to the north); deviations likely result from reactions with drilling products. Simple conservative mixing of two end-member fluids reveals reactions occurring within the crust, including nitrate reduction presumably by denitrifying microbes. The observed changes in borehole fluid composition provide the foundation for a conceptual model of chemical and microbial change during recharge of a warm ridge-flank hydrothermal system. This model can be tested through future scientific ocean drilling experiments.

  3. Plugs for deposition tunnels in a deep geologic repository in granitic rock. Concepts and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D. A.; Boergesson, L.; Gunnarsson, D.; Hansen, J.

    2009-11-01

    -nuclear applications where plugs are needed in an underground environment are also examined and their potential for use in a repository application is discussed. Several generic plug designs have also been developed by SKB and Posiva as part of their repository engineering programs and these are presented, together with a brief discussion of some of the key advantages, disadvantages and issues associated with them. Based on this review it would seem that the most appropriate plug for use in a spent-fuel repository will be some form of a composite construction, consisting of both low-pH concrete and compacted swelling clay components. Final design of plugs will of course be site-dependant and must be tailored to the field conditions

  4. Plugs for deposition tunnels in a deep geologic repository in granitic rock. Concepts and experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, D.A. (AECL, Chalk River (Canada)); Boergesson, L. (Clay Technology, Lund (Sweden)); Gunnarsson, D. (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, Stockholm (Sweden)); Hansen, J. (Posiva Oy, Eurajoki (Finland))

    2009-11-15

    -nuclear applications where plugs are needed in an underground environment are also examined and their potential for use in a repository application is discussed. Several generic plug designs have also been developed by SKB and Posiva as part of their repository engineering programs and these are presented, together with a brief discussion of some of the key advantages, disadvantages and issues associated with them. Based on this review it would seem that the most appropriate plug for use in a spent-fuel repository will be some form of a composite construction, consisting of both low-pH concrete and compacted swelling clay components. Final design of plugs will of course be site-dependant and must be tailored to the field conditions

  5. Vault sealing research and development for the Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, R.S.; Johnson, L.H.

    1986-08-01

    The major research and development activities in the disposal vault sealing program are buffer development, backfill development, grouting, tunnel and shaft sealing development, and borehole sealing development. The buffer is likely to be a mixture of clay and sand surrounding the waste package and is intended, primarily, to minimize near-field mass transport. The backfill would fill the remainder of the underground workings and most of the volume of the access shafts. Its major component would be crushed rock or sand, or both, with sufficient clay added to achieve the required permeability specification. Boreholes would be sealed throughout their length with low-permeability materials. These may be cements or clays. Shaft seals would be emplaced at specific locations and, probably, would be composed of a low-permeability clay or concrete plug, together with grouting of the rock surrounding the plug. Progress to date and planned future activities for each major part of the program are described. The principal foci of the program are the research and development activities required to assess the concept of underground disposal in plutonic rock and the design and implementation of vault sealing experiments in the Underground Research Laboratory. Program plans are presented that describe the logical progression of each major component of the program, and that indicate the timing of major events that contribute to the final objective of the program, which is to develop engineering specifications for the buffer, backfill and seals, and to justify these specifications in terms of the performance of the waste disposal system. 131 refs

  6. Industry perspectives on Plug-& -Play Spacecraft Avionics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, R.; Graven, P.; Liptak, L.

    This paper describes the methodologies and findings from an industry survey of awareness and utility of Spacecraft Plug-& -Play Avionics (SPA). The survey was conducted via interviews, in-person and teleconference, with spacecraft prime contractors and suppliers. It focuses primarily on AFRL's SPA technology development activities but also explores the broader applicability and utility of Plug-& -Play (PnP) architectures for spacecraft. Interviews include large and small suppliers as well as large and small spacecraft prime contractors. Through these “ product marketing” interviews, awareness and attitudes can be assessed, key technical and market barriers can be identified, and opportunities for improvement can be uncovered. Although this effort focuses on a high-level assessment, similar processes can be used to develop business cases and economic models which may be necessary to support investment decisions.

  7. The Design and Manufacturing Report of Plug Type Non-Instrumented Rig for Irradiation Test in HANARO OR Hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Ho; Bang, Je Geon; Lim, Ik Sung; Kim, Sun Ki; Yang, Yong Sik; Song, Kun Woo

    2008-09-15

    This project is developed the plug type non-instrumented irradiation test rig of the advanced nuclear fuel in HANARO for pursuit advanced performance in High Performance Fuel Technology Development as a part Nuclear Mid and Long-term R and D Program. This irradiation rig was confirmed the integrity and HANARO core compatibility by the optimum design and the thermal hydraulic out-pile test in FIVPET. The characteristic of plug type non-instrument rig is to possible irradiation test of variable in-pile condition and reduced the wastes for reusable as function. This plug type non-instrumented rig was satisfied the quality assurance requirements and written out the end of manufacturing report. This plug type non-instrumented rig is adopt to the irradiation test for nuclear fuel irradiation test in HANARO OR hole.

  8. Continuous monitoring of volcanoes with borehole strainmeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Alan T.; Sacks, Selwyn

    Monitoring of volcanoes using various physical techniques has the potential to provide important information about the shape, size and location of the underlying magma bodies. Volcanoes erupt when the pressure in a magma chamber some kilometers below the surface overcomes the strength of the intervening rock, resulting in detectable deformations of the surrounding crust. Seismic activity may accompany and precede eruptions and, from the patterns of earthquake locations, inferences may be made about the location of magma and its movement. Ground deformation near volcanoes provides more direct evidence on these, but continuous monitoring of such deformation is necessary for all the important aspects of an eruption to be recorded. Sacks-Evertson borehole strainmeters have recorded strain changes associated with eruptions of Hekla, Iceland and Izu-Oshima, Japan. Those data have made possible well-constrained models of the geometry of the magma reservoirs and of the changes in their geometry during the eruption. The Hekla eruption produced clear changes in strain at the nearest instrument (15 km from the volcano) starting about 30 minutes before the surface breakout. The borehole instrument on Oshima showed an unequivocal increase in the amplitude of the solid earth tides beginning some years before the eruption. Deformational changes, detected by a borehole strainmeter and a very long baseline tiltmeter, and corresponding to the remote triggered seismicity at Long Valley, California in the several days immediately following the Landers earthquake are indicative of pressure changes in the magma body under Long Valley, raising the question of whether such transients are of more general importance in the eruption process. We extrapolate the experience with borehole strainmeters to estimate what could be learned from an installation of a small network of such instruments on Mauna Loa. Since the process of conduit formation from the magma sources in Mauna Loa and other

  9. Cost estimate for electrostatically plugged cusp reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, T.J.

    1977-01-01

    A preliminary design of an electrostatically plugged cusp reactor was presented in (UCRL-52142(1976)). The capital costs of the various components of this reactor are estimated and totaled for two different blanket configurations: one having an energy multiplication factor M = 1.2, and the other having M = 1.68. The unoptimized direct capital costs for these cases are found to be about 1400 and 950 $/kWe, respectively

  10. Plug and abandonment operations and tool positioning

    OpenAIRE

    Saad, Idrees

    2014-01-01

    Master's thesis in Petroleum engineering With aging oil fields, the Norwegian petroleum authorities are focusing on Plug and Abandonment (P&A) plans. Therefore efforts are being made, by relevant authorities, to improve standards and procedures for the P&A operations. Regulations for UK part of the North Sea define the P&A operation plans and execution phases in a way that may help improve the standards on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. Halliburton like its competitors is focusing on ...

  11. Development of simplified rotating plug seal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueta, M.; Ichimiya, M.; Kanaoka, T.; Sekiya, H.; Ueda, S.; Ishibashi, S.

    1991-01-01

    We studied a compact and simplified rotating plug seal structure and conducted experiments for key elements of the concept such us the mechanical seal structure and sodium deposit prevention system. Good characteristics were confirmed for the mechanical seal structure, which utilizes an elastomer seal and thin lathe bearing. Applicability of the density barrier concept was also confirmed as the sodium deposit prevention system. This concept can be applied to actual plants. (author)

  12. Ice plugging of pipes using liquid nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twigg, R.J.

    1987-03-01

    This report presents a study on the ice plugging of pipe using liquid nitrogen, and is based on a literature review and on discussions with individuals who use the technique. Emphasis is placed on ferritic alloys, primarily carbon steels, in pipe sized up to 60 cm in diameter and on austenitic stainless steels in pipe sizes up to 30 cm in diameter. This technique is frequently used for leak testing in nuclear facilities

  13. Pull the plug on stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryer, Bruce; McCraty, Rollin; Childre, Doc

    2003-07-01

    Stress is rampant, stress is growing, and stress hurts the bottom line. A 1999 study of 46,000 workers revealed that health care costs are 147% higher for those who are stressed or depressed, independent of other health issues. But what exactly is stress? It usually refers to our internal reaction to negative, threatening, or worrisome situations--a looming performance report, say, or interactions with a dismissive colleague. Accumulated over time, negative stress can depress you, burn you out, make you sick, or even kill you--because it's both an emotional and a physiological habit. Of course, many companies understand the negative impact of cumulative stress and offer programs to help employees counteract it. The problem is that employees in the greatest need of help often don't seek it. Since 1991, the authors have studied the physiological impact of stress on performance, at both the individual and organizational levels. Their goal largely has been to decode the underlying mechanics of stress. They've sought not only to understand how stress works on a person's mind, heart, and other bodily systems but also to discover the precise emotional, mental, and physiological levers that can counteract it. After working with more than 50,000 workers and managers in more than 100 organizations, the authors have found that learning to manage stress is easier than most people think. They have devised a scientifically based system of tools, techniques, and technologies that organizations can use to reduce employee stress and boost overall health and performance. In this article, they use the story of someone they call Nigel, a senior executive with whom they've worked, to describe how these techniques reduce stress in the real world.

  14. Borehole radar measurements performed on preliminary investigation areas in Finland for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsten, S.

    1991-05-01

    Borehole radar measurements with the RAMAC system have been performed in 24 boreholes distributed between the investigation areas Kuhmo Romuvaara, Hyrynsalmi Veitsivaara, Konginkangas Kivetty, Sievi Syyry, and Eurajoki Olkiluoto. The purpose of the borehole radar measurement program has been to investigate the bedrock in the vicinity of the boreholes in order to obtain information about geometry and extent of fracture zones, lithological contacts and other structures. The measurements have been performed as singlehole radar reflection measurements and Vertical Radar Profiling (VRP) measurements, using antennas with 22 MHz frequency range in both configurations. The total measured length in the singlehole radar reflection mode is 13304 meter and in the VRP mode 9200 meter. The VRP measurements are not presented in the report. Radar data from the singlehole reflection measurements are presented as grey scale radar maps after digital filtering with a bandpass filter and a moving average filter. Interpreted zones from the singlehole radar measurements are presented in tables for each borehole. It has been possible to study structures at distances of more than 110 meter from the borehole

  15. Conceptual Design and Requirements for Characterization and Field Test Boreholes: Deep Borehole Field Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brady, Patrick Vane [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); MacKinnon, Robert J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Heath, Jason E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Herrick, Courtney G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jensen, Richard P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rigali, Mark J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hadgu, Teklu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sevougian, S. David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Birkholzer, Jens [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Freifeld, Barry M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Daley, Tom [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-24

    Deep Borehole Disposal (DBD) of high-level radioactive wastes has been considered an option for geological isolation for many years (Hess et al. 1957). Recent advances in drilling technology have decreased costs and increased reliability for large-diameter (i.e., ≥50 cm [19.7”]) boreholes to depths of several kilometers (Beswick 2008; Beswick et al. 2014). These advances have therefore also increased the feasibility of the DBD concept (Brady et al. 2009; Cornwall 2015), and the current field test, introduced herein, is a demonstration of the DBD concept and these advances.

  16. Remote Handling behind port plug in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bede, O.; Neuberger, H.

    2006-01-01

    Different Test Blanket Modules (TBM) will be used in succession in the same equatorial ports of ITER. The remote handling operations for connection/disconnection of an interface between the port plug of the EU-HCPB-TBM and the port cell equipment are investigated with the goal to reach a quick and simple TBM exchange procedure. This paper describes the operations and systems which are required for connection of the TBM to its supply lines at this interface. The interface is located inside the free space of the port plug flange between the port plug shield and the bioshield of the port cell behind. The approach of the operation place is only available through a narrow gate in the bioshield opened temporarily during maintenance periods. This gate limits the dimensions of the whole system and its tools. The current design of the EU-HCPB-TBM foresees up to 9 supply lines which have to be connected inside the free space of one half of the port plug flange. The connection operations require positioning and adjustment of the tools for each pipe separately. Despite the strict circumstances it is still possible to find such an industrial jointed-arm robot with sufficient payload, which can penetrate into the working area. A mechanical system is necessary to move the robot from its storing place in the hot cell to the port plug on 6 m distance. Each operation requires different end-of-arm tools. The most special one is a pipe positioner tool, which can position and pull the pipe ends to each other and align the tool before welding and hold them in proper position during the welding process. Weld seams can be made by orbital welding tool. The pipe positioner tool has to provide place for welding tool. Using of inbore tool is impossible because pipes have no open ends where the tool could leave it. Orbital tool must be modified to meet requirements of remote handling because it is designed for human handling. The coolant is helium, so for eliminating the leak of helium it is

  17. Effects of the deviation characteristics of nuclear waste emplacement boreholes on borehole liner stresses; Yucca Mountain Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glowka, D.A.

    1990-09-01

    This report investigates the effects of borehole deviation on the useability of lined boreholes for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste at the proposed Yucca Mountain Repository in Nevada. Items that lead to constraints on borehole deviation include excessive stresses that could cause liner failure and possible binding of a waste container inside the liner during waste emplacement and retrieval operations. Liner stress models are developed for two general borehole configurations, one for boreholes drilled with a steerable bit and one for boreholes drilled with a non-steerable bit. Procedures are developed for calculating liner stresses that arise both during insertion of the liner into a borehole and during the thermal expansion process that follows waste emplacement. The effects of borehole curvature on the ability of the waste container to pass freely inside the liner without binding are also examined. Based on the results, specifications on borehole deviation allowances are developed for specific vertical and horizontal borehole configurations of current interest. 11 refs., 22 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. A plug-in to Eclipse for VHDL source codes: functionalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niton, B.; Poźniak, K. T.; Romaniuk, R. S.

    The paper presents an original application, written by authors, which supports writing and edition of source codes in VHDL language. It is a step towards fully automatic, augmented code writing for photonic and electronic systems, also systems based on FPGA and/or DSP processors. An implementation is described, based on VEditor. VEditor is a free license program. Thus, the work presented in this paper supplements and extends this free license. The introduction characterizes shortly available tools on the market which serve for aiding the design processes of electronic systems in VHDL. Particular attention was put on plug-ins to the Eclipse environment and Emacs program. There are presented detailed properties of the written plug-in such as: programming extension conception, and the results of the activities of formatter, re-factorizer, code hider, and other new additions to the VEditor program.

  19. Mechanism of Randall’s Plugs Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Grases

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mechanism of formation and development of intraluminal concretion, also called Randall's plug, extracted from a female patient forming calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD calculi was examined. Some of these calculi were connected to the papillary tip, and had connections with the interior of the papilla with finger-like extensions in the collecting duct (CD. The intraluminal concretion consisted of inter-grown COD crystals of irregular size (30–100 μm, approximately 5% of biological hydroxyapatite (BHAP and an organic matter. Urine of the patient was moderately supersaturated with respect to COD and amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP. Model of kidney, recently refined by Robertson, was used in calculations. Calculated Reynolds number indicated that the flow of liquid through tubules was purely laminar with parabolic velocity profile. COD crystals formed at the beginning of ascending loop of Henle by heterogeneous nucleation. Concentration of COD crystals in urine was limited and considered equal to concentration of crystals during crystaluria. The free particle and the fixed particle mechanisms were considered. The free particle mechanism assumes formation of a single crystal or agglomerate of crystals blocking the CD by virtue of size. The growth of COD crystals at concrete urinary supersaturation was too slow for a single crystal to attain size with settling velocity faster than the translation flow rate of liquid. Hydrodynamic shear caused aggregation of COD solid particles dispersed in a liquid flowing in the nephron. Number of COD crystals present in urine was not sufficient for formation of fractal agglomerate blocking the Bellini duct. Similarly, a fractal agglomerate of urinary phosphate present in the form of Posner's clusters was not large enough to obstruct the Bellini duct. The opening of the CD could not be obstructed by a single crystal of COD or fractal agglomerate composed of either COD crystals or calcium phosphate clusters, formed

  20. Utilization of test boreholes in prospecting and mining operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierak, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    Test boreholes are of fundamental importance for mining and prospecting operations. The drilling techniques are suited to the geological conditions and to the nature of the information desired. At Cogema, non-coring test boreholes, mainly drilled by a rotary percussive method, represent over 90% of the footage drilled; they achieve impressive performances at a cost which is by far less than that of coring test boreholes. The geological exploitation of these test boreholes is effected by a combined investigation of well logging and of cuttings. These investigations lead to an assessment for certain substances like uranium or coal or they mark the limits for favourable zones which alone will form the object of coring boreholes. In mining operations, boreholes indicate the definition for workable panels; they ensure at less cost the distribution of fluids, the forwarding of stowing material and the mine ventilation [fr

  1. Development of Analytical Plug-ins for ENSITE: Version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    careful re- search. Although the mathematical basis for calculating slope from elevation data is very well established, context and details for the...Can the code work on multiple computers ? • Does the code work when appended to other existing analyses in the same language/environment? Once the...TERMS Military bases—Location, Data curation, Geospatial data, Computer programs, Plug-ins ( Computer programs), Military planning 16. SECURITY

  2. CRBRP design and test results for fuel handling systems, plugs, and seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, G.E.

    1977-01-01

    The fuel handling system and reactor rotating plugs for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) are based primarily on existing technology and, in many respects, follow the concept developed for the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). The equipment and the development programs initiated to verify its performance are described. Test results obtained from the development program, and the extent to which these results verified original design selections, or suggested potential improvements, are discussed

  3. A strategy to seal exploratory boreholes in unsaturated tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.A.; Case, J.B.; Givens, C.A.; Carney, B.C.

    1994-04-01

    This report presents a strategy for sealing exploratory boreholes associated with the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Over 500 existing and proposed boreholes have been considered in the development of this strategy, ranging from shallow (penetrating into alluvium only) to deep (penetrating into the groundwater table). Among the comprehensive list of recommendations are the following: Those boreholes within the potential repository boundary and penetrating through the potential repository horizon are the most significant boreholes from a performance standpoint and should be sealed. Shallow boreholes are comparatively insignificant and require only nominal sealing. The primary areas in which to place seals are away from high-temperature zones at a distance from the potential repository horizon in the Paintbrush nonwelded tuff and the upper portion of the Topopah Spring Member and in the tuffaceous beds of the Calico Hills Unit. Seals should be placed prior to waste emplacement. Performance goals for borehole seals both above and below the potential repository are proposed. Detailed construction information on the boreholes that could be used for future design specifications is provided along with a description of the environmental setting, i.e., the geology, hydrology, and the in situ and thermal stress states. A borehole classification scheme based on the condition of the borehole wall in different tuffaceous units is also proposed. In addition, calculations are presented to assess the significance of the boreholes acting as preferential pathways for the release of radionuclides. Design calculations are presented to answer the concerns of when, where, and how to seal. As part of the strategy development, available technologies to seal exploratory boreholes (including casing removal, borehole wall reconditioning, and seal emplacement) are reviewed

  4. Site study plan for borehole search and characterization, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This site study plan describes the Borehole Search and Characterization field activities to be conducted during the early stages of Site Characterization at the Deaf Smith County site, Texas. The field program has been designed to provide data useful in addressing information/data needs resulting from Federal/State/Local regulatory requirements and repository program requirements. Air and ground surveys, an extensive literature search, and landowner interviews will be conducted to locate wells within and adjacent to the proposed nuclear waste repository site in Deaf Smith County. Initially, the study will center around the planned Exploratory Shaft Facilities location and will expand outward from that location. Findings from this study may lead to preparation of a new site study plan to search suspected borehole locations, and excavate or reenter known boreholes for additional characterization or remedial action. The Salt Repository Project (SRP) Networks specify the schedule under which the program will operate. The Technical Field Services Contractor (TFSC) is responsible for conducting the field program. Data will be handled and reported in accordance with established SRP procedures. A quality assurance program will be utilized to assure that activities affecting quality are performed correctly and that appropriate documentation is maintained. 13 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Site study plan for EDBH [Engineering Design Boreholes] No. 1 and 2: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    This site study plan describes the Engineering Design Boreholes 1 and 2 field activities to be conducted during early stages of Site Characterization at the Deaf Smith County site, Texas. The field program has been designed to provide data useful in addressing information/data needs resulting from federal/state/local regulations and repository program requirements. A borehole will be drilled at the centerline of each of the planned exploratory shaft locations. The subsurface rock and fluids will be sampled as the boreholes are advanced to total depth of about 2600 ft. Continuous rock core will be taken below the base of the Dockum Group. Hydrologic testing will occur in units thought to be water bearing and in units of particular interest for shaft seals. Field methods/tests are chosen that provide the best or only means of obtaining the required data. The Salt Repository Project (SRP) Networks specify the schedule under which the program will operate. Drilling will not begin until after site ground-water baseline conditions have been established. The Technical Field Services Contractor is responsible for conducting the field program of drilling and testing. Samples and data will be handled and reported in accordance with established SRP procedures. A quality assurance program will be utilized to assure that activities affecting quality are performed correctly and that the appropriate documentation is maintained. 28 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs

  6. Nuclear borehole probes - theory and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joergensen, J.L.; Korsbech, U.; Gynther Nielsen, K.; Oelgaard, P.L.

    1985-06-01

    The report gives a summary of the theoretical and expeimental work on borehole probes that has been performed since 1971 at The Department of Electrophysics, The Technical University of Denmark. The first part of the report concerns the use of a spectral natural gamma-ray probe (SNG-probe), which is used for measurements of the spectral distribution of the gamma-rays of the geological strata around a borehole. In general the spectrum is divided into three parts - the gamma-rays from potassium-40, from thorium-232 and daughters, and from uranium-238 and daughters. A set of curves showing the intensities of the gamm-radiation from K, Th, and U versus depth is called a SNG-log. If proper calibrated, the SNG-log gives the concentration of Th, U, and K in the formation surrounding the borehole. Initially the basis for an interpretation of SNG-logs is discussed. Then follows a description og some SNG-problems designed and built by The Department of Electrophysics, and a discussion of the calibration of SNG-probes. Some examples of SNG-logs are presented, and some general comments on the use of SNG-logs are given. The second part of the report concerns mainly the development of theoretical models for neutron-neutron probes, gamma-gamma probes, and pulsed-neutron probes. The purpose of this work has been to examine how well the models correlate with measured results and - where reasonable agreement is found - to use the models in studies of the factors that affect the probe responses in interpretation of experimental results and in probe design. (author)

  7. Moisture monitoring in large diameter boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, S.

    1985-01-01

    The results of both laboratory and field experiments indicate that the neutron moisture gauge traditionally used in soil physics experiments can be extended for use in large diameter (up to 15 cm) steel-cased boreholes with excellent results. This application will permit existing saturated zone monitoring wells to be used for unsaturated zone monitoring of recharge, redistribution and leak detection from waste disposal facilities. Its applicability to large diameter cased wells also gives the soil physicist and ground-water hydrologist and new set of monitoring points in the unsaturated zone to study recharge and aquifer properties. 6 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Repository and deep borehole disposition of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsey, W.G.

    1996-02-01

    Control and disposition of excess weapons plutonium is a growing issue as both the US and Russia retire a large number of nuclear weapons> A variety of options are under consideration to ultimately dispose of this material. Permanent disposition includes tow broad categories: direct Pu disposal where the material is considered waste and disposed of, and Pu utilization, where the potential energy content of the material is exploited via fissioning. The primary alternative to a high-level radioactive waste repository for the ultimate disposal of plutonium is development of a custom geologic facility. A variety of geologic facility types have been considered, but the concept currently being assessed is the deep borehole

  9. Geophysical borehole logging of the boreholes KR30, KR31, KR31b, KR32, KR33, KR33b and KR24 Upper Part, at Olkiluoto 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majapuro, J. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-12-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical borehole logging of the boreholes KR30, KR31, KR31B, KR32, KR33, KR33B and KR24 upper part at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during December 2004, January, February and September 2005. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and processing of the acoustic data. The report describes the field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD and Excel format. (orig.)

  10. Bench top and portable mineral analysers, borehole core analysers and in situ borehole logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, W.J.; Watt, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    Bench top and portable mineral analysers are usually based on balanced filter techniques using scintillation detectors or on low resolution proportional detectors. The application of radioisotope x-ray techniques to in situ borehole logging is increasing, and is particularly suited for logging for tin and higher atomic number elements

  11. Cement technology for plugging boreholes in radioactive waste repository sites. Progress report, October 1, 1977--September 30, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, J.G.; Morgan, M.T.; McDaniel, E.W.; Greene, H.B.; West, G.A.

    1979-08-01

    Experiments are in progress using 34 batches of cements from 13 different locales, representing 11 types of cement, and 17 batches of fly ash from 14 suppliers. Data are being obtained from physical and chemical test methods and from measurements made in parametric studies involving cement--fly-ash concretes and saltcretes. Addition of 10 wt % salt to a standard mortar will double the initial and final set times. The set time of the saltcrete can be increased or decreased by a lignite fly ash or bituminous fly ash respectively. The compressive strengths of mortars were measured at 7, 28, and 91 days. The compressive strengths of cement--fly-ash concretes were found to vary with curing time and the fly ash composition. The strengths of saltcretes decreased with increasing salt concentration but increased with the addition of fly ash; the effect of the fly ash composition was apparently negligible. The thermal conductivities of cementitious solids, were found to increase with density and with sand and/or salt concentration. Thermal conductivities of saltcretes decreased with increasing temperature but remained almost constant in neat cement pastes. The conductivity values ranged from 0.4 W/m.K for a neat cement paste to 1.8 W/m.K for a salcrete. Results for a number of saltcretes under the same drying conditions showed that the apparent liquid permeability decreased with increasing salt content. Shrinkage of neat pastes and saltcretes varied approximately linearly with time, while cement--fly-ash solids showed a high rate in the first few weeks followed by a lower rate for a longer time period

  12. Effect of fluid-filled boreholes on resistivity tomography; Hiteiko tomography ni okeru konaisui no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Y [DIA Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    Theoretical discussions were given on the effect of fluid-filled boreholes on resistivity tomography. The discussions performed incorporation of earth resistance as a method to consider borehole diameters in an FEM calculation using wire elements. The numerical experiment conducted a simulation on the following two objects: resistivity tomography in a horizontal multi-layer structure consisted of layers with resistivity ranging from 10 to 10000 ohm-m, and a model with a slanted low resistivity band existing in a background of 5000 ohm-m. As a result of the discussions, it was made clear that the effect of the boreholes can be corrected by giving earth resistance between the wire elements and natural ground. An improved potential calculating program indicated that the effect of the fluid-filled boreholes in the resistivity tomography generates false images with high resistivity along the bores if the resistivity has high contrast. Incorporating the wire elements into an inverse analysis model reduces the false images and improves the accuracy. 1 ref., 12 figs.

  13. Can deep boreholes solve America's nuclear waste problem?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, E.A.; Driscoll, M.J.; Lester, R.K.; Arnold, B.W.

    2014-01-01

    The United States is in need of a new and more adaptive long-term strategy for spent nuclear fuel. In this communication, we outline the fundamental reasons why deep borehole disposal should receive more detailed investigation, alongside traditional shallow mined repositories. This potential solution is supported by advancing drilling technologies and an improving understanding of extremely long fluid residence times in deep bedrock. Radionuclide isolation is supported by verifiable and stable geologic barriers such as long transport distances to aquifers, low permeability, and reducing chemical conditions. The modular nature of implementing deep borehole disposal could offer unique programmatic and economic advantages. Experience with a pilot borehole program will be required to confirm the feasibility of drilling and emplacement operations, and key chemical and hydraulic conditions. - Highlights: • To meet obligations, the U.S. should diversify used nuclear fuel disposal options. • Hydraulic and chemical systems isolated for ≥10 My can be found in deep bedrock. • Robust concepts in nuclear fuel disposal are enabled by maturing drilling technology. • Disposal in deep boreholes could ease siting, provide modularity, and lower costs

  14. A borehole fluid conductivity logging method for the determination of fracture inflow parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, C.F.; Hufschmied, P.

    1988-01-01

    It is of much current interest to determine the flow characteristics of fractures intersecting a wellbore in order to provide data in the estimation of the hydrologic behavior of fractured rocks. In particular the fluid inflow rates from the fractures into the wellbore are important quantities to measure. However often these inflows are at very low rates. In addition very often one finds that only a few percent of the fractures identified by core inspection and geophysical logging are water-conducting fractures, the rest being closed, clogged or isolated from the water flow system. A new method has been developed to locate water-conducting fractures and obtain fracture inflow parameters by means of a time sequence of electric conductivity logs of the borehole fluid. The physical basis of the analysis method is discussed. The procedure is applied to an existing set of data, which shows initiation and growth of nine conductivity peaks in a 900-m section of a 1690-m borehole, corresponding to nine waterconducting fractures intersecting the borehole. We are able to match all nine peaks and determine the flow rates from these fractures. A discussion is given on the applicability of this technique in the context of a borehole testing program. (author) 18 refs., 30 figs., 5 tabs

  15. Field-scale permeability and temperature of volcanic crust from borehole data: Campi Flegrei, southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlino, Stefano; Piochi, Monica; Tramelli, Anna; Mormone, Angela; Montanaro, Cristian; Scheu, Bettina; Klaus, Mayer

    2018-05-01

    We report combined measurements of petrophysical and geophysical parameters for a 501-m deep borehole located on the eastern side of the active Campi Flegrei caldera (Southern Italy), namely (i) in situ permeability by pumping tests, (ii) laboratory-determined permeability of the drill core, and (iii) thermal gradients by distributed fiber optic and thermocouple sensors. The borehole was drilled during the Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project (in the framework of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program) and gives information on the least explored caldera sector down to pre-caldera deposits. The results allow comparative assessment of permeability obtained from both borehole (at depth between 422 a 501 m) and laboratory tests (on a core sampled at the same depth) for permeability values of 10-13 m2 (borehole test) and 10-15 m2 (laboratory test) confirm the scale-dependency of permeability at this site. Additional geochemical and petrophysical determinations (porosity, density, chemistry, mineralogy and texture), together with gas flow measurements, corroborate the hypothesis that discrepancies in the permeability values are likely related to in-situ fracturing. The continuous distributed temperature profile points to a thermal gradient of about 200 °C km-1. Our findings (i) indicate that scale-dependency of permeability has to be carefully considered in modelling of the hydrothermal system at Campi Flegrei, and (ii) improve the understanding of caldera dynamics for monitoring and mitigation of this very high volcanic risk area.

  16. Sealing of exploratory boreholes in clay reactivity of ordinary portland cement (OPC) grouts and various lithologies from the Harwell research site. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milodowski, A.E.; George, I.A.; Bloodworth, A.J.; Robins, N.S.

    1986-01-01

    As part of a research programme on the disposal of radioactive wastes in clay, Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) has been used in the completion of boreholes on the Harwell Research Site, AERE, Oxfordshire. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of OPC and the alkaline pore fluids generated during its setting on the various lithological types encountered in the boreholes. To facilitate this, samples of core representing the various rock types were selected and cement-rock composites were prepared from these in the laboratory to simulate the borehole cements. After a curing period of 15 months the cores and associated cement plugs were examined for any signs of reactivity or bonding. The best cement-rock bonding was shown by naturally well-cemented sandstone and limestone lithologies. Although no significant chemical reaction was seen to have occurred between OPC and rock, the OPC appears able to bind onto the rock surface because of the rigidity of the rock surface. Therefore, the best cement rock bonding and seal with OPC may be expected in the limestones of the Great Oolite Group, Inferior Oolite Group and parts of the Corallian beds. Because of the reactivity of OPC towards certain lithologies a better borehole seal in such a sedimentary sequence might be achieved using a bentonite backfill in those parts of the sequence which either react with or bond only weakly to OPC

  17. Distributed energy resources management using plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as a fuel-shifting demand response resource

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago; Soares, J.

    2015-01-01

    In the smart grids context, distributed energy resources management plays an important role in the power systems' operation. Battery electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles should be important resources in the future distribution networks operation. Therefore, it is important...... to develop adequate methodologies to schedule the electric vehicles' charge and discharge processes, avoiding network congestions and providing ancillary services.This paper proposes the participation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in fuel shifting demand response programs. Two services are proposed......, namely the fuel shifting and the fuel discharging. The fuel shifting program consists in replacing the electric energy by fossil fuels in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles daily trips, and the fuel discharge program consists in use of their internal combustion engine to generate electricity injecting...

  18. A study on stress corrosion cracking of explosive plugged part

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaga, Seiichi; Fujii, Katsuhiro; Yamamoto, Yoshiaki; Sakuma, Koosuke; Hibi, Seiji; Morimoto, Hiroyoshi.

    1986-01-01

    Studies on the stress corrosion cracking of explosive plugged part are conducted. SUS 304 stainless steel is used as testing material. The distribution of residual stress in plug and tube plate after plugging is obtained. The effect of residual stress on the stress corrosion cracking is studied. Residual stress in tube plate near the plug is compressive and stress corrosion cracking dose not occur in the tube plate there, and it occurs on the inner surface of plug because of residual tensile stress in axial direction of the plug. Stress corrosion test in MgCl 2 solution under constant load is conducted. The susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking of the explosive bonded boundary is lower than that of base metal because of greater resistance to plastic deformation. Stress corrosion test in high temperature and high pressure pure water is also conducted by means of static type of autoclave but stress corrosion cracking does not occur under the testing condition used. (author)

  19. Mucous plug syndrome. A pulmonary embolism mimic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, S.T.; Johnstone, W.H.; Dee, P.M.; Pope, T.L. Jr.; Teates, C.D.; Tegtmeyer, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    Reported are ten instances of major bronchial obstruction by mucous plugs in eight patients during which the clinical features resembled pulmonary embolism. Perfusion lung studies showed significantly diminished perfusion of the involved portions of the lungs. The chest radiographs generally did not, however, reflect the severity of the airway obstruction and in some instances were completely normal. The ventilation studies indicated the extent and severity of the obstruction and matched with the perfusion scans. Pulmonary arteriograms were performed in three patients and gave direct evidence of focally diminished lung perfusion without embolism. The physiologic mechanisms underlying the condition are discussed

  20. Plug ‘n’ Play with DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anne Mathilde; Andreasen, Elisa W.; Korgaard, Jaide V.

    Synthetic biology has evolved dramatically within the past decade, which calls for a revolution of the Standard Assembly method that makes the foundation of BioBricks. We believe that iGEM should be about fast assembly of BioBricks, where any thinkable part, device or existing BioBrick can be com...... be combined for any type of organism within one day. Therefore, we have designed a new BioBrick Kit based on a novel assembly standard; called “Plug 'n' Play with DNA”....

  1. Thermographic study of the preheating plugs in diesel engines

    OpenAIRE

    Royo Pastor, Rafael; Albertos Arranz, M.A.; CÁRCEL CUBAS, JUAN ANTONIO; Payá Herrero, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    The use of direct injection diesel engines has been widely applied during the past ten years. In such engines, the preheating plugs are a key element which has a significant contribution in the pollutant emissions. In this paper, two different plug designs from Renault are analyzed. The new plug reduces substantially the required electrical consumption. Nevertheless, the pollutant emissions are higher (fundamentally CO and HCs) and hereby a thorough analysis is required to underst...

  2. Circular induction accelerator for borehole logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, F.K.; Bertozzi, W.; Corris, G.W.; Diamond, W.; Doucet, J.A.; Schweitzer, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a downhole logging sonde adapted to be moved through a borehole, a source of gamma rays in the sonde for irradiating earth formations traversed by the borehole, one or more gamma ray detectors for detecting gamma rays scattered back to the sonde from the irradiated earth formations, and means for transmitting signals representative of the detected gamma rays to the earth's surface for processing. This patent describes improvement in the gamma ray source comprises a magnetic induction particle accelerator, including: a magnetic circuit having a field magnet, generally circular opposed pole pieces, and a core magnet metal ions from the group consisting of Mn, Zn and Ni; an excitation circuit including a field coil surrounding the field magnet and the core magnet and a core coil surrounding the central axially leg of the core magnet; an annular acceleration chamber interposed between the pole pieces; means for applying time-varying acceleration voltage pulses across the primary excitation circuit; means for injecting charged particles into orbit within the acceleration chamber; means for compressing the particle orbits to trap particles within generally circular orbits within the acceleration chamber; means for generating a particle accelerating magnetic flux in the magnetic circuit; and means for ejecting charged particles from the generally circular orbits and into contact with a target to produce gamma ray photons

  3. Second ILAW Site Borehole Characterization Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reidel, S.P.

    2000-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's Hanford Site has the most diverse and largest amounts of radioactive tank waste in the US. High-level radioactive waste has been stored at Hanford since 1944. Approximately 209,000 m 3 (54 Mgal) of waste are currently stored in 177 tanks. Vitrification and onsite disposal of low-activity tank waste (LAW) are embodied in the strategy described in the Tri-Party Agreement. The tank waste is to be retrieved, separated into low- and high-level fractions, and then immobilized. The low-activity vitrified waste will be disposed of in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. This report is a plan to drill and characterize the second borehole for the Performance Assessment. The first characterization borehole was drilled in 1998. The plan describes data collection activities for determining physical and chemical properties of the vadose zone and saturated zone on the northeast side of the proposed disposal site. These data will then be used in the 2005 Performance Assessment

  4. Borehole locations on seven interior salt domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simcox, A.C.; Wampler, S.L.

    1982-08-01

    This report is designed as an inventory of all wells known to have been drilled within a five-mile radius of each of seven salt domes within the Interior Salt Basin in east Texas, northern Louisiana and Mississippi. There are 72 boreholes that entered salt above an elevation of -3000 feet mean sea level. For these, details of location, drilling dates, depth of casing and cement, elevation of top of caprock and salt, etc., are given on tables in the appendix. Of the seven domes, Oakwood has the largest number of boreholes, thirty-eight (including two sidetracked wells) that enter the salt stock above -3000 feet mean sea level; another dome in northeast Texas, Keechi, has eight; in northern Louisiana, Rayburn's has four and Vacherie has five; in southern Mississippi, Cypress Creek has seven, Lampton has one, and Richton has nine. In addition, all wells known outside the supra-domal area, but within a five-mile radius of the center of the 7 domes are separately catalogued

  5. Bhtv looks right down the borehole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1969-04-01

    A borehole televiewer uses acoustic pulses to produce a camera-like picture of downhole conditions. A block diagram shows the borehole televiewer logging system. The diameter of the tool is 3-3/8 in., but slimmer tools can be built. The nominal logging speed is 15 ft per min. Vertical fractures will show on the log as double vertical lines, horizontal fractures as single horizontal lines, and dipping fractures as curves that are roughly symmetrical. The orientation of the minimum of the curve is the dip direction of the fracture. The original idea was to find a tool to give guidance in fracturing jobs, and so far the tool has been primarily used for that purpose. It will also be a tremendous help for geologists and engineers on wildcate wells who have to make the agonizing decision to complete or abandon. It will show fracture porosity that no other currently available tool will show. It also will be a very useful supplement for the dipmeter. It can accurately locate vugs and washouts, and show changes in porosity and lithology. Mobil Oil is now using the tool as a standard log on all its wildcat wells.

  6. Regulatory issues for deep borehole plutonium disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsey, W.G.

    1995-03-01

    As a result of recent changes throughout the world, a substantial inventory of excess separated plutonium is expected to result from dismantlement of US nuclear weapons. The safe and secure management and eventual disposition of this plutonium, and of a similar inventory in Russia, is a high priority. A variety of options (both interim and permanent) are under consideration to manage this material. The permanent solutions can be categorized into two broad groups: direct disposal and utilization. The deep borehole disposition concept involves placing excess plutonium deep into old stable rock formations with little free water present. Issues of concern include the regulatory, statutory and policy status of such a facility, the availability of sites with desirable characteristics and the technologies required for drilling deep holes, characterizing them, emplacing excess plutonium and sealing the holes. This white paper discusses the regulatory issues. Regulatory issues concerning construction, operation and decommissioning of the surface facility do not appear to be controversial, with existing regulations providing adequate coverage. It is in the areas of siting, licensing and long term environmental protection that current regulations may be inappropriate. This is because many current regulations are by intent or by default specific to waste forms, facilities or missions significantly different from deep borehole disposition of excess weapons usable fissile material. It is expected that custom regulations can be evolved in the context of this mission

  7. Borehole geophysics in nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosby, J.W.; Scott, J.D.

    1979-01-01

    Miniaturized borehole geophysical equipment designed for use in ground-water investigations can be adapted to investigations of nuclear power plant sites. This equipment has proved to be of value in preliminary and comprehensive studies of interior basins where thick sequences of Quaternary clastic sediment, occasionally with associated volcanic rocks, pose problems of stratigraphic correlation. The unconsolidated nature of the deposits generally requires that exploratory holes be cased, which ordinarily restricts the borehole geophysical studies to the radiation functions--natural gamma, gamma-gamma, neutron-gamma, and neutron-epithermal neutron logs. Although a single log response may be dominant in a given area, correlations derive from consideration of all log responses as a composite group. Because major correlations usually are based upon subtle differences in the physical properties of the penetrated sediment, high-resolution logging procedures are employed with some sacrifice of the quantitative perameters important to petroleum technology. All geophysical field data are recorded as hard copy and as digital information on punched paper tape

  8. Borehole geophysics in nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosby, J.W.; Scott, J.D.

    1979-01-01

    Miniaturized borehole geophysical equipment designed for use in ground-water investigations can be adapted to investigations of nuclear power plant sites. This equipment has proved to be of value in preliminary and comprehensive studies of interior basins where thick sequences of Quaternary clastic sediment, occasionally with associated volcanic rocks, pose problems of stratigraphic correlation. The unconsolidated nature of the deposits generally requires that exploratory holes be cased, which ordinarily restricts the borehole geophysical studies to the radiation functions--natural gamma, gamma-gamma, neutron-gamma, and neutron-epithermal neutron logs. Although a single log response may be dominant in a given area, correlations derive from consideration of all log responses as a composite group. Because major correlations usually are based upon subtle differences in the physical properties of the penetrated sediment, high-resolution logging procedures are employed with some sacrifice of the quantitative parameters important to petroleum technology. All geophysical field data are recorded as hard copy and as digital information on punched paper tape. Digital data are subsequently computer processed and plotted to scales that enhance the stratigraphic data being correlated. Retention of the data in analog format permits rapid review, whereas computer plotting allows playback and detailed examination of log sections and sequences that may be attenuated on hard copy because of the logarithmic nature of the response to the physical property being examined

  9. Computer-based system for processing geophysical data obtained from boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    A diverse set of computer programs has been developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to process geophysical data obtained from boreholes. These programs support such services as digitizing analog records, reading and processing raw data, cataloging and storing processed data, retrieving selected data for analysis, and generating data plots on several different devices. A variety of geophysical data types are accommodated, including both wireline logs and laboratory analyses of downhole samples. Many processing tasks are handled by means of a single, flexible, general-purpose data-manipulation program. Separate programs are available for processing data from density, gravity, velocity, and epithermal neutron logs

  10. Knowledge-Based System to Support Plug Load Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Electrical plug loads comprise an increasingly larger share of building energy consumption as improvements have been made to Heating, Ventilation, and Air...

  11. Mechanical Properties of Plug Welds after Micro-Jet Cooling

    OpenAIRE

    Hadryś D.

    2016-01-01

    New technology of micro-jet welding could be regarded as a new way to improve mechanical properties of plug welds. The main purpose of that paper was analyzing of mechanical properties of plug welds made by MIG welding method with micro-jet cooling. The main way for it was comparison of plug welds made by MIG welding method with micro-jet cooling and plug welds made by ordinary MIG welding method. It is interesting for steel because higher amount of acicular ferrite (AF) in weld metal deposit...

  12. An Overview of the HomePlug AV2 Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Yonge, Larry; Abad, Jose; Afkhamie, Kaywan; Guerrieri, Lorenzo; Katar, Srinivas; Lioe, Hidayat; Pagani, Pascal; Riva, Raffaele; Schneider, Daniel M.; Schwager, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    HomePlug AV2 is the solution identified by the HomePlug Alliance to achieve the improved data rate performance required by the new generation of multimedia applications without the need to install extra wires. Developed by industry-leading participants in the HomePlug AV Technical Working Group, the HomePlug AV2 technology provides Gigabit-class connection speeds over the existing AC wires within home. It is designed to meet the market demands for the full set of future in-home networking co...

  13. Ford C-Max plug-in hybrid; Ford C-Max mit Plug-in-Hybridtechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schamel, Andreas; D' Annunzio, Julie; Iorio, Rob [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Schmitz, Peter [Ford-Forschungszentrum Aachen GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2013-03-01

    Ford provides consumers a broad choice of electrified vehicles globally, including full hybrids, plug-in hybrids and all-electric vehicles. The all-new 2013 model year C-Max Energi Plug-in Hybrid utilises the third generation of Ford hybrid technology. This article discusses the hybrid powersplit architecture and components, as well as the charging capability and human-machine interfaces, used in the C-Max Energi Plug-In Hybrid. (orig.)

  14. Comparative study of coliform contamination of public boreholes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the coliform contamination of public boreholes and pipe borne water supplies within Bosso town. Twenty (20) water samples comprising of 10 each of borehole and pipe borne samples were aseptically collected from Bosso Town and analyzed using membrane filtration technique.

  15. Elastic waves along a cylindrical borehole in a poroelastic medium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the oil industry, acoustic borehole logging is commonly practiced. A borehole is drilled in a potential hydro-carbon reservoir and then probed with an acoustic ...... The non-dimensional phase velocity c/Vmin, Vmin = min(V1,V2,V3,V4) is computed at different values of non-dimensional wavenumber ka varying from 0 to 85.

  16. ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METAL STATUS OF BOREHOLES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-02-13

    Feb 13, 2012 ... monitoring and assessment of boreholes mostly the indiscriminate sinking of boreholes in the ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management Vol. 5 No.1 2012 ... may enter a water supply by industrial and ... issues of present day research on risk .... and pigments for paints, cement, paper,.

  17. Performance of MarSite Multi parameter Borehole Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guralp, Cansun; Tunc, Suleyman; Ozel, Oguz; Meral Ozel, Nurcan; Necmioglu, Ocal

    2017-04-01

    In this paper we present two year results obtained from the integrated multiparameter borehole system at Marsite. The very broad band (VBB) system have been operating since installation in November 2014; one year in a water filled borehole and one year in a dry Borehole. from January 2016. The real time data has been available to the community. The two Borehole environments are compared showing the superior performance of dry borehole environ- ment compared to water filled for a very broad band (VBB) seismometer. The practical considerations applied in both borehole installations are compared and the best borehole practical installation techniques are presented and discussed. The data is also compared with a surface 120 second broad band sensor and the seismic arrays with in MarSite region. The very long term performance, (one year data in a dry hole) of the VBB Borehole seismometer and the Dilatometer will be presented The high frequency performance of the VBB seismometer which extends to 150 Hz and the dilatometer are compared characterizing the results from the dilatometer.

  18. Comparison of Performance of Public and Private Boreholes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the last fifteen years, a remarkable increase in the number of privately owned. There has been an increase in the individually owned and operated boreholes within the state because it is claimed that government owned boreholes breakdown too often. Hence, this study is aimed at comparison of the performance of three ...

  19. 30 CFR 75.388 - Boreholes in advance of mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boreholes in advance of mining. 75.388 Section... of mining. (a) Boreholes shall be drilled in each advancing working place when the working place... cannot be examined, and before mining continues, a certified person shall, if possible, determine— (1...

  20. Occurrence of a Severe Acute Livestock Poisoning by Borehole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reports on an outbreak of acute livestock poisoning by borehole water that occurred at Kargi in Marsabit District, Kenya in 2000. The borehole had been out of use for 3 years and after its rehabilitation, 7,000 animals died within a day after drinking the water. The most affected were shoats, cattle, camels and dogs ...

  1. Borehole radar survey at the granite quarry mine, Pocheon, Kyounggi province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Ho; Cho, Seong Jun; Yi, Myeong Jong; Chung, Seung Hwan; Lee, Hee Il; Shin, In Chul [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    Borehole radar survey in combination with the reflection and tomography methods was conducted at the Donga granite quarry mine of Pocheon area in Kyounggi province. The purpose of radar survey in quarry mine is to delineate the inhomogeneities including fractures and to estimate the freshness of rock. 20 MHz was adopted as the central frequency for the radar reflection and tomography surveys for the longer distance of penetration. The reflection survey using the direction finding antenna was also conducted to get the information on the spatial orientation of reflectors. Besides the various kinds of radar borehole survey, two surface geophysical methods, dipole-dipole resistivity survey and ground penetrating radar, were also applied to delineate the hidden parts of geological structures which was confirmed by geological mapping. The reflection data processing package, RADPRO ver. 2.2, developed continuously through in this study, was used to process the borehole reflection radar data. The new programs to process radar reflection data using directional antenna were devised and used to calculate and image the orientation of reflectors. The major dip angle of fractured zones were determined from the radar reflection images. With the aid of direction finding antenna and the newly developed algorithm to image the orientation of reflectors, it was possible to get the three dimensional attitudes of reflectors. Detailed interpretation results of the surveyed area are included in this report. Through the interpretation of borehole reflection data using dipole and direction finding antenna, we could determine the orientation of the major fractured zone, the boundary of two mining areas. Many of hidden inhomogeneities were found by borehole radar methods. By the image of direction finding antenna, it was confirmed that nearly all of them were located at the outside of the planned mining area or were situated very deeply. Therefore, the surveyed area consists of very fresh and

  2. Borehole Logging for Uranium by Gamma-Ray Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvborg, Leif; Nyegaard, P.; Christiansen, E. M.

    1980-01-01

    The resources in a large syngenetic deposit of low-grade uranium (U) ore with thorium at Kvanefjeld, South Greenland, were evaluated by spectrometric gamma-ray logging of 23 boreholes, 46 mm in diameter and 200 m deep. The borehole probe's detector contained 22 cm3 of sodium-iodide, and the photo......The resources in a large syngenetic deposit of low-grade uranium (U) ore with thorium at Kvanefjeld, South Greenland, were evaluated by spectrometric gamma-ray logging of 23 boreholes, 46 mm in diameter and 200 m deep. The borehole probe's detector contained 22 cm3 of sodium...... of the spectrometer system were determined by calculating the average number of U and thorium (Th) counts per meter of borehole and comparing these with the U-Th concentrations in 1-m sections of analyzed drill core. The sensitivity and the background count rate in the uranium window varied appreciably from one hole...

  3. The assessment of the geophysical investigations of boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brotzen, O.; Duran, O.; Magnusson, K.-Aa.

    1980-02-01

    Four geophysical investigations and a televiewer inspection of boreholes have been evaluated in connection with the examinations at Finnsjoen, Karlshamn, Kraakemaala, Stripa and Studsvik. A cooperative assessment of the systems for the measurement of boreholes by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories and the Geological Survey of Sweden has been made at Stripa. The following methods should be selected for future measurements: determination of the resistivity and temperature of the fluid in the borehole, determination of the resistivity and temperature of the fluid in the borehole, determination of the self-potential, resistivity and resistance of the rock as well as the measurement of sonar waves, the diameter of the borehole and the very low frequency effects. (G.B.)

  4. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. BIPS logging in borehole KAS09

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, Jaana; Gustafsson, Christer

    2010-01-01

    This report includes the data gained in BIPS logging performed at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The logging operation presented here includes BIPS logging in the core drilled borehole KAS09. The objective for the BIPS logging was to observe the condition of KAS09 in order to restore the borehole in the hydrogeological monitoring programme.All measurements were conducted by Malaa Geoscience AB on October 9th 2009. The objective of the BIPS logging is to achieve information of the borehole including occurrence of rock types as well as determination of fracture distribution and orientation. This report describes the equipment used as well as the measurement procedures and data gained. For the BIPS survey, the result is presented as images. The basic conditions of the BIPS logging for geological mapping and orientation of structures are satisfying for borehole KAS09, although induced affects from the drilling on the borehole walls limit the visibility

  5. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. BIPS logging in borehole KAS09

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Jaana; Gustafsson, Christer (Malaa Geoscience AB (Sweden))

    2010-01-15

    This report includes the data gained in BIPS logging performed at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The logging operation presented here includes BIPS logging in the core drilled borehole KAS09. The objective for the BIPS logging was to observe the condition of KAS09 in order to restore the borehole in the hydrogeological monitoring programme.All measurements were conducted by Malaa Geoscience AB on October 9th 2009. The objective of the BIPS logging is to achieve information of the borehole including occurrence of rock types as well as determination of fracture distribution and orientation. This report describes the equipment used as well as the measurement procedures and data gained. For the BIPS survey, the result is presented as images. The basic conditions of the BIPS logging for geological mapping and orientation of structures are satisfying for borehole KAS09, although induced affects from the drilling on the borehole walls limit the visibility

  6. The borehole disposal of spent sources (BOSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heard, R.G.

    2002-01-01

    During the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Regional Training Course on 'The Management of Low-Level Radioactive Waste from Hospitals and Other Nuclear Applications' hosted by the Atomic Energy Corporation of SA Ltd. (AEC), now NECSA, during July/August 1995, the African delegates reviewed their national radioactive waste programmes. Among the issues raised, which are common to most African countries, were the lack of adequate storage facilities, lack of disposal solutions and a lack of equipment to implement widely used disposal concepts to dispose of their spent sources. As a result of this meeting, a Technical Co-operation (TC) project was launched to look at the technical feasibility and economic viability of such a concept. Phase I and II of the project have been completed and the results can be seen in three reports produced by NECSA. The Safety Assessment methodology used in the evaluation of the concept was that developed during the ISAM programme and detailed in Van Blerk's PhD thesis. This methodology is specifically developed for shallow land repositories, but was used in this case as the borehole need not be more than 100m deep and could fit into the definition of a shallow land disposal system. The studies found that the BOSS concept would be suitable for implementation in African countries as the borehole has a large capacity for sources and it is possible that an entire country's disused sources can be placed in a single borehole. The costs are a lot lower than for a shallow land trench, and the concept was evaluated using radium (226) sources as the most limiting inventory. The conclusion of the initial safety assessment was that the BOSS concept is robust, and provides a viable alternative for the disposal of radium needles. The concept is expected to provide good assurance of safety at real sites. The extension of the safety assessment to other types of spent sources is expected to be relatively straightforward. Disposal of radium needles

  7. Numerical Borehole Breakdown Investigations using XFEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckhuis, Sven; Leonhart, Dirk; Meschke, Günther

    2016-04-01

    During pressurization of a wellbore a typical downhole pressure record shows the following regimes: first the applied wellbore pressure balances the reservoir pressure, then after the compressive circumferential hole stresses are overcome, tensile stresses are induced on the inside surface of the hole. When the magnitude of these stresses reach the tensile failure stress of the surrounding rock medium, a fracture is initiated and propagates into the reservoir. [1] In standard theories this pressure, the so called breakdown pressure, is the peak pressure in the down-hole pressure record. However experimental investigations [2] show that the breakdown did not occur even if a fracture was initiated at the borehole wall. Drilling muds had the tendency to seal and stabilize fractures and prevent fracture propagation. Also fracture mechanics analysis of breakdown process in mini-frac or leak off tests [3] show that the breakdown pressure could be either equal or larger than the fracture initiation pressure. In order to gain a deeper understanding of the breakdown process in reservoir rock, numerical investigations using the extended finite element method (XFEM) for hydraulic fracturing of porous materials [4] are discussed. The reservoir rock is assumed to be pre-fractured. During pressurization of the borehole, the injection pressure, the pressure distribution and the position of the highest flux along the fracture for different fracturing fluid viscosities are recorded and the influence of the aforementioned values on the stability of fracture propagation is discussed. [1] YEW, C. H. (1997), "Mechanics of Hydraulic Fracturing", Gulf Publishing Company [2] MORITA, N.; BLACK, A. D.; FUH, G.-F. (1996), "Borehole Breakdown Pressure with Drilling Fluids". International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences 33, pp. 39-51 [3] DETOURNAY, E.; CARBONELL, R. (1996), "Fracture Mechanics Analysis of the Breakdown Process in Minifrac or Leakoff Test", Society of Petroleum

  8. Biomass plug development and propagation in porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, T L; Fogler, H S

    2001-02-05

    Exopolymer-producing bacteria can be used to modify soil profiles for enhanced oil recovery or bioremediation. Understanding the mechanisms associated with biomass plug development and propagation is needed for successful application of this technology. These mechanisms were determined from packed-bed and micromodel experiments that simulate plugging in porous media. Leuconostoc mesenteroides was used, because production of dextran, a water-insoluble exopolymer, can be controlled by using different carbon sources. As dextran was produced, the pressure drop across the porous media increased and began to oscillate. Three pressure phases were identified under exopolymer-producing conditions: the exopolymer-induction phase, the plugging phase, and the plug-propagation phase. The exopolymer-induction phase extended from the time that exopolymer-producing conditions were induced until there was a measurable increase in pressure drop across the porous media. The plugging phase extended from the first increase in pressure drop until a maximum pressure drop was reached. Changes in pressure drop in these two phases were directly related to biomass distribution. Specifically, flow channels within the porous media filled with biomass creating a plugged region where convective flow occurred only in water channels within the biofilm. These water channels were more restrictive to flow causing the pressure drop to increase. At a maximum pressure drop across the porous media, the biomass yielded much like a Bingham plastic, and a flow channel was formed. This behavior marked the onset of the plug-propagation phase which was characterized by sequential development and breakthrough of biomass plugs. This development and breakthrough propagated the biomass plug in the direction of nutrient flow. The dominant mechanism associated with all three phases of plugging in porous media was exopolymer production; yield stress is an additional mechanism in the plug-propagation phase. Copyright

  9. Filling bore-holes with explosive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfredsson, S H

    1965-03-02

    In this device for filling boreholes formed in a rock formation with particulate explosive, the explosive is conveyed into the hole by means of a pressure fluid through a tube which has a lesser diameter than the hole. The tube is characterized by a lattice work arranged externally on it, and having a structure adapted to allow passage of a pressure fluid returning between the tube and the wall of the hole, but retaining particles of explosive entrained by the returning pressure fluid. In another arrangement of the device, the lattice work has the form of a brush, including filaments or bristles which are dimensioned to bridge the spacing between the tube and the wall of the hole. (12 claims)

  10. Temperature profiles in the Harwell boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robins, N.S.

    1983-03-01

    Heat flow at Harwell is estimated at 45 mWm -2 (milli Watt per metre squared is the unit of heat flow). Thermal conductivity values for the formations penetrated range from 1.0 to 4.6 Wm -1 K -1 . The temperature profiles recorded in the boreholes enable the vertical groundwater flow patterns within two poorly permeable mudrock units to be evaluated. The two mudrock units act as leaky barriers each separating a pair of aquifer units which induce a vertical hydraulic gradient across the mudrocks. The flow velocity results for the upper mudrock units derived from the temperature profile are compatible with values for groundwater potential derived from hydraulic data (10 -9 ms -1 from the temperature profile and 10 -12 ms -1 from the hydraulic observations). The results from the lower mudrock sequence are incompatible and this may be due to some other overiding influence upon the temperature profile. (author)

  11. Waste package emplacement borehole option study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streeter, W.S.

    1992-03-01

    This study evaluates the cost and thermal effects of various waste package emplacement configurations that differ in emplacement orientation, number of containers per borehole, and standoff distance at the potential Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository. In this study, eight additional alternatives to the vertical and horizontal orientation options presented in the Site Characterization Plan Conceptual Design Report are considered. Typical panel layout configurations based on thermal analysis of the waste and cost estimates for design and construction, operations, and closure and decommissioning were made for each emplacement option. For the thermal analysis average waste 10 years out of reactor and the SIM code were used to determine whether the various configurations temperatures would exceed the design criteria for temperature. This study does not make a recommendation for emplacement configuration, but does provide information for comparison of alternatives

  12. United States program for the safety assessment of geologic disposal of commercial radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claiborne, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    The safe disposal of commercial radioactive wastes in deep geologic formations is the goal of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. A comprehensive safety assessment program has been established which will proceed on a schedule consistent with the start-up of two waste repositories in late 1985. Safety assessment begins with selection of a disposal site; that is, all geologic and hydrologic factors must indicate long-term stability of the formation and prospective isolation of wastes from circulating around waters for hundreds of thousands of years. The long-term stability of each site must be demonstrated by sophisticated rock mechanics analyses. To help provide answers on the mechanism and consequences of an unlikely breach in the integrity of the repository, a Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP) is being sponsored at the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories. Methods and data necessary to characterize the safety of generic geological waste disposal concepts, which are to be applied in the assessment of specific sties, will be developed. Other long-term safety-related studies that complement WISAP are in progress, for example, borehole plugging, salt dissolutioning, and salt transport in vertical boreholes. Requirements for licensing are in the process of being formulated by the NRC

  13. Review of geoscientific data of relevance to disposal of spent nuclear fuel in deep boreholes in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsic, Nico; Grundfelt, Bertil

    2013-09-01

    In this report a compilation of recent geoscientific data of relevance to disposal of spent nuclear fuel in deep boreholes in Sweden is presented. The goal of the study has been limited to identifying and briefly describing such geoscientific information of relevance to disposal in deep boreholes that was not available at the time when previous compilations were made. Hence, the study is not to be regarded as a general up-date of new geoscientific information. Disposal of spent nuclear fuel in deep boreholes has been studied in Sweden since the second half of the 1980s. The currently studied concept has been proposed by Sandia National Laboratories in the USA. In this concept the spent fuel elements are encapsulated in cylindrical steel canisters that are joined together in strings of 40 canisters and lowered into five kilometres deep boreholes. Ten such strings are stacked between three and five kilometres depth separated from each other by concrete plugs. The study started with a review of boreholes that have been reported after the previous reviews that were published in 1998 and 2004. A total of 12 boreholes of potential relevance were identified. Further study showed that only four out of these holes penetrated into crystalline rock. Two of these were deemed to be less relevant because they were drilled in areas with much higher geothermal gradient than in the parts of the Fennoscandian shield that realistically could host a Swedish deep borehole repository. Of the two remaining boreholes, only one, a geoscientific hole drilled at Outokumpu in Finland, is associated with a reasonably complete geoscientific data set. It is worth mentioning that a large part of this hole is drilled through meta sedimentary rock (mica schist) rather than granitic rock. The information collected and reviewed has been gathered under the headings hydraulic conditions, geothermal conditions, hydrogeochemical conditions, bacteriological activity and rock mechanical properties. Only

  14. Review of geoscientific data of relevance to disposal of spent nuclear fuel in deep boreholes in crystalline rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsic, Nico; Grundfelt, Bertil [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-09-15

    In this report a compilation of recent geoscientific data of relevance to disposal of spent nuclear fuel in deep boreholes in Sweden is presented. The goal of the study has been limited to identifying and briefly describing such geoscientific information of relevance to disposal in deep boreholes that was not available at the time when previous compilations were made. Hence, the study is not to be regarded as a general up-date of new geoscientific information. Disposal of spent nuclear fuel in deep boreholes has been studied in Sweden since the second half of the 1980s. The currently studied concept has been proposed by Sandia National Laboratories in the USA. In this concept the spent fuel elements are encapsulated in cylindrical steel canisters that are joined together in strings of 40 canisters and lowered into five kilometres deep boreholes. Ten such strings are stacked between three and five kilometres depth separated from each other by concrete plugs. The study started with a review of boreholes that have been reported after the previous reviews that were published in 1998 and 2004. A total of 12 boreholes of potential relevance were identified. Further study showed that only four out of these holes penetrated into crystalline rock. Two of these were deemed to be less relevant because they were drilled in areas with much higher geothermal gradient than in the parts of the Fennoscandian shield that realistically could host a Swedish deep borehole repository. Of the two remaining boreholes, only one, a geoscientific hole drilled at Outokumpu in Finland, is associated with a reasonably complete geoscientific data set. It is worth mentioning that a large part of this hole is drilled through meta sedimentary rock (mica schist) rather than granitic rock. The information collected and reviewed has been gathered under the headings hydraulic conditions, geothermal conditions, hydrogeochemical conditions, bacteriological activity and rock mechanical properties. Only

  15. Developing quality standards for physical properties of mineral wool plugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, C.; Berg, van den C.C.; Winkel, van A.

    2014-01-01

    The KIWA certification guidelines for mineral wool products contain standards for slabs and blocks. Propagators would like to introduce quality standards for mineral wool plugs as well. Main concerns were effects of too dense plugs on plant growth, and handling problems with too fluffy or broken

  16. Plug and Play Process Control of a District Heating System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangbaek, Klaus; Knudsen, Torben; Skovmose Kallesøe, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    The main idea of plug and play process control is to initialise and reconfigure control systems automatically. In this paper these ideas are applied to a scaled laboratory model of a district heating pressure control system.  First of all this serves as a concrete example of plug and play control...

  17. Capillarity Induced Negative Pressure of Water Plugs in Nanochannels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tas, Niels Roelof; Mela, P.; Kramer, Tobias; Berenschot, Johan W.; van den Berg, Albert

    2003-01-01

    We have found evidence that water plugs in hydrophilic nanochannels can be at significant negative pressure due to tensile capillary forces. The negative pressure of water plugs in nanochannels induces bending of the thin channel capping layer, which results in a visible curvature of the liquid

  18. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in dynamical energy markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den

    2008-01-01

    The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle allows vehicle propulsion from multiple internal power sources. Electric energy from the grid can be utilized by means of the plug-in connection. An on-line energy management (EM) strategy is proposed to minimize the costs for taking energy from each power source.

  19. Analyzing the Risk of Well Plug Failure after Abandonment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainguy, M.; Longuemare, P.; Audibert, A.; Lecolier, E.

    2007-01-01

    All oil and gas wells will have to be plugged and abandoned at some time. The plugging and abandonment procedure must provide an effective isolation of the well fluids all along the well to reduce environmental risks of contamination and prevent from costly remedial jobs. Previous works have analyzed the plug behavior when submitted to local pressure or thermal changes but no work has looked to the effects of external pressure, thermal and stress changes resulting from a global equilibrium restoration in a hydrocarbon reservoir once production has stopped. This work estimates those changes after abandonment on a reservoir field case using a reservoir simulator in conjunction with a geomechanical simulator. Such simulations provide the pressure and thermal changes and the maximum effective stress changes in the reservoir cap rock where critical plugs are put in place for isolating the production intervals. These changes are used as loads in a well bore stress model that explicitly models an injector well and predict stress rearrangements in the plug after abandonment. Results obtained with the well bore stress model for a conventional class G cement plug show that the main risk of failure is tensile failure because of the low tensile strength of the cement. Actually, soft sealing materials or initially pre-stressed plug appears to be more adapted to the downhole conditions changes that may occurs after well plugging and abandonment. (authors)

  20. Dual Spark Plugs For Stratified-Charge Rotary Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, John; Bracco, Frediano V.

    1996-01-01

    Fuel efficiency of stratified-charge, rotary, internal-combustion engine increased by improved design featuring dual spark plugs. Second spark plug ignites fuel on upstream side of main fuel injector; enabling faster burning and more nearly complete utilization of fuel.

  1. California Statewide Plug-In Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, Marc; Helwig, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The California Statewide Plug-In Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Assessment conveys to interested parties the Energy Commission’s conclusions, recommendations, and intentions with respect to plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) infrastructure development. There are several relatively low-risk and high-priority electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) deployment options that will encourage PEV sales and

  2. National Plug-In Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rames, Clement [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Muratori, Matteo [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-15

    This report addresses the fundamental question of how much plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging infrastructure—also known as electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE)—is needed in the United States to support both plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs).

  3. Eddy current inspection of steam generator tubing plugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, W.K.

    1990-01-01

    In response to the issues raised regarding the integrity of nuclear steam generator tubing plugs manufactured from certain heats of Inconel 600, Westinghouse engineers have developed, qualified and implemented an eddy current inspection system for the in-place assessment of these plugs. The heart of the system is a robotic and effector which delivers an eddy current sensor through the reduced diameter of the plug expander and actuates the coil to physical contact with the expanded inside bore of the plug. Once deployed, the eddy current sensor is rotated along a helical path to produce a detailed scan of the plug surface above the final position of the expander. This testing produces an isometric display of degradation due to primary water stress corrosion cracking, on the inside surface of the plug. To date, successful inspections have been conducted at two nuclear units with two different robotic delivery systems. While designed specifically for mechanical plugs with a bottle bore cavity, the inspection system can also be used for expanded straight bore plugs. Details of the inspection system along with a discussion of qualification activities and actual field results are presented in this paper

  4. Development of sealing plug for sweep gas line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Taiji; Yamada, Hirokazu; Saitoh, Takashi; Nakamichi, Masaru; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Kawamura, Hiroshi

    2004-03-01

    On the irradiation capsule for neutron irradiation test of the tritium breeder, the sealing plug is necessary to prevent a leak of tritium gas when the tritium breeder is picked up from the irradiation capsule after irradiation test. However, the general valve and plug cannot apply to sealing of the sweep gas line because of the following factors, the neutron irradiation effect, limited space in the irradiation capsule, high sealing efficiency, simple method and operation for control. Therefore, the sealing plug for sweep gas line has to be developed. This paper reports the development of the sealing plug for sweep gas line and the operating procedure of the sealing plug in the irradiation capsule. (author)

  5. A Genre Classification Plug-in for Data Collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehn-Schiøler, Tue; Arenas-García, Jerónimo; Petersen, Kaare Brandt

    2006-01-01

    This demonstration illustrates how the methods developed in the MIR community can be used to provide real-time feedback to music users. By creating a genre classifier plug-in for a popular media player we present users with relevant information as they play their songs. The plug-in can furthermor...... be used as a data collection platform. After informed consent from a selected set of users the plug-in will report on music consumption behavior back to a central server.......This demonstration illustrates how the methods developed in the MIR community can be used to provide real-time feedback to music users. By creating a genre classifier plug-in for a popular media player we present users with relevant information as they play their songs. The plug-in can furthermore...

  6. Welding nuclear reactor fuel rod end plugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeo, D.

    1984-01-01

    Apparatus for applying a vacuum to a nuclear fuel rod cladding tube's interior through its open end while girth welding an inserted end plug to its other end. An airtight housing has an orifice with a seal which can hermetically engage the tube's open end. A vacuum hose has one end connected to the housing and the other end connected to a vacuum pump. A mechanized device which moves the housing to engage or disengage its seal with the tube's open end includes at least one arm having one end attached to the housing and the other end pivotally attached to a movable table; an arm rotating device to coaxially align the housing's orifice with the welding-positioned tube; and a table moving device to engage the seal of the coaxially aligned orifice with the tube's open end. (author)

  7. Experimental plug and play quantum coin flipping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappa, Anna; Jouguet, Paul; Lawson, Thomas; Chailloux, André; Legré, Matthieu; Trinkler, Patrick; Kerenidis, Iordanis; Diamanti, Eleni

    2014-04-01

    Performing complex cryptographic tasks will be an essential element in future quantum communication networks. These tasks are based on a handful of fundamental primitives, such as coin flipping, where two distrustful parties wish to agree on a randomly generated bit. Although it is known that quantum versions of these primitives can offer information-theoretic security advantages with respect to classical protocols, a demonstration of such an advantage in a practical communication scenario has remained elusive. Here we experimentally implement a quantum coin flipping protocol that performs strictly better than classically possible over a distance suitable for communication over metropolitan area optical networks. The implementation is based on a practical plug and play system, developed by significantly enhancing a commercial quantum key distribution device. Moreover, we provide combined quantum coin flipping protocols that are almost perfectly secure against bounded adversaries. Our results offer a useful toolbox for future secure quantum communications.

  8. Site characterization and validation - equipment design and techniques used in single borehole hydraulic testing, simulated drift experiment and crosshole testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, D.C.; Sehlstedt, M.

    1991-10-01

    This report describes the equipment and techniques used to investigate the variation of hydrogeological parameters within a fractured crystalline rock mass. The testing program was performed during stage 3 of the site characterization and validation programme at the Stripa mine in Sweden. This programme used a multidisciplinary approach, combining geophysical, geological and hydrogeological methods, to determine how groundwater moved through the rock mass. The hydrogeological work package involved three components. Firstly, novel single borehole techniques (focused packer testing) were used to determine the distribution of hydraulic conductivity and head along individual boreholes. Secondly, water was abstracted from boreholes which were drilled to simulate a tunnel (simulated drift experiment). Locations and magnitudes of flows were measured together with pressure responses at various points in the SCV rock mass. Thirdly, small scale crosshole tests, involving detailed interference testing, were used to determine the variability of hydrogeological parameters within previously identified, significant flow zones. (au)

  9. Plugging of drinking water flow into horizontal high diameter pipeline with artificial ice plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyongyosi, T.; Valeca, S.; Panaitescu, V. N.; Prisecaru, I.

    2013-01-01

    Local isolation of a pipeline section, placed horizontally into a loop of drinking water supply network, can be made with an ice plug resulting after controlled process inside of pipeline without stopping the consumer supply. The technique is applying in order to perform repairs or items replacement, without closing the drinking water supply network at the same time decreasing the fluid loss resulted after discharge of the affected loop. In facts, the technique is simple one and assumes to apply a special device sized for each case using a freezing liquid agent injected continuously. The paper contains a constructive description of the experimental technological facilities and of the experimental model for ice plugging device used. The test, the first results get and some conclusion are following. The paper is dedicated to the specialists working in the research and technological engineering. (authors)

  10. Strategies for Controlling Plug Loads. A Tool for Reducing Plug Loads in Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torcellini, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bonnema, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sheppy, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pless, Shanti [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Plug loads are often not considered as part of the energy savings measures in Commercial Buildings; however, they can account for up to 50% of the energy used in the building. These loads are numerous and often scattered throughout a building. Some of these loads are purchased by the owner and some designed into the building or the tenant finishes for a space. This document provides a strategy and a tool for minimizing these loads.

  11. Final storage of radioactive waste in deep boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichmeyer, H.; Wolff, H.

    1985-01-01

    The plans of the Danish Atomic Energy Authority expect the storage of 4500 containers with high activity waste each weighing 15 tonnes in deep boreholes in rock salt over a period of 30 years. The Danish plans are concerned with the storage medium salt in one of the many salt mines in North Germany and Denmark with a depth of 1200 metres, because of the high plasticity, good thermal conductivity and non-permeability to liquids and gases. Eight deep boreholes with a diameter of 750 mm are provided in a circle of radius r=250 metres. With a deviation of 0 , the boreholes will be piped down to 1000 metres and after completion, will be filled with clay slurry and barium sulphate. At the start of storage of the waste in containers 6.8 metres long, the clay slurry is replaced by cement slurry with saturated NaCl solution. Another possibility is to fill the borehole volume with saturated NaCl solution, in order to let the convergence act on the annular space between the container and the borehole wall. After filling the borehole, the open borehole should be sealed over a distance of 200 metres with rock salt and over 50 metres with a concrete stopper. It is planned to provide a dense and corrosion-proof seal with bitumen above the concrete. (orig./GB) [de

  12. Difference flow measurements in borehole KOV01 at Oskarshamn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poellaenen, J.; Rouhiainen, P.

    2001-09-01

    Posiva Flow Log/Difference Flow method can be used for relatively fast determination of hydraulic conductivity and hydraulic head in fractures or fractured zones in cored boreholes. This report presents the principles of the method as well as the results of the measurements carried out in borehole KOV01 at Oskarshamn in February and March 2001. The aim of the measurements presented in this report was to determine the depth and flow rate of flowing fractures in borehole KOV01 prior to groundwater sampling. The measurements in borehole KOV01 were carried out between 100-1000 m depth using the so called detailed flow logging mode; the flow rate into a 5 m long test section was measured. Detailed flow logging was repeated at the location of the detected flow anomalies using 0.5 m section length and 0.1 m point intervals. The borehole was pumped during these measurements. The occurrence of saline water in the borehole was studied by electric conductivity measurements. The flow guide encloses also an electrode for measuring of single point resistance of the bedrock. It was measured with 0.01 m point intervals during the detailed flow logging. Depth calibration was made on the basis of the known depth marks in the borehole. The depth marks were detected by caliper measurements and by single point resistance measurements

  13. Stochastic scheduling of aggregators of plug-in electric vehicles for participation in energy and ancillary service markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alipour, Manijeh; Mohammadi-Ivatloo, Behnam; Moradi-Dalvand, Mohammad; Zare, Kazem

    2017-01-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles are expected to play a major role in the transportation system as the environmental problems and energy crisis are being more and more urgent recently. Implementing a large number of vehicles with proper control could bring an opportunity of large storage and flexibility for power systems. The plug-in electric vehicle aggregator is responsible for providing power and controlling the charging pattern of the plug-in electric vehicles under its contracted area. This paper deals with the problem of optimal scheduling problem of plug-in electric vehicle aggregators in electricity market considering the uncertainties of market prices, availability of vehicles and status of being called by the ISO in the reserve market. The impact of the market price and reserve market uncertainties on the electric vehicle scheduling problem is characterized through a stochastic programming framework. The objective of the aggregator is to maximize its profit by charging the plug-in electric vehicles on the low price time intervals as well as participating in ancillary service markets. The operational constraints of plug-in electric vehicles and constraints of vehicle to grid are modeled in the proposed framework. An illustrative example is provided to confirm the performance of the proposed model. - Highlights: • Optimal scheduling of vehicle aggregators in electricity market has been addressed. • The operational constraints of plug-in vehicle to grid are considered. • The uncertainties of calling status in reserve market and market prices are modeled. • Vehicles' driving patterns and availability uncertainty are modeled. • The effect of risk measure weight in the vehicle to grid model has been studied.

  14. Cyclic variation of heat flux on spark plug; Tenka plug bu no netsuryusoku hendo no sokutei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, K.; Sasaki, T.; Urata, Y. [Honda Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kagawa, J.; Matsutani, W. [NGK Spark Plug Co. Ltd., Nagoya (Japan)

    1998-02-25

    This paper examines the relationship between the magnitude of the heat flux to the spark plug ground electrode, averaged over an 80` crank angle (CA) of early compression stroke, and the initial burning rate, defined as the CA at which 5% of mass is burned. The heat flux was measured by a thin-film thermocouple with the hot junction on the surface of ground electrode. The results demonstrate that faster initial burning rate correlated well with increasing heat flux from the spark plug to the mixture. The difference in the magnitude and direction of the heat flux is associated with the amount of residual gas concentration and thus the results show the effect of residual gas concentration. The cycle-averaged heat flux from the hot junction is 0.367 MW/m{sup 2}, corresponding to a total heat flow of 20 W from the total surface area of ground electrode. This value is about an order of magnitude larger than that previously reported in the literature for locations away from the spark plug, e. g. at the cylinder wall. 11 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  15. BASIMO - Borehole Heat Exchanger Array Simulation and Optimization Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Daniel O.; Bastian, Welsch; Wolfram, Rühaak; Kristian, Bär; Ingo, Sass

    2017-04-01

    Arrays of borehole heat exchangers are an increasingly popular source for renewable energy. Furthermore, they can serve as borehole thermal energy storage (BTES) systems for seasonally fluctuating heat sources like solar thermal energy or district heating grids. The high temperature level of these heat sources prohibits the use of the shallow subsurface for environmental reasons. Therefore, deeper reservoirs have to be accessed instead. The increased depth of the systems results in high investment costs and has hindered the implementation of this technology until now. Therefore, research of medium deep BTES systems relies on numerical simulation models. Current simulation tools cannot - or only to some extent - describe key features like partly insulated boreholes unless they run fully discretized models of the borehole heat exchangers. However, fully discretized models often come at a high computational cost, especially for large arrays of borehole heat exchangers. We give an update on the development of BASIMO: a tool, which uses one dimensional thermal resistance and capacity models for the borehole heat exchangers coupled with a numerical finite element model for the subsurface heat transport in a dual-continuum approach. An unstructured tetrahedral mesh bypasses the limitations of structured grids for borehole path geometries, while the thermal resistance and capacity model is improved to account for borehole heat exchanger properties changing with depth. Thereby, partly insulated boreholes can be considered in the model. Furthermore, BASIMO can be used to improve the design of BTES systems: the tool allows for automated parameter variations and is readily coupled to other code like mathematical optimization algorithms. Optimization can be used to determine the required minimum system size or to increase the system performance.

  16. Borehole drilling for sewage disposal at Asuka Station, East Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Ishizawa,Kenji; Takahashi,Akiyoshi

    1994-01-01

    A borehole for sewage disposal was drilled at Asuka Station (71°31′34″S, 24°08′17″E, 930m a. s. l.) in January 1987. The borehole, 400mm in diameter and 27.5m in depth, was drilled 50m distant from the main hut using a steam drilling system. The drilling speed was 4m/h between the snow surface and 20m depth. The total amount of kerosene used for melting snow and steam generation was 110/. Sewage stored in the tank was directed to the borehole through a heated pipe. The cumulative amount of se...

  17. Design of a slimline directional borehole radar antenna using FDTD

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vogt, D

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available , dielectric. I. INTRODUCTION Borehole radar is the application of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) within a borehole [11]. GPR is a technique used to delineate structures and features of a subsurface. The borehole radar technique has been used successfully..., the direction of the incoming EM wave can be determined [6]. III. FILLER MATERIAL INSIDE ANTENNA ARRAY Ideally, there is no material between the antenna body and the rock surrounding it. In that case, the filler material would be matched to the dielectric...

  18. Digital signal processing of data from borehole creep closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, S.; Patrick, W.C.; Duplancic, N.

    1987-01-01

    Digital signal processing, a technique commonly used in the fields of electrical engineering and communication technology, has been successfully used to analyze creep closure data obtained from a 0.91 m diameter by 5.13 deep borehole in bedded salt. By filtering the ''noise'' component of the closure data from a test borehole, important data trends were made more evident and average creep closure rates were able to be calculated. This process provided accurate estimates of closure rates that are used in the design of lined boreholes in which heat-generating transuranic nuclear wastes are emplaced at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

  19. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Borehole C3103 Located in the 216-B-7A Crib Near the B Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Serne, R JEFFREY.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Last, George V.; Lanigan, David C.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Clayton, Ray E.; Legore, Virginia L.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Baum, Steven R.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Vickerman, Tanya S.

    2002-12-01

    This report summarizes data collected from samples in borehole C3103. Borehole C3103 was completed to further characterize the nature and extent of vadose zone contaminants supplied by intentional liquid discharges into the crib 216-B7A/7B between 1954 and 1967. These cribs received dilute waste streams from the bismuth phosphate fuel reprocessing program in the 1950's and decontamination waste in the 1960's. Elevated concentrations of several constituents were primarily measured at different depth intervals. The primary radionuclides present in this borehole are cesium-137 and uranium near the top of the borehole. Chemical characteristics attributed to wastewater-soil interaction at different locations within this zone are elevated pH, sodium, fluoride, carbonate nitrate, and sulphate

  20. BoreholeAR: A mobile tablet application for effective borehole database visualization using an augmented reality technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangho; Suh, Jangwon; Park, Hyeong-Dong

    2015-03-01

    Boring logs are widely used in geological field studies since the data describes various attributes of underground and surface environments. However, it is difficult to manage multiple boring logs in the field as the conventional management and visualization methods are not suitable for integrating and combining large data sets. We developed an iPad application to enable its user to search the boring log rapidly and visualize them using the augmented reality (AR) technique. For the development of the application, a standard borehole database appropriate for a mobile-based borehole database management system was designed. The application consists of three modules: an AR module, a map module, and a database module. The AR module superimposes borehole data on camera imagery as viewed by the user and provides intuitive visualization of borehole locations. The map module shows the locations of corresponding borehole data on a 2D map with additional map layers. The database module provides data management functions for large borehole databases for other modules. Field survey was also carried out using more than 100,000 borehole data.

  1. Development of a Lunar Borehole Seismometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passmore, P. R.; Siegler, M.; Malin, P. E.; Passmore, K.; Zacny, K.; Avenson, B.; Weber, R. C.; Schmerr, N. C.; Nagihara, S.

    2017-12-01

    Nearly all seismic stations on Earth are buried below the ground. Burial provides controlled temperatures and greater seismic coupling at little cost. This is also true on the Moon and other planetary bodies. Burial of a seismometer under just 1 meter of lunar regolith would provide an isothermal environment and potentially reduce signal scattering noise by an order of magnitude. Here we explain how we will use an existing NASA SBIR and PIDDP funded subsurface heat flow probe deployment system to bury a miniaturized, broadband, optical seismometer 1 meter below the lunar surface. The system is sensitive, low mass and low power. We believe this system offers a compelling architecture for NASA's future seismic exploration of the solar system. We will report on a prototype 3-axis, broadband seismometer package that has been tested under low pressure conditions in lunar-regolith simulant. The deployment mechanism reaches 1m depth in less than 25 seconds. Our designed and tested system: 1) Would be deployed at least 1m below the lunar surface to achieve isothermal conditions without thermal shielding or heaters, increase seismic coupling, and decrease noise. 2) Is small (our prototype probe is a cylinder 50mm in diameter, 36cm long including electronics, potentially as small as 10 cm with sensors only). 3) Is low-mass (each sensor is 0.1 kg, so an extra redundancy 4-component seismograph plus 1.5 kg borehole sonde and recorder weighs less than 2 kg and is feasibly smaller with miniaturized electronics). 4) Is low-power (our complete 3-sensor borehole seismographic system's power consumption is about half a Watt, or 7% of Apollo's 7.1 W average and 30% of the InSight SEIS's 1.5W winter-time heating system). 5) Is broadband and highly sensitive (the "off the shelf" sensors have a wide passband: 0.005-1000 Hz - and high dynamic range of 183 dB (or about 10-9g Hz-1/2, with hopes for simple modifications to be at least an order of magnitude better). Burial also aids the

  2. Guide to Federal Funding, Financing, and Technical Assistance for Plug-in Electric Vehicles and Charging Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-07-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Department of Transportation have published a guide to highlight examples of federal support and technical assistance for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) and charging stations. The guide provides a description of each opportunity and a point of contact to assist those interested in advancing PEV technology. The Department of Energy’s Alternative Fuels Data Center provides a comprehensive database of federal and state programs that support plug-in electric vehicles and infrastructure.

  3. Evaluation of preconceptual plug designs using experts' judgement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sioshansi, F.P.; O'Rourke, J.E.

    1980-03-01

    A number of preconceptual plug designs for an underground nuclear waste repository were to be evaluated based on the available information on plug materials and placement techniques. Because of complex environment and loading conditions, long time frame under consideration, rigid performance characteristics and considerable uncertainties present in preconceptual design and material properties, a qualitative and judgmental evaluation procedure was needed to supplement technical studies. A structured procedure was developed to qualitatively capture evaluator's views and reservations on the proposed preconceptual schemes. Since a thorough evaluation of each proposed plug scheme required in-depth experience and familiarity with many components of the plug, three knowledgeable experts with specialties in the most relevant aspects of the problem were independently interviewed. Each plug scheme was broken down into three subcomponents and each subcomponent was evaluated separately. The proposed schemes were then rated taking their subcomponents into consideration. Because the experts had different specialties, their subcomponent and overall ratings were not in full agreement. Each plug scheme's lowest overall rating was used as the most significant determinant of the judgmental preference categories reported in this study. The approach used discriminated between the proposed schemes for those with highest probability of being successful. The most preferred schemes were then reviewed with respect to the data produced in the technical analysis performed during the project. The results of the judgmental analysis were then synthesized and modified with results of the technical analysis to produce the preconceptual plug designs

  4. Development of weld plugging for steam generator tubes of FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoyama, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Matsumoto, O.; Nagura, Y.; Nakamura, H.; Tohguchi, Y.; Kurokawa, M.; Fukada, T.

    2002-01-01

    This study was undertaken to develop a method of weld plugging of the heat-exchanger tubes of steam generator of Prototype FBR 'MONJU' in case these tubes are damaged for some reason. We studied mainly the shape of plug, welding procedure and effect of postweld heat treatment (PWHT). Evaporator tube sheet, tube and plug are made of 2-1/4Cr-1Mo steel and usually preheating and PWHT will be required for welding of this steel. The results of this study is as follows. 1) Plug was designed to make butt joint welding with grooved tube sheet around the tube hole to satisfy the requirements of plug designing, stress analysis, and good weldability. 2) TIG welding process was selected and certified its good weldability and good performance. 3) PWHT can be done by using high frequency induction heating method locally and also designing the plug to weld joint with tube sheet which was grooved around the tube hole. 4) Mock up test was done and it was certified that this plugging procedure has good weldability and good performance ability for Non Destructive Inspection. (author)

  5. Final design of ITER port plug test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerisier, Thierry, E-mail: thierry.cerisier@yahoo.fr [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90046, St Paul-lez-Durance Cedex, 13067 (France); Levesy, Bruno [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90046, St Paul-lez-Durance Cedex, 13067 (France); Romannikov, Alexander [Institution “Project Center ITER”, Kurchatov sq. 1, Building 3, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Rumyantsev, Yuri [JSC “Cryogenmash”, Moscow reg., Balashikha 143907 (Russian Federation); Cordier, Jean-Jacques; Dammann, Alexis [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90046, St Paul-lez-Durance Cedex, 13067 (France); Minakov, Victor; Rosales, Natalya; Mitrofanova, Elena [JSC “Cryogenmash”, Moscow reg., Balashikha 143907 (Russian Federation); Portone, Sergey; Mironova, Ekaterina [Institution “Project Center ITER”, Kurchatov sq. 1, Building 3, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • We introduce the port plug test facility (purpose and status of the design). • We present the PPTF sub-systems. • We present the environmental and functional tests. • We present the occupational and nuclear safety functions. • We conclude on the achievements and next steps. - Abstract: To achieve the overall ITER machine availability target, the availability of diagnostics and heating port plugs shall be as high as 99.5%. To fulfill this requirement, it is mandatory to test the port plugs at operating temperature before installation on the machine and after refurbishment. The ITER port plug test facility (PPTF) is composed of several test stands that can be used to test the port plugs whereas at the end of manufacturing (in a non-nuclear environment), or after refurbishment in the ITER hot cell facility. The PPTF provides the possibility to perform environmental (leak tightness, vacuum and thermo-hydraulic performances) and functional tests (radio frequency acceptance tests, behavior of the plugs’ steering mechanism and calibration of diagnostics) on upper and equatorial port plugs. The final design of the port plug test facility is described. The configuration of the standalone test stands and the integration in the hot cell facility are presented.

  6. Mechanical and thermo-mechanical analyses of the tapered plug for plugging of deposition tunnels. A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faelth, Billy (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)); Gatter, Patrik (Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-09-15

    This report presents results from a study that was carried out in order to examine the applicability of the tapered plug concept for plugging of deposition tunnels in the deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. The report presents results from mechanical and thermo-mechanical models of the tapered plug. The models were analyzed with 3DEC. The models included a portion of a deposition tunnel and its intersection with a main tunnel. In the deposition tunnel, a tapered concrete plug was installed. The plug was subjected to the combined load from the swelling backfill material and from pore pressure inside the deposition tunnel. The thermo-mechanical effects due to the heat generation in the spent fuel were also included in the analyses. Generic material parameter values for the concrete were used. The following items were studied: - Stresses and displacements in the plug. - Shear stresses and shear displacements in the rock-concrete interface. - Stress additions in the rock due to the loads. The sensitivity of the results to changes of constitutive models, to changes of the plug geometry and to pore water pressure in the rock-concrete interface was examined. The results indicate that the displacements in the plug will be within reasonable ranges but the stresses may locally be high enough that they exceed acceptable levels. However, they can be reduced by choice of advantageous plug geometry and by having a good rock-concrete bond. The results also show that the stress additions in the rock due to the thermal load may yield stresses that locally exceed the spalling strength of the rock. At most locations, however, the rock stresses will amount at lower levels. It was concluded that, with choice of an appropriate design, the tapered plug seems to be an applicable concept for plugging of deposition tunnels. It was also concluded that further studies of the tapered plug concept should use material properties parameter values for low-pH concrete. Further, they should also

  7. Borehole Breakout Growth and In-Situ Stress Orientation in the Central Scandinavian Caledonides: Results from the Cosc-1 Borehole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenning, Q.; Zappone, A.; Berthet, T.; Ask, M. V. S.; Rosberg, J. E.; Almqvist, B. S. G.

    2017-12-01

    Borehole breakouts are often assumed to form near instantaneously due to stress perturbations around boreholes after the rock mass was removed. Recent observations in sediments [e.g., Moore et al., 2011] and crystalline rocks [e.g., Berard and Cornet, 2003], as well as numerical modelling results [e.g., Schoenball et al., 2014], suggest that there are cases in which borehole breakout grows radially over time, forcing us to reconsider subsurface stress estimation. These observations are rare due to drilling difficulties (i.e., cementing and casing the borehole after drilling), often only allowing a single image logging campaign. In 2014, the Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides deep scientific borehole (COSC-1) was drilled to a depth of 2.5 km. To date the borehole is open and uncased, allowing two acoustic televiewer logging campaigns, with more than one year between campaigns. The borehole is still available for supplementary data collactions. These logs provide detailed images along the full length of the 2.5 km deep borehole with 1.6 km of overlapping logs for breakout and drilling induced tensile fracture analysis. The results show from the sparse occurrence of breakouts and drilling induced tensile fractures a NW-SE average maximum horizontal stress direction, consistent with the general trend in Scandinavia. The unique acquisition of image logs in two successions allows for analysis of time-dependent borehole deformation, indicating that six breakout zones have crept, both along the borehole axis and radially (up to 20° growth) around the borehole. While some breakouts have grown, the formation of new breakouts has not occurred. The occurrence of breakouts and their growth appear to be independent of lithology. The observed growth after the second logging campaign suggests that under conditions where the stress exceeded the strength of the rock, the resulting breakout causes perturbations in the stresses around the borehole in the near

  8. Global Database of Borehole Temperatures and Climate Reconstructions - CA-0003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data collected from borehole site CA-0003. For an accurate assessment of the relative roles of natural variability and anthropogenic influence in the Earth's...

  9. Geophysical borehole logging in the unsaturated zone, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimschal, U.; Nelson, P.H.

    1991-01-01

    Borehole geophysical logging for site characterization in the volcanic rocks at the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, requires data collection under rather unusual conditions. Logging tools must operate in rugose, dry holes above the water table in the unsaturated zone. Not all logging tools will operate in this environment, therefore; careful consideration must be given to selection and calibration. A sample suite of logs is presented that demonstrates correlation of geological formations from borehole to borehole, the definition of zones of altered mineralogy, and the quantitative estimates of rock properties. The authors show the results of an exploratory calculation of porosity and water saturation based upon density and epithermal neutron logs. Comparison of the results with a few core samples is encouraging, particularly because the logs can provide continuous data in boreholes where core samples are not available

  10. Borehole depth and regolith aquifer hydraulic characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    composition tend to exhibit similar hydraulic characteristics. But the poor performance of ... mum borehole depth in the regolith aquifer for the area and also reveals that ..... most important end products of chemical weathering of rocks of granitic ...

  11. Comparative Study of Coliform Contamination of Public Boreholes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    boreholes and pipe borne water supplies within Bosso town. Twenty (20) water ... result from inadequately treated sewage discharged from various septic tanks, and .... enforce proper hygienic practices, especially around public water supply ...

  12. Methods for use in detecting seismic waves in a borehole

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Phillip B.; Fincke, James R.; Reed, Teddy R.

    2007-02-20

    The invention provides methods and apparatus for detecting seismic waves propagating through a subterranean formation surrounding a borehole. In a first embodiment, a sensor module uses the rotation of bogey wheels to extend and retract a sensor package for selective contact and magnetic coupling to casing lining the borehole. In a second embodiment, a sensor module is magnetically coupled to the casing wall during its travel and dragged therealong while maintaining contact therewith. In a third embodiment, a sensor module is interfaced with the borehole environment to detect seismic waves using coupling through liquid in the borehole. Two or more of the above embodiments may be combined within a single sensor array to provide a resulting seismic survey combining the optimum of the outputs of each embodiment into a single data set.

  13. Methodology for Radiological Risk Assessment of Deep Borehole Disposal Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Ernest; Su, Jiann-Cherng; Peretz, Fred(ORNL)

    2017-03-01

    The primary purpose of the preclosure radiological safety assessment (that this document supports) is to identify risk factors for disposal operations, to aid in design for the deep borehole field test (DBFT) engineering demonstration.

  14. Spacecraft guidance, navigation, and control requirements for an intelligent plug-n-play avionics (PAPA) architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Nilesh; Krishnakumar, Kalmaje

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this research is to design an intelligent plug-n-play avionics system that provides a reconfigurable platform for supporting the guidance, navigation and control (GN&C) requirements for different elements of the space exploration mission. The focus of this study is to look at the specific requirements for a spacecraft that needs to go from earth to moon and back. In this regard we will identify the different GN&C problems in various phases of flight that need to be addressed for designing such a plug-n-play avionics system. The Apollo and the Space Shuttle programs provide rich literature in terms of understanding some of the general GN&C requirements for a space vehicle. The relevant literature is reviewed which helps in narrowing down the different GN&C algorithms that need to be supported along with their individual requirements.

  15. DEMO port plug design and integration studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossetti, G.; Boccaccini, L. V.; Cismondi, F.; Del Nevo, A.; Fischer, U.; Franke, T.; Granucci, G.; Hernández, F.; Mozzillo, R.; Strauß, D.; Tran, M. Q.; Vaccaro, A.; Villari, R.

    2017-11-01

    The EUROfusion Consortium established in 2014 and composed by European Fusion Laboratories, and in particular the Power Plant Physics and Technology department aims to develop a conceptual design for the Fusion DEMOnstration Power Plant, DEMO. With respect to present experimental machines and ITER, the main goals of DEMO are to produce electricity continuously for a period of about 2 h, with a net electrical power output of a few hundreds of MW, and to allow tritium self-sufficient breeding with an adequately high margin in order to guarantee its planned operational schedule, including all planned maintenance intervals. This will eliminate the need to import tritium fuel from external sources during operations. In order to achieve these goals, extensive engineering efforts as well as physics studies are required to develop a design that can ensure a high level of plant reliability and availability. In particular, interfaces between systems must be addressed at a very early phase of the project, in order to proceed consistently. In this paper we present a preliminary design and integration study, based on physics assessments for the EU DEMO1 Baseline 2015 with an aspect ratio of 3.1 and 18 toroidal field coils, for the DEMO port plugs. These aim to host systems like electron cyclotron heating launchers currently developed within the Work Package Heating and Current Drive that need an external radial access to the plasma and through in-vessel systems like the breeder blanket. A similar approach shown here could be in principle followed by other systems, e.g. other heating and current drive systems or diagnostics. The work addresses the interfaces between the port plug and the blanket considering the helium-cooled pebble bed and the water cooled lithium lead which are two of four breeding blanket concepts under investigation in Europe within the Power Plant Physics and Technology Programme: the required openings will be evaluated in terms of their impact onto the

  16. The viscoelastic properties of the cervical mucus plug

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær Bastholm, Sara; Becher, Naja; Stubbe, Peter Reimer

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the viscoelastic properties of cervical mucus plugs (CMPs) shed during labor at term. Spontaneously shed cervical mucus plugs from healthy women in active labor, were tested. The viscoelastic properties of cervical mucus plugs were investigated...... with using frequency and stress sweep experiments within the linear viscoelastic region. Random-effects regression was used for statistical analysis. The CMPs are solid-like viscoelastic structures and the elastic modulus dominated the viscous modulus at all frequencies. These rheological characteristics...

  17. On the Fidelity of “CORK” Borehole Hydrologic Observatory Pressure Records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keir Becker

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Long-term formation pressure monitoring in Ocean Drilling Program (ODP and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP boreholes using evolving Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit (CORK hydrologic observatory technology has led to unanticipated applications as a result of the growing duration of recording intervals and the improvement of measurement fidelity. Current capabilities provide geologically meaningful observations over a broad range of time scales from static state to 1 Hz, allowing investigations of many coupled hydrologic, geodynamic, and seismologic phenomena. In this review, we present observations that provide constraints on current limits to recording fidelity, and examples of how leakage can affect pressure observations.

  18. Experimental and Numerical Comparison of Two Borehole Heat Exchangers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alberdi Pagola, Maria; Poulsen, Søren Erbs

    2014-01-01

    This report outlines key results from a comparative study of two different pipe borehole heat exchanger (BHE) configurations. The work was carried out by VIA University College and in collaboration with GM Plast A/S.......This report outlines key results from a comparative study of two different pipe borehole heat exchanger (BHE) configurations. The work was carried out by VIA University College and in collaboration with GM Plast A/S....

  19. Observations of joint persistence and connectivity across boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thapa, B.B.; Karasaki, K.

    1996-01-01

    Observations of joint persistence and connectivity are made by comparison of digital borehole wall images of fractures, fluid conductivity logs and hydraulic injections test results. The fractures were found to be generally impersistent across vertical boreholes about 8 m apart. Many hydraulic connections were found in the same volume of rock. Direct connections through single fractures seem to be rare and connectivity appears to be controlled by fracture networks, even over small volumes.

  20. Comparison between results of detailed tectonic studies on borehole core vs microresistivity images of borehole wall from gas-bearing shale complexes, Baltic Basin, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobek, Kinga; Jarosiński, Marek; Pachytel, Radomir

    2017-04-01

    , cemented with calcite, were clearly visible in scanner image. We have also observed significantly lower density of veins in core than in the XRMI that occurs systematically in one formation enriched with carbonate and dolomite. In this case, veins are not fractured in core and obliterated for bare eye by dolomitization, but are still contrastive in respect of electric resistance. Calculated density of bedding planes per 1 meter reveals systematically higher density of fractures observed on core than in the XRMI (depicted automatically by interpretation program). This difference may come from additional fracking due to relaxation of borehole core while recovery. Comparison of vertical joint fractures density with thickness of mechanical beds shows either lack of significant trends or a negative correlation (greater density of bedding fractures correspond to lower density of joints). This result, obtained for shale complexes contradict that derived for sandstone or limestone. Boundary between CLUs are visible on both: joint and bedding fracture density profiles. Considering small-scale faults and slickensides we have obtained good agreement between results of core and scanner interpretation. This study in the frame of ShaleMech Project funded by Polish Committee for Scientific Research is in progress and the results are preliminary.

  1. Stakeholder acceptance analysis: Passive soil vapor extraction using borehole flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, T.S.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents evaluations, recommendations, and requirements concerning passive soil vapor extraction (PSVE) derived from a three-year program of stakeholder involvement. PSVE takes advantage of the naturally occurring tendency of soil vapor to leave the subsurface during periods of low barometric pressure. PSVE seeks to expedite the release of volatile contaminants through the use of boreholes and technological enhancements. This report is for technology developers and those responsible for making decisions about the use of technology to remediate contamination by volatile organic compounds. Stakeholders' perspectives help those responsible for technology deployment to make good decisions concerning the acceptability and applicability of PSVE to the remediation problems they face. The report provides: stakeholders' final evaluation of the acceptability of PSVE in light of the technology's field test; stakeholders' principal comments concerning PSVE; requirements that stakeholders have of any remediation technology. Technology decision makers should take these conclusions into account in evaluating the effectiveness and acceptability of any remedial method proposed for their site. In addition, the report presents data requirements for the technology's field demonstration defined by stakeholders associated with the Hanford site in Washington State, as well as detailed comments on PSVE from stakeholders from Sandia National Laboratory, Rocky Flats, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and Los Alamos National Laboratory

  2. Use of vhf dielectric measurements for borehole formation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poley, J.P.; Nooteboom, J.J.; de Waal, P.J.

    1978-01-01

    A study of the dielectric properties of sedimentary rocks at a sufficiently high frequency may provide useful data for the evaluation of borehole wall formations in exploration and production wells. An experimental program carried out between 1960 and 1967 on sandstone and limestone samples lent further support to these expectations. At frequencies above 20 Mc/s both real and imaginary parts of the complex epsilon* = epsilon' - j epsilon'' were measurable. Moreover, at higher frequencies, epsilon' proved to be independent of the salinity of the water filling the pores, and insensitive to the way in which the oil and the water are actually distributed. The value of epsilon'', on the other hand, turned out to be indicative of the prevailing salinity. By combining other logging data (for instance from an electric or porosity log) with a series of such v.h.f. measurements of epsilon' and epsilon'', the oil or water saturation, the effective formation porosity, the pore-filling fluid salinity, and the rock matrix formation factor might be deduced, if the depth of investigation can be made large enough to overcome the invasion effects.

  3. Hydrologic testing methodology and results from deep basalt boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, S.R.; Spane, F.A.; Jackson, R.L.; Pidcoe, W.W.

    1982-05-01

    The objective of the hydrologic field-testing program is to provide data for characterization of the groundwater systems wihin the Pasco Basin that are significant to understanding waste isolation. The effort is directed toward characterizing the areal and vertical distributions of hydraulic head, hydraulic properties, and hydrochemistry. Data obtained from these studies provide input for numerical modeling of groundwater flow and solute transport. These models are then used for evaluating potential waste migration as a function of space and time. The groundwater system beneath the Hanford Site and surrounding area consists of a thick, accordantly layered sequence of basalt flows and associated sedimentary interbed that primarily occur in the upper part of the Columbia River basalt. Permeable horizons of the sequence are associated with the interbeds and the interflow zones within the basalt. The columnar interiors of a flow act as low-permeability aquitards, separating the more-permeable interflows or interbeds. This paper discusses the hydrologic field-gathering activities, specifically, field-testing methodology and test results from deep basalt boreholes

  4. The experimental results and analysis of a borehole radar prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Sixin; Wu, Junjun; Dong, Hang; Fu, Lei; Wang, Fei

    2012-01-01

    A prototype of borehole radar has been successfully tested in three sites for different purposes under a field condition. The objective of the prototype is providing an effective down-hole tool for detecting targets in deep boreholes situated in a relatively high conductivity area such as the metal ores. The first testing site is at a geothermal field. The fractures extending more than 20 m from the borehole are delineated by the borehole radar in the single-hole reflection mode. The second testing site is located in a jade mine for basement evaluation. The cross-hole measurement mode was used to detect the cavities made by previous unorganized mining activities. Several high-velocity anomalies were found in the velocity profile and presumably the targets of the mine shafts and tunnels. The third test site is located in a mineralized belt characterized by low resistivity less than 1000 Ohm m, the surface-borehole measurement was carried out and the data were processed with velocity tomography. The low-velocity zone corresponds to a mineralized zone from geological records. The three testing results proved the readiness of this borehole radar prototype for further deployment in more complicated and realistic field situations. (paper)

  5. HEPA-filter smoke plugging problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaskill, J.R.; Magee, M.W.

    1975-01-01

    Actual experiences indicate that during the early stages of a fire, pyrolysis and incomplete combustion of organic materials used in the furnishings or interior finishes of laboratories yield copious quantities of smoke particulates, both liquid and solid. Furthermore, the use of fire retardants in materials used for the above purpose interferes with the combustion process, so that burning of such materials in later stages of a fire will yield dense smoke. These particulates can plug up a HEPA filter or even a more porous prefilter, and thus effectively shut off the exhaust ventilation. In this case, the fire room will pressurize and contamination may spread in an uncontrolled manner. Both small- and large-scale tests have been conducted to evaluate the nature and degree of the problem as a function of materials involved, rate of exposure to the fire, and kinds and temperatures of smoke so generated. Some test work has also been done on scrubbing of smoke. Proposed future work is described. (U.S.)

  6. Amplatzer vascular plugs in congenital cardiovascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barwad, Parag; Ramakrishnan, Sivasubramanian; Kothari, Shyam S; Saxena, Anita; Gupta, Saurabh K; Juneja, Rajnish; Gulati, Gurpreet Singh; Jagia, Priya; Sharma, Sanjiv

    2013-01-01

    Amplatzer vascular plugs (AVPs) are devices ideally suited to close medium-to-large vascular communications. There is limited published literature regarding the utility of AVPs in congenital cardiovascular malformations (CCVMs). To describe the use of AVPs in different CCVMs and to evaluate their safety and efficacy. All patients who required an AVP for the closure of CCVM were included in this retrospective review of our catheterization laboratory data. The efficacy and safety of AVPs are reported. A total of 39 AVPs were implanted in 31 patients. Thirteen (33%) were AVP type I and 23 (59%) were AVP type II. AVP type III were implanted in two patients and type IV in one patient. The major indications for their use included closure of pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (AVM) (n = 7), aortopulmonary collaterals (n = 7), closure of a patent Blalock-Taussig shunt (n = 5), systemic AVM (n = 5), coronary AVM (n = 4), patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) (n = 3), pulmonary artery aneurysms (n = 3), and venovenous collaterals (n = 2). Deployment of the AVP was done predominantly via the 5 – 7F Judkin's right coronary guide catheter. Overall 92% of the AVPs could be successfully deployed and resulted in occlusion of the target vessel in all cases, within 10 minutes. No procedure-related or access site complication occurred. AVPs are versatile, easy to use, and effective devices to occlude the vascular communications in a variety of settings. AVP II is especially useful in the closure of tubular structures with a high flow

  7. Non-linear degradation model of cement barriers in a borehole repository for disused radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharbieh, Heidar K.; Cota, Stela

    2015-01-01

    Narrow diameter borehole facilities (a few tens of centimeters), like the BOSS concept developed by the IAEA, provide a safe and cost effective disposal option for radioactive waste and particularly disused sources. The BOSS concept (borehole disposal of sealed radioactive sources) comprises a multi-barrier system of cement grout and stainless steel components. In order to predict the long-time performance of the cement barriers as an input of a future safety assessment under the specific hydrochemical and hydrological conditions, a non-linear degradation model was developed in this work. With the assistance of the program 'PHREEQC' it describes the change of the porosity and the hydraulic conductivity with time, which also let to conclusions concerning the change of the sorption capacity of the cement grout. This work includes the theoretical approach and illustrates the non-liner degradation by means of an exemplary water composition found in the saturated zone and the dimensions of the backfill made of cement grout representing a barrier of the BOSS borehole facility. (author)

  8. Synthesis of borehole geophysical data at the Underground Research Laboratory, Manitoba, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keys, W.S.

    1984-07-01

    A suite of borehole-geophysical logs, supported by core data, was used to describe the rock matrix and fractures in a granitic pluton near Lac du Bonnet, Manitoba, Canada. The site is being developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, as an underground research laboratory to conduct geotechnical research and to validate predictive models as part of Canada's nuclear-fuel, waste-management program. However, the site is not planned to be used for waste disposal. Geophysical well logs were used to distinguish and correlate rock types and fractures between drill holes. Two significant fracture zones that are two of the major zones of ground-water movement at the site were identified by acoustic-televiewer logs. A new heat-pulse flowmeter provided repeatable measurements of very low-velocity, vertical flow in drill holes which enabled the identification of specific fractures that were transmitting water. Borehole gamma spectra showed that some fractures are enriched in uranium, and others may be depleted. This study demonstrates some of the advantages of synthesizing available borehole-geophysical logs at a site in fractured plutonic rocks and indicates how this information can contribute to an understanding of the geophysical conditions at the site

  9. Geophysical and geological borehole investigations for the characterization of a site for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, O.; Ahlbom, K.

    1984-02-01

    In the Swedish program for site investigations detailed geological and geophysical investigations are performed at areas of 4-6 km 2 at the surface. Normally around 10 deep core bore holes are drilled. The length of the holes is normally from 600 to 1000 m. The holes are drilled to verify the location of fracture zones and to investigate the physical and hydraulic properties of the fracture zones at large depths. Investigations have been performed in a number of sites with mainly granitic and gneissic rocks. The core from these boreholes is logged with the aid of a microcomputer system. The cores are mapped with respect to rock type, structure, fractures and fracture minerals. Indications of water flow, shearing and core-discing are also studied. The boreholes are logged with a suite of geophysical logs. Several different electrical logs are used and have been found to be good indicators of fracture zones. Normally the electrical logs in combination with the fracture frequency are used to define the limits of fracture zones crossing the borehole. The temperature log and the salinity log have proved to be good indicators of permeable zones. The data from each hole is correlated with data obtained from the other holes and the surface investigations to build a fracture zone model which is used for the hydraulic modelling of the site. In order to verify the extension of the fracture zones at a distance from the borehole cross-hole techniques have been applied. At the Swedish test site Finnsjoe and in the Stripa mine the suitability of the mise a la masse technique for mapping of fracture zones was tested. At the Finnsjoe site it was possible to map a fairly complex fracture system over distances up to 150 m. In the Stripa mine the object was to follow the extent of a major fracture zone for distances up to 600 m. It was possible to obtain an indication of the orientation of the fracture zone

  10. Mechanical Properties of Plug Welds after Micro-Jet Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadryś D.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available New technology of micro-jet welding could be regarded as a new way to improve mechanical properties of plug welds. The main purpose of that paper was analyzing of mechanical properties of plug welds made by MIG welding method with micro-jet cooling. The main way for it was comparison of plug welds made by MIG welding method with micro-jet cooling and plug welds made by ordinary MIG welding method. It is interesting for steel because higher amount of acicular ferrite (AF in weld metal deposit (WMD is obtained in MIG welding method with micro-jet cooling in relation to ordinary MIG welding method. This article presents the influence of the cooling medium and the number of micro-jet streams on mechanical properties of the welded joint. Mechanical properties were described by force which is necessary to destroy weld joint.

  11. Rotary plug device for use in LMFBR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azuma, Kazuhiko; Imayoshi, Sho.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent adhesion of sodium in the rotational gap of a rotational plug. Constitution: One of the walls of a cylindrical gap formed between the outer circumference of a small rotary plug and a large rotary plug that constitute a double rotary plug is cooled to lower than the sodium coagulation temperature, while a stater of a linear motor in a cylindrical shape and wound with linear coils around the iron core is attached to the inside of the other of the walls. Then, one of the walls of the gap to which sodium adheres is cooled to less than sodium coagulation temperature, so that sodium is or tends to be deposited to the wall. Then, eddy currents are resulted to sodium by the current supplied to the stater of the linear motor attached to the other of the walls, to produce thrusting force. Sodium on the wall surface is scraped off by this. (Yoshihara, H.)

  12. Application of Inductive Monitoring System to Plug Load Anomaly Detection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA Ames Research Center’s Sustainability Base is a new 50,000 sq. ft. LEED Platinum office building. Plug loads are expected to account for a significant portion...

  13. Modular, Plug and Play, Distributed Avionics, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this SBIR effort was to prove the viability of an Ethernet version of the MicroSat Systems, Inc. (MSI) modular, plug and play (PnP) spacecraft...

  14. Plug-in Electric Vehicle Policy Effectiveness: Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Levin, Todd [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Plotkin, Steven E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The U.S. federal government first introduced incentives for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) through the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009, which provided a tax credit of up to $7,500 for a new PEV purchase. Soon after, in December 2010, two mass-market PEVs were introduced, the plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) Chevrolet Volt and the battery electric vehicle (BEV) Nissan LEAF. Since that time, numerous additional types of PEV incentives have been provided by federal and regional (state or city) government agencies and utility companies. These incentives cover vehicle purchases as well as the purchase and installation of electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) through purchase rebates, tax credits, or discounted purchase taxes or registration fees. Additional incentives, such as free high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lane access and parking benefits, may also be offered to PEV owners. Details about these incentives, such as the extent to which each type is offered by region, can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Alternative Fuel Data Center (http://www.afdc.energy.gov/). In addition to these incentives, other policies, such as zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) mandates,1 have also been implemented, and community-scale federal incentives, such as the DOE PEV Readiness Grants, have been awarded throughout the country to improve PEV market penetration. This report reviews 18 studies that analyze the impacts of past or current incentives and policies that were designed to support PEV adoption in the U.S. These studies were selected for review after a comprehensive survey of the literature and discussion with a number of experts in the field. The report summarizes the lessons learned and best practices from the experiences of these incentive programs to date, as well as the challenges they face and barriers that inhibit further market adoption of PEVs. Studies that make projections based on future policy scenarios and those that focus solely

  15. Setting plug & abandonment barriers with minimum removal of tubulars

    OpenAIRE

    Nessa, Jon Olav

    2012-01-01

    Master's thesis in Petroleum engineering The useful life of an offshore well is determined by the reserves which it contacts, the pressure support within the reservoir and the continued integrity of the wellbore. When a well has reached the end of its lifetime, plugging operations have to be conducted before permanent abandonment. Conventional Plug and Abandonment (P&A) operations will often require removing a section of the casing in order to create cross sectional barriers for well aband...

  16. Engineering activities on the ITER representative diagnostic equatorial port plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meunier, L.; Doceul, L.; Salasca, S.; Martins, J.-P.; Jullien, F.; Dechelle, Christian; Bidaud, Pierre; Pilard, Vincent; Terra, Alexis; Ogea, Mathieu; Ciattaglia, Emanuela; Walker, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Most of ITER diagnostic systems are integrated in port plugs, which are water cooled stainless steel structures inserted into the vacuum vessel ports. The port plug must provide basic functions such as neutron and gamma shielding, supporting the first wall armour (BSM), closing the vacuum vessel ports, while supporting the diagnostic equipments. ITER diagnostic port plug must resist a severe environment like high temperature due to neutron interaction with the structures and high electromechanical loading during disruptions events. CEA has contributed to the design and integration tasks in the frame of the representative equatorial port plug EQ no. 01, in particular on the engineering, structural and thermal finite element analysis. These detailed analyses have highlighted some design issues which were worked out through different solutions. This paper contains a description of the engineering activities performed such as: -The static mechanical calculations of the top plate closure system under disruption load. -The static mechanical calculations of the BSM attachment to the port plug. These two first studies led to design changes proposals which significantly improved the behaviour of the structures but also showed that the safety margin with respect to design limits is quite low. -The design of a Diagnostic Shield Module (DSM) integrated inside the port plug and a proposition of attachment scheme, with respect to disruption loads. The manufacturing of the DSM has been taken into account, as well as diagnostic integration inside the structure and maintenance aspects. -The thermal assessment of the port plug under neutronic load during normal operation, with the optimization of the cooling system. The maximum temperature calculated in normal operation has been reduced from 900 deg. C to less than 400 deg. C in the front plate; and the cooling arrangement at the back of the port plug has been simplified without important temperature increase.

  17. Engineering activities on the ITER representative diagnostic equatorial port plug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meunier, L. [Association Euratom CEA, CEA/DSM/IRFM (France)], E-mail: lmeunier@cea.fr; Doceul, L.; Salasca, S.; Martins, J.-P.; Jullien, F.; Dechelle, Christian; Bidaud, Pierre; Pilard, Vincent; Terra, Alexis; Ogea, Mathieu [Association Euratom CEA, CEA/DSM/IRFM (France); Ciattaglia, Emanuela [EFDA CSU, Garching (Germany); Walker, Christopher [ITER International Organisation (France)

    2009-06-15

    Most of ITER diagnostic systems are integrated in port plugs, which are water cooled stainless steel structures inserted into the vacuum vessel ports. The port plug must provide basic functions such as neutron and gamma shielding, supporting the first wall armour (BSM), closing the vacuum vessel ports, while supporting the diagnostic equipments. ITER diagnostic port plug must resist a severe environment like high temperature due to neutron interaction with the structures and high electromechanical loading during disruptions events. CEA has contributed to the design and integration tasks in the frame of the representative equatorial port plug EQ no. 01, in particular on the engineering, structural and thermal finite element analysis. These detailed analyses have highlighted some design issues which were worked out through different solutions. This paper contains a description of the engineering activities performed such as: -The static mechanical calculations of the top plate closure system under disruption load. -The static mechanical calculations of the BSM attachment to the port plug. These two first studies led to design changes proposals which significantly improved the behaviour of the structures but also showed that the safety margin with respect to design limits is quite low. -The design of a Diagnostic Shield Module (DSM) integrated inside the port plug and a proposition of attachment scheme, with respect to disruption loads. The manufacturing of the DSM has been taken into account, as well as diagnostic integration inside the structure and maintenance aspects. -The thermal assessment of the port plug under neutronic load during normal operation, with the optimization of the cooling system. The maximum temperature calculated in normal operation has been reduced from 900 deg. C to less than 400 deg. C in the front plate; and the cooling arrangement at the back of the port plug has been simplified without important temperature increase.

  18. Nanosatellite and Plug-and-Play Architecture 2 (NAPA 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-28

    development of a 6U- format Space Plug-and-play Architecture (SPA) Research Cubesat (SPARC). SPARC-1 (first and only pursued under this PA) demonstrates...development of a six unit (6U)- format Space Plug-and-play Architecture (SPA) Research Cubesat (SPARC). SPARC-1 (first and only pursued under this PA...computers – More capable, more centralized, bigger wiring bundle Elimination of central computers, distribution of intelligence in systems Rad- hard

  19. KASAM Hearing on the Deep Borehole Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedberg, Bjoern

    2008-01-01

    Bjoern Hedberg from KASAM, Sweden, reported on the organisation's new Transparency Programme on nuclear waste. The first event of this programme, which took place in March 2007, was a hearing on the deep borehole concept (DBH) as a possible alternative method for final disposal. The hearing was triggered by an increasing attention paid to DBH by several stakeholders, including NGOs, municipalities and the media. Issues of technical feasibility, long-term safety and safety philosophy were addressed, among others. The RISCOM-model for transparency was used for structuring the discussions. In this model transparency is achieved through the 'stretching' of various actors, aimed at exploring the facts, values and judgements underlying the arguments. Mr Hedberg indicated that the KASAM hearing has resulted in generating and surfacing of new knowledge related to the technical feasibility of the DBH concept. He observed that although there was a consensus between key actors on basic facts, there were divergent views on their implications. Based on the hearing, Mr Hedberg concluded that at this time the DBH concept cannot be seen as an alternative of the KBS-3 method. To make a final decision, however, more research is needed, for example, on the issue whether the DBH concept supports retrievability. He emphasised that the RISCOM structure proved to be useful since the stretching of actors by KASAM committee members and staff has led to new insights. The effectiveness of the process could be further enhanced by increasing the stretching capacity, i.e. time devoted to the hearing and in-depth preparation, and active participation of KASAM members

  20. The electrical resistivity method in cased boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenkel, C.J.

    1991-05-01

    The use of downhole current sources in resistivity mapping can greatly enhance the detection and delineation of subsurface features. The purpose of this work is to examine the resistivity method for current sources in wells cased with steel. The resistivity method in cased boreholes with downhole current sources is investigated using the integral equation (IE) technique. The casing and other bodies are characterized as conductivity inhomogeneities in a half-space. For sources located along the casing axis, an axially symmetric Green's function is used to formulate the surface potential and electric field (E-field) volume integral equations. The situations involving off-axis current sources and three-dimensional (3-D) bodies is formulated using the surface potential IE method. The solution of the 3-D Green's function is presented in cylindrical and Cartesian coordinate systems. The methods of moments is used to solve the Fredholm integral equation of the second kind for the response due to the casing and other bodies. The numerical analysis revealed that the current in the casing can be approximated by its vertical component except near the source and the axial symmetric approximation of the casing is valid even for the 3-D problem. The E-field volume IE method is an effective and efficient technique to simulate the response of the casing in a half-space, whereas the surface potential approach is computationally better when multiple bodies are involved. Analyzing several configurations of the current source indicated that the casing response is influenced by four characteristic factors: conduction length, current source depth,casing depth, and casing length. 85 refs., 133 figs., 11 tabs.

  1. Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Fleet Vehicle Testing | Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research | NREL Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Fleet Vehicle Evaluations Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Fleet Vehicle Evaluations How Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles plugging the vehicle into an electric power source. PHEVs are powered by an internal combustion engine that

  2. Reconstitutable control assembly having removable control rods with detachable split upper end plugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjertsen, R.K.; Knott, R.P.; Sparrow, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes, for use in facilitating replacement of a neutron absorber control rod on a control assembly spider structure, an end plug. It comprises a pair of separate upper and lower plug portions; the upper section of the upper plug portion being configured for rigid attachment; the middle section of the upper plug portion having angularly displaced flat surfaces formed on the exterior

  3. Numerical simulation of ion confinement in the Phaedrus plugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horne, S.F.

    1984-01-01

    Neutral beams of up to 60 amps were injected into the plugs of the tandem mirror Phaedrus. Substantial heating of the target RF-sustained plasma has been observed, but fueling has been negligible. In order to understand the lack of significant fueling, a model of the trapping and loss processes occurring in the Phaedrus plug was developed, and is presented in this thesis. The model includes neutral beam effects, RF trapping, Coulomb losses, and charge exchange on background gas, in a framework which includes finite gyro-orbit effects. A numerical simulation based on the model is compared to data from 2XIIB and TMX, and shows good agreement. The model is then applied to the Phaedrus plugs, and compared to RF-sustained and neutral-beam data obtained during machine operation in hydrogen and deuterium. The modeling of the Phaedrus plugs indicates that during beam injection, a two-step process occurs that results in the rapid loss of ions. Charge exchange of trapped plasma on the energetic neutral beam causes rapid radial diffusion of the plasma, which then charge exchanges on the background gas, or is lost to the limiter. Because this is a finite gyro-orbit effect, increasing the plug magnetic field should improve the net beam fueling by reducing this diffusion. Results from the model indicate that increasing the plug midplane field from 2600 to 4000 gauss will improve the beam fueling significantly

  4. Determination of Groundwater Velocity and Dispersion Parameters by Borehole Wall Multielectrode Geoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessels, W.; Wuttke, M. W.

    2007-05-01

    measurements and vertical four point electrode interpretations. The transport equation for NaCl-tracered water is the basic rule to determine the groundwater transport velocity. Numerical calculations to simulate the measurement are carried out with the program FEFLOW. Due to the density contrast, the tracer undergoes vertical movement. Kessels, W., Zoth, G.(1998): Doppelmantel - Packer mit geoelektrischer Meßtechnik zur Bestimmung der Abstandsgeschwindigkeit des Grundwassers, Patent Az:19855048.0, GGA-Institut, Germany, Hannover. KESSELS, W., RIFAI, H., THORENZ, C., ZOTH, G.(2002): Multi Electrode Geoelectric on the Borehole Wall- Determination of groundwater velocity and dispersion parameters, AGU spring meeting, Washington KESSELS, W., ZOTH, G., WONIK, T., FULDA, C. (1999): THE USE OF SALT CARTRIDGES FOR FLUID LOGGING. XXIV GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF E.G.S. THE HAGUE, THE NETHERLANDS PANTELEIT,B., KESSELS, W., BINOT, F (2006): MUD TRACER TEST DURING SOFT ROCK DRILLING; W.R.R., VOL. 42, W11415, DOI:10.1029/2005WR004487

  5. Complex anal fistulas: plug or flap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlmann, Mark D; Hayes, Julian L; Merrie, Arend E H; Parry, Bryan R; Bissett, Ian P

    2011-10-01

    Rectal mucosal advancement flaps (RMAF) and fistula plugs (FP) are techniques used to manage complex anal fistulas. The purpose of this study was to review and compare the results of these methods of repair. A retrospective review of all complex anal fistulas treated by either a RMAF or a FP at Auckland City Hospital from 2004 to 2008. Comparisons were made in terms of successful healing rates, time to failure and the use of magnetic resonance imaging. Overall, 70 operations were performed on 55 patients (55.7% male). The mean age was 44.9 years. Twenty-one patients (30%) had had at least one previous unsuccessful repair. Indications for repair included 57 high cryptoglandular anal (81%), 4 Crohn's anal (6%), 7 rectovaginal (10%), 1 rectourethral (1%) and 1 pouch-vaginal fistula (1%). All patients were followed up with a mean of 4.5 months. Forty-eight RMAFs (69% of total) were performed with 16 successful repairs (33%). Twenty-two FPs (31% of total) were performed with 7 successful repairs (32%, P = 0.9). In failed repairs, there was no difference in terms of mean time to failure (RMAF 4.8 months versus FP 4.1 months, P = 0.62). Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 21 patients (37%) before the repair. The success rate in these patients was 20%. The results of treatment of complex anal fistulas are disappointing. The choice of operation of either a RMAF or a FP did not alter the poor healing rates of about one third of patients in each group.

  6. Amplatzer vascular plugs in congenital cardiovascular malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parag Barwad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Amplatzer vascular plugs (AVPs are devices ideally suited to close medium-to-large vascular communications. There is limited published literature regarding the utility of AVPs in congenital cardiovascular malformations (CCVMs. Aims: To describe the use of AVPs in different CCVMs and to evaluate their safety and efficacy. Materials and Methods: All patients who required an AVP for the closure of CCVM were included in this retrospective review of our catheterization laboratory data. The efficacy and safety of AVPs are reported. Results: A total of 39 AVPs were implanted in 31 patients. Thirteen (33% were AVP type I and 23 (59% were AVP type II. AVP type III were implanted in two patients and type IV in one patient. The major indications for their use included closure of pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (AVM (n = 7, aortopulmonary collaterals (n = 7, closure of a patent Blalock-Taussig shunt (n = 5, systemic AVM (n = 5, coronary AVM (n = 4, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA (n = 3, pulmonary artery aneurysms (n = 3, and venovenous collaterals (n = 2. Deployment of the AVP was done predominantly via the 5 - 7F Judkin′s right coronary guide catheter. Overall 92% of the AVPs could be successfully deployed and resulted in occlusion of the target vessel in all cases, within 10 minutes. No procedure-related or access site complication occurred. Conclusions: AVPs are versatile, easy to use, and effective devices to occlude the vascular communications in a variety of settings. AVP II is especially useful in the closure of tubular structures with a high flow.

  7. Geology of the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, D. BRENT; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Fecht, Karl R.; Lanigan, David C.; Reidel, Steve; Rust, Colleen F.

    2007-02-28

    In 2006, DOE-ORP initiated the Seismic Boreholes Project (SBP) to emplace boreholes at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site in order to obtain direct Vs measurements and other physical property measurements in Columbia River basalt and interbedded sediments of the Ellensburg Formation. The goal was to reduce the uncertainty in the response spectra and seismic design basis, and potentially recover design margin for the WTP. The characterization effort within the deep boreholes included 1) downhole measurements of the velocity properties of the suprabasalt, basalt, and sedimentary interbed sequences, 2) downhole measurements of the density of the subsurface basalt and sediments, and 3) confirmation of the geometry of the contact between the various basalt and interbedded sediments through examination of retrieved core from the corehole and data collected through geophysical logging of each borehole. This report describes the results of the geologic studies from three mud-rotary boreholes and one cored borehole at the WTP. All four boreholes penetrated the entire Saddle Mountains Basalt and the upper part of the Wanapum Basalt where thick sedimentary interbeds occur between the lava flows. The basalt flows penetrated in Saddle Mountains Basalt included the Umatilla Member, Esquatzel Member, Pomona Member and the Elephant Mountain Member. The underlying Priest Rapids Member of the Wanapum Basalt was also penetrated. The Ellensburg Formation sediments consist of the Mabton Interbed, the Cold Creek Interbed, the Selah Interbed and the Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed; the Byron Interbed occurs between two flows of the Priest Rapids Member. The Mabton Interbed marks the contact between the Wanapum and Saddle Mountains Basalts. The thicknesses of the basalts and interbedded sediments were within expected limits. However, a small reverse fault was found in the Pomona Member flow top. This fault has three periods of movement and less than 15 feet of repeated section. Most of the

  8. Novel Emplacement Device for a Very Deep Borehole Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min Soo; Choi, Heui-joo; Lee, Jong Yul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    There is a worldwide attempt of HLW disposal into a very deep borehole of around 3-5 km depth with the advancement of an underground excavation technology recently. As it goes into deeper underground, the rock becomes more uniform and flawless. And then the underground water circulation system at 3-5 km depth is almost disconnected with near groundwater circulation system. The canister integrity is less important in this very deep borehole disposal system unlike a general geologic disposal system at 500 m. In the deep borehole disposal procedures, one SNF (Spent Nuclear Fuel) assembly is stored in one disposal canister (D30-40cm, H4.7-5.0m), and approximately 10-40 disposal canisters are connected axially, which parade length can leach to around 200m in maximum. The connected canister parade is lowered through a very deep borehole (D40-50cm) by emplacement devices. Therefore the connections between canisters and canister to lowering joint are very important for the safe operation of it. The well-known connection method between canisters is Threaded Coupled Connection method, in which releasing of the connection is almost impossible after thread fastening in the borehole. The novel joint device suggested in this paper can accommodate a canister emplacement and retrieval in the borehole disposal process. The joint can be lowered by bound to a drilling pipe, or high tension cable along 3-5 km distance. This novel device can cope with an accidental event easily without any joint head change. When canisters are damaged or stuck on the borehole wall during their descending, the canisters in trouble can be retrieved simply by the control of a lifting speed.

  9. Field Trial of a Low-Cost, Distributed Plug Load Monitoring System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auchter, B. [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Cautley, D. [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Ahl, D. [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Earle, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jin, X. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Researchers have struggled to inventory and characterize the energy use profiles of the ever-growing category of so-called miscellaneous electric loads (MELs) because plug-load monitoring is cost-prohibitive to the researcher and intrusive to the homeowner. However, these data represent a crucial missing link to understanding how homes use energy. Detailed energy use profiles would enable the nascent automated home energy management (AHEM) industry to develop effective control algorithms that target consumer electronics and other plug loads. If utility and other efficiency programs are to incent AHEM devices, they need large-scale datasets that provide statistically meaningful justification of their investments by quantifying the aggregate energy savings achievable. To address this need, NREL researchers investigated a variety of plug-load measuring devices available commercially and tested them in the laboratory to identify the most promising candidates for field applications. This report centers around the lessons learned from a field validation of one proof-of-concept system, called Smartenit (formerly SimpleHomeNet). The system was evaluated based on the rate of successful data queries, reliability over a period of days to weeks, and accuracy. This system offers good overall performance when deployed with up to 10 end nodes in a residential environment, although deployment with more nodes and in a commercial environment is much less robust. NREL concludes that the current system is useful in selected field research projects, with the recommendation that system behavior is observed over time.

  10. A PLUG-AND-PLAY ARCHITECTURE FOR PROBABILISTIC PROGRAMMING

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    observing a particular day of week, given a sales class. Again, as syntactic sugar, for every predicate marked as sampled, the system creates a pure...perform different kinds of inference. In the two sets of charts below, we show the probability of sales class using Stan optimization vs. Stan...1: THE PLOGIQL SYSTEM DESIGN .............................................................................................................. 23 FIGURE

  11. A Comparative Study of Cycle Variability of Laser Plug Ignition vs Classical Spark Plug Ignition in Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Done, Bogdan

    2017-10-01

    Over the past 30 years numerous studies and laboratory experiments have researched the use of laser energy to ignite gas and fuel-air mixtures. The actual implementation of this laser application has still to be fully achieved in a commercial automotive application. Laser Plug Ignition as a replacement for Spark Plug Ignition in the internal combustion engines of automotive vehicles, offers several potential benefits such as extending lean burn capability, reducing the cyclic variability between combustion cycles and decreasing the total amount of ignition costs, and implicitly weight and energy requirements. The paper presents preliminary results of cycle variability study carried on a SI Engine equipped with laser Plug Ignition system. Versus classic ignition system, the use of the laser Plug Ignition system assures the reduction of the combustion process variability, reflected in the lower values of the coefficient of variability evaluated for indicated mean effective pressure, maximum pressure, maximum pressure angle and maximum pressure rise rate. The laser plug ignition system was mounted on an experimental spark ignition engine and tested at the regime of 90% load and 2800 rev/min, at dosage of λ=1.1. Compared to conventional spark plug, laser ignition assures the efficiency at lean dosage.

  12. Uemachi flexure zone investigated by borehole database and numeical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, N.; Kitada, N.; Takemura, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Uemachi fault zone extending north and south, locates in the center of the Osaka City, in Japan. The Uemachi fault is a blind reverse fault and forms the flexure zone. The effects of the Uemachi flexure zone are considered in constructing of lifelines and buildings. In this region, the geomorphological survey is difficult because of the regression of transgression. Many organizations have carried out investigations of fault structures. Various surveys have been conducted, such as seismic reflection survey in and around Osaka. Many borehole data for construction conformations have been collected and the geotechnical borehole database has been constructed. The investigation with several geological borehole data provides the subsurface geological information to the geotechnical borehole database. Various numerical simulations have been carried out to investigate the growth of a blind reverse fault in unconsolidated sediments. The displacement of the basement was given in two ways. One is based on the fault movement, such as dislocation model, the other is a movement of basement block of hanging wall. The Drucker-Prager and elastic model were used for the sediment and basement, respectively. The simulation with low and high angle fault movements, show the good agree with the actual distribution of the marine clay inferred from borehole data in the northern and southern Uemachi fault flexure zone, respectively. This research is partly funded by the Comprehensive Research on the Uemachi Fault Zone (from FY2010 to FY2012) by The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT).

  13. Deep Borehole Field Test Requirements and Controlled Assumptions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Ernest [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This document presents design requirements and controlled assumptions intended for use in the engineering development and testing of: 1) prototype packages for radioactive waste disposal in deep boreholes; 2) a waste package surface handling system; and 3) a subsurface system for emplacing and retrieving packages in deep boreholes. Engineering development and testing is being performed as part of the Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT; SNL 2014a). This document presents parallel sets of requirements for a waste disposal system and for the DBFT, showing the close relationship. In addition to design, it will also inform planning for drilling, construction, and scientific characterization activities for the DBFT. The information presented here follows typical preparations for engineering design. It includes functional and operating requirements for handling and emplacement/retrieval equipment, waste package design and emplacement requirements, borehole construction requirements, sealing requirements, and performance criteria. Assumptions are included where they could impact engineering design. Design solutions are avoided in the requirements discussion. Deep Borehole Field Test Requirements and Controlled Assumptions July 21, 2015 iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This set of requirements and assumptions has benefited greatly from reviews by Gordon Appel, Geoff Freeze, Kris Kuhlman, Bob MacKinnon, Steve Pye, David Sassani, Dave Sevougian, and Jiann Su.

  14. Plug pattern optimization for gamma knife radiosurgery treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Pengpeng; Wu, Jackie; Dean, David; Xing Lei; Xue Jinyue; Maciunas, Robert; Sibata, Claudio

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a novel dose optimization algorithm for improving the sparing of critical structures during gamma knife radiosurgery by shaping the plug pattern of each individual shot. Method and Materials: We first use a geometric information (medial axis) aided guided evolutionary simulated annealing (GESA) optimization algorithm to determine the number of shots and isocenter location, size, and weight of each shot. Then we create a plug quality score system that checks the dose contribution to the volume of interest by each plug in the treatment plan. A positive score implies that the corresponding source could be open to improve tumor coverage, whereas a negative score means the source could be blocked for the purpose of sparing normal and critical structures. The plug pattern is then optimized via the GESA algorithm that is integrated with this score system. Weight and position of each shot are also tuned in this procedure. Results: An acoustic tumor case is used to evaluate our algorithm. Compared to the treatment plan generated without plug patterns, adding an optimized plug pattern into the treatment planning process boosts tumor coverage index from 95.1% to 97.2%, reduces RTOG conformity index from 1.279 to 1.167, lowers Paddick's index from 1.34 to 1.20, and trims the critical structure receiving more than 30% maximum dose from 16 mm 3 to 6 mm 3 . Conclusions: Automated GESA-based plug pattern optimization of gamma knife radiosurgery frees the treatment planning team from the manual forward planning procedure and provides an optimal treatment plan

  15. VHBORE: A code to compute borehole fluid conductivity profiles with pressure changes in the borehole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hale, F.V.; Tsang, C.F.

    1994-06-01

    This report describes the code VHBORE which can be used to model fluid electric conductivity profiles in a borehole intersecting fractured rock under conditions of changing pressure in the well bore. Pressure changes may be due to water level variations caused by pumping or fluid density effects as formation fluid is drawn into the borehole. Previous reports describe the method of estimating the hydrologic behavior of fractured rock using a time series of electric conductivity logs and an earlier code, BORE, to generate electric conductivity logs under constant pressure and flow rate conditions. The earlier model, BORE, assumed a constant flow rate, q i , for each inflow into the well bore. In the present code the user supplies the location, constant pressure, h i , transmissivity, T i , and storativity, S i , for each fracture, as well as the initial water level in the well, h w (0), In addition, the input data contains changes in the water level at later times, Δh w (t), typically caused by turning a pump on or off. The variable density calculation also requires input of the density of each of the inflow fluids, ρ i , and the initial uniform density of the well bore fluid, ρ w (0). These parameters are used to compute the flow rate for each inflow point at each time step. The numerical method of Jacob and Lohman (1952) is used to compute the flow rate into or out of the fractures based on the changes in pressure in the wellbore. A dimensionless function relates flow rate as a function of time in response to an imposed pressure change. The principle of superposition is used to determine the net flow rate from a time series of pressure changes. Additional reading on the relationship between drawdown and flow rate can be found in Earlougher (1977), particularly his Section 4.6, open-quotes Constant-Pressure Flow Testingclose quotes

  16. PBO Borehole Strainmeters and Pore Pressure Sensors: Recording Hydrological Strain Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, M. H.; Hodgkinson, K. M.; Mencin, D.; Henderson, D. B.; Johnson, W.; Van Boskirk, E.; Pyatt, C.; Mattioli, G. S.

    2017-12-01

    UNAVCO operates a network of 75 borehole strainmeters along the west coast of the United States and Vancouver Island, Canada as part of the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), the geodetic component of the NSF-funded Earthscope program. Borehole strainmeters are designed to detect variations in the strain field at the nanostrain level and can easily detect transient strains caused by aseismic creep events, Episodic Tremor and Slip (ETS) events and seismically induced co- and post-seimic signals. In 2016, one strainmeter was installed in an Oklahoma oil field to characterize in-situ deformation during CO2 injection. Twenty-three strainmeter sites also have pore pressure sensors to measure fluctuations in groundwater pressure. Both the strainmeter network and the pore pressure sensors provide unique data against which those using water-level measurements, GPS time-series or InSAR data can compare possible subsidence signals caused by groundwater withdrawal or fluid re-injection. Operating for 12 years, the PBO strainmeter and pore pressure network provides a long-term, continuous, 1-sps record of deformation. PBO deploys GTSM21 tensor strainmeters from GTSM Technologies, which consist of four horizontal strain gauges stacked vertically, at different orientations, within a single 2 m-long instrument. The strainmeters are typically installed at depths of 200 to 250 m and grouted into the bottom of 15 cm diameter boreholes. The pore pressure sensors are Digiquartz Depth Sensors from Paros Scientific. These sensors are installed in 2" PVC, sampling groundwater through a screened section 15 m above the co-located strainmeter. These sensors are also recording at 1-sps with a resolution in the hundredths of hPa. High-rate local barometric pressure data and low-rate rainfall data also available at all locations. PBO Strainmeter and pore pressure data are available in SEED, SAC-ASCII and time-stamped ASCII format from the IRIS Data Managements Center. Strainmeter data are

  17. Optical imaging of the boreholes KR37, KR37B and KR38 at Olkiluoto 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majapuro, J.

    2006-02-01

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted optical imaging surveys of the boreholes KR37, KR37B and KR38 at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during September 2005. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and preliminary processing of the images. The report describes the field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality through example images. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD format. The images are also attached to the appendix CD of this report in Adobe Acrobat PDF-format. (orig.)

  18. Analysis of borehole-radar reflection logs from selected HC boreholes at the Project Shoal area, Churchill County, Nevada; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, J.W. Jr.; Joesten, P.K.; Pohll, Greg; Mihevic, Todd

    2001-01-01

    Single-hole borehole-radar reflection logs were collected and interpreted in support of a study to characterize ground-water flow and transport at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) in Churchill County, Nevada. Radar logging was conducted in six boreholes using 60-MHz omni-directional electric-dipole antennas and a 60-MHz magnetic-dipole directional receiving antenna. Radar data from five boreholes were interpreted to identify the location, orientation, estimated length, and spatial continuity of planar reflectors present in the logs. The overall quality of the radar data is marginal and ranges from very poor to good. Twenty-seven reflectors were interpreted from the directional radar reflection logs. Although the range of orientation interpreted for the reflectors is large, a significant number of reflectors strike northeast-southwest and east-west to slightly northwest-southeast. Reflectors are moderate to steeply dipping and reflector length ranged from less than 7 m to more than 133 m. Qualitative scores were assigned to each reflector to provide a sense of the spatial continuity of the reflector and the characteristics of the field data relative to an ideal planar reflector (orientation score). The overall orientation scores are low, which reflects the general data quality, but also indicates that the properties of most reflectors depart from the ideal planar case. The low scores are consistent with reflections from fracture zones that contain numerous, closely spaced, sub-parallel fractures. Interpretation of borehole-radar direct-wave velocity and amplitude logs identified several characteristics of the logged boreholes: (1) low-velocity zones correlate with decreased direct-wave amplitude, indicating the presence of fracture zones; (2) direct-wave amplitude increases with depth in three of the boreholes, suggesting an increase in electrical resistivity with depth resulting from changes in mineral assemblage or from a decrease in the specific conductance of ground

  19. Analysis of borehole-radar reflection logs from selected HC boreholes at the Project Shoal area, Churchill County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, J.W.; Joesten, P.K.; Pohll, G.M.; Mihevic, Todd

    2001-01-01

    Single-hole borehole-radar reflection logs were collected and interpreted in support of a study to characterize ground-water flow and transport at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) in Churchill County, Nevada. Radar logging was conducted in six boreholes using 60-MHz omni-directional electric-dipole antennas and a 60-MHz magnetic-dipole directional receiving antenna.Radar data from five boreholes were interpreted to identify the location, orientation, estimated length, and spatial continuity of planar reflectors present in the logs. The overall quality of the radar data is marginal and ranges from very poor to good. Twenty-seven reflectors were interpreted from the directional radar reflection logs. Although the range of orientation interpreted for the reflectors is large, a significant number of reflectors strike northeast-southwest and east-west to slightly northwest-southeast. Reflectors are moderate to steeply dipping and reflector length ranged from less than 7 m to more than 133 m.Qualitative scores were assigned to each reflector to provide a sense of the spatial continuity of the reflector and the characteristics of the field data relative to an ideal planar reflector (orientation score). The overall orientation scores are low, which reflects the general data quality, but also indicates that the properties of most reflectors depart from the ideal planar case. The low scores are consistent with reflections from fracture zones that contain numerous, closely spaced, sub-parallel fractures.Interpretation of borehole-radar direct-wave velocity and amplitude logs identified several characteristics of the logged boreholes: (1) low-velocity zones correlate with decreased direct-wave amplitude, indicating the presence of fracture zones; (2) direct-wave amplitude increases with depth in three of the boreholes, suggesting an increase in electrical resistivity with depth resulting from changes in mineral assemblage or from a decrease in the specific conductance of ground

  20. Method and apparatus for logging inclined earth boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youmans, A.H.

    1981-01-01

    An improved technique is provided for comparing the velocity of an elongated well logging instrument traversing an inclined earth borehole with the playout velocity of the well logging cable at the earth's surface to control both the cable hoist drum rotation and the rate of movement of the subsurface instrument and thus insure cable playout is in equilibrium with the logging instrument movement. Method and apparatus are described for detecting any reduction in movement of the logging instrument through the borehole and for reducing the velocity of the logging cable playout in response thereto by reducing drum rotation. Further, when the velocity of cable playout slows to a preselected value, a monitoring circuit generates control signals which actuate a means of power attached to or integral with the logging instrument which, upon initiation, apply a force to move the logging instrument upward or downward within the borehole

  1. Exploratory borehole Schafisheim: constructional- and environmental aspects, drilling technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    The Schafisheim borehole was the fourth borehole in the Nagra deep drilling programme in Northern Switzerland. The drilling work began on the 26th of November 1983. The final depth of 2000.6 m was reached on June 29th, 1984 and this was followed by a transition to a test phase which lasted until 25th February 1985. To reach the final depth, the borehole passed through around 1500 m of sediments and 500 m of crystalline rock. More than 50% of the drilled section, including more or less all of the crystalline rock, was cored. This report describes the drilling activities, the construction work relating to the Schafisheim site and the measures taken to ensure environmental protection. The report closes with a chapter dealing with the supervisory commission consisting of members of the federal, cantonal and local authorities and with the report series on the drilling work. (author) figs., tabs

  2. Electrical resistivity borehole measurements: application to an urban tunnel site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, A.; Marache, A.; Obellianne, T.; Breysse, D.

    2002-06-01

    This paper shows how it is possible to use wells drilled during geotechnical pre-investigation of a tunneling site to obtain a 2-D image of the resistivity close to a tunnel boring machine. An experimental apparatus is presented which makes it possible to perform single and borehole-to-borehole electrical measurements independent of the geological and hydrogeological context, which can be activated at any moment during the building of the tunnel. This apparatus is first demonstrated through its use on a test site. Numerical simulations and data inversion are used to analyse the experimental results. Finally, electrical resistivity tomography and single-borehole measurements on a tunneling site are presented. Experimental results show the viability of the apparatus and the efficiency of the inverse algorithm, and also highlight the limitations of the electrical resistivity tomography as a tool for geotechnical investigation in urban areas.

  3. Geophysical borehole logging. Final disposal of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouhiainen, P.

    1984-01-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (Industrial Power Company Ltd.) will take precautions for final disposal of spent fuel in the Finnish bedrock. The first stage of the site selection studies includes drilling of a deep borehole down to approximately 1000 meters in the year 1984. The report deals with geophysical borehole logging methods, which could be used for the studies. The aim of geophysical borehole logging methods is to descripe specially hydrogeological and structural features. Only the most essential methods are dealt with in this report. Attention is paid to the information produced with the methods, derscription of the methods, interpretation and limitations. The feasibility and possibilities for the aims are evaluated. The evaluations are based mainly on the results from Sweden, England, Canada and USA as well as experiencies gained in Finland

  4. Three dimensional numerical modeling for investigation of fracture zone filled with water by borehole radar; Borehole radar ni yoru gansui hasaitai kenshutsu no sanjigen suchi modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanada, Y; Watanabe, T; Ashida, Y [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Hasegawa, K; Yabuuchi, S [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    Water bearing fracture zones existing in rock mass largely influence the underground water flow and dynamic property of rock mass. The detailed survey of the location and size of water bearing fracture zones is an important task in the fields such as civil engineering, environment and disaster prevention. Electromagnetic waves of high frequency zones can be grasped as a wave phenomenon, and the record obtained in the actual measurement is wave forms of time series. In the exploration using borehole radar, this water bearing fracture zone becomes the reflection surface, and also becomes a factor of damping in the transmitted wave. By examining changes which these give to the observed wave forms, therefore, water bearing fracture zones can be detected. This study made three dimensional numerical modeling using the time domain finite difference method, and obtained the same output as the observed wave form obtained using borehole radar. By using this program and changing each of the parameters such as frequency and resistivity in the homogeneous medium, changes of the wave forms were observed. Further, examples were shown of modeling of detection of water bearing fracture zones. 5 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Plug-In Hybrid Medium-Duty Truck Demonstration and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyasato, Matt [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Kosowski, Mark [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Plug-In Hybrid Medium-Duty Truck Demonstration and Evaluation Program was sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) using American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) funding. The purpose of the program is to develop a path to migrate plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technology to medium-duty vehicles by demonstrating and evaluating vehicles in diverse applications. The program also provided three production-ready PHEV systems—Odyne Systems, Inc. (Odyne) Class 6 to 8 trucks, VIA Motors, Inc. (VIA) half-ton pickup trucks, and VIA three-quarter-ton vans. The vehicles were designed, developed, validated, produced, and deployed. Data were gathered and tests were run to understand the performance improvements, allow cost reductions, and provide future design changes. A smart charging system was developed and produced during the program. The partnerships for funding included the DOE; the California Energy Commission (CEC); the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD); the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); Odyne; VIA; Southern California Edison; and utility and municipal industry participants. The reference project numbers are DOE FOA-28 award number EE0002549 and SCAQMD contract number 10659.

  6. Report on electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars; Redegoerelse - elbiler og plug-in hybridbiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkjaer Toennesen, A.; Winther, K.; Noerregaard, K. (Teknologisk Institut, Taastrup (Denmark)); Larsen, Esben; Christensen, Linda; Kveiborg, O. (Danmarks Teknologiske Univ., Kgs. Lyngby (DTU) (Denmark))

    2010-04-15

    The Center for Green Transport at the Danish Transport Authority has prepared this statement in order to uncover driving technical aspects, user expectations and needs, and the environmental consequences of using electric and plug-in hybrid cars. An electric car is defined as a car driven by an electric motor that has a battery that can be charged with power from the grid. A plug-in hybrid car is defined as a car that combines gasoline or diesel engine with an electric motor with a battery which can be recharged with power from the grid. From an overall consideration related to the transport sector electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars have the major advantage that negative impacts on environment and climate from traffic can be reduced while the high mobility is maintained. Through an increased use of electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars, the many advantages attached to the car as an individual transportation form is maintained, while CO{sub 2} emissions etc. are reduced. Electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars is one of the technologies that are considered to have particularly great prospects in the medium term when it comes to promoting new technologies in transport. Another advantage of using electric vehicles is the power supply factor. An increased use of electricity in transport will reduce the need for and dependence on fossil fuels in the sector. Both electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars are expected to be used for storage of wind power, a possibility which is hardly available today. The plug-in hybrid car could meet some of the challenges facing the pure electric car, because it also can use conventional fuel. The report presents analyses based on three focus areas: a) Users' needs, expectations and economics in relation to vehicles; b) The technology - and hence the manufacturers' opportunities and challenges; c) Connection to the power grid. (ln)

  7. The Plug-in Concept: Technology and Aesthetics of Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Šenk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The architecture concept of plug-in is based on the duality of the infrastructure system and units or elements connected to it. In the context of megastructures, the concept was most vividly characterised by works of Archigram and Japanese Metabolists in the 1960s and early 1970s. Blurring the boundary between the building and the city, the plug-in concept outgrew architectural boundaries and was slowly transformed into an urbanistic concept.The paper presents the cultural context relevant to contemporaneity, which influenced specific development of the technology-driven concept of plug-in in the British Archigram Group and Japanese Metabolists. Based on the aesthetics of change and incompleteness, which was characterised by similar architectural manifestations despite entirely different cultural backgrounds, the plug-in concept foreshadowed social transformation based on freedom, individualisation and mobility in an utopian manner and held a promise of urban development with adaptability to unpredictable needs and desires of residents, who would become its co-creators with an active approach.Although the revolutionary sixties are quite some time behind, the plug-in concept in its commodified form has become and remained operational and relevant at least on the metaphorical level; in the contemporary space it is evident primarily in urbanism and not as much in its original architectural form.

  8. Manitoba plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoemsen, R. [Red River College, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Parsons, R. [Government of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Centre for Emerging Renewable Energy

    2010-07-01

    Manitoba has low electricity rates, the highest proportion of renewables, and a legislated commitment to reduce greenhouse gases. However, the province still relies heavily on oil as everyone else. The mix of energy opportunities in Manitoba were highlighted in this presentation, with particular reference to the commercialization of electric vehicles. Several photographs were presented of the Toyota plug-in hybrid vehicle and a plug-in hybrid electric demonstration vehicle. A demonstration project overview was offered that used technology from A123 Systems Inc. The conversion module and vehicle users were profiled. Topics that were presented related to the demonstration project included monitoring; gasoline fuel economy results; fuel economy variability; cold weather operation; cold weather issues; battery upgrade solutions; and highly qualified personnel. It was concluded that in terms of follow-up, there is a need to combine findings of current plug-in hybrid electric vehicle demonstration with those for the new Toyota production plug-in hybrid vehicles. Key next steps for the demonstration are to address cabin heating requirements; better characterizing winter performance; and implementation of IPLC units on all plug-in hybrid electric vehicles for electricity consumption. figs.

  9. Method for preventing plugging of water wells by clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazhkov, V I

    1966-01-01

    A method is suggested for preventing the plugging of water-bearing sands by clay from drilling fluids. It consists in placing a cement plug in the upper nipple above the filter, in order to prevent its plugging during the installation. The drilling mud passes through the rinsing windows and fills the internal void of the filter column, thus preventing further percolation and plugging of the filter during its lowering. When a 2-filter column is lowered, the clay solution is pumped into the interval between the cement plug and the next filter; this is done gradually in proportion to the addition of new pipes. When the drilling mud level lowers in the annular space between the pipes, the mud cake, together with water-saturated sand, passes through the rinsing windows into the pipes and is removed to the surface by airlift or other methods. This procedure is described in detail, discussed for various conditions of well structure, and illustrated by schematic drawings. Its advantage is in the possibility of separate testing and production of all water-bearing zones in the well, and it does not require the use of pure water for well washing.

  10. Plug-in electric vehicles integrating fluctuating renewable electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dallinger, David

    2013-11-01

    This paper examines a method to model plug-in electric vehicles as part of the power system and presents results for the contribution of plug-in electric vehicles to balance the fluctuating electricity generation of renewable energy sources. The scientific contribution includes: - A novel approach to characterizing fluctuating generation. This allows the detailed comparison of results from energy analysis and is the basis to describe the effect of electricity from renewable energy sources and plug-in electric vehicles on the power system. - The characterization of mobile storage, which includes the description of mobility behavior using probabilities and battery discharging costs. - The introduction of an agent-based simulation approach, coupling energy markets and distributed grids using a price-based mechanism design. - The description of an agent with specific driving behavior, battery discharging costs and optimization algorithm suitable for real plug-in vehicles and simulation models. - A case study for a 2030 scenario describing the contribution of plug-in electric vehicles to balance generation from renewable energy sources in California and Germany.

  11. Summary of the Lavia borehole investications in 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aeikaes, T.; Oehberg, A.; Ryhaenen, V.

    1985-02-01

    Industrial Power Company Ltd (TVO) drilled in the spring 1984 a 1001 m deep borehole, diameter 56 mm, in Lavia. The borehole is used during the years 1984-85 for developing and testing research methods and equipment needed in site investigations of spent fuel final disposal in the future. In 1984 hydraulical and geophysical tests were made and groundwater samples were taken. The drilling site is a wide outcropped area in the northern part of the porphyritic granite formation of Lavia. Geological and fracture mapping as well as geophysical measurements on the surface were made in the area surrounding the drilling site. The bedrock consists of homonous porphyritic granite, in which quartzdiorite occurs in thin incalations. Magnetic or electric anomalies were not observed. Fracture frequency is low and the fractures appear mainly in two sets. The rock types vary in the borehole from porphyritic granite to diorite. Due to slight mineralogical variations, the diorite is either granodiorite, quartzdiorite or tonalite. Granite occurs as veins. Hydraulic conductivity was measured systematically with a packer separation of 30 m between the depths 73-973 m. Hydraulic conductivity is generally 10 -10 -10 -11 m/s. Electric, radiometric, magnetic and acoustic measurements were made in the borehole. In addition, the caliper and the temperature of the borehole were measured. The results of these geophysical measurements indicate the properties of rock types and fracturing in the borehole. On the basis of the results e.g. fracture porosity was interpreted. The results of acoustic tube wave measurement correlate well with hydraulic conductivity. Water samples were taken from four depths. The deepest level was 910 m. The samples were taken with a packer separation of 5 m. In the water analyses it was observed that at several depths remarkable amounts of flushing water from drilling were still remaining in the rock

  12. Deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Brady, Patrick Vane; Swift, Peter N.; Rechard, Robert Paul; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2009-07-01

    Preliminary evaluation of deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel indicates the potential for excellent long-term safety performance at costs competitive with mined repositories. Significant fluid flow through basement rock is prevented, in part, by low permeabilities, poorly connected transport pathways, and overburden self-sealing. Deep fluids also resist vertical movement because they are density stratified. Thermal hydrologic calculations estimate the thermal pulse from emplaced waste to be small (less than 20 C at 10 meters from the borehole, for less than a few hundred years), and to result in maximum total vertical fluid movement of {approx}100 m. Reducing conditions will sharply limit solubilities of most dose-critical radionuclides at depth, and high ionic strengths of deep fluids will prevent colloidal transport. For the bounding analysis of this report, waste is envisioned to be emplaced as fuel assemblies stacked inside drill casing that are lowered, and emplaced using off-the-shelf oilfield and geothermal drilling techniques, into the lower 1-2 km portion of a vertical borehole {approx}45 cm in diameter and 3-5 km deep, followed by borehole sealing. Deep borehole disposal of radioactive waste in the United States would require modifications to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and to applicable regulatory standards for long-term performance set by the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 191) and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (10 CFR part 60). The performance analysis described here is based on the assumption that long-term standards for deep borehole disposal would be identical in the key regards to those prescribed for existing repositories (40 CFR part 197 and 10 CFR part 63).

  13. Background subtraction system for pulsed neutron logging of earth boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertzog, R.C.

    1983-01-01

    The invention provides a method for determining the characteristics of earth formations surrounding a well borehole comprising the steps of: repetitively irradiating the earth formations surrounding the well bore with relatively short duration pulses of high energy neutrons; detecting during each pulse of high energy neutrons, gamma radiation due to the inelastic scattering of neutrons by materials comprising the earth formations surrounding the borehole and providing information representative thereof; detecting immediately following each such pulse of high energy neutrons, background gamma radiation due to thermal neutron capture and providing information representative thereof; and correcting the inelastic gamma representative information to compensate for said background representative information

  14. Model of the final borehole geometry for helical laser drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroschel, Alexander; Michalowski, Andreas; Graf, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    A model for predicting the borehole geometry for laser drilling is presented based on the calculation of a surface of constant absorbed fluence. It is applicable to helical drilling of through-holes with ultrashort laser pulses. The threshold fluence describing the borehole surface is fitted for best agreement with experimental data in the form of cross-sections of through-holes of different shapes and sizes in stainless steel samples. The fitted value is similar to ablation threshold fluence values reported for laser ablation models.

  15. Handling and Emplacement Options for Deep Borehole Disposal Conceptual Design.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, John R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hardin, Ernest [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This report presents conceptual design information for a system to handle and emplace packages containing radioactive waste, in boreholes 16,400 ft deep or possibly deeper. Its intended use is for a design selection study that compares the costs and risks associated with two emplacement methods: drill-string and wireline emplacement. The deep borehole disposal (DBD) concept calls for siting a borehole (or array of boreholes) that penetrate crystalline basement rock to a depth below surface of about 16,400 ft (5 km). Waste packages would be emplaced in the lower 6,560 ft (2 km) of the borehole, with sealing of appropriate portions of the upper 9,840 ft (3 km). A deep borehole field test (DBFT) is planned to test and refine the DBD concept. The DBFT is a scientific and engineering experiment, conducted at full-scale, in-situ, without radioactive waste. Waste handling operations are conceptualized to begin with the onsite receipt of a purpose-built Type B shipping cask, that contains a waste package. Emplacement operations begin when the cask is upended over the borehole, locked to a receiving flange or collar. The scope of emplacement includes activities to lower waste packages to total depth, and to retrieve them back to the surface when necessary for any reason. This report describes three concepts for the handling and emplacement of the waste packages: 1) a concept proposed by Woodward-Clyde Consultants in 1983; 2) an updated version of the 1983 concept developed for the DBFT; and 3) a new concept in which individual waste packages would be lowered to depth using a wireline. The systems described here could be adapted to different waste forms, but for design of waste packaging, handling, and emplacement systems the reference waste forms are DOE-owned high- level waste including Cs/Sr capsules and bulk granular HLW from fuel processing. Handling and Emplacement Options for Deep Borehole Disposal Conceptual Design July 23, 2015 iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This report has

  16. Method for detecting cement voids or borehole washouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.P.

    1978-01-01

    A fast neutron source is used to irradiate earth formations in the vicinity of a well borehole. Dual spaced epithermal neutron detectors are used to sample the epithermal neutron population at two different spaced distances from the source. A compensated formation porosity is obtained from the ratio of counting rates at the dual spaced detectors. An uncompensated porosity value is obtained from the count rate at the short spaced detector. Borehole washout or cement void regions are located by comparing the compensated and uncompensated values of formation porosity obtained in this manner

  17. Data Communication PC/NaI-borehole probe (Hardware & Software)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Buch

    Development of new hard- & software to a NaI borehole probe on a PC. Save data from the probe each 10'th sec, handle the data from the probe and make calculations every 10'th sec and show the results on the monitor.......Development of new hard- & software to a NaI borehole probe on a PC. Save data from the probe each 10'th sec, handle the data from the probe and make calculations every 10'th sec and show the results on the monitor....

  18. Development of a plug in for image j for the quality control of a scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otal Palacin, A.; Fuentemilla Urio, N.; Olasolo Alonso, J.; Martin Albina, M. L.; Miquelez Alonso, S.; Lozares Cordero, S.; Pellejero, S.; Maneru Camara, F.; Rubio Arroniz, A.; Soto Prados, P.

    2013-01-01

    The increase in the quality of radiology equipment requirements necessitates that give us tools efficient that they simplify the more possible tasks of analysis of the data obtained in the quality controls. We can choose by solutions based on commercial software or otherwise try to develop our own to measure of our needs. For this reason we have developed a plug-in for the ImageJ program that automates the work of analysis of image quality in the Navarro health service scanners. (Author)

  19. Device for sealing a rotating plug in a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandstetter, R.

    1975-01-01

    The invention relates to the sealing of a rotating plug in a nuclear reactor. The sealing arrangement comprises a friction track which is formed along the periphery of the top of a ring mounted on a stationary element. An annular base coaxial with the plug is secured in sealing-tight manner to the stationary bearing around the ring and the track by means of a seal which rests on the annular base and also on the friction track of the ring and which comprises at least one friction ring and a clamping spring ring. The seal is clamped against the friction track to retractable clamping means when the plug is stationary, the retractable clamping means being carried by a ring secured to the first-mentioned ring. (U.S.)

  20. Revascularization and Apical Plug in an Immature Molar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roghanizadeh, Leyla; Fazlyab, Mahta

    2018-01-01

    Managing of necrotic permanent teeth with immature apices is a treatment challenges. Treatment of such teeth includes apexification, apical plug and more recently, revascularization technique with the probable advantage of continuation of root development. In the present case report the referred patient had discomfort with a necrotic immature mandibular first molar. Periapical radiography showed a rather large apical lesion around immature roots. Revascularization protocol using calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement was indicated for the mesial root. However, in distal canal apical plug technique was applied. At 2-year follow-up, both procedures were successful in relieving patient’s symptoms. Dentin formation and increase in length of the mesial root was obvious. Apical plug and revascularization technique proved to be successful in management of necrotic immature teeth; moreover, revascularization carried the advantage of continuation of root development. PMID:29692851

  1. Flexible Plug Repair for Shuttle Wing Leading Edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarda, Charles J.; Sikora, Joseph; Smith, Russel; Rivers, H.; Scotti, Stephen J.; Fuller, Alan M.; Klacka, Robert; Reinders, Martin; Schwind, Francis; Sullivan, Brian; hide

    2012-01-01

    In response to the Columbia Accident Investigation Board report, a plug repair kit has been developed to enable astronauts to repair the space shuttle's wing leading edge (WLE) during orbit. The plug repair kit consists of several 17.78- cm-diameter carbon/silicon carbide (C/SiC) cover plates of various curvatures that can be attached to the refractory carbon-carbon WLE panels using a TZM refractory metal attach mechanism. The attach mechanism is inserted through the damage in the WLE panel and, as it is tightened, the cover plate flexes to conform to the curvature of the WLE panel within 0.050 mm. An astronaut installs the repair during an extravehicular activity (EVA). After installing the plug repair, edge gaps are checked and the perimeter of the repair is sealed using a proprietary material, developed to fill cracks and small holes in the WLE.

  2. Structural integrity investigations of feeder pipe ice plugging procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaman, M.T.; Shah, N.N.

    1985-03-01

    A procedure involving the use of a liquid nitrogen cooled heat exchanger to form internal ice plugs in feeder pipes is routinely used in nuclear generating stations. The use of this procedure has caused concerns with regard to the safety of station maintenance personnel, and in regard to the integrity of the feeder pipes. This report describes the results of laboratory stress and pressure measurements which were performed on a feeder pipe section during ice plugging operations to investigate these concerns. From the results of this study, and from the results of previous studies of material behaviour at low temperatures, it has been determined that the ice plugging procedure can be performed on feeder pipes in a safe and effective manner

  3. Plug and Play PV Systems for American Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoepfner, Christian [Fraunhofer USA, Inc., Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-12-22

    The core objectives of the Plug & Play PV Systems Project were to develop a PV system that can be installed on a residential rooftop for less than $1.50/W in 2020, and in less than 10 hours (from point of purchase to commissioning). The Fraunhofer CSE team’s approach to this challenge involved a holistic approach to system design – hardware and software – that make Plug & Play PV systems: • Quick, easy, and safe to install • Easy to demonstrate as code compliant • Permitted, inspected, and interconnected via an electronic process Throughout the three years of work during this Department of Energy SunShot funded project, the team engaged in a substantive way with inspectional services departments and utilities, manufacturers, installers, and distributors. We received iterative feedback on the system design and on ideas for how such systems can be commercialized. This ultimately led us to conceiving of Plug & Play PV Systems as a framework, with a variety of components compatible with the Plug & Play PV approach, including string or microinverters, conventional modules or emerging lightweight modules. The framework enables a broad group of manufacturers to participate in taking Plug & Play PV Systems to market, and increases the market size for such systems. Key aspects of the development effort centered on the system hardware and associated engineering work, the development of a Plug & Play PV Server to enable the electronic permitting, inspection and interconnection process, understanding the details of code compliance and, on occasion, supporting applications for modifications to the code to allow lightweight modules, for example. We have published a number of papers on our testing and assessment of novel technologies (e.g., adhered lightweight modules) and on the electronic architecture.

  4. Experimental and numerical modeling of sulfur plugging in carbonate reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou-Kassem, J.H. [Chemical and Petroleum Engineering Department, UAE University, PO Box 17555, Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates)

    2000-05-01

    Sour gas, mainly in the form of hydrogen sulfide, is produced in large amounts from many oil and gas reservoirs in the United Arab Emirates. In addition to creating problems in production lines, the precipitation of elemental sulfur in vicinity of the wellbore is often reported to cause wellbore damage. While there have been several studies performed on the role of solid deposition in gas reservoirs, the role of sulfur deposition in oil reservoirs has not been investigated. This paper presents experimental results along with a comprehensive wellbore model that predicts sulfur precipitation as well as plugging. Two separate sets of experiments, one for a gas phase system and another for a crude oil system, were conducted to investigate the deposition of elemental sulfur in (linear) carbonate cores. The gas flow tests were conducted with elemental sulfur being carried with nitrogen through limestone cores. Changes in gas flow rate were monitored while the injection pressure was held constant. A series of experiments generated valuable data for plugging with elemental sulfur. X-ray diffraction tests provided evidence of sulfur deposition along the cores. The oil flow tests were carried out to observe sulfur precipitation and plugging in a carbonate core. The crude oil was de-asphalted before conducting these tests in order to isolate the effect of asphaltene plugging. Significant plugging was observed and was found to be dependent on flow rate and initial sulfur concentration. This information was used in a phenomenological model that was incorporated in the wellbore numerical model. The data for the numerical model were obtained from both test tube and oil flow experiments. By using a phenomenological model, the wellbore plugging was modeled with an excellent match (with experimental results)

  5. MFTF-α+T end plug magnet design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, V.C.; O'Toole, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    The conceptual design of the end-plug magnets for MFTF-α+T is described. MFTF-α+ T is a near-term upgrade of MFTF-B, which features new end plugs to improve performance. The Fusion Engineering Design Center has performed the engineering design of MFTF-α+T under the overall direction of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Each end plug consists of two Yin-Yang pairs, each with approx.2.5:1 mirror ratio and approx.5-T peak field on axis; two transition coils; and a recircularizing solenoid. This paper describes the end-plug magnet system functional requirements and presents a conceptual design that meets them. The peak field at the windings of the end-plug coils is approx.6-T. These coils are designed using the NbTi MFTF-B conductor and cooled by a 4.2K liquid helium bath. All the end-plug magnets are designed to operate in the cryostable mode with adequate quench protection for safety. Shielding requirements are stated and a summary of heat loads is provided. Field and force calculations are discussed. The field on axis is shown to meet the functional requirements. Force resultants are reported in terms of winding running loads and resultant coil forces are also given. The magnet structural support is described. A trade study to determine the optimum end-cell coil internal nuclear shield thickness and the resulting coil size based on minimizing the end-cell life cycle cost is summarized

  6. Versatile Friction Stir Welding/Friction Plug Welding System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Robert

    2006-01-01

    A proposed system of tooling, machinery, and control equipment would be capable of performing any of several friction stir welding (FSW) and friction plug welding (FPW) operations. These operations would include the following: Basic FSW; FSW with automated manipulation of the length of the pin tool in real time [the so-called auto-adjustable pin-tool (APT) capability]; Self-reacting FSW (SRFSW); SR-FSW with APT capability and/or real-time adjustment of the distance between the front and back shoulders; and Friction plug welding (FPW) [more specifically, friction push plug welding] or friction pull plug welding (FPPW) to close out the keyhole of, or to repair, an FSW or SR-FSW weld. Prior FSW and FPW systems have been capable of performing one or two of these operations, but none has thus far been capable of performing all of them. The proposed system would include a common tool that would have APT capability for both basic FSW and SR-FSW. Such a tool was described in Tool for Two Types of Friction Stir Welding (MFS- 31647-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 30, No. 10 (October 2006), page 70. Going beyond what was reported in the cited previous article, the common tool could be used in conjunction with a plug welding head to perform FPW or FPPW. Alternatively, the plug welding head could be integrated, along with the common tool, into a FSW head that would be capable of all of the aforementioned FSW and FPW operations. Any FSW or FPW operation could be performed under any combination of position and/or force control.

  7. Plug the socket of the main closing valve in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neupauer, J.; Bednar, B.

    1988-01-01

    The plug is designed for closing the main closing valve socket during a refuelling shutdown of a nuclear power plant. The plug is fixed in the using jaws forced against the socket ring part. The socket is sealed by expanding a ring between two cone trays. A valve provided in the plug allows draining the pipe. The plug is inserted in the socket using a jib suspended on a rail. Following sealing both sockets the inner surfaces of the closing valve can be decontaminated. Following decontamination, a water-proof cover is slid over the plug protecting the plug moving mechanism from damage. (J.B.). 1 fig

  8. Distributed energy resources management using plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as a fuel-shifting demand response resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morais, H.; Sousa, T.; Soares, J.; Faria, P.; Vale, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Definition fuel shifting demand response programs applied to the electric vehicles. • Integration of the proposed fuel shifting in energy resource management algorithm. • Analysis of fuel shifting contribution to support the consumption increasing. • Analysis of fuel shifting contribution to support the electric vehicles growing. • Sensitivity analysis considering different electric vehicles penetration levels. - Abstract: In the smart grids context, distributed energy resources management plays an important role in the power systems’ operation. Battery electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles should be important resources in the future distribution networks operation. Therefore, it is important to develop adequate methodologies to schedule the electric vehicles’ charge and discharge processes, avoiding network congestions and providing ancillary services. This paper proposes the participation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in fuel shifting demand response programs. Two services are proposed, namely the fuel shifting and the fuel discharging. The fuel shifting program consists in replacing the electric energy by fossil fuels in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles daily trips, and the fuel discharge program consists in use of their internal combustion engine to generate electricity injecting into the network. These programs are included in an energy resources management algorithm which integrates the management of other resources. The paper presents a case study considering a 37-bus distribution network with 25 distributed generators, 1908 consumers, and 2430 plug-in vehicles. Two scenarios are tested, namely a scenario with high photovoltaic generation, and a scenario without photovoltaic generation. A sensitivity analyses is performed in order to evaluate when each energy resource is required

  9. Warning: safety risk with some Apple AC Wall Plug Adapters

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN IT department

    2016-01-01

    Dear Mac and iOS Users, Apple has determined that some of its two prong Apple AC wall plug adapters may break and create a risk of electrical shock.   CERN users can now exchange their affected Apple wall plug adapters at the Service Desk. To find out if your adapter is affected and for any further information concerning the procedure to follow to exchange it, please check the following URL: https://cern.service-now.com/service-portal/view-outage.do?n=OTG0028639.

  10. Development of a geophysical methodology from boreholes for the study of granitic formation storage site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Masne, D.

    1983-01-01

    The aim of this work is the characterization of the fracturation of a granitic formation by the examination of borehole environment. Two types of methods are used. Methods using one borehole only: well logging (electrical and nuclear). Didier logs (electric dipole-dipole), Eric probes (electromagnetic dipole-dipole) and methods between boreholes (grounding). These methods were applied to two boreholes of 500m and 1000 meters drilled into granite at Auriat (France)

  11. Concentration of Trace Metals in Boreholes in the Ankobra Basin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiifi Baidoo

    Most of the boreholes with high trace metal concentrations were located in and around the Bawdie-Bogoso-Prestea area. Introduction. Ankobra basin is one of the main mining areas in Ghana. The major minerals mined in this area include gold, manganese, bauxite and diamond. Gold mining in this basin dates about 500 ...

  12. Development of a mobile borehole investigation software using augmented reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, J.; Lee, S.; Oh, M.; Yun, D. E.; Kim, S.; Park, H. D.

    2015-12-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is one of the most developing technologies in smartphone and IT areas. While various applications have been developed using the AR, there are a few geological applications which adopt its advantages. In this study, a smartphone application to manage boreholes using AR has been developed. The application is consisted of three major modules, an AR module, a map module and a data management module. The AR module calculates the orientation of the device and displays nearby boreholes distributed in three dimensions using the orientation. This module shows the boreholes in a transparent layer on a live camera screen so the user can find and understand the overall characteristics of the underground geology. The map module displays the boreholes on a 2D map to show their distribution and the location of the user. The database module uses SQLite library which has proper characteristics for mobile platforms, and Binary XML is adopted to enable containing additional customized data. The application is able to provide underground information in an intuitive and refined forms and to decrease time and general equipment required for geological field investigations.

  13. Bacteriological analysis of borehole water in Uli, Nigeria | Ibe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The highest counts were consistently found in the sample from Cagramento Lodge, where the borehole was located in an unsanitary environment, near a pit laterine. Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp., Proteus sp., Enterobacter sp., Pseudomonas sp., and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from the samples. The findings ...

  14. Preliminary report on geophysical and mechanical borehole measurements at Stripa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, P.; Paulsson, B.; Rachiele, R.; Andersson, L.; Schrauf, T.; Hustrulid, W.; Duran, O.; Magnusson, K.A.

    1979-05-01

    A suite of seven logs--neutron, gamma--gamma, resistivity, gamma ray, sonic, caliper, and temperature--operated in a borehole of 380-m depth located eleven zones where the rock permeability is expected to be enhanced due to the presence of open fractures. The sonic waveform record proved especially useful in this regard. Borehole measurements were also acquired in a large number of boreholes from 5- to 14-m length located in experimental drifts some 340-m underground. Here several physical properties, including the porosity, density, sonic velocity, and borehole rugosity, are generally quite uniform, with the exception of a few local chloritic zones and a few minor fractures. However, in situ determinations of the mechanical modulus with the CSM cell indicate substantial variability, with some apparent fracture control. Uranium and thorium concentrations are quite high in the Stripa granite, with local fluctuations associated with mineralogical changes as revealed by the gamma-ray log. A differential resistance probe appears promising as a sensitive detector of fine fracturing. A cross-hole ultrasonic system indicates variations of a few percent in compressional- and shear-wave velocities, reflecting the presence of fractures and changes in fracture characteristics as the rock is heated in a simulated storage test. The geophysical and mechanical data are being compared with the results from core and television logging, with hydrological test data on static pressure and injection permeability, and with displacements induced by thermal loading

  15. Shock-induced borehole waves and fracture effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, H.; Smeulders, D.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    We perform wave experiments using a vertical shock tube setup. Shock waves are generated by the rupture of a thin membrane. In the test section the incident pressure waves generate borehole-guided waves along water-saturated samples. The tube is equipped with side wall gages and a mobile pressure

  16. physicochemical quality of borehole water in abonnema and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. BARTH EKWEME

    AND ITS PUBLIC HEALTH IMPORTANCE. GLORIA N. ... + 0.4, while conductivity values for Briggs and Obonoma compounds were 47.8 and 50.6 µs/cm respectively. However, the study ... boreholes, boiling and filtering of drinking water as well as improved sanitary conditions and personal hygiene were advocated.

  17. Determination of subsurface geological structure with borehole gravimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, S.R.; Hearst, J.R.

    1983-07-01

    Conventional gamma-gamma and gravimetric density measurements are routinely gathered for most holes used for underground nuclear tests. The logs serve to determine the subsurface structural geology near the borehole. The gamma-gamma density log measures density of the rock within about 15 cm of the borehole wall. The difference in gravity measured at two depths in a borehole can be interpreted in terms of the density of an infinite, homogeneous, horizontal bed between those depths. When the gravimetric density matches the gamma-gamma density over a given interval it is assumed that the bed actualy exists, and that rocks far from the hole must be the same as those encountered adjacent to the borehole. Conversely, when the gravimetric density differs from the gamma-gamma density it is apparent that the gravimeter is being influenced by a rock mass of different density than that at the hole wall. This mismatch can be a powerful tool to deduce the local structural geology. The geology deduced from gravity mesurements in emplacement hole, U4al, and the associated exploratory hole, UE4al, is an excellent example of the power of the method

  18. Application of Ge/Li/-spectrometry in boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrusciel, E.

    1976-01-01

    The paper presents the results of Ge/Li/ spectrometry applications in boreholes. The natural radioactivity measurements as well as rare elements determinations with the use of 252 Cf neutron source and capture-gamma and activation techniques are described. The minimum concentrations of certain elements to be determined in the field circumstances are evaluated on the basis of the model experiments. (author)

  19. Hydrofracturing water boreholes in hard rock aquifers in Scotland

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cobbing, J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available rural areas of the UK, low-productivity aquifers are an important resource for small public water supplies. Where a borehole in low-productivity crystalline rocks proves too low yielding for its designed purpose, hydrofracturing is a cost-effective means...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (e) When blasting slab rounds off the solid, opener holes shall not be drilled beyond the rib line... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for...; and (2) Shots fired in anthracite mines for battery starting or for blasting coal overhangs. No person...