WorldWideScience

Sample records for boreal bird supports

  1. Ecological Sustainability of Birds in Boreal Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa Venier; Mikko Mönkkönen; Robert Howe; Pekka Helle; JoAnn Hanowski; Gerald Niemi; Daniel Welsh

    1998-01-01

    We review characteristics of birds in boreal forests in the context of their ecological sustainability under both natural and anthropogenic disturbances. We identify the underlying ecological factors associated with boreal bird populations and their variability, review the interactions between boreal bird populations and disturbance, and describe some tools on how boreal bird populations may be conserved in the future. The boreal system has historically been an area with extensive disturbance...

  2. Nesting ecology of boreal forest birds following a massive outbreak of spruce beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, S.M.; Handel, C.M.

    2007-01-01

    We studied breeding dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis), yellow-rumped warblers (Dendroica coronata), and spruce-nesting birds from 1997 to 1998 among forests with different levels of spruce (Picea spp.) mortality following an outbreak of spruce beetles (Dendroctonus rufipennis) in Alaska, USA. We identified species using live and beetle-killed spruce for nest sites and monitored nests to determine how the outbreak influenced avian habitat selection and reproduction. We tested predictions that 1) nesting success of ground-nesting juncos would increase with spruce mortality due to proliferation of understory vegetation available to conceal nests from predators, 2) nesting success of canopy-nesting warblers would decrease with spruce mortality due to fewer live spruce in which to conceal nests, and 3) both species would alter nest-site selection in response to disturbance. Juncos did not benefit from changes in understory vegetation; nesting success in highly disturbed stands (46%) was comparable to that in undisturbed habitats throughout their range. In stands with low spruce mortality, nesting success of juncos was low (5%) and corresponded with high densities of red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Yellow-rumped warblers nested exclusively in spruce, but success did not vary with spruce mortality. As disturbance increased, nesting warblers switched from selecting forest patches with high densities of live white spruce (Picea glauca) to patches with beetle-killed spruce. Warblers also placed nests in large-diameter live or beetle-killed spruce, depending on which was more abundant in the stand, with no differences in nesting success. Five of the 12 other species of spruce-nesting birds also used beetle-killed spruce as nest sites. Because beetle-killed spruce can remain standing for >50 years, even highly disturbed stands provide an important breeding resource for boreal forest birds. We recommend that boreal forest managers preserve uncut blocks of infested

  3. Climate change affects populations of northern birds in boreal protected areas

    OpenAIRE

    Virkkala, Raimo; Rajasärkkä,Ari

    2010-01-01

    Human land-use effects on species populations are minimized in protected areas and population changes can thus be more directly linked with changes in climate. In this study, bird population changes in 96 protected areas in Finland were compared using quantitative bird census data, between two time slices, 1981–1999 and 2000–2009, with the mean time span being 14 years. Bird species were categorized by distribution pattern and migratory strategy. Our results showed that northern bird species ...

  4. Recreation-induced changes in boreal bird communities in protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, K; Luoto, M; Ihantola, A; Tomppo, E; Siikamäki, P

    2010-09-01

    The impacts of human-induced disturbance on birds have been studied in growing extent, but there are relatively few studies about the effects of recreation on forest bird communities in protected areas. In this paper, the relative importance of recreation as well as environmental variables on bird communities in Oulanka National Park, in northeastern Finland, was investigated using general additive models (GAM). Bird data collected using the line transect method along hiking trails and in undisturbed control areas were related to number of visits, area of tourism infrastructure, and habitat variables. We further examined the impact of spatial autocorrelation by calculating an autocovariate term for GAMs. Our results indicate that number of visits affects the occurrence and composition of bird communities, but it had no impact on total species richness. Open-cup nesters breeding on the ground showed strongest negative response to visitor pressure, whereas the open-cup nesters nesting in trees and shrubs were more tolerant. For cavity-nesting species, recreation had no significant impact. The contribution of the number of visits was generally low also in models in which it was selected, and the occurrence of birds was mainly determined by habitat characteristics of the area. However, our results show that the recreation-induced disturbance with relatively low visitor pressure can have negative impacts on some bird species and groups of species and should be considered in management of protected areas with recreational activities. PMID:20945775

  5. Preserving species populations in the boreal zone in a changing climate: contrasting trends of bird species groups in a protected area network

    OpenAIRE

    Raimo Virkkala; Ari Rajasärkkä

    2012-01-01

    A protected area network should ensure the maintenance of biodiversity. Because of climate change, species ranges are expected to move polewards, causing further demand for the protected area network to be efficient in preserving biota. We compared population changes of different bird species groups according to their habitat preferences in boreal protected areas in Finland on the basis of large-scale censuses carried out in 1981–1999 and in 2000–2009. Population densities of comm...

  6. Cost-effective Sampling Design Applied to Large-scale Monitoring of Boreal Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Schmiegelow

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite their important roles in biodiversity conservation, large-scale ecological monitoring programs are scarce, in large part due to the difficulty of achieving an effective design under fiscal constraints. Using long-term avian monitoring in the boreal forest of Alberta, Canada as an example, we present a methodology that uses power analysis, statistical modeling, and partial derivatives to identify cost-effective sampling strategies for ecological monitoring programs. Empirical parameter estimates were used in simulations that estimated the power of sampling designs to detect trend in a variety of species’ populations and community metrics. The ability to detect trend with increased sample effort depended on the monitoring target’s variability and how effort was allocated to sampling parameters. Power estimates were used to develop nonlinear models of the relationship between sample effort and power. A cost model was also developed, and partial derivatives of the power and cost models were evaluated to identify two cost-effective avian sampling strategies. For decreasing sample error, sampling multiple plots at a site is preferable to multiple within-year visits to the site, and many sites should be sampled relatively infrequently rather than sampling few sites frequently, although the importance of frequent sampling increases for variable targets. We end by stressing the need for long-term, spatially extensive data for additional taxa, and by introducing optimal design as an alternative to power analysis for the evaluation of ecological monitoring program designs.

  7. Differential response of bird functional traits to post-fire salvage logging in a boreal forest ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeria, Ermias T.; Ibarzabal, Jacques; Hébert, Christian; Boucher, Jonathan; Imbeau, Louis; Savard, Jean-Pierre L.

    2011-05-01

    The concept of functional trait-environment relationship posits that species in a local community should possess similar traits that match the selective environment. The present study examines species trait-habitat (using Fourth-corner and RLQ analyses) and habitat occupancy patterns (logistic regression models) of bird assemblages in boreal forest stands following disturbances by forest fire and salvage logging. The stands differed in the amount and composition of residual tree retention, salvage- and aquatic-edges, degree of burn severity (all measured at 100 and 500 m buffers), as well as landscape-level variables such as distance to previously burned forests. Tests of trait-habitat relationships showed that canopy-nesters and bark- and foliage- insectivores required high levels of residual trees of low burn severity, with the feeding guilds showing affinity for different stand composition. In contrast, ground-nesters and omnivores thrived in salvaged areas and associated edges. In addition, cavity-nesting and ground-foragers were associated with severely burned stands. The species' habitat occupancy patterns were commensurate with trait requirements, which also appeared to be scale-dependent. For example, some fire-associated species had high occupancy probability in severely burned stands at small-scale (100 m buffer), which was consistent with their cavity-nesting trait. This pattern, however, was not evident at large-scale, where their feeding requirement (bark-insectivores) for low-severity burns dominated. Our study suggests that trait-habitat relationships can provide critical information to the complex ways species' relate to key habitat factors following natural and anthropogenic disturbances.

  8. Birds of a Feather: Supporting Secure Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braswell III, H V

    2006-04-24

    Over the past few years Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has begun the process of moving to a diskless environment in the Secure Computer Support realm. This movement has included many moving targets and increasing support complexity. We would like to set up a forum for Security and Support professionals to get together from across the Complex and discuss current deployments, lessons learned, and next steps. This would include what hardware, software, and hard copy based solutions are being used to manage Secure Computing. The topics to be discussed include but are not limited to: Diskless computing, port locking and management, PC, Mac, and Linux/UNIX support and setup, system imaging, security setup documentation and templates, security documentation and management, customer tracking, ticket tracking, software download and management, log management, backup/disaster recovery, and mixed media environments.

  9. Can Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS and Forest Estimates Derived from Satellite Images Be Used to Predict Abundance and Species Richness of Birds and Beetles in Boreal Forest?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Lindberg

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In managed landscapes, conservation planning requires effective methods to identify high-biodiversity areas. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of airborne laser scanning (ALS and forest estimates derived from satellite images extracted at two spatial scales for predicting the stand-scale abundance and species richness of birds and beetles in a managed boreal forest landscape. Multiple regression models based on forest data from a 50-m radius (i.e., corresponding to a homogenous forest stand had better explanatory power than those based on a 200-m radius (i.e., including also parts of adjacent stands. Bird abundance and species richness were best explained by the ALS variables “maximum vegetation height” and “vegetation cover between 0.5 and 3 m” (both positive. Flying beetle abundance and species richness, as well as epigaeic (i.e., ground-living beetle richness were best explained by a model including the ALS variable “maximum vegetation height” (positive and the satellite-derived variable “proportion of pine” (negative. Epigaeic beetle abundance was best explained by “maximum vegetation height” at 50 m (positive and “stem volume” at 200 m (positive. Our results show that forest estimates derived from satellite images and ALS data provide complementary information for explaining forest biodiversity patterns. We conclude that these types of remote sensing data may provide an efficient tool for conservation planning in managed boreal landscapes.

  10. Preserving species populations in the boreal zone in a changing climate: contrasting trends of bird species groups in a protected area network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimo Virkkala

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A protected area network should ensure the maintenance of biodiversity. Because of climate change, species ranges are expected to move polewards, causing further demand for the protected area network to be efficient in preserving biota. We compared population changes of different bird species groups according to their habitat preferences in boreal protected areas in Finland on the basis of large-scale censuses carried out in 1981–1999 and in 2000–2009. Population densities of common forest habitat generalists remained the same between the two periods, while densities of species of conservation concern showed contrasting trends: species preferring old-growth forests increased, but those living in mires and wetlands, and species of Arctic mountains decreased. These trends are most probably connected with climate change, but successional changes in protected areas and regional habitat alteration should also be taken into account. Of species preferring old-growth forests, a larger proportion are southern than among species of mires and wetlands, or of Arctic mountains, most or all of which, respectively, had a northerly distribution. In general, northern species have decreased and southern increased with the exception of northern species of old-growth forests which had not declined. On the other hand, bird species of mires and wetlands decreased also in the northernmost protected areas although mires had not been drained in the region in contrast with southern and central Finland thus indicating that regional-scale direct habitat loss did not cause the decline of these species in the north. It is suggested that climate change effects on species in natural boreal and Arctic habitats most probably are habitat-specific with large differences in response times and susceptibility.

  11. Grassland bird surveys in support of the Michigan Breeding Bird Atlas II: Final report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Grassland birds, as a group, have suffered the most severe population declines of any other North American birds (Herkert 1995, Herkert et al. 1996). Compared to...

  12. A 10,500 Sequence of Bird Remains from the Southern Boreal Forest Region of Western Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Driver, Jonathan C.; Keith A. Hobson

    1992-01-01

    The prehistoric avian fauna from the Charlie Lake Cave site, Peace River District, British Columbia, spans the last 10 500 years and includes birds from eleven orders. Prior to about 10 000 B.P. the fauna is sparse and the most common species is Cliff Swallow (Hirundopyrrhonota), which probably nested at the site. The avian fauna from 10 000 B.P. to the present is dominated by wetland associated birds (mainly grebes and ducks) of the same species found in the area today and is consistent with...

  13. Avian malaria in a boreal resident species: long-term temporal variability, and increased prevalence in birds with avian keratin disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Laura C; Handel, Colleen M; Van Hemert, Caroline; Loiseau, Claire; Sehgal, Ravinder N M

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of vector-borne parasitic diseases is widely influenced by biological and ecological factors. Environmental conditions such as temperature and precipitation can have a marked effect on haemosporidian parasites (Plasmodium spp.) that cause malaria and those that cause other malaria-like diseases in birds. However, there have been few long-term studies monitoring haemosporidian infections in birds in northern latitudes, where weather conditions can be highly variable and the effects of climate change are becoming more pronounced. We used molecular methods to screen more than 2,000 blood samples collected from black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus), a resident passerine bird. Samples were collected over a 10 year period, mostly during the non-breeding season, at seven sites in Alaska, USA. We tested for associations between Plasmodium prevalence and local environmental conditions including temperature, precipitation, site, year and season. We also evaluated the relationship between parasite prevalence and individual host factors of age, sex and presence or absence of avian keratin disorder. This disease, which causes accelerated keratin growth in the beak, provided a natural study system in which to test the interaction between disease state and malaria prevalence. Prevalence of Plasmodium infection varied by year, site, age and individual disease status but there was no support for an effect of sex or seasonal period. Significantly, birds with avian keratin disorder were 2.6 times more likely to be infected by Plasmodium than birds without the disorder. Interannual variation in the prevalence of Plasmodium infection at different sites was positively correlated with summer temperatures at the local but not statewide scale. Sequence analysis of the parasite cytochrome b gene revealed a single Plasmodium spp. lineage, P43. Our results demonstrate associations between prevalence of avian malaria and a variety of biological and ecological factors

  14. Using Support Vector Machines to Automatically Extract Open Water Signatures from POLDER Multi-Angle Data Over Boreal Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, J.; Diaz-Barrios, M.; Pinzon, J.; Ustin, S. L.; Shih, P.; Tournois, S.; Zarco-Tejada, P. J.; Vanderbilt, V. C.; Perry, G. L.; Brass, James A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This study used Support Vector Machines to classify multiangle POLDER data. Boreal wetland ecosystems cover an estimated 90 x 10(exp 6) ha, about 36% of global wetlands, and are a major source of trace gases emissions to the atmosphere. Four to 20 percent of the global emission of methane to the atmosphere comes from wetlands north of 4 degrees N latitude. Large uncertainties in emissions exist because of large spatial and temporal variation in the production and consumption of methane. Accurate knowledge of the areal extent of open water and inundated vegetation is critical to estimating magnitudes of trace gas emissions. Improvements in land cover mapping have been sought using physical-modeling approaches, neural networks, and active microwave, examples that demonstrate the difficulties of separating open water, inundated vegetation and dry upland vegetation. Here we examine the feasibility of using a support vector machine to classify POLDER data representing open water, inundated vegetation and dry upland vegetation.

  15. Avian malaria in a boreal resident species: long-term temporal variability, and increased prevalence in birds with avian keratin disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Laura C.; Handel, Colleen M.; Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Loiseau, Claire; Sehgal, Ravinder N. M.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of vector-borne parasitic diseases is widely influenced by biological and ecological factors. Environmental conditions such as temperature and precipitation can have a marked effect on haemosporidian parasites (Plasmodium spp.) that cause malaria and those that cause other malaria-like diseases in birds. However, there have been few long-term studies monitoring haemosporidian infections in birds in northern latitudes, where weather conditions can be highly variable and the effects of climate change are becoming more pronounced. We used molecular methods to screen more than 2,000 blood samples collected from black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus), a resident passerine bird. Samples were collected over a 10 year period, mostly during the non-breeding season, at seven sites in Alaska, USA. We tested for associations between Plasmodium prevalence and local environmental conditions including temperature, precipitation, site, year and season. We also evaluated the relationship between parasite prevalence and individual host factors of age, sex and presence or absence of avian keratin disorder. This disease, which causes accelerated keratin growth in the beak, provided a natural study system in which to test the interaction between disease state and malaria prevalence. Prevalence of Plasmodium infection varied by year, site, age and individual disease status but there was no support for an effect of sex or seasonal period. Significantly, birds with avian keratin disorder were 2.6 times more likely to be infected by Plasmodium than birds without the disorder. Interannual variation in the prevalence of Plasmodium infection at different sites was positively correlated with summer temperatures at the local but not statewide scale. Sequence analysis of the parasite cytochrome b gene revealed a single Plasmodiumspp. lineage, P43. Our results demonstrate associations between prevalence of avian malaria and a variety of biological and

  16. Toward Conservation of Canada’s Boreal Forest Avifauna: Design and Application of Ecological Models at Continental Extents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven G. Cumming

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Human development is increasing pressure on North America’s mainly intact boreal forest. We outline the need for a comprehensive synthesis of existing data and for effective scientific tools to support conservation of this biome and of the birds that depend on it. To illustrate how broad collaborations can address these needs, we introduce and report on the Boreal Avian Modelling Project. This is a new partnership involving universities, government, private, and nongovernment groups that was created to develop spatially explicit, predictive models of boreal bird habitat associations across Canada. This initiative is designed to improve our understanding of the influence of environmental factors and human activities on boreal bird species, leading to spatially explicit predictive models of the distribution of avian populations. The intended applications of these models are land use planning and avian conservation across the nearctic boreal forest. In this essay, we present a description of the extensive collection of point count survey data assembled by the Project, and the library of spatial covariates used for modeling. We show how it is possible to account for a number of nuisance variables related to differences in survey protocol among source data sets and make some preliminary suggestions as to how future surveys could be standardized. We present a distance-sampling approach used to convert standardized point count data to density estimates, which we illustrate by providing habitat-specific densities and total population estimates for one species in a part of western Canada. We also illustrate the use of Classification and Regression Trees to develop species niche models from the standardized data. We conclude with a discussion of the need for a monitoring program for boreal birds in Canada, the role of predictive statistical models in developing such a program, and how monitoring could be related to boreal bird conservation through

  17. Public support for conserving bird species runs counter to climate change impacts on their distributions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hedemark Lundhede

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that global climate change will alter the spatiotemporal occurrences and abundances of many species at continental scales. This will have implications for efficient conservation of biodiversity. We investigate if the general public in Denmark are willing to pay for the preservation of birds potentially immigrating and establishing breeding populations due to climate change to the same extent that they are for native species populations currently breeding in Denmark, but potentially emigrating due to climate change. We find that Danish citizens are willing to pay much more for the conservation of birds currently native to Denmark, than for bird species moving into the country--even when they are informed about the potential range shifts associated with climate change. The only exception is when immigrating species populations are under pressure at European level. Furthermore, people believing climate change to be man-made and people more knowledgeable about birds tended to have higher WTP for conservation of native species, relative to other people, whereas their preferences for conserving immigrant species generally resembled those of other people. Conservation investments rely heavily on public funding and hence on public support. Our results suggest that cross-country coordination of conservation efforts under climate change will be challenging in terms of achieving an appropriate balance between cost-effectiveness in adaptation and the concerns of a general public who seem mostly worried about protecting currently-native species.

  18. The U.S. Geological Survey Bird Banding Laboratory: an integrated scientific program supporting research and conservation of North American birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gregory J.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Bird Banding Laboratory (BBL) was established in 1920 after ratification of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act with the United Kingdom in 1918. During World War II, the BBL was moved from Washington, D.C., to what is now the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (PWRC). The BBL issues permits and bands to permittees to band birds, records bird band recoveries or encounters primarily through telephone and Internet reporting, and manages more than 72 million banding records and more than 4.5 million records of encounters using state-of-the-art technologies. Moreover, the BBL also issues bands and manages banding and encounter data for the Canadian Bird Banding Office (BBO). Each year approximately 1 million bands are shipped from the BBL to banders in the United States and Canada, and nearly 100,000 encounter reports are entered into the BBL systems. Banding data are essential for regulatory programs, especially migratory waterfowl harvest regulations. The USGS BBL works closely with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to develop regulations for the capture, handling, banding, and marking of birds. These regulations are published in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). In 2006, the BBL and the USFWS Division of Migratory Bird Management (DMBM) began a comprehensive revision of the banding regulations. The bird banding community has three major constituencies: Federal and State agency personnel involved in the management and conservation of bird populations that include the Flyway Councils, ornithological research scientists, and avocational banders. With increased demand for banding activities and relatively constant funding, a Federal Advisory Committee (Committee) was chartered and reviewed the BBL program in 2005. The final report of the Committee included six major goals and 58 specific recommendations, 47 of which have been addressed by the BBL. Specifically, the Committee recommended the BBL continue to support science

  19. Analysis of Bird Diversity for Supporting Ecotourism Development in Rajegwesi, Meru Betiri National Park

    OpenAIRE

    Hafid Zain Muttaqien; Luchman Hakim; Amin Setyo Leksono

    2015-01-01

    Potential ecotourism attraction in Rajegwesi Village, Meru Betiri National Park is high due to its high biodiversity, especially bird diversity, in the form of bird watching activity. This study was aimed to determine the species, level of abundance, and diversity of birds found in the Rajegwesi area. Further, this basic information is important to develop the bird watching track at Rajegwesi. We used Quantum-GIS to create the land classification and observation mapping. Bird observation used...

  20. Analysis of Bird Diversity for Supporting Ecotourism Development in Rajegwesi, Meru Betiri National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafid Zain Muttaqien

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Potential ecotourism attraction in Rajegwesi Village, Meru Betiri National Park is high due to its high biodiversity, especially bird diversity, in the form of bird watching activity. This study was aimed to determine the species, level of abundance, and diversity of birds found in the Rajegwesi area. Further, this basic information is important to develop the bird watching track at Rajegwesi. We used Quantum-GIS to create the land classification and observation mapping. Bird observation used point count method in the morning and evening with three periods of hour and three repetitions. The study confirmed about 76 species of 39 bird families was found in Rajegwesi. The highest abundance was Pygnonotus goiavier (E:Yellow-vented Bulbul, at the meadows, village, and rehabilitation land. The diversity index showed that the highest diversity was found at the heterogeneous forest (H’ index 3.745, followed by homogenous forest (H’ index 3.150, rehabilitation land (H’ index 2.845, village (H’ index 2.693, paddy fields (H’ index 2.529, and savanna (H’ index 1.880. The observation track was divided into 3 lines based on the bird’s distribution, the Village – Rehabilitation Land track (6.5 Km, Village track (2.3 Km, and Village – Rafflessia Park track (7.5 Km. Total of 25 bird species were found at the Village – Rehabilitation Land track, 22 species were found at the Village track, and 29 bird species were found at the Village – Rafflessia Park track. For the future of ecotourism development through birding development program, there are several issues that should be promoted: promoting birds conservation in the community through bird watching and birds observation competition (Bird race, training on conservation and ecotourism for the community, and strengthening the capacity and capability of Rajegwesi Ecotourism Society (RES on the ecotourism program management. Keywords: bird watching, conservation, ecotourism development, RES

  1. Public support for conserving bird species runs counter to climate change impacts on their distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundhede, Thomas; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Hanley, Nick;

    2014-01-01

    preservation of birds potentially immigrating and establishing breeding populations due to climate change to the same extent that they are for native species populations currently breeding in Denmark, but potentially emigrating due to climate change. We find that Danish citizens are willing to pay much more...... for the conservation of birds currently native to Denmark, than for bird species moving into the country – even when they are informed about the potential range shifts associated with climate change. The only exception is when immigrating species populations are under pressure at European level....... Furthermore, people believing climate change to be man-made and people more knowledgeable about birds tended to have higher WTP for conservation of native species, relative to other people, whereas their preferences for conserving immigrant species generally resembled those of other people. Conservation...

  2. Boreal forest health and global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, S; Bernier, P; Kuuluvainen, T; Shvidenko, A Z; Schepaschenko, D G

    2015-08-21

    The boreal forest, one of the largest biomes on Earth, provides ecosystem services that benefit society at levels ranging from local to global. Currently, about two-thirds of the area covered by this biome is under some form of management, mostly for wood production. Services such as climate regulation are also provided by both the unmanaged and managed boreal forests. Although most of the boreal forests have retained the resilience to cope with current disturbances, projected environmental changes of unprecedented speed and amplitude pose a substantial threat to their health. Management options to reduce these threats are available and could be implemented, but economic incentives and a greater focus on the boreal biome in international fora are needed to support further adaptation and mitigation actions. PMID:26293953

  3. Public support for conserving bird species runs counter to climate change impacts on their distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Hedemark Lundhede; Jette Bredahl Jacobsen; Nick Hanley; Jon Fjeldså; Carsten Rahbek; Niels Strange; Bo Jellesmark Thorsen

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that global climate change will alter the spatiotemporal occurrences and abundances of many species at continental scales. This will have implications for efficient conservation of biodiversity. We investigate if the general public in Denmark are willing to pay for the preservation of birds potentially immigrating and establishing breeding populations due to climate change to the same extent that they are for native species populations currently breeding in Denmar...

  4. Hawaiian forest bird trends: using log-linear models to assess long-term trends is supported by model diagnostics and assumptions (reply to Freed and Cann 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Richard J.; Pratt, Thane K.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Woodworth, Bethany L.; Jeffrey, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Freed and Cann (2013) criticized our use of linear models to assess trends in the status of Hawaiian forest birds through time (Camp et al. 2009a, 2009b, 2010) by questioning our sampling scheme, whether we met model assumptions, and whether we ignored short-term changes in the population time series. In the present paper, we address these concerns and reiterate that our results do not support the position of Freed and Cann (2013) that the forest birds in the Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) are declining, or that the federally listed endangered birds are showing signs of imminent collapse. On the contrary, our data indicate that the 21-year long-term trends for native birds in Hakalau Forest NWR are stable to increasing, especially in areas that have received active management.

  5. The Bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Jean

    2001-01-01

    Students use a dead bird to learn about bird life, anatomy, and death. Students examine a bird body and discuss what happened to the bird. Uses outdoor education as a resource for learning about animals. (SAH)

  6. Virginia ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, pelagic birds, passerine birds, and gulls...

  7. Genotype-environment associations support a mosaic hybrid zone between two tidal marsh birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jennifer; Rowe, Rebecca J; Olsen, Brian J; Shriver, W Gregory; Kovach, Adrienne I

    2016-01-01

    Local environmental features can shape hybrid zone dynamics when hybrids are bounded by ecotones or when patchily distributed habitat types lead to a corresponding mosaic of genotypes. We investigated the role of marsh-level characteristics in shaping a hybrid zone between two recently diverged avian taxa - Saltmarsh (Ammodramus caudacutus) and Nelson's (A. nelsoni) sparrows. These species occupy different niches where allopatric, with caudacutus restricted to coastal marshes and nelsoni found in a broader array of wetland and grassland habitats and co-occur in tidal marshes in sympatry. We determined the influence of habitat types on the distribution of pure and hybrid sparrows and assessed the degree of overlap in the ecological niche of each taxon. To do this, we sampled and genotyped 305 sparrows from 34 marshes across the hybrid zone and from adjacent regions. We used linear regression to test for associations between marsh characteristics and the distribution of pure and admixed sparrows. We found a positive correlation between genotype and environmental variables with a patchy distribution of genotypes and habitats across the hybrid zone. Ecological niche models suggest that the hybrid niche was more similar to that of A. nelsoni and habitat suitability was influenced strongly by distance from coastline. Our results support a mosaic model of hybrid zone maintenance, suggesting a role for local environmental features in shaping the distribution and frequency of pure species and hybrids across space. PMID:26811792

  8. Maryland ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  9. Alabama ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, gulls, and...

  10. A boreal invasion in response to climate change? Range shifts and community effects in the borderland between forest and tundra

    OpenAIRE

    Elmhagen, Bodil; Kindberg, Jonas; Hellström, Peter; Angerbjörn, Anders

    2015-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that climate warming will allow southern species to advance north and invade northern ecosystems. We review the changes in the Swedish mammal and bird community in boreal forest and alpine tundra since the nineteenth century, as well as suggested drivers of change. Observed changes include (1) range expansion and increased abundance in southern birds, ungulates, and carnivores; (2) range contraction and decline in northern birds and carnivores; and (3) abundance decli...

  11. Links between fear of humans, stress and survival support a non-random distribution of birds among urban and rural habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebolo-Ifrán, Natalia; Carrete, Martina; Sanz-Aguilar, Ana; Rodríguez-Martínez, Sol; Cabezas, Sonia; Marchant, Tracy A; Bortolotti, Gary R; Tella, José L

    2015-01-01

    Urban endocrine ecology aims to understand how organisms cope with new sources of stress and maintain allostatic load to thrive in an increasingly urbanized world. Recent research efforts have yielded controversial results based on short-term measures of stress, without exploring its fitness effects. We measured feather corticosterone (CORTf, reflecting the duration and amplitude of glucocorticoid secretion over several weeks) and subsequent annual survival in urban and rural burrowing owls. This species shows high individual consistency in fear of humans (i.e., flight initiation distance, FID), allowing us to hypothesize that individuals distribute among habitats according to their tolerance to human disturbance. FIDs were shorter in urban than in rural birds, but CORTf levels did not differ, nor were correlated to FIDs. Survival was twice as high in urban as in rural birds and links with CORTf varied between habitats: while a quadratic relationship supports stabilizing selection in urban birds, high predation rates may have masked CORTf-survival relationship in rural ones. These results evidence that urban life does not constitute an additional source of stress for urban individuals, as shown by their near identical CORTf values compared with rural conspecifics supporting the non-random distribution of individuals among habitats according to their behavioural phenotypes. PMID:26348294

  12. A boreal invasion in response to climate change? Range shifts and community effects in the borderland between forest and tundra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmhagen, Bodil; Kindberg, Jonas; Hellström, Peter; Angerbjörn, Anders

    2015-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that climate warming will allow southern species to advance north and invade northern ecosystems. We review the changes in the Swedish mammal and bird community in boreal forest and alpine tundra since the nineteenth century, as well as suggested drivers of change. Observed changes include (1) range expansion and increased abundance in southern birds, ungulates, and carnivores; (2) range contraction and decline in northern birds and carnivores; and (3) abundance decline or periodically disrupted dynamics in cyclic populations of small and medium-sized mammals and birds. The first warm spell, 1930-1960, stands out as a period of substantial faunal change. However, in addition to climate warming, suggested drivers of change include land use and other anthropogenic factors. We hypothesize all these drivers interacted, primarily favoring southern generalists. Future research should aim to distinguish between effects of climate and land-use change in boreal and tundra ecosystems. PMID:25576279

  13. Bird guard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Dana M.

    2010-03-02

    The bird guard provides a device to protect electrical insulators comprising a central shaft; a clamp attached to an end of the shaft to secure the device to a transmission tower; a top and bottom cover to shield transmission tower insulators; and bearings to allow the guard to rotate in order to frighten birds away from the insulators.

  14. Seasonal and spatial patterns of marine bird and mammal occurrences recorded on offshore support vessel transects on the Grand Banks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montevecchi, W.A.; Burke, C.M.; Davoren, G.K.; Wiese, F.K. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NF (Canada). Biopsychology Programme

    2003-07-01

    A series of surveys have been conducted since 1999 on communities of seabirds and marine mammals living on the Grand Banks of eastern Canada. The objective has been to gain information on their dynamic diversity, distribution and abundance. This has been accomplished by integrating oceanographic data from vessels traveling between the Hibernia and Terra Nova offshore platforms. The most common seabirds observed were shearwaters, storm-petrels, kittiwakes and murres. Most seabirds were recorded during summer and during migration. For both marine mammals and seabirds, there were marked seasonal changes in oceanography and species diversity, distributions and abundance. Dovekies and murres, who are most vulnerable to oil pollution, were most numerous between November and April. Oiled Dovekies were observed at Hibernia and by vessel crews. Humpback whales were often found feeding at Hibernia. They were the most common mammals during summer and fall, followed by Minke whales, porpoises and dolphins. Concentrations of birds were observed along the Labrador Current, approximately half-way between St. John's and Hibernia. Seabird densities also increased within a 500 metre radius of offshore platforms because of light attraction, food availability, and refuge. It was suggested that the surveys continue in order to keep assessing the changing relationships of seabirds and marine mammals.

  15. Talking Birds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    海文

    2005-01-01

    Many students of Englishthink thatlearning a new languageis very difficult.N ow think howdifficultitis to learn English whenyour brain is only the size of abird's brain。That is what som ebirds can do.M any different kinds of birdscan copy the sounds of lan-guage.A frican gray parrots are thebirds bestknown for this.Every D ecem ber in London,the N ationalCage and A viary BirdShow tries to find the best“talkbird in the world.O ne bird nam edPrudle stood outam ong the“talk-ing birds by winning this prizeevery...

  16. Osteology Supports a Stem-Galliform Affinity for the Giant Extinct Flightless Bird Sylviornis neocaledoniae (Sylviornithidae, Galloanseres).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthy, Trevor H; Mitri, Miyess; Handley, Warren D; Lee, Michael S Y; Anderson, Atholl; Sand, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The giant flightless bird Sylviornis neocaledoniae (Aves: Sylviornithidae) existed on La Grande Terre and Ile des Pins, New Caledonia, until the late Holocene when it went extinct shortly after human arrival on these islands. The species was generally considered to be a megapode (Megapodiidae) until the family Sylviornithidae was erected for it in 2005 to reflect multiple cranial autapomorphies. However, despite thousands of bones having been reported for this unique and enigmatic taxon, the postcranial anatomy has remained largely unknown. We rectify this deficiency and describe the postcranial skeleton of S. neocaledoniae based on ~600 fossils and use data from this and its cranial anatomy to make a comprehensive assessment of its phylogenetic affinities. Sylviornis neocaledoniae is found to be a stem galliform, distant from megapodiids, and the sister taxon to the extinct flightless Megavitiornis altirostris from Fiji, which we transfer to the family Sylviornithidae. These two species form the sister group to extant crown-group galliforms. Several other fossil galloanseres also included in the phylogenetic analysis reveal novel hypotheses of their relationships as follows: Dromornis planei (Dromornithidae) is recovered as a stem galliform rather than a stem anseriform; Presbyornis pervetus (Presbyornithidae) is the sister group to Anseranatidae, not to Anatidae; Vegavis iaai is a crown anseriform but remains unresolved relative to Presbyornis pervetus, Anseranatidae and Anatidae. Sylviornis neocaledoniae was reconstructed herein to be 0.8 m tall in a resting stance and weigh 27-34 kg. The postcranial anatomy of S. neocaledoniae shows no indication of the specialised adaptation to digging seen in megapodiids, with for example, its ungual morphology differing little from that of chicken Gallus gallus. These observations and its phylogenetic placement as stem galliforms makes it improbable that this species employed ectothermic incubation or was a mound

  17. Osteology Supports a Stem-Galliform Affinity for the Giant Extinct Flightless Bird Sylviornis neocaledoniae (Sylviornithidae, Galloanseres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor H Worthy

    Full Text Available The giant flightless bird Sylviornis neocaledoniae (Aves: Sylviornithidae existed on La Grande Terre and Ile des Pins, New Caledonia, until the late Holocene when it went extinct shortly after human arrival on these islands. The species was generally considered to be a megapode (Megapodiidae until the family Sylviornithidae was erected for it in 2005 to reflect multiple cranial autapomorphies. However, despite thousands of bones having been reported for this unique and enigmatic taxon, the postcranial anatomy has remained largely unknown. We rectify this deficiency and describe the postcranial skeleton of S. neocaledoniae based on ~600 fossils and use data from this and its cranial anatomy to make a comprehensive assessment of its phylogenetic affinities. Sylviornis neocaledoniae is found to be a stem galliform, distant from megapodiids, and the sister taxon to the extinct flightless Megavitiornis altirostris from Fiji, which we transfer to the family Sylviornithidae. These two species form the sister group to extant crown-group galliforms. Several other fossil galloanseres also included in the phylogenetic analysis reveal novel hypotheses of their relationships as follows: Dromornis planei (Dromornithidae is recovered as a stem galliform rather than a stem anseriform; Presbyornis pervetus (Presbyornithidae is the sister group to Anseranatidae, not to Anatidae; Vegavis iaai is a crown anseriform but remains unresolved relative to Presbyornis pervetus, Anseranatidae and Anatidae. Sylviornis neocaledoniae was reconstructed herein to be 0.8 m tall in a resting stance and weigh 27-34 kg. The postcranial anatomy of S. neocaledoniae shows no indication of the specialised adaptation to digging seen in megapodiids, with for example, its ungual morphology differing little from that of chicken Gallus gallus. These observations and its phylogenetic placement as stem galliforms makes it improbable that this species employed ectothermic incubation or was a

  18. National recovery strategy for woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou, boreal population, in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Hervieux

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Recovery planning for the boreal population of woodland caribou is a complex task, spanning eight Canadian provinces and territories. To accommodate unique situations across the country, recovery planning for this Species at Risk Act-listed threatened species is occurring at both provincial/ territorial and national levels. The national recovery strategy strives to identify nationally important issues and provide direction for provinces and territories as they plan and implement boreal caribou recovery within their jurisdictions. The national vision is to conserve and recover boreal caribou and their habitat across Canada. Specific goals are to: 1 Prevent extirpation of local boreal caribou populations from all existing caribou ranges; and 2 Maintain or enhance local boreal caribou populations at or to self-sustaining levels within all existing caribou ranges; and 3 Maintain or enhance boreal caribou habitat to support self-sustaining local populations. Nineteen broad national approaches are identified. These approaches include items relating to: habitat planning and management, caribou population monitoring and management, management of human-caused mortality, management of other wildlife species, consideration of government legislation and policy,promotion of stewardship and public outreach, and research. Specific outcomes are provided for each stated recovery approach. For more information on Canada's national recovery strategy for the boreal population of woodland caribou please see www.speciesatrisk.gc.ca/recovery/default_e.cfm

  19. Hawaii ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for endangered waterbirds and passerine birds, migratory shorebirds and waterfowl, gulls and terns,...

  20. Reserve selection in boreal forest

    OpenAIRE

    Lundström, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Most boreal forests in North Europe are intensively managed, and the forest landscape is far from its natural stage leading to hundreds of species being threatened in Sweden alone. Reserves are established to protect biodiversity, but since the resources available for conservation do not cover all species in need of protection, effective prioritization is essential. In this thesis, a reserve selection model based on a goal programming approach was developed, finding the optimal age comp...

  1. Birds build camouflaged nests

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Ida Elizabeth; Muth, Felicity; Morgan, Kate; Meddle, Simone L.; Healy, Susan Denise

    2014-01-01

    This work was supported by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) (BB/I019502/1 to S.D.H. and S.L.M.) and by Roslin Institute Strategic Grant funding from the BBSRC (to S.L.M). It is assumed that many birds attempt to conceal their nests by using camouflage. To our knowledge, however, no previous experimental studies have explicitly tested this assumption. To explore whether birds choose materials that match the background colors of nest sites to reduce the cons...

  2. Overabundant ungulates in French Sologne? Increasing red deer and wild boar pressure may not threaten woodland birds in mature forest stands

    OpenAIRE

    Baltzinger, Marie; Marell, Anders; Archaux, Frédéric; Pérot, Thomas; Leterme , Franck; Deconchat, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Increasing ungulate populations have been considered to drive changes in woodland bird communities in temperate and boreal forests. Ungulates may negatively affect understory-dependent woodland birds either directly or indirectly. For instance ungulates may prey on nests, or they may reduce the availability of nesting sites, foraging resources or cover for understory-dependent bird species. We conducted ungulate pressure, vegetation and bird surveys on 95 plots, in nineteen mature forest stan...

  3. Columbia River ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, gulls, and terns in...

  4. Western Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  5. The Influence of Summer Climate on Avian Community Composition in the Eastern Boreal Forest of Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie-Louise LeBlanc

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relative influence of environmental variables, especially climate, in driving variation in species diversity is becoming increasingly important for the conservation of biodiversity. The objective of this study was to determine to what extent climate can explain the structure and diversity of forest bird communities by sampling bird abundance in homogenous mature spruce stands in the boreal forest of the Québec-Labrador peninsula using variance partitioning techniques. We also quantified the relationship among two climatic gradients, summer temperature and precipitation, and bird species richness, migratory strategy, and spring arrival phenology. For the bird community, climate factors appear to be most important in explaining species distribution and abundance because nearly 15% of the variation in the distribution of the 44 breeding birds selected for the analysis can be explained by climate. The vegetation variables we selected were responsible for a much smaller amount of the explained variation (4%. Breeding season temperature seems to be more important than precipitation in driving variation in bird species diversity at the scale of our analysis. Partial correlation analysis indicated that bird species richness distribution was determined by the temperature gradient, because the number of species increased with increasing breeding season temperature. Similar results were observed between breeding season temperature and the number of residents, short-distance and long-distance migrants, and early and late spring migrants. Our results suggest that the northern and southern range boundaries of species are not equally sensitive to the temperature gradient across the region.

  6. Pretreatment survey and monitoring of birds and mammals of Kiska Island, June 1985 (in support of the EPA experimental compound 1080 use permit G704-EUP-28)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Survey to monitor birds and mammals of Kiska Island to establish baseline conditions prior to application of Compound 1080 to complete fox eradication.

  7. Second survey and monitoring of birds and mammals of Kiska Island, June 1986 (in support of the EPA experimental compound 1080 use permit G704-EUP-28)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of this study was to continue surveying and monitoring the birds and mammals of Kiska Island to establish baseline conditions prior to and the first...

  8. BIRD FLU (AVIAN INFLUENZA)

    OpenAIRE

    Ali ACAR; Bulent BESIRBELLIOÐLU

    2005-01-01

    Avian influenza (bird flu) is a contagious disease of animals caused by influenza A viruses. These flu viruses occur naturally among birds. Actually, humans are not infected by bird flu viruses.. However, during an outbreak of bird flu among poultry, there is a possible risk to people who have contact infect birds or surface that have been contaminated with excreations from infected birds. Symptoms of bird flu in humans have ranged from typical flu-like symptoms to eye infections, pneumonia, ...

  9. Sustaining Aquatic Ecosystems in Boreal Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Schindler

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Few boreal waters are managed in a sustainable manner, because cumulative effects of a variety of human activities are not considered. Fisheries and water quality have declined in most large water bodies of the southern boreal zone. Some of the reasons are direct, including overexploitation of fisheries, alteration of flow patterns, introductions of non-native species, and discharge of eutrophying nutrients and persistent contaminants. However, improper management of watersheds and airsheds also causes degradation of aquatic ecosystems. Clear-cut logging, climatic warming, acid precipitation, and stratospheric ozone depletion are among the more important of these indirect stressors. There are important interactions among these stressors, requiring that they not be treated in isolation. Ecological sustainability of boreal waters would require that exploitation of all parts of the boreal landscape be much lower than it is at present. Unfortunately, management for sustainability is lagging far behind scientific understanding in most countries.

  10. Migration of birds

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the migration of birds. Topics covered include why birds migrate, when birds migrate, speed, altitude, courses, distance, major flyways and...

  11. Bat and bird diversity along independent gradients of latitude and tree composition in European forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonnier, Yohan M; Barbaro, Luc; Barnagaud, Jean-Yves; Ampoorter, Evy; Nezan, Julien; Verheyen, Kris; Jactel, Hervé

    2016-10-01

    Species assemblages are shaped by local and continental-scale processes that are seldom investigated together, due to the lack of surveys along independent gradients of latitude and habitat types. Our study investigated changes in the effects of forest composition and structure on bat and bird diversity across Europe. We compared the taxonomic and functional diversity of bat and bird assemblages in 209 mature forest plots spread along gradients of forest composition and vertical structure, replicated in 6 regions spanning from the Mediterranean to the boreal biomes. Species richness and functional evenness of both bat and bird communities were affected by the interactions between latitude and forest composition and structure. Bat and bird species richness increased with broadleaved tree cover in temperate and especially in boreal regions but not in the Mediterranean where they increased with conifer abundance. Bat species richness was lower in forests with smaller trees and denser understorey only in northern regions. Bird species richness was not affected by forest structure. Bird functional evenness increased in younger and denser forests. Bat functional evenness was also influenced by interactions between latitude and understorey structure, increasing in temperate forests but decreasing in the Mediterranean. Covariation between bat and bird abundances also shifted across Europe, from negative in southern forests to positive in northern forests. Our results suggest that community assembly processes in bats and birds of European forests are predominantly driven by abundance and accessibility of feeding resources, i.e., insect prey, and their changes across both forest types and latitudes.

  12. Bat and bird diversity along independent gradients of latitude and tree composition in European forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonnier, Yohan M; Barbaro, Luc; Barnagaud, Jean-Yves; Ampoorter, Evy; Nezan, Julien; Verheyen, Kris; Jactel, Hervé

    2016-10-01

    Species assemblages are shaped by local and continental-scale processes that are seldom investigated together, due to the lack of surveys along independent gradients of latitude and habitat types. Our study investigated changes in the effects of forest composition and structure on bat and bird diversity across Europe. We compared the taxonomic and functional diversity of bat and bird assemblages in 209 mature forest plots spread along gradients of forest composition and vertical structure, replicated in 6 regions spanning from the Mediterranean to the boreal biomes. Species richness and functional evenness of both bat and bird communities were affected by the interactions between latitude and forest composition and structure. Bat and bird species richness increased with broadleaved tree cover in temperate and especially in boreal regions but not in the Mediterranean where they increased with conifer abundance. Bat species richness was lower in forests with smaller trees and denser understorey only in northern regions. Bird species richness was not affected by forest structure. Bird functional evenness increased in younger and denser forests. Bat functional evenness was also influenced by interactions between latitude and understorey structure, increasing in temperate forests but decreasing in the Mediterranean. Covariation between bat and bird abundances also shifted across Europe, from negative in southern forests to positive in northern forests. Our results suggest that community assembly processes in bats and birds of European forests are predominantly driven by abundance and accessibility of feeding resources, i.e., insect prey, and their changes across both forest types and latitudes. PMID:27312262

  13. Enhancing bird banding information sharing across the western hemishpere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, A.; Berlanga, H.; Howes, L.; Tomosy, M.

    2007-01-01

    Bird banding and marking provide indispensable tools for ornithological research, management, and conservation of migratory birds and their habitats along migratory routes, breeding and non-breeding grounds. With the growing interest in international coordination of tracking bird movements, coordination amongst developing and existing programs is essential for effective data management. The North American Bird Banding Program (Canadian Bird Banding Office and U.S. Bird Banding Laboratory and the Mexican government) has been working to enhance collaboration with other Western Hemisphere countries to establish a voluntary bird banding communication network. This network addresses challenges, such as: demonstrating how sharing banding expertise and information management can support the stewardship of Western Hemisphere migratory birds, ensuring that valuable banding and encounter data are captured and shared. With increasing numbers of international scientific and conservation initiatives, bird banding and marking programs must provide essential international coordination functions as well as support local activities by facilitating access to bands, training, data management and encounter reporting.

  14. Are Boreal Ovenbirds, Seiurus aurocapilla, More Prone to Move across Inhospitable Landscapes in Alberta's Boreal Mixedwood Forest than in Southern Québec's Temperate Deciduous Forest?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Bélisle

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Population life-history traits such as the propensity to move across inhospitable landscapes should be shaped by exposure to landscape structure over evolutionary time. Thus, birds that recently evolved in landscapes fragmented by natural disturbances such as fire would be expected to show greater behavioral and morphological vagility relative to conspecifics that evolved under less patchy landscapes shaped by fewer and finer-scaled disturbances, i.e., the resilience hypothesis. These predictions are not new, but they remain largely untested, even for well-studied taxa such as neotropical migrant birds. We combined two experimental translocation, i.e., homing, studies to test whether Ovenbird, Seiurus aurocapilla, from the historically dynamic boreal mixedwood forest of north-central Alberta (n = 55 is more vagile than Ovenbird from historically less dynamic deciduous forest of southern Québec (n = 89. We found no regional difference in either wing loading or the response of homing Ovenbird to landscape structure. Nevertheless, this study presents a heuristic framework that can advance the understanding of boreal landscape dynamics as an evolutionary force.

  15. The Elusive Boreal Forest Thaumarchaeota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Bomberg

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Archaea have, with increasing frequency, been found to colonize both agricultural and forest soils in temperate and boreal regions. The as yet uncultured group I.1c of the Thaumarchaeota has been of special interest. These Archaea are widely distributed in mature vegetated acidic soils, but little has been revealed of their physiological and biological characteristics. The I.1c Thaumarchaeota have been recognized as a microbial group influenced by plant roots and mycorrhizal fungi, but appear to have distinct features from their more common soil dwelling counterparts, such as the Nitrosotalea or Nitrososphaera. They appear to be highly dependent on soil pH, thriving in undisturbed vegetated soils with a pH of 5 or below. Research indicate that these Archaea require organic carbon and nitrogen sources for growth and that they may live both aerobically and anaerobically. Nevertheless, pure cultures of these microorganisms have not yet been obtained. This review will focus on what is known to date about the uncultured group I.1c Thaumarchaeota formerly known as the “Finnish Forest Soil” (FFS Archaea.

  16. A Thankful Bird

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜巧玲

    2002-01-01

    One day, I was playing in the woods when I saw a bird standing on a tree branch in the rain. “Poor bird, I thought, ”He has no home. “When I got home, I set down to make a house for the bird so that the bird would not catch rain any longer.

  17. Origin and Availability of Large Cavities for Barrow’s Goldeneye (Bucephala islandica, a Species at Risk Inhabiting the Eastern Canadian Boreal Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Andrée Vaillancourt

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Large secondary-nesting birds such as ducks rely on appropriate cavities for breeding. The main objective of this study was to assess the availability of large cavities and the potential of a managed boreal coniferous landscape to provide nesting trees within the breeding area of the eastern population of Barrow’s Goldeneye (Bucephala islandica, a cavity-nesting species at risk in Canada. Woodpecker surveys were conducted in both conifer and mixed-wood landscapes, and cavities were sought in line transects distributed in unharvested and linear remnant stands of balsam fir (Abies balsamea and black spruce (Picea mariana as well as in cutblocks. No Pileated Woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus were detected in the breeding area of Barrow’s Goldeneye, but the species was present in the nearby lowland area in which trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides is abundant. Only 10 trees (0.2% of those sampled supported cavities considered suitable for Barrow’s Goldeneye in terms of dimensions and canopy openness. Most of the suitable cavities found during this study were nonexcavated apical (chimney cavities in relatively short snags that showed advanced states of decay. A diameter-at-breast-height threshold was determined for each tree species, after which the probability of cavity occurrence was enhanced in terms of potential cavity trees for Barrow’s Goldeneye. Remnant linear forest sites had lower potential tree densities than did their unharvested equivalents. Large cavities were thus a rare component in this boreal landscape, suggesting that they may be a limiting factor for this population at risk. Current even-aged forest management that mainly relies on clear-cut practices is likely to further reduce the potential of this landscape to provide trees with suitable cavities.

  18. Maintaining animal assemblages through single-species management: the case of threatened caribou in boreal forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichet, Orphé; Dupuch, Angélique; Hébert, Christian; Le Borgne, Hélène Le; Fortin, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    With the intensification of human activities, preserving animal populations is a contemporary challenge of critical importance. In this context, the umbrella species concept is appealing because preserving a single species should result in the protection of multiple co-occurring species. Practitioners, though, face the task of having to find suitable umbrellas to develop single-species management guidelines. In North America, boreal forests must be managed to facilitate the recovery of the threatened boreal caribou (Rangifer tarandus). Yet, the effect of caribou conservation on co-occurring animal species remains poorly documented. We tested if boreal caribou can constitute an effective umbrella for boreal fauna. Birds, small mammals, and insects were sampled along gradients of post-harvest and post-fire forest succession. Predictive models of occupancy were developed from the responses of 95 species to characteristics of forest stands and their surroundings. We then assessed the similarity of species occupancy expected between simulated harvested landscapes and a 90 000-km2 uncut landscape. Managed landscapes were simulated based on three levels of disturbance, two timber-harvest rotation cycles, and dispersed or aggregated cut-blocks. We found that management guidelines that were more likely to maintain caribou populations should also better preserve animal assemblages. Relative to fragmentation or harvest cycle, we detected a stronger effect of habitat loss on species assemblages. Disturbing 22%, 35%, and 45% of the landscape should result, respectively, in 80%, 60%, and 40% probability for caribou populations to be sustainable; in turn, this should result in regional species assemblages with Jaccard similarity indices of 0.86, 0.79, and 0.74, respectively, relative to the uncut landscape. Our study thus demonstrates the value of single-species management for animal conservation. Our quantitative approach allows for the evaluation of management guidelines prior

  19. Maintaining animal assemblages through single-species management: the case of threatened caribou in boreal forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichet, Orphé; Dupuch, Angélique; Hébert, Christian; Le Borgne, Hélène Le; Fortin, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    With the intensification of human activities, preserving animal populations is a contemporary challenge of critical importance. In this context, the umbrella species concept is appealing because preserving a single species should result in the protection of multiple co-occurring species. Practitioners, though, face the task of having to find suitable umbrellas to develop single-species management guidelines. In North America, boreal forests must be managed to facilitate the recovery of the threatened boreal caribou (Rangifer tarandus). Yet, the effect of caribou conservation on co-occurring animal species remains poorly documented. We tested if boreal caribou can constitute an effective umbrella for boreal fauna. Birds, small mammals, and insects were sampled along gradients of post-harvest and post-fire forest succession. Predictive models of occupancy were developed from the responses of 95 species to characteristics of forest stands and their surroundings. We then assessed the similarity of species occupancy expected between simulated harvested landscapes and a 90 000-km2 uncut landscape. Managed landscapes were simulated based on three levels of disturbance, two timber-harvest rotation cycles, and dispersed or aggregated cut-blocks. We found that management guidelines that were more likely to maintain caribou populations should also better preserve animal assemblages. Relative to fragmentation or harvest cycle, we detected a stronger effect of habitat loss on species assemblages. Disturbing 22%, 35%, and 45% of the landscape should result, respectively, in 80%, 60%, and 40% probability for caribou populations to be sustainable; in turn, this should result in regional species assemblages with Jaccard similarity indices of 0.86, 0.79, and 0.74, respectively, relative to the uncut landscape. Our study thus demonstrates the value of single-species management for animal conservation. Our quantitative approach allows for the evaluation of management guidelines prior

  20. Dynamical vegetation-atmosphere modelling of the boreal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hui; Stordal, Frode; Berntsen, Terje K.; Bryn, Anders

    2016-04-01

    Vegetation interacts with climate on seasonal to inter-annual time scales through albedo, roughness, evapotranspiration, CO2 sequestration and by influencing snow accumulation and ablation. The Scandinavian mountains and high latitudes is a hot spot for land-atmosphere feedback, as the future's increased winter minimum temperature supports a boreal tree line advance, lowering the surface albedo. The northern ecosystem is dominated by mires, boreal forests and alpine heaths, in addition to agricultural land. Model studies have shown that vegetation-climate feedbacks are strong enough to lead to regime shifts in vegetation and local climate in boreal regions. Biogeophysical factors, such as albedo, the Bowen ratio, and surface roughness, are all involved in these feedbacks, and they are also altered by land use change such as reforestation. For calculations of the dynamical coupling between the atmosphere and the vegetation we have used the Earth System Model NorESM, which includes several advanced features in its land surface model (CLM4.5), such as the inclusion of the radiative forcing due to black carbon and dust deposit onto snow, improved representation of fire, permafrost and its hydrological impact, a new snow cover fraction parameterization reflecting the hysteresis in fractional snow cover for a given snow depth between accumulation and melt phases, as well as dynamic vegetation coupled with carbon-nitrogen cycles. These new features improve the representation of surface albedo feedback in Arctic. We have performed experiments with coupled as well fixed ocean for the current as a quadrupled atmospheric CO2 situation. This model configuration is used to study changes in vegetation in a high end radiative forcing case. It is contrasted with an experiment where vegetation dynamics is neglected. Changes in the features of the vegetation along with surface fluxes, albedo and atmospheric temperatures are analysed, with main emphasis on the boreal zone. In

  1. Balancing the Relationship Between Protection and Sustainable Management in Canada′s Boreal Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Carlson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Protection and sustainable forest management are related but unique, with protection focusing on minimising risk to ecosystems and sustainable management emphasising economic development. Given these distinct roles, a defining characteristic of the relationship between the two approaches is their relative abundance and distribution. The relationship is currently imbalanced, with only 12% of Canada allocated to protection, indicating that ecological values have historically been traded off in favour of resource production. The intactness of Canada′s boreal forest provides an opportunity for a more holistic approach that conserves its globally significant environmental attributes while also supporting resource production. The Boreal Forest Conservation Framework proposes a balanced relationship that allocates land approximately equally between protection and sustainable management. It is a framework that has been endorsed by industry, Aboriginal, and conservation organisations, and is supported by conservation science. Recent commitments to comprehensive land-use planning at regional scales are consistent with the collaborative approach promoted by the Boreal Forest Conservation Framework, and suggest that conservation objectives are likely to receive increased attention in Canada′s boreal region relative to recent history. Ensuring that land-use planning is proactive and balanced will be essential to forging a cooperative relationship between sustainable management and protection in the region.

  2. Structuring Effects of Deer in Boreal Forest Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steeve D. Côté

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many deer populations have recently increased worldwide leading to strong direct and indirect ecological and socioeconomical impacts on the composition, dynamic, and functions of forest ecosystems. Deer directly modify the composition and structure of vegetation communities, but they also indirectly affect other species of the ecosystem by modifying the structure of the vegetation. Here we review the results of a research program on overabundant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus in the boreal forest of Anticosti Island (Québec, Canada aimed at identifying deer densities compatible with forest regeneration. Various silvicultural systems and treatments failed to regenerate deer habitat at high deer densities, but planting size-adapted seedlings could be effective at moderate densities. Using a controlled deer density experiment, we found vegetation recovery at deer densities ≤ 15 deer/km2. The same experiment revealed that other groups of organisms such as insects and birds responded favorably to a reduction of deer density. We also found that alternative successional trajectories may occur after a certain period of heavy browsing during early succession. We conclude that one of the most important remaining research gaps is the need to identify habitat-specific threshold densities at which deer impacts occur and then to design effective wildlife and forest management strategies to limit deer impacts and sustain ecosystem integrity.

  3. BIRD FLU (AVIAN INFLUENZA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali ACAR

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza (bird flu is a contagious disease of animals caused by influenza A viruses. These flu viruses occur naturally among birds. Actually, humans are not infected by bird flu viruses.. However, during an outbreak of bird flu among poultry, there is a possible risk to people who have contact infect birds or surface that have been contaminated with excreations from infected birds. Symptoms of bird flu in humans have ranged from typical flu-like symptoms to eye infections, pneumonia, severe respiratory diseases and other severe and life-threatening complications. In such situation, people should avoid contact with infected birds or contaminated surface, and should be careful when handling and cooking poultry. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(6.000: 345-353

  4. Browning boreal forests of western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbyla, David

    2011-12-01

    The GIMMS NDVI dataset has been widely used to document a 'browning trend' in North American boreal forests (Goetz et al 2005, Bunn et al 2007, Beck and Goetz 2011). However, there has been speculation (Alcaraz-Segura et al 2010) that this trend may be an artifact due to processing algorithms rather than an actual decline in vegetation activity. This conclusion was based primarily on the fact that GIMMS NDVI did not capture NDVI recovery within most burned areas in boreal Canada, while another dataset consistently showed post-fire increasing NDVI. I believe that the results of Alcaraz-Segura et al (2010) were due simply to different pixel sizes of the two datasets (64 km2 versus 1 km2 pixels). Similar results have been obtained from tundra areas greening in Alaska, with the results simply due to these pixel size differences (Stow et al 2007). Furthermore, recent studies have documented boreal browning trends based on NDVI from other sensors. Beck and Goetz (2011) have shown the boreal browning trend derived from a different sensor (MODIS) to be very similar to the boreal browning trend derived from the GIMMS NDVI dataset for the circumpolar boreal region. Parent and Verbyla (2010) found similar declining NDVI patterns based on NDVI from Landsat sensors and GIMMS NDVI in boreal Alaska. Zhang et al (2008) found a similar 'browning trend' in boreal North America based on a production efficiency model using an integrated AVHRR and MODIS dataset. The declining NDVI trend in areas of boreal North America is consistent with tree-ring studies (D'Arrigo et al 2004, McGuire et al 2010, Beck et al 2011). The decline in tree growth may be due to temperature-induced drought stress (Barber et al 2000) caused by higher evaporative demands in a warming climate (Lloyd and Fastie 2002). In a circumpolar boreal study, Lloyd and Bunn (2007) found that a negative relationship between temperature and tree-ring growth occurred more frequently in warmer parts of species' ranges

  5. Birds: Old Questions and New.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Maura C.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses questions such as how birds fly and the meaning of bird songs. Explains the relationship between birds and ecological activism and points out the excitement in research and observation of birds. (Contains 34 references.) (YDS)

  6. A Clever Bird

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张仰清

    2000-01-01

    A man in Australia had a wonderful bird. There was no other bird like it . It was very,very clever. The bird could say any word --except one. It could not say the name of the town where it was born. The name of that town was Catano.

  7. Archaeopteryx: Dinosaur or Bird?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Jianlan

    2011-01-01

    @@ An Archaeopteryx-like theropod dinosaur newly found from western Liaoning Province in northeastern China would make an unusual, if not unwelcome, gift for the 150th birthday of Archaeopteryx, the oldest bird as long-believed by paleontologists: Named as Xiaotingia zhengiis, the new species carries some critical traits suggesting that Archaeopteryx might have actually been a dinosaur.Naturally this breaking news stirred intense controversies.Was "The Oldest Bird" a bird? If not, what makes a bird? With these questions in mind, the author joined an exploration in search of "the real first bird" along with the paleontologists at the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology (IVPP) under CAS.

  8. Explaining geographic gradients in winter selection of landscapes by boreal caribou with implications under global changes in Eastern Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Beguin

    Full Text Available Many animal species exhibit broad-scale latitudinal or longitudinal gradients in their response to biotic and abiotic components of their habitat. Although knowing the underlying mechanism of these patterns can be critical to the development of sound measures for the preservation or recovery of endangered species, few studies have yet identified which processes drive the existence of geographical gradients in habitat selection. Using extensive spatial data of broad latitudinal and longitudinal extent, we tested three hypotheses that could explain the presence of geographical gradients in landscape selection of the endangered boreal woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou during winter in Eastern Canadian boreal forests: 1 climate-driven selection, which postulates that geographic gradients are surrogates for climatic gradients; 2 road-driven selection, which proposes that boreal caribou adjust their selection for certain habitat classes as a function of proximity to roads; and 3 an additive effect of both roads and climate. Our data strongly supported road-driven selection over climate influences. Thus, direct human alteration of landscapes drives boreal caribou distribution and should likely remain so until the climate changes sufficiently from present conditions. Boreal caribou avoided logged areas two-fold more strongly than burnt areas. Limiting the spread of road networks and accounting for the uneven impact of logging compared to wildfire should therefore be integral parts of any habitat management plan and conservation measures within the range of the endangered boreal caribou. The use of hierarchical spatial models allowed us to explore the distribution of spatially-structured errors in our models, which in turn provided valuable insights for generating alternative hypotheses about processes responsible for boreal caribou distribution.

  9. Botany: Constraints to growth of boreal forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Paul; Linder, Sune

    2000-06-01

    Understanding how the growth of trees at high latitudes in boreal forest is controlled is important for projections of global carbon sequestration and timber production in relation to climate change. Is stem growth of boreal forest trees constrained by the length of the growing season when stem cambial cells divide, or by the length of the period when resources can be captured? In both cases, the timing of the thaw in the spring is critical: neither cambial cell division nor uptake of nutrients and carbon dioxide can occur while the soil is frozen. Here we argue, on the basis of long-term observations made in northern Saskatchewan and Sweden, that the time between the spring thaw and the autumn freeze determines the amount of annual tree growth, mainly through temperature effects on carbon-dioxide uptake in spring and on nutrient availability and uptake during summer, rather than on cambial cell division.

  10. North Slope, Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls and terns, seabirds, shorebirds, and waterfowl for the North Slope of Alaska....

  11. American Samoa ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for seabirds, wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, and gulls and terns in American Samoa. Vector polygons...

  12. Mineralization of cellulose in frozen boreal soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oquist, Mats G.; Segura, Javier; Sparrman, Tobias; Nilsson, Mats; Schleucher, Jurgen

    2015-04-01

    Soils of high-latitude ecosystems store a large fraction of the global soil carbon. In boreal forests, the microbial mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM) during winter can affect the ecosystems net carbon balance. Recent research has shown that microorganisms in the organic surface layer of boreal forest soil can mineralize and grow on simple, soluble monomeric substrates under frozen conditions. However, any substantial impacts of microbial activity in frozen soils on long-term soil carbon balances ultimately depends on whether soil microorganisms can utilize and grow the more complex, polymeric constituents of SOM. In order to evaluate the potential for soil microorganisms to metabolize carbon polymers at low temperatures, we incubated boreal forest soil samples amended with [13C]-cellulose and studied the microbial catabolic and anabolic utilization of the substrate under frozen and unfrozen conditions (-4 and +4°C). Freezing of the soil markedly reduced microbial utilization of the cellulose. The [13C]-CO2 production rate in the samples at +4°C were 0.52 mg CO2 SOM -1 day-1 while rates in the frozen samples (-4°C) were 0.01 mg CO2 SOM -1 day-1. However, newly synthetized [13C]-enriched cell membrane lipids, PLFAs, were detected in soil samples incubated both above and below freezing, confirming that cellulose can sustain also anabolic activity of the microbial populations under frozen conditions. The reduced metabolic rates induced by freezing indicate constraints on exoenzymatic activity, as well as substrate diffusion rates that we can attribute to reduced liquid water content of the frozen soil. We conclude that the microbial population in boreal forest soil has the capacity to metabolize, and grow, on polymeric substrates at temperatures below zero, which involves maintaining exoenzymatic activity in frozen soils. This capacity manifests the importance of SOM mineralization during the winter season and its importance for the net carbon balance of

  13. Regional boreal biodiversity peaks at intermediate human disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, S J; Cahill, J F; He, F; Sólymos, P; Boutin, S

    2012-01-01

    The worldwide biodiversity crisis has intensified the need to better understand how biodiversity and human disturbance are related. The 'intermediate disturbance hypothesis' suggests that disturbance regimes generate predictable non-linear patterns in species richness. Evidence often contradicts intermediate disturbance hypothesis at small scales, and is generally lacking at large regional scales. Here, we present the largest extent study of human impacts on boreal plant biodiversity to date. Disturbance extent ranged from 0 to 100% disturbed in vascular plant communities, varying from intact forest to agricultural fields, forestry cut blocks and oil sands. We show for the first time that across a broad region species richness peaked in communities with intermediate anthropogenic disturbance, as predicted by intermediate disturbance hypothesis, even when accounting for many environmental covariates. Intermediate disturbance hypothesis was consistently supported across trees, shrubs, forbs and grasses, with temporary and perpetual disturbances. However, only native species fit this pattern; exotic species richness increased linearly with disturbance.

  14. Critical Care of Pet Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jeffrey Rowe

    2016-05-01

    Successful care of the critical pet bird patient is dependent on preparation and planning and begins with the veterinarian and hospital staff. An understanding of avian physiology and pathophysiology is key. Physical preparation of the hospital or clinic includes proper equipment and understanding of the procedures necessary to provide therapeutic and supportive care to the avian patient. An overview of patient intake and assessment, intensive care environment, and fluid therapy is included. PMID:27131161

  15. Silviculture's Role in Managing Boreal Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa B. Jain

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Boreal forests, which are often undeveloped, are a major source of raw materials for many countries. They are circumpolar in extent and occupy a belt to a width of 1000 km in certain regions. Various conifer and hardwood species ranging from true firs to poplars grow in boreal forests. These species exhibit a wide range of shade tolerance and growth characteristics, and occupy different successional positions. The climate is subarctic, with short growing seasons, and the soils are shallow. Both wildfires and timber harvesting play an important role in shaping the structure and composition of boreal forests. Both uneven-aged and even-aged silvicultural systems can be used to produce commercial harvests, but systems can also be designed to meet a variety of other forest management objectives. Wildlife habitat maintenance, water production or conservation, and fire hazard reduction are only some of the objectives for which silvicultural systems can be designed. Coarse wood debris, snags, shrubs, canopy layers, and species composition are examples of forest attributes that can be managed using silvicultural systems. Systems can be designed to sustain predator habitat, yet provide a continual production of wood products. Uneven-aged systems tend to favor the regeneration and development of shade-tolerant species, whereas even-aged systems tend to favor shade-intolerant species. These systems and all of their permutations can create and maintain a suite of different stand compositions and structures that can be used to meet a wide variety of management objectives.

  16. Climate change and the demographic demise of a hoarding bird living on the edge

    OpenAIRE

    Waite, Thomas A; Strickland, Dan

    2006-01-01

    Population declines along the lower-latitude edge of a species' range may be diagnostic of climate change. We report evidence that climate change has contributed to deteriorating reproductive success in a rapidly declining population of the grey jay (Perisoreus canadensis) at the southern edge of its range. This non-migratory bird of boreal and subalpine forest lives on permanent territories, where it hoards enormous amounts of food for winter and then breeds very early, under still-wintry co...

  17. Biomass patterns in boreal-subarctic lake food webs along gradients of light and nutrients

    OpenAIRE

    Thomsson, Gustaf

    2015-01-01

    There is large natural variation in light and nutrient conditions across lakes. In the boreal-subarctic region most lakes are small, shallow and nutrient poor. In such lakes there is often sufficient light to support primary production at the lake bottom. An expectation for the future is that colored dissolved organic matter (cDOM) of terrestrial origin will increase in these lakes. cDOM depresses the underwater light climate but is often associated with elevated pelagic nutrient concentratio...

  18. Ecohydrology of Interior Alaska boreal forest systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, J.; Bolton, W. R.

    2012-12-01

    The ecohydrology of boreal forest ecosystems of Interior Alaska is not well understood largely because of challenges posed by the presence of discontinuous permafrost. Near-surface permafrost results in storage-dominated systems with cold, poorly drained soils, and slow growing, low statured coniferous trees (Picea mariana) or CDE's. The transition to permafrost-free areas can occur over a few meters and is accompanied by a vegetation community dominated by large deciduous trees (Populus sp. and Betula sp.) or DDE's. Typically, areas with permafrost are on north facing slopes and valley bottoms, and areas without permafrost are south facing. In Alaska's boreal forest, the permafrost is very warm and vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Once permafrost begins to thaw, the vegetation community shifts from coniferous to deciduous dominated. Streamflow in watersheds with a larger permafrost distribution tends to be higher and more responsive to precipitation events than in watersheds with low permafrost distribution. In fact, precipitation events in the low permafrost areas do not infiltrate past the rooting zone of the deciduous trees (~5-40 cm). This suggests that the deciduous trees may remove water from the system via uptake and transpiration. We focus on how vegetation water use affects boreal forest hydrology in areas of discontinuous permafrost. Specifically, we ask: what are the patterns of vegetation water use in areas with and without permafrost? This study focuses on the CDE and DDE systems. Our research sites are established on low and high locations on each aspect (south facing DDE, north facing CDE) to capture the variability associated with the different hillside drainage properties. At each of the four sites during the growing season, we measured various aspects of plant water use dynamics, including water flux, water content, water sources, depth of water uptake in the soil, and water stress. We use a Bayesian framework to analyze the data. We

  19. Diseases Transmitted by Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levison, Matthew E

    2015-08-01

    Although many people these days actually work very hard at leisure time activities, diseases are most commonly acquired from birds during the course of work in the usual sense of the term, not leisure. However, travel for pleasure to areas where the diseases are highly endemic puts people at risk of acquiring some of these bird-related diseases (for example, histoplasmosis and arbovirus infections), as does ownership of birds as pets (psittacosis). PMID:26350315

  20. Forest commons in boreal Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Holmgren, Eva

    2009-01-01

    This thesis examines the influences of Swedish forest commons on forest condition, management and the local economy. The approach is rationalistic, i.e. outcomes of forestry activities are assessed in relation to aims. According to the stated objectives, forest commons should serve as exemplars for improved forest management, focusing on increased and sustained timber production. They should provide sustainable economic support for farmers and the local economy, providing a sound basis for ta...

  1. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  2. Comparative Modeling Studies of Boreal Water and Carbon Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan, J.; Peterson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The coordination of the modeling and field efforts for an Intensive Field Campaign (IFC) may resemble the chicken and egg dilemma. This session's theme advocates that early and proactive involvement by modeling teams can produce a scientific and operational benefit for the IFC and Experiment. This talk will provide some examples and suggestions originating from the NASA funded IFC's of the FIFE First ISLSCP (International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project) Field Experiment, Oregon Transect Ecosystem Research (OTTER) and predominately Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Experiments. In February 1994 and prior to the final selection of the BOREAS study sites, a group of funded BOREAS investigators agreed to run their models with data for five community types representing the proposed tower flux sites. All participating models were given identical initial values and boundary conditions and driven with identical climate data. The objectives of the intercomparison exercise were: 1) compare simulation results of participating terrestrial, hydrological, and atmospheric models over selected time frames; 2) learn about model behavior and sensitivity to estimated boreal site and vegetation definitions; 3) prioritize BOREAS field data collection efforts supporting modeling studies; 4) identify individual model deficiencies as early as possible. Out of these objectives evolved some important coordination and science issues for the BOREAS Experiment that can be generalized to IFCs and long term archiving of the data. Some problems are acceptable because they are endemic to maintaining fair and open competition prior to the peer review process. Others are logistical and addressable through application of planning, management, and information sciences. This investigator has identified one source of measurement and model incompatibility that is manifest in the IFC scaling approach. Although intuitively obvious, scaling problems are already more formally defined in

  3. What Is Bird Flu?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢连香

    2004-01-01

    What is bird flu? It's a form of influenza believed to strike all birds. Though poultry (家禽)are believed to be especially prone to (倾向于)humans, no human-to-human transmission(传播) has been reported.

  4. Boreal Forests of Kamchatka: Structure and Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus P. Eichhorn

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Central Kamchatka abounds in virgin old-growth boreal forest, formed primarily by Larix cajanderi and Betula platyphylla in varying proportions. A series of eight 0.25–0.30 ha plots captured the range of forests present in this region and their structure is described. Overall trends in both uplands and lowlands are for higher sites to be dominated by L. cajanderi with an increasing component of B. platyphylla with decreasing altitude. The tree line on wet sites is commonly formed by mono-dominant B. ermanii forests. Basal area ranged from 7.8–38.1 m2/ha and average tree height from 8.3–24.7 m, both being greater in lowland forests. Size distributions varied considerably among plots, though they were consistently more even for L. cajanderi than B. platyphylla. Upland sites also contained a dense subcanopy of Pinus pumila averaging 38% of ground area. Soil characteristics differed among plots, with upland soils being of lower pH and containing more carbon. Comparisons are drawn with boreal forests elsewhere and the main current threats assessed. These forests provide a potential baseline to contrast with more disturbed regions elsewhere in the world and therefore may be used as a target for restoration efforts or to assess the effects of climate change independent of human impacts.

  5. Christmas Island birds returning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six months after their mass exodus, birds are beginning to return to Christmas Island. Roughly 17 million birds, almost the entire adult bird population, either perished or fled their mid-Pacific atoll home last autumn, leaving behind thousands of nestlings to starve (Eos, April 5, 1983, p. 131). It is believed that the strong El Niño altered the ecology of the surrounding waters and forced the birds to flee. Christmas Island is the world's largest coral atoll.“Ocean and atmosphere scientists are unsure of future directions for the El Niño conditions and cannot now predict what will happen to the birds in the coming months,” said Ralph W. Schreiber, curator of ornithology at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County in California. Heisthe ornithologist who discovered the disappearance. “The recovery of the bird populations depends on the food supply in the waters surrounding the island.” The island's birds feed exclusively on small fish and squid.

  6. Oxyspiruriasis in zoo birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellayan, S; Jeffery, J; Oothuman, P; Zahedi, M; Krishnasamy, M; Paramaswaran, S; Rohela, M; Abdul-Aziz, N M

    2012-06-01

    Oxyspiruriasis caused by the bird eyeworm, Oxyspirura mansoni, a thelaziid nematode, in three species of pheasants, 3 Chrysolophus pictus (golden pheasant), 7 Lophura nycthemera (silver pheasant) and 9 Phasianus colchicus (common pheasant) in Zoo Negara Malaysia are reported. Birds with the disease were treated with a solution of 0.5% iodine or 0.5% lysol. Antistress powder for 4 days in water and non-strep vitamin powder in water was also provided. Control measures included removal of the cockroach intermediate host, Pycnoscelus surinamensis (Surinam cockroach) from the vicinity of the birds. The golden pheasant is a new host for O. mansoni in peninsular Malaysia. PMID:22735854

  7. [Birds' sense of direction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohtola, Esa

    2016-01-01

    Birds utilize several distinct sensory systems in a flexible manner in their navigation. When navigating with the help of landmarks, location of the sun and stars, or polarization image of the dome of the sky, they resort to vision. The significance of olfaction in long-range navigation has been under debate, even though its significance in local orientation is well documented. The hearing in birds extends to the infrasound region. It has been assumed that they are able to hear the infrasounds generated in the mountains and seaside and navigate by using them. Of the senses of birds, the most exotic one is the ability to sense magnetic fields of the earth.

  8. Avian Influenza in Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Making a Candidate Vaccine Virus Related Links Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Avian Influenza in Birds Language: English Español Recommend on ...

  9. Birds as biodiversity surrogates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Frank Wugt; Bladt, Jesper Stentoft; Balmford, Andrew;

    2012-01-01

    1. Most biodiversity is still unknown, and therefore, priority areas for conservation typically are identified based on the presence of surrogates, or indicator groups. Birds are commonly used as surrogates of biodiversity owing to the wide availability of relevant data and their broad popular...... and applications.?Good surrogates of biodiversity are necessary to help identify conservation areas that will be effective in preventing species extinctions. Birds perform fairly well as surrogates in cases where birds are relatively speciose, but overall effectiveness will be improved by adding additional data...... from other taxa, in particular from range-restricted species. Conservation solutions with focus on birds as biodiversity surrogate could therefore benefit from also incorporating species data from other taxa....

  10. Birds - Breeding [ds60

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This data set provides access to information gathered on annual breeding bird surveys in California using a map layer developed by the Department. This data layer...

  11. Effects of weather on survival in populations of boreal toads in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, R. D.; Muths, E.; Lambert, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the relationships between animal population demography and the abiotic and biotic elements of the environments in which they live is a central objective in population ecology. For example, correlations between weather variables and the probability of survival in populations of temperate zone amphibians may be broadly applicable to several species if such correlations can be validated for multiple situations. This study focuses on the probability of survival and evaluates hypotheses based on six weather variables in three populations of Boreal Toads (Bufo boreas) from central Colorado over eight years. In addition to suggesting a relationship between some weather variables and survival probability in Boreal Toad populations, this study uses robust methods and highlights the need for demographic estimates that are precise and have minimal bias. Capture-recapture methods were used to collect the data, and the Cormack-Jolly-Seber model in program MARK was used for analysis. The top models included minimum daily winter air temperature, and the sum of the model weights for these models was 0.956. Weaker support was found for the importance of snow depth and the amount of environmental moisture in winter in modeling survival probability. Minimum daily winter air temperature was positively correlated with the probability of survival in Boreal Toads at other sites in Colorado and has been identified as an important covariate in studies in other parts of the world. If air temperatures are an important component of survival for Boreal Toads or other amphibians, changes in climate may have profound impacts on populations. Copyright 2008 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  12. A Clever Bird

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐芳; 孙菊

    2008-01-01

    @@ 一、故事内容 It is getting hotter and hotter day by day.So the birds don't often fly in the sky in daytime.They usually fly in the evening to look for food.But a bird named Polly is very naughty.He just knows how to fly,so he wants to fly every day.One day,when he is flying in the forest,he feels very thirsty.

  13. Meadow birds as indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beintema, A J

    1983-09-01

    The use of birds as indicators for 'biological qualities' is not without risks, and should always be based on a sound knowledge of population dynamics and ecological requirements of the species involved. Meadow birds form a comparatively well-studied group of waders, which breed in Dutch grasslands, heavily influenced by agricultural management. The individual species show different tolerances to intensity levels of management, and can therefore be used as indicators for these levels. PMID:24259105

  14. BIRD FLU MASKS

    OpenAIRE

    YASAR KESKIN; OÐUZ OZYARAL

    2006-01-01

    Avian influenza (bird flu) is a disease of birds caused by influenza viruses closely related to human influenza viruses. The potential for transformation of avian influenza into a form that both causes severe disease in humans and spreads easily from person to person is a great concern for world health. The main purpose of a mask is to help prevent particles (droplets) being expelled into the environment by the wearer. Masks are also resistant to fluids, and help protect the wearer from splas...

  15. Changing Arctic ecosystems--the role of ecosystem changes across the Boreal-Arctic transition zone on the distribution and abundance of wildlife populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNew, Lance; Handel, Colleen; Pearce, John; DeGange, Anthony R.; Holland-Bartels, Leslie; Whalen, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Arctic and boreal ecosystems provide important breeding habitat for more than half of North America’s migratory birds as well as many resident species. Northern landscapes are projected to experience more pronounced climate-related changes in habitat than most other regions. These changes include increases in shrub growth, conversion of tundra to forest, alteration of wetlands, shifts in species’ composition, and changes in the frequency and scale of fires and insect outbreaks. Changing habitat conditions, in turn, may have significant effects on the distribution and abundance of wildlife in these critical northern ecosystems. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting studies in the Boreal–Arctic transition zone of Alaska, an environment of accelerated change in this sensitive margin between Arctic tundra and boreal forest.

  16. Black (pyrogenic carbon: a synthesis of current knowledge and uncertainties with special consideration of boreal regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Preston

    2006-01-01

    wildfires, and little direct information on rates and mechanisms for PyC loss. Structural characterization of charred biomass and forest floor from wildfires generally indicates a low level of thermal alteration, with the bulk of the material having H/C ratios still >0.2, and small aromatic cluster sizes. Especially for the more oxidation-resistant BC fraction, a variety of mainly circumstantial evidence suggests very slow decomposition, with turnover on a millennial timescale (in the order of 5–7 ky, also dependent on environmental conditions. However, there is also evidence that some PyC may be lost in only tens to hundreds of years due to a combination of lower thermal alteration and environmental protection. The potential for long-term PyC storage in soil may also be limited by its consumption by subsequent fires. Degraded, functionalized PyC is also incorporated into humified soil organic matter, and is transported eventually to marine sediments in dissolved and particulate form. Boreal production is estimated as 7–17 Tg BC y−1 of solid residues and 2–2.5 Tg BC y−1 as aerosols, compared to global estimates of 40–240 and 10–30 Tg BC y−1, respectively. Primary research needs include basic field data on PyC production and stocks in boreal forests and peatlands, suitable to support C budget modeling, and development of standardized analytical methods and of improved approaches to assess the chemical recalcitrance of typical chars from boreal wildfires. To accomplish these goals effectively will require much greater emphasis on interdisciplinary cooperation.

  17. Black (pyrogenic carbon in boreal forests: a synthesis of current knowledge and uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Preston

    2006-02-01

    thermal alteration, with the bulk of the material having H/C ratios still >0.2, and small aromatic cluster sizes. For the more chemically-recalcitrant BC fraction, a variety of mainly circumstantial evidence suggests very slow decomposition, with turnover on a millennium timescale (5000–10 000 y, depending on environmental conditions and PyC properties, but the main limitation to PyC storage in soil is likely consumption by subsequent fires. Degraded, functionalized PyC is also incorporated into humified soil organic matter, and is transported to sediments in dissolved and particulate form. Boreal production is estimated as 7–17 Tg BC y−1 of solid residues and 2–2.5 Tg BC y−1 as aerosols. Primary research needs include basic field data on PyC production and stocks in boreal forests and peatlands, suitable to support C budget modeling, and development of standardized analytical methods and of improved approaches to assess the chemical recalcitrance of typical chars from boreal wildfires. To accomplish these goals effectively will require much greater emphasis on interdisciplinary cooperation.

  18. Upscaling methane emission hotspots in boreal peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresto Aleina, Fabio; Runkle, Benjamin R. K.; Bruecher, Tim; Kleinen, Thomas; Brovkin, Victor

    2016-04-01

    Small-scale surface heterogeneities can influence land-atmosphere fluxes and therefore carbon, water and energy budgets on a larger scale. This effect is of particular relevance for high-latitude ecosystems, because of the great amount of carbon stored in their soils. Upscaling such small-scale surface heterogeneities and their effects to larger scales is a challenging issue in land surface modeling. We developed a novel approach to upscale local methane emissions in a boreal peatland from the micro-topographic scale to the landscape-scale. We based this parameterization on the analysis of the water table pattern generated by the Hummock-Hollow model (Cresto Aleina et al., 2015), a micro-topography resolving model for peatland hydrology and methane emissions. By computing the water table at the micro-topographic scale, the Hummock-Hollow model is able to describe the effects of micro-topography on hydrology and methane emissions in a typical boreal peatland. We introduce the new parameterization of methane hotspots in a global model-like version of the Hummock-Hollow model. This latter version underestimates methane emissions because of the lack of representation of micro-topographic controls on peatland hydrology. We tested the robustness of the parameterization by simulating methane emissions for the present day and for the next century, forcing the model with three different RCP scenarios. The Hotspot parameterization, despite being calibrated for the 1976-2005 climatology, mimics the output of the micro-topography resolving model for all the simulated scenarios. The new approach bridges the scale gap of methane emissions between this version of the model and the configuration explicitly resolving micro-topography.

  19. Ancient DNA reveals elephant birds and kiwi are sister taxa and clarifies ratite bird evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kieren J; Llamas, Bastien; Soubrier, Julien; Rawlence, Nicolas J; Worthy, Trevor H; Wood, Jamie; Lee, Michael S Y; Cooper, Alan

    2014-05-23

    The evolution of the ratite birds has been widely attributed to vicariant speciation, driven by the Cretaceous breakup of the supercontinent Gondwana. The early isolation of Africa and Madagascar implies that the ostrich and extinct Madagascan elephant birds (Aepyornithidae) should be the oldest ratite lineages. We sequenced the mitochondrial genomes of two elephant birds and performed phylogenetic analyses, which revealed that these birds are the closest relatives of the New Zealand kiwi and are distant from the basal ratite lineage of ostriches. This unexpected result strongly contradicts continental vicariance and instead supports flighted dispersal in all major ratite lineages. We suggest that convergence toward gigantism and flightlessness was facilitated by early Tertiary expansion into the diurnal herbivory niche after the extinction of the dinosaurs. PMID:24855267

  20. Softwood biochar as a soil amendment material for boreal agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Tammeorg, Priit

    2014-01-01

    Biochar is a porous carbonaceous solid material produced by pyrolysis. Application of biochar is considered as an efficient way of carbon (C) sequestration since the C in biochar is relatively resistant to microbial degradation. Furthermore, previous research in (sub-) tropical conditions suggests that it may enhance soil fertility and the yields of agricultural crops. To target the lack of knowledge about the effects of biochar in the boreal zone, softwood biochar was added to two boreal soi...

  1. Antioxidant Potential of Bark Extracts from Boreal Forest Conifers

    OpenAIRE

    Jean Legault; Karl Girard-Lalancette; Dominic Dufour; André Pichette

    2013-01-01

    The bark of boreal forest conifers has been traditionally used by Native Americans to treat various ailments and diseases. Some of these diseases involve reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can be prevented by the consumption of antioxidants such as phenolic compounds that can be found in medicinal plants. In this study, ultrasonic assisted extraction has been performed under various solvent conditions (water:ethanol mixtures) on the bark of seven boreal forest conifers used by Native American...

  2. Arctic Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABoVE) Science Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, D.; Schnase, J. L.; McInerney, M.; Webster, W. P.; Sinno, S.; Thompson, J. H.; Griffith, P. C.; Hoy, E.; Carroll, M.

    2014-12-01

    The effects of climate change are being revealed at alarming rates in the Arctic and Boreal regions of the planet. NASA's Terrestrial Ecology Program has launched a major field campaign to study these effects over the next 5 to 8 years. The Arctic Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABoVE) will challenge scientists to take measurements in the field, study remote observations, and even run models to better understand the impacts of a rapidly changing climate for areas of Alaska and western Canada. The NASA Center for Climate Simulation (NCCS) at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has partnered with the Terrestrial Ecology Program to create a science cloud designed for this field campaign - the ABoVE Science Cloud. The cloud combines traditional high performance computing with emerging technologies to create an environment specifically designed for large-scale climate analytics. The ABoVE Science Cloud utilizes (1) virtualized high-speed InfiniBand networks, (2) a combination of high-performance file systems and object storage, and (3) virtual system environments tailored for data intensive, science applications. At the center of the architecture is a large object storage environment, much like a traditional high-performance file system, that supports data proximal processing using technologies like MapReduce on a Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS). Surrounding the storage is a cloud of high performance compute resources with many processing cores and large memory coupled to the storage through an InfiniBand network. Virtual systems can be tailored to a specific scientist and provisioned on the compute resources with extremely high-speed network connectivity to the storage and to other virtual systems. In this talk, we will present the architectural components of the science cloud and examples of how it is being used to meet the needs of the ABoVE campaign. In our experience, the science cloud approach significantly lowers the barriers and risks to organizations

  3. Cats protecting birds revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Meng; Kuang, Yang; Feng, Zhilan

    2005-09-01

    In this paper, we revisit the dynamical interaction among prey (bird), mesopredator (rat), and superpredator (cat) discussed in [Courchamp, F., Langlais, M., Sugihara, G., 1999. Cats protecting birds: modelling the mesopredator release effect. Journal of Animal Ecology 68, 282-292]. First, we develop a prey-mesopredator-superpredator (i.e., bird-rat-cat, briefly, BRC) model, where the predator's functional responses are derived based on the classical Holling's time budget arguments. Our BRC model overcomes several model construction problems in Courchamp et al. (1999), and admits richer, reasonable and realistic dynamics. We explore the possible control strategies to save or restore the bird by controlling or eliminating the rat or the cat when the bird is endangered. We establish the existence of two types of mesopredator release phenomena: severe mesopredator release, where once superpredators are suppressed, a burst of mesopredators follows which leads their shared prey to extinction; and mild mesopredator release, where the mesopredator release could assert more negative impact on the endemic prey but does not lead the endemic prey to extinction. A sharp sufficient criterion is established for the occurrence of severe mesopredator release. We also show that, in a prey-mesopredator-superpredator trophic food web, eradication of introduced superpredators such as feral domestic cats in the BRC model, is not always the best solution to protect endemic insular prey. The presence of a superpredator may have a beneficial effect in such systems. PMID:15998496

  4. Atmospheric ions, boreal forests and impacts on climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manninen, H. E.; Nieminen, T.; Franchin, A.; Järvinen, E.; Kontkanen, J.; Hirsikko, A.; Hõrrak, U.; Mirme, A.; Tammet, H.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Petäjä, T.; Kulmala, M.

    2012-04-01

    than 2 nm in diameter by charging the aerosol sample with unipolar corona chargers (Manninen et al., 2009). According to earlier studies, the atmospheric nucleation and cluster activation take place at the mobility diameter range of 1.5-2 nm. Therefore, the ion spectrometers allow direct measurements at exactly the size where atmospheric nucleation takes place. The results indicate that the ion-induced nucleation contributes ~1-30% to the NPF events in most atmospheric conditions (Manninen et al., 2010). In other words, neutral particle formation seems to dominate over ion-mediated mechanisms, at least in the boreal forest conditions. Acknowledgements. This research was supported by the Academy of Finland Center of Excellence program (project number 1118615). Hirsikko, A. et al.: Atmospheric ions and nucleation: a review of observations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 767-798, 2011. IPCC, Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK and New York, NY, USA, 996 pp, 2007. Kulmala, M., and Kerminen, V.-M.: On the growth of atmospheric nanoparticles, Atmos. Res., 90, 132-150, 2008. Manninen, H.E. et al.: Long-term field measurements of charged and neutral clusters using Neutral cluster and Air Ion Spectrometer (NAIS). Boreal Env. Res. 14, 591-605, 2009. Manninen, H.E. et al., EUCAARI ion spectrometer measurements at 12 European sites - analysis of new particle formation events, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 7907-7927, 2010. Mirme, A. et al.: A Wide-range multi-channel Air Ion Spectrometer, Boreal Environ. Res., 12, 247-264, 2007. Tammet, H.: Symmetric inclined grid mobility analyzer for the measurement of charged clusters and fine nanoparticles in atmospheric air. Aerosol Science and Technology, 45, 468 - 479, 2011.

  5. Seasonal courses revealed that boreal trees emit methane even during winter time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machacova, Katerina; Halmeenmäki, Elisa; Pihlatie, Mari; Urban, Otmar

    2016-04-01

    modulated by soil water content also during the winter period. Summarised, boreal tree species and their CH4 emissions play an important role in the ecosystem CH4 exchange, thus reducing the sink strength of boreal forest soils. Therefore, it is necessary to incorporate tree CH4 fluxes and their seasonal variations in the estimation of CH4 balance of boreal forests. Acknowledgement This research was supported by the project ENVIMET (CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0246) and the National Programme for Sustainability I (LO1415), EU FP7 project ExpeER (Grant Agreement 262060), Emil Aaltonen Foundation, The Academy of Finland Centre of Excellence (projects 1118615 and 272041), and Helsinki University Centre for Environment, HENVI. We thank Marian Pavelka, Jiří Dušek, Stanislav Stellner, Jiří Mikula and Marek Jakubík for technical support.

  6. Antibiotic resistance in wild birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnedahl, Jonas; Järhult, Josef D

    2014-05-01

    Wild birds have been postulated as sentinels, reservoirs, and potential spreaders of antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have been isolated from a multitude of wild bird species. Several studies strongly indicate transmission of resistant bacteria from human rest products to wild birds. There is evidence suggesting that wild birds can spread resistant bacteria through migration and that resistant bacteria can be transmitted from birds to humans and vice versa. Through further studies of the spatial and temporal distribution of resistant bacteria in wild birds, we can better assess their role and thereby help to mitigate the increasing global problem of antibiotic resistance. PMID:24697355

  7. Light-Activated Magnetic Compass in Birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Greiner, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Migrating birds fly thousand miles without having a map, or a GPS unit. But they may carry their own sensitive navigational tool, which allows them "see" the Earth’s magnetic field. Here we review the important physical and chemical constraints on a possible compass sensor and discuss the suggest......Migrating birds fly thousand miles without having a map, or a GPS unit. But they may carry their own sensitive navigational tool, which allows them "see" the Earth’s magnetic field. Here we review the important physical and chemical constraints on a possible compass sensor and discuss...... the suggestion that radical pairs in a photoreceptor cryptochrome might provide a biological realization for a magnetic compass. Finally, we review the current evidence supporting a role for radical pair reactions in the magnetic compass of birds....

  8. Tracking migrating birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willemoes, Mikkel

    and a forest reserve. In the degraded habitat all species used more space, although the consequence on bird density is less clear. Two manuscripts relate the migratory movements of a long-distance migrant with models of navigation. One compares model predictions obtained by simulation with actual movements......Migratory movements of birds has always fascinated man and led to many questions concerning the ecological drivers behind, the necessary adaptations and the navigational abilities required. However, especially for the long-distance migrants, basic descriptions of their movements are still lacking...... in when and where the bird compensated for the displacement. The last paper investigates effects of habitat shading on the performance of light-level based geolocation and compares experimental data with data from real tracking studies. This illustrates some of the potential problems and limitations...

  9. [Birds' sense of direction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohtola, Esa

    2016-01-01

    Birds utilize several distinct sensory systems in a flexible manner in their navigation. When navigating with the help of landmarks, location of the sun and stars, or polarization image of the dome of the sky, they resort to vision. The significance of olfaction in long-range navigation has been under debate, even though its significance in local orientation is well documented. The hearing in birds extends to the infrasound region. It has been assumed that they are able to hear the infrasounds generated in the mountains and seaside and navigate by using them. Of the senses of birds, the most exotic one is the ability to sense magnetic fields of the earth. PMID:27522832

  10. An introduction to Jade Bird Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Jade Bird, a lucky and divine bird in ancient Chinese mythology, is a message deliverer in the world of gods. She serves goddess Xi Wang Mu (Western Queen), bringing her commands and messages to other gods. With 3 feet, black eyes and red head, this beautiful bird is viewed as a lucky symbol in China. There are a lot of tales about her in the folklore and literature. This is why Jade Bird was chosen as the name of the largest project for research on software technology in China. Jade Bird (JB) project, started in 1983 in the period of the 6th State Five_year Plan, is a key Sci.&Tech. project of the State. It has lasted more than 15 years through the 7th, 8th, and 9th State Five_year Plan periods and is the only software project getting continual support from the government. More than 20 institutions, 300 researchers and developers are involved in the development of JB Project. Prof. Yang Fuqing from Peking University, a member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, is the leader and chief scientist of the project.

  11. Investigations of boreal forest bidirectional reflectance factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, H. Peter

    To monitor the Earth's biosphere using satellites, remote sensing science must develop robust forest reflectance models with which to extract canopy properties such as leaf area index, biomass, and percentage canopy cover from observed canopy reflectance values. At present such algorithms are generally based on regression equations which have been derived and evaluated at localized areas of solar zenith and view angles, and incorporate a priori knowledge of the scene. Of particular interest here is the treatment of the understorey which has distinct spectral reflectance properties. Recent studies suggest this layer in the boreal ecosphere has a significant influence on the CO2 budget during the northern growing season. Previous treatments of this layer in canopy reflectance models have been limited, often treating the layer as either non-reflecting, or isotropic with the same average reflectance as the overstorey. In-field observations demonstrate that this isn't the case. The recently developed Four-Scale Model [Chen and Leblanc, 1997] provides a new description of canopy reflectance that considers four levels of canopy architecture, the distributions of tree crowns, branches, shoots, and leaves. In doing so, the four proportions of sunlit and shaded overstorey and understorey are determined and treated as relevant contributors to the overall canopy reflectance. One purpose of this study is to examine the potential of further developing this model into a linear kernel form suitable for inversion, providing both the ability to extrapolate from observed reflectance values at certain view/illumination geometries to canopy BRF at other geometries and to allow extraction of information about the canopy based on observed BRF values. The FLAIR model (F_our- Scale L_inear Kernel Model for A_ni_sotropic R_eflectance) is the result of this development, following the philosophy that the model must remain applicable to a wide range of canopy types, understorey conditions, and

  12. Ozone photochemistry in boreal biomass burning plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrington, M.; Palmer, P. I.; Lewis, A. C.; Lee, J. D.; Rickard, A. R.; Di Carlo, P.; Taylor, J. W.; Hopkins, J. R.; Punjabi, S.; Oram, D. E.; Forster, G.; Aruffo, E.; Moller, S. J.; Bauguitte, S. J.-B.; Allan, J. D.; Coe, H.; Leigh, R. J.

    2013-08-01

    We present an analysis of ozone (O3) photochemistry observed by aircraft measurements of boreal biomass burning plumes over eastern Canada in the summer of 2011. Measurements of O3 and a number of key chemical species associated with O3 photochemistry, including non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and total nitrogen containing species (NOy), were made from the UK FAAM BAe-146 research aircraft as part of the "quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites" (BORTAS) experiment between 12 July and 3 August 2011. The location and timing of the aircraft measurements put BORTAS into a unique position to sample biomass burning plumes from the same source region in Northwestern Ontario with a range of ages. We found that O3 mixing ratios measured in biomass burning plumes were indistinguishable from non-plume measurements, but evaluating them in relationship to measurements of carbon monoxide (CO), total alkyl nitrates (ΣAN) and the surrogate species NOz (= NOy-NOx) revealed that the potential for O3 production increased with plume age. We used NMHC ratios to estimate photochemical ages of the observed biomass burning plumes between 0 and 10 days. The BORTAS measurements provided a wide dynamic range of O3 production in the sampled biomass burning plumes with ΔO3/ΔCO enhancement ratios increasing from 0.020 ± 0.008 ppbv ppbv-1 in plumes with photochemical ages less than 2 days to 0.55 ± 0.29 ppbv ppbv-1 in plumes with photochemical ages greater than 5 days. We found that the main contributing factor to the variability in the ΔO3/ΔCO enhancement ratio was ΔCO in plumes with photochemical ages less than 4 days, and that was a transition to ΔO3 becoming the main contributing factor in plumes with ages greater than 4 days. In comparing O3 mixing ratios with components of the NOy budget, we observed that plumes with ages between 2 and 4 days were characterised by high aerosol

  13. Towards a Manitoba Hydro boreal woodland caribou strategy: Outcomes from Manitoba Hydro boreal woodland caribou workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona E. Scurrah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Manitoba Hydro is responsible for the continued supply of energy to meet the needs of the province and is committed to protecting the environment when planning the construction and operation of its facilities. Corporate policy dictates ongoing improvement of Environmental Management Systems (EMS in order to meet or surpass regulatory requirements. Environmental objectives are reviewed annually and programs are modified when necessary to address improvements in environmental performance. Manitoba Hydro plans and constructs major transmission projects throughout northern Manitoba which includes areas occupied by boreal woodland caribou. In recognition of the potential issues associated with hydro transmission construction in boreal caribou range, Manitoba Hydro hosted an expert workshop on May 8, 2007 to provide objective advice in the development of a draft corporate strategy that effectively directs targeted monitoring and research for environmental assessment and mitigation. The workshop focused on assessing the potential threats to boreal woodland caribou from a transmission line construction and operation perspective, and identifying appropriate approaches in site selection and environmental assessment (SSEA and long-term monitoring and research. A total of nine threat categories were reviewed to determine the degree and magnitude of potential effects that may result from transmission construction and operation; and of the original nine, five final threat categories were delineated. The main elements of the workshop provided strategic approaches for proactive pre-construction monitoring, research on recruitment and mortality for local populations impacted by ROWs and control areas, and various habitat monitoring, management, and mitigation techniques. Research and monitoring priorities have been identified and continued collaboration with Manitoba Conservation and other land users were also identified.

  14. Methane metabolism in a stratified boreal lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nykänen, Hannu; Peura, Sari; Kankaala, Paula; Jones, Roger

    2013-04-01

    Stratified lakes, typical of the boreal zone, are naturally anoxic from their bottoms. In these lakes methanogenesis can account for up to half of organic matter degradation. However, a major part of the methane (CH4) is oxidized in the water column before reaching the atmosphere. Since methanotrophs use CH4 as their sole carbon and energy source, much CH4-derived carbon is incorporated into their biomass. Microbially produced CH4 has strongly negative δ13C compared to other carbon forms in ecosystems, making it possible to follow its route in food webs. However, only a few studies have estimated the amount of this microbial biomass or its carbon stable isotopic composition due to difficulties in separating it from other biomass or from other carbon forms in the water column. We estimated methanotrophic biomass from measured CH4 oxidation, and δ13C of the biomass from measured δ13C values of CH4, DIC, POM and DOC. An estimate of the fraction of methanotrophs in total microbial biomass is derived from bacterial community composition measurements. The study was made in, Alinen Mustajärvi, a small (area 0.75 ha, maximum depth 6.5 m, mean depth 4.2 m,), oligotrophic, mesohumic headwater lake located in boreal coniferous forest in southern Finland. CH4 and DIC concentrations and their δ13C were measured over the deepest point of the lake at 1 m intervals. 13C of DOM and POM were analyzed from composite samples from epi-, meta-, and hypolimnion. Evasion of CH4 and carbon dioxide from the lake surface to the atmosphere was estimated with boundary layer diffusion equations. CH4oxidation was estimated by comparing differences between observed concentrations and CH4potentially transported by turbulent diffusion between different vertical layers in the lake and also by actual methanotrophy measurements and from vertical differences in δ13C-CH4. The estimate of CH4 production was based on the sum of oxidized and released CH4. Molecular microbiology methods were used to

  15. Climate change, northern birds of conservation concern and matching the hotspots of habitat suitability with the reserve network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimo Virkkala

    Full Text Available National reserve networks are one of the most important means of species conservation, but their efficiency may be diminished due to the projected climatic changes. Using bioclimatic envelope models and spatial data on habitats and conservation areas, we studied how efficient the reserve network will be in preserving 100 forest, mire, marshland, and alpine bird species of conservation concern in Finland in 2051-2080 under three different climate scenarios. The occurrences of the studied bird species were related to the amount of habitat preferred by each species in the different boreal zones. We employed a novel integrated habitat suitability index that takes into account both the species' probability of occurrence from the bioclimatic models and the availability of suitable habitat. Using this suitability index, the distribution of the topmost 5% suitability squares ("hotspots" in the four bird species groups in the period 1971-2000 and under the three scenarios were compared with the location of reserves with the highest amounts of the four habitats to study the efficiency of the network. In species of mires, marshlands, and Arctic mountains, a high proportion of protected habitat was included in the 5% hotspots in the scenarios in 2051-2080, showing that protected areas cover a high proportion of occurrences of bird species. In contrast, in forests in the southern and middle boreal zones, only a small proportion of the protected habitat was included in the 5% hotspots, indicating that the efficiency of the protected area network will be insufficient for forest birds in the future. In the northern boreal zone, the efficiency of the reserve network in forests was highly dependent on the strength of climate change varying between the scenarios. Overall, there is no single solution to preserving biodiversity in a changing climate, but several future pathways should be considered.

  16. Chinese and Foreign Bird Lovers Watch Birds in Deyang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>Invited by the Sichuan Provincial People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries (SIFA) and the Chengdu Bird Watching Society, 60 Chinese and foreign bird lovers went to Deyang, a city in Sichuan Province that had suffered grave damages in the Wenchuan earthquake, to watch birds,

  17. Spring Temperatures Alone Cannot Explain Timing of Budburst of Boreal-Temperate Tree Species under Experimental Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, R. A.; Reich, P. B.; Rich, R. L.; Stefanski, A.

    2011-12-01

    Phenology, the timing of seasonal biological events such as budburst, blossom dates, bird migration and insect development, is critical to understanding species interactions (e.g. pollination, herbivory); determines growing season length in many (i.e. seasonal) terrestrial ecosystems; and can play a role in determining species range limits. There is ample evidence that plant and animal phenology has changed in recent decades. For trees in seasonally cold climates, change is most commonly manifested as earlier budburst, likely caused by earlier onset of warming temperatures in spring. Indeed, it is often assumed that one of the major phenological responses of temperate and boreal forest ecosystems to climate change will be earlier leafing and concomitantly, a longer growing season. However, spring warming interacts with other factors such as winter chilling and photoperiod to determine timing of spring leafing. For example, warmer winters could reduce the duration and amount of chilling experienced by dormant buds and lead to delayed budburst. Despite knowledge that such interactions exist, we know little about the interactive mechanisms by which various cues influence budburst in forest tree species or whether species differ in sensitivity to those cues. This gap hinders our ability to predict phenological responses and their ecological impacts under future climate scenarios. Over the past three years, we have conducted studies of leafing phenology, germination, photosynthesis, respiration, and growth of seedlings of ten boreal-temperate tree species subjected to experimental warming using infrared heat lamps and soil heating cables. Seedlings were planted into plots receiving ambient, +1.8°C or +3.6°C temperature treatments in open, aspen forest at the Cloquet Forestry Center, Cloquet, MN, USA (46°31' N, 92°30' W, 386 m a.s.l.; 4.5°C MAT, 807 mm MAP). While all species responded to warming by advancing the absolute date of budburst, several lines of evidence

  18. [Anesthesia in birds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, F

    1987-01-01

    Anaesthesia in birds is ordered by law and is also necessary for various operations and manipulations. Anaesthesia by injection of Ketamin, which in special cases may be combined with Diazepam, has been found useful. Anaesthesia by inhalation with Halothan, Methoxyfluran or Isofluran is the most careful method. Local anaesthesia has few indications.

  19. Bird community composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antrobus, T.J.; Guilfoyle, M.P.; Barrow, W.C.; Hamel, P.B.; Wakeley, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    Neotropical migrants are birds that breed in North America and winter primarily in Central and South America. Long-term population studies of birds in the Eastern United States indicated declines of some forest-dwelling birds, many of which winter in the Neotropics (Peterjohn and others 1995). These declines were attributed to loss of wintering and breeding habitat due to deforestation and fragmentation, respectively. Many species of Nearctic migrants--birds that breed in the northern regions of North America and winter in the Southern United States--are also experiencing population declines. Because large areas of undistrubed, older, bottomland hardwood forests oftern contain large numbers of habitat specialists, including forest-interior neotropical migrants and wintering Nearctic migrants, these forests may be critical in maintaining avian diversity. This study had two primary objectivs: (1) to create a baseline data set that can be used as a standard against which other bottomland hardwood forests can be compared, and (2) to establish long-term monitoring stations during both breeding and wintering seasons to discern population trends of avian species using bottomland hardwood forests.

  20. The Umbrella Bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crandall, Lee S.

    1949-01-01

    When CHARLES CORDIER arrived from Costa Rica on October 9, 1942, bringing with him, among other great rarities, three Bare-necked Umbrella Birds (Cephalopterus ornatus glabricollis), it seemed to us that the mere possession of such fabulous creatures was satisfaction enough. True, they were not beau

  1. Birds of Prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Harriet

    Introducing students to different hawks and owls found in Wisconsin and building a basis for appreciation of these birds in their own environment is the purpose of this teacher's guide. Primarily geared for upper elementary and junior high grades, the concepts presented could be used in conjunction with the study of ecology. A filmstrip is…

  2. Nanoscale magnetoreceptors in birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Greiner, Walter

    2012-01-01

    The Earth's magnetic field provides an important source of directional information for many living organisms, especially birds, but the sensory receptor responsible for magnetic field detection still has to be identified. Recently, magnetic iron oxide particles were detected in dendritic endings ...

  3. Carbon in boreal coniferous forest soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westman, C.J.; Ilvesniemi, H.; Liski, J.; Mecke, M. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology; Fritze, H.; Helmisaari, H.S.; Pietikaeinen, J.; Smolander, A. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Vantaa (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The working hypothesis of the research was that the soil of boreal forests is a large carbon store and the amount of C is still increasing in young soils, like in the forest soils of Finland, which makes these soils important sinks for atmospheric CO{sub 2}. Since the processes defining the soil C balance, primary production of plants and decomposition, are dependent on environmental factors and site properties, it was assumed that the organic carbon pool in the soil is also dependent on the same factors. The soil C store is therefore likely to change in response to climatic warming. The aim of this research was to estimate the C balance of forest soil in Finland and predict changes in the balance in response to changes in climatic conditions. To achieve the aim (1) intensive empirical experimentation on the density of C in different pools in the soil and on fluxes between the pools was done was done, (2) the effect of site fertility and climate on the amount and properties of organic C in forest soil was investigated and (3) dynamic modelling for investigating dynamics of the soil C storage was used

  4. Upscaling methane emission hotspots in boreal peatlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cresto Aleina

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Upscaling the properties and the effects of small-scale surface heterogeneities to larger scales is a challenging issue in land surface modeling. We developed a novel approach to upscale local methane emissions in a boreal peatland from the micro-topographic scale to the landscape-scale. We based this new parameterization on the analysis of the water table pattern generated by the Hummock–Hollow model, a micro-topography resolving model for peatland hydrology. We introduce this parameterization of methane hotspots in a global model-like version of the Hummock–Hollow model, that underestimates methane emissions. We tested the robustness of the parameterization by simulating methane emissions for the next century forcing the model with three different RCP scenarios. The Hotspot parameterization, despite being calibrated for the 1976–2005 climatology, mimics the output of the micro-topography resolving model for all the simulated scenarios. The new approach bridges the scale gap of methane emissions between this version of the model and the configuration explicitly resolving micro-topography.

  5. Science Is for the Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potenza, Susan Ade

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses a five-month interdisciplinary bird study that she designed for her seventh-grade students that combines life science, technology, writing, art, mathematics, social studies and literature. The driving force behind this yearly unit is the BirdSleuth eBird program (formerly the Cornell University Classroom…

  6. Birding--Fun and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2014-01-01

    This feature article presents the basics of birding, or bird watching, and discusses its appeal, especially to serious birders. A section on "citizen scientists" explains organizations that collect data on birds and describes projects they organize. Other sections discuss the legacy of John James Audubon and the bald eagle.

  7. Birds of Prey of Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamerstrom, Frances

    This copiously illustrated document is designed to be a field quide to birds of prey that are common to Wisconsin, as well as to some that enter the state occasionally. An introduction discusses birds of prey with regard to migration patterns, the relationship between common names and the attitudes of people toward certain birds, and natural signs…

  8. Attracting Birds to Your Backyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Brian

    1994-01-01

    Discusses methods for drawing birds to outdoor education areas, including the use of wild and native vegetation. Lists specific garden plants suitable for attracting birds in each season. Includes a guide to commercial bird seed and instructions for building homemade birdfeeders and nestboxes. (LZ)

  9. Logging and Fire Effects in Siberian Boreal Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukavskaya, E.; Buryak, L.; Ivanova, G.; Kalenskaya, O.; Bogorodskaya, A.; Zhila, S.; McRae, D.; Conard, S. G.

    2013-12-01

    The Russian boreal zone supports a huge terrestrial carbon pool. Moreover, it is a tremendous reservoir of wood products concentrated mainly in Siberia. The main natural disturbance in these forests is wildfire, which modifies the carbon budget and has potentially important climate feedbacks. In addition, both legal and illegal logging increase landscape complexity and fire hazard. We investigated a number of sites in different regions of Siberia to evaluate the impacts of fire and logging on fuel loads, carbon emissions, tree regeneration, soil respiration, and microbocenosis. We found large variations of fire and logging effects among regions depending on growing conditions and type of logging activity. Partial logging had no negative impact on forest conditions and carbon cycle. Illegal logging resulted in increase of fire hazard, and higher carbon emissions than legal logging. The highest fuel loads and carbon emissions were found on repeatedly burned unlogged sites where first fire resulted in total tree mortality. Repeated fires together with logging activities in drier conditions and on large burned sites resulted in insufficient regeneration, or even total lack of tree seedlings. Soil respiration was less on both burned and logged areas than in undisturbed forest. The highest structural and functional disturbances of the soil microbocenosis were observed on logged burned sites. Understanding current interactions between fire and logging is important for modeling ecosystem processes and for managers to develop strategies of sustainable forest management. Changing patterns in the harvest of wood products increase landscape complexity and can be expected to increase emissions and ecosystem damage from wildfires, inhibit recovery of natural ecosystems, and exacerbate impacts of wildland fire on changing climate and air quality. The research was supported by NASA LCLUC Program, RFBR grant # 12-04-31258, and Russian Academy of Sciences.

  10. Survival of Adult Songbirds in Boreal Forest Landscapes Fragmented by Clearcuts and Natural Openings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darroch M. Whitaker

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available There exists little information on demographic responses of boreal songbirds to logging. We conducted a 4-yr (2003-2006 songbird mark-recapture study in western Newfoundland, where land cover is a naturally heterogeneous mosaic of productive spruce-fir forest, stunted taiga, and openings such as bogs, fens, and riparian zones. We compared apparent survival and rate of transience for adults of 14 species between areas having forests fragmented primarily by either natural openings or 3-7 yr-old clearcuts. Data were collected on three landscape pairs, with birds being marked on three 4-6 ha netting sites on each landscape (total = 18 netting sites. Survival rates were estimated using multi-strata mark-recapture models with landscape types specified as model strata. Landscape type was retained in the best model for only two species, Ruby-crowned Kinglet and Yellow-rumped Warbler, in both cases indicating lower apparent survival in landscapes having clearcuts. Though parameter estimates suggested lower survival in clearcut landscapes for several species, meta-analysis across all species detected no general difference between landscape types. Further, we did not detect any relation between landscape differences in survival and a species' habitat affinity, migratory strategy, or the proportion of transients in its population. Although sensitivity to logging was limited, we observed high interspecific variation in rates of breeding season apparent survival (48% [Dark-eyed Junco] to 100% [several species], overwinter apparent survival (0.3% [Ruby-crowned Kinglet] to 86.5% [Gray Jay], and transience (≈0% [several species] to 61% [Ruby-crowned Kinglet in clearcut landscapes]. For Lincoln's and White-throated Sparrows, over-winter apparent survival was >2× higher for males than females, and rate of transience was > 8× higher for White-throated Sparrow males than females. Moderately male-biased sex ratios suggested that both lower mortality and higher

  11. Birds and wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langston, Rowena

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Climate change, perhaps more accurately described as climate disruption, is considered to be a major long-term threat to biodiversity, with a high probability that the underlying cause is due to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Renewable energy is an important component of a programme of measures to combat further climate change, to include improved energy efficiency and demand management. Wind energy is the most advanced renewable energy source and is a global industry onshore and, increasingly, offshore. However, as with any form of energy generation, wind energy also has potential environmental costs which have to be balanced against benefits. The environmental impacts on birds derive from the following: collision risk, in particular from the moving rotor blades; displacement arising from disturbance during construction, operation or decommissioning; habitat loss or change leading to alteration of food availability; barrier effects leading to deviation of long distance migratory flights or disruption of local flights between feeding, nesting, and roosting/loafing locations. Not all species of birds, or individuals within a species, are equally susceptible to negative interactions with wind turbines, and neither are the population consequences of impacts equivalent. Of greatest concern are bird species of conservation concern that exhibit behaviours that place them at risk of an adverse impact, notably when that impact leads to a reduction in population size that is unlikely to be compensated for. In particular, cumulative impacts arising from multiple wind farms or wind farms in combination with other developments are of concern. There has been a welcome increase in research effort and peer-reviewed publications on the subject of birds and wind energy in recent years. Increasing our understanding of impacts is essential to delivering possible solutions and this paper reviews current knowledge for birds. (Author)

  12. Global estimates of boreal forest carbon stocks and flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Corey J. A.; Warkentin, Ian G.

    2015-05-01

    The boreal ecosystem is an important global reservoir of stored carbon and a haven for diverse biological communities. The natural disturbance dynamics there have historically been driven by fire and insects, with human-mediated disturbances increasing faster than in other biomes globally. Previous research on the total boreal carbon stock and predictions of its future flux reveal high uncertainty in regional patterns. We reviewed and standardised this extensive body of quantitative literature to provide the most up-to-date and comprehensive estimates of the global carbon balance in the boreal forest. We also compiled century-scale predictions of the carbon budget flux. Our review and standardisation confirmed high uncertainty in the available data, but there is evidence that the region's total carbon stock has been underestimated. We found a total carbon store of 367.3 to 1715.8 Pg (1015 g), the mid-point of which (1095 Pg) is between 1.3 and 3.8 times larger than any previous mean estimates. Most boreal carbon resides in its soils and peatlands, although estimates are highly uncertain. We found evidence that the region might become a net carbon source following a reduction in carbon uptake rate from at least the 1980s. Given that the boreal potentially constitutes the largest terrestrial carbon source in the world, in one of the most rapidly warming parts of the globe (Walsh, 2014), how we manage these stocks will be influential on future climate dynamics.

  13. Developing a Student-Scientist Partnership: Boreal Forest Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Shannon; Huczek, George; Muir, Bradley

    1998-03-01

    A student-scientist partnership outreach program was funded by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) to involve students and teachers in scientific investigations pertinent to global change research occurring within the boreal region of Canada. Boreal Forest Watch was planned, designed and piloted by an interdisciplinary group of education and science professionals from the University of New Hampshire, the Prince Albert National Park, and several schools in central Saskatchewan, Canada. A two goal approach was adopted to 1) ensure the educational significance of the program and 2) introduce scientifically valid methods for collection of research data pertinent to global change scientists. Professional educators and school administrators from Saskatchewan were recruited to assist in project planning to ensure that the proposed activities fit within the existing curriculum framework. This process was essential for successful adoption of the program by participating teachers. The process and approach of initiating Boreal Forest Watch are presented in this paper. This program became fully functional in September, 1996 with the training of several participating teachers. Perspectives of the program and its future are provided by members of the design team. Boreal Forest Watch is a unique opportunity for both Canadian students and their teachers to explore their natural environment, learn scientific methods and principles, and contribute data to the global change research community.

  14. The Silvics of Some East European and Siberian Boreal Forest Tree Species

    OpenAIRE

    Korzukin, M.D.; Rubinina, A.E.; G. B. Bonan; Solomon, A.M.; Antonovsky, M.Y.

    1989-01-01

    In recent years, the boreal forest has received increased scientific attention in light of projected climatic warming to boreal regions from increased concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide. The ecological consequences of such a warming could be significant. However, before the consequences of climatic change can be properly investigated, the ecology of boreal forest tree species must be adequately understood. Though the life-histories of many North American boreal forest tree species a...

  15. The conservation value of residential yards: linking birds and people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Susannah B; Warren, Paige S

    2011-06-01

    Urbanization is recognized as one of the greatest threats to biodiversity throughout the world. However, the vegetation within an urbanized landscape is diverse and includes a variety of native and exotic plant species. This variation allows for testing whether certain landscape designs outperform others in the support of native biodiversity. Residential yards represent a large component of an urban landscape and, if managed collectively for birds and other wildlife, could offset some of the negative effects of urbanization. In addition, many urbanites have their primary interaction with the natural world in their front and back yards. Therefore, ensuring positive wildlife experiences for them is essential in promoting urban biodiversity. At the Central Arizona-Phoenix Long-Term Ecological Research site we tested the efficacy of native landscaping in residential yards in attracting native birds. We also explored the links between socioeconomic factors, landscape designs, and urban gradient measurements with the urban bird communities. A redundancy analysis suggested that native desert bird species increased in abundance in neighborhoods with desert landscaping designs, neighborhoods closer to large desert tracts, and higher-income neighborhoods. Variance partitioning showed that collectively these three sets of environmental variables explained almost 50% of the variation in the urban bird community. Results suggested racial and economic inequities in access to biodiversity, whereby predominantly Hispanic and lower-income neighborhoods had fewer native birds. We also found that residents' satisfaction with bird diversity was positively correlated with actual bird diversity. Our study provides new insights into the relative importance of socioeconomic variables and common urban ecological measurements in explaining urban bird communities. Urban planners can use this information to develop residential landscapes that support the well-being of both birds and people

  16. Coordinated bird monitoring: Technical recommendations for military lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Jonathan; Manning, Ann; Fischer, Richard; Eberly, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) is subject to several rules and regulations establishing responsibilities for monitoring migratory birds. The Sikes Act requires all military installations with significant natural resources to prepare and implement Integrated Natural Resources Management Plans (INRMPs). These plans guide the conservation and long-term management of natural resources on military lands in a manner that is compatible with and sustains the military mission. An INRMP also supports compliance with all legal requirements and guides the military in fulfilling its obligation to be a good steward of public land.The management and conservation of migratory birds is addressed in installation INRMPs. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requires federal agencies to evaluate and disclose the potential environmental impacts of their proposed actions. More recently, DoD signed an MOU (http://www.dodpif.org/downloads/EO13186_MOU-DoD.pdf) for migratory birds, under Executive Order 13186, with the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) in July 2006 and a Migratory Bird Rule (http://www.dodpif.org/downloads/MigBirdFINALRule_FRFeb2007.pdf) was passed by Congress in February 2007. The Migratory Bird Rule addresses the potential impacts of military readiness activities on populations of migratory birds and establishes a process to implement conservation measures if and when a military readiness activity is expected to have a significant adverse impact on a population of migratory bird species (as determined through the NEPA process). The MOU states that for nonmilitary readiness activities, prior to initiating any activity likely to affect populations of migratory birds DoD shall (1) identify the migratory bird species likely to occur in the area of the proposed action and determine if any species of concern could be affected by the activity, and (2) assess and document, using NEPA when applicable, the effect of the proposed action on species of concern. By

  17. Collected Data of The Boreal Ecosystem and Atmosphere Study (BOREAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomer, J. (Editor); Landis, D. (Editor); Conrad, S. (Editor); Curd, S. (Editor); Huemmrich, K. (Editor); Knapp, D. (Editor); Morrell, A. (Editor); Nickerson, J. (Editor); Papagno, A. (Editor); Rinker, D. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) was a large-scale international interdisciplinary climate-ecosystem interaction experiment in the northern boreal forests of Canada. Its goal was to improve our understanding of the boreal forests -- how they interact with the atmosphere, how much CO2 they can store, and how climate change will affect them. BOREAS wanted to learn to use satellite data to monitor the forests, and to improve computer simulation and weather models so scientists can anticipate the effects of global change. This BOREAS CD-ROM set is a set of 12 CD-ROMs containing the finalized point data sets and compressed image data from the BOREAS Project. All point data are stored in ASCII text files, and all image and GIS products are stored as binary images, compressed using GZip. Additional descriptions of the various data sets on this CD-ROM are available in other documents in the BOREAS series.

  18. Influence of different tree-harvesting intensities on forest soil carbon stocks in boreal and northern temperate forest ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clarke, Nicholas; Gundersen, Per; Jönsson-Belyazid, Ulrika;

    2015-01-01

    Effective forest governance measures are crucial to ensure sustainable management of forests, but so far there has been little specific focus in boreal and northern temperate forests on governance measures in relation to management effects, including harvesting effects, on soil organic carbon (SOC......) stocks. This paper reviews the findings in the scientific literature concerning the effects of harvesting of different intensities on SOC stocks and fluxes in boreal and northern temperate forest ecosystems to evaluate the evidence for significant SOC losses following biomass removal. An overview...... of existing governance measures related to SOC is given, followed by a discussion on how scientific findings could be incorporated in guidelines and other governance measures. The currently available information does not support firm conclusions about the long-term impact of intensified forest harvesting...

  19. Native Roadside Vegetation that Enhances Soil Erosion Control in Boreal Scandinavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika K. Jägerbrand

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on identifying vegetation characteristics associated with erosion control at nine roadside sites in mid-West Sweden. A number of vegetation characteristics such as cover, diversity, plant functional type, biomass and plant community structure were included. Significant difference in cover between eroded and non-eroded sub-sites was found in evergreen shrubs, total cover, and total above ground biomass. Thus, our results support the use of shrubs in order to stabilize vegetation and minimize erosion along roadsides. However, shrubs are disfavored by several natural and human imposed factors. This could have several impacts on the long-term management of roadsides in boreal regions. By both choosing and applying active management that supports native evergreen shrubs in boreal regions, several positive effects could be achieved along roadsides, such as lower erosion rate and secured long-term vegetation cover. This could also lead to lower costs for roadside maintenance as lower erosion rates would require less frequent stabilizing treatments and mowing could be kept to a minimum in order not to disfavor shrubs.

  20. Directing STUPID FUCKING BIRD

    OpenAIRE

    Burris, Katherine Carton

    2014-01-01

    In my final year as an undergraduate at the University of California, Santa Cruz, I proposed to direct STUPID FUCKING BIRD (an adaption by Aaron Posner of Chekhov's The Seagull) in the Experimental Theater. This capstone thesis details the motivations behind my selection of this play, the decision to direct, the technical preparations involved in its staging, and a brief analysis of Posner's text as an adaptation and response to Chekhov's nineteenth century classic. Taking his cue from Chekh...

  1. Free like Birds (?)

    OpenAIRE

    Kukubajska, Marija Emilija

    2015-01-01

    Intro to performance 7th International conference on Knowledge and power FREE like BIRDS (?) is a project of the interdisciplinary and multi-media Art-Po concept established in 1973, and performed on variety of issues over the years. From the American children hospitals activity (Columbia University, to Asia-Pacific museum in Pasadena, Gallery Kubaiski No. Hollywood, California, the University of La Jolla Marmount, California Wignal Museum, Irvine Fine Arts Center, Vietnamese New Yea...

  2. Bird Watching in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHRIS; DEVONSHIRE-ELLIS

    2006-01-01

    Being based in, and conducting business in, some of China's largest cities is an exciting, yet stressful occupation and 1 like to relax by taking a pair of binoculars, getting out into the open air of China's huge countryside, and spending time seeing what birds I can identify. I'm not really a twitcher (one who relentlessly pursues sightings of as many different species as possible)-just happy to get into nature. In my travels around the country, I listed

  3. Development of biogenic VOC emission inventories for the boreal forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarvainen, V.

    2008-07-01

    The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by vegetation, especially forests, can affect local and regional atmospheric photochemistry through their reactions with atmospheric oxidants. Their reaction products may also participate in the formation and growth of new particles which affect the radiation balance of the atmosphere, and thus climate, by scattering and absorbing shortwave and longwave radiation and by modifying the radiative properties, amount and lifetime of clouds. Globally, anthropogenic VOC emissions are far surpassed by the biogenic ones, making biogenic emission inventories an integral element in the development of efficient air quality and climate strategies. The inventories are typically constructed based on landcover information, measured emissions of different plants or vegetation types, and empirical dependencies of the emissions on environmental variables such as temperature and light. This thesis is focused on the VOC emissions from the boreal forest, the largest terrestrial biome with characteristic vegetation patterns and strong seasonality. The isoprene, monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions of the most prevalent boreal tree species in Finland, Scots pine, have been measured and their seasonal variation and dependence on temperature and light have been studied. The measured emission data and other available observations of the emissions of the principal boreal trees have been used in a biogenic emission model developed for the boreal forests in Finland. The model utilizes satellite landcover information, Finnish forest classification and hourly meteorological data to calculate isoprene, monoterpene, sesquiterpene and other VOC emissions over the growing season. The principal compounds emitted by Scots pine are DELTA3-carene and alpha-pinene in the south boreal zone and alpha- and beta-pinene in the north boreal zone. The monoterpene emissions are dependent on temperature and have a clear seasonal cycle with high emissions in spring

  4. Review of the Predatory Bird Monitoring Scheme (PBMS)2006.

    OpenAIRE

    Shore, R.F.; Walker, L.A.; Thomas, G. O.; Barber, J. L.; Martin, F.R.; Jones, K. C.; Beresford, N.A.; P Rowland; Pickup, R W

    2007-01-01

    The Wildlife and Pollution contract supports the long-term monitoring programme called the Predatory Bird Monitoring Scheme (PBMS) which monitors selected pollutants, pesticides and biocides in predatory birds in Britain. The programme was started in the early 1960s and was instrumental in securing the phased withdrawals of the permitted uses of organochlorine (OC) insecticides. It has since provided a measure of the effectiveness of regulatory bans in reducing the exposure of wildlife. The ...

  5. Methanotrophy Induces Nitrogen Fixation in Boreal Mosses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiirola, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Many methanotrophic bacterial groups fix nitrogen in laboratory conditions. Furthermore, nitrogen (N) is a limiting nutrient in many environments where methane concentrations are highest. Despite these facts, methane-induced N fixation has previously been overlooked, possibly due to methodological problems. To study the possible link between methanotrophy and diazotrophy in terrestrial and aquatic habitats, we measured the co-occurrence of these two processes in boreal forest, peatland and stream mosses using a stable isotope labeling approach (15 N2 and 13 CH4 double labeling) and sequencing of the nifH gene marker. N fixation associated with forest mosses was dependent on the annual N deposition, whereas methane stimulate N fixation neither in high (>3 kg N ha -1 yr -1) nor low deposition areas, which was in accordance with the nifH gene sequencing showing that forest mosses (Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens ) carried mainly cyanobacterial N fixers. On the other extreme, in stream mosses (Fontinalis sp.) methane was actively oxidized throughout the year, whereas N fixation showed seasonal fluctuation. The co-occurrence of the two processes in single cell level was proven by co-localizing both N and methane-carbon fixation with the secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) approach. Methanotrophy and diazotrophy was also studied in peatlands of different primary successional stages in the land-uplift coast of Bothnian Bay, in the Siikajoki chronosequence, where N accumulation rates in peat profiles indicate significant N fixation. Based on experimental evidence it was counted that methane-induced N fixation explained over one-third of the new N input in the younger peatland successional stages, where the highest N fixation rates and highest methane oxidation activities co-occurred in the water-submerged Sphagnum moss vegetation. The linkage between methanotrophic carbon cycling and N fixation may therefore constitute an important mechanism in the rapid

  6. Boreal forest fire emissions in fresh Canadian smoke plumes: C1-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs, CO2, CO, NO2, NO, HCN and CH3CN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Boreal regions comprise about 17 % of the global land area, and they both affect and are influenced by climate change. To better understand boreal forest fire emissions and plume evolution, 947 whole air samples were collected aboard the NASA DC-8 research aircraft in summer 2008 as part of the ARCTAS-B field mission, and analyzed for 79 non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs using gas chromatography. Together with simultaneous measurements of CO2, CO, CH4, CH2O, NO2, NO, HCN and CH3CN, these measurements represent the most comprehensive assessment of trace gas emissions from boreal forest fires to date. Based on 105 air samples collected in fresh Canadian smoke plumes, 57 of the 80 measured NMVOCs (including CH2O were emitted from the fires, including 45 species that were quantified from boreal forest fires for the first time. After CO2, CO and CH4, the largest emission factors (EFs for individual species were formaldehyde (2.1 ± 0.2 g kg−1, followed by methanol, NO2, HCN, ethene, α-pinene, β-pinene, ethane, benzene, propene, acetone and CH3CN. Globally, we estimate that boreal forest fires release 2.4 ± 0.6 Tg C yr−1 in the form of NMVOCs, with approximately 41 % of the carbon released as C1-C2 NMVOCs and 21 % as pinenes. These are the first reported field measurements of monoterpene emissions from boreal forest fires, and we speculate that the pinenes, which are relatively heavy molecules, were detected in the fire plumes as the result of distillation of stored terpenes as the vegetation is heated. Their inclusion in smoke chemistry models is expected to improve model predictions of secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation. The fire-averaged EF of dichloromethane or CH2Cl2, (6.9 ± 8.6 × 10−4 g kg−1, was not significantly different from zero and supports recent findings that its global biomass burning source appears to have been overestimated. Similarly, we found no evidence for emissions of chloroform (CHCl3 or methyl

  7. Adaptation and mitigation strategies in Northern Eurasian boreal forests

    OpenAIRE

    A. Shvidenko; F. Kraxner; Obersteiner, M.; D. Schepaschenko

    2011-01-01

    Boreal forests of Northern Eurasia are experiencing ongoing changes in climate, strong impacts by humans including transformation of previously untouched landscapes, and dramatically accelerating disturbance regimes. Current global and regional climatic models predict for this region the most dramatic climatic change over the globe. Unregulated and often destructive anthropogenic impacts on the environment and natural landscapes may substantially accelerate the negative consequences of climat...

  8. Resilience of Alaska's Boreal Forest to Climatic Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, F. S., III; McGuire, A. D.; Ruess, R. W.; Hollingsworth, T. N.; Mack, M. C.; Johnstone, J. F.; Kasischke, E. S.; Euskirchen, E. S.; Jones, J. B.; Jorgenson, M. T.; Kielland, K.; Kofinas, G. P.; Turetsky, M. R.; Yarie, J.; Lloyd, A. H.; Taylor, D. L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper assesses the resilience of Alaska s boreal forest system to rapid climatic change. Recent warming is associated with reduced growth of dominant tree species, plant disease and insect outbreaks, warming and thawing of permafrost, drying of lakes, increased wildfire extent, increased postfire recruitment of deciduous trees, and reduced safety of hunters traveling on river ice. These changes have modified key structural features, feedbacks, and interactions in the boreal forest, including reduced effects of upland permafrost on regional hydrology, expansion of boreal forest into tundra, and amplification of climate warming because of reduced albedo (shorter winter season) and carbon release from wildfires. Other temperature-sensitive processes for which no trends have been detected include composition of plant and microbial communities, long-term landscape-scale change in carbon stocks, stream discharge, mammalian population dynamics, and river access and subsistence opportunities for rural indigenous communities. Projections of continued warming suggest that Alaska s boreal forest will undergo significant functional and structural changes within the next few decades that are unprecedented in the last 6000 years. The impact of these social ecological changes will depend in part on the extent of landscape reorganization between uplands and lowlands and on policies regulating subsistence opportunities for rural communities.

  9. Russian boreal peatlands dominate the natural European methane budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About 60% of the European wetlands are located in the European part of Russia. Nevertheless, data on methane emissions from wetlands of that area are absent. Here we present results of methane emission measurements for two climatically different years from a boreal peatland complex in European Russia. Winter fluxes were well within the range of what has been reported for the peatlands of other boreal regions before, but summer fluxes greatly exceeded the average range of 5–80 mg CH4 m−2 d−1 for the circumpolar boreal zone. Half of the measured fluxes ranged between 150 and 450 mg CH4 m−2 d−1. Extrapolation of our data to the whole boreal zone of European Russia shows that theses emissions could amount to up to 2.7 ± 1.1 Tg CH4 a−1, corresponding to 69% of the annual emissions from European wetlands or 33% of the total annual natural European methane emission. In 2008, climatic conditions corresponded to the long term mean, whereas the summer of 2011 was warmer and noticeably drier. Counterintuitively, these conditions led to even higher CH4 emissions, with peaks up to two times higher than the values measured in 2008. As Russian peatlands dominate the areal extend of wetlands in Europe and are characterized by very high methane fluxes to the atmosphere, it is evident, that sound European methane budgeting will only be achieved with more insight into Russian peatlands. (letter)

  10. Resilience of Alaska’s boreal forest to climatic change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, F.S.; McGuire, Anthony; Ruess, R.W.; Hollingsworth, Teresa N.; Mack, M.C.; Johnstone, J.F.; Kasischke, E.S.; Euskirchen, E.S.; Jones, J.B.; Jorgenson, M.T.; Kielland, K.; Kofinas, G.; Turetsky, M.R.; Yarie, J.; Lloyd, A.H.; Taylor, D.L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper assesses the resilience of Alaska’s boreal forest system to rapid climatic change. Recent warming is associated with reduced growth of dominant tree species, plant disease and insect outbreaks, warming and thawing of permafrost, drying of lakes, increased wildfire extent, increased postfire recruitment of deciduous trees, and reduced safety of hunters traveling on river ice. These changes have modified key structural features, feedbacks, and interactions in the boreal forest, including reduced effects of upland permafrost on regional hydrology, expansion of boreal forest into tundra, and amplification of climate warming because of reduced albedo (shorter winter season) and carbon release from wildfires. Other temperature-sensitive processes for which no trends have been detected include composition of plant and microbial communities, long-term landscape-scale change in carbon stocks, stream discharge, mammalian population dynamics, and river access and subsistence opportunities for rural indigenous communities. Projections of continued warming suggest that Alaska’s boreal forest will undergo significant functional and structural changes within the next few decades that are unprecedented in the last 6000 years. The impact of these social–ecological changes will depend in part on the extent of landscape reorganization between uplands and lowlands and on policies regulating subsistence opportunities for rural communities.

  11. Russian boreal peatlands dominate the natural European methane budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Julia; Jungkunst, Hermann F.; Wolf, Ulrike; Schreiber, Peter; Gažovič, Michal; Miglovets, Mikhail; Mikhaylov, Oleg; Grunwald, Dennis; Erasmi, Stefan; Wilmking, Martin; Kutzbach, Lars

    2016-01-01

    About 60% of the European wetlands are located in the European part of Russia. Nevertheless, data on methane emissions from wetlands of that area are absent. Here we present results of methane emission measurements for two climatically different years from a boreal peatland complex in European Russia. Winter fluxes were well within the range of what has been reported for the peatlands of other boreal regions before, but summer fluxes greatly exceeded the average range of 5-80 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 for the circumpolar boreal zone. Half of the measured fluxes ranged between 150 and 450 mg CH4 m-2 d-1. Extrapolation of our data to the whole boreal zone of European Russia shows that theses emissions could amount to up to 2.7 ± 1.1 Tg CH4 a-1, corresponding to 69% of the annual emissions from European wetlands or 33% of the total annual natural European methane emission. In 2008, climatic conditions corresponded to the long term mean, whereas the summer of 2011 was warmer and noticeably drier. Counterintuitively, these conditions led to even higher CH4 emissions, with peaks up to two times higher than the values measured in 2008. As Russian peatlands dominate the areal extend of wetlands in Europe and are characterized by very high methane fluxes to the atmosphere, it is evident, that sound European methane budgeting will only be achieved with more insight into Russian peatlands.

  12. The North Sea Bird Club

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that the creation of a club for the purpose of encouraging oil and gas workers to watch birds may not at first seem a viable proposition. To the layperson, birds offshore conjures up an image of hundreds of seagulls following fishing boats, and very little else. Also, the act of birdwatching is not seen as a typical offshore worker's activity. Anyone who has worked on an installation offshore and who has any interest in wildlife will be aware of the occasional presence of land-birds. Two decades ago, prompted by some keen offshore workers, a single oil company set up a monitoring program, which quickly became popular with a number of its employees. Birds seem offshore were recorded on data forms and collected together. At this stage the club was purely another recreation facility; however, when the data were collated it was soon realized that installations offshore were being used as staging posts by birds on migration, and that the information being collected would be of great interest in the study of bird movements. All over Britain, at strategic points on the coastline, there are bird observatories which record the arrival and departure of migrating birds. The presence of several hundred solid structures up and down the North Sea, which are used by birds en route, represents a huge, unique bird observatory, capable of uncovering facts about bird migration which have long eluded land-based scientists. Eleven years ago, the North Sea Bird Club began, composed of eight member companies, a recorder from Aberdeen University and a representative from the Nature Conservancy Council. The club received data from 41 installations, and the recorder collated these on Aberdeen University's computer and produced an annual report of sightings

  13. Migratory birds, ticks, and Bartonella

    OpenAIRE

    Molin, Ylva; Lindeborg, Mats; Nyström, Fredrik; Madder, Maxime; Hjelm, Eva; Olsen, Björn; Thomas G.T. Jaenson; Ehrenborg, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Bartonella spp. infections are considered to be vector-borne zoonoses; ticks are suspected vectors of bartonellae. Migratory birds can disperse ticks infected with zoonotic pathogens such as Rickettsia and tickborne encephalitis virus and possibly also Bartonella. Thus, in the present study 386 tick specimens collected in spring 2009 from migratory birds on the Mediterranean islands Capri and Antikythera were screened for Bartonella spp. RNA. One or more ticks were found on 2.7% of the birds....

  14. Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, pelagic birds, passerine birds, gulls and...

  15. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Central California: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for alcids, diving birds, gulls, terns, passerine birds, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds,...

  16. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Upper Coast of Texas: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls, terns, passerine birds, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds,...

  17. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: South Florida: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls, terns, passerine birds, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds, and...

  18. Pretty Bird by Bob Sinclair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Recently I was reminded of a story which my mother swears is trus (though she doesn t call me Bobby muchanymore):Back in 1958,when I was just past four years old,my parents gave me a young parakeet.My mother determinedthat our parakeet would learn to talk,and to this end sat at the microphone of a borrowed tape recorder for a full 1/2hour,saying over and over again:“Pretty bird!Pretty bird!Pretty bird!Pretty bird!...”and so on.The resultingtaped message was played for our parakeet at least once pe...

  19. Habitat Requirements of Breeding Black-Backed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus in Managed, Unburned Boreal Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junior A. Tremblay

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated home-range characteristics and habitat selection by Black-backed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus in an unburned, boreal forest landscape managed by mosaic harvesting in Quebec, Canada. Habitat selection by this species was specifically examined to determine home-range establishment and foraging activities. We hypothesized that Black-backed Woodpeckers would respond to harvesting by adjusting their home-range size as a function of the amount of dead wood available. Twenty-two birds were tracked using radiotelemetry, and reliable estimates of home-range size were obtained for seven breeding individuals (six males and one female. The average home-range size was 151.5 ± 18.8 ha (range: 100.4–256.4 ha. Our results indicate that this species establishes home ranges in areas where both open and forested habitats are available. However, during foraging activities, individuals preferentially selected areas dominated by old coniferous stands. The study also showed that the spatial distribution of preferred foraging habitat patches influenced space use, with home-range area increasing with the median distance between old coniferous habitat patches available within the landscape. Finally, these data show that Black-backed Woodpeckers may successfully breed in an unburned forest with at least 35 m3 • ha-1 of dead wood, of which 42% (15 m3 • ha-1 is represented by dead wood at the early decay stage.

  20. Fish and Bird

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛秀波

    2010-01-01

    人物:B——Bird L——Little Fish M——Mother Fish N——Narracor(旁白)道具:角色头饰 N:一条生活在河里的Little Fish对天空充满了好奇,一心想飞到天空去看看。此时,Little Fish正依偎在Mother Fish身边,好奇地望着天空。

  1. Bird communities of the arctic shrub tundra of Yamal: habitat specialists and generalists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliy Sokolov

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ratio of habitat generalists to specialists in birds has been suggested as a good indicator of ecosystem changes due to e.g. climate change and other anthropogenic perturbations. Most studies focusing on this functional component of biodiversity originate, however, from temperate regions. The Eurasian Arctic tundra is currently experiencing an unprecedented combination of climate change, change in grazing pressure by domestic reindeer and growing human activity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we monitored bird communities in a tundra landscape harbouring shrub and open habitats in order to analyse bird habitat relationships and quantify habitat specialization. We used ordination methods to analyse habitat associations and estimated the proportions of specialists in each of the main habitats. Correspondence Analysis identified three main bird communities, inhabiting upland, lowland and dense willow shrubs. We documented a stable structure of communities despite large multiannual variations of bird density (from 90 to 175 pairs/km(2. Willow shrub thickets were a hotspot for bird density, but not for species richness. The thickets hosted many specialized species whose main distribution area was south of the tundra. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: If current arctic changes result in a shrubification of the landscape as many studies suggested, we would expect an increase in the overall bird abundance together with an increase of local specialists, since they are associated with willow thickets. The majority of these species have a southern origin and their increase in abundance would represent a strengthening of the boreal component in the southern tundra, perhaps at the expense of species typical of the subarctic zone, which appear to be generalists within this zone.

  2. Investigation on Bird Resources in Qingyang%庆阳市鸟类资源调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺鹏辉; 邢会文; 杜芬芬; 张浩; 宋一诚

    2011-01-01

    The investigation on the bird resources are tarried out with the methods of sample point and line transect from 2009 to 2011 in Qingyang City of Gansu Province. A total of 124 bird species, belonging to 16 orders and 48 families, are recorded. Among them, 68 species (54. 8% ) are passerine birds, 56 species (45.2% ) are non-passerine birds; 67 species are migrants, 57 species are residents. In addition, 5 species are class I nationally protected birds, 11 species are class II nationally protected birds. Among 98 species of breeding birds, 62 spe-cies(63. 3% ) belong to Boreal taxa, indicating that the avifauna in the city has obvious character of North type.%2009 ~2011年采用固定半径样点法和样线法对甘肃省庆阳市的鸟类资源现状进行了调查.共记录到鸟类124种,隶属于16目48科其中,雀形目鸟类68种,占鸟类总数的54.8%,非雀形目鸟类56种,占45.2%;候鸟67种,留鸟57种;国家Ⅰ级保护鸟类有5种,国家Ⅱ级保护鸟类有11种.98种繁殖鸟中,属于北方型的有62种,占63.3%,反映出较明显的北方型鸟类区系特征.

  3. Do Russian boreal peatlands dominate the natural European methane budget?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Julia; Jungkunst, Hermann F.; Kerstin Wolf, Ulrike; Schreiber, Peter; Gažovič, Michal; Miglovets, Mikhail; Mikhaylov, Oleg; Grunwald, Dennis; Erasmi, Stefan; Wilmking, Martin; Kutzbach, Lars

    2015-04-01

    Methane (CH4) emissions of boreal peatlands have previously been reported from Alaska, Canada, Scandinavia, and Western Siberia, but not from the European part of the Russian Federation, which is covered by vast areas of peatlands (8 % of the total surface area). To help to fill this research gap, CH4 emissions were measured during a period of one year from March 2008 to February 2009 in a boreal peatland (61°56'N, 50°13'E) in the Komi Republic, European Russia using the closed chamber technique. Additionally, soil water for analysis of dissolved CH4 and dissolved organic carbon was sampled once per month. Further closed chamber measurements were conducted during the summer 2011. While winter fluxes were well within the range of what has been reported for the peatlands of boreal regions before, the summer fluxes exceeded by far the average of 5-80 mg CH4 m-2d-1 for the boreal zone, as about the half of the measured fluxes ranged between 150 and 450 mg CH4 m-2d-1. There was no evidence that high or low CH4 surface fluxes coincided with high or low values of dissolved CH4 in the soil water. In statistical terms, the environmental conditions during the year 2008 were normal, the air temperature and the precipitation did not show strong deviations from the long term mean. Whereas the summer of 2011 was warmer and noticeable drier than the long term mean. These conditions led to even higher CH4 emissions, with peaks up to seven times higher than the values measured in 2008. These new data sets lead to the assumption that the Russian boreal peatlands play an even more important role in the European CH4 budget than previously thought and should be included into the newest inventories.

  4. Forest harvest contribution to Boreal freshwater methyl mercury load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronberg, Rose-Marie; Drott, Andreas; Jiskra, Martin; Wiederhold, Jan G.; Björn, Erik; Skyllberg, Ulf

    2016-06-01

    Effects of Boreal forest harvest on mercury (Hg) and methyl mercury (MeHg) soil pools and export by stream runoff were quantified by comparing 10 reference watersheds (REFs) covered by >80 year old Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) forests with 10 similar watersheds subjected to clear-cutting (CCs). While total Hg soil storage did not change, MeHg pools increased seven times (p = 0.006) in the organic topsoil 2 years after clear-cutting. In undulating terrain, situated above the postglacial marine limit (ML) of the ancient Baltic Sea, the mass ratio between flux-weighted MeHg and dissolved organic carbon (MeHg/DOC) in stream runoff increased 1.8 times (p forest harvest. When recalculated to 100% clear-cutting of the watershed, the annual MeHg stream export increased 3.8 times (p = 0.047). Below the ML, where the terrain was flatter, neither the MeHg/DOC ratio nor the annual export of MeHg differed between REFs and CCs, likely because of the larger contribution of MeHg exported from peaty soils and small wetlands. The most robust measure, MeHg/DOC, was used to calculate MeHg loadings to Boreal headwaters. If the forest harvest effect lasts 10 years, clear-cutting increases MeHg runoff by 12-20% in Sweden and 2% in the Boreal zone as a whole. In Sweden, having intensely managed forests, 37% and 56% of MeHg are exported from peatlands and forest soils, respectively, and forest clear-cutting is adding another 6.6%. In the Boreal zone as a whole peatlands and forests soils contribute with 53% and 46%, respectively, and clear-cutting is estimated to add another 1.0%. An expected rapid increase in Boreal forest harvest and disturbance urge for inclusion of land use effects in mercury biogeochemical cycling models at different scales.

  5. Remote Sensing Techniques in Monitoring Post-Fire Effects and Patterns of Forest Recovery in Boreal Forest Regions: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuan Chu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The frequency and severity of forest fires, coupled with changes in spatial and temporal precipitation and temperature patterns, are likely to severely affect the characteristics of forest and permafrost patterns in boreal eco-regions. Forest fires, however, are also an ecological factor in how forest ecosystems form and function, as they affect the rate and characteristics of tree recruitment. A better understanding of fire regimes and forest recovery patterns in different environmental and climatic conditions will improve the management of sustainable forests by facilitating the process of forest resilience. Remote sensing has been identified as an effective tool for preventing and monitoring forest fires, as well as being a potential tool for understanding how forest ecosystems respond to them. However, a number of challenges remain before remote sensing practitioners will be able to better understand the effects of forest fires and how vegetation responds afterward. This article attempts to provide a comprehensive review of current research with respect to remotely sensed data and methods used to model post-fire effects and forest recovery patterns in boreal forest regions. The review reveals that remote sensing-based monitoring of post-fire effects and forest recovery patterns in boreal forest regions is not only limited by the gaps in both field data and remotely sensed data, but also the complexity of far-northern fire regimes, climatic conditions and environmental conditions. We expect that the integration of different remotely sensed data coupled with field campaigns can provide an important data source to support the monitoring of post-fire effects and forest recovery patterns. Additionally, the variation and stratification of pre- and post-fire vegetation and environmental conditions should be considered to achieve a reasonable, operational model for monitoring post-fire effects and forest patterns in boreal regions.

  6. Satellite chlorophyll fluorescence measurements reveal large-scale decoupling of photosynthesis and greenness dynamics in boreal evergreen forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Sophia; Voigt, Maximilian; Thum, Tea; Gonsamo, Alemu; Zhang, Yongguang; Köhler, Philipp; Jung, Martin; Varlagin, Andrej; Guanter, Luis

    2016-09-01

    Mid-to-high latitude forests play an important role in the terrestrial carbon cycle, but the representation of photosynthesis in boreal forests by current modelling and observational methods is still challenging. In particular, the applicability of existing satellite-based proxies of greenness to indicate photosynthetic activity is hindered by small annual changes in green biomass of the often evergreen tree population and by the confounding effects of background materials such as snow. As an alternative, satellite measurements of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) can be used as a direct proxy of photosynthetic activity. In this study, the start and end of the photosynthetically active season of the main boreal forests are analysed using spaceborne SIF measurements retrieved from the GOME-2 instrument and compared to that of green biomass, proxied by vegetation indices including the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) derived from MODIS data. We find that photosynthesis and greenness show a similar seasonality in deciduous forests. In high-latitude evergreen needleleaf forests, however, the length of the photosynthetically active period indicated by SIF is up to 6 weeks longer than the green biomass changing period proxied by EVI, with SIF showing a start-of-season of approximately 1 month earlier than EVI. On average, the photosynthetic spring recovery as signalled by SIF occurs as soon as air temperatures exceed the freezing point (2-3 °C) and when the snow on the ground has not yet completely melted. These findings are supported by model data of gross primary production and a number of other studies which evaluated in situ observations of CO2 fluxes, meteorology and the physiological state of the needles. Our results demonstrate the sensitivity of space-based SIF measurements to light-use efficiency of boreal forests and their potential for an unbiased detection of photosynthetic activity even under the challenging conditions interposed by evergreen

  7. Alien invasive birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochier, B; Vangeluwe, D; van den Berg, T

    2010-08-01

    A bird species is regarded as alien invasive if it has been introduced, intentionally or accidentally, to a location where it did not previously occur naturally, becomes capable of establishing a breeding population without further intervention by humans, spreads and becomes a pest affecting the environment, the local biodiversity, the economy and/or society, including human health. European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris), Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis) and Red-vented Bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer) have been included on the list of '100 of the World's Worst Invasive Alien Species', a subset of the Global Invasive Species Database. The 'Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe' project has selected Canada Goose (Branta canadensis), Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis), Rose-ringed Parakeet (Psittacula krameri) and Sacred Ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus) as among 100 of the worst invasive species in Europe. For each of these alien bird species, the geographic range (native and introduced range), the introduction pathway, the general impacts and the management methods are presented. PMID:20919578

  8. Temporal genomic evolution of bird sex chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zongji; Zhang, Jilin; Yang, Wei;

    2014-01-01

    driving forces of Z chromosome evolution, we analyze here 45 newly available bird genomes and four species' transcriptomes, over their course of recombination loss between the sex chromosomes. RESULTS: We show Z chromosomes in general have a significantly higher substitution rate in introns and synonymous...... protein-coding sites than autosomes, driven by the male-to-female mutation bias ('male-driven evolution' effect). Our genome-wide estimate reveals that the degree of such a bias ranges from 1.6 to 3.8 among different species. G + C content of third codon positions exhibits the same trend of gradual...... ('fast-Z' evolution). And species with a lower level of intronic heterozygosities tend to evolve even faster on the Z chromosome. Further analysis of fast-evolving genes' enriched functional categories and sex-biased expression patterns support that, fast-Z evolution in birds is mainly driven by genetic...

  9. Migration Helps Spread Bird Flu Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161473.html Migration Helps Spread Bird Flu Worldwide Scientists recommend keeping ... birds can spread bird flu worldwide and monitoring migration routes could provide early warning of outbreaks, researchers ...

  10. Osteological evidence for sister group relationship between pseudo-toothed birds (Aves: Odontopterygiformes) and waterfowls (Anseriformes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdon, Estelle

    2005-12-01

    The phylogenetic affinities of the extinct pseudo-toothed birds have remained controversial. Some authors noted that they resemble both pelicans and allies (Pelecaniformes) and tube-nosed birds (Procellariiformes), but assigned them to a distinct taxon, the Odontopterygiformes. In most recent studies, the pseudo-toothed birds are referred to the family Pelagornithidae inside the Pelecaniformes. Here, I perform a cladistic analysis with five taxa of the pseudo-toothed birds including two undescribed new species from the Early Tertiary of Morocco. The present hypothesis strongly supports a sister group relationship of pseudo-toothed birds (Odontopterygiformes) and waterfowls (Anseriformes). The Odontoanserae (Odontopterygiformes plus Anseriformes) are the sister group of Neoaves. The placement of the landfowls (Galliformes) as the sister taxon of all other neognathous birds does not support the consensus view that the Galloanserae (Galliformes plus Anseriformes) are monophyletic.

  11. Environmental Determinants Influencing Seasonal Variations of Bird Diversity and Abundance in Wetlands, Northern Region (Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins Ayine Nsor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed major environmental determinants influencing bird community in six wetlands over a 2-year period. A combination of visual and bird sounding techniques was used to determine the seasonal variations in bird abundance, while ordination techniques were performed to determine the influence of environmental factors on bird assemblage. A total of 1,169 birds from 25 species and 885 individuals from 23 species were identified in the wet and dry season, respectively. The shallow close marshes supported the greatest number of birds (P<0.05 compared to the riparian wetlands. Bird diversity was significantly higher in the wet season than in the dry season (F=4.101,P<0.05. Cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis and marsh warbler (Acrocephalus palustris were the most abundant. Using the IUCN “Red List” database guide, we noted that 96.2% of birds identified were least concern (LC. The yellow weaver bird (Ploceous megarhrynchus was the only vulnerable species (VU and represented 3.8%. From the three variables tested, bushfire and farming practices were the major threats and cumulatively explained 15.93% (wet season and 14.06% (dry season variations in bird diversity and abundance. These findings will help wetland managers design conservation measures to check current threats on birds from becoming vulnerable in the future.

  12. Migration in birds and fishes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwey, J.

    1949-01-01

    Our knowledge concerning the periodical movements in animals called migrations is chiefly based on observations on birds. By and by, however, a number of facts concerning migration in other animal groups have been assembled and it seems worth while to compare them with those known for birds. There i

  13. Laboratory Animal Management: Wild Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Inst. of Lab. Animal Resources.

    This is a report on the care and use of wild birds in captivity as research animals. Chapters are presented on procurement and identification, housing, nutrition, health of birds and personnel, reproduction in confinement, and surgical procedures. Also included are addresses of federal, state, and provencial regulatory agencies concerned with wild…

  14. AmBird: Mediating Intimacy for Long Distance Relationships through an Ambient Awareness System

    OpenAIRE

    Jespersen, Sine; Stounbjerg, Rasmus Balthasar Kloth; Verdezoto, Nervo

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the AmBird concept that explores how to provide alternatives for mediating intimacy for people that are living apart. The initial design and implementation of the AmBird concept is described as well as a preliminary concept validation. Based on the lessons learned, we highlight the opportunities of AmBird to support multiple intimate acts and our future work.

  15. Risk of Agricultural Practices and Habitat Change to Farmland Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney W. Brook

    2011-06-01

    addition of 63 m of hedgerow could increase abundance and richness of short distance migrants by 50% (3.0 to 4.8 and 1.3 to 2.0, respectively. Increasing the proportion of hay on nonorganic farms to 50% could increase abundance of primary grassland bird by 40% (6.7 to 9.4. Our results provide support for alternative farmland designs and agricultural management systems that could enhance select bird species in farmland.

  16. Short-term Response of Breeding Barred Owls to Forestry in a Boreal Mixedwood Forest Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben T. Olsen

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Forestry and other activities are increasing in the boreal mixedwood of Alberta, with a concomitant decrease in older forest. The Barred Owl (Strix varia is an old-growth indicator species in some jurisdictions in North America. Hence, we radio-tagged Barred Owls in boreal mixedwood in Alberta to determine whether harvesting influenced habitat selection. We used three spatial scales: nest sites, i.e., nest tree and adjacent area of 11.7 m radius around nests, nesting territory of 1000 m radius around nests, and home range locations within 2000 m radius of the home range center. Barred Owls nested primarily in balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera snags > 34 cm dbh and nest trees were surrounded by large, > 34 cm dbh, balsam poplar trees and snags. Nesting territories contained a variety of habitats including young < 80-yr-old, deciduous-dominated stands, old deciduous and coniferous-dominated stands, treed bogs, and recent clear-cuts. However, when compared to available habitat in the study area, they were more likely to contain old conifer-dominated stands and recent cutblocks. We assumed this is because all of the recent harvest occurred in old stands, habitat preferred by the owls. When compared with random sites, locations used for foraging and roosting at the home range scale were more likely to be in young deciduous-dominated stands, old conifer-dominated stands and cutblocks > 30 yr old, and less likely to occur in old deciduous-dominated stands and recent cutblocks. Hence, although recent clearcuts occurred in territories, birds avoided these microhabitats during foraging. To meet the breeding requirements of Barred Owls in managed forests, 10–20 ha patches of old deciduous and mixedwood forest containing large Populus snags or trees should be maintained. In our study area, nest trees had a minimum dbh of 34 cm. Although cut areas were incorporated into home ranges, the amount logged was low, i.e., 7%, in our area. Hence more research is

  17. Frost-ring chronologies as dendroclimatic proxies of boreal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payette, Serge; Delwaide, Ann; Simard, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Frost rings are formed in tree stems when growing-season frosts affect immature wood cells, producing collapsed cells within annual tree rings. Open boreal forests are most susceptible to record growing-season frost because they lack the greenhouse effect commonly observed in closed forests. Here we present a novel method to construct regional frost-ring chronologies in lichen-black spruce woodlands of the boreal forest zone. Because the ability of trees to form frost rings depends on several factors (including bark thickness and ring width), we used two models to produce a Frost Composite Index based on a frost susceptibility window of cambial age growing-season frost activity may be used as dendroclimatic proxies of climate variability and may give insights into future risks of frost damage in a warming climate.

  18. The role of fire in the boreal carbon budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, J.W.; Trumbore, S.E.; Stocks, B.J.; Hirsch, A.; Gower, S.T.; O'Neill, K. P.; Kasischke, E.S.

    2000-01-01

    To reconcile observations of decomposition rates, carbon inventories, and net primary production (NPP), we estimated long-term averages for C exchange in boreal forests near Thompson, Manitoba. Soil drainage as defined by water table, moss cover, and permafrost dynamics, is the dominant control on direct fire emissions. In upland forests, an average of about 10-30% of annual NPP was likely consumed by fire over the past 6500 years since these landforms and ecosystems were established. This long-term, average fire emission is much larger than has been accounted for in global C cycle models and may forecast an increase in fire activity for this region. While over decadal to century times these boreal forests may be acting as slight net sinks for C from the atmosphere to land, periods of drought and severe fire activity may result in net sources of C from these systems.

  19. Effects of warming on the structure and function of a boreal black spruce forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stith T.Gower

    2010-03-03

    A strong argument can be made that there is a greater need to study the effect of warming on boreal forests more than on any other terrestrial biome. Boreal forests, the second largest forest biome, are predicted to experience the greatest warming of any forest biome in the world, but a process-based understanding of how warming will affect the structure and function of this economically and ecologically important forest biome is lacking. The effects of warming on species composition, canopy structure and biogeochemical cycles are likely to be complex; elucidating the underlying mechanisms will require long-term whole-ecosystem manipulation to capture all the complex feedbacks (Shaver et al. 2000, Rustad et al. 2001, Stromgren 2001). The DOE Program for Ecosystem Research funded a three year project (2002-2005) to use replicated heated chambers on soil warming plots in northern Manitoba to examine the direct effects of whole-ecosystem warming. We are nearing completion of our first growing season of measurements (fall 2004). In spite of the unforeseen difficulty of installing the heating cable, our heating and irrigation systems worked extremely well, maintaining environmental conditions within 5-10% of the specified design 99% of the time. Preliminary data from these systems, all designed and built by our laboratory at the University of Wisconsin, support our overall hypothesis that warming will increase the carbon sink strength of upland boreal black spruce forests. I request an additional three years of funding to continue addressing the original objectives: (1) Examine the effect of warming on phenology of overstory, understory and bryophyte strata. Sap flux systems and dendrometer bands, monitored by data loggers, will be used to quantify changes in phenology and water use. (2) Quantify the effects of warming on nitrogen and water use by overstory, understory and bryophytes. (3) Compare effects of warming on autotrophic respiration and above- and belowground

  20. Recent burning of boreal forests exceeds fire regime limits of the past 10,000 years

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Ryan; Chipman, Melissa L.; Philip E Higuera; Stefanova, Ivanka; Brubaker, Linda B.; Hu, Feng Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Wildfire activity in boreal forests is anticipated to increase dramatically, with far-reaching ecological and socioeconomic consequences. Paleorecords are indispensible for elucidating boreal fire regime dynamics under changing climate, because fire return intervals and successional cycles in these ecosystems occur over decadal to centennial timescales. We present charcoal records from 14 lakes in the Yukon Flats of interior Alaska, one of the most flammable ecoregions of the boreal forest bi...

  1. Forest landscape change in boreal Sweden 1850-2000

    OpenAIRE

    Axelsson, Anna-Lena

    2001-01-01

    In the project described in this thesis, structural changes that have occurred in the boreal Swedish forest during the last 150 years were studied through analysis of historical records. Historical perspectives on forest landscapes provide a better understanding of natural disturbance dynamics as well as anthropogenic changes and a frame of reference for assessing current ecological patterns and processes. The studies were performed at various spatial scales, and were conducted in two differe...

  2. Recreation and tourism induced changes in northern boreal environments

    OpenAIRE

    Kangas, K. (Katja)

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The popularity of nature-based tourism has increased worldwide and peripheral areas with conservational value, like protected areas, are attractive destinations. The recreational use and construction of tourism facilities can cause environmental degradation and decrease the conservational and recreational value of areas if not well planned and managed. The aim of this thesis was to improve our knowledge of recreation and tourism induced changes in northern boreal environments. Dir...

  3. Photosynthesis of ground vegetation in boreal Scots pine forests

    OpenAIRE

    Kulmala, Liisa

    2011-01-01

    Research on carbon uptake in boreal forests has mainly focused on mature trees, even though ground vegetation species are effective assimilators and can substantially contribute to the CO2 uptake of forests. Here, I examine the photosynthesis of the most common species of ground vegetation in a series of differently aged Scots pine stands, and at two clear-cut sites with substantial differences in fertility. In general, the biomass of evergreen species was highest at poor sites and below cano...

  4. Climate-Induced Boreal Forest Change: Predictions versus Current Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, Amber J.; Tchebakova, Nadezda M.; French, Nancy H. F.; Flannigan, Michael D.; Shugart, Herman H.; Stocks, Brian J.; Sukhinin, Anatoly I.; Parfenova, E. I.; Chapin, F. Stuart, III; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    For about three decades, there have been many predictions of the potential ecological response in boreal regions to the currently warmer conditions. In essence, a widespread, naturally occurring experiment has been conducted over time. In this paper, we describe previously modeled predictions of ecological change in boreal Alaska, Canada and Russia, and then we investigate potential evidence of current climate-induced change. For instance, ecological models have suggested that warming will induce the northern and upslope migration of the treeline and an alteration in the current mosaic structure of boreal forests. We present evidence of the migration of keystone ecosystems in the upland and lowland treeline of mountainous regions across southern Siberia. Ecological models have also predicted a moisture-stress-related dieback in white spruce trees in Alaska, and current investigations show that as temperatures increase, white spruce tree growth is declining. Additionally, it was suggested that increases in infestation and wildfire disturbance would be catalysts that precipitate the alteration of the current mosaic forest composition. In Siberia, five of the last seven years have resulted in extreme fire seasons, and extreme fire years have also been more frequent in both Alaska and Canada. In addition, Alaska has experienced extreme and geographically expansive multi-year outbreaks of the spruce beetle, which had been previously limited by the cold, moist environment. We suggest that there is substantial evidence throughout the circumboreal region to conclude that the biosphere within the boreal terrestrial environment has already responded to the transient effects of climate change. Additionally, temperature increases and warming-induced change are progressing faster than had been predicted in some regions, suggesting a potential non-linear rapid response to changes in climate, as opposed to the predicted slow linear response to climate change.

  5. Boreal forest albedo and its spatial and temporal variation

    OpenAIRE

    Kuusinen, Nea

    2014-01-01

    Surface albedo refers to the fraction of solar irradiance that is reflected by a surface. Accurate characterisation of the albedo of various land cover types is required for evaluating the energy exchange between the Earth s surface and the atmosphere. The optical and structural properties of a surface determine its albedo. Boreal forest albedo can vary due to factors such as tree species composition, forest structure, understorey vegetation composition, and seasonal changes in vegetation and...

  6. The fate of airborne lead pollution in boreal forest soils

    OpenAIRE

    Klaminder, Jonatan

    2005-01-01

    Lead has a more than three-millennia-long pollution history in Europe. Metal production, burning of coal and use of leaded petrol resulted in a significant pollution of the atmosphere. As a consequence of atmospheric fallout, the Swedish boreal forest is strongly contaminated by airborne lead pollution. High levels of lead in the soil and soil pore water are of concern because the soil fauna, plants and aquatic biota may respond negatively to this toxic element. The fate of the accumulated po...

  7. Workshop: Western hemisphere network of bird banding programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celis-Murillo, A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To promote collaboration among banding programs in the Americas. Introduction: Bird banding and marking provide indispensable tools for ornithological research, management, and conservation of migratory birds on migratory routes, breeding and non-breeding grounds. Many countries and organizations in Latin America and the Caribbean are in the process of developing or have expressed interest in developing national banding schemes and databases to support their research and management programs. Coordination of developing and existing banding programs is essential for effective data management, reporting, archiving and security, and most importantly, for gaining a fuller understanding of migratory bird conservation issues and how the banding data can help. Currently, there is a well established bird-banding program in the U.S.A. and Canada, and programs in other countries are being developed as well. Ornithologists in many Latin American countries and the Caribbean are interested in using banding and marking in their research programs. Many in the ornithological community are interested in establishing banding schemes and some countries have recently initiated independent banding programs. With the number of long term collaborative and international initiatives increasing, the time is ripe to discuss and explore opportunities for international collaboration, coordination, and administration of bird banding programs in the Western Hemisphere. We propose the second ?Western Hemisphere Network of Bird Banding Programs? workshop, in association with the SCSCB, to be an essential step in the progress to strengthen international partnerships and support migratory bird conservation in the Americas and beyond. This will be the second multi-national meeting to promote collaboration among banding programs in the Americas (the first meeting was held in October 8-9, 2006 in La Mancha, Veracruz, Mexico). The Second ?Western Hemisphere Network of Bird Banding Programs

  8. Habitat associations drive species vulnerability to climate change in boreal forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazziotta, Adriano; Triviño, Maria; Tikkanen, Olli Pekka;

    2016-01-01

    Species climate change vulnerability, their predisposition to be adversely affected, has been assessed for a limited portion of biodiversity. Our knowledge of climate change impacts is often based only on exposure, the magnitude of climatic variation in the area occupied by the species, even...... scenarios. However, climate change will potentially reduce habitat suitability for ~9–43 % of the threatened deadwood-associated species. This loss is likely caused by future increase in timber extraction and decomposition rates causing higher deadwood turnover, which have a strong negative effect on boreal...... forest biodiversity. Our results are species- and scenario-specific. Diversified forest management and restoration ensuring deadwood resources in the landscape would allow the persistence of species whose capacity of delivering important supporting ecosystem services can be undermined by climate change....

  9. Effects of boreal forest vegetation on global climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonan, Gordon B.; Pollard, David; Thompson, Starley L.

    1992-10-01

    TERRESTRIAL ecosystems are thought to play an important role in determining regional and global climate1-6 one example of this is in Amazonia, where destruction of the tropical rainforest leads to warmer and drier conditions4-6. Boreal forest ecosystems may also affect climate. As temperatures rise, the amount of continental and oceanic snow and ice is reduced, so the land and ocean surfaces absorb greater amounts of solar radiation, reinforcing the warming in a 'snow/ice/albedo' feedback which results in large climate sensitivity to radiative forcings7-9. This sensitivity is moderated, however, by the presence of trees in northern latitudes, which mask the high reflectance of snow10,11, leading to warmer winter temperatures than if trees were not present12-14. Here we present results from a global climate model which show that the boreal forest warms both winter and summer air temperatures, relative to simulations in which the forest is replaced with bare ground or tundra vegetation. Our results suggest that future redistributions of boreal forest and tundra vegetation (due, for example, to extensive logging, or the influence of global warming) could initiate important climate feedbacks, which could also extend to lower latitudes.

  10. Ecosystem Responses to Partial Harvesting in Eastern Boreal Mixedwood Stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian D. Harvey

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Partial harvesting has been proposed as a key aspect to implementing ecosystem management in the Canadian boreal forest. We report on a replicated experiment located in boreal mixedwoods of Northwestern Quebec. In the winter of 2000–2001, two partial harvesting treatments, one using a dispersed pattern, and a second, which created a (400 m2 gap pattern, were applied to a 90-year-old aspen-dominated mixed stand. The design also included a clear cut and a control. Over the course of the following eight years, live tree, coarse woody debris, regeneration and ground beetles were inventoried at variable intervals. Our results indicate that all harvesting treatments created conditions favorable to balsam fir (Abies balsamea sapling growth and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides sapling recruitment. However, balsam fir and trembling aspen regeneration and ground beetles response to gap cuts were closer to patterns observed in clear cuts than in dispersed harvesting. The underlying reasons for these differing patterns can be linked to factors associated with the contrasting light regimes created by the two partial harvesting treatments. The study confirms that partially harvesting is an ecologically sound approach in boreal mixedwoods and could contribute to maintaining the distribution of stand ages at the landscape level.

  11. Anatomy of a Bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    Using ESO's Very Large Telescope, an international team of astronomers [1] has discovered a stunning rare case of a triple merger of galaxies. This system, which astronomers have dubbed 'The Bird' - albeit it also bears resemblance with a cosmic Tinker Bell - is composed of two massive spiral galaxies and a third irregular galaxy. ESO PR Photo 55a/07 ESO PR Photo 55a/07 The Tinker Bell Triplet The galaxy ESO 593-IG 008, or IRAS 19115-2124, was previously merely known as an interacting pair of galaxies at a distance of 650 million light-years. But surprises were revealed by observations made with the NACO instrument attached to ESO's VLT, which peered through the all-pervasive dust clouds, using adaptive optics to resolve the finest details [2]. Underneath the chaotic appearance of the optical Hubble images - retrieved from the Hubble Space Telescope archive - the NACO images show two unmistakable galaxies, one a barred spiral while the other is more irregular. The surprise lay in the clear identification of a third, clearly separate component, an irregular, yet fairly massive galaxy that seems to be forming stars at a frantic rate. "Examples of mergers of three galaxies of roughly similar sizes are rare," says Petri Väisänen, lead author of the paper reporting the results. "Only the near-infrared VLT observations made it possible to identify the triple merger nature of the system in this case." Because of the resemblance of the system to a bird, the object was dubbed as such, with the 'head' being the third component, and the 'heart' and 'body' making the two major galaxy nuclei in-between of tidal tails, the 'wings'. The latter extend more than 100,000 light-years, or the size of our own Milky Way. ESO PR Photo 55b/07 ESO PR Photo 55b/07 Anatomy of a Bird Subsequent optical spectroscopy with the new Southern African Large Telescope, and archive mid-infrared data from the NASA Spitzer space observatory, confirmed the separate nature of the 'head', but also added

  12. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, and seabirds in the Bristol Bay Subarea. The Subarea...

  13. Birds of the Mongol Empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene N. Anderson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Mongol Empire, the largest contiguous empire the world has ever known, had, among other things, a goodly number of falconers, poultry raisers, birdcatchers, cooks, and other experts on various aspects of birding. We have records of this, largely in the Yinshan Zhengyao, the court nutrition manual of the Mongol empire in China (the Yuan Dynasty. It discusses in some detail 22 bird taxa, from swans to chickens. The Huihui Yaofang, a medical encyclopedia, lists ten taxa used medicinally. Marco Polo also made notes on Mongol bird use. There are a few other records. This allows us to draw conclusions about Mongol ornithology, which apparently was sophisticated and detailed.

  14. Linking foraging decisions to residential yard bird composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Susannah B; Warren, Paige S; Gan, Hilary; Shochat, Eyal

    2012-01-01

    Urban bird communities have higher densities but lower diversity compared with wildlands. However, recent studies show that residential urban yards with native plantings have higher native bird diversity compared with yards with exotic vegetation. Here we tested whether landscape designs also affect bird foraging behavior. We estimated foraging decisions by measuring the giving-up densities (GUD; amount of food resources remaining when the final forager quits foraging on an artificial food patch, i.e seed trays) in residential yards in Phoenix, AZ, USA. We assessed how two yard designs (mesic: lush, exotic vegetation; xeric: drought-tolerant and native vegetation) differed in foraging costs. Further, we developed a statistical model to calculate GUDs for every species visiting the seed tray. Birds foraging in mesic yards depleted seed trays to a lower level (i.e. had lower GUDs) compared to birds foraging in xeric yards. After accounting for bird densities, the lower GUDs in mesic yards appeared largely driven by invasive and synanthropic species. Furthermore, behavioral responses of individual species were affected by yard design. Species visiting trays in both yard designs had lower GUDs in mesic yards. Differences in resource abundance (i.e., alternative resources more abundant and of higher quality in xeric yards) contributed to our results, while predation costs associated with foraging did not. By enhancing the GUD, a common method for assessing the costs associated with foraging, our statistical model provided insights into how individual species and bird densities influenced the GUD. These differences we found in foraging behavior were indicative of differences in habitat quality, and thus our study lends additional support for native landscapes to help reverse the loss of urban bird diversity.

  15. Measuring habitat heterogeneity reveals new insights into bird community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirnemann, Ingrid A; Ikin, Karen; Gibbons, Philip; Blanchard, Wade; Lindenmayer, David B

    2015-03-01

    Fine-scale vegetation cover is a common variable used to explain animal occurrence, but we know less about the effects of fine-scale vegetation heterogeneity. Theoretically, fine-scale vegetation heterogeneity is an important driver of biodiversity because it captures the range of resources available in a given area. In this study we investigated how bird species richness and birds grouped by various ecological traits responded to vegetation cover and heterogeneity. We found that both fine-scale vegetation cover (of tall trees, medium-sized trees and shrubs) and heterogeneity (of tall trees, and shrubs) were important predictors of bird richness, but the direction of the response of bird richness to shrub heterogeneity differed between sites with different proportions of tall tree cover. For example, bird richness increased with shrub heterogeneity in sites with high levels of tall tree cover, but declined in sites with low levels of tall tree cover. Our findings indicated that an increase in vegetation heterogeneity will not always result in an increase in resources and niches, and associated higher species richness. We also found birds grouped by traits responded in a predictable way to vegetation heterogeneity. For example, we found small birds benefited from increased shrub heterogeneity supporting the textual discontinuity hypothesis and non-arboreal (ground or shrub) nesting species were associated with high vegetation cover (low heterogeneity). Our results indicated that focusing solely on increasing vegetation cover (e.g. through restoration) may be detrimental to particular animal groups. Findings from this investigation can help guide habitat management for different functional groups of birds. PMID:25376157

  16. Fire impacts on European Boreal soils: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Oliva, Marc; Cerda, Artemi

    2016-04-01

    Fire is an important natural disturbance in boreal ecosystems, fundamental to understand plant distribution (Ryan, 2002; Wallenius et al., 2004; Granstrom, 2001). Nevertheless, nowadays the intense and successful, fire suppression measures are changing their ecological role (Pereira et al., 2013a,b). This is consequence of the lack of understanding of stakeholders and decision makers about the role of the fire in the ecosystems (Mierasukas and Pereira, 2013; Pereira et al., 2016). This fire suppression measures are increasing the amount of fuel accumulation and the risk of severe wildfires, which can increase of frequency and severity in a context of climate change. Fire is a good tool for landscape management and restoration of degraded ecosystems (Toivanen and Kotiaho, 2007). Fire is considered a soil forming factor (Certini, 2014) and in boreal environments it has been observed that low fire severities, do not change importantly soil properties, mean fire severities induce positive impacts on soil, since add an important amounts of nutrients into soil profile and high severity fires had negative impacts due to the high consumption of organic matter (Vanha-Majamaa et al., 2007; Pereira et al., 2014). References Certini, G., 2014. Fire as a soil-forming factor. Ambio, 43, 191-195 Granstrom A. 2001. Fire management for biodiversity in the European Boreal forest. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research 3: 62-69. Mierauskas, P., Pereira, P. (2013) Stakeholders perception about prescribed fire use in Lithuania. First results, Flamma, 4(3), 157-161. Pereira, P., Cerdà, A., Jordán, A., Bolutiene, V., Úbeda, X., Pranskevicius, M., Mataix-Solera, J. (2013) Spatio-temporal vegetation recuperation after a grassland fire in Lithuania, Procedia Environmental Sciences, 19:856-864 Pereira, P., Mierauskas, P., Ubeda, X., Mataix-Solera, J.,Cerda, A. (2012) Fire in protected areas - the effect of the protection and importance of fire management, Environmental Research

  17. Nitrogen balance along a boreal forest fire chronosequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palviainen, Marjo; Pumpanen, Jukka; Berninger, Frank; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Sun, Hui; Köster, Egle; Köster, Kajar

    2016-04-01

    Fire is a major natural disturbance factor in boreal forests, and the frequency of forest fires is predicted to increase due to climate change in boreal regions. Because boreal forests comprise 30% of the global forest area, increases in the annual area burned may have significant implications for global carbon and nitrogen (N) cycles. The productivity of boreal forests is limited by low N availability. Fires cause N loss from ecosystems through oxidation and volatilization of N stored in biomass and soil. N balance may be poorly buffered against forest fires especially in sub-arctic ecosystems where atmospheric N deposition is low. Although forest fires alter N dynamics, there are little quantitative data available on N pools and fluxes through post-fire succession in sub-arctic boreal forests. We studied changes in N pools and fluxes, and the overall N balance across a 155-year forest fire chronosequence in sub-arctic Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forests in Värriö Strict Nature Reserve situated in Finnish Lapland (67°46' N, 29°35' E). Soil was the largest N pool in all forest age classes and comprised 69-82% of the total ecosystem N pool. The total ecosystem N pool varied from 622 kg ha-1 in the recently burned forest to 960 kg ha-1 in the 155-year-old forest. The forests were N sinks in all age classes the annual N accumulation rate being 2.28 kg ha-1 yr-1 which was distributed almost equally between soil and biomass. The observed changes in ecosystem N pools were consistent with the computed N balance 2.10 kg ha-1 yr-1 over the 155-year post-fire period (Balance= (atmospheric deposition + N fixation) - (leaching + N2O emissions)). The results indicated that N deposition is an important component of the N balance and the N outputs are small (13% of the inputs) in the studied ecosystems. N2O fluxes were negligible (≤ 0.01 kg ha-1 yr-1) compared to the other N fluxes. The biological N fixation increased with succession and constituted 9% of the total N

  18. Poisonous birds: A timely review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligabue-Braun, Rodrigo; Carlini, Célia Regina

    2015-06-01

    Until very recently, toxicity was not considered a trait observed in birds, but works published in the last two decades started to shed light on this subject. Poisonous birds are rare (or little studied), and comprise Pitohui and Ifrita birds from Papua New Guinea, the European quail, the Spoor-winged goose, the Hoopees, the North American Ruffed grouse, the Bronzewings, and the Red warbler. A hundred more species are considered unpalatable or malodorous to humans and other animals. The present review intends to present the current understanding of bird toxicity, possibly pointing to an ignored research field. Whenever possible, biochemical characteristics of these poisons and their effects on humans and other animals are discussed, along with historical aspects of poison discovery and evolutionary hypothesis regarding their function.

  19. Barrier Infrared Detector (BIRD) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — JPL will design, fabricate, and fully characterize a 640x512 format HOT-BIRD FPA with increased quantum efficiency and extended spectral coverage. Unlike the small...

  20. North American Breeding Bird Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This protocol framework provides guidance for conducting surveys of North American bird populations at multiple stations within two or more regions. The BBS is a...

  1. The role of citizen science in bird conservation: The Christmas Bird Count and Breeding Bird Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, John R.; Butcher, Gregory S.

    2014-01-01

    Many birders in the United States, Canada, and Mexico are critical participants in bird monitoring and conservation activities. This linkage between recreational birders and avian conservation surveys is not new. It was established long before the internet and long before any fast communication facilitated the connection of birders to scientists. It started because a few key individuals realized that birding with a purpose added a new and important dimension to a recreational activity—and birders loved the idea that they were helping to study and conserve the birds they watch. And they still do today.

  2. Birds and bornaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Susan L; Delnatte, Pauline; Guo, Jianhua; Heatley, J Jill; Tizard, Ian; Smith, Dale A

    2012-12-01

    In 2008, avian bornaviruses (ABV) were identified as the cause of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD). PDD is a significant condition of captive parrots first identified in the late 1970s. ABV infection has subsequently been shown to be widespread in wild waterfowl across the United States and Canada where the virus infects 10-20% of some populations of ducks, geese and swans. In most cases birds appear to be healthy and unaffected by the presence of the virus; however, infection can also result in severe non-suppurative encephalitis and lesions similar to those seen in parrots with PDD. ABVs are genetically diverse with seven identified genotypes in parrots and one in canaries. A unique goose genotype (ABV-CG) predominates in waterfowl in Canada and the northern United States. ABV appears to be endemic in North American waterfowl, in comparison to what appears to be an emerging disease in parrots. It is not known whether ABV can spread between waterfowl and parrots. The discovery of ABV infection in North American waterfowl suggests that European waterfowl should be evaluated for the presence of ABV, and also as a possible reservoir species for Borna disease virus (BDV), a related neurotropic virus affecting horses and sheep in central Europe. Although investigations have suggested that BDV is likely derived from a wildlife reservoir, for which the shrew and water vole are currently prime candidates, we suggest that the existence of other mammalian and avian reservoirs should not be discounted. PMID:23253163

  3. Tree Water Use May Significantly Impact Boreal Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J. M.; Bolton, W. R.

    2013-12-01

    The ecohydrology of boreal forest ecosystems of Interior Alaska is not well understood largely because of challenges posed by the presence of discontinuous permafrost. Near-surface permafrost results in storage-dominated systems with cold, poorly drained soils, and slow growing, low statured coniferous trees (Picea mariana) or CDE's. The transition to permafrost-free areas can occur over a few meters and is accompanied by a vegetation community dominated by large deciduous trees (Populus sp. and Betula sp.) or DDE's. Typically, areas with permafrost are on north facing slopes and valley bottoms, and areas without permafrost are south facing. In Alaska's boreal forest, the permafrost is very warm and vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Once permafrost begins to thaw, the vegetation community shifts from coniferous to deciduous dominated. Streamflow in watersheds with a larger permafrost distribution tends to be higher and more responsive to precipitation events than in watersheds with low permafrost distribution. In fact, precipitation events in the low permafrost areas do not infiltrate past the rooting zone of the deciduous trees (~5-40 cm). This suggests that the deciduous trees may remove water from the system via uptake and transpiration. We focus on how vegetation water use affects boreal forest hydrology in areas of discontinuous permafrost. Specifically, we ask: what are the patterns of vegetation water use in areas with and without permafrost? This study focuses on the CDE and DDE systems. Our research sites are established on low and high locations on each aspect (south facing DDE, north facing CDE) to capture the variability associated with the different hillside drainage properties. At each of the four sites during the growing season, we measured various aspects of plant water use dynamics, including water flux, water content, water sources, depth of water uptake in the soil, and water stress. We use a Bayesian framework to analyze the data. We

  4. Trypanosomes of some Fennoscandian birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon F. Bennett

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Linear measurements and derived indices of trypanosomes from species of Fennoscandian birds were compared to those reported form Trypanosoma avium, T. everetti, T. ontarioensis and T. paddae. The trypanosomes encountered in the Fennoscandian birds were identified as T. avium from Tengmalm's owl Aegolius funereus and the pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca, T. everetti from the great tit Parus major and collared flycatcher F. albicollis and T. ontarioensis from the collared flycatcher; T. paddae was not seen.

  5. Orientation and navigation in birds

    OpenAIRE

    Bouwman, H.

    1998-01-01

    How birds orientate and navigate over long distances, remains one of the subjects of ornithology eliciting much interest. Birds use combinations of different sources of information to find direction and position. Some of these are the geomagnetic field, celestial bodies, mosaic and gradient maps, sound, smell, idiotetic information and others. Different species use different combinations of sources. This ability is partially inherent and partially learned.

  6. Orientation and navigation in birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bouwman

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available How birds orientate and navigate over long distances, remains one of the subjects of ornithology eliciting much interest. Birds use combinations of different sources of information to find direction and position. Some of these are the geomagnetic field, celestial bodies, mosaic and gradient maps, sound, smell, idiotetic information and others. Different species use different combinations of sources. This ability is partially inherent and partially learned.

  7. Physicochemical properties and stability of thousand-year-old soil organic matter in boreal paleopodzols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wen-Ting; Klaminder, Jonatan; Boily, Jean-Francois

    2013-04-01

    the mineral matrix. Our findings therefore support the concept that soil mineral surfaces impact SOM stability. The importance of SOM-mineral surfaces complexation was demonstrated further through combined temperature-programmed desorption mass spectrometric Fourier transform infrared (TPD-MS-FTIR) experiments pointing to highly resilient forms of SOM associated to mineral particle surfaces. In summary, our study suggests organic matter sorption on mineral surfaces is important for SOM preservation at the millennial scale. Predicting the long-term fate of C in boreal regions should consequently account for such types of organo-mineral associations.

  8. Restoring the Nitrogen Cycle in the Boreal Forest - a Case Study from Northern Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse, Jacynthe; Grayston, Sue; Prescott, Cindy; Quideau, Sylvie

    2014-05-01

    The Athabasca oil sands deposit, located in the boreal forests of Northern Alberta, is one of the largest single oil deposits in the world. This deposit rests underneath 40,200 square kilometres of land. To date, an area of about 715 square kilometres has been disturbed by oil sands mining activity (Government of Alberta, 2013). Following surface mining, companies have the legal obligation to restore soil-like profiles that can support the previous land capabilities (Powter et al., 2012). Because of its importance for site productivity, re-establishment of the nitrogen cycle between these reconstructed soils and plants is one of the most critical factors required to insure long term sustainability of reclaimed boreal landscape. High nitrogen deposition recorded in the oil sands area combined with the high level of nitrate found in reclaimed soils raised concerns about the possibility of these reclaimed soils being in early stages of N saturation (Laxton et al 2010; Hemsley, 2012), although little evidence of net nitrification in these reclaimed soils suggests the contrary (Laxton et al. 2012). To date, results on the behaviour of the nitrogen cycle in the reclaimed sites are contradictory. A systematic study of the nitrogen cycle, and especially rates of gross mineralization, nitrification and denitrification, is needed. Our research aimed at 1) measuring the gross rates of nitrogen transformations under different vegetation treatments in both reclaimed and naturally-disturbed (fire) sites and 2) characterizing the microbial communities participating in the nitrogen cycle within the same soils. A series of 20 soils, covering different vegetation treatments (plots planted with aspen (Populus tremuloides), spruce (Picea glauca) and grassland) were investigated. Gross nitrogen transformation rates were measured using 15N pool-dilution (Müller et al. 2007). Microbial communities participating in the N-cycle were characterized using qPCR and pyrosequencing. Differences

  9. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus among wild birds in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The central Asian country of Mongolia supports large populations of migratory water birds that migrate across much of Asia where highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus subtype H5N1 is endemic. This, together with the near absence of domestic poultry, makes Mongolia an ideal location to unde...

  10. Iowa Breed Bird Atlas 2, 2008-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — These are the locations of Iowa's Second Breeding Bird Atlas. Blocks are 3 by 3 miles in size. Some of the blocks are the same as those surveyed in the first BBA,...

  11. Lab-on-a-bird: biophysical monitoring of flying birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrahman Gumus

    Full Text Available The metabolism of birds is finely tuned to their activities and environments, and thus research on avian systems can play an important role in understanding organismal responses to environmental changes. At present, however, the physiological monitoring of bird metabolism is limited by the inability to take real-time measurements of key metabolites during flight. In this study, we present an implantable biosensor system that can be used for continuous monitoring of uric acid levels of birds during various activities including flight. The system consists of a needle-type enzymatic biosensor for the amperometric detection of uric acid in interstitial fluids. A lightweight two-electrode potentiostat system drives the biosensor, reads the corresponding output current and wirelessly transfers the data or records to flash memory. We show how the device can be used to monitor, in real time, the effects of short-term flight and rest cycles on the uric acid levels of pigeons. In addition, we demonstrate that our device has the ability to measure uric acid level increase in homing pigeons while they fly freely. Successful application of the sensor in migratory birds could open up a new way of studying birds in flight which would lead to a better understanding of the ecology and biology of avian movements.

  12. Energy crop cultivations of reed canary grass - An inferior breeding habitat for the skylark, a characteristic farmland bird species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vepsaelaeinen, Ville [Finnish Museum of Natural History, P.O. Box 17, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-07-15

    Here, I present the first comparison of the abundance of farmland birds in energy grass fields and in cereal-dominated conventionally cultivated fields (CCFs). I demonstrate that in boreal farmland, skylark (Alauda arvensis) densities were significantly lower in reed canary grass (RCG) (Phalaris arundinacea) fields than in CCFs. I found that during the early breeding season RCG fields and CCFs are equally good habitats, but over the ensuing couple of weeks RCG rapidly grows too tall and dense for field-nesting species. Consequently, RCG is an inferior habitat for skylark for laying replacement clutches (after failure of first nesting) or for a second clutch after one successful nesting. The results imply that if RCG cultivation is to be expanded, the establishment of large monocultures should be avoided in farmland landscapes; otherwise the novel habitat may affect detrimentally the seriously depleted skylark population, and probably also other field-nesting bird species with similar breeding habitats. (author)

  13. Climate induced thermocline change has an effect on the methyl mercury cycle in small boreal lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verta, Matti; Salo, Simo; Korhonen, Markku; Porvari, Petri; Paloheimo, Anna; Munthe, John

    2010-08-01

    We conducted a whole-lake experiment by manipulating the stratification pattern (thermocline depth) of a small polyhumic, boreal lake (Halsjärvi) in southern Finland and studying the impacts on lake mercury chemistry. The experimental lake was compared to a nearby reference site (Valkea-Kotinen Lake). During the first phase of the experiment the thermocline of Halsjärvi was lowered in order to simulate the estimated increase in wind speed and in total lake heat content (high-change climate scenario). The rate of methyl mercury (MeHg) production during summer stagnation (May-August) was calculated from water profiles before the treatment (2004), during treatment (2005, 2006) and after treatment (2007). We also calculated fluxes of MeHg from the epilimnion and from the hypolimnion to the sediments using sediment traps. Experimental mixing with a submerged propeller caused a 1.5-2 m deepening of the thermocline and oxycline. Methyl mercury production occurred mostly in the oxygen free layers in both lakes. In the experimental lake there was no net increase in MeHg during the experiment and following year; whereas the reference lake showed net production for all years. We conclude that the new exposed epilimnetic sediments caused by a lowering of the thermocline were a major sink for MeHg in the epilimnion. The results demonstrate that in-lake MeHg production can be manipulated in small lakes with anoxic hypolimnia during summer. The climate change induced changes in small boreal lakes most probably affect methyl mercury production and depend on the lake characteristics and stratification pattern. The results support the hypothesis that possible oxygen related changes caused by climate change are more important than possible temperature changes in small polyhumic lakes with regularly occurring oxygen deficiency in the hypolimnion.

  14. Probing the debromination of the flame retardant decabromodiphenyl ether in sediments of a boreal lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orihel, Diane M; Bisbicos, Tommy; Darling, Colin T R; Dupuis, Alain P; Williamson, Mary; Muir, Derek C G

    2016-03-01

    After decades of use of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) as flame retardants, a large reservoir of these toxins has accumulated in ecosystems worldwide. The present study used an innovative approach to examine whether the fully brominated PBDE decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE) degrades to more toxic congeners in aquatic environments. The authors incubated intact sediment microcosms with high-purity [(13)C]decaBDE in a remote boreal lake to assess its debromination under ambient conditions. Although the addition of [(13)C]decaBDE increased total PBDE concentrations in sediment more than 10-fold, the relative amount of [(13)C]decaBDE in sediment did not change significantly over a 1-mo incubation. However, observation of small quantities of lower-brominated [(13)C]BDEs lent support to the hypothesis that decaBDE is slowly debrominated. The authors observed a significant increase in octaBDEs and nonaBDEs in profundal, but not littoral, sediment over 30 d. A second experiment in which sediment was incubated under different light and oxygen regimes yielded a surprising result-oxygen significantly stimulated the formation of octaBDEs and nonaBDEs. The authors also conducted a large-scale in situ enclosure experiment in which they followed the fate of experimentally added decaBDE in sediment over 26 mo, but that study yielded little evidence of decaBDE debromination. Overall, the authors suggest that the debromination of decaBDE occurs very slowly, if at all, in natural sediment of boreal lakes, in contrast to the rapid degradation kinetics reported by most laboratory-based studies, which are usually conducted by dissolving decaBDE in organic solvents. The findings reinforce the need for field studies on contaminant fate to inform environmental policy decisions. PMID:26332257

  15. Patterns of NPP, GPP, respiration, and NEP during boreal forest succession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulden, M.L.; Mcmillan, A.M.S.; Winston, G.C.; Rocha, A.V.; Manies, K.L.; Harden, J.W.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.

    2011-01-01

    We combined year-round eddy covariance with biometry and biomass harvests along a chronosequence of boreal forest stands that were 1, 6, 15, 23, 40, 74, and 154 years old to understand how ecosystem production and carbon stocks change during recovery from stand-replacing crown fire. Live biomass (Clive) was low in the 1 and 6 year old stands, and increased following a logistic pattern to high levels in the 74 and 154year old stands. Carbon stocks in the forest floor (Cforest floor) and coarse woody debris (CCWD) were comparatively high in the 1year old stand, reduced in the 6 through 40year old stands, and highest in the 74 and 154year old stands. Total net primary production (TNPP) was reduced in the 1 and 6year old stands, highest in the 23 through 74year old stands and somewhat reduced in the 154year old stand. The NPP decline at the 154year old stand was related to increased autotrophic respiration rather than decreased gross primary production (GPP). Net ecosystem production (NEP), calculated by integrated eddy covariance, indicated the 1 and 6 year old stands were losing carbon, the 15year old stand was gaining a small amount of carbon, the 23 and 74year old stands were gaining considerable carbon, and the 40 and 154year old stands were gaining modest amounts of carbon. The recovery from fire was rapid; a linear fit through the NEP observations at the 6 and 15year old stands indicated the transition from carbon source to sink occurred within 11-12 years. The NEP decline at the 154year old stand appears related to increased losses from Clive by tree mortality and possibly from Cforest floor by decomposition. Our findings support the idea that NPP, carbon production efficiency (NPP/GPP), NEP, and carbon storage efficiency (NEP/TNPP) all decrease in old boreal stands. ?? 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Florida Panhandle: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  17. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northern California: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for alcids, diving birds, gulls, terns, passerines, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds, and...

  18. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, passerine birds, and gulls and terns in...

  19. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Mississippi: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  20. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Southern California: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  1. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: New Hampshire: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  2. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: North Carolina: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  3. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, pelagic birds, and gulls/terns in...

  4. Birds as predators in tropical agroforestry systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bael, Sunshine A; Philpott, Stacy M; Greenberg, Russell; Bichier, Peter; Barber, Nicholas A; Mooney, Kailen A; Gruner, Daniel S

    2008-04-01

    Insectivorous birds reduce arthropod abundances and their damage to plants in some, but not all, studies where predation by birds has been assessed. The variation in bird effects may be due to characteristics such as plant productivity or quality, habitat complexity, and/or species diversity of predator and prey assemblages. Since agroforestry systems vary in such characteristics, these systems provide a good starting point for understanding when and where we can expect predation by birds to be important. We analyze data from bird exclosure studies in forests and agroforestry systems to ask whether birds consistently reduce their arthropod prey base and whether bird predation differs between forests and agroforestry systems. Further, we focus on agroforestry systems to ask whether the magnitude of bird predation (1) differs between canopy trees and understory plants, (2) differs when migratory birds are present or absent, and (3) correlates with bird abundance and diversity. We found that, across all studies, birds reduce all arthropods, herbivores, carnivores, and plant damage. We observed no difference in the magnitude of bird effects between agroforestry systems and forests despite simplified habitat structure and plant diversity in agroforests. Within agroforestry systems, bird reduction of arthropods was greater in the canopy than the crop layer. Top-down effects of bird predation were especially strong during censuses when migratory birds were present in agroforestry systems. Importantly, the diversity of the predator assemblage correlated with the magnitude of predator effects; where the diversity of birds, especially migratory birds, was greater, birds reduced arthropod densities to a greater extent. We outline potential mechanisms for relationships between bird predator, insect prey, and habitat characteristics, and we suggest future studies using tropical agroforests as a model system to further test these areas of ecological theory.

  5. The influence of storm-induced microsites to tree regeneration patterns in boreal and hemiboreal forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vodde, F.; Jogiste, K.; Kubota, Y.; Kuuluvainen, T.; Koster, K.; Lukjanova, A.; Metslaid, M.; Yoshida, T.

    2011-01-01

    We reviewed studies dealing with regeneration under variable conditions in boreal and hemiboreal forests as affected by different microsite types by tree species functional groups. Generally, the importance of storm-induced microsites for regeneration dynamics in boreal forests depends on several fa

  6. Do birds sleep in flight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattenborg, Niels C.

    2006-09-01

    The following review examines the evidence for sleep in flying birds. The daily need to sleep in most animals has led to the common belief that birds, such as the common swift ( Apus apus), which spend the night on the wing, sleep in flight. The electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings required to detect sleep in flight have not been performed, however, rendering the evidence for sleep in flight circumstantial. The neurophysiology of sleep and flight suggests that some types of sleep might be compatible with flight. As in mammals, birds exhibit two types of sleep, slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye-movement (REM) sleep. Whereas, SWS can occur in one or both brain hemispheres at a time, REM sleep only occurs bihemispherically. During unihemispheric SWS, the eye connected to the awake hemisphere remains open, a state that may allow birds to visually navigate during sleep in flight. Bihemispheric SWS may also be possible during flight when constant visual monitoring of the environment is unnecessary. Nevertheless, the reduction in muscle tone that usually accompanies REM sleep makes it unlikely that birds enter this state in flight. Upon landing, birds may need to recover the components of sleep that are incompatible with flight. Periods of undisturbed postflight recovery sleep may be essential for maintaining adaptive brain function during wakefulness. The recent miniaturization of EEG recording devices now makes it possible to measure brain activity in flight. Determining if and how birds sleep in flight will contribute to our understanding of a largely unexplored aspect of avian behavior and may also provide insight into the function of sleep.

  7. Coordinated bird monitoring: Technical recommendations for military lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Jonathan; Manning, Ann; Fischer, Richard; Eberly, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) is subject to several rules and regulations establishing responsibilities for monitoring migratory birds. The Sikes Act requires all military installations with significant natural resources to prepare and implement Integrated Natural Resources Management Plans (INRMPs). These plans guide the conservation and long-term management of natural resources on military lands in a manner that is compatible with and sustains the military mission. An INRMP also supports compliance with all legal requirements and guides the military in fulfilling its obligation to be a good steward of public land.The management and conservation of migratory birds is addressed in installation INRMPs. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requires federal agencies to evaluate and disclose the potential environmental impacts of their proposed actions. More recently, DoD signed an MOU (http://www.dodpif.org/downloads/EO13186_MOU-DoD.pdf) for migratory birds, under Executive Order 13186, with the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) in July 2006 and a Migratory Bird Rule (http://www.dodpif.org/downloads/MigBirdFINALRule_FRFeb2007.pdf) was passed by Congress in February 2007. The Migratory Bird Rule addresses the potential impacts of military readiness activities on populations of migratory birds and establishes a process to implement conservation measures if and when a military readiness activity is expected to have a significant adverse impact on a population of migratory bird species (as determined through the NEPA process). The MOU states that for nonmilitary readiness activities, prior to initiating any activity likely to affect populations of migratory birds DoD shall (1) identify the migratory bird species likely to occur in the area of the proposed action and determine if any species of concern could be affected by the activity, and (2) assess and document, using NEPA when applicable, the effect of the proposed action on species of concern. By

  8. A method for investigating population declines of migratory birds using stable isotopes: origins of harvested lesser scaup in North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith A Hobson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elucidating geographic locations from where migratory birds are recruited into adult breeding populations is a fundamental but largely elusive goal in conservation biology. This is especially true for species that breed in remote northern areas where field-based demographic assessments are logistically challenging. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: Here we used hydrogen isotopes (deltaD to determine natal origins of migrating hatch-year lesser scaup (Aythya affinis harvested by hunters in the United States from all North American flyways during the hunting seasons of 1999-2000 (n = 412 and 2000-2001 (n = 455. We combined geospatial, observational, and analytical data sources, including known scaup breeding range, deltaD values of feathers from juveniles at natal sites, models of deltaD for growing-season precipitation, and scaup band-recovery data to generate probabilistic natal origin landscapes for individual scaup. We then used Monte Carlo integration to model assignment uncertainty from among individual deltaD variance estimates from birds of known molt origin and also from band-return data summarized at the flyway level. We compared the distribution of scaup natal origin with the distribution of breeding population counts obtained from systematic long-term surveys. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our analysis revealed that the proportion of young scaup produced in the northern (above 60 degrees N versus the southern boreal and Prairie-Parkland region was inversely related to the proportions of breeding adults using these regions, suggesting that despite having a higher relative abundance of breeding adults, the northern boreal region was less productive for scaup recruitment into the harvest than more southern biomes. Our approach for evaluating population declines of migratory birds (particularly game birds synthesizes all available distributional data and exploits the advantages of intrinsic isotopic markers that link individuals to geography.

  9. Hg and Se Speciation in Liver Tissue of Marine Birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray fluorescence microprobe maps of Hg and Se distribution were made on liver tissue slices from marine birds (Cormorants) from Florida's Everglades. The birds bio-concentrate these toxic pollutants that are ingested from their diet of fish. The fluorescence maps show strong localization of Mercury and Selenium into 'hot spots' less than 100 microns in size. XAFS measurements were made on hot spots to demonstrate that the Hg and Se are indeed are chemically bound, supporting the idea that moderate levels of Se may have a protective effect against Hg through its complexation.

  10. Methane emission modeling with MCMC calibration for a boreal peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raivonen, Maarit; Smolander, Sampo; Susiluoto, Jouni; Backman, Leif; Li, Xuefei; Markkanen, Tiina; Kleinen, Thomas; Makela, Jarmo; Aalto, Tuula; Rinne, Janne; Brovkin, Victor; Vesala, Timo

    2016-04-01

    Natural wetlands, particularly peatlands of the boreal latitudes, are a significant source of methane (CH4). At the moment, the emission estimates are highly uncertain. These natural emissions respond to climatic variability, so it is necessary to understand their dynamics, in order to be able to predict how they affect the greenhouse gas balance in the future. We have developed a model of CH4 production, oxidation and transport in boreal peatlands. It simulates production of CH4 as a proportion of anaerobic peat respiration, transport of CH4 and oxygen between the soil and the atmosphere via diffusion in aerenchymatous plants and in peat pores (water and air filled), ebullition and oxidation of CH4 by methanotrophic microbes. Ultimately, we aim to add the model functionality to global climate models such as the JSBACH (Reick et al., 2013), the land surface scheme of the MPI Earth System Model. We tested the model with measured methane fluxes (using eddy covariance technique) from the Siikaneva site, an oligotrophic boreal fen in southern Finland (61°49' N, 24°11' E), over years 2005-2011. To give the model estimates regional reliability, we calibrated the model using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique. Although the simulations and the research are still ongoing, preliminary results from the MCMC calibration can be described as very promising considering that the model is still at relatively early stage. We will present the model and its dynamics as well as results from the MCMC calibration and the comparison with Siikaneva flux data.

  11. Birds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, P.H.

    2006-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are present throughout the global environment and are produced naturally and by activities of humans. Effects of PAH on birds have been determined by studies employing egg injection, egg immersion, egg shell application, single and multiple oral doses, subcutaneous injection, and chemical analysis of field-collected eggs and tissue. The four-to six-ring aromatic compounds are the most toxic to embryos, young birds, and adult birds. For embryos, effects include death, developmental abnormalities, and a variety of cellular and biochemical responses. For adult and young birds, effects include reduced egg production and hatching, increased clutch or brood abandonment, reduced growth, increased organweights, and a variety of biochemical responses. Trophic level accumulation is unlikely. Environmental exposure to PAH in areas of high human population or habitats affected by recent petroleum spills might be sufficient to adversely affect reproduction. Evidence of long-term effects of elevated concentrations of environmental PAH on bird populations is very limited and the mechanisms of effect are unclear.

  12. Hydrogen peroxide distribution, production, and decay in boreal lakes

    OpenAIRE

    Häkkinen, P J; Anesio, Alexandre Magno; Granéli, Wilhelm

    2004-01-01

    The distribution, production, and decay of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were studied in 10 boreal lakes of differing physical-chemical characteristics. Diurnal and vertical fluctuations in H2O2 concentration were followed in the lakes by sampling at six depths three times per day. In addition, incubations of water filtered through 0.2-mu mesh were made under artificial irradiation to study the abiotic production and decay of H2O2. H2O2 concentrations after 8 h of artificial irradiation were signi...

  13. A multiscale assessment of tree avoidance by prairie birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sarah J.; Arnold, Todd W.; Amundson, Courtney L.

    2014-01-01

    In North America, grassland bird abundances have declined, likely as a result of loss and degradation of prairie habitat. Given the expense and limited opportunity to procure new grasslands, managers are increasingly focusing on ways to improve existing habitat for grassland birds, using techniques such as tree removal. To examine the potential for tree removal to benefit grassland birds, we conducted 446 point counts on 35 grassland habitat patches in the highly fragmented landscape of west-central Minnesota during 2009–2011. We modeled density of four grassland bird species in relation to habitat composition at multiple scales, focusing on covariates that described grass, woody vegetation (trees and large shrubs), or combinations of grass and woody vegetation. The best-supported models for all four grassland bird species incorporated variables measured at multiple scales, including local features such as grass height, litter depth, and local tree abundance, as well as landscape-level measures of grass and tree cover. Savannah Sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis), Sedge Wrens (Cistothorus platensis), and Bobolinks (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) responded consistently and negatively to woody vegetation, but response to litter depth, grass height, and grassland extent were mixed among species. Our results suggest that reducing shrub and tree cover is more likely to increase the density of grassland birds than are attempts to improve grass quality or quantity. In particular, tree removal is more likely to increase density of Savannah Sparrows and Sedge Wrens than any reasonable changes in grass quality or quantity. Yet tree removal may not result in increased abundance of grassland birds if habitat composition is not considered at multiple scales. Managers will need to either manage at large scales (80–300 ha) or focus their efforts on removing trees in landscapes that contain some grasslands but few nearby wooded areas.

  14. Automatic identification of bird targets with radar via patterns produced by wing flapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaugg, Serge; Saporta, Gilbert; van Loon, Emiel; Schmaljohann, Heiko; Liechti, Felix

    2008-09-01

    Bird identification with radar is important for bird migration research, environmental impact assessments (e.g. wind farms), aircraft security and radar meteorology. In a study on bird migration, radar signals from birds, insects and ground clutter were recorded. Signals from birds show a typical pattern due to wing flapping. The data were labelled by experts into the four classes BIRD, INSECT, CLUTTER and UFO (unidentifiable signals). We present a classification algorithm aimed at automatic recognition of bird targets. Variables related to signal intensity and wing flapping pattern were extracted (via continuous wavelet transform). We used support vector classifiers to build predictive models. We estimated classification performance via cross validation on four datasets. When data from the same dataset were used for training and testing the classifier, the classification performance was extremely to moderately high. When data from one dataset were used for training and the three remaining datasets were used as test sets, the performance was lower but still extremely to moderately high. This shows that the method generalizes well across different locations or times. Our method provides a substantial gain of time when birds must be identified in large collections of radar signals and it represents the first substantial step in developing a real time bird identification radar system. We provide some guidelines and ideas for future research. PMID:18331979

  15. Automatic identification of bird targets with radar via patterns produced by wing flapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaugg, Serge; Saporta, Gilbert; van Loon, Emiel; Schmaljohann, Heiko; Liechti, Felix

    2008-09-01

    Bird identification with radar is important for bird migration research, environmental impact assessments (e.g. wind farms), aircraft security and radar meteorology. In a study on bird migration, radar signals from birds, insects and ground clutter were recorded. Signals from birds show a typical pattern due to wing flapping. The data were labelled by experts into the four classes BIRD, INSECT, CLUTTER and UFO (unidentifiable signals). We present a classification algorithm aimed at automatic recognition of bird targets. Variables related to signal intensity and wing flapping pattern were extracted (via continuous wavelet transform). We used support vector classifiers to build predictive models. We estimated classification performance via cross validation on four datasets. When data from the same dataset were used for training and testing the classifier, the classification performance was extremely to moderately high. When data from one dataset were used for training and the three remaining datasets were used as test sets, the performance was lower but still extremely to moderately high. This shows that the method generalizes well across different locations or times. Our method provides a substantial gain of time when birds must be identified in large collections of radar signals and it represents the first substantial step in developing a real time bird identification radar system. We provide some guidelines and ideas for future research.

  16. Atmospheric Scintillations: A Clue for Bird Orientation and Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Charles; Bowden, Andrew; Benard, Andre

    2014-11-01

    The index-of-refraction of the troposphere is anisotropic at all scales even if the local turbulent velocity field is statistically homogeneous. This anisotropy is partly due to the coupling between the fluctuating velocity field with the Coriolis field and the Lorentz field. Thus, the redistribution of turbulent kinetic energy and the concomitant anisotropy in the index-of-refraction may provide a practical means for birds (and other animals and insects) to orient and navigate. Consequently, if birds migrate between two points on the Earth by following a great circle path, then local anisotropic scintillation phenomena may provide a means to determine the latitude, the longitude, and the bearing along an orthodromic migration path. Thus, scintillation phenomena may be an important fundamental component in the underlying mechanics that support bird orientation and navigation.

  17. Invasive alien birds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyegaard, Timme; Heldbjerg, Henning; Fox, Anthony David

    Avian Introduced Alien Species (IAS) constitute a threat to the integrity of native biodiversity, the economy and human health, so here we briefly review some of the problems posed by such species around the world in relation to bird species in Denmark. A new European Union Regulation on Invasive...... Alien Species implemented in January 2015 requires a framework for actions to combat alien species, which requires Member States to prevent the spread of alien species, provide early warning and rapid responses to their presence and management of established alien species where they occur. We show...... the importance of mechanisms such as DOFs (Danish Ornithological Society, BirdLife Denmark) Atlas project, Common Bird Monitoring (breeding and wintering species) and DOFbasen to contribute data on the current geographical and numerical distribution of the few serious alien avian species already present...

  18. Invasive alien birds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Anthony David; Heldbjerg, Henning; Nyegaard, Timme

    2015-01-01

    Avian Introduced Alien Species (IAS) constitute a threat to the integrity of native biodiversity, the economy and human health, so here we briefly review some of the problems posed by such species around the world in relation to such bird species in Denmark. A new European Union Regulation...... on Invasive Alien Species implemented in January 2015 establishes a framework for actions to combat alien species, which requires Member States to prevent the spread of alien species, provide early warning and rapid responses to their presence and management of established alien species where they occur. We...... show the importance of mechanisms such as DOF’s (Dansk Ornitologisk Forening, BirdLife Denmark) Atlas project, Common Bird Census (breeding and wintering species) and DOFbasen to contribute data on the current geographical and numerical distribution of the few serious alien avian species already...

  19. Angels, Demons, Birds and Dinosaurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ries, Christopher Jacob

    2010-01-01

    of birds, setting the international agenda for research in bird evolution for the next 40 years. In Denmark, however, Heilmann's highly original work was generally ignored or even ridiculed by zoologists. This article demonstrates how Heilmann's artistic abilities played an important role in securing him......In the years between 1912 and 1916, the Danish artist and graphic designer Gerhard Heilmann published a series of articles in the journal of the Danish Ornithological Society. From the outset, Heilmann's work aroused international interest, and in 1926 it was published in English as The origin...... international renown as a palaeontologist, while at the same time his lack of scientific credentials led to his complete isolation from the Danish zoological establishment. And it suggests that Heilmann's unyielding efforts to solve the riddle of bird evolution in the borderland between art and science...

  20. Vulnerability of shortgrass prairie bird assemblages to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skagen, Susan; Dreitz, Victoria; Conrey, Reesa Y.; Yackel, Amy; Panjabi, Arvind O.; Knuffman, Lekha

    2016-01-01

    The habitats and resources needed to support grassland birds endemic to North American prairie ecosystems are seriously threatened by impending climate change. To assess the vulnerability of grassland birds to climate change, we consider various components of vulnerability, including sensitivity, exposure, and adaptive capacity (Glick et al. 2011). Sensitivity encompasses the innate characteristics of a species and, in this context, is related to a species’ tolerance to changes in weather patterns. Groundnesting birds, including prairie birds, are particularly responsive to heat waves combined with drought conditions, as revealed by abundance and distribution patterns (Albright et al. 2010). To further assess sensitivity, we estimated reproductive parameters of nearly 3000 breeding attempts of a suite of prairie birds relative to prevailing weather. Fluctuations in weather conditions in eastern Colorado, 1997-2014, influenced breeding performance of a suite of avian species endemic to the shortgrass prairie, many of which have experienced recent population declines. High summer temperatures and intense rain events corresponded with lower nest survival for most species. Although dry conditions favored nest survival of Burrowing Owls and Mountain Plovers (Conrey 2010, Dreitz et al. 2012), drought resulted in smaller clutch sizes and lower nest survival for passerines (Skagen and Yackel Adams 2012, Conrey et al. in review). Declining summer precipitation may reduce the likelihood that some passerine species can maintain stable breeding populations in this region of the shortgrass prairie.

  1. A molecular compass for bird navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hore, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Migratory birds travel spectacular distances, navigating and orienting by a variety of means, most of which are poorly understood. Among them is a remarkable ability to perceive the intensity and direction of the Earth's magnetic field. Biologically credible mechanisms for the sensing of such weak fields (25-65 microtesla) are scarce and in recent years just two proposals have emerged as frontrunners. One involves biogenic iron-containing nanoparticles; the other relies on the magnetic sensitivity of short-lived photochemical intermediates known as radical pairs. The latter began to attract attention following the proposal 15 years ago that the necessary physics and chemistry could take place in the bird's retina in specialised photoactive proteins called cryptochromes. The coherent dynamics of the electron-nuclear spin systems of pairs of photo-induced radicals is conjectured to form the basis of the sensing mechanism even though the interaction of an electron spin with the geomagnetic field is six orders of magnitude smaller than the thermal energy. The possibility that slowing decohering, entangled electron spins could form the basis of an important sensory mechanism has qualified radical pair magnetoreception for a place under the umbrella of ``Quantum Biology.'' In this talk, I will introduce the radical pair mechanism, comment on the roles of entanglement and quantum coherence, outline some of the experimental evidence for the cryptochrome hypothesis, and summarize what still needs to be done to determine whether birds (and maybe other animals) really do use a chemical compass to find their way around. This work was supported by grants from DARPA, AFOSR, ERC and the EMF Biological Research Trust.

  2. Reweaving the tapestry: a supertree of birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Katie E; Page, Roderic D M

    2014-01-01

    Our knowledge of the avian tree of life remains uncertain, particularly at deeper levels due to the rapid diversification early in their evolutionary history. They are the most abundant land vertebrate on the planet and have been of great historical interest to systematists. Birds are also economically and ecologically important and as a result are intensively studied, yet despite their importance and interest to humans around 13% of taxa currently on the endangered species list perhaps as a result of human activity. Despite all this no comprehensive phylogeny that includes both extinct and extant species currently exists. Here we present a species-level supertree, constructed using the Matrix Representation with Parsimony method, of Aves containing approximately two thirds of all species from nearly 1000 source phylogenies with a broad taxonomic coverage. The source data for the tree were collected and processed according to a strict protocol to ensure robust and accurate data handling. The resulting tree topology is largely consistent with molecular hypotheses of avian phylogeny. We identify areas that are in broad agreement with current views on avian systematics and also those that require further work. We also highlight the need for leaf-based support measures to enable the identification of rogue taxa in supertrees. This is a first attempt at a supertree of both extinct and extant birds, it is not intended to be utilised in an overhaul of avian systematics or as a basis for taxonomic re-classification but provides a strong basis on which to base further studies on macroevolution, conservation, biodiversity, comparative biology and character evolution, in particular the inclusion of fossils will allow the study of bird evolution and diversification throughout deep time. PMID:24944845

  3. Chemical compass for bird navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Hore, Peter J.; Ritz, Thorsten;

    2014-01-01

    Migratory birds travel spectacular distances each year, navigating and orienting by a variety of means, most of which are poorly understood. Among them is a remarkable ability to perceive the intensity and direction of the Earth's magnetic field. Biologically credible mechanisms for the detection...... increased interest following the proposal in 2000 that free radical chemistry could occur in the bird's retina initiated by photoexcitation of cryptochrome, a specialized photoreceptor protein. In the present paper we review the important physical and chemical constraints on a possible radical...

  4. Antioxidant Potential of Bark Extracts from Boreal Forest Conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legault, Jean; Girard-Lalancette, Karl; Dufour, Dominic; Pichette, André

    2013-01-01

    The bark of boreal forest conifers has been traditionally used by Native Americans to treat various ailments and diseases. Some of these diseases involve reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can be prevented by the consumption of antioxidants such as phenolic compounds that can be found in medicinal plants. In this study, ultrasonic assisted extraction has been performed under various solvent conditions (water:ethanol mixtures) on the bark of seven boreal forest conifers used by Native Americans including: Pinus strobus, Pinus resinosa, Pinus banksiana, Picea mariana, Picea glauca, Larix laricina, and Abies balsamea. The total phenolic content, as well as ORACFL potency and cellular antioxidant activity (IC50), were evaluated for all bark extracts, and compared with the standardized water extract of Pinus maritima bark (Pycnogenol), which showed clinical efficiency to prevent ROS deleterious effects. The best overall phenolic extraction yield and antioxidant potential was obtained with Picea glauca and Picea mariana. Interestingly, total phenolic content of these bark extracts was similar to Pycnogenol but their antioxidant activity were higher. Moreover, most of the extracts did not inhibit the growth of human skin fibroblasts, WS1. A significant correlation was found between the total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity for water extracts suggesting that these compounds are involved in the activity. PMID:26784337

  5. Nitrogen balance of a boreal Scots pine forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. J. Korhonen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The productivity of boreal forests is considered to be limited by low nitrogen (N availability. Increased atmospheric N deposition has altered the functioning and N cycling of these N-sensitive ecosystems. The most important components of N pools and fluxes were measured in a boreal Scots pine stand in Hyytiälä, Southern Finland. The measurement at the site allowed direct estimations of nutrient pools in the soil and biomass, inputs from the atmosphere and outputs as drainage flow and gaseous losses from two micro-catchments. N was accumulating to the system with a rate of 7 kg N ha−1 yr−1. Nitrogen input as atmospheric deposition was 7.4 kg N ha−1 yr−1. Dry deposition and organic N in wet deposition contributed over half of the input in deposition. Total outputs were 0.4 kg N ha−1 yr−1, the most important outputs being N2O emission to the atmosphere and organic N flux in drainage flow. Nitrogen uptake and retranslocation were as important sources of N for plant growth. Most of the uptaken N originated from decomposition of organic matter, and the fraction of N that could originate directly from deposition was about 30%. In conclusion, atmospheric N deposition fertilizes the site considerably.

  6. Antioxidant Potential of Bark Extracts from Boreal Forest Conifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Legault

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The bark of boreal forest conifers has been traditionally used by Native Americans to treat various ailments and diseases. Some of these diseases involve reactive oxygen species (ROS that can be prevented by the consumption of antioxidants such as phenolic compounds that can be found in medicinal plants. In this study, ultrasonic assisted extraction has been performed under various solvent conditions (water:ethanol mixtures on the bark of seven boreal forest conifers used by Native Americans including: Pinus strobus, Pinus resinosa, Pinus banksiana, Picea mariana, Picea glauca, Larix laricina, and Abies balsamea. The total phenolic content, as well as ORACFL potency and cellular antioxidant activity (IC50, were evaluated for all bark extracts, and compared with the standardized water extract of Pinus maritima bark (Pycnogenol, which showed clinical efficiency to prevent ROS deleterious effects. The best overall phenolic extraction yield and antioxidant potential was obtained with Picea glauca and Picea mariana. Interestingly, total phenolic content of these bark extracts was similar to Pycnogenol but their antioxidant activity were higher. Moreover, most of the extracts did not inhibit the growth of human skin fibroblasts, WS1. A significant correlation was found between the total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity for water extracts suggesting that these compounds are involved in the activity.

  7. Controls on CH4 flux from an Alaskan boreal wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi, Sadredin C.; Crill, Patrick M.; Pullman, Erik R.; Funk, Dale W.; Peterson, Kim M.

    1996-06-01

    Factors controlling the flux of the radiatively important trace gas methane (CH4) from boreal wetlands were examined at three sites along a moisture gradient from a treed low-shrub bog to an open floating graminoid bog in Fairbanks, Alaska. In the summer of 1992 average static chamber flux measurements were -0.02, 71.5, and 289 mg CH4/m2/d in dry, wet, and floating mat communities, respectively. In contrast, the warmer, drier 1993 field season flux measurements were -0.02, 42.9 and 407 mg CH4/m2/d. The data indicate that despite net oxidation of CH4 in the dry regions of the bog, the wetland is a net source of CH4, with fluxes ranging across three orders of magnitude between different plant communities. Comparison with water levels suggests that CH4 flux is turned on and off by changes in site hydrology. In sites where sufficient moisture is present for methanogenesis to occur, CH4 flux appears to be temperature limited, responding exponentially to soil temperature changes. The combined effects of hydrology and temperature create hot spots of CH4 flux within boreal wetlands. The plant communities within Lemeta Bog respond differently to changes in temperature and moisture availability, creating both positive and negative feedbacks to potential global climate change.

  8. What governs the presence of residual vegetation in boreal wildfires?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Yikalo H.; Remmel, Tarmo K.; Perera, Ajith H.

    2016-04-01

    Wildfires are frequent boreal forest disturbances in Canada, and emulating their patterns with forest harvesting has emerged as a common forest management goal. Wildfires contain many patches of residual vegetation of various size, shape, and composition; understanding their characteristics provides insights for improved emulation criteria. We studied the occurrence of residual vegetation within eleven boreal wildfire events in a natural setting; fires ignited by lightning, no suppression efforts, and no prior anthropogenic disturbances. Relative importance of the measurable geo-environmental factors and their marginal effects on residual presence are studied using Random Forests. These factors included distance from natural firebreaks (wetland, bedrock and non-vegetated areas, and water), land cover, and topographic variables (elevation, slope, and ruggedness index). We present results at spatial resolutions ranging from four to 64 m while emphasizing four and 32 m since they mimic IKONOS- and Landsat-type images. Natural firebreak features, especially the proximity to wetlands, are among the most important variables that explain the likelihood residual occurrence. The majority of residual vegetation areas are concentrated within 100 m of wetlands. Topographic variables, typically important in rugged terrain, are less important in explaining the presence of residuals within our study fires.

  9. Proceedings of the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats Workshop: Understanding and Resolving Bird and Bat Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Susan Savitt (ed.)

    2004-09-01

    Most conservation groups support the development of wind energy in the US as an alternative to fossil and nuclear-fueled power plants to meet growing demand for electrical energy. However, concerns have surfaced over the potential threat to birds, bats, and other wildlife from the construction and operation of wind turbine facilities. Co-sponsored by the American Bird Conservancy (ABC) and the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA), the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats Workshop was convened to examine current research on the impacts of wind energy development on avian and bat species and to discuss the most effective ways to mitigate such impacts. On 18-19 May 2004, 82 representatives from government, non-government organizations, private business, and academia met to (1) review the status of the wind industry and current project development practices, including pre-development risk assessment and post-construction monitoring; (2) learn what is known about direct, indirect (habitat), and cumulative impacts on birds and bats from existing wind projects; about relevant aspects of bat and bird migration ecology; about offshore wind development experience in Europe; and about preventing, minimizing, and mitigating avian and bat impacts; (3) review wind development guidelines developed by the USFWS and the Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife; and (4) identify topics needing further research and to discuss what can be done to ensure that research is both credible and accessible. These Workshop Proceedings include detailed summaries of the presentations made and the discussions that followed.

  10. A bird's eye view of discard reforms: bird-borne cameras reveal seabird/fishery interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votier, Stephen C; Bicknell, Anthony; Cox, Samantha L; Scales, Kylie L; Patrick, Samantha C

    2013-01-01

    Commercial capture fisheries produce huge quantities of offal, as well as undersized and unwanted catch in the form of discards. Declines in global catches and legislation to ban discarding will significantly reduce discards, but this subsidy supports a large scavenger community. Understanding the potential impact of declining discards for scavengers should feature in an eco-system based approach to fisheries management, but requires greater knowledge of scavenger/fishery interactions. Here we use bird-borne cameras, in tandem with GPS loggers, to provide a unique view of seabird/fishery interactions. 20,643 digital images (one min(-1)) from ten bird-borne cameras deployed on central place northern gannets Morus bassanus revealed that all birds photographed fishing vessels. These were large (>15 m) boats, with no small-scale vessels. Virtually all vessels were trawlers, and gannets were almost always accompanied by other scavenging birds. All individuals exhibited an Area-Restricted Search (ARS) during foraging, but only 42% of ARS were associated with fishing vessels, indicating much 'natural' foraging. The proportion of ARS behaviours associated with fishing boats were higher for males (81%) than females (30%), although the reasons for this are currently unclear. Our study illustrates that fisheries form a very important component of the prey-landscape for foraging gannets and that a discard ban, such as that proposed under reforms of the EU Common Fisheries Policy, may have a significant impact on gannet behaviour, particularly males. However, a continued reliance on 'natural' foraging suggests the ability to switch away from scavenging, but only if there is sufficient food to meet their needs in the absence of a discard subsidy. PMID:23483906

  11. A bird's eye view of discard reforms: bird-borne cameras reveal seabird/fishery interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen C Votier

    Full Text Available Commercial capture fisheries produce huge quantities of offal, as well as undersized and unwanted catch in the form of discards. Declines in global catches and legislation to ban discarding will significantly reduce discards, but this subsidy supports a large scavenger community. Understanding the potential impact of declining discards for scavengers should feature in an eco-system based approach to fisheries management, but requires greater knowledge of scavenger/fishery interactions. Here we use bird-borne cameras, in tandem with GPS loggers, to provide a unique view of seabird/fishery interactions. 20,643 digital images (one min(-1 from ten bird-borne cameras deployed on central place northern gannets Morus bassanus revealed that all birds photographed fishing vessels. These were large (>15 m boats, with no small-scale vessels. Virtually all vessels were trawlers, and gannets were almost always accompanied by other scavenging birds. All individuals exhibited an Area-Restricted Search (ARS during foraging, but only 42% of ARS were associated with fishing vessels, indicating much 'natural' foraging. The proportion of ARS behaviours associated with fishing boats were higher for males (81% than females (30%, although the reasons for this are currently unclear. Our study illustrates that fisheries form a very important component of the prey-landscape for foraging gannets and that a discard ban, such as that proposed under reforms of the EU Common Fisheries Policy, may have a significant impact on gannet behaviour, particularly males. However, a continued reliance on 'natural' foraging suggests the ability to switch away from scavenging, but only if there is sufficient food to meet their needs in the absence of a discard subsidy.

  12. Birds observed at Shemya Island, Aleutian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers Shemya Island bird surveys. The reports outline migrant bird activity during August 31 to October 3, 1977. The purpose of the study was to survey...

  13. Boreal forest fire emissions in fresh Canadian smoke plumes: C1–C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs, CO2, CO, NO2, NO, HCN and CH3CN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Boreal regions comprise about 17% of the global land area, and they both affect and are influenced by climate change. To better understand boreal forest fire emissions and plume evolution, 947 whole air samples were collected aboard the NASA DC-8 research aircraft in summer 2008 as part of the ARCTAS-B field mission, and analyzed for 79 non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs using gas chromatography. Together with simultaneous measurements of CO2, CO, CH4, CH2O, NO2, NO, HCN and CH3CN, these measurements represent the most comprehensive assessment of trace gas emissions from boreal forest fires to date. Based on 105 air samples collected in fresh Canadian smoke plumes, 57 of the 80 measured NMVOCs (including CH2O were emitted from the fires, including 45 species that were quantified from boreal forest fires for the first time. After CO2, CO and CH4, the largest emission factors (EFs for individual species were formaldehyde (2.1 ± 0.2 g kg−1, followed by methanol, NO2, HCN, ethene, α-pinene, β-pinene, ethane, benzene, propene, acetone and CH3CN. Globally, we estimate that boreal forest fires release 2.4 ± 0.6 Tg C yr−1 in the form of NMVOCs, with approximately 41% of the carbon released as C1–C2 NMVOCs and 21% as pinenes. These are the first reported field measurements of monoterpene emissions from boreal forest fires, and we speculate that the pinenes, which are relatively heavy molecules, were detected in the fire plumes as the result of distillation of stored terpenes as the vegetation is heated. Their inclusion in smoke chemistry models is expected to improve model predictions of secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation. The fire-averaged EF of dichloromethane or CH2Cl2, (6.9 ± 8.6 ×10−4 g kg−1, was not significantly different from zero and supports recent findings that its global biomass burning source appears to have been overestimated. Similarly, we found no evidence for emissions of chloroform (CHCl3 or methyl

  14. Birds and Bird Habitat: What Are the Risks from Industrial Wind Turbine Exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Terry; Harrington, M. Elizabeth; Krogh, Carmen M. E.

    2011-01-01

    Bird kill rate and disruption of habitat has been reported when industrial wind turbines are introduced into migratory bird paths or other environments. While the literature could be more complete regarding the documentation of negative effects on birds and bird habitats during the planning, construction, and operation of wind power projects,…

  15. Physiological adaptation in desert birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, JB; Tieleman, BI; Williams, Joseph B.

    2005-01-01

    We call into question the idea that birds have not evolved unique physiological adaptations to desert environments. The rate at which desert larks metabolize energy is lower than in mesic species within the same family, and this lower rate of living translates into a lower overall energy requirement

  16. Seventeen-year trends in spring and autumn phenophases of Betula pubescens in a boreal environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poikolainen, Jarmo; Tolvanen, Anne; Karhu, Jouni; Kubin, Eero

    2016-08-01

    Trends in the timing of spring and autumn phenophases of Betula pubescens were investigated in the southern, middle, and northern boreal zones in Finland. The field observations were carried out at 21 sites in the Finnish National Phenological Network in 1997-2013. The effective temperature sum of the thermal growth period, i.e. the sum of the positive differences between diurnal mean temperatures and 5 °C (ETS1), increased annually on average by 6-7 degree day units. Timing of bud burst remained constant in the southern and middle boreal zones but advanced annually by 0.5 day in the northern boreal zone. The effective temperature sum at bud burst (ETS2) showed no trend in the southern and middle boreal zones, whereas ETS2 increased on average from 20-30 to 50 degree day units in the northern boreal zone, almost to the same level as in the other zones. Increase in ETS2 indicates that the trees did not start their growth in very early spring despite warmer spring temperatures. The timing of leaf colouring and leaf fall remained almost constant in the southern boreal zones, whereas these advanced annually by 0.3 and 0.6 day in the middle boreal zone and by 0.6 and 0.4 day in the northern boreal zone, respectively. The duration of the growth period remained constant in all boreal zones. The results indicate high buffering capacity of B. pubescens against temperature changes. The study also shows the importance of the duration of phenological studies: some trends in spring phenophases had levelled out, while new trends in autumn phases had emerged after earlier studies in the same network for a shorter observation period.

  17. Decreases in Soil Moisture and Organic Matter Quality Suppress Microbial Decomposition Following a Boreal Forest Fire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, Sandra R.; Berhe, Asmeret A.; Treseder, Kathleen K.

    2015-08-01

    Climate warming is projected to increase the frequency and severity of wildfires in boreal forests, and increased wildfire activity may alter the large soil carbon (C) stocks in boreal forests. Changes in boreal soil C stocks that result from increased wildfire activity will be regulated in part by the response of microbial decomposition to fire, but post-fire changes in microbial decomposition are poorly understood. Here, we investigate the response of microbial decomposition to a boreal forest fire in interior Alaska and test the mechanisms that control post-fire changes in microbial decomposition. We used a reciprocal transplant between a recently burned boreal forest stand and a late successional boreal forest stand to test how post-fire changes in abiotic conditions, soil organic matter (SOM) composition, and soil microbial communities influence microbial decomposition. We found that SOM decomposing at the burned site lost 30.9% less mass over two years than SOM decomposing at the unburned site, indicating that post-fire changes in abiotic conditions suppress microbial decomposition. Our results suggest that moisture availability is one abiotic factor that constrains microbial decomposition in recently burned forests. In addition, we observed that burned SOM decomposed more slowly than unburned SOM, but the exact nature of SOM changes in the recently burned stand are unclear. Finally, we found no evidence that post-fire changes in soil microbial community composition significantly affect decomposition. Taken together, our study has demonstrated that boreal forest fires can suppress microbial decomposition due to post-fire changes in abiotic factors and the composition of SOM. Models that predict the consequences of increased wildfires for C storage in boreal forests may increase their predictive power by incorporating the observed negative response of microbial decomposition to boreal wildfires.

  18. Neoplasms identified in free-flying birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfried, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    Nine neoplasms were identified in carcasses of free-flying wild birds received at the National Wildlife Health Laboratory; gross and microscopic descriptions are reported herein. The prevalence of neoplasia in captive and free-flying birds is discussed, and lesions in the present cases are compared with those previously described in mammals and birds.

  19. I LIKE LISTENING TO BIRDS SINGING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘向勤; 廖明娟

    2002-01-01

    Every early morning, birds' happy singing wakes me up. I get dressed quickly and have a wash and brush up, then watch birds and listen to them singing happily in the trees. The singing of different kinds of birds sounds like a piece of beautiful symphonic music. Birds’singing makes me relaxed and happy and it also recalls me something of the Past.

  20. 14 CFR 35.36 - Bird impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bird impact. 35.36 Section 35.36... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.36 Bird impact. The applicant must demonstrate, by tests or... 4-pound bird at the critical location(s) and critical flight condition(s) of a typical...

  1. 14 CFR 29.631 - Bird strike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bird strike. 29.631 Section 29.631... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction General § 29.631 Bird strike. The... safe landing (for Category B) after impact with a 2.2-lb (1.0 kg) bird when the velocity of...

  2. The Physics of Bird Flight: An Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihail, Michael D.; George, Thomas F.; Feldman, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an experiment that measures the forces acting on a flying bird during takeoff. The experiment uses a minimum of equipment and only an elementary knowledge of kinematics and Newton's second law. The experiment involves first digitally videotaping a bird during takeoff, analyzing the video to determine the bird's position as a…

  3. Private lands habitat programs benefit California's native birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan T. DiGaudio

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available To address the loss of wetlands and riparian forests in California, private lands habitat programs are available through U.S. federal and state government agencies to help growers, ranchers and other private landowners create and enhance wildlife habitat. The programs provide financial and technical assistance for implementing conservation practices. To evaluate the benefits of these programs for wildlife, we examined bird use of private wetlands, postharvest flooded croplands and riparian forests enrolled in habitat programs in the Central Valley and North Coast regions of California. We found that private Central Valley wetlands supported 181 bird species during the breeding season. During fall migration, postharvest flooded croplands supported wetland-dependent species and a higher density of shorebirds than did semipermanent wetlands. At the riparian sites, bird species richness increased after restoration. These results demonstrated that the programs provided habitat for the species they were designed to protect; a variety of resident and migratory bird species used the habitats, and many special status species were recorded at the sites.

  4. An 8000 Year History of Fire and Productivity in a Nutrient-Poor Boreal Landscape Reconstructed from Two Lakes in Central Labrador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbanhowar, C. E., Jr.; Camill, P.; Voldal, E.; Gatlin, J.; Butka, E.

    2015-12-01

    Fire plays an important role in many boreal ecosystems, and fire severity depends on productivity and climate. The boreal forest region of eastern Canada is characterized by both poor soils and a cool, moist climate, suggesting that fire may be less common than in other regions. We collected sediment cores from Canoe (elev. 152 m) and Big Beer (elev. 411 m) lakes and analyzed cores for charcoal, carbon, d15C, biogenic silica, and magnetics. The sediment record for both lakes dated to ~9000 calibrated years BP, and sediment accumulation rates were low for both lakes (40 and 95 yrs cm-1). Biogenic silica and carbon data indicate nearly simultaneous increases in lake and terrestrial productivity from ~8000-7000 BP. As indicated by charcoal, fire was present in the landscape as early as 8500 BP. Fire was more common at the lower elevation Canoe site and largely absent from the higher elevation Big Beer site. Average charcoal accumulation rates at both sites (< 0.01 mm2 cm-2 yr-1) were < 50% of those previously reported for boreal forest sites in more western Canada. Our results support a reduced role for fire in this landscape although it is yet unclear whether poor soils or climate are more directly causal.

  5. Linear disturbances in boreal peatlands: Hotspots of methane emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strack, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Across Canada's boreal forest, at least 600,000 km of linear disturbances including cutlines and roads crisscross the landscape to facilitate resource exploration and extraction. As the boreal forest consists of up to 50% peatland, many of these linear disturbances also cross peatland ecosystems. Although more permanent access roads may involve the placement of mineral soil fill, most linear disturbances only involve clearing the area of trees to allow the passage of equipment and vehicles. This change in canopy cover and the compression of the peat by heavy equipment alters local thermal, hydrological and ecological conditions, likely changing greenhouse gas flux on the disturbance and possibly in the adjacent peatland. I studied CO2 and CH4 along triplicate transects crossing a winter road through a poor fen near Peace River, Alberta, Canada. Sample plots were located 1, 5 and 10 m from the road on both upstream and downstream sides with an additional three plots in the centre of the road. Productivity of the overstory trees, when present, was also determined. The winter road thawed earlier, had a shallower water table and a significantly higher graminoid cover than the adjacent peatland. Tree productivity and CO2 varied between the plots in the adjacent peatland, but there was no clear pattern in relation to distance from the road. The plots on the winter road acted as a greater or similar sink of CO2 as the adjacent peatland, depending on the specific conditions at the study plot. The most significant change was a substantial increase in CH4 emissions, with plots on the winter road emitting on average (standard deviation) 1100 (550) mg CH4 m-2 d-1 compared to 49 (73) mg CH4 m-2 d-1 in the adjacent peatland. Since the hydrologic impact of cutlines is likely less than winter roads, the increase in CH4 efflux may not be as extreme in all cases. Nonetheless, assuming that peatland accounts for ˜30% of the boreal region and a 150 day emission period for CH4, and a

  6. Microwave snow emission modeling uncertainties in boreal and subarctic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Alexandre; Royer, Alain; St-Jean-Rondeau, Olivier; Montpetit, Benoit; Picard, Ghislain; Mavrovic, Alex; Marchand, Nicolas; Langlois, Alexandre

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to better understand and quantify the uncertainties in microwave snow emission models using the Dense Media Radiative Theory Multi-Layer model (DMRT-ML) with in situ measurements of snow properties. We use surface-based radiometric measurements at 10.67, 19 and 37 GHz in boreal forest and subarctic environments and a new in situ data set of measurements of snow properties (profiles of density, snow grain size and temperature, soil characterization and ice lens detection) acquired in the James Bay and Umiujaq regions of Northern Québec, Canada. A snow excavation experiment - where snow was removed from the ground to measure the microwave emission of bare frozen ground - shows that small-scale spatial variability (less than 1 km) in the emission of frozen soil is small. Hence, in our case of boreal organic soil, variability in the emission of frozen soil has a small effect on snow-covered brightness temperature (TB). Grain size and density measurement errors can explain the errors at 37 GHz, while the sensitivity of TB at 19 GHz to snow increases during the winter because of the snow grain growth that leads to scattering. Furthermore, the inclusion of observed ice lenses in DMRT-ML leads to significant improvements in the simulations at horizontal polarization (H-pol) for the three frequencies (up to 20 K of root mean square error). However, representation of the spatial variability of TB remains poor at 10.67 and 19 GHz at H-pol given the spatial variability of ice lens characteristics and the difficulty in simulating snowpack stratigraphy related to the snow crust. The results also show that, in our study with the given forest characteristics, forest emission reflected by the snow-covered surface can increase the TB up to 40 K. The forest contribution varies with vegetation characteristics and a relationship between the downwelling contribution of vegetation and the proportion of pixels occupied by vegetation (trees) in fisheye pictures was found

  7. Mirror image hydrocarbons from Tropical and Boreal forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Williams

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Monoterpenes, emitted in large quantities by trees to attract pollinators and repel herbivores, can exist in mirror image forms called enantiomers. In this study such enantiomeric pairs have been measured in ambient air over extensive forest ecosystems in South America and northern Europe. For the dominant monoterpene, α-pinene, the (−-form was measured in large excess over the (+-form over the Tropical rainforest, whereas the reverse was observed over the Boreal forest. Interestingly, over the Tropical forest (−-α-pinene did not correlate with its own enantiomer, but correlated well with isoprene. The results indicate a remarkable ecosystem scale enantiomeric fingerprint and a nexus between the biosphere and atmosphere.

  8. Mapping global diversity patterns for migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somveille, Marius; Manica, Andrea; Butchart, Stuart H M; Rodrigues, Ana S L

    2013-01-01

    Nearly one in five bird species has separate breeding and overwintering distributions, and the regular migrations of these species cause a substantial seasonal redistribution of avian diversity across the world. However, despite its ecological importance, bird migration has been largely ignored in studies of global avian biodiversity, with few studies having addressed it from a macroecological perspective. Here, we analyse a dataset on the global distribution of the world's birds in order to examine global spatial patterns in the diversity of migratory species, including: the seasonal variation in overall species diversity due to migration; the contribution of migratory birds to local bird diversity; and the distribution of narrow-range and threatened migratory birds. Our analyses reveal a striking asymmetry between the Northern and Southern hemispheres, evident in all of the patterns investigated. The highest migratory bird diversity was found in the Northern Hemisphere, with high inter-continental turnover in species composition between breeding and non-breeding seasons, and extensive regions (at high latitudes) where migratory birds constitute the majority of the local avifauna. Threatened migratory birds are concentrated mainly in Central and Southern Asia, whereas narrow-range migratory species are mainly found in Central America, the Himalayas and Patagonia. Overall, global patterns in the diversity of migratory birds indicate that bird migration is mainly a Northern Hemisphere phenomenon. The asymmetry between the Northern and Southern hemispheres could not have easily been predicted from the combined results of regional scale studies, highlighting the importance of a global perspective. PMID:23951037

  9. Urban Bird Feeding: Connecting People with Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    At a time of unprecedented biodiversity loss, researchers are increasingly recognizing the broad range of benefits provided to humankind by nature. However, as people live more urbanized lifestyles there is a progressive disengagement with the natural world that diminishes these benefits and discourages positive environmental behaviour. The provision of food for garden birds is an increasing global phenomenon, and provides a readily accessible way for people to counter this trend. Yet despite its popularity, quite why people feed birds remains poorly understood. We explore three loosely defined motivations behind bird feeding: that it provides psychological benefits, is due to a concern about bird welfare, and/or is due to a more general orientation towards nature. We quantitatively surveyed households from urban towns in southern England to explore attitudes and actions towards garden bird feeding. Each household scored three Likert statements relating to each of the three motivations. We found that people who fed birds regularly felt more relaxed and connected to nature when they watched garden birds, and perceived that bird feeding is beneficial for bird welfare while investing time in minimising associated risks. Finally, feeding birds may be an expression of a wider orientation towards nature. Overall, we found that the feelings of being relaxed and connected to nature were the strongest drivers. As urban expansion continues both to threaten species conservation and to change peoples’ relationship with the natural world, feeding birds may provide an important tool for engaging people with nature to the benefit of both people and conservation. PMID:27427988

  10. Urban Bird Feeding: Connecting People with Nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Daniel T C; Gaston, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    At a time of unprecedented biodiversity loss, researchers are increasingly recognizing the broad range of benefits provided to humankind by nature. However, as people live more urbanized lifestyles there is a progressive disengagement with the natural world that diminishes these benefits and discourages positive environmental behaviour. The provision of food for garden birds is an increasing global phenomenon, and provides a readily accessible way for people to counter this trend. Yet despite its popularity, quite why people feed birds remains poorly understood. We explore three loosely defined motivations behind bird feeding: that it provides psychological benefits, is due to a concern about bird welfare, and/or is due to a more general orientation towards nature. We quantitatively surveyed households from urban towns in southern England to explore attitudes and actions towards garden bird feeding. Each household scored three Likert statements relating to each of the three motivations. We found that people who fed birds regularly felt more relaxed and connected to nature when they watched garden birds, and perceived that bird feeding is beneficial for bird welfare while investing time in minimising associated risks. Finally, feeding birds may be an expression of a wider orientation towards nature. Overall, we found that the feelings of being relaxed and connected to nature were the strongest drivers. As urban expansion continues both to threaten species conservation and to change peoples' relationship with the natural world, feeding birds may provide an important tool for engaging people with nature to the benefit of both people and conservation. PMID:27427988

  11. Urban Bird Feeding: Connecting People with Nature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T C Cox

    Full Text Available At a time of unprecedented biodiversity loss, researchers are increasingly recognizing the broad range of benefits provided to humankind by nature. However, as people live more urbanized lifestyles there is a progressive disengagement with the natural world that diminishes these benefits and discourages positive environmental behaviour. The provision of food for garden birds is an increasing global phenomenon, and provides a readily accessible way for people to counter this trend. Yet despite its popularity, quite why people feed birds remains poorly understood. We explore three loosely defined motivations behind bird feeding: that it provides psychological benefits, is due to a concern about bird welfare, and/or is due to a more general orientation towards nature. We quantitatively surveyed households from urban towns in southern England to explore attitudes and actions towards garden bird feeding. Each household scored three Likert statements relating to each of the three motivations. We found that people who fed birds regularly felt more relaxed and connected to nature when they watched garden birds, and perceived that bird feeding is beneficial for bird welfare while investing time in minimising associated risks. Finally, feeding birds may be an expression of a wider orientation towards nature. Overall, we found that the feelings of being relaxed and connected to nature were the strongest drivers. As urban expansion continues both to threaten species conservation and to change peoples' relationship with the natural world, feeding birds may provide an important tool for engaging people with nature to the benefit of both people and conservation.

  12. Mapping global diversity patterns for migratory birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Somveille

    Full Text Available Nearly one in five bird species has separate breeding and overwintering distributions, and the regular migrations of these species cause a substantial seasonal redistribution of avian diversity across the world. However, despite its ecological importance, bird migration has been largely ignored in studies of global avian biodiversity, with few studies having addressed it from a macroecological perspective. Here, we analyse a dataset on the global distribution of the world's birds in order to examine global spatial patterns in the diversity of migratory species, including: the seasonal variation in overall species diversity due to migration; the contribution of migratory birds to local bird diversity; and the distribution of narrow-range and threatened migratory birds. Our analyses reveal a striking asymmetry between the Northern and Southern hemispheres, evident in all of the patterns investigated. The highest migratory bird diversity was found in the Northern Hemisphere, with high inter-continental turnover in species composition between breeding and non-breeding seasons, and extensive regions (at high latitudes where migratory birds constitute the majority of the local avifauna. Threatened migratory birds are concentrated mainly in Central and Southern Asia, whereas narrow-range migratory species are mainly found in Central America, the Himalayas and Patagonia. Overall, global patterns in the diversity of migratory birds indicate that bird migration is mainly a Northern Hemisphere phenomenon. The asymmetry between the Northern and Southern hemispheres could not have easily been predicted from the combined results of regional scale studies, highlighting the importance of a global perspective.

  13. Decadal change in the boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaura, Tsuyoshi; Kajikawa, Yoshiyuki

    2016-06-01

    A decadal change in activity of the boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation (BSISO) was identified at a broad scale. The change was more prominent during August-October in the boreal summer. The BSISO activity during 1999-2008 (P2) was significantly greater than that during 1984-1998 (P1). Compared to P1, convection in the BSISO was enhanced and the phase speed of northward-propagating convection was reduced in P2. Under background conditions, warm sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in P2 were apparent over the tropical Indian Ocean and the western tropical Pacific. The former supplied favorable conditions for the active convection of the BSISO, whereas the latter led to a strengthened Walker circulation through enhanced convection. This induced descending anomalies over the tropical Indian Ocean. Thermal convection tends to be suppressed by descending anomalies, whereas once an active BSISO signal enters the Indian Ocean, convection is enhanced through convective instability by positive SST anomalies. After P2, the BSISO activity was weakened during 2009-2014 (P3). Compared to P2, convective activity in the BSISO tended to be inactive over the southern tropical Indian Ocean in P3. The phase speed of the northward-propagating convection was accelerated. Under background conditions during P3, warmer SST anomalies over the maritime continent enhance convection, which strengthened the local Hadley circulation between the western tropical Pacific and the southern tropical Indian Ocean. Hence, the convection in the BSISO over the southern tropical Indian Ocean was suppressed. The decadal change in BSISO activity correlates with the variability in seasonal mean SST over the tropical Asian monsoon region, which suggests that it is possible to predict the decadal change.

  14. Nitrogen balance of a boreal Scots pine forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. J. Korhonen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The productivity of boreal forests is considered to be limited by low nitrogen (N availability. Increased atmospheric N deposition has altered the functioning and N cycling of these N-sensitive ecosystems by increasing the availability of reactive nitrogen. The most important components of N pools and fluxes were measured in a boreal Scots pine stand in Hyytiälä, Southern Finland. The measurements at the site allowed direct estimations of nutrient pools in the soil and biomass, inputs from the atmosphere and outputs as drainage flow and gaseous losses from two micro-catchments. N was accumulating in the system, mainly in woody biomass, at a rate of 7 kg N ha−1 yr−1. Nitrogen input as atmospheric deposition was 7.4 kg N ha−1 yr−1. Dry deposition and organic N in wet deposition contributed over half of the inputs in deposition. Total outputs were 0.4 kg N ha−1 yr−1, the most important outputs being N2O emission to the atmosphere and organic N flux in drainage flow. Nitrogen uptake and retranslocation were equally important sources of N for plant growth. Most of the assimilated N originated from decomposition of organic matter, and the fraction of N that could originate directly from deposition was about 30%. In conclusion, atmospheric N deposition fertilizes the site considerably, but there are no signs of N saturation. Further research is needed to estimate soil N2 fluxes (emission and fixation, which may amount up to several kg N ha−1 yr−1.

  15. Riparian zone control on base cation concentration in boreal streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. J. Ledesma

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Riparian zones (RZ are a major factor controlling water chemistry in forest streams. Base cations' (BC concentrations, fluxes, and cycling in the RZ merit attention because a changing climate and increased forest harvesting could have negative consequences, including re-acidification, for boreal surface waters. We present a two-year study of BC and silica (Si flow-weighted concentrations from 13 RZ and 14 streams in different landscape elements of a boreal catchment in northern Sweden. The spatial variation in BC and Si dynamics in both RZ and streams was explained by differences in landscape element type, with highest concentrations in silty sediments and lowest concentrations in peat-dominated wetland areas. Temporal stability in BC and Si concentrations in riparian soil water, remarkably stable Mg/Ca ratios, and homogeneous mineralogy suggest that patterns found in the RZ are a result of a distinct mineralogical upslope signal in groundwater. Stream water Mg/Ca ratios indicate that the signal is subsequently maintained in the streams. Flow-weighted concentrations of Ca, Mg, and Na in headwater streams were represented by the corresponding concentrations in the RZ, which were estimated using the Riparian Flow-Concentration Integration Model (RIM approach. Stream and RZ flow-weighted concentrations differed for K and Si, suggesting a stronger biogeochemical influence on these elements, including K recirculation by vegetation and retention of Si within the RZ. Potential increases in groundwater levels linked to forest harvesting or changes in precipitation regimes would tend to reduce BC concentrations from RZ to streams, potentially leading to episodic acidification.

  16. Carbonaceous aerosols from prescribed burning of a boreal forest ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The identity and ambient mass concentrations of radiatively important carbonaceous aerosols were measured for a boreal forest prescribed burn conducted in northern Ontario, CAN in August 1989. Nonsize-segregated airborne particles were collected for smoldering-fire and full-fire conditions using a helicopter sampling platform. Total carbon (TC), organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) were measured. Smoke plume mass concentrations of the OC and EC particles were greatest for full-fire conditions and had ranges of 1.560 to 2.160 mg/m-1 (OC) and 0.120 to 0.160 mg/m-3 (EC) with OC:EC ratios of 10 to 18, respectively. Smoldering fire conditions showed smoke plume OC and EC levels of 0.570--1.030 mg/m-3 (OC) and 0.006--0.050 mg/m-3 (EC) and much higher ratios of OC:EC (21 to 95). These aerosol data indicate the formation of EC particles is greatest during full-fire combustion of boreal forest material relative to smoldering combustion. However, EC particles comprise a minor fraction of the particulate carbon smoke aerosols for both full-fire and smoldering conditions; the major component of carbonaceous smoke aerosols emitted during the prescribed burn is OC. Overall, the OC and EC in-plume smoke aerosol data show nonuniform production of these particles during various stages of the prescribed burn, and major differences in the type of carbonaceous aerosol that is generated (OC versus EC)

  17. Differentiating moss from higher plants is critical in studying the carbon cycle of the boreal biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wenping; Liu, Shuguang; Dong, Wenjie; Liang, Shunlin; Zhao, Shuqing; Chen, Jingming; Xu, Wenfang; Li, Xianglan; Barr, Alan; Andrew Black, T; Yan, Wende; Goulden, Mike L; Kulmala, Liisa; Lindroth, Anders; Margolis, Hank A; Matsuura, Yojiro; Moors, Eddy; van der Molen, Michiel; Ohta, Takeshi; Pilegaard, Kim; Varlagin, Andrej; Vesala, Timo

    2014-01-01

    The satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), which is used for estimating gross primary production (GPP), often includes contributions from both mosses and vascular plants in boreal ecosystems. For the same NDVI, moss can generate only about one-third of the GPP that vascular plants can because of its much lower photosynthetic capacity. Here, based on eddy covariance measurements, we show that the difference in photosynthetic capacity between these two plant functional types has never been explicitly included when estimating regional GPP in the boreal region, resulting in a substantial overestimation. The magnitude of this overestimation could have important implications regarding a change from a current carbon sink to a carbon source in the boreal region. Moss abundance, associated with ecosystem disturbances, needs to be mapped and incorporated into GPP estimates in order to adequately assess the role of the boreal region in the global carbon cycle. PMID:24967601

  18. Palaearctic-African Bird Migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwajomo, Soladoye Babatola

    Bird migration has attracted a lot of interests over past centuries and the methods used for studying this phenomenon has greatly improved in terms of availability, dimension, scale and precision. In spite of the advancements, relatively more is known about the spring migration of trans......-Saharan migrants than autumn migration. Information about the behavior and interactions of migrants during the nonbreeding season in sub-Saharan Africa is also scarce for many species. Furthermore, very little is known about intra-African migration. This thesis summarizes my research on the autumn migration...... of birds from Europe to Africa and opens up the possibility of studying intra-African migration. I have used long-term, standardized autumn ringing data from southeast Sweden to investigate patterns in biometrics, phenology and population trends as inferred from annual trapping totals. In addition, I...

  19. Magnetoreception and baroreception in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The world as we know it is defined by our senses, although as humans we are equipped to receive and interpret only a fraction of the potential sensory information available. Birds have evolved with different sensory priorities to our own; they can use the Earth's magnetic field as a navigational aid, and are sensitive to slight changes in barometric pressure. These abilities help explain the impressive ability of many bird species to orientate, navigate, and maintain steady altitude during flight over long distances, even in the absence of clear visual cues. This review will explore the history of research into these "avian" senses, highlighting their likely mechanisms of action, underlying neuronal circuitry and evolutionary origins.

  20. Annual cycle of volatile organic compound exchange between a boreal pine forest and the atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Rantala, P.; Aalto, J; Taipale, R.; T. M. Ruuskanen; J. Rinne

    2015-01-01

    Long-term flux measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOC) over boreal forests are rare, although the forests are known to emit considerable amounts of VOCs into the atmosphere. Thus, we measured fluxes of several VOCs and oxygenated VOCs over a Scots-pine-dominated boreal forest semi-continuously between May 2010 and December 2013. The VOC profiles were obtained with a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, and the fluxes were calculated using vertical concentrati...

  1. Annual cycle of volatile organic compound exchange between a boreal pine forest and the atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Rantala, P.; Aalto, J; Taipale, R.; T. M. Ruuskanen; J. Rinne

    2015-01-01

    Long-term flux measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOC) over boreal forests are rare, although the forests are known to emit considerable amounts of VOCs into the atmosphere. Thus, we measured fluxes of several VOCs and oxygenated VOCs over a Scots pine dominated boreal forest semi-continuously between May 2010 and December 2013. The VOC profiles were obtained with a proton-transfer-reaction mass-spectrometry, and the fluxes were calculated using vertical concentrati...

  2. Modeling the effects of organic nitrogen uptake by plants on the carbon cycling of boreal ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Zhu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Boreal forest and tundra are the major ecosystems in the northern high latitudes in which a large amount of carbon is stored. These ecosystems are nitrogen-limited due to slow mineralization rate of the soil organic nitrogen. Recently, abundant field studies have found that organic nitrogen is another important nitrogen supply for boreal ecosystems. In this study, we incorporated a mechanism that allowed boreal plants to uptake small molecular amino acids into a process-based biogeochemical model, the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM, to evaluate the impact of organic nitrogen uptake on ecosystem carbon cycling. The new version of the model was evaluated at both boreal forest and tundra sites. We found that the modeled organic nitrogen uptake accounted for 36–87% of total nitrogen uptake by plants in tundra ecosystems and 26–50% for boreal forests, suggesting that tundra ecosystem might have more relied on the organic form of nitrogen than boreal forests. The simulated monthly gross ecosystem production (GPP and net ecosystem production (NEP tended to be larger with the new version of the model since the plant uptake of organic nitrogen alleviated the soil nitrogen limitation especially during the growing season. The sensitivity study indicated that the most important factors controlling the plant uptake of organic nitrogen were the maximum root uptake rate (Imax and the radius of the root (r0 in our model. The model uncertainty due to uncertain parameters associated with organic nitrogen uptake at tundra ecosystem was larger than at boreal forest ecosystems. This study suggests that considering the organic nitrogen uptake by plants is important to boreal ecosystem carbon modeling.

  3. Traditional use of medicinal plants in the boreal forest of Canada: review and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Uprety Yadav; Asselin Hugo; Dhakal Archana; Julien Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The boreal forest of Canada is home to several hundred thousands Aboriginal people who have been using medicinal plants in traditional health care systems for thousands of years. This knowledge, transmitted by oral tradition from generation to generation, has been eroding in recent decades due to rapid cultural change. Until now, published reviews about traditional uses of medicinal plants in boreal Canada have focused either on particular Aboriginal groups or on restricte...

  4. Modeling physical and biogeochemical controls over carbon accumulation in a boreal forest soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, J.J.; Neff, J.C.; Harden, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    Boreal soils are important to the global C cycle owing to large C stocks, repeated disturbance from fire, and the potential for permafrost thaw to expose previously stable, buried C. To evaluate the primary mechanisms responsible for both short- and long-term C accumulation in boreal soils, we developed a multi-isotope (12,14C) Soil C model with dynamic soil layers that develop through time as soil organic matter burns and reaccumulates. We then evaluated the mechanisms that control organic matter turnover in boreal regions including carbon input rates, substrate recalcitrance, soil moisture and temperature, and the presence of historical permafrost to assess the importance of these factors in boreal C accumulation. Results indicate that total C accumulation is controlled by the rate of carbon input, decomposition rates, and the presence of historical permafrost. However, unlike more temperate ecosystems, one of the key mechanisms involved in C preservation in boreal soils examined here is the cooling of subsurface soil layers as soil depth increases rather than increasing recalcitrance in subsurface soils. The propagation of the 14C bomb spike into soils also illustrates the importance of historical permafrost and twentieth century warming in contemporary boreal soil respiration fluxes. Both 14C and total C simulation data also strongly suggest that boreal SOM need not be recalcitrant to accumulate; the strong role of soil temperature controls on boreal C accumulation at our modeling test site in Manitoba, Canada, indicates that carbon in the deep organic soil horizons is probably relatively labile and thus subject to perturbations that result from changing climatic conditions in the future. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Cranial kinesis in palaeognathous birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gussekloo, Sander W S; Bout, Ron G

    2005-09-01

    Cranial kinesis in birds is induced by muscles located caudal on the cranium. These forces are transferred onto the moveable parts of the skull via the Pterygoid-Palatinum Complex (PPC). This bony structure therefore plays an essential role in cranial kinesis. In palaeognathous birds the morphology of the PPC is remarkably different from that of neognathous birds and is thought to be related to the specific type of cranial kinesis in palaeognaths known as central rhynchokinesis. We determined whether clear bending zones as found in neognaths are present in the upper bill of paleognaths, and measured bending forces opposing elevation of the upper bill. A static force model was used to calculate the opening forces that can be produced by some of the palaeognathous species. We found that no clear bending zones are present in the upper bill, and bending is expected to occur over the whole length of the upper bill. Muscle forces are more than sufficient to overcome bending forces and to elevate the upper bill. The resistance against bending by the bony elements alone is very low, which might indicate that bending of bony elements can occur during food handling when muscles are not used to stabilise the upper bill. Model calculations suggest that the large processi basipterygoidei play a role in stabilizing the skull elements, when birds have to resist external opening forces on the upper bill as might occur during tearing leafs from plants. We conclude that the specific morphology of the palaeognathous upper bill and PPC are not designed for active cranial kinesis, but are adapted to resist external forces that might cause unwanted elevation of the upper bill during feeding.

  6. Cooperation bibliogram of bird flu

    OpenAIRE

    Stegmann, Johannes; Grohmann, Guenter

    2006-01-01

    The published literature on Bird Flu, now a pandemic animal disease with a possible potential of evolving into a devastating human disease, was analysed primarily with respect of national and international cooperations and networks of authors and countries. The output of research-relevant papers is now around 150 per year and was less than 100 papers per year before 2003. The field is highly cooperative; nearly 90% of the articles have two or more authors. National extramural cooperation is ...

  7. Examining mechanisms in the final stages of the elimination of boreal tree species on vulnerable sites in boreal Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juday, G. P.; Jess, R.; Alix, C. M.; Verbyla, D.

    2015-12-01

    The boreal forest of Alaska and western Canada exist in a complex mosaic of environments determined by elevation, aspect of exposure, and longitudinal and latitudinal gradients of change from warm, dry continental to maritime-influenced conditions. This forest region is largely made up of trees with two growth responses to temperature increases. Trees that decrease in growth are termed negative responders, and occupy warm, dry sites at low elevations. Trees that increase in radial growth are termed positive responders, and are largely in western Alaska, and at high elevation of the Brooks and Alaska Ranges. Since the Pacific climate regime shift of the 1970s, mature trees at low elevation sites have experienced increasing climate stress in several quasi-decadal cycles of intensifying drought stress. NDVI trends and tree ring records demonstrating radial growth decline are coherent. Phenological monitoring of spruce height growth also indicates that depletion of spring soil moisture is a critical process driven by the interaction of early warm season temperatures and precipitation. Novel biotic disturbance agents including spruce budworm, outbreaks of which are triggered by warm temperature anomalies related to its biology, and aspen leaf miner are depressing realized growth below climatically predicted levels, suggesting a pathway by which tree death is likely to occur before absolute temperature limits. As a result, insect outbreaks are degrading the otherwise strong long-term climate signal in Alaska boreal trees. However, young tree (> 40 yrs.) regeneration generally does not yet display the symptoms of acute high temperature stress. Overall, on these vulnerable sites, if temperature increases similar to the past 40 years continue, long term survival prospects are questionable because the climate conditions would be outside the limits that have historically defined the species ranges of aspen, Alaska birch, and black and white spruce.

  8. Survival rates of birds of tropical and temperate forests: will the dogma survive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr, J.R.; Nichols, J.D.; Klimkiewicz, M.K.; Brawn, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Survival rates of tropical forest birds are widely assumed to be high relative to the survival rates of temperate forest birds. Much life-history theory is based on this assumption despite the lack of empirical data to support it. We provide the first detailed comparison of survival rates of tropical and temperate forest birds based on extensive data bases and modern capture-recapture models. We find no support for the conventional wisdom. Because clutch size is only one component of reproductive rate, the frequently assumed, simple association between clutch size and adult survival rates should not necessarily be expected. Our results emphasize the need to consider components of fecundity in addition to clutch size when comparing the life histories of tropical and temperate birds and suggest similar considerations in the development of vertebrate life-history theory.

  9. Boreal forest riparian zones regulate stream sulfate and dissolved organic carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, José L J; Futter, Martyn N; Laudon, Hjalmar; Evans, Christopher D; Köhler, Stephan J

    2016-08-01

    In boreal forest catchments, solute transfer to streams is controlled by hydrological and biogeochemical processes occurring in the riparian zone (RZ). However, RZs are spatially heterogeneous and information about solute chemistry is typically limited. This is problematic when making inferences about stream chemistry. Hypothetically, the strength of links between riparian and stream chemistry is time-scale dependent. Using a ten-year (2003-2012) dataset from a northern Swedish catchment, we evaluated the suitability of RZ data to infer stream dynamics at different time scales. We focus on the role of the RZ versus upslope soils in controlling sulfate (SO4(2)(-)) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). A priori, declines in acid deposition and redox-mediated SO4(2)(-) pulses control sulfur (S) fluxes and pool dynamics, which in turn affect dissolved organic carbon (DOC). We found that the catchment is currently a net source of S, presumably due to release of the S pool accumulated during the acidification period. In both, RZ and stream, SO4(2-) concentrations are declining over time, whereas DOC is increasing. No temporal trends in SO4(2-) and DOC were observed in upslope mineral soils. SO4(2-) explained the variation of DOC in stream and RZ, but not in upslope mineral soil. Moreover, as SO4(2-) decreased with time, temporal variability of DOC increased. These observations indicate that: (1) SO4(2-) is still an important driver of DOC trends in boreal catchments and (2) RZ processes control stream SO4(2-) and subsequently DOC independently of upslope soils. These phenomena are likely occurring in many regions recovering from acidification. Because water flows through a heterogeneous mosaic of RZs before entering the stream, upscaling information from limited RZ data to the catchment level is problematic at short-time scales. However, for long-term trends and annual dynamics, the same data can provide reasonable representations of riparian processes and support

  10. Determination of the biogenic secondary organic aerosol fraction in the boreal forest by NMR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Finessi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the sources of fine organic aerosol (OA in the boreal forest, based on measurements including both filter sampling (PM1 and online methods and carried out during a one-month campaign held in Hyytiälä, Finland, in spring 2007. Two aerosol mass spectrometers (Q-AMS, ToF-AMS were employed to measure on-line concentrations of major non-refractory aerosol species, while the water extracts of the filter samples were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy for organic functional group characterization of the polar organic fraction of the aerosol. AMS and NMR spectra were processed separately by non-negative factorization algorithms, in order to apportion the main components underlying the submicrometer organic aerosol composition and depict them in terms of both mass fragmentation patterns and functional group compositions.

    The NMR results supported the AMS speciation of oxidized organic aerosol (OOA into two main fractions, which could be generally labelled as more and less oxidized organics. The more oxidized component was characterized by a mass spectrum dominated by the m/z 44 peak, and in parallel by a NMR spectrum showing aromatic and aliphatic backbones highly substituted with oxygenated functional groups (carbonyls/carboxyls and hydroxyls. Such component, contributing on average 50% of the OA mass throughout the observing period, was associated with pollution outbreaks from the Central Europe. The less oxidized component was enhanced in concomitance with air masses originating from the North-to-West sector, in agreement with previous investigations conducted at this site. NMR factor analysis was able to separate two distinct components under the less oxidized fraction of OA. One of these NMR-factors was associated with the formation of terrestrial biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA, based on the comparison with spectral profiles obtained from laboratory experiments of

  11. Determination of the biogenic secondary organic aerosol fraction in the boreal forest by NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finessi, E.; Decesari, S.; Paglione, M.; Giulianelli, L.; Carbone, C.; Gilardoni, S.; Fuzzi, S.; Saarikoski, S.; Raatikainen, T.; Hillamo, R.; Allan, J.; Mentel, Th. F.; Tiitta, P.; Laaksonen, A.; Petäjä, T.; Kulmala, M.; Worsnop, D. R.; Facchini, M. C.

    2012-01-01

    The study investigates the sources of fine organic aerosol (OA) in the boreal forest, based on measurements including both filter sampling (PM1) and online methods and carried out during a one-month campaign held in Hyytiälä, Finland, in spring 2007. Two aerosol mass spectrometers (Q-AMS, ToF-AMS) were employed to measure on-line concentrations of major non-refractory aerosol species, while the water extracts of the filter samples were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy for organic functional group characterization of the polar organic fraction of the aerosol. AMS and NMR spectra were processed separately by non-negative factorization algorithms, in order to apportion the main components underlying the submicrometer organic aerosol composition and depict them in terms of both mass fragmentation patterns and functional group compositions. The NMR results supported the AMS speciation of oxidized organic aerosol (OOA) into two main fractions, which could be generally labelled as more and less oxidized organics. The more oxidized component was characterized by a mass spectrum dominated by the m/z 44 peak, and in parallel by a NMR spectrum showing aromatic and aliphatic backbones highly substituted with oxygenated functional groups (carbonyls/carboxyls and hydroxyls). Such component, contributing on average 50% of the OA mass throughout the observing period, was associated with pollution outbreaks from the Central Europe. The less oxidized component was enhanced in concomitance with air masses originating from the North-to-West sector, in agreement with previous investigations conducted at this site. NMR factor analysis was able to separate two distinct components under the less oxidized fraction of OA. One of these NMR-factors was associated with the formation of terrestrial biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA), based on the comparison with spectral profiles obtained from laboratory experiments of terpenes photo-oxidation. The second NMR

  12. Boreal forest riparian zones regulate stream sulfate and dissolved organic carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, José L J; Futter, Martyn N; Laudon, Hjalmar; Evans, Christopher D; Köhler, Stephan J

    2016-08-01

    In boreal forest catchments, solute transfer to streams is controlled by hydrological and biogeochemical processes occurring in the riparian zone (RZ). However, RZs are spatially heterogeneous and information about solute chemistry is typically limited. This is problematic when making inferences about stream chemistry. Hypothetically, the strength of links between riparian and stream chemistry is time-scale dependent. Using a ten-year (2003-2012) dataset from a northern Swedish catchment, we evaluated the suitability of RZ data to infer stream dynamics at different time scales. We focus on the role of the RZ versus upslope soils in controlling sulfate (SO4(2)(-)) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). A priori, declines in acid deposition and redox-mediated SO4(2)(-) pulses control sulfur (S) fluxes and pool dynamics, which in turn affect dissolved organic carbon (DOC). We found that the catchment is currently a net source of S, presumably due to release of the S pool accumulated during the acidification period. In both, RZ and stream, SO4(2-) concentrations are declining over time, whereas DOC is increasing. No temporal trends in SO4(2-) and DOC were observed in upslope mineral soils. SO4(2-) explained the variation of DOC in stream and RZ, but not in upslope mineral soil. Moreover, as SO4(2-) decreased with time, temporal variability of DOC increased. These observations indicate that: (1) SO4(2-) is still an important driver of DOC trends in boreal catchments and (2) RZ processes control stream SO4(2-) and subsequently DOC independently of upslope soils. These phenomena are likely occurring in many regions recovering from acidification. Because water flows through a heterogeneous mosaic of RZs before entering the stream, upscaling information from limited RZ data to the catchment level is problematic at short-time scales. However, for long-term trends and annual dynamics, the same data can provide reasonable representations of riparian processes and support

  13. Factors influencing phototaxis in nocturnal migrating birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuebing; Chen, Mingyan; Wu, Zhaolu; Wang, Zijiang

    2014-12-01

    Many migratory bird species fly during the night (nocturnal migrants) and have been shown to display some phototaxis to artificial light. During 2006 to 2009, we investigated phototaxis in nocturnal migrants at Jinshan Yakou in Xinping County (N23°56', E101°30'; 2400 m above sea-level), and at the Niaowang Mountain in Funing County (N23°30', E105°35'; 1400 m above sea-level), both in the Yunnan Province of Southwest China. A total of 5069 birds, representing 129 species, were captured by mist-netting and artificial light. The extent of phototaxis effect on bird migration was examined during all four seasons, three phases of the moon, and under two weather conditions (mist and wind). Data were statistically analyzed to determine the extent to which these factors may impact phototaxis of nocturnal migrants. The results point to phototaxis in birds migrating in the spring and autumn, especially in the autumn. Furthermore, migrating birds were more readily attracted to artificial lights during nights with little moonlight, mist, and a headwind. Regardless of the initial orientation in which birds flew, either following the wind or against the wind, birds would always fly against the wind when flying towards the light. This study broadens our understanding of the nocturnal bird migration, potentially resulting in improved bird ringing practices, increased awareness, and better policies regarding bird protection.

  14. Interannual variability of Antarctic Oscillation and its influence on East Asian climate during boreal winter and spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN; Ke; WANG; Huijun

    2006-01-01

    The interannual variability of Antarctic Oscillation (AAO) and its influence on East Asian climate during both boreal winter and spring are addressed. The results show that the positive AAO anomaly decreases the cold activity over East Asia during both boreal winter and spring. AAO-related barotropic meridional teleconnection from Antarctic to Arctic is found through analysis of mean meridional circulations. This meridional teleconnection is remarkable over Eurasia during boreal winter and over the Pacific Ocean during boreal spring. The results also show that zonal mean zonal wind at high latitudes in Southern Hemisphere has well positive correlation with that of Eurasia during boreal winter and has negative correlation with Pacific North American teleconnection (PNA) during boreal spring, which again display the meridional teleconnection. Thus, local meridional teleconnection is a possible linkage for interaction of circulations at mid-high latitudes between both hemispheres.

  15. Major implication of the littoral zone for methane release from boreal lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juutinen, Sari; Alm, Jukka; Larmola, Tuula; Huttunen, Jari T.; Morero, Micaela; Martikainen, Pertti J.; Silvola, Jouko

    2003-12-01

    Transitions between aquatic and terrestrial environments can be recognized as biogeochemically active ecotones that support high CH4 release. We studied the links between littoral CH4 fluxes and aquatic vegetation, hydrologic conditions, and sediment quality, and integrated the CH4 fluxes into a whole-lake assessment. Methane fluxes were measured using a closed chamber method in the littoral and pelagic zones of three Finnish mid-boreal lakes from May to October. The cumulative CH4 fluxes were spatially integrated over the lake relative to the vegetation coverage in the littoral, and to depth zones in the pelagic regions. During the ice-free period, 66-77% of the CH4 was released from the littoral zone, and the mean CH4 effluxes from these lakes were 0.08-0.42 mol m-2 ice-free season-1. Littoral and pelagic productivity was reflected in CH4 release from the lakes. Our results show that estimates of lake CH4 release should include an assessment of the vegetated littoral zone.

  16. The latitudinal structure of recent changes in the boreal Brewer–Dobson circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Shi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Upwelling branch of the Brewer–Dobson circulation (BDC controls the tropical lower stratospheric water vapor (WV through dynamic cooling near the tropopause. Downwelling branch of BDC dominates the extratropical middle-lower stratospheric Hydrogen Chloride (HCl by dynamic transport. Climatologically, a symmetric weakening BDC indicates increasing tropical lower stratospheric WV and decreasing extratropical middle-lower stratospheric HCl. However, the global ozone chemistry and related trace gas data records for the stratosphere data (GOZCARDS show that the tropical lowermost stratospheric WV increased by 18 % decade−1 during 2001–2011 and the boreal mid-latitude lower stratospheric HCl rose 25 % decade−1 after 2006. We interpret this as resulting from a slowdown of the tropical upwelling and a speedup of the mid-latitude downwelling. This interpretation is supported by composite analysis of Eliasen–Palm Flux (EPF, zonal wind and regression of temperature on the EPF from the ERA-Interim data. Results present that the enhancing polar vortex and weakening planetary wave activity leads to a downwelling branch narrowing equatorward and a local speedup of 24 % at 20 hPa in the mid-latitudes. Moreover, there are regressive temperature increase of 1.5 K near the tropical tropopause and that of 0.5 K in the mid-latitude middle stratosphere, which also indicates the tropical upwelling slowdown and the mid-latitude downwelling speedup during 2001–2011.

  17. Avian influenza surveillance in wild birds in the European Union in 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesterberg, Uta; Harris, Kate; Stroud, David; Guberti, Vittorio; Busani, Luca; Pittman, Maria; Piazza, Valentina; Cook, Alasdair; Brown, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background  Infections of wild birds with highly pathogenic avian influenza (AI) subtype H5N1 virus were reported for the first time in the European Union in 2006. Objectives  To capture epidemiological information on H5N1 HPAI in wild bird populations through large‐scale surveillance and extensive data collection. Methods  Records were analysed at bird level to explore the epidemiology of AI with regard to species of wild birds involved, timing and location of infections as well as the applicability of different surveillance types for the detection of infections. Results  In total, 120,706 records of birds were sent to the Community Reference Laboratory for analysis. Incidents of H5N1 HPAI in wild birds were detected in 14 EU Member States during 2006. All of these incidents occurred between February and May, with the exception of two single cases during the summer months in Germany and Spain. Conclusions  For the detection of H5N1 HPAI virus, passive surveillance of dead or diseased birds appeared the most effective approach, whilst active surveillance offered better detection of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses. No carrier species for H5N1 HPAI virus could be identified and almost all birds infected with H5N1 HPAI virus were either dead or showed clinical signs. A very large number of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were tested in 2006 and while a high proportion of LPAI infections were found in this species, H5N1 HPAI virus was rarely identified in these birds. Orders of species that appeared to be very clinically susceptible to H5N1 HPAI virus were swans, diving ducks, mergansers and grebes, supporting experimental evidence. Surveillance results indicate that H5N1 HPAI virus did not establish itself successfully in the EU wild bird population in 2006. PMID:19453436

  18. A Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment of California's At-Risk Birds

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Gardali; Seavy, Nathaniel E.; DiGaudio, Ryan T.; Comrack, Lyann A.

    2012-01-01

    Conservationists must develop new strategies and adapt existing tools to address the consequences of anthropogenic climate change. To support statewide climate change adaptation, we developed a framework for assessing climate change vulnerability of California's at-risk birds and integrating it into the existing California Bird Species of Special Concern list. We defined climate vulnerability as the amount of evidence that climate change will negatively impact a population. We quantified clim...

  19. An unexpectedly long history of sexual selection in birds-of-paradise

    OpenAIRE

    Christidis Les; Fjeldså Jon; Jønsson Knud A; Irestedt Martin; Ericson Per GP

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The birds-of-paradise (Paradisaeidae) form one of the most prominent avian examples of sexual selection and show a complex biogeographical distribution. The family has accordingly been used as a case-study in several significant evolutionary and biogeographical syntheses. As a robust phylogeny of the birds-of-paradise has been lacking, these hypotheses have been tentative and difficult to assess. Here we present a well supported species phylogeny with divergence time estim...

  20. Variation in clutch size in relation to nest size in birds

    OpenAIRE

    Møller, Anders P; Adriaensen, Frank; Artemyev, Alexandr; Bańbura, Jerzy; Barba, Emilio; Biard, Clotilde; Blondel, Jacques; Bouslama, Zihad; Bouvier, Jean-Charles; Camprodon, Jordi; Cecere, Francesco; Charmantier, Anne; Charter, Motti; Cichoń, Mariusz; Cusimano, Camillo

    2014-01-01

    Nests are structures built to support and protect eggs and/or offspring from predators, parasites, and adverse weather conditions. Nests are mainly constructed prior to egg laying, meaning that parent birds must make decisions about nest site choice and nest building behavior before the start of egg-laying. Parent birds should be selected to choose nest sites and to build optimally sized nests, yet our current understanding of clutch size-nest size relationships is limited to small-scale stud...

  1. The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS): An Overview and Early Results from the 1994 Field Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Piers; Hall, Forrest; Ranson, K. Jon; Margolis, Hank; Kelly, Bob; Baldocchi, Dennis; den Hartog, Gerry; Cihlar, Josef; Ryan, Michael G.; Goodison, Barry; Crill, Patrick; Lettenmaier, Dennis; Wickland, Diane E.

    1995-09-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) is large-scale international field experiment that has the goal of improving our understanding of the exchanges of radiative energy, heat water, CO2, and trace gases between the boreal forest and the lower atmosphere. An important objective of BORES is collect the data needed to improve computer simulation models of the processes controlling these exchanges so that scientists can anticipate the effects of global change.From August 1993 through September 1994, a continuous set of monitoring measurements-meteorology, hydrology, and satellite remote sensing-were gathered over the 1000 × 1000 km BOREAS study region that covers most of Saskatchewan and Manitoba, Canada. This monitoring program was punctuated by six campaigns that saw the deployment of some 300 scientists and aircrew into the field, supported by 11 research aircraft. The participants were drawn primarily from U.S. and Canadian agencies and universities, although there were also important contributions from France, the United Kingdom, and Russia. The field campaigns lasted for a total of 123 days and saw the compilation of a comprehensive surface-atmosphere flux dataset supported by ecological, trace gas, hydrological, and dataset sensing science observations. The surface-atmosphere fluxes of sensible heat, latent heat, CO2, and momentum were measured using eddy correlation equipment mounted on a surface network of 10 towers complemented by four flux-measurement aircraft. All in all, over 350 airborne missions (remote sensing and eddy correlation) were flown during the 1994 field year.Preliminary analyses of the data indicate that the area-averaged photosynthetic capacity of the boreal forest is much less than that of the temperate forests to the south. This is reflected in very low photosynthetic and carbon drawdown rates, which in turn are associated with low transpiration rates (less than 2 mm day1 over the growing season for the coniferous species in the

  2. Brain size and urbanization in birds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anders; Pape; M?ller; Johannes; Erritz?e

    2015-01-01

    Background: Brain size may affect the probability of invasion of urban habitats if a relatively larger brain entails superior ability to adapt to novel environments. However, once urbanized urban environments may provide poor quality food that has negative consequences for normal brain development resulting in an excess of individuals with small brains.Methods: Here we analyze the independent effects of mean, standard deviation and skewness in brain mass for invasion of urban habitats by 108 species of birds using phylogenetic multiple regression analyses weighted by sample size.Results: There was no significant difference in mean brain mass between urbanized and non-urbanized species or between urban and rural populations of the same species, and mean brain mass was not significantly correlated with time since urbanization. Bird species that became urbanized had a greater standard deviation in brain mass than non-urbanized species, and the standard deviation in brain mass increased with time since urbanization. Brain mass was significantly left skewed in species that remained rural, while there was no significant skew in urbanized species. The degree of left skew was greater in urban than in rural populations of the same species, and successfully urbanized species decreased the degree of left skew with time since urbanization. This is consistent with the hypothesis that sub-optimal brain development was more common in rural habitats resulting in disproportionately many individuals with very smal brains.Conclusions: These findings do not support the hypothesis that large brains promote urbanization, but suggest that skewness has played a role in the initial invasion of urban habitats, and that variance and skew in brain mass have increased as species have become urbanized.

  3. Brain size and urbanization in birds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anders Pape Mller; Johannes Erritze

    2015-01-01

    Background:Brain size may affect the probability of invasion of urban habitats if a relatively larger brain entails superior ability to adapt to novel environments. However, once urbanized urban environments may provide poor quality food that has negative consequences for normal brain development resulting in an excess of individuals with small brains. Methods:Here we analyze the independent effects of mean, standard deviation and skewness in brain mass for invasion of urban habitats by 108 species of birds using phylogenetic multiple regression analyses weighted by sample size. Results:There was no significant difference in mean brain mass between urbanized and non-urbanized species or between urban and rural populations of the same species, and mean brain mass was not significantly correlated with time since urbanization. Bird species that became urbanized had a greater standard deviation in brain mass than non-urbanized species, and the standard deviation in brain mass increased with time since urbanization. Brain mass was significantly left skewed in species that remained rural, while there was no significant skew in urbanized species. The degree of left skew was greater in urban than in rural populations of the same species, and successfully urbanized species decreased the degree of left skew with time since urbanization. This is consistent with the hypothesis that sub-optimal brain development was more common in rural habitats resulting in disproportionately many individuals with very smal brains. Conclusions:These findings do not support the hypothesis that large brains promote urbanization, but suggest that skewness has played a role in the initial invasion of urban habitats, and that variance and skew in brain mass have increased as species have become urbanized.

  4. Optimal moult strategies in migratory birds

    OpenAIRE

    Barta, Zoltán; Mcnamara, John M.; Houston, Alasdair I; Weber, Thomas P.; Hedenström, Anders; Feró, Orsolya

    2007-01-01

    Avian migration, which involves billions of birds flying vast distances, is known to influence all aspects of avian life. Here we investigate how birds fit moult into an annual cycle determined by the need to migrate. Large variation exists in moulting patterns in relation to migration: for instance, moult can occur after breeding in the summer or after arrival in the wintering quarters. Here we use an optimal annual routine model to investigate why this variation exists. The modelled bird's ...

  5. Should Australia Export its Native Birds?

    OpenAIRE

    Kingwell, Ross S.

    1994-01-01

    Commercial export from Australia of native birds, wild or captive bred, is prohibited. This paper firstly describes the current legislation and regulations that restrict the export of native birds and discusses why governments have adopted such a regulatory approach to bird species preservation. Secondly, the paper reviews the debate concerning the export ban, pointing out strengths and weaknesses in arguments and indicating the important role of CITES. Lastly, the paper outlines a new case f...

  6. Green Light for Nocturnally Migrating Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel R. Wernand

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The nighttime sky is increasingly illuminated by artificial light sources. Although this ecological light pollution is damaging ecosystems throughout the world, the topic has received relatively little attention. Many nocturnally migrating birds die or lose a large amount of their energy reserves during migration as a result of encountering artificial light sources. This happens, for instance, in the North Sea, where large numbers of nocturnally migrating birds are attracted to the many offshore platforms. Our aim is to develop bird-friendly artificial lighting that meets human demands for safety but does not attract and disorient birds. Our current working hypothesis is that artificial light interferes with the magnetic compass of the birds, one of several orientation mechanisms and especially important during overcast nights. Laboratory experiments have shown the magnetic compass to be wavelength dependent: migratory birds require light from the blue-green part of the spectrum for magnetic compass orientation, whereas red light (visible long-wavelength disrupts magnetic orientation. We designed a field study to test if and how changing light color influenced migrating birds under field conditions. We found that nocturnally migrating birds were disoriented and attracted by red and white light (containing visible long-wavelength radiation, whereas they were clearly less disoriented by blue and green light (containing less or no visible long-wavelength radiation. This was especially the case on overcast nights. Our results clearly open perspective for the development of bird-friendly artificial lighting by manipulating wavelength characteristics. Preliminary results with an experimentally developed bird-friendly light source on an offshore platform are promising. What needs to be investigated is the impact of bird-friendly light on other organisms than birds.

  7. Effects of Grassland Bird Management on Nongame Bird Community Structure and Productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The report includes data on bird/habitat relations, breeding biology, and effects of succession and current management practices on grassland bird communities in...

  8. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for alcids, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, pelagic birds, gulls and terns in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska....

  9. Environmental Studies in the Boreal Forest Zone: Summer IPY Institute at Central Boreal Forest Reserve, Fedorovskoe, Tver area, Russia (14-28 August, 2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, E. B.; Kurbatova, Y.; Groisman, P.; Alexeev, V.

    2007-12-01

    The Summer Institute was organized by the International Arctic Research Center (IARC) at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, in collaboration with the A.N. Severtsov Institute for Ecology and Evolution of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow, Russia, and the Central Forest State Nature Biosphere Reserve in Fedorovskoe, Russia. The Institute was arranged as a part of the education/outreach activities of the International Polar Year (IPY) at the University of Alaska and the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) and was held in Russia. The Institute provided a unique opportunity for participants to learn about the climate and environment of Northern Eurasia from leading scientists and educators, in a wide spectrum of polar and Earth system science disciplines from meteorology, biology, chemistry, and earth system modeling. Additionally, the Institute attendees observed and participated in the biospheric research activities under the guidance of experienced scientists. During a two-week-interval, the School attendees heard 40 lectures, attended several field trips and participated in three brainstorming Round Table Workshop Sessions devoted to perspectives of the boreal forest zone research and major unresolved problems that it faces. Thirty professors and experts in different areas of climate and biosphere research from Russia, the United States, Germany, Finland, and Japan, shared their expertise in lectures and in round table discussions with the Institute participants. Among the Institute participants there were 31 graduate students/early career scientists from six countries (China, Russia, Estonia, Finland, UK, and the United States) and eight K-12 teachers from Russia. The two groups joined together for several workshop sessions and for the field work components of the Institute. The field work was focused on land-atmosphere interactions and wetland studies in the boreal forest zone. Several field trips in and outside the Forest

  10. Orientation in birds. Olfactory navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papi, F

    1991-01-01

    Research work on the olfactory navigation of birds, which has only recently attracted attention, has shown that many wild species rely on an osmotactic mechanism to find food sources, even at a considerable distance. The homing pigeon, the only bird to have been thoroughly investigated with respect to olfactory navigation, has been found to rely on local odours for homeward orientation, and to integrate olfactory cues perceived during passive transportation with those picked up at the release site. It is possible to design experiments in which birds are given false olfactory information, and predictions about the effects of this can be made and tested. Pigeons are able to home from unfamiliar sites because they acquire an olfactory map extending beyond the area they have flown over. The olfactory map is built up by associating wind-borne odours with the direction from which they come; this was shown by experiments which aimed to prevent, limit or alter this association. One aim of the research work has been to test whether pigeons flying over unfamiliar areas also rely or can learn to rely on non-olfactory cues, depending on their local availability, and/or on the methods of rearing and training applied to them. Various evaluations have been made of the results; the most recent experiments, however, confirm that pigeons do derive directional information from atmospheric odours. A neurobiological approach is also in progress; its results show that some telencephalic areas are involved in orientation and olfactory navigation. The lack of any knowledge about the distribution and chemical nature of the odorants which allow pigeons to navigate hinders progress in this area of research.

  11. Habitat size and bird community management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S.H.; Robbins, C.S.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the results in the literature that show the effect of area of forest on nesting migratory bird species, and to present the results of additional field work that we have conducted in forest habitats in western Maryland. These results indicate the area sensitivity of many long distance migrants. Because 80 to 95 percent of the breeding birds in the northeastern deciduous forest are neotropical migrants, the changes in bird species composition as a result of forest fragmentation can be immense. Management strategies based on habitat size are suggested to assist in maintaining communities of nesting migratory birds.

  12. Bird sexing by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Gerald; Bartels, Thomas; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Koch, Edmund

    2010-02-01

    Birds are traditionally classified as male or female based on their anatomy and plumage color as judged by the human eye. Knowledge of a bird's gender is important for the veterinary practitioner, the owner and the breeder. The accurate gender determination is essential for proper pairing of birds, and knowing the gender of a bird will allow the veterinarian to rule in or out gender-specific diseases. Several biochemical methods of gender determination have been developed for avian species where otherwise the gender of the birds cannot be determined by their physical appearances or characteristics. In this contribution, we demonstrate that FT-IR spectroscopy is a suitable tool for a quick and objective determination of the bird's gender. The method is based on differences in chromosome size. Male birds have two Z chromosomes and female birds have a W-chromosome and a Z-chromosome. Each Z-chromosome has approx. 75.000.000 bps whereas the W-chromosome has approx. 260.00 bps. This difference can be detected by FT-IR spectroscopy. Spectra were recorded from germ cells obtained from the feather pulp of chicks as well as from the germinal disk of fertilized but non-bred eggs. Significant changes between cells of male and female birds occur in the region of phosphate vibrations around 1080 and 1120 cm-1.

  13. Important bird areas: South Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Andrew; Croxall, John P.; Poncet, Sally; Anthony R Martin; Burton, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The mountainous island of South Georgia, situated in the cold but productive waters of the Southern Ocean, is one of the world’s most important seabird islands. It is estimated that over 100 million individual seabirds are based there, and that there may have been an order of magnitude more before the introduction of rats. South Georgia has 29 species of breeding bird, and is the world’s most important breeding site for six species (Macaroni Penguin Eudyptes chrysolophus, Grey-headed Albatros...

  14. Fuglene. Audubon: Birds of America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlichtkrull, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    the Royal Library and the University Library, joined the library cooperation of the 1800’s on an equal standing with the other two libraries. The Classen’s Library and the library’s founder, industrialist JF Classen are described briefly in this article. Due to two library mergers the Birds of America...... is now owned by the Royal Library. The acquisition of the Danish set by the Classen’s Library is examined by analyzing previously unpublished letters and is described for the first time, although not comprehensively, in this article. The provenance of this work, as described by Waldemar Fries in 1973...

  15. Book review: Birds of Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, N.B.

    2011-01-01

    "Wyoming may very well be one of the least birded states in the U.S." So begins this book, underscoring the challenges in summarizing existing knowledge for a state that falls next to last in human population density. Despite the relative dearth of "binoculars on the ground," especially in more remote areas of the state, the book offers a thorough compilation of relevant details. Much of this information is not readily accessible from other sources, and this book dispenses essential information in a very usable format. 

  16. Boreal forest soil nitrous oxide production and consumption responds positively to temperature and a warmer climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckeridge, K. M.; Edwards, K.; Ziegler, S. E.; Billings, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    The greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) is both produced and consumed in soils. In strict denitrification, nitrogen (N)-oxides are reduced stepwise by microbial enzymes until dinitrogen (N2) is produced. N2O may be lost and/or consumed during this process, by microbes that may or may not possess the enzyme required for the final step of the reduction chain. In cold, N-limited, boreal forest soils consumption may dominate, resulting in low net N2O flux to the atmosphere, though the ubiquity of this pattern and the temperature response of these processes are unclear. To accurately predict the temperature response of net soil efflux of N2O in the boreal biome, we must understand fundamental, temperature responses of the boreal soil denitrifier community. Using boreal forest organic and mineral soils collected from three climate regions along the Newfoundland and Labrador Boreal Ecosystem Latitudinal Transect, Canada, we measured soil N2O fluxes during ~60 h lab incubations, in which conditions for denitrification were optimized. Organic soils from the warmer climate and incubated at the warmest temperature produced the most N2O. These soils also experienced net consumption of N2O earlier in the incubation than other soils. All mineral soils, regardless of location along the climate gradient, exhibited net N2O consumption earliest in the incubation at the warmest incubation temperature. Ongoing analyses of headspace N2O and N2 d15N and relative abundances of denitrifying communities during the incubation will reveal mechanisms driving changes in [N2O] over time, but these data suggest warmer temperatures in these boreal soils promote enhanced rates of both N2O production and consumption, with 'hot moments' of net N2O efflux during which production far exceeds consumption. If these results are applicable in situ, a warming climate may result in greater net N2O flux from boreal forest soils such as these.

  17. Epidemiological evidence that garden birds are a source of human salmonellosis in England and Wales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becki Lawson

    Full Text Available The importance of wild bird populations as a reservoir of zoonotic pathogens is well established. Salmonellosis is a frequently diagnosed infectious cause of mortality of garden birds in England and Wales, predominantly caused by Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium definitive phage types 40, 56(v and 160. In Britain, these phage types are considered highly host-adapted with a high degree of genetic similarity amongst isolates, and in some instances are clonal. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis, however, demonstrated minimal variation amongst matched DT40 and DT56(v isolates derived from passerine and human incidents of salmonellosis across England in 2000-2007. Also, during the period 1993-2012, similar temporal and spatial trends of infection with these S. Typhimurium phage types occurred in both the British garden bird and human populations; 1.6% of all S. Typhimurium (0.2% of all Salmonella isolates from humans in England and Wales over the period 2000-2010. These findings support the hypothesis that garden birds act as the primary reservoir of infection for these zoonotic bacteria. Most passerine salmonellosis outbreaks identified occurred at and around feeding stations, which are likely sites of public exposure to sick or dead garden birds and their faeces. We, therefore, advise the public to practise routine personal hygiene measures when feeding wild birds and especially when handling sick wild birds.

  18. The origin and early evolution of birds: discoveries, disputes, and perspectives from fossil evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhonghe

    2004-10-01

    The study of the origin and early evolution of birds has never produced as much excitement and public attention as in the past decade. Well preserved and abundant new fossils of birds and dinosaurs have provided unprecedented new evidence on the dinosaurian origin of birds, the arboreal origin of avian flight, and the origin of feathers prior to flapping flight. The Mesozoic avian assemblage mainly comprises two major lineages: the prevalent extinct group Enantiornithes, and the Ornithurae, which gave rise to all modern birds, as well as several more basal taxa. Cretaceous birds radiated into various paleoecological niches that included fish- and seed-eating. Significant size and morphological differences and variation in flight capabilities, ranging from gliding to powerful flight among early birds, highlight the diversification of birds in the Early Cretaceous. There is little evidence, however, to support a Mesozoic origin of modern avian groups. Controversy and debate, nevertheless, surround many of these findings, and more details are needed to give a better appreciation of the significance of these new discoveries.

  19. Newcastle Disease and Avian Influenza A Virus in Migratory Birds in Wetland of Boushehr-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Mehrabanpour

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Wild birds are considered to be the natural reservoir of Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV and Avian Influenza virus (AI and are often suspected to be involved in outbreaks in domesticated birds. The objective of the present study was to determine ND and AI infection in migratory birds in the south of Iran in order to detect the possible source of these viruses to domestic poultry. A total of 443 fecal specimens (fresh dropping and cloacal swabs were collected from migratory and wild resident birds in the Bushehr wetlands from October 2009 to June 2010. AI virus was isolated from 3 out of 443 samples processed for virus isolation and confirmed by reverse transcriptase chain reaction (RT-PCR. NDVs were isolated from 22 (fresh fecal samples and were identified as avian paramyxomyxovirus-1 by the results obtained from the HI test with NDV-specific antibodies and RT-PCR-method. Mortality related to NDV was reported in some chicken flocks in the south of Iran. These results, as well as other data from the literature indicate that wild birds play a minor role as a potential disseminator of NDVs and AIVS. This study is the first report of NDV and AIV isolation from migratory and resident birds in the wetlands of Boushehr-Iran. In addition, our findings support the notion that wild aquatic and migratory birds may function as a reservoir for AIV and NDV in the south of Iran.

  20. Bird community comparisons of four plantations and conservation concerns in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Fasheng; Yang, Qiongfang; Lin, Yongbiao; Xu, Guoliang; Greenberg, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Plantations of non-native, fast-growing trees are increasing in the tropics and subtropics, perhaps with negative consequences for the native avifauna. We studied bird diversity in 4 types of plantations in South China to determine which plantation types are especially detrimental, and compared our findings with studies in nearby natural forests to assess the magnitude of the negative impact. A total of 57 species was recorded. The mean capture rate of understory birds was 1.7 individuals 100-net-h(-1). Bird richness and capture rate were lower in plantations than in nearby natural forests. Babblers (Timaliidae), primarily forest-dependent species in South China, were particularly under-represented in plantations. Species richness, composition and bird density, particularly of understory birds, differed between plantation types. Plantations of Schima, which is native to South China, had the highest species richness according to point count data. Plantations of Acacia (non-native) supported the highest understory species richness and produced the highest capture rate of understory birds, probably because of their complex structure and high arthropod abundance. If bird diversity is to be considered, we strongly recommend that future re-afforestation projects in South China should, as far as possible, use mixed native tree species, and especially Schima, ahead of the other species. PMID:24447665

  1. Relative roles of grey squirrels, supplementary feeding, and habitat in shaping urban bird assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Bonnington

    Full Text Available Non-native species are frequently considered to influence urban assemblages. The grey squirrel Sciurus carolinensis is one such species that is widespread in the UK and is starting to spread across Europe; it predates birds' nests and can compete with birds for supplementary food. Using distance sampling across the urbanisation intensity gradient in Sheffield (UK we test whether urban grey squirrels influence avian species richness and density through nest predation and competition for supplementary food sources. We also assess how urban bird assemblages respond to supplementary feeding. We find that grey squirrels slightly reduced the abundance of breeding bird species most sensitive to squirrel nest predation by reducing the beneficial impact of woodland cover. There was no evidence that grey squirrel presence altered relationships between supplementary feeding and avian assemblage structure. This may be because, somewhat surprisingly, supplementary feeding was not associated with the richness or density of wintering bird assemblages. These associations were positive during the summer, supporting advocacy to feed birds during the breeding season and not just winter, but explanatory capacity was limited. The amount of green space and its quality, assessed as canopy cover, had a stronger influence on avian species richness and population size than the presence of grey squirrels and supplementary feeding stations. Urban bird populations are thus more likely to benefit from investment in improving the availability of high quality habitats than controlling squirrel populations or increased investment in supplementary feeding.

  2. Factors affecting bird richness in a fragmented cork oak forest in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkaoui, Imad; Selmi, Slaheddine; Boukhriss, Jihen; Hamid, Rguibi-Idrissi; Mohammed, Dakki

    2009-03-01

    The cork oak forest of Ma'amora in north-western Morocco was the largest cork oak forest in the world until the beginning of the 20th century. Due to growing land use for agriculture and urbanization, however, this forest has become fragmented into relatively small and isolated patches. The effects of this fragmentation on the diversity of wild animal communities have never been investigated despite the importance of such investigations in elaborating long-term conservation plans of the biodiversity of this forest system. In this study of a sample of 44 forest patches we assessed the relationships between species numbers of wintering, breeding and spring migrant birds and patch size, shape, isolation and vegetation structure. We found that species richnesses of the three studied bird assemblages were strongly related to local vegetation structure, namely to the diversity and abundance of trees and bushes. Patches with higher diversity and cover of trees and bushes support higher numbers of bird species. However, patch size, shape and isolation were not significant predictors of bird richness. These results suggest that bird communities in the studied forest patches were more likely shaped by local habitat suitability rather than the amount of habitat or patch isolation. The results also demonstrate negative effects of current human pressures, namely logging, grazing and disturbance, on the diversity of bird communities in this forest system. This emphasizes the need for urgent management efforts aiming at reducing the negative impacts of forest use by humans on bird diversity in this forest system.

  3. Bird-marking in the Netherlands. III. Recovery of marked Birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van E.D.

    1913-01-01

    In the following lines I have enumerated the recoveries of our marked birds, of which notice was given to me since my last paper on bird-marking in vol. XXXIV of this periodical. I have to tender my best thanks to all cooperators, to them who helped us in ringing birds, and especially to them in for

  4. Avian Assemblages at Bird Baths: A Comparison of Urban and Rural Bird Baths in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Gráinne P; Parsons, Holly; Davis, Adrian; Coleman, Bill R; Jones, Darryl N; Miller, Kelly K; Weston, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Private gardens provide habitat and resources for many birds living in human-dominated landscapes. While wild bird feeding is recognised as one of the most popular forms of human-wildlife interaction, almost nothing is known about the use of bird baths. This citizen science initiative explores avian assemblages at bird baths in private gardens in south-eastern Australia and how this differs with respect to levels of urbanisation and bioregion. Overall, 992 citizen scientists collected data over two, four-week survey periods during winter 2014 and summer 2015 (43% participated in both years). Avian assemblages at urban and rural bird baths differed between bioregions with aggressive nectar-eating species influenced the avian assemblages visiting urban bird baths in South Eastern Queensland, NSW North Coast and Sydney Basin while introduced birds contributed to differences in South Western Slopes, Southern Volcanic Plains and Victorian Midlands. Small honeyeaters and other small native birds occurred less often at urban bird baths compared to rural bird baths. Our results suggest that differences between urban versus rural areas, as well as bioregion, significantly influence the composition of avian assemblages visiting bird baths in private gardens. We also demonstrate that citizen science monitoring of fixed survey sites such as bird baths is a useful tool in understanding large-scale patterns in avian assemblages which requires a vast amount of data to be collected across broad areas. PMID:26962857

  5. 75 FR 3888 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... Register on November 20, 2009 (74 FR 60228), to propose migratory bird subsistence harvest regulations in... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 92 RIN 1018-AW67 Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska During the 2010 Season AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife...

  6. Avian Assemblages at Bird Baths: A Comparison of Urban and Rural Bird Baths in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Gráinne P; Parsons, Holly; Davis, Adrian; Coleman, Bill R; Jones, Darryl N; Miller, Kelly K; Weston, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Private gardens provide habitat and resources for many birds living in human-dominated landscapes. While wild bird feeding is recognised as one of the most popular forms of human-wildlife interaction, almost nothing is known about the use of bird baths. This citizen science initiative explores avian assemblages at bird baths in private gardens in south-eastern Australia and how this differs with respect to levels of urbanisation and bioregion. Overall, 992 citizen scientists collected data over two, four-week survey periods during winter 2014 and summer 2015 (43% participated in both years). Avian assemblages at urban and rural bird baths differed between bioregions with aggressive nectar-eating species influenced the avian assemblages visiting urban bird baths in South Eastern Queensland, NSW North Coast and Sydney Basin while introduced birds contributed to differences in South Western Slopes, Southern Volcanic Plains and Victorian Midlands. Small honeyeaters and other small native birds occurred less often at urban bird baths compared to rural bird baths. Our results suggest that differences between urban versus rural areas, as well as bioregion, significantly influence the composition of avian assemblages visiting bird baths in private gardens. We also demonstrate that citizen science monitoring of fixed survey sites such as bird baths is a useful tool in understanding large-scale patterns in avian assemblages which requires a vast amount of data to be collected across broad areas.

  7. 78 FR 67183 - Proposed Information Collection; Migratory Bird Harvest Information Program and Migratory Bird...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Proposed Information Collection; Migratory Bird Harvest Information Program and Migratory Bird Surveys AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice; request for... Bird Treaty Act (16 U.S.C. 703-711) and the Fish and Wildlife Act of 1956 (16 U.S.C. 742d)...

  8. Comparative study of bird communities in green areas of the Porto Alegre metropolitan region, South of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Fischer Barcellos dos Santos

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Our goal was to compare the bird richness and composition among different urban green areas in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre. Data on the composition of species in 14 green areas were collected from the literature. Similarity analysis (Jaccard’s was used to compare the areas in relation to bird composition. We used multiple regression analysis in addition to the stepwise method in order to establish whether bird richness in the urban green areas was influenced by the following factors: dimension, variety of habitats, area and distance of the nearest neighbor. Our data compilation registered 224 bird species in the consulted areas. Jaccard’s analysis showed that larger green areas are more similar in their composition of bird species than smaller ones. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated positive correlations between bird richness and the analyzed factors (except for distance between areas. We concluded that, despite the importance of small green areas to certain bird species, larger ones with higher habitat heterogeneity are able to support significant bird richness, and that these areas are important to the maintenance of many bird species in urban areas.

  9. THE BIODIVERSITY AT SANDI BIRD SANCTUARY, HARDOI WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO MIGRATORY BIRDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Indian subcontinent plays host to a number of migratory birds in summers as well as winters. It is estimated that over hundred species of migratory birds fly to India, either in search of feeding grounds or to escape the severe winter of their native habitat. Sandi bird sanctuary was created in 1990 in order to protect and conserve the natural habitation and surroundings and also the marine vegetation for the migratory birds, as well as for the local people of the region. The term migration is used to describe movements of populations of birds or other animals. There are three types of migrants. One way to look at migration is to consider the distances traveled. The pattern of migration can vary within each category, but is most variable in short and medium distance migrants. The origin of migration is related to the distance traveled. The birds migrating through the area, take shelter on the river front before going to the Sandi Bird sanctuary. The birds generally migrate in the winter months of October-November-December. Bird sanctuary is a popular tourist location. Sandi particularly attracts ornithologists and bird watchers, as many rare migratory birds take refuge in the sanctuary. The bird watching camps arranged to observe the migratory birds at Sandi Bird Sanctuary in the month of October and November 2012. The migratory birds at Sandi Bird Sanctuary include great crested grebe, white storks, black lbis, glossy lbis, spoonbill, ruddy shelduck, pin tail, sholveller, spot bill duck, mallard, gadwall, wigeon, tufted pochard, gargancey teal, common teal, cotton teal, grey lag goose, coot, black tailed godwit, painted stock pin tail snipe, marsh sand piper, common tern, river tern, magpie robin, white wagtail, pied wagtail, common snipe, starlings, white lbis, red crested pochard, common pochard, painted stock, black lbis, curlew, Indian skimmer etc. The resident birds at Sandi Bird Sanctuary include little grebe, darter, purple heron, grey

  10. Annual variations of atmospheric VOC concentrations in a boreal forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakola, H.; Hellen, H.; Tarvainen, V. (Finnish Meteorological Institute Air Quality Research, Helsinki (Finland)); Baeck, J. (Dept. of Forest Ecology, Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)); Patokoski, J.; Rinne, J. (Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Helsinki (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    Ambient atmospheric concentrations of monoterpene compounds were measured above a boreal forest in Hyytiaelae, Finland during 2000-2007. For most of the time, two samples per week were collected, although there are some gaps in the data due to analytical or other issues. The monoterpene concentrations reached their maximum in summer, although they were found to be quite high also during winter. The main compounds found during winter were alpha-pinene, DELTA3-carene, beta-pinene and camphene. In summer 1,8-cineol and sabinene were also present in the samples. The concentrations of alpha-pinene, beta-pinene/myrcene, camphene, DELTA3-carene increased during the measurement period both in winter and in summer. This increase cannot be explained by meteorological conditions. The possible explanations could be human activities in the vicinity of the sampling site in addition to forest growth. The seasonal cycles of daytime concentrations were found to follow emission fluxes modeled using a simple temperature dependent parameterisation. The measured monoterpene concentrations were used, together with emission rate measurements, for estimating ambient atmospheric beta-caryophyllene concentration which cannot be directly measured due to its high reactivity against ozone. (orig.)

  11. Effects of ionizing radiation on the boreal forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Field-Irradiator-Gamma (FIG) project chronically exposed a section of the boreal forest to ionizing radiation by placing a 137Cs source on tope of a 20-m tower at a forest site in southeastern Manitoba. The irradiation continued from 1973 to 1986 and the forest was exposed to radiological dose rates ranging from 65 mGy.h-1 to 0.005 mGy.h-1 along a gradient extending 500 m from the source. The irradiation killed the tree canopy close to the irradiator, resulting in the formation of a herbaceous zone of vegetation at high dose rates. After 14 years of irradiation, some tree species were still being affected at dose rates as low as about 1 mGy.h-1. The data gathered at the FIG site can be used to identify radiological dose rates that forest communities can tolerate. This information allows decisions to be made concerning guidelines for protection of the general environment from radionuclide emissions from various anthropogenic sources, such as nuclear reactors and uranium tailings. This report reviews the previous data collected at the FIG site during the pre-irradiation and irradiation phases and the methodology used to establish a baseline for future comparisons. Permanently marked sampling plots are a particular strength to the study, whereby researchers can compare the present forest community with that measured during the past 25 years. (author). 53 refs., 6 tabs., 22 figs

  12. Aged anthropogenic iodine in a boreal peat bog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maillant, S. [Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, UMR 1120 INPL-INRA, 54500 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Andra, Direction Scientifique, Service Transferts, 1-7 rue Jean Monnet, 92298 Chatenay-Malabry Cedex (France); Sheppard, M.I. [ECOMatters, P.O. Box 430, Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada); Echevarria, G. [Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, UMR 1120 INPL-INRA, 54500 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)]. E-mail: Guillaume.Echevarria@ensaia.inpl-nancy.fr; Denys, S. [Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, UMR 1120 INPL-INRA, 54500 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Andra, Direction Scientifique, Service Transferts, 1-7 rue Jean Monnet, 92298 Chatenay-Malabry Cedex (France); Villemin, G. [Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, UMR 1120 INPL-INRA, 54500 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Tekely, P. [Laboratoire de Methodologie RMN, FRE CNRS 2415, Universite Henri Poincare, Nancy 1, Faculte des Sciences, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Leclerc-Cessac, E. [Andra, Direction Scientifique, Service Transferts, 1-7 rue Jean Monnet, 92298 Chatenay-Malabry Cedex (France); Morel, J.L. [Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, UMR 1120 INPL-INRA, 54500 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2007-05-15

    This in situ study assesses the long term sorption of I in a natural peat bog, a matter that is scarcely addressed but required for safety studies such as for radioactive waste disposal. Fifteen years after the artificial contamination of a boreal peat bog, the groundwater (piezometers), the peat and the vegetation were resampled to determine I distribution with comparison to the initial situation (1989). Spectroscopic analyses (SS-NMR, electronic microscopy and EDX spectroscopy) were carried out on the peat solids to identify the sorption processes. Over the past 15 a the I has been spreading mostly outwards and possibly upwards in the groundwater. Sorption of I is higher at the surface of the bog (K {sub d} = 37.6 L kg{sup -1}) than at the bottom (K {sub d} = 5.1 L kg{sup -1}), and this is attributed to the oxic/anoxic conditions of the peat layers. The average surface K {sub d} values showed more than a 2-fold increase after 15 a. TEM-EDX analyses of the surface peat showed here for the first time that I was only associated with natural polyphenolic substances contained in humified plant tissues. Plants growing in the bog have not taken up much I with the exception of sedge species ([I]{sub sedgeleaves} is up to 283 mg kg{sup -1})

  13. Aged anthropogenic iodine in a boreal peat bog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This in situ study assesses the long term sorption of I in a natural peat bog, a matter that is scarcely addressed but required for safety studies such as for radioactive waste disposal. Fifteen years after the artificial contamination of a boreal peat bog, the groundwater (piezometers), the peat and the vegetation were resampled to determine I distribution with comparison to the initial situation (1989). Spectroscopic analyses (SS-NMR, electronic microscopy and EDX spectroscopy) were carried out on the peat solids to identify the sorption processes. Over the past 15 a the I has been spreading mostly outwards and possibly upwards in the groundwater. Sorption of I is higher at the surface of the bog (K d = 37.6 L kg-1) than at the bottom (K d = 5.1 L kg-1), and this is attributed to the oxic/anoxic conditions of the peat layers. The average surface K d values showed more than a 2-fold increase after 15 a. TEM-EDX analyses of the surface peat showed here for the first time that I was only associated with natural polyphenolic substances contained in humified plant tissues. Plants growing in the bog have not taken up much I with the exception of sedge species ([I]sedgeleaves is up to 283 mg kg-1)

  14. Uptake, turnover and transport of radiocaesium in boreal forest ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was mainly addressed to aspects on the redistribution of the Chernobyl fallout within and output from a coniferous forest ecosystem. The only detected pathway for Cs to exit the ecosystem was via discharge from mires. About 40% of the deposition on mires discharged via stream water during the snow-melt 1986. The residual fraction discharged at an annual rate of 30% from water saturated fractions and about 2% from drier fractions of the studied mire. No loss of Cs from ridges and moraine slopes to ground water was detected. The main transfer from the canopy to the forest floor occurred during the first year. The estimated transfer from throughfall and litterfall during May 1986 to May 1996 was 50% of the estimated total deposition in the ecosystem. The contribution from herbivory was estimated to 1% of the deposition. In 1987 the fraction of Cs that was retained in the above ground parts of a Scots pine stand was only 4%. The Cs intercepted in mosses and lichens were slowly transferred to the litter and humus layers. Cs in vegetation with green parts above ground during the fallout decreased rapidly during the first vegetation season The ranking in Cs of the studied plants was fireweed 137Cs. Moose meat, berries and mushrooms produced in the boreal region will give rise to a small but significant internally absorbed dose to man during several years. 57 refs, 9 figs, 5 tabs

  15. Treefall inputs to boreal soils and implications for C dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manies, K.; Harden, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    Stand replacing fires are the dominant disturbance of black spruce-dominated boreal forests. A previous study (Manies et al. 2005) determined that fire-killed wood is the source of between 10% and 60% of the carbon (C) found in the deeper, more recalcitrant soil layers of these ecosystems, although these inputs vary spatially and temporally. In that study, we assumed that the turnover time for standing dead to be converted to woody debris was approximately nine years. Over the last decade, however, woody debris inventories within two Alaskan study sites, both of which burned in 1999, indicate a longer turnover time than previously estimated. We have used these new constraints on course woody debris inputs to update the original model and calculated the impact slower fall rates could have on C storage within the deep soil C pool. These new values increase the amount of wood-derived C by up to 20%, which in turn increases deep C storage. Understanding the source of soil C is important for modeling efforts, especially those that need to partition different sources of C to determine rates of C cycling. These results also have implications for land managers who are beginning to consider C storage as a part of their management strategies.

  16. Sorption of radioiodide in an acidic, nutrient-poor boreal bog: insights into the microbial impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusa, M; Bomberg, M; Aromaa, H; Knuutinen, J; Lehto, J

    2015-05-01

    Batch sorption experiments were conducted to evaluate the sorption behaviour of iodide and the microbial impact on iodide sorption in the surface moss, subsurface peat, gyttja, and clay layers of a nutrient-poor boreal bog. The batch distribution coefficient (Kd) values of iodide decreased as a function of sampling depth. The highest Kd values, 4800 L/Kg dry weight (DW) (geometric mean), were observed in the fresh surface moss and the lowest in the bottom clay (geometric mean 90 mL/g DW). In the surface moss, peat and gyttja layers, which have a high organic matter content (on average 97%), maximum sorption was observed at a pH between ∼ 4 and 5 and in the clay layer at pH 2. The Kd values were significantly lower in sterilized samples, being 20-fold lower than the values found for the unsterilized samples. In addition, the recolonization of sterilized samples with a microbial population from the fresh samples restored the sorption capacity of surface moss, peat and gyttja samples, indicating that the decrease in the sorption was due to the destruction of microbes and supporting the hypothesis that microbes are necessary for the incorporation of iodide into the organic matter. Anoxic conditions reduced the sorption of iodide in fresh, untreated samples, similarly to the effect of sterilization, which supports the hypothesis that iodide is oxidized into I2/HIO before incorporation into the organic matter. Furthermore, the Kd values positively correlated with peroxidase activity in surface moss, subsurface peat and gyttja layers at +20 °C, and with the bacterial cell counts obtained from plate count agar at +4 °C. Our results demonstrate the importance of viable microbes for the sorption of iodide in the bog environment, having a high organic matter content and a low pH. PMID:25752706

  17. Age of vegetation simulated by Boreal ALFRESCO for the state of Alaska. Dataset generated in 2010. NAD83, Alaska Albers projection, http://spatialreference.org/ref/epsg/3338/

    Data.gov (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — These rasters represent output from the Boreal ALFRESCO (Alaska Frame Based Ecosystem Code) model. Boreal ALFRESCO operates on an annual time step, in a landscape...

  18. Main dynamics and drivers of boreal forests fire regimes during the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, Chiara; Lehsten, Veiko; Blarquez, Olivier; Clear, Jennifer; Carcaillet, Christopher; Bradshaw, Richard HW

    2015-04-01

    Forest fire is one of the most critical ecosystem processes in the boreal megabiome, and it is likely that its frequency, size and severity have had a primary role in vegetation dynamics since the Last Ice Age (Kasischke & Stocks 2000). Fire not only organizes the physical and biological attributes of boreal forests, but also affects biogeochemical cycling, particularly the carbon balance (Balshi et al. 2007). Due to their location at climatically sensitive northern latitudes, boreal forests are likely to be significantly affected by global warming with a consequent increase in biomass burning (Soja et al. 2007), a variation in vegetation structure and composition (Johnstone et al. 2004) and a rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration (Bond-Lamberty et al. 2007). Even if the ecological role of wildfire in boreal forest is widely recognized, a clearer understanding of the environmental factors controlling fire dynamics and how variations in fire regimes impact forest ecosystems is essential in order to place modern fire processes in a meaningful context for projecting ecosystem behaviour in a changing environment (Kelly et al. 2013). Because fire return intervals and successional cycles in boreal forests occur over decadal to centennial timescales (Hu et al. 2006), palaeoecological research seems to be one of the most promising tool for elucidating ecosystem changes over a broad range of environmental conditions and temporal scales. Within this context, our first aim is to reconstruct spatial and temporal patterns of boreal forests fire dynamics during the Holocene based on sedimentary charcoal records. As a second step, trends in biomass burning will be statistically analysed in order to disentangle between regional and local drivers. The use of European and north-American sites will give us the unique possibility to perform a large scale analysis on one of the broadest biome in the world and to underline the different patterns of fire in these two

  19. Traditional use of medicinal plants in the boreal forest of Canada: review and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uprety Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The boreal forest of Canada is home to several hundred thousands Aboriginal people who have been using medicinal plants in traditional health care systems for thousands of years. This knowledge, transmitted by oral tradition from generation to generation, has been eroding in recent decades due to rapid cultural change. Until now, published reviews about traditional uses of medicinal plants in boreal Canada have focused either on particular Aboriginal groups or on restricted regions. Here, we present a review of traditional uses of medicinal plants by the Aboriginal people of the entire Canadian boreal forest in order to provide comprehensive documentation, identify research gaps, and suggest perspectives for future research. Methods A review of the literature published in scientific journals, books, theses and reports. Results A total of 546 medicinal plant taxa used by the Aboriginal people of the Canadian boreal forest were reported in the reviewed literature. These plants were used to treat 28 disease and disorder categories, with the highest number of species being used for gastro-intestinal disorders, followed by musculoskeletal disorders. Herbs were the primary source of medicinal plants, followed by shrubs. The medicinal knowledge of Aboriginal peoples of the western Canadian boreal forest has been given considerably less attention by researchers. Canada is lacking comprehensive policy on harvesting, conservation and use of medicinal plants. This could be explained by the illusion of an infinite boreal forest, or by the fact that many boreal medicinal plant species are widely distributed. Conclusion To our knowledge, this review is the most comprehensive to date to reveal the rich traditional medicinal knowledge of Aboriginal peoples of the Canadian boreal forest. Future ethnobotanical research endeavours should focus on documenting the knowledge held by Aboriginal groups that have so far received less attention

  20. Assessment of bird response to the Migratory Bird Habitat Initiative using weather-surveillance radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieges, Mason L.; Smolinsky, Jaclyn A.; Baldwin, Michael J.; Barrow, Wylie C.; Randall, Lori A.; Buler, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    In response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in spring 2010, the Natural Resources Conservation Service implemented the Migratory Bird Habitat Initiative (MBHI) to provide temporary wetland habitat for migrating and wintering waterfowl, shorebirds, and other birds along the northern Gulf of Mexico via managed flooding of agricultural lands. We used weather-surveillance radar to conduct broad regional assessments of bird response to MBHI activities within the Mississippi Alluvial Valley and the West Gulf Coastal Plain. Across both regions, birds responded positively to MBHI management by exhibiting greater relative bird densities within sites relative to pre-management conditions in prior years and relative to surrounding non-flooded agricultural lands. Bird density at MBHI sites was generally greatest during winter for both regions. Unusually high flooding in the years prior to implementation of the MBHI confounded detection of overall changes in remotely sensed soil wetness across sites. The magnitude of bird response at MBHI sites compared to prior years and to non-flooded agricultural lands was generally related to the surrounding landscape context: proximity to areas of high bird density, amount of forested wetlands, emergent marsh, non-flooded agriculture, or permanent open water. However, these relationships varied in strength and direction between regions and seasons, a finding which we attribute to differences in seasonal bird composition and broad regional differences in landscape configuration and composition. We detected greater increases in relative bird use at sites in closer proximity to areas of high bird density during winter in both regions. Additionally, bird density was greater during winter at sites with more emergent marsh in the surrounding landscape. Thus, bird use of managed wetlands could be maximized by enrolling lands located near areas of known bird concentration and within a mosaic of existing wetlands. Weather-radar observations

  1. Archaeopteryx: Bringing the Dino-Bird to Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, Uwe

    2011-01-25

    Some 150 million years ago, a strange creature died in a tropical lagoon that today is located in Bavaria, Germany. In 1861, a single feather of this creature was discovered. Not long afterward, a complete fossil was found with the same bird-like feathers but dinosaur-like anatomical features. Darwin had just published 'On the Origin of Species'; could this be the missing link that Darwin's supporters hoped to find? Recently, two of the now eleven discovered Archaeopteryx fossils, and that first feather, were brought to SLAC, where, using the intense X-ray beam, researchers searched for the chemical remains of the original living creatures. Please join us for this lecture, which will explain how the studies attempt to bring the original dino-bird back to life.

  2. Use of buccal swabs for sampling DNA from nestling and adult birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, Colleen M.; Pajot, Lisa; Talbot, Sandra L.; Sage, George K.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the feasibility and efficiency of using swabs to collect buccal epithelial cells fromsmall (2‐ to 13‐g) birds as a source of DNA for genetic studies. We used commercially available buccal swab kits to collect samples from 42 adult and 39 nestling (4‐ to 8‐day‐old) black‐capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) and from6 4‐day‐old nestling boreal chickadees (P. hudsonica). We compared DNA from buccal epithelial samples to that fromblood samples from the same individuals. We extracted sufficient quantities of DNA for analysis from all buccalsamples, and samples remained viable even after being stored in original plastic sampling tubes at room temperature for up to 18 months. Yields were equivalent whether extracted using the proprietary quick‐extraction solution provided with buccal swab kits or using a salt‐extraction process with inexpensive reagents. Yields of DNA from buccal samples were consistently lower than those from blood samples, but quantities were sufficient for all analyses. Assignment of sex, based on DNA extracted from paired buccal and blood samples, was identical for all 87 birds. We found no difference in the genotypes obtained from buccal and blood samples for 12 individuals tested using 5 microsatellite loci and found perfect concordance in sequencing of an 823‐base‐pair segment within the control region of mitochondrial DNA for 7 individuals tested. Use of buccal swabs is highly recommended as a rapid, noninvasive technique for sampling avian genomic DNA, especially for extremely young altricial nestlings or small‐bodied adults, or for any birds for which blood sampling may be impossible or stressful.

  3. Vertical and seasonal dynamics of fungal communities in boreal Scots pine forest soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santalahti, Minna; Sun, Hui; Jumpponen, Ari; Pennanen, Taina; Heinonsalo, Jussi

    2016-11-01

    Fungal communities are important for carbon (C) transformations in boreal forests that are one of the largest C pools in terrestrial ecosystems, warranting thus further investigation of fungal community dynamics in time and space. We investigated fungal diversity and community composition seasonally and across defined soil horizons in boreal Scots pine forest in Finland using 454 pyrosequencing. We collected a total of 120 samples from five vertical soil horizons monthly from March to October; in March, under snow. Boreal forest soil generally harbored diverse fungal communities across soil horizons. The communities shifted drastically and rapidly over time. In late winter, saprotrophs dominated the community and were replaced by ectomycorrhizal fungi during the growing season. Our studies are among the first to dissect the spatial and temporal dynamics in boreal forest ecosystems and highlights the ecological importance of vertically distinct communities and their rapid seasonal dynamics. As climate change is predicted to result in warmer and longer snow-free winter seasons, as well as increase the rooting depth of trees in boreal forest, the seasonal and vertical distribution of fungal communities may change. These changes are likely to affect the organic matter decomposition by the soil-inhabiting fungi and thus alter organic C pools. PMID:27515733

  4. Wintering birds avoid warm sunshine: predation and the costs of foraging in sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Jennie M; Lima, Steven L

    2014-03-01

    Wintering birds can gain significant thermal benefits by foraging in direct sunlight. However, exposure to bright sunlight might make birds easier to detect by predators and may also cause visual glare that can reduce a bird's ability to monitor the environment. Thus, birds likely experience a trade-off between the thermal benefits and predation-related costs of foraging in direct sunlight. To examine this possible thermoregulation-predation trade-off, we monitored the behavior of mixed-species flocks of wintering emberizid sparrows foraging in alternating strips of sunlight and shade. On average, these sparrows routinely preferred to forage in the shade, despite midday air temperatures as much as 30 °C below their thermoneutral zone. This preference for shade was strongest at relatively high temperatures when the thermal benefits of foraging in sunlight were reduced, suggesting a thermoregulation-predation trade-off. Glare could be reduced if birds faced away from the sun while feeding in direct sunlight, but we found that foraging birds tended to face southward (the direction of the sun). We speculate that other factors, such as the likely direction of predator approach, may explain this southerly orientation, particularly if predators use solar glare to their advantage during an attack. This interpretation is supported by the fact that birds had the weakest southerly orientation on cloudy days. Wintering birds may generally avoid foraging in direct sunlight to minimize their risk of predation. However, given the thermal benefits of sunshine, such birds may benefit from foraging in habitats that provide a mosaic of sunlit and shaded microhabitats.

  5. Transmission of influenza reflects seasonality of wild birds across the annual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Nichola J; Ma, Eric J; Meixell, Brandt W; Lindberg, Mark S; Boyce, Walter M; Runstadler, Jonathan A

    2016-08-01

    Influenza A Viruses (IAV) in nature must overcome shifting transmission barriers caused by the mobility of their primary host, migratory wild birds, that change throughout the annual cycle. Using a phylogenetic network of viral sequences from North American wild birds (2008-2011) we demonstrate a shift from intraspecific to interspecific transmission that along with reassortment, allows IAV to achieve viral flow across successive seasons from summer to winter. Our study supports amplification of IAV during summer breeding seeded by overwintering virus persisting locally and virus introduced from a wide range of latitudes. As birds migrate from breeding sites to lower latitudes, they become involved in transmission networks with greater connectivity to other bird species, with interspecies transmission of reassortant viruses peaking during the winter. We propose that switching transmission dynamics may be a critical strategy for pathogens that infect mobile hosts inhabiting regions with strong seasonality. PMID:27324078

  6. Breeding Bird Survey and bird banding data: Applications to raptor research and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, J.R.; Droege, S.; Bystrak, D.

    1991-01-01

    The Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) and Bird Banding Laboratory (BBL) are sources of information for raptor biologists. The BBS has been conducted each year since 1966 in the United States and Canada; historical bird banding records extend back to the early 20th century. BBS data can be used to document population trends and breeding distributions of many bird species. Banding data are generally collected for specific and local studies of bird populations or behavior. Past use of these data has been limited by their volume and relative inaccessibility. In this paper, we present an overview of BBS and BBL raptor data and their uses, limitations and availability.

  7. Ability of Slovakian Pupils to Identify Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Pavol; Rodak, Rastislav

    2009-01-01

    A pupil's ability to identify common organisms is necessary for acquiring further knowledge of biology. We investigated how pupils were able to identify 25 bird species following their song, growth habits, or both features presented simultaneously. Just about 19% of birds were successfully identified by song, about 39% by growth habit, and 45% of…

  8. Additional records of birds from Formosa (Taiwan)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.

    1977-01-01

    Since the publication of my paper on birds from Formosa (Mees, 1970), a few more collections have been received from the same source. A ban has now been placed on hunting and export of wild birds by the government of the Republic of China — an enlightened and overdue piece of legislation — with the

  9. Accurate Segmentation for Infrared Flying Bird Tracking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Hong; HUANG Ying; LING Haibin; ZOU Qi; YANG Hao

    2016-01-01

    Bird strikes present a huge risk for air ve-hicles, especially since traditional airport bird surveillance is mainly dependent on inefficient human observation. For improving the effectiveness and efficiency of bird monitor-ing, computer vision techniques have been proposed to detect birds, determine bird flying trajectories, and pre-dict aircraft takeoff delays. Flying bird with a huge de-formation causes a great challenge to current tracking al-gorithms. We propose a segmentation based approach to enable tracking can adapt to the varying shape of bird. The approach works by segmenting object at a region of inter-est, where is determined by the object localization method and heuristic edge information. The segmentation is per-formed by Markov random field, which is trained by fore-ground and background mixture Gaussian models. Exper-iments demonstrate that the proposed approach provides the ability to handle large deformations and outperforms the m ost state-of-the-art tracker in the infrared flying bird tracking problem.

  10. Fernbank Forest Birds in the Summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalz, Georgann

    1991-01-01

    Provided is a listing of the common nesting birds and the neotropical migrant birds with nesting records in the approximate 65 acres of Fernbank Forest which is a preserve of mature urban hardwoods and pines within 10 miles of downtown Atlanta and a relic of what was once a large, uninterrupted tract of the Piedmont forest. (JJK)

  11. Two Good Places for Bird Lovers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    In the middle and lower reaches of the YangtzRiver,Poyang Lake and Dongting Lake are the towbiggest freshwater lakes in China and are also two ofthe most famous bird reserves in the country.Themagnificent scene of the large number of migrantbirds that fly over every winter is attracting more andmore bird lovers.

  12. 14 CFR 33.76 - Bird ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.76 Bird ingestion. (a... engine shall be limited to aircraft installations in which it is shown that a bird cannot strike...

  13. Pheromones in birds: myth or reality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caro, S.P.; Balthazart, J.

    2010-01-01

    Birds are anosmic or at best microsmatic… This misbelief persisted until very recently and has strongly influenced the outcome of communication studies in birds, with olfaction remaining neglected as compared to acoustic and visual channels. However, there is now clear empirical evidence showing tha

  14. Current perspectives on the evolution of birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ericson, P.G.P.

    2008-01-01

    The paper summarizes the current understanding of the evolution and diversification of birds. New insights into this field have mainly come from two fundamentally different, but complementary sources of information: the many newly discovered Mesozoic bird fossils and the wealth of genetic analyses o

  15. Bird feeders and their effects on bird-window collisions at residential houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine A. Kummer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Feeding wild birds creates an important link between homeowners and conservation. The effects of bird feeders and year-round feeding on birds have not been well studied, however, particularly in relationship to bird-window collisions. We determined effects of bird feeder presence and placement on bird-window collisions at residential homes. Paired month-long trials in which a feeder was either present or absent for one month and then removed or added for the second month were completed at 55 windows at 43 houses. In each trial, homeowners were asked to search their study window daily for evidence of a bird-window collision. During the study there were 51 collisions when there was no bird feeder and 94 when the feeder was present. The season when each trial was set up was the best individual predictor of bird-window collisions. The largest number of collisions was observed during fall migration and the lowest during the winter months. There were no collisions at 26 of the study windows. High variance was observed in the number of collisions at different houses, indicating that effects of bird feeders are context dependent. Changing the occurrence, timing, and placement of feeders can alter collision rates but is only one of many factors that influence whether a residential house is likely to have a bird window-collision or not.

  16. The influence of sulphate deposition on the seasonal variation of peat pore water methyl Hg in a boreal mire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger Bergman

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the hypothesis that long-term sulphate (SO(4 (2- deposition has made peatlands a larger source of methyl mercury (MeHg to remote boreal lakes. This was done on experimental plots at a boreal, low sedge mire where the effect of long-term addition of SO(4 (2- on peat pore water MeHg concentrations was observed weekly throughout the snow-free portion of 1999. The additions of SO(4 (2- started in 1995. The seasonal mean of the pore water MeHg concentrations on the plots with 17 kg ha(-1 yr(-1 of sulphur (S addition (1.3±0.08 ng L(-1, SE; n = 44 was significantly (p2 ng L(-1 compared to +/-0.5 ng L(-1 in the ambient S deposition plots. The concentrations of pore water MeHg in the S-addition plots were positively correlated (r(2 = 0.21; p = 0.001 to the groundwater level, with the lowest concentrations of MeHg during the period with the lowest groundwater levels. The pore water MeHg concentrations were not correlated to total Hg, DOC concentration or pH. The results from this study indicate that the persistently higher pore water concentrations of MeHg in the S-addition plots are caused by the long-term additions of SO(4 (2- to the mire surface. Since these waters are an important source of runoff, the results support the hypothesis that SO(4 (2- deposition has increased the contribution of peatlands to MeHg in downstream aquatic systems. This would mean that the increased deposition of SO(4 (2- in acid rain has contributed to the modern increase in the MeHg burdens of remote lakes hydrologically connected to peatlands.

  17. Campylobacter spp. and birds of prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipineto, Ludovico; De Luca Bossa, Luigi Maria; Russo, Tamara Pasqualina; Cutino, Eridania Annalisa; Gargiulo, Antonio; Ciccarelli, Francesca; Raia, Pasquale; Menna, Lucia Francesca; Fioretti, Alessandro

    2014-06-01

    A total of 170 birds of prey admitted to two Wildlife Rescue and Rehabilitation Centers of Italy were examined. Birds were divided by diurnal (n = 15) and nocturnal (n = 7) species, sampled by cloacal swabs, and examined for Campylobacter spp. by cultural and molecular methods. Campylobacter spp. were isolated in 43 out of the 170 (25.3%) birds of prey examined. Among these, 43/43 (100%) were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 10/43 (23.3%) were identified as Campylobacter coli recovered from mixed infections. Diurnal birds of prey showed a significantly higher prevalence value (P = 0.0006) for Campylobacter spp. than did nocturnal birds of prey. PMID:25055637

  18. Deciduous trees are a large and overlooked sink for snowmelt water in the boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young-Robertson, Jessica M.; Bolton, W. Robert; Bhatt, Uma S.; Cristóbal, Jordi; Thoman, Richard

    2016-07-01

    The terrestrial water cycle contains large uncertainties that impact our understanding of water budgets and climate dynamics. Water storage is a key uncertainty in the boreal water budget, with tree water storage often ignored. The goal of this study is to quantify tree water content during the snowmelt and growing season periods for Alaskan and western Canadian boreal forests. Deciduous trees reached saturation between snowmelt and leaf-out, taking up 21–25% of the available snowmelt water, while coniferous trees removed resulting in an additional 0.3–3 billion m3 of snowmelt water removed from the soil per year. This study is the first to show that deciduous tree water uptake of snowmelt water represents a large but overlooked aspect of the water balance in boreal watersheds.

  19. Northeastern North America as a potential refugium for boreal forests in a warming climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orangeville, L; Duchesne, L; Houle, D; Kneeshaw, D; Côté, B; Pederson, N

    2016-06-17

    High precipitation in boreal northeastern North America could help forests withstand the expected temperature-driven increase in evaporative demand, but definitive evidence is lacking. Using a network of tree-ring collections from 16,450 stands across 583,000 km(2) of boreal forests in Québec, Canada, we observe a latitudinal shift in the correlation of black spruce growth with temperature and reduced precipitation, from negative south of 49°N to largely positive to the north of that latitude. Our results suggest that the positive effect of a warmer climate on growth rates and growing season length north of 49°N outweighs the potential negative effect of lower water availability. Unlike the central and western portions of the continent's boreal forest, northeastern North America may act as a climatic refugium in a warmer climate.

  20. Fire cycle of the Canada's boreal region and its potential response to global change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Quan-fa; CHEN Wen-jun

    2007-01-01

    Interactions of fire cycle and plant species' reproductive characteristics could determine vegetation distribution pattern of a landscape. In Canada's boreal region, fire cycles before the Little Ice Age (c. 1850s) ranged from 30-130 years and 25-234 years afterwards until the settlement period (c. 1930s) when longer fire cycles occurred in response to climatic change and human interference. Analysis indicated that fire cycles were correlated with growing season (April-October) temperature and precipitation departure from the 1961-1990 normal, varying by regions. Assuming that wildfires will respond to future warming similar to the manner during the past century, an assessment using climatic change scenarios CGCM1, CGCM2 and HadCM2 indicates fire cycles would divert to a range of 80-140 years in the west taiga shield, more than 700 years for the east boreal shield and east taiga shield, and 300-400 years for the boreal plains in 2050.

  1. Contribution of vegetation and water table on isoprene emission from boreal peatland microcosms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiiva, Päivi; Faubert, Patrick; Räty, Sanna;

    2009-01-01

    emission in these naturally wet ecosystems, although water table is predicted to decline due to climate warming. We studied the relative contribution of mosses vs. vascular plants to isoprene emission in boreal peatland microcosms in growth chambers by removing either vascular vegetation or both vascular......Boreal peatlands are substantial sources of isoprene, a reactive hydrocarbon. However, it is not known how much mosses, vascular plants and peat each contribute to isoprene emission from peatlands. Furthermore, there is no information on the effects of declining water table depth on isoprene...... vegetation and mosses. The microcosms represented wet hollows and dry hummocks of a boreal ombrotrophic bog. A water table drawdown treatment was applied to the hollows with naturally high water table. The mean (±SE) isoprene emission from hummocks with intact vegetation, 30 ± 6 µg m-2 h-1, was decreased...

  2. Functional roles affect diversity-succession relationships for boreal beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloise Gibb

    Full Text Available Species diversity commonly increases with succession and this relationship is an important justification for conserving large areas of old-growth habitats. However, species with different ecological roles respond differently to succession. We examined the relationship between a range of diversity measures and time since disturbance for boreal forest beetles collected over a 285 year forest chronosequence. We compared responses of "functional" groups related to threat status, dependence on dead wood habitats, diet and the type of trap in which they were collected (indicative of the breadth of ecologies of species. We examined fits of commonly used rank-abundance models for each age class and traditional and derived diversity indices. Rank abundance distributions were closest to the Zipf-Mandelbrot distribution, suggesting little role for competition in structuring most assemblages. Diversity measures for most functional groups increased with succession, but differences in slopes were common. Evenness declined with succession; more so for red-listed species than common species. Saproxylic species increased in diversity with succession while non-saproxylic species did not. Slopes for fungivores were steeper than other diet groups, while detritivores were not strongly affected by succession. Species trapped using emergence traps (log specialists responded more weakly to succession than those trapped using flight intercept traps (representing a broader set of ecologies. Species associated with microhabitats that accumulate with succession (fungi and dead wood thus showed the strongest diversity responses to succession. These clear differences between functional group responses to forest succession should be considered in planning landscapes for optimum conservation value, particularly functional resilience.

  3. Simulation of Snow Processes Beneath a Boreal Scots Pine Canopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Weiping; LUO Yong; XIA Kun; LIU Xin

    2008-01-01

    A physically-based multi-layer snow model Snow-Atmosphere-Soil-Transfer scheme (SAST) and a land surface model Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) were employed to investigate how boreal forests influence snow accumulation and ablation under the canopy. Mass balance and energetics of snow beneath a Scots pine canopy in Finland at different stages of the 2003-2004 and 2004-2005 snow seasons are analyzed. For the fairly dense Scots pine forest, drop-off of the canopy-intercepted snow contributes, in some cases, twice as much to the underlying snowpack as the direct throughfall of snow. During early winter snow melting, downward turbulent sensible and condensation heat fluxes play a dominant role together with downward net longwave radiation. In the final stage of snow ablation in middle spring, downward net all-wave radiation dominates the snow melting. Although the downward sensible heat flux is comparable to the net solar radiation during this period, evaporative cooling of the melting snow surface makes the turbulent heat flux weaker than net radiation. Sensitivities of snow processes to leaf area index (LAI) indicate that a denser canopy speeds up early winter snowmelt, but also suppresses melting later in the snow season. Higher LAI increases the interception of snowfall, therefore reduces snow accumulation under the canopy during the snow season; this effect and the enhancement of downward longwave radiation by denser foliage outweighs the increased attenuation of solar radiation, resulting in earlier snow ablation under a denser canopy. The difference in sensitivities to LAI in two snow seasons implies that the impact of canopy density on the underlying snowpack is modulated by interannual variations of climate regimes.

  4. Latent heat exchange in the boreal and arctic biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasurinen, Ville; Alfredsen, Knut; Kolari, Pasi; Mammarella, Ivan; Alekseychik, Pavel; Rinne, Janne; Vesala, Timo; Bernier, Pierre; Boike, Julia; Langer, Moritz; Belelli Marchesini, Luca; van Huissteden, Ko; Dolman, Han; Sachs, Torsten; Ohta, Takeshi; Varlagin, Andrej; Rocha, Adrian; Arain, Altaf; Oechel, Walter; Lund, Magnus; Grelle, Achim; Lindroth, Anders; Black, Andy; Aurela, Mika; Laurila, Tuomas; Lohila, Annalea; Berninger, Frank

    2014-11-01

    In this study latent heat flux (λE) measurements made at 65 boreal and arctic eddy-covariance (EC) sites were analyses by using the Penman-Monteith equation. Sites were stratified into nine different ecosystem types: harvested and burnt forest areas, pine forests, spruce or fir forests, Douglas-fir forests, broadleaf deciduous forests, larch forests, wetlands, tundra and natural grasslands. The Penman-Monteith equation was calibrated with variable surface resistances against half-hourly eddy-covariance data and clear differences between ecosystem types were observed. Based on the modeled behavior of surface and aerodynamic resistances, surface resistance tightly control λE in most mature forests, while it had less importance in ecosystems having shorter vegetation like young or recently harvested forests, grasslands, wetlands and tundra. The parameters of the Penman-Monteith equation were clearly different for winter and summer conditions, indicating that phenological effects on surface resistance are important. We also compared the simulated λE of different ecosystem types under meteorological conditions at one site. Values of λE varied between 15% and 38% of the net radiation in the simulations with mean ecosystem parameters. In general, the simulations suggest that λE is higher from forested ecosystems than from grasslands, wetlands or tundra-type ecosystems. Forests showed usually a tighter stomatal control of λE as indicated by a pronounced sensitivity of surface resistance to atmospheric vapor pressure deficit. Nevertheless, the surface resistance of forests was lower than for open vegetation types including wetlands. Tundra and wetlands had higher surface resistances, which were less sensitive to vapor pressure deficits. The results indicate that the variation in surface resistance within and between different vegetation types might play a significant role in energy exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and atmosphere. These results suggest the need

  5. Water budget of a Quebec North-boreal minerotrophic peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutras, S.; Rousseau, A. N.; St-Hilaire, A.; Carrer, G.; Proulx-McInnis, S.; Clerc, C.; Levrel, G.

    2009-05-01

    A significant percentage of the northern Quebec boreal region consists of minerotrophic peatland. Their impact on large-scale watersheds, used for hydroelectric production, is important, especially in relation to climate change. During the last decades, a subtle increase in the surface of ponds at the expense of terrestrial compartments has been observed. To better understand the impacts of this development, a multidisciplinary study to perform a complete integrated analysis of the water balance was launched in summer 2008 on the Abeille peatland (54° 06'52" N, 72° 30'01"W), a minerotrophic peatland with an open-water surface. While all features of the water balance will be considered (precipitation, evapotranspiration, runoff, storage and error), some will be studied in greater depth. Notably, evapotranspiration and storage changes will be considered, since, they are particularly difficult to measure in peatland ecosystems. Indirect methods for estimating actual evapotranspiration are often used. One method is to use a semi-empirical formula to estimate potential evapotranspiration. The main problem with this method is that a relationship between potential and actual evapotranspiration must be established and this is a highly variable process for peat ecosystems. To establish a relationship appropriate to our study site, different methods of direct measurement of the actual evapotranspiration will be used (lysimeters, turbulence flow, daily fluctuations of storage, etc.) and compared. A dense network of wells has been installed to enable monitoring of changes in storage and subsurface runoff. A high accuracy topographic survey will be executed to assess the total water content of the site. A device for measuring the variation of peat surface elevation will also be established. Preliminary results are showing complex dynamic behaviors of water migration through the site, therefore opening the way to new questions and hypotheses to clarify in the coming years.

  6. Riparian zone controls on base cation concentrations in boreal streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. J. Ledesma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest riparian zones are a major in control of surface water quality. Base cation (BC concentrations, fluxes, and cycling in the riparian zone merit attention because of increasing concern of negative consequences for re-acidification of surface waters from future climate and forest harvesting scenarios. We present a two-year study of BC and silica (Si flow-weighted concentrations from 13 riparian zones and 14 streams in a boreal catchment in northern Sweden. The Riparian Flow-Concentration Integration Model (RIM was used to estimate riparian zone flow-weighted concentrations and tested to predict the stream flow-weighted concentrations. Spatial variation in BC and Si concentrations as well as in flow-weighted concentrations was related to differences in Quaternary deposits, with the largest contribution from lower lying silty sediments and the lowest contribution from wetland areas higher up in the catchment. Temporal stability in the concentrations of most elements, a remarkably stable Mg / Ca ratio in the soil water and a homogeneous mineralogy suggest that the stable patterns found in the riparian zones are a result of distinct mineralogical upslope groundwater signals integrating the chemical signals of biological and chemical weathering. Stream water Mg / Ca ratio indicates that the signal is subsequently maintained in the streams. RIM gave good predictions of Ca, Mg, and Na flow-weighted concentrations in headwater streams. The difficulty in modelling K and Si suggests a stronger biogeochemical influence on these elements. The observed chemical dilution effect with flow in the streams was related to variation in groundwater levels and element concentration profiles in the riparian zones. This study provides a first step toward specific investigations of the vulnerability of riparian zones to changes induced by forest management or climate change, with focus on BC or other compounds.

  7. boreal forest when timber prices and tree growth are stochastic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Timo Pukkala

    2015-01-01

    Background:Decisions on forest management are made under risk and uncertainty because the stand development cannot be predicted exactly and future timber prices are unknown. Deterministic calculations may lead to biased advice on optimal forest management. The study optimized continuous cover management of boreal forest in a situation where tree growth, regeneration, and timber prices include uncertainty. Methods:Both anticipatory and adaptive optimization approaches were used. The adaptive approach optimized the reservation price function instead of fixed cutting years. The future prices of different timber assortments were described by cross-correlated auto-regressive models. The high variation around ingrowth model was simulated using a model that describes the cross-and autocorrelations of the regeneration results of different species and years. Tree growth was predicted with individual tree models, the predictions of which were adjusted on the basis of a climate-induced growth trend, which was stochastic. Residuals of the deterministic diameter growth model were also simulated. They consisted of random tree factors and cross-and autocorrelated temporal terms. Results:Of the analyzed factors, timber price caused most uncertainty in the calculation of the net present value of a certain management schedule. Ingrowth and climate trend were less significant sources of risk and uncertainty than tree growth. Stochastic anticipatory optimization led to more diverse post-cutting stand structures than obtained in deterministic optimization. Cutting interval was shorter when risk and uncertainty were included in the analyses. Conclusions:Adaptive optimization and management led to 6%–14%higher net present values than obtained in management that was based on anticipatory optimization. Increasing risk aversion of the forest landowner led to earlier cuttings in a mature stand. The effect of risk attitude on optimization results was small.

  8. Sources and sinks of carbon in boreal ecosystems of interior Alaska: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A. Douglas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Boreal ecosystems store large quantities of carbon but are increasingly vulnerable to carbon loss due to disturbance and climate warming. The boreal region in Alaska and Canada, largely underlain by discontinuous permafrost, presents a challenging landscape for itemizing carbon sources and sinks in soil and vegetation. The roles of fire, forest succession, and the presence (or absence of permafrost on carbon cycle, vegetation, and hydrologic processes have been the focus of multidisciplinary research in boreal ecosystems for the past 20 years. However, projections of a warming future climate, an increase in fire severity and extent, and the potential degradation of permafrost could lead to major landscape and carbon cycle changes over the next 20 to 50 years. To assist land managers in interior Alaska in adapting and managing for potential changes in the carbon cycle we developed this review paper by incorporating an overview of the climate, ecosystem processes, vegetation, and soil regimes. Our objective is to provide a synthesis of the most current carbon storage estimates and measurements to guide policy and land management decisions on how to best manage carbon sources and sinks. We surveyed estimates of aboveground and belowground carbon stocks for interior Alaska boreal ecosystems and summarized methane and carbon dioxide fluxes. These data have been converted into similar units to facilitate comparison across ecosystem compartments. We identify potential changes in the carbon cycle with climate change and human disturbance. A novel research question is how compounding disturbances affect carbon sources and sinks associated with boreal ecosystem processes. Finally, we provide recommendations to address the challenges facing land managers in efforts to manage carbon cycle processes. The results of this study can be used for carbon cycle management in other locations within the boreal biome which encompasses a broad distribution

  9. Remote sensing of interannual boreal forest NDVI in relation to climatic conditions in interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbyla, David

    2015-12-01

    Climate has warmed substantially in interior Alaska and several remote sensing studies have documented a decadal-scale decline in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) termed a ‘browning trend’. Reduced summer soil moisture due to changing climatic factors such as earlier springs, less snowpack, and summer drought may reduce boreal productivity and NDVI. However, the relative importance of these climatic factors is poorly understood in boreal interior Alaska. In this study, I used the remotely sensed peak summer NDVI as an index of boreal productivity at 250 m pixel size from 2000 to 2014. Maximum summer NDVI was related to last day of spring snow, early spring snow water equivalent (SWE), and a summer moisture index. There was no significant correlation between early spring SWE and peak summer NDVI. There was a significant correlation between the last day of spring snow and peak summer NDVI, but only for a few higher elevation stations. This was likely due to snowmelt occurring later at higher elevations, thus having a greater effect on summer soil moisture relative to lower elevation sites. For most of boreal interior Alaska, summer drought was likely the dominant control on peak summer NDVI and this effect may persist for several years. Peak summer NDVI declined at all 26 stations after the 2004 drought, and the decline persisted for 2 years at all stations. Due to the shallow rooting zone of most boreal plants, even cool and moist sites at lower elevations are likely vulnerable to drought. For example the peak summer NDVI response following the 2004 drought was similar for adjacent cold and warm watershed basins. Thus, if frequent and severe summer droughts continue, moisture stress effects are likely to be widespread and prolonged throughout most of interior boreal Alaska, including relatively cool, moist sites regardless of spring snowpack conditions or spring phenology.

  10. Understanding Long-Term Boreal Soil Carbon Accumulation: Insight from a Dynamic Layered Soil Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, J. J.; Harden, J. W.; Neff, J. C.

    2004-12-01

    Despite repeated fire disturbance, low-lying boreal forests have managed to accumulate large and globally significant stocks of C. Furthermore, boreal soils have historically occupied discontinuous and continuous permafrost zones and currently are experiencing a warming climate. Combined, these factors may result in loss of permafrost and increase in decomposition of the soil C. However, before attempting to assess the potential for future change in boreal soil C, the decadal to millennial mechanisms of soil C cycling and accumulation must be well understood. To that end, we developed a dynamic layered long-term soil C model to specifically address: 1) the influence of the soil thermal regime, 2) substrate recalcitrance through humification, and 3) the role of permafrost on the preservation and accumulation of boreal soil C. We included radiocarbon in our model so that we could compare soil C stocks as well as radiocarbon distribution to observations from a well studied Old Black Spruce (OBS) site in Manitoba, Canada. Using parameters from the literature, our results indicate that the accumulation of boreal soil C is dependent on the interaction between the soil thermal regime and humification. While these factors account for much of the soil C accumulation observed at OBS, the weighted average radiocarbon in the modeled deep soil was too new, suggesting a lack of preservation and accumulation of old soil C. However, upon inclusion of a permafrost layer for several centuries, not only the C accumulation and distribution between shallow and deep soil layers improved, but the weighted average radiocarbon markedly improved with respect to the OBS site. Our results suggest that: 1) in the absence of permafrost, deep soil C turnover time is on the order of 200-300 y rather than the previous estimates of up to and greater than 1000 y and 2) the legacy from recent shifts in boreal climate and permafrost must be considered when evaluating current observations.

  11. Global greenhouse to icehouse and back again: The origin and future of the Boreal Forest biome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, Ralph E.; Cross, Aureal T.

    2009-02-01

    The Boreal Forest biome (Taiga), dominated by evergreen and deciduous coniferous trees (Pinaceae), is circumpolar in its present distribution, covering a significant part of the total land area of the Northern Hemisphere and representing perhaps a third of the total forest area of the planet. Nothing comparable to this extant biome existed during the global "greenhouse" interval of the Late Mesozoic and Paleogene. Latitudinal temperature gradients should have confined boreal taxa to extremely high latitudes, but evergreen taxa do not appear to have been competitive in the lowlands of the high arctic, where the vegetation consisted of a unique circumpolar forest dominated by deciduous conifers and broad-leaved taxa. Probable sources for the pinaceous taxa that now characterize boreal latitudes were the Paleogene evergreen montane coniferous forests of the western North American Cordillera. Taphonomic factors limit the fossil record for such forests, but assemblages such as the Eocene Thunder Mountain (Idaho) and Bull Run (Nevada) floras were dominated by evergreen and deciduous Pinaceae that dominate extant montane, subalpine, and Boreal Forest associations. In response to post-Eocene global cooling, such forests presumably would have migrated to lower elevations, eventually spreading across high-latitude North America, subsequently reaching Eurasia via the Beringian corridor. This high-diversity coniferous forest was differentially winnowed and modified during subsequent migration southward in both the New and Old World. Despite its extensive geographic distribution, the Boreal Forest may be the youngest of the major forest biomes. If global warming ultimately results in a significant redistribution of terrestrial vegetation, the history of the Boreal Forest may well be reversed. Northward migration of the Boreal Forest may be characterized by loss of taxa and extensive community reorganization as individual taxa are pushed to their limits with respect to rates of

  12. Effect of Tree Species and Mycorrhizal Colonization on the Archaeal Population of Boreal Forest Rhizospheres▿

    OpenAIRE

    Bomberg, Malin; Timonen, Sari

    2008-01-01

    Group 1.1c Crenarchaeota are the predominating archaeal group in acidic boreal forest soils. In this study, we show that the detection frequency of 1.1c crenarchaeotal 16S rRNA genes in the rhizospheres of the boreal forest trees increased following colonization by the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus. This effect was very clear in the fine roots of Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, and Betula pendula, the most common forest trees in Finland. The nonmycorrhizal fine roots had a clearly ...

  13. Plants go with the flow : predicting spatial distribution of plant species in the boreal forest

    OpenAIRE

    Zinko, Ursula

    2004-01-01

    The main objectives of this thesis are to study if a topographic wetness index (TWI) could be used as a tool for predicting the spatial distribution of vascular plant species richness in the boreal forest as well as to study congruence in species richness between vascular plants, liverworts, mosses and lichens. A wetness index ln(a/tanβ) based on topography was used to assign a specific TWI-value to every 20 x 20m grid in two 25 km2 boreal forest landscapes (differing in average soil pH) in n...

  14. Testing the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis with bird populations as habitat-specific environmental indicators: evidence from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Van; Martínez-Espiñeira, Roberto

    2008-04-01

    The traditional environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis postulates that environmental degradation follows an inverted U-shaped relationship with gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. We tested the EKC hypothesis with bird populations in 5 different habitats as environmental quality indicators. Because birds are considered environmental goods, for them the EKC hypothesis would instead be associated with a U-shaped relationship between bird populations and GDP per capita. In keeping with the literature, we included other variables in the analysis-namely, human population density and time index variables (the latter variable captured the impact of persistent and exogenous climate and/or policy changes on bird populations over time). Using data from 9 Canadian provinces gathered over 37 years, we used a generalized least-squares regression for each bird habitat type, which accounted for the panel structure of the data, the cross-sectional dependence across provinces in the residuals, heteroskedasticity, and fixed- or random-effect specifications of the models. We found evidence that supports the EKC hypothesis for 3 of the 5 bird population habitat types. In addition, the relationship between human population density and the different bird populations varied, which emphasizes the complex nature of the impact that human populations have on the environment. The relationship between the time-index variable and the different bird populations also varied, which indicates there are other persistent and significant influences on bird populations over time. Overall our EKC results were consistent with those found for threatened bird species, indicating that economic prosperity does indeed act to benefit some bird populations.

  15. Effects of land use on bird populations and pest control services on coffee farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Railsback, Steven F; Johnson, Matthew D

    2014-04-22

    Global increases in both agriculture and biodiversity awareness raise a key question: Should cropland and biodiversity habitat be separated, or integrated in mixed land uses? Ecosystem services by wildlife make this question more complex. For example, birds benefit agriculture by preying on pest insects, but other habitat is needed to maintain the birds. Resulting land use questions include what areas and arrangements of habitat support sufficient birds to control pests, whether this pest control offsets the reduced cropland, and the comparative benefits of "land sharing" (i.e., mixed cropland and habitat) vs. "land sparing" (i.e., separate areas of intensive agriculture and habitat). Such questions are difficult to answer using field studies alone, so we use a simulation model of Jamaican coffee farms, where songbirds suppress the coffee berry borer (CBB). Simulated birds select habitat and prey in five habitat types: intact forest, trees (including forest fragments), shade coffee, sun coffee, and unsuitable habitat. The trees habitat type appears to be especially important, providing efficient foraging and roosting sites near coffee plots. Small areas of trees (but not forest alone) could support a sufficient number of birds to suppress CBB in sun coffee; the degree to which trees are dispersed within coffee had little effect. In simulations without trees, shade coffee supported sufficient birds to offset its lower yield. High areas of both trees and shade coffee reduced pest control because CBB was less often profitable prey. Because of the pest control service provided by birds, land sharing was predicted to be more beneficial than land sparing in this system.

  16. Effects of land use on bird populations and pest control services on coffee farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Railsback, Steven F.; Johnson, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    Global increases in both agriculture and biodiversity awareness raise a key question: Should cropland and biodiversity habitat be separated, or integrated in mixed land uses? Ecosystem services by wildlife make this question more complex. For example, birds benefit agriculture by preying on pest insects, but other habitat is needed to maintain the birds. Resulting land use questions include what areas and arrangements of habitat support sufficient birds to control pests, whether this pest control offsets the reduced cropland, and the comparative benefits of “land sharing” (i.e., mixed cropland and habitat) vs. “land sparing” (i.e., separate areas of intensive agriculture and habitat). Such questions are difficult to answer using field studies alone, so we use a simulation model of Jamaican coffee farms, where songbirds suppress the coffee berry borer (CBB). Simulated birds select habitat and prey in five habitat types: intact forest, trees (including forest fragments), shade coffee, sun coffee, and unsuitable habitat. The trees habitat type appears to be especially important, providing efficient foraging and roosting sites near coffee plots. Small areas of trees (but not forest alone) could support a sufficient number of birds to suppress CBB in sun coffee; the degree to which trees are dispersed within coffee had little effect. In simulations without trees, shade coffee supported sufficient birds to offset its lower yield. High areas of both trees and shade coffee reduced pest control because CBB was less often profitable prey. Because of the pest control service provided by birds, land sharing was predicted to be more beneficial than land sparing in this system. PMID:24711377

  17. Effects of land use on bird populations and pest control services on coffee farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Railsback, Steven F; Johnson, Matthew D

    2014-04-22

    Global increases in both agriculture and biodiversity awareness raise a key question: Should cropland and biodiversity habitat be separated, or integrated in mixed land uses? Ecosystem services by wildlife make this question more complex. For example, birds benefit agriculture by preying on pest insects, but other habitat is needed to maintain the birds. Resulting land use questions include what areas and arrangements of habitat support sufficient birds to control pests, whether this pest control offsets the reduced cropland, and the comparative benefits of "land sharing" (i.e., mixed cropland and habitat) vs. "land sparing" (i.e., separate areas of intensive agriculture and habitat). Such questions are difficult to answer using field studies alone, so we use a simulation model of Jamaican coffee farms, where songbirds suppress the coffee berry borer (CBB). Simulated birds select habitat and prey in five habitat types: intact forest, trees (including forest fragments), shade coffee, sun coffee, and unsuitable habitat. The trees habitat type appears to be especially important, providing efficient foraging and roosting sites near coffee plots. Small areas of trees (but not forest alone) could support a sufficient number of birds to suppress CBB in sun coffee; the degree to which trees are dispersed within coffee had little effect. In simulations without trees, shade coffee supported sufficient birds to offset its lower yield. High areas of both trees and shade coffee reduced pest control because CBB was less often profitable prey. Because of the pest control service provided by birds, land sharing was predicted to be more beneficial than land sparing in this system. PMID:24711377

  18. Revegetation of non-Acid-generating, thickened tailings with boreal trees: a greenhouse study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larchevêque, Marie; Desrochers, Annie; Bussière, Bruno; Cartier, Hélène; David, Jean-Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Tree planting presents clear advantages for mine reclamation that is aimed at achieving rapid reclamation of forested landscapes. A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the capacity of non-acid-generating, thickened tailings to support six boreal tree species during two growing seasons. One treatment was thickened tailings alone fertilized with inorganic N, P, and K fertilizer or chicken () manure. A thin layer of overburden topsoil was used to cover the tailings and was compared with topsoil alone, where normal tree growth was expected. Two amendments were also tested: overburden topsoil and vermicompost from food wastes. The presence of alkaline thickened tailings under the thin layer of acidic topsoil had a positive effect on tree height and root biomass (broadleaved and jack pine [ Lamb.]) by increasing topsoil pH and available Ca concentrations, which decreased Al, Zn, and Mn phytoavailability to trees; however, root contact with the tailings also increased their Cu concentrations. In thickened tailings that were mixed with topsoil, C/N ratios increased along the experiment from 21 to 40, a value where N immobilization by microorganisms occurred, as suggested by low N concentrations in tree tissues. In consequence, tree height growth (broadleaved) and biomass (conifers) were reduced. Amendment with compost raised the electrical conductivity (3.4 dS cm) to thresholds limiting broadleaved survival, while conifers showed a generalized decrease in biomass production. No trace metal contamination of the trees occurred in the mixtures, probably due to the near-neutral pH conferred by the tailings. PMID:23673827

  19. Regional Heat Sources and the Active and Break Phases of Boreal Summer Intraseasonal Variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annamalai, H; Sperber, K R

    2003-12-15

    The boreal summer intraseasonal variability (BSISV) associated with the 30-50 day mode is represented by the co-existence of three components, poleward propagation of convection over the Indian and tropical west Pacific longitudes and eastward propagation along the equator. The hypothesis that the three components influence each other has been investigated using observed OLR, NCEP-NCAR reanalysis, and solutions from an idealized linear model. The null hypothesis is that the three components are mutually independent. Cyclostationary EOF (CsEOF) analysis is applied on filtered OLR to extract the life-cycle of the BSISV. The dominant mode of CsEOF is significantly tied to observed rainfall over the Indian subcontinent. The components of the heating patterns from CsEOF analysis serve as prescribed forcings for the linear model. This allows us to ascertain which heat sources and sinks are instrumental in driving the large-scale monsoon circulation during the BSISV life-cycle. We identify three new findings: (1) the circulation anomalies that develop as a Rossby wave response to suppressed convection over the equatorial Indian Ocean associated with the previous break phase of the BSISV precondition the ocean-atmosphere system in the western Indian Ocean and trigger the next active phase of the BSISV, (2) the development of convection over the tropical west Pacific forces descent anomalies to the west. This, in conjunction with the weakened cross-equatorial flow due to suppressed convective anomalies over the equatorial Indian Ocean reduce the tropospheric moisture over the Arabian Sea, and promote westerly wind anomalies that do not recurve over India. As a result the low-level cyclonic vorticity shifts from India to southeast Asia and break conditions are initiated over India, and (3) the circulation anomalies forced by equatorial Indian Ocean convective anomalies significantly influence the active/break phases over the tropical west Pacific. Our model solutions support

  20. Impact of estuarine pollution on birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blus, L.J.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Kerwin, J.A.; Stendell, R.C.; Ohlendorf, H.M.; Stickel, L.F.

    1977-01-01

    Pollution of estuaries affects bird populations indirectly through changes in habitat and food supply. The multi-factor pollution of Chesapeake Bay has resulted in diminution of submerged aquatic plants and consequent change in food habits of the canvasback duck. Although dredge-spoil operations can improve wildlife habitat, they often result in its demise. Pollution of estuaries also affects birds directly, through chemical toxication, which may result in outright mortality or in reproductive impairment. Lead from industrial sources and roadways enters the estuaries and is accumulated in tissues of birds. Lead pellets deposited in estuaries as a result of hunting are consumed by ducks with sufficient frequency .to result m large annual die-offs from lead poisoning. Fish in certain areas, usually near industrial sources, may contain levels of mercury high enough to be hazardous to birds that consume them. Other heavy metals are present in estuarine birds, but their significance is poorly known. Oil exerts lethal or sublethal effects on birds by oiling their feathers, oiling eggs and young by contaminated parents, and by ingestion of oil-contaminated food. Organochlorine chemicals, of both agricultural and industrial origin, travel through the food chains and reach harmful levels in susceptible species of birds in certain estuarine ecosystems. Both outright mortality and reproductive impairment have occurred.

  1. Overseas seed dispersal by migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Duarte S; Gangoso, Laura; Bouten, Willem; Figuerola, Jordi

    2016-01-13

    Long-distance dispersal (LDD) promotes the colonization of isolated and remote habitats, and thus it has been proposed as a mechanism for explaining the distributions of many species. Birds are key LDD vectors for many sessile organisms such as plants, yet LDD beyond local and regional scales has never been directly observed nor quantified. By sampling birds caught while in migratory flight by GPS-tracked wild falcons, we show that migratory birds transport seeds over hundreds of kilometres and mediate dispersal from mainland to oceanic islands. Up to 1.2% of birds that reached a small island of the Canary Archipelago (Alegranza) during their migration from Europe to Sub-Saharan Africa carried seeds in their guts. The billions of birds making seasonal migrations each year may then transport millions of seeds. None of the plant species transported by the birds occurs in Alegranza and most do not occur on nearby Canary Islands, providing a direct example of the importance of environmental filters in hampering successful colonization by immigrant species. The constant propagule pressure generated by these LDD events might, nevertheless, explain the colonization of some islands. Hence, migratory birds can mediate rapid range expansion or shifts of many plant taxa and determine their distribution.

  2. Sensing Magnetic Directions in Birds: Radical Pair Processes Involving Cryptochrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roswitha Wiltschko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Birds can use the geomagnetic field for compass orientation. Behavioral experiments, mostly with migrating passerines, revealed three characteristics of the avian magnetic compass: (1 it works spontaneously only in a narrow functional window around the intensity of the ambient magnetic field, but can adapt to other intensities, (2 it is an “inclination compass”, not based on the polarity of the magnetic field, but the axial course of the field lines, and (3 it requires short-wavelength light from UV to 565 nm Green. The Radical Pair-Model of magnetoreception can explain these properties by proposing spin-chemical processes in photopigments as underlying mechanism. Applying radio frequency fields, a diagnostic tool for radical pair processes, supports an involvement of a radical pair mechanism in avian magnetoreception: added to the geomagnetic field, they disrupted orientation, presumably by interfering with the receptive processes. Cryptochromes have been suggested as receptor molecules. Cry1a is found in the eyes of birds, where it is located at the membranes of the disks in the outer segments of the UV-cones in chickens and robins. Immuno-histochemical studies show that it is activated by the wavelengths of light that allow magnetic compass orientation in birds.

  3. Sensing magnetic directions in birds: radical pair processes involving cryptochrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltschko, Roswitha; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

    2014-09-01

    Birds can use the geomagnetic field for compass orientation. Behavioral experiments, mostly with migrating passerines, revealed three characteristics of the avian magnetic compass: (1) it works spontaneously only in a narrow functional window around the intensity of the ambient magnetic field, but can adapt to other intensities, (2) it is an "inclination compass", not based on the polarity of the magnetic field, but the axial course of the field lines, and (3) it requires short-wavelength light from UV to 565 nm Green. The Radical Pair-Model of magnetoreception can explain these properties by proposing spin-chemical processes in photopigments as underlying mechanism. Applying radio frequency fields, a diagnostic tool for radical pair processes, supports an involvement of a radical pair mechanism in avian magnetoreception: added to the geomagnetic field, they disrupted orientation, presumably by interfering with the receptive processes. Cryptochromes have been suggested as receptor molecules. Cry1a is found in the eyes of birds, where it is located at the membranes of the disks in the outer segments of the UV-cones in chickens and robins. Immuno-histochemical studies show that it is activated by the wavelengths of light that allow magnetic compass orientation in birds.

  4. Impact of climate change effecting Decline on Migration Birds of Bhadalwadi Lake Indapur Taluka M.S India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.S .Gantaloo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Environmental changes are now a day’s happening regularly day to day increase in temperature ,Scarcity of rainfall ,Drying of lakes have strong implication on Biodiversity . .Global warming has set in motion and is affecting the timing of migration of birds .Birds are reliable indicator of environment change for centuries and their arrival indicate start of winter and departure summer in study area .There are many example of the effect of climate change on birds from all around the world which taken together provide compelling evidence that climate change is already affecting birds in diverse ways. The study was carried out for two years considering the changes occurring in climate parameters like Air Temperature, Rainfall were taken into facts .Keen observation with the help camera photography were taken to study. The effect on migrating Birds which measure international status on wet lands and lakes. Hence in the present study the data on biodiversity ,migratory birds have been collected to understand How climate change supported the dwelling of avian fauna in this area . This paper opens a review on migration of birds on the eve of 14th&15th May of world Bird migratory day.

  5. Evidence for Bird Mafia! Threat Pays

    OpenAIRE

    Gadagkar, Raghavendra; Kolatkar, Milind

    1996-01-01

    Birds are remarkable for their extraordinary efforts at nest building and brood care. Given that so many species of birds spend so much time and effort at these activities, there is plenty of room for some species to take it easy, lay their eggs in the nests of other species and hitch-hike on their hosts. The cuckoo that lays its eggs in the nests of a variety of host species is well known. Indeed, over 80 species, i.e., over 1% of bird species are known to be such obligate inter-specific bro...

  6. Microbiological survey of birds of prey pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipineto, Ludovico; Bossa, Luigi Maria De Luca; Pace, Antonino; Russo, Tamara Pasqualina; Gargiulo, Antonio; Ciccarelli, Francesca; Raia, Pasquale; Caputo, Vincenzo; Fioretti, Alessandro

    2015-08-01

    A microbiological survey of 73 pellets collected from different birds of prey species housed at the Wildlife Rescue and Rehabilitation Center of Napoli (southern Italy) was performed. Pellets were analyzed by culture and biochemical methods as well as by serotyping and polymerase chain reaction. We isolated a wide range of bacteria some of them also pathogens for humans (i.e. Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, Campylobacter coli, Escherichia coli O serogroups). This study highlights the potential role of birds of prey as asymptomatic carriers of pathogenic bacteria which could be disseminated in the environment not only through the birds of prey feces but also through their pellets. PMID:26026881

  7. The First Mesozoic Heterodactyl Bird from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zihui; HOU Lianhai; HASEGAWA Yoshikasu; Jingmai O'CONNOR; Larry D.MARTIN; Luis M.CHIAPPE

    2006-01-01

    Dalingheornis liweii gen. et sp. nov., a new enantiornithine bird was collected from the early Cretaceous Yixian Formation in northeastern China. It is the first record of a highly specialized heterodactyl foot in Mesozoic birds. The Y-shaped furcula with short hypocleidum is different from that of other enantiornithines. The minor metacarpal is robust and longer than the major metacarpal.A long bony tail composed of 20 caudal vertebrae with chevrons resembling those of dromaeosaurids and thus, highlighting again the evolutionary relationship between birds and non-avian theropods.Well-preserved alula feathers and a heterodactyl foot provide strong evidence for the arboreal habit of Dalingheornis.

  8. DNA barcode detects high genetic structure within neotropical bird species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Sendra Tavares

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Towards lower latitudes the number of recognized species is not only higher, but also phylogeographic subdivision within species is more pronounced. Moreover, new genetically isolated populations are often described in recent phylogenies of Neotropical birds suggesting that the number of species in the region is underestimated. Previous COI barcoding of Argentinean bird species showed more complex patterns of regional divergence in the Neotropical than in the North American avifauna. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Here we analyzed 1,431 samples from 561 different species to extend the Neotropical bird barcode survey to lower latitudes, and detected even higher geographic structure within species than reported previously. About 93% (520 of the species were identified correctly from their DNA barcodes. The remaining 41 species were not monophyletic in their COI sequences because they shared barcode sequences with closely related species (N = 21 or contained very divergent clusters suggestive of putative new species embedded within the gene tree (N = 20. Deep intraspecific divergences overlapping with among-species differences were detected in 48 species, often with samples from large geographic areas and several including multiple subspecies. This strong population genetic structure often coincided with breaks between different ecoregions or areas of endemism. CONCLUSIONS: The taxonomic uncertainty associated with the high incidence of non-monophyletic species and discovery of putative species obscures studies of historical patterns of species diversification in the Neotropical region. We showed that COI barcodes are a valuable tool to indicate which taxa would benefit from more extensive taxonomic revisions with multilocus approaches. Moreover, our results support hypotheses that the megadiversity of birds in the region is associated with multiple geographic processes starting well before the Quaternary and extending to more recent

  9. Bird community responses to the edge between suburbs and reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikin, Karen; Barton, Philip S; Knight, Emma; Lindenmayer, David B; Fischer, Joern; Manning, Adrian D

    2014-02-01

    New insights into community-level responses at the urban fringe, and the mechanisms underlying them, are needed. In our study, we investigated the compositional distinctiveness and variability of a breeding bird community at both sides of established edges between suburban residential areas and woodland reserves in Canberra, Australia. Our goals were to determine if: (1) community-level responses were direct (differed with distance from the edge, independent of vegetation) or indirect (differed in response to edge-related changes in vegetation), and (2) if guild-level responses provided the mechanism underpinning community-level responses. We found that suburbs and reserves supported significantly distinct bird communities. The suburban bird community, characterised by urban-adapted native and exotic species, had a weak direct edge response, with decreasing compositional variability with distance from the edge. In comparison, the reserve bird community, characterised by woodland-dependent species, was related to local tree and shrub cover. This was not an indirect response, however, as tree and shrub cover was not related to edge distance. We found that the relative richness of nesting, foraging and body size guilds also displayed similar edge responses, indicating that they underpinned the observed community-level responses. Our study illustrates how community-level responses provide valuable insights into how communities respond to differences in resources between two contrasting habitats. Further, the effects of the suburban matrix penetrate into reserves for greater distances than previously thought. Suburbs and adjacent reserves, however, provided important habitat resources for many native species and the conservation of these areas should not be discounted from continued management strategies. PMID:24114403

  10. Are Agrofuels a conservation threat or opportunity for grassland birds in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Bruce A.; Rice, Robert A.; Ribic, Christine; Babcock, Bruce A.; Landis, Douglas A.; Herkert, James R.; Fletcher, Robert J.; Fontaine, Joseph J; Doran, Patrick J.; Schemske, Douglas W.

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, government-mandated growth in the production of crops dedicated to biofuel (agrofuels) is predicted to increase the demands on existing agricultural lands, potentially threatening the persistence of populations of grassland birds they support. We review recently published literature and datasets to (1) examine the ability of alternative agrofuel crops and their management regimes to provide habitat for grassland birds, (2) determine how crop placement in agricultural landscapes and agrofuel-related land-use change will affect grassland birds, and (3) identify critical research and policy-development needs associated with agrofuel production. We find that native perennial plants proposed as feedstock for agrofuel (switchgrass, Panicum virgatum, and mixed grass—forb prairie) have considerable potential to provide new habitat to a wide range of grassland birds, including rare and threatened species. However, industrialization of agrofuel production that maximizes biomass, homogenizes vegetation structure, and results in the cultivation of small fields within largely forested landscapes is likely to reduce species richness and/or abundance of grassland-dependent birds. Realizing the potential benefits of agrofuel production for grassland birds' conservation will require the development of new policies that encourage agricultural practices specifically targeting the needs of grassland specialists. The broad array of grower-incentive programs in existence may deliver new agrofuel policies effectively but will require coordination at a spatial scale broader than currently practiced, preferably within an adaptive-management framework.

  11. Interspecific competition among Hawaiian forest birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountainspring, S.; Scott, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    The object of this study was to determine whether interspecific competition modified local geographic distribution, after taking into account the effect of habitat structure. The tendencies for 14 passerine birds to have positive or negative associations were examined, using 7861 sample points in seven native forests on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, and Kauai. All birds were at least partly insectivorous and were fairly common in forested areas, although some fed chiefly on nectar or fruit. Species-pairs were classified as primary or secondary potential competitors based on general dietary similarity. To evaluate the association between species and to account for the effect of individual species habitat preferences, partial correlations were computed for each species-pair in a study area from the simple correlations between the species and 26 habitat variables plus two quadratic terms to represent nonlinearity. The partial correlations represented a short-term ('instantaneous') assessment of the strength of competitive interactions, and did not reflect the accumulation of competitive displacement through time. Of 170 partial correlations in the analysis, only 10 indicated significant negative association. The general pattern was of positive association (76 significantly positive partials), which probably resulted from flocking and from attraction of birds to areas of resource superabundance. Two species showed consistent patterns of negative partial correlations over several adjacent study areas, the Japanese White-eye/Iiwi in montane Hawaii, and the Japanese White-eye/Elepaio in windward Hawaii; both patterns could be reasonably attributed to direct competition. Species-pairs were grouped by the native or exotic status of the component species. Native/exotic pairs had a significantly greater proportion of negative partial correlations (37%) than either native/native pairs (8%) or exotic/exotic pairs (0%). This pattern was consistent across the seven study areas and

  12. New developmental evidence clarifies the evolution of wrist bones in the dinosaur-bird transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, João Francisco; Ossa-Fuentes, Luis; Soto-Acuña, Sergio; Smith-Paredes, Daniel; Nuñez-León, Daniel; Salinas-Saavedra, Miguel; Ruiz-Flores, Macarena; Vargas, Alexander O

    2014-09-01

    From early dinosaurs with as many as nine wrist bones, modern birds evolved to develop only four ossifications. Their identity is uncertain, with different labels used in palaeontology and developmental biology. We examined embryos of several species and studied chicken embryos in detail through a new technique allowing whole-mount immunofluorescence of the embryonic cartilaginous skeleton. Beyond previous controversy, we establish that the proximal-anterior ossification develops from a composite radiale+intermedium cartilage, consistent with fusion of radiale and intermedium observed in some theropod dinosaurs. Despite previous claims that the development of the distal-anterior ossification does not support the dinosaur-bird link, we found its embryonic precursor shows two distinct regions of both collagen type II and collagen type IX expression, resembling the composite semilunate bone of bird-like dinosaurs (distal carpal 1+distal carpal 2). The distal-posterior ossification develops from a cartilage referred to as "element x," but its position corresponds to distal carpal 3. The proximal-posterior ossification is perhaps most controversial: It is labelled as the ulnare in palaeontology, but we confirm the embryonic ulnare is lost during development. Re-examination of the fossil evidence reveals the ulnare was actually absent in bird-like dinosaurs. We confirm the proximal-posterior bone is a pisiform in terms of embryonic position and its development as a sesamoid associated to a tendon. However, the pisiform is absent in bird-like dinosaurs, which are known from several articulated specimens. The combined data provide compelling evidence of a remarkable evolutionary reversal: A large, ossified pisiform re-evolved in the lineage leading to birds, after a period in which it was either absent, nonossified, or very small, consistently escaping fossil preservation. The bird wrist provides a modern example of how developmental and paleontological data illuminate

  13. New Developmental Evidence Clarifies the Evolution of Wrist Bones in the Dinosaur–Bird Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, João Francisco; Ossa-Fuentes, Luis; Soto-Acuña, Sergio; Smith-Paredes, Daniel; Nuñez-León, Daniel; Salinas-Saavedra, Miguel; Ruiz-Flores, Macarena; Vargas, Alexander O.

    2014-01-01

    From early dinosaurs with as many as nine wrist bones, modern birds evolved to develop only four ossifications. Their identity is uncertain, with different labels used in palaeontology and developmental biology. We examined embryos of several species and studied chicken embryos in detail through a new technique allowing whole-mount immunofluorescence of the embryonic cartilaginous skeleton. Beyond previous controversy, we establish that the proximal–anterior ossification develops from a composite radiale+intermedium cartilage, consistent with fusion of radiale and intermedium observed in some theropod dinosaurs. Despite previous claims that the development of the distal–anterior ossification does not support the dinosaur–bird link, we found its embryonic precursor shows two distinct regions of both collagen type II and collagen type IX expression, resembling the composite semilunate bone of bird-like dinosaurs (distal carpal 1+distal carpal 2). The distal–posterior ossification develops from a cartilage referred to as “element x,” but its position corresponds to distal carpal 3. The proximal–posterior ossification is perhaps most controversial: It is labelled as the ulnare in palaeontology, but we confirm the embryonic ulnare is lost during development. Re-examination of the fossil evidence reveals the ulnare was actually absent in bird-like dinosaurs. We confirm the proximal–posterior bone is a pisiform in terms of embryonic position and its development as a sesamoid associated to a tendon. However, the pisiform is absent in bird-like dinosaurs, which are known from several articulated specimens. The combined data provide compelling evidence of a remarkable evolutionary reversal: A large, ossified pisiform re-evolved in the lineage leading to birds, after a period in which it was either absent, nonossified, or very small, consistently escaping fossil preservation. The bird wrist provides a modern example of how developmental and paleontological

  14. Grassland bird responses to land management in the largest remaining tallgrass prairie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmig, Corina J; Jensen, William E; With, Kimberly A

    2009-04-01

    Extensive habitat loss and changing agricultural practices have caused widespread declines in grassland birds throughout North America. The Flint Hills of Kansas and Oklahoma--the largest remaining tallgrass prairie--is important for grassland bird conservation despite supporting a major cattle industry. In 2004 and 2005, we assessed the community, population, and demographic responses of grassland birds to the predominant management practices (grazing, burning, and haying) of the region, including grasslands restored under the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). We targeted 3 species at the core of this avian community: the Dickcissel (Spiza americana), Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum), and Eastern Meadowlark (Sturnella magna). Bird diversity was higher in native prairie hayfields and grazed pastures than CRP fields, which were dominated by Dickcissels. Although Dickcissel density was highest in CRP, their nest success was highest and nest parasitism by Brown-headed Cowbirds (Moluthrus ater) lowest in unburned hayfields (in 2004). Conversely, Grasshopper Sparrow density was highest in grazed pastures, but their nest success was lowest in these pastures and highest in burned hayfields, where cowbird parasitism was also lowest (in 2004). Management did not influence density and nest survival of Eastern Meadowlarks, which were uniformly low across the region. Nest success was extremely low (5-12%) for all 3 species in 2005, perhaps because of a record spring drought. Although the CRP has benefited grassland birds in agricultural landscapes, these areas may have lower habitat value in the context of native prairie. Hayfields may provide beneficial habitat for some grassland birds in the Flint Hills because they are mowed later in the breeding season than elsewhere in the Midwest. Widespread grazing and annual burning have homogenized habitat-and thus grassland-bird responses-across the Flint Hills. Diversification of management practices could increase

  15. Issues and potential in creating carbon sinks in the boreal forest; Potentiel et enjeux a propos de la creation de puits de carbone en foret boreale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucher, J.F.; Gagnon, R.; Villeneuve, C. [Quebec Univ., Chicoutimi, PQ (Canada); Gaboury, S. [Rio Tinto Alcan, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Lord, D. [Quebec Univ., Chicoutimi, PQ (Canada). Dept. des Sciences Fondamentales

    2008-09-15

    Although greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are primarily associated with the combustion of fossil fuels, they are also linked to deforestation. This article discussed the contribution of the forestry sector in mitigating climate change in the province of Quebec, which has vast areas of barren deforested land. Recent studies have shown that boreal forests have significant potential for carbon sequestration, although much uncertainty remains regarding the ability to store carbon for the long-term due to the potential for fires. Concerns regarding climate change may provide opportunities to develop important synergies between the wood products industry and bioenergy developers. This article presented a typical case of afforestation of barren boreal lands and noted the benefits of reforestation in terms of creating new habitats for species. This article also included a chart indicating the carbon sequestration potential for different types of biomass, notably tree canopies, roots, forest litter, deadwood and soil. A map showing the spatial distribution of bare boreal regions in Quebec was also included along with the total cost per hectare of carbon sequestration per tonne of carbon dioxide. It was concluded that important reforestation projects can be undertaken in the context of mitigating climate change to restore the role of carbon sinks which were lost in the unproductive barren regions. 45 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  16. The Design of Compass/BeiDou Navigation Satellite Terminal for Migrant Bird Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaohui Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A terminal of Compass Navigation Satellite System (CNSS, which can not only support BeiDou-1 and BeiDou-2 but also support Global Positioning System (GPS, is designed to research the activities of the migrant birds, with our novel design of a multiband antenna. By a high-density integration, this terminal is designed with a compact size and light weight. When the terminal is assembled to a whooper swan, its flying trace is recorded by the CNSS, which is in agreement with that of GPS. The flying route map based on the CNSS is useful to check the situation and habit of the migrant bird, which is important for animal protection and bird flu outbreak prediction.

  17. Radionuclide transport along a boreal hill slope - elevated soil water concentrations in riparian forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport of radionuclides from forest ecosystems and out into surface waters is a crucial process for understanding the long-term fate of radionuclides in the boreal landscape. Boreal forests are typically dominated by podzol soils, but the streams draining the forests are often lined by highly organic, often peat-like soils, which the radionuclides must pass through in order to reach the stream. This so-called riparian zone therefore represents a fundamentally different biogeochemical environment than ordinary forest soils, e.g. by exhibiting significantly lower pH and higher concentrations of organic colloids, which significantly can affect the mobility of many radionuclides. Since the riparian zone is the last terrestrial environment that the groundwater is in contact with before it enters the stream, previous research has demonstrated its profound impact on the stream water chemistry. Hence, the riparian soils should also be important for the transport and accumulation of radionuclides. Therefore, soil water was sampled using suction lysimeters installed at different depths along a 22 m long forested hill slope transect in northern Sweden, following the flow pathway of the groundwater from the uphill podzol to the riparian zone near the stream channel. The analyses included a wide range of hydrochemical parameters and many radiologically important elements, e.g. U, Th, Ni, C, Sr, Cs, REEs and Cl. The sampling was repeated ten times throughout a year in order to also capture the temporal variability of the soil water chemistry. The water chemistry of the investigated transect displayed a remarkable change as the groundwater approached the stream channel. Strongly increased concentrations of many elements were observed in the riparian soils. For instance, the concentrations of Th were more than 100 times higher than in the riparian zone than in the uphill forest, suggesting that the riparian zone may be a hotspot for radionuclide accumulation. The reason

  18. Radionuclide transport along a boreal hill slope - elevated soil water concentrations in riparian forest soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidman, Fredrik; Boily, Aasa; Laudon, Hjalmar [Dept. of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 901 83 Umeaa (Sweden); Koehler, Stephan J. [Dept. of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. 7050, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    The transport of radionuclides from forest ecosystems and out into surface waters is a crucial process for understanding the long-term fate of radionuclides in the boreal landscape. Boreal forests are typically dominated by podzol soils, but the streams draining the forests are often lined by highly organic, often peat-like soils, which the radionuclides must pass through in order to reach the stream. This so-called riparian zone therefore represents a fundamentally different biogeochemical environment than ordinary forest soils, e.g. by exhibiting significantly lower pH and higher concentrations of organic colloids, which significantly can affect the mobility of many radionuclides. Since the riparian zone is the last terrestrial environment that the groundwater is in contact with before it enters the stream, previous research has demonstrated its profound impact on the stream water chemistry. Hence, the riparian soils should also be important for the transport and accumulation of radionuclides. Therefore, soil water was sampled using suction lysimeters installed at different depths along a 22 m long forested hill slope transect in northern Sweden, following the flow pathway of the groundwater from the uphill podzol to the riparian zone near the stream channel. The analyses included a wide range of hydrochemical parameters and many radiologically important elements, e.g. U, Th, Ni, C, Sr, Cs, REEs and Cl. The sampling was repeated ten times throughout a year in order to also capture the temporal variability of the soil water chemistry. The water chemistry of the investigated transect displayed a remarkable change as the groundwater approached the stream channel. Strongly increased concentrations of many elements were observed in the riparian soils. For instance, the concentrations of Th were more than 100 times higher than in the riparian zone than in the uphill forest, suggesting that the riparian zone may be a hotspot for radionuclide accumulation. The reason

  19. Observation and modelling of HOx radicals in a boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hens, K.; Novelli, A.; Martinez, M.; Auld, J.; Axinte, R.; Bohn, B.; Fischer, H.; Keronen, P.; Kubistin, D.; Nölscher, A. C.; Oswald, R.; Paasonen, P.; Petäjä, T.; Regelin, E.; Sander, R.; Sinha, V.; Sipilä, M.; Taraborrelli, D.; Tatum Ernest, C.; Williams, J.; Lelieveld, J.; Harder, H.

    2014-08-01

    Measurements of OH and HO2 radicals were conducted in a pine-dominated forest in southern Finland during the HUMPPA-COPEC-2010 (Hyytiälä United Measurements of Photochemistry and Particles in Air - Comprehensive Organic Precursor Emission and Concentration study) field campaign in summer 2010. Simultaneous side-by-side measurements of hydroxyl radicals were conducted with two instruments using chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), indicating small systematic disagreement, OHLIF / OHCIMS = (1.31 ± 0.14). Subsequently, the LIF instrument was moved to the top of a 20 m tower, just above the canopy, to investigate the radical chemistry at the ecosystem-atmosphere interface. Comprehensive measurements including observations of many volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and the total OH reactivity were conducted and analysed using steady-state calculations as well as an observationally constrained box model. Production rates of OH calculated from measured OH precursors are consistent with those derived from the steady-state assumption and measured total OH loss under conditions of moderate OH reactivity. The primary photolytic sources of OH contribute up to one-third to the total OH production. OH recycling, which occurs mainly by HO2 reacting with NO and O3, dominates the total hydroxyl radical production in this boreal forest. Box model simulations agree with measurements for hydroxyl radicals (OHmod. / OHobs. = 1.00 ± 0.16), while HO2 mixing ratios are significantly under-predicted (HO2mod. / HO2obs. = 0.3 ± 0.2), and simulated OH reactivity does not match the observed OH reactivity. The simultaneous under-prediction of HO2 and OH reactivity in periods in which OH concentrations were simulated realistically suggests that the missing OH reactivity is an unaccounted-for source of HO2. Detailed analysis of the HOx production, loss, and recycling pathways suggests that in periods of high total OH reactivity there are

  20. Observation and modelling of HOx radicals in a boreal forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hens

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of OH and HO2 radicals were conducted in a pine-dominated forest in southern Finland during the HUMPPA-COPEC-2010 (Hyytiälä United Measurements of Photochemistry and Particles in Air – Comprehensive Organic Precursor Emission and Concentration study field campaign in summer 2010. Simultaneous side-by-side measurements of hydroxyl radicals were conducted with two instruments using chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF, indicating small systematic disagreement, OHLIF / OHCIMS = (1.31 ± 0.14. Subsequently, the LIF instrument was moved to the top of a 20 m tower, just above the canopy, to investigate the radical chemistry at the ecosystem–atmosphere interface. Comprehensive measurements including observations of many volatile organic compounds (VOCs and the total OH reactivity were conducted and analysed using steady-state calculations as well as an observationally constrained box model. Production rates of OH calculated from measured OH precursors are consistent with those derived from the steady-state assumption and measured total OH loss under conditions of moderate OH reactivity. The primary photolytic sources of OH contribute up to one-third to the total OH production. OH recycling, which occurs mainly by HO2 reacting with NO and O3, dominates the total hydroxyl radical production in this boreal forest. Box model simulations agree with measurements for hydroxyl radicals (OHmod. / OHobs. = 1.00 ± 0.16, while HO2 mixing ratios are significantly under-predicted (HO2mod. / HO2obs. = 0.3 ± 0.2, and simulated OH reactivity does not match the observed OH reactivity. The simultaneous under-prediction of HO2 and OH reactivity in periods in which OH concentrations were simulated realistically suggests that the missing OH reactivity is an unaccounted-for source of HO2. Detailed analysis of the HOx production, loss, and recycling pathways suggests that in periods of high total OH reactivity

  1. Chemical characteristics of Siberian boreal forest fire emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engling, G.; Popovicheva, O.; Fan, T. S.; Eleftheriadis, K.; Diapouli, E.; Kozlov, V.

    2014-12-01

    Smoke emissions from Siberian boreal forest fires exert critical impacts on the aerosol/climate system of subarctic regions and the Arctic. It is, therefore, crucial to assess the ability of such particles to absorb/scatter incoming solar radiation as well as act as cloud condensation nuclei, which is closely linked to the physical and chemical aerosol properties. However, observations of Siberian wildfire emissions are limited, and no systematic database of smoke particle properties is available for this region to date. As part of this study, ambient aerosol samples were collected during two smoke episodes in Tomsk, Siberia, in the summers of 2012 and 2013. In addition, the chemical composition and optical properties of smoke particles derived from the combustion of typical Siberian fuels, including pine wood and debris, were determined during chamber burn experiments in a large aerosol/combustion chamber under controlled combustion conditions representative of wildfires and prescribed burns. Detailed multi-component characterization of individual particles and bulk properties was accomplished with a suite of techniques, including various types of chromatography, microscopy, spectroscopy, and thermo-optical analysis. Individual particle analysis by SEM-EDX combined with cluster analysis revealed characteristic smoke structural components and major types of particles, which allowed to discriminate between flaming and smoldering regimes, reflected in specific morphological and chemical microstructure. The physicochemical properties representing the combustion phase (smoldering versus flaming) and the degree of processing (fresh versus aged) were assessed in the ambient aerosol based on the chamber burn results. For instance, some chemical transformation (aging of smoke particles) was noticed over a period of two days in the absence of sun light in the combustion chamber for certain chemical species, while the molecular tracer levoglucosan appeared to be rather

  2. The linkage between methanotrophy and diazotrophy in boreal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiirola, Marja; Leppänen, Sanna; Larmola, Tuula; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina

    2014-05-01

    Many methanotrophic bacterial groups fix nitrogen in laboratory conditions. Furthermore, nitrogen (N) is a limiting nutrient in many environments where methane concentrations are highest. Despite these facts, methane-induced N fixation has previously been overlooked, possibly due to methodological problems. To study the possible link between methanotrophy and diazotrophy in terrestrial and aquatic habitats, we measured the co-occurrence of these two processes in boreal forest, peatland and stream mosses using a stable isotope labeling approach (15N2 and 13CH4 double labeling) and sequencing of the nifH gene marker. N fixation associated with forest mosses was dependent on the annual N deposition, whereas methane stimulate N fixation neither in high (>3 kg N ha-1 yr-1) nor low deposition areas, which was in accordance with the nifH gene sequencing showing that forest mosses (Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens) carried mainly cyanobacterial N fixers. On the other extreme, in stream mosses (Fontinalis sp.) methane was actively oxidized throughout the year, whereas N fixation showed seasonal fluctuation. The co-occurrence of the two processes in single cell level was proven by co-localizing both N and methane-carbonfixation with the secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) approach. Methanotrophy and diazotrophy was also studied in peatlands of different primary successional stages in the land-uplift coast of Bothnian Bay, in the Siikajoki chronosequence, where N accumulation rates in peat profiles indicate significant N fixation. Based on experimental evidence it was counted that methane-induced N fixation explained over one-third of the new N input in the younger peatland successional stages, where the highest N fixation rates and highest methane oxidation activities co-occurred in the water-submerged Sphagnum moss vegetation. The linkage between methanotrophic carbon cycling and N fixation may therefore constitute an important mechanism in the rapid

  3. Ornithologists by Design: Kindergarteners Design, Construct, and Evaluate Bird Feeders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorter, Angela; Segers, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    How can an engineer design a bird feeder that attracts many birds? This question resulted from kindergarten students' observations of the bird feeders in their school's bird sanctuary. The challenging question is the heart of project-based learning (PBL), a teaching strategy in which students tackle real-world problems and design projects to solve…

  4. 14 CFR 25.631 - Bird strike damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bird strike damage. 25.631 Section 25.631... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction General § 25.631 Bird strike damage. The... airplane after impact with an 8-pound bird when the velocity of the airplane (relative to the bird...

  5. 50 CFR 20.20 - Migratory Bird Harvest Information Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Migratory Bird Harvest Information Program... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.20 Migratory Bird Harvest... information will be used to provide a sampling frame for the national Migratory Bird Harvest Survey....

  6. 50 CFR 92.22 - Subsistence migratory bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subsistence migratory bird species. 92.22... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD SUBSISTENCE HARVEST IN ALASKA General Regulations Governing Subsistence Harvest § 92.22 Subsistence migratory bird species. You may harvest birds or...

  7. 50 CFR 20.40 - Gift of migratory game birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gift of migratory game birds. 20.40... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.40 Gift of migratory game birds. No person may receive, possess, or give to another, any freshly killed migratory game birds as a...

  8. All about Owls: Studying Owls, State Birds, and Endangered Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivard, Leonard P.

    1991-01-01

    Activities are included that acquaint students with the parts of birds and the structure of feathers; that identify the prey of owls by opening owl pellets; working with information about threatened and endangered species of birds; and follow-up activities for bird study. A list of state and provincial birds of the United States and Canada and…

  9. 19 CFR 10.76 - Game animals and birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Game animals and birds. 10.76 Section 10.76... TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Animals and Birds § 10.76 Game animals and birds. (a) The following classes of live game animals and birds may...

  10. North Mississippi Refuge Complex Bird Observations 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bird observations on Coldwater River NWR in 2010 were recorded by the refuge biologist and several other birders. No sampling design was used to generate the...

  11. Coldwater River NWR Ancillary Bird Observations 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Ancillary bird observations on Coldwater River NWR in 2006 were recorded by local birders. No sampling design was used to generate the observations

  12. North Mississippi Refuge Complex Bird Observations 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bird observations on Coldwater River and Tallahatchie NWR in 2011 were recorded by the refuge biologist and several other birders. No sampling design was used to...

  13. North Mississippi Refuge Complex Bird Observations 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bird observations on Coldwater River and Tallahatchie NWR in 2009 were recorded by the refuge biologist and several other birders. No sampling design was used to...

  14. North Mississippi Refuge Complex Bird Observations 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Anecdotal bird observations from Tallahatchie NWR, the Black Bayou Unit Coldwater River NWR and surrounding areas throughout 1999 were recorded by the refuge...

  15. Coldwater River NWR Ancillary Bird Observations 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Ancillary bird observations on Coldwater River NWR in 2009 were recorded by local birders. No sampling design was used to generate the observations

  16. North Mississippi Refuge Complex Bird Observations 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bird observations on Coldwater River, Dahomey and Tallahatchie NWR in 2008 were recorded by the refuge biologist and several other birders. No sampling design was...

  17. Coldwater River NWR Bird Observations 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bird observations on Coldwater River NWR in 2007 were recorded by the refuge biologist and several other birders. No sampling design was used to generate the...

  18. Problems confronting migratory birds in Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We describe in this paper problems affecting the well-being of Alaska's migratory birds in the belief that recognition of these problems is a step towards finding...

  19. Population dynamics of marine birds: Annual report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The characteristic dynamics of Alaskan marine bird populations are being described from studies conducted at 12 OCSEAP-funded and 6nonOCSEAP-funded U. S. Fish and...

  20. Cardiovascular physiology and diseases of pet birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pees, Michael; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    Avian cardiac disease in pet birds occurs more often than previously assumed. The article focuses on anatomic peculiarities of the avian cardiovascular system and common diseases. Diagnostic possibilities are demonstrated, and therapeutic measures are discussed.

  1. Freeze-frame fruit selection by birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Mercedes S.

    2008-01-01

    The choice of fruits by an avian frugivore is affected by choices it makes at multiple hierarchical levels (e.g., species of fruit, individual tree, individual fruit). Factors that influence those choices vary among levels in the hierarchy and include characteristics of the environment, the tree, and the fruit itself. Feeding experiments with wild-caught birds were conducted at El Tirol, Departamento de Itapua, Paraguay to test whether birds were selecting among individual fruits based on fruit size. Feeding on larger fruits, which have proportionally more pulp, is generally more efficient than feeding on small fruits. In trials (n = 56) with seven species of birds in four families, birds selected larger fruits 86% of the time. However, in only six instances were size differences significant, which is likely a reflection of small sample sizes.

  2. Riparian Birds - Sierra Nevada Foothill [ds303

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — These data are summary statistics of abundances of birds counted within 100-m radius circles with 10-minute point counts at multiple sample points along 36 randomly...

  3. Birds - Spears and Didion Ranches [ds315

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — These data are summary statistics of abundances of birds counted within 100-m radius circles with 10-minute point counts at 15 sample points within Spears and...

  4. Current methods of oiled bird rehabilitation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Oil Spill Response Workshop cosponsored by the Office of Migratory Bird Management and the Office of Biological Services, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Dept. of...

  5. Birds of the Shatan River Basin, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onolragchaa Ganbold

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In our study we recorded 149 species of birds belonging to 97 genera and 36 families in 15 orders. These bird species compose 32% of Mongolian registered bird fauna. Of these 149 species, 54% are passeriformes. Our observation was held in three different habitats: mountains ranging with rocks and forest (88 species, river basins (45 species, and an area around human habitation, specifically train stations outside towns (16 species. Of our studied bird species, 11 are enlisted in the International Union for Conservation of Nature red list as endangered, vulnerable, or near threatened species, and 144 are known as least concerned. Also 20 species are listed in Annexes I and II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, and 15 species are listed in Annexes I and II of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species.

  6. Birds of the Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bird list containng 201 documented species by either refuge staff or visiting ornithologists. Taxonomic standard adheres to Fifth A.O.U. Check-List. Species...

  7. Migratory Bird Disease Contingency Plan: Louisa NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Migratory Bird Disease Contingency Plan for Louisa National Wildlife Refuge is intended to serve as a ready reference for background information, an inventory...

  8. Marsh Bird Monitoring Activities in Vermont 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — As part of ongoing research into the status of Vermont's marsh birds, a statewide census of the black tern nesting population was undertaken again in the year 2000....

  9. THE BIODIVERSITY AT SANDI BIRD SANCTUARY, HARDOI WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO MIGRATORY BIRDS

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok Kumar; Meena Srivastav

    2013-01-01

    Indian subcontinent plays host to a number of migratory birds in summers as well as winters. It is estimated that over hundred species of migratory birds fly to India, either in search of feeding grounds or to escape the severe winter of their native habitat. Sandi bird sanctuary was created in 1990 in order to protect and conserve the natural habitation and surroundings and also the marine vegetation for the migratory birds, as well as for the local people of the region. The term migration i...

  10. Carbon dioxide and water vapour exchange from understory species in boreal forest.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmans, M.M.P.D.; Arp, W.J.; Chapin, F.S.

    2004-01-01

    Although recent eddy covariance measurements in boreal forests provide CO2 and energy exchange data for the whole ecosystem, very little is known about the role of the understory vegetation. We conducted chamber flux measurements in an Alaskan black spruce forest in order to compare CO2 and water va

  11. Boreal Forests in Permafrost Landscapes: Changing Structure and Function in Response to Climate Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltzer, J. L.; Quinton, W. L.; Sonnentag, O.

    2014-12-01

    Boreal forests occupy latitudes that are experiencing the greatest rates of warming on earth, a pattern that is expected to continue over the coming decades. Much of the Boreal is underlain by permafrost, which can be expected to have important consequences for forest structure, composition and functioning as the climate warms. The southern margin of permafrost is especially susceptible to warming, since in this region, the permafrost is discontinuous, relatively thin, warm and ice-rich. In the discontinuous permafrost zone, permafrost often forms the physical foundation on which trees develop, forming tree-covered peat plateaus where trees contribute to permafrost maintenance and aggradation processes through reductions in radiation load and changes in snow accumulation. Forests are restricted to peat plateaus while wetland communities occupy intervening permafrost-free areas. The extent and distribution of each land cover type is an important determinant of how boreal forest-wetland landscapes in the discontinuous permafrost zone function as part of the climate system. Climate warming is rapidly thawing permafrost leading to ground surface subsidence and transformation of the forests into wetlands, increasing both the areal extent and connectivity of the latter. In this presentation, we will use an integrative framework at the ForestGEO Scotty Creek Forest Dynamics Plot site near Fort Simpson, Northwest Territories, Canada to demonstrate the changes in ecological, hydrological and biosphere-atmosphere interactions within this boreal forest-wetland landscape characterized by rapidly degrading permafrost.

  12. A framework for modelling the annual cycle of trees in boreal and temperate regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hänninen, H.; Kramer, K.

    2007-01-01

    Models of the annual development cycle of trees in boreal and temperate regions were reviewed and classified on the basis of their ecophysiological assumptions. In our classification we discern two main categories of tree development: 1) fixed sequence development, which refers to irreversible ontog

  13. Production of peroxy nitrates in boreal biomass burning plumes over Canada during the BORTAS campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Busilacchio

    2016-03-01

    during biomass burning is significant in the O3 budget. The implication of these observations is that fire emissions in some cases, for example boreal forest fires and in the conditions reported here, may influence more long-lived precursors of O3 than short-lived pollutants, which in turn can be transported and eventually diluted in a wide area.

  14. Modelling Holocene carbon accumulation and methane emissions of boreal wetlands – an Earth system model approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Schuldt

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the Last Glacial Maximum, boreal wetlands have accumulated substantial amounts of peat, estimated at 180–621 Pg of carbon. Wetlands have significantly affected the atmospheric greenhouse gas composition in the past and will play a significant role in future changes of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 concentrations. In order to investigate those changes with an Earth system model, biogeochemical processes in boreal wetlands need to be accounted for. Thus, a model of peat accumulation and decay was developed and included in the land surface model JSBACH of the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM. Here we present the evaluation of model results from 6000 yr BP to the pre-industrial period. Over this period of time, 240 Pg of peat carbon accumulated in the model in the areas north of 40° N. Simulated peat accumulation rates agree well with those reported for boreal wetlands. The model simulates CH4 emissions of 49.3 Tg CH4 yr−1 for 6000 yr BP and 51.5 Tg CH4 yr−1 for pre-industrial times. This is within the range of estimates in the literature, which range from 32 to 112 Tg CH4 yr−1 for boreal wetlands. The modelled methane emission for the West Siberian Lowlands and Hudson Bay Lowlands agree well with observations. The rising trend of methane emissions over the last 6000 yr is in agreement with measurements of Antarctic and Greenland ice cores.

  15. Strengthening of the boreal winter Hadley circulation and its connection with ENSO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis is carried out for the year-to-year variability of the boreal winter (DJF)mass stream function of the mean meridional circulation (MMC) during the period 1948-2005. The results demonstrate that it is dominated by the equatorially asymmetric and symmetric modes. Further analysis shows that the former mode is linked with the boreal winter Hadley cell mainly on the decadal time-scale, and the latter on the interannual time-scale. The asymmetric mode index (AMI) with a clear upward trend contributes to the decadal strengthening of the boreal Hadley circulation, and is closely correlated with the tropical SST warming, especially in the region of Indo-west Pacific warm pool (INWP). Furthermore, the AMI also contributes to the abrupt change of the correlation coefficient between the boreal Hadley circulation and ENSO after 1976. The symmetric mode index (SMI) with robust and stable linkage with ENSO shows a significant interannual variability, suggesting that the variability of the Hadley circulation is mainly associated with ENSO on the interannual time-scale.

  16. Negligible in-stream processing of dissolved organic matter in low order boreal streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothawala, Dolly; Ji, Xing; Laudon, Hjalmar; Ågren, Anneli; Futter, Martyn; Köhler, Stephan; Tranvik, Lars

    2016-04-01

    Low order boreal streams have been considered to be reactive interfaces where dissolved organic matter (DOM) enters inland waters from the surrounding catchment soils. Disentangling the relative influence of key environmental factors suspected to influence stream water DOM composition is highly relevant for predicting the reactivity, and fate of terrestrial DOM. Here, we examined changes to DOM composition using optical approaches from 17 boreal streams, ranging from first to fourth order, over 14 months. We identified two specific fluorescing components, which expressed either a clear mire-wetland or forest signature, providing distinct molecular markers of land cover that is typical of the boreal ecozone. In fact, land cover alone explained 49% of the variability in stream DOM composition. In contrast, seasonal fluctuations in hydrology only contributed to minor shifts (8%) in DOM composition. Perhaps most intriguingly, in-stream transformations to DOM composition were undetectable, suggesting that the extent of in-stream processing was negligible. These findings suggest that low order boreal streams act as passive pipes rather than active reactors. Ultimately, we find that that in-stream processing of DOM was restricted by water residence times (less than 2 days). In summary, these results now leave us better equipped to predict where in the landscape, and when during the year, key DOM transformations may occur within the aquatic conduit.

  17. Radiocarbon dating of fluvial organic matter reveals land-use impacts in boreal peatlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulatt, Chris J.; Kaartokallio, Hermanni; Oinonen, Markku;

    2014-01-01

    This study measured the effects of land use on organic matter released to surface waters in a boreal peat catchment using radiocarbon dating of particulate and dissolved organic carbon (POC and DOC), DOC concentration, stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition, and optical measurements...

  18. Estimating seasonal variations in cloud droplet number concentration over the boreal forest from satellite observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. H. Janssen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variations in cloud droplet number concentration (NCD in low-level stratiform clouds over the boreal forest are estimated from MODIS observations of cloud optical and microphysical properties, using a sub-adiabatic cloud model to interpret vertical profiles of cloud properties. An uncertainty analysis of the cloud model is included to reveal the main sensitivities of the cloud model. We compared the seasonal cycle in NCD obtained using 9 years of satellite data, to surface concentrations of potential cloud activating aerosols, measured at the SMEAR II station at Hyytiälä in Finland. The results show that NCD and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN concentrations have no clear correlation at seasonal time scale. The fraction of aerosols that actually activate as cloud droplet decreases sharply with increasing aerosol concentrations. Furthermore, information on the stability of the atmosphere shows that low NCD is linked to stable atmospheric conditions. Combining these findings leads to the conclusion that cloud droplet activation for the studied clouds over the boreal forest is limited by convection. Our results suggest that it is important to take the strength of convection into account when studying the influence of aerosols from the boreal forest on cloud formation, although they do not rule out the possibility that aerosols from the boreal forest affect other types of clouds with a closer coupling to the surface.

  19. Estimating seasonal variations in cloud droplet number concentration over the boreal forest from satellite observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. H. Janssen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variations in cloud droplet number concentration (NCD in low-level stratiform clouds over the boreal forest are estimated from MODIS observations of cloud optical and microphysical properties, using a sub-adiabatic cloud model to interpret vertical profiles of cloud properties. An uncertainty analysis of the cloud model is included to reveal the main sensitivities of the cloud model. We compared the seasonal cycle in NCD, obtained using 9 yr of satellite data, to surface concentrations of potential cloud activating aerosols, measured at the SMEAR II station at Hyytiälä in Finland. The results show that NCD and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN concentrations have no clear correlation at seasonal time scale. The fraction of aerosols that actually activate as cloud droplet decreases sharply with increasing aerosol concentrations. Furthermore, information on the stability of the atmosphere shows that low NCD is linked to stable atmospheric conditions. Combining these findings leads to the conclusion that cloud droplet activation for the studied clouds over the boreal forest is limited by convection. Our results suggest that it is important to take the strength of convection into account when studying the influence of aerosols from the boreal forest on cloud formation, although they do not rule out the possibility that aerosols from the boreal forest affect other types of clouds with a closer coupling to the surface.

  20. Effects of disturbance and climate change on ecosystem performance in the Yukon River Basin boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Bruce K.; Rigge, Matthew B.; Brisco, Brian; Mrnaghan, Kevin; Rover, Jennifer R.; Long, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    A warming climate influences boreal forest productivity, dynamics, and disturbance regimes. We used ecosystem models and 250 m satellite Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data averaged over the growing season (GSN) to model current, and estimate future, ecosystem performance. We modeled Expected Ecosystem Performance (EEP), or anticipated productivity, in undisturbed stands over the 2000–2008 period from a variety of abiotic data sources, using a rule-based piecewise regression tree. The EEP model was applied to a future climate ensemble A1B projection to quantify expected changes to mature boreal forest performance. Ecosystem Performance Anomalies (EPA), were identified as the residuals of the EEP and GSN relationship and represent performance departures from expected performance conditions. These performance data were used to monitor successional events following fire. Results suggested that maximum EPA occurs 30–40 years following fire, and deciduous stands generally have higher EPA than coniferous stands. Mean undisturbed EEP is projected to increase 5.6% by 2040 and 8.7% by 2070, suggesting an increased deciduous component in boreal forests. Our results contribute to the understanding of boreal forest successional dynamics and its response to climate change. This information enables informed decisions to prepare for, and adapt to, climate change in the Yukon River Basin forest.

  1. Differentiating moss from higher plants is critical in studying the carbon cycle of the boreal biome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Wenping; Liu, Shuguang; Dong, Wenjie;

    2014-01-01

    The satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), which is used for estimating gross primary production (GPP), often includes contributions from both mosses and vascular plants in boreal ecosystems. For the same NDVI, moss can generate only about one-third of the GPP that vascu...

  2. Hitchhikers’ guide to analysing bird ringing data

    OpenAIRE

    Harnos Andrea; Fehérvári Péter; Csörgő Tibor

    2015-01-01

    Bird ringing datasets constitute possibly the largest source of temporal and spatial information on vertebrate taxa available on the globe. Initially, the method was invented to understand avian migration patterns. However, data deriving from bird ringing has been used in an array of other disciplines including population monitoring, changes in demography, conservation management and to study the effects of climate change to name a few. Despite the widespread usage and importance, there are n...

  3. Flight performance of the largest volant bird

    OpenAIRE

    Ksepka, Daniel T.

    2014-01-01

    A fossil species of pelagornithid bird exhibits the largest known avian wingspan. Pelagornithids are an extinct group of birds known for bony tooth-like beak projections, large size, and highly modified wing bones that raise many questions about their ecology. At 6.4 m, the wingspan of this species was approximately two times that of the living Royal Albatross. Modeling of flight parameters in this species indicates that it was capable of highly efficient gliding and suggests that pelagornith...

  4. The birds of Genome10K

    OpenAIRE

    OBrien, Stephen J; Haussler, David; Ryder, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Everyone loves the birds of the world. From their haunting songs and majesty of flight to dazzling plumage and mating rituals, bird watchers – both amateurs and professionals - have marveled for centuries at their considerable adaptations. Now, we are offered a special treat with the publication of a series of papers in dedicated issues of Science, Genome Biology and GigaScience (which also included pre-publication data release). These present the successful beginnings of an international int...

  5. Green Light for Nocturnally Migrating Birds

    OpenAIRE

    Wernand, Marcel R.; Maurice A. H. Donners; Han de Vries; Ens, Bruno J.; Hanneke Poot; Joop M. Marquenie

    2008-01-01

    The nighttime sky is increasingly illuminated by artificial light sources. Although this ecological light pollution is damaging ecosystems throughout the world, the topic has received relatively little attention. Many nocturnally migrating birds die or lose a large amount of their energy reserves during migration as a result of encountering artificial light sources. This happens, for instance, in the North Sea, where large numbers of nocturnally migrating birds are attracted to the many offsh...

  6. Are predatory birds effective secondary seed dispersers?

    OpenAIRE

    Nogales, Manuel; Quilis, Vicente; Medina, Félix M.; Mora, Juan L.; Trigo, Laura S.

    2002-01-01

    We have studied the unusual phenomenon of secondary seed dispersal of Lycium intricatum seeds on a small oceanic Atlantic island (Alegranza, Canarian Archipelago)in which a small frugivorous lizard (Gallotia atlantica) and two different predatory birds participate, a shrike (Lanius excubitor) and a kestrel (Falco tinnunculus). Endemic lizards that are common prey of both bird species consume Lycium fruits. Lizard remains were significantly matched with the presence of Lycium fruits in the reg...

  7. Landscape, Legal, and Biodiversity Threats that Windows Pose to Birds: A Review of an Important Conservation Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Klem Jr.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Windows in human residential and commercial structures in urban, suburban, and rural landscapes contribute to the deaths of billions of birds worldwide. International treaties, federal, provincial, state, and municipal laws exist to reduce human-associated avian mortality, but are most often not enforced for bird kills resulting from window strikes. As an additive, compared to a compensatory mortality factor, window collisions pose threats to the sustainability and overall population health of common as well as species of special concern. Several solutions to address the window hazard for birds exist, but the most innovative and promising need encouragement and support to market, manufacture, and implement.

  8. Impact of wind turbines on birds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausager, I. [National Environmental Research Institute, Ronde (Denmark); Nohr, H. [Ornis Consult Ltd., Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    The paper is a review of the present knowledge on impacts of wind turbines on birds, requested by the Danish Ministry of the Environment and Energy. The main conclusions of the review are, that in nearly all the studies so far the numbers of birds recorded colliding with wind turbines have been limited. Some studies indicate that stationary (breeding) birds inside the wind turbine area in the short run habituate to wind turbines, especially the noise and visual impacts, and that the risk for collision becomes low. However, some of the few more long term studies indicate that a negative impact may occur in later generations of breeding birds. In some studies a disturbance effect on bird species, which temporarily stay inside a wind turbine area in order to forage or rest, is observed. The degree of impact is species-specific. An effect is typically recorded inside a zone of up to 250-800 m, with geese and waders as the most sensitive groups of birds. (author)

  9. Are there optimal densities for prairie birds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skagen, S.K.; Adams, A.A.Y.

    2010-01-01

    The major forces of food and predation shape fitness-enhancing decisions of birds at all stages of their life cycles. During the breeding season, birds can minimize nest loss due to predation by selecting sites with a lower probability of predation. To understand the environmental and social aspects and consequences of breedingsite selection in prairie birds, we explored variation in nest-survival patterns of the Lark Bunting (Calamospiza melanocorys) in the shortgrass prairie region of North America. Over four breeding seasons, we documented the survival of 405 nests, conducted 60 surveys to estimate bird densities, and measured several vegetative features to describe habitat structure in 24 randomly selected study plots. Nest survival varied with the buntings' density as described by a quadratic polynomial, increasing with density below 1.5 birds ha-1 and decreasing with density between 1.5 and 3 birds ha-1, suggesting that an optimal range of densities favors reproductive success of the Lark Bunting, which nests semi-colonially. Nest survival also increased with increasing vegetation structure of study plots and varied with age of the nest, increasing during early incubation and late in the nestling stage and declining slightly from mid-incubation to the middle of the nestling period. The existence of an optimal range of densities in this semi-colonial species can be elucidated by the "commodity-selection hypothesis" at low densities and density dependence at high densities. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2010.

  10. Chlamydophila psittaci infection of birds and humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Baş

    2015-04-01

    seen in infected birds. Transmission of infection to humans occurs through inhalation or direct contact and transmission through bird bites or human-to-human is rare. C. psittaci usually leads to the systemic infection associated with pneumonia in humans. In recent years, PCR based molecular methods are used as well as serological methods such as ELISA, CFT, MIF in diagnosis. Both of infected birds and humans, tetracyclines and macrolides are preferred for treatment of infection. In order to prevent the disease, due to there isn't any commercial vaccine for especially using in birds, applying biosafety rules is very important in terms of human health and economical aspects. Especially, veterinarians, bird breeders and dealers, poultry farmers and slaughterhouse workers are at high risk for C. psittaci infection. Due to the transmission to humans of psittacosis infection and accepting it as a potential biological weapon, it is thought to be important for public health. In this review, it is aimed to give detailed information about infection in human and birds, because it can be missed at the diagnosis, hence there is low awareness about disease and it has got variable clinical symptoms.

  11. ON CORRELATING BIRD MIGRATION TRAJECTORY WITH CLIMATE CHANGES

    OpenAIRE

    Oleinik, Janaina; de Macedo, Jose Antonio Fernandes; Yuanjian, Wang Zufferey

    2009-01-01

    Climate changes are expected to affect bird migration in several aspects including timing changes, breeding and migration orientation. The correlation analysis of several climate conditions (e.g. temperature, wind, humidity, etc) and bird migration trajectory is the key for explaining bird behavior during migration. Moreover, the resulting correlation can be used for predicting new bird behavior according to climate changes. In this paper we propose an integrated solution for correlating bird...

  12. The Flight of Birds and Other Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin J. Pennycuick

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Methods of observing birds in flight now include training them to fly under known conditions in wind tunnels, and fitting free-flying birds with data loggers, that are either retrieved or read remotely via satellite links. The performance that comes to light depends on the known limitations of the materials from which they are made, and the conditions in which the birds live. Bird glide polars can be obtained by training birds to glide in a tilting wind tunnel. Translating these curves to power required from the flight muscles in level flight requires drag coefficients to be measured, which unfortunately does not work with bird bodies, because the flow is always fully detached. The drag of bodies in level flight can be determined by observing wingbeat frequency, and shows CD values around 0.08 in small birds, down to 0.06 in small waders specialised for efficient migration. Lift coefficients are up to 1.6 in gliding, or 1.8 for short, temporary glides. In-flight measurements can be used to calculate power curves for birds in level flight, and this has been applied to migrating geese in detail. These typically achieve lift:drag ratios around 15, including allowances for stops, as against 19 for continuous powered flight. The same calculations, applied to Pacific Black-tailed Godwits which start with fat fractions up to 0.55 at departure, show that such birds not only cross the Pacific to New Zealand, but have enough fuel in hand to reach the South Pole if that were necessary. This performance depends on the “dual fuel” arrangements of these migrants, whereby they use fat as their main fuel, and supplement this by extra fuel from burning the engine (flight muscles, as less power is needed later in the flight. The accuracy of these power curves has never been checked, although provision for stopping the bird, and making these checks at regular intervals during a simulated flight was built into the original design of the Lund wind tunnel. The

  13. A new empirical method to predict carbon dioxide evasion from boreal lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastie, Adam; Lauerwald, Ronny; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa; Sobek, Sebastian; Regnier, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Carbon dioxide evasion from lakes (F CO2) is an important component of the global carbon budget. In this study, empirical models have been developed to predict CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) in boreal lakes at the 0.5° grid scale, with the aim of producing the first map of F CO2 from these high latitude aquatic systems. Approximately 57,000 samples of lake pCO2 from Sweden and Finland were used to train the models. Significant seasonality in pCO2 was identified and thus data were split into two categories based on water temperature; 0-4.5° C and >4.5° C. The lake pCO2 data and various globally available, environmental parameters such as elevation, terrestrial net primary production (NPP) and climate (temperature T, rainfall R) were spatially aggregated to a 0.5° resolution. Preliminary results from multiple regression analyses suggest that a significant proportion of the variability in boreal lake pCO2 can be explained using these globally available parameters. For water temperatures above 4.5° C, the explained proportion of the variability in lake pCO2 is particularly high (r2= 0.7). Following further refinement and validation, a map of estimated lake pCO2 for the entire boreal region will be established. This map will then be combined with lake surface area data from the GLObal WAter BOdies database (GLOWABO, Verpoorter et al., 2014), and a calculation of gas exchange velocity k to produce the first map of boreal lake F CO2. Finally, IPCC projections of the selected environmental predictors (T, NPP, and R) will be used to estimate future F CO2 from boreal lakes and their sensitivity to climate change.

  14. Fear and exploration in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris: a comparison of hand-reared and wild-caught birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesa Feenders

    Full Text Available The revision of EU legislation will ban the use of wild-caught animals in scientific procedures. This change is partially predicated on the assumption that captive-rearing produces animals with reduced fearfulness. Previously, we have shown that hand-reared starlings (Sturnus vulgaris indeed exhibit reduced fear of humans compared to wild-caught conspecifics. Here, we asked whether this reduction in fear in hand-reared birds is limited to fear of humans or extends more generally to fear of novel environments and novel objects. Comparing 6-8 month old birds hand-reared in the lab with age-matched birds caught from the wild as fledged juveniles a minimum of 1 month previously, we examined the birds' initial reactions in a novel environment (a small cage and found that wild-caught starlings were faster to initiate movement compared to the hand-reared birds. We interpret this difference as evidence for greater escape motivation in the wild-caught birds. In contrast, we found no differences between hand-reared and wild-caught birds when tested in novel object tests assumed to measure neophobia and exploratory behaviour. Moreover, we found no correlations between individual bird's responses in the different tests, supporting the idea that these measure different traits (e.g. fear and exploration. In summary, our data show that developmental origin affects one measure of response to novelty in young starlings, indicative of a difference in either fear or coping style in a stressful situation. Our data contribute to a growing literature demonstrating effects of early-life experience on later behaviour in a range of species. However, since we did not find consistent evidence for reduced fearfulness in hand-reared birds, we remain agnostic about the welfare benefits of hand-rearing as a method for sourcing wild birds for behavioural and physiological research.

  15. Natural disturbance impacts on ecosystem services and biodiversity in temperate and boreal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Dominik; Seidl, Rupert

    2016-08-01

    In many parts of the world forest disturbance regimes have intensified recently, and future climatic changes are expected to amplify this development further in the coming decades. These changes are increasingly challenging the main objectives of forest ecosystem management, which are to provide ecosystem services sustainably to society and maintain the biological diversity of forests. Yet a comprehensive understanding of how disturbances affect these primary goals of ecosystem management is still lacking. We conducted a global literature review on the impact of three of the most important disturbance agents (fire, wind, and bark beetles) on 13 different ecosystem services and three indicators of biodiversity in forests of the boreal, cool- and warm-temperate biomes. Our objectives were to (i) synthesize the effect of natural disturbances on a wide range of possible objectives of forest management, and (ii) investigate standardized effect sizes of disturbance for selected indicators via a quantitative meta-analysis. We screened a total of 1958 disturbance studies published between 1981 and 2013, and reviewed 478 in detail. We first investigated the overall effect of disturbances on individual ecosystem services and indicators of biodiversity by means of independence tests, and subsequently examined the effect size of disturbances on indicators of carbon storage and biodiversity by means of regression analysis. Additionally, we investigated the effect of commonly used approaches of disturbance management, i.e. salvage logging and prescribed burning. We found that disturbance impacts on ecosystem services are generally negative, an effect that was supported for all categories of ecosystem services, i.e. supporting, provisioning, regulating, and cultural services (P paradox', documenting that disturbances can put ecosystem services at risk while simultaneously facilitating biodiversity. A detailed investigation of disturbance effect sizes on carbon storage and

  16. Chernobyl birds have smaller brains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Pape Møller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Animals living in areas contaminated by radioactive material from Chernobyl suffer from increased oxidative stress and low levels of antioxidants. Therefore, normal development of the nervous system is jeopardized as reflected by high frequencies of developmental errors, reduced brain size and impaired cognitive abilities in humans. Alternatively, associations between psychological effects and radiation have been attributed to post-traumatic stress in humans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Here we used an extensive sample of 550 birds belonging to 48 species to test the prediction that even in the absence of post-traumatic stress, there is a negative association between relative brain size and level of background radiation. We found a negative association between brain size as reflected by external head volume and level of background radiation, independent of structural body size and body mass. The observed reduction in brain size in relation to background radiation amounted to 5% across the range of almost a factor 5,000 in radiation level. Species differed significantly in reduction in brain size with increasing background radiation, and brain size was the only morphological character that showed a negative relationship with radiation. Brain size was significantly smaller in yearlings than in older individuals. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Low dose radiation can have significant effects on normal brain development as reflected by brain size and therefore potentially cognitive ability. The fact that brain size was smaller in yearlings than in older individuals implies that there was significant directional selection on brain size with individuals with larger brains experiencing a viability advantage.

  17. Report of the Federal Advisory Committee on the Bird Banding Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseltine, Susan D.; Schmidt, Paul R.; Bales, Bradley D.; Bonter, David N.; DeSante, David F.; Doherty, Paul F.; Francis, Charles M.; Green, Paul T.; Howes, Lesley-Anne; James, Daniel L.; Lament, J. Jasper; Lancia, Richard A.; Paul, Ellen I.; Ralph, C. John; Rogers, John G.; Young, Richard E.

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2005, the Directors of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) determined that to ensure that the Bird Banding Laboratory (BBL) of the USGS maintains and continues its important support of conservation and management of birds, it should be guided by a clear vision for the future. In order to carry out this task, they impaneled a fourteen-member Federal Advisory Committee (FAC) on the Bird Banding Laboratory. It was made up of representatives of the broad bird-banding community, public and private, and was cochaired by a senior representative from each agency. The Committee met four times and a writing subgroup met three times over the course of its work. The Committee identified a new vision and mission for the BBL and identified six goals that it believes should be integral to the development of a strategic plan to achieve them. Those goals are: 1. Facilitate the identification of individual birds through marking. 2. Create automated, electronic systems that efficiently verify, accept, store, and manage data associated with individually marked birds. 3. Facilitate access to and use of data from marked birds for science, conservation, and management. 4. Administer permits in an efficient, timely, and modern manner, and use them to ensure that bird welfare and data quality remain top priorities. 5. Work closely with national and international partners to achieve the mission of the BBL. 6. Manage the BBL in an efficient, cost-effective manner to maximize use of available resources. Most of the report is structured around these goals. The Committee made 2 programmatic recommendations and identified 23 objectives and 58 specific recommendations. The programmatic recommendations are: (1) that the primary role of the BBL is and should continue to be to support the use of banding and banding data by researchers and managers engaged in science, conservation, and management of birds, and not to play a lead role in

  18. Geographical variation in bill size across bird species provides evidence for Allen's rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, Matthew R E; Tattersall, Glenn J

    2010-08-01

    Allen's rule proposes that the appendages of endotherms are smaller, relative to body size, in colder climates, in order to reduce heat loss. Empirical support for Allen's rule is mainly derived from occasional reports of geographical clines in extremity size of individual species. Interspecific evidence is restricted to two studies of leg proportions in seabirds and shorebirds. We used phylogenetic comparative analyses of 214 bird species to examine whether bird bills, significant sites of heat exchange, conform to Allen's rule. The species comprised eight diverse taxonomic groups-toucans, African barbets, Australian parrots, estrildid finches, Canadian galliforms, penguins, gulls, and terns. Across all species, there were strongly significant relationships between bill length and both latitude and environmental temperature, with species in colder climates having significantly shorter bills. Patterns supporting Allen's rule in relation to latitudinal or altitudinal distribution held within all groups except the finches. Evidence for a direct association with temperature was found within four groups (parrots, galliforms, penguins, and gulls). Support for Allen's rule in leg elements was weaker, suggesting that bird bills may be more susceptible to thermoregulatory constraints generally. Our results provide the strongest comparative support yet published for Allen's rule and demonstrate that thermoregulation has been an important factor in shaping the evolution of bird bills. PMID:20545560

  19. Variation in clutch size in relation to nest size in birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Møller, Anders P.; Adriaensen, Frank; Artemyev, Alexandr; Bańbura, Jerzy; Barba, Emilio; Biard, Clotilde; Blondel, Jacques; Bouslama, Zihad; Bouvier, Jean-Charles; Camprodon, Jordi; Cecere, Francesco; Charmantier, Anne; Charter, Motti; Cichoń, Mariusz; Cusimano, Camillo; Czeszczewik, Dorota; Demeyrier, Virginie; Doligez, Blandine; Doutrelant, Claire; Dubiec, Anna; Eens, Marcel; Eeva, Tapio; Faivre, Bruno; Ferns, Peter N.; Forsman, Jukka T.; García-Del-Rey, Eduardo; Goldshtein, Aya; Goodenough, Anne E.; Gosler, Andrew G.; Góźdź, Iga; Grégoire, Arnaud; Gustafsson, Lars; Hartley, Ian R.; Heeb, Philipp; Hinsley, Shelley A.; Isenmann, Paul; Jacob, Staffan; Järvinen, Antero; Juškaitis, Rimvydas; Korpimäki, Erkki; Krams, Indrikis; Laaksonen, Toni; Leclercq, Bernard; Lehikoinen, Esa; Loukola, Olli; Lundberg, Arne; Mainwaring, Mark C.; Mänd, Raivo; Massa, Bruno; Mazgajski, Tomasz D.; Merino, Santiago; Mitrus, Cezary; Mönkkönen, Mikko; Morales-Fernaz, Judith; Morin, Xavier; Nager, Ruedi G.; Nilsson, Jan-Åke; Nilsson, Sven G.; Norte, Ana C.; Orell, Markku; Perret, Philippe; Pimentel, Carla S.; Pinxten, Rianne; Priedniece, Ilze; Quidoz, Marie-Claude; Remeš, Vladimir; Richner, Heinz; Robles, Hugo; Rytkönen, Seppo; Senar, Juan Carlos; Seppänen, Janne T.; da Silva, Luís P.; Slagsvold, Tore; Solonen, Tapio; Sorace, Alberto; Stenning, Martyn J.; Török, János; Tryjanowski, Piotr; van Noordwijk, Arie J.; von Numers, Mikael; Walankiewicz, Wiesław; Lambrechts, Marcel M.

    2014-01-01

    Nests are structures built to support and protect eggs and/or offspring from predators, parasites, and adverse weather conditions. Nests are mainly constructed prior to egg laying, meaning that parent birds must make decisions about nest site choice and nest building behavior before the start of egg

  20. Genetic diversity and mutation of avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (Newcastle disease virus) in wild birds and evidence for intercontinental spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andrew M; Reeves, Andrew B; Ogawa, Haruko; Ip, Hon S; Imai, Kunitoshi; Bui, Vuong Nghia; Yamaguchi, Emi; Silko, Nikita Y; Afonso, Claudio L

    2013-12-01

    Avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1), or Newcastle disease virus, is the causative agent of Newcastle disease, one of the most economically important diseases for poultry production worldwide and a cause of periodic epizootics in wild birds in North America. In this study, we examined the genetic diversity of APMV-1 isolated from migratory birds sampled in Alaska, Japan, and Russia and assessed the evidence for intercontinental virus spread using phylogenetic methods. Additionally, we predicted viral virulence using deduced amino acid residues for the fusion protein cleavage site and estimated mutation rates for the fusion gene of class I and class II migratory bird isolates. All 73 isolates sequenced as part of this study were most closely related to virus genotypes previously reported for wild birds; however, five class II genotype I isolates formed a monophyletic clade exhibiting previously unreported genetic diversity, which met criteria for the designation of a new sub-genotype. Phylogenetic analysis of wild-bird isolates provided evidence for intercontinental virus spread, specifically viral lineages of APMV-1 class II genotype I sub-genotypes Ib and Ic. This result supports migratory bird movement as a possible mechanism for the redistribution of APMV-1. None of the predicted deduced amino acid motifs for the fusion protein cleavage site of APMV-1 strains isolated from migratory birds in Alaska, Japan, and Russia were consistent with those of previously identified virulent viruses. These data therefore provide no support for these strains contributing to the emergence of avian pathogens. The estimated mutation rates for fusion genes of class I and class II wild-bird isolates were faster than those reported previously for non-virulent APMV-1 strains. Collectively, these findings provide new insight into the diversity, spread, and evolution of APMV-1 in wild birds.

  1. Do Indigenous Street Trees Promote More Biodiversity than Alien Ones? Evidence Using Mistletoes and Birds in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlie Shackleton

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Trees in urban landscapes provide a range of ecosystem services, including habitat, refugia, food, and corridors for other fauna and flora. However, there is some debate whether the richness and abundance of other biodiversity supported is influenced by the provenance of trees, i.e., native or non-native. This study assessed the presence of mistletoes and birds (and nests in 1261 street trees. There were marked differences between native and non-native street trees, with the former having a significantly higher prevalence of birds (and nests and supporting more species and in greater densities, whilst the latter supported a higher prevalence of mistletoes. Additionally, for birds, the proximity to green space, tree size and species were also important, whilst for mistletoes, the proximity to green space, slope aspect, and tree species were significant. Preference ratios indicated that some tree species had a higher than random occurrence of birds or mistletoes, whilst others had a low abundance. The indigenous tree species, Acacia karroo Hayne was the only reasonably abundant street tree species that was important for birds, nests, and mistletoes. At the street scale, there was a positive relationship between street tree species richness and bird species richness. These results emphasise the importance of selecting appropriate tree species if biodiversity conservation is a core outcome.

  2. Controls on winter ecosystem respiration in temperate and boreal ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Winter CO2 fluxes represent an important component of the annual carbon budget in northern ecosystems. Understanding winter respiration processes and their responses to climate change is also central to our ability to assess terrestrial carbon cycle and climate feedbacks in the future. However, the factors influencing the spatial and temporal patterns of winter ecosystem respiration (Reco of northern ecosystems are poorly understood. For this reason, we analyzed eddy covariance flux data from 57 ecosystem sites ranging from ~35° N to ~70° N. Deciduous forests were characterized by the highest winter Reco rates (0.90 ± 0.39 g C m−2 d−1, when winter is defined as the period during which daily air temperature remains below 0 °C. By contrast, arctic wetlands had the lowest winter Reco rates (0.02 ± 0.02 g C m−2 d−1. Mixed forests, evergreen needle-leaved forests, grasslands, croplands and boreal wetlands were characterized by intermediate winter Reco rates (g C m−2 d−1 of 0.70(±0.33, 0.60(±0.38, 0.62(±0.43, 0.49(±0.22 and 0.27(±0.08, respectively. Our cross site analysis showed that winter air (Tair and soil (Tsoil temperature played a dominating role in determining the spatial patterns of winter Reco in both forest and managed ecosystems (grasslands and croplands. Besides temperature, the seasonal amplitude of the leaf area index (LAI, inferred from satellite observation, or growing season gross primary productivity, which we use here as a proxy for the amount of recent carbon available for Reco in the subsequent winter, played a marginal role in winter CO2 emissions from forest ecosystems. We found that winter Reco sensitivity to temperature variation across space (

  3. Nitrogen Additions Affect Root Dynamics in a Boreal Forest Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, K. M.; Treseder, K. K.

    2004-12-01

    As with many ecosystems, North American boreal forests are increasingly subjected to anthropogenic nitrogen deposition. To examine potential effects on plant growth, we created nitrogen fertilization plots in three sites along an Alaskan fire chronosequence composed of forests aged 5, 17, and 80 years. Each site had been exposed to two years of nitrogen fertilization, with four control plots and four nitrogen plots per site. General observations indicate that aboveground net primary productivity appears to be nitrogen limited in each site. We hypothesized that nitrogen fertilization would positively influence root dynamics as well, with nitrogen additions resulting in an increase in standing root biomass and length. To test our hypothesis, we used a minirhizotron camera to collect sequential images of roots in the top 10 cm of soil in both nitrogen fertilized and control plots in each site. Images were collected monthly during the growing season, with a total of five sampling times between May 2003 and May 2004. We then analyzed the images with WinRhizotron root measurement software. Nitrogen fertilization had varying effects on root biomass among the three sites, with a significant site by N interaction (P = 0.039). A decrease in root biomass was observed in the 5 and 80 year old sites, dropping from 207 g/m2 to 79 g/m2 and from 230 g/m2 to 129 g/m2 for the youngest and oldest sites, respectively. In contrast, root biomass increased from 52 g/m2 to 107 g/m2 in the 17 year old site. (Values are for the top 10 cm of soil only, and likely underestimate total root stocks.) Patterns in standing root lengths diverged from those of root biomass, with a 2.5-fold overall increase under nitrogen fertilization across all sites (P = 0.004). There were no significant differences among sites in nitrogen response. Standing root biomass and length differed from one another in their responses to nitrogen fertilization because nitrogen additions decreased specific root weight (as g

  4. Management effects on carbon fluxes in boreal forests (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindroth, A.; Mölder, M.; Lagergren, F.; Vestin, P.; Hellström, M.; Sundqvist, E.; Norunda Bgs Team

    2010-12-01

    Disturbance by management or natural causes such as wind throw or fire are believed to be one of the main factors that are controlling the carbon balance of vegetation. In Northern Europe a large fraction of the forest area is managed with clear cutting and thinning as the main silvicultural methods. The effect of clear-cutting on carbon dioxide exchanges were studied in different chrono-sequences located in Sweden, Finland, UK and France, respectively. The combined results from these studies showed that a simple model could be developed describing relative net ecosystem exchange as a function of relative rotation length (age). A stand with a rotation length of 100 years, typical for Swedish conditions, looses substantial amounts of carbon during the first 12-15 years and the time it takes to reach cumulative balance after clear-cut, is 25-30 years. The mean net ecosystem exchange over the whole rotation length equals 50% of the maximum uptake. An interesting question is if it is possible to harvest without the substantial carbon losses that take place after clear-cutting. Selective harvest by thinning could potentially be such a method. We therefore studied the effect of thinning on soil and ecosystem carbon fluxes in a mixed pine and spruce forest in Central Sweden, the Norunda forest, located in the semi-boreal zone at 60.08°N, 17.48 °E. The CO2 fluxes from the forest were measured by eddy covariance method and soil effluxes were measured by automatic chambers. Maximum canopy height of the ca. 100 years-old forest was 28 m. The stand was composed of ca 72% pine, 28% before the thinning while the composition after the thinning became 82% pine and 18% spruce. The thinning was made in November/December 2008 in a half- circle from the tower with a radius of 200 m. The LAI decreased from 4.5 to 2.8 after the thinning operation. Immediately after the thinning, we found significantly higher soil effluxes, probably due to increased decomposition of dead roots. The

  5. 77 FR 17353 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... FR 68264) a proposed rule that provided our proposed migratory bird subsistence harvest regulations... Federal Register a proposed rule (76 FR 68264) to establish spring and summer migratory bird subsistence... Register on August 16, 2002 (67 FR 53511) and most recently on March 29, 2011 (76 FR 17353). Recent...

  6. 75 FR 29917 - Migratory Bird Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Migratory Bird Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... FR 61123) to establish regulations for the issuance of permits to rehabilitate migratory birds in the... Relations with Native American Tribal Governments'' (59 FR 22951), Executive Order 13175, and 512 DM 2, we... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 21 RIN 1018-AX09 Migratory Bird Permits; Changes in...

  7. A sonic net excludes birds from an airfield: implications for reducing bird strike and crop losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaddle, John P; Moseley, Dana L; Hinders, Mark K; Smith, Elizabeth P

    2016-03-01

    Collisions between birds and aircraft cause billions of dollars of damages annually to civil, commercial, and military aviation. Yet technology to reduce bird strike is not generally effective, especially over longer time periods. Previous information from our lab indicated that filling an area with acoustic noise, which masks important communication channels for birds, can displace European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) from food sources. Here we deployed a spatially controlled noise (termed a "sonic net"), designed to overlap with the frequency range of bird vocalizations, at an airfield. By conducting point counts, we monitored the presence of birds for four weeks before deployment of our sonic net, and for four weeks during deployment. We found an 82% reduction in bird presence in the sonic net area compared with change in the reference areas. This effect was as strong in the fourth week of exposure as in the first week. We also calculated the potential costs avoided resulting from this exclusion. We propose that spatially controlled acoustic manipulations that mask auditory communication for birds may be an effective long term and fairly benign way of excluding problem birds from areas of socioeconomic importance, such as airfields, agricultural sites, and commercial properties.

  8. Bird pollination of Canary Island endemic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollerton, Jeff; Cranmer, Louise; Stelzer, Ralph J.; Sullivan, Steve; Chittka, Lars

    2009-02-01

    The Canary Islands are home to a guild of endemic, threatened bird-pollinated plants. Previous work has suggested that these plants evolved floral traits as adaptations to pollination by flower specialist sunbirds, but subsequently, they appear to have co-opted generalist passerine birds as sub-optimal pollinators. To test this idea, we carried out a quantitative study of the pollination biology of three of the bird-pollinated plants, Canarina canariensis (Campanulaceae), Isoplexis canariensis (Veronicaceae) and Lotus berthelotii (Fabaceae), on the island of Tenerife. Using colour vision models, we predicted the detectability of flowers to bird and bee pollinators. We measured pollinator visitation rates, nectar standing crops as well as seed-set and pollen removal and deposition. These data showed that the plants are effectively pollinated by non-flower specialist passerine birds that only occasionally visit flowers. The large nectar standing crops and extended flower longevities (>10 days) of Canarina and Isoplexis suggests that they have evolved a bird pollination system that effectively exploits these low frequency non-specialist pollen vectors and is in no way sub-optimal. Seed set in two of the three species was high and was significantly reduced or zero in flowers where pollinator access was restricted. In L. berthelotii, however, no fruit set was observed, probably because the plants were self-incompatible horticultural clones of a single genet. We also show that, while all three species are easily detectable for birds, the orange Canarina and the red Lotus (but less so the yellow-orange Isoplexis) should be difficult to detect for insect pollinators without specialised red receptors, such as bumblebees. Contrary to expectations if we accept that the flowers are primarily adapted to sunbird pollination, the chiffchaff ( Phylloscopus canariensis) was an effective pollinator of these species.

  9. The impact of bryophytes on the carbon stocks of northern boreal forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, U.; Moroni, M. T.; Shaw, C. H.; Kurz, W. A.

    2012-04-01

    Dead organic matter (DOM), organic layer, and mineral soil carbon (C) dynamics in cool and humid northern boreal forests are expected to differ from those of drier or warmer boreal forests, because processes such as paludification and woody debris (WD) burial within the organic layer by overgrowing moss are more pronounced in regions with low average temperatures, vigorous moss layers, and long fire-return intervals. However, very few studies have provided field-measured data for these mostly remote regions. Hence, C cycling models such as the Carbon Budget Model of the Canadian Forest Sector (CBM-CFS3) have rarely been validated with field data from northern boreal forest soils, resulting in large uncertainties for estimated C stocks in a large proportion of the boreal forest ecozone. We present (i) measured data on organic layer and mineral soil (0-45 cm) C stocks in 18 old-growth and disturbed high-boreal black spruce stands in Labrador, Canada; (ii) a comparison of field-measured soil C stocks with those predicted using the CBM-CFS3; and (iii) special characteristics of the DOM and soil C dynamics of northern boreal forest soils that require modifications of model parameters and structure. Measured organic layer C stocks (30.4-47.4 Mg C ha-1) were within the range reported for other boreal forests. However, mineral soil C stocks (121.5-208.1 Mg C ha-1) contributed 58-76% to total ecosystem C stocks. Mineral soil C stocks were thus considerably higher than observed in other upland boreal forests in drier or warmer regions, but similar to values reported for black spruce on poorly drained sites and peat soils. In addition, large amounts of deadwood C (4.7-18.2 Mg C ha-1) were found to be buried within the organic layer, contributing up to 31% to total organic layer C stocks. The comparison of field-measured and CBM-CFS3 modeled C stocks showed that organic layer and mineral soil DOM in Labrador black spruce stands likely decays at lower rates than assumed by CBM

  10. Comparing aerodynamic efficiency in birds and bats suggests better flight performance in birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian T Muijres

    Full Text Available Flight is one of the energetically most costly activities in the animal kingdom, suggesting that natural selection should work to optimize flight performance. The similar size and flight speed of birds and bats may therefore suggest convergent aerodynamic performance; alternatively, flight performance could be restricted by phylogenetic constraints. We test which of these scenarios fit to two measures of aerodynamic flight efficiency in two passerine bird species and two New World leaf-nosed bat species. Using time-resolved particle image velocimetry measurements of the wake of the animals flying in a wind tunnel, we derived the span efficiency, a metric for the efficiency of generating lift, and the lift-to-drag ratio, a metric for mechanical energetic flight efficiency. We show that the birds significantly outperform the bats in both metrics, which we ascribe to variation in aerodynamic function of body and wing upstroke: Bird bodies generated relatively more lift than bat bodies, resulting in a more uniform spanwise lift distribution and higher span efficiency. A likely explanation would be that the bat ears and nose leaf, associated with echolocation, disturb the flow over the body. During the upstroke, the birds retract their wings to make them aerodynamically inactive, while the membranous bat wings generate thrust and negative lift. Despite the differences in performance, the wake morphology of both birds and bats resemble the optimal wake for their respective lift-to-drag ratio regimes. This suggests that evolution has optimized performance relative to the respective conditions of birds and bats, but that maximum performance is possibly limited by phylogenetic constraints. Although ecological differences between birds and bats are subjected to many conspiring variables, the different aerodynamic flight efficiency for the bird and bat species studied here may help explain why birds typically fly faster, migrate more frequently and migrate

  11. Ammonoid Succession of Setorym River (Verkhoyansk Area) and Problem of PermianTriassic Boundary in Boreal Realm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The presence of a single Otoceras species (O. boreale), morphologically very variable, at the base of the Nekuchan Formation in Verkhoyansk, we believe, is to be obvious. Some morphological evidence leaves no doubt that two described morphs of O. boreale are a strictly corresponding sexual dimorphic pair. It is very likely that Kummel's idea that Canadian O. concavum Tozer is an invalid species is truthful, considering the range of variability seen in larger Siberian and Himalayan Otoceras fauna.Just above the upper Tatarian Imtachan Formation, the six stages of ammonoid succession can be recognized within the lower part of the Nekuchan Formation in the Setorym River Section: (a) Otoceras boreale ; (b) Otoceras boreale - Tom po phiceras pascoei ; (c) Otoceras boreale - Tom po phiceras pascoei Aldanoceras ; (d) Tompophiceras pascoei -Otoceras boreale - Aldanoceras ; ( e) Tompophiceras morpheous - T. pascoei - Aldanoceras ; (f) Tom po phiceras mor pheous - T. pascoei - Wordieoceras domokhotovi -Ophiceras transitorium ; (g) Tompophiceras morpheous - T. pascoei, corresponding to the Otoceras boreale and Tompophiceras morpheous zones. In spite of the domination of Otocerataceae or Xenodiscaceae in both of these zones and the presence of some Permian type conodonts in the lower part of the Otoceras boreale Zone, they seem to be early Induan in age on the basis of the following arguments: (1) in contrast to the underlying regressive type sediments of the Upper Tatarian Imtachan Formation, both the Otoceras boreale and the Tompophiceras morpheous zones of the lowermost part of the Nekuchan Formation correspond to the single transgressive cycle; (2) typical early Induan ammonoids (Ophiceras and Wordieoceras) have been recognized in the Tompophiceras morpheous zone;(3) all described ammonoid succession stages (a-g) are characterized by very gradual changes and therefore correspond to the different parts of the single zone or to the different zones of the same stage,but not

  12. Osedax borings in fossil marine bird bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Steffen; Kahl, Wolf-Achim; Goedert, James L.

    2011-01-01

    The bone-eating marine annelid Osedax consumes mainly whale bones on the deep-sea floor, but recent colonization experiments with cow bones and molecular age estimates suggesting a possible Cretaceous origin of Osedax indicate that this worm might be able grow on a wider range of substrates. The suggested Cretaceous origin was thought to imply that Osedax could colonize marine reptile or fish bones, but there is currently no evidence that Osedax consumes bones other than those of mammals. We provide the first evidence that Osedax was, and most likely still is, able to consume non-mammalian bones, namely bird bones. Borings resembling those produced by living Osedax were found in bones of early Oligocene marine flightless diving birds (family Plotopteridae). The species that produced these boreholes had a branching filiform root that grew to a length of at least 3 mm, and lived in densities of up to 40 individuals per square centimeter. The inclusion of bird bones into the diet of Osedax has interesting implications for the recent suggestion of a Cretaceous origin of this worm because marine birds have existed continuously since the Cretaceous. Bird bones could have enabled this worm to survive times in the Earth's history when large marine vertebrates other than fish were rare, specifically after the disappearance of large marine reptiles at the end-Cretaceous mass extinction event and before the rise of whales in the Eocene.

  13. Comparing bird and human soaring strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Akos, Zsuzsa; Vicsek, Tamas; 10.1073/pnas.0707711105

    2009-01-01

    Gliding saves much energy, and to make large distances using only this form of flight represents a great challenge for both birds and people. The solution is to make use of the so-called thermals, which are localized, warmer regions in the atmosphere moving upwards with a speed exceeding the descent rate of bird and plane. Whereas birds use this technique mainly for foraging, humans do it as a sporting activity. Thermalling involves efficient optimization including the skilful localization of thermals, trying to guess the most favorable route, estimating the best descending rate, etc. In this study, we address the question whether there are any analogies between the solutions birds and humans find to handle the above task. High-resolution track logs were taken from thermalling falcons and paraglider pilots to determine the essential parameters of the flight patterns. We find that there are relevant common features in the ways birds and humans use thermals. In particular, falcons seem to reproduce the MacCread...

  14. Ultra-Rapid Vision in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boström, Jannika E; Dimitrova, Marina; Canton, Cindy; Håstad, Olle; Qvarnström, Anna; Ödeen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Flying animals need to accurately detect, identify and track fast-moving objects and these behavioral requirements are likely to strongly select for abilities to resolve visual detail in time. However, evidence of highly elevated temporal acuity relative to non-flying animals has so far been confined to insects while it has been missing in birds. With behavioral experiments on three wild passerine species, blue tits, collared and pied flycatchers, we demonstrate temporal acuities of vision far exceeding predictions based on the sizes and metabolic rates of these birds. This implies a history of strong natural selection on temporal resolution. These birds can resolve alternating light-dark cycles at up to 145 Hz (average: 129, 127 and 137, respectively), which is ca. 50 Hz over the highest frequency shown in any other vertebrate. We argue that rapid vision should confer a selective advantage in many bird species that are ecologically similar to the three species examined in our study. Thus, rapid vision may be a more typical avian trait than the famously sharp vision found in birds of prey. PMID:26990087

  15. Ultra-Rapid Vision in Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boström, Jannika E.; Dimitrova, Marina; Canton, Cindy; Håstad, Olle; Qvarnström, Anna; Ödeen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Flying animals need to accurately detect, identify and track fast-moving objects and these behavioral requirements are likely to strongly select for abilities to resolve visual detail in time. However, evidence of highly elevated temporal acuity relative to non-flying animals has so far been confined to insects while it has been missing in birds. With behavioral experiments on three wild passerine species, blue tits, collared and pied flycatchers, we demonstrate temporal acuities of vision far exceeding predictions based on the sizes and metabolic rates of these birds. This implies a history of strong natural selection on temporal resolution. These birds can resolve alternating light-dark cycles at up to 145 Hz (average: 129, 127 and 137, respectively), which is ca. 50 Hz over the highest frequency shown in any other vertebrate. We argue that rapid vision should confer a selective advantage in many bird species that are ecologically similar to the three species examined in our study. Thus, rapid vision may be a more typical avian trait than the famously sharp vision found in birds of prey. PMID:26990087

  16. Ultra-Rapid Vision in Birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannika E Boström

    Full Text Available Flying animals need to accurately detect, identify and track fast-moving objects and these behavioral requirements are likely to strongly select for abilities to resolve visual detail in time. However, evidence of highly elevated temporal acuity relative to non-flying animals has so far been confined to insects while it has been missing in birds. With behavioral experiments on three wild passerine species, blue tits, collared and pied flycatchers, we demonstrate temporal acuities of vision far exceeding predictions based on the sizes and metabolic rates of these birds. This implies a history of strong natural selection on temporal resolution. These birds can resolve alternating light-dark cycles at up to 145 Hz (average: 129, 127 and 137, respectively, which is ca. 50 Hz over the highest frequency shown in any other vertebrate. We argue that rapid vision should confer a selective advantage in many bird species that are ecologically similar to the three species examined in our study. Thus, rapid vision may be a more typical avian trait than the famously sharp vision found in birds of prey.

  17. Ultra-Rapid Vision in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boström, Jannika E; Dimitrova, Marina; Canton, Cindy; Håstad, Olle; Qvarnström, Anna; Ödeen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Flying animals need to accurately detect, identify and track fast-moving objects and these behavioral requirements are likely to strongly select for abilities to resolve visual detail in time. However, evidence of highly elevated temporal acuity relative to non-flying animals has so far been confined to insects while it has been missing in birds. With behavioral experiments on three wild passerine species, blue tits, collared and pied flycatchers, we demonstrate temporal acuities of vision far exceeding predictions based on the sizes and metabolic rates of these birds. This implies a history of strong natural selection on temporal resolution. These birds can resolve alternating light-dark cycles at up to 145 Hz (average: 129, 127 and 137, respectively), which is ca. 50 Hz over the highest frequency shown in any other vertebrate. We argue that rapid vision should confer a selective advantage in many bird species that are ecologically similar to the three species examined in our study. Thus, rapid vision may be a more typical avian trait than the famously sharp vision found in birds of prey.

  18. Arthropod but not bird predation in ethiopian homegardens is higher in tree-poor than in tree-rich landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debissa Lemessa

    Full Text Available Bird and arthropod predation is often associated with natural pest control in agricultural landscapes, but the rates of predation may vary with the amount of tree cover or other environmental factors. We examined bird and arthropod predation in three tree-rich and three tree-poor landscapes across southwestern Ethiopia. Within each landscape we selected three tree-rich and three tree-poor homegardens in which we recorded the number of tree species and tree stems within 100 × 100 m surrounding the central house. To estimate predation rates, we attached plasticine caterpillars on leaves of two coffee and two avocado shrubs in each homegarden, and recorded the number of attacked caterpillars for 7-9 consecutive weeks. The overall mean daily predation rate was 1.45% for birds and 1.60% for arthropods. The rates of arthropod predation varied among landscapes and were higher in tree-poor landscapes. There was no such difference for birds. Within landscapes, predation rates from birds and arthropods did not vary between tree-rich and tree-poor homegardens in either tree-rich or tree-poor landscapes. The most surprising result was the lack of response by birds to tree cover at either spatial scale. Our results suggest that in tree-poor landscapes there are still enough non-crop habitats to support predatory arthropods and birds to deliver strong top-down effect on crop pests.

  19. Arthropod but not bird predation in ethiopian homegardens is higher in tree-poor than in tree-rich landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemessa, Debissa; Hambäck, Peter A; Hylander, Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    Bird and arthropod predation is often associated with natural pest control in agricultural landscapes, but the rates of predation may vary with the amount of tree cover or other environmental factors. We examined bird and arthropod predation in three tree-rich and three tree-poor landscapes across southwestern Ethiopia. Within each landscape we selected three tree-rich and three tree-poor homegardens in which we recorded the number of tree species and tree stems within 100 × 100 m surrounding the central house. To estimate predation rates, we attached plasticine caterpillars on leaves of two coffee and two avocado shrubs in each homegarden, and recorded the number of attacked caterpillars for 7-9 consecutive weeks. The overall mean daily predation rate was 1.45% for birds and 1.60% for arthropods. The rates of arthropod predation varied among landscapes and were higher in tree-poor landscapes. There was no such difference for birds. Within landscapes, predation rates from birds and arthropods did not vary between tree-rich and tree-poor homegardens in either tree-rich or tree-poor landscapes. The most surprising result was the lack of response by birds to tree cover at either spatial scale. Our results suggest that in tree-poor landscapes there are still enough non-crop habitats to support predatory arthropods and birds to deliver strong top-down effect on crop pests. PMID:25961306

  20. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from migratory birds in Southern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skarpaas Tone

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l. are the causative agent for Lyme borreliosis (LB, the most common tick-borne disease in the northern hemisphere. Birds are considered important in the global dispersal of ticks and tick-borne pathogens through their migration. The present study is the first description of B. burgdorferi prevalence and genotypes in Ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on birds during spring and autumn migration in Norway. Methods 6538 migratory birds were captured and examined for ticks at Lista Bird Observatory during the spring and the autumn migration in 2008. 822 immature I. ricinus ticks were collected from 215 infested birds. Ticks were investigated for infection with B. burgdorferi s.l. by real-time PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene, and B. burgdorferi s.l. were thereafter genotyped by melting curve analysis after real-time PCR amplification of the hbb gene, or by direct sequencing of the PCR amplicon generated from the rrs (16S-rrl (23S intergenetic spacer. Results B. burgdorferi s.l. were detected in 4.4% of the ticks. The most prevalent B. burgdorferi genospecies identified were B. garinii (77.8%, followed by B.valaisiana (11.1%, B. afzelii (8.3% and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (2.8%. Conclusion Infection rate in ticks and genospecies composition were similar in spring and autumn migration, however, the prevalence of ticks on birds was higher during spring migration. The study supports the notion that birds are important in the dispersal of ticks, and that they may be partly responsible for the heterogeneous distribution of B. burgdorferi s.l. in Europe.

  1. The role of soil pH in linking groundwater flow and plant species density in boreal forest landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Zinko, Ursula; Dynesius, Mats; Nilsson, Christer; Seibert, Jan

    2006-01-01

    In hilly boreal landscapes topography governs groundwater flow which strongly influences soil development, and thus vegetation composition. Soil pH is known to correlate well with plant species density and composition, but in boreal forests this relationship has been little studied. Previously, we successfully used a topography-based hydrological index, the topographical wetness index (TWI), as an approximation of the variation in groundwater flow to predict local plant species density in a b...

  2. A visual pathway links brain structures active during magnetic compass orientation in migratory birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Heyers

    Full Text Available The magnetic compass of migratory birds has been suggested to be light-dependent. Retinal cryptochrome-expressing neurons and a forebrain region, "Cluster N", show high neuronal activity when night-migratory songbirds perform magnetic compass orientation. By combining neuronal tracing with behavioral experiments leading to sensory-driven gene expression of the neuronal activity marker ZENK during magnetic compass orientation, we demonstrate a functional neuronal connection between the retinal neurons and Cluster N via the visual thalamus. Thus, the two areas of the central nervous system being most active during magnetic compass orientation are part of an ascending visual processing stream, the thalamofugal pathway. Furthermore, Cluster N seems to be a specialized part of the visual wulst. These findings strongly support the hypothesis that migratory birds use their visual system to perceive the reference compass direction of the geomagnetic field and that migratory birds "see" the reference compass direction provided by the geomagnetic field.

  3. A visual pathway links brain structures active during magnetic compass orientation in migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyers, Dominik; Manns, Martina; Luksch, Harald; Güntürkün, Onur; Mouritsen, Henrik

    2007-09-26

    The magnetic compass of migratory birds has been suggested to be light-dependent. Retinal cryptochrome-expressing neurons and a forebrain region, "Cluster N", show high neuronal activity when night-migratory songbirds perform magnetic compass orientation. By combining neuronal tracing with behavioral experiments leading to sensory-driven gene expression of the neuronal activity marker ZENK during magnetic compass orientation, we demonstrate a functional neuronal connection between the retinal neurons and Cluster N via the visual thalamus. Thus, the two areas of the central nervous system being most active during magnetic compass orientation are part of an ascending visual processing stream, the thalamofugal pathway. Furthermore, Cluster N seems to be a specialized part of the visual wulst. These findings strongly support the hypothesis that migratory birds use their visual system to perceive the reference compass direction of the geomagnetic field and that migratory birds "see" the reference compass direction provided by the geomagnetic field.

  4. BIRD640: SCD's high sensitivity VGA VO x μ-bolometer detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraenkel, A.; Mizrahi, U.; Bikov, L.; Giladi, A.; Adin, A.; Shiloah, N.; Malkinson, E.; Czyzewski, T.; Amsterdam, A.; Sinai, Y.

    2007-10-01

    In this paper we report preliminary data of BIRD640, which is a high-sensitivity (50 mK @ F/1, 60Hz) VGA format detector with 25 μm pitch. This high performance is achieved by utilizing an improved pixel design. The product is architecturally compatible to BIRD384 and contains SCD's proprietary unique features (e.g. "Power-Save", Ambient drift compensation, etc.). The ROIC architecture follows the framework of the previous designs. It consists of an internal timing machine with a single clock that facilitates the system interface. Extensive effort was invested in reducing the detector and system power dissipation. The ROIC supports special "low power" modes, where considerable power is saved with only minor performance degradation. With its superior temporal sensitivity, long-term stability and operational flexibility BIRD640 serves as an ideal candidate for high end and high resolution uncooled VGA systems, particularly hand-held applications.

  5. Response of CH4 emission to moss removal and N addition in boreal peatland of Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. N. Meng

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Boreal peatlands are an important natural source of atmospheric methane (CH4. Recently, boreal peatlands have been experiencing increased nitrogen (N input and decreased moss production. However, little is known about the interactive effect of moss and N availability on CH4 emission in boreal peatlands. In this study, the effects of moss removal and N addition (6 g N m−2 yr−1 on CH4 emission were examined during the growing seasons of 2011 to 2013 in a boreal peatland in the Great Hinggan Mountain of Northeast China. Notably, the response of CH4 emission to moss removal and N addition varied with experimental duration. Moss removal and N addition did not affect CH4 emission in 2011 and 2012, but respectively declined CH4 emission by 50% and 66% in 2013. However, moss removal and N addition did not produce an interactive effect on CH4 emission. Specifically, moss removal plus N addition had no effect on CH4 emission in 2011 and 2012, but decreased CH4 emission by 68% in 2013. These results suggest that the effects of moss removal and N enrichment on CH4 emission are time-dependent in boreal peatlands, and also imply that increased N loading and decreased moss growth would independently inhibit CH4 emission in the boreal peatlands of Northeast China.

  6. Importance of the forest canopy to fluxes of methyl mercury and total mercury to boreal ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Louis, V L; Rudd, J W; Kelly, C A; Hall, B D; Rolfhus, K R; Scott, K J; Lindberg, S E; Dong, W

    2001-08-01

    The forest canopy was an important contributor to fluxes of methyl mercury (MeHg) and total mercury (THg) to the forest floor of boreal uplands and wetlands and potentially to downstream lakes, at the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA), northwestern Ontario. The estimated fluxes of MeHg and THg in throughfall plus litterfall below the forest canopy were 2 and 3 times greater than annual fluxes by direct wet deposition of MeHg (0.9 mg of MeHg ha(-1)) and THg (71 mg of THg ha(-1)). Almost all of the increased flux of MeHg and THg under the forest canopy occurred as litterfall (0.14-1.3 mg of MeHg ha(-1) yr(-1) and 110-220 mg of THg ha(-1) yr(-1)). Throughfall added no MeHg and approximately 9 mg of THg ha(-1) yr(-1) to wet deposition at ELA, unlike in other regions of the world where atmospheric deposition was more heavily contaminated. These data suggest that dry deposition of Hg on foliage as an aerosol or reactive gaseous Hg (RGM) species is low at ELA, a finding supported by preliminary measurements of RGM there. Annual total deposition from throughfall and litterfall under a fire-regenerated 19-yr-old jack pine/birch forest was 1.7 mg of MeHg ha(-1) and 200 mg of THg ha(-1). We found that average annual accumulation of MeHg and THg in the surficial litter/fungal layer of soils since the last forest fire varied between 0.6 and 1.6 mg of MeHg ha(-1) and between 130 and 590 mg of THg ha(-1) among sites differing in drainage and soil moisture. When soil Hg accumulation sites were matched with similar sites where litterfall and throughfall were collected, measured fluxes of THg to the forest floor (sources) were similar to our estimates of longterm soil accumulation rates (sinks), suggesting that the Hg in litterfall and throughfall is a new and not a recycled input of Hg to forested ecosystems. However, further research is required to determine the proportion of Hg in litterfall that is being biogeochemically recycled within forest and wetland ecosystems and, thus, does

  7. Behavior of emu bird (Dromaius novaehollandiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Patodkar

    Full Text Available Emu is the second largest living bird of world belonging to order Ratite. This order is of flightless birds with flat breast bone and it includes emu, ostrich, rhea, cassowary and kiwi. Emus are reared commercially in many parts of the world for their meat, oil, skin and feathers, which are of high economic value. The anatomical and physiological features of these birds appear to be suitable for temperate and tropical climatic conditions. Emu is newly introduced species in India. Although emu farming is considered to be economical, we have to study the behavior of emus to increase the profitability by providing housing, feeding and breeding facilities more or less same as that of in wild condition during their rearing in captivity and we will have to carry out comparative study of behavior in captivity as well as in wild condition. [Vet World 2009; 2(11.000: 439-440

  8. Phase Transitions in Models of Bird Flocking

    CERN Document Server

    Christodoulidi, H; Bountis, T

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to elucidate the transition from collective to random behavior exhibited by various mathematical models of bird flocking. In particular, we compare Vicsek's model [Viscek et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1226 -- 1229 (1995)] with one based on topological considerations. The latter model is found to exhibit a first order phase transition from flocking to decoherence, as the 'noise parameter' of the problem is increased, whereas Viscek's model gives a second order transition. Refining the topological model in such a way that birds are influenced mostly by the birds in front of them, less by the ones at their sides and not at all by those behind them (because they do not see them), we find a behavior that lies in between the two models. Finally, we propose a novel mechanism for preserving the flock's cohesion, without imposing artificial boundary conditions or attracting forces.

  9. Chlamydia psittaci in birds of prey, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Blomqvist

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chlamydia psittaci is an intracellular bacterium primarily causing respiratory diseases in birds but may also be transmitted to other animals, including humans. The prevalence of the pathogen in wild birds in Sweden is largely unknown. Methods: DNA was extracted from cloacae swabs and screened for C. psittaci by using a 23S rRNA gene PCR assay. Partial 16S rRNA and ompA gene fragments were sequence determined and phylogenies were analysed by the neighbour-joining method. Results and conclusion: The C. psittaci prevalence was 1.3% in 319 Peregrine Falcons and White-tailed Sea Eagles, vulnerable top-predators in Sweden. 16S rRNA and ompA gene analysis showed that novel Chlamydia species, as well as novel C. psittaci strains, are to be found among wild birds.

  10. Results of the influenza virus surveillance in wild birds in Western part of Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marchenko V Yu; Otgonbaatar D; Shestopalov AM; Alekseev A Yu; Tserennorov D; Yurlov AK; Susloparov IM; Sharshov KA; Ilyinykh FA; Zolotykh SI; Abmed D

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To present results of virological study of wild birds inhabiting Western Mongolia. Methods: Over a period of 2003-2008, we isolated 13 influenza A viruses: H1N1, H3N6, H13N8 and H4N6 subtypes. We did not isolate any H5N1 subtype, that still cause epizooty in wild birds and poultry.Results: We revealed taxonomic and ecological heterogeneity of the birds involved in maintenance of circulation of influenza viruses in the given territory. Influenza viruses were isolated from birds of 6 orders; among them there are species preferring water and semi-aquatic biotopes, one species preferring dry plain region, and also one species which can inhabit both dry and water biotopes.Conclusions: Representatives of all main orders of Western Mongolia avifauna are involved in support of influenza A virus circulation, highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses were registered in Mongolia thus it's necessary to continue permanent influenza virus surveillance in wild birds' populations.

  11. Habitat fragmentation and effects of herbivore (howler monkey) abundances on bird species richness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeley, Kenneth J; Terborgh, John W

    2006-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation can alter herbivore abundances, potentially causing changes in the plant community that can propagate through the food web and eventually influence other important taxonomic groups such as birds. Here we test the relationship between the density of red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus) and bird species richness on a large set of recently isolated land-bridge islands in Lago Guri, Venezuela (n = 29 islands). Several of these islands host relict populations of howler monkeys at densities up to more than 30 times greater than those on the mainland. These "hyperabundant" herbivores previously have been shown to have a strong positive influence on aboveground plant productivity. We predicted that this should lead to a positive, indirect effect of howler monkey density on bird species richness. After accounting for passive sampling (the tendency for species richness to be positively associated with island area, regardless of differences in habitat quality) we found a significant positive correlation between howler monkey density and bird species richness. A path analysis incorporating data on tree growth rates from a subset of islands (n = 9) supported the hypothesis that the effect of howler monkeys on the resident bird communities is indirect and is mediated through changes in plant productivity and habitat quality. These results highlight the potential for disparate taxonomic groups to be related through indirect interactions and trophic cascades. PMID:16634305

  12. Bird communities of natural and modified habitats in Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, L.J.; Petit, D.R.; Christian, D.G.; Powell, H.D.W.

    1999-01-01

    Only a small proportion of land can realistically be protected as nature reserves and thus conservation efforts also must focus on the ecological value of agroecosystems and developed areas surrounding nature reserves. In this study, avian communities were surveyed in 11 habitat types in central Panama, across a gradient from extensive forest to intensive agricultural land uses, to examine patterns of species richness and abundance and community composition. Wooded habitats, including extensive and fragmented forests, shade coffee plantations, and residential areas supported the most species and individuals. Nearctic-Neotropical migratory species were most numerous in lowland forest fragments, shade coffee, and residential areas. Introduced Pinus caribbea and sugar cane plantations supported the fewest species compared to all other habitats. Cattle pastures left fallow for less than two years supported more than twice as many total species as actively grazed pastures, such that species richness in fallow pastures was similar to that found in wooded habitats. Community similarities were relatively low among all habitat types (none exceeding the observed 65% similarity between extensive and fragmented lowland forests), but communities in shade coffee and residential areas were 43% and 54% similar to lowland forest fragments, respectively. Fallow pastures and residential areas shared 60% of their species. Bird communities in shade coffee and residential areas were characterized by higher proportions of frugivorous and nectarivorous species than in native forests. These same guilds also were better represented in fallow than in grazed pastures. Raptors and piscivorous species were most prevalent in cattle pastures and rice fields. These results, though based upon only species richness and abundance, demonstrate that many human-altered habitats have potential ecological value for birds, and conservation efforts in tropical areas should focus greater attention on

  13. Determination of the biogenic secondary organic aerosol fraction in the boreal forest by AMS and NMR measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finessi, E.; Decesari, S.; Paglione, M.; Giulianelli, L.; Carbone, C.; Gilardoni, S.; Fuzzi, S.; Saarikoski, S.; Raatikainen, T.; Hillamo, R.; Allan, J.; Mentel, Th. F.; Tiitta, P.; Laaksonen, A.; Petäjä, T.; Kulmala, M.; Worsnop, D. R.; Facchini, M. C.

    2011-08-01

    The study investigates the sources of fine organic aerosol (OA) in the boreal forest, based on measurements including both filter sampling (PM1) and online methods and carried out during a one-month campaign held in Hyytiälä, Finland, in spring 2007. Two aerosol mass spectrometers (Q-AMS, ToF-AMS) were employed to measure on-line air mass concentrations of major non-refractory aerosol species, while the water extracts of the filter samples were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy for organic functional group characterization of the polar organic fraction of the aerosol. AMS and NMR spectra were processed separately by non-negative factorization algorithms, in order to apportion the main components underlying the submicrometer organic aerosol composition and depict them in terms of both mass fragmentation patterns and functional group compositions. The NMR results supported the AMS speciation of oxidized organic aerosol (OOA) into two main fractions, which could be generally labelled as more and less oxidized organics. The more oxidized component was characterized by a mass spectrum dominated by the m/z 44 peak, and in parallel by a NMR spectrum showing aromatic and aliphatic backbones highly substituted with oxygenated functional groups (carbonyls/carboxyls and hydroxyls). Such component, contributing on average 50 % of the OA mass throughout the observing period, was associated with pollution outbreaks from the Central Europe. The less oxidized component showed features consistent with less oxygenated aerosols and was enhanced in concomitance with air masses originating from the North-to-West sector, in agreement with previous investigations conducted at this site. NMR factor analysis was able to separate two distinct components under the less oxidized fraction of OA. One of these NMR-factors was associated to the formation of terrestrial biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA), based on the comparison with spectral profiles obtained from

  14. The physiological basis of bird flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Patrick J

    2016-09-26

    Flapping flight is energetically more costly than running, although it is less costly to fly a given body mass a given distance per unit time than it is for a similar mass to run the same distance per unit time. This is mainly because birds can fly faster than they can run. Oxygen transfer and transport are enhanced in migrating birds compared with those in non-migrators: at the gas-exchange regions of the lungs the effective area is greater and the diffusion distance smaller. Also, migrating birds have larger hearts and haemoglobin concentrations in the blood, and capillary density in the flight muscles tends to be higher. Species like bar-headed geese migrate at high altitudes, where the availability of oxygen is reduced and the energy cost of flapping flight increased compared with those at sea level. Physiological adaptations to these conditions include haemoglobin with a higher affinity for oxygen than that in lowland birds, a greater effective ventilation of the gas-exchange surface of the lungs and a greater capillary-to-muscle fibre ratio. Migrating birds use fatty acids as their source of energy, so they have to be transported at a sufficient rate to meet the high demand. Since fatty acids are insoluble in water, birds maintain high concentrations of fatty acid-binding proteins to transport fatty acids across the cell membrane and within the cytoplasm. The concentrations of these proteins, together with that of a key enzyme in the β-oxidation of fatty acids, increase before migration.This article is part of the themed issue 'Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight'.

  15. Multidrug resistant yeasts in synanthropic wild birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somanath Sushela

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of multidrug resistant yeasts in the faeces of synanthropic wild birds from the Bangsar suburb of Kuala Lumpur. Methods Species characterisations of yeast isolates and determinations of antimycotic susceptibility profiles were undertaken using the commercial characterization kit, Integral System Yeasts Plus (Liofilchem, Italy. Results Fourteen species of yeasts were detected in the bird faecal samples.Candida albicans was present in 28.89% of bird faecal samples, Candida krusei (13.33%, Candida tropicalis (4.44%, Candida glabrata (4.44%, Candida parapsilosis (2.22%, Candida lambica (2.22%, Candida stellatoidea (2.22%, Candida rugosa (2.22% and Candida lusitaniae (2.22%. Amongst the non-candidal yeast isolates, Cryptococcus laurentii was present in 6.67% of bird faecal samples, Cryptococcus uniguttulatus (4.44%, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (4.44%, Trichosporon pullulans (2.22%, Trichosporon pullulans/Cryptococcus albidus (8.89% and Rhodotorula rubra/Rhodotorula glutinis (4.44%. Of the isolated yeasts, 18.1% (or 26/144 were found to be resistant to all 11 antimycotic agents they were tested against i.e. Nystatin, Amphotericin B, Flucytosine, Econazole, Ketoconazole, Clotrimazole, Miconazole, Itraconazole, Voriconazole, Fluconazole 16 and Fluconazole 64. 45.8% (or 66/144 of the bird faecal yeast isolates were resistant to four or more of the 11 antimycotic agents they were tested against. Conclusions This finding is of public health significance as these synanthropic wild birds may be reservoirs for transmission of drug resistant yeast infections to humans.

  16. Traffic effects on bird counts on North American Breeding Bird Survey routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Emily H.; Sauer, John R.; Royle, J. Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) is an annual roadside survey used to estimate population change in >420 species of birds that breed in North America. Roadside sampling has been criticized, in part because traffic noise can interfere with bird counts. Since 1997, data have been collected on the numbers of vehicles that pass during counts at each stop. We assessed the effect of traffic by modeling total vehicles as a covariate of counts in hierarchical Poisson regression models used to estimate population change. We selected species for analysis that represent birds detected at low and high abundance and birds with songs of low and high frequencies. Increases in vehicle counts were associated with decreases in bird counts in most of the species examined. The size and direction of these effects remained relatively constant between two alternative models that we analyzed. Although this analysis indicated only a small effect of incorporating traffic effects when modeling roadside counts of birds, we suggest that continued evaluation of changes in traffic at BBS stops should be a component of future BBS analyses.

  17. Weather, not climate, defines distributions of vagile bird species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April E Reside

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accurate predictions of species distributions are essential for climate change impact assessments. However the standard practice of using long-term climate averages to train species distribution models might mute important temporal patterns of species distribution. The benefit of using temporally explicit weather and distribution data has not been assessed. We hypothesized that short-term weather associated with the time a species was recorded should be superior to long-term climate measures for predicting distributions of mobile species. METHODOLOGY: We tested our hypothesis by generating distribution models for 157 bird species found in Australian tropical savannas (ATS using modelling algorithm Maxent. The variable weather of the ATS supports a bird assemblage with variable movement patterns and a high incidence of nomadism. We developed "weather" models by relating climatic variables (mean temperature, rainfall, rainfall seasonality and temperature seasonality from the three month, six month and one year period preceding each bird record over a 58 year period (1950-2008. These weather models were compared against models built using long-term (30 year averages of the same climatic variables. CONCLUSIONS: Weather models consistently achieved higher model scores than climate models, particularly for wide-ranging, nomadic and desert species. Climate models predicted larger range areas for species, whereas weather models quantified fluctuations in habitat suitability across months, seasons and years. Models based on long-term climate averages over-estimate availability of suitable habitat and species' climatic tolerances, masking species potential vulnerability to climate change. Our results demonstrate that dynamic approaches to distribution modelling, such as incorporating organism-appropriate temporal scales, improves understanding of species distributions.

  18. Birds and frogs in mathematics and physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some scientists are birds, others are frogs. Birds fly high in the air and survey broad vistas of mathematics out to the far horizon. They delight in concepts that unify our thinking and bring together diverse problems from different parts of the landscape. Frogs live in the mud below and see only the flowers that grow nearby. They delight in the details of particular objects, and they solve problems one at a time. A brief history of mathematics and its applications in physics is presented in this article. (from the history of physics)

  19. Avian influenza surveillance of wild birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slota, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The President's National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza directs federal agencies to expand the surveillance of United States domestic livestock and wildlife to ensure early warning of hightly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in the U.S. The immediate concern is a potential introduction of HPAI H5N1 virus into the U.S. The presidential directive resulted in the U.S. Interagency Strategic Plan for Early Detection of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Wild Migratory Birds (referred to as the Wild Bird Surveillance Plan or the Plan).

  20. Blood protozoa of free-living birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C.M.; McDiarmid, Archibald

    1969-01-01

    Blood protozoa were first reported from wild birds in 1884. Since then numerous surveys throughout the world have demonstrated their presence in a wide variety of hosts and localities with continuing designations of new species. Taxonomic determinations include parasites in the genera Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon, Babesia, Lankesterella and Trypanosoma. Transmission of Plasmodium by mosquitoes was demonstrated with a bird parasite before these insects were proven as vectors of human malaria. All the genera under consideration require an insect vector to complete their life-cycles and susceptible vectors have been demonstrated. Most experimental work on the blood protozoa of birds has been carried on with captive birds. An extensive volume of research has been conducted on Plasmodium because of its close similarity to malaria in man. Field studies that would provide information on the epizootiology of occurrence of these parasites in wild populations have been very limited, mainly confined to single blood film surveys. Such data are inadequate to provide an understanding of true prevalence or incidence or of factual knowledge of their impact on the wild population. Mechanisms for procuring such information are available in some cases and can be developed to fit other situations. Isodiagnosis, inoculation of blood from wild birds into susceptible captive hosts, has revealed a prevalence of over 60 % for Plasmodium in situations where microscope examination of single peripheral blood preparations yielded less than 1 %. Culture of bone marrow collected by biopsy demonstrates high prevalence of trypanosomes even when none are evident from microscopic examination of blood. Often preparations of tissues collected at necropsy reveal Leucocytozoon and Lankesterella when examination of peripheral blood gave no indication of infection. Methods developed by bird ringers provide techniques for obtaining repeat examinations of free-living birds that can yield further