WorldWideScience

Sample records for boreal bird supports

  1. Ecological Sustainability of Birds in Boreal Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa Venier; Mikko Mönkkönen; Robert Howe; Pekka Helle; JoAnn Hanowski; Gerald Niemi; Daniel Welsh

    1998-01-01

    We review characteristics of birds in boreal forests in the context of their ecological sustainability under both natural and anthropogenic disturbances. We identify the underlying ecological factors associated with boreal bird populations and their variability, review the interactions between boreal bird populations and disturbance, and describe some tools on how boreal bird populations may be conserved in the future. The boreal system has historically been an area with extensive disturbance...

  2. Climatic dipoles drive two principal modes of North American boreal bird irruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Courtenay; Zuckerberg, Benjamin; Betancourt, Julio L; Koenig, Walter D

    2015-05-26

    Pine Siskins exemplify normally boreal seed-eating birds that can be sparse or absent across entire regions of North America in one year and then appear in large numbers the next. These dramatic avian "irruptions" are thought to stem from intermittent but broadly synchronous seed production (masting) in one year and meager seed crops in the next. A prevalent hypothesis is that widespread masting in the boreal forest at high latitudes is driven primarily by favorable climate during the two to three consecutive years required to initiate and mature seed crops in most conifers. Seed production is expensive for trees and is much reduced in the years following masting, driving boreal birds to search elsewhere for food and overwintering habitat. Despite this plausible logic, prior efforts to discover climate-irruption relationships have been inconclusive. Here, analysis of more than 2 million Pine Siskin observations from Project FeederWatch, a citizen science program, reveals two principal irruption modes (North-South and West-East), both of which are correlated with climate variability. The North-South irruption mode is, in part, influenced by winter harshness, but the predominant climate drivers of both modes manifest in the warm season as continental-scale pairs of oppositely signed precipitation and temperature anomalies (i.e., dipoles). The climate dipoles juxtapose favorable and unfavorable conditions for seed production and wintering habitat, motivating a push-pull paradigm to explain irruptions of Pine Siskins and possibly other boreal bird populations in North America. PMID:25964328

  3. Effects of Spruce Budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem. Outbreaks on Boreal Mixed-Wood Bird Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie L. Pearce

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the influence of a spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem. outbreak on a boreal mixed-wood bird community in forest stands ranging in age from 0 to 223 yr. We asked if (1 patterns of species response were consistent with the existence of spruce budworm specialists, i.e., species that respond in a stronger quantitative or qualitative way than other species; (2 the superabundance of food made it possible for species to expand their habitat use in age classes that were normally less used; and (3 the response to budworm was limited to specialists or was it more widespread. Results here indicated that three species, specifically the Bay-breasted Warbler (Dendroica castanea, Tennessee Warbler (Vermivora peregrina, and Cape May Warbler (Dendroica tigrina, had a larger numerical response to the budworm outbreak. They responded with increases in density of up to tenfold over 4 or 5 yr. No other species responded with more than a twofold increase in the same time period. These species also showed a functional response by breeding more frequently in young stands aged 1–21 yr and intermediate stands aged 22–36 yr as budworm numbers increased. Our data also suggested that many species profited to a lesser extent from budworm outbreaks, but that this effect may be too subtle to detect in most studies. We found evidence of a positive numerical effect in at least 18 additional species in one or two stand-age categories but never in all three for any one species. Given the numerical response in many species and the potential influence of budworm on bird populations because of the vast extent of outbreaks, we believe that the population cycle of spruce budworm should be considered in any evaluation of population trends in eastern boreal birds.

  4. Nesting ecology of boreal forest birds following a massive outbreak of spruce beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, S.M.; Handel, C.M.

    2007-01-01

    We studied breeding dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis), yellow-rumped warblers (Dendroica coronata), and spruce-nesting birds from 1997 to 1998 among forests with different levels of spruce (Picea spp.) mortality following an outbreak of spruce beetles (Dendroctonus rufipennis) in Alaska, USA. We identified species using live and beetle-killed spruce for nest sites and monitored nests to determine how the outbreak influenced avian habitat selection and reproduction. We tested predictions that 1) nesting success of ground-nesting juncos would increase with spruce mortality due to proliferation of understory vegetation available to conceal nests from predators, 2) nesting success of canopy-nesting warblers would decrease with spruce mortality due to fewer live spruce in which to conceal nests, and 3) both species would alter nest-site selection in response to disturbance. Juncos did not benefit from changes in understory vegetation; nesting success in highly disturbed stands (46%) was comparable to that in undisturbed habitats throughout their range. In stands with low spruce mortality, nesting success of juncos was low (5%) and corresponded with high densities of red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Yellow-rumped warblers nested exclusively in spruce, but success did not vary with spruce mortality. As disturbance increased, nesting warblers switched from selecting forest patches with high densities of live white spruce (Picea glauca) to patches with beetle-killed spruce. Warblers also placed nests in large-diameter live or beetle-killed spruce, depending on which was more abundant in the stand, with no differences in nesting success. Five of the 12 other species of spruce-nesting birds also used beetle-killed spruce as nest sites. Because beetle-killed spruce can remain standing for >50 years, even highly disturbed stands provide an important breeding resource for boreal forest birds. We recommend that boreal forest managers preserve uncut blocks of infested

  5. Climate change affects populations of northern birds in boreal protected areas

    OpenAIRE

    Virkkala, Raimo; Rajasärkkä,Ari

    2010-01-01

    Human land-use effects on species populations are minimized in protected areas and population changes can thus be more directly linked with changes in climate. In this study, bird population changes in 96 protected areas in Finland were compared using quantitative bird census data, between two time slices, 1981–1999 and 2000–2009, with the mean time span being 14 years. Bird species were categorized by distribution pattern and migratory strategy. Our results showed that northern bird species ...

  6. Recreation-induced changes in boreal bird communities in protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, K; Luoto, M; Ihantola, A; Tomppo, E; Siikamäki, P

    2010-09-01

    The impacts of human-induced disturbance on birds have been studied in growing extent, but there are relatively few studies about the effects of recreation on forest bird communities in protected areas. In this paper, the relative importance of recreation as well as environmental variables on bird communities in Oulanka National Park, in northeastern Finland, was investigated using general additive models (GAM). Bird data collected using the line transect method along hiking trails and in undisturbed control areas were related to number of visits, area of tourism infrastructure, and habitat variables. We further examined the impact of spatial autocorrelation by calculating an autocovariate term for GAMs. Our results indicate that number of visits affects the occurrence and composition of bird communities, but it had no impact on total species richness. Open-cup nesters breeding on the ground showed strongest negative response to visitor pressure, whereas the open-cup nesters nesting in trees and shrubs were more tolerant. For cavity-nesting species, recreation had no significant impact. The contribution of the number of visits was generally low also in models in which it was selected, and the occurrence of birds was mainly determined by habitat characteristics of the area. However, our results show that the recreation-induced disturbance with relatively low visitor pressure can have negative impacts on some bird species and groups of species and should be considered in management of protected areas with recreational activities. PMID:20945775

  7. Preserving species populations in the boreal zone in a changing climate: contrasting trends of bird species groups in a protected area network

    OpenAIRE

    Raimo Virkkala; Ari Rajasärkkä

    2012-01-01

    A protected area network should ensure the maintenance of biodiversity. Because of climate change, species ranges are expected to move polewards, causing further demand for the protected area network to be efficient in preserving biota. We compared population changes of different bird species groups according to their habitat preferences in boreal protected areas in Finland on the basis of large-scale censuses carried out in 1981–1999 and in 2000–2009. Population densities of comm...

  8. Field irradiator gamma: pre-irradiation occurrence of breeding birds in three boreal habitats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A trail census was conducted of the breeding birds found in three major habitats in the Field Irradiator Gamma area at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment, Pinawa, Manitoba. The area sampled was about 10.50 ha in size, and included 4.25 ha of upland forest, 4.75 ha of lowland conifers, and 1.50 ha of black spruce-tamarack bog. Forty-four species of birds were identified, of which 24 were considered to be resident in the study area. The highest population density was observed in the bog, followed by upland forest and lowland conifer respectively. In contrast, species diversity was greatest in the upland forest, while it decreased markedly in the relatively monotypic lowland conifer and bog habitats. (author)

  9. Cost-effective Sampling Design Applied to Large-scale Monitoring of Boreal Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Schmiegelow

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite their important roles in biodiversity conservation, large-scale ecological monitoring programs are scarce, in large part due to the difficulty of achieving an effective design under fiscal constraints. Using long-term avian monitoring in the boreal forest of Alberta, Canada as an example, we present a methodology that uses power analysis, statistical modeling, and partial derivatives to identify cost-effective sampling strategies for ecological monitoring programs. Empirical parameter estimates were used in simulations that estimated the power of sampling designs to detect trend in a variety of species’ populations and community metrics. The ability to detect trend with increased sample effort depended on the monitoring target’s variability and how effort was allocated to sampling parameters. Power estimates were used to develop nonlinear models of the relationship between sample effort and power. A cost model was also developed, and partial derivatives of the power and cost models were evaluated to identify two cost-effective avian sampling strategies. For decreasing sample error, sampling multiple plots at a site is preferable to multiple within-year visits to the site, and many sites should be sampled relatively infrequently rather than sampling few sites frequently, although the importance of frequent sampling increases for variable targets. We end by stressing the need for long-term, spatially extensive data for additional taxa, and by introducing optimal design as an alternative to power analysis for the evaluation of ecological monitoring program designs.

  10. Can Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS and Forest Estimates Derived from Satellite Images Be Used to Predict Abundance and Species Richness of Birds and Beetles in Boreal Forest?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Lindberg

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In managed landscapes, conservation planning requires effective methods to identify high-biodiversity areas. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of airborne laser scanning (ALS and forest estimates derived from satellite images extracted at two spatial scales for predicting the stand-scale abundance and species richness of birds and beetles in a managed boreal forest landscape. Multiple regression models based on forest data from a 50-m radius (i.e., corresponding to a homogenous forest stand had better explanatory power than those based on a 200-m radius (i.e., including also parts of adjacent stands. Bird abundance and species richness were best explained by the ALS variables “maximum vegetation height” and “vegetation cover between 0.5 and 3 m” (both positive. Flying beetle abundance and species richness, as well as epigaeic (i.e., ground-living beetle richness were best explained by a model including the ALS variable “maximum vegetation height” (positive and the satellite-derived variable “proportion of pine” (negative. Epigaeic beetle abundance was best explained by “maximum vegetation height” at 50 m (positive and “stem volume” at 200 m (positive. Our results show that forest estimates derived from satellite images and ALS data provide complementary information for explaining forest biodiversity patterns. We conclude that these types of remote sensing data may provide an efficient tool for conservation planning in managed boreal landscapes.

  11. Preserving species populations in the boreal zone in a changing climate: contrasting trends of bird species groups in a protected area network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimo Virkkala

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A protected area network should ensure the maintenance of biodiversity. Because of climate change, species ranges are expected to move polewards, causing further demand for the protected area network to be efficient in preserving biota. We compared population changes of different bird species groups according to their habitat preferences in boreal protected areas in Finland on the basis of large-scale censuses carried out in 1981–1999 and in 2000–2009. Population densities of common forest habitat generalists remained the same between the two periods, while densities of species of conservation concern showed contrasting trends: species preferring old-growth forests increased, but those living in mires and wetlands, and species of Arctic mountains decreased. These trends are most probably connected with climate change, but successional changes in protected areas and regional habitat alteration should also be taken into account. Of species preferring old-growth forests, a larger proportion are southern than among species of mires and wetlands, or of Arctic mountains, most or all of which, respectively, had a northerly distribution. In general, northern species have decreased and southern increased with the exception of northern species of old-growth forests which had not declined. On the other hand, bird species of mires and wetlands decreased also in the northernmost protected areas although mires had not been drained in the region in contrast with southern and central Finland thus indicating that regional-scale direct habitat loss did not cause the decline of these species in the north. It is suggested that climate change effects on species in natural boreal and Arctic habitats most probably are habitat-specific with large differences in response times and susceptibility.

  12. Grassland bird surveys in support of the Michigan Breeding Bird Atlas II: Final report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Grassland birds, as a group, have suffered the most severe population declines of any other North American birds (Herkert 1995, Herkert et al. 1996). Compared to...

  13. A 10,500 Sequence of Bird Remains from the Southern Boreal Forest Region of Western Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Driver, Jonathan C.; Keith A. Hobson

    1992-01-01

    The prehistoric avian fauna from the Charlie Lake Cave site, Peace River District, British Columbia, spans the last 10 500 years and includes birds from eleven orders. Prior to about 10 000 B.P. the fauna is sparse and the most common species is Cliff Swallow (Hirundopyrrhonota), which probably nested at the site. The avian fauna from 10 000 B.P. to the present is dominated by wetland associated birds (mainly grebes and ducks) of the same species found in the area today and is consistent with...

  14. Birds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk

    Geneva : WHO Press, 2008 - (Bonnefoy, X.; Kampen, H.; Sweeney, K.), s. 239-287 ISBN 978-92-890-7188-8 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/0726 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : birds * urban ecosystem * pathogenic microorganisms Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine http://www.euro.who.int/document/e91435.pdf

  15. Avian malaria in a boreal resident species: long-term temporal variability, and increased prevalence in birds with avian keratin disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Laura C; Handel, Colleen M; Van Hemert, Caroline; Loiseau, Claire; Sehgal, Ravinder N M

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of vector-borne parasitic diseases is widely influenced by biological and ecological factors. Environmental conditions such as temperature and precipitation can have a marked effect on haemosporidian parasites (Plasmodium spp.) that cause malaria and those that cause other malaria-like diseases in birds. However, there have been few long-term studies monitoring haemosporidian infections in birds in northern latitudes, where weather conditions can be highly variable and the effects of climate change are becoming more pronounced. We used molecular methods to screen more than 2,000 blood samples collected from black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus), a resident passerine bird. Samples were collected over a 10 year period, mostly during the non-breeding season, at seven sites in Alaska, USA. We tested for associations between Plasmodium prevalence and local environmental conditions including temperature, precipitation, site, year and season. We also evaluated the relationship between parasite prevalence and individual host factors of age, sex and presence or absence of avian keratin disorder. This disease, which causes accelerated keratin growth in the beak, provided a natural study system in which to test the interaction between disease state and malaria prevalence. Prevalence of Plasmodium infection varied by year, site, age and individual disease status but there was no support for an effect of sex or seasonal period. Significantly, birds with avian keratin disorder were 2.6 times more likely to be infected by Plasmodium than birds without the disorder. Interannual variation in the prevalence of Plasmodium infection at different sites was positively correlated with summer temperatures at the local but not statewide scale. Sequence analysis of the parasite cytochrome b gene revealed a single Plasmodium spp. lineage, P43. Our results demonstrate associations between prevalence of avian malaria and a variety of biological and ecological factors

  16. In vivo measurement of aerodynamic weight support in freely flying birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentink, David; Haselsteiner, Andreas; Ingersoll, Rivers

    2014-11-01

    Birds dynamically change the shape of their wing during the stroke to support their body weight aerodynamically. The wing is partially folded during the upstroke, which suggests that the upstroke of birds might not actively contribute to aerodynamic force production. This hypothesis is supported by the significant mass difference between the large pectoralis muscle that powers the down-stroke and the much smaller supracoracoideus that drives the upstroke. Previous works used indirect or incomplete techniques to measure the total force generated by bird wings ranging from muscle force, airflow, wing surface pressure, to detailed kinematics measurements coupled with bird mass-distribution models to derive net force through second derivatives. We have validated a new method that measures aerodynamic force in vivo time-resolved directly in freely flying birds which can resolve this question. The validation of the method, using independent force measurements on a quadcopter with pulsating thrust, show the aerodynamic force and impulse are measured within 2% accuracy and time-resolved. We demonstrate results for quad-copters and birds of similar weight and size. The method is scalable and can be applied to both engineered and natural flyers across taxa. The first author invented the method, the second and third authors validated the method and present results for quadcopters and birds.

  17. Using Support Vector Machines to Automatically Extract Open Water Signatures from POLDER Multi-Angle Data Over Boreal Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, J.; Diaz-Barrios, M.; Pinzon, J.; Ustin, S. L.; Shih, P.; Tournois, S.; Zarco-Tejada, P. J.; Vanderbilt, V. C.; Perry, G. L.; Brass, James A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This study used Support Vector Machines to classify multiangle POLDER data. Boreal wetland ecosystems cover an estimated 90 x 10(exp 6) ha, about 36% of global wetlands, and are a major source of trace gases emissions to the atmosphere. Four to 20 percent of the global emission of methane to the atmosphere comes from wetlands north of 4 degrees N latitude. Large uncertainties in emissions exist because of large spatial and temporal variation in the production and consumption of methane. Accurate knowledge of the areal extent of open water and inundated vegetation is critical to estimating magnitudes of trace gas emissions. Improvements in land cover mapping have been sought using physical-modeling approaches, neural networks, and active microwave, examples that demonstrate the difficulties of separating open water, inundated vegetation and dry upland vegetation. Here we examine the feasibility of using a support vector machine to classify POLDER data representing open water, inundated vegetation and dry upland vegetation.

  18. Avian malaria in a boreal resident species: long-term temporal variability, and increased prevalence in birds with avian keratin disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Laura C.; Handel, Colleen M.; Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Loiseau, Claire; Sehgal, Ravinder N. M.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of vector-borne parasitic diseases is widely influenced by biological and ecological factors. Environmental conditions such as temperature and precipitation can have a marked effect on haemosporidian parasites (Plasmodium spp.) that cause malaria and those that cause other malaria-like diseases in birds. However, there have been few long-term studies monitoring haemosporidian infections in birds in northern latitudes, where weather conditions can be highly variable and the effects of climate change are becoming more pronounced. We used molecular methods to screen more than 2,000 blood samples collected from black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus), a resident passerine bird. Samples were collected over a 10 year period, mostly during the non-breeding season, at seven sites in Alaska, USA. We tested for associations between Plasmodium prevalence and local environmental conditions including temperature, precipitation, site, year and season. We also evaluated the relationship between parasite prevalence and individual host factors of age, sex and presence or absence of avian keratin disorder. This disease, which causes accelerated keratin growth in the beak, provided a natural study system in which to test the interaction between disease state and malaria prevalence. Prevalence of Plasmodium infection varied by year, site, age and individual disease status but there was no support for an effect of sex or seasonal period. Significantly, birds with avian keratin disorder were 2.6 times more likely to be infected by Plasmodium than birds without the disorder. Interannual variation in the prevalence of Plasmodium infection at different sites was positively correlated with summer temperatures at the local but not statewide scale. Sequence analysis of the parasite cytochrome b gene revealed a single Plasmodiumspp. lineage, P43. Our results demonstrate associations between prevalence of avian malaria and a variety of biological and

  19. Toward Conservation of Canada’s Boreal Forest Avifauna: Design and Application of Ecological Models at Continental Extents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven G. Cumming

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Human development is increasing pressure on North America’s mainly intact boreal forest. We outline the need for a comprehensive synthesis of existing data and for effective scientific tools to support conservation of this biome and of the birds that depend on it. To illustrate how broad collaborations can address these needs, we introduce and report on the Boreal Avian Modelling Project. This is a new partnership involving universities, government, private, and nongovernment groups that was created to develop spatially explicit, predictive models of boreal bird habitat associations across Canada. This initiative is designed to improve our understanding of the influence of environmental factors and human activities on boreal bird species, leading to spatially explicit predictive models of the distribution of avian populations. The intended applications of these models are land use planning and avian conservation across the nearctic boreal forest. In this essay, we present a description of the extensive collection of point count survey data assembled by the Project, and the library of spatial covariates used for modeling. We show how it is possible to account for a number of nuisance variables related to differences in survey protocol among source data sets and make some preliminary suggestions as to how future surveys could be standardized. We present a distance-sampling approach used to convert standardized point count data to density estimates, which we illustrate by providing habitat-specific densities and total population estimates for one species in a part of western Canada. We also illustrate the use of Classification and Regression Trees to develop species niche models from the standardized data. We conclude with a discussion of the need for a monitoring program for boreal birds in Canada, the role of predictive statistical models in developing such a program, and how monitoring could be related to boreal bird conservation through

  20. Public support for conserving bird species runs counter to climate change impacts on their distributions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hedemark Lundhede

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that global climate change will alter the spatiotemporal occurrences and abundances of many species at continental scales. This will have implications for efficient conservation of biodiversity. We investigate if the general public in Denmark are willing to pay for the preservation of birds potentially immigrating and establishing breeding populations due to climate change to the same extent that they are for native species populations currently breeding in Denmark, but potentially emigrating due to climate change. We find that Danish citizens are willing to pay much more for the conservation of birds currently native to Denmark, than for bird species moving into the country--even when they are informed about the potential range shifts associated with climate change. The only exception is when immigrating species populations are under pressure at European level. Furthermore, people believing climate change to be man-made and people more knowledgeable about birds tended to have higher WTP for conservation of native species, relative to other people, whereas their preferences for conserving immigrant species generally resembled those of other people. Conservation investments rely heavily on public funding and hence on public support. Our results suggest that cross-country coordination of conservation efforts under climate change will be challenging in terms of achieving an appropriate balance between cost-effectiveness in adaptation and the concerns of a general public who seem mostly worried about protecting currently-native species.

  1. Boreal forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review patterns and processes important for biodiversity in the Fennoscandian boreal forest, describe man's past and present impact and outline a strategy for conservation. Natural disturbances, particularly forest fire and gap formation, create much of the structural and functional diversity in forest ecosystems. Several boreal plants and animals are adapted to fire regimes. In contrast, many organisms (epiphytic lichens, fungi, invertebrates) require stable conditions with long continuity in canopy cover. The highly mechanized and efficient Fennoscandian forest industry has developed during the last century. The result is that most natural forest has been lost and that several hundreds of species, mainly cryptograms and invertebrates, are threatened. The forestry is now in a transition from exploitation to sustainable production and has recently incorporated some measures to protect the environment. Programmes for maintaining biodiversity in the boreal forest should include at least three parts. First, the system of forest reserves must be significantly improved through protection of large representative ecosystems and key biotopes that host threatened species. Second, we must restore ecosystem properties that have been lost or altered. Natural disturbance regimes must be allowed to operate or be imitated, for example by artificial fire management. Stand-level management should particularly increase the amount of coarse woody debris, the number of old deciduous trees and large, old conifers, by using partial cutting. Third, natural variation should also be mimicked at the landscape level, for example, by reducing fragmentation and increasing links between landscape elements. Long-term experiments are required to evaluate the success of different management methods in maintaining biodiversity in the boreal forest. (au) 260 refs

  2. Analysis of Bird Diversity for Supporting Ecotourism Development in Rajegwesi, Meru Betiri National Park

    OpenAIRE

    Hafid Zain Muttaqien; Luchman Hakim; Amin Setyo Leksono

    2015-01-01

    Potential ecotourism attraction in Rajegwesi Village, Meru Betiri National Park is high due to its high biodiversity, especially bird diversity, in the form of bird watching activity. This study was aimed to determine the species, level of abundance, and diversity of birds found in the Rajegwesi area. Further, this basic information is important to develop the bird watching track at Rajegwesi. We used Quantum-GIS to create the land classification and observation mapping. Bird observation used...

  3. Population trends of central European montane birds provide evidence for adverse impacts of climate change on high-altitude species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flousek, J.; Telenský, Tomáš; Hanzelka, J.; Reif, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 10 (2015), e0139465. E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Elevational range shifts * Life-history traits * Arrival date * Boreal birds * Habitat loss * Biodiversity * Declines Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  4. A spatially explicit decision support model for restoration of forest bird habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, D.J.; Uihlein, W.B., III; Elliott, A.B.

    2006-01-01

    The historical area of bottomland hardwood forest in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley has been reduced by >75%. Agricultural production was the primary motivator for deforestation; hence, clearing deliberately targeted higher and drier sites. Remaining forests are highly fragmented and hydrologically altered, with larger forest fragments subject to greater inundation, which has negatively affected many forest bird populations. We developed a spatially explicit decision support model, based on a Partners in Flight plan for forest bird conservation, that prioritizes forest restoration to reduce forest fragmentation and increase the area of forest core (interior forest >1 km from 'hostile' edge). Our primary objective was to increase the number of forest patches that harbor >2000 ha of forest core, but we also sought to increase the number and area of forest cores >5000 ha. Concurrently, we targeted restoration within local (320 km2) landscapes to achieve >60% forest cover. Finally, we emphasized restoration of higher-elevation bottomland hardwood forests in areas where restoration would not increase forest fragmentation. Reforestation of 10% of restorable land in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (approximately 880,000 ha) targeted at priorities established by this decision support model resulted in approximately 824,000 ha of new forest core. This is more than 32 times the amount of core forest added through reforestation of randomly located fields (approximately 25,000 ha). The total area of forest core (1.6 million ha) that resulted from targeted restoration exceeded habitat objectives identified in the Partners in Flight Bird Conservation Plan and approached the area of forest core present in the 1950s.

  5. Analysis of Bird Diversity for Supporting Ecotourism Development in Rajegwesi, Meru Betiri National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafid Zain Muttaqien

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Potential ecotourism attraction in Rajegwesi Village, Meru Betiri National Park is high due to its high biodiversity, especially bird diversity, in the form of bird watching activity. This study was aimed to determine the species, level of abundance, and diversity of birds found in the Rajegwesi area. Further, this basic information is important to develop the bird watching track at Rajegwesi. We used Quantum-GIS to create the land classification and observation mapping. Bird observation used point count method in the morning and evening with three periods of hour and three repetitions. The study confirmed about 76 species of 39 bird families was found in Rajegwesi. The highest abundance was Pygnonotus goiavier (E:Yellow-vented Bulbul, at the meadows, village, and rehabilitation land. The diversity index showed that the highest diversity was found at the heterogeneous forest (H’ index 3.745, followed by homogenous forest (H’ index 3.150, rehabilitation land (H’ index 2.845, village (H’ index 2.693, paddy fields (H’ index 2.529, and savanna (H’ index 1.880. The observation track was divided into 3 lines based on the bird’s distribution, the Village – Rehabilitation Land track (6.5 Km, Village track (2.3 Km, and Village – Rafflessia Park track (7.5 Km. Total of 25 bird species were found at the Village – Rehabilitation Land track, 22 species were found at the Village track, and 29 bird species were found at the Village – Rafflessia Park track. For the future of ecotourism development through birding development program, there are several issues that should be promoted: promoting birds conservation in the community through bird watching and birds observation competition (Bird race, training on conservation and ecotourism for the community, and strengthening the capacity and capability of Rajegwesi Ecotourism Society (RES on the ecotourism program management. Keywords: bird watching, conservation, ecotourism development, RES

  6. Public support for conserving bird species runs counter to climate change impacts on their distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundhede, Thomas; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Hanley, Nick;

    2014-01-01

    preservation of birds potentially immigrating and establishing breeding populations due to climate change to the same extent that they are for native species populations currently breeding in Denmark, but potentially emigrating due to climate change. We find that Danish citizens are willing to pay much more...... for the conservation of birds currently native to Denmark, than for bird species moving into the country – even when they are informed about the potential range shifts associated with climate change. The only exception is when immigrating species populations are under pressure at European level....... Furthermore, people believing climate change to be man-made and people more knowledgeable about birds tended to have higher WTP for conservation of native species, relative to other people, whereas their preferences for conserving immigrant species generally resembled those of other people. Conservation...

  7. Public support for conserving bird species runs counter to climate change impacts on their distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Hedemark Lundhede; Jette Bredahl Jacobsen; Nick Hanley; Jon Fjeldså; Carsten Rahbek; Niels Strange; Bo Jellesmark Thorsen

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that global climate change will alter the spatiotemporal occurrences and abundances of many species at continental scales. This will have implications for efficient conservation of biodiversity. We investigate if the general public in Denmark are willing to pay for the preservation of birds potentially immigrating and establishing breeding populations due to climate change to the same extent that they are for native species populations currently breeding in Denmar...

  8. Hawaiian forest bird trends: using log-linear models to assess long-term trends is supported by model diagnostics and assumptions (reply to Freed and Cann 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Richard J.; Pratt, Thane K.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Woodworth, Bethany L.; Jeffrey, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Freed and Cann (2013) criticized our use of linear models to assess trends in the status of Hawaiian forest birds through time (Camp et al. 2009a, 2009b, 2010) by questioning our sampling scheme, whether we met model assumptions, and whether we ignored short-term changes in the population time series. In the present paper, we address these concerns and reiterate that our results do not support the position of Freed and Cann (2013) that the forest birds in the Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) are declining, or that the federally listed endangered birds are showing signs of imminent collapse. On the contrary, our data indicate that the 21-year long-term trends for native birds in Hakalau Forest NWR are stable to increasing, especially in areas that have received active management.

  9. Virginia ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, pelagic birds, passerine birds, and gulls...

  10. Maryland ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  11. Alabama ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, gulls, and...

  12. Genotype-environment associations support a mosaic hybrid zone between two tidal marsh birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jennifer; Rowe, Rebecca J; Olsen, Brian J; Shriver, W Gregory; Kovach, Adrienne I

    2016-01-01

    Local environmental features can shape hybrid zone dynamics when hybrids are bounded by ecotones or when patchily distributed habitat types lead to a corresponding mosaic of genotypes. We investigated the role of marsh-level characteristics in shaping a hybrid zone between two recently diverged avian taxa - Saltmarsh (Ammodramus caudacutus) and Nelson's (A. nelsoni) sparrows. These species occupy different niches where allopatric, with caudacutus restricted to coastal marshes and nelsoni found in a broader array of wetland and grassland habitats and co-occur in tidal marshes in sympatry. We determined the influence of habitat types on the distribution of pure and hybrid sparrows and assessed the degree of overlap in the ecological niche of each taxon. To do this, we sampled and genotyped 305 sparrows from 34 marshes across the hybrid zone and from adjacent regions. We used linear regression to test for associations between marsh characteristics and the distribution of pure and admixed sparrows. We found a positive correlation between genotype and environmental variables with a patchy distribution of genotypes and habitats across the hybrid zone. Ecological niche models suggest that the hybrid niche was more similar to that of A. nelsoni and habitat suitability was influenced strongly by distance from coastline. Our results support a mosaic model of hybrid zone maintenance, suggesting a role for local environmental features in shaping the distribution and frequency of pure species and hybrids across space. PMID:26811792

  13. Impacts of chronic anthropogenic noise from energy-sector activity on abundance of songbirds in the boreal forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayne, Erin M; Habib, Lucas; Boutin, Stan

    2008-10-01

    The effects of human activities in forests are often examined in the context of habitat conversion. Changes in habitat structure and composition are also associated with increases in the activity of people with vehicles and equipment, which results in increases in anthropogenic noise. Anthropogenic noise may reduce habitat quality for many species, particularly those that rely on acoustic signals for communication. We compared the density and occupancy rate of forest passerines close to versus far from noise-generating compressor stations and noiseless well pads in the boreal forest of Alberta, Canada. Using distance-based sampling, we found that areas near noiseless energy facilities had a total passerine density 1.5 times higher than areas near noise-producing energy sites. The White-throated Sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis), Yellow-rumped Warbler (Dendroica coronata), and Red-eyed Vireo (Vireo olivaceus) were less dense in noisy areas. We used repeat sampling to estimate occupancy rate for 23 additional species. Seven had lower conditional or unconditional occupancy rates near noise-generating facilities. One-third of the species examined showed patterns that supported the hypothesis that abundance is influenced by anthropogenic noise. An additional 4 species responded negatively to edge effects. To mitigate existing noise impacts on birds would require approximately $175 million. The merits of such an effort relative to other reclamation actions are discussed. Nevertheless, given the $100 billion energy-sector investment planned for the boreal forest in the next 10 years, including noise suppression technology at the outset of construction, makes noise mitigation a cost-effective best-management practice that might help conserve high-quality habitat for boreal birds. PMID:18616740

  14. A boreal invasion in response to climate change? Range shifts and community effects in the borderland between forest and tundra

    OpenAIRE

    Elmhagen, Bodil; Kindberg, Jonas; Hellström, Peter; Angerbjörn, Anders

    2015-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that climate warming will allow southern species to advance north and invade northern ecosystems. We review the changes in the Swedish mammal and bird community in boreal forest and alpine tundra since the nineteenth century, as well as suggested drivers of change. Observed changes include (1) range expansion and increased abundance in southern birds, ungulates, and carnivores; (2) range contraction and decline in northern birds and carnivores; and (3) abundance decli...

  15. Links between fear of humans, stress and survival support a non-random distribution of birds among urban and rural habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebolo-Ifrán, Natalia; Carrete, Martina; Sanz-Aguilar, Ana; Rodríguez-Martínez, Sol; Cabezas, Sonia; Marchant, Tracy A; Bortolotti, Gary R; Tella, José L

    2015-01-01

    Urban endocrine ecology aims to understand how organisms cope with new sources of stress and maintain allostatic load to thrive in an increasingly urbanized world. Recent research efforts have yielded controversial results based on short-term measures of stress, without exploring its fitness effects. We measured feather corticosterone (CORTf, reflecting the duration and amplitude of glucocorticoid secretion over several weeks) and subsequent annual survival in urban and rural burrowing owls. This species shows high individual consistency in fear of humans (i.e., flight initiation distance, FID), allowing us to hypothesize that individuals distribute among habitats according to their tolerance to human disturbance. FIDs were shorter in urban than in rural birds, but CORTf levels did not differ, nor were correlated to FIDs. Survival was twice as high in urban as in rural birds and links with CORTf varied between habitats: while a quadratic relationship supports stabilizing selection in urban birds, high predation rates may have masked CORTf-survival relationship in rural ones. These results evidence that urban life does not constitute an additional source of stress for urban individuals, as shown by their near identical CORTf values compared with rural conspecifics supporting the non-random distribution of individuals among habitats according to their behavioural phenotypes. PMID:26348294

  16. Emaciation and larval filarioid nematode infection in boreal owls (Aegolius funereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrat, Sylvain; Dallaire, André D; Lair, Stéphane

    2012-01-01

    Microfilariae are considered non-pathogenic in wild birds. The objective of the current communication is to report host reactions to microfilarial infection of unusual intensity in emaciated boreal owls (Aegolius funereus). An unusually large number of boreal owls (n = 21) were submitted to the Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Center-Quebec Region for post-mortem examination during the winter of 2009. Nineteen out of 21 birds were considered emaciated based on atrophy of adipose tissue and pectoral muscles and suboptimal weight. A microscopic examination of a subset of nine owls revealed the presence of microfilariae in six owls. Three of the birds with a heavy parasite burden had masses of larval nematodes obstructing large vessels of the lungs. The emaciated owls are believed to have died from starvation due to a cyclic decrease in prey abundance in the boreal forest. This cycle also drives winter movements of boreal owls to urbanized areas of southern Quebec, presumably accounting for the large number of birds submitted in 2009. In the most severely infected owls, the extreme microfilarial burden might have caused an alteration in circulatory dynamics, gaseous exchanges and also probably some metabolic cost. Consequently, microfilariae could have significantly contributed to the death of some of these owls. PMID:22834547

  17. Behavioral and physiological flexibility are used by birds to manage energy and support investment in the early stages of reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François VÉzina, Katrina G. SALVANTE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest in phenotypic flexibility has increased dramatically over the last decade, but flexibility during reproduction has received relatively little attention from avian scientists, despite its possible impact on fitness. Because most avian species maintain atrophied reproductive organs when not active, reproduction in birds requires major tissue remodeling in preparation for breeding. Females undergo rapid (days recrudescence and regression of their reproductive organs at each breeding attempt, while males grow their organs ahead of time at a much slower rate (weeks and may maintain them at maximal size throughout the breeding season. Reproduction is associated with significant metabolic costs. Egg production leads to a 22–27% increase in resting metabolic rate (RMR over non-reproductive values. This is partly due to the activity of the oviduct, an organ that may allow females to adjust reproductive investment by modulating egg size and quality. In males, gonadal recrudescence may lead to a 30% increase in RMR, but the data are inconsistent and general conclusions regarding energetic costs of reproduction in males will require more research. Recent studies on captive female zebra finches describe the impacts of these costs on daily energy budgets and highlight the strategies used by birds to maintain their investment in reproduction when energy is limited. Whenever possible, birds use behavioral flexibility as a first means of saving energy. Decreasing locomotor activity saves energy during challenges such as egg production or exposure to cold temperatures and is an efficient way to buffer variation in individual daily energy budgets. However, when behavioral flexibility is not possible, birds must rely on flexibility at the physiological level to meet energy demands. In zebra finches breeding in the cold, this results in a reduced pace of laying, likely due to down-regulation of both reproductive and non-reproductive function, allowing

  18. Bird guard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Dana M.

    2010-03-02

    The bird guard provides a device to protect electrical insulators comprising a central shaft; a clamp attached to an end of the shaft to secure the device to a transmission tower; a top and bottom cover to shield transmission tower insulators; and bearings to allow the guard to rotate in order to frighten birds away from the insulators.

  19. Talking Birds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    海文

    2005-01-01

    Many students of Englishthink thatlearning a new languageis very difficult.N ow think howdifficultitis to learn English whenyour brain is only the size of abird's brain。That is what som ebirds can do.M any different kinds of birdscan copy the sounds of lan-guage.A frican gray parrots are thebirds bestknown for this.Every D ecem ber in London,the N ationalCage and A viary BirdShow tries to find the best“talkbird in the world.O ne bird nam edPrudle stood outam ong the“talk-ing birds by winning this prizeevery...

  20. Seasonal and spatial patterns of marine bird and mammal occurrences recorded on offshore support vessel transects on the Grand Banks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montevecchi, W.A.; Burke, C.M.; Davoren, G.K.; Wiese, F.K. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NF (Canada). Biopsychology Programme

    2003-07-01

    A series of surveys have been conducted since 1999 on communities of seabirds and marine mammals living on the Grand Banks of eastern Canada. The objective has been to gain information on their dynamic diversity, distribution and abundance. This has been accomplished by integrating oceanographic data from vessels traveling between the Hibernia and Terra Nova offshore platforms. The most common seabirds observed were shearwaters, storm-petrels, kittiwakes and murres. Most seabirds were recorded during summer and during migration. For both marine mammals and seabirds, there were marked seasonal changes in oceanography and species diversity, distributions and abundance. Dovekies and murres, who are most vulnerable to oil pollution, were most numerous between November and April. Oiled Dovekies were observed at Hibernia and by vessel crews. Humpback whales were often found feeding at Hibernia. They were the most common mammals during summer and fall, followed by Minke whales, porpoises and dolphins. Concentrations of birds were observed along the Labrador Current, approximately half-way between St. John's and Hibernia. Seabird densities also increased within a 500 metre radius of offshore platforms because of light attraction, food availability, and refuge. It was suggested that the surveys continue in order to keep assessing the changing relationships of seabirds and marine mammals.

  1. Hawaii ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for endangered waterbirds and passerine birds, migratory shorebirds and waterfowl, gulls and terns,...

  2. Osteology Supports a Stem-Galliform Affinity for the Giant Extinct Flightless Bird Sylviornis neocaledoniae (Sylviornithidae, Galloanseres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor H Worthy

    Full Text Available The giant flightless bird Sylviornis neocaledoniae (Aves: Sylviornithidae existed on La Grande Terre and Ile des Pins, New Caledonia, until the late Holocene when it went extinct shortly after human arrival on these islands. The species was generally considered to be a megapode (Megapodiidae until the family Sylviornithidae was erected for it in 2005 to reflect multiple cranial autapomorphies. However, despite thousands of bones having been reported for this unique and enigmatic taxon, the postcranial anatomy has remained largely unknown. We rectify this deficiency and describe the postcranial skeleton of S. neocaledoniae based on ~600 fossils and use data from this and its cranial anatomy to make a comprehensive assessment of its phylogenetic affinities. Sylviornis neocaledoniae is found to be a stem galliform, distant from megapodiids, and the sister taxon to the extinct flightless Megavitiornis altirostris from Fiji, which we transfer to the family Sylviornithidae. These two species form the sister group to extant crown-group galliforms. Several other fossil galloanseres also included in the phylogenetic analysis reveal novel hypotheses of their relationships as follows: Dromornis planei (Dromornithidae is recovered as a stem galliform rather than a stem anseriform; Presbyornis pervetus (Presbyornithidae is the sister group to Anseranatidae, not to Anatidae; Vegavis iaai is a crown anseriform but remains unresolved relative to Presbyornis pervetus, Anseranatidae and Anatidae. Sylviornis neocaledoniae was reconstructed herein to be 0.8 m tall in a resting stance and weigh 27-34 kg. The postcranial anatomy of S. neocaledoniae shows no indication of the specialised adaptation to digging seen in megapodiids, with for example, its ungual morphology differing little from that of chicken Gallus gallus. These observations and its phylogenetic placement as stem galliforms makes it improbable that this species employed ectothermic incubation or was a

  3. Osteology Supports a Stem-Galliform Affinity for the Giant Extinct Flightless Bird Sylviornis neocaledoniae (Sylviornithidae, Galloanseres).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthy, Trevor H; Mitri, Miyess; Handley, Warren D; Lee, Michael S Y; Anderson, Atholl; Sand, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The giant flightless bird Sylviornis neocaledoniae (Aves: Sylviornithidae) existed on La Grande Terre and Ile des Pins, New Caledonia, until the late Holocene when it went extinct shortly after human arrival on these islands. The species was generally considered to be a megapode (Megapodiidae) until the family Sylviornithidae was erected for it in 2005 to reflect multiple cranial autapomorphies. However, despite thousands of bones having been reported for this unique and enigmatic taxon, the postcranial anatomy has remained largely unknown. We rectify this deficiency and describe the postcranial skeleton of S. neocaledoniae based on ~600 fossils and use data from this and its cranial anatomy to make a comprehensive assessment of its phylogenetic affinities. Sylviornis neocaledoniae is found to be a stem galliform, distant from megapodiids, and the sister taxon to the extinct flightless Megavitiornis altirostris from Fiji, which we transfer to the family Sylviornithidae. These two species form the sister group to extant crown-group galliforms. Several other fossil galloanseres also included in the phylogenetic analysis reveal novel hypotheses of their relationships as follows: Dromornis planei (Dromornithidae) is recovered as a stem galliform rather than a stem anseriform; Presbyornis pervetus (Presbyornithidae) is the sister group to Anseranatidae, not to Anatidae; Vegavis iaai is a crown anseriform but remains unresolved relative to Presbyornis pervetus, Anseranatidae and Anatidae. Sylviornis neocaledoniae was reconstructed herein to be 0.8 m tall in a resting stance and weigh 27-34 kg. The postcranial anatomy of S. neocaledoniae shows no indication of the specialised adaptation to digging seen in megapodiids, with for example, its ungual morphology differing little from that of chicken Gallus gallus. These observations and its phylogenetic placement as stem galliforms makes it improbable that this species employed ectothermic incubation or was a mound

  4. Birds build camouflaged nests

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Ida Elizabeth; Muth, Felicity; Morgan, Kate; Meddle, Simone L.; Healy, Susan Denise

    2014-01-01

    This work was supported by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) (BB/I019502/1 to S.D.H. and S.L.M.) and by Roslin Institute Strategic Grant funding from the BBSRC (to S.L.M). It is assumed that many birds attempt to conceal their nests by using camouflage. To our knowledge, however, no previous experimental studies have explicitly tested this assumption. To explore whether birds choose materials that match the background colors of nest sites to reduce the cons...

  5. Western Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  6. Columbia River ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, gulls, and terns in...

  7. Overabundant ungulates in French Sologne? Increasing red deer and wild boar pressure may not threaten woodland birds in mature forest stands

    OpenAIRE

    Baltzinger, Marie; Marell, Anders; Archaux, Frédéric; Pérot, Thomas; Leterme , Franck; Deconchat, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Increasing ungulate populations have been considered to drive changes in woodland bird communities in temperate and boreal forests. Ungulates may negatively affect understory-dependent woodland birds either directly or indirectly. For instance ungulates may prey on nests, or they may reduce the availability of nesting sites, foraging resources or cover for understory-dependent bird species. We conducted ungulate pressure, vegetation and bird surveys on 95 plots, in nineteen mature forest stan...

  8. National recovery strategy for woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou, boreal population, in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Hervieux

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Recovery planning for the boreal population of woodland caribou is a complex task, spanning eight Canadian provinces and territories. To accommodate unique situations across the country, recovery planning for this Species at Risk Act-listed threatened species is occurring at both provincial/ territorial and national levels. The national recovery strategy strives to identify nationally important issues and provide direction for provinces and territories as they plan and implement boreal caribou recovery within their jurisdictions. The national vision is to conserve and recover boreal caribou and their habitat across Canada. Specific goals are to: 1 Prevent extirpation of local boreal caribou populations from all existing caribou ranges; and 2 Maintain or enhance local boreal caribou populations at or to self-sustaining levels within all existing caribou ranges; and 3 Maintain or enhance boreal caribou habitat to support self-sustaining local populations. Nineteen broad national approaches are identified. These approaches include items relating to: habitat planning and management, caribou population monitoring and management, management of human-caused mortality, management of other wildlife species, consideration of government legislation and policy,promotion of stewardship and public outreach, and research. Specific outcomes are provided for each stated recovery approach. For more information on Canada's national recovery strategy for the boreal population of woodland caribou please see www.speciesatrisk.gc.ca/recovery/default_e.cfm

  9. Reserve selection in boreal forest

    OpenAIRE

    Lundström, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Most boreal forests in North Europe are intensively managed, and the forest landscape is far from its natural stage leading to hundreds of species being threatened in Sweden alone. Reserves are established to protect biodiversity, but since the resources available for conservation do not cover all species in need of protection, effective prioritization is essential. In this thesis, a reserve selection model based on a goal programming approach was developed, finding the optimal age comp...

  10. Killing Two Birds with One Stone: Can Real-Time Pricing SupportRetail Competition and Demand Response?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Goldman, Charles; Hopper,Nicole; Neenan, Bernie

    2006-04-25

    As retail choice states reach the end of their transitional, rate-cap periods, state regulators must decide what type of default supply service to provide to customers that have not switched to a competitive retail supplier. In a growing number of states, regulators have adopted real-time pricing (RTP) as the default service for large commercial and industrial (C&I) customers. Although this trend is driven chiefly by policy objectives related to retail competition, default service RTP may have the added benefit of stimulating demand response. To evaluate the potential role of RTP as a means to both ends--retail market development and demand response--we conducted a comprehensive review of experience with default RTP in the U.S. and examined the emergence of RTP as a product offering by competitive retail suppliers. Across the ten utilities with default RTP in place in 2005, between 5% and 35% of the applicable load remained on the rate. Based on interviews with competitive retailers, we find evidence to suggest that a comparable amount of load in these states has switched to hourly pricing arrangements with competitive retailers. Many customers on default or competitive hourly pricing are paying prices indexed to the real-time spot market, and thus have no advance knowledge of prices. Because the price responsiveness of customers under these conditions has yet to be formally analyzed, and relatively few efforts have been undertaken to help these customers become price responsive, the actual demand response impacts from hourly pricing in retail choice states remains largely an open question. However, we find that policymakers and other stakeholders in retail choice states have various strategies at their disposal to capture the potential demand response benefits from hourly pricing, while simultaneously supporting retail competition.

  11. BIRD FLU (AVIAN INFLUENZA)

    OpenAIRE

    Acar, Ali; Bulent BESIRBELLIOÐLU

    2005-01-01

    Avian influenza (bird flu) is a contagious disease of animals caused by influenza A viruses. These flu viruses occur naturally among birds. Actually, humans are not infected by bird flu viruses.. However, during an outbreak of bird flu among poultry, there is a possible risk to people who have contact infect birds or surface that have been contaminated with excreations from infected birds. Symptoms of bird flu in humans have ranged from typical flu-like symptoms to eye infections, pneumonia, ...

  12. Pretreatment survey and monitoring of birds and mammals of Kiska Island, June 1985 (in support of the EPA experimental compound 1080 use permit G704-EUP-28)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Survey to monitor birds and mammals of Kiska Island to establish baseline conditions prior to application of Compound 1080 to complete fox eradication.

  13. Second survey and monitoring of birds and mammals of Kiska Island, June 1986 (in support of the EPA experimental compound 1080 use permit G704-EUP-28)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of this study was to continue surveying and monitoring the birds and mammals of Kiska Island to establish baseline conditions prior to and the first...

  14. 9 CFR 93.104 - Certificate for pet birds, commercial birds, zoological birds, and research birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certificate for pet birds, commercial birds, zoological birds, and research birds. 93.104 Section 93.104 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND...

  15. The Influence of Summer Climate on Avian Community Composition in the Eastern Boreal Forest of Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie-Louise LeBlanc

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relative influence of environmental variables, especially climate, in driving variation in species diversity is becoming increasingly important for the conservation of biodiversity. The objective of this study was to determine to what extent climate can explain the structure and diversity of forest bird communities by sampling bird abundance in homogenous mature spruce stands in the boreal forest of the Québec-Labrador peninsula using variance partitioning techniques. We also quantified the relationship among two climatic gradients, summer temperature and precipitation, and bird species richness, migratory strategy, and spring arrival phenology. For the bird community, climate factors appear to be most important in explaining species distribution and abundance because nearly 15% of the variation in the distribution of the 44 breeding birds selected for the analysis can be explained by climate. The vegetation variables we selected were responsible for a much smaller amount of the explained variation (4%. Breeding season temperature seems to be more important than precipitation in driving variation in bird species diversity at the scale of our analysis. Partial correlation analysis indicated that bird species richness distribution was determined by the temperature gradient, because the number of species increased with increasing breeding season temperature. Similar results were observed between breeding season temperature and the number of residents, short-distance and long-distance migrants, and early and late spring migrants. Our results suggest that the northern and southern range boundaries of species are not equally sensitive to the temperature gradient across the region.

  16. Boreal ecosystems and landscapes: structures, processes and conservation of biodiversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a scientific summation of a research program on 'Remnant habitats in production landscapes' that was initiated and supported by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA). Ideas on conservation research and some preliminary results from this program were earlier published as the book 'Ecological principles of nature conservation. Applications in temperate and boreal environments'. The various projects in the total research program have now been implemented and completed and primary results have been published in international journals on ecology and conservation. Here we try to synthesize the data from various aspects and try to deduce suitable conservation management for boreal ecosystems and landscapes. Ecologists from outside the program but with similar scientific background and approaches have also been involved as authors. A number of original ideas discussed in the first book have been retained here in order to make our approaches and findings easily understandable. (EG)

  17. Migration of birds

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the migration of birds. Topics covered include why birds migrate, when birds migrate, speed, altitude, courses, distance, major flyways and...

  18. Predicting Climate Change Impacts to the Canadian Boreal Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisalyn A. Nelson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is expected to alter temperature, precipitation, and seasonality with potentially acute impacts on Canada’s boreal. In this research we predicted future spatial distributions of biodiversity in Canada’s boreal for 2020, 2050, and 2080 using indirect indicators derived from remote sensing and based on vegetation productivity. Vegetation productivity indices, representing annual amounts and variability of greenness, have been shown to relate to tree and wildlife richness in Canada’s boreal. Relationships between historical satellite-derived productivity and climate data were applied to modelled scenarios of future climate to predict and map potential future vegetation productivity for 592 regions across Canada. Results indicated that the pattern of vegetation productivity will become more homogenous, particularly west of Hudson Bay. We expect climate change to impact biodiversity along north/south gradients and by 2080 vegetation distributions will be dominated by processes of seasonality in the north and a combination of cumulative greenness and minimum cover in the south. The Hudson Plains, which host the world’s largest and most contiguous wetland, are predicted to experience less seasonality and more greenness. The spatial distribution of predicted trends in vegetation productivity was emphasized over absolute values, in order to support regional biodiversity assessments and conservation planning.

  19. A Thankful Bird

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜巧玲

    2002-01-01

    One day, I was playing in the woods when I saw a bird standing on a tree branch in the rain. “Poor bird, I thought, ”He has no home. “When I got home, I set down to make a house for the bird so that the bird would not catch rain any longer.

  20. Sustaining Aquatic Ecosystems in Boreal Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Schindler

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Few boreal waters are managed in a sustainable manner, because cumulative effects of a variety of human activities are not considered. Fisheries and water quality have declined in most large water bodies of the southern boreal zone. Some of the reasons are direct, including overexploitation of fisheries, alteration of flow patterns, introductions of non-native species, and discharge of eutrophying nutrients and persistent contaminants. However, improper management of watersheds and airsheds also causes degradation of aquatic ecosystems. Clear-cut logging, climatic warming, acid precipitation, and stratospheric ozone depletion are among the more important of these indirect stressors. There are important interactions among these stressors, requiring that they not be treated in isolation. Ecological sustainability of boreal waters would require that exploitation of all parts of the boreal landscape be much lower than it is at present. Unfortunately, management for sustainability is lagging far behind scientific understanding in most countries.

  1. Ozone photochemistry in boreal biomass burning plumes

    OpenAIRE

    M. Parrington; Palmer, P. I.; Lewis, A. C.; J. D. Lee; A. R. Rickard; De Carlo, P; Taylor, J.W.; J. R. Hopkins; S. Punjabi; D. E. Oram; G. Forster; Aruffo, E.; Moller, S. J.; Bauguitte, S. J.-B.; Allan, J. D.

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of ozone (O3) photochemistry observed by aircraft measurements of boreal biomass burning plumes over eastern Canada in the summer of 2011. Measurements of O3 and a number of key chemical species associated with O3 photochemistry, including non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and total nitrogen containing species (NOy), were made from the UK FAAM BAe-146 research aircraft as part of the "quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric ox...

  2. Ozone photochemistry in boreal biomass burning plumes

    OpenAIRE

    M. Parrington; Palmer, P. I.; Lewis, A. C.; J. D. Lee; A. R. Rickard; P. Di Carlo; Taylor, J.W.; J. R. Hopkins; S. Punjabi; D. E. Oram; G. Forster; Aruffo, E.; Moller, S. J.; Bauguitte, S. J.-B.; Allan, J. D.

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of ozone photochemistry observed by aircraft measurements of boreal biomass burning plumes over Eastern Canada in the summer of 2011. Measurements of ozone and a number of key chemical species associated with ozone photochemistry, including non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and total nitrogen containing species (NOy), were made from the UK FAAM BAe-146 research aircraft as part of the quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on tropospheric ox...

  3. Are Boreal Ovenbirds, Seiurus aurocapilla, More Prone to Move across Inhospitable Landscapes in Alberta's Boreal Mixedwood Forest than in Southern Québec's Temperate Deciduous Forest?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Bélisle

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Population life-history traits such as the propensity to move across inhospitable landscapes should be shaped by exposure to landscape structure over evolutionary time. Thus, birds that recently evolved in landscapes fragmented by natural disturbances such as fire would be expected to show greater behavioral and morphological vagility relative to conspecifics that evolved under less patchy landscapes shaped by fewer and finer-scaled disturbances, i.e., the resilience hypothesis. These predictions are not new, but they remain largely untested, even for well-studied taxa such as neotropical migrant birds. We combined two experimental translocation, i.e., homing, studies to test whether Ovenbird, Seiurus aurocapilla, from the historically dynamic boreal mixedwood forest of north-central Alberta (n = 55 is more vagile than Ovenbird from historically less dynamic deciduous forest of southern Québec (n = 89. We found no regional difference in either wing loading or the response of homing Ovenbird to landscape structure. Nevertheless, this study presents a heuristic framework that can advance the understanding of boreal landscape dynamics as an evolutionary force.

  4. Summer fluxes of nitrous oxide from boreal forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macháčová, Kateřina; Pihlatie, M.; Halmeenmäki, E.; Pavelka, Marian; Dušek, Jiří; Bäck, J.; Urban, Otmar

    Brno: Global Change Research Centre, The Czech Academy of Sciences, v. v. i., 2015 - (Urban, O.; Šprtová, M.; Klem, K.), s. 78-81 ISBN 978-80-87902-10-3. [Global Change: A Complex Challenge /4th/. Brno (CZ), 23.03.2015-24.03.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0246 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : boreal forest * greenhouse gases * forest ecosystem * Picea abies * Pinus Silvestris Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  5. Evidence for shift from acidobacteria to proteobacteria dominance in soil profile of boreal acid sulphate soils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chroňáková, Alica; Bryndová, Michala; Otáhalová, Šárka; Yli-Halla, M.; Šimek, Miloslav

    Dijon : INRA, 2014. s. 276. [Global Soil Biodiversity Conference. Assessing soil biodiversity and its role for ecosystem services /1./. 02.12.2014-05.12.2014, Dijon] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : boreal acid sulphate soils * soil profile * bacteria community structure * subsoil horizons Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  6. The Elusive Boreal Forest Thaumarchaeota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Bomberg

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Archaea have, with increasing frequency, been found to colonize both agricultural and forest soils in temperate and boreal regions. The as yet uncultured group I.1c of the Thaumarchaeota has been of special interest. These Archaea are widely distributed in mature vegetated acidic soils, but little has been revealed of their physiological and biological characteristics. The I.1c Thaumarchaeota have been recognized as a microbial group influenced by plant roots and mycorrhizal fungi, but appear to have distinct features from their more common soil dwelling counterparts, such as the Nitrosotalea or Nitrososphaera. They appear to be highly dependent on soil pH, thriving in undisturbed vegetated soils with a pH of 5 or below. Research indicate that these Archaea require organic carbon and nitrogen sources for growth and that they may live both aerobically and anaerobically. Nevertheless, pure cultures of these microorganisms have not yet been obtained. This review will focus on what is known to date about the uncultured group I.1c Thaumarchaeota formerly known as the “Finnish Forest Soil” (FFS Archaea.

  7. BIRD FLU (AVIAN INFLUENZA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali ACAR

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza (bird flu is a contagious disease of animals caused by influenza A viruses. These flu viruses occur naturally among birds. Actually, humans are not infected by bird flu viruses.. However, during an outbreak of bird flu among poultry, there is a possible risk to people who have contact infect birds or surface that have been contaminated with excreations from infected birds. Symptoms of bird flu in humans have ranged from typical flu-like symptoms to eye infections, pneumonia, severe respiratory diseases and other severe and life-threatening complications. In such situation, people should avoid contact with infected birds or contaminated surface, and should be careful when handling and cooking poultry. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(6.000: 345-353

  8. Disturbance Regimes and Landscape Heterogeneity in the Boreal Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, Evan Albert

    2015-01-01

    The boreal forest circles the high northern latitudes but it is far from a continuous carpet of evergreen trees. Rather, the boreal forest is a patchwork of land cover types in constant flux as they recover from wildfire and then are burned again. This fast turnover of land cover makes the boreal forest particularly susceptible to rapid change in response to climate. Furthermore, the boreal forest is an important component of the climate system that pumps heat into the atmosphere and signi...

  9. A Clever Bird

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张仰清

    2000-01-01

    A man in Australia had a wonderful bird. There was no other bird like it . It was very,very clever. The bird could say any word --except one. It could not say the name of the town where it was born. The name of that town was Catano.

  10. Archaeopteryx: Dinosaur or Bird?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Jianlan

    2011-01-01

    @@ An Archaeopteryx-like theropod dinosaur newly found from western Liaoning Province in northeastern China would make an unusual, if not unwelcome, gift for the 150th birthday of Archaeopteryx, the oldest bird as long-believed by paleontologists: Named as Xiaotingia zhengiis, the new species carries some critical traits suggesting that Archaeopteryx might have actually been a dinosaur.Naturally this breaking news stirred intense controversies.Was "The Oldest Bird" a bird? If not, what makes a bird? With these questions in mind, the author joined an exploration in search of "the real first bird" along with the paleontologists at the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology (IVPP) under CAS.

  11. Recent NDVI-Based Variation in Growth of Boreal Intact Forest Landscapes and Its Correlation with Climatic Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxin Jin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Intact Forest Landscape (IFL is of great value in protecting biodiversity and supporting core ecological processes. It is important to analyze the spatial variation in the growth dynamics of IFL. This study analyzed the change of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI during the growing season (April–October for boreal (45° N–70° N IFLs and the correlation with climatic variables over the period of 2000–2013. Our results show 85.5% of boreal IFLs did not show a significant change in the NDVI after 2000, and only 10.2% and 4.3% exhibited a statistically significant increase (greening or decrease (browning in NDVI, respectively. About 60.9% of the greening boreal IFLs showed that an increasing NDVI was significantly correlated to climatic variables, especially an increasing growing season temperature (over 47.0%. For browning boreal IFLs, a decrease in temperature or an increase in dormancy period precipitation could be the prime reason for a significant decrease in the NDVI. However, about 64.6% of the browning boreal IFLs were insensitive to any of the climatic variables, indicating other factors, such as fire, had caused the browning. Although it did not show a significant trend, the NDVI of 51.3% of no-change boreal IFLs significantly correlated to climatic variables, especially growing season temperatures (over 37.6%.

  12. An integrative approach to understanding bird origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xing; Zhou, Zhonghe; Dudley, Robert; Mackem, Susan; Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Erickson, Gregory M; Varricchio, David J

    2014-12-12

    Recent discoveries of spectacular dinosaur fossils overwhelmingly support the hypothesis that birds are descended from maniraptoran theropod dinosaurs, and furthermore, demonstrate that distinctive bird characteristics such as feathers, flight, endothermic physiology, unique strategies for reproduction and growth, and a novel pulmonary system originated among Mesozoic terrestrial dinosaurs. The transition from ground-living to flight-capable theropod dinosaurs now probably represents one of the best-documented major evolutionary transitions in life history. Recent studies in developmental biology and other disciplines provide additional insights into how bird characteristics originated and evolved. The iconic features of extant birds for the most part evolved in a gradual and stepwise fashion throughout archosaur evolution. However, new data also highlight occasional bursts of morphological novelty at certain stages particularly close to the origin of birds and an unavoidable complex, mosaic evolutionary distribution of major bird characteristics on the theropod tree. Research into bird origins provides a premier example of how paleontological and neontological data can interact to reveal the complexity of major innovations, to answer key evolutionary questions, and to lead to new research directions. A better understanding of bird origins requires multifaceted and integrative approaches, yet fossils necessarily provide the final test of any evolutionary model. PMID:25504729

  13. Maintaining animal assemblages through single-species management: the case of threatened caribou in boreal forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichet, Orphé; Dupuch, Angélique; Hébert, Christian; Le Borgne, Hélène Le; Fortin, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    With the intensification of human activities, preserving animal populations is a contemporary challenge of critical importance. In this context, the umbrella species concept is appealing because preserving a single species should result in the protection of multiple co-occurring species. Practitioners, though, face the task of having to find suitable umbrellas to develop single-species management guidelines. In North America, boreal forests must be managed to facilitate the recovery of the threatened boreal caribou (Rangifer tarandus). Yet, the effect of caribou conservation on co-occurring animal species remains poorly documented. We tested if boreal caribou can constitute an effective umbrella for boreal fauna. Birds, small mammals, and insects were sampled along gradients of post-harvest and post-fire forest succession. Predictive models of occupancy were developed from the responses of 95 species to characteristics of forest stands and their surroundings. We then assessed the similarity of species occupancy expected between simulated harvested landscapes and a 90 000-km2 uncut landscape. Managed landscapes were simulated based on three levels of disturbance, two timber-harvest rotation cycles, and dispersed or aggregated cut-blocks. We found that management guidelines that were more likely to maintain caribou populations should also better preserve animal assemblages. Relative to fragmentation or harvest cycle, we detected a stronger effect of habitat loss on species assemblages. Disturbing 22%, 35%, and 45% of the landscape should result, respectively, in 80%, 60%, and 40% probability for caribou populations to be sustainable; in turn, this should result in regional species assemblages with Jaccard similarity indices of 0.86, 0.79, and 0.74, respectively, relative to the uncut landscape. Our study thus demonstrates the value of single-species management for animal conservation. Our quantitative approach allows for the evaluation of management guidelines prior

  14. North Slope, Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls and terns, seabirds, shorebirds, and waterfowl for the North Slope of Alaska....

  15. American Samoa ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for seabirds, wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, and gulls and terns in American Samoa. Vector polygons...

  16. Critical Care of Pet Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jeffrey Rowe

    2016-05-01

    Successful care of the critical pet bird patient is dependent on preparation and planning and begins with the veterinarian and hospital staff. An understanding of avian physiology and pathophysiology is key. Physical preparation of the hospital or clinic includes proper equipment and understanding of the procedures necessary to provide therapeutic and supportive care to the avian patient. An overview of patient intake and assessment, intensive care environment, and fluid therapy is included. PMID:27131161

  17. Browning boreal forests of western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbyla, David

    2011-12-01

    The GIMMS NDVI dataset has been widely used to document a 'browning trend' in North American boreal forests (Goetz et al 2005, Bunn et al 2007, Beck and Goetz 2011). However, there has been speculation (Alcaraz-Segura et al 2010) that this trend may be an artifact due to processing algorithms rather than an actual decline in vegetation activity. This conclusion was based primarily on the fact that GIMMS NDVI did not capture NDVI recovery within most burned areas in boreal Canada, while another dataset consistently showed post-fire increasing NDVI. I believe that the results of Alcaraz-Segura et al (2010) were due simply to different pixel sizes of the two datasets (64 km2 versus 1 km2 pixels). Similar results have been obtained from tundra areas greening in Alaska, with the results simply due to these pixel size differences (Stow et al 2007). Furthermore, recent studies have documented boreal browning trends based on NDVI from other sensors. Beck and Goetz (2011) have shown the boreal browning trend derived from a different sensor (MODIS) to be very similar to the boreal browning trend derived from the GIMMS NDVI dataset for the circumpolar boreal region. Parent and Verbyla (2010) found similar declining NDVI patterns based on NDVI from Landsat sensors and GIMMS NDVI in boreal Alaska. Zhang et al (2008) found a similar 'browning trend' in boreal North America based on a production efficiency model using an integrated AVHRR and MODIS dataset. The declining NDVI trend in areas of boreal North America is consistent with tree-ring studies (D'Arrigo et al 2004, McGuire et al 2010, Beck et al 2011). The decline in tree growth may be due to temperature-induced drought stress (Barber et al 2000) caused by higher evaporative demands in a warming climate (Lloyd and Fastie 2002). In a circumpolar boreal study, Lloyd and Bunn (2007) found that a negative relationship between temperature and tree-ring growth occurred more frequently in warmer parts of species' ranges

  18. Diseases Transmitted by Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levison, Matthew E

    2015-08-01

    Although many people these days actually work very hard at leisure time activities, diseases are most commonly acquired from birds during the course of work in the usual sense of the term, not leisure. However, travel for pleasure to areas where the diseases are highly endemic puts people at risk of acquiring some of these bird-related diseases (for example, histoplasmosis and arbovirus infections), as does ownership of birds as pets (psittacosis). PMID:26350315

  19. Climate change and the demographic demise of a hoarding bird living on the edge

    OpenAIRE

    Waite, Thomas A; Strickland, Dan

    2006-01-01

    Population declines along the lower-latitude edge of a species' range may be diagnostic of climate change. We report evidence that climate change has contributed to deteriorating reproductive success in a rapidly declining population of the grey jay (Perisoreus canadensis) at the southern edge of its range. This non-migratory bird of boreal and subalpine forest lives on permanent territories, where it hoards enormous amounts of food for winter and then breeds very early, under still-wintry co...

  20. Bird Activity Analysis Using Avian Radar Information in Naval Air Station airport, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Herricks, E.

    2010-12-01

    The number of bird strikes on aircraft has increased sharply over recent years and airport bird hazard management has gained increasing attention in wildlife management and control. Evaluation of bird activity near airport is very critical to analyze the hazard of bird strikes. Traditional methods for bird activity analysis using visual counting provide a direct approach to bird hazard assessment. However this approach is limited to daylight and good visual conditions. Radar has been proven to be a useful and effective tool for bird detection and movement analysis. Radar eliminates observation bias and supports consistent data collection for bird activity analysis and hazard management. In this study bird activity data from the Naval Air Station Whidbey Island was collected by Accipiter Avian Radar System. Radar data was pre-processed by filtering out non-bird noises, including traffic vehicle, aircraft, insects, wind, rainfall, ocean waves and so on. Filtered data is then statistically analyzed using MATLAB programs. The results indicated bird movement dynamics in target areas near the airport, which includes (1) the daily activity varied at dawn and dusk; (2) bird activity varied by target area due to the habitat difference; and (3) both temporal and spatial movement patterns varied by bird species. This bird activity analysis supports bird hazard evaluation and related analysis and modeling to provide very useful information in airport bird hazard management planning.

  1. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  2. Influence of tree species on continental differences in boreal fires and climate feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Brendan M.; Soja, Amber J.; Goulden, Michael L.; Randerson, James T.

    2015-03-01

    Wildfires are common in boreal forests around the globe and strongly influence ecosystem processes. However, North American forests support more high-intensity crown fires than Eurasia, where lower-intensity surface fires are common. These two types of fire can result in different net effects on climate as a consequence of their contrasting impacts on terrestrial albedo and carbon stocks. Here we use remote-sensing imagery, climate reanalysis data and forest inventories to evaluate differences in boreal fire dynamics between North America and Eurasia and their key drivers. Eurasian fires were less intense, destroyed less live vegetation, killed fewer trees and generated a smaller negative shortwave forcing. As fire weather conditions were similar across continents, we suggest that different fire dynamics between the two continents resulted from their dominant tree species. In particular, species that have evolved to spread and be consumed by crown fires as part of their life cycle dominate North American boreal forests. In contrast, tree species that have evolved to resist and suppress crown fires dominate Eurasian boreal forests. We conclude that species-level traits must be considered in global evaluations of the effects of fire on emissions and climate.

  3. The impact of boreal autumn SST anomalies over the South Pacific on boreal winter precipitation over East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Juan; Sun, Jianqi

    2016-05-01

    The possible mechanism behind the variability in the dipole pattern of boreal winter precipitation over East Asia is analyzed in this study. The results show that the SST anomalies (SSTAs) over the South Pacific Ocean (SPO) in boreal autumn are closely related to the variability in the dipole pattern of boreal winter precipitation over East Asia. The physical link between the boreal autumn SPO SSTAs and the boreal winter East Asian precipitation dipole pattern is shown to mainly be the seasonal persistence of the SPO SSTAs themselves. The seasonal persistence of the SPO SSTAs can memorize and transport the signal of the boreal autumn SSTAs to the following winter, and then stimulates a meridional teleconnection pattern from the SH to the NH, resulting in a meridional dipole pattern of atmospheric circulation over East Asia in boreal winter. As a major influencing factor, this dipole pattern of the atmospheric circulation can finally lead to the anomalous precipitation dipole pattern over East Asia in boreal winter. These observed physical processes are further confirmed in this study through numerical simulation. The evidence from this study, showing the impact of the SPO SSTAs in boreal autumn, not only deepens our understanding of the variability in East Asian boreal winter precipitation, but also provides a potentially useful predictor for precipitation in the region.

  4. Chemical compass for bird navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Hore, Peter J.; Ritz, Thorsten;

    2014-01-01

    Migratory birds travel spectacular distances each year, navigating and orienting by a variety of means, most of which are poorly understood. Among them is a remarkable ability to perceive the intensity and direction of the Earth's magnetic field. Biologically credible mechanisms for the detection...... other relies on the quantum spin dynamics of transient photoinduced radical pairs. Originally suggested by Schulten in 1978 as the basis of the avian magnetic compass sensor, this mechanism gained support from the subsequent observation that the compass is light-dependent. The radical pair hypothesis...... began to attract increased interest following the proposal in 2000 that free radical chemistry could occur in the bird's retina initiated by photoexcitation of cryptochrome, a specialized photoreceptor protein. In the present paper we review the important physical and chemical constraints on a possible...

  5. Explaining geographic gradients in winter selection of landscapes by boreal caribou with implications under global changes in Eastern Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Beguin

    Full Text Available Many animal species exhibit broad-scale latitudinal or longitudinal gradients in their response to biotic and abiotic components of their habitat. Although knowing the underlying mechanism of these patterns can be critical to the development of sound measures for the preservation or recovery of endangered species, few studies have yet identified which processes drive the existence of geographical gradients in habitat selection. Using extensive spatial data of broad latitudinal and longitudinal extent, we tested three hypotheses that could explain the presence of geographical gradients in landscape selection of the endangered boreal woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou during winter in Eastern Canadian boreal forests: 1 climate-driven selection, which postulates that geographic gradients are surrogates for climatic gradients; 2 road-driven selection, which proposes that boreal caribou adjust their selection for certain habitat classes as a function of proximity to roads; and 3 an additive effect of both roads and climate. Our data strongly supported road-driven selection over climate influences. Thus, direct human alteration of landscapes drives boreal caribou distribution and should likely remain so until the climate changes sufficiently from present conditions. Boreal caribou avoided logged areas two-fold more strongly than burnt areas. Limiting the spread of road networks and accounting for the uneven impact of logging compared to wildfire should therefore be integral parts of any habitat management plan and conservation measures within the range of the endangered boreal caribou. The use of hierarchical spatial models allowed us to explore the distribution of spatially-structured errors in our models, which in turn provided valuable insights for generating alternative hypotheses about processes responsible for boreal caribou distribution.

  6. What Is Bird Flu?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢连香

    2004-01-01

    What is bird flu? It's a form of influenza believed to strike all birds. Though poultry (家禽)are believed to be especially prone to (倾向于)humans, no human-to-human transmission(传播) has been reported.

  7. Nanoscale magnetoreceptors in birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Greiner, Walter

    2012-01-01

    The Earth's magnetic field provides an important source of directional information for many living organisms, especially birds, but the sensory receptor responsible for magnetic field detection still has to be identified. Recently, magnetic iron oxide particles were detected in dendritic endings...... field, by a bird....

  8. Birds as biodiversity surrogates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Frank Wugt; Bladt, Jesper Stentoft; Balmford, Andrew;

    2012-01-01

    1. Most biodiversity is still unknown, and therefore, priority areas for conservation typically are identified based on the presence of surrogates, or indicator groups. Birds are commonly used as surrogates of biodiversity owing to the wide availability of relevant data and their broad popular...... appeal. However, some studies have found birds to perform relatively poorly as indicators. We therefore ask how the effectiveness of this approach can be improved by supplementing data on birds with information on other taxa. 2. Here, we explore two strategies using (i) species data for other taxa...... areas identified on the basis of birds alone performed well in representing overall species diversity where birds were relatively speciose compared to the other taxa in the data sets. Adding species data for one taxon increased surrogate effectiveness better than adding genus- and family-level data...

  9. Botany: Constraints to growth of boreal forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Paul; Linder, Sune

    2000-06-01

    Understanding how the growth of trees at high latitudes in boreal forest is controlled is important for projections of global carbon sequestration and timber production in relation to climate change. Is stem growth of boreal forest trees constrained by the length of the growing season when stem cambial cells divide, or by the length of the period when resources can be captured? In both cases, the timing of the thaw in the spring is critical: neither cambial cell division nor uptake of nutrients and carbon dioxide can occur while the soil is frozen. Here we argue, on the basis of long-term observations made in northern Saskatchewan and Sweden, that the time between the spring thaw and the autumn freeze determines the amount of annual tree growth, mainly through temperature effects on carbon-dioxide uptake in spring and on nutrient availability and uptake during summer, rather than on cambial cell division.

  10. Mineralization of cellulose in frozen boreal soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oquist, Mats G.; Segura, Javier; Sparrman, Tobias; Nilsson, Mats; Schleucher, Jurgen

    2015-04-01

    Soils of high-latitude ecosystems store a large fraction of the global soil carbon. In boreal forests, the microbial mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM) during winter can affect the ecosystems net carbon balance. Recent research has shown that microorganisms in the organic surface layer of boreal forest soil can mineralize and grow on simple, soluble monomeric substrates under frozen conditions. However, any substantial impacts of microbial activity in frozen soils on long-term soil carbon balances ultimately depends on whether soil microorganisms can utilize and grow the more complex, polymeric constituents of SOM. In order to evaluate the potential for soil microorganisms to metabolize carbon polymers at low temperatures, we incubated boreal forest soil samples amended with [13C]-cellulose and studied the microbial catabolic and anabolic utilization of the substrate under frozen and unfrozen conditions (-4 and +4°C). Freezing of the soil markedly reduced microbial utilization of the cellulose. The [13C]-CO2 production rate in the samples at +4°C were 0.52 mg CO2 SOM -1 day-1 while rates in the frozen samples (-4°C) were 0.01 mg CO2 SOM -1 day-1. However, newly synthetized [13C]-enriched cell membrane lipids, PLFAs, were detected in soil samples incubated both above and below freezing, confirming that cellulose can sustain also anabolic activity of the microbial populations under frozen conditions. The reduced metabolic rates induced by freezing indicate constraints on exoenzymatic activity, as well as substrate diffusion rates that we can attribute to reduced liquid water content of the frozen soil. We conclude that the microbial population in boreal forest soil has the capacity to metabolize, and grow, on polymeric substrates at temperatures below zero, which involves maintaining exoenzymatic activity in frozen soils. This capacity manifests the importance of SOM mineralization during the winter season and its importance for the net carbon balance of

  11. Ozone photochemistry in boreal biomass burning plumes

    OpenAIRE

    M. Parrington; Palmer, P. I.; Lewis, A. C.; J. D. Lee; A. R. Rickard; P. Di Carlo; Taylor, J.W.; J. R. Hopkins; S. Punjabi; D. E. Oram; G. Forster; Aruffo, E.; Moller, S. J.; S. J.-B. Bauguitte; Allan, J. D.

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of ozone photochemistry observed by aircraft measurements of boreal biomass burning plumes over Eastern Canada in the summer of 2011. Measurements of ozone and a number of key chemical species associated with ozone photochemistry, including non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and total nitrogen containing species (NOy), were made from the UK FAAM BAe-146 research aircraft as part of the quantifying ...

  12. Christmas Island birds returning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six months after their mass exodus, birds are beginning to return to Christmas Island. Roughly 17 million birds, almost the entire adult bird population, either perished or fled their mid-Pacific atoll home last autumn, leaving behind thousands of nestlings to starve (Eos, April 5, 1983, p. 131). It is believed that the strong El Niño altered the ecology of the surrounding waters and forced the birds to flee. Christmas Island is the world's largest coral atoll.“Ocean and atmosphere scientists are unsure of future directions for the El Niño conditions and cannot now predict what will happen to the birds in the coming months,” said Ralph W. Schreiber, curator of ornithology at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County in California. Heisthe ornithologist who discovered the disappearance. “The recovery of the bird populations depends on the food supply in the waters surrounding the island.” The island's birds feed exclusively on small fish and squid.

  13. Effects of land use on bird populations and pest control services on coffee farms

    OpenAIRE

    Railsback, Steven F.; Johnson, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    How land use can support both natural and agricultural resources is a key sustainability question. This question is more complicated when nature and agriculture support each other; here, birds consume pest insects, and coffee provides bird habitat. We used a model based on field research to study the effects of agricultural and natural land uses on birds, the pest control services that birds provide, and crop production on Jamaican coffee farms. Our conclusions address whether small forest-li...

  14. Structural Colors of Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Cecilia; Dushkina, Natalia

    2016-03-01

    Structural colors create iridescent colors in bird feathers. The goal is to understand why structural colors act the way they do in certain situations. The research conducted over the course of the fall semester was to understand the optical phenomenon producing colors in individual barbules. Through the use of a polarizing optical microscope, certain hypotheses were built to explain certain phenomenon. Using a dark field illumination involving light acting at wide angles in microscopy, the barbules were not affected by polarization. So it can be suggested that the barbules have certain characteristics, possibly internal, which prevents wide-angle polarization. More recently, it was found that the barbules, when stacked upon one another, create a discoloration at the cross over point. It can be suggested that the barbules act as thin films and create a situation of thin film interference. More data will be taken using the Scanning Electron Microscope as well as getting cross sectional data to help understand the internal characteristics of the barbules. From the support of the Neimeyer-Hodgson Grant, Chris Stull, and Millersville University of Pennsylvania.

  15. Biomass patterns in boreal-subarctic lake food webs along gradients of light and nutrients

    OpenAIRE

    Thomsson, Gustaf

    2015-01-01

    There is large natural variation in light and nutrient conditions across lakes. In the boreal-subarctic region most lakes are small, shallow and nutrient poor. In such lakes there is often sufficient light to support primary production at the lake bottom. An expectation for the future is that colored dissolved organic matter (cDOM) of terrestrial origin will increase in these lakes. cDOM depresses the underwater light climate but is often associated with elevated pelagic nutrient concentratio...

  16. Revealing sources of biological methane production in boreal upland forests (metafor): forest floor flux

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Halmeenmäki, E.; Macháčová, Kateřina; Santalahti, M.; Fritze, H.; Heinonsalo, J.; Pihlatie, M.

    Helsinky : Finnish association for aerosol research FAAR, 2014 - (Kulmala, M.; Lintunen, A.; Kontkanen, J.), s. 270-272 ISBN 978-952-7091-01-2. ISSN 0784-3496. - (Report series in aerosol science. 157). [International Aerosol Conference 2014. Busan (KR), 28.08.2014-02.09.2014] Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : methane * boreal upland forest * forest floor emission * flux Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  17. Oxyspiruriasis in zoo birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellayan, S; Jeffery, J; Oothuman, P; Zahedi, M; Krishnasamy, M; Paramaswaran, S; Rohela, M; Abdul-Aziz, N M

    2012-06-01

    Oxyspiruriasis caused by the bird eyeworm, Oxyspirura mansoni, a thelaziid nematode, in three species of pheasants, 3 Chrysolophus pictus (golden pheasant), 7 Lophura nycthemera (silver pheasant) and 9 Phasianus colchicus (common pheasant) in Zoo Negara Malaysia are reported. Birds with the disease were treated with a solution of 0.5% iodine or 0.5% lysol. Antistress powder for 4 days in water and non-strep vitamin powder in water was also provided. Control measures included removal of the cockroach intermediate host, Pycnoscelus surinamensis (Surinam cockroach) from the vicinity of the birds. The golden pheasant is a new host for O. mansoni in peninsular Malaysia. PMID:22735854

  18. Ecohydrology of Interior Alaska boreal forest systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, J.; Bolton, W. R.

    2012-12-01

    The ecohydrology of boreal forest ecosystems of Interior Alaska is not well understood largely because of challenges posed by the presence of discontinuous permafrost. Near-surface permafrost results in storage-dominated systems with cold, poorly drained soils, and slow growing, low statured coniferous trees (Picea mariana) or CDE's. The transition to permafrost-free areas can occur over a few meters and is accompanied by a vegetation community dominated by large deciduous trees (Populus sp. and Betula sp.) or DDE's. Typically, areas with permafrost are on north facing slopes and valley bottoms, and areas without permafrost are south facing. In Alaska's boreal forest, the permafrost is very warm and vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Once permafrost begins to thaw, the vegetation community shifts from coniferous to deciduous dominated. Streamflow in watersheds with a larger permafrost distribution tends to be higher and more responsive to precipitation events than in watersheds with low permafrost distribution. In fact, precipitation events in the low permafrost areas do not infiltrate past the rooting zone of the deciduous trees (~5-40 cm). This suggests that the deciduous trees may remove water from the system via uptake and transpiration. We focus on how vegetation water use affects boreal forest hydrology in areas of discontinuous permafrost. Specifically, we ask: what are the patterns of vegetation water use in areas with and without permafrost? This study focuses on the CDE and DDE systems. Our research sites are established on low and high locations on each aspect (south facing DDE, north facing CDE) to capture the variability associated with the different hillside drainage properties. At each of the four sites during the growing season, we measured various aspects of plant water use dynamics, including water flux, water content, water sources, depth of water uptake in the soil, and water stress. We use a Bayesian framework to analyze the data. We

  19. Spectral contribution of understory to forest reflectance in a boreal site: an analysis of EO-1 Hyperion data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rautianien, M.; Lukeš, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 171, dec (2015), s. 98-104. ISSN 0034-4257 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : forest reflectance model * hyperspectral * boreal * leaf area index * understory Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 6.393, year: 2014

  20. Evidence for shift from Acidobacteria to Proteobacteria dominance in soil profile of boreal acid sulphate soils in Finland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chroňáková, Alica; Yli-Halla, M.; Bryndová, Michala; Otáhalová, Šárka; Šimek, Miloslav

    Milan: University of Milan, 2015. s. 117-118. [BAGECO 13 - Symposium on Bacterial Genetics and Ecology, The Microbial Continuity Across Changing Ecosystems /13./. 14.06.2015-18.06.2015, Milan] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Acidobacteria * Proteobacteria * soil profile * boreal acid sulphate soils Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  1. Forest commons in boreal Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Holmgren, Eva

    2009-01-01

    This thesis examines the influences of Swedish forest commons on forest condition, management and the local economy. The approach is rationalistic, i.e. outcomes of forestry activities are assessed in relation to aims. According to the stated objectives, forest commons should serve as exemplars for improved forest management, focusing on increased and sustained timber production. They should provide sustainable economic support for farmers and the local economy, providing a sound basis for ta...

  2. Avian Influenza in Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Making a Candidate Vaccine Virus Related Links Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Avian Influenza in Birds Language: English Español Recommend on ...

  3. Awesome Audubon Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a watercolor art lesson on Audubon birds. She also discusses how science, technology, writing skills, and the elements and principles of art can be incorporated into the lesson.

  4. Birds - Breeding [ds60

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This data set provides access to information gathered on annual breeding bird surveys in California using a map layer developed by the Department. This data layer...

  5. BIRD FLU MASKS

    OpenAIRE

    YASAR KESKIN; OÐUZ OZYARAL

    2006-01-01

    Avian influenza (bird flu) is a disease of birds caused by influenza viruses closely related to human influenza viruses. The potential for transformation of avian influenza into a form that both causes severe disease in humans and spreads easily from person to person is a great concern for world health. The main purpose of a mask is to help prevent particles (droplets) being expelled into the environment by the wearer. Masks are also resistant to fluids, and help protect the wearer from splas...

  6. Sources and sinks of carbon in boreal ecosystems of interior Alaska: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Thomas A.; Jones, Miriam C.; Hiemstra, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Boreal regions store large quantities of carbon but are increasingly vulnerable to carbon loss due to disturbance and climate warming. The boreal region, underlain by discontinuous permafrost, presents a challenging landscape for itemizing current and potential carbon sources and sinks in the boreal soil and vegetation. The roles of fire, forest succession, and the presence (or absence) of permafrost on carbon cycle, vegetation, and hydrologic processes have been the focus of multidisciplinary research in this area for the past 20 years. However, projections of a warming future climate, an increase in fire severity and extent, and the potential degradation of permafrost could lead to major landscape process changes over the next 20 to 50 years. This provides a major challenge for predicting how the interplay between land management activities and impacts of climate warming will affect carbon sources and sinks in Interior Alaska. To assist land managers in adapting and managing for potential changes in the Interior Alaska carbon cycle we developed this review paper incorporating an overview of the climate, ecosystem processes, vegetation types, and soil regimes in Interior Alaska with a focus on ramifications for the carbon cycle. Our objective is to provide a synthesis of the most current carbon storage estimates and measurements to support policy and land management decisions on how to best manage carbon sources and sinks in Interior Alaska. To support this we have surveyed relevant peer reviewed estimates of carbon stocks in aboveground and belowground biomass for Interior Alaska boreal ecosystems. We have also summarized methane and carbon dioxide fluxes from the same ecosystems. These data have been converted into the same units to facilitate comparison across ecosystem compartments. We identify potential changes in the carbon cycle with climate change and human disturbance including how compounding disturbances can affect the boreal system. Finally, we provide

  7. Comparative Modeling Studies of Boreal Water and Carbon Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan, J.; Peterson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The coordination of the modeling and field efforts for an Intensive Field Campaign (IFC) may resemble the chicken and egg dilemma. This session's theme advocates that early and proactive involvement by modeling teams can produce a scientific and operational benefit for the IFC and Experiment. This talk will provide some examples and suggestions originating from the NASA funded IFC's of the FIFE First ISLSCP (International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project) Field Experiment, Oregon Transect Ecosystem Research (OTTER) and predominately Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Experiments. In February 1994 and prior to the final selection of the BOREAS study sites, a group of funded BOREAS investigators agreed to run their models with data for five community types representing the proposed tower flux sites. All participating models were given identical initial values and boundary conditions and driven with identical climate data. The objectives of the intercomparison exercise were: 1) compare simulation results of participating terrestrial, hydrological, and atmospheric models over selected time frames; 2) learn about model behavior and sensitivity to estimated boreal site and vegetation definitions; 3) prioritize BOREAS field data collection efforts supporting modeling studies; 4) identify individual model deficiencies as early as possible. Out of these objectives evolved some important coordination and science issues for the BOREAS Experiment that can be generalized to IFCs and long term archiving of the data. Some problems are acceptable because they are endemic to maintaining fair and open competition prior to the peer review process. Others are logistical and addressable through application of planning, management, and information sciences. This investigator has identified one source of measurement and model incompatibility that is manifest in the IFC scaling approach. Although intuitively obvious, scaling problems are already more formally defined in

  8. Antibiotic resistance in wild birds

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnedahl, Jonas; Järhult, Josef D.

    2014-01-01

    Wild birds have been postulated as sentinels, reservoirs, and potential spreaders of antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have been isolated from a multitude of wild bird species. Several studies strongly indicate transmission of resistant bacteria from human rest products to wild birds. There is evidence suggesting that wild birds can spread resistant bacteria through migration and that resistant bacteria can be transmitted from birds to humans and vice versa. Through further...

  9. Ancient DNA reveals elephant birds and kiwi are sister taxa and clarifies ratite bird evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kieren J; Llamas, Bastien; Soubrier, Julien; Rawlence, Nicolas J; Worthy, Trevor H; Wood, Jamie; Lee, Michael S Y; Cooper, Alan

    2014-05-23

    The evolution of the ratite birds has been widely attributed to vicariant speciation, driven by the Cretaceous breakup of the supercontinent Gondwana. The early isolation of Africa and Madagascar implies that the ostrich and extinct Madagascan elephant birds (Aepyornithidae) should be the oldest ratite lineages. We sequenced the mitochondrial genomes of two elephant birds and performed phylogenetic analyses, which revealed that these birds are the closest relatives of the New Zealand kiwi and are distant from the basal ratite lineage of ostriches. This unexpected result strongly contradicts continental vicariance and instead supports flighted dispersal in all major ratite lineages. We suggest that convergence toward gigantism and flightlessness was facilitated by early Tertiary expansion into the diurnal herbivory niche after the extinction of the dinosaurs. PMID:24855267

  10. Aerodynamics of bird flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvořák Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike airplanes birds must have either flapping or oscillating wings (the hummingbird. Only such wings can produce both lift and thrust – two sine qua non attributes of flying.The bird wings have several possibilities how to obtain the same functions as airplane wings. All are realized by the system of flight feathers. Birds have also the capabilities of adjusting the shape of the wing according to what the immediate flight situation demands, as well as of responding almost immediately to conditions the flow environment dictates, such as wind gusts, object avoidance, target tracking, etc. In bird aerodynamics also the tail plays an important role. To fly, wings impart downward momentum to the surrounding air and obtain lift by reaction. How this is achieved under various flight situations (cruise flight, hovering, landing, etc., and what the role is of the wing-generated vortices in producing lift and thrust is discussed.The issue of studying bird flight experimentally from in vivo or in vitro experiments is also briefly discussed.

  11. Aerodynamics of bird flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvořák, Rudolf

    2016-03-01

    Unlike airplanes birds must have either flapping or oscillating wings (the hummingbird). Only such wings can produce both lift and thrust - two sine qua non attributes of flying.The bird wings have several possibilities how to obtain the same functions as airplane wings. All are realized by the system of flight feathers. Birds have also the capabilities of adjusting the shape of the wing according to what the immediate flight situation demands, as well as of responding almost immediately to conditions the flow environment dictates, such as wind gusts, object avoidance, target tracking, etc. In bird aerodynamics also the tail plays an important role. To fly, wings impart downward momentum to the surrounding air and obtain lift by reaction. How this is achieved under various flight situations (cruise flight, hovering, landing, etc.), and what the role is of the wing-generated vortices in producing lift and thrust is discussed.The issue of studying bird flight experimentally from in vivo or in vitro experiments is also briefly discussed.

  12. Boreal Forests of Kamchatka: Structure and Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus P. Eichhorn

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Central Kamchatka abounds in virgin old-growth boreal forest, formed primarily by Larix cajanderi and Betula platyphylla in varying proportions. A series of eight 0.25–0.30 ha plots captured the range of forests present in this region and their structure is described. Overall trends in both uplands and lowlands are for higher sites to be dominated by L. cajanderi with an increasing component of B. platyphylla with decreasing altitude. The tree line on wet sites is commonly formed by mono-dominant B. ermanii forests. Basal area ranged from 7.8–38.1 m2/ha and average tree height from 8.3–24.7 m, both being greater in lowland forests. Size distributions varied considerably among plots, though they were consistently more even for L. cajanderi than B. platyphylla. Upland sites also contained a dense subcanopy of Pinus pumila averaging 38% of ground area. Soil characteristics differed among plots, with upland soils being of lower pH and containing more carbon. Comparisons are drawn with boreal forests elsewhere and the main current threats assessed. These forests provide a potential baseline to contrast with more disturbed regions elsewhere in the world and therefore may be used as a target for restoration efforts or to assess the effects of climate change independent of human impacts.

  13. Tracking migrating birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willemoes, Mikkel

    Migratory movements of birds has always fascinated man and led to many questions concerning the ecological drivers behind, the necessary adaptations and the navigational abilities required. However, especially for the long-distance migrants, basic descriptions of their movements are still lacking...... and a forest reserve. In the degraded habitat all species used more space, although the consequence on bird density is less clear. Two manuscripts relate the migratory movements of a long-distance migrant with models of navigation. One compares model predictions obtained by simulation with actual movements...... in when and where the bird compensated for the displacement. The last paper investigates effects of habitat shading on the performance of light-level based geolocation and compares experimental data with data from real tracking studies. This illustrates some of the potential problems and limitations...

  14. [Birds' sense of direction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohtola, Esa

    2016-01-01

    Birds utilize several distinct sensory systems in a flexible manner in their navigation. When navigating with the help of landmarks, location of the sun and stars, or polarization image of the dome of the sky, they resort to vision. The significance of olfaction in long-range navigation has been under debate, even though its significance in local orientation is well documented. The hearing in birds extends to the infrasound region. It has been assumed that they are able to hear the infrasounds generated in the mountains and seaside and navigate by using them. Of the senses of birds, the most exotic one is the ability to sense magnetic fields of the earth. PMID:27522832

  15. Light-Activated Magnetic Compass in Birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Greiner, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Migrating birds fly thousand miles without having a map, or a GPS unit. But they may carry their own sensitive navigational tool, which allows them "see" the Earth’s magnetic field. Here we review the important physical and chemical constraints on a possible compass sensor and discuss the suggest......Migrating birds fly thousand miles without having a map, or a GPS unit. But they may carry their own sensitive navigational tool, which allows them "see" the Earth’s magnetic field. Here we review the important physical and chemical constraints on a possible compass sensor and discuss...... the suggestion that radical pairs in a photoreceptor cryptochrome might provide a biological realization for a magnetic compass. Finally, we review the current evidence supporting a role for radical pair reactions in the magnetic compass of birds....

  16. Biomechanics of bird flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobalske, Bret W

    2007-09-01

    Power output is a unifying theme for bird flight and considerable progress has been accomplished recently in measuring muscular, metabolic and aerodynamic power in birds. The primary flight muscles of birds, the pectoralis and supracoracoideus, are designed for work and power output, with large stress (force per unit cross-sectional area) and strain (relative length change) per contraction. U-shaped curves describe how mechanical power output varies with flight speed, but the specific shapes and characteristic speeds of these curves differ according to morphology and flight style. New measures of induced, profile and parasite power should help to update existing mathematical models of flight. In turn, these improved models may serve to test behavioral and ecological processes. Unlike terrestrial locomotion that is generally characterized by discrete gaits, changes in wing kinematics and aerodynamics across flight speeds are gradual. Take-off flight performance scales with body size, but fully revealing the mechanisms responsible for this pattern awaits new study. Intermittent flight appears to reduce the power cost for flight, as some species flap-glide at slow speeds and flap-bound at fast speeds. It is vital to test the metabolic costs of intermittent flight to understand why some birds use intermittent bounds during slow flight. Maneuvering and stability are critical for flying birds, and design for maneuvering may impinge upon other aspects of flight performance. The tail contributes to lift and drag; it is also integral to maneuvering and stability. Recent studies have revealed that maneuvers are typically initiated during downstroke and involve bilateral asymmetry of force production in the pectoralis. Future study of maneuvering and stability should measure inertial and aerodynamic forces. It is critical for continued progress into the biomechanics of bird flight that experimental designs are developed in an ecological and evolutionary context. PMID:17766290

  17. An introduction to Jade Bird Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Jade Bird, a lucky and divine bird in ancient Chinese mythology, is a message deliverer in the world of gods. She serves goddess Xi Wang Mu (Western Queen), bringing her commands and messages to other gods. With 3 feet, black eyes and red head, this beautiful bird is viewed as a lucky symbol in China. There are a lot of tales about her in the folklore and literature. This is why Jade Bird was chosen as the name of the largest project for research on software technology in China. Jade Bird (JB) project, started in 1983 in the period of the 6th State Five_year Plan, is a key Sci.&Tech. project of the State. It has lasted more than 15 years through the 7th, 8th, and 9th State Five_year Plan periods and is the only software project getting continual support from the government. More than 20 institutions, 300 researchers and developers are involved in the development of JB Project. Prof. Yang Fuqing from Peking University, a member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, is the leader and chief scientist of the project.

  18. Chinese and Foreign Bird Lovers Watch Birds in Deyang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>Invited by the Sichuan Provincial People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries (SIFA) and the Chengdu Bird Watching Society, 60 Chinese and foreign bird lovers went to Deyang, a city in Sichuan Province that had suffered grave damages in the Wenchuan earthquake, to watch birds,

  19. Changing Arctic ecosystems--the role of ecosystem changes across the Boreal-Arctic transition zone on the distribution and abundance of wildlife populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNew, Lance; Handel, Colleen; Pearce, John; DeGange, Anthony R.; Holland-Bartels, Leslie; Whalen, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Arctic and boreal ecosystems provide important breeding habitat for more than half of North America’s migratory birds as well as many resident species. Northern landscapes are projected to experience more pronounced climate-related changes in habitat than most other regions. These changes include increases in shrub growth, conversion of tundra to forest, alteration of wetlands, shifts in species’ composition, and changes in the frequency and scale of fires and insect outbreaks. Changing habitat conditions, in turn, may have significant effects on the distribution and abundance of wildlife in these critical northern ecosystems. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting studies in the Boreal–Arctic transition zone of Alaska, an environment of accelerated change in this sensitive margin between Arctic tundra and boreal forest.

  20. The relationship between stocking eggs in boreal spawning rivers and the abundance of brown trout parr

    OpenAIRE

    Syrjänen, Jukka; Ruokonen, Timo; Ketola, Tarmo; Valkeajärvi, Pentti

    2015-01-01

    Stocking with eggs has been widely used as a management measure to support degraded salmonid stocks. In Finland, Atlantic salmon and both sea-migrating and lake-migrating brown trout are stocked as eggs, alevins, fry, parr, and smolt, whereas trout are also stocked as mature fish. The aim of this stocking is to improve catches and to support collapsed spawning stocks. We assessed the success of stocking with brown trout eggs in a study of 17 Finnish boreal forest rivers, of which 9 were subje...

  1. Effects of weather on survival in populations of boreal toads in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, R. D.; Muths, E.; Lambert, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the relationships between animal population demography and the abiotic and biotic elements of the environments in which they live is a central objective in population ecology. For example, correlations between weather variables and the probability of survival in populations of temperate zone amphibians may be broadly applicable to several species if such correlations can be validated for multiple situations. This study focuses on the probability of survival and evaluates hypotheses based on six weather variables in three populations of Boreal Toads (Bufo boreas) from central Colorado over eight years. In addition to suggesting a relationship between some weather variables and survival probability in Boreal Toad populations, this study uses robust methods and highlights the need for demographic estimates that are precise and have minimal bias. Capture-recapture methods were used to collect the data, and the Cormack-Jolly-Seber model in program MARK was used for analysis. The top models included minimum daily winter air temperature, and the sum of the model weights for these models was 0.956. Weaker support was found for the importance of snow depth and the amount of environmental moisture in winter in modeling survival probability. Minimum daily winter air temperature was positively correlated with the probability of survival in Boreal Toads at other sites in Colorado and has been identified as an important covariate in studies in other parts of the world. If air temperatures are an important component of survival for Boreal Toads or other amphibians, changes in climate may have profound impacts on populations. Copyright 2008 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  2. Synanthropic birds and parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipineto, Ludovico; Borrelli, Luca; Pepe, Paola; Fioretti, Alessandro; Caputo, Vincenzo; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Laura

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes the parasitologic findings for 60 synanthropic bird carcasses recovered in the Campania region of southern Italy. Birds consisted of 20 yellow-legged gulls (Larus michahellis), 15 rock pigeons (Columba livia), 15 common kestrels (Falco tinnunculus), and 10 carrion crows (Corvus corone). Each carcass was examined to detect the presence of ectoparasites and then necropsied to detect helminths. Ectoparasites occurred in 100% of the birds examined. In particular, chewing lice were recovered with a prevalence of 100%, whereas Pseudolynchia canariensis (Hippoboscidae) were found only in pigeons with a prevalence of 80%. Regarding endoparasites, a total of seven helminth species were identified: three nematodes (Ascaridia columbae, Capillaria columbae, Physaloptera alata), one cestoda (Raillietina tetragona), one trematoda (Cardiocephalus longicollis), and two acanthocephalans (Centrorhynchus globocaudatus and Centrorhynchus buteonis). The findings of the present study add data to the parasitologic scenario of synanthropic birds. This is important because parasitic infection can lead to serious health problems when combined with other factors and may affect flying performance and predatory effectiveness. PMID:24597118

  3. The Umbrella Bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crandall, Lee S.

    1949-01-01

    When CHARLES CORDIER arrived from Costa Rica on October 9, 1942, bringing with him, among other great rarities, three Bare-necked Umbrella Birds (Cephalopterus ornatus glabricollis), it seemed to us that the mere possession of such fabulous creatures was satisfaction enough. True, they were not beau

  4. Long migration flights of birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extremely long migration flights of some birds are carried out in one hop, necessitating a substantial prior build-up of fat fuel. We summarize the basic elements of bird flight physics with a simple model, and show how the fat reserves influence flight distance, flight speed and the power expended by the bird during flight. (paper)

  5. Science Is for the Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potenza, Susan Ade

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses a five-month interdisciplinary bird study that she designed for her seventh-grade students that combines life science, technology, writing, art, mathematics, social studies and literature. The driving force behind this yearly unit is the BirdSleuth eBird program (formerly the Cornell University Classroom…

  6. Birding--Fun and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2014-01-01

    This feature article presents the basics of birding, or bird watching, and discusses its appeal, especially to serious birders. A section on "citizen scientists" explains organizations that collect data on birds and describes projects they organize. Other sections discuss the legacy of John James Audubon and the bald eagle.

  7. Black (pyrogenic carbon: a synthesis of current knowledge and uncertainties with special consideration of boreal regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Preston

    2006-01-01

    wildfires, and little direct information on rates and mechanisms for PyC loss. Structural characterization of charred biomass and forest floor from wildfires generally indicates a low level of thermal alteration, with the bulk of the material having H/C ratios still >0.2, and small aromatic cluster sizes. Especially for the more oxidation-resistant BC fraction, a variety of mainly circumstantial evidence suggests very slow decomposition, with turnover on a millennial timescale (in the order of 5–7 ky, also dependent on environmental conditions. However, there is also evidence that some PyC may be lost in only tens to hundreds of years due to a combination of lower thermal alteration and environmental protection. The potential for long-term PyC storage in soil may also be limited by its consumption by subsequent fires. Degraded, functionalized PyC is also incorporated into humified soil organic matter, and is transported eventually to marine sediments in dissolved and particulate form. Boreal production is estimated as 7–17 Tg BC y−1 of solid residues and 2–2.5 Tg BC y−1 as aerosols, compared to global estimates of 40–240 and 10–30 Tg BC y−1, respectively. Primary research needs include basic field data on PyC production and stocks in boreal forests and peatlands, suitable to support C budget modeling, and development of standardized analytical methods and of improved approaches to assess the chemical recalcitrance of typical chars from boreal wildfires. To accomplish these goals effectively will require much greater emphasis on interdisciplinary cooperation.

  8. Black (pyrogenic carbon in boreal forests: a synthesis of current knowledge and uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Preston

    2006-02-01

    thermal alteration, with the bulk of the material having H/C ratios still >0.2, and small aromatic cluster sizes. For the more chemically-recalcitrant BC fraction, a variety of mainly circumstantial evidence suggests very slow decomposition, with turnover on a millennium timescale (5000–10 000 y, depending on environmental conditions and PyC properties, but the main limitation to PyC storage in soil is likely consumption by subsequent fires. Degraded, functionalized PyC is also incorporated into humified soil organic matter, and is transported to sediments in dissolved and particulate form. Boreal production is estimated as 7–17 Tg BC y−1 of solid residues and 2–2.5 Tg BC y−1 as aerosols. Primary research needs include basic field data on PyC production and stocks in boreal forests and peatlands, suitable to support C budget modeling, and development of standardized analytical methods and of improved approaches to assess the chemical recalcitrance of typical chars from boreal wildfires. To accomplish these goals effectively will require much greater emphasis on interdisciplinary cooperation.

  9. Birds and wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langston, Rowena

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Climate change, perhaps more accurately described as climate disruption, is considered to be a major long-term threat to biodiversity, with a high probability that the underlying cause is due to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Renewable energy is an important component of a programme of measures to combat further climate change, to include improved energy efficiency and demand management. Wind energy is the most advanced renewable energy source and is a global industry onshore and, increasingly, offshore. However, as with any form of energy generation, wind energy also has potential environmental costs which have to be balanced against benefits. The environmental impacts on birds derive from the following: collision risk, in particular from the moving rotor blades; displacement arising from disturbance during construction, operation or decommissioning; habitat loss or change leading to alteration of food availability; barrier effects leading to deviation of long distance migratory flights or disruption of local flights between feeding, nesting, and roosting/loafing locations. Not all species of birds, or individuals within a species, are equally susceptible to negative interactions with wind turbines, and neither are the population consequences of impacts equivalent. Of greatest concern are bird species of conservation concern that exhibit behaviours that place them at risk of an adverse impact, notably when that impact leads to a reduction in population size that is unlikely to be compensated for. In particular, cumulative impacts arising from multiple wind farms or wind farms in combination with other developments are of concern. There has been a welcome increase in research effort and peer-reviewed publications on the subject of birds and wind energy in recent years. Increasing our understanding of impacts is essential to delivering possible solutions and this paper reviews current knowledge for birds. (Author)

  10. Climate change, northern birds of conservation concern and matching the hotspots of habitat suitability with the reserve network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimo Virkkala

    Full Text Available National reserve networks are one of the most important means of species conservation, but their efficiency may be diminished due to the projected climatic changes. Using bioclimatic envelope models and spatial data on habitats and conservation areas, we studied how efficient the reserve network will be in preserving 100 forest, mire, marshland, and alpine bird species of conservation concern in Finland in 2051-2080 under three different climate scenarios. The occurrences of the studied bird species were related to the amount of habitat preferred by each species in the different boreal zones. We employed a novel integrated habitat suitability index that takes into account both the species' probability of occurrence from the bioclimatic models and the availability of suitable habitat. Using this suitability index, the distribution of the topmost 5% suitability squares ("hotspots" in the four bird species groups in the period 1971-2000 and under the three scenarios were compared with the location of reserves with the highest amounts of the four habitats to study the efficiency of the network. In species of mires, marshlands, and Arctic mountains, a high proportion of protected habitat was included in the 5% hotspots in the scenarios in 2051-2080, showing that protected areas cover a high proportion of occurrences of bird species. In contrast, in forests in the southern and middle boreal zones, only a small proportion of the protected habitat was included in the 5% hotspots, indicating that the efficiency of the protected area network will be insufficient for forest birds in the future. In the northern boreal zone, the efficiency of the reserve network in forests was highly dependent on the strength of climate change varying between the scenarios. Overall, there is no single solution to preserving biodiversity in a changing climate, but several future pathways should be considered.

  11. Upscaling methane emission hotspots in boreal peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresto Aleina, Fabio; Runkle, Benjamin R. K.; Bruecher, Tim; Kleinen, Thomas; Brovkin, Victor

    2016-04-01

    Small-scale surface heterogeneities can influence land-atmosphere fluxes and therefore carbon, water and energy budgets on a larger scale. This effect is of particular relevance for high-latitude ecosystems, because of the great amount of carbon stored in their soils. Upscaling such small-scale surface heterogeneities and their effects to larger scales is a challenging issue in land surface modeling. We developed a novel approach to upscale local methane emissions in a boreal peatland from the micro-topographic scale to the landscape-scale. We based this parameterization on the analysis of the water table pattern generated by the Hummock-Hollow model (Cresto Aleina et al., 2015), a micro-topography resolving model for peatland hydrology and methane emissions. By computing the water table at the micro-topographic scale, the Hummock-Hollow model is able to describe the effects of micro-topography on hydrology and methane emissions in a typical boreal peatland. We introduce the new parameterization of methane hotspots in a global model-like version of the Hummock-Hollow model. This latter version underestimates methane emissions because of the lack of representation of micro-topographic controls on peatland hydrology. We tested the robustness of the parameterization by simulating methane emissions for the present day and for the next century, forcing the model with three different RCP scenarios. The Hotspot parameterization, despite being calibrated for the 1976-2005 climatology, mimics the output of the micro-topography resolving model for all the simulated scenarios. The new approach bridges the scale gap of methane emissions between this version of the model and the configuration explicitly resolving micro-topography.

  12. Bryophyte Evapotranspiration in a Boreal Forest Chronosequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond-Lamberty, B.; Ewers, B.; Angstmann, J.; Gower, S.

    2008-12-01

    Forest water fluxes, in particular evapotranspiration (ET), are less well constrained than are carbon fluxes, and the effect of changing stand age on forest ET is not well understood. We combined field and lab measurements to estimate the bryophyte contribution to ET in a black spruce-dominated boreal chronosequence in Manitoba, Canada. Site ages were 17, 42, 76 and 156 years, and each site contained separate well- and poorly-drained stands (bogs). Field plots (N=4) were surveyed for moss diversity and microtopography; meteorological variables were recorded continuously. Field measurements were made 3-4 times during the growing season using a custom chamber attached to a LI-COR 6400. In addition, large tubs of moss were incubated in a controlled-environment chamber and water loss rates measured via weighing; these tubs were also measured using the same protocol as performed in the field. In the lab, fully-saturated feathermoss and Sphagnum lost water at rates as high as 1.5 and 4.5 mm day-1, respectively, at 25 °C. Over the entire year, modeled bryophyte ET ranged from 0.2-0.3 and 0.2-0.5 mm day-1 in the well- and poorly-drained stands, respectively. During the growing season, these rates were 0.7-0.8 and 0.6- 1.4 mm day-1. Ignoring bog microtopography would have resulted in underestimation of fluxes by ~10%. There was no clear trend of moss ET flux with stand age, except at the very youngest stands, where bryophyte spatial coverage was low. Our results emphasize the important contribution that bryophytes make to the ET flux of boreal forests.

  13. Predictability of Zonal Means During Boreal Summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Siegfried; Suarez, Max J.; Pegion, Philip J.; Kistler, Michael A.; Kumar, Arun; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This study examines the predictability of seasonal means during boreal summer. The results are based on ensembles of June-July-August (JJA) simulations (started in mid May) carried out with the NASA Seasonal-to-Interannual Prediction Project (NSIPP-1) atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) forced with observed sea surface temperatures (SSTS) and sea ice for the years 1980-1999. We find that the predictability of the JJA extra-tropical height field is primarily in the zonal mean component of the response to the SST anomalies. This contrasts with the cold season (January-February-March) when the predictability of seasonal means in the boreal extratropics is primarily in the wave component of the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) response. Two patterns dominate the interannual variability of the ensemble mean JJA zonal mean height field. One has maximum variance in the tropical/subtropical upper troposphere, while the other has substantial variance in middle latitudes of both hemispheres. Both are symmetric with respect to the equator. A regression analysis suggests that the tropical/subtropical pattern is associated with SST anomalies in the far eastern tropical Pacific and the Indian Ocean, while the middle latitude pattern is forced by SST anomalies in the tropical Pacific just east of the dateline. The two leading zonal height patterns are reproduced in model runs forced with the two leading JJA SST patterns of variability. A comparison with observations shows a signature of the middle latitude pattern that is consistent with the occurrence of dry and wet summers over the United States. We hypothesize that both patterns, while imposing only weak constraints on extratropical warm season continental-scale climates, may play a role in the predilection for drought or pluvial conditions.

  14. Antioxidant Potential of Bark Extracts from Boreal Forest Conifers

    OpenAIRE

    Jean Legault; Karl Girard-Lalancette; Dominic Dufour; André Pichette

    2013-01-01

    The bark of boreal forest conifers has been traditionally used by Native Americans to treat various ailments and diseases. Some of these diseases involve reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can be prevented by the consumption of antioxidants such as phenolic compounds that can be found in medicinal plants. In this study, ultrasonic assisted extraction has been performed under various solvent conditions (water:ethanol mixtures) on the bark of seven boreal forest conifers used by Native American...

  15. Softwood biochar as a soil amendment material for boreal agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Tammeorg, Priit

    2014-01-01

    Biochar is a porous carbonaceous solid material produced by pyrolysis. Application of biochar is considered as an efficient way of carbon (C) sequestration since the C in biochar is relatively resistant to microbial degradation. Furthermore, previous research in (sub-) tropical conditions suggests that it may enhance soil fertility and the yields of agricultural crops. To target the lack of knowledge about the effects of biochar in the boreal zone, softwood biochar was added to two boreal soi...

  16. The conservation value of residential yards: linking birds and people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Susannah B; Warren, Paige S

    2011-06-01

    Urbanization is recognized as one of the greatest threats to biodiversity throughout the world. However, the vegetation within an urbanized landscape is diverse and includes a variety of native and exotic plant species. This variation allows for testing whether certain landscape designs outperform others in the support of native biodiversity. Residential yards represent a large component of an urban landscape and, if managed collectively for birds and other wildlife, could offset some of the negative effects of urbanization. In addition, many urbanites have their primary interaction with the natural world in their front and back yards. Therefore, ensuring positive wildlife experiences for them is essential in promoting urban biodiversity. At the Central Arizona-Phoenix Long-Term Ecological Research site we tested the efficacy of native landscaping in residential yards in attracting native birds. We also explored the links between socioeconomic factors, landscape designs, and urban gradient measurements with the urban bird communities. A redundancy analysis suggested that native desert bird species increased in abundance in neighborhoods with desert landscaping designs, neighborhoods closer to large desert tracts, and higher-income neighborhoods. Variance partitioning showed that collectively these three sets of environmental variables explained almost 50% of the variation in the urban bird community. Results suggested racial and economic inequities in access to biodiversity, whereby predominantly Hispanic and lower-income neighborhoods had fewer native birds. We also found that residents' satisfaction with bird diversity was positively correlated with actual bird diversity. Our study provides new insights into the relative importance of socioeconomic variables and common urban ecological measurements in explaining urban bird communities. Urban planners can use this information to develop residential landscapes that support the well-being of both birds and people

  17. Arctic Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABoVE) Science Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, D.; Schnase, J. L.; McInerney, M.; Webster, W. P.; Sinno, S.; Thompson, J. H.; Griffith, P. C.; Hoy, E.; Carroll, M.

    2014-12-01

    The effects of climate change are being revealed at alarming rates in the Arctic and Boreal regions of the planet. NASA's Terrestrial Ecology Program has launched a major field campaign to study these effects over the next 5 to 8 years. The Arctic Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABoVE) will challenge scientists to take measurements in the field, study remote observations, and even run models to better understand the impacts of a rapidly changing climate for areas of Alaska and western Canada. The NASA Center for Climate Simulation (NCCS) at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has partnered with the Terrestrial Ecology Program to create a science cloud designed for this field campaign - the ABoVE Science Cloud. The cloud combines traditional high performance computing with emerging technologies to create an environment specifically designed for large-scale climate analytics. The ABoVE Science Cloud utilizes (1) virtualized high-speed InfiniBand networks, (2) a combination of high-performance file systems and object storage, and (3) virtual system environments tailored for data intensive, science applications. At the center of the architecture is a large object storage environment, much like a traditional high-performance file system, that supports data proximal processing using technologies like MapReduce on a Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS). Surrounding the storage is a cloud of high performance compute resources with many processing cores and large memory coupled to the storage through an InfiniBand network. Virtual systems can be tailored to a specific scientist and provisioned on the compute resources with extremely high-speed network connectivity to the storage and to other virtual systems. In this talk, we will present the architectural components of the science cloud and examples of how it is being used to meet the needs of the ABoVE campaign. In our experience, the science cloud approach significantly lowers the barriers and risks to organizations

  18. Atmospheric ions, boreal forests and impacts on climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manninen, H. E.; Nieminen, T.; Franchin, A.; Järvinen, E.; Kontkanen, J.; Hirsikko, A.; Hõrrak, U.; Mirme, A.; Tammet, H.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Petäjä, T.; Kulmala, M.

    2012-04-01

    than 2 nm in diameter by charging the aerosol sample with unipolar corona chargers (Manninen et al., 2009). According to earlier studies, the atmospheric nucleation and cluster activation take place at the mobility diameter range of 1.5-2 nm. Therefore, the ion spectrometers allow direct measurements at exactly the size where atmospheric nucleation takes place. The results indicate that the ion-induced nucleation contributes ~1-30% to the NPF events in most atmospheric conditions (Manninen et al., 2010). In other words, neutral particle formation seems to dominate over ion-mediated mechanisms, at least in the boreal forest conditions. Acknowledgements. This research was supported by the Academy of Finland Center of Excellence program (project number 1118615). Hirsikko, A. et al.: Atmospheric ions and nucleation: a review of observations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 767-798, 2011. IPCC, Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK and New York, NY, USA, 996 pp, 2007. Kulmala, M., and Kerminen, V.-M.: On the growth of atmospheric nanoparticles, Atmos. Res., 90, 132-150, 2008. Manninen, H.E. et al.: Long-term field measurements of charged and neutral clusters using Neutral cluster and Air Ion Spectrometer (NAIS). Boreal Env. Res. 14, 591-605, 2009. Manninen, H.E. et al., EUCAARI ion spectrometer measurements at 12 European sites - analysis of new particle formation events, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 7907-7927, 2010. Mirme, A. et al.: A Wide-range multi-channel Air Ion Spectrometer, Boreal Environ. Res., 12, 247-264, 2007. Tammet, H.: Symmetric inclined grid mobility analyzer for the measurement of charged clusters and fine nanoparticles in atmospheric air. Aerosol Science and Technology, 45, 468 - 479, 2011.

  19. Seasonal courses revealed that boreal trees emit methane even during winter time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machacova, Katerina; Halmeenmäki, Elisa; Pihlatie, Mari; Urban, Otmar

    2016-04-01

    modulated by soil water content also during the winter period. Summarised, boreal tree species and their CH4 emissions play an important role in the ecosystem CH4 exchange, thus reducing the sink strength of boreal forest soils. Therefore, it is necessary to incorporate tree CH4 fluxes and their seasonal variations in the estimation of CH4 balance of boreal forests. Acknowledgement This research was supported by the project ENVIMET (CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0246) and the National Programme for Sustainability I (LO1415), EU FP7 project ExpeER (Grant Agreement 262060), Emil Aaltonen Foundation, The Academy of Finland Centre of Excellence (projects 1118615 and 272041), and Helsinki University Centre for Environment, HENVI. We thank Marian Pavelka, Jiří Dušek, Stanislav Stellner, Jiří Mikula and Marek Jakubík for technical support.

  20. Aerodynamics of intermittent bounds in flying birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobalske, Bret W.; Hearn, Jason W. D.; Warrick, Douglas R.

    sagittal plane during upstroke of flapping flight, we hypothesize that body lift is produced during flapping phases. Future efforts to model the mechanics of intermittent flight should take into account that flap-bounding birds may support up to 20% of their weight even with their wings fully flexed.

  1. Complex bird clocks.

    OpenAIRE

    Gwinner, E.; Brandstätter, R

    2001-01-01

    The circadian pacemaking system of birds comprises three major components: (i) the pineal gland, which rhythmically synthesizes and secretes melatonin; (ii) a hypothalamic region, possibly equivalent to the mammalian suprachiasmatic nuclei; and (iii) the retinae of the eyes. These components jointly interact, stabilize and amplify each other to produce a highly self-sustained circadian output. Their relative contribution to overt rhythmicity appears to differ between species and the system ma...

  2. Directing STUPID FUCKING BIRD

    OpenAIRE

    Burris, Katherine Carton

    2014-01-01

    In my final year as an undergraduate at the University of California, Santa Cruz, I proposed to direct STUPID FUCKING BIRD (an adaption by Aaron Posner of Chekhov's The Seagull) in the Experimental Theater. This capstone thesis details the motivations behind my selection of this play, the decision to direct, the technical preparations involved in its staging, and a brief analysis of Posner's text as an adaptation and response to Chekhov's nineteenth century classic. Taking his cue from Chekh...

  3. Free like Birds (?)

    OpenAIRE

    Kukubajska, Marija Emilija

    2015-01-01

    Intro to performance 7th International conference on Knowledge and power FREE like BIRDS (?) is a project of the interdisciplinary and multi-media Art-Po concept established in 1973, and performed on variety of issues over the years. From the American children hospitals activity (Columbia University, to Asia-Pacific museum in Pasadena, Gallery Kubaiski No. Hollywood, California, the University of La Jolla Marmount, California Wignal Museum, Irvine Fine Arts Center, Vietnamese New Yea...

  4. Ozone photochemistry in boreal biomass burning plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Parrington

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis of ozone photochemistry observed by aircraft measurements of boreal biomass burning plumes over Eastern Canada in the summer of 2011. Measurements of ozone and a number of key chemical species associated with ozone photochemistry, including non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs, nitrogen oxides (NOx and total nitrogen containing species (NOy, were made from the UK FAAM BAe-146 research aircraft as part of the quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites (BORTAS experiment between 12 July and 3 August 2011. We found that ozone mixing ratios measured in biomass burning plumes were indistinguishable from non-plume measurements, but evaluating them in relationship to measurements of carbon monoxide (CO, total alkyl nitrates (ΣAN and the surrogate species NOz (=NOy - NOx revealed that the potential for ozone production increased with plume age. We used NMHC ratios to estimate photochemical ages of the observed biomass burning plumes between 0 and 15 days. Ozone production, calculated from ΔO3/ΔCO enhancement ratios, increased from 0.020 ± 0.008 ppbv ppbv−1 in plumes with photochemical ages less than 2 days to 0.55 ± 0.29 ppbv ppbv−1 in plumes with photochemical ages greater than 5 days. In comparing ozone mixing ratios with components of the NOy budget we observed that plumes with ages between 2 and 4 days were characterised by high aerosol loading, relative humidity greater than 40%, and low ozone production efficiencies of 8 ppbv ppbv−1 relative to ΣAN and 2 ppbv ppbv−1 relative to NOz. In plumes with ages greater than 4 days, ozone production efficiency increased to 473 ppbv ppbv−1 relative to ΣAN and 155 ppbv ppbv−1 relative to NOz. From the BORTAS measurements we estimated

  5. Ozone photochemistry in boreal biomass burning plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Parrington

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis of ozone (O3 photochemistry observed by aircraft measurements of boreal biomass burning plumes over eastern Canada in the summer of 2011. Measurements of O3 and a number of key chemical species associated with O3 photochemistry, including non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs, nitrogen oxides (NOx and total nitrogen containing species (NOy, were made from the UK FAAM BAe-146 research aircraft as part of the "quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites" (BORTAS experiment between 12 July and 3 August 2011. The location and timing of the aircraft measurements put BORTAS into a unique position to sample biomass burning plumes from the same source region in Northwestern Ontario with a range of ages. We found that O3 mixing ratios measured in biomass burning plumes were indistinguishable from non-plume measurements, but evaluating them in relationship to measurements of carbon monoxide (CO, total alkyl nitrates (ΣAN and the surrogate species NOz (= NOy-NOx revealed that the potential for O3 production increased with plume age. We used NMHC ratios to estimate photochemical ages of the observed biomass burning plumes between 0 and 10 days. The BORTAS measurements provided a wide dynamic range of O3 production in the sampled biomass burning plumes with ΔO3/ΔCO enhancement ratios increasing from 0.020 ± 0.008 ppbv ppbv−1 in plumes with photochemical ages less than 2 days to 0.55 ± 0.29 ppbv ppbv−1 in plumes with photochemical ages greater than 5 days. We found that the main contributing factor to the variability in the ΔO3/ΔCO enhancement ratio was ΔCO in plumes with photochemical ages less than 4 days, and that was a transition to ΔO3 becoming the main contributing factor in plumes with ages greater than 4 days. In comparing O3 mixing ratios with components of the NOy budget, we observed that plumes with ages between 2 and 4 days were characterised

  6. Towards a Manitoba Hydro boreal woodland caribou strategy: Outcomes from Manitoba Hydro boreal woodland caribou workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona E. Scurrah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Manitoba Hydro is responsible for the continued supply of energy to meet the needs of the province and is committed to protecting the environment when planning the construction and operation of its facilities. Corporate policy dictates ongoing improvement of Environmental Management Systems (EMS in order to meet or surpass regulatory requirements. Environmental objectives are reviewed annually and programs are modified when necessary to address improvements in environmental performance. Manitoba Hydro plans and constructs major transmission projects throughout northern Manitoba which includes areas occupied by boreal woodland caribou. In recognition of the potential issues associated with hydro transmission construction in boreal caribou range, Manitoba Hydro hosted an expert workshop on May 8, 2007 to provide objective advice in the development of a draft corporate strategy that effectively directs targeted monitoring and research for environmental assessment and mitigation. The workshop focused on assessing the potential threats to boreal woodland caribou from a transmission line construction and operation perspective, and identifying appropriate approaches in site selection and environmental assessment (SSEA and long-term monitoring and research. A total of nine threat categories were reviewed to determine the degree and magnitude of potential effects that may result from transmission construction and operation; and of the original nine, five final threat categories were delineated. The main elements of the workshop provided strategic approaches for proactive pre-construction monitoring, research on recruitment and mortality for local populations impacted by ROWs and control areas, and various habitat monitoring, management, and mitigation techniques. Research and monitoring priorities have been identified and continued collaboration with Manitoba Conservation and other land users were also identified.

  7. Methane metabolism in a stratified boreal lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nykänen, Hannu; Peura, Sari; Kankaala, Paula; Jones, Roger

    2013-04-01

    Stratified lakes, typical of the boreal zone, are naturally anoxic from their bottoms. In these lakes methanogenesis can account for up to half of organic matter degradation. However, a major part of the methane (CH4) is oxidized in the water column before reaching the atmosphere. Since methanotrophs use CH4 as their sole carbon and energy source, much CH4-derived carbon is incorporated into their biomass. Microbially produced CH4 has strongly negative δ13C compared to other carbon forms in ecosystems, making it possible to follow its route in food webs. However, only a few studies have estimated the amount of this microbial biomass or its carbon stable isotopic composition due to difficulties in separating it from other biomass or from other carbon forms in the water column. We estimated methanotrophic biomass from measured CH4 oxidation, and δ13C of the biomass from measured δ13C values of CH4, DIC, POM and DOC. An estimate of the fraction of methanotrophs in total microbial biomass is derived from bacterial community composition measurements. The study was made in, Alinen Mustajärvi, a small (area 0.75 ha, maximum depth 6.5 m, mean depth 4.2 m,), oligotrophic, mesohumic headwater lake located in boreal coniferous forest in southern Finland. CH4 and DIC concentrations and their δ13C were measured over the deepest point of the lake at 1 m intervals. 13C of DOM and POM were analyzed from composite samples from epi-, meta-, and hypolimnion. Evasion of CH4 and carbon dioxide from the lake surface to the atmosphere was estimated with boundary layer diffusion equations. CH4oxidation was estimated by comparing differences between observed concentrations and CH4potentially transported by turbulent diffusion between different vertical layers in the lake and also by actual methanotrophy measurements and from vertical differences in δ13C-CH4. The estimate of CH4 production was based on the sum of oxidized and released CH4. Molecular microbiology methods were used to

  8. Spring Temperatures Alone Cannot Explain Timing of Budburst of Boreal-Temperate Tree Species under Experimental Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, R. A.; Reich, P. B.; Rich, R. L.; Stefanski, A.

    2011-12-01

    Phenology, the timing of seasonal biological events such as budburst, blossom dates, bird migration and insect development, is critical to understanding species interactions (e.g. pollination, herbivory); determines growing season length in many (i.e. seasonal) terrestrial ecosystems; and can play a role in determining species range limits. There is ample evidence that plant and animal phenology has changed in recent decades. For trees in seasonally cold climates, change is most commonly manifested as earlier budburst, likely caused by earlier onset of warming temperatures in spring. Indeed, it is often assumed that one of the major phenological responses of temperate and boreal forest ecosystems to climate change will be earlier leafing and concomitantly, a longer growing season. However, spring warming interacts with other factors such as winter chilling and photoperiod to determine timing of spring leafing. For example, warmer winters could reduce the duration and amount of chilling experienced by dormant buds and lead to delayed budburst. Despite knowledge that such interactions exist, we know little about the interactive mechanisms by which various cues influence budburst in forest tree species or whether species differ in sensitivity to those cues. This gap hinders our ability to predict phenological responses and their ecological impacts under future climate scenarios. Over the past three years, we have conducted studies of leafing phenology, germination, photosynthesis, respiration, and growth of seedlings of ten boreal-temperate tree species subjected to experimental warming using infrared heat lamps and soil heating cables. Seedlings were planted into plots receiving ambient, +1.8°C or +3.6°C temperature treatments in open, aspen forest at the Cloquet Forestry Center, Cloquet, MN, USA (46°31' N, 92°30' W, 386 m a.s.l.; 4.5°C MAT, 807 mm MAP). While all species responded to warming by advancing the absolute date of budburst, several lines of evidence

  9. Rainforest birds: A land manager's guide to breeding bird habitat in young conifer forests in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Bob; Hagar, Joan

    2007-01-01

    This document (hereafter Guide) has been prepared to assist land managers interested in conducting conservation and management activities to benefit breeding birds associated with young conifer forests in the Pacific Northwest. Audiences targeted for use of the Guide include land trusts, watershed councils, non-commercial private land owners, forest products companies, land-managing conservation organizations, government agencies, tribes, and First Nations. We hope the Guide will be a useful and valuable tool to support any of the variety of reasons to manage for bird habitat in young conifer forests (for example, regulatory, biodiversity, bird conservation, and forest certification standards).

  10. Review of the Predatory Bird Monitoring Scheme (PBMS)2006.

    OpenAIRE

    Shore, R.F.; Walker, L.A.; Thomas, G. O.; Barber, J. L.; Martin, F.R.; Jones, K. C.; Beresford, N.A.; P Rowland; Pickup, R W

    2007-01-01

    The Wildlife and Pollution contract supports the long-term monitoring programme called the Predatory Bird Monitoring Scheme (PBMS) which monitors selected pollutants, pesticides and biocides in predatory birds in Britain. The programme was started in the early 1960s and was instrumental in securing the phased withdrawals of the permitted uses of organochlorine (OC) insecticides. It has since provided a measure of the effectiveness of regulatory bans in reducing the exposure of wildlife. The ...

  11. Survival of Adult Songbirds in Boreal Forest Landscapes Fragmented by Clearcuts and Natural Openings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darroch M. Whitaker

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available There exists little information on demographic responses of boreal songbirds to logging. We conducted a 4-yr (2003-2006 songbird mark-recapture study in western Newfoundland, where land cover is a naturally heterogeneous mosaic of productive spruce-fir forest, stunted taiga, and openings such as bogs, fens, and riparian zones. We compared apparent survival and rate of transience for adults of 14 species between areas having forests fragmented primarily by either natural openings or 3-7 yr-old clearcuts. Data were collected on three landscape pairs, with birds being marked on three 4-6 ha netting sites on each landscape (total = 18 netting sites. Survival rates were estimated using multi-strata mark-recapture models with landscape types specified as model strata. Landscape type was retained in the best model for only two species, Ruby-crowned Kinglet and Yellow-rumped Warbler, in both cases indicating lower apparent survival in landscapes having clearcuts. Though parameter estimates suggested lower survival in clearcut landscapes for several species, meta-analysis across all species detected no general difference between landscape types. Further, we did not detect any relation between landscape differences in survival and a species' habitat affinity, migratory strategy, or the proportion of transients in its population. Although sensitivity to logging was limited, we observed high interspecific variation in rates of breeding season apparent survival (48% [Dark-eyed Junco] to 100% [several species], overwinter apparent survival (0.3% [Ruby-crowned Kinglet] to 86.5% [Gray Jay], and transience (≈0% [several species] to 61% [Ruby-crowned Kinglet in clearcut landscapes]. For Lincoln's and White-throated Sparrows, over-winter apparent survival was >2× higher for males than females, and rate of transience was > 8× higher for White-throated Sparrow males than females. Moderately male-biased sex ratios suggested that both lower mortality and higher

  12. Carbon in boreal coniferous forest soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westman, C.J.; Ilvesniemi, H.; Liski, J.; Mecke, M. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology; Fritze, H.; Helmisaari, H.S.; Pietikaeinen, J.; Smolander, A. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Vantaa (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The working hypothesis of the research was that the soil of boreal forests is a large carbon store and the amount of C is still increasing in young soils, like in the forest soils of Finland, which makes these soils important sinks for atmospheric CO{sub 2}. Since the processes defining the soil C balance, primary production of plants and decomposition, are dependent on environmental factors and site properties, it was assumed that the organic carbon pool in the soil is also dependent on the same factors. The soil C store is therefore likely to change in response to climatic warming. The aim of this research was to estimate the C balance of forest soil in Finland and predict changes in the balance in response to changes in climatic conditions. To achieve the aim (1) intensive empirical experimentation on the density of C in different pools in the soil and on fluxes between the pools was done was done, (2) the effect of site fertility and climate on the amount and properties of organic C in forest soil was investigated and (3) dynamic modelling for investigating dynamics of the soil C storage was used

  13. Towards sustainable management of boreal forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, P. J. [Symbios Research and Restoration, Smithers, BC (Canada); Messier, C. [Universite de Quebec a Montreal, GREFi, Dept. of Biological Sciences, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Smith, D. W. [Alberta Univ., Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Adamowicz, W. L. [Alberta Univ., Sustainable Forest Management Network and Dept. of Rural Economy, Edmonton, AB (Canada)] (eds.)

    2003-07-01

    This monograph provides a wide ranging review of all matters pertaining to sustainable forest management, including extended definitions and discussions of the components of sustainability and sustainable development, various concepts of forest management and the role of research in the movement towards sustainable forest management. The book pulls together key concepts and advances in sustainable forest management from around the world, especially those applicable in boreal regions. It attempts to report on the state-of-the-art, some new and as yet unproven ideas, and the most up-to-date basic and applied research on the components of sustainable forest management. The subject is presented in 23 separately authored chapters; each with numerous examples, case studies, and scenarios to demonstrate how various elements of the subject are being implemented. The chapters are divided into five broad areas of related topics. The areas are: (1) the goals of sustainable forest management; (2) the social and economic dimensions of sustainability; (3) forest ecology and management; (4 )minimizing the impacts of forest use and fibre processing; and (5) implementing sustainable forest management. Each chapter has its own bibliography; there is an extensive subject index to the volume as a whole.

  14. Upscaling methane emission hotspots in boreal peatlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cresto Aleina

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Upscaling the properties and the effects of small-scale surface heterogeneities to larger scales is a challenging issue in land surface modeling. We developed a novel approach to upscale local methane emissions in a boreal peatland from the micro-topographic scale to the landscape-scale. We based this new parameterization on the analysis of the water table pattern generated by the Hummock–Hollow model, a micro-topography resolving model for peatland hydrology. We introduce this parameterization of methane hotspots in a global model-like version of the Hummock–Hollow model, that underestimates methane emissions. We tested the robustness of the parameterization by simulating methane emissions for the next century forcing the model with three different RCP scenarios. The Hotspot parameterization, despite being calibrated for the 1976–2005 climatology, mimics the output of the micro-topography resolving model for all the simulated scenarios. The new approach bridges the scale gap of methane emissions between this version of the model and the configuration explicitly resolving micro-topography.

  15. Logging and Fire Effects in Siberian Boreal Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukavskaya, E.; Buryak, L.; Ivanova, G.; Kalenskaya, O.; Bogorodskaya, A.; Zhila, S.; McRae, D.; Conard, S. G.

    2013-12-01

    The Russian boreal zone supports a huge terrestrial carbon pool. Moreover, it is a tremendous reservoir of wood products concentrated mainly in Siberia. The main natural disturbance in these forests is wildfire, which modifies the carbon budget and has potentially important climate feedbacks. In addition, both legal and illegal logging increase landscape complexity and fire hazard. We investigated a number of sites in different regions of Siberia to evaluate the impacts of fire and logging on fuel loads, carbon emissions, tree regeneration, soil respiration, and microbocenosis. We found large variations of fire and logging effects among regions depending on growing conditions and type of logging activity. Partial logging had no negative impact on forest conditions and carbon cycle. Illegal logging resulted in increase of fire hazard, and higher carbon emissions than legal logging. The highest fuel loads and carbon emissions were found on repeatedly burned unlogged sites where first fire resulted in total tree mortality. Repeated fires together with logging activities in drier conditions and on large burned sites resulted in insufficient regeneration, or even total lack of tree seedlings. Soil respiration was less on both burned and logged areas than in undisturbed forest. The highest structural and functional disturbances of the soil microbocenosis were observed on logged burned sites. Understanding current interactions between fire and logging is important for modeling ecosystem processes and for managers to develop strategies of sustainable forest management. Changing patterns in the harvest of wood products increase landscape complexity and can be expected to increase emissions and ecosystem damage from wildfires, inhibit recovery of natural ecosystems, and exacerbate impacts of wildland fire on changing climate and air quality. The research was supported by NASA LCLUC Program, RFBR grant # 12-04-31258, and Russian Academy of Sciences.

  16. The North Sea Bird Club

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that the creation of a club for the purpose of encouraging oil and gas workers to watch birds may not at first seem a viable proposition. To the layperson, birds offshore conjures up an image of hundreds of seagulls following fishing boats, and very little else. Also, the act of birdwatching is not seen as a typical offshore worker's activity. Anyone who has worked on an installation offshore and who has any interest in wildlife will be aware of the occasional presence of land-birds. Two decades ago, prompted by some keen offshore workers, a single oil company set up a monitoring program, which quickly became popular with a number of its employees. Birds seem offshore were recorded on data forms and collected together. At this stage the club was purely another recreation facility; however, when the data were collated it was soon realized that installations offshore were being used as staging posts by birds on migration, and that the information being collected would be of great interest in the study of bird movements. All over Britain, at strategic points on the coastline, there are bird observatories which record the arrival and departure of migrating birds. The presence of several hundred solid structures up and down the North Sea, which are used by birds en route, represents a huge, unique bird observatory, capable of uncovering facts about bird migration which have long eluded land-based scientists. Eleven years ago, the North Sea Bird Club began, composed of eight member companies, a recorder from Aberdeen University and a representative from the Nature Conservancy Council. The club received data from 41 installations, and the recorder collated these on Aberdeen University's computer and produced an annual report of sightings

  17. Migratory birds, ticks, and Bartonella

    OpenAIRE

    Molin, Ylva; Lindeborg, Mats; Nyström, Fredrik; Madder, Maxime; Hjelm, Eva; Olsen, Björn; Thomas G.T. Jaenson; Ehrenborg, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Bartonella spp. infections are considered to be vector-borne zoonoses; ticks are suspected vectors of bartonellae. Migratory birds can disperse ticks infected with zoonotic pathogens such as Rickettsia and tickborne encephalitis virus and possibly also Bartonella. Thus, in the present study 386 tick specimens collected in spring 2009 from migratory birds on the Mediterranean islands Capri and Antikythera were screened for Bartonella spp. RNA. One or more ticks were found on 2.7% of the birds....

  18. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: South Florida: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls, terns, passerine birds, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds, and...

  19. Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, pelagic birds, passerine birds, gulls and...

  20. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Central California: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for alcids, diving birds, gulls, terns, passerine birds, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds,...

  1. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Upper Coast of Texas: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls, terns, passerine birds, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds,...

  2. Disturbance Regimes and Landscape Heterogeneity in the Boreal Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, E. A.; Sheng, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Circling the northern high latitudes, the boreal forest is the largest contiguous forest ecoregion in the world. Far from a homogeneous carpet of trees, the boreal forest is a patchwork of land cover types including evergreen and deciduous trees, meadows, lakes, and wetlands. Due to its size, location, and structure, the boreal forest is an important component of the regional and global climate system through storage of carbon in cold organic soils and direct influence on the solar energy budget. This study integrates remote sensing and GIS products from different sub-fields working in the pan-Arctic region to investigate fire and permafrost-degradation, the land cover shaping processes that help determine the fate of the boreal forest. These disturbance processes are subject to change with climate and hold the potential for rapid change to the structure of the boreal forest. We identify regions at risk for rapid change, quantify the contributions of different disturbance processes, and analyze patterns of post disturbance recovery.

  3. Pretty Bird by Bob Sinclair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Recently I was reminded of a story which my mother swears is trus (though she doesn t call me Bobby muchanymore):Back in 1958,when I was just past four years old,my parents gave me a young parakeet.My mother determinedthat our parakeet would learn to talk,and to this end sat at the microphone of a borrowed tape recorder for a full 1/2hour,saying over and over again:“Pretty bird!Pretty bird!Pretty bird!Pretty bird!...”and so on.The resultingtaped message was played for our parakeet at least once pe...

  4. The Silvics of Some East European and Siberian Boreal Forest Tree Species

    OpenAIRE

    Korzukin, M.D.; Rubinina, A.E.; G. B. Bonan; Solomon, A.M.; Antonovsky, M.Y.

    1989-01-01

    In recent years, the boreal forest has received increased scientific attention in light of projected climatic warming to boreal regions from increased concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide. The ecological consequences of such a warming could be significant. However, before the consequences of climatic change can be properly investigated, the ecology of boreal forest tree species must be adequately understood. Though the life-histories of many North American boreal forest tree species a...

  5. Fish and Bird

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛秀波

    2010-01-01

    人物:B——Bird L——Little Fish M——Mother Fish N——Narracor(旁白)道具:角色头饰 N:一条生活在河里的Little Fish对天空充满了好奇,一心想飞到天空去看看。此时,Little Fish正依偎在Mother Fish身边,好奇地望着天空。

  6. The breeding ranges of Central European and Arctic bird species move poleward.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon E Brommer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Climatic warming predicts that species move their entire distribution poleward. Poleward movement of the 'cold' side of the distribution of species is empirically supported, but evidence of poleward movement at the 'warm' distributional side is relatively scarce. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Finland has, as the first country in the world, completed three national atlas surveys of breeding birds, which we here use to calculate the sizes and weighted mean latitudes of the national range of 114 southern and 34 northern bird species during three periods (1974-1979; 1986-1989; 2006-2010, each denoting species presence in approximately 3 800 10 × 10 km2 squares. We find strong evidence that southern species (breeding predominantly in central Europe showed a latitudinal shift of 1.1-1.3 km/year poleward during all three pairwise comparisons between these atlases (covering 11, 20.5 and 31.5 years respectively. We find evidence of a latitudinal shift of 0.7-0.8 km/year poleward of northern boreal and Arctic species, but this shift was not found in all study periods and may have been influenced by increased effort put into the more recent surveys. Species showed no significant correlation in changes in range size and weighted mean latitude between the first (11 year and second (20.5 year period covered by consecutive atlases, suggesting weak phylogenetic signal and little scope of species characteristics in explaining latitudinal avian range changes. CONCLUSIONS: Extinction-driven avian range changes (at the 'warm' side of a species' distribution occur at approximately half the rate of colonisation-driven range changes (at the 'cold' side, and its quantification therefore requires long-term monitoring data, possibly explaining why evidence for such changes is currently rare. A clear latitudinal shift in an assemblage of species may still harbour considerable temporal inconsistency in latitudinal movement on the species level. Understanding

  7. Bird communities of the arctic shrub tundra of Yamal: habitat specialists and generalists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliy Sokolov

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ratio of habitat generalists to specialists in birds has been suggested as a good indicator of ecosystem changes due to e.g. climate change and other anthropogenic perturbations. Most studies focusing on this functional component of biodiversity originate, however, from temperate regions. The Eurasian Arctic tundra is currently experiencing an unprecedented combination of climate change, change in grazing pressure by domestic reindeer and growing human activity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we monitored bird communities in a tundra landscape harbouring shrub and open habitats in order to analyse bird habitat relationships and quantify habitat specialization. We used ordination methods to analyse habitat associations and estimated the proportions of specialists in each of the main habitats. Correspondence Analysis identified three main bird communities, inhabiting upland, lowland and dense willow shrubs. We documented a stable structure of communities despite large multiannual variations of bird density (from 90 to 175 pairs/km(2. Willow shrub thickets were a hotspot for bird density, but not for species richness. The thickets hosted many specialized species whose main distribution area was south of the tundra. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: If current arctic changes result in a shrubification of the landscape as many studies suggested, we would expect an increase in the overall bird abundance together with an increase of local specialists, since they are associated with willow thickets. The majority of these species have a southern origin and their increase in abundance would represent a strengthening of the boreal component in the southern tundra, perhaps at the expense of species typical of the subarctic zone, which appear to be generalists within this zone.

  8. Investigation on Bird Resources in Qingyang%庆阳市鸟类资源调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺鹏辉; 邢会文; 杜芬芬; 张浩; 宋一诚

    2011-01-01

    The investigation on the bird resources are tarried out with the methods of sample point and line transect from 2009 to 2011 in Qingyang City of Gansu Province. A total of 124 bird species, belonging to 16 orders and 48 families, are recorded. Among them, 68 species (54. 8% ) are passerine birds, 56 species (45.2% ) are non-passerine birds; 67 species are migrants, 57 species are residents. In addition, 5 species are class I nationally protected birds, 11 species are class II nationally protected birds. Among 98 species of breeding birds, 62 spe-cies(63. 3% ) belong to Boreal taxa, indicating that the avifauna in the city has obvious character of North type.%2009 ~2011年采用固定半径样点法和样线法对甘肃省庆阳市的鸟类资源现状进行了调查.共记录到鸟类124种,隶属于16目48科其中,雀形目鸟类68种,占鸟类总数的54.8%,非雀形目鸟类56种,占45.2%;候鸟67种,留鸟57种;国家Ⅰ级保护鸟类有5种,国家Ⅱ级保护鸟类有11种.98种繁殖鸟中,属于北方型的有62种,占63.3%,反映出较明显的北方型鸟类区系特征.

  9. Alien invasive birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochier, B; Vangeluwe, D; van den Berg, T

    2010-08-01

    A bird species is regarded as alien invasive if it has been introduced, intentionally or accidentally, to a location where it did not previously occur naturally, becomes capable of establishing a breeding population without further intervention by humans, spreads and becomes a pest affecting the environment, the local biodiversity, the economy and/or society, including human health. European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris), Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis) and Red-vented Bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer) have been included on the list of '100 of the World's Worst Invasive Alien Species', a subset of the Global Invasive Species Database. The 'Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe' project has selected Canada Goose (Branta canadensis), Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis), Rose-ringed Parakeet (Psittacula krameri) and Sacred Ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus) as among 100 of the worst invasive species in Europe. For each of these alien bird species, the geographic range (native and introduced range), the introduction pathway, the general impacts and the management methods are presented. PMID:20919578

  10. Regional Assessment of soil organic matter profile distribution in the boreal forest ecosystems of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshalkina, Joulia; Belousova, Nataliya; Vasenev, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    , except the A1. The OMC in it ranges from 0.05 to 0.5%. Organic matter stocks in the layer due to its high depth are comparable to the stocks of the top two layers, and sometimes exceed them. According to the database the depth of organic matter penetration is same in Podzolics (Albeluvisols Haplic) soils and Sod-podzolics (Albeluvisols Umbric) soils. It is noticeably deeply in Gley-podzolics (Albeluvisols Gleyic) soils, mainly because of the greater mobility of organic matter in the more humid and cold climates conditions. Also this may be explained by frequent trees falls. It was found that regional differences often exceed differences between soil classification types. So, the vertical distribution of soil organic matter content is not associated with the morphological profile in boreal genetic soil types. The organic matter profile of mountain analogues of different soil types has specific features: high OMC (3-5%), unstable penetration deepness. The study was supported by the RFBR grants N 11-04-02089, 13-04-00480, and partially supported by the RF Government grants # 11.G34.31.0079 and # 14.120.14.4266 and by FP7 Grant # 603542 LUC4C.

  11. Modeling methane emissions from boreal peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raivonen, Maarit; Smolander, Sampo; Mäkelä, Jarmo; Tomasic, Marin; Aalto, Tuula; Markkanen, Tiina; Susiluoto, Jouni; Kleinen, Thomas; Brovkin, Victor; Rinne, Janne; Lohila, Annalea; Aurela, Mika; Vesala, Timo

    2014-05-01

    Natural wetlands are a significant source of methane (CH4): they have been estimated to account for about 30% of total global CH4 emissions. At the moment, the emission estimates are highly uncertain. These natural emissions respond to climatic variability, so it is necessary to understand their dynamics, in order to be able to predict how they affect the greenhouse-gas balance in the future. We have developed a model of CH4 production and transport in boreal peatlands. The aim is to make it a part of JSBACH, the land component of the Earth System Model of MPI Hamburg. The soil carbon model of JSBACH simulates peatland carbon processes like peat accumulation and decomposition and our CH4 module simulates production of CH4 as a proportion of the anaerobic peat decomposition, transport of CH4 and oxygen between the soil and the atmosphere, and oxidation of CH4 by methanotrophic microbes. The model has the three main pathways for transport: diffusion in aerenchymatous plants and in peat pores (water and air filled) and CH4 ebullition. The oxidation of CH4 depends on the oxygen concentrations in the peat. The model is largely based on existing models of CH4 production and transport but it includes some modifications that we will present here. We also will present the results of the first validations against observational data. The datasets are from two Finnish peatland sites, Siikaneva (southern) and Lompolojänkkä (northern Finland). Measurements of eddy covariance CH4 and CO2 fluxes and meteorological variables, as well as diverse ecological studies have been carried out on both sites over several years.

  12. FAQ: West Nile Virus and Dead Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education Public Service Videos West Nile Virus & Dead Birds Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... dead bird sightings to local authorities. How do birds get infected with West Nile virus? West Nile ...

  13. Native Roadside Vegetation that Enhances Soil Erosion Control in Boreal Scandinavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika K. Jägerbrand

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on identifying vegetation characteristics associated with erosion control at nine roadside sites in mid-West Sweden. A number of vegetation characteristics such as cover, diversity, plant functional type, biomass and plant community structure were included. Significant difference in cover between eroded and non-eroded sub-sites was found in evergreen shrubs, total cover, and total above ground biomass. Thus, our results support the use of shrubs in order to stabilize vegetation and minimize erosion along roadsides. However, shrubs are disfavored by several natural and human imposed factors. This could have several impacts on the long-term management of roadsides in boreal regions. By both choosing and applying active management that supports native evergreen shrubs in boreal regions, several positive effects could be achieved along roadsides, such as lower erosion rate and secured long-term vegetation cover. This could also lead to lower costs for roadside maintenance as lower erosion rates would require less frequent stabilizing treatments and mowing could be kept to a minimum in order not to disfavor shrubs.

  14. Laboratory Animal Management: Wild Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Inst. of Lab. Animal Resources.

    This is a report on the care and use of wild birds in captivity as research animals. Chapters are presented on procurement and identification, housing, nutrition, health of birds and personnel, reproduction in confinement, and surgical procedures. Also included are addresses of federal, state, and provencial regulatory agencies concerned with wild…

  15. Migration in birds and fishes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwey, J.

    1949-01-01

    Our knowledge concerning the periodical movements in animals called migrations is chiefly based on observations on birds. By and by, however, a number of facts concerning migration in other animal groups have been assembled and it seems worth while to compare them with those known for birds. There i

  16. Environmental Determinants Influencing Seasonal Variations of Bird Diversity and Abundance in Wetlands, Northern Region (Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins Ayine Nsor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed major environmental determinants influencing bird community in six wetlands over a 2-year period. A combination of visual and bird sounding techniques was used to determine the seasonal variations in bird abundance, while ordination techniques were performed to determine the influence of environmental factors on bird assemblage. A total of 1,169 birds from 25 species and 885 individuals from 23 species were identified in the wet and dry season, respectively. The shallow close marshes supported the greatest number of birds (P<0.05 compared to the riparian wetlands. Bird diversity was significantly higher in the wet season than in the dry season (F=4.101,P<0.05. Cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis and marsh warbler (Acrocephalus palustris were the most abundant. Using the IUCN “Red List” database guide, we noted that 96.2% of birds identified were least concern (LC. The yellow weaver bird (Ploceous megarhrynchus was the only vulnerable species (VU and represented 3.8%. From the three variables tested, bushfire and farming practices were the major threats and cumulatively explained 15.93% (wet season and 14.06% (dry season variations in bird diversity and abundance. These findings will help wetland managers design conservation measures to check current threats on birds from becoming vulnerable in the future.

  17. Osteological evidence for sister group relationship between pseudo-toothed birds (Aves: Odontopterygiformes) and waterfowls (Anseriformes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdon, Estelle

    2005-12-01

    The phylogenetic affinities of the extinct pseudo-toothed birds have remained controversial. Some authors noted that they resemble both pelicans and allies (Pelecaniformes) and tube-nosed birds (Procellariiformes), but assigned them to a distinct taxon, the Odontopterygiformes. In most recent studies, the pseudo-toothed birds are referred to the family Pelagornithidae inside the Pelecaniformes. Here, I perform a cladistic analysis with five taxa of the pseudo-toothed birds including two undescribed new species from the Early Tertiary of Morocco. The present hypothesis strongly supports a sister group relationship of pseudo-toothed birds (Odontopterygiformes) and waterfowls (Anseriformes). The Odontoanserae (Odontopterygiformes plus Anseriformes) are the sister group of Neoaves. The placement of the landfowls (Galliformes) as the sister taxon of all other neognathous birds does not support the consensus view that the Galloanserae (Galliformes plus Anseriformes) are monophyletic.

  18. WT-bird. A novel bird impact detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhoef, J.P.; Westra, C.A.; Korterink, H.; Curvers, A. [ECN Wind, Petten (Netherlands)

    2002-11-01

    An important implementation issue for wind farms is the risk of bird collision. Much of the existing knowledge on birds and wind energy is based on studies of onshore sites. With respect to wind energy implementation especially offshore, more information about the environmental impact is needed. Several countries carrying out environmental base line studies focused on offshore wind farm sites. Monitoring wildlife is very labour intensive. Therefore, ECN develops a computer based efficient environmental monitoring tool. The aim is to develop, demonstrate and evaluate a noise monitoring system, which identifies bird impacts and also indicates the species. The system must be relatively inexpensive, robust and applicable for offshore conditions. The system identifies bird impacts by noise measurements and a camera identifies the specific species. The system can also distinguish between turbine specific sounds and a real collision against tower, nacelle and rotor. The WT-Bird detection system built by ECN appears to be a very promising way to detect bird collisions against wind turbines. The first experimental results are good. This way of detecting the collisions of birds can be very useful for the future implementation of offshore wind farms.

  19. Experimental and numerical study of a bird strike against a windshield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plassard, Fabien; Hereil, Pierre-Louis; Joseph, Pierric; Mespoulet, Jérôme

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes a bird strike study performed at THIOT-INGENIERIE laboratory. For aeronautic requirements, the 220 mm version of the gas gun TITAN is used to perform bird strike on instrumented structures. This paper shows a bird strike on a polycarbonate windshield instrumented with high speed cameras, velocity and force sensors. A crossed work with numerical simulation has been performed to design target support and diagnostic tools. It permits also to demonstrate reliability of the numerical tools.

  20. AmBird: Mediating Intimacy for Long Distance Relationships through an Ambient Awareness System

    OpenAIRE

    Jespersen, Sine; Stounbjerg, Rasmus Balthasar Kloth; Verdezoto, Nervo

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the AmBird concept that explores how to provide alternatives for mediating intimacy for people that are living apart. The initial design and implementation of the AmBird concept is described as well as a preliminary concept validation. Based on the lessons learned, we highlight the opportunities of AmBird to support multiple intimate acts and our future work.

  1. Vulnerability of North American Boreal Peatlands to Interactions between Climate, Hydrology, and Wildland Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeau-Chavez, L. L.; Jenkins, L. K.; Kasischke, E. S.; Turetsky, M.; Benscoter, B.; Banda, E. J.; Boren, E. J.; Endres, S. L.; Billmire, M.

    2013-12-01

    North American boreal peatland sites of Alaska, Alberta Canada, and the southern limit of the boreal ecoregion (Michigan's Upper Peninsula) are the focus of an ongoing project to better understand the fire weather, hydrology, and climatic controls on boreal peatland fires. The overall goal of the research project is to reduce uncertainties of the role of northern high latitude ecosystems in the global carbon cycle and to improve carbon emission estimates from boreal fires. Boreal peatlands store tremendous reservoirs of soil carbon that are likely to become increasingly vulnerable to fire as climate change lowers water tables and exposes C-rich peat to burning. Increasing fire activity in peatlands could cause these ecosystems to become net sources of C to the atmosphere, which is likely to have large influences on atmospheric carbon concentrations through positive feedbacks that enhance climate warming. Remote sensing is key to monitoring, understanding and quantifying changes occurring in boreal peatlands. Remote sensing methods are being developed to: 1) map and classify peatland cover types; 2) characterize seasonal and inter-annual variations in the moisture content of surface peat (fuel) layers; 3) map the extent and seasonal timing of fires in peatlands; and 4) discriminate different levels of fuel consumption/burn severity in peat fires. A hybrid radar and optical infrared methodology has been developed to map peatland types (bog vs. fen) and level of biomass (open herbaceous, shrubby, forested). This methodology relies on multi-season data to detect phenological changes in hydrology which characterize the different ecosystem types. Landsat data are being used to discriminate burn severity classes in the peatland types using standard dNBR methods as well as individual bands. Cross referencing the peatland maps and burn severity maps will allow for assessment of the distribution of upland and peatland ecosystems affected by fire and quantitative analysis of

  2. Risk of Agricultural Practices and Habitat Change to Farmland Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney W. Brook

    2011-06-01

    addition of 63 m of hedgerow could increase abundance and richness of short distance migrants by 50% (3.0 to 4.8 and 1.3 to 2.0, respectively. Increasing the proportion of hay on nonorganic farms to 50% could increase abundance of primary grassland bird by 40% (6.7 to 9.4. Our results provide support for alternative farmland designs and agricultural management systems that could enhance select bird species in farmland.

  3. Boreal forest fire emissions in fresh Canadian smoke plumes: C1-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs, CO2, CO, NO2, NO, HCN and CH3CN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Boreal regions comprise about 17 % of the global land area, and they both affect and are influenced by climate change. To better understand boreal forest fire emissions and plume evolution, 947 whole air samples were collected aboard the NASA DC-8 research aircraft in summer 2008 as part of the ARCTAS-B field mission, and analyzed for 79 non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs using gas chromatography. Together with simultaneous measurements of CO2, CO, CH4, CH2O, NO2, NO, HCN and CH3CN, these measurements represent the most comprehensive assessment of trace gas emissions from boreal forest fires to date. Based on 105 air samples collected in fresh Canadian smoke plumes, 57 of the 80 measured NMVOCs (including CH2O were emitted from the fires, including 45 species that were quantified from boreal forest fires for the first time. After CO2, CO and CH4, the largest emission factors (EFs for individual species were formaldehyde (2.1 ± 0.2 g kg−1, followed by methanol, NO2, HCN, ethene, α-pinene, β-pinene, ethane, benzene, propene, acetone and CH3CN. Globally, we estimate that boreal forest fires release 2.4 ± 0.6 Tg C yr−1 in the form of NMVOCs, with approximately 41 % of the carbon released as C1-C2 NMVOCs and 21 % as pinenes. These are the first reported field measurements of monoterpene emissions from boreal forest fires, and we speculate that the pinenes, which are relatively heavy molecules, were detected in the fire plumes as the result of distillation of stored terpenes as the vegetation is heated. Their inclusion in smoke chemistry models is expected to improve model predictions of secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation. The fire-averaged EF of dichloromethane or CH2Cl2, (6.9 ± 8.6 × 10−4 g kg−1, was not significantly different from zero and supports recent findings that its global biomass burning source appears to have been overestimated. Similarly, we found no evidence for emissions of chloroform (CHCl3 or methyl

  4. Russian boreal peatlands dominate the natural European methane budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About 60% of the European wetlands are located in the European part of Russia. Nevertheless, data on methane emissions from wetlands of that area are absent. Here we present results of methane emission measurements for two climatically different years from a boreal peatland complex in European Russia. Winter fluxes were well within the range of what has been reported for the peatlands of other boreal regions before, but summer fluxes greatly exceeded the average range of 5–80 mg CH4 m−2 d−1 for the circumpolar boreal zone. Half of the measured fluxes ranged between 150 and 450 mg CH4 m−2 d−1. Extrapolation of our data to the whole boreal zone of European Russia shows that theses emissions could amount to up to 2.7 ± 1.1 Tg CH4 a−1, corresponding to 69% of the annual emissions from European wetlands or 33% of the total annual natural European methane emission. In 2008, climatic conditions corresponded to the long term mean, whereas the summer of 2011 was warmer and noticeably drier. Counterintuitively, these conditions led to even higher CH4 emissions, with peaks up to two times higher than the values measured in 2008. As Russian peatlands dominate the areal extend of wetlands in Europe and are characterized by very high methane fluxes to the atmosphere, it is evident, that sound European methane budgeting will only be achieved with more insight into Russian peatlands. (letter)

  5. Adaptation and mitigation strategies in Northern Eurasian boreal forests

    OpenAIRE

    A. Shvidenko; F. Kraxner; Obersteiner, M.; D. Schepaschenko

    2011-01-01

    Boreal forests of Northern Eurasia are experiencing ongoing changes in climate, strong impacts by humans including transformation of previously untouched landscapes, and dramatically accelerating disturbance regimes. Current global and regional climatic models predict for this region the most dramatic climatic change over the globe. Unregulated and often destructive anthropogenic impacts on the environment and natural landscapes may substantially accelerate the negative consequences of climat...

  6. Resilience of Alaska’s boreal forest to climatic change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, F.S.; McGuire, Anthony; Ruess, R.W.; Hollingsworth, Teresa N.; Mack, M.C.; Johnstone, J.F.; Kasischke, E.S.; Euskirchen, E.S.; Jones, J.B.; Jorgenson, M.T.; Kielland, K.; Kofinas, G.; Turetsky, M.R.; Yarie, J.; Lloyd, A.H.; Taylor, D.L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper assesses the resilience of Alaska’s boreal forest system to rapid climatic change. Recent warming is associated with reduced growth of dominant tree species, plant disease and insect outbreaks, warming and thawing of permafrost, drying of lakes, increased wildfire extent, increased postfire recruitment of deciduous trees, and reduced safety of hunters traveling on river ice. These changes have modified key structural features, feedbacks, and interactions in the boreal forest, including reduced effects of upland permafrost on regional hydrology, expansion of boreal forest into tundra, and amplification of climate warming because of reduced albedo (shorter winter season) and carbon release from wildfires. Other temperature-sensitive processes for which no trends have been detected include composition of plant and microbial communities, long-term landscape-scale change in carbon stocks, stream discharge, mammalian population dynamics, and river access and subsistence opportunities for rural indigenous communities. Projections of continued warming suggest that Alaska’s boreal forest will undergo significant functional and structural changes within the next few decades that are unprecedented in the last 6000 years. The impact of these social–ecological changes will depend in part on the extent of landscape reorganization between uplands and lowlands and on policies regulating subsistence opportunities for rural communities.

  7. Resilience of Alaska's Boreal Forest to Climatic Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, F. S., III; McGuire, A. D.; Ruess, R. W.; Hollingsworth, T. N.; Mack, M. C.; Johnstone, J. F.; Kasischke, E. S.; Euskirchen, E. S.; Jones, J. B.; Jorgenson, M. T.; Kielland, K.; Kofinas, G. P.; Turetsky, M. R.; Yarie, J.; Lloyd, A. H.; Taylor, D. L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper assesses the resilience of Alaska s boreal forest system to rapid climatic change. Recent warming is associated with reduced growth of dominant tree species, plant disease and insect outbreaks, warming and thawing of permafrost, drying of lakes, increased wildfire extent, increased postfire recruitment of deciduous trees, and reduced safety of hunters traveling on river ice. These changes have modified key structural features, feedbacks, and interactions in the boreal forest, including reduced effects of upland permafrost on regional hydrology, expansion of boreal forest into tundra, and amplification of climate warming because of reduced albedo (shorter winter season) and carbon release from wildfires. Other temperature-sensitive processes for which no trends have been detected include composition of plant and microbial communities, long-term landscape-scale change in carbon stocks, stream discharge, mammalian population dynamics, and river access and subsistence opportunities for rural indigenous communities. Projections of continued warming suggest that Alaska s boreal forest will undergo significant functional and structural changes within the next few decades that are unprecedented in the last 6000 years. The impact of these social ecological changes will depend in part on the extent of landscape reorganization between uplands and lowlands and on policies regulating subsistence opportunities for rural communities.

  8. Russian boreal peatlands dominate the natural European methane budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Julia; Jungkunst, Hermann F.; Wolf, Ulrike; Schreiber, Peter; Gažovič, Michal; Miglovets, Mikhail; Mikhaylov, Oleg; Grunwald, Dennis; Erasmi, Stefan; Wilmking, Martin; Kutzbach, Lars

    2016-01-01

    About 60% of the European wetlands are located in the European part of Russia. Nevertheless, data on methane emissions from wetlands of that area are absent. Here we present results of methane emission measurements for two climatically different years from a boreal peatland complex in European Russia. Winter fluxes were well within the range of what has been reported for the peatlands of other boreal regions before, but summer fluxes greatly exceeded the average range of 5-80 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 for the circumpolar boreal zone. Half of the measured fluxes ranged between 150 and 450 mg CH4 m-2 d-1. Extrapolation of our data to the whole boreal zone of European Russia shows that theses emissions could amount to up to 2.7 ± 1.1 Tg CH4 a-1, corresponding to 69% of the annual emissions from European wetlands or 33% of the total annual natural European methane emission. In 2008, climatic conditions corresponded to the long term mean, whereas the summer of 2011 was warmer and noticeably drier. Counterintuitively, these conditions led to even higher CH4 emissions, with peaks up to two times higher than the values measured in 2008. As Russian peatlands dominate the areal extend of wetlands in Europe and are characterized by very high methane fluxes to the atmosphere, it is evident, that sound European methane budgeting will only be achieved with more insight into Russian peatlands.

  9. Global climate change adaptation: examples from Russian boreal forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Russian Federation contains approximately 20% of the world's timber resources and more than half of all boreal forests. These forests play a prominent role in environmental protection and economic development at global, national, and local levels, as well as, provide commodities for indigenous people and habitat for a variety of plant and animal species. The response and feedbacks of Russian boreal forests to projected global climate change are expected to be profound. Current understanding of the vulnerability of Russian forest resources to projected climate change is discussed and examples of possible adaptation measures for Russian forests are presented including: (1) artificial forestation techniques that can be applied with the advent of failed natural regeneration and to facilitate forest migration northward; (2) silvicultural measures that can influence the species mix to maintain productivity under future climates; (3) identifying forests at risk and developing special management adaption measures for them: (4) alternative processing and uses of wood and non-wood products from future forests; and (5) potential future infrastructure and transport systems that can be employed as boreal forests shift northward into melting permafrost zones. Current infrastructure and technology can be employed to help Russian boreal forests adapt to projected global environmental change, however many current forest management practices may have to be modified. Application of this technical knowledge can help policymakers identify priorities for climate change adaptation

  10. Moss-nitrogen input to boreal forest soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rousk, Kathrin; Jones, Davey; DeLuca, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacteria living epiphytically on mosses in pristine, unpolluted areas fix substantial amounts of atmospheric nitrogen (N) and therefore represent a primary source of N in N-limited boreal forests. However, the fate of this N is unclear, in particular, how the fixed N2 enters the soil and bec...

  11. Mosaic boreal landscapes with open and forested wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review patterns and processes important for biodiversity in the Fennoscandian boreal forest, describe man's past and present impact and outline a strategy for conservation. The boreal landscape was earlier characterized by a mosaic of open and forested wetlands and forests. Drainage and felling operation have largely changed that pattern. Several organisms depend upon the landscape mosaic. Natural ecotones between mire and forest provide food resources predictable in space and time contrasting to unpredictable edges in the silvicultured landscape. The mosaic is also a prerequisite for organisms dependent on non-substitutable resources in the landscape. The importance of swamp forests has increased as they function as refugia for earlier more widespread old-growth species. Programmes for maintaining biodiversity in the boreal landscape should include the following points. First, the natural mosaic with open and forested wetlands must be maintained. Second, swamp forests must receive a general protection as they often constitute the only old-growth patches in the landscape. Third, we need to restore earlier disturbance regimes. Present strategy plans for conservation are insufficient, as they imply that a too large proportion of boreal organisms will not be able to survive outside protected areas. Instead, we need to focus more on how to preserve organisms in the man-influenced landscape. As a first step we need to understand how organisms are distributed in landscapes at various spatial scales. We need studies in landscapes where the original mosaic has faced various degrees of fragmentation. (au) 124 refs

  12. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, and seabirds in the Bristol Bay Subarea. The Subarea...

  13. Anatomy of a Bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    Using ESO's Very Large Telescope, an international team of astronomers [1] has discovered a stunning rare case of a triple merger of galaxies. This system, which astronomers have dubbed 'The Bird' - albeit it also bears resemblance with a cosmic Tinker Bell - is composed of two massive spiral galaxies and a third irregular galaxy. ESO PR Photo 55a/07 ESO PR Photo 55a/07 The Tinker Bell Triplet The galaxy ESO 593-IG 008, or IRAS 19115-2124, was previously merely known as an interacting pair of galaxies at a distance of 650 million light-years. But surprises were revealed by observations made with the NACO instrument attached to ESO's VLT, which peered through the all-pervasive dust clouds, using adaptive optics to resolve the finest details [2]. Underneath the chaotic appearance of the optical Hubble images - retrieved from the Hubble Space Telescope archive - the NACO images show two unmistakable galaxies, one a barred spiral while the other is more irregular. The surprise lay in the clear identification of a third, clearly separate component, an irregular, yet fairly massive galaxy that seems to be forming stars at a frantic rate. "Examples of mergers of three galaxies of roughly similar sizes are rare," says Petri Väisänen, lead author of the paper reporting the results. "Only the near-infrared VLT observations made it possible to identify the triple merger nature of the system in this case." Because of the resemblance of the system to a bird, the object was dubbed as such, with the 'head' being the third component, and the 'heart' and 'body' making the two major galaxy nuclei in-between of tidal tails, the 'wings'. The latter extend more than 100,000 light-years, or the size of our own Milky Way. ESO PR Photo 55b/07 ESO PR Photo 55b/07 Anatomy of a Bird Subsequent optical spectroscopy with the new Southern African Large Telescope, and archive mid-infrared data from the NASA Spitzer space observatory, confirmed the separate nature of the 'head', but also added

  14. Workshop: Western hemisphere network of bird banding programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celis-Murillo, A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To promote collaboration among banding programs in the Americas. Introduction: Bird banding and marking provide indispensable tools for ornithological research, management, and conservation of migratory birds on migratory routes, breeding and non-breeding grounds. Many countries and organizations in Latin America and the Caribbean are in the process of developing or have expressed interest in developing national banding schemes and databases to support their research and management programs. Coordination of developing and existing banding programs is essential for effective data management, reporting, archiving and security, and most importantly, for gaining a fuller understanding of migratory bird conservation issues and how the banding data can help. Currently, there is a well established bird-banding program in the U.S.A. and Canada, and programs in other countries are being developed as well. Ornithologists in many Latin American countries and the Caribbean are interested in using banding and marking in their research programs. Many in the ornithological community are interested in establishing banding schemes and some countries have recently initiated independent banding programs. With the number of long term collaborative and international initiatives increasing, the time is ripe to discuss and explore opportunities for international collaboration, coordination, and administration of bird banding programs in the Western Hemisphere. We propose the second ?Western Hemisphere Network of Bird Banding Programs? workshop, in association with the SCSCB, to be an essential step in the progress to strengthen international partnerships and support migratory bird conservation in the Americas and beyond. This will be the second multi-national meeting to promote collaboration among banding programs in the Americas (the first meeting was held in October 8-9, 2006 in La Mancha, Veracruz, Mexico). The Second ?Western Hemisphere Network of Bird Banding Programs

  15. Invasive alien birds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Anthony David; Heldbjerg, Henning; Nyegaard, Timme

    2015-01-01

    Avian Introduced Alien Species (IAS) constitute a threat to the integrity of native biodiversity, the economy and human health, so here we briefly review some of the problems posed by such species around the world in relation to such bird species in Denmark. A new European Union Regulation...... show the importance of mechanisms such as DOF’s (Dansk Ornitologisk Forening, BirdLife Denmark) Atlas project, Common Bird Census (breeding and wintering species) and DOFbasen to contribute data on the current geographical and numerical distribution of the few serious alien avian species already...

  16. Angels, Demons, Birds and Dinosaurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ries, Christopher Jacob

    2010-01-01

    of birds, setting the international agenda for research in bird evolution for the next 40 years. In Denmark, however, Heilmann's highly original work was generally ignored or even ridiculed by zoologists. This article demonstrates how Heilmann's artistic abilities played an important role in securing him...... international renown as a palaeontologist, while at the same time his lack of scientific credentials led to his complete isolation from the Danish zoological establishment. And it suggests that Heilmann's unyielding efforts to solve the riddle of bird evolution in the borderland between art and science...

  17. Silvicultural management in maintaining biodiversity and resistance of forests in Europe-boreal zone: case Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielikäinen, Kari; Hynynen, Jari

    2003-01-01

    The majority of untouched natural boreal forests have been regenerated through large catastrophes, occurring by intervals between 50 and 100 years. Storm and fire will open the landscape, result in a huge amount of dead or dying trees and let the pioneer tree species germinate. These processes are the guideline for Finnish forest management today. The main focus by maintaining the biodiversity in Finnish boreal forest zone is directed to managed forests. Nature-orientated silviculture on stand level is practised. The site type classification, a reflection of the modern concept of biodiversity and developed by Cajander early in 1900s, on the basis of natural vegetation composition of the site, has the central role by choosing tree species, regeneration methods and thinning procedure, and reflects also on the site productivity. The small size of stands, the abundance of natural seedlings in planted stands and the popularity of mixed stands have a positive impact on biodiversity of forests. The protection of small-sized valuable habitats in commercially managed stands, the leaving of retention trees standing and lying in the forest in all phases of the rotation, are activities made for biodiversity. Many insects and fungi are adapted to catastrophes and so they can survive in single stems left on regeneration areas. Maintaining the biodiversity in multifunctional forests is also supported by the new forest legislation and by the criteria of Finnish Forest Certification System. PMID:12659803

  18. Hovering and intermittent flight in birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two styles of bird locomotion, hovering and intermittent flight, have great potential to inform future development of autonomous flying vehicles. Hummingbirds are the smallest flying vertebrates, and they are the only birds that can sustain hovering. Their ability to hover is due to their small size, high wingbeat frequency, relatively large margin of mass-specific power available for flight and a suite of anatomical features that include proportionally massive major flight muscles (pectoralis and supracoracoideus) and wing anatomy that enables them to leave their wings extended yet turned over (supinated) during upstroke so that they can generate lift to support their weight. Hummingbirds generate three times more lift during downstroke compared with upstroke, with the disparity due to wing twist during upstroke. Much like insects, hummingbirds exploit unsteady mechanisms during hovering including delayed stall during wing translation that is manifest as a leading-edge vortex (LEV) on the wing and rotational circulation at the end of each half stroke. Intermittent flight is common in small- and medium-sized birds and consists of pauses during which the wings are flexed (bound) or extended (glide). Flap-bounding appears to be an energy-saving style when flying relatively fast, with the production of lift by the body and tail critical to this saving. Flap-gliding is thought to be less costly than continuous flapping during flight at most speeds. Some species are known to shift from flap-gliding at slow speeds to flap-bounding at fast speeds, but there is an upper size limit for the ability to bound (∼0.3 kg) and small birds with rounded wings do not use intermittent glides.

  19. Hovering and intermittent flight in birds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobalske, Bret W, E-mail: bret.tobalske@mso.umt.ed [Field Research Station at Fort Missoula, Division of Biological Sciences, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Two styles of bird locomotion, hovering and intermittent flight, have great potential to inform future development of autonomous flying vehicles. Hummingbirds are the smallest flying vertebrates, and they are the only birds that can sustain hovering. Their ability to hover is due to their small size, high wingbeat frequency, relatively large margin of mass-specific power available for flight and a suite of anatomical features that include proportionally massive major flight muscles (pectoralis and supracoracoideus) and wing anatomy that enables them to leave their wings extended yet turned over (supinated) during upstroke so that they can generate lift to support their weight. Hummingbirds generate three times more lift during downstroke compared with upstroke, with the disparity due to wing twist during upstroke. Much like insects, hummingbirds exploit unsteady mechanisms during hovering including delayed stall during wing translation that is manifest as a leading-edge vortex (LEV) on the wing and rotational circulation at the end of each half stroke. Intermittent flight is common in small- and medium-sized birds and consists of pauses during which the wings are flexed (bound) or extended (glide). Flap-bounding appears to be an energy-saving style when flying relatively fast, with the production of lift by the body and tail critical to this saving. Flap-gliding is thought to be less costly than continuous flapping during flight at most speeds. Some species are known to shift from flap-gliding at slow speeds to flap-bounding at fast speeds, but there is an upper size limit for the ability to bound ({approx}0.3 kg) and small birds with rounded wings do not use intermittent glides.

  20. Forest harvest contribution to Boreal freshwater methyl mercury load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronberg, Rose-Marie; Drott, Andreas; Jiskra, Martin; Wiederhold, Jan G.; Björn, Erik; Skyllberg, Ulf

    2016-06-01

    Effects of Boreal forest harvest on mercury (Hg) and methyl mercury (MeHg) soil pools and export by stream runoff were quantified by comparing 10 reference watersheds (REFs) covered by >80 year old Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) forests with 10 similar watersheds subjected to clear-cutting (CCs). While total Hg soil storage did not change, MeHg pools increased seven times (p = 0.006) in the organic topsoil 2 years after clear-cutting. In undulating terrain, situated above the postglacial marine limit (ML) of the ancient Baltic Sea, the mass ratio between flux-weighted MeHg and dissolved organic carbon (MeHg/DOC) in stream runoff increased 1.8 times (p wetlands. The most robust measure, MeHg/DOC, was used to calculate MeHg loadings to Boreal headwaters. If the forest harvest effect lasts 10 years, clear-cutting increases MeHg runoff by 12-20% in Sweden and 2% in the Boreal zone as a whole. In Sweden, having intensely managed forests, 37% and 56% of MeHg are exported from peatlands and forest soils, respectively, and forest clear-cutting is adding another 6.6%. In the Boreal zone as a whole peatlands and forests soils contribute with 53% and 46%, respectively, and clear-cutting is estimated to add another 1.0%. An expected rapid increase in Boreal forest harvest and disturbance urge for inclusion of land use effects in mercury biogeochemical cycling models at different scales.

  1. Potential for long-term transfer of dissolved organic carbon from riparian zones to streams in boreal catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, José L J; Grabs, Thomas; Bishop, Kevin H; Schiff, Sherry L; Köhler, Stephan J

    2015-08-01

    Boreal regions store most of the global terrestrial carbon, which can be transferred as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to inland waters with implications for both aquatic ecology and carbon budgets. Headwater riparian zones (RZ) are important sources of DOC, and often just a narrow 'dominant source layer' (DSL) within the riparian profile is responsible for most of the DOC export. Two important questions arise: how long boreal RZ could sustain lateral DOC fluxes as the sole source of exported carbon and how its hydromorphological variability influences this role. We estimate theoretical turnover times by comparing carbon pools and lateral exports in the DSL of 13 riparian profiles distributed over a 69 km(2) catchment in northern Sweden. The thickness of the DSL was 36 ± 18 (average ± SD) cm. Thus, only about one-third of the 1-m-deep riparian profile contributed 90% of the lateral DOC flux. The 13 RZ exported 8.7 ± 6.5 g C m(-2) year(-1) , covering the whole range of boreal stream DOC exports. The variation could be explained by local hydromorphological characteristics including RZ width (R(2) = 0.90). The estimated theoretical turnover times were hundreds to a few thousands of years, that is there is a potential long-lasting supply of DOC. Estimates of net ecosystem production in the RZ suggest that lateral fluxes, including both organic and inorganic C, could be maintained without drawing down the riparian pools. This was supported by measurements of stream DO(14) C that indicated modern carbon as the predominant fraction exported, including streams disturbed by ditching. The transfer of DOC into boreal inland waters from new and old carbon sources has a major influence on surface water quality and global carbon balances. This study highlights the importance of local variations in RZ hydromorphology and DSL extent for future DOC fluxes under a changing climate. PMID:25611952

  2. Satellite chlorophyll fluorescence measurements reveal large-scale decoupling of photosynthesis and greenness dynamics in boreal evergreen forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Sophia; Voigt, Maximilian; Thum, Tea; Gonsamo, Alemu; Zhang, Yongguang; Köhler, Philipp; Jung, Martin; Varlagin, Andrej; Guanter, Luis

    2016-09-01

    Mid-to-high latitude forests play an important role in the terrestrial carbon cycle, but the representation of photosynthesis in boreal forests by current modelling and observational methods is still challenging. In particular, the applicability of existing satellite-based proxies of greenness to indicate photosynthetic activity is hindered by small annual changes in green biomass of the often evergreen tree population and by the confounding effects of background materials such as snow. As an alternative, satellite measurements of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) can be used as a direct proxy of photosynthetic activity. In this study, the start and end of the photosynthetically active season of the main boreal forests are analysed using spaceborne SIF measurements retrieved from the GOME-2 instrument and compared to that of green biomass, proxied by vegetation indices including the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) derived from MODIS data. We find that photosynthesis and greenness show a similar seasonality in deciduous forests. In high-latitude evergreen needleleaf forests, however, the length of the photosynthetically active period indicated by SIF is up to 6 weeks longer than the green biomass changing period proxied by EVI, with SIF showing a start-of-season of approximately 1 month earlier than EVI. On average, the photosynthetic spring recovery as signalled by SIF occurs as soon as air temperatures exceed the freezing point (2-3 °C) and when the snow on the ground has not yet completely melted. These findings are supported by model data of gross primary production and a number of other studies which evaluated in situ observations of CO2 fluxes, meteorology and the physiological state of the needles. Our results demonstrate the sensitivity of space-based SIF measurements to light-use efficiency of boreal forests and their potential for an unbiased detection of photosynthetic activity even under the challenging conditions interposed by evergreen

  3. Measuring habitat heterogeneity reveals new insights into bird community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirnemann, Ingrid A; Ikin, Karen; Gibbons, Philip; Blanchard, Wade; Lindenmayer, David B

    2015-03-01

    Fine-scale vegetation cover is a common variable used to explain animal occurrence, but we know less about the effects of fine-scale vegetation heterogeneity. Theoretically, fine-scale vegetation heterogeneity is an important driver of biodiversity because it captures the range of resources available in a given area. In this study we investigated how bird species richness and birds grouped by various ecological traits responded to vegetation cover and heterogeneity. We found that both fine-scale vegetation cover (of tall trees, medium-sized trees and shrubs) and heterogeneity (of tall trees, and shrubs) were important predictors of bird richness, but the direction of the response of bird richness to shrub heterogeneity differed between sites with different proportions of tall tree cover. For example, bird richness increased with shrub heterogeneity in sites with high levels of tall tree cover, but declined in sites with low levels of tall tree cover. Our findings indicated that an increase in vegetation heterogeneity will not always result in an increase in resources and niches, and associated higher species richness. We also found birds grouped by traits responded in a predictable way to vegetation heterogeneity. For example, we found small birds benefited from increased shrub heterogeneity supporting the textual discontinuity hypothesis and non-arboreal (ground or shrub) nesting species were associated with high vegetation cover (low heterogeneity). Our results indicated that focusing solely on increasing vegetation cover (e.g. through restoration) may be detrimental to particular animal groups. Findings from this investigation can help guide habitat management for different functional groups of birds. PMID:25376157

  4. 21 CFR 1240.65 - Psittacine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Psittacine birds. 1240.65 Section 1240.65 Food and... DISEASES Specific Administrative Decisions Regarding Interstate Shipments § 1240.65 Psittacine birds. (a) The term psittacine birds shall include all birds commonly known as parrots, Amazons, Mexican...

  5. North American Breeding Bird Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This protocol framework provides guidance for conducting surveys of North American bird populations at multiple stations within two or more regions. The BBS is a...

  6. Barrier Infrared Detector (BIRD) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — JPL will design, fabricate, and fully characterize a 640x512 format HOT-BIRD FPA with increased quantum efficiency and extended spectral coverage. Unlike the small...

  7. Birds and bornaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Susan L; Delnatte, Pauline; Guo, Jianhua; Heatley, J Jill; Tizard, Ian; Smith, Dale A

    2012-12-01

    In 2008, avian bornaviruses (ABV) were identified as the cause of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD). PDD is a significant condition of captive parrots first identified in the late 1970s. ABV infection has subsequently been shown to be widespread in wild waterfowl across the United States and Canada where the virus infects 10-20% of some populations of ducks, geese and swans. In most cases birds appear to be healthy and unaffected by the presence of the virus; however, infection can also result in severe non-suppurative encephalitis and lesions similar to those seen in parrots with PDD. ABVs are genetically diverse with seven identified genotypes in parrots and one in canaries. A unique goose genotype (ABV-CG) predominates in waterfowl in Canada and the northern United States. ABV appears to be endemic in North American waterfowl, in comparison to what appears to be an emerging disease in parrots. It is not known whether ABV can spread between waterfowl and parrots. The discovery of ABV infection in North American waterfowl suggests that European waterfowl should be evaluated for the presence of ABV, and also as a possible reservoir species for Borna disease virus (BDV), a related neurotropic virus affecting horses and sheep in central Europe. Although investigations have suggested that BDV is likely derived from a wildlife reservoir, for which the shrew and water vole are currently prime candidates, we suggest that the existence of other mammalian and avian reservoirs should not be discounted. PMID:23253163

  8. Trypanosomes of some Fennoscandian birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon F. Bennett

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Linear measurements and derived indices of trypanosomes from species of Fennoscandian birds were compared to those reported form Trypanosoma avium, T. everetti, T. ontarioensis and T. paddae. The trypanosomes encountered in the Fennoscandian birds were identified as T. avium from Tengmalm's owl Aegolius funereus and the pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca, T. everetti from the great tit Parus major and collared flycatcher F. albicollis and T. ontarioensis from the collared flycatcher; T. paddae was not seen.

  9. Migratory birds and influenza virus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk

    Brno : ÚBO AV ČR, 2006 - (Procházka, P.; Sedláček, J.). s. 22-24 ISBN 80-903329-5-1. [Workshop of the Southeastern European Bird Migration Network (SEEN) /8./. 02.02.2006-05.02.2006, Praha] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : migratory birds * influenza virus Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  10. Orientation and navigation in birds

    OpenAIRE

    Bouwman, H.

    1998-01-01

    How birds orientate and navigate over long distances, remains one of the subjects of ornithology eliciting much interest. Birds use combinations of different sources of information to find direction and position. Some of these are the geomagnetic field, celestial bodies, mosaic and gradient maps, sound, smell, idiotetic information and others. Different species use different combinations of sources. This ability is partially inherent and partially learned.

  11. Orientation and navigation in birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bouwman

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available How birds orientate and navigate over long distances, remains one of the subjects of ornithology eliciting much interest. Birds use combinations of different sources of information to find direction and position. Some of these are the geomagnetic field, celestial bodies, mosaic and gradient maps, sound, smell, idiotetic information and others. Different species use different combinations of sources. This ability is partially inherent and partially learned.

  12. Lab-on-a-bird: biophysical monitoring of flying birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrahman Gumus

    Full Text Available The metabolism of birds is finely tuned to their activities and environments, and thus research on avian systems can play an important role in understanding organismal responses to environmental changes. At present, however, the physiological monitoring of bird metabolism is limited by the inability to take real-time measurements of key metabolites during flight. In this study, we present an implantable biosensor system that can be used for continuous monitoring of uric acid levels of birds during various activities including flight. The system consists of a needle-type enzymatic biosensor for the amperometric detection of uric acid in interstitial fluids. A lightweight two-electrode potentiostat system drives the biosensor, reads the corresponding output current and wirelessly transfers the data or records to flash memory. We show how the device can be used to monitor, in real time, the effects of short-term flight and rest cycles on the uric acid levels of pigeons. In addition, we demonstrate that our device has the ability to measure uric acid level increase in homing pigeons while they fly freely. Successful application of the sensor in migratory birds could open up a new way of studying birds in flight which would lead to a better understanding of the ecology and biology of avian movements.

  13. Short-term Response of Breeding Barred Owls to Forestry in a Boreal Mixedwood Forest Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben T. Olsen

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Forestry and other activities are increasing in the boreal mixedwood of Alberta, with a concomitant decrease in older forest. The Barred Owl (Strix varia is an old-growth indicator species in some jurisdictions in North America. Hence, we radio-tagged Barred Owls in boreal mixedwood in Alberta to determine whether harvesting influenced habitat selection. We used three spatial scales: nest sites, i.e., nest tree and adjacent area of 11.7 m radius around nests, nesting territory of 1000 m radius around nests, and home range locations within 2000 m radius of the home range center. Barred Owls nested primarily in balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera snags > 34 cm dbh and nest trees were surrounded by large, > 34 cm dbh, balsam poplar trees and snags. Nesting territories contained a variety of habitats including young < 80-yr-old, deciduous-dominated stands, old deciduous and coniferous-dominated stands, treed bogs, and recent clear-cuts. However, when compared to available habitat in the study area, they were more likely to contain old conifer-dominated stands and recent cutblocks. We assumed this is because all of the recent harvest occurred in old stands, habitat preferred by the owls. When compared with random sites, locations used for foraging and roosting at the home range scale were more likely to be in young deciduous-dominated stands, old conifer-dominated stands and cutblocks > 30 yr old, and less likely to occur in old deciduous-dominated stands and recent cutblocks. Hence, although recent clearcuts occurred in territories, birds avoided these microhabitats during foraging. To meet the breeding requirements of Barred Owls in managed forests, 10–20 ha patches of old deciduous and mixedwood forest containing large Populus snags or trees should be maintained. In our study area, nest trees had a minimum dbh of 34 cm. Although cut areas were incorporated into home ranges, the amount logged was low, i.e., 7%, in our area. Hence more research is

  14. Scale and Sensitivity of Songbird Occurrence to Landscape Structure in a Harvested Boreal Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip D. Taylor

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available To explore the spatial scales at which boreal forest birds respond to landscape structure and how those responses are influenced by forest harvest, we quantified the relationship between amounts of forest in the landscape at multiple spatial scales and the occurrence of 11 common boreal songbirds in western Newfoundland. The habitat type was assessed at a local scale (25 m diameter area and amounts of forest habitat were measured at neighborhood (300 m and landscape (2500 m scales. We further compared how these relationships differed, depending on whether the landscape had been harvested or not, i.e., the landscape context. Landscape-scale metrics were related to occurrence for 7 of 11 species. For five of these seven, landscape context was also important. Landscape context was not important in models that did not contain a landscape-scale term. In four of five of the models including landscape context, there was an interaction of the term with either landscape or neighborhood effects, indicating that, not only was there an effect of forest harvest at the broad scale, but that effect altered the response of the species to other metrics. For the majority of species, overall occurrence tended to be higher in natural than in harvested landscapes, especially at higher levels of forest cover. Interestingly, for some species, occurrence was relatively similar across levels of forest cover within harvested, but not natural, landscapes. The results suggest some scale-invariance in species' responses to landscape structure, and that some species respond to landscape structure at scales that are broader than those implied by our current knowledge of territorial or dispersal distances. Collectively, the results also suggest that forest management needs to consider not only how local-scale processes might be influenced by local-scale changes in amounts of forest, but also how the broader scale context might interact with those local-scale changes to produce

  15. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, pelagic birds, and gulls/terns in...

  16. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Southern California: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  17. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: New Hampshire: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  18. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northern California: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for alcids, diving birds, gulls, terns, passerines, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds, and...

  19. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, passerine birds, and gulls and terns in...

  20. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: North Carolina: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  1. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Florida Panhandle: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  2. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Mississippi: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  3. Do birds sleep in flight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattenborg, Niels C.

    2006-09-01

    The following review examines the evidence for sleep in flying birds. The daily need to sleep in most animals has led to the common belief that birds, such as the common swift ( Apus apus), which spend the night on the wing, sleep in flight. The electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings required to detect sleep in flight have not been performed, however, rendering the evidence for sleep in flight circumstantial. The neurophysiology of sleep and flight suggests that some types of sleep might be compatible with flight. As in mammals, birds exhibit two types of sleep, slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye-movement (REM) sleep. Whereas, SWS can occur in one or both brain hemispheres at a time, REM sleep only occurs bihemispherically. During unihemispheric SWS, the eye connected to the awake hemisphere remains open, a state that may allow birds to visually navigate during sleep in flight. Bihemispheric SWS may also be possible during flight when constant visual monitoring of the environment is unnecessary. Nevertheless, the reduction in muscle tone that usually accompanies REM sleep makes it unlikely that birds enter this state in flight. Upon landing, birds may need to recover the components of sleep that are incompatible with flight. Periods of undisturbed postflight recovery sleep may be essential for maintaining adaptive brain function during wakefulness. The recent miniaturization of EEG recording devices now makes it possible to measure brain activity in flight. Determining if and how birds sleep in flight will contribute to our understanding of a largely unexplored aspect of avian behavior and may also provide insight into the function of sleep.

  4. Iowa Breed Bird Atlas 2, 2008-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — These are the locations of Iowa's Second Breeding Bird Atlas. Blocks are 3 by 3 miles in size. Some of the blocks are the same as those surveyed in the first BBA,...

  5. A Wiki-based Key to Garden and Village Birds

    OpenAIRE

    Trilar, Tomi

    2010-01-01

    A Wiki-based Key to Garden and Village Birds is available in two versions: a dichotomous, hyperlinked and printable version, and as step-bystep identification version. It is supported by jKey Player in English, Slovenian, Spanish, Romanian and German.

  6. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus among wild birds in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The central Asian country of Mongolia supports large populations of migratory water birds that migrate across much of Asia where highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus subtype H5N1 is endemic. This, together with the near absence of domestic poultry, makes Mongolia an ideal location to unde...

  7. Who is the new sheriff in town regulating boreal forest growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park Williams, A.; Xu, Chonggang; McDowell, Nate G.

    2011-12-01

    the wettest 20 sites (green line), 19 sites with intermediate annual precipitation (black line) and the driest 20 sites (brown line). Error bars in (a)-(c) are standard errors. Perhaps an even bigger mystery is what the future has in store at the cold ecotone where boreal forest gives way to arctic tundra. Just as for warmer sites, there tends to be a temperature threshold at cold and intermediate sites, above which further warming no longer positively influences growth rate (figures 1(a) and (b)). Rather than reverse sign once this threshold is surpassed, growth-temperature relationships at cold and intermediate sites tend to simply disappear or at least diminish. This is because metabolic rates are slow in the cold, but are optimal under moderately warmer conditions (Tjoelker et al 2009). As temperature increases into a range of variability that no longer limits metabolic rate, a host of other climatic and soil-related factors can limit or promote growth and seedling recruitment. At some cool treeline sites, rapidly rising temperatures may have already surpassed the level that supports optimal growth, as negative relationships have emerged between temperature and growth rate in most decades (McGuire et al 2010). In a recent contribution to this important body of research, Andreu-Hayles et al (2011) studied growth-temperature relations within a white spruce population growing at the northern treeline in Alaska. Consistent with observations elsewhere in boreal forests, Andreu-Hayles et al discovered that a positive and significant relationship between ring widths and June-July temperature during 1901-1950 disappeared during 1951-2000. Interestingly, ring widths and temperature both increased throughout the 20th century at this treeline site, in contrast to recent trends at many other sites in Alaska where warming is outpacing ring widths (e.g., D'Arrigo et al 2008). At the site studied by Andreu-Hayles et al, it seems recent warming has caused a release of white

  8. Frost-ring chronologies as dendroclimatic proxies of boreal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payette, Serge; Delwaide, Ann; Simard, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Frost rings are formed in tree stems when growing-season frosts affect immature wood cells, producing collapsed cells within annual tree rings. Open boreal forests are most susceptible to record growing-season frost because they lack the greenhouse effect commonly observed in closed forests. Here we present a novel method to construct regional frost-ring chronologies in lichen-black spruce woodlands of the boreal forest zone. Because the ability of trees to form frost rings depends on several factors (including bark thickness and ring width), we used two models to produce a Frost Composite Index based on a frost susceptibility window of cambial age growing-season frost activity may be used as dendroclimatic proxies of climate variability and may give insights into future risks of frost damage in a warming climate.

  9. Recent burning of boreal forests exceeds fire regime limits of the past 10,000 years

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Ryan; Chipman, Melissa L.; Philip E Higuera; Stefanova, Ivanka; Brubaker, Linda B.; Hu, Feng Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Wildfire activity in boreal forests is anticipated to increase dramatically, with far-reaching ecological and socioeconomic consequences. Paleorecords are indispensible for elucidating boreal fire regime dynamics under changing climate, because fire return intervals and successional cycles in these ecosystems occur over decadal to centennial timescales. We present charcoal records from 14 lakes in the Yukon Flats of interior Alaska, one of the most flammable ecoregions of the boreal forest bi...

  10. Effects of warming on the structure and function of a boreal black spruce forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stith T.Gower

    2010-03-03

    A strong argument can be made that there is a greater need to study the effect of warming on boreal forests more than on any other terrestrial biome. Boreal forests, the second largest forest biome, are predicted to experience the greatest warming of any forest biome in the world, but a process-based understanding of how warming will affect the structure and function of this economically and ecologically important forest biome is lacking. The effects of warming on species composition, canopy structure and biogeochemical cycles are likely to be complex; elucidating the underlying mechanisms will require long-term whole-ecosystem manipulation to capture all the complex feedbacks (Shaver et al. 2000, Rustad et al. 2001, Stromgren 2001). The DOE Program for Ecosystem Research funded a three year project (2002-2005) to use replicated heated chambers on soil warming plots in northern Manitoba to examine the direct effects of whole-ecosystem warming. We are nearing completion of our first growing season of measurements (fall 2004). In spite of the unforeseen difficulty of installing the heating cable, our heating and irrigation systems worked extremely well, maintaining environmental conditions within 5-10% of the specified design 99% of the time. Preliminary data from these systems, all designed and built by our laboratory at the University of Wisconsin, support our overall hypothesis that warming will increase the carbon sink strength of upland boreal black spruce forests. I request an additional three years of funding to continue addressing the original objectives: (1) Examine the effect of warming on phenology of overstory, understory and bryophyte strata. Sap flux systems and dendrometer bands, monitored by data loggers, will be used to quantify changes in phenology and water use. (2) Quantify the effects of warming on nitrogen and water use by overstory, understory and bryophytes. (3) Compare effects of warming on autotrophic respiration and above- and belowground

  11. Monitoring forest cover change in boreal forests: a methodological approach

    OpenAIRE

    KISSIYAR Ouns; BARTALEV SVYATOSLAV; ACHARD Frederic

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a monitoring tool for boreal forest cover change on continental level at high resolution. The system is based on Landsat satellite imagery and has been implemented for the period 1990-2000-2010. For the identification and classification of the forest cover within a large amount of satellite imagery, a robust methodological approach combining multi-date image segmentation and cluster based supervised automated classification was chosen. Thus, an object b...

  12. Forest edges in boreal landscapes - factors affecting edge influence

    OpenAIRE

    Jansson, Ulrika

    2009-01-01

    The boreal forest in Fennoscandia has been subjected to major loss and fragmentation of natural forests due to intensive forestry. This has resulted in that forest edges are now abundant and important landscape features. Edges have documented effects on the structure, function and biodiversity in forests. Edge influence on biodiversity is complex and depends on interactions between many local and regional factors. This thesis focuses on sharp forest edges and their potential to influence biod...

  13. Boreal forest albedo and its spatial and temporal variation

    OpenAIRE

    Kuusinen, Nea

    2014-01-01

    Surface albedo refers to the fraction of solar irradiance that is reflected by a surface. Accurate characterisation of the albedo of various land cover types is required for evaluating the energy exchange between the Earth s surface and the atmosphere. The optical and structural properties of a surface determine its albedo. Boreal forest albedo can vary due to factors such as tree species composition, forest structure, understorey vegetation composition, and seasonal changes in vegetation and...

  14. Forest landscape change in boreal Sweden 1850-2000

    OpenAIRE

    Axelsson, Anna-Lena

    2001-01-01

    In the project described in this thesis, structural changes that have occurred in the boreal Swedish forest during the last 150 years were studied through analysis of historical records. Historical perspectives on forest landscapes provide a better understanding of natural disturbance dynamics as well as anthropogenic changes and a frame of reference for assessing current ecological patterns and processes. The studies were performed at various spatial scales, and were conducted in two differe...

  15. Photosynthesis of ground vegetation in boreal Scots pine forests

    OpenAIRE

    Kulmala, Liisa

    2011-01-01

    Research on carbon uptake in boreal forests has mainly focused on mature trees, even though ground vegetation species are effective assimilators and can substantially contribute to the CO2 uptake of forests. Here, I examine the photosynthesis of the most common species of ground vegetation in a series of differently aged Scots pine stands, and at two clear-cut sites with substantial differences in fertility. In general, the biomass of evergreen species was highest at poor sites and below cano...

  16. Recreation and tourism induced changes in northern boreal environments

    OpenAIRE

    Kangas, K. (Katja)

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The popularity of nature-based tourism has increased worldwide and peripheral areas with conservational value, like protected areas, are attractive destinations. The recreational use and construction of tourism facilities can cause environmental degradation and decrease the conservational and recreational value of areas if not well planned and managed. The aim of this thesis was to improve our knowledge of recreation and tourism induced changes in northern boreal environments. Dir...

  17. The fate of airborne lead pollution in boreal forest soils

    OpenAIRE

    Klaminder, Jonatan

    2005-01-01

    Lead has a more than three-millennia-long pollution history in Europe. Metal production, burning of coal and use of leaded petrol resulted in a significant pollution of the atmosphere. As a consequence of atmospheric fallout, the Swedish boreal forest is strongly contaminated by airborne lead pollution. High levels of lead in the soil and soil pore water are of concern because the soil fauna, plants and aquatic biota may respond negatively to this toxic element. The fate of the accumulated po...

  18. Methane oxidation: isotopic enrichment factors in freshwater boreal reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methane oxidation plays a vital role in controlling the flux of CH4 from many ecosystems. Release of the green house gas CH4 to the atmosphere during creation and operation of hydroelectric reservoirs is of concern because of the dramatic changes in C and nutrient cycling that result from flooding. Experimentally flooded reservoirs in the boreal forest at the Experimental Lakes Area, northwestern Ontario, Canada, have been under study for a decade. In these large-scale ecosystem experiments, stable C isotopic ratios are used to determine the importance of CH4 oxidation but quantification requires knowledge of the C isotope enrichment factor associated with CH4 oxidation under the appropriate environmental conditions. Laboratory incubations were used to assess the CH4 oxidation enrichment factors in 3 experimental boreal reservoirs with different soil and vegetation, and flood histories. As a result of flooding, new flooded surfaces were created with different temperature and hydrologic regimes and the importance of CH4 oxidation in controlling the flux of CH4 to the atmosphere changed significantly. However, isotopic ratio data from different systems could not be compared directly because the enrichment factor changed between systems. The enrichment factor in a flooded boreal wetland ecosystem (ELARP) decreased with temperature and the rate of CH4 oxidation increased with temperature. This was in contrast with two flooded upland boreal forest reservoirs (Flooded Upland Dynamics Experiment) where the enrichment factor was smaller than in ELARP and there was little or no temperature effect on the enrichment factors or rates of CH4 oxidation

  19. Energy crop cultivations of reed canary grass - An inferior breeding habitat for the skylark, a characteristic farmland bird species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vepsaelaeinen, Ville [Finnish Museum of Natural History, P.O. Box 17, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-07-15

    Here, I present the first comparison of the abundance of farmland birds in energy grass fields and in cereal-dominated conventionally cultivated fields (CCFs). I demonstrate that in boreal farmland, skylark (Alauda arvensis) densities were significantly lower in reed canary grass (RCG) (Phalaris arundinacea) fields than in CCFs. I found that during the early breeding season RCG fields and CCFs are equally good habitats, but over the ensuing couple of weeks RCG rapidly grows too tall and dense for field-nesting species. Consequently, RCG is an inferior habitat for skylark for laying replacement clutches (after failure of first nesting) or for a second clutch after one successful nesting. The results imply that if RCG cultivation is to be expanded, the establishment of large monocultures should be avoided in farmland landscapes; otherwise the novel habitat may affect detrimentally the seriously depleted skylark population, and probably also other field-nesting bird species with similar breeding habitats. (author)

  20. Birds and wind turbines: can they co-exist?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The wind farm is situated along an exposed pier at Blyth Harbour and has now been designated as part of a SSI and part of a proposed RAMSAR site. The bird activity within the harbour is high and is also the wintering home of the Purple Sandpiper. An offshore wind farm is proposed for the area, one kilometre from the pier. Two turbines will be erected with the support of the European Commission THERMIE Programme. The bird study at Blyth has been funded by Border Wind, Blyth Harbour Wind Farm Company and the DTI as part of an ETSU funded study. (UK)

  1. Hg and Se Speciation in Liver Tissue of Marine Birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray fluorescence microprobe maps of Hg and Se distribution were made on liver tissue slices from marine birds (Cormorants) from Florida's Everglades. The birds bio-concentrate these toxic pollutants that are ingested from their diet of fish. The fluorescence maps show strong localization of Mercury and Selenium into 'hot spots' less than 100 microns in size. XAFS measurements were made on hot spots to demonstrate that the Hg and Se are indeed are chemically bound, supporting the idea that moderate levels of Se may have a protective effect against Hg through its complexation.

  2. Habitat associations drive species vulnerability to climate change in boreal forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazziotta, Adriano; Triviño, Maria; Tikkanen, Olli Pekka;

    2016-01-01

    Species climate change vulnerability, their predisposition to be adversely affected, has been assessed for a limited portion of biodiversity. Our knowledge of climate change impacts is often based only on exposure, the magnitude of climatic variation in the area occupied by the species, even...... scenarios. However, climate change will potentially reduce habitat suitability for ~9–43 % of the threatened deadwood-associated species. This loss is likely caused by future increase in timber extraction and decomposition rates causing higher deadwood turnover, which have a strong negative effect on boreal...... forest biodiversity. Our results are species- and scenario-specific. Diversified forest management and restoration ensuring deadwood resources in the landscape would allow the persistence of species whose capacity of delivering important supporting ecosystem services can be undermined by climate change....

  3. A multiscale assessment of tree avoidance by prairie birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sarah J.; Arnold, Todd W.; Amundson, Courtney L.

    2014-01-01

    In North America, grassland bird abundances have declined, likely as a result of loss and degradation of prairie habitat. Given the expense and limited opportunity to procure new grasslands, managers are increasingly focusing on ways to improve existing habitat for grassland birds, using techniques such as tree removal. To examine the potential for tree removal to benefit grassland birds, we conducted 446 point counts on 35 grassland habitat patches in the highly fragmented landscape of west-central Minnesota during 2009–2011. We modeled density of four grassland bird species in relation to habitat composition at multiple scales, focusing on covariates that described grass, woody vegetation (trees and large shrubs), or combinations of grass and woody vegetation. The best-supported models for all four grassland bird species incorporated variables measured at multiple scales, including local features such as grass height, litter depth, and local tree abundance, as well as landscape-level measures of grass and tree cover. Savannah Sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis), Sedge Wrens (Cistothorus platensis), and Bobolinks (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) responded consistently and negatively to woody vegetation, but response to litter depth, grass height, and grassland extent were mixed among species. Our results suggest that reducing shrub and tree cover is more likely to increase the density of grassland birds than are attempts to improve grass quality or quantity. In particular, tree removal is more likely to increase density of Savannah Sparrows and Sedge Wrens than any reasonable changes in grass quality or quantity. Yet tree removal may not result in increased abundance of grassland birds if habitat composition is not considered at multiple scales. Managers will need to either manage at large scales (80–300 ha) or focus their efforts on removing trees in landscapes that contain some grasslands but few nearby wooded areas.

  4. Effects of boreal forest vegetation on global climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonan, Gordon B.; Pollard, David; Thompson, Starley L.

    1992-10-01

    TERRESTRIAL ecosystems are thought to play an important role in determining regional and global climate1-6 one example of this is in Amazonia, where destruction of the tropical rainforest leads to warmer and drier conditions4-6. Boreal forest ecosystems may also affect climate. As temperatures rise, the amount of continental and oceanic snow and ice is reduced, so the land and ocean surfaces absorb greater amounts of solar radiation, reinforcing the warming in a 'snow/ice/albedo' feedback which results in large climate sensitivity to radiative forcings7-9. This sensitivity is moderated, however, by the presence of trees in northern latitudes, which mask the high reflectance of snow10,11, leading to warmer winter temperatures than if trees were not present12-14. Here we present results from a global climate model which show that the boreal forest warms both winter and summer air temperatures, relative to simulations in which the forest is replaced with bare ground or tundra vegetation. Our results suggest that future redistributions of boreal forest and tundra vegetation (due, for example, to extensive logging, or the influence of global warming) could initiate important climate feedbacks, which could also extend to lower latitudes.

  5. Carbon balance and climate change in boreal forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatti, J. S.; Laird, L. D.; Banfield, E. [Canadian Forest Service, Northern Forestry Centre, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Van Kooten, G. C. [Victoria Univ., Dept. of Economics, Victoria, BC (Canada); Apps, M. J. [Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC (Canada); Campbell, I. D. [Natural Resources Canada, Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Campbell, C. [Canadian Forest Service, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Turetsky, M. R. [U. S. Geological Survey, Western Region Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Yu, Z. [Lehigh Univ., Earth and Environmental Sciences, Bethlehem, PA (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Carbon is exchanged between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere through photosynthesis, respiration, decomposition, and combustion, hence its importance to global climate. To explain that role, this chapter discusses the role of the boreal forest in the carbon cycle, the expected impacts of climate change on the boreal ecosystem, and the effects of various natural and human factors on the carbon balance of the forest. Economic and forest management issues in relation to carbon resources of the forest are also explored in light of the Kyoto Protocol commitments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, along with challenges to sustainable forest management seen from the vantage point of climatic change. Among natural disasters, fire, infestation by insects and pathogens,storms, floods, and landslides receive attention, whereas in the area of human impacts attention is focused on land-use practices, and forest stand and landscape-level management. An overview of the Kyoto Protocol, Canada's commitments, the concepts of emissions trading, and carbon credits and the role of forestry, is provided. Other subjects explored include options for minimizing carbon emission in boreal forestry, and the economic impacts of adaptation to climate change on forestry. 245 refs., 5 tabs., 13 figs.

  6. Ecosystem Responses to Partial Harvesting in Eastern Boreal Mixedwood Stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian D. Harvey

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Partial harvesting has been proposed as a key aspect to implementing ecosystem management in the Canadian boreal forest. We report on a replicated experiment located in boreal mixedwoods of Northwestern Quebec. In the winter of 2000–2001, two partial harvesting treatments, one using a dispersed pattern, and a second, which created a (400 m2 gap pattern, were applied to a 90-year-old aspen-dominated mixed stand. The design also included a clear cut and a control. Over the course of the following eight years, live tree, coarse woody debris, regeneration and ground beetles were inventoried at variable intervals. Our results indicate that all harvesting treatments created conditions favorable to balsam fir (Abies balsamea sapling growth and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides sapling recruitment. However, balsam fir and trembling aspen regeneration and ground beetles response to gap cuts were closer to patterns observed in clear cuts than in dispersed harvesting. The underlying reasons for these differing patterns can be linked to factors associated with the contrasting light regimes created by the two partial harvesting treatments. The study confirms that partially harvesting is an ecologically sound approach in boreal mixedwoods and could contribute to maintaining the distribution of stand ages at the landscape level.

  7. Automatic identification of bird targets with radar via patterns produced by wing flapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaugg, Serge; Saporta, Gilbert; van Loon, Emiel; Schmaljohann, Heiko; Liechti, Felix

    2008-09-01

    Bird identification with radar is important for bird migration research, environmental impact assessments (e.g. wind farms), aircraft security and radar meteorology. In a study on bird migration, radar signals from birds, insects and ground clutter were recorded. Signals from birds show a typical pattern due to wing flapping. The data were labelled by experts into the four classes BIRD, INSECT, CLUTTER and UFO (unidentifiable signals). We present a classification algorithm aimed at automatic recognition of bird targets. Variables related to signal intensity and wing flapping pattern were extracted (via continuous wavelet transform). We used support vector classifiers to build predictive models. We estimated classification performance via cross validation on four datasets. When data from the same dataset were used for training and testing the classifier, the classification performance was extremely to moderately high. When data from one dataset were used for training and the three remaining datasets were used as test sets, the performance was lower but still extremely to moderately high. This shows that the method generalizes well across different locations or times. Our method provides a substantial gain of time when birds must be identified in large collections of radar signals and it represents the first substantial step in developing a real time bird identification radar system. We provide some guidelines and ideas for future research. PMID:18331979

  8. Avian Influenza in wild birds from Chile, 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Christian; Moreno, Valentina; Pedersen, Janice; Jeria, Julissa; Agredo, Michel; Gutiérrez, Cristian; García, Alfonso; Vásquez, Marcela; Avalos, Patricia; Retamal, Patricio

    2015-03-01

    Aquatic and migratory birds, the main reservoir hosts of avian influenza viruses including those with high pathogenic potential, are the wildlife species with the highest risk for viral dissemination across countries and continents. In 2002, the Chilean poultry industry was affected with a highly pathogenic avian influenza strain, which created economic loss and triggered the establishment of a surveillance program in wild birds. This effort consisted of periodic samplings of sick or suspicious animals found along the coast and analyses with standardized techniques for detection of influenza A virus. The aim of this work is to report the detection of three avian influenza strains (H13N2, H5N9, H13N9) in gulls from Chile between 2007-2009, which nucleotide sequences showed highest similitudes to viruses detected in wild birds from North America. These results suggest a dissemination route for influenza viruses along the coasts of Americas. Migratory and synanthropic behaviors of birds included in this study support continued monitoring of avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds in The Americas and the establishment of biosecurity practices in farms. PMID:25602438

  9. Two new species and new records of chiggers (Acari: Leeuwenhoekiidae,Trombiculidae) from birds in Vietnam

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalúz, S.; Hung, N. M.; Čapek, Miroslav; Literák, I.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 4061, č. 5 (2016), s. 483-503. ISSN 1175-5326 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : birds * chiggers * taxonomy * Leptotrombidium * Neoschoengastia * Hypogastia * new species Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.906, year: 2014

  10. Optimization of field sampling and wet lab procedures for analyses of gut microbiota in birds.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubovčiak, J.; Kropáčková, L.; Albrecht, Tomáš; Hájková, Petra; Kreisinger, Jakub

    Badajoz: European Ornithologist's Union, 2015 - (Martin, G.; Marzal, A.). s. 208 [Conference of the European Ornithologist's Union /10./. 24.08.2015-28.08.2015, Badajoz] Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : birds * microbiota Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  11. The hydrological effects of harvesting at Boreal Plain, Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyani, Ghasemali; Yew Gan, Thian; Devito, Kevin

    2010-05-01

    Unique hydrological characteristics of Boreal Plain environment such as sub-humid climate, deep glacial deposits, and significant heterogeneity in soil and vegetation type creates a complicated hydrology in the region. The study of hydrological effects of harvesting in Boreal Plain, which is occurring at an unprecedented rate for oil and gas exploration and timber harvesting, is necessary for a sustainable forest management. However there are a few previous studies addressing the hydrological effects of harvesting on quantity and quality of water in Boreal Plain. This paper reports on an on-going paired catchments experimental study at Alpac Catchment Experiment (ACE: 55N 112W) area near Lac La Biche, Alberta started in early 2005. A 2-km2 catchment (H2) was harvested almost 70% in winter 2006. Later, the harvesting occurred sequentially within the bigger catchment (H1, 10 km2) i.e. 29% in 2007 and 19% in 2008 totally account for about 80% of aspen forest. Finally, the smallest catchments was harvested approximately 90% in summer 2008. The collected pre- and post harvest data have been used to assess the effect of harvesting on the catchment overall responses and soil moisture. The pre-harvest streamflow data collected at H1 and its reference catchment R1 show that unit area runoff of both catchments are matched fairly good, and may be used to assess changes in streamflow after harvesting. An increase in soil moisture and soil temperature after harvesting was observed in H2, but little to no change in streamflow response. This suggests the dominance of soil moisture in the catchment, which might be a promising indicator for tracking the effect of harvesting. The field data is then used to drive the hydrological model MISBA to simulate the water and energy cycling in the Boreal Plain. By adding a reservoir to MISBA to simulate the significant soil storage characteristic of the Boreal Plain, and by applying different catchment discretization schemes based on soil

  12. Nitrogen balance along a boreal forest fire chronosequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palviainen, Marjo; Pumpanen, Jukka; Berninger, Frank; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Sun, Hui; Köster, Egle; Köster, Kajar

    2016-04-01

    Fire is a major natural disturbance factor in boreal forests, and the frequency of forest fires is predicted to increase due to climate change in boreal regions. Because boreal forests comprise 30% of the global forest area, increases in the annual area burned may have significant implications for global carbon and nitrogen (N) cycles. The productivity of boreal forests is limited by low N availability. Fires cause N loss from ecosystems through oxidation and volatilization of N stored in biomass and soil. N balance may be poorly buffered against forest fires especially in sub-arctic ecosystems where atmospheric N deposition is low. Although forest fires alter N dynamics, there are little quantitative data available on N pools and fluxes through post-fire succession in sub-arctic boreal forests. We studied changes in N pools and fluxes, and the overall N balance across a 155-year forest fire chronosequence in sub-arctic Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forests in Värriö Strict Nature Reserve situated in Finnish Lapland (67°46' N, 29°35' E). Soil was the largest N pool in all forest age classes and comprised 69-82% of the total ecosystem N pool. The total ecosystem N pool varied from 622 kg ha-1 in the recently burned forest to 960 kg ha-1 in the 155-year-old forest. The forests were N sinks in all age classes the annual N accumulation rate being 2.28 kg ha-1 yr-1 which was distributed almost equally between soil and biomass. The observed changes in ecosystem N pools were consistent with the computed N balance 2.10 kg ha-1 yr-1 over the 155-year post-fire period (Balance= (atmospheric deposition + N fixation) - (leaching + N2O emissions)). The results indicated that N deposition is an important component of the N balance and the N outputs are small (13% of the inputs) in the studied ecosystems. N2O fluxes were negligible (≤ 0.01 kg ha-1 yr-1) compared to the other N fluxes. The biological N fixation increased with succession and constituted 9% of the total N

  13. Fire impacts on European Boreal soils: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Oliva, Marc; Cerda, Artemi

    2016-04-01

    Fire is an important natural disturbance in boreal ecosystems, fundamental to understand plant distribution (Ryan, 2002; Wallenius et al., 2004; Granstrom, 2001). Nevertheless, nowadays the intense and successful, fire suppression measures are changing their ecological role (Pereira et al., 2013a,b). This is consequence of the lack of understanding of stakeholders and decision makers about the role of the fire in the ecosystems (Mierasukas and Pereira, 2013; Pereira et al., 2016). This fire suppression measures are increasing the amount of fuel accumulation and the risk of severe wildfires, which can increase of frequency and severity in a context of climate change. Fire is a good tool for landscape management and restoration of degraded ecosystems (Toivanen and Kotiaho, 2007). Fire is considered a soil forming factor (Certini, 2014) and in boreal environments it has been observed that low fire severities, do not change importantly soil properties, mean fire severities induce positive impacts on soil, since add an important amounts of nutrients into soil profile and high severity fires had negative impacts due to the high consumption of organic matter (Vanha-Majamaa et al., 2007; Pereira et al., 2014). References Certini, G., 2014. Fire as a soil-forming factor. Ambio, 43, 191-195 Granstrom A. 2001. Fire management for biodiversity in the European Boreal forest. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research 3: 62-69. Mierauskas, P., Pereira, P. (2013) Stakeholders perception about prescribed fire use in Lithuania. First results, Flamma, 4(3), 157-161. Pereira, P., Cerdà, A., Jordán, A., Bolutiene, V., Úbeda, X., Pranskevicius, M., Mataix-Solera, J. (2013) Spatio-temporal vegetation recuperation after a grassland fire in Lithuania, Procedia Environmental Sciences, 19:856-864 Pereira, P., Mierauskas, P., Ubeda, X., Mataix-Solera, J.,Cerda, A. (2012) Fire in protected areas - the effect of the protection and importance of fire management, Environmental Research

  14. Fuglene. Audubon: Birds of America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlichtkrull, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    The Royal Library owns one of the most exceptional works in book history, an original edition of John James Audubon Birds of America. This edition, in a format called “double elephant folio” was published from 1827 to 1838. On basis of existing literature, this article briefly describes the work...... Royal Library and the University Library, joined the library cooperation of the 1800’s on an equal standing with the other two libraries. The Classen’s Library and the library’s founder, industrialist JF Classen are described briefly in this article. Due to two library mergers the Birds of America is...

  15. Epidemiologic characterization of Colorado backyard bird flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Emily I; Reif, John S; Hill, Ashley E; Slota, Katharine E; Miller, Ryan S; Bjork, Kathe E; Pabilonia, Kristy L

    2012-06-01

    Backyard gallinaceous bird flocks may play an important role in the spread of infectious diseases within poultry populations as well as the transmission of zoonotic diseases to humans. An epidemiologic characterization was conducted of Colorado backyard flocks to gather information on general flock characteristics, human movement of birds, human-bird interaction, biosecurity practices, and flock health. Our results suggest that backyard poultry flocks in Colorado are small-sized flocks (68.6% of flocks had production for the family (86.44%) or as pet or hobby birds (42.27%). The backyard flock environment may promote bird-to-bird transmission as well as bird-to-human transmission of infectious disease. Birds are primarily housed with free access to the outside (96.85%), and many are moved from the home premises (46.06% within 1 yr). Human contact with backyard flocks is high, biosecurity practices are minimal, and bird health is negatively impacted by increased movement events. Increased knowledge of backyard bird characteristics and associated management practices can provide guidelines for the development of measures to decrease disease transmission between bird populations, decrease disease transmission from birds to humans, and increase the overall health of backyard birds. PMID:22856180

  16. Reweaving the tapestry: a supertree of birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Katie E; Page, Roderic D M

    2014-01-01

    Our knowledge of the avian tree of life remains uncertain, particularly at deeper levels due to the rapid diversification early in their evolutionary history. They are the most abundant land vertebrate on the planet and have been of great historical interest to systematists. Birds are also economically and ecologically important and as a result are intensively studied, yet despite their importance and interest to humans around 13% of taxa currently on the endangered species list perhaps as a result of human activity. Despite all this no comprehensive phylogeny that includes both extinct and extant species currently exists. Here we present a species-level supertree, constructed using the Matrix Representation with Parsimony method, of Aves containing approximately two thirds of all species from nearly 1000 source phylogenies with a broad taxonomic coverage. The source data for the tree were collected and processed according to a strict protocol to ensure robust and accurate data handling. The resulting tree topology is largely consistent with molecular hypotheses of avian phylogeny. We identify areas that are in broad agreement with current views on avian systematics and also those that require further work. We also highlight the need for leaf-based support measures to enable the identification of rogue taxa in supertrees. This is a first attempt at a supertree of both extinct and extant birds, it is not intended to be utilised in an overhaul of avian systematics or as a basis for taxonomic re-classification but provides a strong basis on which to base further studies on macroevolution, conservation, biodiversity, comparative biology and character evolution, in particular the inclusion of fossils will allow the study of bird evolution and diversification throughout deep time. PMID:24944845

  17. A molecular compass for bird navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hore, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Migratory birds travel spectacular distances, navigating and orienting by a variety of means, most of which are poorly understood. Among them is a remarkable ability to perceive the intensity and direction of the Earth's magnetic field. Biologically credible mechanisms for the sensing of such weak fields (25-65 microtesla) are scarce and in recent years just two proposals have emerged as frontrunners. One involves biogenic iron-containing nanoparticles; the other relies on the magnetic sensitivity of short-lived photochemical intermediates known as radical pairs. The latter began to attract attention following the proposal 15 years ago that the necessary physics and chemistry could take place in the bird's retina in specialised photoactive proteins called cryptochromes. The coherent dynamics of the electron-nuclear spin systems of pairs of photo-induced radicals is conjectured to form the basis of the sensing mechanism even though the interaction of an electron spin with the geomagnetic field is six orders of magnitude smaller than the thermal energy. The possibility that slowing decohering, entangled electron spins could form the basis of an important sensory mechanism has qualified radical pair magnetoreception for a place under the umbrella of ``Quantum Biology.'' In this talk, I will introduce the radical pair mechanism, comment on the roles of entanglement and quantum coherence, outline some of the experimental evidence for the cryptochrome hypothesis, and summarize what still needs to be done to determine whether birds (and maybe other animals) really do use a chemical compass to find their way around. This work was supported by grants from DARPA, AFOSR, ERC and the EMF Biological Research Trust.

  18. Tree Water Use May Significantly Impact Boreal Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J. M.; Bolton, W. R.

    2013-12-01

    The ecohydrology of boreal forest ecosystems of Interior Alaska is not well understood largely because of challenges posed by the presence of discontinuous permafrost. Near-surface permafrost results in storage-dominated systems with cold, poorly drained soils, and slow growing, low statured coniferous trees (Picea mariana) or CDE's. The transition to permafrost-free areas can occur over a few meters and is accompanied by a vegetation community dominated by large deciduous trees (Populus sp. and Betula sp.) or DDE's. Typically, areas with permafrost are on north facing slopes and valley bottoms, and areas without permafrost are south facing. In Alaska's boreal forest, the permafrost is very warm and vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Once permafrost begins to thaw, the vegetation community shifts from coniferous to deciduous dominated. Streamflow in watersheds with a larger permafrost distribution tends to be higher and more responsive to precipitation events than in watersheds with low permafrost distribution. In fact, precipitation events in the low permafrost areas do not infiltrate past the rooting zone of the deciduous trees (~5-40 cm). This suggests that the deciduous trees may remove water from the system via uptake and transpiration. We focus on how vegetation water use affects boreal forest hydrology in areas of discontinuous permafrost. Specifically, we ask: what are the patterns of vegetation water use in areas with and without permafrost? This study focuses on the CDE and DDE systems. Our research sites are established on low and high locations on each aspect (south facing DDE, north facing CDE) to capture the variability associated with the different hillside drainage properties. At each of the four sites during the growing season, we measured various aspects of plant water use dynamics, including water flux, water content, water sources, depth of water uptake in the soil, and water stress. We use a Bayesian framework to analyze the data. We

  19. Proceedings of the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats Workshop: Understanding and Resolving Bird and Bat Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Susan Savitt (ed.)

    2004-09-01

    Most conservation groups support the development of wind energy in the US as an alternative to fossil and nuclear-fueled power plants to meet growing demand for electrical energy. However, concerns have surfaced over the potential threat to birds, bats, and other wildlife from the construction and operation of wind turbine facilities. Co-sponsored by the American Bird Conservancy (ABC) and the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA), the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats Workshop was convened to examine current research on the impacts of wind energy development on avian and bat species and to discuss the most effective ways to mitigate such impacts. On 18-19 May 2004, 82 representatives from government, non-government organizations, private business, and academia met to (1) review the status of the wind industry and current project development practices, including pre-development risk assessment and post-construction monitoring; (2) learn what is known about direct, indirect (habitat), and cumulative impacts on birds and bats from existing wind projects; about relevant aspects of bat and bird migration ecology; about offshore wind development experience in Europe; and about preventing, minimizing, and mitigating avian and bat impacts; (3) review wind development guidelines developed by the USFWS and the Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife; and (4) identify topics needing further research and to discuss what can be done to ensure that research is both credible and accessible. These Workshop Proceedings include detailed summaries of the presentations made and the discussions that followed.

  20. A bird's eye view of discard reforms: bird-borne cameras reveal seabird/fishery interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen C Votier

    Full Text Available Commercial capture fisheries produce huge quantities of offal, as well as undersized and unwanted catch in the form of discards. Declines in global catches and legislation to ban discarding will significantly reduce discards, but this subsidy supports a large scavenger community. Understanding the potential impact of declining discards for scavengers should feature in an eco-system based approach to fisheries management, but requires greater knowledge of scavenger/fishery interactions. Here we use bird-borne cameras, in tandem with GPS loggers, to provide a unique view of seabird/fishery interactions. 20,643 digital images (one min(-1 from ten bird-borne cameras deployed on central place northern gannets Morus bassanus revealed that all birds photographed fishing vessels. These were large (>15 m boats, with no small-scale vessels. Virtually all vessels were trawlers, and gannets were almost always accompanied by other scavenging birds. All individuals exhibited an Area-Restricted Search (ARS during foraging, but only 42% of ARS were associated with fishing vessels, indicating much 'natural' foraging. The proportion of ARS behaviours associated with fishing boats were higher for males (81% than females (30%, although the reasons for this are currently unclear. Our study illustrates that fisheries form a very important component of the prey-landscape for foraging gannets and that a discard ban, such as that proposed under reforms of the EU Common Fisheries Policy, may have a significant impact on gannet behaviour, particularly males. However, a continued reliance on 'natural' foraging suggests the ability to switch away from scavenging, but only if there is sufficient food to meet their needs in the absence of a discard subsidy.

  1. A bird's eye view of discard reforms: bird-borne cameras reveal seabird/fishery interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votier, Stephen C; Bicknell, Anthony; Cox, Samantha L; Scales, Kylie L; Patrick, Samantha C

    2013-01-01

    Commercial capture fisheries produce huge quantities of offal, as well as undersized and unwanted catch in the form of discards. Declines in global catches and legislation to ban discarding will significantly reduce discards, but this subsidy supports a large scavenger community. Understanding the potential impact of declining discards for scavengers should feature in an eco-system based approach to fisheries management, but requires greater knowledge of scavenger/fishery interactions. Here we use bird-borne cameras, in tandem with GPS loggers, to provide a unique view of seabird/fishery interactions. 20,643 digital images (one min(-1)) from ten bird-borne cameras deployed on central place northern gannets Morus bassanus revealed that all birds photographed fishing vessels. These were large (>15 m) boats, with no small-scale vessels. Virtually all vessels were trawlers, and gannets were almost always accompanied by other scavenging birds. All individuals exhibited an Area-Restricted Search (ARS) during foraging, but only 42% of ARS were associated with fishing vessels, indicating much 'natural' foraging. The proportion of ARS behaviours associated with fishing boats were higher for males (81%) than females (30%), although the reasons for this are currently unclear. Our study illustrates that fisheries form a very important component of the prey-landscape for foraging gannets and that a discard ban, such as that proposed under reforms of the EU Common Fisheries Policy, may have a significant impact on gannet behaviour, particularly males. However, a continued reliance on 'natural' foraging suggests the ability to switch away from scavenging, but only if there is sufficient food to meet their needs in the absence of a discard subsidy. PMID:23483906

  2. Physicochemical properties and stability of thousand-year-old soil organic matter in boreal paleopodzols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wen-Ting; Klaminder, Jonatan; Boily, Jean-Francois

    2013-04-01

    the mineral matrix. Our findings therefore support the concept that soil mineral surfaces impact SOM stability. The importance of SOM-mineral surfaces complexation was demonstrated further through combined temperature-programmed desorption mass spectrometric Fourier transform infrared (TPD-MS-FTIR) experiments pointing to highly resilient forms of SOM associated to mineral particle surfaces. In summary, our study suggests organic matter sorption on mineral surfaces is important for SOM preservation at the millennial scale. Predicting the long-term fate of C in boreal regions should consequently account for such types of organo-mineral associations.

  3. Restoring the Nitrogen Cycle in the Boreal Forest - a Case Study from Northern Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse, Jacynthe; Grayston, Sue; Prescott, Cindy; Quideau, Sylvie

    2014-05-01

    The Athabasca oil sands deposit, located in the boreal forests of Northern Alberta, is one of the largest single oil deposits in the world. This deposit rests underneath 40,200 square kilometres of land. To date, an area of about 715 square kilometres has been disturbed by oil sands mining activity (Government of Alberta, 2013). Following surface mining, companies have the legal obligation to restore soil-like profiles that can support the previous land capabilities (Powter et al., 2012). Because of its importance for site productivity, re-establishment of the nitrogen cycle between these reconstructed soils and plants is one of the most critical factors required to insure long term sustainability of reclaimed boreal landscape. High nitrogen deposition recorded in the oil sands area combined with the high level of nitrate found in reclaimed soils raised concerns about the possibility of these reclaimed soils being in early stages of N saturation (Laxton et al 2010; Hemsley, 2012), although little evidence of net nitrification in these reclaimed soils suggests the contrary (Laxton et al. 2012). To date, results on the behaviour of the nitrogen cycle in the reclaimed sites are contradictory. A systematic study of the nitrogen cycle, and especially rates of gross mineralization, nitrification and denitrification, is needed. Our research aimed at 1) measuring the gross rates of nitrogen transformations under different vegetation treatments in both reclaimed and naturally-disturbed (fire) sites and 2) characterizing the microbial communities participating in the nitrogen cycle within the same soils. A series of 20 soils, covering different vegetation treatments (plots planted with aspen (Populus tremuloides), spruce (Picea glauca) and grassland) were investigated. Gross nitrogen transformation rates were measured using 15N pool-dilution (Müller et al. 2007). Microbial communities participating in the N-cycle were characterized using qPCR and pyrosequencing. Differences

  4. Birds observed at Shemya Island, Aleutian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers Shemya Island bird surveys. The reports outline migrant bird activity during August 31 to October 3, 1977. The purpose of the study was to survey...

  5. Hidden genes in birds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hron, Tomáš; Pajer, Petr; Pačes, Jan; Bartůněk, Petr; Elleder, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 16, August 18 (2015). ISSN 1465-6906 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LK11215; GA MŠk LO1419 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010005 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : REPETITIVE SEQUENCES * G/C stretches * avian genes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 10.810, year: 2014

  6. Bat predation on nocturnally migrating birds

    OpenAIRE

    Ibáñez, Carlos; Juste, Javier; García-Mudarra, Juan L.; Agirre-Mendi, Pablo T.

    2001-01-01

    Bat predation on birds is a very rare phenomenon in nature. Most documented reports of bird-eating bats refer to tropical bats that occasionally capture resting birds. Millions of small birds concentrate and cross over the world's temperate regions during migration, mainly at night, but no nocturnal predators are known to benefit from this enormous food resource. An analysis of 14,000 fecal pellets of the greater noctule bat (Nyctalus lasiopterus) reveals that this...

  7. Avian Coronavirus in Wild Aquatic Birds

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, D. K. W.; Leung, C. Y. H.; Gilbert, M.; Joyner, P. H.; Ng, E. M.; Tse, T. M.; Guan, Y; Peiris, J. S. M.; Poon, L.L.M

    2011-01-01

    We detected a high prevalence (12.5%) of novel avian coronaviruses in aquatic wild birds. Phylogenetic analyses of these coronaviruses suggest that there is a diversity of gammacoronaviruses and deltacoronaviruses circulating in birds. Gammacoronaviruses were found predominantly in Anseriformes birds, whereas deltacoronaviruses could be detected in Ciconiiformes, Pelecaniformes, and Anseriformes birds in this study. We observed that there are frequent interspecies transmissions of gammacorona...

  8. 76 FR 32224 - Migratory Birds; Take of Migratory Birds by the Armed Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... authorizing the referenced incidental take in the Federal Register on February 28, 2007 (72 FR 8931). The... Fish and Wildlife Service Migratory Birds; Take of Migratory Birds by the Armed Forces AGENCY: Fish and... birds during approved military readiness activities without violating the Migratory Bird Treaty...

  9. Birds and Bird Habitat: What Are the Risks from Industrial Wind Turbine Exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Terry; Harrington, M. Elizabeth; Krogh, Carmen M. E.

    2011-01-01

    Bird kill rate and disruption of habitat has been reported when industrial wind turbines are introduced into migratory bird paths or other environments. While the literature could be more complete regarding the documentation of negative effects on birds and bird habitats during the planning, construction, and operation of wind power projects,…

  10. Physiological adaptation in desert birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, JB; Tieleman, BI; Williams, Joseph B.

    2005-01-01

    We call into question the idea that birds have not evolved unique physiological adaptations to desert environments. The rate at which desert larks metabolize energy is lower than in mesic species within the same family, and this lower rate of living translates into a lower overall energy requirement

  11. Density-dependent cladogenesis in birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert B Phillimore

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A characteristic signature of adaptive radiation is a slowing of the rate of speciation toward the present. On the basis of molecular phylogenies, studies of single clades have frequently found evidence for a slowdown in diversification rate and have interpreted this as evidence for density dependent speciation. However, we demonstrated via simulation that large clades are expected to show stronger slowdowns than small clades, even if the probability of speciation and extinction remains constant through time. This is a consequence of exponential growth: clades, which, by chance, diversify at above the average rate early in their history, will tend to be large. They will also tend to regress back to the average diversification rate later on, and therefore show a slowdown. We conducted a meta-analysis of the distribution of speciation events through time, focusing on sequence-based phylogenies for 45 clades of birds. Thirteen of the 23 clades (57% that include more than 20 species show significant slowdowns. The high frequency of slowdowns observed in large clades is even more extreme than expected under a purely stochastic constant-rate model, but is consistent with the adaptive radiation model. Taken together, our data strongly support a model of density-dependent speciation in birds, whereby speciation slows as ecological opportunities and geographical space place limits on clade growth.

  12. I LIKE LISTENING TO BIRDS SINGING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘向勤; 廖明娟

    2002-01-01

    Every early morning, birds' happy singing wakes me up. I get dressed quickly and have a wash and brush up, then watch birds and listen to them singing happily in the trees. The singing of different kinds of birds sounds like a piece of beautiful symphonic music. Birds’singing makes me relaxed and happy and it also recalls me something of the Past.

  13. The Physics of Bird Flight: An Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihail, Michael D.; George, Thomas F.; Feldman, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an experiment that measures the forces acting on a flying bird during takeoff. The experiment uses a minimum of equipment and only an elementary knowledge of kinematics and Newton's second law. The experiment involves first digitally videotaping a bird during takeoff, analyzing the video to determine the bird's position as a…

  14. Velogenic Newcastle disease in imported caged birds.

    OpenAIRE

    Clavijo, A.; Robinson, Y; Booth, T.; Munroe, F

    2000-01-01

    Velogenic Newcastle disease was diagnosed in pet birds intended for importation into Canada. Virological and histopathological examination confirmed the presence of the disease. The group of birds was denied entry into Canada. Similar birds illegally imported are a potential source of velogenic Newcastle disease virus and are a threat to domestic poultry.

  15. Neoplasms identified in free-flying birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfried, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    Nine neoplasms were identified in carcasses of free-flying wild birds received at the National Wildlife Health Laboratory; gross and microscopic descriptions are reported herein. The prevalence of neoplasia in captive and free-flying birds is discussed, and lesions in the present cases are compared with those previously described in mammals and birds.

  16. Probing the debromination of the flame retardant decabromodiphenyl ether in sediments of a boreal lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orihel, Diane M; Bisbicos, Tommy; Darling, Colin T R; Dupuis, Alain P; Williamson, Mary; Muir, Derek C G

    2016-03-01

    After decades of use of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) as flame retardants, a large reservoir of these toxins has accumulated in ecosystems worldwide. The present study used an innovative approach to examine whether the fully brominated PBDE decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE) degrades to more toxic congeners in aquatic environments. The authors incubated intact sediment microcosms with high-purity [(13)C]decaBDE in a remote boreal lake to assess its debromination under ambient conditions. Although the addition of [(13)C]decaBDE increased total PBDE concentrations in sediment more than 10-fold, the relative amount of [(13)C]decaBDE in sediment did not change significantly over a 1-mo incubation. However, observation of small quantities of lower-brominated [(13)C]BDEs lent support to the hypothesis that decaBDE is slowly debrominated. The authors observed a significant increase in octaBDEs and nonaBDEs in profundal, but not littoral, sediment over 30 d. A second experiment in which sediment was incubated under different light and oxygen regimes yielded a surprising result-oxygen significantly stimulated the formation of octaBDEs and nonaBDEs. The authors also conducted a large-scale in situ enclosure experiment in which they followed the fate of experimentally added decaBDE in sediment over 26 mo, but that study yielded little evidence of decaBDE debromination. Overall, the authors suggest that the debromination of decaBDE occurs very slowly, if at all, in natural sediment of boreal lakes, in contrast to the rapid degradation kinetics reported by most laboratory-based studies, which are usually conducted by dissolving decaBDE in organic solvents. The findings reinforce the need for field studies on contaminant fate to inform environmental policy decisions. PMID:26332257

  17. Patterns of NPP, GPP, respiration, and NEP during boreal forest succession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulden, M.L.; Mcmillan, A.M.S.; Winston, G.C.; Rocha, A.V.; Manies, K.L.; Harden, J.W.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.

    2011-01-01

    We combined year-round eddy covariance with biometry and biomass harvests along a chronosequence of boreal forest stands that were 1, 6, 15, 23, 40, 74, and 154 years old to understand how ecosystem production and carbon stocks change during recovery from stand-replacing crown fire. Live biomass (Clive) was low in the 1 and 6 year old stands, and increased following a logistic pattern to high levels in the 74 and 154year old stands. Carbon stocks in the forest floor (Cforest floor) and coarse woody debris (CCWD) were comparatively high in the 1year old stand, reduced in the 6 through 40year old stands, and highest in the 74 and 154year old stands. Total net primary production (TNPP) was reduced in the 1 and 6year old stands, highest in the 23 through 74year old stands and somewhat reduced in the 154year old stand. The NPP decline at the 154year old stand was related to increased autotrophic respiration rather than decreased gross primary production (GPP). Net ecosystem production (NEP), calculated by integrated eddy covariance, indicated the 1 and 6 year old stands were losing carbon, the 15year old stand was gaining a small amount of carbon, the 23 and 74year old stands were gaining considerable carbon, and the 40 and 154year old stands were gaining modest amounts of carbon. The recovery from fire was rapid; a linear fit through the NEP observations at the 6 and 15year old stands indicated the transition from carbon source to sink occurred within 11-12 years. The NEP decline at the 154year old stand appears related to increased losses from Clive by tree mortality and possibly from Cforest floor by decomposition. Our findings support the idea that NPP, carbon production efficiency (NPP/GPP), NEP, and carbon storage efficiency (NEP/TNPP) all decrease in old boreal stands. ?? 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Private lands habitat programs benefit California's native birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan T. DiGaudio

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available To address the loss of wetlands and riparian forests in California, private lands habitat programs are available through U.S. federal and state government agencies to help growers, ranchers and other private landowners create and enhance wildlife habitat. The programs provide financial and technical assistance for implementing conservation practices. To evaluate the benefits of these programs for wildlife, we examined bird use of private wetlands, postharvest flooded croplands and riparian forests enrolled in habitat programs in the Central Valley and North Coast regions of California. We found that private Central Valley wetlands supported 181 bird species during the breeding season. During fall migration, postharvest flooded croplands supported wetland-dependent species and a higher density of shorebirds than did semipermanent wetlands. At the riparian sites, bird species richness increased after restoration. These results demonstrated that the programs provided habitat for the species they were designed to protect; a variety of resident and migratory bird species used the habitats, and many special status species were recorded at the sites.

  19. Methane emission modeling with MCMC calibration for a boreal peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raivonen, Maarit; Smolander, Sampo; Susiluoto, Jouni; Backman, Leif; Li, Xuefei; Markkanen, Tiina; Kleinen, Thomas; Makela, Jarmo; Aalto, Tuula; Rinne, Janne; Brovkin, Victor; Vesala, Timo

    2016-04-01

    Natural wetlands, particularly peatlands of the boreal latitudes, are a significant source of methane (CH4). At the moment, the emission estimates are highly uncertain. These natural emissions respond to climatic variability, so it is necessary to understand their dynamics, in order to be able to predict how they affect the greenhouse gas balance in the future. We have developed a model of CH4 production, oxidation and transport in boreal peatlands. It simulates production of CH4 as a proportion of anaerobic peat respiration, transport of CH4 and oxygen between the soil and the atmosphere via diffusion in aerenchymatous plants and in peat pores (water and air filled), ebullition and oxidation of CH4 by methanotrophic microbes. Ultimately, we aim to add the model functionality to global climate models such as the JSBACH (Reick et al., 2013), the land surface scheme of the MPI Earth System Model. We tested the model with measured methane fluxes (using eddy covariance technique) from the Siikaneva site, an oligotrophic boreal fen in southern Finland (61°49' N, 24°11' E), over years 2005-2011. To give the model estimates regional reliability, we calibrated the model using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique. Although the simulations and the research are still ongoing, preliminary results from the MCMC calibration can be described as very promising considering that the model is still at relatively early stage. We will present the model and its dynamics as well as results from the MCMC calibration and the comparison with Siikaneva flux data.

  20. Remote estimation of net CO2 emission from boreal ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, C. A.; Strachan, I. B.

    2010-12-01

    Hydroelectricity is the main source of power in the province of Quebec, Canada. While hydroelectricity is considered to be a relatively green source of energy, reservoir creation is a land use change that involves flooding terrestrial ecosystems and thus a loss of greenhouse gas (GHG) uptake as well as direct GHG emission from decomposing vegetation. Both the lost sink for GHGs and direct emission from the reservoir surface must be included in estimating the net GHG emission attributable to the reservoir’s construction. These emissions can be determined using techniques such as eddy covariance, however, such methods are often costly and time consuming, and require frequent access to remote locations. Remote sensing is able to provide spatially continuous data over large areas, minimizing the need for ground based measurements. We tested the ability of the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to predict fluxes of carbon dioxide in areas representative of boreal forests and peatlands flooded by the Eastmain 1 hydroelectric reservoir in the James Bay region of Quebec, Canada. We collected spectral measurements from hand-held and helicopter-based platforms, as well as continuously monitored the indices PRI and NDVI from tower-mounted sensors at a forest and peatland site. We then compared the vegetation indices to net fluxes of carbon dioxide measured by eddy covariance at each site. PRI was related to fluxes at both the forest and peatland sites, suggesting it is possible to remotely estimate carbon dioxide uptake by vegetation in boreal forests and peatlands and thus greenhouse gas emissions resulting from land use changes in boreal regions, such as reservoir inundation.

  1. Staphylococcus aureus infections in psittacine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, K; Devriese, L A; De Herdt, P; Godard, C; Haesebrouck, F

    2000-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from internal organs of 13 different psittacine birds submitted for necropsy over a period of 6 years. The birds all had lesions consistent with septicaemia. S. aureus isolates included three different phage types. In seven of the 13 birds, concurrent infections with Chlamydophila species, Enterococcus hirae, Candida species, unidentified streptococci and coagulasenegative staphylococci were detected. One bird also had lesions of lymphoid leucosis. Few indications were found that staphylococcosis associated problems may spread epidemically. The present studies suggest that S. aureus is pathogenic for psittacine birds, although it does not seem to be a frequent cause of disease. PMID:19184832

  2. Hydrogen peroxide distribution, production, and decay in boreal lakes

    OpenAIRE

    Häkkinen, P J; Anesio, Alexandre Magno; Granéli, Wilhelm

    2004-01-01

    The distribution, production, and decay of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were studied in 10 boreal lakes of differing physical-chemical characteristics. Diurnal and vertical fluctuations in H2O2 concentration were followed in the lakes by sampling at six depths three times per day. In addition, incubations of water filtered through 0.2-mu mesh were made under artificial irradiation to study the abiotic production and decay of H2O2. H2O2 concentrations after 8 h of artificial irradiation were signi...

  3. Radionuclide transport and bioaccumulation processes in upland and boreal environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to access the impact of a proposed repository for radioactive waste in Cumbria, England, it is necessary to evaluate the processes affecting the transfer of radionuclides in natural and semi-natural environments and to derive relevant modelling parameters. To date, two environments, upland temperate and boreal, have been considered. It is intended to extend this work to include information and data for alpine and tundra environments. A critical review of the literature for the four appropriate ecosystems is being carried out and an electronic database of relevant parameter values is being created

  4. Gamma-ray irradiation of a boreal forest ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A long-term radiation ecology research project called Field Irradiator - Gamma (FIG) began at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment in 1968. The experimental area is in southeastern Manitoba and is located on the western edge of the Precambrian shield. The project studies the ecological effects continuous exposure to a gradient of gamma radiation has on a mixed boreal forest ecosystem. The gradient ranges from 1 to 460,000 times the natural background radiation level. This paper describes the forest, the gamma irradiator and its radiation field, and the research program

  5. Urban Bird Feeding: Connecting People with Nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Daniel T C; Gaston, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    At a time of unprecedented biodiversity loss, researchers are increasingly recognizing the broad range of benefits provided to humankind by nature. However, as people live more urbanized lifestyles there is a progressive disengagement with the natural world that diminishes these benefits and discourages positive environmental behaviour. The provision of food for garden birds is an increasing global phenomenon, and provides a readily accessible way for people to counter this trend. Yet despite its popularity, quite why people feed birds remains poorly understood. We explore three loosely defined motivations behind bird feeding: that it provides psychological benefits, is due to a concern about bird welfare, and/or is due to a more general orientation towards nature. We quantitatively surveyed households from urban towns in southern England to explore attitudes and actions towards garden bird feeding. Each household scored three Likert statements relating to each of the three motivations. We found that people who fed birds regularly felt more relaxed and connected to nature when they watched garden birds, and perceived that bird feeding is beneficial for bird welfare while investing time in minimising associated risks. Finally, feeding birds may be an expression of a wider orientation towards nature. Overall, we found that the feelings of being relaxed and connected to nature were the strongest drivers. As urban expansion continues both to threaten species conservation and to change peoples' relationship with the natural world, feeding birds may provide an important tool for engaging people with nature to the benefit of both people and conservation. PMID:27427988

  6. Urban Bird Feeding: Connecting People with Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    At a time of unprecedented biodiversity loss, researchers are increasingly recognizing the broad range of benefits provided to humankind by nature. However, as people live more urbanized lifestyles there is a progressive disengagement with the natural world that diminishes these benefits and discourages positive environmental behaviour. The provision of food for garden birds is an increasing global phenomenon, and provides a readily accessible way for people to counter this trend. Yet despite its popularity, quite why people feed birds remains poorly understood. We explore three loosely defined motivations behind bird feeding: that it provides psychological benefits, is due to a concern about bird welfare, and/or is due to a more general orientation towards nature. We quantitatively surveyed households from urban towns in southern England to explore attitudes and actions towards garden bird feeding. Each household scored three Likert statements relating to each of the three motivations. We found that people who fed birds regularly felt more relaxed and connected to nature when they watched garden birds, and perceived that bird feeding is beneficial for bird welfare while investing time in minimising associated risks. Finally, feeding birds may be an expression of a wider orientation towards nature. Overall, we found that the feelings of being relaxed and connected to nature were the strongest drivers. As urban expansion continues both to threaten species conservation and to change peoples’ relationship with the natural world, feeding birds may provide an important tool for engaging people with nature to the benefit of both people and conservation. PMID:27427988

  7. Mapping global diversity patterns for migratory birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Somveille

    Full Text Available Nearly one in five bird species has separate breeding and overwintering distributions, and the regular migrations of these species cause a substantial seasonal redistribution of avian diversity across the world. However, despite its ecological importance, bird migration has been largely ignored in studies of global avian biodiversity, with few studies having addressed it from a macroecological perspective. Here, we analyse a dataset on the global distribution of the world's birds in order to examine global spatial patterns in the diversity of migratory species, including: the seasonal variation in overall species diversity due to migration; the contribution of migratory birds to local bird diversity; and the distribution of narrow-range and threatened migratory birds. Our analyses reveal a striking asymmetry between the Northern and Southern hemispheres, evident in all of the patterns investigated. The highest migratory bird diversity was found in the Northern Hemisphere, with high inter-continental turnover in species composition between breeding and non-breeding seasons, and extensive regions (at high latitudes where migratory birds constitute the majority of the local avifauna. Threatened migratory birds are concentrated mainly in Central and Southern Asia, whereas narrow-range migratory species are mainly found in Central America, the Himalayas and Patagonia. Overall, global patterns in the diversity of migratory birds indicate that bird migration is mainly a Northern Hemisphere phenomenon. The asymmetry between the Northern and Southern hemispheres could not have easily been predicted from the combined results of regional scale studies, highlighting the importance of a global perspective.

  8. Mapping global diversity patterns for migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somveille, Marius; Manica, Andrea; Butchart, Stuart H M; Rodrigues, Ana S L

    2013-01-01

    Nearly one in five bird species has separate breeding and overwintering distributions, and the regular migrations of these species cause a substantial seasonal redistribution of avian diversity across the world. However, despite its ecological importance, bird migration has been largely ignored in studies of global avian biodiversity, with few studies having addressed it from a macroecological perspective. Here, we analyse a dataset on the global distribution of the world's birds in order to examine global spatial patterns in the diversity of migratory species, including: the seasonal variation in overall species diversity due to migration; the contribution of migratory birds to local bird diversity; and the distribution of narrow-range and threatened migratory birds. Our analyses reveal a striking asymmetry between the Northern and Southern hemispheres, evident in all of the patterns investigated. The highest migratory bird diversity was found in the Northern Hemisphere, with high inter-continental turnover in species composition between breeding and non-breeding seasons, and extensive regions (at high latitudes) where migratory birds constitute the majority of the local avifauna. Threatened migratory birds are concentrated mainly in Central and Southern Asia, whereas narrow-range migratory species are mainly found in Central America, the Himalayas and Patagonia. Overall, global patterns in the diversity of migratory birds indicate that bird migration is mainly a Northern Hemisphere phenomenon. The asymmetry between the Northern and Southern hemispheres could not have easily been predicted from the combined results of regional scale studies, highlighting the importance of a global perspective. PMID:23951037

  9. Stable recombination hotspots in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Sonal; Leffler, Ellen M; Sannareddy, Keerthi; Turner, Isaac; Venn, Oliver; Hooper, Daniel M; Strand, Alva I; Li, Qiye; Raney, Brian; Balakrishnan, Christopher N; Griffith, Simon C; McVean, Gil; Przeworski, Molly

    2015-11-20

    The DNA-binding protein PRDM9 has a critical role in specifying meiotic recombination hotspots in mice and apes, but it appears to be absent from other vertebrate species, including birds. To study the evolution and determinants of recombination in species lacking the gene that encodes PRDM9, we inferred fine-scale genetic maps from population resequencing data for two bird species: the zebra finch, Taeniopygia guttata, and the long-tailed finch, Poephila acuticauda. We found that both species have recombination hotspots, which are enriched near functional genomic elements. Unlike in mice and apes, most hotspots are shared between the two species, and their conservation seems to extend over tens of millions of years. These observations suggest that in the absence of PRDM9, recombination targets functional features that both enable access to the genome and constrain its evolution. PMID:26586757

  10. Cooperation bibliogram of bird flu

    OpenAIRE

    Stegmann, Johannes; Grohmann, Guenter

    2006-01-01

    The published literature on Bird Flu, now a pandemic animal disease with a possible potential of evolving into a devastating human disease, was analysed primarily with respect of national and international cooperations and networks of authors and countries. The output of research-relevant papers is now around 150 per year and was less than 100 papers per year before 2003. The field is highly cooperative; nearly 90% of the articles have two or more authors. National extramural cooperation is ...

  11. Nitrogen balance of a boreal Scots pine forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. J. Korhonen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The productivity of boreal forests is considered to be limited by low nitrogen (N availability. Increased atmospheric N deposition has altered the functioning and N cycling of these N-sensitive ecosystems. The most important components of N pools and fluxes were measured in a boreal Scots pine stand in Hyytiälä, Southern Finland. The measurement at the site allowed direct estimations of nutrient pools in the soil and biomass, inputs from the atmosphere and outputs as drainage flow and gaseous losses from two micro-catchments. N was accumulating to the system with a rate of 7 kg N ha−1 yr−1. Nitrogen input as atmospheric deposition was 7.4 kg N ha−1 yr−1. Dry deposition and organic N in wet deposition contributed over half of the input in deposition. Total outputs were 0.4 kg N ha−1 yr−1, the most important outputs being N2O emission to the atmosphere and organic N flux in drainage flow. Nitrogen uptake and retranslocation were as important sources of N for plant growth. Most of the uptaken N originated from decomposition of organic matter, and the fraction of N that could originate directly from deposition was about 30%. In conclusion, atmospheric N deposition fertilizes the site considerably.

  12. Antioxidant Potential of Bark Extracts from Boreal Forest Conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legault, Jean; Girard-Lalancette, Karl; Dufour, Dominic; Pichette, André

    2013-01-01

    The bark of boreal forest conifers has been traditionally used by Native Americans to treat various ailments and diseases. Some of these diseases involve reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can be prevented by the consumption of antioxidants such as phenolic compounds that can be found in medicinal plants. In this study, ultrasonic assisted extraction has been performed under various solvent conditions (water:ethanol mixtures) on the bark of seven boreal forest conifers used by Native Americans including: Pinus strobus, Pinus resinosa, Pinus banksiana, Picea mariana, Picea glauca, Larix laricina, and Abies balsamea. The total phenolic content, as well as ORACFL potency and cellular antioxidant activity (IC50), were evaluated for all bark extracts, and compared with the standardized water extract of Pinus maritima bark (Pycnogenol), which showed clinical efficiency to prevent ROS deleterious effects. The best overall phenolic extraction yield and antioxidant potential was obtained with Picea glauca and Picea mariana. Interestingly, total phenolic content of these bark extracts was similar to Pycnogenol but their antioxidant activity were higher. Moreover, most of the extracts did not inhibit the growth of human skin fibroblasts, WS1. A significant correlation was found between the total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity for water extracts suggesting that these compounds are involved in the activity. PMID:26784337

  13. Environmental conditions of boreal springs explained by capture zone characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Pekka M.; Marttila, Hannu; Jyväsjärvi, Jussi; Ala-aho, Pertti; Isokangas, Elina; Muotka, Timo; Kløve, Bjørn

    2015-12-01

    Springs are unique ecosystems, but in many cases they are severely threatened and there is an urgent need for better spring management and conservation. To this end, we studied water quality and quantity in springs in Oulanka National Park, north-east Finland. Multivariate statistical methods were employed to relate spring water quality and quantity to hydrogeology and land use of the spring capture zone. This revealed that most springs studied were affected by locally atypical dolostone-limestone bedrock, resulting in high calcium, pH, and alkalinity values. Using Ward's hierarchical clustering, the springs were grouped into four clusters based on their water chemistry. One cluster consisted of springs affected by past small-scale agriculture, whereas other clusters were affected by the variable bedrock, e.g., springs only 1 km from the dolostone-limestone bedrock area were beyond its calcium-rich impact zone. According to a random forest model, the best predictors of spring water chemistry were spring altitude and the stable hydrogen isotope ratio of the water (δ2H). Thus stable water isotopes could be widely applicable for boreal spring management. They may also provide a rough estimate of groundwater flow route (i.e., whether it is mainly local or regional), which largely determines the chemical characteristics of spring water. Our approach could be applied in other boreal regions and at larger spatial scales for improved classification of springs and for better targeted spring management.

  14. Controls on CH4 flux from an Alaskan boreal wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi, Sadredin C.; Crill, Patrick M.; Pullman, Erik R.; Funk, Dale W.; Peterson, Kim M.

    1996-06-01

    Factors controlling the flux of the radiatively important trace gas methane (CH4) from boreal wetlands were examined at three sites along a moisture gradient from a treed low-shrub bog to an open floating graminoid bog in Fairbanks, Alaska. In the summer of 1992 average static chamber flux measurements were -0.02, 71.5, and 289 mg CH4/m2/d in dry, wet, and floating mat communities, respectively. In contrast, the warmer, drier 1993 field season flux measurements were -0.02, 42.9 and 407 mg CH4/m2/d. The data indicate that despite net oxidation of CH4 in the dry regions of the bog, the wetland is a net source of CH4, with fluxes ranging across three orders of magnitude between different plant communities. Comparison with water levels suggests that CH4 flux is turned on and off by changes in site hydrology. In sites where sufficient moisture is present for methanogenesis to occur, CH4 flux appears to be temperature limited, responding exponentially to soil temperature changes. The combined effects of hydrology and temperature create hot spots of CH4 flux within boreal wetlands. The plant communities within Lemeta Bog respond differently to changes in temperature and moisture availability, creating both positive and negative feedbacks to potential global climate change.

  15. What governs the presence of residual vegetation in boreal wildfires?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Yikalo H.; Remmel, Tarmo K.; Perera, Ajith H.

    2016-04-01

    Wildfires are frequent boreal forest disturbances in Canada, and emulating their patterns with forest harvesting has emerged as a common forest management goal. Wildfires contain many patches of residual vegetation of various size, shape, and composition; understanding their characteristics provides insights for improved emulation criteria. We studied the occurrence of residual vegetation within eleven boreal wildfire events in a natural setting; fires ignited by lightning, no suppression efforts, and no prior anthropogenic disturbances. Relative importance of the measurable geo-environmental factors and their marginal effects on residual presence are studied using Random Forests. These factors included distance from natural firebreaks (wetland, bedrock and non-vegetated areas, and water), land cover, and topographic variables (elevation, slope, and ruggedness index). We present results at spatial resolutions ranging from four to 64 m while emphasizing four and 32 m since they mimic IKONOS- and Landsat-type images. Natural firebreak features, especially the proximity to wetlands, are among the most important variables that explain the likelihood residual occurrence. The majority of residual vegetation areas are concentrated within 100 m of wetlands. Topographic variables, typically important in rugged terrain, are less important in explaining the presence of residuals within our study fires.

  16. Antioxidant Potential of Bark Extracts from Boreal Forest Conifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Legault

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The bark of boreal forest conifers has been traditionally used by Native Americans to treat various ailments and diseases. Some of these diseases involve reactive oxygen species (ROS that can be prevented by the consumption of antioxidants such as phenolic compounds that can be found in medicinal plants. In this study, ultrasonic assisted extraction has been performed under various solvent conditions (water:ethanol mixtures on the bark of seven boreal forest conifers used by Native Americans including: Pinus strobus, Pinus resinosa, Pinus banksiana, Picea mariana, Picea glauca, Larix laricina, and Abies balsamea. The total phenolic content, as well as ORACFL potency and cellular antioxidant activity (IC50, were evaluated for all bark extracts, and compared with the standardized water extract of Pinus maritima bark (Pycnogenol, which showed clinical efficiency to prevent ROS deleterious effects. The best overall phenolic extraction yield and antioxidant potential was obtained with Picea glauca and Picea mariana. Interestingly, total phenolic content of these bark extracts was similar to Pycnogenol but their antioxidant activity were higher. Moreover, most of the extracts did not inhibit the growth of human skin fibroblasts, WS1. A significant correlation was found between the total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity for water extracts suggesting that these compounds are involved in the activity.

  17. Does the temporal mismatch hypothesis match in boreal populations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatka, Emma; Rytkönen, Seppo; Orell, Markku

    2014-10-01

    The temporal mismatch hypothesis suggests that fitness is related to the degree of temporal synchrony between the energetic needs of the offspring and their food supply. The hypothesis has been a basis in studying the influence of climate warming on nature. This study enhances the knowledge on prevalence of temporal mismatches and their consequences in boreal populations, and questions the role of the temporal mismatch hypothesis as the principal explanation for the evolution of timing of breeding. To test this, we examined if synchrony with caterpillar prey or timing of breeding per se better explains reproductive output in North European parid populations. We compared responses of temperate-origin species, the great tit (Parus major) and the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus), and a boreal species, the willow tit (Poecile montanus). We found that phenologies of caterpillars and great tits, but not of blue tits, have advanced during the past decades. Phenologies correlated with spring temperatures that may function as cues about the timing of the food peak for great and blue tits. The breeding of great and blue tits and their caterpillar food remained synchronous. Synchrony explained breeding success better than timing of breeding alone. However, the synchrony effect arose only in certain conditions, such as with high caterpillar abundances or high breeding densities. Breeding before good synchrony seems advantageous at high latitudes, especially in the willow tit. Thus, the temporal mismatch hypothesis appears insufficient in explaining the evolution of timing of breeding. PMID:25024104

  18. Carbon sequestration from boreal wildfires via Pyrogenic Carbon production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santin, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan; Preston, Caroline

    2014-05-01

    Fire releases important quantities of carbon (C) to the atmosphere. Every year, an average of 460 Million ha burn around the globe, generating C emissions equivalent to a third of the current annual contribution from fossil fuel combustion. Over the longer-term wildfires are widely considered as 'net zero C emission events', because C emissions from fires, excluding those associated with deforestation and peatland fires, are balanced by C uptake by regenerating vegetation. This 'zero C emission' scenario, however, may be flawed, as it does not consider the production of pyrogenic C (PyC). During fire, part of the biomass C burnt is emitted to the atmosphere but part is transformed into PyC (i.e. charcoal). The enhanced resistance of PyC to environmental degradation compared to unburnt biomass gives it the potential to sequester C over the medium/long term. Therefore, after complete regeneration of the vegetation, the PyC generated may represent an additional C pool and, hence, recurring fire-regrowth cycles could represent net sinks of atmospheric C. To estimate the quantitative importance of PyC production, accurate data on PyC generation with respect to the fuel combusted are needed. Unfortunately, detailed quantification of fuel prior to fire is normally only available for prescribed and experimental fires, which are usually of low-intensity and therefore not representative of higher-intensity wildfires. Furthermore, what little data is available is usually based on only a specific fraction of the PyC present following burning rather than the whole range of PyC products and pools (i.e. PyC in soil, ash, downed wood and standing vegetation). To address this research gap, we utilized the globally unique FireSmart experimental forest fires in Northwest Canada. They are aimed to reproduce wildfire conditions typical for boreal forest and, at the same time, allow pre-fire fuel assessment, fire behaviour monitoring and immediate post-fire fuel and PyC inventory. This

  19. Survival rates of birds of tropical and temperate forests: will the dogma survive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr, J.R.; Nichols, J.D.; Klimkiewicz, M.K.; Brawn, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Survival rates of tropical forest birds are widely assumed to be high relative to the survival rates of temperate forest birds. Much life-history theory is based on this assumption despite the lack of empirical data to support it. We provide the first detailed comparison of survival rates of tropical and temperate forest birds based on extensive data bases and modern capture-recapture models. We find no support for the conventional wisdom. Because clutch size is only one component of reproductive rate, the frequently assumed, simple association between clutch size and adult survival rates should not necessarily be expected. Our results emphasize the need to consider components of fecundity in addition to clutch size when comparing the life histories of tropical and temperate birds and suggest similar considerations in the development of vertebrate life-history theory.

  20. Effects of wind turbines on upland nesting birds in Conservation Reserve Program grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leddy, K.L.; Higgins, K.F.; Naugle, D.E.

    1999-01-01

    Grassland passerines were surveyed during summer 1995 on the Buffalo Ridge Wind Resource Area in southwestern Minnesota to determine the relative influence of wind turbines on overall densities of upland nesting birds in Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) grasslands. Birds were surveyed along 40 m fixed width transects that were placed along wind turbine strings within three CRP fields and in three CRP fields without turbines. Conservation Reserve Program grasslands without turbines and areas located 180 m from turbines supported higher densities (261.0-312.5 males/100 ha) of grassland birds than areas within 80 m of turbines (58.2-128.0 males/100 ha). Human disturbance, turbine noise, and physical movements of turbines during operation may have disturbed nesting birds. We recommend that wind turbines be placed within cropland habitats that support lower densities of grassland passerines than those found in CRP grasslands.

  1. Boreal forest fire emissions in fresh Canadian smoke plumes: C1–C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs, CO2, CO, NO2, NO, HCN and CH3CN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Boreal regions comprise about 17% of the global land area, and they both affect and are influenced by climate change. To better understand boreal forest fire emissions and plume evolution, 947 whole air samples were collected aboard the NASA DC-8 research aircraft in summer 2008 as part of the ARCTAS-B field mission, and analyzed for 79 non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs using gas chromatography. Together with simultaneous measurements of CO2, CO, CH4, CH2O, NO2, NO, HCN and CH3CN, these measurements represent the most comprehensive assessment of trace gas emissions from boreal forest fires to date. Based on 105 air samples collected in fresh Canadian smoke plumes, 57 of the 80 measured NMVOCs (including CH2O were emitted from the fires, including 45 species that were quantified from boreal forest fires for the first time. After CO2, CO and CH4, the largest emission factors (EFs for individual species were formaldehyde (2.1 ± 0.2 g kg−1, followed by methanol, NO2, HCN, ethene, α-pinene, β-pinene, ethane, benzene, propene, acetone and CH3CN. Globally, we estimate that boreal forest fires release 2.4 ± 0.6 Tg C yr−1 in the form of NMVOCs, with approximately 41% of the carbon released as C1–C2 NMVOCs and 21% as pinenes. These are the first reported field measurements of monoterpene emissions from boreal forest fires, and we speculate that the pinenes, which are relatively heavy molecules, were detected in the fire plumes as the result of distillation of stored terpenes as the vegetation is heated. Their inclusion in smoke chemistry models is expected to improve model predictions of secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation. The fire-averaged EF of dichloromethane or CH2Cl2, (6.9 ± 8.6 ×10−4 g kg−1, was not significantly different from zero and supports recent findings that its global biomass burning source appears to have been overestimated. Similarly, we found no evidence for emissions of chloroform (CHCl3 or methyl

  2. Avian influenza surveillance in wild birds in the European Union in 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesterberg, Uta; Harris, Kate; Stroud, David; Guberti, Vittorio; Busani, Luca; Pittman, Maria; Piazza, Valentina; Cook, Alasdair; Brown, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background  Infections of wild birds with highly pathogenic avian influenza (AI) subtype H5N1 virus were reported for the first time in the European Union in 2006. Objectives  To capture epidemiological information on H5N1 HPAI in wild bird populations through large‐scale surveillance and extensive data collection. Methods  Records were analysed at bird level to explore the epidemiology of AI with regard to species of wild birds involved, timing and location of infections as well as the applicability of different surveillance types for the detection of infections. Results  In total, 120,706 records of birds were sent to the Community Reference Laboratory for analysis. Incidents of H5N1 HPAI in wild birds were detected in 14 EU Member States during 2006. All of these incidents occurred between February and May, with the exception of two single cases during the summer months in Germany and Spain. Conclusions  For the detection of H5N1 HPAI virus, passive surveillance of dead or diseased birds appeared the most effective approach, whilst active surveillance offered better detection of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses. No carrier species for H5N1 HPAI virus could be identified and almost all birds infected with H5N1 HPAI virus were either dead or showed clinical signs. A very large number of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were tested in 2006 and while a high proportion of LPAI infections were found in this species, H5N1 HPAI virus was rarely identified in these birds. Orders of species that appeared to be very clinically susceptible to H5N1 HPAI virus were swans, diving ducks, mergansers and grebes, supporting experimental evidence. Surveillance results indicate that H5N1 HPAI virus did not establish itself successfully in the EU wild bird population in 2006. PMID:19453436

  3. Seventeen-year trends in spring and autumn phenophases of Betula pubescens in a boreal environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poikolainen, Jarmo; Tolvanen, Anne; Karhu, Jouni; Kubin, Eero

    2016-08-01

    Trends in the timing of spring and autumn phenophases of Betula pubescens were investigated in the southern, middle, and northern boreal zones in Finland. The field observations were carried out at 21 sites in the Finnish National Phenological Network in 1997-2013. The effective temperature sum of the thermal growth period, i.e. the sum of the positive differences between diurnal mean temperatures and 5 °C (ETS1), increased annually on average by 6-7 degree day units. Timing of bud burst remained constant in the southern and middle boreal zones but advanced annually by 0.5 day in the northern boreal zone. The effective temperature sum at bud burst (ETS2) showed no trend in the southern and middle boreal zones, whereas ETS2 increased on average from 20-30 to 50 degree day units in the northern boreal zone, almost to the same level as in the other zones. Increase in ETS2 indicates that the trees did not start their growth in very early spring despite warmer spring temperatures. The timing of leaf colouring and leaf fall remained almost constant in the southern boreal zones, whereas these advanced annually by 0.3 and 0.6 day in the middle boreal zone and by 0.6 and 0.4 day in the northern boreal zone, respectively. The duration of the growth period remained constant in all boreal zones. The results indicate high buffering capacity of B. pubescens against temperature changes. The study also shows the importance of the duration of phenological studies: some trends in spring phenophases had levelled out, while new trends in autumn phases had emerged after earlier studies in the same network for a shorter observation period.

  4. Seventeen-year trends in spring and autumn phenophases of Betula pubescens in a boreal environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poikolainen, Jarmo; Tolvanen, Anne; Karhu, Jouni; Kubin, Eero

    2015-12-01

    Trends in the timing of spring and autumn phenophases of Betula pubescens were investigated in the southern, middle, and northern boreal zones in Finland. The field observations were carried out at 21 sites in the Finnish National Phenological Network in 1997-2013. The effective temperature sum of the thermal growth period, i.e. the sum of the positive differences between diurnal mean temperatures and 5 °C (ETS1), increased annually on average by 6-7 degree day units. Timing of bud burst remained constant in the southern and middle boreal zones but advanced annually by 0.5 day in the northern boreal zone. The effective temperature sum at bud burst (ETS2) showed no trend in the southern and middle boreal zones, whereas ETS2 increased on average from 20-30 to 50 degree day units in the northern boreal zone, almost to the same level as in the other zones. Increase in ETS2 indicates that the trees did not start their growth in very early spring despite warmer spring temperatures. The timing of leaf colouring and leaf fall remained almost constant in the southern boreal zones, whereas these advanced annually by 0.3 and 0.6 day in the middle boreal zone and by 0.6 and 0.4 day in the northern boreal zone, respectively. The duration of the growth period remained constant in all boreal zones. The results indicate high buffering capacity of B. pubescens against temperature changes. The study also shows the importance of the duration of phenological studies: some trends in spring phenophases had levelled out, while new trends in autumn phases had emerged after earlier studies in the same network for a shorter observation period.

  5. Decreases in Soil Moisture and Organic Matter Quality Suppress Microbial Decomposition Following a Boreal Forest Fire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, Sandra R.; Berhe, Asmeret A.; Treseder, Kathleen K.

    2015-08-01

    Climate warming is projected to increase the frequency and severity of wildfires in boreal forests, and increased wildfire activity may alter the large soil carbon (C) stocks in boreal forests. Changes in boreal soil C stocks that result from increased wildfire activity will be regulated in part by the response of microbial decomposition to fire, but post-fire changes in microbial decomposition are poorly understood. Here, we investigate the response of microbial decomposition to a boreal forest fire in interior Alaska and test the mechanisms that control post-fire changes in microbial decomposition. We used a reciprocal transplant between a recently burned boreal forest stand and a late successional boreal forest stand to test how post-fire changes in abiotic conditions, soil organic matter (SOM) composition, and soil microbial communities influence microbial decomposition. We found that SOM decomposing at the burned site lost 30.9% less mass over two years than SOM decomposing at the unburned site, indicating that post-fire changes in abiotic conditions suppress microbial decomposition. Our results suggest that moisture availability is one abiotic factor that constrains microbial decomposition in recently burned forests. In addition, we observed that burned SOM decomposed more slowly than unburned SOM, but the exact nature of SOM changes in the recently burned stand are unclear. Finally, we found no evidence that post-fire changes in soil microbial community composition significantly affect decomposition. Taken together, our study has demonstrated that boreal forest fires can suppress microbial decomposition due to post-fire changes in abiotic factors and the composition of SOM. Models that predict the consequences of increased wildfires for C storage in boreal forests may increase their predictive power by incorporating the observed negative response of microbial decomposition to boreal wildfires.

  6. A Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment of California's At-Risk Birds

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Gardali; Seavy, Nathaniel E.; DiGaudio, Ryan T.; Comrack, Lyann A.

    2012-01-01

    Conservationists must develop new strategies and adapt existing tools to address the consequences of anthropogenic climate change. To support statewide climate change adaptation, we developed a framework for assessing climate change vulnerability of California's at-risk birds and integrating it into the existing California Bird Species of Special Concern list. We defined climate vulnerability as the amount of evidence that climate change will negatively impact a population. We quantified clim...

  7. Variation in clutch size in relation to nest size in birds

    OpenAIRE

    Møller, Anders P; Adriaensen, Frank; Artemyev, Alexandr; Bańbura, Jerzy; Barba, Emilio; Biard, Clotilde; Blondel, Jacques; Bouslama, Zihad; Bouvier, Jean-Charles; Camprodon, Jordi; Cecere, Francesco; Charmantier, Anne; Charter, Motti; Cichoń, Mariusz; Cusimano, Camillo

    2014-01-01

    Nests are structures built to support and protect eggs and/or offspring from predators, parasites, and adverse weather conditions. Nests are mainly constructed prior to egg laying, meaning that parent birds must make decisions about nest site choice and nest building behavior before the start of egg-laying. Parent birds should be selected to choose nest sites and to build optimally sized nests, yet our current understanding of clutch size-nest size relationships is limited to small-scale stud...

  8. Cloud effects from boreal forest fire smoke: evidence for ice nucleation from polarization lidar data and cloud model simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polarization lidar observations from the interior of Alaska have revealed unusual supercooled altocumulus cloud conditions in the presence of boreal forest fire smoke from local and regional fires. At temperatures of about -15 deg. C, the lidar data show ice nucleation prior to liquid cloud formation (i.e. below water saturation), as well as the occasional glaciation of the liquid layer. Thus the smoke aerosol appears to act as ice nuclei that become activated in updrafts before the liquid cloud forms, as the concentrated aqueous organic solutions are diluted sufficiently to allow them to freeze heterogeneously. This haze particle freezing process is similar to the production of cirrus ice crystals homogeneously at much colder temperatures. To test this hypothesis, cloud microphysical model simulations constrained by the measurements were performed. They indicate that this heterogeneous ice nucleation scenario can be supported by the cloud model. Although ice formation in this manner may generally act in the atmosphere, the boreal smoke particles produce an unusually dramatic effect in the lidar data. We conclude that smoke-induced ice nucleation occurs at moderate supercooled temperatures either through the effects of raised soil/dust particles embedded in the smoke droplets, coated soot aerosol or through the nucleation via certain organic solutions

  9. Brain size and urbanization in birds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anders; Pape; M?ller; Johannes; Erritz?e

    2015-01-01

    Background: Brain size may affect the probability of invasion of urban habitats if a relatively larger brain entails superior ability to adapt to novel environments. However, once urbanized urban environments may provide poor quality food that has negative consequences for normal brain development resulting in an excess of individuals with small brains.Methods: Here we analyze the independent effects of mean, standard deviation and skewness in brain mass for invasion of urban habitats by 108 species of birds using phylogenetic multiple regression analyses weighted by sample size.Results: There was no significant difference in mean brain mass between urbanized and non-urbanized species or between urban and rural populations of the same species, and mean brain mass was not significantly correlated with time since urbanization. Bird species that became urbanized had a greater standard deviation in brain mass than non-urbanized species, and the standard deviation in brain mass increased with time since urbanization. Brain mass was significantly left skewed in species that remained rural, while there was no significant skew in urbanized species. The degree of left skew was greater in urban than in rural populations of the same species, and successfully urbanized species decreased the degree of left skew with time since urbanization. This is consistent with the hypothesis that sub-optimal brain development was more common in rural habitats resulting in disproportionately many individuals with very smal brains.Conclusions: These findings do not support the hypothesis that large brains promote urbanization, but suggest that skewness has played a role in the initial invasion of urban habitats, and that variance and skew in brain mass have increased as species have become urbanized.

  10. Brain size and urbanization in birds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anders Pape Mller; Johannes Erritze

    2015-01-01

    Background:Brain size may affect the probability of invasion of urban habitats if a relatively larger brain entails superior ability to adapt to novel environments. However, once urbanized urban environments may provide poor quality food that has negative consequences for normal brain development resulting in an excess of individuals with small brains. Methods:Here we analyze the independent effects of mean, standard deviation and skewness in brain mass for invasion of urban habitats by 108 species of birds using phylogenetic multiple regression analyses weighted by sample size. Results:There was no significant difference in mean brain mass between urbanized and non-urbanized species or between urban and rural populations of the same species, and mean brain mass was not significantly correlated with time since urbanization. Bird species that became urbanized had a greater standard deviation in brain mass than non-urbanized species, and the standard deviation in brain mass increased with time since urbanization. Brain mass was significantly left skewed in species that remained rural, while there was no significant skew in urbanized species. The degree of left skew was greater in urban than in rural populations of the same species, and successfully urbanized species decreased the degree of left skew with time since urbanization. This is consistent with the hypothesis that sub-optimal brain development was more common in rural habitats resulting in disproportionately many individuals with very smal brains. Conclusions:These findings do not support the hypothesis that large brains promote urbanization, but suggest that skewness has played a role in the initial invasion of urban habitats, and that variance and skew in brain mass have increased as species have become urbanized.

  11. Optimal moult strategies in migratory birds

    OpenAIRE

    Barta, Zoltán; Mcnamara, John M.; Houston, Alasdair I; Weber, Thomas P.; Hedenström, Anders; Feró, Orsolya

    2007-01-01

    Avian migration, which involves billions of birds flying vast distances, is known to influence all aspects of avian life. Here we investigate how birds fit moult into an annual cycle determined by the need to migrate. Large variation exists in moulting patterns in relation to migration: for instance, moult can occur after breeding in the summer or after arrival in the wintering quarters. Here we use an optimal annual routine model to investigate why this variation exists. The modelled bird's ...

  12. Green Light for Nocturnally Migrating Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel R. Wernand

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The nighttime sky is increasingly illuminated by artificial light sources. Although this ecological light pollution is damaging ecosystems throughout the world, the topic has received relatively little attention. Many nocturnally migrating birds die or lose a large amount of their energy reserves during migration as a result of encountering artificial light sources. This happens, for instance, in the North Sea, where large numbers of nocturnally migrating birds are attracted to the many offshore platforms. Our aim is to develop bird-friendly artificial lighting that meets human demands for safety but does not attract and disorient birds. Our current working hypothesis is that artificial light interferes with the magnetic compass of the birds, one of several orientation mechanisms and especially important during overcast nights. Laboratory experiments have shown the magnetic compass to be wavelength dependent: migratory birds require light from the blue-green part of the spectrum for magnetic compass orientation, whereas red light (visible long-wavelength disrupts magnetic orientation. We designed a field study to test if and how changing light color influenced migrating birds under field conditions. We found that nocturnally migrating birds were disoriented and attracted by red and white light (containing visible long-wavelength radiation, whereas they were clearly less disoriented by blue and green light (containing less or no visible long-wavelength radiation. This was especially the case on overcast nights. Our results clearly open perspective for the development of bird-friendly artificial lighting by manipulating wavelength characteristics. Preliminary results with an experimentally developed bird-friendly light source on an offshore platform are promising. What needs to be investigated is the impact of bird-friendly light on other organisms than birds.

  13. Microwave snow emission modeling uncertainties in boreal and subarctic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Alexandre; Royer, Alain; St-Jean-Rondeau, Olivier; Montpetit, Benoit; Picard, Ghislain; Mavrovic, Alex; Marchand, Nicolas; Langlois, Alexandre

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to better understand and quantify the uncertainties in microwave snow emission models using the Dense Media Radiative Theory Multi-Layer model (DMRT-ML) with in situ measurements of snow properties. We use surface-based radiometric measurements at 10.67, 19 and 37 GHz in boreal forest and subarctic environments and a new in situ data set of measurements of snow properties (profiles of density, snow grain size and temperature, soil characterization and ice lens detection) acquired in the James Bay and Umiujaq regions of Northern Québec, Canada. A snow excavation experiment - where snow was removed from the ground to measure the microwave emission of bare frozen ground - shows that small-scale spatial variability (less than 1 km) in the emission of frozen soil is small. Hence, in our case of boreal organic soil, variability in the emission of frozen soil has a small effect on snow-covered brightness temperature (TB). Grain size and density measurement errors can explain the errors at 37 GHz, while the sensitivity of TB at 19 GHz to snow increases during the winter because of the snow grain growth that leads to scattering. Furthermore, the inclusion of observed ice lenses in DMRT-ML leads to significant improvements in the simulations at horizontal polarization (H-pol) for the three frequencies (up to 20 K of root mean square error). However, representation of the spatial variability of TB remains poor at 10.67 and 19 GHz at H-pol given the spatial variability of ice lens characteristics and the difficulty in simulating snowpack stratigraphy related to the snow crust. The results also show that, in our study with the given forest characteristics, forest emission reflected by the snow-covered surface can increase the TB up to 40 K. The forest contribution varies with vegetation characteristics and a relationship between the downwelling contribution of vegetation and the proportion of pixels occupied by vegetation (trees) in fisheye pictures was found

  14. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for alcids, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, pelagic birds, gulls and terns in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska....

  15. Effects of Grassland Bird Management on Nongame Bird Community Structure and Productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The report includes data on bird/habitat relations, breeding biology, and effects of succession and current management practices on grassland bird communities in...

  16. Bird sexing by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Gerald; Bartels, Thomas; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Koch, Edmund

    2010-02-01

    Birds are traditionally classified as male or female based on their anatomy and plumage color as judged by the human eye. Knowledge of a bird's gender is important for the veterinary practitioner, the owner and the breeder. The accurate gender determination is essential for proper pairing of birds, and knowing the gender of a bird will allow the veterinarian to rule in or out gender-specific diseases. Several biochemical methods of gender determination have been developed for avian species where otherwise the gender of the birds cannot be determined by their physical appearances or characteristics. In this contribution, we demonstrate that FT-IR spectroscopy is a suitable tool for a quick and objective determination of the bird's gender. The method is based on differences in chromosome size. Male birds have two Z chromosomes and female birds have a W-chromosome and a Z-chromosome. Each Z-chromosome has approx. 75.000.000 bps whereas the W-chromosome has approx. 260.00 bps. This difference can be detected by FT-IR spectroscopy. Spectra were recorded from germ cells obtained from the feather pulp of chicks as well as from the germinal disk of fertilized but non-bred eggs. Significant changes between cells of male and female birds occur in the region of phosphate vibrations around 1080 and 1120 cm-1.

  17. Habitat size and bird community management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S.H.; Robbins, C.S.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the results in the literature that show the effect of area of forest on nesting migratory bird species, and to present the results of additional field work that we have conducted in forest habitats in western Maryland. These results indicate the area sensitivity of many long distance migrants. Because 80 to 95 percent of the breeding birds in the northeastern deciduous forest are neotropical migrants, the changes in bird species composition as a result of forest fragmentation can be immense. Management strategies based on habitat size are suggested to assist in maintaining communities of nesting migratory birds.

  18. Avian Assemblages at Bird Baths: A Comparison of Urban and Rural Bird Baths in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Cleary, Gráinne P.; Parsons, Holly; Davis, Adrian; Coleman, Bill R.; Jones, Darryl N.; Kelly K Miller; Michael A. Weston

    2016-01-01

    Private gardens provide habitat and resources for many birds living in human-dominated landscapes. While wild bird feeding is recognised as one of the most popular forms of human-wildlife interaction, almost nothing is known about the use of bird baths. This citizen science initiative explores avian assemblages at bird baths in private gardens in south-eastern Australia and how this differs with respect to levels of urbanisation and bioregion. Overall, 992 citizen scientists collected data ov...

  19. Passerine birds breeding under chronic noise experience reduced fitness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Schroeder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fitness in birds has been shown to be negatively associated with anthropogenic noise, but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. It is however crucial to understand the mechanisms of how urban noise impinges on fitness to obtain a better understanding of the role of chronic noise in urban ecology. Here, we examine three hypotheses on how noise might reduce reproductive output in passerine birds: (H1 by impairing mate choice, (H2 by reducing territory quality and (H3 by impeding chick development. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used long-term data from an island population of house sparrows, Passer domesticus, in which we can precisely estimate fitness. We found that nests in an area affected by the noise from large generators produced fewer young, of lower body mass, and fewer recruits, even when we corrected statistically for parental genetic quality using a cross-fostering set-up, supporting H3. Also, individual females provided their young with food less often when they bred in the noisy area compared to breeding attempts by the same females elsewhere. Furthermore, we show that females reacted flexibly to increased noise levels by adjusting their provisioning rate in the short term, which suggests that noise may be a causal factor that reduces reproductive output. We rejected H1 and H2 because nestbox occupancy, parental body mass, age and reproductive investment did not differ significantly between noisy and quiet areas. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: OUR RESULTS SUGGEST A PREVIOUSLY UNDESCRIBED MECHANISM TO EXPLAIN HOW ENVIRONMENTAL NOISE CAN REDUCE FITNESS IN PASSERINE BIRDS: by acoustically masking parent-offspring communication. More importantly, using a cross-fostering set-up, our results demonstrate that birds breeding in a noisy environment experience significant fitness costs. Chronic noise is omnipresent around human habitation and may produces similar fitness consequences in a wide range of urban bird species.

  20. Important bird areas: South Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Andrew; Croxall, John P.; Poncet, Sally; Anthony R Martin; Burton, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The mountainous island of South Georgia, situated in the cold but productive waters of the Southern Ocean, is one of the world’s most important seabird islands. It is estimated that over 100 million individual seabirds are based there, and that there may have been an order of magnitude more before the introduction of rats. South Georgia has 29 species of breeding bird, and is the world’s most important breeding site for six species (Macaroni Penguin Eudyptes chrysolophus, Grey-headed Albatros...

  1. Book review: Birds of Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, N.B.

    2011-01-01

    "Wyoming may very well be one of the least birded states in the U.S." So begins this book, underscoring the challenges in summarizing existing knowledge for a state that falls next to last in human population density. Despite the relative dearth of "binoculars on the ground," especially in more remote areas of the state, the book offers a thorough compilation of relevant details. Much of this information is not readily accessible from other sources, and this book dispenses essential information in a very usable format. 

  2. The origin and early evolution of birds: discoveries, disputes, and perspectives from fossil evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhonghe

    2004-10-01

    The study of the origin and early evolution of birds has never produced as much excitement and public attention as in the past decade. Well preserved and abundant new fossils of birds and dinosaurs have provided unprecedented new evidence on the dinosaurian origin of birds, the arboreal origin of avian flight, and the origin of feathers prior to flapping flight. The Mesozoic avian assemblage mainly comprises two major lineages: the prevalent extinct group Enantiornithes, and the Ornithurae, which gave rise to all modern birds, as well as several more basal taxa. Cretaceous birds radiated into various paleoecological niches that included fish- and seed-eating. Significant size and morphological differences and variation in flight capabilities, ranging from gliding to powerful flight among early birds, highlight the diversification of birds in the Early Cretaceous. There is little evidence, however, to support a Mesozoic origin of modern avian groups. Controversy and debate, nevertheless, surround many of these findings, and more details are needed to give a better appreciation of the significance of these new discoveries.

  3. Newcastle Disease and Avian Influenza A Virus in Migratory Birds in Wetland of Boushehr-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Mehrabanpour

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Wild birds are considered to be the natural reservoir of Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV and Avian Influenza virus (AI and are often suspected to be involved in outbreaks in domesticated birds. The objective of the present study was to determine ND and AI infection in migratory birds in the south of Iran in order to detect the possible source of these viruses to domestic poultry. A total of 443 fecal specimens (fresh dropping and cloacal swabs were collected from migratory and wild resident birds in the Bushehr wetlands from October 2009 to June 2010. AI virus was isolated from 3 out of 443 samples processed for virus isolation and confirmed by reverse transcriptase chain reaction (RT-PCR. NDVs were isolated from 22 (fresh fecal samples and were identified as avian paramyxomyxovirus-1 by the results obtained from the HI test with NDV-specific antibodies and RT-PCR-method. Mortality related to NDV was reported in some chicken flocks in the south of Iran. These results, as well as other data from the literature indicate that wild birds play a minor role as a potential disseminator of NDVs and AIVS. This study is the first report of NDV and AIV isolation from migratory and resident birds in the wetlands of Boushehr-Iran. In addition, our findings support the notion that wild aquatic and migratory birds may function as a reservoir for AIV and NDV in the south of Iran.

  4. Epidemiological evidence that garden birds are a source of human salmonellosis in England and Wales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becki Lawson

    Full Text Available The importance of wild bird populations as a reservoir of zoonotic pathogens is well established. Salmonellosis is a frequently diagnosed infectious cause of mortality of garden birds in England and Wales, predominantly caused by Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium definitive phage types 40, 56(v and 160. In Britain, these phage types are considered highly host-adapted with a high degree of genetic similarity amongst isolates, and in some instances are clonal. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis, however, demonstrated minimal variation amongst matched DT40 and DT56(v isolates derived from passerine and human incidents of salmonellosis across England in 2000-2007. Also, during the period 1993-2012, similar temporal and spatial trends of infection with these S. Typhimurium phage types occurred in both the British garden bird and human populations; 1.6% of all S. Typhimurium (0.2% of all Salmonella isolates from humans in England and Wales over the period 2000-2010. These findings support the hypothesis that garden birds act as the primary reservoir of infection for these zoonotic bacteria. Most passerine salmonellosis outbreaks identified occurred at and around feeding stations, which are likely sites of public exposure to sick or dead garden birds and their faeces. We, therefore, advise the public to practise routine personal hygiene measures when feeding wild birds and especially when handling sick wild birds.

  5. Bird community comparisons of four plantations and conservation concerns in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Fasheng; Yang, Qiongfang; Lin, Yongbiao; Xu, Guoliang; Greenberg, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Plantations of non-native, fast-growing trees are increasing in the tropics and subtropics, perhaps with negative consequences for the native avifauna. We studied bird diversity in 4 types of plantations in South China to determine which plantation types are especially detrimental, and compared our findings with studies in nearby natural forests to assess the magnitude of the negative impact. A total of 57 species was recorded. The mean capture rate of understory birds was 1.7 individuals 100-net-h(-1). Bird richness and capture rate were lower in plantations than in nearby natural forests. Babblers (Timaliidae), primarily forest-dependent species in South China, were particularly under-represented in plantations. Species richness, composition and bird density, particularly of understory birds, differed between plantation types. Plantations of Schima, which is native to South China, had the highest species richness according to point count data. Plantations of Acacia (non-native) supported the highest understory species richness and produced the highest capture rate of understory birds, probably because of their complex structure and high arthropod abundance. If bird diversity is to be considered, we strongly recommend that future re-afforestation projects in South China should, as far as possible, use mixed native tree species, and especially Schima, ahead of the other species. PMID:24447665

  6. Avian Assemblages at Bird Baths: A Comparison of Urban and Rural Bird Baths in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gráinne P Cleary

    Full Text Available Private gardens provide habitat and resources for many birds living in human-dominated landscapes. While wild bird feeding is recognised as one of the most popular forms of human-wildlife interaction, almost nothing is known about the use of bird baths. This citizen science initiative explores avian assemblages at bird baths in private gardens in south-eastern Australia and how this differs with respect to levels of urbanisation and bioregion. Overall, 992 citizen scientists collected data over two, four-week survey periods during winter 2014 and summer 2015 (43% participated in both years. Avian assemblages at urban and rural bird baths differed between bioregions with aggressive nectar-eating species influenced the avian assemblages visiting urban bird baths in South Eastern Queensland, NSW North Coast and Sydney Basin while introduced birds contributed to differences in South Western Slopes, Southern Volcanic Plains and Victorian Midlands. Small honeyeaters and other small native birds occurred less often at urban bird baths compared to rural bird baths. Our results suggest that differences between urban versus rural areas, as well as bioregion, significantly influence the composition of avian assemblages visiting bird baths in private gardens. We also demonstrate that citizen science monitoring of fixed survey sites such as bird baths is a useful tool in understanding large-scale patterns in avian assemblages which requires a vast amount of data to be collected across broad areas.

  7. Bird-marking in the Netherlands. III. Recovery of marked Birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van E.D.

    1913-01-01

    In the following lines I have enumerated the recoveries of our marked birds, of which notice was given to me since my last paper on bird-marking in vol. XXXIV of this periodical. I have to tender my best thanks to all cooperators, to them who helped us in ringing birds, and especially to them in for

  8. Avian Assemblages at Bird Baths: A Comparison of Urban and Rural Bird Baths in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Gráinne P; Parsons, Holly; Davis, Adrian; Coleman, Bill R; Jones, Darryl N; Miller, Kelly K; Weston, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Private gardens provide habitat and resources for many birds living in human-dominated landscapes. While wild bird feeding is recognised as one of the most popular forms of human-wildlife interaction, almost nothing is known about the use of bird baths. This citizen science initiative explores avian assemblages at bird baths in private gardens in south-eastern Australia and how this differs with respect to levels of urbanisation and bioregion. Overall, 992 citizen scientists collected data over two, four-week survey periods during winter 2014 and summer 2015 (43% participated in both years). Avian assemblages at urban and rural bird baths differed between bioregions with aggressive nectar-eating species influenced the avian assemblages visiting urban bird baths in South Eastern Queensland, NSW North Coast and Sydney Basin while introduced birds contributed to differences in South Western Slopes, Southern Volcanic Plains and Victorian Midlands. Small honeyeaters and other small native birds occurred less often at urban bird baths compared to rural bird baths. Our results suggest that differences between urban versus rural areas, as well as bioregion, significantly influence the composition of avian assemblages visiting bird baths in private gardens. We also demonstrate that citizen science monitoring of fixed survey sites such as bird baths is a useful tool in understanding large-scale patterns in avian assemblages which requires a vast amount of data to be collected across broad areas. PMID:26962857

  9. 75 FR 3888 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... Register on November 20, 2009 (74 FR 60228), to propose migratory bird subsistence harvest regulations in... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 92 RIN 1018-AW67 Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska During the 2010 Season AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife...

  10. Mirror image hydrocarbons from Tropical and Boreal forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Williams

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Monoterpenes, emitted in large quantities by trees to attract pollinators and repel herbivores, can exist in mirror image forms called enantiomers. In this study such enantiomeric pairs have been measured in ambient air over extensive forest ecosystems in South America and northern Europe. For the dominant monoterpene, α-pinene, the (−-form was measured in large excess over the (+-form over the Tropical rainforest, whereas the reverse was observed over the Boreal forest. Interestingly, over the Tropical forest (−-α-pinene did not correlate with its own enantiomer, but correlated well with isoprene. The results indicate a remarkable ecosystem scale enantiomeric fingerprint and a nexus between the biosphere and atmosphere.

  11. Nitrogen balance of a boreal Scots pine forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. J. Korhonen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The productivity of boreal forests is considered to be limited by low nitrogen (N availability. Increased atmospheric N deposition has altered the functioning and N cycling of these N-sensitive ecosystems by increasing the availability of reactive nitrogen. The most important components of N pools and fluxes were measured in a boreal Scots pine stand in Hyytiälä, Southern Finland. The measurements at the site allowed direct estimations of nutrient pools in the soil and biomass, inputs from the atmosphere and outputs as drainage flow and gaseous losses from two micro-catchments. N was accumulating in the system, mainly in woody biomass, at a rate of 7 kg N ha−1 yr−1. Nitrogen input as atmospheric deposition was 7.4 kg N ha−1 yr−1. Dry deposition and organic N in wet deposition contributed over half of the inputs in deposition. Total outputs were 0.4 kg N ha−1 yr−1, the most important outputs being N2O emission to the atmosphere and organic N flux in drainage flow. Nitrogen uptake and retranslocation were equally important sources of N for plant growth. Most of the assimilated N originated from decomposition of organic matter, and the fraction of N that could originate directly from deposition was about 30%. In conclusion, atmospheric N deposition fertilizes the site considerably, but there are no signs of N saturation. Further research is needed to estimate soil N2 fluxes (emission and fixation, which may amount up to several kg N ha−1 yr−1.

  12. Carbonaceous aerosols from prescribed burning of a boreal forest ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazurek, M.A. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Cofer, W.R. III; Levine, J.S. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA (United States). Langley Research Center)

    1990-10-01

    The identity and ambient mass concentrations of radiatively important carbonaceous aerosols were measured for a boreal forest prescribed burn conducted in northern Ontario, CAN in August 1989. Nonsize-segregated airborne particles were collected for smoldering-fire and full-fire conditions using a helicopter sampling platform. Total carbon (TC), organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) were measured. Smoke plume mass concentrations of the OC and EC particles were greatest for full-fire conditions and had ranges of 1.560 to 2.160 mg/m{sup {minus}1} (OC) and 0.120 to 0.160 mg/m{sup {minus}3} (EC) with OC:EC ratios of 10 to 18, respectively. Smoldering fire conditions showed smoke plume OC and EC levels of 0.570--1.030 mg/m{sup {minus}3} (OC) and 0.006--0.050 mg/m{sup {minus}3} (EC) and much higher ratios of OC:EC (21 to 95). These aerosol data indicate the formation of EC particles is greatest during full-fire combustion of boreal forest material relative to smoldering combustion. However, EC particles comprise a minor fraction of the particulate carbon smoke aerosols for both full-fire and smoldering conditions; the major component of carbonaceous smoke aerosols emitted during the prescribed burn is OC. Overall, the OC and EC in-plume smoke aerosol data show nonuniform production of these particles during various stages of the prescribed burn, and major differences in the type of carbonaceous aerosol that is generated (OC versus EC).

  13. Decadal change in the boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaura, Tsuyoshi; Kajikawa, Yoshiyuki

    2016-06-01

    A decadal change in activity of the boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation (BSISO) was identified at a broad scale. The change was more prominent during August-October in the boreal summer. The BSISO activity during 1999-2008 (P2) was significantly greater than that during 1984-1998 (P1). Compared to P1, convection in the BSISO was enhanced and the phase speed of northward-propagating convection was reduced in P2. Under background conditions, warm sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in P2 were apparent over the tropical Indian Ocean and the western tropical Pacific. The former supplied favorable conditions for the active convection of the BSISO, whereas the latter led to a strengthened Walker circulation through enhanced convection. This induced descending anomalies over the tropical Indian Ocean. Thermal convection tends to be suppressed by descending anomalies, whereas once an active BSISO signal enters the Indian Ocean, convection is enhanced through convective instability by positive SST anomalies. After P2, the BSISO activity was weakened during 2009-2014 (P3). Compared to P2, convective activity in the BSISO tended to be inactive over the southern tropical Indian Ocean in P3. The phase speed of the northward-propagating convection was accelerated. Under background conditions during P3, warmer SST anomalies over the maritime continent enhance convection, which strengthened the local Hadley circulation between the western tropical Pacific and the southern tropical Indian Ocean. Hence, the convection in the BSISO over the southern tropical Indian Ocean was suppressed. The decadal change in BSISO activity correlates with the variability in seasonal mean SST over the tropical Asian monsoon region, which suggests that it is possible to predict the decadal change.

  14. Forest productivity decline caused by successional paludification of boreal soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, Martin; Lecomte, Nicolas; Bergeron, Yves; Bernier, Pierre Y; Paré, David

    2007-09-01

    Long-term forest productivity decline in boreal forests has been extensively studied in the last decades, yet its causes are still unclear. Soil conditions associated with soil organic matter accumulation are thought to be responsible for site productivity decline. The objectives of this study were to determine if paludification of boreal soils resulted in reduced forest productivity, and to identify changes in the physical and chemical properties of soils associated with reduction in productivity. We used a chronosequence of 23 black spruce stands ranging in postfire age from 50 to 2350 years and calculated three different stand productivity indices, including site index. We assessed changes in forest productivity with time using two complementary approaches: (1) by comparing productivity among the chronosequence stands and (2) by comparing the productivity of successive cohorts of trees within the same stands to determine the influence of time independently of other site factors. Charcoal stratigraphy indicates that the forest stands differ in their fire history and originated either from high- or low-severity soil burns. Both chronosequence and cohort approaches demonstrate declines in black spruce productivity of 50-80% with increased paludification, particularly during the first centuries after fire. Paludification alters bryophyte abundance and succession, increases soil moisture, reduces soil temperature and nutrient availability, and alters the vertical distribution of roots. Low-severity soil burns significantly accelerate rates of paludification and productivity decline compared with high-severity fires and ultimately reduce nutrient content in black spruce needles. The two combined approaches indicate that paludification can be driven by forest succession only, independently of site factors such as position on slope. This successional paludification contrasts with edaphic paludification, where topography and drainage primarily control the extent and rate

  15. Methane dynamics in different boreal ewline lake types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Juutinen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the variability in concentrations of dissolved CH4 and annual flux estimates in the pelagic zone in a statistically defined sample of 207 lakes in Finland. The lakes were situated representatively in the boreal zone, where the mean annual air temperature ranges from −2.8 to 5.9°C. We examined how lake CH4 dynamics related to regional lake types assessed according to the EU water framework directive. Ten lake types were defined on the basis of water chemistry, color, and size. Lakes were sampled for dissolved CH4 concentrations four times per year, at four different depths at the deepest point of each lake. We found that CH4 concentrations and fluxes to the atmosphere tended to be high in nutrient rich calcareous lakes, and that the shallow lakes had the greatest surface water concentrations. CH4 content in the hypolimnion was related to oxygen and nutrient concentrations, and lake depth or area. The surface water CH4 concentration was related to the depth or area of lake. Methane close to the bottom can be viewed as proxy of lake status in terms of frequency of anoxia and nutrient levels. Median CH4 release from randomly selected lakes was 45 mmol m−2 a−1. Shallow lakes had the highest median CH4 effluxes, with the clear shallow lake type having the smallest median. Our data, combined with other studies, suggest that lake surface area could be used for an approximation of CH4 release from lakes. Shallow small lakes common in boreal and arctic landscapes may have disproportional significance with respect to CH4 release.

  16. Carbonaceous aerosols from prescribed burning of a boreal forest ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The identity and ambient mass concentrations of radiatively important carbonaceous aerosols were measured for a boreal forest prescribed burn conducted in northern Ontario, CAN in August 1989. Nonsize-segregated airborne particles were collected for smoldering-fire and full-fire conditions using a helicopter sampling platform. Total carbon (TC), organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) were measured. Smoke plume mass concentrations of the OC and EC particles were greatest for full-fire conditions and had ranges of 1.560 to 2.160 mg/m-1 (OC) and 0.120 to 0.160 mg/m-3 (EC) with OC:EC ratios of 10 to 18, respectively. Smoldering fire conditions showed smoke plume OC and EC levels of 0.570--1.030 mg/m-3 (OC) and 0.006--0.050 mg/m-3 (EC) and much higher ratios of OC:EC (21 to 95). These aerosol data indicate the formation of EC particles is greatest during full-fire combustion of boreal forest material relative to smoldering combustion. However, EC particles comprise a minor fraction of the particulate carbon smoke aerosols for both full-fire and smoldering conditions; the major component of carbonaceous smoke aerosols emitted during the prescribed burn is OC. Overall, the OC and EC in-plume smoke aerosol data show nonuniform production of these particles during various stages of the prescribed burn, and major differences in the type of carbonaceous aerosol that is generated (OC versus EC)

  17. THE BIODIVERSITY AT SANDI BIRD SANCTUARY, HARDOI WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO MIGRATORY BIRDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Indian subcontinent plays host to a number of migratory birds in summers as well as winters. It is estimated that over hundred species of migratory birds fly to India, either in search of feeding grounds or to escape the severe winter of their native habitat. Sandi bird sanctuary was created in 1990 in order to protect and conserve the natural habitation and surroundings and also the marine vegetation for the migratory birds, as well as for the local people of the region. The term migration is used to describe movements of populations of birds or other animals. There are three types of migrants. One way to look at migration is to consider the distances traveled. The pattern of migration can vary within each category, but is most variable in short and medium distance migrants. The origin of migration is related to the distance traveled. The birds migrating through the area, take shelter on the river front before going to the Sandi Bird sanctuary. The birds generally migrate in the winter months of October-November-December. Bird sanctuary is a popular tourist location. Sandi particularly attracts ornithologists and bird watchers, as many rare migratory birds take refuge in the sanctuary. The bird watching camps arranged to observe the migratory birds at Sandi Bird Sanctuary in the month of October and November 2012. The migratory birds at Sandi Bird Sanctuary include great crested grebe, white storks, black lbis, glossy lbis, spoonbill, ruddy shelduck, pin tail, sholveller, spot bill duck, mallard, gadwall, wigeon, tufted pochard, gargancey teal, common teal, cotton teal, grey lag goose, coot, black tailed godwit, painted stock pin tail snipe, marsh sand piper, common tern, river tern, magpie robin, white wagtail, pied wagtail, common snipe, starlings, white lbis, red crested pochard, common pochard, painted stock, black lbis, curlew, Indian skimmer etc. The resident birds at Sandi Bird Sanctuary include little grebe, darter, purple heron, grey

  18. Comparative study of bird communities in green areas of the Porto Alegre metropolitan region, South of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Fischer Barcellos dos Santos

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Our goal was to compare the bird richness and composition among different urban green areas in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre. Data on the composition of species in 14 green areas were collected from the literature. Similarity analysis (Jaccard’s was used to compare the areas in relation to bird composition. We used multiple regression analysis in addition to the stepwise method in order to establish whether bird richness in the urban green areas was influenced by the following factors: dimension, variety of habitats, area and distance of the nearest neighbor. Our data compilation registered 224 bird species in the consulted areas. Jaccard’s analysis showed that larger green areas are more similar in their composition of bird species than smaller ones. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated positive correlations between bird richness and the analyzed factors (except for distance between areas. We concluded that, despite the importance of small green areas to certain bird species, larger ones with higher habitat heterogeneity are able to support significant bird richness, and that these areas are important to the maintenance of many bird species in urban areas.

  19. Differences in fire regimes and fire-climate feedbacks in North American and Eurasian boreal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, B. M.; Randerson, J. T.; Soja, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    Boreal forests contribute 9% of current annual fire emissions and contain nearly 40% of the world's terrestrial carbon stocks. Temperatures are projected to increase by the greatest magnitudes in high latitudes and lead to increased frequencies of forest fires. However, because of variations in climate and species-driven forest structure, fire regimes of North American and Eurasian boreal forests are distinctly different. These differences are generally not accounted for in global models. We quantified variations in fire and burn severity between the two continents using MODIS fire radiative power, differenced Normalized Burn Ratio, and spring albedo. These metrics suggest that Eurasian boreal fires are on average less than half as severe as those in North America. We examine how boreal forest fires may respond to 21st century climate change using the Community Land Model, and consider how these regimes may feed back to climate through fire-emitted aerosols, greenhouse gas fluxes, and land surface characteristics.

  20. Differentiating moss from higher plants is critical in studying the carbon cycle of the boreal biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wenping; Liu, Shuguang; Dong, Wenjie; Liang, Shunlin; Zhao, Shuqing; Chen, Jingming; Xu, Wenfang; Li, Xianglan; Barr, Alan; Andrew Black, T; Yan, Wende; Goulden, Mike L; Kulmala, Liisa; Lindroth, Anders; Margolis, Hank A; Matsuura, Yojiro; Moors, Eddy; van der Molen, Michiel; Ohta, Takeshi; Pilegaard, Kim; Varlagin, Andrej; Vesala, Timo

    2014-01-01

    The satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), which is used for estimating gross primary production (GPP), often includes contributions from both mosses and vascular plants in boreal ecosystems. For the same NDVI, moss can generate only about one-third of the GPP that vascular plants can because of its much lower photosynthetic capacity. Here, based on eddy covariance measurements, we show that the difference in photosynthetic capacity between these two plant functional types has never been explicitly included when estimating regional GPP in the boreal region, resulting in a substantial overestimation. The magnitude of this overestimation could have important implications regarding a change from a current carbon sink to a carbon source in the boreal region. Moss abundance, associated with ecosystem disturbances, needs to be mapped and incorporated into GPP estimates in order to adequately assess the role of the boreal region in the global carbon cycle. PMID:24967601

  1. Assessment of bird response to the Migratory Bird Habitat Initiative using weather-surveillance radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieges, Mason L.; Smolinsky, Jaclyn A.; Baldwin, Michael J.; Barrow, Wylie C.; Randall, Lori A.; Buler, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    In response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in spring 2010, the Natural Resources Conservation Service implemented the Migratory Bird Habitat Initiative (MBHI) to provide temporary wetland habitat for migrating and wintering waterfowl, shorebirds, and other birds along the northern Gulf of Mexico via managed flooding of agricultural lands. We used weather-surveillance radar to conduct broad regional assessments of bird response to MBHI activities within the Mississippi Alluvial Valley and the West Gulf Coastal Plain. Across both regions, birds responded positively to MBHI management by exhibiting greater relative bird densities within sites relative to pre-management conditions in prior years and relative to surrounding non-flooded agricultural lands. Bird density at MBHI sites was generally greatest during winter for both regions. Unusually high flooding in the years prior to implementation of the MBHI confounded detection of overall changes in remotely sensed soil wetness across sites. The magnitude of bird response at MBHI sites compared to prior years and to non-flooded agricultural lands was generally related to the surrounding landscape context: proximity to areas of high bird density, amount of forested wetlands, emergent marsh, non-flooded agriculture, or permanent open water. However, these relationships varied in strength and direction between regions and seasons, a finding which we attribute to differences in seasonal bird composition and broad regional differences in landscape configuration and composition. We detected greater increases in relative bird use at sites in closer proximity to areas of high bird density during winter in both regions. Additionally, bird density was greater during winter at sites with more emergent marsh in the surrounding landscape. Thus, bird use of managed wetlands could be maximized by enrolling lands located near areas of known bird concentration and within a mosaic of existing wetlands. Weather-radar observations

  2. A global analysis of the impacts of urbanization on bird and plant diversity reveals key anthropogenic drivers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aronson, M. F. J.; La Sorte, F. A.; Nilon, C. H.; Katti, M.; Goddard, M. A.; Lepczyk, C. A.; Warren, P. S.; Williams, N. S. G.; Cilliers, S.; Clarkson, B.; Dobbs, C.; Dolan, R.; Hedblom, M.; Klotz, S.; Kooijmans, J. L.; Kühn, I.; MacGregor-Fors, I.; McDonell, M.; Mörtberg, U.; Pyšek, Petr; Siebert, S.; Sushinsky, J.; Werner, P.; Winter, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 281, č. 1780 (2014), s. 1-8, no.20133330. ISSN 0962-8452 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : urbanization * plants * birds Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 5.051, year: 2014

  3. The effect of altered macroclimate on N-fixation by boreal feather mosses

    OpenAIRE

    Gundale, Michael J.; Wardle, David A.; Nilsson, Marie-Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Plant productivity is predicted to increase in boreal forests owing to climate change, but this may depend on whether N inputs from biological N-fixation also increases. We evaluated how alteration of climatic factors affects N input from a widespread boreal N-fixer, i.e. cyanobacteria associated with the feather moss Pleurozium schreberi. In each of 10 forest stands in northern Sweden, we established climate-change plots, including a control (ambient climate) plot and three plots experiencin...

  4. Modeling the effects of organic nitrogen uptake by plants on the carbon cycling of boreal ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Zhu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Boreal forest and tundra are the major ecosystems in the northern high latitudes in which a large amount of carbon is stored. These ecosystems are nitrogen-limited due to slow mineralization rate of the soil organic nitrogen. Recently, abundant field studies have found that organic nitrogen is another important nitrogen supply for boreal ecosystems. In this study, we incorporated a mechanism that allowed boreal plants to uptake small molecular amino acids into a process-based biogeochemical model, the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM, to evaluate the impact of organic nitrogen uptake on ecosystem carbon cycling. The new version of the model was evaluated at both boreal forest and tundra sites. We found that the modeled organic nitrogen uptake accounted for 36–87% of total nitrogen uptake by plants in tundra ecosystems and 26–50% for boreal forests, suggesting that tundra ecosystem might have more relied on the organic form of nitrogen than boreal forests. The simulated monthly gross ecosystem production (GPP and net ecosystem production (NEP tended to be larger with the new version of the model since the plant uptake of organic nitrogen alleviated the soil nitrogen limitation especially during the growing season. The sensitivity study indicated that the most important factors controlling the plant uptake of organic nitrogen were the maximum root uptake rate (Imax and the radius of the root (r0 in our model. The model uncertainty due to uncertain parameters associated with organic nitrogen uptake at tundra ecosystem was larger than at boreal forest ecosystems. This study suggests that considering the organic nitrogen uptake by plants is important to boreal ecosystem carbon modeling.

  5. Conceptualization of sustainable boreal forests development in present-day economics.

    OpenAIRE

    Zhideleva, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    In research of boreal forests conservation and sustainable development mechanism in the climate changes conditions the main aspect is a study of various natural forces and the society, interests of different segments of population, conditions and productivity of forest ecosystems, threats removal dealing with growing of new forest making tree species and spruce stands drying and their interference. To achieve and protect sustainable development of boreal forests there is a need to arrange mon...

  6. The influence of boreal forest fires on the global distribution of non-methane hydrocarbons

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, A. C.; Evans, M J; J. R. Hopkins; S. Punjabi; Read, K A; Andrews, S; Moller, S. J.; Carpenter, L. J.; J. D. Lee; A. R. Rickard; Palmer, P. I.; M. Parrington

    2012-01-01

    Boreal forest fires are a significant source of chemicals to the atmosphere including numerous non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs). We report airborne measurements of NMHCs, acetone and methanol from > 500 whole air samples collected over Eastern Canada, including interception of several different boreal biomass burning plumes. From these and concurrent measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) we derive fire emission ratios for 29 different species relative to the emission of CO. These range from...

  7. The role of colloidal matter in transfer of chemical elements in the boreal zone (European Russia)

    OpenAIRE

    Ilina, Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to study element speciation and migration in the boreal environments (Karelia and Central Russia). Specific goals were to i) characterize the molecular weight distribution of trace elements and organic matter (OM) in various types of natural waters, ii) reveal the TE colloidal forms dependence in the continuum soil solution - bog - stream - feeding and terminal lakes in the surface waters of boreal watersheds, and iii) quantify the dependence of stable and rad...

  8. Traditional use of medicinal plants in the boreal forest of Canada: review and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Uprety Yadav; Asselin Hugo; Dhakal Archana; Julien Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The boreal forest of Canada is home to several hundred thousands Aboriginal people who have been using medicinal plants in traditional health care systems for thousands of years. This knowledge, transmitted by oral tradition from generation to generation, has been eroding in recent decades due to rapid cultural change. Until now, published reviews about traditional uses of medicinal plants in boreal Canada have focused either on particular Aboriginal groups or on restricte...

  9. Annual cycle of volatile organic compound exchange between a boreal pine forest and the atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Rantala, P.; Aalto, J; Taipale, R.; T. M. Ruuskanen; J. Rinne

    2015-01-01

    Long-term flux measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOC) over boreal forests are rare, although the forests are known to emit considerable amounts of VOCs into the atmosphere. Thus, we measured fluxes of several VOCs and oxygenated VOCs over a Scots-pine-dominated boreal forest semi-continuously between May 2010 and December 2013. The VOC profiles were obtained with a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, and the fluxes were calculated using vertical concentrati...

  10. Annual cycle of volatile organic compound exchange between a boreal pine forest and the atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Rantala, P.; Aalto, J; Taipale, R.; T. M. Ruuskanen; J. Rinne

    2015-01-01

    Long-term flux measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOC) over boreal forests are rare, although the forests are known to emit considerable amounts of VOCs into the atmosphere. Thus, we measured fluxes of several VOCs and oxygenated VOCs over a Scots pine dominated boreal forest semi-continuously between May 2010 and December 2013. The VOC profiles were obtained with a proton-transfer-reaction mass-spectrometry, and the fluxes were calculated using vertical concentrati...

  11. Modeling physical and biogeochemical controls over carbon accumulation in a boreal forest soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, J.J.; Neff, J.C.; Harden, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    Boreal soils are important to the global C cycle owing to large C stocks, repeated disturbance from fire, and the potential for permafrost thaw to expose previously stable, buried C. To evaluate the primary mechanisms responsible for both short- and long-term C accumulation in boreal soils, we developed a multi-isotope (12,14C) Soil C model with dynamic soil layers that develop through time as soil organic matter burns and reaccumulates. We then evaluated the mechanisms that control organic matter turnover in boreal regions including carbon input rates, substrate recalcitrance, soil moisture and temperature, and the presence of historical permafrost to assess the importance of these factors in boreal C accumulation. Results indicate that total C accumulation is controlled by the rate of carbon input, decomposition rates, and the presence of historical permafrost. However, unlike more temperate ecosystems, one of the key mechanisms involved in C preservation in boreal soils examined here is the cooling of subsurface soil layers as soil depth increases rather than increasing recalcitrance in subsurface soils. The propagation of the 14C bomb spike into soils also illustrates the importance of historical permafrost and twentieth century warming in contemporary boreal soil respiration fluxes. Both 14C and total C simulation data also strongly suggest that boreal SOM need not be recalcitrant to accumulate; the strong role of soil temperature controls on boreal C accumulation at our modeling test site in Manitoba, Canada, indicates that carbon in the deep organic soil horizons is probably relatively labile and thus subject to perturbations that result from changing climatic conditions in the future. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. Breeding Bird Survey and bird banding data: Applications to raptor research and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, J.R.; Droege, S.; Bystrak, D.

    1991-01-01

    The Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) and Bird Banding Laboratory (BBL) are sources of information for raptor biologists. The BBS has been conducted each year since 1966 in the United States and Canada; historical bird banding records extend back to the early 20th century. BBS data can be used to document population trends and breeding distributions of many bird species. Banding data are generally collected for specific and local studies of bird populations or behavior. Past use of these data has been limited by their volume and relative inaccessibility. In this paper, we present an overview of BBS and BBL raptor data and their uses, limitations and availability.

  13. Fire severity influences the response of soil microbes to a boreal forest fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Sandra R.; Rogers, Brendan M.; Treseder, Kathleen K.; Randerson, James T.

    2016-03-01

    Wildfire activity is projected to increase in boreal forests as a result of climate warming. The consequences of increased wildfire activity for soil carbon (C) storage in boreal forests may depend on the sensitivity of soil microbes to fire severity, but microbial responses to boreal forest fire severity are not well known. Here, we combine remote sensing of fire severity and field sampling to characterize the response of soil microbial biomass per g soil, microbial respiration of CO2 per g soil, and fungal groups to fire severity in a boreal forest ecosystem. We used remote sensing measurements of differenced normalized burn ratio from Landsat as a measure of fire severity. Our results demonstrate that fire severity controls soil microbial responses to boreal forest fires. In comparison to unburned stands, burned stands had a 52% and 56% reduction in soil microbial biomass and basal respiration, respectively. Within burned stands, we found that microbial biomass and basal respiration significantly declined with increasing fire severity. In addition, mycorrhizal taxa and basidiomycetes displayed particularly low tolerances for severe fire. Although wildfires result in the immediate loss of soil C, our study provides evidence that decreases in microbial biomass and respiration following high severity fires may reduce the capacity of the soil microbial community to decompose soil C over longer time scales. Therefore, models of C cycle responses to climate warming may need to represent the sensitivity of microbial biomass and fungal community composition to fire severity in boreal forests.

  14. Examining mechanisms in the final stages of the elimination of boreal tree species on vulnerable sites in boreal Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juday, G. P.; Jess, R.; Alix, C. M.; Verbyla, D.

    2015-12-01

    The boreal forest of Alaska and western Canada exist in a complex mosaic of environments determined by elevation, aspect of exposure, and longitudinal and latitudinal gradients of change from warm, dry continental to maritime-influenced conditions. This forest region is largely made up of trees with two growth responses to temperature increases. Trees that decrease in growth are termed negative responders, and occupy warm, dry sites at low elevations. Trees that increase in radial growth are termed positive responders, and are largely in western Alaska, and at high elevation of the Brooks and Alaska Ranges. Since the Pacific climate regime shift of the 1970s, mature trees at low elevation sites have experienced increasing climate stress in several quasi-decadal cycles of intensifying drought stress. NDVI trends and tree ring records demonstrating radial growth decline are coherent. Phenological monitoring of spruce height growth also indicates that depletion of spring soil moisture is a critical process driven by the interaction of early warm season temperatures and precipitation. Novel biotic disturbance agents including spruce budworm, outbreaks of which are triggered by warm temperature anomalies related to its biology, and aspen leaf miner are depressing realized growth below climatically predicted levels, suggesting a pathway by which tree death is likely to occur before absolute temperature limits. As a result, insect outbreaks are degrading the otherwise strong long-term climate signal in Alaska boreal trees. However, young tree (> 40 yrs.) regeneration generally does not yet display the symptoms of acute high temperature stress. Overall, on these vulnerable sites, if temperature increases similar to the past 40 years continue, long term survival prospects are questionable because the climate conditions would be outside the limits that have historically defined the species ranges of aspen, Alaska birch, and black and white spruce.

  15. Two Good Places for Bird Lovers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    In the middle and lower reaches of the YangtzRiver,Poyang Lake and Dongting Lake are the towbiggest freshwater lakes in China and are also two ofthe most famous bird reserves in the country.Themagnificent scene of the large number of migrantbirds that fly over every winter is attracting more andmore bird lovers.

  16. Accurate Segmentation for Infrared Flying Bird Tracking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Hong; HUANG Ying; LING Haibin; ZOU Qi; YANG Hao

    2016-01-01

    Bird strikes present a huge risk for air ve-hicles, especially since traditional airport bird surveillance is mainly dependent on inefficient human observation. For improving the effectiveness and efficiency of bird monitor-ing, computer vision techniques have been proposed to detect birds, determine bird flying trajectories, and pre-dict aircraft takeoff delays. Flying bird with a huge de-formation causes a great challenge to current tracking al-gorithms. We propose a segmentation based approach to enable tracking can adapt to the varying shape of bird. The approach works by segmenting object at a region of inter-est, where is determined by the object localization method and heuristic edge information. The segmentation is per-formed by Markov random field, which is trained by fore-ground and background mixture Gaussian models. Exper-iments demonstrate that the proposed approach provides the ability to handle large deformations and outperforms the m ost state-of-the-art tracker in the infrared flying bird tracking problem.

  17. X-ray diagnosis in birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author describes techniques of X- ray examination in birds and the advantages of using contrast medium. He gives the medical indications of such examinations and lists the main anatomical features to be well known in birds for a better interpretation of X-ray pictures

  18. Ability of Slovakian Pupils to Identify Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Pavol; Rodak, Rastislav

    2009-01-01

    A pupil's ability to identify common organisms is necessary for acquiring further knowledge of biology. We investigated how pupils were able to identify 25 bird species following their song, growth habits, or both features presented simultaneously. Just about 19% of birds were successfully identified by song, about 39% by growth habit, and 45% of…

  19. Pheromones in birds: myth or reality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caro, S.P.; Balthazart, J.

    2010-01-01

    Birds are anosmic or at best microsmatic… This misbelief persisted until very recently and has strongly influenced the outcome of communication studies in birds, with olfaction remaining neglected as compared to acoustic and visual channels. However, there is now clear empirical evidence showing tha

  20. 14 CFR 35.36 - Bird impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bird impact. 35.36 Section 35.36... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.36 Bird impact. The applicant must demonstrate, by tests or analysis based on tests or experience on similar designs, that the propeller can withstand the impact of...

  1. Transmission of influenza reflects seasonality of wild birds across the annual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Nichola J; Ma, Eric J; Meixell, Brandt W; Lindberg, Mark S; Boyce, Walter M; Runstadler, Jonathan A

    2016-08-01

    Influenza A Viruses (IAV) in nature must overcome shifting transmission barriers caused by the mobility of their primary host, migratory wild birds, that change throughout the annual cycle. Using a phylogenetic network of viral sequences from North American wild birds (2008-2011) we demonstrate a shift from intraspecific to interspecific transmission that along with reassortment, allows IAV to achieve viral flow across successive seasons from summer to winter. Our study supports amplification of IAV during summer breeding seeded by overwintering virus persisting locally and virus introduced from a wide range of latitudes. As birds migrate from breeding sites to lower latitudes, they become involved in transmission networks with greater connectivity to other bird species, with interspecies transmission of reassortant viruses peaking during the winter. We propose that switching transmission dynamics may be a critical strategy for pathogens that infect mobile hosts inhabiting regions with strong seasonality. PMID:27324078

  2. Bird feeders and their effects on bird-window collisions at residential houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine A. Kummer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Feeding wild birds creates an important link between homeowners and conservation. The effects of bird feeders and year-round feeding on birds have not been well studied, however, particularly in relationship to bird-window collisions. We determined effects of bird feeder presence and placement on bird-window collisions at residential homes. Paired month-long trials in which a feeder was either present or absent for one month and then removed or added for the second month were completed at 55 windows at 43 houses. In each trial, homeowners were asked to search their study window daily for evidence of a bird-window collision. During the study there were 51 collisions when there was no bird feeder and 94 when the feeder was present. The season when each trial was set up was the best individual predictor of bird-window collisions. The largest number of collisions was observed during fall migration and the lowest during the winter months. There were no collisions at 26 of the study windows. High variance was observed in the number of collisions at different houses, indicating that effects of bird feeders are context dependent. Changing the occurrence, timing, and placement of feeders can alter collision rates but is only one of many factors that influence whether a residential house is likely to have a bird window-collision or not.

  3. Boreal forest riparian zones regulate stream sulfate and dissolved organic carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, José L J; Futter, Martyn N; Laudon, Hjalmar; Evans, Christopher D; Köhler, Stephan J

    2016-08-01

    In boreal forest catchments, solute transfer to streams is controlled by hydrological and biogeochemical processes occurring in the riparian zone (RZ). However, RZs are spatially heterogeneous and information about solute chemistry is typically limited. This is problematic when making inferences about stream chemistry. Hypothetically, the strength of links between riparian and stream chemistry is time-scale dependent. Using a ten-year (2003-2012) dataset from a northern Swedish catchment, we evaluated the suitability of RZ data to infer stream dynamics at different time scales. We focus on the role of the RZ versus upslope soils in controlling sulfate (SO4(2)(-)) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). A priori, declines in acid deposition and redox-mediated SO4(2)(-) pulses control sulfur (S) fluxes and pool dynamics, which in turn affect dissolved organic carbon (DOC). We found that the catchment is currently a net source of S, presumably due to release of the S pool accumulated during the acidification period. In both, RZ and stream, SO4(2-) concentrations are declining over time, whereas DOC is increasing. No temporal trends in SO4(2-) and DOC were observed in upslope mineral soils. SO4(2-) explained the variation of DOC in stream and RZ, but not in upslope mineral soil. Moreover, as SO4(2-) decreased with time, temporal variability of DOC increased. These observations indicate that: (1) SO4(2-) is still an important driver of DOC trends in boreal catchments and (2) RZ processes control stream SO4(2-) and subsequently DOC independently of upslope soils. These phenomena are likely occurring in many regions recovering from acidification. Because water flows through a heterogeneous mosaic of RZs before entering the stream, upscaling information from limited RZ data to the catchment level is problematic at short-time scales. However, for long-term trends and annual dynamics, the same data can provide reasonable representations of riparian processes and support

  4. Determination of the biogenic secondary organic aerosol fraction in the boreal forest by NMR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Finessi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the sources of fine organic aerosol (OA in the boreal forest, based on measurements including both filter sampling (PM1 and online methods and carried out during a one-month campaign held in Hyytiälä, Finland, in spring 2007. Two aerosol mass spectrometers (Q-AMS, ToF-AMS were employed to measure on-line concentrations of major non-refractory aerosol species, while the water extracts of the filter samples were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy for organic functional group characterization of the polar organic fraction of the aerosol. AMS and NMR spectra were processed separately by non-negative factorization algorithms, in order to apportion the main components underlying the submicrometer organic aerosol composition and depict them in terms of both mass fragmentation patterns and functional group compositions.

    The NMR results supported the AMS speciation of oxidized organic aerosol (OOA into two main fractions, which could be generally labelled as more and less oxidized organics. The more oxidized component was characterized by a mass spectrum dominated by the m/z 44 peak, and in parallel by a NMR spectrum showing aromatic and aliphatic backbones highly substituted with oxygenated functional groups (carbonyls/carboxyls and hydroxyls. Such component, contributing on average 50% of the OA mass throughout the observing period, was associated with pollution outbreaks from the Central Europe. The less oxidized component was enhanced in concomitance with air masses originating from the North-to-West sector, in agreement with previous investigations conducted at this site. NMR factor analysis was able to separate two distinct components under the less oxidized fraction of OA. One of these NMR-factors was associated with the formation of terrestrial biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA, based on the comparison with spectral profiles obtained from laboratory experiments of

  5. Interannual variability of Antarctic Oscillation and its influence on East Asian climate during boreal winter and spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN; Ke; WANG; Huijun

    2006-01-01

    The interannual variability of Antarctic Oscillation (AAO) and its influence on East Asian climate during both boreal winter and spring are addressed. The results show that the positive AAO anomaly decreases the cold activity over East Asia during both boreal winter and spring. AAO-related barotropic meridional teleconnection from Antarctic to Arctic is found through analysis of mean meridional circulations. This meridional teleconnection is remarkable over Eurasia during boreal winter and over the Pacific Ocean during boreal spring. The results also show that zonal mean zonal wind at high latitudes in Southern Hemisphere has well positive correlation with that of Eurasia during boreal winter and has negative correlation with Pacific North American teleconnection (PNA) during boreal spring, which again display the meridional teleconnection. Thus, local meridional teleconnection is a possible linkage for interaction of circulations at mid-high latitudes between both hemispheres.

  6. Ionizing radiation and wild birds: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the first atomic explosion, 16 July 1945 at the Trinity Site in south-central New Mexico, the impact of ionizing radiation on bird populations has been of concern to a few individuals. The proliferation of nuclear power plants has increased public concern as to possible deleterious effects of nuclear power plant operation on resident and migratory bird populations. Literature involving wild birds and ionizing radiation is not readily available, and only a few studies have been anywhere near comprehensive, with most effort directed towards monitoring radionuclide concentration in birds. The objective of the paper is to document the literature on wild birds and ionizing radiation including a brief description of pertinent papers

  7. Varying boreal forest response to Arctic environmental change at the Firth River, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The response of boreal forests to anthropogenic climate change remains uncertain, with potentially significant impacts for the global carbon cycle, albedo, canopy evapotranspiration and feedbacks into further climate change. Here, we focus on tree-ring data from the Firth River site at treeline in northeastern Alaska, in a tundra–forest transition region where pronounced warming has already occurred. Both tree-ring width (TRW) and maximum latewood density (MXD) chronologies were developed to identify the nature of tree growth and density responses to climatic and environmental changes in white spruce (Picea glauca), a dominant Arctic treeline species. Good agreement was found between the interannual fluctuations in the TRW chronology and summer temperatures from 1901 to 1950, whereas no significant relationships were found from 1951 to 2001, supporting evidence of significant divergence between TRW and summer temperature in the second half of the 20th century. In contrast to this unstable climatic response in the TRW record, the high frequency July–August temperature signal in the MXD series seems reasonably stable through the 20th century. Wider and denser rings were more frequent during the 20th century, particularly after 1950, than in previous centuries. Finally, comparison between the tree-ring proxies and a satellite-derived vegetation index suggests that TRW and MXD correlate with vegetation productivity at the landscape level at different times of the growing season.

  8. Vulnerability of the boreal forest to climate change: are managed forests more susceptible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper postulates that forests dominated by younger seral stages are less vulnerable to climate change that those composed of mature and overmature stands. To support this analysis, an overview of expected changes in climate conditions was provided. Expected changes include higher maximum temperatures, higher minimum temperatures and a decrease in periods of intense cold and fewer frost days; reduction in the diurnal temperature range; an increase in the apparent heat index; greater numbers of intense precipitation; and, increased risk of drought associated with air mass movements. A comparison between conditions in a managed forest mosaic and natural forests was made, with managed forests differing due to efforts to regulate the age structure. The inversion in the age structure of forest mosaics creates significant changes in structural characteristics and composition, including greater hardwood components and more even-aged stands. It was concluded that in Canada, managed boreal forests are younger and have less black spruce and more hardwoods and fir, making younger forests less vulnerable to fire and more amenable to fire control due to increased accessibility. It was also noted that because of their relative youth, managed forests are more vulnerable to regeneration failure and that managed forests with more balsam fir and trembling aspen are at greater risk for insect outbreaks. In addition, wind throw, a threat to older forests, is not significant in managed forests. 15 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  9. The latitudinal structure of recent changes in the boreal Brewer–Dobson circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Shi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Upwelling branch of the Brewer–Dobson circulation (BDC controls the tropical lower stratospheric water vapor (WV through dynamic cooling near the tropopause. Downwelling branch of BDC dominates the extratropical middle-lower stratospheric Hydrogen Chloride (HCl by dynamic transport. Climatologically, a symmetric weakening BDC indicates increasing tropical lower stratospheric WV and decreasing extratropical middle-lower stratospheric HCl. However, the global ozone chemistry and related trace gas data records for the stratosphere data (GOZCARDS show that the tropical lowermost stratospheric WV increased by 18 % decade−1 during 2001–2011 and the boreal mid-latitude lower stratospheric HCl rose 25 % decade−1 after 2006. We interpret this as resulting from a slowdown of the tropical upwelling and a speedup of the mid-latitude downwelling. This interpretation is supported by composite analysis of Eliasen–Palm Flux (EPF, zonal wind and regression of temperature on the EPF from the ERA-Interim data. Results present that the enhancing polar vortex and weakening planetary wave activity leads to a downwelling branch narrowing equatorward and a local speedup of 24 % at 20 hPa in the mid-latitudes. Moreover, there are regressive temperature increase of 1.5 K near the tropical tropopause and that of 0.5 K in the mid-latitude middle stratosphere, which also indicates the tropical upwelling slowdown and the mid-latitude downwelling speedup during 2001–2011.

  10. The latitudinal structure of recent changes in the boreal Brewer-Dobson circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, C.; Guo, D.; Xu, J.; Powell, A. M., Jr.; Xu, T.

    2015-09-01

    Upwelling branch of the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC) controls the tropical lower stratospheric water vapor (WV) through dynamic cooling near the tropopause. Downwelling branch of BDC dominates the extratropical middle-lower stratospheric Hydrogen Chloride (HCl) by dynamic transport. Climatologically, a symmetric weakening BDC indicates increasing tropical lower stratospheric WV and decreasing extratropical middle-lower stratospheric HCl. However, the global ozone chemistry and related trace gas data records for the stratosphere data (GOZCARDS) show that the tropical lowermost stratospheric WV increased by 18 % decade-1 during 2001-2011 and the boreal mid-latitude lower stratospheric HCl rose 25 % decade-1 after 2006. We interpret this as resulting from a slowdown of the tropical upwelling and a speedup of the mid-latitude downwelling. This interpretation is supported by composite analysis of Eliasen-Palm Flux (EPF), zonal wind and regression of temperature on the EPF from the ERA-Interim data. Results present that the enhancing polar vortex and weakening planetary wave activity leads to a downwelling branch narrowing equatorward and a local speedup of 24 % at 20 hPa in the mid-latitudes. Moreover, there are regressive temperature increase of 1.5 K near the tropical tropopause and that of 0.5 K in the mid-latitude middle stratosphere, which also indicates the tropical upwelling slowdown and the mid-latitude downwelling speedup during 2001-2011.

  11. Trophic cascades, invasive species and body-size hierarchies interactively modulate climate change responses of ecotonal temperate–boreal forest

    OpenAIRE

    Lee E. Frelich; Peterson, Rolf O; Dovčiak, Martin; Peter B. Reich; Vucetich, John A.; Eisenhauer, Nico

    2012-01-01

    As the climate warms, boreal tree species are expected to be gradually replaced by temperate species within the southern boreal forest. Warming will be accompanied by changes in above- and below-ground consumers: large moose (Alces alces) replaced by smaller deer (Odocoileus virginianus) above-ground, and small detritivores replaced by larger exotic earthworms below-ground. These shifts may induce a cascade of ecological impacts across trophic levels that could alter the boreal to temperate f...

  12. Aged boreal biomass burning aerosol size distributions from BORTAS 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, K. M.; Allan, J. D.; Coe, H.; Taylor, J. W.; Duck, T. J.; Pierce, J. R.

    2014-09-01

    Biomass-burning aerosols contribute to aerosol radiative forcing on the climate system. The magnitude of this effect is partially determined by aerosol size distributions, which are functions of source fire characteristics (e.g. fuel type, MCE) and in-plume microphysical processing. The uncertainties in biomass-burning emission number size-distributions in climate model inventories lead to uncertainties in the CCN concentrations and forcing estimates derived from these models. The BORTAS-B measurement campaign was designed to sample boreal biomass-burning outflow over Eastern Canada in the summer of 2011. Using these BORTAS-B data, we implement plume criteria to isolate the characteristic size-distribution of aged biomass-burning emissions (aged ∼1-2 days) from boreal wildfires in Northwestern Ontario. The composite median size-distribution yields a single dominant accumulation mode with Dpm = 230 nm (number-median diameter), σ = 1.7, which are comparable to literature values of other aged plumes of a similar type. The organic aerosol enhancement ratios (ΔOA / ΔCO) along the path of Flight b622 show values of 0.05-0.18 μg m-3 ppbv-1 with no significant trend with distance from the source. This lack of enhancement ratio increase/decrease with distance suggests no detectable net OA production/evaporation within the aged plume over the sampling period. A Lagrangian microphysical model was used to determine an estimate of the freshly emitted size distribution corresponding to the BORTAS-B aged size-distributions. The model was restricted to coagulation and dilution processes based on the insignificant net OA production/evaporation derived from the ΔOA / ΔCO enhancement ratios. We estimate that the fresh-plume median diameter was in the range of 59-94 nm with modal widths in the range of 1.7-2.8 (the ranges are due to uncertainty in the entrainment rate). Thus, the size of the freshly emitted particles is relatively unconstrained due to the uncertainties in the

  13. Aged Boreal Biomass Burning Size Distributions from Bortas 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, J. R.; Sakamoto, K.; Allan, J. D.; Coe, H.; Taylor, J.; Duck, T.

    2014-12-01

    Biomass-burning aerosols contribute to aerosol radiative forcing on the climate system. The magnitude of this effect is partially determined by aerosol size distributions, which are strong functions of source fire characteristics (e.g. fuel type, MCE) and in-plume microphysical processing. The uncertainties in biomass-burning emission number size-distributions in climate model inventories lead to uncertainties in the CCN concentrations and forcing estimates derived from these models. The BORTAS-B measurement campaign was designed to sample boreal biomass-burning outflow over Eastern Canada in the summer of 2011. Using these BORTAS-B data, we implement plume criteria to isolate the characteristic size-distribution of aged biomass-burning emissions (aged ~ 1.5 - 2 days) from boreal wildfires in Northwestern Ontario. The composite median size-distribution yields a single dominant accumulation mode with Dpm = 232 nm, σ = 1.7, which are comparable to literature values of other aged plumes of a similar type. The organic aerosol enhancement ratios (ΔOA/ΔCO) along the path of Flight b622 show values of 0.08-0.18 μg m-3 ppbv-1 with no significant trend with distance from the source. This lack of enhancement ratio increase/decrease with distance suggests no detectable net OA production/evaporation within the aged plume over the sampling period. A Lagrangian microphysical model was used to determine an estimate of the freshly emitted size distribution and flux corresponding to the BORTAS-B aged size-distributions. The model was restricted to coagulation and dilution processes only based on the insignificant net OA production/evaporation derived from the ΔOA/ΔCO enhancement ratios. Depending on the, we estimate that the fresh-plume median diameter was in the range of 59-94 nm with modal widths in the range of 1.7-2.8. Thus, the size of the freshly emitted particles is somewhat unconstrained due to the uncertainties in the plume dilution rates.

  14. Studies of microwave scattering and canopy architecture for boreal forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, G. Lance; Gogineni, S. P.

    1994-01-01

    Our primary objectives during the last year have been to develop a helicopter-borne radar system for measuring microwave backscatter from vegetation and to use this system to study the characteristics of backscatter from the boreal forest. Our research is aimed at refining the current microwave models and using these improvements for more accurate interpretation of SAR data. SAR data are very useful for monitoring the boreal forest region because of the microwave signal's ability to penetrate clouds and to see at night. Meeting these objectives involves several stages of development. The first stage is the design and implementation of a frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FM-CW) radar system with the capability of measuring backscatter at three frequencies and four polarizations at each frequency. These requirements necessitate a twelve-channel radar system. Using three frequencies is advantageous because it allows us to look at different parts of the canopy. For instance, the lower frequency signal penetrates deeper into the canopy and allows us to see the ground while the high frequency signal is scattered more by the leaves and needles and typically does not penetrate to the floor of the forest. We designed the radar starting with the antenna system. We then developed the intermediate frequency (IF) and radio frequency (RF) sections of the radar. Also, the need to collect data from twelve channels during each flight line presented a complex data acquisition problem that we solved by using a high-speed data acquisition board. After construction, the radar was tested at the lab. We performed extensive testing of the IF and RF systems of the radar during this time. Once we were satisfied with the operation of the radar it was shipped to Canada for use in the second intensive field campaign (IFC-2) from July 16 - August 8, 1994. During IFC-2, we collected backscatter data over the experimental sites in the southern study area (SSA). Additionally, we used a ground

  15. Tropical influence on boreal summer mid-latitude stationary waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douville, Herve [Meteo-France/CNRM-GAME, Toulouse (France); CNRM/GMGEC/VDR, Toulouse (France); Bielli, S.; Deque, M.; Tyteca, S.; Voldoire, A. [Meteo-France/CNRM-GAME, Toulouse (France); Cassou, C. [CNRS-Cerfacs, Toulouse (France); Hall, N.M.J. [CNES/LEGOS, Toulouse (France)

    2011-11-15

    While organized tropical convection is a well-known source of extratropical planetary waves, state-of-the-art climate models still show serious deficiencies in simulating accurately the atmospheric response to tropical sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies and the associated teleconnections. In the present study, the remote influence of the tropical atmospheric circulation is evaluated in ensembles of global boreal summer simulations in which the Arpege-Climat atmospheric General Circulation Model (GCM) is nudged towards 6-h reanalyses. The nudging is applied either in the whole tropical band or in a regional summer monsoon domain. Sensitivity tests to the experimental design are first conducted using prescribed climatological SST. They show that the tropical relaxation does not improve the zonal mean extratropical climatology but does lead to a significantly improved representation of the mid-latitude stationary waves in both hemispheres. Low-pass filtering of the relaxation fields has no major effect on the model response, suggesting that high-frequency tropical variability is not responsible for extratropical biases. Dividing the nudging strength by a factor 10 only decreases the magnitude of the response. Model errors in each monsoon domain contribute to deficiencies in the model's mid-latitude climatology, although an exaggerated large-scale subsidence in the central equatorial Pacific appears as the main source of errors for the representation of stationary waves in the Arpege-Climat model. Case studies are then conducted using either climatological or observed SST. The focus is first on summer 2003 characterized by a strong and persistent anticyclonic anomaly over western Europe. This pattern is more realistic in nudging experiments than in simulations only driven by observed SST, especially when the nudging domain is centred over Central America. Other case studies also show a significant tropical forcing of the summer mid-latitude stationary waves

  16. Environmental Studies in the Boreal Forest Zone: Summer IPY Institute at Central Boreal Forest Reserve, Fedorovskoe, Tver area, Russia (14-28 August, 2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, E. B.; Kurbatova, Y.; Groisman, P.; Alexeev, V.

    2007-12-01

    The Summer Institute was organized by the International Arctic Research Center (IARC) at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, in collaboration with the A.N. Severtsov Institute for Ecology and Evolution of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow, Russia, and the Central Forest State Nature Biosphere Reserve in Fedorovskoe, Russia. The Institute was arranged as a part of the education/outreach activities of the International Polar Year (IPY) at the University of Alaska and the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) and was held in Russia. The Institute provided a unique opportunity for participants to learn about the climate and environment of Northern Eurasia from leading scientists and educators, in a wide spectrum of polar and Earth system science disciplines from meteorology, biology, chemistry, and earth system modeling. Additionally, the Institute attendees observed and participated in the biospheric research activities under the guidance of experienced scientists. During a two-week-interval, the School attendees heard 40 lectures, attended several field trips and participated in three brainstorming Round Table Workshop Sessions devoted to perspectives of the boreal forest zone research and major unresolved problems that it faces. Thirty professors and experts in different areas of climate and biosphere research from Russia, the United States, Germany, Finland, and Japan, shared their expertise in lectures and in round table discussions with the Institute participants. Among the Institute participants there were 31 graduate students/early career scientists from six countries (China, Russia, Estonia, Finland, UK, and the United States) and eight K-12 teachers from Russia. The two groups joined together for several workshop sessions and for the field work components of the Institute. The field work was focused on land-atmosphere interactions and wetland studies in the boreal forest zone. Several field trips in and outside the Forest

  17. Pet birds II. Complementary diagnostic procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microscopical examinations are useful in detecting bacteria from droppings and body fluids. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests are also used to perform antimicrobial therapy. Parasitological examinations can also be done on pet birds. Hematological examinations are not very common because of the difficulties in determining the normal serum values that might vary by species and sexes. The vena cutanea ulnaris is the best vein for drawing blood from a pet bird but nail clipping for this purpose is also widely used. The most common and basic complementary examination method is radiology. Birds can be radiographed without anesthesia. Ventrodorsal and latero-lateral pictures are required. The right positioning and setting the adequate values is the most important. Contrast radiographs can also be made on birds. Endoscopy is widely used for sex determination but also can be used for the examination of abdominal organs. Ultrasound examination of pet birds is not a common method because of the difficulties provided by the air sacs. ECG is not a widely used method either because of the high heart beat frequency of birds. Other methods such as necropsy, cytological, histological and toxicological examinations can also be performed on pet birds

  18. KEO, the Archeological Bird of the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Jean-Marc

    2002-01-01

    KEO, the Archeological Bird of the Future, is a project linking art and space, which seeks to involve people of all ages and cultures in a collective work of art : while exciting our imagination, it invites us to reflect upon the use we make of the exceptional capabilities our species is endowed with. A time-capsule to be launched in 2003, KEO is meant to come back passively to its native soil, where it will land safe and sound, in some 50 000 years. It will then act as our messenger to our distant descendants, delivering to them, intact, our common offering : all the messages that each of us, men, women and children of today's Earth wish to pass on to the Future. From its very start on Internet KEO was elected by an overwhelming world-wide majority of teachers as an oustanding pedagogic tool allowing interdisciplinary classes which use to arouse the greatest interest amongst students whatever theri level. .A KEO pedagogic kit was worked out as a support to enable the teachers to make the most of KEO by giving lectures combining art, sciences spatial technologies, human development. This obviously awakens student's citizenship awareness. The paper will especially deal with the pedagogic experiences conducted in French in the Reunion Island, Paris and in Quebec (Canada).This presentation will insist on the public outreach activities providing evidence for the benefits such an project as KEO can offer to society.

  19. Effects of land use on bird populations and pest control services on coffee farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Railsback, Steven F; Johnson, Matthew D

    2014-04-22

    Global increases in both agriculture and biodiversity awareness raise a key question: Should cropland and biodiversity habitat be separated, or integrated in mixed land uses? Ecosystem services by wildlife make this question more complex. For example, birds benefit agriculture by preying on pest insects, but other habitat is needed to maintain the birds. Resulting land use questions include what areas and arrangements of habitat support sufficient birds to control pests, whether this pest control offsets the reduced cropland, and the comparative benefits of "land sharing" (i.e., mixed cropland and habitat) vs. "land sparing" (i.e., separate areas of intensive agriculture and habitat). Such questions are difficult to answer using field studies alone, so we use a simulation model of Jamaican coffee farms, where songbirds suppress the coffee berry borer (CBB). Simulated birds select habitat and prey in five habitat types: intact forest, trees (including forest fragments), shade coffee, sun coffee, and unsuitable habitat. The trees habitat type appears to be especially important, providing efficient foraging and roosting sites near coffee plots. Small areas of trees (but not forest alone) could support a sufficient number of birds to suppress CBB in sun coffee; the degree to which trees are dispersed within coffee had little effect. In simulations without trees, shade coffee supported sufficient birds to offset its lower yield. High areas of both trees and shade coffee reduced pest control because CBB was less often profitable prey. Because of the pest control service provided by birds, land sharing was predicted to be more beneficial than land sparing in this system. PMID:24711377

  20. Ultraviolet-sensitive vision in long-lived birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Livia S; Knott, Ben; Berg, Mathew L; Bennett, Andrew T D; Hunt, David M

    2011-01-01

    Long-term exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light generates substantial damage, and in mammals, visual sensitivity to UV is restricted to short-lived diurnal rodents and certain marsupials. In humans, the cornea and lens absorb all UV-A and most of the terrestrial UV-B radiation, preventing the reactive and damaging shorter wavelengths from reaching the retina. This is not the case in certain species of long-lived diurnal birds, which possess UV-sensitive (UVS) visual pigments, maximally sensitive below 400 nm. The Order Psittaciformes contains some of the longest lived bird species, and the two species examined so far have been shown to possess UVS pigments. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of UVS pigments across long-lived parrots, macaws and cockatoos, and therefore assess whether they need to cope with the accumulated effects of exposure to UV-A and UV-B over a long period of time. Sequences from the SWS1 opsin gene revealed that all 14 species investigated possess a key substitution that has been shown to determine a UVS pigment. Furthermore, in vitro regeneration data, and lens transparency, corroborate the molecular findings of UV sensitivity. Our findings thus support the claim that the Psittaciformes are the only avian Order in which UVS pigments are ubiquitous, and indicate that these long-lived birds have UV sensitivity, despite the risks of photodamage. PMID:20667872

  1. Evidence for Bird Mafia! Threat Pays

    OpenAIRE

    Gadagkar, Raghavendra; Kolatkar, Milind

    1996-01-01

    Birds are remarkable for their extraordinary efforts at nest building and brood care. Given that so many species of birds spend so much time and effort at these activities, there is plenty of room for some species to take it easy, lay their eggs in the nests of other species and hitch-hike on their hosts. The cuckoo that lays its eggs in the nests of a variety of host species is well known. Indeed, over 80 species, i.e., over 1% of bird species are known to be such obligate inter-specific bro...

  2. Impact of climate change effecting Decline on Migration Birds of Bhadalwadi Lake Indapur Taluka M.S India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.S .Gantaloo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Environmental changes are now a day’s happening regularly day to day increase in temperature ,Scarcity of rainfall ,Drying of lakes have strong implication on Biodiversity . .Global warming has set in motion and is affecting the timing of migration of birds .Birds are reliable indicator of environment change for centuries and their arrival indicate start of winter and departure summer in study area .There are many example of the effect of climate change on birds from all around the world which taken together provide compelling evidence that climate change is already affecting birds in diverse ways. The study was carried out for two years considering the changes occurring in climate parameters like Air Temperature, Rainfall were taken into facts .Keen observation with the help camera photography were taken to study. The effect on migrating Birds which measure international status on wet lands and lakes. Hence in the present study the data on biodiversity ,migratory birds have been collected to understand How climate change supported the dwelling of avian fauna in this area . This paper opens a review on migration of birds on the eve of 14th&15th May of world Bird migratory day.

  3. Reader interactome of epigenetic histone marks in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluhm, Alina; Casas-Vila, Nuria; Scheibe, Marion; Butter, Falk

    2016-02-01

    Lysine methylation is part of the posttranscriptional histone code employed to recruit modification specific readers to chromatin. Unbiased, quantitative mass spectrometry approaches combined with peptide pull-downs have been used to study histone methylation-dependent binders in mammalian cells. Here, we extend the study to birds by investigating the interaction partners for H3K4me3, H3K9me3, H3K27me3 and H3K36me3 in chicken (Gallus gallus) and zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) using label-free quantitative proteomics. In general, we find very strong overlap in interaction partners for the trimethyl marks in birds compared to mammals, underscoring the known conserved function of these modifications. In agreement with their epigenetic role, we find binding of PHF2 and members of the TFIID, SAGA, SET1 and NURF complex to the activation mark H3K4me3. Our data furthermore supports the existence of a LID complex in vertebrates recruited to the H3K4me3 mark. The repressive marks are bound by the HP1 proteins and the EED subunit of the PRC2 complex as well as by WIZ. Like reported in the previous mammalian screens, we found ZNF462, ZNF828 and POGZ enriched at H3K9me3. However, we noted some unexpected differences. N-PAC (also known as GLYR1), an H3K36me3 interactor in mammals, is reproducible not enriched at this modification in our screen in birds. This initial finding suggests that despite strong conservation of the histone tail sequence, a few species-specific differences in epigenetic readers may have evolved between birds and mammals. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002282 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD002282). PMID:26703087

  4. Bird community responses to the edge between suburbs and reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikin, Karen; Barton, Philip S; Knight, Emma; Lindenmayer, David B; Fischer, Joern; Manning, Adrian D

    2014-02-01

    New insights into community-level responses at the urban fringe, and the mechanisms underlying them, are needed. In our study, we investigated the compositional distinctiveness and variability of a breeding bird community at both sides of established edges between suburban residential areas and woodland reserves in Canberra, Australia. Our goals were to determine if: (1) community-level responses were direct (differed with distance from the edge, independent of vegetation) or indirect (differed in response to edge-related changes in vegetation), and (2) if guild-level responses provided the mechanism underpinning community-level responses. We found that suburbs and reserves supported significantly distinct bird communities. The suburban bird community, characterised by urban-adapted native and exotic species, had a weak direct edge response, with decreasing compositional variability with distance from the edge. In comparison, the reserve bird community, characterised by woodland-dependent species, was related to local tree and shrub cover. This was not an indirect response, however, as tree and shrub cover was not related to edge distance. We found that the relative richness of nesting, foraging and body size guilds also displayed similar edge responses, indicating that they underpinned the observed community-level responses. Our study illustrates how community-level responses provide valuable insights into how communities respond to differences in resources between two contrasting habitats. Further, the effects of the suburban matrix penetrate into reserves for greater distances than previously thought. Suburbs and adjacent reserves, however, provided important habitat resources for many native species and the conservation of these areas should not be discounted from continued management strategies. PMID:24114403

  5. DNA barcode detects high genetic structure within neotropical bird species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Sendra Tavares

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Towards lower latitudes the number of recognized species is not only higher, but also phylogeographic subdivision within species is more pronounced. Moreover, new genetically isolated populations are often described in recent phylogenies of Neotropical birds suggesting that the number of species in the region is underestimated. Previous COI barcoding of Argentinean bird species showed more complex patterns of regional divergence in the Neotropical than in the North American avifauna. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Here we analyzed 1,431 samples from 561 different species to extend the Neotropical bird barcode survey to lower latitudes, and detected even higher geographic structure within species than reported previously. About 93% (520 of the species were identified correctly from their DNA barcodes. The remaining 41 species were not monophyletic in their COI sequences because they shared barcode sequences with closely related species (N = 21 or contained very divergent clusters suggestive of putative new species embedded within the gene tree (N = 20. Deep intraspecific divergences overlapping with among-species differences were detected in 48 species, often with samples from large geographic areas and several including multiple subspecies. This strong population genetic structure often coincided with breaks between different ecoregions or areas of endemism. CONCLUSIONS: The taxonomic uncertainty associated with the high incidence of non-monophyletic species and discovery of putative species obscures studies of historical patterns of species diversification in the Neotropical region. We showed that COI barcodes are a valuable tool to indicate which taxa would benefit from more extensive taxonomic revisions with multilocus approaches. Moreover, our results support hypotheses that the megadiversity of birds in the region is associated with multiple geographic processes starting well before the Quaternary and extending to more recent

  6. Evidence for nonuniform permafrost degradation after fire in boreal landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minsley, Burke J.; Pastick, Neal J.; Wylie, Bruce K.; Brown, Dana R. N.; Andy Kass, M.

    2016-02-01

    Fire can be a significant driver of permafrost change in boreal landscapes, altering the availability of soil carbon and nutrients that have important implications for future climate and ecological succession. However, not all landscapes are equally susceptible to fire-induced change. As fire frequency is expected to increase in the high latitudes, methods to understand the vulnerability and resilience of different landscapes to permafrost degradation are needed. We present a combination of multiscale remote sensing, geophysical, and field observations that reveal details of both near-surface (1 m) impacts of fire on permafrost. Along 11 transects that span burned-unburned boundaries in different landscape settings within interior Alaska, subsurface electrical resistivity and nuclear magnetic resonance data indicate locations where permafrost appears to be resilient to disturbance from fire, areas where warm permafrost conditions exist that may be most vulnerable to future change, and also areas where permafrost has thawed. High-resolution geophysical data corroborate remote sensing interpretations of near-surface permafrost and also add new high-fidelity details of spatial heterogeneity that extend from the shallow subsurface to depths of about 10 m. Results show that postfire impacts on permafrost can be variable and depend on multiple factors such as fire severity, soil texture, soil moisture, and time since fire.

  7. Attenuation of rare earth elements in a boreal estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åström, Mats E.; Österholm, Peter; Gustafsson, Jon Petter; Nystrand, Miriam; Peltola, Pasi; Nordmyr, Linda; Boman, Anton

    2012-11-01

    This study focuses on attenuation of rare earth elements (REE) when a boreal creek, acidified and loaded with REE and other metals as a result of wetland drainage, empties into a brackish-water estuary (salinity extract metals from the settling material. Aluminium, Fe and REE transported by the acidic creek were extensively removed in the inner/central estuary where the acidic water was neutralised, whereas Mn was relatively persistent in solution and thus redistributed to particles and deposited further down the estuary. The REE removal was caused by several contemporary mechanisms: co-precipitation with oxyhydroxides (mainly Al but also Fe), complexation with flocculating humic substances and sorption to suspended particles. Down estuary the dissolved REE pool, remaining after removal, was fractionated: the Humic Model after revision and updating, predicted that the dissolved (humic substances. Acid sulphate soils, the source of the REE and other metals in the creek water, are widespread on coastal plains worldwide and therefore the REE attenuation patterns and mechanisms identified in the studied estuary are relevant for recognition of similar geochemical processes and conditions in a variety of coastal locations.

  8. Uptake, turnover and transport of radiocaesium in boreal forest ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was mainly addressed to aspects on the redistribution of the Chernobyl fallout within and output from a coniferous forest ecosystem. The only detected pathway for Cs to exit the ecosystem was via discharge from mires. About 40% of the deposition on mires discharged via stream water during the snow-melt 1986. The residual fraction discharged at an annual rate of 30% from water saturated fractions and about 2% from drier fractions of the studied mire. No loss of Cs from ridges and moraine slopes to ground water was detected. The main transfer from the canopy to the forest floor occurred during the first year. The estimated transfer from throughfall and litterfall during May 1986 to May 1996 was 50% of the estimated total deposition in the ecosystem. The contribution from herbivory was estimated to 1% of the deposition. In 1987 the fraction of Cs that was retained in the above ground parts of a Scots pine stand was only 4%. The Cs intercepted in mosses and lichens were slowly transferred to the litter and humus layers. Cs in vegetation with green parts above ground during the fallout decreased rapidly during the first vegetation season The ranking in Cs of the studied plants was fireweed 137Cs. Moose meat, berries and mushrooms produced in the boreal region will give rise to a small but significant internally absorbed dose to man during several years. 57 refs, 9 figs, 5 tabs

  9. The behaviour of radioactive caesium in a boreal forest ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of radioactive caesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137) in a boreal forest ecosystem is studied with focus in the dynamics of the turnover in, and loss from, the system. Measurements of the distribution in soil and vegetation, as well as the loss of radioactive caesium by run-off from a catchment, constitute the basis for an analysis of the caesium budget in the system. Comparisons of the distribution of 'old' Cs-137, i.e. originating from fallout due to the atmospheric nuclear weapons test, and that due to deposition after the accident in Chernobyl 1986 are used for extrapolations to future situations concerning transport of Cs-137 via the food chains over berries and moose to man. The exposure in a long term perspective due to the average intake of Cs-137 in the Swedish population by consumption of meat, milk, and milk products (i.e. of an agricultural origin) is compared to that due to ingestion of the forest products: berries (bilberry, lingonberries, and cloudberries) and moose meat. (au) (34 refs.)

  10. Project SKEG : re-establishing peatlands in Alberta boreal forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, C. [Shell Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-04-01

    Scientific protocols for oil and gas remediation projects in the peatlands region of Alberta's boreal forests were discussed. Peatlands in Alberta occupy an estimated 103,000 km{sup 2} of the province, and act as water storage reservoirs in addition to filtering precipitation as its moves into groundwater. While providing a habitat for a variety of animals, peatlands are a significant carbon sink. The gravel roads and well site pads placed in Alberta's peatlands are having an impact on the peatland ecosystem, and in some cases oil and gas activities have reduced the carbon sink capacity of peatlands by 50 per cent. This paper provided details of a project planned by Shell Canada to reclaim peatlands disturbed by oil and gas activities. The project aimed to re-establish major species after a period of 3 years while establishing a ground layer mat over a period of 10 years with peatland flora similar to its surroundings. Optimal levels of the well pads will be identified, and pH level and water flow into the pad will be monitored and controlled. Appropriate plants will be selected for the paludifying reclamation process. Amendments for enhancing the plant establishment and organic matter accumulation will also be investigated. It was concluded that the project is expected to take place in 2008. 1 fig.

  11. Effects of ionizing radiation on the boreal forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Field-Irradiator-Gamma (FIG) project chronically exposed a section of the boreal forest to ionizing radiation by placing a 137Cs source on tope of a 20-m tower at a forest site in southeastern Manitoba. The irradiation continued from 1973 to 1986 and the forest was exposed to radiological dose rates ranging from 65 mGy.h-1 to 0.005 mGy.h-1 along a gradient extending 500 m from the source. The irradiation killed the tree canopy close to the irradiator, resulting in the formation of a herbaceous zone of vegetation at high dose rates. After 14 years of irradiation, some tree species were still being affected at dose rates as low as about 1 mGy.h-1. The data gathered at the FIG site can be used to identify radiological dose rates that forest communities can tolerate. This information allows decisions to be made concerning guidelines for protection of the general environment from radionuclide emissions from various anthropogenic sources, such as nuclear reactors and uranium tailings. This report reviews the previous data collected at the FIG site during the pre-irradiation and irradiation phases and the methodology used to establish a baseline for future comparisons. Permanently marked sampling plots are a particular strength to the study, whereby researchers can compare the present forest community with that measured during the past 25 years. (author). 53 refs., 6 tabs., 22 figs

  12. Multi-Sensor Characterization of the Boreal Forest: Initial Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reith, Ernest; Roberts, Dar A.; Prentiss, Dylan

    2001-01-01

    Results are presented in an initial apriori knowledge approach toward using complementary multi-sensor multi-temporal imagery in characterizing vegetated landscapes over a site in the Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS). Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) data were segmented using multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis and binary decision tree approaches. Individual date/sensor land cover maps had overall accuracies between 55.0% - 69.8%. The best eight land cover layers from all dates and sensors correctly characterized 79.3% of the cover types. An overlay approach was used to create a final land cover map. An overall accuracy of 71.3% was achieved in this multi-sensor approach, a 1.5% improvement over our most accurate single scene technique, but 8% less than the original input. Black spruce was evaluated to be particularly undermapped in the final map possibly because it was also contained within jack pine and muskeg land coverages.

  13. Aged anthropogenic iodine in a boreal peat bog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maillant, S. [Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, UMR 1120 INPL-INRA, 54500 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Andra, Direction Scientifique, Service Transferts, 1-7 rue Jean Monnet, 92298 Chatenay-Malabry Cedex (France); Sheppard, M.I. [ECOMatters, P.O. Box 430, Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada); Echevarria, G. [Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, UMR 1120 INPL-INRA, 54500 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)]. E-mail: Guillaume.Echevarria@ensaia.inpl-nancy.fr; Denys, S. [Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, UMR 1120 INPL-INRA, 54500 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Andra, Direction Scientifique, Service Transferts, 1-7 rue Jean Monnet, 92298 Chatenay-Malabry Cedex (France); Villemin, G. [Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, UMR 1120 INPL-INRA, 54500 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Tekely, P. [Laboratoire de Methodologie RMN, FRE CNRS 2415, Universite Henri Poincare, Nancy 1, Faculte des Sciences, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Leclerc-Cessac, E. [Andra, Direction Scientifique, Service Transferts, 1-7 rue Jean Monnet, 92298 Chatenay-Malabry Cedex (France); Morel, J.L. [Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, UMR 1120 INPL-INRA, 54500 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2007-05-15

    This in situ study assesses the long term sorption of I in a natural peat bog, a matter that is scarcely addressed but required for safety studies such as for radioactive waste disposal. Fifteen years after the artificial contamination of a boreal peat bog, the groundwater (piezometers), the peat and the vegetation were resampled to determine I distribution with comparison to the initial situation (1989). Spectroscopic analyses (SS-NMR, electronic microscopy and EDX spectroscopy) were carried out on the peat solids to identify the sorption processes. Over the past 15 a the I has been spreading mostly outwards and possibly upwards in the groundwater. Sorption of I is higher at the surface of the bog (K {sub d} = 37.6 L kg{sup -1}) than at the bottom (K {sub d} = 5.1 L kg{sup -1}), and this is attributed to the oxic/anoxic conditions of the peat layers. The average surface K {sub d} values showed more than a 2-fold increase after 15 a. TEM-EDX analyses of the surface peat showed here for the first time that I was only associated with natural polyphenolic substances contained in humified plant tissues. Plants growing in the bog have not taken up much I with the exception of sedge species ([I]{sub sedgeleaves} is up to 283 mg kg{sup -1})

  14. Aged anthropogenic iodine in a boreal peat bog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This in situ study assesses the long term sorption of I in a natural peat bog, a matter that is scarcely addressed but required for safety studies such as for radioactive waste disposal. Fifteen years after the artificial contamination of a boreal peat bog, the groundwater (piezometers), the peat and the vegetation were resampled to determine I distribution with comparison to the initial situation (1989). Spectroscopic analyses (SS-NMR, electronic microscopy and EDX spectroscopy) were carried out on the peat solids to identify the sorption processes. Over the past 15 a the I has been spreading mostly outwards and possibly upwards in the groundwater. Sorption of I is higher at the surface of the bog (K d = 37.6 L kg-1) than at the bottom (K d = 5.1 L kg-1), and this is attributed to the oxic/anoxic conditions of the peat layers. The average surface K d values showed more than a 2-fold increase after 15 a. TEM-EDX analyses of the surface peat showed here for the first time that I was only associated with natural polyphenolic substances contained in humified plant tissues. Plants growing in the bog have not taken up much I with the exception of sedge species ([I]sedgeleaves is up to 283 mg kg-1)

  15. Methane production and consumption in grassland and boreal ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimel, David S.; Burke, Ingrid C.; Johnston, Carol; Pastor, John

    1994-01-01

    The objectives of the this project were to develop a mechanistic understanding of methane production and oxidation suitable for incorporation into spatially explicit models for spatial extrapolation. Field studies were undertaken in Minnesota, Canada, and Colorado to explore the process controls over the two microbial mediated methane transformations in a range of environments. Field measurements were done in conjunction with ongoing studies in Canada (the Canadian Northern Wetlands Projects: NOWES) and in Colorado (The Shortgrass Steppe Long Term Ecological Research Project: LTER). One of the central hypotheses of the proposal was that methane production should be substrate limited, as well as being controlled by physical variables influencing microbial activity (temperature, oxidation status, and pH). Laboratory studies of peats from Canada and Minnesota (Northern and Southern Boreal) were conducted with amendments of a methanogenic substrate at multiple temperatures and at multiple pHs (the latter by titrating samples). The studies showed control by substrate, pH, and temperature in order in anaerobic samples. Field and laboratory manipulations of natural plant litter, rather than an acetogenic substrate, showed similarly large effects. The studies concluded that substrate is an important control over methanogenesis, that substrate availability in the field is closely coupled to the chemistry of the dominant vegetation influencing its decomposition rate, that most methane is produced from recent plant litter, and that landscape changes in pH are an important control, highly correlated with vegetation.

  16. Age of vegetation simulated by Boreal ALFRESCO for the state of Alaska. Dataset generated in 2010. NAD83, Alaska Albers projection, http://spatialreference.org/ref/epsg/3338/

    Data.gov (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — These rasters represent output from the Boreal ALFRESCO (Alaska Frame Based Ecosystem Code) model. Boreal ALFRESCO operates on an annual time step, in a landscape...

  17. New Developmental Evidence Clarifies the Evolution of Wrist Bones in the Dinosaur–Bird Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, João Francisco; Ossa-Fuentes, Luis; Soto-Acuña, Sergio; Smith-Paredes, Daniel; Nuñez-León, Daniel; Salinas-Saavedra, Miguel; Ruiz-Flores, Macarena; Vargas, Alexander O.

    2014-01-01

    From early dinosaurs with as many as nine wrist bones, modern birds evolved to develop only four ossifications. Their identity is uncertain, with different labels used in palaeontology and developmental biology. We examined embryos of several species and studied chicken embryos in detail through a new technique allowing whole-mount immunofluorescence of the embryonic cartilaginous skeleton. Beyond previous controversy, we establish that the proximal–anterior ossification develops from a composite radiale+intermedium cartilage, consistent with fusion of radiale and intermedium observed in some theropod dinosaurs. Despite previous claims that the development of the distal–anterior ossification does not support the dinosaur–bird link, we found its embryonic precursor shows two distinct regions of both collagen type II and collagen type IX expression, resembling the composite semilunate bone of bird-like dinosaurs (distal carpal 1+distal carpal 2). The distal–posterior ossification develops from a cartilage referred to as “element x,” but its position corresponds to distal carpal 3. The proximal–posterior ossification is perhaps most controversial: It is labelled as the ulnare in palaeontology, but we confirm the embryonic ulnare is lost during development. Re-examination of the fossil evidence reveals the ulnare was actually absent in bird-like dinosaurs. We confirm the proximal–posterior bone is a pisiform in terms of embryonic position and its development as a sesamoid associated to a tendon. However, the pisiform is absent in bird-like dinosaurs, which are known from several articulated specimens. The combined data provide compelling evidence of a remarkable evolutionary reversal: A large, ossified pisiform re-evolved in the lineage leading to birds, after a period in which it was either absent, nonossified, or very small, consistently escaping fossil preservation. The bird wrist provides a modern example of how developmental and paleontological

  18. Grassland bird responses to land management in the largest remaining tallgrass prairie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmig, Corina J; Jensen, William E; With, Kimberly A

    2009-04-01

    Extensive habitat loss and changing agricultural practices have caused widespread declines in grassland birds throughout North America. The Flint Hills of Kansas and Oklahoma--the largest remaining tallgrass prairie--is important for grassland bird conservation despite supporting a major cattle industry. In 2004 and 2005, we assessed the community, population, and demographic responses of grassland birds to the predominant management practices (grazing, burning, and haying) of the region, including grasslands restored under the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). We targeted 3 species at the core of this avian community: the Dickcissel (Spiza americana), Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum), and Eastern Meadowlark (Sturnella magna). Bird diversity was higher in native prairie hayfields and grazed pastures than CRP fields, which were dominated by Dickcissels. Although Dickcissel density was highest in CRP, their nest success was highest and nest parasitism by Brown-headed Cowbirds (Moluthrus ater) lowest in unburned hayfields (in 2004). Conversely, Grasshopper Sparrow density was highest in grazed pastures, but their nest success was lowest in these pastures and highest in burned hayfields, where cowbird parasitism was also lowest (in 2004). Management did not influence density and nest survival of Eastern Meadowlarks, which were uniformly low across the region. Nest success was extremely low (5-12%) for all 3 species in 2005, perhaps because of a record spring drought. Although the CRP has benefited grassland birds in agricultural landscapes, these areas may have lower habitat value in the context of native prairie. Hayfields may provide beneficial habitat for some grassland birds in the Flint Hills because they are mowed later in the breeding season than elsewhere in the Midwest. Widespread grazing and annual burning have homogenized habitat-and thus grassland-bird responses-across the Flint Hills. Diversification of management practices could increase

  19. Main dynamics and drivers of boreal forests fire regimes during the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, Chiara; Lehsten, Veiko; Blarquez, Olivier; Clear, Jennifer; Carcaillet, Christopher; Bradshaw, Richard HW

    2015-04-01

    Forest fire is one of the most critical ecosystem processes in the boreal megabiome, and it is likely that its frequency, size and severity have had a primary role in vegetation dynamics since the Last Ice Age (Kasischke & Stocks 2000). Fire not only organizes the physical and biological attributes of boreal forests, but also affects biogeochemical cycling, particularly the carbon balance (Balshi et al. 2007). Due to their location at climatically sensitive northern latitudes, boreal forests are likely to be significantly affected by global warming with a consequent increase in biomass burning (Soja et al. 2007), a variation in vegetation structure and composition (Johnstone et al. 2004) and a rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration (Bond-Lamberty et al. 2007). Even if the ecological role of wildfire in boreal forest is widely recognized, a clearer understanding of the environmental factors controlling fire dynamics and how variations in fire regimes impact forest ecosystems is essential in order to place modern fire processes in a meaningful context for projecting ecosystem behaviour in a changing environment (Kelly et al. 2013). Because fire return intervals and successional cycles in boreal forests occur over decadal to centennial timescales (Hu et al. 2006), palaeoecological research seems to be one of the most promising tool for elucidating ecosystem changes over a broad range of environmental conditions and temporal scales. Within this context, our first aim is to reconstruct spatial and temporal patterns of boreal forests fire dynamics during the Holocene based on sedimentary charcoal records. As a second step, trends in biomass burning will be statistically analysed in order to disentangle between regional and local drivers. The use of European and north-American sites will give us the unique possibility to perform a large scale analysis on one of the broadest biome in the world and to underline the different patterns of fire in these two

  20. Traditional use of medicinal plants in the boreal forest of Canada: review and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uprety Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The boreal forest of Canada is home to several hundred thousands Aboriginal people who have been using medicinal plants in traditional health care systems for thousands of years. This knowledge, transmitted by oral tradition from generation to generation, has been eroding in recent decades due to rapid cultural change. Until now, published reviews about traditional uses of medicinal plants in boreal Canada have focused either on particular Aboriginal groups or on restricted regions. Here, we present a review of traditional uses of medicinal plants by the Aboriginal people of the entire Canadian boreal forest in order to provide comprehensive documentation, identify research gaps, and suggest perspectives for future research. Methods A review of the literature published in scientific journals, books, theses and reports. Results A total of 546 medicinal plant taxa used by the Aboriginal people of the Canadian boreal forest were reported in the reviewed literature. These plants were used to treat 28 disease and disorder categories, with the highest number of species being used for gastro-intestinal disorders, followed by musculoskeletal disorders. Herbs were the primary source of medicinal plants, followed by shrubs. The medicinal knowledge of Aboriginal peoples of the western Canadian boreal forest has been given considerably less attention by researchers. Canada is lacking comprehensive policy on harvesting, conservation and use of medicinal plants. This could be explained by the illusion of an infinite boreal forest, or by the fact that many boreal medicinal plant species are widely distributed. Conclusion To our knowledge, this review is the most comprehensive to date to reveal the rich traditional medicinal knowledge of Aboriginal peoples of the Canadian boreal forest. Future ethnobotanical research endeavours should focus on documenting the knowledge held by Aboriginal groups that have so far received less attention

  1. 19 CFR 10.76 - Game animals and birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Game animals and birds. 10.76 Section 10.76... TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Animals and Birds § 10.76 Game animals and birds. (a) The following classes of live game animals and birds may...

  2. All about Owls: Studying Owls, State Birds, and Endangered Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivard, Leonard P.

    1991-01-01

    Activities are included that acquaint students with the parts of birds and the structure of feathers; that identify the prey of owls by opening owl pellets; working with information about threatened and endangered species of birds; and follow-up activities for bird study. A list of state and provincial birds of the United States and Canada and…

  3. 50 CFR 20.37 - Custody of birds of another.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Custody of birds of another. 20.37 Section... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.37 Custody of birds of another. No person shall receive or have in custody any migratory game birds belonging to another person unless...

  4. 50 CFR 20.40 - Gift of migratory game birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gift of migratory game birds. 20.40... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.40 Gift of migratory game birds. No person may receive, possess, or give to another, any freshly killed migratory game birds as a...

  5. 45 CFR 670.20 - Designation of native birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designation of native birds. 670.20 Section 670.20... CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Native Mammals, Birds, Plants, and Invertebrates § 670.20 Designation of native birds. The following are designated native birds: Albatross...

  6. 9 CFR 82.15 - Replacement birds and poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Replacement birds and poultry. 82.15...- EASE (END) AND CHLAMYDIOSIS Exotic Newcastle Disease (END) § 82.15 Replacement birds and poultry. Birds and poultry that have been destroyed because of a quarantine for END may not be replaced by birds...

  7. 50 CFR 20.62 - Importation of birds of another.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Importation of birds of another. 20.62... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Importations § 20.62 Importation of birds of another. No person shall import migratory game birds belonging to another person....

  8. 50 CFR 20.38 - Possession of live birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Possession of live birds. 20.38 Section 20... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.38 Possession of live birds. Every migratory game bird wounded by hunting and reduced to possession by the hunter shall be immediately...

  9. 50 CFR 20.42 - Transportation of birds of another.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transportation of birds of another. 20.42... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Transportation Within the United States § 20.42 Transportation of birds of another. No person shall transport migratory game birds belonging to another...

  10. Antibody Prevalence of West Nile Virus in Birds, Illinois, 2002

    OpenAIRE

    Ringia, Adam M.; Blitvich, Bradley J.; Koo, Hyun-Young; Van de Wyngaerde, Marshall; Brawn, Jeff D.; Novak, Robert J

    2004-01-01

    Antibodies to West Nile virus were detected in 94 of 1,784 Illinois birds during 2002. Captive and urban birds had higher seropositivity than did birds from natural areas, and northern and central Illinois birds’ seropositivity was greater than that from birds from the southern sites. Adult and hatch-year exposure rates did not differ significantly.

  11. West Nile Virus Antibodies in Wild Birds, Morocco, 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Figuerola, Jordi; Baouab, Riad E.; Soriguer, Ramón C; Fassi-Fihri, O.; Llorente, Francisco; Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel A.

    2009-01-01

    To determine circulation of West Nile virus (WNV) during nonepidemic times, we serosurveyed wild birds of Morocco in 2008. We found antibodies against WNV in 12 (3.5%) birds, against Usutu virus in 1 (0.3%), and against both in 2 (0.6%). High WNV prevalence among juvenile birds suggests local virus circulation among resi- dent birds.

  12. Avian Bornavirus in Free-Ranging Psittacine Birds, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Encinas-Nagel, Nuri; Enderlein, Dirk; Piepenbring, Anne; Herden, Christiane; Heffels-Redmann, Ursula; Felippe, Paulo A.N.; Arns, Clarice; Hafez, Hafez M.; Lierz, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Avian bornavirus (ABV) has been identified as the cause of proventricular dilatation disease in birds, but the virus is also found in healthy birds. Most studies of ABV have focused on captive birds. We investigated 86 free-ranging psittacine birds in Brazil and found evidence for natural, long-term ABV infection.

  13. 77 FR 1718 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Service Regulations Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Migratory Bird Hunting; Service Regulations Committee Meeting AGENCY: Fish... issues concerning the 2012-13 migratory bird hunting regulations. DATES: The meeting will be held... hunting of migratory game birds. We update the migratory game bird hunting regulations, located at 50...

  14. Coldwater River NWR Ancillary Bird Observations 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Ancillary bird observations on Coldwater River NWR in 2006 were recorded by local birders. No sampling design was used to generate the observations

  15. North Mississippi Refuge Complex Bird Observations 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bird observations on Coldwater River and Tallahatchie NWR in 2011 were recorded by the refuge biologist and several other birders. No sampling design was used to...

  16. North Mississippi Refuge Complex Bird Observations 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bird observations on Coldwater River and Tallahatchie NWR in 2009 were recorded by the refuge biologist and several other birders. No sampling design was used to...

  17. North Mississippi Refuge Complex Bird Observations 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Anecdotal bird observations from Tallahatchie NWR, the Black Bayou Unit Coldwater River NWR and surrounding areas throughout 1999 were recorded by the refuge...

  18. Coldwater River NWR Ancillary Bird Observations 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Ancillary bird observations on Coldwater River NWR in 2009 were recorded by local birders. No sampling design was used to generate the observations

  19. North Mississippi Refuge Complex Bird Observations 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bird observations on Coldwater River, Dahomey and Tallahatchie NWR in 2008 were recorded by the refuge biologist and several other birders. No sampling design was...

  20. Coldwater River NWR Bird Observations 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bird observations on Coldwater River NWR in 2007 were recorded by the refuge biologist and several other birders. No sampling design was used to generate the...

  1. Problems confronting migratory birds in Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We describe in this paper problems affecting the wellbeing of Alaskas migratory birds in the belief that recognition of these problems is a step towards finding...

  2. Influences of introduced animals on marine birds

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is on the influences of introduced animals on marine and sea birds and their nesting habitat, particularly along the coasts of Washington, British...

  3. North Mississippi Refuge Complex Bird Observations 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bird observations on Coldwater River NWR in 2010 were recorded by the refuge biologist and several other birders. No sampling design was used to generate the...

  4. Marsh Bird Monitoring Activities in Vermont 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — As part of ongoing research into the status of Vermonts marsh birds, a statewide census of the black tern nesting population was undertaken again in the year 2000....

  5. Migratory Bird Disease Contingency Plan: Louisa NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Migratory Bird Disease Contingency Plan for Louisa National Wildlife Refuge is intended to serve as a ready reference for background information, an inventory...

  6. Freeze-frame fruit selection by birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Mercedes S.

    2008-01-01

    The choice of fruits by an avian frugivore is affected by choices it makes at multiple hierarchical levels (e.g., species of fruit, individual tree, individual fruit). Factors that influence those choices vary among levels in the hierarchy and include characteristics of the environment, the tree, and the fruit itself. Feeding experiments with wild-caught birds were conducted at El Tirol, Departamento de Itapua, Paraguay to test whether birds were selecting among individual fruits based on fruit size. Feeding on larger fruits, which have proportionally more pulp, is generally more efficient than feeding on small fruits. In trials (n = 56) with seven species of birds in four families, birds selected larger fruits 86% of the time. However, in only six instances were size differences significant, which is likely a reflection of small sample sizes.

  7. Birds of the Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bird list containng 201 documented species by either refuge staff or visiting ornithologists. Taxonomic standard adheres to Fifth A.O.U. Check-List. Species...

  8. Current methods of oiled bird rehabilitation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Oil Spill Response Workshop cosponsored by the Office of Migratory Bird Management and the Office of Biological Services, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Dept. of...

  9. Birds of the Shatan River Basin, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onolragchaa Ganbold

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In our study we recorded 149 species of birds belonging to 97 genera and 36 families in 15 orders. These bird species compose 32% of Mongolian registered bird fauna. Of these 149 species, 54% are passeriformes. Our observation was held in three different habitats: mountains ranging with rocks and forest (88 species, river basins (45 species, and an area around human habitation, specifically train stations outside towns (16 species. Of our studied bird species, 11 are enlisted in the International Union for Conservation of Nature red list as endangered, vulnerable, or near threatened species, and 144 are known as least concerned. Also 20 species are listed in Annexes I and II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, and 15 species are listed in Annexes I and II of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species.

  10. Causes of hatching failure in endangered birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmings, N.; West, M.; Birkhead, T. R.

    2012-01-01

    About 10 per cent of birds' eggs fail to hatch, but the incidence of failure can be much higher in endangered species. Most studies fail to distinguish between infertility (due to a lack of sperm) and embryo mortality as the cause of hatching failure, yet doing so is crucial in order to understand the underlying problem. Using newly validated techniques to visualize sperm and embryonic tissue, we assessed the fertility status of unhatched eggs of five endangered species, including both wild and captive birds. All eggs were classified as ‘infertile’ when collected, but most were actually fertile with numerous sperm on the ovum. Eggs of captive birds had fewer sperm and were more likely to be infertile than those of wild birds. Our findings raise important questions regarding the management of captive breeding programmes. PMID:22977070

  11. Riparian Birds - Sierra Nevada Foothill [ds303

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — These data are summary statistics of abundances of birds counted within 100-m radius circles with 10-minute point counts at multiple sample points along 36 randomly...

  12. Birds - Spears and Didion Ranches [ds315

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — These data are summary statistics of abundances of birds counted within 100-m radius circles with 10-minute point counts at 15 sample points within Spears and...

  13. THE BIODIVERSITY AT SANDI BIRD SANCTUARY, HARDOI WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO MIGRATORY BIRDS

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok Kumar; Meena Srivastav

    2013-01-01

    Indian subcontinent plays host to a number of migratory birds in summers as well as winters. It is estimated that over hundred species of migratory birds fly to India, either in search of feeding grounds or to escape the severe winter of their native habitat. Sandi bird sanctuary was created in 1990 in order to protect and conserve the natural habitation and surroundings and also the marine vegetation for the migratory birds, as well as for the local people of the region. The term migration i...

  14. The Design of Compass/BeiDou Navigation Satellite Terminal for Migrant Bird Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaohui Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A terminal of Compass Navigation Satellite System (CNSS, which can not only support BeiDou-1 and BeiDou-2 but also support Global Positioning System (GPS, is designed to research the activities of the migrant birds, with our novel design of a multiband antenna. By a high-density integration, this terminal is designed with a compact size and light weight. When the terminal is assembled to a whooper swan, its flying trace is recorded by the CNSS, which is in agreement with that of GPS. The flying route map based on the CNSS is useful to check the situation and habit of the migrant bird, which is important for animal protection and bird flu outbreak prediction.

  15. Hitchhikers’ guide to analysing bird ringing data

    OpenAIRE

    Harnos Andrea; Fehérvári Péter; Csörgő Tibor

    2015-01-01

    Bird ringing datasets constitute possibly the largest source of temporal and spatial information on vertebrate taxa available on the globe. Initially, the method was invented to understand avian migration patterns. However, data deriving from bird ringing has been used in an array of other disciplines including population monitoring, changes in demography, conservation management and to study the effects of climate change to name a few. Despite the widespread usage and importance, there are n...

  16. Flight performance of the largest volant bird

    OpenAIRE

    Ksepka, Daniel T.

    2014-01-01

    A fossil species of pelagornithid bird exhibits the largest known avian wingspan. Pelagornithids are an extinct group of birds known for bony tooth-like beak projections, large size, and highly modified wing bones that raise many questions about their ecology. At 6.4 m, the wingspan of this species was approximately two times that of the living Royal Albatross. Modeling of flight parameters in this species indicates that it was capable of highly efficient gliding and suggests that pelagornith...

  17. The birds of Genome10K

    OpenAIRE

    OBrien, Stephen J; Haussler, David; Ryder, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Everyone loves the birds of the world. From their haunting songs and majesty of flight to dazzling plumage and mating rituals, bird watchers – both amateurs and professionals - have marveled for centuries at their considerable adaptations. Now, we are offered a special treat with the publication of a series of papers in dedicated issues of Science, Genome Biology and GigaScience (which also included pre-publication data release). These present the successful beginnings of an international int...

  18. Zoonoses in pet birds: review and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Boseret, Geraldine; Losson, Bertrand; Mainil, Jacques G.; Thiry, Etienne; Saegerman, Claude

    2013-01-01

    Pet birds are a not-so-well known veterinarian’s clientship fraction. Bought individually or in couples, as families often do (which is a lucrative business for pet shops or local breeders) or traded (sometimes illegally) for their very high genetic or exotic value, these birds, commonly canaries, parakeets or parrots, are regularly sold at high prices. These animals, however, are potential carriers and/or transmitters of zoonotic diseases. Some of them could have an important impact on human...

  19. Green Light for Nocturnally Migrating Birds

    OpenAIRE

    Wernand, Marcel R.; Maurice A. H. Donners; Han de Vries; Ens, Bruno J.; Hanneke Poot; Joop M. Marquenie

    2008-01-01

    The nighttime sky is increasingly illuminated by artificial light sources. Although this ecological light pollution is damaging ecosystems throughout the world, the topic has received relatively little attention. Many nocturnally migrating birds die or lose a large amount of their energy reserves during migration as a result of encountering artificial light sources. This happens, for instance, in the North Sea, where large numbers of nocturnally migrating birds are attracted to the many offsh...

  20. Low Carbon Footprint Routes for Bird Watching

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-Ta Fang; Chin-Wei Huang; Jui-Yu Chou; Bai-You Cheng; Shang-Shu Shih

    2015-01-01

    Bird watching is one of many recreational activities popular in ecotourism. Its popularity, therefore, prompts the need for studies on energy conservation. One such environmentally friendly approach toward minimizing bird watching’s ecological impact is ensuring a reduced carbon footprint by using an economic travel itinerary comprising a series of connected routes between tourist attractions that minimizes transit time. This study used a travel-route planning approach using geographic info...

  1. Are there optimal densities for prairie birds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skagen, S.K.; Adams, A.A.Y.

    2010-01-01

    The major forces of food and predation shape fitness-enhancing decisions of birds at all stages of their life cycles. During the breeding season, birds can minimize nest loss due to predation by selecting sites with a lower probability of predation. To understand the environmental and social aspects and consequences of breedingsite selection in prairie birds, we explored variation in nest-survival patterns of the Lark Bunting (Calamospiza melanocorys) in the shortgrass prairie region of North America. Over four breeding seasons, we documented the survival of 405 nests, conducted 60 surveys to estimate bird densities, and measured several vegetative features to describe habitat structure in 24 randomly selected study plots. Nest survival varied with the buntings' density as described by a quadratic polynomial, increasing with density below 1.5 birds ha-1 and decreasing with density between 1.5 and 3 birds ha-1, suggesting that an optimal range of densities favors reproductive success of the Lark Bunting, which nests semi-colonially. Nest survival also increased with increasing vegetation structure of study plots and varied with age of the nest, increasing during early incubation and late in the nestling stage and declining slightly from mid-incubation to the middle of the nestling period. The existence of an optimal range of densities in this semi-colonial species can be elucidated by the "commodity-selection hypothesis" at low densities and density dependence at high densities. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2010.

  2. Chlamydophila psittaci infection of birds and humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Baş

    2015-04-01

    seen in infected birds. Transmission of infection to humans occurs through inhalation or direct contact and transmission through bird bites or human-to-human is rare. C. psittaci usually leads to the systemic infection associated with pneumonia in humans. In recent years, PCR based molecular methods are used as well as serological methods such as ELISA, CFT, MIF in diagnosis. Both of infected birds and humans, tetracyclines and macrolides are preferred for treatment of infection. In order to prevent the disease, due to there isn't any commercial vaccine for especially using in birds, applying biosafety rules is very important in terms of human health and economical aspects. Especially, veterinarians, bird breeders and dealers, poultry farmers and slaughterhouse workers are at high risk for C. psittaci infection. Due to the transmission to humans of psittacosis infection and accepting it as a potential biological weapon, it is thought to be important for public health. In this review, it is aimed to give detailed information about infection in human and birds, because it can be missed at the diagnosis, hence there is low awareness about disease and it has got variable clinical symptoms.

  3. The influence of sulphate deposition on the seasonal variation of peat pore water methyl Hg in a boreal mire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger Bergman

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the hypothesis that long-term sulphate (SO(4 (2- deposition has made peatlands a larger source of methyl mercury (MeHg to remote boreal lakes. This was done on experimental plots at a boreal, low sedge mire where the effect of long-term addition of SO(4 (2- on peat pore water MeHg concentrations was observed weekly throughout the snow-free portion of 1999. The additions of SO(4 (2- started in 1995. The seasonal mean of the pore water MeHg concentrations on the plots with 17 kg ha(-1 yr(-1 of sulphur (S addition (1.3±0.08 ng L(-1, SE; n = 44 was significantly (p2 ng L(-1 compared to +/-0.5 ng L(-1 in the ambient S deposition plots. The concentrations of pore water MeHg in the S-addition plots were positively correlated (r(2 = 0.21; p = 0.001 to the groundwater level, with the lowest concentrations of MeHg during the period with the lowest groundwater levels. The pore water MeHg concentrations were not correlated to total Hg, DOC concentration or pH. The results from this study indicate that the persistently higher pore water concentrations of MeHg in the S-addition plots are caused by the long-term additions of SO(4 (2- to the mire surface. Since these waters are an important source of runoff, the results support the hypothesis that SO(4 (2- deposition has increased the contribution of peatlands to MeHg in downstream aquatic systems. This would mean that the increased deposition of SO(4 (2- in acid rain has contributed to the modern increase in the MeHg burdens of remote lakes hydrologically connected to peatlands.

  4. 9 CFR 95.30 - Restrictions on entry of products and byproducts of poultry, game birds, or other birds from...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... byproducts of poultry, game birds, or other birds from regions where highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI... THE UNITED STATES § 95.30 Restrictions on entry of products and byproducts of poultry, game birds, or other birds from regions where highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N1 exists....

  5. Landscape, Legal, and Biodiversity Threats that Windows Pose to Birds: A Review of an Important Conservation Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Klem Jr.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Windows in human residential and commercial structures in urban, suburban, and rural landscapes contribute to the deaths of billions of birds worldwide. International treaties, federal, provincial, state, and municipal laws exist to reduce human-associated avian mortality, but are most often not enforced for bird kills resulting from window strikes. As an additive, compared to a compensatory mortality factor, window collisions pose threats to the sustainability and overall population health of common as well as species of special concern. Several solutions to address the window hazard for birds exist, but the most innovative and promising need encouragement and support to market, manufacture, and implement.

  6. ON CORRELATING BIRD MIGRATION TRAJECTORY WITH CLIMATE CHANGES

    OpenAIRE

    Oleinik, Janaina; de Macedo, Jose Antonio Fernandes; Yuanjian, Wang Zufferey

    2009-01-01

    Climate changes are expected to affect bird migration in several aspects including timing changes, breeding and migration orientation. The correlation analysis of several climate conditions (e.g. temperature, wind, humidity, etc) and bird migration trajectory is the key for explaining bird behavior during migration. Moreover, the resulting correlation can be used for predicting new bird behavior according to climate changes. In this paper we propose an integrated solution for correlating bird...

  7. The Flight of Birds and Other Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin J. Pennycuick

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Methods of observing birds in flight now include training them to fly under known conditions in wind tunnels, and fitting free-flying birds with data loggers, that are either retrieved or read remotely via satellite links. The performance that comes to light depends on the known limitations of the materials from which they are made, and the conditions in which the birds live. Bird glide polars can be obtained by training birds to glide in a tilting wind tunnel. Translating these curves to power required from the flight muscles in level flight requires drag coefficients to be measured, which unfortunately does not work with bird bodies, because the flow is always fully detached. The drag of bodies in level flight can be determined by observing wingbeat frequency, and shows CD values around 0.08 in small birds, down to 0.06 in small waders specialised for efficient migration. Lift coefficients are up to 1.6 in gliding, or 1.8 for short, temporary glides. In-flight measurements can be used to calculate power curves for birds in level flight, and this has been applied to migrating geese in detail. These typically achieve lift:drag ratios around 15, including allowances for stops, as against 19 for continuous powered flight. The same calculations, applied to Pacific Black-tailed Godwits which start with fat fractions up to 0.55 at departure, show that such birds not only cross the Pacific to New Zealand, but have enough fuel in hand to reach the South Pole if that were necessary. This performance depends on the “dual fuel” arrangements of these migrants, whereby they use fat as their main fuel, and supplement this by extra fuel from burning the engine (flight muscles, as less power is needed later in the flight. The accuracy of these power curves has never been checked, although provision for stopping the bird, and making these checks at regular intervals during a simulated flight was built into the original design of the Lund wind tunnel. The

  8. Density and Diversity of Water Birds and Terrestrial Birds at Paya Indah Wetland Reserve, Selangor Peninsular Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Zakaria, M; M.N. Rajpar

    2010-01-01

    The main objectives of this study was to determine and compare the density and diversity of water birds and terrestrial birds using distance sampling point count method at Paya Indah Wetland Reserve, Selangor Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 13872 bird individuals from 100 bird species were recorded in the wetland reserve. Out of the total, 25 (22.26% of all detections) and 75 (77.74% of all detections) bird species belong to water birds and terrestrial birds respectively. The results showed t...

  9. Fire cycle of the Canada's boreal region and its potential response to global change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Quan-fa; CHEN Wen-jun

    2007-01-01

    Interactions of fire cycle and plant species' reproductive characteristics could determine vegetation distribution pattern of a landscape. In Canada's boreal region, fire cycles before the Little Ice Age (c. 1850s) ranged from 30-130 years and 25-234 years afterwards until the settlement period (c. 1930s) when longer fire cycles occurred in response to climatic change and human interference. Analysis indicated that fire cycles were correlated with growing season (April-October) temperature and precipitation departure from the 1961-1990 normal, varying by regions. Assuming that wildfires will respond to future warming similar to the manner during the past century, an assessment using climatic change scenarios CGCM1, CGCM2 and HadCM2 indicates fire cycles would divert to a range of 80-140 years in the west taiga shield, more than 700 years for the east boreal shield and east taiga shield, and 300-400 years for the boreal plains in 2050.

  10. Contribution of vegetation and water table on isoprene emission from boreal peatland microcosms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiiva, Päivi; Faubert, Patrick; Räty, Sanna;

    2009-01-01

    Boreal peatlands are substantial sources of isoprene, a reactive hydrocarbon. However, it is not known how much mosses, vascular plants and peat each contribute to isoprene emission from peatlands. Furthermore, there is no information on the effects of declining water table depth on isoprene...... emission in these naturally wet ecosystems, although water table is predicted to decline due to climate warming. We studied the relative contribution of mosses vs. vascular plants to isoprene emission in boreal peatland microcosms in growth chambers by removing either vascular vegetation or both vascular...... vegetation and mosses. The microcosms represented wet hollows and dry hummocks of a boreal ombrotrophic bog. A water table drawdown treatment was applied to the hollows with naturally high water table. The mean (±SE) isoprene emission from hummocks with intact vegetation, 30 ± 6 µg m-2 h-1, was decreased by...

  11. boreal forest when timber prices and tree growth are stochastic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Timo Pukkala

    2015-01-01

    Background:Decisions on forest management are made under risk and uncertainty because the stand development cannot be predicted exactly and future timber prices are unknown. Deterministic calculations may lead to biased advice on optimal forest management. The study optimized continuous cover management of boreal forest in a situation where tree growth, regeneration, and timber prices include uncertainty. Methods:Both anticipatory and adaptive optimization approaches were used. The adaptive approach optimized the reservation price function instead of fixed cutting years. The future prices of different timber assortments were described by cross-correlated auto-regressive models. The high variation around ingrowth model was simulated using a model that describes the cross-and autocorrelations of the regeneration results of different species and years. Tree growth was predicted with individual tree models, the predictions of which were adjusted on the basis of a climate-induced growth trend, which was stochastic. Residuals of the deterministic diameter growth model were also simulated. They consisted of random tree factors and cross-and autocorrelated temporal terms. Results:Of the analyzed factors, timber price caused most uncertainty in the calculation of the net present value of a certain management schedule. Ingrowth and climate trend were less significant sources of risk and uncertainty than tree growth. Stochastic anticipatory optimization led to more diverse post-cutting stand structures than obtained in deterministic optimization. Cutting interval was shorter when risk and uncertainty were included in the analyses. Conclusions:Adaptive optimization and management led to 6%–14%higher net present values than obtained in management that was based on anticipatory optimization. Increasing risk aversion of the forest landowner led to earlier cuttings in a mature stand. The effect of risk attitude on optimization results was small.

  12. Ocean-atmosphere coupling and the boreal winter MJO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hye-Mi; Hoyos, Carlos D.; Webster, Peter J. [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Earth and Atmospheric Science, Atlanta, GA (United States); Kang, In-Sik [Seoul National University, School of Earth and Environmental Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    The influence of ocean-atmosphere coupling on the simulation and prediction of the boreal winter Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is examined using the Seoul National University coupled general circulation model (CGCM) and atmospheric - only model (AGCM). The AGCM is forced with daily SSTs interpolated from pentad mean CGCM SSTs. Forecast skill is examined using serial extended simulations spanning 26 different winter seasons with 30-day forecasts commencing every 5 days providing a total of 598 30-day simulations. By comparing both sets of experiments, which share the same atmospheric components, the influence of coupled ocean-atmosphere processes on the simulation and prediction of MJO can be studied. The mean MJO intensity possesses more realistic amplitude in the CGCM than in AGCM. In general, the ocean-atmosphere coupling acts to improve the simulation of the spatio-temporal evolution of the eastward propagating MJO and the phase relationship between convection (OLR) and SST over the equatorial Indian Ocean and the western Pacific. Both the CGCM and observations exhibit a near-quadrature relationship between OLR and SST, with the former lagging by about two pentads. However, the AGCM shows a less realistic phase relationship. As the initial conditions are the same in both models, the additional forcing by SST anomalies in the CGCM extends the prediction skill beyond that of the AGCM. To test the applicability of the CGCM to real-time prediction, we compute the Real-time Multivariate MJO (RMM) index and compared it with the index computed from observations. RMM1 (RMM2) falls away rapidly to 0.5 after 17-18 (15-16) days in the AGCM and 18-19 (16-17) days in the CGCM. The prediction skill is phase dependent in both the CGCM and AGCM. (orig.)

  13. Riparian zone controls on base cation concentrations in boreal streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. J. Ledesma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest riparian zones are a major in control of surface water quality. Base cation (BC concentrations, fluxes, and cycling in the riparian zone merit attention because of increasing concern of negative consequences for re-acidification of surface waters from future climate and forest harvesting scenarios. We present a two-year study of BC and silica (Si flow-weighted concentrations from 13 riparian zones and 14 streams in a boreal catchment in northern Sweden. The Riparian Flow-Concentration Integration Model (RIM was used to estimate riparian zone flow-weighted concentrations and tested to predict the stream flow-weighted concentrations. Spatial variation in BC and Si concentrations as well as in flow-weighted concentrations was related to differences in Quaternary deposits, with the largest contribution from lower lying silty sediments and the lowest contribution from wetland areas higher up in the catchment. Temporal stability in the concentrations of most elements, a remarkably stable Mg / Ca ratio in the soil water and a homogeneous mineralogy suggest that the stable patterns found in the riparian zones are a result of distinct mineralogical upslope groundwater signals integrating the chemical signals of biological and chemical weathering. Stream water Mg / Ca ratio indicates that the signal is subsequently maintained in the streams. RIM gave good predictions of Ca, Mg, and Na flow-weighted concentrations in headwater streams. The difficulty in modelling K and Si suggests a stronger biogeochemical influence on these elements. The observed chemical dilution effect with flow in the streams was related to variation in groundwater levels and element concentration profiles in the riparian zones. This study provides a first step toward specific investigations of the vulnerability of riparian zones to changes induced by forest management or climate change, with focus on BC or other compounds.

  14. Simulation of Snow Processes Beneath a Boreal Scots Pine Canopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Weiping; LUO Yong; XIA Kun; LIU Xin

    2008-01-01

    A physically-based multi-layer snow model Snow-Atmosphere-Soil-Transfer scheme (SAST) and a land surface model Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) were employed to investigate how boreal forests influence snow accumulation and ablation under the canopy. Mass balance and energetics of snow beneath a Scots pine canopy in Finland at different stages of the 2003-2004 and 2004-2005 snow seasons are analyzed. For the fairly dense Scots pine forest, drop-off of the canopy-intercepted snow contributes, in some cases, twice as much to the underlying snowpack as the direct throughfall of snow. During early winter snow melting, downward turbulent sensible and condensation heat fluxes play a dominant role together with downward net longwave radiation. In the final stage of snow ablation in middle spring, downward net all-wave radiation dominates the snow melting. Although the downward sensible heat flux is comparable to the net solar radiation during this period, evaporative cooling of the melting snow surface makes the turbulent heat flux weaker than net radiation. Sensitivities of snow processes to leaf area index (LAI) indicate that a denser canopy speeds up early winter snowmelt, but also suppresses melting later in the snow season. Higher LAI increases the interception of snowfall, therefore reduces snow accumulation under the canopy during the snow season; this effect and the enhancement of downward longwave radiation by denser foliage outweighs the increased attenuation of solar radiation, resulting in earlier snow ablation under a denser canopy. The difference in sensitivities to LAI in two snow seasons implies that the impact of canopy density on the underlying snowpack is modulated by interannual variations of climate regimes.

  15. Remote sensing of interannual boreal forest NDVI in relation to climatic conditions in interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbyla, David

    2015-12-01

    Climate has warmed substantially in interior Alaska and several remote sensing studies have documented a decadal-scale decline in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) termed a ‘browning trend’. Reduced summer soil moisture due to changing climatic factors such as earlier springs, less snowpack, and summer drought may reduce boreal productivity and NDVI. However, the relative importance of these climatic factors is poorly understood in boreal interior Alaska. In this study, I used the remotely sensed peak summer NDVI as an index of boreal productivity at 250 m pixel size from 2000 to 2014. Maximum summer NDVI was related to last day of spring snow, early spring snow water equivalent (SWE), and a summer moisture index. There was no significant correlation between early spring SWE and peak summer NDVI. There was a significant correlation between the last day of spring snow and peak summer NDVI, but only for a few higher elevation stations. This was likely due to snowmelt occurring later at higher elevations, thus having a greater effect on summer soil moisture relative to lower elevation sites. For most of boreal interior Alaska, summer drought was likely the dominant control on peak summer NDVI and this effect may persist for several years. Peak summer NDVI declined at all 26 stations after the 2004 drought, and the decline persisted for 2 years at all stations. Due to the shallow rooting zone of most boreal plants, even cool and moist sites at lower elevations are likely vulnerable to drought. For example the peak summer NDVI response following the 2004 drought was similar for adjacent cold and warm watershed basins. Thus, if frequent and severe summer droughts continue, moisture stress effects are likely to be widespread and prolonged throughout most of interior boreal Alaska, including relatively cool, moist sites regardless of spring snowpack conditions or spring phenology.

  16. Boreal wildfire emissions from Alaska, USA and Zabaikalsky krai, Russia 2002-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Kirsten

    2015-04-01

    Boreal forests are the largest terrestrial biome, and account for 27% of global forest cover and a major sink of atmospheric carbon. Increasing wildfire activity in some boreal regions threatens accumulated carbon stocks through combustion, decomposition, and reduced potential for future uptake. There is substantial spatial variability in boreal wildfire characteristics, particularly at the continental scale, which results from differences in climate and vegetation composition between boreal forests in Eurasia and North America. Quantifying boreal wildfire characteristics such as frequency and intensity at a global scale is possible using active fire detection datasets such as those available from AVHRR and MODIS. This study uses the MODIS MCD14ML to compare wildfire emissions (calculated from Fire Radiative Energy) from Interior Alaska, USA and Zabaikalsky krai, Russia between 2002 and 2012. Both regions have experienced increasing fire frequency and severity over the last several decades, likely in response to changing temperature and precipitation regimes. The two regions are similar in size and cumulative emissions, but boreal wildfires in Alaska are generally more intense and produce more emissions per unit area. Wildfire emissions in the Alaskan Interior are also higher due to a longer "residence time" of fires, which may smoulder in the duff layer for several weeks after a front has passed. This "residual burning" accounted for an average of 64% of active fire detections in Interior Alaska, and 47% of those from Zabaikalye, although interannual variability was substantial. The fraction of residual burning was higher in both regions during larger fire years, when presumably more biomass is available to sustain combustion. The relationship between burned area and fraction of residual burning was stronger in Alaska, possibly due to a greater tendency for ground fires to smoulder in thick duff layers found in black spruce-sphagnum dominated areas. Although

  17. Understanding Long-Term Boreal Soil Carbon Accumulation: Insight from a Dynamic Layered Soil Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, J. J.; Harden, J. W.; Neff, J. C.

    2004-12-01

    Despite repeated fire disturbance, low-lying boreal forests have managed to accumulate large and globally significant stocks of C. Furthermore, boreal soils have historically occupied discontinuous and continuous permafrost zones and currently are experiencing a warming climate. Combined, these factors may result in loss of permafrost and increase in decomposition of the soil C. However, before attempting to assess the potential for future change in boreal soil C, the decadal to millennial mechanisms of soil C cycling and accumulation must be well understood. To that end, we developed a dynamic layered long-term soil C model to specifically address: 1) the influence of the soil thermal regime, 2) substrate recalcitrance through humification, and 3) the role of permafrost on the preservation and accumulation of boreal soil C. We included radiocarbon in our model so that we could compare soil C stocks as well as radiocarbon distribution to observations from a well studied Old Black Spruce (OBS) site in Manitoba, Canada. Using parameters from the literature, our results indicate that the accumulation of boreal soil C is dependent on the interaction between the soil thermal regime and humification. While these factors account for much of the soil C accumulation observed at OBS, the weighted average radiocarbon in the modeled deep soil was too new, suggesting a lack of preservation and accumulation of old soil C. However, upon inclusion of a permafrost layer for several centuries, not only the C accumulation and distribution between shallow and deep soil layers improved, but the weighted average radiocarbon markedly improved with respect to the OBS site. Our results suggest that: 1) in the absence of permafrost, deep soil C turnover time is on the order of 200-300 y rather than the previous estimates of up to and greater than 1000 y and 2) the legacy from recent shifts in boreal climate and permafrost must be considered when evaluating current observations.

  18. Chernobyl birds have smaller brains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Pape Møller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Animals living in areas contaminated by radioactive material from Chernobyl suffer from increased oxidative stress and low levels of antioxidants. Therefore, normal development of the nervous system is jeopardized as reflected by high frequencies of developmental errors, reduced brain size and impaired cognitive abilities in humans. Alternatively, associations between psychological effects and radiation have been attributed to post-traumatic stress in humans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Here we used an extensive sample of 550 birds belonging to 48 species to test the prediction that even in the absence of post-traumatic stress, there is a negative association between relative brain size and level of background radiation. We found a negative association between brain size as reflected by external head volume and level of background radiation, independent of structural body size and body mass. The observed reduction in brain size in relation to background radiation amounted to 5% across the range of almost a factor 5,000 in radiation level. Species differed significantly in reduction in brain size with increasing background radiation, and brain size was the only morphological character that showed a negative relationship with radiation. Brain size was significantly smaller in yearlings than in older individuals. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Low dose radiation can have significant effects on normal brain development as reflected by brain size and therefore potentially cognitive ability. The fact that brain size was smaller in yearlings than in older individuals implies that there was significant directional selection on brain size with individuals with larger brains experiencing a viability advantage.

  19. Terrestrial bird population trends on Aguiguan (Goat Island), Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amidon, Fred; Camp, Richard J.; Marshall, Ann P.; Pratt, Thane K.; Williams, Laura; Radley, Paul; Cruz, Justine B.

    2014-01-01

    The island of Aguiguan is part of the Mariana archipelago and currently supports populations of four endemic species, including one endemic genus, Cleptornis. Bird population trends since 1982 were recently assessed on the neighbouring islands of Saipan, Tinian, and Rota indicating declines in some native species. Point-transect surveys were conducted in 2008 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to assess population densities and trends on Aguiguan. Densities for six of the nine native birds—White-throated Ground-dove Gallicolumba xanthonura, Collared Kingfisher Todiramphus chloris, Rufous Fantail Rhipidura rufifrons, Golden White-eye Cleptornis marchei, Bridled White-eye Zosterops conspicillatus and Micronesian Starling Aplonis opaca—and the non-native bird—Island Collared-dove Streptopelia bitorquata—were significantly greater in 2008 than in 1982. No differences in densities were detected among the surveys for Mariana Fruit-dove Ptilinopus roseicapilla, and Micronesian MyzomelaMyzomela rubratra. Three federally and locally listed endangered birds—Nightingale Reed-warbler Acrocephalus luscinius, Mariana Swiftlet Collocalia bartschi, and Micronesian Megapode Megapodius laperous)—were either not detected during the point-transect counts, the surveys were not appropriate for the species, or the numbers of birds detected were too small to estimate densities. The factors behind the increasing trends for some species are unknown but may be related to increased forest cover on the island since 1982. With declining trends for some native species on neighbouring islands, the increasing and stable trends on Aguiguan is good news for forest bird populations in the region, as Aguiguan populations can help support conservation efforts on other islands in the archipelago.

  20. Coevolution of caudal skeleton and tail feathers in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felice, Ryan N

    2014-12-01

    Birds are capable of a wide range of aerial locomotor behaviors in part because of the derived structure and function of the avian tail. The tail apparatus consists of a several mobile (free) caudal vertebrae, a terminal skeletal element (the pygostyle), and an articulated fan of tail feathers that may be spread or folded, as well as muscular and fibroadipose structures that facilitate tail movements. Morphological variation in both the tail fan and the caudal skeleton that supports it are well documented. The structure of the tail feathers and the pygostyle each evolve in response to functional demands of differing locomotor behaviors. Here, I test whether the integument and skeleton coevolve in this important locomotor module. I quantified feather and skeletal morphology in a diverse sample of waterbirds and shorebirds using a combination of linear and geometric morphometrics. Covariation between tail fan shape and skeletal morphology was then tested using phylogenetic comparative methods. Pygostyle shape is found to be a good predictor of tail fan shape (e.g., forked, graduated), supporting the hypothesis that the tail fan and the tail skeleton have coevolved. This statistical relationship is used to reconstruct feather morphology in an exemplar fossil waterbird, Limnofregata azygosternon. Based on pygostyle morphology, this taxon is likely to have exhibited a forked tail fan similar to that of its extant sister clade Fregata, despite differing in inferred ecology and other aspects of skeletal anatomy. These methods may be useful in reconstructing rectricial morphology in other extinct birds and thus assist in characterizing the evolution of flight control surfaces in birds. PMID:25139752

  1. Regional-scale surface flux observations across the boreal forest during BOREAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oncley, S.P.; Lenschow, D.H.; Campos, T.L.;

    1997-01-01

    A major role of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Electra aircraft during the Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) was to measure fluxes of momentum, sensible and latent heat, carbon dioxide, and ozone on a transect that crossed the entire boreal forest biome. The observat...... along the transect. Lakes are also found to be large sinks of available radiant energy. Regional ground storage of heat is estimated to be about 30% of the net radiation over the forest, and 40% over the subarctic tundra, largely due to the presence of lakes....

  2. Plants go with the flow : predicting spatial distribution of plant species in the boreal forest

    OpenAIRE

    Zinko, Ursula

    2004-01-01

    The main objectives of this thesis are to study if a topographic wetness index (TWI) could be used as a tool for predicting the spatial distribution of vascular plant species richness in the boreal forest as well as to study congruence in species richness between vascular plants, liverworts, mosses and lichens. A wetness index ln(a/tanβ) based on topography was used to assign a specific TWI-value to every 20 x 20m grid in two 25 km2 boreal forest landscapes (differing in average soil pH) in n...

  3. Effect of Tree Species and Mycorrhizal Colonization on the Archaeal Population of Boreal Forest Rhizospheres▿

    OpenAIRE

    Bomberg, Malin; Timonen, Sari

    2008-01-01

    Group 1.1c Crenarchaeota are the predominating archaeal group in acidic boreal forest soils. In this study, we show that the detection frequency of 1.1c crenarchaeotal 16S rRNA genes in the rhizospheres of the boreal forest trees increased following colonization by the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus. This effect was very clear in the fine roots of Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, and Betula pendula, the most common forest trees in Finland. The nonmycorrhizal fine roots had a clearly ...

  4. Short-term Response of Breeding Barred Owls to Forestry in a Boreal Mixedwood Forest Landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Ben T. Olsen; Susan J. Hannon; Gordon S. Court

    2006-01-01

    Forestry and other activities are increasing in the boreal mixedwood of Alberta, with a concomitant decrease in older forest. The Barred Owl (Strix varia) is an old-growth indicator species in some jurisdictions in North America. Hence, we radio-tagged Barred Owls in boreal mixedwood in Alberta to determine whether harvesting influenced habitat selection. We used three spatial scales: nest sites, i.e., nest tree and adjacent area of 11.7 m radius around nests, nesting territory of 1000 m radi...

  5. Differentiating moss from higher plants is critical in studying the carbon cycle of the boreal biome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Wenping; Liu, Shuguang; Dong, Wenjie;

    2014-01-01

    The satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), which is used for estimating gross primary production (GPP), often includes contributions from both mosses and vascular plants in boreal ecosystems. For the same NDVI, moss can generate only about one-third of the GPP that...... vascular plants can because of its much lower photosynthetic capacity. Here, based on eddy covariance measurements, we show that the difference in photosynthetic capacity between these two plant functional types has never been explicitly included when estimating regional GPP in the boreal region, resulting...

  6. 77 FR 17353 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... FR 68264) a proposed rule that provided our proposed migratory bird subsistence harvest regulations... Federal Register a proposed rule (76 FR 68264) to establish spring and summer migratory bird subsistence... Register on August 16, 2002 (67 FR 53511) and most recently on March 29, 2011 (76 FR 17353). Recent...

  7. A sonic net excludes birds from an airfield: implications for reducing bird strike and crop losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaddle, John P; Moseley, Dana L; Hinders, Mark K; Smith, Elizabeth P

    2016-03-01

    Collisions between birds and aircraft cause billions of dollars of damages annually to civil, commercial, and military aviation. Yet technology to reduce bird strike is not generally effective, especially over longer time periods. Previous information from our lab indicated that filling an area with acoustic noise, which masks important communication channels for birds, can displace European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) from food sources. Here we deployed a spatially controlled noise (termed a "sonic net"), designed to overlap with the frequency range of bird vocalizations, at an airfield. By conducting point counts, we monitored the presence of birds for four weeks before deployment of our sonic net, and for four weeks during deployment. We found an 82% reduction in bird presence in the sonic net area compared with change in the reference areas. This effect was as strong in the fourth week of exposure as in the first week. We also calculated the potential costs avoided resulting from this exclusion. We propose that spatially controlled acoustic manipulations that mask auditory communication for birds may be an effective long term and fairly benign way of excluding problem birds from areas of socioeconomic importance, such as airfields, agricultural sites, and commercial properties. PMID:27209777

  8. Bird pollination of Canary Island endemic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollerton, Jeff; Cranmer, Louise; Stelzer, Ralph J.; Sullivan, Steve; Chittka, Lars

    2009-02-01

    The Canary Islands are home to a guild of endemic, threatened bird-pollinated plants. Previous work has suggested that these plants evolved floral traits as adaptations to pollination by flower specialist sunbirds, but subsequently, they appear to have co-opted generalist passerine birds as sub-optimal pollinators. To test this idea, we carried out a quantitative study of the pollination biology of three of the bird-pollinated plants, Canarina canariensis (Campanulaceae), Isoplexis canariensis (Veronicaceae) and Lotus berthelotii (Fabaceae), on the island of Tenerife. Using colour vision models, we predicted the detectability of flowers to bird and bee pollinators. We measured pollinator visitation rates, nectar standing crops as well as seed-set and pollen removal and deposition. These data showed that the plants are effectively pollinated by non-flower specialist passerine birds that only occasionally visit flowers. The large nectar standing crops and extended flower longevities (>10 days) of Canarina and Isoplexis suggests that they have evolved a bird pollination system that effectively exploits these low frequency non-specialist pollen vectors and is in no way sub-optimal. Seed set in two of the three species was high and was significantly reduced or zero in flowers where pollinator access was restricted. In L. berthelotii, however, no fruit set was observed, probably because the plants were self-incompatible horticultural clones of a single genet. We also show that, while all three species are easily detectable for birds, the orange Canarina and the red Lotus (but less so the yellow-orange Isoplexis) should be difficult to detect for insect pollinators without specialised red receptors, such as bumblebees. Contrary to expectations if we accept that the flowers are primarily adapted to sunbird pollination, the chiffchaff ( Phylloscopus canariensis) was an effective pollinator of these species.

  9. Revegetation of non-Acid-generating, thickened tailings with boreal trees: a greenhouse study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larchevêque, Marie; Desrochers, Annie; Bussière, Bruno; Cartier, Hélène; David, Jean-Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Tree planting presents clear advantages for mine reclamation that is aimed at achieving rapid reclamation of forested landscapes. A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the capacity of non-acid-generating, thickened tailings to support six boreal tree species during two growing seasons. One treatment was thickened tailings alone fertilized with inorganic N, P, and K fertilizer or chicken () manure. A thin layer of overburden topsoil was used to cover the tailings and was compared with topsoil alone, where normal tree growth was expected. Two amendments were also tested: overburden topsoil and vermicompost from food wastes. The presence of alkaline thickened tailings under the thin layer of acidic topsoil had a positive effect on tree height and root biomass (broadleaved and jack pine [ Lamb.]) by increasing topsoil pH and available Ca concentrations, which decreased Al, Zn, and Mn phytoavailability to trees; however, root contact with the tailings also increased their Cu concentrations. In thickened tailings that were mixed with topsoil, C/N ratios increased along the experiment from 21 to 40, a value where N immobilization by microorganisms occurred, as suggested by low N concentrations in tree tissues. In consequence, tree height growth (broadleaved) and biomass (conifers) were reduced. Amendment with compost raised the electrical conductivity (3.4 dS cm) to thresholds limiting broadleaved survival, while conifers showed a generalized decrease in biomass production. No trace metal contamination of the trees occurred in the mixtures, probably due to the near-neutral pH conferred by the tailings. PMID:23673827

  10. Regional Heat Sources and the Active and Break Phases of Boreal Summer Intraseasonal Variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annamalai, H; Sperber, K R

    2003-12-15

    The boreal summer intraseasonal variability (BSISV) associated with the 30-50 day mode is represented by the co-existence of three components, poleward propagation of convection over the Indian and tropical west Pacific longitudes and eastward propagation along the equator. The hypothesis that the three components influence each other has been investigated using observed OLR, NCEP-NCAR reanalysis, and solutions from an idealized linear model. The null hypothesis is that the three components are mutually independent. Cyclostationary EOF (CsEOF) analysis is applied on filtered OLR to extract the life-cycle of the BSISV. The dominant mode of CsEOF is significantly tied to observed rainfall over the Indian subcontinent. The components of the heating patterns from CsEOF analysis serve as prescribed forcings for the linear model. This allows us to ascertain which heat sources and sinks are instrumental in driving the large-scale monsoon circulation during the BSISV life-cycle. We identify three new findings: (1) the circulation anomalies that develop as a Rossby wave response to suppressed convection over the equatorial Indian Ocean associated with the previous break phase of the BSISV precondition the ocean-atmosphere system in the western Indian Ocean and trigger the next active phase of the BSISV, (2) the development of convection over the tropical west Pacific forces descent anomalies to the west. This, in conjunction with the weakened cross-equatorial flow due to suppressed convective anomalies over the equatorial Indian Ocean reduce the tropospheric moisture over the Arabian Sea, and promote westerly wind anomalies that do not recurve over India. As a result the low-level cyclonic vorticity shifts from India to southeast Asia and break conditions are initiated over India, and (3) the circulation anomalies forced by equatorial Indian Ocean convective anomalies significantly influence the active/break phases over the tropical west Pacific. Our model solutions support

  11. First evidence of independent pseudogenization of Toll-like receptor 5 in passerine birds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bainová, H.; Králová, Tereza; Bryjová, Anna; Albrecht, Tomáš; Bryja, Josef; Vinkler, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 1 (2014), s. 151-155. ISSN 0145-305X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/1871 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Birds * Expression * Innate immunity * Toll-like receptor 5 * Pseudogene * Flagellin Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.815, year: 2014

  12. How the Yellowhammer became a Kiwi: the history of an alien bird invasion revealed

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pipek, P.; Pyšek, Petr; Blackburn, T. M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 1 (2015), s. 1-31. ISSN 1619-0033 Grant ostatní: AV ČR(CZ) Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : bird invasions * historical records * New Zealand Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  13. Rickettsia bellii in ticks Amblyomma varium Koch, 1844, from birds in Peru

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ogrzewalska, M.; Literák, I.; Cárdenas-Callirgos, J. M.; Čapek, Miroslav; Labruna, M. B.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 4 (2012), s. 254-256. ISSN 1877-959X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA601690901; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Rickettsia bellii * ticks * Amblyomma calcaratum * birds * Peru Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.353, year: 2012

  14. Geographical variation in bill size across bird species provides evidence for Allen's rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, Matthew R E; Tattersall, Glenn J

    2010-08-01

    Allen's rule proposes that the appendages of endotherms are smaller, relative to body size, in colder climates, in order to reduce heat loss. Empirical support for Allen's rule is mainly derived from occasional reports of geographical clines in extremity size of individual species. Interspecific evidence is restricted to two studies of leg proportions in seabirds and shorebirds. We used phylogenetic comparative analyses of 214 bird species to examine whether bird bills, significant sites of heat exchange, conform to Allen's rule. The species comprised eight diverse taxonomic groups-toucans, African barbets, Australian parrots, estrildid finches, Canadian galliforms, penguins, gulls, and terns. Across all species, there were strongly significant relationships between bill length and both latitude and environmental temperature, with species in colder climates having significantly shorter bills. Patterns supporting Allen's rule in relation to latitudinal or altitudinal distribution held within all groups except the finches. Evidence for a direct association with temperature was found within four groups (parrots, galliforms, penguins, and gulls). Support for Allen's rule in leg elements was weaker, suggesting that bird bills may be more susceptible to thermoregulatory constraints generally. Our results provide the strongest comparative support yet published for Allen's rule and demonstrate that thermoregulation has been an important factor in shaping the evolution of bird bills. PMID:20545560

  15. Teaching and Learning about Birds in the Early Years--A Few Ideas for Getting Started

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ann

    2009-01-01

    This article supports teachers of lower primary and preschool children to introduce a study of local birds, the type of investigations considered to be part of wider environmental education. It is of a practical nature and incorporates resources and ideas that the author has found useful in her work with children and with pre-service student…

  16. Variation in clutch size in relation to nest size in birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Møller, Anders P.; Adriaensen, Frank; Artemyev, Alexandr; Bańbura, Jerzy; Barba, Emilio; Biard, Clotilde; Blondel, Jacques; Bouslama, Zihad; Bouvier, Jean-Charles; Camprodon, Jordi; Cecere, Francesco; Charmantier, Anne; Charter, Motti; Cichoń, Mariusz; Cusimano, Camillo; Czeszczewik, Dorota; Demeyrier, Virginie; Doligez, Blandine; Doutrelant, Claire; Dubiec, Anna; Eens, Marcel; Eeva, Tapio; Faivre, Bruno; Ferns, Peter N.; Forsman, Jukka T.; García-Del-Rey, Eduardo; Goldshtein, Aya; Goodenough, Anne E.; Gosler, Andrew G.; Góźdź, Iga; Grégoire, Arnaud; Gustafsson, Lars; Hartley, Ian R.; Heeb, Philipp; Hinsley, Shelley A.; Isenmann, Paul; Jacob, Staffan; Järvinen, Antero; Juškaitis, Rimvydas; Korpimäki, Erkki; Krams, Indrikis; Laaksonen, Toni; Leclercq, Bernard; Lehikoinen, Esa; Loukola, Olli; Lundberg, Arne; Mainwaring, Mark C.; Mänd, Raivo; Massa, Bruno; Mazgajski, Tomasz D.; Merino, Santiago; Mitrus, Cezary; Mönkkönen, Mikko; Morales-Fernaz, Judith; Morin, Xavier; Nager, Ruedi G.; Nilsson, Jan-Åke; Nilsson, Sven G.; Norte, Ana C.; Orell, Markku; Perret, Philippe; Pimentel, Carla S.; Pinxten, Rianne; Priedniece, Ilze; Quidoz, Marie-Claude; Remeš, Vladimir; Richner, Heinz; Robles, Hugo; Rytkönen, Seppo; Senar, Juan Carlos; Seppänen, Janne T.; da Silva, Luís P.; Slagsvold, Tore; Solonen, Tapio; Sorace, Alberto; Stenning, Martyn J.; Török, János; Tryjanowski, Piotr; van Noordwijk, Arie J.; von Numers, Mikael; Walankiewicz, Wiesław; Lambrechts, Marcel M.

    2014-01-01

    Nests are structures built to support and protect eggs and/or offspring from predators, parasites, and adverse weather conditions. Nests are mainly constructed prior to egg laying, meaning that parent birds must make decisions about nest site choice and nest building behavior before the start of egg

  17. Bacteria of the genus Rickettsia in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from birds in Costa Rica

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ogrzewalska, M.; Literák, I.; Čapek, Miroslav; Sychra, O.; Calderón, V. Á.; Rodríguez, B. C.; Prudencio, C.; Martins, T. F.; Labruna, M. B.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 4 (2015), s. 478-482. ISSN 1877-959X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA601690901 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Rickettsia * Ticks * Birds * Ixodes * Amblyomma * Costa Rica Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.718, year: 2014

  18. Comparing aerodynamic efficiency in birds and bats suggests better flight performance in birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian T Muijres

    Full Text Available Flight is one of the energetically most costly activities in the animal kingdom, suggesting that natural selection should work to optimize flight performance. The similar size and flight speed of birds and bats may therefore suggest convergent aerodynamic performance; alternatively, flight performance could be restricted by phylogenetic constraints. We test which of these scenarios fit to two measures of aerodynamic flight efficiency in two passerine bird species and two New World leaf-nosed bat species. Using time-resolved particle image velocimetry measurements of the wake of the animals flying in a wind tunnel, we derived the span efficiency, a metric for the efficiency of generating lift, and the lift-to-drag ratio, a metric for mechanical energetic flight efficiency. We show that the birds significantly outperform the bats in both metrics, which we ascribe to variation in aerodynamic function of body and wing upstroke: Bird bodies generated relatively more lift than bat bodies, resulting in a more uniform spanwise lift distribution and higher span efficiency. A likely explanation would be that the bat ears and nose leaf, associated with echolocation, disturb the flow over the body. During the upstroke, the birds retract their wings to make them aerodynamically inactive, while the membranous bat wings generate thrust and negative lift. Despite the differences in performance, the wake morphology of both birds and bats resemble the optimal wake for their respective lift-to-drag ratio regimes. This suggests that evolution has optimized performance relative to the respective conditions of birds and bats, but that maximum performance is possibly limited by phylogenetic constraints. Although ecological differences between birds and bats are subjected to many conspiring variables, the different aerodynamic flight efficiency for the bird and bat species studied here may help explain why birds typically fly faster, migrate more frequently and migrate

  19. Contrasting cascades: insectivorous birds increase pine but not parasitic mistletoe growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Kailen A; Linhart, Yan B

    2006-03-01

    1. Intraguild predation occurs when top predators feed upon both intermediate predators and herbivores. Intraguild predators may thus have little net impact on herbivore abundance. Variation among communities in the strength of trophic cascades (the indirect effects of predators on plants) may be due to differing frequencies of intraguild predation. Less is known about the influence of variation within communities in predator-predator interactions upon trophic cascade strength. 2. We compared the effects of a single predator community between two sympatric plants and two herbivore guilds. We excluded insectivorous birds with cages from ponderosa pine Pinus ponderosa trees parasitized by dwarf mistletoe Arceuthobium vaginatum. For 3 years we monitored caged and control trees for predatory arthropods that moved between the two plants, foliage-feeding caterpillars and sap-feeding hemipterans that were host-specific, and plant damage and growth. 3. Excluding birds increased the abundance of ant-tended aphids on pine and resulted in an 11% reduction in pine woody growth. Mutualist ants protected pine-feeding aphids from predatory arthropods, allowing aphid populations to burgeon in cages even though predatory arthropods also increased in cages. By protecting pine-feeding aphids from predatory arthropods but not birds, mutualist ants created a three-tiered linear food chain where bird effects cascaded to pine growth via aphids. 4. In contrast to the results for tended aphids on pine, bird exclusion had no net effects on untended pine herbivores, the proportion of pine foliage damaged by pine-feeding caterpillars, or the proportion of mistletoe plants damaged by mistletoe-feeding caterpillars. These results suggest that arthropod predators, which were more abundant in cages as compared with control trees, compensated for bird predation of untended pine and mistletoe herbivores. 5. These contrasting effects of bird exclusion support food web theory: where birds were

  20. Ultra-Rapid Vision in Birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannika E Boström

    Full Text Available Flying animals need to accurately detect, identify and track fast-moving objects and these behavioral requirements are likely to strongly select for abilities to resolve visual detail in time. However, evidence of highly elevated temporal acuity relative to non-flying animals has so far been confined to insects while it has been missing in birds. With behavioral experiments on three wild passerine species, blue tits, collared and pied flycatchers, we demonstrate temporal acuities of vision far exceeding predictions based on the sizes and metabolic rates of these birds. This implies a history of strong natural selection on temporal resolution. These birds can resolve alternating light-dark cycles at up to 145 Hz (average: 129, 127 and 137, respectively, which is ca. 50 Hz over the highest frequency shown in any other vertebrate. We argue that rapid vision should confer a selective advantage in many bird species that are ecologically similar to the three species examined in our study. Thus, rapid vision may be a more typical avian trait than the famously sharp vision found in birds of prey.

  1. Osedax borings in fossil marine bird bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Steffen; Kahl, Wolf-Achim; Goedert, James L.

    2011-01-01

    The bone-eating marine annelid Osedax consumes mainly whale bones on the deep-sea floor, but recent colonization experiments with cow bones and molecular age estimates suggesting a possible Cretaceous origin of Osedax indicate that this worm might be able grow on a wider range of substrates. The suggested Cretaceous origin was thought to imply that Osedax could colonize marine reptile or fish bones, but there is currently no evidence that Osedax consumes bones other than those of mammals. We provide the first evidence that Osedax was, and most likely still is, able to consume non-mammalian bones, namely bird bones. Borings resembling those produced by living Osedax were found in bones of early Oligocene marine flightless diving birds (family Plotopteridae). The species that produced these boreholes had a branching filiform root that grew to a length of at least 3 mm, and lived in densities of up to 40 individuals per square centimeter. The inclusion of bird bones into the diet of Osedax has interesting implications for the recent suggestion of a Cretaceous origin of this worm because marine birds have existed continuously since the Cretaceous. Bird bones could have enabled this worm to survive times in the Earth's history when large marine vertebrates other than fish were rare, specifically after the disappearance of large marine reptiles at the end-Cretaceous mass extinction event and before the rise of whales in the Eocene.

  2. Ultra-Rapid Vision in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boström, Jannika E; Dimitrova, Marina; Canton, Cindy; Håstad, Olle; Qvarnström, Anna; Ödeen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Flying animals need to accurately detect, identify and track fast-moving objects and these behavioral requirements are likely to strongly select for abilities to resolve visual detail in time. However, evidence of highly elevated temporal acuity relative to non-flying animals has so far been confined to insects while it has been missing in birds. With behavioral experiments on three wild passerine species, blue tits, collared and pied flycatchers, we demonstrate temporal acuities of vision far exceeding predictions based on the sizes and metabolic rates of these birds. This implies a history of strong natural selection on temporal resolution. These birds can resolve alternating light-dark cycles at up to 145 Hz (average: 129, 127 and 137, respectively), which is ca. 50 Hz over the highest frequency shown in any other vertebrate. We argue that rapid vision should confer a selective advantage in many bird species that are ecologically similar to the three species examined in our study. Thus, rapid vision may be a more typical avian trait than the famously sharp vision found in birds of prey. PMID:26990087

  3. Mercury in food products. 2. Methyl mercury poisoning by eating game birds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, F.; Nilsson, G.

    1967-01-01

    Case histories were of 11 persons who have eaten considerable quantities of game birds and were suspected to have been affected by methyl mercury poisoning. No objective findings were found to support this diagnosis, which however could not be completely disregarded in this case. Present use of methoxiethyl mercury should completely exclude the risk of methyl mercury absorption by eating game birds. This is the second article in Laekartid-ningen in a series of articles about the problems connected with the presence of mercury in food products.

  4. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from migratory birds in Southern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skarpaas Tone

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l. are the causative agent for Lyme borreliosis (LB, the most common tick-borne disease in the northern hemisphere. Birds are considered important in the global dispersal of ticks and tick-borne pathogens through their migration. The present study is the first description of B. burgdorferi prevalence and genotypes in Ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on birds during spring and autumn migration in Norway. Methods 6538 migratory birds were captured and examined for ticks at Lista Bird Observatory during the spring and the autumn migration in 2008. 822 immature I. ricinus ticks were collected from 215 infested birds. Ticks were investigated for infection with B. burgdorferi s.l. by real-time PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene, and B. burgdorferi s.l. were thereafter genotyped by melting curve analysis after real-time PCR amplification of the hbb gene, or by direct sequencing of the PCR amplicon generated from the rrs (16S-rrl (23S intergenetic spacer. Results B. burgdorferi s.l. were detected in 4.4% of the ticks. The most prevalent B. burgdorferi genospecies identified were B. garinii (77.8%, followed by B.valaisiana (11.1%, B. afzelii (8.3% and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (2.8%. Conclusion Infection rate in ticks and genospecies composition were similar in spring and autumn migration, however, the prevalence of ticks on birds was higher during spring migration. The study supports the notion that birds are important in the dispersal of ticks, and that they may be partly responsible for the heterogeneous distribution of B. burgdorferi s.l. in Europe.

  5. Methylmercury is the predominant form of mercury in bird eggs: a synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T; Herzog, Mark P; Schwarzbach, Steven E

    2013-02-19

    Bird eggs are commonly used in mercury monitoring programs to assess methylmercury contamination and toxicity to birds. However, only 6% of >200 studies investigating mercury in bird eggs have actually measured methylmercury concentrations in eggs. Instead, studies typically measure total mercury in eggs (both organic and inorganic forms of mercury), with the explicit assumption that total mercury concentrations in eggs are a reliable proxy for methylmercury concentrations in eggs. This assumption is rarely tested, but has important implications for assessing risk of mercury to birds. We conducted a detailed assessment of this assumption by (1) collecting original data to examine the relationship between total and methylmercury in eggs of two species, and (2) reviewing the published literature on mercury concentrations in bird eggs to examine whether the percentage of total mercury in the methylmercury form differed among species. Within American avocets (Recurvirostra americana) and Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri), methylmercury concentrations were highly correlated (R(2) = 0.99) with total mercury concentrations in individual eggs (range: 0.03-7.33 μg/g fww), and the regression slope (log scale) was not different from one (m = 0.992). The mean percentage of total mercury in the methylmercury form in eggs was 97% for American avocets (n = 30 eggs), 96% for Forster's terns (n = 30 eggs), and 96% among all 22 species of birds (n = 30 estimates of species means). The percentage of total mercury in the methylmercury form ranged from 63% to 116% among individual eggs and 82% to 111% among species means, but this variation was not related to total mercury concentrations in eggs, foraging guild, nor to a species life history strategy as characterized along the precocial to altricial spectrum. Our results support the use of total mercury concentrations to estimate methylmercury concentrations in bird eggs. PMID:23331121

  6. Avifaunal diversity and bird community responses to man-made habitats in St. Coombs Tea Estate, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dananjaya Kottawa-Arachchi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A survey on birds was conducted at St. Coombs Tea Estate, Talawakelle, Sri Lanka with the objective of assessing the avifaunal diversity of a given tea plantation ecosystem. Bird populations were sampled in man-made habitats such as home garden, wetland, tea plantation, Eucalyptus plantation and small scale reservoir. Hundred-and-twenty counts were made for each habitat and in addition, activities of birds, feeding habits and food recourses were also observed. A total of 87 species, including 11 endemic and 11 migrant species of birds, was recorded, which included one globally threatened species, Kashmir Flycatcher Ficedula subrubra and 16 nationally threatened species. A majority of the bird species were observed in home gardens (75%, followed by reservoirs (57%, wetlands (48%, tea plantations (43% and in Eucalyptus plantations (23%. Home gardens support bird diversity while the species richness of endemic bird species increases thereby enabling these findings to be used as guidelines in long term conservational practices. Several conservation measures such as increasing plant diversity, introduction of shade trees and prevention of fire are recommended to conserve and enhance avifaunal diversity in tea plantations.

  7. Arthropod but not bird predation in ethiopian homegardens is higher in tree-poor than in tree-rich landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemessa, Debissa; Hambäck, Peter A; Hylander, Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    Bird and arthropod predation is often associated with natural pest control in agricultural landscapes, but the rates of predation may vary with the amount of tree cover or other environmental factors. We examined bird and arthropod predation in three tree-rich and three tree-poor landscapes across southwestern Ethiopia. Within each landscape we selected three tree-rich and three tree-poor homegardens in which we recorded the number of tree species and tree stems within 100 × 100 m surrounding the central house. To estimate predation rates, we attached plasticine caterpillars on leaves of two coffee and two avocado shrubs in each homegarden, and recorded the number of attacked caterpillars for 7-9 consecutive weeks. The overall mean daily predation rate was 1.45% for birds and 1.60% for arthropods. The rates of arthropod predation varied among landscapes and were higher in tree-poor landscapes. There was no such difference for birds. Within landscapes, predation rates from birds and arthropods did not vary between tree-rich and tree-poor homegardens in either tree-rich or tree-poor landscapes. The most surprising result was the lack of response by birds to tree cover at either spatial scale. Our results suggest that in tree-poor landscapes there are still enough non-crop habitats to support predatory arthropods and birds to deliver strong top-down effect on crop pests. PMID:25961306

  8. Arthropod but not bird predation in ethiopian homegardens is higher in tree-poor than in tree-rich landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debissa Lemessa

    Full Text Available Bird and arthropod predation is often associated with natural pest control in agricultural landscapes, but the rates of predation may vary with the amount of tree cover or other environmental factors. We examined bird and arthropod predation in three tree-rich and three tree-poor landscapes across southwestern Ethiopia. Within each landscape we selected three tree-rich and three tree-poor homegardens in which we recorded the number of tree species and tree stems within 100 × 100 m surrounding the central house. To estimate predation rates, we attached plasticine caterpillars on leaves of two coffee and two avocado shrubs in each homegarden, and recorded the number of attacked caterpillars for 7-9 consecutive weeks. The overall mean daily predation rate was 1.45% for birds and 1.60% for arthropods. The rates of arthropod predation varied among landscapes and were higher in tree-poor landscapes. There was no such difference for birds. Within landscapes, predation rates from birds and arthropods did not vary between tree-rich and tree-poor homegardens in either tree-rich or tree-poor landscapes. The most surprising result was the lack of response by birds to tree cover at either spatial scale. Our results suggest that in tree-poor landscapes there are still enough non-crop habitats to support predatory arthropods and birds to deliver strong top-down effect on crop pests.

  9. Radionuclide transport along a boreal hill slope - elevated soil water concentrations in riparian forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport of radionuclides from forest ecosystems and out into surface waters is a crucial process for understanding the long-term fate of radionuclides in the boreal landscape. Boreal forests are typically dominated by podzol soils, but the streams draining the forests are often lined by highly organic, often peat-like soils, which the radionuclides must pass through in order to reach the stream. This so-called riparian zone therefore represents a fundamentally different biogeochemical environment than ordinary forest soils, e.g. by exhibiting significantly lower pH and higher concentrations of organic colloids, which significantly can affect the mobility of many radionuclides. Since the riparian zone is the last terrestrial environment that the groundwater is in contact with before it enters the stream, previous research has demonstrated its profound impact on the stream water chemistry. Hence, the riparian soils should also be important for the transport and accumulation of radionuclides. Therefore, soil water was sampled using suction lysimeters installed at different depths along a 22 m long forested hill slope transect in northern Sweden, following the flow pathway of the groundwater from the uphill podzol to the riparian zone near the stream channel. The analyses included a wide range of hydrochemical parameters and many radiologically important elements, e.g. U, Th, Ni, C, Sr, Cs, REEs and Cl. The sampling was repeated ten times throughout a year in order to also capture the temporal variability of the soil water chemistry. The water chemistry of the investigated transect displayed a remarkable change as the groundwater approached the stream channel. Strongly increased concentrations of many elements were observed in the riparian soils. For instance, the concentrations of Th were more than 100 times higher than in the riparian zone than in the uphill forest, suggesting that the riparian zone may be a hotspot for radionuclide accumulation. The reason

  10. Radionuclide transport along a boreal hill slope - elevated soil water concentrations in riparian forest soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidman, Fredrik; Boily, Aasa; Laudon, Hjalmar [Dept. of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 901 83 Umeaa (Sweden); Koehler, Stephan J. [Dept. of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. 7050, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    The transport of radionuclides from forest ecosystems and out into surface waters is a crucial process for understanding the long-term fate of radionuclides in the boreal landscape. Boreal forests are typically dominated by podzol soils, but the streams draining the forests are often lined by highly organic, often peat-like soils, which the radionuclides must pass through in order to reach the stream. This so-called riparian zone therefore represents a fundamentally different biogeochemical environment than ordinary forest soils, e.g. by exhibiting significantly lower pH and higher concentrations of organic colloids, which significantly can affect the mobility of many radionuclides. Since the riparian zone is the last terrestrial environment that the groundwater is in contact with before it enters the stream, previous research has demonstrated its profound impact on the stream water chemistry. Hence, the riparian soils should also be important for the transport and accumulation of radionuclides. Therefore, soil water was sampled using suction lysimeters installed at different depths along a 22 m long forested hill slope transect in northern Sweden, following the flow pathway of the groundwater from the uphill podzol to the riparian zone near the stream channel. The analyses included a wide range of hydrochemical parameters and many radiologically important elements, e.g. U, Th, Ni, C, Sr, Cs, REEs and Cl. The sampling was repeated ten times throughout a year in order to also capture the temporal variability of the soil water chemistry. The water chemistry of the investigated transect displayed a remarkable change as the groundwater approached the stream channel. Strongly increased concentrations of many elements were observed in the riparian soils. For instance, the concentrations of Th were more than 100 times higher than in the riparian zone than in the uphill forest, suggesting that the riparian zone may be a hotspot for radionuclide accumulation. The reason

  11. Effect of water level drawdown on decomposition in boreal peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straková, Petra; Penttilä, Timo; Laiho, Raija

    2010-05-01

    Plant litter production and decomposition are key processes in element cycling in most ecosystems. In peatlands, there has been a long-term imbalance between litter production and decay caused by high water levels (WL) and consequent anoxia. This has resulted in peatlands being a significant sink of carbon (C) from the atmosphere. However, peatlands are experiencing both "natural" (global climate change) and anthropogenic (ditching) changes that threaten their ability to retain this ecosystem identity and function. Many of these alterations can be traced back to WL drawdown, which can cause increased aeration, higher acidity, falling temperatures, and a greater probability of drought. Such changes are also associated with an increasing decomposition rate, and therefore a greater amount of C released back to the atmosphere. Yet studies about how the overall C balance of peatlands will be affected have come up with conflicting conclusions, demonstrating that the C store could increase, decrease, or remain static. A factor that has been largely overlooked is the change in litter type composition following persistent WL drawdown. It is the aim of our study, then, to help to resolve this issue. We studied the effects of short-term (ca. 4 years) and long-term (ca. 40 years) persistent WL drawdown on the decomposition of numerous types of above-ground and below-ground plant litters at three boreal peatland sites: bog, oligotrophic fen and mesotrophic fen. We thus believe that enough permutations have been created to obtain a good assessment of how each factor, site nutrient level, WL regime, and litter type composition, influences decomposition. We used the litter bag method to measure the decomposition rates: placed measured amounts of plant litter, or cellulose strips as a control, into closed mesh bags, and installed the bags in the natural environment for decomposition for each litter type for varying amounts of time. Following litter bag recovery, the litter was

  12. Observation and modelling of HOx radicals in a boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hens, K.; Novelli, A.; Martinez, M.; Auld, J.; Axinte, R.; Bohn, B.; Fischer, H.; Keronen, P.; Kubistin, D.; Nölscher, A. C.; Oswald, R.; Paasonen, P.; Petäjä, T.; Regelin, E.; Sander, R.; Sinha, V.; Sipilä, M.; Taraborrelli, D.; Tatum Ernest, C.; Williams, J.; Lelieveld, J.; Harder, H.

    2014-08-01

    Measurements of OH and HO2 radicals were conducted in a pine-dominated forest in southern Finland during the HUMPPA-COPEC-2010 (Hyytiälä United Measurements of Photochemistry and Particles in Air - Comprehensive Organic Precursor Emission and Concentration study) field campaign in summer 2010. Simultaneous side-by-side measurements of hydroxyl radicals were conducted with two instruments using chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), indicating small systematic disagreement, OHLIF / OHCIMS = (1.31 ± 0.14). Subsequently, the LIF instrument was moved to the top of a 20 m tower, just above the canopy, to investigate the radical chemistry at the ecosystem-atmosphere interface. Comprehensive measurements including observations of many volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and the total OH reactivity were conducted and analysed using steady-state calculations as well as an observationally constrained box model. Production rates of OH calculated from measured OH precursors are consistent with those derived from the steady-state assumption and measured total OH loss under conditions of moderate OH reactivity. The primary photolytic sources of OH contribute up to one-third to the total OH production. OH recycling, which occurs mainly by HO2 reacting with NO and O3, dominates the total hydroxyl radical production in this boreal forest. Box model simulations agree with measurements for hydroxyl radicals (OHmod. / OHobs. = 1.00 ± 0.16), while HO2 mixing ratios are significantly under-predicted (HO2mod. / HO2obs. = 0.3 ± 0.2), and simulated OH reactivity does not match the observed OH reactivity. The simultaneous under-prediction of HO2 and OH reactivity in periods in which OH concentrations were simulated realistically suggests that the missing OH reactivity is an unaccounted-for source of HO2. Detailed analysis of the HOx production, loss, and recycling pathways suggests that in periods of high total OH reactivity there are

  13. Observation and modelling of HOx radicals in a boreal forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hens

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of OH and HO2 radicals were conducted in a pine-dominated forest in southern Finland during the HUMPPA-COPEC-2010 (Hyytiälä United Measurements of Photochemistry and Particles in Air – Comprehensive Organic Precursor Emission and Concentration study field campaign in summer 2010. Simultaneous side-by-side measurements of hydroxyl radicals were conducted with two instruments using chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF, indicating small systematic disagreement, OHLIF / OHCIMS = (1.31 ± 0.14. Subsequently, the LIF instrument was moved to the top of a 20 m tower, just above the canopy, to investigate the radical chemistry at the ecosystem–atmosphere interface. Comprehensive measurements including observations of many volatile organic compounds (VOCs and the total OH reactivity were conducted and analysed using steady-state calculations as well as an observationally constrained box model. Production rates of OH calculated from measured OH precursors are consistent with those derived from the steady-state assumption and measured total OH loss under conditions of moderate OH reactivity. The primary photolytic sources of OH contribute up to one-third to the total OH production. OH recycling, which occurs mainly by HO2 reacting with NO and O3, dominates the total hydroxyl radical production in this boreal forest. Box model simulations agree with measurements for hydroxyl radicals (OHmod. / OHobs. = 1.00 ± 0.16, while HO2 mixing ratios are significantly under-predicted (HO2mod. / HO2obs. = 0.3 ± 0.2, and simulated OH reactivity does not match the observed OH reactivity. The simultaneous under-prediction of HO2 and OH reactivity in periods in which OH concentrations were simulated realistically suggests that the missing OH reactivity is an unaccounted-for source of HO2. Detailed analysis of the HOx production, loss, and recycling pathways suggests that in periods of high total OH reactivity

  14. Phase Transitions in Models of Bird Flocking

    CERN Document Server

    Christodoulidi, H; Bountis, T

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to elucidate the transition from collective to random behavior exhibited by various mathematical models of bird flocking. In particular, we compare Vicsek's model [Viscek et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1226 -- 1229 (1995)] with one based on topological considerations. The latter model is found to exhibit a first order phase transition from flocking to decoherence, as the 'noise parameter' of the problem is increased, whereas Viscek's model gives a second order transition. Refining the topological model in such a way that birds are influenced mostly by the birds in front of them, less by the ones at their sides and not at all by those behind them (because they do not see them), we find a behavior that lies in between the two models. Finally, we propose a novel mechanism for preserving the flock's cohesion, without imposing artificial boundary conditions or attracting forces.

  15. Threatened bird species; 1 : 1 500 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapacious birds are the most threatened animals of Slovakia. Selected species are significant indicators of the state of the environment. Red kite (Milvus milvus) is the critically endangered species and the last 15 - 20 pairs are breeding in Slovakia now. White-tailed eagle (Haliaetus albicilla) nested in the basin of the Danube River until 1964. It was only after 34 years that two pairs of white-tailed eagle have successfully bred in the floodplain of the Danube River. Short-toed eagle (Circaettus gallicus), only 20-30 pairs are breeding in the eastern part of Slovakia. Golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) is one of the species most threatened by theft of eggs for its use in falconry and in different holdings. Eastern imperial eagle (Aquila heliaca) - about 30 to 40 pairs is breeding now in Slovakia. Spreading of the bird species is processed based in the data provided by the Group for Protection of Rapacious Birds. (author)

  16. Behavior of emu bird (Dromaius novaehollandiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Patodkar

    Full Text Available Emu is the second largest living bird of world belonging to order Ratite. This order is of flightless birds with flat breast bone and it includes emu, ostrich, rhea, cassowary and kiwi. Emus are reared commercially in many parts of the world for their meat, oil, skin and feathers, which are of high economic value. The anatomical and physiological features of these birds appear to be suitable for temperate and tropical climatic conditions. Emu is newly introduced species in India. Although emu farming is considered to be economical, we have to study the behavior of emus to increase the profitability by providing housing, feeding and breeding facilities more or less same as that of in wild condition during their rearing in captivity and we will have to carry out comparative study of behavior in captivity as well as in wild condition. [Vet World 2009; 2(11.000: 439-440

  17. Avian botulism and avian chlamydiosis in wild water birds, Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, Douglas E.; Franson, J. Christian; Brannian, Roger E.; Long, Renee R.; Radi, Craig A.; Krueger, David; Johnson, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, Wisconsin, conducted a diagnostic investigation into a water bird mortality event involving intoxication with avian botulism type C and infection with avian chlamydiosis at the Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Montana, USA. Of 24 carcasses necropsied, 11 had lesions consistent with avian chlamydiosis, including two that tested positive for infectious Chlamydophila psittaci, and 12 were positive for avian botulism type C. One bird tested positive for both avian botulism type C and C. psittaci. Of 61 apparently healthy water birds sampled and released, 13 had serologic evidence of C. psittaci infection and 7 were, at the time of capture, shedding infectious C. psittaci via the cloacal or oropharyngeal route. Since more routinely diagnosed disease conditions may mask avian chlamydiosis, these findings support the need for a comprehensive diagnostic investigation when determining the cause of a wildlife mortality event.

  18. BIRD640: SCD's high sensitivity VGA VO x μ-bolometer detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraenkel, A.; Mizrahi, U.; Bikov, L.; Giladi, A.; Adin, A.; Shiloah, N.; Malkinson, E.; Czyzewski, T.; Amsterdam, A.; Sinai, Y.

    2007-10-01

    In this paper we report preliminary data of BIRD640, which is a high-sensitivity (50 mK @ F/1, 60Hz) VGA format detector with 25 μm pitch. This high performance is achieved by utilizing an improved pixel design. The product is architecturally compatible to BIRD384 and contains SCD's proprietary unique features (e.g. "Power-Save", Ambient drift compensation, etc.). The ROIC architecture follows the framework of the previous designs. It consists of an internal timing machine with a single clock that facilitates the system interface. Extensive effort was invested in reducing the detector and system power dissipation. The ROIC supports special "low power" modes, where considerable power is saved with only minor performance degradation. With its superior temporal sensitivity, long-term stability and operational flexibility BIRD640 serves as an ideal candidate for high end and high resolution uncooled VGA systems, particularly hand-held applications.

  19. Multidrug resistant yeasts in synanthropic wild birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somanath Sushela

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of multidrug resistant yeasts in the faeces of synanthropic wild birds from the Bangsar suburb of Kuala Lumpur. Methods Species characterisations of yeast isolates and determinations of antimycotic susceptibility profiles were undertaken using the commercial characterization kit, Integral System Yeasts Plus (Liofilchem, Italy. Results Fourteen species of yeasts were detected in the bird faecal samples.Candida albicans was present in 28.89% of bird faecal samples, Candida krusei (13.33%, Candida tropicalis (4.44%, Candida glabrata (4.44%, Candida parapsilosis (2.22%, Candida lambica (2.22%, Candida stellatoidea (2.22%, Candida rugosa (2.22% and Candida lusitaniae (2.22%. Amongst the non-candidal yeast isolates, Cryptococcus laurentii was present in 6.67% of bird faecal samples, Cryptococcus uniguttulatus (4.44%, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (4.44%, Trichosporon pullulans (2.22%, Trichosporon pullulans/Cryptococcus albidus (8.89% and Rhodotorula rubra/Rhodotorula glutinis (4.44%. Of the isolated yeasts, 18.1% (or 26/144 were found to be resistant to all 11 antimycotic agents they were tested against i.e. Nystatin, Amphotericin B, Flucytosine, Econazole, Ketoconazole, Clotrimazole, Miconazole, Itraconazole, Voriconazole, Fluconazole 16 and Fluconazole 64. 45.8% (or 66/144 of the bird faecal yeast isolates were resistant to four or more of the 11 antimycotic agents they were tested against. Conclusions This finding is of public health significance as these synanthropic wild birds may be reservoirs for transmission of drug resistant yeast infections to humans.

  20. Results of the influenza virus surveillance in wild birds in Western part of Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marchenko V Yu; Otgonbaatar D; Shestopalov AM; Alekseev A Yu; Tserennorov D; Yurlov AK; Susloparov IM; Sharshov KA; Ilyinykh FA; Zolotykh SI; Abmed D

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To present results of virological study of wild birds inhabiting Western Mongolia. Methods: Over a period of 2003-2008, we isolated 13 influenza A viruses: H1N1, H3N6, H13N8 and H4N6 subtypes. We did not isolate any H5N1 subtype, that still cause epizooty in wild birds and poultry.Results: We revealed taxonomic and ecological heterogeneity of the birds involved in maintenance of circulation of influenza viruses in the given territory. Influenza viruses were isolated from birds of 6 orders; among them there are species preferring water and semi-aquatic biotopes, one species preferring dry plain region, and also one species which can inhabit both dry and water biotopes.Conclusions: Representatives of all main orders of Western Mongolia avifauna are involved in support of influenza A virus circulation, highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses were registered in Mongolia thus it's necessary to continue permanent influenza virus surveillance in wild birds' populations.