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Sample records for bordetella bronchiseptica pneumonia

  1. Bordetella bronchiseptica and fatal pneumonia of dogs and cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordetella bronchiseptica frequently causes nonfatal tracheobronchitis, but its role in fatal pneumonia is less well-studied. The objectives of this study were to identify the frequency of Bordetella bronchiseptica infection in fatal cases of bronchopneumonia in dogs and cats and to compare the diag...

  2. Cilia-associated bacteria in fatal Bordetella bronchiseptica pneumonia of dogs and cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordetella bronchiseptica frequently causes nonfatal tracheobronchitis, but its role in fatal pneumonia is less well-studied. The objectives of this study were to identify the frequency of Bordetella bronchiseptica infection in fatal cases of bronchopneumonia in dogs and cats and to compare the diag...

  3. Canine distemper virus infection with secondary Bordetella bronchiseptica pneumonia in dogs Infecção pelo virus da cinomose com pneumonia secundária por Bordetella bronchiseptica em cães

    OpenAIRE

    Selwyn Arlington Headley; Dominguita Lühers Graça; Mateus Matiuzzi da Costa; Agueda Castagna de Vargas

    1999-01-01

    Canine distemper virus infection and secondary Bordetella bronchiseptica pneumonia are described in mongrel dogs. Canine distemper was characterised by nonsuppurative demyelinating encephalitis with typical inclusion bodies in astrocytes. B. bronchiseptica was isolated from areas of purulent bronchopneumonia.São descritas as infecções simultâneas do vírus da cinomose canina e Bordetella bronchiseptica em caninos sem raça definida. As lesões de cinomose foram caracterizadas por encefalite desm...

  4. Cilia-associated bacteria in fatal Bordetella bronchiseptica pneumonia of dogs and cats.

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    Taha-Abdelaziz, Khaled; Bassel, Laura L; Harness, Melanie L; Clark, Mary Ellen; Register, Karen B; Caswell, Jeff L

    2016-07-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica frequently causes nonfatal tracheobronchitis, but its role in fatal pneumonia is less recognized. Our study evaluated histologic identification of cilia-associated bacteria as a method for diagnosis of B. bronchiseptica pneumonia. Cases of fatal bronchopneumonia were studied retrospectively, excluding neonates and cases of aspiration pneumonia, minor lung lesions, or autolysis. The study population comprised 36 canine and 31 feline cases of bronchopneumonia. B. bronchiseptica was identified in 8 of 36 canine and 14 of 31 feline cases based on immunohistochemistry (IHC) using serum from a rabbit hyperimmunized with pertactin, PCR testing (Fla2/Fla12), and/or bacterial culture data when available. Of these, IHC was positive in 4 canine and 7 feline cases, PCR was positive in 8 canine and 14 feline cases, and B. bronchiseptica was isolated in 2 of 5 canine and 3 of 9 feline cases tested. Examination of histologic sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin revealed bronchial cilia-associated bacteria in 4 of 36 canine and 5 of 31 feline cases; these were all positive by IHC and PCR. The presence of cilia-associated bacteria had been noted in the pathology report for only 2 of these 9 cases. Thus, the presence of cilia-associated bacteria seems frequently overlooked by pathologists, but is a diagnostically significant feature of B. bronchiseptica pneumonia. A specific diagnosis of B. bronchiseptica pneumonia is important because it suggests primary or opportunistic bacterial pneumonia rather than aspiration pneumonia, and because of the risk of animal-to-animal transmission of B. bronchiseptica, the availability of vaccines for disease prevention, and the potential zoonotic risk to immunocompromised pet owners. PMID:27178716

  5. Bordetella bronchiseptica Pneumonia in an Extremely-Low-Birth-Weight Neonate.

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    Ting, Yuk Joseph; Ho, Pak-Leung; Wong, Kar-Yin

    2011-12-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica, a gram-negative coccobacillus, is a common veterinary pathogen. In both domestic and wild animals, this bacterium causes respiratory infections including infectious tracheobronchitis in dogs and atrophic rhinitis in swine. Human infections are rare and have been documented in immunocompromised hosts. Here, we describe an extremely-low-birth-weight infant with B. bronchiseptica pneumonia. This is the first report that describes the microorganism's responsibility in causing nosocomial infection in a preterm neonate. He recovered uneventfully after a course of meropenem. It is possible that the bacteria colonize the respiratory tracts of our health care workers or parents who may have had contact with pets and then transmitted the bacterium to our patient. Follow-up until 21 months of age showed normal growth and development. He did not suffer from any significant residual respiratory disease. PMID:23705092

  6. Bordetella bronchiseptica Pneumonia in an Infant and Genetic Comparison of Clinical Isolates with Veterinary Kennel Cough Vaccines

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    An infant with recurrent episodes of respiratory failure was diagnosed with pertussis based on immunofluorescence testing, but culture revealed macrolide-resistant Bordetella bronchiseptica. Genetic analysis demonstrated that the child was not infected with a kennel cough vaccine strain, although th...

  7. Phenotypic variation and modulation in Bordetella bronchiseptica.

    OpenAIRE

    Peppler, M S; Schrumpf, M E

    1984-01-01

    Most of the isolates of Bordetella bronchiseptica obtained by this laboratory possessed a characteristic colonial morphology when grown on Bordet- Gengou agar (BGA) at 37 degrees C. The colonies appeared domed (Dom+) with a smooth colonial surface (Scs+) and a clear zone of hemolysis ( Hly +). From these Dom+ Scs+ Hly + BGA colony types arose flat (Dom-), smooth colonial surface (Scs+) and nonhemolytic ( Hly -) variants at frequencies of 10(-2) to 10(-3). Isogenic pairs of Dom+ Scs+ Hly + and...

  8. Association between Pneumocystis spp. and co-infections with Bordetella bronchiseptica, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida in Austrian pigs with pneumonia.

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    Kureljušić, B; Weissenbacher-Lang, C; Nedorost, N; Stixenberger, D; Weissenböck, H

    2016-01-01

    In this retrospective study, 218 pig lung tissue samples were analyzed to examine a possible association between Pneumocystis spp. using in situ hybridization, Bordetella bronchiseptica (B.b.) using immunohistochemistry (IHC), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M.h.) by quantitative PCR, and Pasteurella multocida (P.m.; IHC). Compared to the bacterial agents (B.b., 5%; M.h., 30%; P.m., 23%), Pneumocystis occurred with a higher prevalence (51%). Co-infections with two or three pathogens were present in 28% of the examined cases. Those of Pneumocystis and M.h. were most commonly seen, followed by Pneumocystis and P.m. and M.h. and P.m. Histologically, interstitial pneumonia was found in both the Pneumocystis positive lungs and lungs with a mild M.h. infection. The B.b. and P.m. positive lungs were mainly associated with suppurative bronchopneumonia and severe M.h. cases with fibrinous or fibrino-haemorrhagic pneumonia. In suckling piglets, the number of samples positive for Pneumocystis predominated, whereas samples from fattening pigs were mainly positive for bacteria or Pneumocystis and bacteria. PMID:26654847

  9. Epithelial cell invasion and survival of Bordetella bronchiseptica.

    OpenAIRE

    SCHIPPER, H; Krohne, G F; R. Gross

    1994-01-01

    Wild-type Bordetella bronchiseptica and a bvg mutant strain were used for invasion and survival experiments in human Caco-2 and A549 epithelial cells. Both bacterial strains were able to enter and persist within the host cells for at least a week. A significant proportion of the bacteria from both B. bronchiseptica strains but not from Bordetella pertussis were found free in the cytoplasm, suggesting different invasion and survival strategies of the two species in epithelial cells.

  10. Properties of dermonecrotic toxin prepared from sonic extracts Bordetella bronchiseptica.

    OpenAIRE

    Kume, K.; Nakai, T.; Samejima, Y; Sugimoto, C

    1986-01-01

    A toxin with dermonecrotic activity (DNT) was purified from sonic extracts of Bordetella bronchiseptica L3 of pig origin at phase I by chromatographic and electrophoretic methods. The purification procedure was one developed for obtaining the Pasteurella multocida DNT from sonic extracts with some modifications. Dermonecrotizing activity of B. bronchiseptica-purified DNT was increased by 600-fold compared with that of the crude extract, and the average yield was about 3%. The toxin was homoge...

  11. Bordetella bronchiseptica phase variation induced by crystal violet.

    OpenAIRE

    Ishikawa, H.; Isayama, Y

    1986-01-01

    A method for effective induction of phase variation in Bordetella bronchiseptica by treatment with crystal violet (CV) is presented. When grown in CV-broth, phase I cells dissociated into three serial phases. Appearance of variant cells was observed simultaneously with the beginning of cell multiplication. The maximum effect of CV was obtained at a concentration of 8 micrograms/ml, when the proportion of variants in the population reached 100%. The main factors which affected phase variation ...

  12. [Bordetella bronchiseptica recurrent bacteraemia in a patient with bone marrow transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverri-Toro, Lina; Arango, Andrés; Ospina, Sigifredo; Agudelo, Carlos

    2015-09-01

    We report a case of recurrent bacteraemia caused by Bordetella bronchiseptica in an immunocompromised patient with a history of allogenic bone marrow transplantation for myelodysplastic syndrome, who was admitted to hospital with febrile syndrome. Bordetella bronchiseptica is an uncommon human pathogen which mainly affects immunocompromised patients, being a rare cause of bacteraemia. PMID:26849691

  13. Polymorphisms influencing expression of dermonecrotic toxin in Bordetella bronchiseptica.

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    Keisuke Okada

    Full Text Available Bordetella bronchiseptica is a pathogenic bacterium causing respiratory infections in a broad range of mammals. Recently, we determined the whole genome sequence of B. bronchiseptica S798 strain isolated from a pig infected with atrophic rhinitis and found four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs at positions -129, -72, +22, and +38 in the region upstream of dnt encoding dermonecrotic toxin (DNT, when compared with a rabbit isolate, RB50. DNT is known to be involved in turbinate atrophy observed in atrophic rhinitis. Immunoblotting, quantitative real-time PCR, and β-galactosidase reporter assay revealed that these SNPs resulted in the increased promoter activity of dnt and conferred the increased ability to produce DNT on the bacteria. Similar or identical SNPs were also found in other pig isolates kept in our laboratory, all of which produce a larger amount of DNT than RB50. Our analysis revealed that substitution of at least two of the four bases, at positions -72 and +22, influenced the promoter activity for dnt. These results imply that these SNPs are involved in the pathogenicity of bordetellae specific to pig diseases.

  14. Identification of Bordetella bronchseptica in fatal pneumonia of dogs and cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infection with Bordetella bronchiseptica is a common cause of tracheobronchitis and upper respiratory disease in dogs and cats, but it can also lead to fatal pneumonia. Identification of this pathogen is important due the risk of transmission to other animals, availability of vaccines and potential...

  15. Early Induction of Cytokines in Pigs Coinfected with Swine Influenza Virus and Bordetella bronchiseptica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respiratory disease is one of the most important health issues for the swine industry, and coinfection with two or more pathogens is a common occurrence. Bordetella bronchiseptica and swine influenza virus (SIV) are important and common respiratory pathogens of pigs. The effect of coinfection of S...

  16. Bordetella bronchiseptica associated with pulmonary disease in mountain voles (Microtus montanus)

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    Jensen, W.I.; Duncan, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica was isolated from the lungs of all of six mountain voles (Microtus montanus) found dead or dying of pulmonary infection near the Bear River Research Station in northern Utah in January, 1973. The possibility of concomitant viral or mycoplasmal infection was not ruled out.

  17. Evidence for horizontal gene transfer of two antigenically distinct O antigens in Bordetella bronchiseptica

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    Antigenic variation is one mechanism pathogens use to avoid immune-mediated competition between closely related strains. Here, we show that two Bordetella bronchiseptica strains, RB50 and 1289, express two antigenically distinct O-antigen serotypes (O1 and O2 respectively). When 18 additional B. b...

  18. Rapid and sensitive detection of Bordetella bronchiseptica by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP

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    Hui Zhang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Bordetella bronchiseptica causes acute and chronic respiratory infections in diverse animal species and occasionally in humans. In this study, we described the establishment of a simple, sensitive and cost-efficient loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay for the detection of B. bronchiseptica. A set of primers towards a 235 bp region within the flagellum gene of B. bronchiseptica was designed with online software.. The specificity of the LAMP assay was examined by using 6 porcine pathogens and 100 nasal swabs collected from healthy pigs and suspect infected pigs. The results indicated that positive reactions were confirmed for all B. bronchiseptica and no cross-reactivity was observed from other non-B. bronchiseptica. In sensitivity evaluations, the technique successfully detected a serial dilutions of extracted B. bronchiseptica DNA with a detection limit of 9 copies, which was 10 times more sensitive than that of PCR. Compared with conventional PCR, the higher sensitivity of LAMP method and no need for the complex instrumentation make this LAMP assay a promising alternative for the diagnosis of B. bronchiseptica in rural areas and developing countries where there lacks of complex laboratory services.

  19. Molecular analysis of the bvg-repressed urease of Bordetella bronchiseptica.

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    McMillan, D J; Shojaei, M; Chhatwal, G S; Guzmán, C A; Walker, M J

    1996-11-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica is a ureolytic mammalian respiratory pathogen. We have investigated the regulation of urease in B. bronchiseptica and the potential role of this enzyme in eukaryotic invasion and intracellular survival. Our results indicate urease is a bordetella virulence repressed gene. Urease activity in virulent B. bronchiseptica BB7865 is up-regulated from basal levels by 5 gl1 magnesium sulphate at 37 degrees C. At 30 degrees C, urease activity remained at basal levels, even in the presence on magnesium sulphate, suggesting a second temperature dependent mechanism of urease regulation was also operating. Urease was not inducible by 10 mM urea nor up-regulated in nitrogen limiting conditions. To evaluate the role of urease in intracellular invasion and survival urease-negative mutants of B. bronchiseptica BB7865 and B. bronchiseptica BB7866 were created by transposon mutagenesis, and compared to the urease-positive parental strains in a HeLa cell invasion assay. We demonstrate that increasing the concentration of urea in the assay increased survival of the urease-positive but not urease-negative strains after 24 h, suggesting that urease does have a role in intracellular survival. Partial DNA sequence analysis of an 11.0 kb EcoRI DNA fragment encoding urease activity revealed an open reading frame containing 50%, 45%, 45%, and 41% homology to the UreA urease subunit protein of Klebsiella aerogenes, Proteus vulgaris, Helicobacter pylori and Proteus mirabilis respectively. We also show Bordetella pertussis to contain sequences homologous with a DNA probe containing the gene encoding UreA of B. bronchiseptica indicating the possible presence of cryptic urease genes in this species. PMID:8938644

  20. Immunoproteomic Analysis ofBordetella bronchisepticaOuter Membrane Proteins and Identiifcation of New Immunogenic Proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Quan-an

    2014-01-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica is a Gram-negative pathogen that causes acute and chronic respiratory infection in a variety of animals. To identify useful antigen candidates for diagnosis and subunit vaccine ofB. bronchiseptica, immunoproteomic analysis was adopted to analyse outer membrane proteins of it. The outer membrane proteins extracted fromB. bronchiseptica were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and analyzed by Western blotting for their reactivity with the convalescent serum against two strains. Immunogenic proteins were identiifed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of lfight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), a total of 14 proteins are common immunoreactive proteins, of which 1 was known antigen and 13 were novel immunogenic proteins forB. bronchiseptica. Putative lipoprotein gene was cloned and recombinantly expressed. The recombinant protein induced high titer antibody, but showed low protective indices against challenges with HB (B. bronchiseptica strain isolated from a infected rabbit). The mortality of mice was 80% compared to 100% of positive controls. The identiifcation of these novel antigenic proteins is an important resource for further development of a new diagnostic test and vaccine for B. bronchiseptica.

  1. Bordetella Bronchiseptica in the Immunosuppressed Population – A Case Series and Review

    OpenAIRE

    Yacoub, Abraham T.; Katayama, Mitsuya; Tran, JoAnn; Zadikany, Ronit; Kandula, Manasa; Greene, John

    2014-01-01

    Organisms that are not known to cause serious infection in the immunocompetent population can, in fact, cause devastating illness in immunosuppressed neutropenic populations especially those who are undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), and solid organ transplantation or a history of malignancy. One organism of interest isolated from immunosuppressed patients at our institution was Bordetella bronchiseptica. It is known to cause respiratory tract disease in the animal pop...

  2. Outer membrane protein OmpQ of Bordetella bronchiseptica is required for mature biofilm formation.

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    Cattelan, Natalia; Villalba, María Inés; Parisi, Gustavo; Arnal, Laura; Serra, Diego Omar; Aguilar, Mario; Yantorno, Osvaldo

    2016-02-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica, an aerobic Gram-negative bacterium, is capable of colonizing the respiratory tract of diverse animals and chronically persists inside the hosts by forming biofilm. Most known virulence factors in Bordetella species are regulated by the BvgAS two-component transduction system. The Bvg-activated proteins play a critical role during host infection. OmpQ is an outer membrane porin protein which is expressed under BvgAS control. Here, we studied the contribution of OmpQ to the biofilm formation process by B. bronchiseptica. We found that the lack of expression of OmpQ did not affect the growth kinetics and final biomass of B. bronchiseptica under planktonic growth conditions. The ΔompQ mutant strain displayed no differences in attachment level and in early steps of biofilm formation. However, deletion of the ompQ gene attenuated the ability of B. bronchiseptica to form a mature biofilm. Analysis of ompQ gene expression during the biofilm formation process by B. bronchiseptica showed a dynamic expression pattern, with an increase of biofilm culture at 48 h. Moreover, we demonstrated that the addition of serum anti-OmpQ had the potential to reduce the biofilm biomass formation in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, we showed for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, evidence of the contribution of OmpQ to a process of importance for B. bronchiseptica pathobiology. Our results indicate that OmpQ plays a role during the biofilm development process, particularly at later stages of development, and that this porin could be a potential target for strategies of biofilm formation inhibition. PMID:26673448

  3. Bordetella pertussis, the Causative Agent of Whooping Cough, Evolved from a Distinct, Human-Associated Lineage of B. bronchiseptica

    OpenAIRE

    Diavatopoulos, Dimitri A; Cummings, Craig A.; Schouls, Leo M.; Brinig, Mary M.; Relman, David A.; Mooi, Frits R.

    2005-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis, B. bronchiseptica, B. parapertussishu, and B. parapertussisov are closely related respiratory pathogens that infect mammalian species. B. pertussis and B. parapertussishu are exclusively human pathogens and cause whooping cough, or pertussis, a disease that has resurged despite vaccination. Although it most often infects animals, infrequently B. bronchiseptica is isolated from humans, and these infections are thought to be zoonotic. B. pertussis and B. parapertussishu ar...

  4. Role of phosphoglucomutase of Bordetella bronchiseptica in lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis and virulence.

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    West, N P; Jungnitz, H; Fitter, J T; McArthur, J D; Guzmán, C A; Walker, M J

    2000-08-01

    The phosphoglucomutase (PGM)-encoding gene of Bordetella bronchiseptica is required for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis. An insertion mutant of the wild-type B. bronchiseptica strain BB7865 which disrupted LPS biosynthesis was created and characterized (BB7865pgm). Genetic analysis of the mutated gene showed it shares high identity with PGM genes of various bacterial species and forms part of an operon which also encompasses the gene encoding phosphoglucose isomerase. Functional assays for PGM revealed that enzyme activity is expressed in both bvg-positive and bvg-negative strains of B. bronchiseptica and is substantially reduced in BB7865pgm. Complementation of the mutated PGM gene with that from BB7865 restored the wild-type condition for all phenotypes tested. The ability of the mutant BB7865pgm to survive within J774. A1 cells was significantly reduced at 2 h (40% reduction) and 24 h (56% reduction) postinfection. BB7865pgm was also significantly attenuated in its ability to survive in vivo following intranasal infection of mice, being effectively cleared from the lungs within 4 days, whereas the wild-type strain persisted at least 35 days. The activities of superoxide dismutase, urease, and acid phosphatase were unaffected in the PGM-deficient strain. In contrast, the inability to produce wild-type LPS resulted in a reduced bacterial resistance to oxidative stress and a higher susceptibility to the antimicrobial peptide cecropin P. PMID:10899872

  5. Homologs of the LapD-LapG c-di-GMP Effector System Control Biofilm Formation by Bordetella bronchiseptica.

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    Nicolás Ambrosis

    Full Text Available Biofilm formation is important for infection by many pathogens. Bordetella bronchiseptica causes respiratory tract infections in mammals and forms biofilm structures in nasal epithelium of infected mice. We previously demonstrated that cyclic di-GMP is involved in biofilm formation in B. bronchiseptica. In the present work, based on their previously reported function in Pseudomonas fluorescens, we identified three genes in the B. bronchiseptica genome likely involved in c-di-GMP-dependent biofilm formation: brtA, lapD and lapG. Genetic analysis confirmed a role for BrtA, LapD and LapG in biofilm formation using microtiter plate assays, as well as scanning electron and fluorescent microscopy to analyze the phenotypes of mutants lacking these proteins. In vitro and in vivo studies showed that the protease LapG of B. bronchiseptica cleaves the N-terminal domain of BrtA, as well as the LapA protein of P. fluorescens, indicating functional conservation between these species. Furthermore, while BrtA and LapG appear to have little or no impact on colonization in a mouse model of infection, a B. bronchiseptica strain lacking the LapG protease has a significantly higher rate of inducing a severe disease outcome compared to the wild type. These findings support a role for c-di-GMP acting through BrtA/LapD/LapG to modulate biofilm formation, as well as impact pathogenesis, by B. bronchiseptica.

  6. Homologs of the LapD-LapG c-di-GMP Effector System Control Biofilm Formation by Bordetella bronchiseptica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosis, Nicolás; Boyd, Chelsea D.; O´Toole, George A.; Fernández, Julieta; Sisti, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Biofilm formation is important for infection by many pathogens. Bordetella bronchiseptica causes respiratory tract infections in mammals and forms biofilm structures in nasal epithelium of infected mice. We previously demonstrated that cyclic di-GMP is involved in biofilm formation in B. bronchiseptica. In the present work, based on their previously reported function in Pseudomonas fluorescens, we identified three genes in the B. bronchiseptica genome likely involved in c-di-GMP-dependent biofilm formation: brtA, lapD and lapG. Genetic analysis confirmed a role for BrtA, LapD and LapG in biofilm formation using microtiter plate assays, as well as scanning electron and fluorescent microscopy to analyze the phenotypes of mutants lacking these proteins. In vitro and in vivo studies showed that the protease LapG of B. bronchiseptica cleaves the N-terminal domain of BrtA, as well as the LapA protein of P. fluorescens, indicating functional conservation between these species. Furthermore, while BrtA and LapG appear to have little or no impact on colonization in a mouse model of infection, a B. bronchiseptica strain lacking the LapG protease has a significantly higher rate of inducing a severe disease outcome compared to the wild type. These findings support a role for c-di-GMP acting through BrtA/LapD/LapG to modulate biofilm formation, as well as impact pathogenesis, by B. bronchiseptica PMID:27380521

  7. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Bordetella bronchiseptica Isolates from Swine and Companion Animals and Detection of Resistance Genes.

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    Sandra Prüller

    Full Text Available Bordetella bronchiseptica causes infections of the respiratory tract in swine and other mammals and is a precursor for secondary infections with Pasteurella multocida. Treatment of B. bronchiseptica infections is conducted primarily with antimicrobial agents. Therefore it is essential to get an overview of the susceptibility status of these bacteria. The aim of this study was to comparatively analyse broth microdilution susceptibility testing according to CLSI recommendations with an incubation time of 16 to 20 hours and a longer incubation time of 24 hours, as recently proposed to obtain more homogenous MICs. Susceptibility testing against a panel of 22 antimicrobial agents and two fixed combinations was performed with 107 porcine isolates from different farms and regions in Germany and 43 isolates obtained from companion animals in Germany and other European countries. Isolates with increased MICs were investigated by PCR assays for the presence of resistance genes. For ampicillin, all 107 porcine isolates were classified as resistant, whereas only a single isolate was resistant to florfenicol. All isolates obtained from companion animals showed elevated MICs for β-lactam antibiotics and demonstrated an overall low susceptibility to cephalosporines. Extension of the incubation time resulted in 1-2 dilution steps higher MIC50 values of porcine isolates for seven antimicrobial agents tested, while isolates from companion animals exhibited twofold higher MIC50/90 values only for tetracycline and cefotaxime. For three antimicrobial agents, lower MIC50 and MIC90 values were detected for both, porcine and companion animal isolates. Among the 150 isolates tested, the resistance genes blaBOR-1 (n = 147, blaOXA-2, (n = 4, strA and strB (n = 17, sul1 (n = 10, sul2 (n = 73, dfrA7 (n = 3 and tet(A (n = 8 were detected and a plasmid localisation was identified for several of the resistance genes.

  8. Comparative efficacy of intranasal and oral vaccines against Bordetella bronchiseptica in dogs.

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    Ellis, J A; Gow, S P; Waldner, C L; Shields, S; Wappel, S; Bowers, A; Lacoste, S; Xu, Z; Ball, E

    2016-06-01

    In order to determine the comparative efficacy of vaccines administered intranasally or orally to protect puppies from disease subsequent to experimental infection with Bordetella bronchiseptica (Bb), a randomized controlled trial was performed using 48 approximately 8-week-old specific pathogen free, Bb naive Beagle puppies. Puppies were randomized into three groups and administered vaccines containing Bb intranasally or orally, or a placebo intranasally. Twenty-one days later, all dogs were challenge exposed via aerosol administration of Bb. Clinical signs, nasal bacterial shedding and immune responses were monitored for 28 days after challenge. Intranasally vaccinated puppies had significantly lower rates of coughing, nasal discharge, retching and sneezing (i.e. were less sick clinically) than control puppies. The distinction between the orally vaccinated puppies and the control puppies was less consistent. The orally vaccinated puppies had less coughing and less retching than the control puppies, but nasal discharge and sneezing did not differ from control animals. Orally vaccinated puppies had higher rates of coughing, nasal discharge, retching and sneezing than the intranasally vaccinated puppies. Although both intranasal and oral Bb vaccines stimulated immune responses associated with disease sparing following Bb infection, the intranasal route of delivery conferred superior clinical outcomes. The observed difference in clinical efficacy suggests the need to question the rationale for the use of currently available orally administered Bb vaccines. PMID:27256028

  9. Crystal violet staining of Bordetella bronchiseptica colonies for differentiation of phase-I strains from variant strains in degraded phases.

    OpenAIRE

    Ishikawa, H.; Isayama, Y

    1997-01-01

    After 2 days of growth on Brain heart infusion agar (BHIA) at 38 degrees C, phase-I colonies and degraded-phase colonies of Bordetella bronchiseptica could be differentiated by their ability to take up crystal violet (CV). Phase-I colonies in X mode, but not colonies in degraded phases (phases II, III, and rough) bound CV. Phenotypically-altered C-mode colonies (grown at 32 degrees C or lower temperatures) also lacked this ability. CV staining offers an easy method for the recognition of diff...

  10. A Type VI secretion system encoding locus is required for Bordetella bronchiseptica immunomodulation and persistence in vivo.

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    Laura S Weyrich

    Full Text Available Type VI Secretion Systems (T6SSs have been identified in numerous gram-negative pathogens, but the lack of a natural host infection model has limited analysis of T6SS contributions to infection and pathogenesis. Here, we describe disruption of a gene within locus encoding a putative T6SS in Bordetella bronchiseptica strain RB50, a respiratory pathogen that circulates in a broad range of mammals, including humans, domestic animals, and mice. The 26 gene locus encoding the B. bronchiseptica T6SS contains apparent orthologs to all known core genes and possesses thirteen novel genes. By generating an in frame deletion of clpV, which encodes a putative ATPase required for some T6SS-dependent protein secretion, we observe that ClpV contributes to in vitro macrophage cytotoxicity while inducing several eukaryotic proteins associated with apoptosis. Additionally, ClpV is required for induction of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17, and IL-10 production in J774 macrophages infected with RB50. During infections in wild type mice, we determined that ClpV contributes to altered cytokine production, increased pathology, delayed lower respiratory tract clearance, and long term nasal cavity persistence. Together, these results reveal a natural host infection system in which to interrogate T6SS contributions to immunomodulation and pathogenesis.

  11. Characterization of fimbrial subunits from Bordetella species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooi, F.R.; Heide, H.G.J. van der; Avest, A.R. ter; Welinder, K.G.; Livey, I.; Zeijst, B.A.M. van der; Gaastra, W.

    1987-01-01

    Using antisera raised against serotype 2 and 3 fimbrial subunits from Bordetella pertussis, serologically related polypeptides were detected in Bordetella bronchiseptica, Bordetella parapertussis and Bordetella avium strains. The two B. pertussis fimbrial subunits, and three of the serologically rel

  12. Expression of the Putative Siderophore Receptor Gene bfrZ Is Controlled by the Extracytoplasmic-Function Sigma Factor BupI in Bordetella bronchiseptica

    OpenAIRE

    Pradel, Elizabeth; Locht, Camille

    2001-01-01

    A new gene from Bordetella bronchiseptica, bfrZ encoding a putative siderophore receptor, was identified in a Fur-repressor titration assay. A bfrZ null mutant was constructed by allelic exchange. The protein profile of this mutant is similar to that of the wild-type parent strain. The BfrZ−-BfrZ+ isogenic pair was tested for utilization of 132 different siderophores as iron sources. None of these iron sources acted as a ligand for BfrZ. Translational bfrZ::phoA and transcriptional bfrZ::lacZ...

  13. Cloning of Bordetella bronchiseptica urease genes and analysis of colonization by a urease-negative mutant strain in a guinea-pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monack, D M; Falkow, S

    1993-11-01

    The genes encoding urease were cloned from Bordetella bronchiseptica and the 5.2 kb of DNA essential for expression analysed in a T7 RNA polymerase transcription-translation system. At least four polypeptides with predicted molecular weights of 69,000, 26,000, 12,200 and 11,000 were found. Partial DNA sequence of the gene encoding the 69,000 Da polypeptide revealed high amino acid identity to the alpha-subunit of Proteus mirabilis urease, UreC and jack bean urease. A stable, unmarked deletion was constructed in this gene to create a urease-negative mutant of B. bronchiseptica. To assess colonization in a guinea-pig model, the urease-negative strain was inoculated with the urease-positive parental strain in a mixed infection. The urease-negative strain out competed the urease-positive strain in the trachea, lungs and caecum. We demonstrate that urease is not essential for B. bronchiseptica colonization of the guinea-pig respiratory and digestive tracts. PMID:7968532

  14. Performance of transport and selective media for swine Bordetella bronchiseptica recovery and it comparison to polymerase chain reaction detection Desempenho de meios de transporte e seletivo na recuperação de Bordetella bronchiseptica de suínos e sua comparação à detecção pela reação em cadeia pela polimerase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Alen Coutinho

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Three comparative assays were performed seeking to improve the sensitivity of the diagnosis of Bordetella bronchiseptica infection analyzing swine nasal swabs. An initial assay compared the recovery of B. bronchiseptica from swabs simultaneously inoculated with B. bronchiseptica and some interfering bacteria, immersed into three transport formulations (Amies with charcoal, trypticase soy broth and phosphate buffer according to Soerensen supplemented with 5% of bovine fetal serum and submitted to different temperatures (10ºC and 27ºC and periods of incubation (24, 72 and 120 hours. A subsequent assay compared three selective media (MacConkey agar, modified selective medium G20G and a ceftiofur medium for their recovery capabilities from clinical specimens. One last assay compared the polymerase chain reaction to the three selective media. In the first assay, the recovery of B. bronchiseptica from transport systems was better at 27ºC and the three formulations had good performances at this temperature, but the collection of qualitative and quantitative analysis indicated the advantage of Amies medium for nasal swabs transportation. The second assay indicated that MacConkey agar and modified G20G had similar results and were superior to the ceftiofur medium. In the final assay, polymerase chain reaction presented superior capability of B. bronchiseptica detection to culture procedures.Três ensaios comparativos foram feitos com o objetivo de aperfeiçoar a sensibilidade do diagnóstico da infecção pela Bordetella bronchiseptica a partir de suabes nasais de leitões. O experimento inicial comparou a recuperação de B. bronchiseptica a partir de suabes, simultaneamente inoculados com B. bronchiseptica e algumas bactérias interferentes, imersos em três formulações para transporte (meio Amies com carvão, caldo tripticaseína de soja e tampão de fosfatos segundo Soerensen suplementado com 5% de soro fetal bovino e submetidos a diferentes

  15. Bordetella bronchiseptica como un riesgo importante de salud publica. Estudio clínico patológico en conejos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valladares-Carranza B.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenB. bronchiseptica es reconocida como un patógeno primario inicial del tracto respiratorio en animales domésticos, puede provocar tos de las perreras (perro, respiración ruidosa (en conejos y rinitis atrófica (en el cerdo.summary

  16. Bordetella bronchiseptica como un riesgo importante de salud publica. Estudio clínico patológico en conejos

    OpenAIRE

    Valladares-Carranza B.; Ortega-Santana C.; Velazquez-Ordoñez V; Zamora-Espinosa J.L.; Peñuelas-Rivas C.G.; Castro-Maruri J.; Talavera-Rojas M.; Alonso-Fresan M.U.; Zaragoza-Bastida A.

    2011-01-01

    ResumenB. bronchiseptica es reconocida como un patógeno primario inicial del tracto respiratorio en animales domésticos, puede provocar tos de las perreras (perro), respiración ruidosa (en conejos) y rinitis atrófica (en el cerdo).summary

  17. Severe infantile Bordetella pertussis pneumonia in monozygotic twins with a congenital C3 deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurvers, R.A.J.; Westra, D.; Heijst, A.F.J. van; Walk, T.L.M.; Warris, A.; Kar, N.C.A.J. van de

    2014-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis or whooping cough is a vaccine-preventable disease that still remains a serious infection in neonates and young infants. We describe two young infants, monozygotic twins, with a severe B. pertussis pneumonia of whom one needed extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Diagnostic work

  18. BpsR Modulates Bordetella Biofilm Formation by Negatively Regulating the Expression of the Bps Polysaccharide

    OpenAIRE

    Conover, Matt S.; Redfern, Crystal J.; Ganguly, Tridib; Sukumar, Neelima; Sloan, Gina; Mishra, Meenu; Deora, Rajendar

    2012-01-01

    Bordetella bacteria are Gram-negative respiratory pathogens of animals, birds, and humans. A hallmark feature of some Bordetella species is their ability to efficiently survive in the respiratory tract even after vaccination. Bordetella bronchiseptica and Bordetella pertussis form biofilms on abiotic surfaces and in the mouse respiratory tract. The Bps exopolysaccharide is one of the critical determinants for biofilm formation and the survival of Bordetella in the murine respiratory tract. In...

  19. The Bordetella bhu Locus Is Required for Heme Iron Utilization

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderpool, Carin K.; Armstrong, Sandra K.

    2001-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica are capable of obtaining iron from hemin and hemoglobin. Genes encoding a putative bacterial heme iron acquisition system (bhu, for Bordetella heme utilization) were identified in a B. pertussis genomic sequence database, and the corresponding DNA was isolated from a virulent strain of B. pertussis. A B. pertussis bhuR mutant, predicted to lack the heme outer membrane receptor, was generated by allelic exchange. In contrast to the wild-type s...

  20. 兔支气管败血波氏杆菌DNT蛋白的分段表达及其免疫保护性研究%The expression and immunoprotection of the truncated dermonecrotic toxin of rabbit Bordetella bronchiseptica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵宁; 王芳; 恽时锋; 范志宇; 胡波

    2011-01-01

    Dermonecrotic toxin (DNT) is identified as one of the main virulence factor of Bordetella bronchiseptica. To study the immunoprotection of the binding and catalytic regions of DNT, the N-terminal 1,612 bp (DNT1) and the C-terminal 973 bp (DNT3) fragments of the DNT were cloned into the pET-28a(+) and expressed in E. Coli BL21(DE3), respectively. The expression of recombinant protein DNT1 and DNT3 were identified by SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis. High level antibody against DNT was induced in the mice immunized with the recombinant proteins, and all the mice in immunized groups were survived when challenged intraperitoneally with virulent B. Bronchiseptic strain BJL0504 at 2 dosages of LD50, while the mice mortility were 60% in control group. Furthermore, the bacteria in lung was eliminated completely from the immunned mice post challenging intranasally with B. Bronchiseptic (1.07 × 108 cfu/mL) at 9 days, on the contrary, the bactera counts in mice lung were up to 1.2 × 105 cfu in control group. These results shown that the DNT1 and DNT3 had strong immunoprotection against B. Bronchiseptic infection and could be used as a subunit vaccine against B. Bronchiseptic.%皮肤坏死毒素(DNT)是支气管败血波氏杆菌(Bb)的主要毒力因子之一.为研究DNT结合位点和催化位点的免疫保护性,本研究分别将其核苷酸序列N-端的1 612bp片段(DNT1)和C-端的973bp片段(DNT3)克隆到原核表达载体pET-28a(+)中,经IPTG诱导后在E.coli BL21 (DE3)中获得表达.SDS-PAGE和western blot检测表明重组蛋白DNT1、DNT3均具有良好的反应原性.在主动免疫保护试验中,重组蛋白免疫组小鼠均能够产生较高的DNT抗体水平;当使用2 LD50的Bb强毒株BJL0504进行腹腔攻毒后,其存活率为100%,而阴性对照组则为40%;当使用1.07×108 cfu/mL Bb强毒株BJL0504进行滴鼻攻毒后第9d时,重组蛋白免疫组小鼠已基本清除肺脏内的Bb菌,而阴性对照组小鼠

  1. Age-related presence of selected viral and bacterial pathogens in paraffin-embedded lung samples of dogs with pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöhrer, Daniela; Spergser, Joachim; Bagrinovschi, Gabriela; Möstl, Karin; Weissenböck, Herbert

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to detect selected pathogens in pneumonic lung tissue of dogs of different age groups by immunohistochemistry (IHC), in situ hybridisation (ISH) or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in order to get information about their involvement in pneumonia formation. In archived formalin-fixed and paraffin wax-embedded lung samples from 68 cases with the clinical and histologic diagnosis of pneumonia the histological pattern of pneumonia was re-evaluated and the samples were further investigated for the following infectious agents: canine distemper virus (CDV), canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), Bordetella (B.) bronchiseptica, Pasteurella (P.) multocida, Mycoplasma spp., and Pneumocystis spp. In 47.1% of the samples at least one of the featured respiratory pathogens was detected. In 31.3% of these positive samples more than one pathogen could be found. The correct detection of CDV had been achieved in ten out of eleven positive cases (90.9%) upon initial investigation, but the presence of bacterial pathogens, like B. bronchiseptica (10 cases) and P. multocida (17 cases) had been missed in all but one case. While CDV and CRCoV infections were exclusively found in dogs younger than one year, the vast majority of infections with P. multocida and B. bronchiseptica were both common either in dogs younger than 4 months or older than one year. Thus, this retrospective approach yielded valuable data on the presence, absence and prevalence of certain respiratory pathogens in dogs with pneumonia. PMID:26919147

  2. Occurrence of Bordetella infection in pigs in northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Singh, Bhoj R; Bhardwaj, Monika; Singh, Vidya

    2014-01-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica infection causing atrophic rhinitis in pigs is reported from almost all countries. In the present study, occurrence of Bordetella infection in apparently healthy pigs was determined in 392 pigs sampled to collect 358 serum samples and 316 nasal swabs from Northern India by conventional bacterioscopy, detection of antigen with multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR), and detection of antibodies with microagglutination test (MAT) and enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA). Bordetella bronchiseptica could be isolated from six (1.92%) nasal swabs. Although isolates varied significantly in their antimicrobial sensitivity, they had similar plasmid profile. The genus specific and species specific amplicons were detected from 8.2% and 4.4% nasal swabs using mPCR with alc gene (genus specific) and fla gene and fim2 gene (species specific) primers, respectively. Observations revealed that there may be other bordetellae infecting pigs because about 50% of the samples positive using mPCR for genus specific amplicons failed to confirm presence of B. bronchiseptica. Of the pig sera tested with MAT and ELISA for Bordetella antibodies, 67.6% and 86.3% samples, respectively, were positive. For antigen detection mPCR was more sensitive than conventional bacterioscopy while for detection of antibodies neither of the two tests (MAT and ELISA) had specificity in relation to antigen detection. Study indicated high prevalence of infection in swine herds in Northern India. PMID:24688547

  3. Occurrence of Bordetella Infection in Pigs in Northern India

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    Sandeep Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bordetella bronchiseptica infection causing atrophic rhinitis in pigs is reported from almost all countries. In the present study, occurrence of Bordetella infection in apparently healthy pigs was determined in 392 pigs sampled to collect 358 serum samples and 316 nasal swabs from Northern India by conventional bacterioscopy, detection of antigen with multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR, and detection of antibodies with microagglutination test (MAT and enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA. Bordetella bronchiseptica could be isolated from six (1.92% nasal swabs. Although isolates varied significantly in their antimicrobial sensitivity, they had similar plasmid profile. The genus specific and species specific amplicons were detected from 8.2% and 4.4% nasal swabs using mPCR with alc gene (genus specific and fla gene and fim2 gene (species specific primers, respectively. Observations revealed that there may be other bordetellae infecting pigs because about 50% of the samples positive using mPCR for genus specific amplicons failed to confirm presence of B. bronchiseptica. Of the pig sera tested with MAT and ELISA for Bordetella antibodies, 67.6% and 86.3% samples, respectively, were positive. For antigen detection mPCR was more sensitive than conventional bacterioscopy while for detection of antibodies neither of the two tests (MAT and ELISA had specificity in relation to antigen detection. Study indicated high prevalence of infection in swine herds in Northern India.

  4. A real-time PCR assay with improved specificity for detection and discrimination of all clinically relevant Bordetella species by the presence and distribution of three Insertion Sequence elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ossewaarde Jacobus M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Dutch laboratories molecular detection of B. pertussis and B. parapertussis is commonly based on insertion sequences IS481 and IS1001, respectively. Both IS elements are more widely spread among Bordetella species. Both Bordetella holmesii, and B. bronchiseptica can harbour IS481. Also, IS1001 is found among B. bronchiseptica. IS481, and IS1001 based PCR thus lacks specificity when used for detection of specific Bordetella spp. Findings We designed a PCR based on IS1002, another IS element that is present among Bordetella species, and exploited it as a template in combination with PCR for IS481, and IS1001. In combining the PCRs for IS481, IS1001, and IS1002, and including an inhibition control, we were able to detect and discriminate all clinically relevant Bordetella species. Conclusions We developed an improved PCR method for specific detection of B. pertussis, B. parapertussis, B. holmesii, and B. bronchiseptica.

  5. Identification and characterization of iron-regulated Bordetella pertussis alcaligin siderophore biosynthesis genes.

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, H.Y.; Brickman, T J; Beaumont, F C; Armstrong, S K

    1996-01-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica mutants BRM1, BRM6, and BRM9 fail to produce the native dihydroxamate siderophore alcaligin. A 4.5-kb BamHI-Smal Bordetella pertussis genomic DNA fragment carried multiple genes required to restore alcaligin production to these siderophore-deficient mutants. Phenotypic complementation analysis using subclones of the 4.5-kb genomic region demonstrated that the closely linked BRM1 and BRM9 mutations were genetically separable from the BRM6 mutation, and both insertions...

  6. Extracellular DNA Is Essential for Maintaining Bordetella Biofilm Integrity on Abiotic Surfaces and in the Upper Respiratory Tract of Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Conover, Matt S.; Mishra, Meenu; Deora, Rajendar

    2011-01-01

    Bacteria form complex and highly elaborate surface adherent communities known as biofilms which are held together by a self-produced extracellular matrix. We have previously shown that by adopting a biofilm mode of existence in vivo, the Gram negative bacterial pathogens Bordetella bronchiseptica and Bordetella pertussis are able to efficiently colonize and persist in the mammalian respiratory tract. In general, the bacterial biofilm matrix includes polysaccharides, proteins and extracellular...

  7. 21 CFR 558.630 - Tylosin and sulfamethazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bronchiseptica rhinitis; prevention of swine dysentery associated with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae; and control of... presence of atrophic rhinitis; lowering the incidence and severity of Bordetella bronchiseptica rhinitis; prevention of swine dysentery (vibrionic); control of swine pneumonias caused by bacterial...

  8. Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... viruses, such as the influenza virus (flu) and adenovirus . Other viruses, such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) ... your local health department to see when these vaccines are available. Because pneumonia ... influenza pneumonia, for example, someone may become sick as ...

  9. Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... restroom and before eating. Use lukewarm water and soap for at least 20 seconds. If soap and water are not available, using an alcohol- ... at higher risk for pneumonia? Do I have bacterial, viral or fungal pneumonia? What’s the best treatment? ...

  10. Genomic island excisions in Bordetella petrii

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    Levillain Erwan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the members of the genus Bordetella B. petrii is unique, since it is the only species isolated from the environment, while the pathogenic Bordetellae are obligately associated with host organisms. Another feature distinguishing B. petrii from the other sequenced Bordetellae is the presence of a large number of mobile genetic elements including several large genomic regions with typical characteristics of genomic islands collectively known as integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs. These elements mainly encode accessory metabolic factors enabling this bacterium to grow on a large repertoire of aromatic compounds. Results During in vitro culture of Bordetella petrii colony variants appear frequently. We show that this variability can be attributed to the presence of a large number of metastable mobile genetic elements on its chromosome. In fact, the genome sequence of B. petrii revealed the presence of at least seven large genomic islands mostly encoding accessory metabolic functions involved in the degradation of aromatic compounds and detoxification of heavy metals. Four of these islands (termed GI1 to GI3 and GI6 are highly related to ICEclc of Pseudomonas knackmussii sp. strain B13. Here we present first data about the molecular characterization of these islands. We defined the exact borders of each island and we show that during standard culture of the bacteria these islands get excised from the chromosome. For all but one of these islands (GI5 we could detect circular intermediates. For the clc-like elements GI1 to GI3 of B. petrii we provide evidence that tandem insertion of these islands which all encode highly related integrases and attachment sites may also lead to incorporation of genomic DNA which originally was not part of the island and to the formation of huge composite islands. By integration of a tetracycline resistance cassette into GI3 we found this island to be rather unstable and to be lost from

  11. Prevalence of Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis in Samples Submitted for RSV Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walsh, Paul

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The clinical presentation of Bordetella pertussis can overlap with that of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV; however, management differs.HYPOTHESIS: First, the prevalence of B. pertussis is less than 2% among patients screened for RSV, and second the prevalence of B. parapertussis is also less than 2% among these patients.METHODS: Nasal washings submitted to a clinical laboratory for RSV screening were tested for B. pertussis and B. parapertussis, using species-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays. These were optimized to target conserved regions within a complement gene and the CarB gene, respectively. A Bordetella spp. genus-specific real-time PCR assay was designed to detect the Bhur gene of B. pertussis, B. parapertussis, and B. bronchiseptica. RSV A and B subtypes were tested by reverse transcription-PCR.RESULTS: Four hundred and eighty-nine clinical samples were tested. There was insufficient material to complete testing for one B. pertussis, 10 RSV subtype A, and four RSV subtype B assays. Bordetella pertussis was detected in 3/488 (0.6% (95% CI 0.1% to 1.8%, while B. parapertussis was detected in 5/489 (1.0% (95% CI 0.3% to 2.4%. Dual infection of B. pertussis with RSV and of B. parapertussis with RSV occurred in two and in three cases respectively. RSV was detected by PCR in 127 (26.5%.CONCLUSION: The prevalence of B. pertussis in nasal washings submitted for RSV screening was less than 2%. The prevalence of parapertussis may be higher than 2%. RSV with B. pertussis and RSV with B. parapertussis coinfection do occur.

  12. Molecular evolution of the two-component system BvgAS involved in virulence regulation in Bordetella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Herrou

    Full Text Available The whooping cough agent Bordetella pertussis is closely related to Bordetella bronchiseptica, which is responsible for chronic respiratory infections in various mammals and is occasionally found in humans, and to Bordetella parapertussis, one lineage of which causes mild whooping cough in humans and the other ovine respiratory infections. All three species produce similar sets of virulence factors that are co-regulated by the two-component system BvgAS. We characterized the molecular diversity of BvgAS in Bordetella by sequencing the two genes from a large number of diverse isolates. The response regulator BvgA is virtually invariant, indicating strong functional constraints. In contrast, the multi-domain sensor kinase BvgS has evolved into two different types. The pertussis type is found in B. pertussis and in a lineage of essentially human-associated B. bronchiseptica, while the bronchiseptica type is associated with the majority of B. bronchiseptica and both ovine and human B. parapertussis. BvgS is monomorphic in B. pertussis, suggesting optimal adaptation or a recent population bottleneck. The degree of diversity of the bronchiseptica type BvgS is markedly different between domains, indicating distinct evolutionary pressures. Thus, absolute conservation of the putative solute-binding cavities of the two periplasmic Venus Fly Trap (VFT domains suggests that common signals are perceived in all three species, while the external surfaces of these domains vary more extensively. Co-evolution of the surfaces of the two VFT domains in each type and domain swapping experiments indicate that signal transduction in the periplasmic region may be type-specific. The two distinct evolutionary solutions for BvgS confirm that B. pertussis has emerged from a specific B. bronchiseptica lineage. The invariant regions of BvgS point to essential parts for its molecular mechanism, while the variable regions may indicate adaptations to different lifestyles. The

  13. Bordetella pertussis acquires resistance to complement-mediated killing in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishko, Elizabeth J; Betting, David J; Hutter, Christina S; Harvill, Eric T

    2003-09-01

    In order to initially colonize a host, bacteria must avoid various components of the innate immune system, one of which is complement. The genus Bordetella includes three closely related species that differ in their ability to resist complement-mediated killing. Bordetella parapertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica resist killing in naïve serum, a characteristic that may aid in efficient respiratory tract colonization and has been attributed to expression of O antigen. Bordetella pertussis lacks O antigen and is sensitive to naïve serum in vitro, yet it also efficiently colonizes the respiratory tract. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that B. pertussis may have an alternate mechanism to resist complement in vivo. While a number of reports on serum sensitivity of the bordetellae have been published, we show here that serum concentration and growth conditions can greatly alter the observed level of sensitivity to complement and that all but one strain of B. pertussis observed were sensitive to some level of naïve serum in vitro, particularly when there was excess complement. However, B. pertussis rapidly acquires increased resistance in vivo to naïve serum that is specific to the alternative pathway. Resistance is not efficiently acquired by B. parapertussis and B. bronchiseptica mutants lacking O antigen. This B. pertussis-specific mechanism of complement resistance does not appear to be dependent on either brkA or other genes expressed specifically in the Bvg(+) phase. This in vivo acquisition of alternative pathway resistance suggests that there is a novel O antigen-independent method by which B. pertussis evades complement-mediated killing. PMID:12933835

  14. Pneumonia enzoótica em javalis (Sus scrofa Enzootic pneumonia in wild boars (Sus scrofa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselene Ecco

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo foi descrever o quadro clínico e epidemiológico, os achados patológicos, bacteriológicos e imuno-histoquímicos de um surto de pneumonia em uma granja de Javalis do Distrito Federal, Brasil. Em um período de cinco meses, morreram 90 javalis. Desses, 63 tinham lesões pulmonares. Clinicamente apresentavam atraso no desenvolvimento corporal, diminuição do apetite, letargia, tosse e dificuldade respiratória, principalmente quando movimentados. Constatou-se elevação da temperatura, 40ºC em média. Na auscultação, havia crepitações e estertores pulmonares de intensidade moderada. As alterações macroscópicas nos pulmões analisados eram típicas de broncopneumonia lobular. As lesões caracterizavam-se por consolidação crânio-ventral na maioria dos pulmões. A coloração variava de difusamente vermelho-escuro a um padrão mosaico (lóbulos vermelho-escuros intercalados por lóbulos cinzas ou difusamente acinzentados. Na maioria dos pulmões observou-se exsudato mucopurulento na luz dos brônquios e fluindo do parênquima. Histologicamente, as alterações eram de broncopneumonia purulenta e histiocitária com focos de necrose. Em alguns animais havia também hiperplasia do BALT e, na maioria dos animais, infiltração linfocítica perivascular e peribronquial. Bordetella bronchiseptica e Streptococcus spp. foram as principais bactérias isoladas. A imuno-histoquímica demonstrou a bactéria Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae no epitélio bronquiolar e bronquial e o DNA desta bactéria foi detectado pela PCR. Este é o primeiro relato de broncopneumonia em Javalis associado à infecção por M. hyopneumoniae.The aim of this paper is to describe the clinical, epidemiological, pathological, bacteriological and immunohistochemical aspects of a pneumonia outbreak in a wild pig farm in the Distrito Federal, Brazil. Ninety wild pigs died in a period of five months, and 63 of these had pulmonary lesions. Clinically, the pigs

  15. Extracellular DNA is essential for maintaining Bordetella biofilm integrity on abiotic surfaces and in the upper respiratory tract of mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt S Conover

    Full Text Available Bacteria form complex and highly elaborate surface adherent communities known as biofilms which are held together by a self-produced extracellular matrix. We have previously shown that by adopting a biofilm mode of existence in vivo, the gram negative bacterial pathogens Bordetella bronchiseptica and Bordetella pertussis are able to efficiently colonize and persist in the mammalian respiratory tract. In general, the bacterial biofilm matrix includes polysaccharides, proteins and extracellular DNA (eDNA. In this report, we investigated the function of DNA in Bordetella biofilm development. We show that DNA is a significant component of Bordetella biofilm matrix. Addition of DNase I at the initiation of biofilm growth inhibited biofilm formation. Treatment of pre-established mature biofilms formed under both static and flow conditions with DNase I led to a disruption of the biofilm biomass. We next investigated whether eDNA played a role in biofilms formed in the mouse respiratory tract. DNase I treatment of nasal biofilms caused considerable dissolution of the biofilm biomass. In conclusion, these results suggest that eDNA is a crucial structural matrix component of both in vitro and in vivo formed Bordetella biofilms. This is the first evidence for the ability of DNase I to disrupt bacterial biofilms formed on host organs.

  16. Host Specificity of Ovine Bordetella parapertussis and the Role of Complement.

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    Sara E Hester

    Full Text Available The classical bordetellae are comprised of three subspecies that differ from broad to very limited host specificity. Although several lineages appear to have specialized to particular host species, most retain the ability to colonize and grow in mice, providing a powerful common experimental model to study their differences. One of the subspecies, Bordetella parapertussis, is composed of two distinct clades that have specialized to different hosts: one to humans (Bpphu, and the other to sheep (Bppov. While Bpphu and the other classical bordetellae can efficiently colonize mice, Bppov strains are severely defective in their ability to colonize the murine respiratory tract. Bppov genomic analysis did not reveal the loss of adherence genes, but substantial mutations and deletions of multiple genes involved in the production of O-antigen, which is required to prevent complement deposition on B. bronchiseptica and Bpphu strains. Bppov lacks O-antigen and, like O-antigen mutants of other bordetellae, is highly sensitive to murine complement-mediated killing in vitro. Based on these results, we hypothesized that Bppov failed to colonize mice because of its sensitivity to murine complement. Consistent with this, the Bppov defect in the colonization of wild type mice was not observed in mice lacking the central complement component C3. Furthermore, Bppov strains were highly susceptible to killing by murine complement, but not by sheep complement. These data demonstrate that the failure of Bppov to colonize mice is due to sensitivity to murine, but not sheep, complement, providing a mechanistic example of how specialization that accompanies expansion in one host can limit host range.

  17. Understanding Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > Pneumonia Learn About Pneumonia 5 Facts You Should Know about Pneumonia Pneumonia ... vaccinated and practicing good health habits What Is Pneumonia? Pneumonia is an infection in one or both ...

  18. Laboratory Maintenance of Bordetella pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulbert, Robin R; Cotter, Peggy A

    2009-11-01

    The causative agent of the respiratory disease whooping cough, Bordetella pertussis, is a nutritionally fastidious microorganism but can be grown with relative ease in research laboratories. Stainer-Scholte synthetic broth medium and Bordet-Gengou blood agar both support growth of B. pertussis and are commonly used. B. pertussis prefers aerobic conditions and a temperature range of 35 degrees to 37 degrees C. Appropriate laboratory safety protocols are required to prevent the generation of aerosols, which could potentially spread this highly infectious agent. PMID:19885941

  19. Mycoplasma pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycoplasma pneumonia is an infection of the lungs by the bacteria Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) . This type of pneumonia is ... Mycoplasma pneumonia usually affects people younger than 40. People who live or work in crowded areas such ...

  20. Development of a PCR assay for identification of Bordetella hinzii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordetella hinzii infects primarily poultry and immunocompromised humans. Although initially thought to be nonpathogenic in poultry, it was recently shown that some strains cause disease in turkey poults indistinguishable from the clinical presentation of turkey coryza caused by Bordetella avium. ...

  1. Aspiration pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic pneumonia; Aspiration of vomitus; Necrotizing pneumonia; Aspiration pneumonitis ... The type of bacteria that caused the pneumonia depends on: Your ... facility, for example) Whether you were recently hospitalized ...

  2. Pneumonia Atipik

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Dian Dwi Wahyuni

    2009-01-01

    Abstrak : Pneumonia atipik adalah pneumonia yang memberikan gambaran klinis dan radiologis yang berbeda dengan bentuk pneumonia tipikal. gambaran klinis dan radiologis yang khas dari pneumonia tipikal adalah berupa munculnya demam tiba-tiba disertai menggigil, nyeri pleura dan batuk berdahak berwarna seperti karat (rust colored sputum) dan disertai gambaran radiologis berupa konsolidasi segmental ataupun lobular. Penyebab paling sering pneumonia atipik ini adalah Mycoplasma pneumoniae,...

  3. Bordetella pertussis diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkebaek, N H; Heron, I; Skjødt, K

    1994-01-01

    The object of this work was to test the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for demonstration of Bordetella pertussis (BP) in nasopharyngeal secretions. The method was applied to patients with recently diagnosed pertussis, as verified by BP culture. In order to test the sensitivity and specificity of...

  4. Pneumonia - weakened immune system

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... immunocompromised host." Related conditions include: Hospital-acquired pneumonia Pneumocystis jirovecii (previously called Pneumocystis carinii) pneumonia Pneumonia - cytomegalovirus Pneumonia ...

  5. Laboratory-based surveillance of pertussis using multitarget real-time PCR in Japan: evidence for Bordetella pertussis infection in preteens and teens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kamachi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Between January 2013 and December 2014, we conducted laboratory-based surveillance of pertussis using multitarget real-time PCR, which discriminates among Bordetella pertussis, Bordetella parapertussis, Bordetella holmesii and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Of 355 patients clinically diagnosed with pertussis in Japan, B. pertussis, B. parapertussis and M. pneumoniae were detected in 26% (n = 94, 1.1% (n = 4 and 0.6% (n = 2, respectively, whereas B. holmesii was not detected. It was confirmed that B. parapertussis and M. pneumoniae are also responsible for causing pertussis-like illness. The positive rates for B. pertussis ranged from 16% to 49%, depending on age. Infants aged ≤ 3 months had the highest rate (49%, and children aged 1 to 4 years had the lowest rate (16%, p < 0.01 vs. infants aged ≤ 3 months. Persons aged 10 to 14 and 15 to 19 years also showed high positive rates (29% each; the positive rates were not statistically significant compared with that of infants aged ≤ 3 months (p ≥ 0.06. Our observations indicate that similar to infants, preteens and teens are at high risk of B. pertussis infection.

  6. A PCR assay for identification of Bordetella hinzii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordetella hinzii infects primarily poultry and immunocompromised humans. Although initially thought to be nonpathogenic in poultry, it was recently shown that some strains cause disease in turkey poults indistinguishable from the clinical presentation of turkey coryza caused by Bordetella avium. B....

  7. Mycoplasma pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000082.htm Mycoplasma pneumonia To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Mycoplasma pneumonia is an infection of the lungs by ...

  8. Pneumonia (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lungs caused by an infection. Many different organisms can cause it, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Pneumonia is a common illness that affects millions of ...

  9. Extended incubation of culture plates improves recovery of Bordetella spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Katzko, G; Hofmeister, M; Church, D.

    1996-01-01

    Extended incubation of culture plates was studied to see if the recovery of Bordetella spp. from nasopharyngeal swabs could be improved. Forty-eight Bordetella isolates were recovered from 103 children (overall positive-culture rate, 46.6%) who met the clinical case definition of pertussis. Seven of 44 (16%) B. pertussis isolates and 2 of 4 (50%) B. parapertussis isolates were recovered only after extended incubation of nasopharyngeal cultures up to 12 days.

  10. Disease: H01083 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 73090 (description, env_factor) Meis JF, van Griethuijsen AJ, Muytjens HL Bordetella bronchiseptica bronchitis...env_factor) Papasian CJ, Downs NJ, Talley RL, Romberger DJ, Hodges GR Bordetella bronchiseptica bronchitis

  11. Viral pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... off infection. Vaccines may help prevent pneumonia in children, the elderly, and people with diabetes, asthma, emphysema , HIV, cancer, or other chronic conditions. A drug called palivizumab ( ...

  12. Viral pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    More serious infections can result in respiratory failure, liver failure, and heart failure. Sometimes, bacterial infections occur during or just after viral pneumonia, which may lead to more serious forms ...

  13. Hydrocarbon pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pneumonia - hydrocarbon ... Coughing Fever Shortness of breath Smell of a hydrocarbon product on the breath Stupor (decreased level of ... Most children who drink or inhale hydrocarbon products and develop ... hydrocarbons may lead to rapid respiratory failure and death.

  14. How Is Pneumonia Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Pneumonia Treated? Treatment for pneumonia depends on the type ... can go back to their normal routines. Bacterial Pneumonia Bacterial pneumonia is treated with medicines called antibiotics. ...

  15. Strain-specific virulence of Bordetella hinzii in poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two species of Bordetella, B. avium and B. hinzii, are known to infect avian hosts. B. avium is the etiologic agent of turkey coryza, a disease of high morbidity. B. hinzii, though commonly acquired from the respiratory tracts of diseased poultry, has not been demonstrated to be pathogenic in eith...

  16. Atypical pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... America/American Thoracic Society consensus guidelines on the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Clin Infect Dis . 2007;44:S27-S72. PMID: 17278083 ... by: Denis Hadjiliadis, MD, Associate Professor of Medicine, Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care, Perelman ...

  17. Prevent Pneumonia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-08-06

    CDC’s Matthew Westercamp explains what pneumonia is, its symptoms, and how to prevent it.  Created: 8/6/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Respiratory Diseases Branch (RDB).   Date Released: 8/6/2015.

  18. Bordetella avium Antibiotic Resistance, Novel Enrichment Culture, and Antigenic Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Beach, Nathan M; Thompson, Seth; Mutnick, Rachel; Brown, Lisa; Kettig, Gina; Puffenbarger, Robyn; Miyamoto, David; Temple, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Bordetella avium continues to be an economic issue in the turkey industry as the causative agent of bordetellosis, which often leads to serious secondary infections. This study presents a broad characterization of the antibiotic resistance patterns in this diverse collection of B. avium strains collected over the past thirty years. In addition, the plasmid basis for the antibiotic resistance was characterized. The antibiotic resistance pattern allowed the development of a novel enrichment cul...

  19. Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infections Page Content Article Body Some lung ... walking pneumonia), are caused by an organism called Mycoplasma pneumoniae. It is spread from person to person ...

  20. FastStats: Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Pneumonia Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are ... Mortality data Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Pneumonia American Lung Association : Pneumonia Get Email Updates To ...

  1. What Is Pneumonia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Pneumonia? Pneumonia (nu-MO-ne-ah) is an infection in ... such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi—can cause pneumonia. The infection inflames your lungs' air sacs, which ...

  2. Pneumonia in Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Maurizio Maccato

    1995-01-01

    Pneumonia complicating pregnancy requires a prompt diagnosis and the institution of adequate supportive and antimicrobial therapy. In a patient with a classic presentation of pneumonia, the most likely pathogens are Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. In a patient with an atypical presentation of pneumonia, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae are frequently encountered. In a patient suffering from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), Pneumocystis carinii is t...

  3. The missing link: Bordetella petrii is endowed with both the metabolic versatility of environmental bacteria and virulence traits of pathogenic Bordetellae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneiker-Bekel Susanne

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bordetella petrii is the only environmental species hitherto found among the otherwise host-restricted and pathogenic members of the genus Bordetella. Phylogenetically, it connects the pathogenic Bordetellae and environmental bacteria of the genera Achromobacter and Alcaligenes, which are opportunistic pathogens. B. petrii strains have been isolated from very different environmental niches, including river sediment, polluted soil, marine sponges and a grass root. Recently, clinical isolates associated with bone degenerative disease or cystic fibrosis have also been described. Results In this manuscript we present the results of the analysis of the completely annotated genome sequence of the B. petrii strain DSMZ12804. B. petrii has a mosaic genome of 5,287,950 bp harboring numerous mobile genetic elements, including seven large genomic islands. Four of them are highly related to the clc element of Pseudomonas knackmussii B13, which encodes genes involved in the degradation of aromatics. Though being an environmental isolate, the sequenced B. petrii strain also encodes proteins related to virulence factors of the pathogenic Bordetellae, including the filamentous hemagglutinin, which is a major colonization factor of B. pertussis, and the master virulence regulator BvgAS. However, it lacks all known toxins of the pathogenic Bordetellae. Conclusion The genomic analysis suggests that B. petrii represents an evolutionary link between free-living environmental bacteria and the host-restricted obligate pathogenic Bordetellae. Its remarkable metabolic versatility may enable B. petrii to thrive in very different ecological niches.

  4. CT manifestations of adult mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the conventional CT and HRCT manifestations of adult mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia. Methods: Conventional CT and HRCT were performed in 16 adult patients with mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia proven by serology. The CT images were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Areas of ground-glass opacity (GGO) were found in 12 cases. GGO showed lobular or patchy distribution in 9 cases. Air-space consolidation was observed in 8 cases, 'tree in bud' sign in 9, thickening of the interlobular septa in 3, and thickening of bronchovascular bundle in 1. 15 cases had two or more findings simultaneously. Conclusion: Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia has some characteristic CT findings, which can help to distinguish it from bacterial pneumonia

  5. Cloning and sequencing of a gene encoding a 21-kilodalton outer membrane protein from Bordetella avium and expression of the gene in Salmonella typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry-Weeks, C R; Hultsch, A L; Kelly, S M; Keith, J M; Curtiss, R

    1992-12-01

    Three gene libraries of Bordetella avium 197 DNA were prepared in Escherichia coli LE392 by using the cosmid vectors pCP13 and pYA2329, a derivative of pCP13 specifying spectinomycin resistance. The cosmid libraries were screened with convalescent-phase anti-B. avium turkey sera and polyclonal rabbit antisera against B. avium 197 outer membrane proteins. One E. coli recombinant clone produced a 56-kDa protein which reacted with convalescent-phase serum from a turkey infected with B. avium 197. In addition, five E. coli recombinant clones were identified which produced B. avium outer membrane proteins with molecular masses of 21, 38, 40, 43, and 48 kDa. At least one of these E. coli clones, which encoded the 21-kDa protein, reacted with both convalescent-phase turkey sera and antibody against B. avium 197 outer membrane proteins. The gene for the 21-kDa outer membrane protein was localized by Tn5seq1 mutagenesis, and the nucleotide sequence was determined by dideoxy sequencing. DNA sequence analysis of the 21-kDa protein revealed an open reading frame of 582 bases that resulted in a predicted protein of 194 amino acids. Comparison of the predicted amino acid sequence of the gene encoding the 21-kDa outer membrane protein with protein sequences in the National Biomedical Research Foundation protein sequence data base indicated significant homology to the OmpA proteins of Shigella dysenteriae, Enterobacter aerogenes, E. coli, and Salmonella typhimurium and to Neisseria gonorrhoeae outer membrane protein III, Haemophilus influenzae protein P6, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa porin protein F. The gene (ompA) encoding the B. avium 21-kDa protein hybridized with 4.1-kb DNA fragments from EcoRI-digested, chromosomal DNA of Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica and with 6.0- and 3.2-kb DNA fragments from EcoRI-digested, chromosomal DNA of B. avium and B. avium-like DNA, respectively. A 6.75-kb DNA fragment encoding the B. avium 21-kDa protein was subcloned into the

  6. Suppression of Platelet Aggregation by Bordetella pertussis Adenylate Cyclase Toxin

    OpenAIRE

    Iwaki, Masaaki; Kamachi, Kazunari; Heveker, Nikolaus; Konda, Toshifumi

    1999-01-01

    The effect of Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) on platelet aggregation was investigated. This cell-invasive adenylate cyclase completely suppressed ADP (10 μM)-induced aggregation of rabbit platelets at 3 μg/ml and strongly suppressed thrombin (0.2 U/ml)-induced aggregation at 10 μg/ml. The suppression was accompanied by marked increase in platelet intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) content and was diminished by the anti-ACT monoclonal antibody B7E11. A catalytically inactive p...

  7. Hospital-acquired pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000146.htm Hospital-acquired pneumonia To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hospital-acquired pneumonia is an infection of the lungs ...

  8. Neonatal herpes simplex pneumonia.

    OpenAIRE

    Lissauer, T J; Shaw, P. J.; Underhill, G

    1984-01-01

    A neonate with herpes simplex pneumonia is described. Herpes simplex infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pneumonia in newborn infants, even in the absence of clinically apparent herpes in the mother.

  9. Pneumonia - weakened immune system

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/000093.htm Pneumonia - weakened immune system To use the sharing features on this page, ... off infection because of problems with the immune system. This type of disease is called "pneumonia in ...

  10. Pneumonia - adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    You have pneumonia, which is an infection in your lungs. In the hospital, your doctors and nurses helped you breathe better. ... body get rid of the germs that cause pneumonia. They also made sure you got enough liquids ...

  11. Pneumocystis Pneumonia (PCP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 515 Pneumocystis Pneumonia (PCP) WHAT IS PCP? HOW IS PCP TREATED? ... BEST? THE BOTTOM LINE WHAT IS PCP? Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP or pneumocystis) is the most common opportunistic ...

  12. Pneumocystis Pneumonia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Your Child All About Food Allergies Pneumocystis Pneumonia KidsHealth > For Parents > Pneumocystis Pneumonia Print A A A Text Size What's in ... article? About PCP Diagnosing PCP Treating PCP Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is an infection caused by Pneumocystis jiroveci , ...

  13. Respiratory Review of 2012: Pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Young-Soon

    2012-01-01

    Pneumonia is the cause of significant morbidity and mortality, despite advances in diagnosis and antibacterial treatment. Pneumonia is often misdiagnosed and mistreated up until recently. Recent classification of pneumonia consists of community-acquired pneumonia, health care-associated pneumonia, hospital-acquired pneumonia, and ventilator-associated pneumonia. The etiology, risk factors, and treatment are different among them. This article briefly introduces new concepts and ideas in biomar...

  14. 78 FR 19986 - New Animal Drugs; Enrofloxacin; Tilmicosin; Tylosin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ..., Pasteurella multocida, Haemophilus parasuis, Streptococcus suis, Bordetella bronchiseptica, and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. (B) For the treatment and control of swine respiratory disease (SRD) associated...

  15. The History of Mycoplasma pneumoniae Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraya, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    In the United States in the 1930s, although the pathogen was not known, atypical pneumonia was clinically distinguished from pneumococcal pneumonia by its resistance to sulfonamides. Reimann (1938) reported seven patients with an unusual form of tracheo bronchopneumonia and severe constitutional symptoms. He believed the clinical picture of this disease differed from that of the disease caused by influenza viruses or known bacteria and instead suspected "primary atypical pneumonia." For many years, the responsible infectious agent was tentatively classified as a filterable virus that could pass through a Seitz filter to remove bacteria and was reported to be a psittacosis-like or new virus. After that, Eaton et al. (1942, 1944, 1945) identified an agent that was the principal cause of primary atypical pneumonia using cotton rats, hamsters, and chick embryos. Eaton et al. (1942, 1944, 1945) did not perform an inoculation study in human volunteers. During the 1940s, there were three groups engaged in discovering the etiology of the primary atypical pneumonia. (1) Commission on Acute Respiratory Diseases Diseases directed by John Dingle, (2) Dr. Monroe Eaton's group, the Virus Research Laboratory of the California State Public Health Department, (3) The Hospital of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research directed by Horsfall. During 1940s, the members of the Commission on Acute Respiratory Diseases concluded that the bacteria-free filtrates obtained from the patients, presumably containing a virus, could induce primary atypical pneumonia in human volunteers via Pinehurst trials. During 1950s, serological approaches for identification of the Eaton agent developed such as Fluorescent-Stainable Antibody, and at the beginning of the1960s, the Eaton agent successfully grew in media, and finally accepted as a cause of primary atypical pneumonia. Thus, technical difficulties with visualizing the agent and failure to recognize the full significance of the Pinehurst

  16. How Can Pneumonia Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Can Pneumonia Be Prevented? Pneumonia can be very serious and ... t last as long Fewer serious complications Pneumococcal Pneumonia Vaccine A vaccine is available to prevent pneumococcal ...

  17. [Therapy-resistant pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oestmann, Andreas; Schäfer, Stephan Christian; Geiser, Thomas

    2014-10-15

    We report the case of a 72 year old patient with B-symptoms and a persistent pulmonary infiltrate despite an antibiotic therapy. Buds of granulation tissue were found by transbronchial biopsy proving an organizing pneumonia. B-Symptoms and pulmonary infiltrate were improved immediately by a therapy with steroids. Even though there were reasons for a secondary organizing pneumonia due to a known chronic lymphocytic leukemia and a pneumonia treated four months before, we consider a cryptogenic organizing pneumonia as most probable. PMID:25305119

  18. Update on interstitial pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Pamela A; Lascola, Kara M

    2015-04-01

    Interstitial pneumonias encompass a wide variety of acute and chronic respiratory diseases and include the specific diseases equine multinodular pulmonary fibrosis and acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress. These diseases have been diagnosed in all age groups of horses, and numerous agents have been identified as potential causes of interstitial pneumonia. Despite the varied causes, interstitial pneumonia is uniformly recognized by the severity of respiratory disease and often poor clinical outcome. This article reviews the causal agents that have been associated with the development of interstitial pneumonia in horses. Pathophysiology, clinical diagnosis, and treatment options are discussed. PMID:25770067

  19. Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment of Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Health and Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > Pneumonia Pneumonia Symptoms, Causes, and Risk Factors Anyone can get ... risk for pneumonia. What Are the Symptoms of Pneumonia? Pneumonia symptoms can vary from mild to severe, ...

  20. Bronchitis and Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What is the difference between bronchitis and pneumonia? Bronchitis is most often a bacte- rial or viral infection that causes swelling of the tubes (bronchioles) leading to the lungs. Pneumonia is an acute or chronic disease marked by inflammation of the ...

  1. Identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Kaijalainen, Tarja

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: Streptococcus pneumoniae, pneumococcus, is an importanthuman pathogen that causes both serious invasive infections, suchas septicaemia, meningitis and pneumonia, as well as mild upper respiratoryinfections. It also belongs to the normal nasopharyngeal microbialflora. The purpose of this study was to compare bacteriologicalphenotypic methods with genetechnological methods in the identificationof pneumococci, especially among suspect pneumococcal isolateslacking one or more typical ...

  2. Pneumonia - adults (community acquired)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breathing (respiratory) condition in which there is an infection of the lung. This article covers community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). This type of pneumonia is found in persons who have not recently been in the hospital or another health care facility such as a ...

  3. Real-time PCR-based detection of Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis in an Irish paediatric population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Grogan, Juanita A

    2011-06-01

    Novel real-time PCR assays targeting the Bordetella pertussis insertion sequence IS481, the toxin promoter region and Bordetella parapertussis insertion sequence IS1001 were designed. PCR assays were capable of detecting ≤10 copies of target DNA per reaction, with an amplification efficiency of ≥90 %. From September 2003 to December 2009, per-nasal swabs and nasopharyngeal aspirates submitted for B. pertussis culture from patients ≤1 month to >15 years of age were examined by real-time PCR. Among 1324 patients, 76 (5.7 %) were B. pertussis culture positive and 145 (10.95 %) were B. pertussis PCR positive. Of the B. pertussis PCR-positive patients, 117 (81 %) were aged 6 months or less. A total of 1548 samples were examined, of which 87 (5.6 %) were culture positive for B. pertussis and 169 (10.92 %) were B. pertussis PCR positive. All culture-positive samples were PCR positive. Seven specimens (0.5 %) were B. parapertussis culture positive and 10 (0.8 %) were B. parapertussis PCR positive, with all culture-positive samples yielding PCR-positive results. A review of patient laboratory records showed that of the 1324 patients tested for pertussis 555 (42 %) had samples referred for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) testing and 165 (30 %) were positive, as compared to 19.4 % of the total 5719 patients tested for RSV in this period. Analysis of the age distribution of RSV-positive patients identified that 129 (78 %) were aged 6 months or less, similar to the incidence observed for pertussis in that patient age group. In conclusion, the introduction of the real-time PCR assays for the routine detection of B. pertussis resulted in a 91 % increase in the detection of the organism as compared to microbiological culture. The incidence of infection with B. parapertussis is low while the incidence of RSV infection in infants suspected of having pertussis is high, with a similar age distribution to B. pertussis infection.

  4. Bordetella avium antibiotic resistance, novel enrichment culture, and antigenic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Nathan M; Thompson, Seth; Mutnick, Rachel; Brown, Lisa; Kettig, Gina; Puffenbarger, Robyn; Stockwell, Stephanie B; Miyamoto, David; Temple, Louise

    2012-11-01

    Bordetella avium continues to be an economic issue in the turkey industry as the causative agent of bordetellosis, which often leads to serious secondary infections. This study presents a broad characterization of the antibiotic resistance patterns in this diverse collection of B. avium strains collected over the past thirty years. In addition, the plasmid basis for the antibiotic resistance was characterized. The antibiotic resistance pattern allowed the development of a novel enrichment culture method that was subsequently employed to gather new isolates from diseased turkeys and a healthy sawhet owl. While a healthy turkey flock was shown to seroconvert by four weeks-of-age, attempts to culture B. avium from healthy turkey poults were unsuccessful. Western blot of B. avium strains using pooled serum from diseased and healthy commercial turkey flocks revealed both antigenic similarities and differences between strains. In sum, the work documents the continued exposure of commercial turkey flocks to B. avium and the need for development of an effective, inexpensive vaccine to control spread of the disease. PMID:22721730

  5. New Data on Vaccine Antigen Deficient Bordetella pertussis Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Bouchez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of Bordetella pertussis is driven by natural and vaccine pressures. Isolates circulating in regions with high vaccination coverage present multiple allelic and antigenic variations as compared to isolates collected before introduction of vaccination. Furthermore, during the last epidemics reported in regions using pertussis acellular vaccines, isolates deficient for vaccine antigens, such as pertactin (PRN, were reported to reach high proportions of circulating isolates. More sporadic filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA or pertussis toxin (PT deficient isolates were also collected. The whole genome of some recent French isolates, deficient or non-deficient in vaccine antigens, were analyzed. Transcription profiles of the expression of the main virulence factors were also compared. The invasive phenotype in an in vitro human tracheal epithelial (HTE cell model of infection was evaluated. Our genomic analysis focused on SNPs related to virulence genes known to be more likely to present allelic polymorphism. Transcriptomic data indicated that isolates circulating since the introduction of pertussis vaccines present lower transcription levels of the main virulence genes than the isolates of the pre-vaccine era. Furthermore, isolates not producing FHA present significantly higher expression levels of the entire set of genes tested. Finally, we observed that recent isolates are more invasive in HTE cells when compared to the reference strain, but no multiplication occurs within cells.

  6. Osteopontin promotes host defense during Klebsiella pneumoniae-induced pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J.W. van der Windt; J.J. Hoogerwerf; A.F. de Vos; S. Florquin; T. van der Poll

    2010-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a common cause of nosocomial pneumonia. Osteopontin (OPN) is a phosphorylated glycoprotein involved in inflammatory processes, some of which is mediated by CD44. The aim of this study was to determine the role of OPN during K. pneumoniae-induced pneumonia. Wild-type (WT) and

  7. Pneumonia in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selim Öncel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Pneumonia is inflammation of lung tissue caused by the invasion of pathogenic organisms when defense mechanisms are insufficient. In economically-developing countries, it is the leading fatal infection of childhood.In those aged less than five years, the causative organism is usually a virus. Mycoplasma pneumoniae is the most prominent agent in older children. Infection takes place by droplets. The assertion of failure of the immune system to prevent infections, such as pneumonia, because of having been exposed to cold has no scientific basis.Tachypnea is the most sensitive and specific finding especially in children under five years of age.The decision to resort to laboratory tests depends on the course of the illness, the child’s age, incidence of the disease in the community, risk of complications, and the need to hospitalize the child. Radiologic examination is not vital to diagnosis.Infants in their first two or three months should be hospitalized. The most common pathogens after age five years are M. pneumoniae and, to a lesser extent, Chlamydophila pneumoniae; therefore macrolides are the drugs of choice for ambulatory management for this age group. Wide-spectrum, anti-staphylococcal antibiotics should be avoided for childhood pneumonia unless there is significant clinical suspicion of Staphylococcus aureus as the etiologic agent.Education of caregivers and vaccination are very important among other efforts to decrease the overall incidence of pneumonia in the society.

  8. Computed tomographic study on Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serologically proven 21 patients with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia that showed infiltrative shadows on chest radiograms were studied by computed tomography (CT). Localization of the lesion and the fashion of its progression through the lung were analyzed. Following 3 loci were defined on the basis of the investigations of critical analysis of the chest radiograms, and of radiopathological analysis of the experimental animal model of mycoplasmal pneumonia with soft X-ray image. I: Peribronchial and periarterial interstitium. II: Bronchiole and its surroundings. III: Lung parenchyma, on hilar area as IIIh, on marginal area as IIIm. Even in the early phase of this disease, radiopathological findings on CT have been distributed in all loci mentioned above. The Shadow disappeared from locus III approximately 14th day from the onset. The shadow have remained, however, loci I, II for a long period. Those findings suggest that locus I and II are one of the major focus of Mycoplasma neumoniae pneumonia. Volume loss in the locus III was observed 78 % of the cases at 28th day from the onset. The shadow on locus IIIh was more prominent than locus IIIm. Reported analytical method with CT could be widely applied to disclose a radiopathological details in other infectious diseases of the lung. (author)

  9. Filamentous hemagglutinin of Bordetella pertussis: a key adhesin with immunomodulatory properties?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Villarino Romero, Rodrigo; Osička, Radim; Šebo, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 12 (2014), s. 1339-1360. ISSN 1746-0913 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) P302/11/0580; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-14547S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Bordetella * adhesion * integrins * filamentous hemagglutinin Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.275, year: 2014

  10. SNP-based typing: a useful tool to study Bordetella pertussis populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gent, M. van; Bart, M.J.; Heide, H.G. van der; Heuvelman, K.J.; Kallonen, T.; He, Q.; Mertsola, J.; Advani, A.; Hallander, H.O.; Janssens, K.; Hermans, P.W.M.; Mooi, F.R.

    2011-01-01

    To monitor changes in Bordetella pertussis populations, mainly two typing methods are used; Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and Multiple-Locus Variable-Number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA). In this study, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing method, based on 87 SNPs, was developed a

  11. Attenuated Bordetella pertussis Vaccine Protects against Respiratory Syncytial Virus Disease via an IL-17-Dependent Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Sawant, Devika; Schnoeller, Corinna; Roux, Xavier; Openshaw, Peter J.; Olszewska, Wieslawa; Locht, Camille; Raze, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: We attenuated virulent Bordetella pertussis by genetically eliminating or detoxifying three major toxins. This strain, named BPZE1, is being developed as a possible live nasal vaccine for the prevention of whooping cough. It is immunogenic and safe when given intranasally in adult volunteers.

  12. The Bordetella pertussis protein Pertactin: role in immunity and immune evasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijnen, Marcel

    2006-01-01

    Pertussis is a highly contagious infectious disease of the respiratory tract which is caused by Bordetella pertussis. Before widespread introduction of vaccination against pertussis, almost every child contracted pertussis. The disease is most severe in neonates and children under the age of 1. Intr

  13. Pneumonia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a medicine to treat your child's cough because cough suppressants stop the lungs from clearing mucus, which isn't helpful in some types of pneumonia. Over-the-counter cough and cold medications are not recommended for any ...

  14. Pneumonia - adults (community acquired)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... going to the bathroom After changing a baby's diaper After coming in contact with people who are ... pneumoniae. Vaccines are even more important for older adults and people with diabetes, asthma, emphysema, HIV, cancer, ...

  15. Acute interstitial pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper refers to a 71 year-old patient, to who is diagnosed acute interstitial pneumonia; with square of 20 days of evolution of cough dry emetizant, fever, general uneasiness, migraine, progressive dyspnoea and lost of weight

  16. Bronchoscopy in lipoid pneumonia.

    OpenAIRE

    Kameswaran, M.; Annobil, S H; Benjamin, B.; Salim, M.

    1992-01-01

    Forcible administration of rendered animal fat to infants is a tradition in south western Saudi Arabia. Accidental inhalation may result in a resistant form of lipoid pneumonia. A series of 24 cases of lipoid pneumonia, 22 of which were diagnosed by bronchoscopy with bronchial lavage and microscopic examination of the aspirate, are reported. The technique is described briefly and the results analysed. A high index of suspicion together with bronchoscopy and bronchial lavage of all cases of re...

  17. 77 FR 76862 - New Animal Drugs; Enrofloxacin; Melengestrol; Meloxicam; Pradofloxacin; Tylosin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... parasuis, Streptococcus suis, Bordetella bronchiseptica, and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. * * * * * PART 529.... respiratory disease Shawnee Mission, associated with KS 66201. Bordetella bronchiseptica and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. 200-534 Huvepharma AD, 5th TYLOVET 100 Original approval as a 558.342 Yes CE \\1\\ Floor,...

  18. Pneumonia Can Be Prevented -- Vaccines Can Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Pneumonia Can Be Prevented—Vaccines Can Help Language: English ... of an adult patient with pneumonia. What Is Pneumonia? Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs that ...

  19. Bordetella pertussis en estudiantes adolescentes de la Ciudad de México Bordetella pertussis em estudantes adolescentes da Cidade do México Bordetella pertussis in adolescents students in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Tomé Sandoval

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar la seroprevalencia a Bordetella pertussis en escolares y sus contactos escolares y familiares. MÉTODOS: Un total de 12.273 estudiantes de 12 a 15 años de edad, de 14 escuelas secundarias públicas de la Ciudad de México fueron estudiados durante los meses de Septiembre 2002 a Marzo 2003. Se tomó muestra de exudado nasofaríngeo en adolescentes con tos de más de 14 días de evolución. La infección fue confirmada por la técnica de reacción en cadena de polimerasa. Se realizó estudio de contactos escolares y familiares. RESULTADOS: La incidencia de tos fue de 5 para 1.000 estudiantes. De los 61 estudiantes con tos incluidos en la muestra, 20 (32,8% fueron positivos para Bordetella. De los 152 contactos escolares, 16 (10,6% resultaron positivos, y ocho tenían tos. Uno de esos contactos fue el director de una de las escuelas responsable de más del 60% de los casos positivos (12/20, quien también dio lecciones a diez de los estudiantes infectados. De los 29 familiares, ocho (27,6% fueron positivos, pertenecientes a tres familias. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados muestran que la frecuencia de la enfermedad fue similar al comunicado en la población adolescente de otros países. Sin embargo, este trastorno no tiene necesariamente signos clínicos de la tos persistente y está sujeto a la existencia de infectados asintomáticos con Bordetella.OBJETIVO: Estimar a soroprevalência a Bordetella pertussis em escolares e seus contatos. MÉTODOS: Foram examinados 12.273 alunos entre 12 e 15 anos de idade, de 14 escolas secundárias públicas da Cidade do México, de setembro de 2002 a março de 2003. Amostras de exudado nasofaríngeo foram coletadas de adolescentes com tosse por mais de 14 dias. A infecção foi confirmada por reação em cadeia da polimerase. Todos os alunos e funcionários dos colégios dos casos confirmados por reação em cadeia da polimerase e seus familiares foram testados. RESULTADOS: A incidência de tosse

  20. Pneumonia in the immunocompetent patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, J H; McDonald, G; Alton, H; Gordon, S B

    2010-12-01

    Pneumonia is an acute inflammation of the lower respiratory tract. Lower respiratory tract infection is a major cause of mortality worldwide. Pneumonia is most common at the extremes of life. Predisposing factors in children include an under-developed immune system together with other factors, such as malnutrition and over-crowding. In adults, tobacco smoking is the single most important preventable risk factor. The commonest infecting organisms in children are respiratory viruses and Streptoccocus pneumoniae. In adults, pneumonia can be broadly classified, on the basis of chest radiographic appearance, into lobar pneumonia, bronchopneumonia and pneumonia producing an interstitial pattern. Lobar pneumonia is most commonly associated with community acquired pneumonia, bronchopneumonia with hospital acquired infection and an interstitial pattern with the so called atypical pneumonias, which can be caused by viruses or organisms such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Most cases of pneumonia can be managed with chest radiographs as the only form of imaging, but CT can detect pneumonia not visible on the chest radiograph and may be of value, particularly in the hospital setting. Complications of pneumonia include pleural effusion, empyema and lung abscess. The chest radiograph may initially indicate an effusion but ultrasound is more sensitive, allows characterisation in some cases and can guide catheter placement for drainage. CT can also be used to characterise and estimate the extent of pleural disease. Most lung abscesses respond to medical therapy, with surgery and image guided catheter drainage serving as options for those cases who do not respond. PMID:21088086

  1. A Compendium for Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Gretchen L; Kinjo, Takeshi; Fujita, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    Historically, atypical pneumonia was a term used to describe an unusual presentation of pneumonia. Currently, it is used to describe the multitude of symptoms juxtaposing the classic symptoms found in cases of pneumococcal pneumonia. Specifically, atypical pneumonia is a syndrome resulting from a relatively common group of pathogens including Chlamydophila sp., and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. The incidence of M. pneumoniae pneumonia in adults is less than the burden experienced by children. Transmission rates among families indicate children may act as a reservoir and maintain contagiousness over a long period of time ranging from months to years. In adults, M. pneumoniae typically produces a mild, "walking" pneumonia and is considered to be one of the causes of persistent cough in patients. M. pneumoniae has also been shown to trigger the exacerbation of other lung diseases. It has been repeatedly detected in patients with bronchitis, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, and cystic fibrosis. Recent advances in technology allow for the rapid diagnosis of M. pneumoniae through the use of polymerase chain reaction or rapid antigen tests. With this, more effort has been afforded to identify the causative etiologic agent in all cases of pneumonia. However, previous practices, including the overprescribing of macrolide treatment in China and Japan, have created increased incidence of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae. Reports from these countries indicate that >85% of M. pneumoniae pneumonia pediatric cases are macrolide-resistant. Despite its extensively studied past, the smallest bacterial species still inspires some of the largest questions. The developments in microbiology, diagnostic features and techniques, epidemiology, treatment and vaccines, and upper respiratory conditions associated with M. pneumoniae in adult populations are included within this review. PMID:27148202

  2. A Compendium for Mycoplasma pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Gretchen L.; Kinjo, Takeshi; Fujita, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    Historically, atypical pneumonia was a term used to describe an unusual presentation of pneumonia. Currently, it is used to describe the multitude of symptoms juxtaposing the classic symptoms found in cases of pneumococcal pneumonia. Specifically, atypical pneumonia is a syndrome resulting from a relatively common group of pathogens including Chlamydophila sp., and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. The incidence of M. pneumoniae pneumonia in adults is less than the burden experienced by children. Transmission rates among families indicate children may act as a reservoir and maintain contagiousness over a long period of time ranging from months to years. In adults, M. pneumoniae typically produces a mild, “walking” pneumonia and is considered to be one of the causes of persistent cough in patients. M. pneumoniae has also been shown to trigger the exacerbation of other lung diseases. It has been repeatedly detected in patients with bronchitis, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, and cystic fibrosis. Recent advances in technology allow for the rapid diagnosis of M. pneumoniae through the use of polymerase chain reaction or rapid antigen tests. With this, more effort has been afforded to identify the causative etiologic agent in all cases of pneumonia. However, previous practices, including the overprescribing of macrolide treatment in China and Japan, have created increased incidence of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae. Reports from these countries indicate that >85% of M. pneumoniae pneumonia pediatric cases are macrolide-resistant. Despite its extensively studied past, the smallest bacterial species still inspires some of the largest questions. The developments in microbiology, diagnostic features and techniques, epidemiology, treatment and vaccines, and upper respiratory conditions associated with M. pneumoniae in adult populations are included within this review. PMID:27148202

  3. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to identify and classify the basic CT appearance of interstitial pneumonia, radiologic-pathologic correlative study was performed using inflated and fixed lungs from autopsy and surgery. The patterns of the abnormalities on the CT images of interstitial pneumonia were classified into 7 categories. Important pathological changes which affected the CT images were alveolar collapse and airway dilatation. Based on the result of above study, we analyzed CT of 22 patients with IIP. The lesions which were classified into a hazy density, micronodular densities, confluence of various sized ring like shadows and subpleural bullous changes were frequently recognized together mostly in the periphery of the lung. (author)

  4. Burden of Severe Pneumonia, Pneumococcal Pneumonia and Pneumonia Deaths in Indian States: Modelling Based Estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Farooqui, H; Jit, M.; Heymann, DL; Zodpey, S.

    2015-01-01

    The burden of severe pneumonia in terms of morbidity and mortality is unknown in India especially at sub-national level. In this context, we aimed to estimate the number of severe pneumonia episodes, pneumococcal pneumonia episodes and pneumonia deaths in children younger than 5 years in 2010. We adapted and parameterized a mathematical model based on the epidemiological concept of potential impact fraction developed CHERG for this analysis. The key parameters that determine the distribution ...

  5. Analysis of Bordetella pertussis clinical isolates circulating in European countries during the period 1998–2012

    OpenAIRE

    Gent, M.; Heuvelman, C.J.; van der Heide, H G; Hallander, H. O.; Advani, A.; Guiso, N; Wirsing von Kőnig, C. H.; Vestrheim, D. F.; Dalby, T.; Fry, N. K.; Pierard, D; Detemmerman, L; Zavadilova, J.; Fabianova, K.; Logan, C.

    2014-01-01

    Despite more than 50 years of vaccination, pertussis is still an endemic disease, with regular epidemic outbreaks. With the exception of Poland, European countries have replaced whole-cell vaccines (WCVs) by acellular vaccines (ACVs) in the 1990s. Worldwide, antigenic divergence in vaccine antigens has been found between vaccine strains and circulating strains. In this work, 466 Bordetella pertussis isolates collected in the period 1998–2012 from 13 European countries were characterised by mu...

  6. Recovery of Bordetella pertussis from PCR-positive nasopharyngeal samples is dependent on bacterial load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestrheim, Didrik F; Steinbakk, Martin; Bjørnstad, Martha L; Moghaddam, Amir; Reinton, Nils; Dahl, Mette L; Grude, Nils; Sandven, Per

    2012-12-01

    Viable Bordetella pertussis isolates are essential for surveillance purposes. We performed culture of 223 PCR-positive nasopharyngeal samples. B. pertussis was recovered from 45 (20.2%) of the samples. Growth was associated with a high bacterial load, as determined by PCR. Culture from PCR-positive samples is a feasible approach to recover B. pertussis isolates, and culture can be limited to samples with a high bacterial load. PMID:23035189

  7. Recovery of Bordetella pertussis from PCR-Positive Nasopharyngeal Samples Is Dependent on Bacterial Load

    OpenAIRE

    Vestrheim, Didrik F.; Steinbakk, Martin; Bjørnstad, Martha L.; Moghaddam, Amir; Reinton, Nils; Dahl, Mette L.; Grude, Nils; Sandven, Per

    2012-01-01

    Viable Bordetella pertussis isolates are essential for surveillance purposes. We performed culture of 223 PCR-positive nasopharyngeal samples. B. pertussis was recovered from 45 (20.2%) of the samples. Growth was associated with a high bacterial load, as determined by PCR. Culture from PCR-positive samples is a feasible approach to recover B. pertussis isolates, and culture can be limited to samples with a high bacterial load.

  8. Monoclonal Antibodies Directed Against the Outer Membrane Protein of Bordetella avium

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Guanhua; Liang, Manfei; Zuo, Xuemei; Zhao, Xue; Guo, Fanxia; Yang, Shifa; Zhu, Ruiliang

    2013-01-01

    Bordetella avium is the etiologic agent of coryza and rhinotracheitis in poultry. This respiratory disease is responsible for substantial economic losses in the poultry industry. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were produced against the outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of B. avium isolated from diseased chickens. BALB/c mice were immunized with the extracted B. avium OMPs. Then the splenocytes from immunized mice and SP2/0 myeloma cells were fused using PEG 4000. Three stable hybridoma clones (des...

  9. Detection of Bordetella pertussis by rapid-cycle PCR and colorimetric microwell hybridization.

    OpenAIRE

    Buck, G E

    1996-01-01

    The use of rapid-cycle PCR combined with colorimetric microwell hybridization for detecting Bordetella pertussis was investigated. Rapid cycling was performed with an air thermocycler (model 1605; Idaho Technology, Idaho Falls, Idaho). Although the instrument was originally designed to be used with capillary tubes, an adapter that allows this instrument to be used with PCR tubes has recently been introduced. Because of the low heat capacity of air, the thermocycler has rapid transition rates ...

  10. Detection of IgG antibodies against Bordetella pertussis with 125I-protein A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for the detection of IgG antibodies against Bordetella pertussis is described, based on the principle of 'sandwich' radioimmunoassay. 125I protein A is used as radioactive tracer. The influence of amounts of antigen, antibody, radioactive tracer, incubation time and temperature were tested and the optimal conditions for the assay are described. The procedure offers a simple, quick, and sensitive method for detecting antibodies against B. pertussis. Application and limitation of the test are discussed. (orig.)

  11. Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin translocation across a tethered lipid bilayer

    OpenAIRE

    Veneziano, Rémi; Rossi, Claire; Chenal, Alexandre; Devoisselle, Jean-Marie; Ladant, Daniel; Chopineau, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Many bacterial toxins can cross biological membranes to reach the cytosol of mammalian cells, although how they pass through a lipid bilayer remains largely unknown. Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase (CyaA) toxin delivers its catalytic domain directly across the cell membrane. To characterize this unique translocation process, we designed an in vitro assay based on a tethered lipid bilayer assembled over a biosensor surface derivatized with calmodulin, a natural activator of the toxin. C...

  12. Mutations in Cytochrome Assembly and Periplasmic Redox Pathways in Bordetella pertussis

    OpenAIRE

    Feissner, Robert E.; Beckett, Caroline S.; Loughman, Jennifer A.; Kranz, Robert G.

    2005-01-01

    Transposon mutagenesis of Bordetella pertussis was used to discover mutations in the cytochrome c biogenesis pathway called system II. Using a tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine cytochrome c oxidase screen, 27 oxidase-negative mutants were isolated and characterized. Nine mutants were still able to synthesize c-type cytochromes and possessed insertions in the genes for cytochrome c oxidase subunits (ctaC, -D, and -E), heme a biosynthesis (ctaB), assembly of cytochrome c oxidase (sco2), or ferroch...

  13. Exogenous lipid pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exogenous lipid pneumonia (ELP) is caused by the aspiration of animal, vegetal or, more often, mineral oils. Even though it may also be acute, ELP is most frequently a chronic disease, affecting people with predisposing factors, such as neuromuscular disorders, structural abnormalities and so on; very often exogenous lipid pneumonia is found in tracheotomized patients. The pathology of lipid pneumonia is a chronic inflammatory process evolving in foreign-body-like reaction, and eventually in ''end-stage lung'' condition. Clinically, most patients are asymptomatic; few cases only present with cough, dyspnea and chest pain. Eight cases of ELP, studied over the past 3 years, are described in this paper. All the patients were examined by chest radiographs and standard tomograms; 3 patients underwent CT. X-ray features were mono/bilateral consolidation of the lower zones, with air bronchogram and variable reduction in volume. CT density was not specific for fat tissue. In all cases the diagnosis was confirmed at biopsy. In 5 patients, followed for at least one year, clinical-radiological features showed no change. Thus, complications of ELP (especially malignant evolution) could be excluded. The authors conclude that lipid pneumonia must be considered in differential diagnosis of patients with history of usage of oils and compatible X-ray findings. The usefulness of an accurate follow-up is stressed

  14. Lipoid pneumonia: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadda, Vijay; Khilnani, Gopi C

    2010-12-01

    Lipoid pneumonia is an uncommon disease caused by the presence of lipid in the alveoli. It is classified into two major groups, depending on whether the lipid/oil in the respiratory tract is from an exogenous (exogenous lipoid pneumonia) or endogenous/idiopathic (endogenous lipoid pneumonia) source. The usual presentation occurs with insidious onset and nonspecific respiratory symptoms such as dyspnea and/or cough. The main radiological findings include airspace consolidations, ground-glass attenuation, airspace nodules and 'crazy-paving' pattern. However, the radiological appearance of the disorder can mimic many other lung diseases, including carcinoma. Owing to the nonspecific clinical presentation and radiological features, the diagnosis is often missed or delayed. Pathologically, lipoid pneumonia is a chronic foreign body reaction to fat, characterized by lipid-laden macrophages. Diagnosis of this disease requires a high index of suspicion and can be confirmed by demonstration of lipid-laden macrophages in respiratory samples such as sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or fine-needle aspiration cytology/biopsy from lung lesions. Treatment protocols for this illness are poorly defined. PMID:21128754

  15. Klebsiella pneumoniae Flocculation Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Bortz, D. M.; Jackson, T L; Taylor, K. A.; Thompson, A. P.; Younger, J. G.

    2007-01-01

    The bacterial pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae is a cause of community- and hospital-acquired lung, urinary tract, and blood stream infections. A common contaminant of indwelling catheters, it is theorized that a common infection pathway for this organism is via shedding of aggregates off of biofilm colonies.

  16. Pathophysiology of pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcón, Amalia; Fàbregas, Neus; Torres, Antoni

    2005-03-01

    The development of pneumonia requires that a pathogen reach the alveoli and that the host defenses are overwhelmed by microorganism virulence or by the inoculum size. The endogenous sources of microorganisms are nasal carriers, sinusitis, oropharynx, gastric, or tracheal colonization, and hematogenous spread. Other external sources of contamination, such as intensive care unit workers, aerosols, or fibrobronchoscopy, must be considered as accidental. PMID:15802164

  17. Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Payal K.; Russo, Thomas A.; Karchmer, Adolf W.

    2014-01-01

    Hypervirulent strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae are associated with abscess formation, commonly hepatic, and metastatic spread, even in healthy patients. We describe a case of this clinical syndrome, genotypic and phenotypic features of the isolate, and briefly review epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and pathogenesis of this underappreciated syndrome.

  18. Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia: CT features in 16 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to assess the computed tomography (CT) features of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia. We retrospectively reviewed CT findings of 16 patients (M:F=9:7, age range 1-74 years, median 9 years) with serologically proven Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia and with chest CT scan available. Two distinctive patterns of CT features of M. pneumoniae pneumonia were noted between the paediatric (age <18 years) and the adult (age ≥18 years) groups. The pediatric group (n=11) showed lobar or segmental consolidation (100%) with frequent pleural effusion (82%) and regional lymphadenopathy (82%) and mild volume decrease of the involved lobe (73%), while four of the five adult patients showed diffuse and/or multifocal, centrilobular or peribronchovascular areas of ground-glass attenuation (80%) with a lobular distribution, and frequent thickening of interlobular septa (60%) and the bronchial walls (40%) were also detected at high-resolution CT. The CT finding of a lobar or segmental consolidation with a parapneumonic effusion seen in our children with M. pneumoniae pneumonia was similar to that of bacterial lobar pneumonia. In contrast, the CT findings noted in our adult patients consisted of a mixture of a bacterial bronchopneumonia pattern and a viral interstitial pneumonia pattern. (orig.)

  19. Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia: CT features in 16 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Inho; Kim, Tae Sung; Yoon, Hye-Kyung [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea)

    2006-03-15

    The objective of this study was to assess the computed tomography (CT) features of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia. We retrospectively reviewed CT findings of 16 patients (M:F=9:7, age range 1-74 years, median 9 years) with serologically proven Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia and with chest CT scan available. Two distinctive patterns of CT features of M. pneumoniae pneumonia were noted between the paediatric (age <18 years) and the adult (age {>=}18 years) groups. The pediatric group (n=11) showed lobar or segmental consolidation (100%) with frequent pleural effusion (82%) and regional lymphadenopathy (82%) and mild volume decrease of the involved lobe (73%), while four of the five adult patients showed diffuse and/or multifocal, centrilobular or peribronchovascular areas of ground-glass attenuation (80%) with a lobular distribution, and frequent thickening of interlobular septa (60%) and the bronchial walls (40%) were also detected at high-resolution CT. The CT finding of a lobar or segmental consolidation with a parapneumonic effusion seen in our children with M. pneumoniae pneumonia was similar to that of bacterial lobar pneumonia. In contrast, the CT findings noted in our adult patients consisted of a mixture of a bacterial bronchopneumonia pattern and a viral interstitial pneumonia pattern. (orig.)

  20. Hemophagocytic Syndrome Associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Koike

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp sometimes causes immunological complications in children. We present a rare case of hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS caused by Mp in a previously healthy 7-year-old Japanese girl. A chest radiograph obtained to evaluate the source of her fever showed infiltration in the lower right lung with mild splenomegaly. We could diagnose the patient with HPS on the basis of the hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis- (HLH 2004 criteria. She met the criteria for fever, splenomegaly, neutrophil count (265 mg/dL, and ferritin level (>500 ng/mL. Furthermore, a peripheral blood smear showed an increased number of monocytes/macrophages with erythrophagocytosis. Treatment with clarithromycin and prednisolone, which was initiated soon after the diagnosis, was successful. Mp infection might partly progress to HPS in certain conditions. Clinicians should be aware of HPS caused by Mp and start appropriate treatment as soon as possible if the disease is suspected.

  1. Idiopathic chronic eosinophilic pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Cordier Jean-François; Marchand Eric

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Idiopathic chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (ICEP) is characterized by subacute or chronic respiratory and general symptoms, alveolar and/or blood eosinophilia, and peripheral pulmonary infiltrates on chest imaging. Eosinophilia is present in most cases, usually in excess of 1000/mm3. In absence of significant blood eosinophilia, a diagnosis of ICEP is supported by the demonstration of bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophilia. ICEP is typically associated with eosinophil counts higher than ...

  2. Clinicoroentgenological control in chronic pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive clinicoroentgenological study was used to examine 494 patients with chronic pneumonia. Morphological and functional changes observed in the pulmonary pare and functional changes observed in the pulmonary parenchyma and bronchial tree were studied. Types of pneumosclerosis, tigns of exacerbation of chronic pneumonia and abscess formation, morphological and functional disorders of bronchial penetrability in the pneumonic zone were described. Three forms of chronic pneumonia: bronchial, bronchiectatic and abscessing are signled out. The bronchial form is subdivided into chronic pneumonia with chronic bronchitis without deformity and wi.th deforming chronic bronchitis. In the bronchiectatic form pneumonia can be with cylindrical, saccular and cyst-like bronchiectasia. The general diagnosis of chronic pneumonia is established clinically depending on type and variants in 89-94% of cases, by X-ray and sonographic findings in all patients; types and variants of disease are most frequently defined after bronchography

  3. Coxiella burnetii pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrie, T J

    2003-04-01

    This report reviews the pulmonary and extrapulmonary manifestation of infections due to Coxiella burnetii. Q fever, a zoonosis, is due to infection with C. burnetii. This spore-forming microorganism is a small gram-negative coccobacillus that is an obligate intracellular parasite. The most common animal reservoirs are goats, cattle, sheep, cats, and occasionally dogs. The organism reaches high concentrations in the placenta of infected animals. Aerosolisation occurs at the time of parturition and infection follows inhalation of this aerosol. There are three distinct clinical syndromes of the acute form of the illness: nonspecific febrile illness, pneumonia, and hepatitis. The chronic form of Q fever is almost always endocarditis, but occasionally it is manifest as hepatitis, osteomyelitis or endovascular infection. The pneumonic form of the illness can range from very mild-to-severe pneumonia requiring assisted ventilation. Multiple round opacities are a common finding on chest radiography. Treatment with doxycycline or a fluoroquinolone is preferred. Susceptibility to macrolides is variable. In conclusion, Coxiella burnetii pneumonia should be considered when there is a suitable exposure history and when outbreaks of a pneumonic illness are being investigated. PMID:12762362

  4. Acute fibrinous and organising pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Catarina; Sanches, Inês; Ferreira, Catarina

    2012-01-01

    Acute fibrinous and organising pneumonia (AFOP) was recently described as an unusual pattern of diffuse lung disease. Particular characteristics make the differential diagnosis with the well recognised clinical patterns of diffuse alveolar damage, cryptogenic organising pneumonia or eosinophilic pneumonia. The lack of hyaline membranes, the presence of intra-alveolar fibrin, absence of noticeable eosinophils and patchy distribution suggests that AFOP define a distinct histological pattern. Th...

  5. Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Robilotti, Elizabeth; Deresinski, Stan

    2014-01-01

    The continuing emergence of infections due to multidrug resistant bacteria is a serious public health problem. Klebsiella pneumoniae, which commonly acquires resistance encoded on mobile genetic elements, including ones that encode carbapenemases, is a prime example. K. pneumoniae carrying such genetic material, including both blaKPC and genes encoding metallo-β-lactamases, have spread globally. Many carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae are resistant to multiple antibiotic classes beyond β-l...

  6. Analytical Verification of a PCR Assay for Identification of Bordetella avium

    OpenAIRE

    Register, Karen B.; Yersin, Andrew G.

    2005-01-01

    Bordetella avium is the etiologic agent of turkey coryza or bordetellosis, a respiratory disease responsible for substantial economic losses to the turkey industry. At present, identification of this bacterium relies on isolation and biochemical testing. Although a PCR for the detection of B. avium was proposed a number of years ago (P. H. Savelkoul, L. E. de Groot, C. Boersma, I. Livey, C. J. Duggleby, B. A. van der Zeijst, and W. Gaastra, Microb. Pathog. 15:207-215, 1993), lack of analytica...

  7. Feedlot Acute Interstitial Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolums, Amelia R

    2015-11-01

    Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) of feedlot cattle is a sporadically occurring respiratory condition that is often fatal. Affected cattle have a sudden onset of labored breathing. There is no confirmed effective treatment of feedlot AIP; however, administration of antibiotics effective against common bacterial respiratory pathogens and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, especially aspirin, has been recommended. Protective strategies are not well defined, but efforts to limit dust exposure and heat stress; to ensure consistent formulation, mixing, and delivery of feed; and to identify and treat infectious respiratory disease in a timely manner may decrease rates of feedlot AIP. PMID:26253266

  8. Evaluation of Amplification Targets for the Specific Detection of Bordetella pertussis Using Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rubayet Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bordetella pertussis infections continue to be a major public health challenge in Canada. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays to detect B pertussis are typically based on the multicopy insertion sequence IS481, which offers high sensitivity but lacks species specificity.

  9. Granzyme A impairs host defense during Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Boogaard, Florry E; van Gisbergen, Klaas P J M; Vernooy, Juanita H; Medema, Jan P; Roelofs, Joris J T H; van Zoelen, Marieke A D; Endeman, Henrik; Biesma, Douwe H; Boon, Louis; Van't Veer, Cornelis; de Vos, Alex F; van der Poll, Tom

    2016-08-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common causative pathogen in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Granzyme A (GzmA) is a serine protease produced by a variety of cell types involved in the immune response. We sought to determine the role of GzmA on the host response during pneumococcal pneumonia. GzmA was measured in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) harvested from CAP patients from the infected and contralateral uninfected side and in lung tissue slides from CAP patients and controls. In CAP patients, GzmA levels were increased in BALF obtained from the infected lung. Human lungs showed constitutive GzmA expression by both parenchymal and nonparenchymal cells. In an experimental setting, pneumonia was induced in wild-type (WT) and GzmA-deficient (GzmA(-/-)) mice by intranasal inoculation of S. pneumoniae In separate experiments, WT and GzmA(-/-) mice were treated with natural killer (NK) cell depleting antibodies. Upon infection with S. pneumoniae, GzmA(-/-) mice showed a better survival and lower bacterial counts in BALF and distant body sites compared with WT mice. Although NK cells showed strong GzmA expression, NK cell depletion did not influence bacterial loads in either WT or GzmA(-/-) mice. These results implicate that GzmA plays an unfavorable role in host defense during pneumococcal pneumonia by a mechanism that does not depend on NK cells. PMID:27343190

  10. Extracted protective antigen of Bordetella pertussis. I. Preparation and properties of the solubilized surface of components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helting, T B; Blackkolb, F

    1981-04-01

    Bordetella pertussis microorganisms were treated with several extracting agents followed by ultracentrifugation to remove particulate matter. Analysis of the resulting supernatants by SDS gel electrophoresis showed one major component after simple salt extraction, and much more complex, although consistent pattern following detergent treatment. The yield of the solubilized protein in detergent extracts exceeded by far the values recorded for salt extracts. In order to prevent irreversible precipitation of the solubilized proteins upon removal of the denaturing agent, a novel procedure was developed. After extraction with urea-salt, the solubilized material was absorbed on a mineral carrier prior to the separation of the denaturing agent. The resulting absorbed vaccine was highly potent in the mouse-protection test, whereas the toxic reactions, elicited upon injection into experimental animals, were reduced in the comparison to the starting material. This diminished reactogenic potential was accompanied by the partial loss of the leukocytosis-promiting factor, whose activity was greatly diminished by urea-salt at alkaline pH-values. The procedure described may be applied to large-scale processing of Bordetella persussis microorganisms. Clinical trials now in progress should confirm or rebut the thesis that increased tolerability of the product, inferred from animal experiments, is reflected by fewer adverse reactions in humans. In the former case, the detergent extract vaccine may constitute a realistic alternative to conventional whole-cell vaccines against whooping-cough. PMID:6266198

  11. Radiographic features of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia: differential diagnosis and performance timing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Japanese Respiratory Society guidelines propose a differential diagnosis for atypical pneumonia and bacterial pneumonia using a scoring system for the selection of appropriate antibiotic. In order to improve this scoring system, the guidelines are seeking new specific parameter. The purpose of this study was to clarify the pattern of abnormalities with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia on chest computed tomography (CT) and whether the radiographic findings could distinguish M. pneumoniae pneumonia from Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia. A retrospective review was performed of the CT findings of 64 cases and 68 cases where M. pneumoniae and S. pneumoniae, respectively, were the only pathogen identified by the panel of diagnostic tests used. Of the 64 patients with M. pneumoniae pneumonia, bronchial wall thickening was observed most frequently (81%), followed by centrilobular nodules (78%), ground-glass attenuation (78%), and consolidation (61%). Bronchial wall thickening and centrilobular nodules were observed more often in M. pneumoniae patients than in S. pneumoniae patients (p < 0.0001). The presence of bilateral bronchial wall thickening or centrilobular nodules was only seen in patients with M. pneumoniae pneumonia. Using the scoring system of the Japanese Respiratory Society guidelines and chest CT findings, 97% of M. pneumoniae patients were suspected to be M. pneumoniae pneumonia without serology. When comparing the CT findings between early stage and progressed stage in the same patients with severe pneumonia, the radiographic features of early stage M. pneumoniae pneumonia were not observed clearly in the progressed stage. The present results indicate that the diagnosis of M. pneumoniae pneumonia would appear to be reliable when found with a combination of bronchial wall thickening and centrilobular nodules in the CT findings. However, these CT findings are not observed in progressed severe M. pneumoniae pneumonia patients

  12. Comparative genomics of the classical Bordetella subspecies: the evolution and exchange of virulence-associated diversity amongst closely related pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Jihye

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The classical Bordetella subspecies are phylogenetically closely related, yet differ in some of the most interesting and important characteristics of pathogens, such as host range, virulence and persistence. The compelling picture from previous comparisons of the three sequenced genomes was of genome degradation, with substantial loss of genome content (up to 24% associated with adaptation to humans. Results For a more comprehensive picture of lineage evolution, we employed comparative genomic and phylogenomic analyses using seven additional diverse, newly sequenced Bordetella isolates. Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP analysis supports a reevaluation of the phylogenetic relationships between the classical Bordetella subspecies, and suggests a closer link between ovine and human B. parapertussis lineages than has been previously proposed. Comparative analyses of genome content revealed that only 50% of the pan-genome is conserved in all strains, reflecting substantial diversity of genome content in these closely related pathogens that may relate to their different host ranges, virulence and persistence characteristics. Strikingly, these analyses suggest possible horizontal gene transfer (HGT events in multiple loci encoding virulence factors, including O-antigen and pertussis toxin (Ptx. Segments of the pertussis toxin locus (ptx and its secretion system locus (ptl appear to have been acquired by the classical Bordetella subspecies and are divergent in different lineages, suggesting functional divergence in the classical Bordetellae. Conclusions Together, these observations, especially in key virulence factors, reveal that multiple mechanisms, such as point mutations, gain or loss of genes, as well as HGTs, contribute to the substantial phenotypic diversity of these versatile subspecies in various hosts.

  13. [Lipoid pneumonia - an underestimated syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaiblmair, M; Berghaus, T; Haeckel, T; Wagner, T; Scheidt, W von

    2010-01-01

    Lipoid pneumonia, first described by Laughlen 1925 may be classified as endogenous or exogenous. The endogenous form is seen when fat is deposited into the lung tissue. It is usually associated with proximal obstructive lesions, necrotic tissue after radio- or chemotherapy, with lipid storage disease or hyperlipidemia . Exogenous lipoid pneumonia results from inhaling or aspirating animal, vegetable or mineral oil. There are usually some underlying neurological defects or esophageal abnormalities. Patients may present with cough, sputum, hemoptysis and chest pain or may be asymptomatic. There is no classic chest film appearance: it may appear as diffuse airspace infiltration or localized consolidation simulating tumour. Computed tomography is diagnostically helpful and shows hypodense areas measuring from -100 to - 30 Hounsfield units. Bronchoscopic biopsies are mandatory for histological confirmation of the diagnosis. Treatment of exogenous lipoid pneumonia has always been conservative by discontinuing the use of oil, correction of underlying defects that may favor aspiration and treatment of intercurrent pneumonia. Other measures, for example corticosteroid therapy, are of uncertain benefit. Complications of lipoid pneumonia that worsen prognosis are recurrent bacterial pneumonias including nontuberculous mycobacteria or aspergillus, or lung cancer that has developed in areas of pre-existing exogenous lipoid pneumonia. PMID:20024881

  14. CNS Complications of Mycoplasma Pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Three cases of acute central nervous system disease occurring subsequent to infection with M pneumoniae are reported from University College, Institute of Child Health, and Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, UK.

  15. Acquired pneumonia in the community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pneumonia is an inflammatory process unchained by a pathogen that affects bronchioles, alveoli and interstice causing exudative consolidation and alteration in the gassy exchange. The paper includes epidemiology, physiopathology, etiology and factors of risk among other topics

  16. Lipoid pneumonia: An uncommon entity

    OpenAIRE

    Khilnani G; Hadda V

    2009-01-01

    Lipoid pneumonia is a rare form of pneumonia caused by inhalation or aspiration of fat-containing substances like petroleum jelly, mineral oils, certain laxatives, etc. It usually presents as an insidious onset, chronic respiratory illness simulating interstitial lung diseases. Rarely, it may present as an acute respiratory illness, especially when the exposure to fatty substance(s) is massive. Radiological findings are diverse and can mimic many other diseases including carcinoma, acute or c...

  17. Genotoxic Klebsiella pneumoniae in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chyi Lai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colibactin is a nonribosomal peptide-polyketide synthesized by multi-enzyme complexes encoded by the pks gene cluster. Colibactin-producing Escherichia coli have been demonstrated to induce host DNA damage and promote colorectal cancer (CRC development. In Taiwan, the occurrence of pyogenic liver abscess (PLA has been suggested to correlate with an increasing risk of CRC, and Klebsiella pneumoniae is the predominant PLA pathogen in Taiwan. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: At the asn tRNA loci of the newly sequenced K. pneumoniae 1084 genome, we identified a 208-kb genomic island, KPHPI208, of which a module identical to the E. coli pks colibactin gene cluster was recognized. KPHPI208 consists of eight modules, including the colibactin module and the modules predicted to be involved in integration, conjugation, yersiniabactin production, microcin production, and unknown functions. Transient infection of BALB/c normal liver cells with K. pneumoniae 1084 increased the phosphorylation of histone H2AX, indicating the induction of host DNA damage. Colibactin was required for the genotoxicity of K. pneumoniae 1084, as it was diminished by deletion of clbA gene and restored to the wild type level by trans-complementation with a clbA coding plasmid. Besides, BALB/c mice infected with K. pneumoniae 1084 exhibited enhanced DNA damage in the liver parenchymal cells when compared to the isogenic clbA deletion mutant. By PCR detection, the prevalence of pks-positive K. pneumoniae in Taiwan is 25.6%, which is higher than that reported in Europe (3.5%, and is significantly correlated with K1 type, which predominantly accounted for PLA in Taiwan. CONCLUSIONS: Our knowledge regarding how bacteria contribute to carcinogenesis has just begun. The identification of genotoxic K. pneumoniae and its genetic components will facilitate future studies to elucidate the molecular basis underlying the link between K. pneumoniae, PLA, and CRC.

  18. Pneumonia in the immunocompetent patient

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, J. H.; McDonald, G; Alton, H; Gordon, S B

    2010-01-01

    Pneumonia is an acute inflammation of the lower respiratory tract. Lower respiratory tract infection is a major cause of mortality worldwide. Pneumonia is most common at the extremes of life. Predisposing factors in children include an under-developed immune system together with other factors, such as malnutrition and over-crowding. In adults, tobacco smoking is the single most important preventable risk factor. The commonest infecting organisms in children are respiratory viruses and Strepto...

  19. The roentgenological study of measles pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measles is important infectious disease of pediatrics and pneumonia is the most commonest complication of measles. We have experienced 20 cases of pneumonia among 31 cases of measles in infant nursing home of Chae Chun during of December. 1981. The results a are as follows; 1. The incidence of measles pneumonia is 64.5%. 2. The patterns of pneumonic infiltration is : The pneumonia may have a bronchopneumonia (60%), Lobar pneumonia (15%), or combined form (35%). 3. Both lungs are involved by measles pneumonia: Right lung only (30%), Left lung only (5%), or Bilateral (65%). 4. Hilar lymphadenopathy (51.6%). Hilar lymphadenopathy with pneumonia (82.2%) and hilar lymphadenopathy without pneumonia (17.8%). 5. There is no pulmonary nodule which is noted frequently in atypical measles pneumonia as a seguale

  20. Difference of clinical features in childhood Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia

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    Kang Jin-Han

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background M. pneumoniae pneumonia (MP has been reported in 10-40% of community-acquired pneumonia cases. We aimed to evaluate the difference of clinical features in children with MP, according to their age and chest radiographic patterns. Methods The diagnosis of MP was made by examinations at both admission and discharge and by two serologic tests: the indirect microparticle agglutinin assay (≥1:40 and the cold agglutinins titer (≥1:32. A total of 191 children with MP were grouped by age: ≤2 years of age (29 patients, 3-5 years of age (81 patients, and ≥6 years of age (81 patients. They were also grouped by pneumonia pattern: bronchopneumonia group (96 patients and segmental/lobar pneumonia group (95 patients. Results Eighty-six patients (45% were seroconverters, and the others showed increased antibody titers during hospitalization. Among the three age groups, the oldest children showed the longest duration of fever, highest C-reactive protein (CRP values, and the most severe pneumonia pattern. The patients with segmental/lobar pneumonia were older and had longer fever duration and lower white blood cell (WBC and lymphocyte counts, compared with those with bronchopneumonia. The patient group with the most severe pulmonary lesions had the most prolonged fever, highest CRP, highest rate of seroconverters, and lowest lymphocyte counts. Thrombocytosis was observed in 8% of patients at admission, but in 33% of patients at discharge. Conclusions In MP, older children had more prolonged fever and more severe pulmonary lesions. The severity of pulmonary lesions was associated with the absence of diagnostic IgM antibodies at presentation and lymphocyte count. Short-term paired IgM serologic test may be mandatory for early and definitive diagnosis of MP.

  1. Produccion de suspensiones de bordetella pertussis por fermentación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algecira N.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudió la producción de suspensión de Bordetella pertussis por fermentación para obtener el ingrediente activo de la vacuna contra tosferina. Se probaron diferentes medios de cultivo para el proceso, seleccionando el medio Stainer-Scholte adicionado con 3 g/L de casaminoacidos, el cual permite obtener altas concentraciones de células y suspensiones de buena calidad. Se estudió también la cinética de consumo de glutamato de sodio, producción de biomasa y evolución del pH. El crecimiento fue descrito por un modelo logístico. Se compara la tecnología de cultivo estacionario con el cultivo en fermentador presentándose esta última como la mejor alternativa de producción.

  2. Comparative Serological and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Typing for Bordetella avium Isolates in China

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    Ping-Ping Yang, Rong-De Ma1, Xue Zhao and Rui-Liang Zhu*

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available To study the similarity among Bordetella avium isolates in China, antigens and diagnostic antiserum of 22 B. avium isolates were prepared for serotyping, and a set of 20 commercially available primers was screened out to identify suitable primers for random amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting (RAPD analysis in this study. Twenty-two B. avium isolates were divided into two serovars (A and B based on their reaction in the plate-agglutination test. Four primers R1, R2, R4 and R10 resulted in informative fingerprints and were used to evaluate the B. avium isolates. Based on their RAPD patterns, a dendrogram allowed the separation of the B. avium isolates into six genetic similarity clusters. However, no direct correlation was observed between serotypes and RAPD typing among the isolates.

  3. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Pneumonia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Pneumonia? The signs and symptoms of pneumonia vary from ... have sudden changes in mental awareness. Complications of Pneumonia Often, people who have pneumonia can be successfully ...

  4. Idiopathic chronic eosinophilic pneumonia

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    Cordier Jean-François

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Idiopathic chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (ICEP is characterized by subacute or chronic respiratory and general symptoms, alveolar and/or blood eosinophilia, and peripheral pulmonary infiltrates on chest imaging. Eosinophilia is present in most cases, usually in excess of 1000/mm3. In absence of significant blood eosinophilia, a diagnosis of ICEP is supported by the demonstration of bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophilia. ICEP is typically associated with eosinophil counts higher than lymphocyte counts in the bronchoalveolar lavage. ICEP is a rare disorder of unknown cause. Its exact prevalence remains unknown. ICEP may affect every age group but is rare in childhood. It is twice as frequent in women as in men. One third to one half of the ICEP patients have a history of asthma. The mainstay of treatment of ICEP is systemic corticosteroids. Response to oral corticosteroid therapy is dramatic and has led to the consideration of corticosteroid challenge as a diagnostic test for ICEP. Nevertheless, relapses or development of severe asthma are frequent when tapering or withdrawing treatment. Long-term oral corticosteroid therapy is necessary in up to half of the patients.

  5. Amidate Prodrugs of 9-[2-(Phosphonomethoxy)Ethyl]Adenine as Inhibitors of Adenylate Cyclase Toxin from Bordetella pertussis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmídková, Markéta; Dvořáková, Alexandra; Tloušťová, Eva; Česnek, Michal; Janeba, Zlatko; Mertlíková-Kaiserová, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 2 (2014), s. 664-671. ISSN 0066-4804 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20102015046 Grant ostatní: OPPC(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24016 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Bordetella pertussis * adenylate cyclase toxin * ACT * inhibitors * PMEA * amidate prodrugs Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.476, year: 2014

  6. Identification of residues essential for catalysis and binding of calmodulin in Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase by site-directed mutagenesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Glaser, P; Elmaoglou-Lazaridou, A; Krin, E.; Ladant, D.; Bârzu, O; Danchin, A

    1989-01-01

    In order to identify molecular features of the calmodulin (CaM) activated adenylate cyclase of Bordetella pertussis, a truncated cya gene was fused after the 459th codon in frame with the alpha-lacZ' gene fragment and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant, 604 residue long protein was purified to homogeneity by ion-exchange and affinity chromatography. The kinetic parameters of the recombinant protein are very similar to that of adenylate cyclase purified from B.pertussis culture sup...

  7. Bordetella pertussis filamentous hemagglutinin: evaluation as a protective antigen and colonization factor in a mouse respiratory infection model.

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura, A; Mountzouros, K T; Relman, D.A.; Falkow, S; Cowell, J L

    1990-01-01

    Filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) is a cell surface protein of Bordetella pertussis which functions as an adhesin for this organism. It is a component of many new acellular pertussis vaccines. The proposed role of FHA in immunity to pertussis is based on animal studies which have produced some conflicting results. To clarify this situation, we reexamined the protective activity of FHA in an adult mouse respiratory infection model. Four-week-old BALB/c mice were immunized with one or two doses o...

  8. Detection of respiratory pathogens in aerosols from acutely infected pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infectious agents that cause respiratory disease in pigs include porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), swine influenza virus (SIV), porcine respiratory corona virus (PRCV), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, and Bordetella bronchiseptica. The objective of...

  9. The clinical characteristics,treatment and outcome of macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍芳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the drug resistance of My-coplasma pneumoniae among children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) ,and to explore the clinical and radiological characteristics of and the role of azithromycin in the treatment of of macrolide-resistant (MR) Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia.Methods Cases of CAP in children (n=179) were prospectively enrolled in

  10. Mycoplasma pneumoniae Pneumonia Associated With Methemoglobinemia and Anemia: An Overlooked Association?

    OpenAIRE

    Khoury, Tawfik; Abu Rmeileh, Ayman; Kornspan, Jonathan David; Abel, Roy; Mizrahi, Meir; Nir-Paz, Ran

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of acute methemoglobinemia and anemia in a patient with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia. We suggest that M. pneumoniae secretes a putative protein that can induce methemoglobin in red blood cells. Thus, Mycoplasma pneumoniae may induce methemoglobinemia in patients who have low oxygen saturation and anemia.

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase-Producing K. pneumoniae Myophage Miro

    OpenAIRE

    Mijalis, Eleni M.; Lessor, Lauren E.; Cahill, Jesse L.; Rasche, Eric S.; Kuty Everett, Gabriel F.

    2015-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative pathogen frequently associated with antibiotic-resistant nosocomial infections. Bacteriophage therapy against K. pneumoniae may be possible to combat these infections. The following describes the complete genome sequence and key features of the pseudo-T-even K. pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae myophage Miro.

  12. Mycoplasma pneumoniae-induced hydrocephalus in hamsters.

    OpenAIRE

    Kohn, D F; Chinookoswong, N; Wang, J

    1984-01-01

    Hydrocephalus was induced in neonatal hamsters after intracerebral inoculation of Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Examination of the ependyma from affected animals by electron microscopy did not reveal mycoplasma. However, in an ependymal organ culture system, M. pneumoniae cytadsorbed to ependymal cells.

  13. Pneumonia in HIV-Infected Patients

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    Seda Tural Önür

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS is an immune system disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. The purpose of this review is to investigate the correlation between an immune system destroyed by HIV and the frequency of pneumonia. Observational studies show that respiratory diseases are among the most common infections observed in HIV-infected patients. In addition, pneumonia is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients. According to articles in literature, in addition to antiretroviral therapy (ART or highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, the use of prophylaxis provides favorable results for the treatment of pneumonia. Here we conduct a systematic literature review to determine the pathogenesis and causative agents of bacterial pneumonia, tuberculosis (TB, nontuberculous mycobacterial disease, fungal pneumonia, Pneumocystis pneumonia, viral pneumonia and parasitic infections and the prophylaxis in addition to ART and HAART for treatment. Pneumococcus-based polysaccharide vaccine is recommended to avoid some type of specific bacterial pneumonia.

  14. Influenza and bacterial pneumonia - constant companions

    OpenAIRE

    Wunderink, Richard G.

    2010-01-01

    Sequential or concomitant influenza and bacterial pneumonia are two common syndromes seen in community-acquired pneumonia. Inadequacies of diagnostic testing make separating simple pneumonia with either bacteria or influenza from concomitant or sequential influenza with both microorganisms difficult, although the novel 2009 H1N1 epidemic may improve the availability of molecular testing for viruses. Given the frequency of viral pneumonia and diagnostic limitations, empirical antivirals may be...

  15. Childhood pneumonia and vitamin A

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    Farhad Heidarian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the major causes of mortality in children younger than 5 years old is acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRI. ALRI clinical features are cough, tachypnea, fever, coryza, chest retraction, crackles and wheeze. Increased white blood cell count with left shift might happen in pneumonia. C-reactive protein (CRP and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR might rise in children with respiratory tract infections. Vitamin A deficiency is associated with severe childhood infections. The effect of vitamin A supplementation in childhood pneumonia depends on the prevalence and the level of vitamin A deficiency in the population. Some studies confirmed that retinol levels were significantly higher after recovery from acute pneumonia compared to acute phase. But there were no significant association between serum retinol level and the clinical manifestation.

  16. Imaging appearances of cholesterol pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objection: To analyze the imaging appearances of cholesterol pneumonia. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the X-ray and CT findings of 3 patients with cholesterol pneumonia confirmed pathologically and reviewed correlative literature. Results: Lesions similar to mass were found in X-ray and CT imaging of three cases. Two of them appeared cavity with fluid-level and one showed multiple ring enhancement after CT contrast. The course of disease was very. long and it had no respond to antibiotic therapy. Amounts of foam cells rich in cholesterol crystal were detected in pathological examination. Conclusions: Cholesterol pneumonia is a rare chronic pulmonary idiopathic disease, and the radiological findings can do some help to its diagnosis. (authors)

  17. Imaging of pneumocystic carinii pneumonia in AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the X-ray and CT findings of pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in AIDS. Methods: Five AIDS patients who had chest abnormalities were analyzed. Results: Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia appeared as diffuse infiltrative and interstitial fine nodules. Conclusion: If the diffuse and infiltrative interstitial fine nodule are the appearances in patients with AIDS, the pneumocystic carinii pneumonia should be considered

  18. Cisplatin-Induced Eosinophilic Pneumonia

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    Hideharu Ideguchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 67-year-old man suffering from esophageal cancer was admitted to our hospital complaining of dyspnea and hypoxemia. He had been treated with cisplatin, docetaxel, and fluorouracil combined with radiotherapy. Chest computed tomography revealed bilateral ground-glass opacity, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid showed increased eosinophils. Two episodes of transient eosinophilia in peripheral blood were observed after serial administration of anticancer drugs before the admission, and drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation test to cisplatin was positive. Thus cisplatin-induced eosinophilic pneumonia was suspected, and corticosteroid was effectively administered. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of cisplatin-induced eosinophilic pneumonia.

  19. Pneumonia in Intensive Care Unit

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    Vinay Joshi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available No large data based, or randomized controlled studies are available in reference to pneumonia in ICU especially in adult population, in India. Moreover the types of ICU infrastructure, sterilization& disinfection protocols, empirical antibiotics and antibiotics policy are standardized in the country. Hence this review article has mainly utilized available literature from developed countries. This review article briefly discusses the definition of various pneumonia, epidemiology, causative organism, patho-genesis, risk factors, diagnostic strategies and management modalities. By this article, authors hope that a certain guidelines or standardization of protocols in India will be formulated.

  20. Enterobacter Asburiae Pneumonia with Cavitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Seung Woo; Heo, Jeong Nam; Park, Choong Ki [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Guri Hospital, Guri (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yo Won; Jeon, Seok Chol [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    Enterobacter species have increasingly been identified as pathogens over the past several decades. These bacterial species have become more important because most are resistant to cephalothin and cefoxitin, and can produce extended-spectrum {beta}-lactamase. Enterobacter asburiae (E. asburiae) is a gram-negative rod of the family Enterobacteriaceae, named in 1986. Since then, there has been only one clinical report of E. asburiae pneumonia. We report a case of E. asburiae pneumonia with cavitation and compare it with the previous case.

  1. The clinical characteristics of the radiation pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyse the clinical characteristics of the radiation pneumonia, sum the experience and the basis of the radiation pneumonia for its prevention and treatment. Method: Twenty three cases with radiation pneumonia from 1991 to 1998 were retrospectively analysed. Its clinical manifestation, chest X-ray, thoracic CT and blood routine were evaluated. Result: The acute manifestation was fever, cough, dyspnea, and the chronic manifestation was cough and insufficiency of pulmonary function. Conclusion: The prevention of radiation pneumonia is more important, high dose cortical steroids and antibiotics were prescribed during the acute stage and the chronic radiation pneumonia is irreversible

  2. Organizing pneumonia: the many morphological faces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oikonomou, Anastasia; Hansell, David M. [Department of Radiology, Royal Brompton Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2002-06-01

    Organizing pneumonia is a non-specific response to various forms of lung injury and is the pathological hallmark of the distinct clinical entity termed cryptogenic organizing pneumonia. The typical imaging features of this syndrome have been widely documented and consist of patchy air-space consolidation, often subpleural, with or without ground-glass opacities. The purpose of this article is to highlight the less familiar imaging patterns of organizing pneumonia which include focal organizing pneumonia, a variety of nodular patterns, a bronchocentric distribution, band-like opacities, a perilobular pattern and a progressive fibrotic form of organizing pneumonia. (orig.)

  3. Organizing pneumonia: the many morphological faces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organizing pneumonia is a non-specific response to various forms of lung injury and is the pathological hallmark of the distinct clinical entity termed cryptogenic organizing pneumonia. The typical imaging features of this syndrome have been widely documented and consist of patchy air-space consolidation, often subpleural, with or without ground-glass opacities. The purpose of this article is to highlight the less familiar imaging patterns of organizing pneumonia which include focal organizing pneumonia, a variety of nodular patterns, a bronchocentric distribution, band-like opacities, a perilobular pattern and a progressive fibrotic form of organizing pneumonia. (orig.)

  4. Epimorphin expression in interstitial pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suga Moritaka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Epimorphin modulates epithelial morphogenesis in embryonic mouse organs. We previously suggested that epimorphin contributes to repair of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice via epithelium-mesenchyme interactions. To clarify the role of epimorphin in human lungs, we evaluated epimorphin expression and localization in normal lungs, lungs with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP, and lungs with usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP; we also studied the effect of recombinant epimorphin on cultured human alveolar epithelial cells in vitro. Northern and Western blotting analyses revealed that epimorphin expression in NSIP samples were significantly higher than those in control lungs and lungs with UIP. Immunohistochemistry showed strong epimorphin expression in mesenchymal cells of early fibrotic lesions and localization of epimorphin protein on mesenchymal cells and extracellular matrix of early fibrotic lesions in the nonspecific interstitial pneumonia group. Double-labeled fluorescent images revealed expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 in re-epithelialized cells overlying epimorphin-positive early fibrotic lesions. Immunohistochemistry and metalloproteinase activity assay demonstrated augmented expression of metalloproteinase induced by recombinant epimorphin in human alveolar epithelial cells. These findings suggest that epimorphin contributes to repair of pulmonary fibrosis in nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, perhaps partly by inducing expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2, which is an important proteolytic factor in lung remodeling.

  5. Lipoid pneumonia: a challenging diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kassem; Chalhoub, Michel; Maroun, Rabih; Abi-Fadel, Francois; Zhao, Fan

    2011-01-01

    Lipoid pneumonia is a rare medical condition, and is usually classified into two groups, ie, exogenous or endogenous, depending on the source of lipids found in the lungs. Exogenous lipoid pneumonia may result from the aspiration of food and lipids. Although most cases are asymptomatic, common symptoms include cough, dyspnea, chest pain, pleural effusions, fever, and hemoptysis. Radiologically, lipoid pneumonia can manifest as consolidations, pulmonary nodules, or soft-tissue densities. These presentations involve a wide differential diagnosis, including lung cancer. Other rare causes of fatty pulmonary lesions include hamartomas, lipomas, and liposarcomas. The avoidance of further exposures and the use of corticosteroids, antibiotics, and lavage comprise the mainstays of treatment. The exclusion of mycobacterial infections is important during diagnosis, in view of their known association. Generally, acute presentations run a benign course, if promptly treated. Chronic cases are more persistent and difficult to treat. Although the radiologic and pathologic diagnosis is fairly reliable, more research is needed to clarify the optimal treatment and expected outcomes. We report on a 54-year-old man presenting with progressively worsening cough, hemoptysis, and dyspnea over a few weeks. The patient underwent multiple computed tomographies of the chest and bronchoscopies. All failed to diagnose lipoid pneumonia. The diagnosis was finally established using video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. Most of the paraffinoma was resected during this surgery. He was treated with antibiotics and steroids, and discharged from the hospital in stable condition. PMID:21349583

  6. Lipoid pneumonia: An uncommon entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khilnani G

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Lipoid pneumonia is a rare form of pneumonia caused by inhalation or aspiration of fat-containing substances like petroleum jelly, mineral oils, certain laxatives, etc. It usually presents as an insidious onset, chronic respiratory illness simulating interstitial lung diseases. Rarely, it may present as an acute respiratory illness, especially when the exposure to fatty substance(s is massive. Radiological findings are diverse and can mimic many other diseases including carcinoma, acute or chronic pneumonia, ARDS, or a localized granuloma. Pathologically it is a chronic foreign body reaction characterized by lipid-laden macrophages. Diagnosis of this disease is often missed as it is usually not considered in the differential diagnoses of community-acquired pneumonia; it requires a high degree of suspicion. In suspected cases, diagnosis may be confirmed by demonstrating the presence of lipid-laden macrophages in sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, or fine needle aspiration cytology/biopsy from the lung lesion. Treatment of this illness is poorly defined and constitutes supportive therapy, repeated bronchoalveolar lavage, and corticosteroids.

  7. Lipoid pneumonia: an uncommon entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khilnani, G C; Hadda, V

    2009-10-01

    Lipoid pneumonia is a rare form of pneumonia caused by inhalation or aspiration of fat-containing substances like petroleum jelly, mineral oils, certain laxatives, etc. It usually presents as an insidious onset, chronic respiratory illness simulating interstitial lung diseases. Rarely, it may present as an acute respiratory illness, especially when the exposure to fatty substance(s) is massive. Radiological findings are diverse and can mimic many other diseases including carcinoma, acute or chronic pneumonia, ARDS, or a localized granuloma. Pathologically it is a chronic foreign body reaction characterized by lipid-laden macrophages. Diagnosis of this disease is often missed as it is usually not considered in the differential diagnoses of community-acquired pneumonia; it requires a high degree of suspicion. In suspected cases, diagnosis may be confirmed by demonstrating the presence of lipid-laden macrophages in sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, or fine needle aspiration cytology/biopsy from the lung lesion. Treatment of this illness is poorly defined and constitutes supportive therapy, repeated bronchoalveolar lavage, and corticosteroids. PMID:19901490

  8. Childhood Pneumonia Screener: a concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Räsänen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Childhood pneumonia continues to be the number one cause of death in children under five years of age in developing countries. In addition to mortality, pneumonia constitutes an enormous economic and social burden because late diagnosis is associated with high cost of treatment and often leads to chronic health problems. There are several bottlenecks in developing countries in the case flow of a child with lung infection: 1 recognising the symptoms as a reason to seek care, 2 getting the patient to a first-tier health facility, 3 scarcity of trained healthcare personnel who can diagnose the condition and its severity, 4 access to a second-tier facility in severe cases. These factors are commonly present in rural areas but even in more urban settings, access to a physician is often delayed. The Childhood Pneumonia Screener project aims at bridging the diagnostic gap using emerging technology. Mobile “smart” phone communication with several inexpensive dedicated sensors is proposed as a rapid data-collection and transmission unit that is connected to a central location where trained personnel assisted by sophisticated signal processing algorithms, evaluate the data and determine if the child is likely to have pneumonia and what the level and urgency of care should be.

  9. Analysis of Bordetella pertussis clinical isolates circulating in European countries during the period 1998-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gent, M; Heuvelman, C J; van der Heide, H G; Hallander, H O; Advani, A; Guiso, N; Wirsing von Kőnig, C H; Vestrheim, D F; Dalby, T; Fry, N K; Pierard, D; Detemmerman, L; Zavadilova, J; Fabianova, K; Logan, C; Habington, A; Byrne, M; Lutyńska, A; Mosiej, E; Pelaz, C; Gröndahl-Yli-Hannuksela, K; Barkoff, A M; Mertsola, J; Economopoulou, A; He, Q; Mooi, F R

    2015-04-01

    Despite more than 50 years of vaccination, pertussis is still an endemic disease, with regular epidemic outbreaks. With the exception of Poland, European countries have replaced whole-cell vaccines (WCVs) by acellular vaccines (ACVs) in the 1990s. Worldwide, antigenic divergence in vaccine antigens has been found between vaccine strains and circulating strains. In this work, 466 Bordetella pertussis isolates collected in the period 1998-2012 from 13 European countries were characterised by multi-locus antigen sequence typing (MAST) of the pertussis toxin promoter (ptxP) and of the genes coding for proteins used in the ACVs: pertussis toxin (Ptx), pertactin (Prn), type 2 fimbriae (Fim2) and type 3 fimbriae (Fim3). Isolates were further characterised by fimbrial serotyping, multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The results showed a very similar B. pertussis population for 12 countries using ACVs, while Poland, which uses a WCV, was quite distinct, suggesting that ACVs and WCVs select for different B. pertussis populations. This study forms a baseline for future studies on the effect of vaccination programmes on B. pertussis populations. PMID:25527446

  10. Seroprevalence of Bordetella pertussis in the Mexican population: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde-Glez, C; Lazcano-Ponce, E; Rojas, R; DeAntonio, R; Romano-Mazzotti, L; Cervantes, Y; Ortega-Barría, E

    2014-04-01

    SUMMARY Serum samples collected during the National Health and Nutrition survey (ENSANUT 2006) were obtained from subjects aged 1-95 years (January-October 2010) and analysed to assess the seroprevalence of Bordetella pertussis (BP) in Mexico. Subjects' gender, age, geographical region and socioeconomic status were extracted from the survey and compiled into a subset database. A total of 3344 subjects (median age 29 years, range 1-95 years) were included in the analysis. Overall, BP seroprevalence was 47.4%. BP seroprevalence was significantly higher in males (53.4%, P = 0.0007) and highest in children (59.3%) decreasing with advancing age (P = 0.0008). BP seroprevalence was not significantly different between regions (P = 0.1918) and between subjects of socioeconomic status (P = 0.0808). Women, adolescents and young adults were identified as potential sources of infection to infants. Booster vaccination for adolescents and primary contacts (including mothers) for newborns and infants may provide an important public health intervention to reduce the disease burden. PMID:23734968

  11. Membrane-Pore Forming Characteristics of the Bordetella pertussis CyaA-Hemolysin Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chattip Kurehong

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Previously, the 126-kDa Bordetella pertussis CyaA pore-forming/hemolysin (CyaA-Hly domain was shown to retain its hemolytic activity causing lysis of susceptible erythrocytes. Here, we have succeeded in producing, at large quantity and high purity, the His-tagged CyaA-Hly domain over-expressed in Escherichia coli as a soluble hemolytically-active form. Quantitative assays of hemolysis against sheep erythrocytes revealed that the purified CyaA-Hly domain could function cooperatively by forming an oligomeric pore in the target cell membrane with a Hill coefficient of ~3. When the CyaA-Hly toxin was incorporated into planar lipid bilayers (PLBs under symmetrical conditions at 1.0 M KCl, 10 mM HEPES buffer (pH 7.4, it produced a clearly resolved single channel with a maximum conductance of ~35 pS. PLB results also revealed that the CyaA-Hly induced channel was unidirectional and opened more frequently at higher negative membrane potentials. Altogether, our results first provide more insights into pore-forming characteristics of the CyaA-Hly domain as being the major pore-forming determinant of which the ability to induce such ion channels in receptor-free membranes could account for its cooperative hemolytic action on the target erythrocytes.

  12. Modulation of the NF-kappaB pathway by Bordetella pertussis filamentous hemagglutinin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzvia Abramson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA is a cell-associated and secreted adhesin produced by Bordetella pertussis with pro-apoptotic and pro-inflammatory activity in host cells. Given the importance of the NF-kappaB transcription factor family in these host cell responses, we examined the effect of FHA on NF-kappaB activation in macrophages and bronchial epithelial cells, both of which are relevant cell types during natural infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Exposure to FHA of primary human monocytes and transformed U-937 macrophages, but not BEAS-2B epithelial cells, resulted in early activation of the NF-kappaB pathway, as manifested by the degradation of cytosolic IkappaB alpha, by NF-kappaB DNA binding, and by the subsequent secretion of NF-kappaB-regulated inflammatory cytokines. However, exposure of macrophages and human monocytes to FHA for two hours or more resulted in the accumulation of cytosolic IkappaB alpha, and the failure of TNF-alpha to activate NF-kappaB. Proteasome activity was attenuated following exposure of cells to FHA for 2 hours, as was the nuclear translocation of RelA in BEAS-2B cells. CONCLUSIONS: These results reveal a complex temporal dynamic, and suggest that despite short term effects to the contrary, longer exposures of host cells to this secreted adhesin may block NF-kappaB activation, and perhaps lead to a compromised immune response to this bacterial pathogen.

  13. Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia - Idiopathic Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing Pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Bekić, Anto; Mehulić, Muharem; Krmpotić, Diana; Kukulj, Suzana; Gorečan, Marijan; Križanac, Šimun

    2004-01-01

    Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia is a rare pulmonary disease with characteristic clinical, radiologic and histologic features. The radiologic presentation, and ventilatory and respiratory lung functions reflect the presence of intra-alveolar buds of granulation tissue occurring within the alveoli and alveolar ducts but rarely occupying the bronchiolar lumen. Therefore, it has been accepted that the diagnosis of these characteristic but not specific presentations of cryptogenic organizing pneu...

  14. Not Your Typical Pneumonia: A Case of Exogenous Lipoid Pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Simmons, Ashley; Rouf, Emran; Whittle, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    The constellation of chronic cough, dyspnea, and hemoptysis can include a broad range of differential diagnoses. Although uncommon, exogenous lipoid pneumonia (ELP) should be considered when patients present with this symptom complex. We report a case of a 72-year-old female who presented with hemoptysis, cough, and dyspnea. The admission computed tomography scan of the chest revealed progressive interstitial infiltrates. Bronchoscopy revealed diffuse erythema without bleeding. Culture and cy...

  15. Clusters of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, J; Tsolaki, A G; Miller, Raymonde;

    1998-01-01

    Genotyping at the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the nuclear rRNA operon was performed on isolates of P. carinii sp. f. hominis from three clusters of P. carinii pneumonia among eight patients with haematological malignancies and six with HIV infection. Nine different ITS sequence...... types of P. carinii sp. f. hominis were identified in the samples from the patients with haematological malignancies, suggesting that this cluster of cases of P. carinii pneumonia was unlikely to have resulted from nosocomial transmission. A common ITS sequence type was observed in two of the patients...... with haematological malignancies who shared a hospital room, and also in two of the patients with HIV infection who had prolonged close contact on the ward. In contrast, different ITS sequence types were detected in samples from an HIV-infected homosexual couple who shared the same household. These...

  16. Miliary pattern in neonatal pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have seen 10 newborn babies who developed respiratory distress and whose chest radiographs showed a miliary nodular pattern of disease. Of these infants only 3 had blood cultures that were positive for staphylococcus aureus. Of the remaining 7, 2 had conjunctivitis from which staphylococcus aureus was cultured, 4 had negative cultures and 1 did not have a blood culture done. All patients were diagnosed as having bacterial pneumonia and appeared to respond favourably to antibiotic therapy. The pulmonary abnormalities resolved. The children were clinically well in less than 3 weeks. The author suggests that the miliary pattern is one of the radiological patterns of neonatal pneumonia possibly produced by hematogenous bacterial dissemination. (orig.)

  17. Childhood pneumonia and vitamin A

    OpenAIRE

    Farhad Heidarian; Tahereh Ansarinezhad

    2014-01-01

    One of the major causes of mortality in children younger than 5 years old is acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRI). ALRI clinical features are cough, tachypnea, fever, coryza, chest retraction, crackles and wheeze. Increased white blood cell count with left shift might happen in pneumonia. C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) might rise in children with respiratory tract infections. Vitamin A deficiency is associated with severe childhood infections. The...

  18. Herpes simplex type 2 pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Edenilson Eduardo Calore

    2002-01-01

    Extensive reviews of pulmonary infections in AIDS have reported few herpetic infections. Generally these infections are due to Herpes simplex type 1. Pneumonia due to herpes type 2 is extremely rare. We describe a 40 year-old HIV positive woman who complained of fever, cough and dyspnea for seven years. She had signs of heart failure and the appearance of her genital vesicles was highly suggestive of genital herpes. Echocardiography showed marked pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular hype...

  19. Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia: Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Miladinović-Đukanović Nataša; Đoković Jelena; Torbica Nikola; Popević Martin

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia is a particular form of inflammatory and fibroproliferative lung disease. The disease onset is subacute with cough, dyspnoea, fever, weight loss, and elevation of biological inflammatory markers. Chest imaging usually shows multifocal alveolar opacities predominating in the subpleural regions. Lung biopsy reveals budding connective tissue filling the distal airspaces. Case outline. A 57-year-old electrician complaining of cough, dyspnoea, and fat...

  20. Chest physiotherapy in primary pneumonia.

    OpenAIRE

    Britton, S.; Bejstedt, M; Vedin, L

    1985-01-01

    One hundred and seventy one patients with primary pneumonia entered a single blind, placebo controlled trial of physiotherapy. Treatment was allocated at random, physiotherapy consisting of postural drainage, external help with breathing, percussion, and vibration and the controls receiving advice on expectoration, deep breathing, and how to exercise to avoid thrombosis. Principles of pharmaceutical management were the same in the two groups. There was no objective evidence that daily physiot...

  1. Animal models of polymicrobial pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Hraiech S; Papazian L.; Rolain JM; Bregeon F

    2015-01-01

    Sami Hraiech,1,2 Laurent Papazian,1,2 Jean-Marc Rolain,1 Fabienne Bregeon1,3IHU Méditerranée Infection, URMITE CNRS IRD INSERM UMR 7278, Marseille, France; 2Réanimation – Détresses respiratoires et Infections Sévères, APHM, CHU Nord, Marseille, France; 3Service d’Explorations Fonctionnelles Respiratoires, APHM, CHU Nord, Marseille, FranceAbstract: Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of severe and occasion...

  2. Filamentous hemagglutinin has a major role in mediating adherence of Bordetella pertussis to human WiDr cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Urisu, A; Cowell, J L; Manclark, C R

    1986-01-01

    [35S]methionine-labeled Bordetella pertussis adhered to monolayers of WiDr cells, an epitheliumlike cell line from a human intestinal carcinoma. Adherence was proportional to the density of the WiDr cells and to the concentration of B. pertussis in the assay. Adherence of virulent phase I strains Tohama phase I, 114, and BP338 was much greater than adherence of avirulent strains Tohama phase III and 423 phase IV. Mutants deficient in the production of the filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) were ...

  3. Clinical features of measles pneumonia in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical features, chest radiographs and computed tomographic (CT) images were evaluated in 11 cases of serologically proved adult measles complicated with pneumonia (10 were previously healthy and one had sarcoidosis). Pneumonia appeared during the rash period in all cases. Respiratory symptoms were cough (9/11), dyspnea (3/11), and hypoxemia (10/11). Pneumonia manifestations were detected in only 4 cases by chest radiograph; on the other hand, they were seen in all cases by CT scan and consisted of ground-glass opacities (73%), nodular opacities (64%) and consolidation (27%). CT seems to be useful method to detect measles pneumonia if it is suspected. Measles pneumonia in previously healthy patients had a good prognosis, as the hypoxemia disappeared within 6 days in all cases. The sarcoidosis patient showed prolonged pneumonic shadows and period of hypoxemia. Measles pneumonia occurring in a host with cellular immunodeficiency may have a severe clinical course. (author)

  4. Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović-Đukanović Nataša

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia is a particular form of inflammatory and fibroproliferative lung disease. The disease onset is subacute with cough, dyspnoea, fever, weight loss, and elevation of biological inflammatory markers. Chest imaging usually shows multifocal alveolar opacities predominating in the subpleural regions. Lung biopsy reveals budding connective tissue filling the distal airspaces. Case outline. A 57-year-old electrician complaining of cough, dyspnoea, and fatigue was diagnosed with pneumonia and treated with antibiotics and antihistaminics. After clinical and radiographic progression of the disease, open lung biopsy was performed, some 15 months after the disease onset. The diagnosis of cryptogenic organising pneumonia was made. The patient was treated with oral and inhalatory corticosteroids and finally with cytostatics, which led to a partial improvement of his condition. However, work capacity was lost and the quality of life seriously deteriorated. Conclusion. The diagnosis is established by combining clinical, radiological and histological criteria. Similarities with other disease processes can lead to a delayed or erroneous diagnosis. Most patients respond well to corticosteroid therapy (prednisone or methyl-prednisolone. Relapses are frequent but can generally be controlled.

  5. Severe community-acquired pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae in young female patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milancic Nena

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma pneumonia is common agent causing community acquired pneumonia in younger population. However, the course of illness is usually benign and is rarely associated with pulmonary complications. We report a 27 years old female patient with unilateral pneumonia followed by pleural effusion and adhesions on the same side. This potential source of infection should be considered in young patients where resolution of symptoms from pneumonia is delayed.

  6. Comparative radiographic features of community acquired Legionnaires' disease, pneumococcal pneumonia, mycoplasma pneumonia, and psittacosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, J T; Miller, A C; Roderick Smith, W H; Morris, A. H.; Rose, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    The features of the chest radiographs of 49 adults with legionnaires' disease were compared with those of 91 adults with pneumococcal pneumonia (31 of whom had bacteraemia or antigenaemia), 46 with mycoplasma pneumonia, and 10 with psittacosis pneumonia. No distinctive pattern was seen for any group. Homogeneous shadowing was more frequent in legionnaires' disease (40/49 cases) (p less than 0.005), bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonia (25/31) (p less than 0.01) and non-bacteraemic pneumococcal ...

  7. Lipoid Pneumonia in a Gas Station Attendant

    OpenAIRE

    Gladis Isabel Yampara Guarachi; Valeria Barbosa Moreira; Angela Santos Ferreira; Selma M. De A. Sias; Rodrigues, Cristovão C.; Graça Helena M. do C. Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    The exogenous lipoid pneumonia, uncommon in adults, is the result of the inhalation and/or aspiration of lipid material into the tracheobronchial tree. This is often confused with bacterial pneumonia and pulmonary tuberculosis due to a nonspecific clinical and radiologic picture. It presents acutely or chronically and may result in pulmonary fibrosis. We describe here a case of lipoid pneumonia in a gas station attendant who siphoned gasoline to fill motorcycles; he was hospitalized due to pr...

  8. Lipoid Pneumonia Akibat Aspirasi Cairan Insektisida (Baygon)

    OpenAIRE

    Soeroso, Noni Novisari

    2010-01-01

    Lipoid pneumonia (LP) is a condition of aspiration of oily/fatty liquid material into lung. This oily material might be derived from animal, plant, or mineral. This case takes place when someone drinks insecticide in an attempt to commit suicide. While the stomach is being washed out, stomach liquid containing insecticide is aspirated into lung. Insecticide contains lipoid material therefore creates disorder of lipoid pneumonia in lung. Diagnosis of lipoid pneumonia is conducted with bronchos...

  9. Phenotypic Characterization of Streptococcus pneumoniae Biofilm Development

    OpenAIRE

    Allegrucci, Magee; Hu, F.Z.; Shen, K.; J. Hayes; Ehrlich, Garth D.; Post, J Christopher; Sauer, Karin

    2006-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is among the most common pathogens associated with chronic otitis media with effusion, which has been hypothesized to be a biofilm disease. S. pneumoniae has been shown to form biofilms, however, little is known about the developmental process, the architecture, and the changes that occur upon biofilm development. In the current study we made use of a continuous-culture biofilm system to characterize biofilm development of 14 different S. pneumoniae strains representi...

  10. Repertoire of intensive care unit pneumonia microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabri Bousbia

    Full Text Available Despite the considerable number of studies reported to date, the causative agents of pneumonia are not completely identified. We comprehensively applied modern and traditional laboratory diagnostic techniques to identify microbiota in patients who were admitted to or developed pneumonia in intensive care units (ICUs. During a three-year period, we tested the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL of patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia, community-acquired pneumonia, non-ventilator ICU pneumonia and aspiration pneumonia, and compared the results with those from patients without pneumonia (controls. Samples were tested by amplification of 16S rDNA, 18S rDNA genes followed by cloning and sequencing and by PCR to target specific pathogens. We also included culture, amoeba co-culture, detection of antibodies to selected agents and urinary antigen tests. Based on molecular testing, we identified a wide repertoire of 160 bacterial species of which 73 have not been previously reported in pneumonia. Moreover, we found 37 putative new bacterial phylotypes with a 16S rDNA gene divergence ≥ 98% from known phylotypes. We also identified 24 fungal species of which 6 have not been previously reported in pneumonia and 7 viruses. Patients can present up to 16 different microorganisms in a single BAL (mean ± SD; 3.77 ± 2.93. Some pathogens considered to be typical for ICU pneumonia such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus species can be detected as commonly in controls as in pneumonia patients which strikingly highlights the existence of a core pulmonary microbiota. Differences in the microbiota of different forms of pneumonia were documented.

  11. Klebsiella pneumoniae Liver Abscess and Metastatic Endophthalmitis

    OpenAIRE

    Wells, Jason T.; Lewis, Catherine R.; Danner, Omar K.; Wilson, Kenneth L; Matthews, L Ray

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Klebsiella pneumoniae is a well-known cause of liver abscess. Higher rates of liver abscess associated with Klebsiella pneumoniae are seen in Taiwan. Metastatic endophthalmitis is a common complication associated with a poor prognosis despite aggressive therapy. Case Report. We report a case of a 67-year-old Korean female with Klebsiella pneumoniae liver abscess. The patient developed metastatic endophthalmitis and ultimately succumbed to her disease despite aggressive medical a...

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase-Producing K. pneumoniae Siphophage Sushi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dat T; Lessor, Lauren E; Cahill, Jesse L; Rasche, Eric S; Kuty Everett, Gabriel F

    2015-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium in the family Enterobacteriaceae. It is associated with numerous nosocomial infections, including respiratory and urinary tract infections in humans. The following reports the complete genome sequence of K. pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae T1-like siphophage Sushi and describes its major features. PMID:26337889

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae DSM 30104T

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Je Hee; Cheon, In Su; Shim, Byoung-Shik; Kim, Dong Wook; Kim, Suhng Wook; Chun, Jongsik; Song, Manki

    2012-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, nonmotile, and opportunistic pathogenic species with clinical importance. It is a part of natural flora of humans and animals. Here we report the draft genome sequence of the type strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae (DSM 30104T) to provide taxonomic and functional insights into the species.

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase-Producing K. pneumoniae Siphophage Sushi

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Dat T.; Lessor, Lauren E.; Cahill, Jesse L.; Rasche, Eric S.; Kuty Everett, Gabriel F.

    2015-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium in the family Enterobacteriaceae. It is associated with numerous nosocomial infections, including respiratory and urinary tract infections in humans. The following reports the complete genome sequence of K. pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae T1-like siphophage Sushi and describes its major features.

  15. Klebsiella pneumoniae inoculants for enhancing plant growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triplett, Eric W.; Kaeppler, Shawn M.; Chelius, Marisa K.

    2008-07-01

    A biological inoculant for enhancing the growth of plants is disclosed. The inoculant includes the bacterial strains Herbaspirillum seropedicae 2A, Pantoea agglomerans P101, Pantoea agglomerans P102, Klebsiella pneumoniae 342, Klebsiella pneumoniae zmvsy, Herbaspirillum seropedicae Z152, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PA15, with or without a carrier. The inoculant also includes strains of the bacterium Pantoea agglomerans and K. pneumoniae which are able to enhance the growth of cereal grasses. Also disclosed are the novel bacterial strains Herbaspirillum seropedicae 2A, Pantoea agglomerans P101 and P102, and Klebsiella pneumoniae 342 and zmvsy.

  16. Aspiration pneumonia in patients with cleft palate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the incidence of aspiration pneumonia in infants with cleft palate and to compare the incidence between complete and incomplete types of cleft palate. A review of medical records revealed 100 infants who had undergone initial surgery to repair cleft palate in our hospital during a recent three-year period. Aspiration pneumonia was defined as the coexistence of pneumonia at chest radiography with a history of frequent choking during feeding. The anatomic distribution of aspiration pneumonia was analyzed, and the incidences of aspiration pneumonia in infants with complete and incomplete cleft palate were compared. Among 100 children, aspiration pneumonia was found in 35 (35%). Those with complete and incomplete cleft palate showed similar incidences of the condition (27 of 70 [39%] vs 8 of 30 [27%], p=0.36). Pneumonia was most commonly seen in the left lower lobe (11 of 35), followed by the right upper and lower lobes. Aspiration pneumonia is frequently associated with infants with cleft palate. There is no statistical difference in the incidence of aspiration pneumonia between the complete and the incomplete cleft palate group

  17. Enhanced Ex Vivo Stimulation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Specific T Cells in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Persons via Antigen Delivery by the Bordetella pertusis Adenylate Cyclase Vector

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Connell, T. G.; Shey, M. S.; Seldon, R.; Rangaka, M. X.; van Cutsem, G.; Šimšová, Marcela; Marčeková, Zuzana; Šebo, Peter; Curtis, N.; Diwakar, L.; Meintjes, G. A.; Leclerc, C.; Wilkinson, R. J.; Wilkinson, K. A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 7 (2007), s. 847-854. ISSN 1556-6811 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06161 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : mycobacterium tuberculosis * bordetella pertusis * human immunodeficiency virus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.995, year: 2007

  18. Expression of bvg-repressed genes in Bordetella pertussis is controlled by RisA through a novel c-di-GMP signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    The BvgAS two component system of Bordetella pertussis controls virulence factor expression. In addition, BvgAS controls expression of the bvg-repressed genes through the action of the repressor, BvgR. The transcription factor RisA is inhibited by BvgR, and when BvgR is not expressed RisA induces th...

  19. Cyclic di-GMP regulation of the bvg-repressed genes and the orphan response regulator RisA in Bordetella pertussis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expression of Bordetella pertussis virulence factors is activated by the BvgAS two-component system. Under modulating growth conditions BvgAS indirectly represses another set of genes through the action of BvgR, a bvg-activated protein. BvgR blocks activation of the response regulator RisA which is ...

  20. Bisamidate Prodrugs of 2-Substituted 9-[2-(Phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]adenine (PMEA, adefovir) as Selective Inhibitors of Adenylate Cyclase Toxin from Bordetella pertussis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Česnek, Michal; Jansa, Petr; Šmídková, Markéta; Mertlíková-Kaiserová, Helena; Dračínský, Martin; Brust, T. F.; Pávek, P.; Trejtnar, F.; Watts, V. J.; Janeba, Zlatko

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 8 (2015), s. 1351-1364. ISSN 1860-7179 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20102015046 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : adenylate cyclase toxin * bisamidates * Bordetella pertussis * nucleosides * phosphonates Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.968, year: 2014

  1. Acylation of Lysine 860 Allows Tight Binding and Cytotoxicity of Bordetella Adenylate Cyclase on CD1 1b-Expressing Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mašín, Jiří; Basler, Marek; Knapp, O.; El-Azami-El-Idrissi, M.; Maier, E.; Konopásek, I.; Benz, R.; Leclerc, C.; Šebo, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 44, - (2005), s. 12766-12759. ISSN 0006-2960 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5020406; GA MŠk 1M0506 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : lysine 860 * bordetella Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.848, year: 2005

  2. Coinfection with Mycoplasma Pneumoniae and Chlamydia Pneumoniae in ruptured plaques associated with acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higuchi Maria de Lourdes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study atheromas, Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae, and Chlamydia pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae. METHODS: C. pneumoniae was studied with immunohistochemistry and M. pneumoniae with in situ hybridization (ISH, in segments of coronary arteries (SCA as follows: group A - thrombosed ruptured plaques (TRP of 23 patients who died due to acute myocardial infarction (AMI; group B - 23 nonruptured plaques (NRP of group A patients; group C - NRP of 11 coronary patients who did not die due to AMI; and group D - 11 SCA from patients with dilated cardiomyopathy or Chagas' disease without atherosclerosis. RESULTS: The mean number of C. pneumoniae+ cells/400x in groups A, B, C, and D was, respectively, 3.3±3.6; 1.0±1.3; 1.2±2.4; and 0.4±0.3; and the percentage of M. pneumoniae area was, respectively, 3.9±3.5; 1.5± 1.6; 0.9±0.9; and 0.4±0.2. More M. pneumoniae and C. pneumoniae were found in of group A than in group B (P<0.01. Good correlation was seen between the area of the vessel and the M. pneumoniae area in the plaque (r = 0.46; P=0.001 and between C. pneumoniae+ cells and CD4+ T lymphocytes (r = 0.42; P<0.01. The number of C. pneumoniae+ cells correlated with CD20+ B cells (r=0.48; P<0.01. CONCLUSION: M. pneumoniae and C. pneumoniae are more frequently found in TRP correlate with the intensity of the inflammation and diameter of the vessel (positive remodeling.

  3. Research on pharmacological mechanism of the treatment of Asthma by oral Bordetella pertussis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHI Shen; SUN Yun; ZHANG Bao-yuan

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of oral Bordetella pertussis on the asthma mice sensitized by ovalbumin (OVA), and explore the possible mechanism. Methods Culture the B. pertussis in Bordet-Gengou agar containing 25 % rabbit blood. Collect the bacteria and inactive them at 80 ℃ for 30 min to get whole killed B. pertussis. 32 BALB/C mice were randomly divided into control group, model-control group, model group and treatment group. The mice were sensitized and challenged with OVA to establish asthma model. Asthma mice in treatment group were orally administrated with B. pertussis 7 days before sensitization. The mice in control group and model-control group were challenged with saline. After 24 hours of last challenge, bronchoaveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and peripheral blood were collected. The total cells and eosinophils were counted in BALF. Results Compared with the control group (2.03±0.42, 0.33±0.82)× 105 mL-1 and model-control group (2.16±0.48,0.16±0.41)×105 mL-1, the total cells (10.13±1.33) ×105mL-1 and eosinophils (11.83±4.573)×105 mL-1 in BALF were more in asthma mice (P<0.01). The number of total cells (5.50±1.55)×105 mL-1 and eosinophils(0.66±0.82)×105 mL-1 in BALF were reduced in asthma mice treated with B. pertussis compared with asthma mice(P<0.01 ). Conclusions Oral B. pertussis can inhabit airway inflammation of asthma mice and has the potential of treating asthma.

  4. Cooperative phenomena in binding and activation of Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase by calmodulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhss, A; Krin, E; Munier, H; Gilles, A M; Danchin, A; Glaser, P; Bârzu, O

    1993-01-25

    The catalytic domain of Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase located within the first 400 amino acids of the protein can be cleaved by trypsin in two subdomains (T25 and T18) corresponding to ATP-(T25) and calmodulin (CaM)-(T18) binding sites. Reassociation of subdomains by CaM is a cooperative process, which is a unique case among CaM-activated enzymes. To understand better the molecular basis of this phenomenon, we used several approaches such as partial deletions of the adenylate cyclase gene, isolation of peptides of various size, and site-directed mutagenesis experiments. We found that a stretch of 72 amino acid residues overlapping the carboxyl terminus of T25 and the amino terminus of T18 accounts for 90% of the binding energy of adenylate cyclase-CaM complex. The hydrophobic "side" of the helical region situated around Trp242 plays a major role in the interaction of adenylate cyclase with CaM, whereas basic residues that alternate with acidic residues in bacterial enzyme play a much less important role. The amino-terminal half of the catalytic domain of adenylate cyclase contributes only 10% to the binding energy of CaM, whereas the last 130 amino acid residues are not at all involved in binding. However, these segments of adenylate cyclase might affect protein/protein interaction and catalysis by propagating conformational changes to the CaM-binding sequence which is located in the middle of the catalytic domain of bacterial enzyme. PMID:8420945

  5. Pneumonia: high-resolution CT findings in 114 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the present study was to assess the high-resolution CT appearances of different types of pneumonia. The high-resolution CT scans obtained in 114 patients (58 immunocompetent, 59 immunocompromised) with bacterial, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, viral, fungal, and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonias were analyzed retrospectively by two independent observers for presence, pattern, and distribution of abnormalities. Areas of air-space consolidation were not detected in patients with viral pneumonia and were less frequently seen in patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (2 of 22 patients, 9%) than in bacterial (30 of 35, 85%), Mycoplasma pneumoniae (22 of 28, 79%), and fungal pneumonias (15 of 20, 75%; p<0.01). There was no significant difference in the prevalence or distribution of consolidation between bacterial, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and fungal pneumonias. Extensive symmetric bilateral areas of ground-glass attenuation were present in 21 of 22 (95%) patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and were not seen in other pneumonias except in association with areas of consolidation and nodules. Centrilobular nodules were present less commonly in bacterial pneumonia (6 of 35 patients, 17%) than in Mycoplasma pneumoniae (24 of 28, 96%), viral (7 of 9, 78%), or fungal (12 of 20, 92%) pneumonia (p<0.01). Except for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia, which often have a characteristic appearance, high-resolution CT is of limited value in the differential diagnosis of the various types of infective pneumonia. (orig.)

  6. Expresión episomal de toxina de pertussis genéticamente inactivada en Bordetella pertussis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Marcos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bordetella pertussis es una bacteria Gram negativa, la cual constituye el agente etiologico de la tos ferina. La enfermedad se desencadena por el efecto conjunto de una serie de factores de virulencia expresados por la bacteria, los cuales se encuentran regulados por el sistema bvg. Uno de los factores de virulencia mas importantes es la toxina de pertussis, razon por la cual, se emplea de forma inactivada como el componente principal de las vacunas acelulares contra la enfermedad. La toxina de pertussis posee una estructura del tipo A-B compuesta por seis polipeptidos codificados en un operon unico. El polipeptido S1 constituye la subunidad enzimaticamente activa, la cual cataliza la transferencia de ADP-ribosa del NAD a la subunidad ALPHA de las proteinas G en celulas eucariotas, lo cual genera una serie de efectos biologicos dentro de los que se incluye: sensibilizacion a histamina, incremento de la secrecion de insulina y efectos inmunoestimuladores e inmunosupresores. El presente trabajo describe los procedimientos realizados para la obtencion de cepas de Bordetella pertussis productoras de elevadas concentraciones de toxina pertusica atenuada geneticamente. Para esto, se realizaron las sustituciones aminoacidicas Arg9 por Lys y Glu129 por Gly de la subunidad S1. El operon de la toxina de pertussis mutada se clono en un vector de amplio rango de hospedero bajo la regulacion de un promotor de expresion temprana (fhaB. Los clones obtenidos pudieran ser empleados como sistemas de expresion para produccion de vacunas acelulares en Cuba.

  7. Pramipexole use and the risk of pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernst Pierre

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with Parkinson's disease have an elevated risk of pneumonia and randomized trials suggest that this risk may be increased with the dopamine agonist pramipexole. It is uncertain whether pramipexole or other dopamine agonists increase the risk of pneumonia. Methods We used the United Kingdom's General Practice Research Database (GPRD to identify users of anti-parkinsonian drugs, 40–89 years of age, between 1997 and 2009. Using a nested case–control approach, all incident cases hospitalised for pneumonia were matched with up to ten controls selected among the cohort members. Rate ratios (RR and 95% confidence intervals (CI of pneumonia associated with current use of dopamine agonists were estimated using conditional logistic regression, adjusted for covariates. Results The cohort included 13,183 users of anti-parkinsonian drugs, with 1,835 newly diagnosed with pneumonia during follow-up (rate 40.9 per 1,000 per year. The rate of pneumonia was not increased with the current use of pramipexole (RR 0.76; 95% CI: 0.57-1.02, compared with no use. The use of pramipexole was not associated with an increased rate of pneumonia when compared with all other dopamine agonists collectively (RR 0.85; 95% CI: 0.62-1.17. Conclusions The use of pramipexole does not appear to increase the risk of pneumonia.

  8. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Ventilation Associated Pneumonia.

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Diosdado Iraola Ferrer; Belkys Rodríguez Llerena.; Héctor Cruz de los Santos.; Eddy Pereira Valdés

    2009-01-01

    Clinical Practice Guidelines for Ventilation Associated Pneumonia. Conceptualized as the bacterial pneumonia that develops in patients receiving mechanical ventilation for more than 48 hours, which is not present at the beginning of the ventilation. We review the concept, prevention and treatment. It includes assessment guidelines focused on the most important aspects to be accomplished.

  9. Ekstrapulmonale komplikationer ved mycoplasma pneumoniae-infektioner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anne-Mette Bay; Lebech, Anne-Mette K

    2002-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common cause of atypical pneumonia in children and young adults. The infection is generally mild and only a very few patients are admitted to hospital. However, extrapulmonary complications are well recognised--mostly as manifestations from the central nervous system (CNS)....

  10. Comparison of high-resolution computed tomography findings between Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia and Cytomegalovirus pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare pulmonary high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings in patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia to HRCT findings in patients with Cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia. We studied 124 patients (77 men, 47 women; age range, 20-89 years; mean age, 65.4 years) with P. aeruginosa pneumonia and 44 patients (22 men, 22 women; age range, 36-86 years; mean age, 63.2 years) with CMV pneumonia. CT findings of consolidation (p < 0.005), bronchial wall thickening (p < 0.001), cavity (p < 0.05), and pleural effusion (p < 0.001) were significantly more frequent in patients with P. aeruginosa pneumonia than in those with CMV pneumonia. Centrilobular nodules, a crazy-paving appearance, and nodules were significantly more frequent in patients with CMV pneumonia than in those with P. aeruginosa pneumonia (all p < 0.001). Pulmonary HRCT findings, such as bronchial wall thickening, crazy-paving appearance, and nodules may be useful in distinguishing between P. aeruginosa pneumonia and CMV pneumonia. (orig.)

  11. Comparison of high-resolution computed tomography findings between Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia and Cytomegalovirus pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omeri, Ahmad Khalid; Okada, Fumito; Takata, Shoko; Ono, Asami; Sato, Haruka; Mori, Hiromu [Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yufu, Oita (Japan); Nakayama, Tomoko [Oita Red Cross Hospital, Department of Radiology, Oita (Japan); Ando, Yumiko [Oita Nishibeppu National Hospital, Department of Radiology, Oita (Japan); Hiramatsu, Kazufumi [Oita University Hospital, Hospital Infection Control Center, Oita (Japan)

    2014-12-15

    To compare pulmonary high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings in patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia to HRCT findings in patients with Cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia. We studied 124 patients (77 men, 47 women; age range, 20-89 years; mean age, 65.4 years) with P. aeruginosa pneumonia and 44 patients (22 men, 22 women; age range, 36-86 years; mean age, 63.2 years) with CMV pneumonia. CT findings of consolidation (p < 0.005), bronchial wall thickening (p < 0.001), cavity (p < 0.05), and pleural effusion (p < 0.001) were significantly more frequent in patients with P. aeruginosa pneumonia than in those with CMV pneumonia. Centrilobular nodules, a crazy-paving appearance, and nodules were significantly more frequent in patients with CMV pneumonia than in those with P. aeruginosa pneumonia (all p < 0.001). Pulmonary HRCT findings, such as bronchial wall thickening, crazy-paving appearance, and nodules may be useful in distinguishing between P. aeruginosa pneumonia and CMV pneumonia. (orig.)

  12. Correlations between computed tomography findings and clinical manifestations of Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to characterize the imaging features and compare computed tomography (CT) findings with clinical features of patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia. We retrospectively reviewed 75 patients (44 men, 31 women; mean age 67 years) diagnosed with S. pneumoniae pneumonia who underwent chest CT scanning at our institution between January 2007 and August 2008. Diagnoses were based on detection of the S. pneumoniae antigen in urine. Chest CT scans revealed abnormalities in all patients. The predominant opacity patterns were an airspace pneumonia pattern (48%) and a bronchopneumonia pattern (48%), followed by an interstitial pneumonia pattern (4%). Consolidation was observed most frequently (84%) followed by ground glass opacity (82.7%), bronchial wall thickening (61.3%), and centrilobular nodules (49.3%). Airway dilatation (21.6%), pleural effusion (33.3%), lymphadenopathy (34.8%), and pulmonary emphysema (21.3%) were also observed. Pulmonary emphysema was significantly less frequent in patients with the bronchopneumonia pattern than in those without (p=0.007). The clinical features and CT findings did not differ significantly. CT image analysis showed that patients with S. pneumoniae pneumonia exhibited the bronchopneumonia and airspace pneumonia patterns with equal frequency. Bronchopneumonia pattern was less common in patients with preexisting emphysema. (author)

  13. Cryptogenic Organising Pneumonia As The Initial Presenting Manifestation of SLE

    OpenAIRE

    Neena Mampilly; Manoj, G.; Paul, Binoy J.

    2015-01-01

    Cryptogenic Organising Pneumonia (COP), also called idiopathic Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organising Pneumonia( BOOP), is a distinct entity among the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias defined histopathologically by intraalveolar buds of granulation tissue. The etiology includes idiopathic, infectious, drug induced radiation induced and connective tissue diseases. Organising pneumonia occurs particularly in patients with dermatomyositis-polymyositis where it may be the presenting manifestat...

  14. Genome Sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae Urinary Tract Isolate Top52

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Jeremiah G.; Spurbeck, Rachel R.; Sandhu, Sukhinder K.; Matson, Jyl S.

    2014-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a significant cause of nosocomial infections, including ventilator-associated pneumonias and catheter-associated urinary tract infections. K. pneumoniae strain TOP52 #1721 (Top52) was isolated from a woman presenting with acute cystitis and subsequently characterized using various murine models of infection. Here we present the genome sequence of K. pneumoniae Top52.

  15. Analysis of Bordetella pertussis pertactin and pertussis toxin types from Queensland, Australia, 1999–2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slack Andrew T

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia two acellular Bordetella pertussis vaccines have replaced the use of a whole cell vaccine. Both of the licensed acellular vaccines contain the following three components; pertussis toxoid, pertussis filamentous haemagglutinin and the 69 kDa pertactin adhesin. One vaccine also contains pertussis fimbriae 2 and 3. Various researchers have postulated that herd immunity due to high levels of pertussis vaccination might be influencing the makeup of endemic B. pertussis populations by selective pressure for strains possessing variants of these genes, in particular the pertactin gene type. Some publications have suggested that B. pertussis variants may be contributing to a reduced efficacy of the existing vaccines and a concomitant re-emergence of pertussis within vaccinated populations. This study was conducted to survey the pertactin and pertussis toxin subunit 1 types from B. pertussis isolates in Queensland, Australia following the introduction of acellular vaccines. Methods Forty-six B. pertussis isolates recovered from Queensland patients between 1999 and 2003 were examined by both DNA sequencing and LightCycler™ real time PCR to determine their pertactin and pertussis toxin subunit 1 genotypes. Results Pertactin typing showed that 38 isolates possessed the prn1 allele, 3 possessed the prn2 allele and 5 possessed the prn3 allele. All forty-six isolates possessed the pertussis toxin ptxS1A genotype. Amongst the circulating B. pertussis population in Queensland, 82.5% of the recovered clinical isolates therefore possessed the prn1/ptxS1A genotype. Conclusion The results of this study compared to historical research on Queensland isolates suggest that B. pertussis pertactin and pertussis toxin variants are not becoming more prevalent in Queensland since the introduction of the acellular vaccines. Current prevalences of pertactin variants are significantly different to that described in a number of other countries

  16. Ultrasound in Rheumatologic Interstitial Lung Disease: A Case Report of Nonspecific Interstitial Pneumonia in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Laria, A.; Lurati, A; Scarpellini, M.

    2015-01-01

    According to the American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society consensus classification, idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) include several clinic-radiologic-pathologic entities: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP), nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, acute interstitial pneumonia, respiratory bronchiolitis-associated ILD, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, and lymphoid interstitial pneumonia. ...

  17. Kematian Akibat Pneumonia Berat pada Anak Balita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Asri Wulandari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in children, mainly in developing countries with a 10–15 times higher mortality rate than developed countries. The aim of the study was to know the mortality rate and its risk factors among under five years old children who were hospitalized due to severe pneumonia. This cross-sectional study was conducted to 1 to 59 months old children with pneumonia at the Department of Pediatric Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung Hospital from November 2007 to January 2009. Three hundred and eighteen children were enrolled in this study. The median age was 11.16 months, and 237 (74.5% were ≤12 months of age. Very severe pneumonia was diagnosed in 93 (29.2% and severe pneumonia in 225 (70.8% children. Twenty three (7.2% children died during hospitalization, 20 were hospitalized with very severe pneumonia (p<0.001, OR 20.274, 95%CI: 5.855─70.197. Congenital heart disease (p=0.002, OR 5.795, 95%CI: 2.115–15.407 and leucocytosis (≥15,500/mm3, p=0.002, OR 3.879, 95%CI: 1.547–9.727 were significantly associated to the mortality. Pathogenic bacteria were identified in 11 of 23 patients. In conclusions, the mortality of severe pneumonia is still high. Very severe pneumonia, congenital heart disease and leucocytosis are factors that increase mortality among under-five years old children with pneumonia.

  18. Infección por Bordetella pertussis: Una causa emergente de tos prolongada en adolescentes y adultos Bordetella pertussis infection: An emerging cause of prolonged cough illness in adolescents and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODRIGO OSSES A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available La tos convulsiva o coqueluche está siendo reconocida cada vez con mayor frecuencia como causa de tos prolongada en adolescentes y adultos. La vacunación sistemática de la población pediátrica ha determinado un cambio en el perfl epidemiológico de la enfermedad, aumentando su prevalencia en la población adulta. Se presenta el caso clínico de una paciente de 45 años, fumadora, enfermera de unidad de hemodiálisis, que consulta por malestar general y tos seca de seis semanas de evolución. La radiografía de tórax era normal y la inmunofuorescencia directa de hisopado nasofaríngeo fue positiva para Bordetella pertussis. A propósito de este caso clínico, revisamos las principales causas de tos crónica: asma bronquial, enfermedad rinosinusal y refujo gastroesofágico; el cuadro clínico, evaluación diagnóstica y tratamiento de la infección por B. pertussis en población adulta.Whooping cough is increasingly recognized as a cause of prolonged cough illness in adolescents and adults. Systematic vaccination has changed its epidemiology, with the majority of cases now primarily affecting adolescents and adults. A 45-year-old female, active smoker, nurse, who works in a dialysis service, presented with a 6-week history of bothersome cough and malaise. Thorax x-ray was normal and direct immunofuorescence of nasopharyngeal swab was positive for Bordetella pertussis. This case illustrates pertussis infection in adulthood. We review the main causes of chronic cough in adults: asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis and gastroesophageal refux; the clinical features, prevalence, diagnostic tools, and management of adult patients with B. pertussis infection to increase awareness of this highly contagious disease.

  19. Nucleotide sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae lac genes.

    OpenAIRE

    Buvinger, W E; Riley, M

    1985-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of the Klebsiella pneumoniae lacI and lacZ genes and part of the lacY gene were determined, and these genes were located and oriented relative to one another. The K. pneumoniae lac operon is divergent in that the lacI and lacZ genes are oriented head to head, and complementary strands are transcribed. Besides base substitutions, the lacZ genes of K. pneumoniae and Escherichia coli have suffered short distance shifts of reading frame caused by additions or deletions or...

  20. [Patient's Risk Factors for Perioperative Aspiration Pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Teruhiko; Isono, Shiroh

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews patient's own risk factors for perioperative aspiration pneumonia. Maintaining the function of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), the airway protective reflex, and the oral hygiene are the most important to prevent the pneumonia. The LES is adversely affected by excessive stomach distention, some medication given in perioperative periods, and habitual smoking, as well as pathological status such as esophageal hiatus hernia and achalasia. Postapoplectic patients may have insufficient airway protective reflex including swallowing and laryngeal reflex. It is emphasized that the perioperative oral care is increasing in its importance for the prevention of aspiration pneumonia. PMID:27004381

  1. Autopsy findings of fatal cryptogenic organizing pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Terada, Tadashi

    2013-01-01

    Autopsy cases of cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) have been rarely reported. A 73-year-old Japanese man consulted to a hospital because of flu-like sickness. He was diagnosed as pneumonia, and treated by antibiotics. He was referred to our hospital for further treatment. Chest X-P showed pneumonia involving the whole lungs. Blood laboratory test showed leukocytosis, increased CRP, and decreased PaO2. Despite of steroid therapy, he showed a downhill course and died one month after the fi...

  2. Mycoplasma pneumonia: Clinical features and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashyap Surender

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma pneumonia is a common respiratory pathogen that produces diseases of varied severity ranging from mild upper respiratory tract infection to severe atypical pneumonia. Apart from respiratory tract infections, this organism is also responsible for producing a wide spectrum of non-pulmonary manifestations including neurological, hepatic, cardiac diseases, hemolytic anemia, polyarthritis and erythema multiforme. This review focuses on molecular taxonomy, biological characteristics, epidemiology, clinical presentation, radiology and various laboratory tools in diagnosis, differential diagnosis, treatment and prevention of mycoplasma pneumonia.

  3. CT characteristics of peripheral organizing pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diagnostic dilemma of persistent mass-forming parenchymal opacity in the lung periphery occurs occasionally in the realm of diagnostic radiology. Until recently, literature on the role of computed tomography in peripheral organizing pneumonia, which is difficult to differentiate from malignancy, has little been published. We experienced one case of pathologically proven organizing pneumonia diagnosed preoperatively by chest CT. When it comes to solitary peripheral mass density in the lung, we think that CT can be proved useful in the diagnosis of benign organizing pneumonia by showing regular and smoothly corrugate margin, peripheral contrast enhancement with inner low density, and air-trapping by intervening normal lung parenchyma.

  4. Many radiologic facies of pneumococcal pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kantor, H.G.

    1981-12-01

    In 1978, 89 patients were treated for (S. pneumoniae) pneumonia at New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center. Only 40 cases met rather strict diagnostic criteria. Of these, 12 demonstrated the classical consolidative (air space) pattern usually ascribed to this disease. A bronchopneumonic (patch) pattern was demonstrated in an equal number of patients; interstitial (irregular linear) infiltrates were manifest in nine cases and a mixed interstitial and patchy presentation shown in seven cases. Absence of the consolidative pattern does not exclude pneumococcal pneumonia. Bacteriologic investigation is required to determine the proper diagnosis and course of therapy.

  5. Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE Serves a Protective Role during Klebsiella pneumoniae - Induced Pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Achouiti

    Full Text Available Klebsiella species is the second most commonly isolated gram-negative organism in sepsis and a frequent causative pathogen in pneumonia. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE is expressed on different cell types and plays a key role in diverse inflammatory responses. We here aimed to investigate the role of RAGE in the host response to Klebsiella (K. pneumoniae pneumonia and intransally inoculated rage gene deficient (RAGE-/- and normal wild-type (Wt mice with K. pneumoniae. Klebsiella pneumonia resulted in an increased pulmonary expression of RAGE. Furthermore, the high-affinity RAGE ligand high mobility group box-1 was upregulated during K. pneumoniae pneumonia. RAGE deficiency impaired host defense as reflected by a worsened survival, increased bacterial outgrowth and dissemination in RAGE-/- mice. RAGE-/- neutrophils showed a diminished phagocytosing capacity of live K. pneumoniae in vitro. Relative to Wt mice, RAGE-/- mice demonstrated similar lung inflammation, and slightly elevated-if any-cytokine and chemokine levels and unchanged hepatocellular injury. In addition, RAGE-/- mice displayed an unaltered response to intranasally instilled Klebsiella lipopolysaccharide (LPS with respect to pulmonary cell recruitment and local release of cytokines and chemokines. These data suggest that (endogenous RAGE protects against K. pneumoniae pneumonia. Also, they demonstrate that RAGE contributes to an effective antibacterial defense during K. pneumoniae pneumonia, at least partly via its participation in the phagocytic properties of professional granulocytes. Additionally, our results indicate that RAGE is not essential for the induction of a local and systemic inflammatory response to either intact Klebsiella or Klebsiella LPS.

  6. Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) Serves a Protective Role during Klebsiella pneumoniae - Induced Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achouiti, Ahmed; de Vos, Alex F; van 't Veer, Cornelis; Florquin, Sandrine; Tanck, Michael W; Nawroth, Peter P; Bierhaus, Angelika; van der Poll, Tom; van Zoelen, Marieke A D

    2016-01-01

    Klebsiella species is the second most commonly isolated gram-negative organism in sepsis and a frequent causative pathogen in pneumonia. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is expressed on different cell types and plays a key role in diverse inflammatory responses. We here aimed to investigate the role of RAGE in the host response to Klebsiella (K.) pneumoniae pneumonia and intransally inoculated rage gene deficient (RAGE-/-) and normal wild-type (Wt) mice with K. pneumoniae. Klebsiella pneumonia resulted in an increased pulmonary expression of RAGE. Furthermore, the high-affinity RAGE ligand high mobility group box-1 was upregulated during K. pneumoniae pneumonia. RAGE deficiency impaired host defense as reflected by a worsened survival, increased bacterial outgrowth and dissemination in RAGE-/- mice. RAGE-/- neutrophils showed a diminished phagocytosing capacity of live K. pneumoniae in vitro. Relative to Wt mice, RAGE-/- mice demonstrated similar lung inflammation, and slightly elevated-if any-cytokine and chemokine levels and unchanged hepatocellular injury. In addition, RAGE-/- mice displayed an unaltered response to intranasally instilled Klebsiella lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with respect to pulmonary cell recruitment and local release of cytokines and chemokines. These data suggest that (endogenous) RAGE protects against K. pneumoniae pneumonia. Also, they demonstrate that RAGE contributes to an effective antibacterial defense during K. pneumoniae pneumonia, at least partly via its participation in the phagocytic properties of professional granulocytes. Additionally, our results indicate that RAGE is not essential for the induction of a local and systemic inflammatory response to either intact Klebsiella or Klebsiella LPS. PMID:26824892

  7. Lipoid pneumonia presenting as non resolving community acquired pneumonia: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Hadda, Vijay; Gopi C Khilnani; Ashu S Bhalla; Mathur, Sandeep

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Lipoid pneumonia is a rare form of pneumonia caused by inhalation or aspiration of fat containing substances like, petroleum jelly, mineral oils, few laxatives etc. It usually presents as insidious onset chronic respiratory illness simulating interstitial lung diseases. Rarely, it may present as an acute respiratory illness, specially, when exposure to fatty substance is acute and/or massive. Radiologically, it may mimic carcinoma, acute or chronic pneumonia, ARDS, or a localized...

  8. Detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae adhesin (P1) in the nonhemadsorbing population of virulent Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

    OpenAIRE

    Kahane, I; Tucker, S.; Baseman, J B

    1985-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae organisms possessing a hemadsorbing-negative (HA-) phenotype comprise more than 50% of the population of virulent M. pneumoniae cultures. Monoclonal antibody to P1, the major adhesin of M. pneumoniae reacts with this HA- mycoplasma fraction based upon radioimmunoprecipitation and immunoblotting. Demonstration of P1 in the entire mycoplasma population suggests that topological organization of this adhesin in the membrane or the physiological state of the mycoplasmas may d...

  9. Treatment of experimental pneumonia due to penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in immunocompetent rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Gavaldà, J.; Capdevila, J A; Almirante, B; Otero, J.; Ruiz, I; Laguarda, M; Allende, H.; Crespo, E; Pigrau, C; Pahissa, A

    1997-01-01

    A model of pneumonia due to Streptococcus pneumoniae resistant to penicillin was developed in immunocompetent Wistar rats and was used to evaluate the efficacies of different doses of penicillin, cefotaxime, cefpirome, and vancomycin. Adult Wistar rats were challenged by intratracheal inoculation with 3 x 10(9) CFU of one strain of S. pneumoniae resistant to penicillin (MICs of penicillin, cefotaxime, cefpirome, and vancomycin, 2, 1, 0.5, and 0.5 microg/ml, respectively) suspended in brain he...

  10. Coccidioidomycosis with diffuse miliary pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotello, David; Rivas, Marcella; Fuller, Audra; Mahmood, Tashfeen; Orellana-Barrios, Menfil; Nugent, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is a well-known infection in the southwestern United States, and its occurrence is becoming more frequent in endemic areas. This disease can have a significant economic and medical impact; therefore, accurate diagnosis is crucial. In conjunction with patient symptoms, residence in or travel to an endemic area is essential for diagnosis. Diagnosis is usually made with serology, culture, or biopsy and confirmed with DNA probe technology. Pulmonary disease is the most common presentation and is seen in almost 95% of all cases. One-half to two-thirds of all Coccidioides infections are asymptomatic or subclinical. Most pulmonary infections are self-limited and do not require treatment except in special populations. When treatment is warranted, itraconazole and fluconazole are frequently used. Diffuse miliary pneumonia is uncommon and is especially rare in immunocompetent patients. Herein we describe a rare presentation of miliary coccidioidomycosis in a nonimmunocompromised patient. PMID:26722164

  11. Pseudomona pseudomallei community acquired pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the first published case report en Colombia about pseudomona pseudomallei community acquired pneumonia. This uncommon pathogen is from the epidemiological standpoint a very important one and medical community should be aware to look after it in those patients where no other etiological pathogen is recovered. A brief summary about epidemiology is showed, emphasizing those regions where it can be found. Likewise, comments about the differential diagnosis are important since it should be considered in those patients where tuberculosis is suspected. This is particularly representative for countries with high tuberculosis rates. Furthermore, a microbiological review is shown, emphasizing on isolation techniques, descriptions about therapeutics and other regarding treatment issues according international standards. Finally; a description about the clinical picture, laboratory findings, treatment and evolution of the case reported are shown for discussion

  12. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: Classification revision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demosthenes Bouros MD, PhD, FCCP

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The American Thoracic Society (ATS, the European Respiratory Society (ERS and the Japan Respiratory Society (JRS are planning a revision of the 2002 ATS/ERS International Multidisciplinary Classification of Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias (IIPs1. In two years’ time it will be 10 years since its publication and with a view to publishing the revision after 10 years (i.e., in 2012, a steering committee has been established, which met in New Orleans during ATS congress in May 2010 and more recently in Barcelona during the ERS congress (Photo. The committee will meet again during the ATS and the ERS congresses that will be held in the next two years, with an additional meeting in Modena, Italy, in Αpril 2011.

  13. Genetics and Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Sarah G; El-Chemaly, Souheil; Rosas, Ivan O

    2016-06-01

    Significant progress has been made in elucidating the genetics of parenchymal lung diseases, particularly idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs). IIPs are a heterogeneous group of diffuse interstitial lung diseases of uncertain etiology, diagnosed only after known causes of interstitial lung disease have been excluded. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is the most common IIP. Through candidate gene approaches and genome wide association studies, much light has been shed on the genetic origins of IIPs, enhancing our understanding of risk factors and pathogenesis. However, significant work remains to be accomplished in identifying novel genetic variants and characterizing the function of validated candidate genes in lung pathobiology, their interplay with environmental factors, and ultimately translating these discoveries to patient care. PMID:27231858

  14. Lymphatic fluctuation in the parenchymal remodeling stage of acute interstitial pneumonia, organizing pneumonia, nonspecific interstitial pneumonia and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    E.R. Parra; C.A.L. Araujo; J.G. Lombardi; A.M. Ab’Saber; C.R.R. Carvalho; Kairalla, R A; Capelozzi, V.L.

    2012-01-01

    Because the superficial lymphatics in the lungs are distributed in the subpleural, interlobular and peribroncovascular interstitium, lymphatic impairment may occur in the lungs of patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) and increase their severity. We investigated the distribution of lymphatics in different remodeling stages of IIPs by immunohistochemistry using the D2-40 antibody. Pulmonary tissue was obtained from 69 patients with acute interstitial pneumonia/diffuse alveola...

  15. SP-D, KL-6, and HTI-56 levels in children with mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Shu, Lin-Hua; Lu, Quan; Han, Li-Ying; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2015-01-01

    The study was aimed to evaluate the potential biomarkers from pulmonary surfactant protein D (SP-D), Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6), and 56-kD a human type I protein (HTI-56) in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples of children with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia. This retrospective study, self-controlled study enrolled 34 Chinese children with M. pneumoniae pneumonia. The levels of SP-D, KL-6, and HTI-56 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples were assessed and compared between pati...

  16. Rapid diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in children with pneumonia by an immuno-chromatographic antigen assay

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Li; Yujie Liu; Yun Zhao; Ran Tao; Yonggang Li; Shiqiang Shang

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a particularly important pathogen that causes community acquired pneumonia in children. In this study, a rapid test was developed to diagnose M. pneumoniae by using a colloidal gold-based immuno-chromatographic assay which targets a region of the P1 gene. 302 specimens were analyzed by the colloidal gold assay in parallel with real-time PCR. Interestingly, the colloidal gold assay allowed M. pneumoniae identification, with a detection limit of 1 × 103 copies/ml. 76 sa...

  17. Lipoid pneumonia in a gas station attendant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yampara Guarachi, Gladis Isabel; Barbosa Moreira, Valeria; Santos Ferreira, Angela; Sias, Selma M De A; Rodrigues, Cristovão C; Teixeira, Graça Helena M do C

    2014-01-01

    The exogenous lipoid pneumonia, uncommon in adults, is the result of the inhalation and/or aspiration of lipid material into the tracheobronchial tree. This is often confused with bacterial pneumonia and pulmonary tuberculosis due to a nonspecific clinical and radiologic picture. It presents acutely or chronically and may result in pulmonary fibrosis. We describe here a case of lipoid pneumonia in a gas station attendant who siphoned gasoline to fill motorcycles; he was hospitalized due to presenting with a respiratory infection that was hard to resolve. The patient underwent bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage, which, on cytochemical (oil red O) evaluation, was slightly positive for lipid material in the foamy cytoplasm of alveolar macrophages. Due to his occupational history and radiographic abnormalities suggestive of lipoid pneumonia, a lung biopsy was performed to confirm the diagnosis. The patient was serially treated with segmental lung lavage and showed clinical, functional, and radiological improvement. PMID:25374742

  18. Lipoid Pneumonia in a Gas Station Attendant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladis Isabel Yampara Guarachi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The exogenous lipoid pneumonia, uncommon in adults, is the result of the inhalation and/or aspiration of lipid material into the tracheobronchial tree. This is often confused with bacterial pneumonia and pulmonary tuberculosis due to a nonspecific clinical and radiologic picture. It presents acutely or chronically and may result in pulmonary fibrosis. We describe here a case of lipoid pneumonia in a gas station attendant who siphoned gasoline to fill motorcycles; he was hospitalized due to presenting with a respiratory infection that was hard to resolve. The patient underwent bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage, which, on cytochemical (oil red O evaluation, was slightly positive for lipid material in the foamy cytoplasm of alveolar macrophages. Due to his occupational history and radiographic abnormalities suggestive of lipoid pneumonia, a lung biopsy was performed to confirm the diagnosis. The patient was serially treated with segmental lung lavage and showed clinical, functional, and radiological improvement.

  19. Transverse myelitis associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection.

    OpenAIRE

    MacFarlane, P I; Miller, V

    1984-01-01

    A case of acute transverse myelitis associated with respiratory infection by Mycoplasma pneumoniae is described. Circulating antibodies to myelin were detected suggesting that mycoplasma related neurological damage is mediated by producing an immunological myelopathy.

  20. A College Epidemic of Mycoplasma Pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, David; Cochran, Burt

    1979-01-01

    The article reports on an outbreak of mycoplasma pneumoniae at the California Polytechnic State University including a historical background of the disease, clinical features, laboratory findings for treated patients, treatment, and clinical clues for diagnosis. (JMF)

  1. Skeletal changes during pneumonia in infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of 35 roentgenograms has revealed that similarity of changes at pneumonia and congenital syphilis in babies requires thorough study of the totality of climico-roentgenological and laboratory data for removal of erroneous interpretation of variations

  2. Imaging findings of measles pneumonia in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To illustrate the chest radiography and MSCT findings of measles pneumonia in adults. Methods: One hundred and sixty three measles patients underwent chest radiography, MSCT was performed in 3 of them. Measles pneumonia was confirmed in 10 patients (6.13%). Results: Eight of 10 patients had abnormal appearances in initial chest radiography. The characteristic chest radiographic findings were ground-glass opacities (n=6) and bronchial wall thickening (n=2). MSCT showed bilateral multiple ground-glass opacities in 1 patient, unilateral patchy ground-glass opacities with lobular distribution in the right upper lung in 2 patients. Conclusions: Familiarizing with radiographic and MSCT appearances of measles pneumonia in adults is very important for the differential diagnosis and appropriate management of measles pneumonia. Normal initial chest radiography cannot exclude the involvement of the lungs. (authors)

  3. Desquamative interstitial pneumonia: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Lovrenski Aleksandra; Eri Živka; Tegeltija Dragana; Kašiković-Lečić Svetlana; Panjković Milana

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Desquamative interstitial pneumonia is one of the rarest idiopathic interstitial pneumonias and the rarest form of smoking-related interstitial lung diseases. It was first described by Liebow in 1965. Histologically, it is characterized by the presence of eosinophilic macrophages uniformly filling airspaces which often contain a finely granular light-brown pigment that does not stain for hemosiderin. The alveolar walls are usually mildly thick...

  4. Cloning of Minor Autolysin of Streptococcus Pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Mahboobi, R. (MSc); Fallah Mehrabadi, J. (PhD); MR Pourmand; R Mashhadi; Haddadi, A. (MD

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Increased antibiotic resistant strains and inadequacy of current vaccines against pneumococcal infections necessitate the study of novel protein antigens. It seems that minor autolysin of Streptococcus pneumoniae may have antigenicity. Thus, we aimed at cloning its gene for the first time. Material and Methods: After DNA extraction of Streptococcus pneumoniae (ATCC 49619), Specific primers were designed for amplifying minor autolysin gene fragment, using PCR. The pur...

  5. Klebsiella pneumoniae KPC: first isolations in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Fontana; Marco Favaro; Loredana Sarmati; Silvia Natoli; Anna Altieri; Maria Cristina Bossa; Silvia Minelli; Cartesio Favalli

    2009-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) was detected in two isolates of carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae in an italian teaching hospital. This is the first report of a KPC-producing isolates in our country. The first strain was isolated from a urine sample collected from a indwelling urinary catheter in a ICU-patient with subdural haematoma, while the second was from the culture of the central venous catheter (CVC) in a patient affected by Crohn’s disease admitted in gastroenterology ward...

  6. Pathogenesis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Chaudhry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Genus Mycoplasma, belonging to the class Mollicutes, encompasses unique lifeforms comprising of a small genome of 8,00,000 base pairs and the inability to produce a cell wall under any circumstances. Mycoplasma pneumoniae is the most common pathogenic species infecting humans. It is an atypical respiratory bacteria causing community acquired pneumonia (CAP in children and adults of all ages. Although atypical pneumonia caused by M. pneumoniae can be managed in outpatient settings, complications affecting multiple organ systems can lead to hospitalization in vulnerable population. M. pneumoniae infection has also been associated with chronic lung disease and bronchial asthma. With the advent of molecular methods of diagnosis and genetic, immunological and ultrastructural assays that study infectious disease pathogenesis at subcellular level, newer virulence factors of M. pneumoniae have been recognized by researchers. Structure of the attachment organelle of the organism, that mediates the crucial initial step of cytadherence to respiratory tract epithelium through complex interaction between different adhesins and accessory adhesion proteins, has been decoded. Several subsequent virulence mechanisms like intracellular localization, direct cytotoxicity and activation of the inflammatory cascade through toll-like receptors (TLRs leading to inflammatory cytokine mediated tissue injury, have also been demonstrated to play an essential role in pathogenesis. The most significant update in the knowledge of pathogenesis has been the discovery of Community-Acquired Respiratory Distress Syndrome toxin (CARDS toxin of M. pneumoniae and its ability of adenosine diphosphate (ADP ribosylation and inflammosome activation, thus initiating airway inflammation. Advances have also been made in terms of the different pathways behind the genesis of extrapulmonary complications. This article aims to comprehensively review the recent advances in the knowledge of

  7. Pathogenesis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, R; Ghosh, A; Chandolia, A

    2016-01-01

    Genus Mycoplasma, belonging to the class Mollicutes, encompasses unique lifeforms comprising of a small genome of 8,00,000 base pairs and the inability to produce a cell wall under any circumstances. Mycoplasma pneumoniae is the most common pathogenic species infecting humans. It is an atypical respiratory bacteria causing community acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children and adults of all ages. Although atypical pneumonia caused by M. pneumoniae can be managed in outpatient settings, complications affecting multiple organ systems can lead to hospitalization in vulnerable population. M. pneumoniae infection has also been associated with chronic lung disease and bronchial asthma. With the advent of molecular methods of diagnosis and genetic, immunological and ultrastructural assays that study infectious disease pathogenesis at subcellular level, newer virulence factors of M. pneumoniae have been recognized by researchers. Structure of the attachment organelle of the organism, that mediates the crucial initial step of cytadherence to respiratory tract epithelium through complex interaction between different adhesins and accessory adhesion proteins, has been decoded. Several subsequent virulence mechanisms like intracellular localization, direct cytotoxicity and activation of the inflammatory cascade through toll-like receptors (TLRs) leading to inflammatory cytokine mediated tissue injury, have also been demonstrated to play an essential role in pathogenesis. The most significant update in the knowledge of pathogenesis has been the discovery of Community-Acquired Respiratory Distress Syndrome toxin (CARDS toxin) of M. pneumoniae and its ability of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) ribosylation and inflammosome activation, thus initiating airway inflammation. Advances have also been made in terms of the different pathways behind the genesis of extrapulmonary complications. This article aims to comprehensively review the recent advances in the knowledge of pathogenesis of this

  8. Pneumonia in pre-school children : Terveysnetti

    OpenAIRE

    Mbugua, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Pneumonia is an illness, usually caused by bacterial, viral or more rarely fungal organisms. Common symptoms in children and infants include difficult breathing, cough, and wheezing. Diagnosis involves confirmatory chest radiography and laboratory tests. Antibiotics are the preferred choice for treatment and management. Risks factors include low paternal education, low birth weight, lack of breastfeeding. Key strategies for the prevention of childhood pneumonia are community –based case manag...

  9. Serum angiotensin converting enzyme in pneumonias.

    OpenAIRE

    Kerttula, Y; Weber, T H

    1986-01-01

    Serum concentrations of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) were studied in pneumonias caused by different pathogens and in cases in which the aetiology could not be defined. In all aetiological groups, except in viral pneumonia, there was a significant increase in ACE during recovery (p less than 0.001). In several patients the lowest values during the acute phase of disease and the highest values during recovery were outside the reference limits. In cases with known aetiology the highest AC...

  10. Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in hospitalized children diagnosed at acute stage by paired sera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chun-ling; WEI Ming; LIU Zhen-ye; WANG Gui-qiang; ZHANG Bo; XU Hua; HU Liang-ping; HE Xiao-feng; WANG Jun-hua; ZHANG Jun-hong; LIU Xiao-yu

    2010-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) is a frequent cause of respiratory tract infections. However,there is deficient knowledge about the clinical manifestations of M. pneumoniae infection. We described the clinical and laboratory findings of M. pneumoniae pneumonia in hospitalized children who were all diagnosed by a ≥ fourfold increase in antibody titer.Methods M. pneumoniae antibodies were routinely detected in children admitted with acute respiratory infection during a one-year period. The medical history was re-collected from children whose M. pneumoniae antibody titer increased≥fourfold at the bedside by a single person, and their frozen paired serum samples were measured again for the M.pneumoniae antibody titer.Results Of the 635 children whose sera were detected for the M. pneumoniae antibody, paired sera were obtained from 82 and 29.3% (24/82) showed a ≥ fourfold increase in antibody titer. There were 24 cases, nine boys and 15 girls, aged from two to 14 years, whose second serum samples were taken on day 9 at the earliest after symptom onset; the shortest interval was three days. All children presented with a high fever (≥38.5℃) and coughing. Twenty-one had no nasal obstruction or a runny nose, and five had mild headaches which all were associated with the high fever. The disease was comparatively severe if the peak temperature was >39.5℃. All were diagnosed as having pneumonia through chest X-rays. Four had bilateral or multilobar involvement and their peak temperatures were all ≤ 39.5℃. None of the children had difficulty in breathing and all showed no signs of wheezing.Conclusions The second serum sample could be taken on day 9 at the earliest after symptom onset meant that paired sera could be used for the clinical diagnosis of M. pneumoniae pneumonia in children at the acute stage. M. pneumoniae is a lower respiratory tract pathogen. Extrapulmonary complications were rare and minor in our study. High peak temperature (

  11. Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection and Tourette's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Norbert; Riedel, Michael; Blendinger, Christa; Oberle, Karin; Jacobs, Enno; Abele-Horn, Marianne

    2004-12-15

    An association between infection and Tourette's syndrome (TS) has been described repeatedly. A role for streptococcal infection (PANDAS) has been established for several years, but the involvement of other infectious agents such as Borrelia Burgdorferi or Mycoplasma pneumoniae has only been described in single case reports. We examined antibody titers against M. pneumoniae and various types of antibodies by immunoblot in patients and in a sex- and age-matched comparison group. Participants comprised 29 TS patients and 29 controls. Antibody titers against M. pneumoniae were determined by microparticle agglutination (MAG) assay and confirmed by immunoblot. Elevated titers were found in significantly more TS patients than controls (17 vs. 1). Additionally, the number of IgA positive patients was significantly higher in the TS group than in the control group (9 vs. 1). A higher proportion of increased serum titers and especially of IgA antibodies suggests a role for M. pneumoniae in a subgroup of patients with TS and supports the finding of case reports implicating an acute or chronic infection with M. pneumoniae as one etiological agent for tics. An autoimmune reaction, however, has to be taken into account. In predisposed persons, infection with various agents including M. pneumoniae should be considered as at least an aggravating factor in TS. PMID:15590039

  12. Radiological diagnosis of pneumonia in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiekara, O; Korppi, M; Tanska, S; Soimakallio, S

    1996-02-01

    During 12 months in 1981-82, 201 children were hospitalized due to radiologically verified definite or probable pneumonia. In 1985, 194 chest radiographs (anteroposterior views) were re-evaluated jointly by two radiologists, and classified into three categories: alveolar, interstitial and probable pneumonia. In 127 cases definite pneumonia was diagnosed on both occasions, alveolar in 48 cases and interstitial in 79 cases. Variation between the two evaluations 3 years apart was observed in 46 (24%) of the 194 cases; the adjusted kappa (0.47) was in the modest region. Factors contributing to this variation were young age, less than 12 months, and the presence of interstitial infiltration, bronchial obstruction and low C-reactive protein. Factors associated with less marked variation were the presence of alveolar infiltration, auscultatory fine rates and elevated C-reactive protein. The microbial aetiology of infection, assessed by viral and bacterial antigen and antibody assays, showed no association with diagnostic variation. A lateral view of the chest radiograph was obtained from 158 patients; it was positive in 99 (91%) of the 109 cases with definite pneumonia. In only three cases the diagnosis was based on the lateral view alone. Our results show that the radiological diagnosis of pneumonia is difficult in children, especially in young children with interstitial pneumonia. PMID:8932509

  13. The radiological diagnosis of pneumonia in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry-Ann F O'Grady

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of paediatric pneumonia as a cause of short and long-term morbidity and mortality worldwide, a reliable gold standard for its diagnosis remains elusive. The utility of clinical, microbiological and radiological diagnostic approaches varies widely within and between populations and is heavily dependent on the expertise and resources available in various settings. Here we review the role of radiology in the diagnosis of paediatric pneumonia. Chest radiographs (CXRs are the most widely employed test, however, they are not indicated in ambulatory settings, cannot distinguish between viral and bacterial infections and have a limited role in the ongoing management of disease. A standardised definition of alveolar pneumonia on a CXR exists for epidemiological studies targeting bacterial pneumonias but it should not be extrapolated to clinical settings. Radiography, computed tomography and to a lesser extent ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging play an important role in complicated pneumonias but there are limitations that preclude their use as routine diagnostic tools. Large population-based studies are needed in different populations to address many of the knowledge gaps in the radiological diagnosis of pneumonia in children, however, the feasibility of such studies is an important barrier.

  14. Clinical analysis of ventilator-associated pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing-Qu Deng; Yong Liang

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical analysis associated pneumonia in elderly ventilator. Methods:Through January 2011 to December 2013 in our hospital 165 cases of ventilator therapy in elderly patients with clinical data were retrospectively analyzed, discussed ventilator-associated pneumonia in the elderly risk factors, clinical symptoms, and the distribution of pathogens analysis of drug resistance.Results: The patient's age, sex, APACHE score, the incidence of aspiration, sedation and antacids, ventilator time were higher in patients (P<0.05); pathogens of ventilator-associated pneumonia in the elderly by high to low order of Pseudomonas aerations, Acinetobacter sop, etc.; pathogens commonly used in clinical antimicrobial drug resistance is higher.Conclusion:Take the risk factors associated pneumonia ventilator for elderly corresponding measures to reduce the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia, which Gram-negative bacteria as cause of ventilator-associated pneumonia in the elderly is an important pathogen occurs, the clinical course of treatment should be combined with a reasonable choice of antimicrobial susceptibility testing.

  15. Acute and subacute idiopathic interstitial pneumonias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Hiroyuki; Kondoh, Yasuhiro

    2016-07-01

    Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) may have an acute or subacute presentation, or acute exacerbation may occur in a previously subclinical or unrecognized chronic IIP. Acute or subacute IIPs include acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP), cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP), nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (AE-IPF) and AE-NSIP. Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) including connective tissue disease (CTD) associated ILD, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, acute eosinophilic pneumonia, drug-induced lung disease and diffuse alveolar haemorrhage need to be differentiated from acute and subacute IIPs. Despite the severe lack of randomized controlled trials for the treatment of acute and subacute IIPs, the mainstream treatment remains corticosteroid therapy. Other potential therapies reported in the literature include corticosteroids and immunosuppression, antibiotics, anticoagulants, neutrophil elastase inhibitor, autoantibody-targeted treatment, antifibrotics and hemoperfusion therapy. With regard to mechanical ventilation, patients in recent studies with acute and subacute IIPs have shown better survival than those in previous studies. Therefore, a careful value-laden decision about the indications for endotracheal intubation should be made for each patient. Noninvasive ventilation may be beneficial to reduce ventilator associated pneumonia. PMID:27123874

  16. A new assay for invasion of HeLa 229 cells by Bordetella pertussis: effects of inhibitors, phenotypic modulation, and genetic alterations.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, C. K.; Roberts, A. L.; Finn, T M; Knapp, S; Mekalanos, J J

    1990-01-01

    Invasion and intracellular survival of Bordetella pertussis in HeLa 229 cells was studied by a new assay that utilizes polymyxin B instead of gentamicin to rapidly kill extracellular organisms. Invasion measured by this assay was time and temperature dependent and was inhibited by the microfilament drug cytochalasin D. The invasion process was also dependent on a functional vir locus (also known as bvg), the positive regulator of virulence gene expression in B. pertussis. Four spontaneous Vir...

  17. Murine antibody response to oral infection with live aroA recombinant Salmonella dublin vaccine strains expressing filamentous hemagglutinin antigen from Bordetella pertussis.

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, N C; Parker, C D

    1990-01-01

    Two plasmids which express either nearly intact or truncated filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) from Bordetella pertussis and which are marked with a tetracycline resistance (Tcr) gene were transformed into Salmonella dublin SL1438, an aroA deletion mutant intended for use as an attenuated oral vaccine against salmonellosis. These S. dublin recombinants, when fed to mice, induced serum immunoglobulin, immunoglobulin M (IgM), and sometimes IgA antibody responses to FHA and S. dublin. In addition,...

  18. [Serological evaluation of Bordetella pertussis infection in adults with prolonged cough].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sönmez, Cemile; Çöplü, Nilay; Gözalan, Ayşegül; Yılmaz, Ülkü; Bilekli, Selen; Demirci, Nilgün Yılmaz; Biber, Çiğdem; Erdoğan, Yurdanur; Esen, Berrin; Çöplü, Lütfi

    2016-07-01

    Pertussis is a vaccine-preventable disease that is transmitted from infected to susceptible individuals by respiratory route. Bordetella pertussis infection may occur at any age as neither vaccine nor natural infection induced immunity lasts life-long. This study was planned to demonstrate the serological evidence of infection among adults, to raise awareness among clinicians and to provide data for the development of strategies to protect vulnerable infants. A total of 538 patients (345 female, 193 male) ages between 18-87 years who had a complain of prolonged cough for more than two weeks were included in the study. Anti-pertussis toxin (PT) IgG and anti-filamentous hemagglutinin (FH) IgG levels from single serum samples were measured by an in-house ELISA test which was standardized and shown to be efficient previously. Anti-PT IgG antibody levels of ≥ 100 EU/ml were considered as acute/recent infection with B.pertussis. In our study, 9.7% (52/538) of the patients had high levels of anti-PT IgG (≥ 100 EU/ml) and among those patients 43 (43/52; 82.7%) also had high (≥ 100 EU/ml) anti-FHA IgG levels. There were no statistically significant differences in terms of age, gender, education level, DPT (diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus) vaccination history, smoking history or average daily cigarette consumption (p> 0.05) between the cases with high antibody levels (n= 52). When the symptoms and the presence of cases with high antibody levels were evaluated, it was detected that no one parameter was significantly different from others, except that 24.1% of the cases with inspiratory whooping had high anti-PT levels. There was also no statistically significant difference between high anti-PT levels ≥ 100 EU/ml and the patients with risk factors [smoking (21/200; 10.5%), presence of disease that cause chronic cough and/or drug usage (19/171; %11.1), and whole factors which cause chronic cough (32/306; %10.5)] and without risk factors (p= 0.581; p= 0.357; p= 0

  19. Clinical and pulmonary thin-section CT findings in acute Klebsiella Pneumoniae pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to assess the clinical and pulmonary thin-section CT findings in patients with acute Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia. We retrospectively evaluated thin-section CT examinations performed between January 1991 and December 2007 from 962 patients with acute Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia. Seven hundred and sixty-four cases with concurrent infectious diseases were excluded. Thus, our study group comprised 198 patients (118 male, 80 female; age range 18-97 years, mean age 61.5). Underlying diseases and clinical findings were assessed. Parenchymal abnormalities were evaluated along with the presence of enlarged lymph nodes and pleural effusion. CT findings in patients with acute Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia consisted mainly of ground-glass attenuation (100%), consolidation (91.4%), and intralobular reticular opacity (85.9%), which were found in the periphery (96%) of both sides of the lungs (72.2%) and were often associated with pleural effusion (53%). The underlying conditions in patients with Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia were alcoholism or smoking habit. (orig.)

  20. Pneumomediastinum and pneumothorax as presenting signs in severe Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, Jose L.; Vazquez, Ignacio; Garcia-Tejedor, Jose L. [Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Vigo, Department of Radiology, Vigo (Spain); Gonzalez, Maria L.; Reparaz, Alfredo [Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Vigo, Department of Pediatrics, Vigo (Spain)

    2007-12-15

    We present a 3-year-old child with severe extensive Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia complicated with pneumomediastinum and pneumothorax. Pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum have only exceptionally been described in mild cases of the disease. The radiological findings, differential diagnosis and clinical course are discussed. (orig.)

  1. Pneumomediastinum and pneumothorax as presenting signs in severe Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a 3-year-old child with severe extensive Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia complicated with pneumomediastinum and pneumothorax. Pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum have only exceptionally been described in mild cases of the disease. The radiological findings, differential diagnosis and clinical course are discussed. (orig.)

  2. Clinical and pulmonary thin-section CT findings in acute Klebsiella Pneumoniae pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Fumito [Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Oita (Japan); Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oita (Japan); Ando, Yumiko; Honda, Koichi; Nakayama, Tomoko; Kiyonaga, Maki; Ono, Asami; Tanoue, Shuichi; Maeda, Toru; Mori, Hiromu [Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Oita (Japan)

    2009-04-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the clinical and pulmonary thin-section CT findings in patients with acute Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia. We retrospectively evaluated thin-section CT examinations performed between January 1991 and December 2007 from 962 patients with acute Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia. Seven hundred and sixty-four cases with concurrent infectious diseases were excluded. Thus, our study group comprised 198 patients (118 male, 80 female; age range 18-97 years, mean age 61.5). Underlying diseases and clinical findings were assessed. Parenchymal abnormalities were evaluated along with the presence of enlarged lymph nodes and pleural effusion. CT findings in patients with acute Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia consisted mainly of ground-glass attenuation (100%), consolidation (91.4%), and intralobular reticular opacity (85.9%), which were found in the periphery (96%) of both sides of the lungs (72.2%) and were often associated with pleural effusion (53%). The underlying conditions in patients with Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia were alcoholism or smoking habit. (orig.)

  3. Microbial fuel cell based on Klebsiella pneumoniae biofilm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lixia [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Zhou, Shungui; Zhuang, Li; Zhang, Jintao; Lu, Na; Deng, Lifang [Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Li, Weishan [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Key Laboratory of Electrochemical Technology on Energy Storage and Power Generation in Guangdong Universities, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2008-10-15

    In this paper we reported a novel microbial fuel cell (MFC) based on Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) strain L17 biofilm, which can utilize directly starch and glucose to generate electricity. The electrochemical activity of K. pneumoniae and the performance of the MFC were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and polarization curve measurement. The results indicated that an established K. pneumoniae biofilm cells were responsible for the direct electron transfer from fuels to electrode during electricity production. The SEM observation proved the ability of K. pneumoniae to colonize on the electrode surface. This MFC generated power from the direct electrocatalysis by the K. pneumoniae strain L17 biofilm. (author)

  4. Herpes simplex type 2 pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenilson Eduardo Calore

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Extensive reviews of pulmonary infections in AIDS have reported few herpetic infections. Generally these infections are due to Herpes simplex type 1. Pneumonia due to herpes type 2 is extremely rare. We describe a 40 year-old HIV positive woman who complained of fever, cough and dyspnea for seven years. She had signs of heart failure and the appearance of her genital vesicles was highly suggestive of genital herpes. Echocardiography showed marked pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy and tricuspid insufficiency. After a few days of hospitalization she was treated with Aciclovir and later with Ganciclovir. An open pulmonary biopsy revealed an interstitial inflammation, localized in the alveolar walls. Some pulmonary arteries had widened walls and focal hyaline degeneration. Immunohistochemistry indicated that the nuclei had herpes simplex virus type 2 in many endothelial cells (including vessels with widened walls, macrophages in the alveolar septa and pneumocytes. There was clinical improvement after treatment for herpes. We concluded that as a consequence of herpes infection, endothelial involvement and interstitial inflammation supervene, with thickening of vascular walls and partial obliteration of the vessel lumen. A direct consequence of these changes in pulmonary vasculature was pulmonary hypertension followed by heart failure.

  5. 75 FR 73107 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Hospital-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia and Ventilator-Associated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... Pneumonia and Ventilator-Associated Bacterial Pneumonia: Developing Drugs for Treatment; Availability AGENCY... Pneumonia and Ventilator-Associated Bacterial Pneumonia: Developing Drugs for Treatment.'' The purpose of... antimicrobial drugs for the treatment of hospital- acquired bacterial pneumonia (HABP) and...

  6. Epidemiology and etiology of childhood pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Rudan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Childhood pneumonia is the leading single cause of mortality in children aged less than 5 years. The incidence in this age group is estimated to be 0.29 episodes per child-year in developing and 0.05 episodes per child-year in developed countries. This translates into about 156 million new episodes each year worldwide, of which 151 million episodes are in the developing world. Most cases occur in India (43 million, China (21 million and Pakistan (10 million, with additional high numbers in Bangladesh, Indonesia and Nigeria (6 million each. Of all community cases, 7-13% are severe enough to be life-threatening and require hospitalization. Substantial evidence revealed that the leading risk factors contributing to pneumonia incidence are lack of exclusive breastfeeding, undernutrition, indoor air pollution, low birth weight, crowding and lack of measles immunization. Pneumonia is responsible for about 19% of all deaths in children aged less than 5 years, of which more than 70% take place in sub-Saharan Africa and south-east Asia. Although based on limited available evidence, recent studies have identified Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and respiratory syncytial virus as the main pathogens associated with childhood pneumonia.

  7. A family outbreak of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, K; Frew, C E; Carrington, D

    1992-07-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae, a newly described Chlamydia species, has been shown to be a cause of acute respiratory tract infection in both adults and children, but its role in human infection is still under investigation. Here we present a family outbreak of C. pneumoniae infection where three members of a family presented with a 'flu-like illness' and acute upper respiratory tract infection which did not improve despite penicillin or septrin therapy. No history of exposure to birds, pets or animals was obtained. As C. pneumoniae isolation from respiratory secretions is not without difficulty, diagnosis usually relies currently on serum-based tests. In this study C. pneumoniae specific IgM determined by the micro-immunofluorescence test was detected in the three clinical cases. All three cases had an elevated complement-fixing antibody titre to Psittacosis-LGV antigen, which may have suggested psittacosis, if type-specific tests had not been performed. In addition, three other members of the family had C. pneumoniae-specific IgG antibody although specific IgM was absent. These three younger members of the family had been symptomatic in the month preceding symptoms in their older sibling and their parents. All the symptomatic members of the family made a complete recovery on tetracycline therapy. PMID:1522345

  8. Ventilator associated pneumonia in major paediatric burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Alan David; Deal, Cailin; Argent, Andrew Charles; Hudson, Donald Anthony; Rode, Heinz

    2014-09-01

    More than three-quarters of deaths related to major burns are a consequence of infection, which is frequently ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP). A retrospective study was performed, over a five-year period, of ventilated children with major burns. 92 patients were included in the study; their mean age was 3.5 years and their mean total body surface area burn was 30%. 62% of the patients sustained flame burns, and 31% scalds. The mean ICU stay was 10.6 days (range 2-61 days) and the mean ventilation time was 8.4 days (range 2-45 days). There were 59 documented episodes of pneumonia in 52 patients with a rate of 30 infections per 1000 ventilator days. Length of ventilation and the presence of inhalational injury correlate with the incidence of VAP. 17.4% of the patients died (n=16); half of these deaths may be attributed directly to pneumonia. Streptococcus pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii and Staphylococcus aureus were the most prominent aetiological organisms. Broncho-alveolar lavage was found to be more specific and sensitive at identifying the organism than other methods. This study highlights the importance of implementing strictly enforced strategies for the prevention, detection and management of pneumonia in the presence of major burns. PMID:24468505

  9. Lymphatic fluctuation in the parenchymal remodeling stage of acute interstitial pneumonia, organizing pneumonia, nonspecific interstitial pneumonia and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Parra

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Because the superficial lymphatics in the lungs are distributed in the subpleural, interlobular and peribroncovascular interstitium, lymphatic impairment may occur in the lungs of patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs and increase their severity. We investigated the distribution of lymphatics in different remodeling stages of IIPs by immunohistochemistry using the D2-40 antibody. Pulmonary tissue was obtained from 69 patients with acute interstitial pneumonia/diffuse alveolar damage (AIP/DAD, N = 24, cryptogenic organizing pneumonia/organizing pneumonia (COP/OP, N = 6, nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP/NSIP, N = 20, and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis/usual interstitial pneumonia (IPF/UIP, N = 19. D2-40+ lymphatic in the lesions was quantitatively determined and associated with remodeling stage score. We observed an increase in the D2-40+ percent from DAD (6.66 ± 1.11 to UIP (23.45 ± 5.24, P = 0.008 with the advanced process of remodeling stage of the lesions. Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed a better survival for patients with higher lymphatic D2-40+ expression than 9.3%. Lymphatic impairment occurs in the lungs of IIPs and its severity increases according to remodeling stage. The results suggest that disruption of the superficial lymphatics may impair alveolar clearance, delay organ repair and cause severe disease progress mainly in patients with AIP/DAD. Therefore, lymphatic distribution may serve as a surrogate marker for the identification of patients at greatest risk for death due to IIPs.

  10. Serotype distribution in non-bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, Thomas; Skovgaard, Marlene; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl;

    2013-01-01

    There is limited knowledge of serotypes that cause non-bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia (NBP). Here we report serotypes, their associated disease potential and coverage of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) in adults with NBP and compare these to bacteremic pneumonia (BP)....

  11. Lung Ultrasound May Be Best to Spot Pneumonia in Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Lung Ultrasound May Be Best to Spot Pneumonia in Kids: Study Avoided radiation exposure of standard ... effective, alternative to chest X-rays for diagnosing pneumonia in children, researchers report. "Ultrasound is portable, cost- ...

  12. Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia: CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the usefulness of computerized tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. Material and Methods: A double helical CT was performed in 6 patients referred to our center because of a chest X-ray with pulmonary infiltrates. Clinical presentation was cough, fever and eosinophilia in peripheral blood. Patients' age ranged from 25 to 55 years; 4 were women and 2 were men, one of the latter had a history of bronchial asthma. All patients received treatment with corticosteroids, with remission of the clinical and radiological parameters. Three patients underwent a control CT. Results: Findings consisted in focal parenchymal alterations, with areas of pulmonary consolidation and areas of 'ground glass' appearance; both patterns coexisted in certain areas. In 3 cases the lesions extended from the apices to the pulmonary bases, with predominance of the upper and middle fields. In 1 patient, there was frank predominance in the left hemi thorax. In another patient, who had a history of asthma, there were signs of pulmonary hyperinflation, with diffuse thickening of the bronchial walls, added to the previously mentioned findings, which involved the entire lung. In the mediastinum, 1 patient had lymph nodes larger than 1 cm, 3 had lymph nodes that were not enlarged but were more numerous than usual, and in the remaining patients no lymph nodes were found. The control CT's showed almost total resolution of the pulmonary infiltrates. Conclusion: The combination of eosinophilia and characteristic pulmonary infiltrates with a likely clinical presentation, associated with an optimal response to treatment with corticosteroids allows to make a reliable diagnosis and avoids the need for a pulmonary biopsy. (author)

  13. Analyze of Ventilator Associated Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysel Sunnetcioglu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP is the infection that is an important cause of morbidity and mortality developed in patients whom the invasive mechanical ventilation (MV were performed in intensive care units (ICU. In this study, the factors of VAP developing in patients whom the mechanical ventilation of ICU performed, antibiotic susceptibility to these factors and determining the risk factors were aimed. Material and Method: Between January 2009 and March 2013, 79 cases, followed with the mechanical ventilation for at least for 48 hours and developed VAP, were retrospectively reviewed at Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Unit of Reanimation at Faculty of Medicine at Yuzuncu Yil University, performing endotracheal intubation. The cases were evaluated in terms of microorganisms, antibiotic susceptibility and risk factors. Results: The rate of our VAP speed was calculated to be 19.68 on the day of 1000 ventilator. While a single microorganism could be isolated in 81.1% of the 74 VAP cases whose the active pathogen could be isolated, two or more than two microorganisms were isolated in 18.9% of them.While 83 of the strains (90.2% were gram-negative bacteria, 7 of them (7.6% were gram-positive bacteria. Acinetobacter spp. (40.2% was most commonly isolated as a gram-negative factor, but methicillin-resistant S. aureus (4.3% was isolated as a gram-positive factor. It was determined that the isolated factors in VAP cases were significantly resistant to the broad-spectrum antibiotics. Discussion: As a result, in patients with high-risk factors for the development of VAP, early and appropriate empirical antibiotic treatment should be started according to the results of the sensitivity of the unit and for the multi-drug-resistant microorganisms with common and high mortality.

  14. Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Streptococcus pneumoniae caused different microbial structure and correlation network in lung microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heping; Dai, Wenkui; Qiu, Chuangzhao; Li, Shuaicheng; Wang, Wenjian; Xu, Jianqiang; Li, Zhichuan; Wang, Hongmei; Li, Yuzheng; Yang, Zhenyu; Feng, Xin; Zhou, Qian; Han, Lijuan; Li, Yinhu; Zheng, Yuejie

    2016-06-01

    Pneumonia is one of the most serious diseases for children, with which lung microbiota are proved to be associated. We performed 16S rDNA analysis on broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) for 32 children with tracheomalacia (C group), pneumonia infected with Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) (D1 group) or Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) (D2 group). Children with tracheomalacia held lower microbial diversity and accumulated Lactococcus (mean ± SD, 45.21%±5.07%, P value Mycoplasma (0.67%±1.25%, P value <0.01) respectively. Bacterial correlation in C group was mainly intermediated by Pseudomonas and Arthrobacter. Whilst, D1 group harbored simplest microbial correlation in three groups, and D2 group held the most complicated network, involving enriched Staphylococcus (0.26%±0.71%), Massilia (0.81%±2.42%). This will be of significance for understanding pneumonia incidence and progression more comprehensively, and discerning between bacterial infection and carriage. PMID:27293852

  15. No Carbapenem Resistance in Pneumonia Caused by Klebsiella Species

    OpenAIRE

    Yayan, Josef; Ghebremedhin, Beniam; Rasche, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Klebsiella species are a common cause of community- and nosocomial-acquired pneumonia. Antibiotic resistance to the class of carbapenem in patients with pneumonia caused by Klebsiella species is unusual. New studies report carbapenem resistance in patients with pneumonia caused by Klebsiella species. This article examines, retrospectively, antibiotic resistance in patients with community- and nosocomial-acquired pneumonia caused by Klebsiella species. The data of all patients with co...

  16. Endogenous lipoid pneumonia associated with Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Chee-Kin

    2013-03-01

    Endogenous lipoid pneumonia is an uncommon condition. This is a report of a 29-year-old woman diagnosed with endogenous lipoid pneumonia associated with Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 infection. The patient's endogenous lipoid pneumonia resolved completely after treatment for Legionella pneumophila infection. This suggests that early diagnosis and aggressive treatment of the underlying infection may prevent any long-term sequelae of lipoid pneumonia. PMID:23546039

  17. Mutation in the β-hairpin of the Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin modulates N-lobe conformation in calmodulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, Tzvia I.; Goebel, Erich; Hariraju, Dinesh [Department of Microbiology, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056 (United States); Finley, Natosha L., E-mail: finleynl@miamioh.edu [Department of Microbiology, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056 (United States); Cell, Molecular, and Structural Biology Program, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056 (United States)

    2014-10-10

    Highlights: • Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin modulates bi-lobal structure of CaM. • The structure and stability of the complex rely on intermolecular associations. • A novel mode of CaM-dependent activation of the adenylate cyclase toxin is proposed. - Abstract: Bordetella pertussis, causative agent of whooping cough, produces an adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) that is an important virulence factor. In the host cell, the adenylate cyclase domain of CyaA (CyaA-ACD) is activated upon association with calmodulin (CaM), an EF-hand protein comprised of N- and C-lobes (N-CaM and C-CaM, respectively) connected by a flexible tether. Maximal CyaA-ACD activation is achieved through its binding to both lobes of intact CaM, but the structural mechanisms remain unclear. No high-resolution structure of the intact CaM/CyaA-ACD complex is available, but crystal structures of isolated C-CaM bound to CyaA-ACD shed light on the molecular mechanism by which this lobe activates the toxin. Previous studies using molecular modeling, biochemical, and biophysical experiments demonstrate that CyaA-ACD’s β-hairpin participates in site-specific interactions with N-CaM. In this study, we utilize nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to probe the molecular association between intact CaM and CyaA-ACD. Our results indicate binding of CyaA-ACD to CaM induces large conformational perturbations mapping to C-CaM, while substantially smaller structural changes are localized primarily to helices I, II, and IV, and the metal-binding sites in N-CaM. Site-specific mutations in CyaA-ACD’s β-hairpin structurally modulate N-CaM, resulting in conformational perturbations in metal binding sites I and II, while no significant structural modifications are observed in C-CaM. Moreover, dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis reveals that mutation of the β-hairpin results in a decreased hydrodynamic radius (R{sub h}) and reduced thermal stability in the mutant complex. Taken

  18. [Lipoid pneumonia: presentation of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Cordovés, M M; Mirpuri-Mirpuri, P G; Rocha-Cabrera, P; Pérez-Monje, A

    2013-03-01

    We report a case of lipoid pneumonia treated in our Health Centre. It is a disease that occurs rarely, but is important in Primary Care. This condition has been known since 1925, when it was first described by Laughlen, who described a case of lipoid pneumonia secondary to an injection of oil in the nasopharyngeal area. Today it is a rarity, and it is most frequently associated with the use of oil-based nasal drops (which are now decreasing in use). Its aetiology may be endogenous or exogenous. Although the pathological diagnosis is generally the most important, sometimes a lesion in the chest X-ray can lead us to suspect it due to the patient's history. This was a case of acute lipoid pneumonia in a young patient, who periodically performed as a "fire eater". PMID:23452539

  19. Mycoplasma pneumoniae meningoencephalitis:a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehmet Selçuk Bektaş; Fesih Aktar; Mehmet Açıkgöz; Ertan Sal; HüseyinÇaksen

    2013-01-01

    Nervous system is the most affected area inmycoplasma pneumoniaeinfections with exception of respiratory system.It is an important agent of childhood acute encephalitis and respiratory system infections in school-age children and young adults.Routine clinical and laboratory findings to identify spesific diagnosis is limited.Twelve-year-old female patient was admitted with fever, fatigue, sore throat, slipping the right eye, withdrawal of the mouth from the right and right hemiclonic seizures.Test of anti-Mycoplasma pneumoniae(M. pneumoniae)IgM was positive andIgG antibodies were found to be4-fold increase in the sera of follow-up.This article was presented with the aim of rememberingM. pneumoniae to be an differential diagnosis in children with acute encephalitis.

  20. Radiographic findings of mycoplasma pneumonia in adult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mycoplasma pneumonia has known to be a not uncommon disease. However, the differential diagnosis of mycoplasm pneumonia with other viral pneumonia is difficult because of its variable clinical symptoms and atypical radiologic findings. A retrospective review was made of plain chest radiologic findings and clinical manifestations of 33 patients, who were admitted at Yonsei University Hospital from January, 1985 to February, 1990. The most prevalent age was 4th decade (33%) and main symptoms were cough (24/33), fever (2/33) and sputum (20/22). The most frequent season was winter (50%). The radiologic patterns were predominently interstitial (15/33), combined (13/33) and predominently alveolar (5/33) lesion. In alveolar infiltration cases (n 18), unilateral single lobe involvement was the most common (17/18) and left lower lobe (8/18) was predominently involved. Associated radiologic findings were hilar lymphadenopathy (4/33), pleural effusion (4/33) and cardiomegaly (7/33)

  1. Complement resistance mechanisms of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorduijn, Dennis J; Rooijakkers, Suzan H M; van Schaik, Willem; Bardoel, Bart W

    2016-10-01

    The current emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria causes major problems in hospitals worldwide. To survive within the host, bacterial pathogens exploit several escape mechanisms to prevent detection and killing by the immune system. As a major player in immune defense, the complement system recognizes and destroys bacteria via different effector mechanisms. The complement system can label bacteria for phagocytosis or directly kill Gram-negative bacteria via insertion of a pore-forming complex in the bacterial membrane. The multi-drug resistant pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae exploits several mechanisms to resist complement. In this review, we present an overview of strategies used by K. pneumoniae to prevent recognition and killing by the complement system. Understanding these complement evasion strategies is crucial for the development of innovative strategies to combat K. pneumoniae. PMID:27364766

  2. Mapping the Evolution of Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Struve, Carsten; Roe, Chandler C; Stegger, Marc;

    2015-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Highly invasive, community-acquired Klebsiella pneumoniae infections have recently emerged, resulting in pyogenic liver abscesses. These infections are caused by hypervirulent K. pneumoniae (hvKP) isolates primarily of capsule serotype K1 or K2. Hypervirulent K1 isolates belong......KP isolates belonged to CC23 and grouped into a distinct monophyletic clade, revealing that CC23 is a unique clonal lineage, clearly distinct from nonhypervirulent strains. Separate phylogenetic analyses of the CC23 isolates indicated that the CC23 lineage evolved recently by clonal expansion from a single...... of this important clonal lineage. IMPORTANCE: During the last 3 decades, hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae (hvKP) isolates have emerged, causing severe community-acquired infections primarily in the form of pyogenic liver abscesses. This syndrome has so far primarily been found in Southeast Asia, but increasing...

  3. HRCT appearance of localized organizing pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyze the CT, especially HRCT appearance of localized organizing pneumonia. Methods: The CT scans of nine patients with histologically proved localized organizing pneumonia were studied retrospectively. Results: The size of the lesions in nine cases varied from 2 to 4 cm (average 2.5 cm). Eight lesions were located in the peripheral lung parenchyma near the pleural surface. The lesions were detected as round in four, anomaly in five. The margin of six lesions had inward bow indentation. Infiltrating lesions in surrounding structures were found in four cases. Conclusion: The CT, especially HRCT appearance of localized organizing pneumonia shows some features that can make most of them to be differentiated from other lesions

  4. Pneumonia identification using statistical feature selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Fei; Vanderwende, Lucy; Wurfel, Mark M; Yetisgen-Yildiz, Meliha

    2012-01-01

    Objective This paper describes a natural language processing system for the task of pneumonia identification. Based on the information extracted from the narrative reports associated with a patient, the task is to identify whether or not the patient is positive for pneumonia. Design A binary classifier was employed to identify pneumonia from a dataset of multiple types of clinical notes created for 426 patients during their stay in the intensive care unit. For this purpose, three types of features were considered: (1) word n-grams, (2) Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) concepts, and (3) assertion values associated with pneumonia expressions. System performance was greatly increased by a feature selection approach which uses statistical significance testing to rank features based on their association with the two categories of pneumonia identification. Results Besides testing our system on the entire cohort of 426 patients (unrestricted dataset), we also used a smaller subset of 236 patients (restricted dataset). The performance of the system was compared with the results of a baseline previously proposed for these two datasets. The best results achieved by the system (85.71 and 81.67 F1-measure) are significantly better than the baseline results (50.70 and 49.10 F1-measure) on the restricted and unrestricted datasets, respectively. Conclusion Using a statistical feature selection approach that allows the feature extractor to consider only the most informative features from the feature space significantly improves the performance over a baseline that uses all the features from the same feature space. Extracting the assertion value for pneumonia expressions further improves the system performance. PMID:22539080

  5. Epidemiology and Virulence of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Steven; Murphy, Caitlin N

    2016-02-01

    Strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae are frequently opportunistic pathogens implicated in urinary tract and catheter-associated urinary-tract infections of hospitalized patients and compromised individuals. Infections are particularly difficult to treat since most clinical isolates exhibit resistance to several antibiotics leading to treatment failure and the possibility of systemic dissemination. Infections of medical devices such as urinary catheters is a major site of K. pneumoniae infections and has been suggested to involve the formation of biofilms on these surfaces. Over the last decade there has been an increase in research activity designed to investigate the pathogenesis of K. pneumoniae in the urinary tract. These investigations have begun to define the bacterial factors that contribute to growth and biofilm formation. Several virulence factors have been demonstrated to mediate K. pneumoniae infectivity and include, but are most likely not limited to, adherence factors, capsule production, lipopolysaccharide presence, and siderophore activity. The development of both in vitro and in vivo models of infection will lead to further elucidation of the molecular pathogenesis of K. pneumoniae. As for most opportunistic infections, the role of host factors as well as bacterial traits are crucial in determining the outcome of infections. In addition, multidrug-resistant strains of these bacteria have become a serious problem in the treatment of Klebsiella infections and novel strategies to prevent and inhibit bacterial growth need to be developed. Overall, the frequency, significance, and morbidity associated with K. pneumoniae urinary tract infections have increased over many years. The emergence of these bacteria as sources of antibiotic resistance and pathogens of the urinary tract present a challenging problem for the clinician in terms of management and treatment of individuals. PMID:26999397

  6. Research of Klebsiella pneumoniae in dairy herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Langoni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Klebsiella pneumoniae is a common environmental agent of clinical and subclinical mastitis affecting dairy herds, and may be present in the final product decreasing its quality. Mastitis caused by K. pneumoniae is even more severe due to its poor response to antibiotic therapy, rapid evolution to toxic shock and death of the animal. This paper aimed to study the prevalence of this pathogen among dairy herds in ten farms located in different municipalities of São Paulo State based on size and use of milking technology. All mammary glands of all lactating cows were screened using the California Mastitis Test (CMT and a strip cup. A single aseptic milk sample (20mL was collected from all CMT-positive quarters and bulk tanks, whereas swab samples were collected from feces, hind limbs of the animals, bedding and milking parlor. Identification of K. pneumoniae was performed using conventional microbiology culture, biochemical assay and Polimerase Chain Reaction. The primers were designed and tested at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology applied to Zoonoses (FMVZ, Unesp-Botucatu targeting the 16S rRNA gene. This study included 1067 animals. Six cases of intramammary infection by K. pneumoniae were detected in six different cows in two farms. Moreover, K. pneumoniae was isolated in 77 swabs (34 from bedding in 9 farms, 7 from waiting rooms in 5 farms, 6 from milking parlors in 4 farms, 11 from rectums in six farms, and 19 from hindlimbs in 7 farms. Molecular analysis confirmed the agent was K. pneumoniae. At least one strain of the agent was identified in a certain site in all farms, showing the need of maintaining the hygiene in dairy farms.

  7. Acute solitary localized pneumonia: CT diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate CT in the differential diagnosis of solitary localized pneumonia. Method: Only plain CT without contrast study was done because of different types of CT scanners weed. There were 25 cases with localized pneumonia with initial diagnosis as suspected peripheral bronchogenic carcinoma. All patients were over forty years of age, 84% 50-80 years, 13(52%) patients were asymptomatic, 5(20%) patients had bloody sputum. Results: The CT features were divided into three patterns: (1) irregular nodule with relatively well-defined margin, ground-glass opacity and a few punctuate high densities. (2) irregular nodule with sharply circumscribed, spiculate border and homogeneous density. (3) regular nodule with relatively well-defined margin, and homogeneous density. The third type was most frequent (60%) with predilection for the dorsal segments of the lower lobes, or the posterior basal segments. Of the 25 patients 3 had operation, the remaining cases were treated as pneumonia, the lesions were resolved in 18(82%) patients in 2-3 weeks. Conclusions: Sometimes it is very difficult to differentiate localized pneumonia from peripheral lung cancer on the basis of clinical presentation and imaging. The spiculate margins of irregular nodule shown on CT could be indeterminate on chest radiography, and as a result chest radiograph is helpful in differential diagnosis of localized pneumonia. Change in size of the lesion as observed at the same cross-section scan, smaller at mediastinal window than at lung window is in favor of localized pneumonia, however, with the exception of alveolar carcinoma, treatment with antibiotic therapy for a period of 2-3 weeks, helps differentiate these diseases

  8. Cryptogenic organising pneumonia presenting with bilateral hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Kahraman, Hasan; Tokur, Mahmut; Hamide SAYAR; Inci, Mehmet Fatih

    2013-01-01

    Cryptogenic organising pneumonia is not considered in the differential diagnosis of bilateral hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. We submitted a patient presenting with bilateral hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. We suspected diagnosis of sarcoidosis, but the patient was diagnosed as cryptogenic organising pneumonia with the histological result. This is the second case report of cryptogenic organising pneumonia presenting with bilateral hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy.

  9. Pneumatocele formation in a patient with Proteus mirabilis pneumonia.

    OpenAIRE

    Lysy, J.; Werczberger, A.; Globus, M.; CHOWERS, I.

    1985-01-01

    A rare case of pulmonary pneumatoceles complicating the course of Proteus pneumonia in an adult is described. The pneumatoceles which appeared early in the course of the pneumonia resolved completely without complications. A brief review of the literature regarding formation of cavities in Proteus pneumonia is given.

  10. Laryngeal Scleroma Associated with Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae

    OpenAIRE

    De Champs, C; Vellin, J. F.; Diancourt, L.; Brisse, S.; Kemeny, J L; Gilain, L.; Mom, T.

    2005-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae was isolated from the pharynx of a woman with laryngeal scleroma. K. pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae is rarely isolated from clinical infections and has never been reported in laryngeal scleroma, which is usually caused by K. pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis.

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolate PR04

    OpenAIRE

    Zulkifli, M. H.; L. K. Teh; L. S. Lee; Z. A. Zakaria; Salleh, M. Z.

    2013-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae PR04 was isolated from a patient hospitalized in Malaysia. The draft genome sequence of K. pneumoniae PR04 shows differences compared to the reference sequences of K. pneumoniae strains MGH 78578 and NTUH-K2044 in terms of their genomic structures.

  12. Genome Sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae Respiratory Isolate IA565

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Jeremiah G.; Spurbeck, Rachel R.; Sandhu, Sukhinder K.; Matson, Jyl S

    2014-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a clinically significant opportunistic bacterial pathogen as well as a normal member of the human microbiota. K. pneumoniae strain IA565 was isolated from a tracheal aspirate at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics. Here, we present the genome sequence of K. pneumoniae IA565.

  13. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: progress in classification, diagnosis, pathogenesis and management.

    OpenAIRE

    King, Talmadge E.

    2004-01-01

    The idiopathic interstitial pneumonias are a heterogeneous group of poorly understood diseases with often devastating consequences for those afflicted. Subclassification of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonia based on clinical-radiological-pathological criteria has highlighted important pathogenic, therapeutic and prognostic implications. The most critical distinction is the presence of usual interstitial pneumonia, the histopathological pattern seen in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Idiopa...

  14. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in an immunocompetent host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Koshy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP is a potentially life-threatening infection, which predominantly occurs in the immuno-compromised host. It has been rarely reported in immunocompetent subjects. In them, the infection presents with fulminant respiratory failure along with fever and dry cough in contrast to an indolent course in the immuno-compromised population. The most significant risk factors for PCP in non-HIV infected hosts are glucocorticoid use and cell mediated immunity defects. We report a rare case of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in an immunocompetent patient.

  15. latrogenic lipoid pneumonia in an adult horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Lucy; Cummins, Carolyn; Maischberger, Eva; Katz, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    A 20-year-old gelding presented with a history of acute respiratory distress which began immediately after administration of a mineral oil and water mix, via nasogastric intubation, for treatment of suspected gastrointestinal dysfunction. An initial presumptive diagnosis of acute lipoid pneumonia was made; this was further supported by evidence of arterial hypoxaemia and oxygen desaturation on arterial blood gas analysis, ultrasonographic signs of bilateral ventral lung consolidation and a mixed bronchoalveolar-interstitial lung pattern seen on thoracic radiographs. Despite intensive supportive therapy the horse's condition continued to deteriorate and the decision was made for humane euthanasia. Gross necropsy findings supported the clinical diagnosis of lipoid pneumonia. PMID:21851746

  16. Idiopathic lipoid pneumonia successfully treated with prednisolone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lococo, Filippo; Cesario, Alfredo; Porziella, Venanzio; Mulè, Antonino; Petrone, Gianluigi; Margaritora, Stefano; Granone, Pierluigi

    2012-01-01

    Lipoid pneumonia (LP) is a rare type of pneumonia that is radiologically characterized by lung infiltrates, although imaging alone may not be diagnostic. We describe an unusual 61-year-old patient with idiopathic LP presenting as a solitary pulmonary nodule mimicking lung cancer because of its rapid growth. After treatment with oral prednisone, a control chest radiogram indicated complete normalization of the radiologic features. This case shows that LP should be considered in the diagnostic assessment of any undefined pulmonary mass, after malignancy has been pathologically excluded. PMID:21419490

  17. Latrogenic lipoid pneumonia in an adult horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metcalfe Lucy

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A 20-year-old gelding presented with a history of acute respiratory distress which began immediately after administration of a mineral oil and water mix, via nasogastric intubation, for treatment of suspected gastrointestinal dysfunction. An initial presumptive diagnosis of acute lipoid pneumonia was made; this was further supported by evidence of arterial hypoxaemia and oxygen desaturation on arterial blood gas analysis, ultrasonographic signs of bilateral ventral lung consolidation and a mixed bronchoalveolar-interstitial lung pattern seen on thoracic radiographs. Despite intensive supportive therapy the horse's condition continued to deteriorate and the decision was made for humane euthanasia. Gross necropsy findings supported the clinical diagnosis of lipoid pneumonia.

  18. Carcinoma of the lung complicating lipoid pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felson, B.; Ralaisomay, G.

    1983-11-01

    The authors have encountered four cases of oil aspiration pneumonia complicated by carcinoma. Each had a clear-cut history of chronic intake of an oily substance, radiographic changes, and histologically documented oil aspiration pneumonia. Lung cancer later appeared in the involved area. A small number of similar cases also have been reported. The implication is that oil aspiration pneumonitis may induce bronchogenic carcinoma, particularly either the alveolar cell or the squamous cell variety. The radiographic diagnosis of the malignant transformation is difficult, and consequently the prognosis is poor.

  19. Carcinoma of the lung complicating lipoid pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have encountered four cases of oil aspiration pneumonia complicated by carcinoma. Each had a clear-cut history of chronic intake of an oily substance, radiographic changes, and histologically documented oil aspiration pneumonia. Lung cancer later appeared in the involved area. A small number of similar cases also have been reported. The implication is that oil aspiration pneumonitis may induce bronchogenic carcinoma, particularly either the alveolar cell or the squamous cell variety. The radiographic diagnosis of the malignant transformation is difficult, and consequently the prognosis is poor

  20. Perbedaan Rata-Rata Skor Periodontal Pasien Pneumonia dan Tidak Menderita Pneumonia Di Tiga Rumah Sakit Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Naibaho, Handini

    2013-01-01

    Pneumonia merupakan peradangan yang mengenai parenkim paru yang dapat terjadi akibat aspirasi bahan-bahan yang terdapat di nasofaring dan orofaring. Gigi dan jaringan periodontal dapat berperan sebagai tempat bermulanya infeksi pernafasan. Bakteri anaerob penyebab pneumonia banyak ditemukan pada plak dental, khususnya pada pasien dengan penyakit periodontal. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui rata-rata skor periodontal pasien pneumonia dan tidak menderita pneumonia dan untuk menget...

  1. [Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae are associated to inflammation and rupture of the atherosclerotic coronary plaques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramires, José Antonio F; Higuchi, Maria de Lourdes

    2002-01-01

    In this review we report recent findings of our lab showing that Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae are present in higher amount, associated with adventitial inflammation and positive vessel remodeling, in thrombosed coronary artery segments (CAS) of patients who died due to acute myocardial infarction. CD8T cell was the predominant lymphocytes in the plaque and CD24(B) cell in the adventitia. The mean numbers of lymphocytes were significantly higher in adventitia than in the plaque. Vulnerable plaques were usually associated with focal positive vessel remodeling and large lipidic atheromas. Mycoplasma is the only bacterium that needs cholesterol for proliferation. We hypothesized that the association of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae increases virulence of both bacteria, inducing inflammation and rupture of the plaque. The search of CMV and Helicobacter pylori resulted negative. PMID:15626350

  2. CT features of legionella pneumonia, compared with streptococcal pneumonia. A collaborative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legionella pneumophila pneumonia (LPP) is of serious concern for chest physicians for its potential lethality and difficulty of diagnosis. In spite of widespread use of urine antigen detection method, it remains one of the most difficult-to-treat disease among community acquired pneumonia. We investigated CT images of 38 cases of LPP, comparing them with wide spread Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia (SPP). We find that sharply demarcated consolidation scattered in ground-glass opacity is the most striking and pathognomonic feature of LPP, which is rarely found in SPP. Bronchiolitis was not found in LPP, while it is a relatively common finding in SPP, which could be the second clue of differentiation of these two diseases. (author)

  3. Investigations into the emergence of pertactin-deficient Bordetella pertussis isolates in six European countries, 1996 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeddeman, A; van Gent, M; Heuvelman, C J; van der Heide, H G; Bart, M J; Advani, A; Hallander, H O; Wirsing von Konig, C H; Riffelman, M; Storsaeter, J; Vestrheim, D F; Dalby, T; Krogfelt, K A; Fry, N K; Barkoff, A M; Mertsola, J; He, Q; Mooi, F

    2014-01-01

    Pathogen adaptation has been proposed to contribute to the resurgence of pertussis. A striking recent example is the emergence of isolates deficient in the vaccine component pertactin (Prn). This study explores the emergence of such Prn-deficient isolates in six European countries. During 2007 to 2009, 0/83 isolates from the Netherlands, 0/18 from the United Kingdom, 0/17 Finland, 0/23 Denmark, 4/99 Sweden and 5/20 from Norway of the isolates collected were Prn-deficient. In the Netherlands and Sweden, respectively 4/146 and 1/8 were observed in a later period (2010–12). The Prn-deficient isolates were genetically diverse and different mutations were found to inactivate the prn gene. These are indications that Prn-deficiency is subject to positive selective pressure. We hypothesise that the switch from whole cell to acellular pertussis vaccines has affected the balance between ‘costs and benefits’ of Prn production by Bordetella pertussis to the extent that isolates that do not produce Prn are able to expand. The absence of Prn-deficient isolates in some countries may point to ways to prevent or delay the spread of Prn-deficient strains. In order to substantiate this hypothesis, trends in the European B. pertussis population should be monitored continuously. PMID:25166348

  4. Plasmacytoid dendritic cell-derived IFNα modulates Th17 differentiation during early Bordetella pertussis infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, V; Smith, A A; You, H; Nguyen, T A; Ferguson, R; Taylor, M; Park, J E; Llontop, P; Youngman, K R; Abramson, T

    2016-05-01

    Whooping cough is a highly contagious respiratory disease caused by Bordetella pertussis (B. pertussis). T helper 17 (Th17) cells have a central role in the resolution of the infection. Emerging studies document that type I interferons (IFNs) suppress Th17 differentiation and interleukin (IL)-17 responses in models of infection and chronic inflammation. As plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are a major source of type I IFNs, we hypothesize that during B. pertussis infection in mice, pDC-derived IFNα inhibits a rapid increase in Th17 cells. We found that IFNα-secreting pDCs appear in the lungs during the early stages of infection, while a robust rise of Th17 cells in the lungs is detected at 15 days post-infection or later. The presence of IFNα led to reduced Th17 differentiation and proliferation in vitro. Furthermore, in vivo blocking of IFNα produced by pDCs during infection with B. pertussis infection resulted in early increase of Th17 frequency, inflammation, and reduced bacterial loads in the airways of infected mice. Taken together, the experiments reported here describe an inhibitory role for pDCs and pDC-derived IFNα in modulating Th17 responses during the early stages of B. pertussis infection, which may explain the prolonged nature of whooping cough. PMID:26462419

  5. H1N1 influenza pneumonia and bacterial coinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calbo, Esther; Robles, Alejandro; Sangil, Anna; Benet, Susana; Viladot, Maria Eugenia; Pascual, Vanesa; Barreiro, Bienvenido

    2011-12-01

    The model described by Bewick et al seems to be able to distinguish between H1N1 influenza-related pneumonia and non-H1N1 community acquired pneumonia (CAP) based on five criteria. However, bacterial infection in the influenza group has not been accurately excluded. Therefore, this model could misidentify these patients and lead to an inappropriate treatment. We conducted a prospective observational study to compare mixed pneumonia vs viral pneumonia. In the mixed pneumonia group patients were older, had higher levels of procalcitonine and higher scores of severity. In our cohort the model proposed by Bewick et al would not identify patients with coinfection. PMID:21994246

  6. [Community acquired pneumonia in children: an update for outpatients management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Noémie; Gehri, Mario; Gervaix, Alain; Guinan, Stéphane; Barazzone-Argiroffo, Constance

    2016-02-17

    Pneumonia should be considered in febrile children with tachypnea and/or chest recession. Virus are the most common cause of pneumonia in children under 5 years old. Streptococcus pneumonia can be found at any age. Mycoplasma pneumonia is more frequent in older children. Systematic chest radiograph is not necessary but must be obtained in patients with hypoventilation and in those with failed initial antibiotic therapy. Mycoplasma pneumonia should be tested according to patient age and response to initial antibiotic. First line antibiotherapy is amoxicilline. Antibiotic treatment is frequently not necessary in children under 5 but should be considered depending on clinical presentation and C reactive protein value. PMID:27039458

  7. Is inhaled colistin beneficial in ventilator associated pneumonia or nosocomial pneumonia caused by Acinetobacter baumannii?

    OpenAIRE

    Demirdal, Tuna; Sari, Ummu Sena; Nemli, Salih Atakan

    2016-01-01

    Background In the present study, our objective was to evaluate and compare the clinical and microbiological results in patients receiving systemic and systemic plus inhaled colistin therapy due to nosocomial pneumonia (NP) or ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by Acinetobacter baumannii. Methods A retrospective matched case–control study was performed at the ICUs at Izmir Katip Celebi University Ataturk Training and Research Hospital from January 2013 to December 2014. Eighty patien...

  8. PCR detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae in pneumonia patients

    OpenAIRE

    Abdeldaim, Guma M. K.

    2009-01-01

    PCR is a rapid, reproducible method for nucleic acid detection. However, this technology displays significant deficiencies when applied in clinical microbiology. This work’s aim was to improve current diagnostics and provide sensitive and quantitative real-time PCRs. Paper I describes the development of a sensitive and specific quantitative real-time PCR for the detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae, based on the Spn9802 DNA fragment. Applied to nasopharyngeal aspirates from 166 pneumonia pat...

  9. Clinical practice guidelines for hospital-acquired pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman Rotstein; Gerald Evans; Abraham Born; Ronald Grossman; R Bruce Light; Sheldon Magder; Barrie McTaggart; Karl Weiss; Zhanel, George G

    2008-01-01

    Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) are important causes of morbidity and mortality, with mortality rates approaching 62%. HAP and VAP are the second most common cause of nosocomial infection overall, but are the most common cause documented in the intensive care unit setting. In addition, HAP and VAP produce the highest mortality associated with nosocomial infection. As a result, evidence-based guidelines were prepared detailing the epidemiology, micro...

  10. Monoclonal antibody against Klebsiella capsular polysaccharide reduces severity and hematogenic spread of experimental Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia.

    OpenAIRE

    Held, T K; Trautmann, M.; Mielke, M E; Neudeck, H; Cryz, S J; Cross, A S

    1992-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important nosocomial pathogen causing severe pulmonary infections. The majority of clinical Klebsiella isolates produce a high-molecular-weight capsular polysaccharide (CPS) which is one of the dominant virulence factors. In the present study, we examined the potency of a murine immunoglobulin M monoclonal antibody (MAb) with specificity to Klebsiella type 2 CPS to protect rats against experimental Klebsiella pneumonia. The MAb did not prevent the invasion of virul...

  11. MULTILOCI SEQUESTERANT STRAINS OF STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE ISOLATED FROM ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH COMMUNITY ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Martynova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Comuunity-acquired pneumonias in aged patients is the significant epidemiology problem for the public health of almost all the countries. Even more important the problem of microbiological monitoring and epidemiology surveillance for the S. pneumoniae strains as one of the ubiquitous pathogens causing as the community-acquired pneumonias as well the other infections of respiratory tract, what defines their different epidemiological meaning.Multilocus sequence typing is the perspective method of molecular epidemiological surveillance allowing to define the epidemiologically dangerous clones of the ubiquitous microorganisms as Streptococcus pneumomiae. The aim of our research was to conduct the multilocus sequence typing of pneumococci strains isolated in patients with community acquired pneumonias, bronchitis in aged patients.Materials and methods. There were taken 14 strains of S. pneumoniae, isolated in patients with community-acquired pneumonias (seven of them were multiresistant, eight strains were isolated from patients with the chronical onstructive lung diseases and four strains from carriers. Multilocus sequence typing was conduected according to method to M.C. Enright and B.G. Spratt (1998.Results. The strains, isolated in all populations were the related isolates of the species S. pneumoniae, the most of them had the unique genotype defining the sequence type for every strain. There were 6 strains of Taiwan 19F-14 genotype from 14 strains isolated in aged patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Among strains isolated from carriers there were prevailing the strai of R6 genotype.Conclusion. Multilocus sequence typing allows to identify the new genotypes and to prognose the appearing of epidemiologically dangerous strains with new peculiarities.

  12. Pneumatoceles and pneumothorax after Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauleda, J; Aran, X; Gea, J; Aguar, M C; Sanz, M; Broquetas, J M

    1993-01-01

    Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) is common in patients with AIDS. The usual chest X-ray pattern is a diffuse interstitial pulmonary infiltrate. Nevertheless, unusual roentgenographic forms can appear. A patient with PCP that resulted in pneumatoceles and a further pneumothorax is described. PMID:8284529

  13. Pneumonia outbreaks in calves and finishers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-19

    Pneumonia in calves and finishersOvarian tumour in a calfAbortion associated with bovine herpesvirus 1 in a suckler herdParasitic gastroenteritis causing illthrift and death in sheepOutbreaks of acute fasciolosis in sheepThese are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for December 2015 from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS). PMID:26993450

  14. Delayed tension pneumothorax complicating staphylococcal pneumonia.

    OpenAIRE

    Yates, S. P.; Morcos, S. K.

    1988-01-01

    A case is described in which a tension pneumothorax complicated staphylococcal pneumonia 11 months after its onset. The delayed and subacute/chronic nature of the tension pneumothorax is unusual. The case also highlights the difficult differential diagnosis between subpleural lung cysts and encysted pneumothorax.

  15. Immunomodulation in community-acquired pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remmelts, H.H.F.

    2013-01-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common disease with considerable morbidity and mortality, despite effective antibiotic treatment. In this thesis, we showed that the major causative microorganisms in CAP trigger distinct inflammatory response profiles in the host. While an inflammatory respon

  16. Exogenous lipoid pneumonia. Clinical and radiological manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, Edson; Zanetti, Gláucia; Mano, Claudia Mauro; Hochhegger, Bruno

    2011-05-01

    Lipoid pneumonia results from the pulmonary accumulation of endogenous or exogenous lipids. Host tissue reactions to the inhaled substances differ according to their chemical characteristics. Symptoms can vary significantly among individuals, ranging from asymptomatic to severe, life-threatening disease. Acute, sometimes fatal, cases can occur, but the disease is usually indolent. Possible complications include superinfection by nontuberculous mycobacteria, pulmonary fibrosis, respiratory insufficiency, cor pulmonale, and hypercalcemia. The radiological findings are nonspecific, and the disease presents with variable patterns and distribution. For this reason, lipoid pneumonia may mimic many other diseases. The diagnosis of exogenous lipoid pneumonia is based on a history of exposure to oil, characteristic radiological findings, and the presence of lipid-laden macrophages on sputum or BAL analysis. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is the best imaging modality for the diagnosis of lipoid pneumonia. The most characteristic CT finding in LP is the presence of negative attenuation values within areas of consolidation. There are currently no studies in the literature that define the best therapeutic option. However, there is a consensus that the key measure is identifying and discontinuing exposure to the offending agent. Treatment in patients without clinical symptoms remains controversial, but in patients with diffuse pulmonary damage, aggressive therapies have been reported. They include whole lung lavage, systemic corticosteroids, and thoracoscopy with surgical debridement. PMID:21185165

  17. Klebsiella pneumoniae Bacteremia and Capsular Serotypes, Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Chun-Hsing; Huang, Yu-Tsung; Lai, Chih-Cheng; Chang, Cheng-Yu; Chu, Fang-Yeh; Hsu, Meng-Shiuan; Hsu, Hsin-Sui; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2011-01-01

    Capsular serotypes of 225 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates in Taiwan were identified by using PCR. Patients infected with K1 serotypes (41 isolates) had increased community-onset bacteremia, more nonfatal diseases and liver abscesses, lower Pittsburgh bacteremia scores and mortality rates, and fewer urinary tract infections than patients infected with non–K1/K2 serotypes (147 isolates).

  18. [Thousand faces of Streptococcus pneumonia (pneumococcus) infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Bálint Gergely; Lénárt, Katalin Szidónia; Kádár, Béla; Gombos, Andrea; Dezsényi, Balázs; Szanka, Judit; Bobek, Ilona; Prinz, Gyula

    2015-11-01

    Incidence and mortality rates of infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) are high worldwide and in Hungary among paediatric as well as adult populations. Pneumococci account for 35-40% of community acquired adult pneumonias requiring hospitalization, while 25-30% of Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonias are accompanied by bacteraemia. 5-7% of all infections are fatal but this rate is exponentially higher in high risk patients and elderly people. Mortality could reach 20% among patients with severe invasive pneumococcal infections. Complications may develop despite administration of adequate antibiotics. The authors summarize the epidemiology of pneumococcal infections, pathogenesis of non-invasive and invasive disease and present basic clinical aspects through demonstration of four cases. Early risk stratification, sampling of hemocultures, administration of antibiotics and wider application of active immunization could reduce the mortality of invasive disease. Anti-pneumococcal vaccination is advisable for adults of ≥50 years and high risk patients of ≥18 years who are susceptible to pneumococcal disease. PMID:26498896

  19. Molecular biology of the Chlamydia pneumoniae surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Gunna; Østergaard, Lars; Birkelund, Svend

    1997-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniaeis a fastidious microorganism with a characteristic biphasic lifecycle causing a variety of human respiratory tract infections. There is limited knowledge about the molecular biology of C. pneumoniae, and only a few genes have been sequenced. The structure of the chlamydial...

  20. Dyrkningsnegativ Streptococcus pneumoniae endokarditis diagnosticeret med polymerasekaedereaktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus Vedby; Kemp, Michael; Bangsborg, Jette Marie;

    2008-01-01

    A 60-year old man was admitted with sepsis and meningitis of unknown aetiology. Underlying aortic valve endocarditis was diagnosed by echocardiography and severe insufficiency led to aortic valve replacement. Application of broad-range PCR to cusp tissue revealed a DNA product, and a diagnosis of...... Streptococcus pneumoniae endocarditis was obtained by DNA sequencing....

  1. Pneumonia and empyema: causal, casual or unknown

    OpenAIRE

    McCauley, Lindsay; Dean, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Parapneumonic effusions complicating pneumonia are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Along with increased mortality, complicated parapneumonic effusion and empyema often necessitate prolonged treatment, longer hospital stay and interventions. Parapneumonic effusions arise from inflammation in the lungs and pleural space from direct invasion of bacteria, cascade of inflammatory events and bacteriologic virulence features. Patient factors and comorbidities also contribute to th...

  2. [Multidrug resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae: multicenter study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutiba-Ben Boubaker, Ilhem; Ben Salah, Dorra; Besbes, Makram; Mahjoubi, Faouzia; Ghozzi, Rafiaa; Ben Redjeb, Saida; Ben Hassen, Assia; Hammami, Adnène

    2002-01-01

    The extensive use of broad spectrum antibiotics, especially the third generation cephalosporins (C3G), was followed by the emergence of newer plasmid mediated betalactamases called extended spectrum betalactamases (ESBLs). To assess the impact of K. pneumoniae resistant to 3GC in Tunisia, this study was conducted in 3 teaching hospitals. A total of 1110 strains of K pneumoniae was collected. The antibiotics susceptibilities were tested by diffusion method using Mueller-Hinton agar. The quality control was regularly performed. I ESBLs producing solates were detected using the double-disc synergy test. Data analysis was done using the Whonet 4 software. 23.6% K. pneumoniae isolates showed phenotype pattern of ESBLs producers. The double-disc synergy test was positive in 75% of the cases. These isolates were recovered from hospitalized patients in different wards but mainly from pediatrics (23.6%), medicine (23.2%), surgery (22.9%), intensive care units (11%) and neonatology (11%). 54% were isolated from urines, 22% from blood cultures. These isolates remained susceptible to imipenem (100%) and most of them to cefoxitin (96.4%) but all had associated resistance to aminoglycosides, quinolones and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The prevalence of multidrug resistant K. pneumoniae is high. This resistance can be minimized by the implementation of infection control measures including handwashing and isolation procedures. PMID:12071040

  3. Correlation between radiological and pathological findings in patients with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi eTanaka

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies focused on the pathological-radiological correlation of human Mycoplasma (M pneumoniae pneumonia have rarely been reported. Therefore, we extensively reviewed the literature regarding pathological and radiological studies of Mycoplasma pneumonia, and compared findings between open lung biopsy specimen and computed tomography (CT. Major three correlations were summarized. 1 Peribronchial and perivascular cuffing characterized by mononuclear cells infiltration was correlated with bronchovascular bundles thickening on CT, which was the most common finding of this pneumonia. 2 Cellular bronchitis in the small airways accompanied with exudates or granulation tissue in the lumen revealed as centrilobular nodules on CT. 3 Neutrophils and exudates in the alveolar lumen radiologically demonstrated as air-apace consolidation or ground-glass opacities. In M.pulmonis-infected mice model, pathologic patterns are strikingly different according to host cell-mediated immunity (CMI levels; treatment with interleukin-2 lead to marked cellular bronchitis in the small airways and treatment with prednisolone or cyclosporin-A lead to neutrophils and exudates in the alveolar lumen. Patients with centrilobular nodules predominant radiologic pattern have a high level of CMI, measuring by tuberculin skin test. From these findings, up-regulation of host CMI could change radiological pattern to centrilobular nodules predominant, on the other hand down-regulation of host CMI would change radiological pattern to ground-glass opacity and consolidation. It was suggested the pathological features of M. pneumoniae pneumonia may be altered by the level of host CMI.

  4. Association of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection and childhood asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YADAV Shakti Nrisingh; GAUTAM Mahesh Kumar; JIANG Li

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a frequent cause of acute respiratory infections in both children and adults.It can cause pharyngitis, otitis, tracheobronchitis, or community-acquired pneumonia, but may also remain totally asymptomatic.Mycoplasma pneumoniae is an organism that reportedly has a strong relationship to asthma.The role of atypical bacterial infection in the pathogenesis of asthma is a subject of continuing debate. There is an increasing body of literature concerning the association between Mycoplasma pneumoniae ( M. pneumoniae) and asthma pathogenesis.Moreover, many studies investigating such a link have been uncontrolled and have provided conflicting evidence, in part due to the difficulty in accurately diagnosing infection with these atypical pathogens. Large, general population-based prospective studies are necessary to investigate the development of asthma induced by M. pneumoniae infection in humans. This manuscript will review the relationship between M.pneumoniae infection and childhood asthma.

  5. Present-day concepts in radiodiagnosis of acute pneumonias in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An X-ray study of 300 children with pneumonias of various etiology has shown that Pneumococcus is the most frequent cause of pneumonia whereas Hemophilus and Mycoplasma pneumonia are observed less frequently. The most common types are segmental (41%), lobular (30%), focal-confluent (20%) and focal (9%). Pleuritis complicated a course of pneumonia in more than half of the patients. Pulmonary destructive changes were most frequent in pneumococcal pneumonia (20%), less frequent in Hemophilus pneumonia and undetectable in Mycoplasma pneumonia

  6. [A rare cause of pneumonia: Shewanella putrefaciens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durdu, Bülent; Durdu, Yasemin; Güleç, Nuray; Islim, Filiz; Biçer, Mualla

    2012-01-01

    Shewanella putrefaciens is a gram-negative, non-fermentative, oxidase positive, motile bacillus that produces hydrogen sulphide. It is found widely in the nature especially in marine environments. Although it is accepted as saprophytic, different clinical syndromes, most commonly skin or soft tissue infections, have been associated with S.putrefaciens, mainly in immunocompromised cases and patients with underlying diseases. However, pneumonia cases due to S.putrefaciens are quite limited in the literature. In this report, a case of pneumonia caused by S.putrefaciens was presented. A 43-year-old female patient was admitted to our hospital with the complaints of fever, cough, sputum and weakness. The patient has had brochiectasis since childhood and has used periodical antibiotic therapies due to pneumoniae episodes. She was diagnosed to have pneumonia based on the clinical, radiological and laboratory findings, and empirical antibiotic treatment with ciprofloxacin and ceftazidime combination was initiated. Gram-stained smear of sputum yielded abundant leucocytes and gram-negative bacteria, and the isolate grown in the sputum culture was identified as S.putrefaciens by conventional methods and API 20 NE (BioMerieux, France) system. The isolate was found susceptible to ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, cefepime, ciprofloxacin, piperacillin-tazobactam, cephoperazon-sulbactam, imipenem, amikacin, gentamicin and trimethoprime-sulphametoxazole; whereas resistant to ampicillin, amoxycillin-clavulanate, cefazolin and cefuroxime, by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. According to the antibiogram results, the therapy was changed to ceftriaxone (1 x 2 g, intravenous). The patient was discharged with complete cure after 14 days of therapy. In conclusion, S.putrefaciens should be considered in patients with predisposing factors as an unusual cause of pneumonia and the characteristics such as H2S production and sensitivity to third generation cephalosporins and penicillins should be used

  7. Early Additional Immune-Modulators for Mycoplasma pneumoniae Pneumonia in Children: An Observation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Churl; Rhim, Jung-Woo; Shin, Myung-Seok; Kang, Jin-Han

    2014-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) pneumonia is a self-limiting disease, but some patients complain of progressive pneumonia, despite of appropriate antibiotic treatment. We aimed to introduce the role of immune-modulators (corticosteroid and/or intravenous immunoglobulin, IVIG) treatment for childhood MP pneumonia based on previous our experiences. Materials and Methods A retrospective case series analysis for 183 children with MP pneumonia was performed. MP pneumonia patients were diagnosed by two Immunoglobulin M (IgM) tests: the micro-particle agglutination method (≥1:40) and the cold agglutination test (≥1:4), and were examined twice at the initial admission and at discharge. Among 183 MP pneumonia patients, 90 patients with persistent fever for over 48 hours after admission or those with severe respiratory symptoms and signs received additional prednisolone (82 patients, 1 mg/kg/day) or intravenous methylprednisolone (8 patients, 5-10 mg/kg/day) with antibiotics. Four patients with aggravated clinical symptoms and chest radiographic findings after corticosteroid treatment received IVIG (1 g/kg/day, 1-2 doses). Results Mean age of 183 patients was 5.5 ± 3.2 years (6 months-15 years), and the male: female ratio was 1.1:1 (96:87). Fifty-seven patients (31%) were seroconverters and 126 seropositive patients showed increased diagnostic IgM antibody titres during admission (over 4 folds). The majority of the patients who received corticosteroids (86/90 cases) showed rapid defervescence within 48 hours with improved clinical symptoms, regardless of the used antibiotics. Also, 4 patients who received additional IVIG improved both clinically and radiographically within 2 days without adverse reaction. Conclusions In the era of macrolide-resistant MP strains, early additional immune-modulator therapy with antibiotics might prevent from the disease progression and reduce the disease morbidity without adverse reaction. PMID:25566403

  8. Relationship between Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and occurrence of bronchial asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Yi; ZHENG Wen; XIA Xi-rong; ZHANG Xi-long; TONG Mao-rong; FENG Gen-bao; ZHAO Bei-lei; HU Lan-ping

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between Chlamydia pneumoniae (C. Pneumoniae) infection and asthma exacerbation. Methods: A prospective study of C. Pneumoniae infection was conducted in 75 patients with asthma and 63 patients with respiratory tract infection, and 100 blood donors served as controls.The presence of infection was convinced by the polymerase chain reaction and direct immunofluorescence assay for C. Pneumoniae DNA from throat swab specimens and micro-immunofluorescence testing for C. Pneumoniae-specific IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies. Results: Prevalence of specific IgG in asthma patients (81.3%) was higher than that of the blood donors (68. 0%, P<0. 05) and was not significantly different from respiratory tract infection patients (68. 0%, P>0. 05). The acute C. Pneumoniae infection rate of symptomatic asthma patients (59.4%) was markedly higher than that of respiratory tract infection patients (34.9%, P<0. 05). The average titer of C. Pneumoniae IgG instead of IgA in asthma patients (48. 38±6. 94)was significantly higher than respiratory tract infection patients (24. 70±8. 77, P<0. 05). Other pathogens were identified in 12 of 21 (57. 1%) asthma patients with C. Pneumoniae. The symptoms of 7 asthma patients with C. Pneumoniae infection were improved through antibiotic treatment. Conclusion: The findings suggest a possible role of C. Pneumoniae infection in asthma.

  9. Characterization of the N-terminal domain of BteA: a Bordetella type III secreted cytotoxic effector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Guttman

    Full Text Available BteA, a 69-kDa cytotoxic protein, is a type III secretion system (T3SS effector in the classical Bordetella, the etiological agents of pertussis and related mammalian respiratory diseases. Currently there is limited information regarding the structure of BteA or its subdomains, and no insight as to the identity of its eukaryotic partners(s and their modes of interaction with BteA. The mechanisms that lead to BteA dependent cell death also remain elusive. The N-terminal domain of BteA is multifunctional, acting as a docking platform for its cognate chaperone (BtcA in the bacterium, and targeting the protein to lipid raft microdomains within the eukaryotic host cell. In this study we describe the biochemical and biophysical characteristics of this domain (BteA287 and determine its architecture. We characterize BteA287 as being a soluble and highly stable domain which is rich in alpha helical content. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR experiments combined with size exclusion and analytical ultracentrifugation measurements confirm these observations and reveal BteA287 to be monomeric in nature with a tendency to oligomerize at concentrations above 200 µM. Furthermore, diffusion-NMR demonstrated that the first 31 residues of BteA287 are responsible for the apparent aggregation behavior of BteA287. Light scattering analyses and small angle X-ray scattering experiments reveal a prolate ellipsoidal bi-pyramidal dumb-bell shape. Thus, our biophysical characterization is a first step towards structure determination of the BteA N-terminal domain.

  10. Immuno-enhancement of Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharides on recombinant Bordetella avium ompA expressed in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liping; Yu, Cuilian; Wang, Chuanwen; Shao, Mingxu; Yan, Zhengui; Jiang, Xiaodong; Chi, Shanshan; Wang, Zhen; Wei, Kai; Zhu, Ruiliang

    2016-06-01

    Bordetellosis, caused by Bordetella avium, continues to be an economic problem in the poultry industry of China. Vaccines with good protective ability are lacking. Thus, developing a novel vaccine against the B. avium infection is crucial. Here, we constructed a recombinant Pichia pastoris transformant capable of expressing the outer membrane protein A (ompA) of B. avium to prepare the recombinant ompA subunit vaccine and then evaluated its immune effects. To further investigate the immunomodulation effects of Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharides (TPPPS) on this subunit vaccine, three concentrations (20, 40, and 60 mg/mL) of TPPPS were used as the adjuvants of the ompA subunit vaccine respectively. The conventional Freund's incomplete adjuvant served as the control of TPPPS. Chickens in different groups were separately vaccinated with these vaccines thrice. During the monitoring period, serum antibody titers, concentrations of serum IL-4, percentages of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-lymphocytes in the peripheral blood, lymphocyte transformation rate, and protection rate were detected. Results showed that the pure ompA vaccine induced the production of anti-ompA antibody, the secretion of IL-4, the increase of CD4(+) T-lymphocytes counts and lymphocyte transformation rate in the peripheral blood. Moreover, the pure ompA vaccine provided a protection rate of 71.67% after the B. avium challenge. Notably, TPPPS adjuvant vaccines induced higher levels of immune responses than the pure ompA vaccine, and 60 mg/mL TPPPS adjuvant vaccine showed optimal immune effects and had a 91.67% protection rate. Our findings indicated that this recombinant B. avium ompA subunit vaccine combined with TPPPS had high immunostimulatory potential. Results provided a new perspective for B. avium subunit vaccine research. PMID:26975477

  11. Purification and assay of cell-invasive form of calmodulin-sensitive adenylyl cyclase from Bordetella pertussis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An invasive form of the CaM-sensitive adenylyl cyclase from Bordetella pertussis can be isolated from bacterial culture supernatants. This isolation is achieved through the use of QAE-Sephadex anion-exchange chromatography. It has been demonstrated that the addition of exogenous Ca2+ to the anion-exchange gradient buffers will affect elution from the column and will thereby affect the isolation of invasive adenylyl cyclase. This is probably due to a Ca2(+)-dependent interaction of the catalytic subunit with another component in the culture supernatant. Two peaks of adenylyl cyclase activity are obtained. The Pk1 adenylyl cyclase preparation is able to cause significant increases in intracellular cAMP levels in animal cells. This increase occurs rapidly and in a dose-dependent manner in both N1E-115 mouse neuroblastoma cells and human erythrocytes. The Pk2 adenylyl cyclase has catalytic activity but is not cell invasive. This material can serve, therefore, as a control to ensure that the cAMP which is measured is, indeed, intracellular. A second control is to add exogenous CaM to the Pk1 adenylyl cyclase preparation. The 45-kDa catalytic subunit-CaM complex is not cell invasive. Although the mechanism for membrane translocation of the adenylyl cyclase is unknown, there is evidence that the adenylyl cyclase enters animal cells by a mechanism distinct from receptor-mediated endocytosis. Calmodulin-sensitive adenylyl cyclase activity can be removed from preparations of the adenylyl cyclase that have been subjected to SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. This property of the enzyme has enabled purification of the catalytic subunit to apparent homogeneity. The purified catalytic subunit from culture supernatants has a predicted molecular weight of 45,000. This polypeptide interacts directly with Ca2+ and this interaction may be important for its invasion into animal cells

  12. Polyamine transporter in Streptococcus pneumoniae is essential for evading early innate immune responses in pneumococcal pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Aswathy N; Thornton, Justin A; Stokes, John; Sunesara, Imran; Swiatlo, Edwin; Nanduri, Bindu

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common bacterial etiology of pneumococcal pneumonia in adults worldwide. Genomic plasticity, antibiotic resistance and extreme capsular antigenic variation complicates the design of effective therapeutic strategies. Polyamines are ubiquitous small cationic molecules necessary for full expression of pneumococcal virulence. Polyamine transport system is an attractive therapeutic target as it is highly conserved across pneumococcal serotypes. In this study, we compared an isogenic deletion strain of S. pneumoniae TIGR4 in polyamine transport operon (ΔpotABCD) with the wild type in a mouse model of pneumococcal pneumonia. Our results show that the wild type persists in mouse lung 24 h post infection while the mutant strain is cleared by host defense mechanisms. We show that intact potABCD is required for survival in the host by providing resistance to neutrophil killing. Comparative proteomics analysis of murine lungs infected with wild type and ΔpotABCD pneumococci identified expression of proteins that could confer protection to wild type strain and help establish infection. We identified ERM complex, PGLYRP1, PTPRC/CD45 and POSTN as new players in the pathogenesis of pneumococcal pneumonia. Additionally, we found that deficiency of polyamine transport leads to up regulation of the polyamine synthesis genes speE and cad in vitro. PMID:27247105

  13. Understanding, preventing and eradicating Klebsiella pneumoniae biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Suzana Meira; Cardoso, Marlon Henrique; Cândido, Elizabete de Souza; Franco, Octávio Luiz

    2016-04-01

    The ability of pathogenic bacteria to aggregate and form biofilm represents a great problem for public health, since they present extracellular components that encase these micro-organisms, making them more resistant to antibiotics and host immune attack. This may become worse when antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains form biofilms. However, antibiofilm screens with different compounds may reveal potential therapies to prevent/treat biofilm infections. Here, we focused on Klebsiella pneumoniae, an opportunistic bacterium that causes different types of infections, including in the bloodstream, meninges, lungs, urinary system and at surgical sites. We also highlight aspects involved in the formation and maintenance of K. pneumoniae biofilms, as well as resistance and the emergence of new trends to combat this health challenge. PMID:27064296

  14. Mycoplasma contamination of Chlamydia pneumoniae isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huniche, BS; Jensen, Lise Torp; Birkelund, Svend;

    1998-01-01

    We examined 6 C. pneumonia isolates from The American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and 2 Finnish isolates for Mycoplasma contamination. Three of the ATCC isolates and both of the Finnish isolates were Mycoplasma-contaminated. The contaminants were characterized by means of growth in BEa and BEg...... media, immunoblotting, polymerase chain reaction and pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Two of the 6 ATCC isolates [ATCC VR1355 (TWAR strain 2043) and ATCC VR1356 (TWAR strain 2023)] were infected with Mycoplasma hominis and 1 isolate [ATCC VR2282 (TWAR strain TW183)] was contaminated with both...... Mycoplasma hominis and Mycoplasma orale, whereas 3 of the ATCC isolates [ATCC VR1310, ATCC VR1360 (TWAR strain CM-1) and ATCC 53592 (TWAR strain AR39)] were not contaminated. The Finnish C. pneumoniae isolates Kajaani 6 and Parola were found to be contaminated with M. hominis and M. orale, respectively...

  15. Mycobacterium fortuitum lipoid pneumonia in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leissinger, M K; Garber, J B; Fowlkes, N; Grooters, A M; Royal, A B; Gaunt, S D

    2015-03-01

    A 1-year old female spayed German Shepherd dog was evaluated for acute onset of dyspnea. Pyogranulomatous inflammation and green globoid structures were present on aspirates of the affected lung. Impression smears and histopathology confirmed pyogranulomatous pneumonia, with large amounts of lipid corresponding to the green structures noted cytologically, and identified poorly staining bacterial rods within lipid vacuoles. Special stains confirmed the presence of acid-fast bacterial rods, and polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing identified the organism as Mycobacterium fortuitum. M. fortuitum pneumonia is well described in humans and has previously been reported in 4 dogs and 1 cat. Lipid was a prominent cytologic and histologic feature, as is often described in humans and in the single feline case report. Additionally, this case highlights the variable cytologic appearance of lipid, as well as Mycobacterium spp, which are classically nonstaining with Wright-Giemsa. PMID:24788402

  16. Acute pneumonia in a fire-eater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell' Omo, M; Murgia, N; Chiodi, M; Giovenali, P; Cecati, A; Gambelunghe, A

    2010-01-01

    Fire-eater's lung, an acute exogenous lipoid pneumonia, is caused when street performers accidentally inhale pyrofluids. We report the case of a young fire-eater who, 12 hours after inhaling an iso-alkanebased pyrofluid, developed fever, dyspnoea, dry cough and intense right chest pain. Radiographic signs of pneumonia emerged two days later. Computed tomography (CT) scans visualized an irregular area of parenchymal consolidation with an air bronchiologram and peripheral ground-glass opacities in the right middle lobe. The diagnostic work-up included microbiological and lung function tests, optic fibre bronchoscopy and an in-depth cyto-immunological analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Symptoms gradually improved over a few days. A CT scan one month later showed the thickened parenchymal area in the right middle lobe had almost completely disappeared. PMID:21244782

  17. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection-associated erythema multiforme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinsaku Imashuku

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a well-known correlation between Herpes simplex (HSV infection and erythema multiforme (EM. More recently, in Japan, it was found that Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cp may promote the development of EM. All cases of Cp infection-associated EM that had been diagnosed in our clinic over the past two years (from 2011 to 2012 were analyzed. Cp infection was diagnosed on the basis of a significant increase (>2.00 in anti-Cp IgM titers, as measured by the HITAZYME-ELISA test. There were 7 cases of Cp-EM, one male and 6 females. Median age was 13 years (range 3-29 years. It is recommended that the possible involvement of Cp infection, besides HSV or Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections, should be considered in all cases of EM.

  18. Cytoskeletal elements in the bacterium Mycoplasma pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegermann, Jan; Herrmann, Richard; Mayer, Frank

    2002-09-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a pathogenic eubacterium lacking a cell wall. Three decades ago, a "rod", an intracellular cytoskeletal structure, was discovered that was assumed to define and stabilize the elongated cell shape. Later, by treatment with detergent, a "Triton shell" (i.e. a fraction of detergent-insoluble cell material) could be obtained, believed to contain additional cytoskeletal elements. Now, by application of a modified Triton X-100 treatment, we are able to demonstrate that M. pneumoniae possesses a cytoskeleton consisting of a blade-like rod and a peripheral lining located close to the inner face of the cytoplasmic membrane, exhibiting features of a highly regular network. Attached "stalks" may support the cytoplasmic membrane. The rod was connected to the cell periphery by "spokes" and showed a defined ultrastructure. Its proximal end was found to be attached to a wheel-like complex. Fibrils extended from the proximal end of the rod into the cytoplasm.

  19. ε-Caprolactam Utilization by Proteus sp. and Bordetella sp. Isolated From Solid Waste Dumpsites in Lagos State, Nigeria, First Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanuth, Hassan Adeyemi; Yadav, Amit; Fagade, Obasola Ezekiel; Shouche, Yogesh

    2013-06-01

    The ε-caprolactam is the monomer of the synthetic non-degradable nylon-6 and often found as nonreactive component of nylon-6 manufacturing waste effluent. Environmental consequences of its toxicity to natural habitats and humans pose a global public concern. Soil samples were collected from three designated solid waste dumpsites, namely, Abule-Egba, Olusosun and Isheri-Igando in Lagos State, Nigeria. Sixteen bacteria isolated from these samples were found to utilize the ε-caprolactam as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen at concentration of ≤20 g l(-1). The isolates were characterized using their 16S rRNA gene sequence and showed similarity with Pseudomonas sp., Proteus sp., Providencia sp., Corynebacterium sp., Lysinibacillus sp., Leucobacter sp., Alcaligenes sp. and Bordetella sp. Their optimal growth conditions were found to be at temperature range of 30 to 35 °C and pH range of 7.0-7.5. High Performance liquid chromatography analysis of the ε-caprolactam from supernatant of growth medium revealed that these isolates have potential to remove 31.6-95.7 % of ε-caprolactam. To the best of our knowledge, this study is first to report the ability of Proteus sp. and Bordetella sp. for ε-caprolactam utilization. PMID:24426112

  20. Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia: a paediatric case

    OpenAIRE

    Tassinari, Davide; Di Silverio Carulli, Chiara; Visciotti, Francesca; Petrucci, Roberta

    2013-01-01

    Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) is a rare disorder in children, characterised by respiratory and systemic symptoms, with a generally good prognosis. A 11-year-old asthmatic girl was admitted to our clinic with a 3-month history of progressive cough, dyspnoea, weight loss and asthenia. Peripheral blood eosinophilia, multiple bilateral pulmonary infiltrates to the x-ray, multiple nodules with a surrounding ground-glass halo and peripheral predominance to the chest CT suggested the diagnosi...

  1. Pulmonary Function Testing in Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Fernando J; Flaherty, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Diffuse parenchymal lung diseases are a group of disorders that involve the space between the epithelial and endothelial basement membranes and are generally segregated into four major categories. These include the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, which are further categorized into seven clinical/radiologic/pathologic subsets. These disorders generally share a common pattern of physiologic abnormality characterized by a restrictive ventilatory defect and reduced diffusing capacity (DLCO). ...

  2. Neonatal varicella pneumonia, surfactant replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa Ahmadpour-kacho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chickenpox is a very contagious viral disease that caused by varicella-zoster virus, which appears in the first week of life secondary to transplacental transmission of infection from the affected mother. When mother catches the disease five days before and up to two days after the delivery, the chance of varicella in neonate in first week of life is 17%. A generalized papulovesicular lesion is the most common clinical feature. Respiratory involvement may lead to giant cell pneumonia and respiratory failure. The mortality rate is up to 30% in the case of no treatment, often due to pneumonia. Treatment includes hospitalization, isolation and administration of intravenous acyclovir. The aim of this case report is to introduce the exogenous surfactant replacement therapy after intubation and mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure in neonatal chickenpox pneumonia and respiratory distress. Case Presentation: A seven-day-old neonate boy was admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Amirkola Children’s Hospital, Babol, north of Iran, with generalized papulovesicular lesions and respiratory distress. His mother has had a history of Varicella 4 days before delivery. He was isolated and given supportive care, intravenous acyclovir and antibiotics. On the second day, he was intubated and connected to mechanical ventilator due to severe pneumonia and respiratory failure. Because of sever pulmonary involvement evidenced by Chest X-Ray and high ventilators set-up requirement, intratracheal surfactant was administered in two doses separated by 12 hours. He was discharged after 14 days without any complication with good general condition. Conclusion: Exogenous surfactant replacement therapy can be useful as an adjunctive therapy for the treatment of respiratory failure due to neonatal chickenpox.

  3. Pseudomonas aeruginosa ventilator-associated pneumonia management

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez-Estrada S; Borgatta B; Rello J.

    2016-01-01

    Sergio Ramírez-Estrada,1 Bárbara Borgatta,1,2 Jordi Rello3,4 1Critical Care Department, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, 2CRIPS, Vall d'Hebron Institute of Research (VHIR), 3Department of Medicine, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), Barcelona, 4Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Enfermedad Respiratoria – CIBERES, Madrid, Spain Abstract: Ventilator-associated pneumonia is the most common infection i...

  4. Corynebacterial pneumonia in an African hedgehog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, J T; Williams, C; Wu, C C

    1998-04-01

    A 3-mo-old, male African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) was anorectic and lethargic for a period of 3 days prior to death. Necropys revealed lungs that were diffusely firm, dark red, and dorsally adhered by fibrinous tags to the pericardial sac. Histopathology revealed necrosuppurative bronchopneumonia with pulmonary abscesses and suppurative pericarditis and myocarditis. A Corynebacterium sp. was isolated from the lungs. We believe this is the first reported case of corynebacterial pneumonia in an African hedgehog. PMID:9577794

  5. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in an immunocompetent host

    OpenAIRE

    George Koshy; Jency Maria Koshy; Mary John; Divya Deodhar

    2015-01-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is a potentially life-threatening infection, which predominantly occurs in the immuno-compromised host. It has been rarely reported in immunocompetent subjects. In them, the infection presents with fulminant respiratory failure along with fever and dry cough in contrast to an indolent course in the immuno-compromised population. The most significant risk factors for PCP in non-HIV infected hosts are glucocorticoid use and cell mediated immunity defects. ...

  6. Iatrogenic lipoid pneumonia in an adult horse

    OpenAIRE

    Metcalf, L; Cummins, C; Maischberger, E; Katz, L

    2010-01-01

    A 20-year-old gelding presented with a history of acute respiratory distress which began immediately after administration of a mineral oil and water mix, via nasogastric intubation, for treatment of suspected gastrointestinal dysfunction. An initial presumptive diagnosis of acute lipoid pneumonia was made; this was further supported by evidence of arterial hypoxaemia and oxygen desaturation on arterial blood gas analysis, ultrasonographic signs of bilateral ventral lung consolidation and a mi...

  7. Latrogenic lipoid pneumonia in an adult horse

    OpenAIRE

    Metcalfe Lucy; Cummins Carolyn; Maischberger Eva; Katz Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A 20-year-old gelding presented with a history of acute respiratory distress which began immediately after administration of a mineral oil and water mix, via nasogastric intubation, for treatment of suspected gastrointestinal dysfunction. An initial presumptive diagnosis of acute lipoid pneumonia was made; this was further supported by evidence of arterial hypoxaemia and oxygen desaturation on arterial blood gas analysis, ultrasonographic signs of bilateral ventral lung consolidation...

  8. Hubungan Kadar Procalcitonin dengan beratnya Pneumonia Komunitas

    OpenAIRE

    Manullang, Doharjo

    2016-01-01

    Background The assessment of level severity in patient with Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) is very important determine the next management of disease. Procalcitonin (PCT) is known as one of biomarker sepsis and infection. The application of PCT is known to be used in diagnosis, to help clinician to decide antibiotic treatment and to make prognosis. It is still controversy whether the PCT early admission is related in clinical scoring system or prognostic score. Objective To...

  9. Radiologic discussion on Klebsiella pneumonia in 89 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic value of radiology and CT scanning in Klebsiella pneumoniae. Methods: The clinical, radiologic data and CT films of 89 patients with Klebsiella pneumoniae were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Three types of chest X-ray and computed tomography (CT) findings for Klebsiella pneumonia were found. (1)Increased pulmonary markings occured in 31 cases. (2)35 cases with single lesions showed frequently involvement in the upper or lower lobe of right lung. When lesion was involved in the upper lobe, it developed oblique fissure shift down in radiology films and represent stalactitic symptom in CT imagining. (3)In 23 cases with Klebsiella pneumonia showed typical cavitary lung abscesses. Conclusion: The radiologic findings of Klebsiella pneumoniae were complicated and hard to make a good diagnosis. Combined the imaging features with the clinic data, sometimes, we can get the right diagnosis in some cases with typical Klebsiella pneumoniae. (authors)

  10. Correlation of gastroesophageal reflex with aspiration pneumonia after surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to elucidate the correlation of gastroesophageal reflex (GER) with aspiration pneumonia after surgery, 48 patients (mean, 75.6 years) with gastric cancer treated at the hospital from March, 1994 to December, 1994 were subjected to this prospective study. The pharyngeal stimulation test, nutritional assessment, radionuclide esophageal scintigraphy (34 cases) were performed before surgery and relationship between those results and aspiration pneumonia were studied. Aspiration pneumonia occurred in 3 cases, and all of them were in, significantly, poor nutritional status, compared with other. A significant increase in the frequency of GER was observed when a naso-gastric tube (NGT) was placed, but surprisingly, all the patients with aspiration pneumonia were 3 out of 4 patients who had continuous GER without NGT. It is noteworthy, continuous GER without NGT was significantly (p<0.001) affected postoperative aspiration pneumonia and impaired phalyngeal reflex was frequently correlated with development of aspiration pneumonia, when malnutritional status existed. (author)

  11. Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection and cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajnish Joshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial vascular inflammatory process; however, the inciting cause for inflammation remains unclear. Two decades ago, Chlamydophila pneumoniae (formerly Chlamydia pneumoniae infection was proposed as a putative etiologic agent. We performed a PubMed search using the keywords Chlamydia and atherosclerosis in a Boolean query to identify published studies on C. pneumoniae and its role in atherogenesis, and to understand research interest in this topic. We found 1,652 published articles on this topic between 1991 and 2011. We analyzed relevant published studies and found various serological, molecular, and animal modeling studies in the early period. Encouraged by positive results from these studies, more than a dozen antibiotic clinical-trials were subsequently conducted, which did not find clinical benefits of anti-Chlamydophila drug therapy. While many researchers believe that the organism is still important, negative clinical trials had a similar impact on overall research interest. With many novel mechanisms identified for atherogenesis, there is a need for newer paradigms in Chlamydophila-atherosclerosis research.

  12. Lipid aspiration pneumonia due to gastroesophageal reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of lipid aspiration pneumonia after chronic nasopharyngeal installation of mineral oil was first described in 1925 by Laughlin. Since that time this entity has been well recognized and numerous substances have been identified or implicated as the aspirated material. The classic radiographic appearance of severe chronic lipid aspiration pneumonia has been described as consisting of intense perihilar infiltrates. However, the radiographic findings are more often non-specific and usually consist of varying degrees of diffuse interstitial infiltrates that tend to be more prominent in the perihilar regions and the right lung. We are reporting a case of biopsy-proven lipid aspiration pneumonia in an infant with known gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) who had medium-chain triglyceride oil administered via nasogastric tube. Serial roentgenograms demonstrated a changing pulmonary pattern from diffuse bilateral interstitial infiltrates initially to a diffuse alveolar pattern at the time of the lung biopsy. Modern medicine has developed new methods for providing nourishment to sick newborns and infants to improve their nutritional status and help them to grow. One such method involves the administration of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT oil) into the GI tract via a nasogastric or nasoenteral tube. The purpose of this report is to describe a significant complication of this method of providing nutrition to an infant with gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and the diagnostic dilemma it presented. (orig.)

  13. [Pneumocystis pneumonia in HIV-negative adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouyer, M; Stoclin, A; Blanc, F-X

    2015-12-01

    In HIV-negative adults, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia can be observed when immunodeficiency is present, especially in case of drug-induced immune suppression (steroids, chemotherapy, transplantation). Clinical, radiological, and biological presentations are different in HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals with different immunodeficiency profiles. In HIV-negative patients, dyspnea occurs more quickly (median duration of 5 days to get a diagnosis), diagnosis is more difficult because of less Pneumocystis in bronchoalveolar lavage, and mortality is higher than in HIV-positive individuals. Lung CT-scan typically shows diffuse ground glass opacities, but peri-bronchovascular condensations or ground glass opacities clearly limited by interlobular septa can also be observed. Lymphopenia is common but CD4+ T-cells count is rarely performed. HIV-negative patients with Pneumocystis pneumonia are co-infected with bacteria, viruses or fungi in about 30% cases. Bronchoalveolar lavage is often more neutrophilic than in HIV-positive individuals. PCR and β-D-glucan have good sensitivity but poor specificity to diagnose Pneumocystis pneumonia. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole remains the first choice of treatment. Duration is 14 days in HIV-negative patients whereas it is typically of 21 days in HIV-positive individuals. Adjunctive corticosteroids are of beneficial effect in HIV-positive adult patients with substantial hypoxaemia but are not recommended in HIV-negative patients, as they could be deleterious in some individuals. PMID:26572261

  14. HRCT findings of adult mycoplasma pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To analyze the HRCT findings of adult mycoplasma pneumonia and correlate these with clinical information. HRCT was performed in 17 cases of 15 adult patients (M:F=5:10) in whom mycoplasma pneumonia had been serologically confirmed. The pattern, extent and distribution of abnormalities were reviewed retrospectively and a changing pattern of abnormalities during the course of the disease was correlated with clinical symptoms. Unilateral(n=11) and lower lobe(n=12) involvement and multiplicity in involved lobes(n=10) were the most common abnormalities. Abnormalities on HRCT were as follows:nodules(n=15), areas of consolidation(n=14), nodules and areas of consolidation(n=13). Most abnormalities(n=11) were segmental or subsegmental in distribution. The most common nodular pattern was centrilobular micronodules(2/3)) at 2 weeks, and Group 3(prominent areas of nodules(>2/3)) over 3 weeks. The main findings of adult mycoplasma pneumonia were nodules or areas of consolidation with segmental or subsegmental distribution. The early stage of the disease may show a pattern of a similar prapertion of areas of consolidation and of nodules, followed by increase in the propertion of areas of consolidation(>2/3) as the disease progresses. At the resolvtion stage, the extent of lesions will decrease and nodules will be the main finding

  15. Desquamative interstitial pneumonia: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovrenski Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Desquamative interstitial pneumonia is one of the rarest idiopathic interstitial pneumonias and the rarest form of smoking-related interstitial lung diseases. It was first described by Liebow in 1965. Histologically, it is characterized by the presence of eosinophilic macrophages uniformly filling airspaces which often contain a finely granular light-brown pigment that does not stain for hemosiderin. The alveolar walls are usually mildly thickened by fibrous tissue and infiltrated by a moderate number of lymphocytes. Case Outline. Our patient was a 56-year-old male, heavy smoker, with bilateral lung infiltrations of unknown etiology and several months of discomfort in the form of dry cough and shortness of breath. Lung function tests showed a moderate restrictive ventilation disorder and a severe reduction of diffusing capacity. Since bronchoscopic specimens did not reveal lung lesion etiology, an open lung biopsy of the lower left pulmonary lobe was performed, and based on the obtained surgical material the pathohistologically diagnosis of desquamative interstitial pneumonia was established. The patient was started on corticosteroid and immunosuppressive therapy, and he ceased smoking. At the last control examination, two years after the onset of symptoms, the patient was feeling well, and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT scan of the thorax showed regression of pathological changes. Conclusion. Although, as in our case, the majority of DIP patients improve on treatment, some patients still develop progressive irreversible fibrosis despite therapy.

  16. Cytomegalovirus pneumonia in immunocompromised patients : HRCT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to describe the HRCT findings of cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia in immunocompromised patients. Eleven immunocompromised patients with proven CMV pneumonia underwent HRCT scanning. Three had undergone a transplant, three had a malignant tumor, two had undergone steroid therapy, one had pancytopenia and two had AIDS. In all patients, CMV was diagnosed by bronchoalveolar lavage culture. HRCT scans were retrospectively reviewed by two radiologists for disease distribution and patterns. HRCT findings included ground-glass opacity(n=11), consolidation (n=7), reticular opacity (n=10), multiple small nodules or mass (n=6), and bronchiectasis or bronchial wall thickening (n=5). Ground-glass opacity was usually distributed bilaterally and diffusely. Consolidation was most marked in the lower lobes, and reticular opacity and nodules or mass showed a variable, nonsegmental distribution. The HRCT findings of CMV pneumonia in immunocompromised patients were variable and nonspecific. The most common patterns included diffuse ground-glass opacity and consolidation, combined with variable reticulation

  17. Second-Hand Tobacco Smoke and Acute Eosinophilic Pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Avci, Zekai; ALİOĞLU, Bülent; ÖZBEK, Emel ÖZYÜREK Namık

    2008-01-01

    We present the case reports of two children with a parasitic infestation associated with hypereosinophilia. One of those patients, who had been exposed to excessive second-hand tobacco smoke, was diagnosed as having acute eosinophilic pneumonia. The second patient had neither a history of exposure to second-hand smoke nor a prior diagnosis of acute eosinophilic pneumonia. We suggest that passive smoking may trigger acute eosinophilic pneumonia, a condition that develops frequently in children...

  18. Infection with and Carriage of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer Sauteur, Patrick M.; Unger, Wendy W. J.; Nadal, David; Berger, Christoph; Vink, Cornelis; van Rossum, Annemarie M. C.

    2016-01-01

    “Atypical” pneumonia was described as a distinct and mild form of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) already before Mycoplasma pneumoniae had been discovered and recognized as its cause. M. pneumoniae is detected in CAP patients most frequently among school-aged children from 5 to 15 years of age, with a decline after adolescence and tapering off in adulthood. Detection rates by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or serology in children with CAP admitted to the hospital amount 4–39%. Although the infection is generally mild and self-limiting, patients of every age can develop severe or extrapulmonary disease. Recent studies indicate that high rates of healthy children carry M. pneumoniae in the upper respiratory tract and that current diagnostic PCR or serology cannot discriminate between M. pneumoniae infection and carriage. Further, symptoms and radiologic features are not specific for M. pneumoniae infection. Thus, patients may be unnecessarily treated with antimicrobials against M. pneumoniae. Macrolides are the first-line antibiotics for this entity in children younger than 8 years of age. Overall macrolides are extensively used worldwide, and this has led to the emergence of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae, which may be associated with severe clinical features and more extrapulmonary complications. This review focuses on the characteristics of M. pneumoniae infections in children, and exemplifies that simple clinical decision rules may help identifying children at high risk for CAP due to M. pneumoniae. This may aid physicians in prescribing appropriate first-line antibiotics, since current diagnostic tests for M. pneumoniae infection are not reliably predictive. PMID:27047456

  19. Exogenous lipoid pneumonia induced by aspiration of insecticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimatsu, Keisuke; Kamitani, Takeshi; Matsuo, Yoshio; Hatakenaka, Masamitsu; Sunami, Shunya; Jinnouchi, Mikako; Nagao, Michinobu; Yabuuchi, Hidetake; Honda, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Exogenous lipoid pneumonia is a rare disorder caused by inhalation and/or aspiration of oil-based substances. The confirmed diagnosis of exogenous lipoid pneumonia is difficult, especially in cases for which it is impossible to ascertain a history of inhalation or aspiration. We present a case of exogenous lipoid pneumonia due to aspiration of insecticide, for which the computed tomography findings of fat attenuation within the lesion were helpful in reaching a correct diagnosis. PMID:21952608

  20. Pneumonia in South-East Asia Region: Public health perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ghimire, M.; S.K. Bhattacharya; Narain, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    Globally, pneumonia is the leading cause of death in young children and burden of disease is disproportionately high in South-East Asia Region of WHO. This review article presents the current status of pneumonia disease burden, risk factors and the ability of health infrastructure to deal with the situation. Literature survey was done for the last 20 years and data from country offices were also collected. The estimated incidence of pneumonia in under five children is 0.36 episodes per child,...

  1. Procalcitonin for detecting community-acquired bacterial pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Devi Gusmaiyanto; Finny Fitry Yani; Efrida Efrida; Rizanda Machmud

    2016-01-01

    Background Pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity andmortality in children under five years of age. Pneumonia can be ofbacterial or viral origin. It is difficult to distinguish between thesetwo agents based on clinical manifestations, as well as radiologicaland laboratory examinations. Furthermore, bacterial cultures taketime to incubate and positive results may only be found in 10-30%of bacterial pneumonia cases. Procalcitonin has been used as amarker to distinguish etiologies, as bacterial...

  2. RECURRENT/PERSISTENT PNEUMONIA AMONG CHILDREN IN UPPER EGYPT

    OpenAIRE

    Khaled Saad

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: Recurrent/persistent pneumonia in children continues to be a major challenge for the paediatricians. We aimed to determine the prevalence and underlying causes of recurrent/persistent pneumonia in children in Upper Egypt. Settings: Assiut University Children Hospital, Assiut, Egypt.   Methods: Patients with pneumonia admitted to the hospital during 2 years were investigated (microbiological, biochemical, immunological and radiological tests) for recurrent/persistent pne...

  3. Pneumonia research to reduce childhood mortality in the developing world

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, J Anthony G; Brooks, W. Abdullah; Peiris, J.S. Malik; Holtzman, Douglas; Mulhollan, E. Kim

    2010-01-01

    Pneumonia is an illness, usually caused by infection, in which the lungs become inflamed and congested, reducing oxygen exchange and leading to cough and breathlessness. It affects individuals of all ages but occurs most frequently in children and the elderly. Among children, pneumonia is the most common cause of death worldwide. Historically, in developed countries, deaths from pneumonia have been reduced by improvements in living conditions, air quality, and nutrition. In the developing wor...

  4. Immunohistological detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae in the Alzheimer's disease brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appelt Denah M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sporadic late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD appears to evolve from an interplay between genetic and environmental factors. One environmental factor that continues to be of great interest is that of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and its association with late-onset disease. Detection of this organism in clinical and autopsy samples has proved challenging using a variety of molecular and histological techniques. Our current investigation utilized immunohistochemistry with a battery of commercially available anti-C. pneumoniae antibodies to determine whether C. pneumoniae was present in areas typically associated with AD neuropathology from 5 AD and 5 non-AD control brains. Results Immunoreactivity for C. pneumoniae antigens was observed both intracellularly in neurons, neuroglia, endothelial cells, and peri-endothelial cells, and extracellularly in the frontal and temporal cortices of the AD brain with multiple C. pneumoniae-specific antibodies. This immunoreactivity was seen in regions of amyloid deposition as revealed by immunolabeling with two different anti-beta amyloid antibodies. Thioflavin S staining, overlaid with C. pneumoniae immunolabeling, demonstrated no direct co-localization of the organism and amyloid plaques. Further, the specificity of C. pneumoniae labeling of AD brain sections was demonstrated using C. pneumoniae antibodies pre-absorbed against amyloid β 1-40 and 1-42 peptides. Conclusions Anti-C. pneumoniae antibodies, obtained commercially, identified both typical intracellular and atypical extracellular C. pneumoniae antigens in frontal and temporal cortices of the AD brain. C. pneumoniae, amyloid deposits, and neurofibrillary tangles were present in the same regions of the brain in apposition to one another. Although additional studies are required to conclusively characterize the nature of Chlamydial immunoreactivity in the AD brain, these results further implicate C. pneumoniae infection with the

  5. MRI differentiation of pneumonia-like mucinous adenocarcinoma and infectious pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the role of MRI water-sensitive sequences in the differential diagnosis between pneumonia-like mucinous adenocarcinoma and infectious pneumonia. Subjects and methods: Twenty-three patients with pneumonia-like mucinous adenocarcinoma and 30 patients with infectious pneumonia underwent computed tomography (CT) and MRI. Two blinded and independent readers evaluated CT and MR images using a 3-level confidence scale in two separate sessions. Results were tested for statistical significance using the Fisher's exact test and the Cohen's k test. Results: On CT, the two readers respectively made correct diagnoses of mucinous adenocarcinoma in 17 out of 23 cases (73.9%), and in 15 out of 23 cases (65.2%). A correct diagnosis of infectious pneumonia was made in 22 out of 30 cases (73.3%), and in 24 out of 30 cases (80.0%). On MRI, both readers made correct diagnoses of mucinous adenocarcinoma in 23 out of 23 (100%) cases, and of infectious pneumonia in 30 out of 30 (100%) cases. Fisher's exact test showed a significant difference in the diagnosis of mucinous adenocarcinoma between MRI and CT for both readers, P = 0.01 for reader 1 and P = 0.002 for reader 2, respectively. A good agreement (k = 0.73) was found between the two readers on CT evaluation, whereas an almost perfect agreement (k = 1.00) was found for MRI. Conclusions: MRI with “water-sensitive” sequences should be added in the diagnostic protocol of every patient with pulmonary consolidation suspected to be mucinous adenocarcinoma.

  6. Comparison of radiological findings and microbial aetiology of childhood pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korppi, M.; Kiekara, O.; Kosma, T.H.; Soimakallio, S. (Kuopio Univ. Hospital (Finland))

    1993-04-01

    61 children were treated in hospital from 1981 to 1982 because of both radiologically and microbiologically verified viral or bacterial pneumonia. The chest radiographs were interpreted by two radiologists, not familiar with the clinical data, on two occasions three years apart, and only those patients with a definite alveolar or interstitial pneumonia at both evaluations were included in the present analysis. In addition, all patients had viral, mixed viral-bacterial or bacterial infections diagnosed by viral or bacterial antibody or antigen assays. Viral infection alone was seen in 7, mixed viral-bacterial infection in 8 and bacterial infection alone in 12 of the 27 patients with alveolar pneumonia. The respective figures were 13, 13 and 8 for the 34 patients with interstitial pneumonia. C-reactive protein concentration was greater than 40 mg/l in 15 of the patients with alveolar and in 11 of the patients with interstitial pneumonia. Thus 74% of the patients with alveolar and 62% with interstitial pneumonia had bacterial infection, either alone or as a mixed viral-bacterial infection. The results suggest that the presence of an alveolar infiltrate in a chest radiograph is a specific but insensitive indicator of bacterial pneumonia. It is concluded that patients with alveolar pneumonia should be treated with antibiotics. In patients with interstitial pneumonia, however, both viral and bacterial aetiology are possible. In those, the decision concerning antibiotic treatment should be based on clinical and laboratory findings. 21 refs., 4 tabs.

  7. Adult human metapneumonovirus (hMPV) pneumonia mimicking Legionnaire's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Burke A; Irshad, Nadia; Connolly, James J

    2016-01-01

    In adults hospitalized with viral pneumonias the main differential diagnostic consideration is influenza pneumonia. The respiratory viruses causing viral influenza like illnesses (ILIs), e.g., RSV may closely resemble influenza. Rarely, extrapulmonary findings of some ILIs may resemble Legionnaire's disease (LD), e.g., adenovirus, human parainfluenza virus (HPIV-3). We present a most unusual case of human metapneumonovirus pneumonia (hMPV) with some characteristic extrapulmonary findings characteristic of LD, e.g., relative bradycardia, as well as mildly elevated serum transaminases and hyphosphatemia. We believe this is the first reported case of hMPV pneumonia in a hospitalized adult that had some features of LD. PMID:26988110

  8. Immunomodulatory therapy of cytomegalovirus pneumonia after liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Gen-shu; CHEN Gui-hua; LU Min-qiang; YANG Yang; CAI Chang-jie; YI Hui-min; LI Hua; XU Chi; YI Shu-hong

    2006-01-01

    Background There has been increasing interest in the research into cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia after liver transplantation (LT). This study was undertaken to investigate the immunomodulatory therapy of CMV pneumonia after LT.Methods Six patients with CMV pneumonia after LT from October 2003 to November 2005 were analyzed retrospectively. They were diagnosed according to clinical manifestations, chest X-ray findings and pathogenic changes and given comprehensive therapy including mainly immunomodulation therapy and anti-viral medication. At the early stage of CMV pneumonia, the dose of immunosuppressive agents was decreased or ceased, instead replaced by immunoenhancement therapy. During recovery period from CMV pneumonia, the dose of immunosuppressive agents was given again or enhanced, and immunoenhancement therapy was ceased.The liver function of the patients was monitored closely during the treatment.Results In this series, five patients were survived and one died. The liver function of the six patients remained normal during the treatment, and no episode of acute rejection took place.Conclusions Poor immunity is the pathogenic basis of CMV pneumonia after LT. At early stage of CMV pneumonia, the immunity of the patients should be enhanced, and during the recovery period from CMV pneumonia, immunosuppresants shoud be given again but immunoenhancement therapy ceased. Individualized immunomodulatory therapy is essential to the treatment of CMV pneumonia after LT.

  9. Comparison of radiological findings and microbial aetiology of childhood pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    61 children were treated in hospital from 1981 to 1982 because of both radiologically and microbiologically verified viral or bacterial pneumonia. The chest radiographs were interpreted by two radiologists, not familiar with the clinical data, on two occasions three years apart, and only those patients with a definite alveolar or interstitial pneumonia at both evaluations were included in the present analysis. In addition, all patients had viral, mixed viral-bacterial or bacterial infections diagnosed by viral or bacterial antibody or antigen assays. Viral infection alone was seen in 7, mixed viral-bacterial infection in 8 and bacterial infection alone in 12 of the 27 patients with alveolar pneumonia. The respective figures were 13, 13 and 8 for the 34 patients with interstitial pneumonia. C-reactive protein concentration was greater than 40 mg/l in 15 of the patients with alveolar and in 11 of the patients with interstitial pneumonia. Thus 74% of the patients with alveolar and 62% with interstitial pneumonia had bacterial infection, either alone or as a mixed viral-bacterial infection. The results suggest that the presence of an alveolar infiltrate in a chest radiograph is a specific but insensitive indicator of bacterial pneumonia. It is concluded that patients with alveolar pneumonia should be treated with antibiotics. In patients with interstitial pneumonia, however, both viral and bacterial aetiology are possible. In those, the decision concerning antibiotic treatment should be based on clinical and laboratory findings. 21 refs., 4 tabs

  10. Alveolar damage in AIDS-related Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, T L; Prentø, P; Junge, Jette;

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia is the most common and serious of the pulmonary complications of AIDS. Despite this, many basic aspects in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated P carinii pneumonia are unknown. We therefore undertook a light and electron microscopic study of transbronchial...... biopsy specimens to compare pathologic features of P carinii pneumonia and other HIV-related lung diseases. DESIGN AND PATIENTS: Thirty-seven consecutive HIV-infected patients undergoing a diagnostic bronchoscopy. RESULTS: P carinii pneumonia was characterized by an increase in inflammation, edema...

  11. Evaluation of Phenotypic Methods for Detection of Klebsiella Pneumoniae Carbapenemase-Producing K. Pneumoniae in Tehran

    OpenAIRE

    Leila Azimi; Abdolaziz Rastegar-Lari; Malihe Talebi; Amirmorteza Ebrahimzadeh-Namvar; Somayeh Soleymanzadeh-Moghadam

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the main mechanisms of resistance to carbapenems is potential of Klebsiella pneumoniae to produce K. pneumoniae Carbapenemase (KPC). KPC is an important type of carbapenemase, which can hydrolyze carbapenems and other beta-lactam antibiotics. Modified Hodge Test (MHT) and  use  of  boronic  acid  as  a  KPC  inhibitor  are  two  types  of  phenotypic methods, which are used for detection of carbanemase-producing bacteria. Specificity of these two phenotypic tests for identi...

  12. Pneumonia nosocomial: importância do microambiente oral Nosocomial pneumonia: importance of the oral environment

    OpenAIRE

    Simone Macedo Amaral; Antonieta de Queiróz Cortês; Fábio Ramôa Pires

    2009-01-01

    A pneumonia nosocomial, em especial aquela associada à ventilação mecânica, é uma infecção frequente nas UTIs. Seus principais fatores etiológicos incluem bactérias colonizadoras e oportunistas da cavidade oral. Manobras de higiene oral, com o uso de antissépticos orais, como a clorexidina, têm se mostrado úteis na diminuição de sua incidência. O objetivo deste trabalho foi revisar a literatura sobre a importância do microambiente oral no desenvolvimento da pneumonia nosocomial.Nosocomial pne...

  13. [Differential diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis and community-acquired pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deĭkina, O N; Mishin, V Iu; Demikhova, O V

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to enhance the efficiency of differential diagnosis of pneumonia and pulmonary tuberculosis. A hundred and fifty-nine adult patients were examined. These included 78 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and 81 with community-acquired p neumonia. The clinical features of infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis (n = 48) and mild community-acquired pneumonia (n = 51) were compared. The course of caseous pneumonia (n = 30) was compared with that of moderate and severe community-acquired pneumonia (n = 30). Significant differences in the manifestations of the intoxication and bronchopulmonary syndrome were not found in patients with community-acquired pneumonia and infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis. Physical studies showed that in patients with community-acquired pneumonia, moist rale (54.9%) and crepitation (11.8%) were prevalent, but in those with infiltrative tuberculosis rale was absent in 60.4% of cases and the pattern of respiration was unchanged in 79.2%. Chest X-ray studies indicated that in patients with community-acquired pneumonia, lower lobar inflammatory changes were predominant in 62.8% of cases whereas in those with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis the process was mainly bilateral (43.8%) with the presence of destructive changes (83.3%) and bronchogenic dissemination (66.7%). In patients with caseous pneumonia, the intoxication syndrome was more significant than in those with severe community-acquired pneumonia. Chest X-ray studies demonstrated that in patients with caseous pneumonia, specific changes were bilateral with the involvement of 2 lobes or more, with destruction and bronchogenic dissemination while in those with community-acquired pneumonia, the pulmonary processes were predominantly bilateral (76.6%) at the lower lobar site (36.7%). PMID:17338353

  14. Streptococcus pneumoniae-associated pneumonia complicated by purulent pericarditis: case series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: In the antibiotic era, purulent pericarditis is a rare entity. However, there are still reports of cases of the disease, which is associated with high mortality, and most such cases are attributed to delayed diagnosis. Approximately 40-50% of all cases of purulent pericarditis are caused by Gram-positive bacteria, Streptococcus pneumoniae in particular. Methods: We report four cases of pneumococcal pneumonia complicated by pericarditis, with different clinical features and levels of severity. Results: In three of the four cases, the main complication was cardiac tamponade. Microbiological screening (urinary antigen testing and pleural fluid culture) confirmed the diagnosis of severe pneumococcal pneumonia complicated by purulent pericarditis. Conclusions: In cases of pneumococcal pneumonia complicated by pericarditis, early diagnosis is of paramount importance to avoid severe hemodynamic compromise. The complications of acute pericarditis appear early in the clinical course of the infection. The most serious complications are cardiac tamponade and its consequences. Antibiotic therapy combined with pericardiocentesis drastically reduces the mortality associated with purulent pericarditis. (author)

  15. Comparison between pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza pneumonia and seasonal influenza pneumonia in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compared 126 cases of seasonal influenza pneumonia (seasonal flu) reported between January, 1996 and March, 2009, with 10 cases of laboratory-confirmed pandemic influenza (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus pneumonia (novel flu), based on clinical condition, computed tomography (CT) findings, severity, treatment, and prognosis, to clarify the characteristics of this novel flu. The mean age of subjects was 52.4 years in the novel flu group and 64 years in the seasonal flu group, and novel flu patients were younger than seasonal flu patients. Seasonal flu patients had more underlying diseases than did novel flu patients. The median duration from illness onset to hospitalization was 4 days in both groups. Primary viral pneumonia was present in 70% of novel flu cases and 31% of seasonal flu cases. The proportion of primary virus pneumonia was higher in novel flu patients, and the disease severity of the seasonal flu group was more severe than that of the novel flu group. White blood cell and lymphocyte counts were lower in novel flu patients, and chest CT images showed bilateral shadows and pure ground-glass opacities more frequently in the novel flu cases. There were no differences in treatment, number of days required for the fever to subside, or mortality between the groups. (author)

  16. Lipoid pneumonia--a case of refractory pneumonia in a child treated with ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buda, Piotr; Wieteska-Klimczak, Anna; Własienko, Anna; Mazur, Agnieszka; Ziołkowski, Jerzy; Jaworska, Joanna; Kościesza, Andrzej; Dunin-Wąsowicz, Dorota; Książyk, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    Lipoid pneumonia (LP) is a chronic inflammation of the lung parenchyma with interstitial involvement due to the accumulation of endogenous or exogenous lipids. Exogenous LP (ELP) is associated with the aspiration or inhalation of oil present in food, oil-based medications or radiographic contrast media. The clinical manifestations of LP range from asymptomatic cases to severe pulmonary involvement, with respiratory failure and death, according to the quantity and duration of the aspiration. The diagnosis of exogenous lipoid pneumonia is based on a history of exposure to oil and the presence of lipid-laden macrophages on sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) analysis. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is the imaging technique of choice for evaluation of patients with suspected LP. The best therapeutic strategy is to remove the oil as early as possible through bronchoscopy with multiple BALs and interruption in the use of mineral oil. Steroid therapy remains controversial, and should be reserved for severe cases. We describe a case of LP due to oil aspiration in 3-year-old girl with intractable epilepsy on ketogenic diet. Diagnostic problems were due to non-specific symptoms that were mimicking serious infectious pneumonia. A high index of suspicion and precise medical history is required in cases of refractory pneumonia and fever unresponsive to conventional therapy. Gastroesophageal reflux and a risk of aspiration may be regarded as relative contraindications to the ketogenic diet. Conservative treatment, based on the use of oral steroids, proved to be an efficient therapeutic approach in this case. PMID:23996884

  17. Streptococcus pneumoniae-associated pneumonia complicated by purulent pericarditis: case series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cilloniz, Catia; Torres, Antoni [Servicio de Neumologia, Hospital Clinic de Barcelona, Ciber de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES), Instituto de Investigacion Biomedica Agusti Pi i Sunyer, Universidad de Barcelona (Spain); Rangel, Ernesto [Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autonoma de Nayarit, Tepic (Mexico); Barlascini, Cornelius [Servizio di Igiene e Sanita Pubblica, Ospedale Generale di Sestri Levante, Sestri Levante (Italy); Piroddi, Ines Maria Grazia; Nicolini, Antonello, E-mail: antonellonicolini@gmail.com [Servizio di Pneumologia, Ospedale Generale di Sestri Levante, Sestri Levante (Italy)

    2015-07-15

    Objective: In the antibiotic era, purulent pericarditis is a rare entity. However, there are still reports of cases of the disease, which is associated with high mortality, and most such cases are attributed to delayed diagnosis. Approximately 40-50% of all cases of purulent pericarditis are caused by Gram-positive bacteria, Streptococcus pneumoniae in particular. Methods: We report four cases of pneumococcal pneumonia complicated by pericarditis, with different clinical features and levels of severity. Results: In three of the four cases, the main complication was cardiac tamponade. Microbiological screening (urinary antigen testing and pleural fluid culture) confirmed the diagnosis of severe pneumococcal pneumonia complicated by purulent pericarditis. Conclusions: In cases of pneumococcal pneumonia complicated by pericarditis, early diagnosis is of paramount importance to avoid severe hemodynamic compromise. The complications of acute pericarditis appear early in the clinical course of the infection. The most serious complications are cardiac tamponade and its consequences. Antibiotic therapy combined with pericardiocentesis drastically reduces the mortality associated with purulent pericarditis. (author)

  18. Antithrombin inhibits bronchoalveolar activation of coagulation and limits lung injury during Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choi, Goda; Hofstra, Jorrit-Jan H; Roelofs, Joris J T H; Rijneveld, Anita W; Bresser, Paul; van der Zee, Jaring S; Florquin, Sandrine; van der Poll, Tom; Levi, Marcel; Schultz, Marcus J

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Alveolar fibrin deposition is a hallmark of pneumonia. It has been proposed that natural inhibitors of coagulation, including activated protein C, antithrombin, and tissue factor pathway inhibitor, exert lung-protective effects via anticoagulant and possibly anti-inflammatory pathways. We

  19. Differential CT features of infectious pneumonia versus bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) mimicking pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the differential CT features of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) mimicking pneumonia and infectious pneumonia at the lung periphery. CT images were reviewed in 47 patients with focal areas of parenchymal opacification at the lung periphery. We evaluated the presence of ground-glass attenuation, marginal conspicuity of the lesion, CT angiogram sign, air-bronchogram sign, a bubble-like low-attenuation area within the lesion, presence of pleural thickening and retraction associated with the lesion, presence of pleural effusion and extra-pleural fatty hypertrophy, presence of bronchial wall thickening proximal to the lesion, and air-trapping in the normal lung near the lesion. BAC (n=18) depicted the presence of a bubble-like low-attenuation area within the lesion, whereas infectious pneumonia (n=29) represented the pleural thickening associated with the lesion and bronchial wall thickening proximal to the lesion (P0.05). The focal areas of the parenchymal opacification on the CT images may suggest infectious pneumonia rather than BAC when they show bronchial wall thickening proximal to the lesion and pleural thickening associated with the lesion, whereas BAC is characterized as the presence of a bubble-like low attenuation area within the tumor. (orig.)

  20. Genome Structural Diversity among 31 Bordetella pertussis Isolates from Two Recent U.S. Whooping Cough Statewide Epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Katherine E.; Weigand, Michael R.; Peng, Yanhui; Cassiday, Pamela K.; Sammons, Scott; Knipe, Kristen; Rowe, Lori A.; Loparev, Vladimir; Sheth, Mili; Weening, Keeley; Tondella, M. Lucia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT During 2010 and 2012, California and Vermont, respectively, experienced statewide epidemics of pertussis with differences seen in the demographic affected, case clinical presentation, and molecular epidemiology of the circulating strains. To overcome limitations of the current molecular typing methods for pertussis, we utilized whole-genome sequencing to gain a broader understanding of how current circulating strains are causing large epidemics. Through the use of combined next-generation sequencing technologies, this study compared de novo, single-contig genome assemblies from 31 out of 33 Bordetella pertussis isolates collected during two separate pertussis statewide epidemics and 2 resequenced vaccine strains. Final genome architecture assemblies were verified with whole-genome optical mapping. Sixteen distinct genome rearrangement profiles were observed in epidemic isolate genomes, all of which were distinct from the genome structures of the two resequenced vaccine strains. These rearrangements appear to be mediated by repetitive sequence elements, such as high-copy-number mobile genetic elements and rRNA operons. Additionally, novel and previously identified single nucleotide polymorphisms were detected in 10 virulence-related genes in the epidemic isolates. Whole-genome variation analysis identified state-specific variants, and coding regions bearing nonsynonymous mutations were classified into functional annotated orthologous groups. Comprehensive studies on whole genomes are needed to understand the resurgence of pertussis and develop novel tools to better characterize the molecular epidemiology of evolving B. pertussis populations. IMPORTANCE Pertussis, or whooping cough, is the most poorly controlled vaccine-preventable bacterial disease in the United States, which has experienced a resurgence for more than a decade. Once viewed as a monomorphic pathogen, B. pertussis strains circulating during epidemics exhibit diversity visible on a genome

  1. Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage in the Gaza strip.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gili Regev-Yochay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal infections cause major morbidity and mortality in developing countries. We report the epidemiology of S. pneumoniae carriage in a developing region, the Gaza strip, and evaluate the theoretical coverage of carriage strains by pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs. METHODOLOGY: In 2009 we conducted a cross-sectional survey of S. pneumoniae carriage in healthy children and their parents, living throughout the Gaza strip. Data were collected and nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained. Antibiotic susceptibilities were determined by Vitek-2 and serotypes by the Quellung reaction. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: S. pneumoniae carriage was detected in 189/379 (50% of children and 30/376 (8% of parents. Carriage prevalence was highest in children <6 months of age (63%. Significant predictors for child carriage were number of household members and DCC attendance. The proportion of pediatric and adults isolates with serotypes included in PCV7 were 32% and 20% respectively, and 46% and 33% in PCV13 respectively. The most prominent non-vaccine serotypes (NVT were 35B, 15B/C and 23B. Penicillin-nonsusceptible strains were carried by 70% of carriers, penicillin-resistant strains (PRSP by 13% and Multi-drug-resistant (MDR by 30%. Of all PRSP isolates 54% belonged to serotypes included in PCV7 and 71% in the PCV13. Similarly, 59% and 73% of MDR-SP isolates, would theoretically be covered by PCV7 and PCV13, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that, PCV13-included strains were carried by 46% and 33% of pediatric and adult subjects respectively. In the absence of definitive data regarding the virulence of the NVT strains, it is difficult to predict the effect of PCVs on IPD in this region.

  2. Management of Rhodococcus equi pneumonia in foals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johns I

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Imogen Johns Department of Clinical Sciences and Services, Royal Veterinary College, North Mymms, UK Abstract: Rhodococcus equi, a gram-positive facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen, is the most important cause of pneumonia in foals aged 3 weeks to 5 months. The disease occurs worldwide, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality on endemically affected farms. Foals appear to become infected early in life, but clinical signs are typically delayed until 1–3 months of age because of the insidious nature of the disease. Although pneumonia is the most common clinical manifestation, up to 74% of foals may concurrently have extrapulmonary disorders, including both extrapulmonary infections (abdominal abscessation, colitis, osteomyelitis and immune-mediated disorders (nonseptic synovitis, uveitis. Diagnosis is based on the combination of clinical signs and abnormalities on hematologic screening and thoracic imaging in an appropriately aged foal and is confirmed by bacteriologic culture of the organism. Management of R. equi infections, in particular on farms with endemic disease, combines appropriate treatment of affected foals with preventative measures targeted at preventing infection and identifying foals before the development of severe disease. The combination of rifampin and a macrolide antimicrobial is recommended for treatment, as the combination is synergistic, reaches high intracellular concentrations, and should minimize the development of antimicrobial resistance. The prognosis for survival for foals with R. equi pneumonia is good, especially in foals mildly or subclinically affected, as is the prognosis for future athletic performance. Screening for early identification before the development of clinical signs has been advocated on endemically affected farms, although the most appropriate method, the timing of screening, and the selection of foals requiring treatment have yet to be determined. Recent evidence suggests that

  3. Increased incidence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in Norway 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blystad, H; Ånestad, G; Vestrheim, D F; Madsen, S; Rønning, K

    2012-01-01

    Epidemics of Mycoplasma pneumoniae have recently been reported from England and Wales and from Denmark. A similar increase in M. pneumoniae infections was noted in Norway late autumn 2011.The epidemic has resulted in shortage of erythromycin and the use of alternative antibiotics has been recommended. PMID:22321136

  4. Investigation of Ventilator Associated Pneumoniae in Intensive Care Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan Tağrıkulu,; Dilek Memiş; Nesrin Turan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Mechanical ventilator associated pneumonia is a serious infection occurred frequently in intensive care units and associated with high mortality. In this study we aimed to investigate the incidence of ventilator associated pneumonia, the duration of mechanical ventilation, length of intensive care unit stay, complication occurrence and mortality rates on patients undergoing mechanical ventilation for more than 48 hours. Material and Method: Two hundred...

  5. Minimum intravenous infectious dose of ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The minimum intravenous infectious dose for ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) WLC1 was determined using twenty-four 6 month-old lambs. Twelve groups of two 6 month-old lambs were inoculated intravenously with tissue culture fluid containing ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) WLC1 titer...

  6. Kinase Activity Profiling of Gram-Negative Pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendijk, Arie J.; Diks, Sander H.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; van der Poll, Tom; Wieland, Catharina W.

    2011-01-01

    Pneumonia is a severe disease with high morbidity and mortality. A major causative pathogen is the Gram-negative bacterium Klebsiella (K.) pneumoniae Kinases play an integral role in the transduction of intracellular signaling cascades and regulate a diverse array of biological processes essential t

  7. Kinase activity profiling of gram-negative pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Hoogendijk (Arie); S.H. Diks (Sander); M.P. Peppelenbosch (Maikel); T. van der Poll (Tom); C.W. Wieland (Catharina )

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPneumonia is a severe disease with high morbidity and mortality. A major causative pathogen is the Gram-negative bacterium Klebsiella (K.) pneumoniae. Kinases play an integral role in the transduction of intracellular signaling cascades and regulate a diverse array of biological processe

  8. Kinase activity profiling of gram-negative pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Hoogendijk; S.H. Diks; M.P. Peppelenbosch; T. van der Poll; C.W. Wieland

    2011-01-01

    Pneumonia is a severe disease with high morbidity and mortality. A major causative pathogen is the Gram-negative bacterium Klebsiella (K.) pneumoniae. Kinases play an integral role in the transduction of intracellular signaling cascades and regulate a diverse array of biological processes essential

  9. Necrotizing pneumonia after pharyngitis due to fusobacterium necrophorum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinman, P.K.; Flowers, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    A case of necrotizing pneumonia secordary to Fusobacterium necrophorum is reported. This anaerobic infection commonly originates in the upper respiratory tract and is often accompanied by multiple system disease due to hematogeneous seeding. When the lungs are involved, diffuse necrotizing pneumonia with pleural effusions and cavitation result. The course is prolonged, and the diagnosis is frequently delayed. With appropriate antibiotics, the prognosis is good.

  10. Klebsiella pneumoniae Antimicrobial Drug Resistance, United States, 1998–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez, Guillermo V.; Master, Ronald N; Clark, Richard B.; Fyyaz, Madiha; Duvvuri, Padmaraj; Ekta, Gupta; Bordon, Jose

    2013-01-01

    We studied antimicrobial-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae for 1998–2010 by using data from The Surveillance Network. Susceptibility results (n = 3,132,354) demonstrated significant increases in resistance to all antimicrobial drugs studied, except tetracycline. Cross-resistance among carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae was lower for tetracycline and amikacin.

  11. Use of fluoroquinolones for prophylaxis of murine Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia.

    OpenAIRE

    Brun-Pascaud, M.; Fay, M.; Zhong, M; Bauchet, J; Dux-Guyot, A; Pocidalo, J J

    1992-01-01

    We compared the prophylactic activities of six fluoroquinolones against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in immunosuppressed rats. Pefloxacin was the only agent which was as effective as the reference drug trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Clinical trials with pefloxacin in patients at risk for P. carinii pneumonia appear to be justified.

  12. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease severity is associated with severe pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Seop Eom

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a heterogeneous disorder, and various aspects of COPD may be associated with the severity of pneumonia in such patients. AIMS: We examined the risk factors associated with severe pneumonia in a COPD population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective observational study using a prospectively collected database of pneumonia patients who were admitted to our hospital through emergency department between 2008 and 2012. Patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia and those with an immunocompromised status were excluded. RESULTS: Of 148 pneumonia patients with COPD for whom chest computed tomography (CT scans were available, 106 (71.6% and 42 (28.4% were classified as non-severe and severe pneumonia, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the severity of airflow limitation [odds ratio (OR, 2.751; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.074-7.050; P = 0.035] and the presence of emphysema on a chest CT scan (OR, 3.366; 95% CI, 1.104-10.265; P = 0.033 were independently associated with severe pneumonia in patients with COPD. CONCLUSIONS: The severity of COPD including the airflow limitation grade and the presence of pulmonary emphysema were independently associated with the development of severe pneumonia.

  13. Serum zinc and pneumonia in nursing home elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinc plays an important role in immune function. The association between serum zinc and pneumonia in the elderly has not been studied. The study aim is to determine if serum zinc concentrations in nursing home elderly are associated with incidence and duration of pneumonia, total and duration of ant...

  14. Liver Abscess Caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae in Siblings

    OpenAIRE

    Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Su, Lin-Hui; Wu, Tsu-Lan; Hung, Iou-Jih

    2001-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae has been emerging as the leading cause of liver abscess in diabetic patients. Results of molecular typing of K. pneumoniae isolates from two siblings with liver abscess, their family members, and the environment suggest a possibility of cross infection of liver abscess by the fecal-oral route within diabetic patients.

  15. A Fatal Case of Klebsiella pneumoniae Mycotic Aneurysm

    OpenAIRE

    Chien-Ming Chao; Kun-Kuang Lee; Chia-Sheng Wang; Ping-Jen Chen; Tsung-Chih Yeh

    2011-01-01

    Mycotic aneurysm is a serious clinical condition with significant morbidity and mortality. Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella species are the most common causative pathogens. Klebsiella pneumoniae was rarely reported as a possible pathogen causing mycotic aneurysm; therefore, we describe a K. pneumoniae-related fatal bacteremia mycotic aneurysm in a patient in spite of appropriate antimicrobial agents and surgical management.

  16. Klebsiella pneumoniae: An Emerging Pathogen of Pyogenic Liver Abscess

    OpenAIRE

    Basu, Somansu

    2009-01-01

    Before 1980’s, the most common cause of pyogenic liver abscess was Escherichia coli but more recently Klebsiella pneumoniae is being increasingly reported in patients from Asian countries and United States. This report focuses on two cases of pyogenic liver abscess caused by the emerging pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae in a regional hospital diagnosed and treated successfully.

  17. KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, finally targeting Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Labarca, J; Poirel, L.; Özdamar, M.; S. Turkoglü; Hakko, E; Nordmann, P

    2014-01-01

    We report here the first identification of the worldwide spread of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-2-producing and carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae clone ST258 in Turkey, a country where the distantly-related carbapenemase OXA-48 is known to be endemic. Worryingly, this isolate was also resistant to colistin, now considered to be the last-resort antibiotic for carbapenem-resistant isolates.

  18. Appropriate antibiotic administration in critically ill patients with pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R A Khan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inappropriate initial antibiotics for pneumonia infection are usually linked to extended intensive care unit stay and are associated with an increased risk of mortality. This study evaluates the impact of inappropriate initial antibiotics on the length of intensive care unit stay, risk of mortality and the co-predictors that influences these outcomes. This retrospective study was conducted in an intensive care unit of a teaching hospital. The types of pneumonia investigated were hospital-acquired pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia. Three different time points were defined as the initiation of appropriate antibiotics at 24 h, between 24 to 48 h and at more than 48 h after obtaining a culture. Patients had either hospital-acquired pneumonia (59.1% or ventilator-associated pneumonia (40.9%. The length of intensive care unit stay ranged from 1 to 52 days (mean; 9.78±10.02 days. Patients who received appropriate antibiotic agent at 24 h had a significantly shorter length of intensive care unit stay (5.62 d, P<0.001. The co-predictors that contributed to an extended intensive care unit stay were the time of availability of susceptibility results and concomitant diseases, namely cancer and sepsis. The only predictor of intensive care unit death was cancer. The results support the need for early appropriate initial antibiotic therapy in hospital-acquired pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia infections.

  19. RECURRENT/PERSISTENT PNEUMONIA AMONG CHILDREN IN UPPER EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Saad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: Recurrent/persistent pneumonia in children continues to be a major challenge for the paediatricians. We aimed to determine the prevalence and underlying causes of recurrent/persistent pneumonia in children in Upper Egypt. Settings: Assiut University Children Hospital, Assiut, Egypt.   Methods: Patients with pneumonia admitted to the hospital during 2 years were investigated (microbiological, biochemical, immunological and radiological tests for recurrent/persistent pneumonia to determine its prevalence and to find out the underlying causes.   Results: 113 out of 1228 patients (9.2% met the diagnosis of recurrent/persistent pneumonia. Identified causes were;  aspiration syndromes (17.7%, pulmonary TB (14%, congenital heart disease (11.5%, bronchial asthma (9.7%, immune deficiency disorders (8.8% and vitamin D deficiency rickets (7%. Other causes included; congenital anomalies of the respiratory tract, interstitial lung diseases, bronchiectasis, and sickle cell anemia. No predisposing factors could be identified in 15% of cases. Conclusion: Approximately 1 in 10 children with pneumonia in our locality had recurrent/persistent pneumonia. The most frequent underlying cause for recurrent/persistent pneumonia in children in Upper Egypt is aspiration syndromes, followed by pulmonary TB.

  20. Fungal Pneumonia: A Silent Epidemic Coccidioidomycosis (Valley Fever)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungal pneumonia: a silent epidemic Coccidioidomycosis (valley fever) Coccidioidomycosis, a fungal disease called “cocci” or “valley fever,” is a major cause of community-acquired pneumonia in the southwestern US. A costly problem • In ...

  1. Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae induced ventilator-associated pneumonia in mechanically ventilated patients in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Q; Zhou, M; Zou, M; Liu, W-E

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics of hypervirulent K. pneumoniae (hvKP) induced ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and the microbiological characteristics and epidemiology of the hvKP strains. A retrospective study of 49 mechanically ventilated patients with K. pneumoniae induced VAP was conducted at a university hospital in China from January 2014 to December 2014. Clinical characteristics and K. pneumoniae antimicrobial susceptibility and biofilm formation were analyzed. Genes of capsular serotypes K1, K2, K5, K20, K54 and K57 and virulence factors plasmid rmpA(p-rmpA), iroB, iucA, mrkD, entB, iutA, ybtS, kfu and allS were also evaluated. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses were used to study the clonal relationship of the K. pneumoniae strains. Strains possessed p-rmpA and iroB and iucA were defined as hvKP. Of 49 patients, 14 patients (28.6 %) were infected by hvKP. Antimicrobial resistant rate was significantly higher in cKP than that in hvKP. One ST29 K54 extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing hvKP strain was detected. The prevalence of K1 and K2 in hvKP was 42.9 % and 21.4 %, respectively. The incidences of K1, K2, K20, p-rmpA, iroB, iucA, iutA, Kfu and alls were significantly higher in hvKP than those in cKP. ST23 was dominant among hvKP strains, and all the ST23 strains had identical RAPD pattern. hvKP has become a common pathogen of VAP in mechanically ventilated patients in China. Clinicians should increase awareness of hvKP induced VAP and enhance epidemiologic surveillance. PMID:26753990

  2. Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing Pneumonia Induced by Minocycline

    OpenAIRE

    Shikuwa, Chieko; Kadota, Jun-ichi; Mukae, Hiroshi; Nagata, Towako; Kaida, Hideyuki; Ishii, Hiroshi; Ishimatsu, Yuji; Kohno, Shigeru

    2001-01-01

    We report a case of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) caused by minocycline (MINO). A 59- year-old man visited to our hospital because of flu-like symptoms. He had been treated with MINO for a few weeks for the skin eruption. The chest radiograph showed consolidations in both lung fields. He was admitted to our hospital for further examination. An elevation of lymphocyte percentage was seen in his bronchoalveolar lavage and a diagnosis of BOOP was confirmed by video-assiste...

  3. Fatal radiation pneumonia following subclinical busulfan injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soble, A.R.; Perry, H.

    1977-01-01

    A patient with polycythemia vera received a moderate dose (480 mg) of busulfan intermittently over a 6 year period and later developed Hodgkin's disease. Following split-course upper mantle, chest irradiation, he developed rapidly progressive, fatal pneumonia and bone marrow hypoplasia. It is postulated that the hyperacute organ failures (lung and bone marrow) resulted from augmentation of subclinical busulfan-induced damage of these organs by additive radiation effect. It is recommended that in patients who have had antineoplastic chemotherapy, major radiotherapy to the cervicothoracic region be accompanied by careful monitoring of respiratory and hematopoietic function, both before and during radiotherapy.

  4. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in developing countries*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Armas Rodríguez Y.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP is a serious fungal infection among immunocompromised patients. In developed countries, the epidemiology and clinical spectrum of PcP have been clearly defined and well documented. However, in most developing countries, relatively little is known about the prevalence of pneumocystosis. Several articles covering African, Asian and American countries were reviewed in the present study. PcP was identified as a frequent opportunistic infection in AIDS patients from different geographic regions. A trend to an increasing rate of PcP was apparent in developing countries from 2002 to 2010.

  5. Epidemiology and etiology of childhood pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Igor Rudan; Cynthia Boschi-Pinto; Zrinka Biloglav; Kim Mulholland; Harry Campbell

    2008-01-01

    Childhood pneumonia is the leading single cause of mortality in children aged less than 5 years. The incidence in this age group is estimated to be 0.29 episodes per child-year in developing and 0.05 episodes per child-year in developed countries. This translates into about 156 million new episodes each year worldwide, of which 151 million episodes are in the developing world. Most cases occur in India (43 million), China (21 million) and Pakistan (10 million), with additional high numbers in...

  6. Lack of SOS repair in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild-type strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae were non-mutable by UV radiation and thymidine starvation. Moreover, UV-irradiated pneumococcal ω2 phages were not reactivated in an irradiated host. This suggests that, in pneumococcus, there is no efficient inducible repair process similar to the SOS repair described in detail for E. coli. We also report that mutations cannot be induced by a process thought to be linked to competence during transformation with isogenic wild-type DNA either on wild-type strains or in strains in which the hex function of excision and repair of mismatched bases is inactive. (orig.)

  7. Risks of pneumonia in patients with asthma taking inhaled corticosteroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Byrne, Paul M; Pedersen, Soren; Carlsson, Lars-Göran;

    2011-01-01

    Rationale: Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the mainstay of asthma treatment. Studies in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease reported increased rates of pneumonia with ICS. Concerns exist about an increased pneumonia risk in patients with asthma taking ICS. Objectives: To evaluate the risks...... of pneumonia in patients with asthma taking ICS. Methods: A retrospective analysis evaluated studies of the ICS budesonide in asthma. The primary data set were all double-blind, placebo-controlled trials lasting at least 3 months, involving budesonide (26 trials, n = 9,067 for budesonide; n = 5.......70% (12.7 per TPY), whereas the percentage of patients reporting pneumonia SAEs was 0.17% (3.1 per TPY). There was no increased risk with higher budesonide doses or any difference between budesonide and fluticasone. Conclusions: There is no increased risk of pneumonia in patients with asthma, identified...

  8. Cryptogenic Organising Pneumonia As The Initial Presenting Manifestation of SLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neena Mampilly

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cryptogenic Organising Pneumonia (COP, also called idiopathic Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organising Pneumonia( BOOP, is a distinct entity among the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias defined histopathologically by intraalveolar buds of granulation tissue. The etiology includes idiopathic, infectious, drug induced radiation induced and connective tissue diseases. Organising pneumonia occurs particularly in patients with dermatomyositis-polymyositis where it may be the presenting manifestation, and rarely in SLE, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma and other connective tissue diseases. We describe a 30 yr old lady who initially presented with respiratory symptoms, not responding to antibiotics. She was subsequently diagnosed as SLE and HRCT thorax showed consolidation involving both lung fields. A percutaneous lung biopsy revealed features of Cryptogenic Organising Pneumonia.

  9. "Diesel siphoner's lung": Exogenous lipoid pneumonia following hydrocarbon aspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatnarayan, Kavitha; Madan, Karan; Walia, Ritika; Kumar, Jaya; Jain, Deepali; Guleria, Randeep

    2014-01-01

    Lipoid pneumonia is an unusual and uncommon form of pneumonia caused by aspiration of fatty substances. Hydrocarbon pneumonitis following aspiration of diesel is a form of exogenous lipoid pneumonia wherein, aspirated diesel reaches the alveoli rapidly without evoking any significant cough, but initiates an intense inflammatory reaction in the pulmonary parenchyma. This is a rarely described clinical scenario, although the practice of diesel siphonage from automobiles is a common practice in developing countries. We herein describe a 40-year-old male patient, in whom the diagnosis of lipoid pneumonia was delayed for a long duration and highlight the importance of taking a detailed occupational exposure history in patients with non-resolving pneumonia to rule out the underlying possibility of this rare clinical entity. PMID:24669087

  10. Changing bacteriological profile and mortality trends in community acquired pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar Khadanga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are very few and conflicting Indian data regarding the bacteriological etiology of community acquired pneumonia (CAP. Adding to this agony, there is no credible data from the eastern part of India. This is a cross-sectional study and descriptive in nature over a period of 1-year. Of the 464 cases of the study population, we could isolate aerobic bacteria in 149 patients (32.1%. Streptococcus pneumoniae has been identified as the most common organism causing CAP (68/149. Gram-negative bacilli (GNB as a group exceeded marginally over S. pneumoniae (69/149. Among GNB, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most common organism (31/69, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (29/69. Staphylococcus aureus was identified in (12/149 cases. Co-amoxyclav is still the most sensitive drug for S. pneumoniae. P. aeruginosa was most sensitive to imipenam followed by piperacillin-tazobactam.

  11. Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in patients with Kawasaki disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Na Lee

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Kawasaki disease (KD is the main cause of acquired heart disease in children. In addition to cardiovascular involvement, many complications have been recognized in KD. However, respiratory complications have been rarely reported. We investigated the differences in clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, radiography findings, and echocardiography findings of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection and other types of pneumonia in KD patients. Methods : Among 358 patients with KD, 54 developed concurrent pneumonia. Among the 54 patients, 12 (22.2% with high titers of anti-M. pneumoniae antibody (AMA (&gt;1:640 were grouped in the M. pneumoniae group and 42 were included in the control group. Serum AMA was measured in each patient. Clinical laboratory findings and total duration of fever were analyzed. Results : The duration of fever, serum hemoglobin, white blood cell count, platelet count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein level, albumin level, and the incidence of coronary arterial lesions showed no statistical difference in the 2 groups. Neutrophil count was significantly higher in the M. pneumoniae group than in the control group. Among various radiography findings observed in pneumonia, consolidation and pleural effusion were more frequent in the M. pneumoniae group than in the control group. On the other hand, parahilar peribronchial opacification, diffuse interstitial lesion, and normal findings prevailed in the control group. Conclusion : KD patients can have concurrent infections, especially pulmonary symptoms. The cause of KD is likely to be associated with M. pneumoniae infection. Thus, immediate treatment of M. pneumoniae infection in KD patients is very important.

  12. Lung Dendritic Cells Facilitate Extrapulmonary Bacterial Dissemination during Pneumococcal Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alva eRosendahl

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of bacterial pneumonia worldwide. Given the critical role of dendritic cells (DCs in regulating and modulating the immune response to pathogens, we investigated here the role of DCs in S. pneumoniae lung infections. Using a well-established transgenic mouse line which allows the conditional transient depletion of DCs, we showed that ablation of DCs resulted in enhanced resistance to intranasal challenge with S. pneumoniae. DC-depleted mice exhibited delayed bacterial systemic dissemination, significantly reduced bacterial loads in the infected organs and lower levels of serum inflammatory mediators than non-depleted animals. The increased resistance of DC-depleted mice to S. pneumoniae was associated with a better capacity to restrict pneumococci extrapulmonary dissemination. Furthermore, we demonstrated that S. pneumoniae disseminated from the lungs into the regional lymph nodes in a cell-independent manner and that this direct way of dissemination was much more efficient in the presence of DCs. We also provide evidence that S. pneumoniae induces expression and activation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 in cultured bone marrow-derived DCs. MMP-9 is a protease involved in the breakdown of extracellular matrix proteins and is critical for DC trafficking across extracellular matrix and basement membranes during the migration from the periphery to the lymph nodes. MMP-9 was also significantly up-regulated in the lungs of mice after intranasal infection with S. pneumoniae. Notably, the expression levels of MMP-9 in the infected lungs were significantly decreased after depletion of DCs suggesting the involvement of DCs in MMP-9 production during pneumococcal pneumonia. Thus, we propose that S. pneumoniae can exploit the DC-derived proteolysis to open tissue barriers thereby facilitating its own dissemination from the local site of infection.

  13. Colistin-Resistant, Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase (KPC)–Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Belonging to the International Epidemic Clone ST258

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdanovich, Tatiana; Adams-Haduch, Jennifer M.; Tian, Guo-Bao; Nguyen, Minh Hong; Kwak, Eun Jeong; Muto, Carlene A.; Doi, Yohei

    2011-01-01

    Five cases of infection due to colistin-resistant, Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase–producing K. pneumoniae belonging to the international epidemic clone ST258 occurred over a 4-month period. These cases likely represented both emergence of resistance and transmission of resistant organism. The colistin-resistant isolates were able to persist in the absence of selective pressure in vitro.

  14. Clinical behavior of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningoencephalitis Comportamiento clinico y terapéutico de la meningoencefalitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Raisa Bu-Coifiu Fanego; Dorta-Contreras, Alberto J; Bárbara Padilla-Docal; Martha O' Farril-Sanchez; Isabel Lopez-Hernandez

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: There was an increased number of cases of meningoencephalitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, after the successful vaccination campaigns against Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae. This paper aims at describing the clinical characteristics, the laboratory findings, the complications, and the therapeutic management of these patients, who have been suffering from this disease since 1993 to 2006. METHOD: Twelve children with Streptococcus pneumoniae meningoencephali...

  15. A Bordetella pertussis proteoliposome induces protection in mice without affecting the immunogenicity of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids in a trivalent formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Sonsire Fernández; Chovel, Mario Landys; Hernández, Niurka Gutiérrez; González, Lorena Corcho; Blanco, Amaya; Hernández, Daily Serrano; Medina, Mildrey Fariñas; Tito, Maydelis Álvarez; Quiñoy, José Luis Pérez

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a formulation of Bordetella pertussis proteoliposome (PLBp), diphtheria, and tetanus toxoids and alum (DT-PLBp) was evaluated as a trivalent vaccine candidate in BALB/c mice. Vaccine-induced protection was estimated using the intranasal challenge for pertussis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay fvto assess serological responses for diphtheria or tetanus. Both, diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis (DTP) and diphtheria-tetanus vaccines (DT) were used as controls. Animals immunized with DT-PLBp, PLBp alone, and DTP showed total reduction of CFU in lungs 7 days after intranasal challenge. Likewise, formulations DT-PLBp, DTP, and DT elicited antibody levels ≥2 IU/mL against tetanus and diphtheria, considered protective when neutralization tests are used. Overall, results showed that combination of PLBp with tetanus and diphtheria toxoids did not affect the immunogenicity of each antigen alone. PMID:27489808

  16. Invasive diagnostic techniques in idiopathic interstitial pneumonias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, Venerino; Ravaglia, Claudia; Gurioli, Carlo; Piciucchi, Sara; Dubini, Alessandra; Cavazza, Alberto; Chilosi, Marco; Rossi, Andrea; Tomassetti, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Fibrosing interstitial lung diseases (f-ILDs) represent a heterogeneous group of disorders in which the aetiology may be identified or, not infrequently, remain unknown. Establishing a correct diagnosis of a distinct f-ILD requires a multidisciplinary approach, integrating clinical profile, physiological and laboratory data, radiological appearance and, when appropriate, histological findings. Surgical lung biopsy is still considered the most important diagnostic tool as it is able to provide lung samples large enough for identification of complex patterns such as usual interstitial pneumonitis (UIP) and nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis. However, this procedure is accompanied by significant morbidity and mortality. Bronchoalveolar lavage is still a popular diagnostic tool allowing identification of alternative diagnoses in patients with suspected idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) when an increase in lymphocytes is detected. Conventional transbronchial lung biopsy has a very low sensitivity in detecting the UIP pattern and its role in this clinical-radiological context is marginal. The introduction of less invasive methods such as transbronchial cryobiopsy show great promise to clinical practice as they can be used to obtain samples large enough to morphologically support a diagnosis of IPF or other idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, along with fewer complications. Recent advances in the field suggest that less invasive methods of lung sampling, without significant side effects, in combination with other diagnostic methods could replace the need for surgical lung biopsy in the future. Indeed, these new multidisciplinary procedures may become the main diagnostic work-up method for patients with suspected idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. PMID:26682637

  17. Aspergillus pneumonia in renal transplant recipients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-dong; HU Xiao-peng; YIN Hang; WANG Wei; ZHANG Xin; MA Lin-lin; WANG Yong

    2008-01-01

    Background Filamentous fungal infections are associated with a high morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplants.The present study aimed to investigate the aspergillus pneumonia in renal transplant recipients, and its diagnosis as well as treatment.Methods Approximately 2000 cases of renal transplants were retrospectively studied and we focused on cases hospitalized during August 1, 2005 and February 1, 2007, as the study period. The clinical database and electronic records were analyzed. Recently published literature was reviewed.Results There was more diabetes and hypertension in the infected group than in the non-infected group (86% vs 62% and 57% vs 39%, respectively). Eighty-six percent of recipients from the infected group had delayed graft function. Seven cases with aspergillus pneumonia were identified based on either fungal culture or radiology. Of the 7 cases, 4 died in a few days after diagnosis. Liposomal amphotericin B was used as a first-line therapy.Conclusions Incidences of fungal infection are increasing among renal transplant recipients. Early diagnosis and treatment are critical steps in curing aspergillosis.

  18. An unusual cause of fungal pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Dharmic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 65 year old female, known asthmatic on steroids intermittently, with no other co-morbidity presented with fever, breathlessness and cough with mucoid expectoration of ten days duration with bilateral crepts, went for Type II respiratory failure and was intubated followed by tracheostomy in view of prolonged ventilator support. In spite of high end antibiotics as per sputum culture sensitivity, weaning off the ventilator was not possible. Blood investigations revealed leucocytosis with neutrophilic predominance and I g E levels were within normal limits. CT chest showed multiple patchy consolidations of the right upper, middle and lower lobes with ground glass appearance and enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. Work up for retrovirus, tuberculosis and Sputum for KOH mount was negative. No evidence of sputum and blood eosinophilia. BAL sample grew Curvularia species. Fluconazole 150mg OD was added. Serial imaging of the chest showed resolution of the consolidation and was weaned off the ventilator and was comfortable on room air. Pneumonia caused by Curvularia, in an immune competent patient is very rare. Even in broncho pulmonary involvement these fungi usually occur in allergic conditions as in ABPA than appearing as a solitary cause for lung infection. But if diagnosed and treated early, will respond well to triazoles. This case report highlights a unilateral fungal pneumonia with dramatic clinical improvement post treatment once the rare causative organism was identified.

  19. Epidemiology of pneumonia in a burn care unit: the influence of inhalation trauma on pneumonia and of pneumonia on burn mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Liodaki, E.; Kalousis, K; Mauss, K. L.; Kisch, T; Mailaender, P; F. Stang

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the epidemiological characteristics of burn patients developing pneumonia, as well as the predisposing factors and the mortality of these patients. Infectious complications present serious problems in severely burned patients. Pneumonia, in particular, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in burn patients. Patients with inhalation injuries are exposed to a greater risk due to the possible development of infectious complications in the lower respira...

  20. US Pneumonia Hospitalizations, a Decade of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Marie R.; Zhu, Yuwei; Moore, Matthew R.; Whitney, Cynthia G.; Grijalva, Carlos G.

    2016-01-01

    Background The introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) into the US childhood immunization schedule in 2000 has substantially reduced vaccine-serotype invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in both young children and unvaccinated older children and adults. All-cause pneumonia hospitalizations also markedly declined in young children by 2004. Because of concern about increases in disease caused by non-vaccine serotypes, we assessed whether the pneumonia reduction in young children was sustained through 2009 and whether pneumonia hospitalizations in older age groups also declined. Methods Annual all-cause pneumonia hospitalization rates were estimated using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Pneumonia hospitalizations were defined by pneumonia listed first or listed in another position if sepsis, meningitis or empyema was the first listed diagnosis. Average annual rates in pre-PCV7 (1997–1999) and late PCV7 years (2007–2009) were used to estimate annual declines in pneumonia hospitalizations. Results Annual pneumonia hospitalization rates declined by 551.1 (95% confidence interval 445.1–657.1) per 100,000 children aged <2 years, translating to 47,172 fewer hospitalizations annually compared to expected based on pre-PCV7 rates. The decline of 1300.8 (984.0–1617.6) pneumonia hospitalizations per 100,000 adults aged ≥85 years translated to 73,243 fewer hospitalizations annually. Pneumonia hospitalizations declined by 8.4 (0.6–16.2), 85.3 (7.0–163.6), and 359.8 (199.6–520.0) per 100,000 adults aged 18–39, 65–74 and 75–84 years, respectively. Overall, we estimated an age-adjusted annual reduction of 54.8 (41.1–68.5) per 100,000 or 168,182 fewer pneumonia hospitalizations annually. Conclusions Declines in childhood pneumonia were sustained during the decade since PCV7 introduction. Substantial reductions in pneumonia hospitalizations in adults were also observed. PMID:23841730

  1. Clinical characteristics of children with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection hospitalized during the Danish 2010-2012 epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Cristel M; Schønning, Kristian; Rosenfeldt, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia. Pneumonia may be the most severe manifestation of respiratory M. pneumoniae infection. The most typical symptoms in children are cough and wheezing, which are often accompanied by upper respiratory tract manifestations...

  2. Pathogenesis of Pneumococcal Pneumonia in Cyclophosphamide-Induced Leukopenia in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Erjian; Simard, Marie; Ouellet, Nathalie; Bergeron, Yves; Beauchamp, Denis; Bergeron, Michel G.

    2002-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia frequently occurs in leukopenic hosts, and most patients subsequently develop lung injury and septicemia. However, few correlations have been made so far between microbial growth, inflammation, and histopathology of pneumonia in specific leukopenic states. In the present study, the pathogenesis of pneumococcal pneumonia was investigated in mice rendered leukopenic by the immunosuppressor antineoplastic drug cyclophosphamide. Compared to the immunocompetent s...

  3. Dysbiosis of upper respiratory tract microbiota in elderly pneumonia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Steenhuijsen Piters, Wouter A A; Huijskens, Elisabeth G W; Wyllie, Anne L; Biesbroek, Giske; van den Bergh, Menno R; Veenhoven, Reinier H; Wang, Xinhui; Trzciński, Krzysztof; Bonten, Marc J; Rossen, John W A; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Bogaert, Debby

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in elderly. We hypothesize that dysbiosis between regular residents of the upper respiratory tract (URT) microbiome, that is balance between commensals and potential pathogens, is involved in pathogen overgrowth and consequently disease. We compared oropharyngeal microbiota of elderly pneumonia patients (n=100) with healthy elderly (n=91) by 16S-rRNA-based sequencing and verified our findings in young adult pneumonia patients (n=27) and young healthy adults (n=187). Microbiota profiles differed significantly between elderly pneumonia patients and healthy elderly (PERMANOVA, Pbacterial community members in URT microbiota showed high specificity of 95% and sensitivity of 84% (89% and 73%, respectively, after cross-validation) for differentiating pneumonia patients from healthy individuals. These results suggest that pneumonia in elderly and young adults is associated with dysbiosis of the URT microbiome with bacterial overgrowth of single species and absence of distinct anaerobic bacteria. Whether the observed microbiome changes are a cause or a consequence of the development of pneumonia or merely coincide with disease status remains a question for future research. PMID:26151645

  4. Pneumonia adquirida na comunidade e derrame pleural parapneumônico relacionados a Mycoplasma pneumoniae em crianças e adolescentes Mycoplasma pneumoniae-related community-acquired pneumonia and parapneumonic pleural effusion in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Alves Vervloet

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência e as características da pneumonia adquirida na comunidade (PAC e derrames pleurais parapneumônicos (DPP relacionados a Mycoplasma pneumoniae em um grupo de crianças e adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional retrospectivo com 121 pacientes hospitalizados com PAC e DPP em um hospital de referência terciária, entre 2000 e 2008, divididos em seis grupos (G1 a G6 segundo o agente etiológico: M. pneumoniae com ou sem coinfecção, em 44 pacientes; outros agentes que não M. pneumoniae, em 77; M. pneumoniae sem coinfecção, em 34; Streptococcus pneumoniae, em 36; Staphylococcus aureus, em 31; e coinfecção M. pneumoniae/S. pneumoniae, em 9, respectivamente. RESULTADOS: Na comparação entre os grupos, G1 apresentou frequências maiores em gênero feminino, tosse seca, uso prévio de beta-lactâmicos e na duração dos sintomas até a admissão, assim como menor uso de assistência ventilatória e de drenagem torácica que G2, enquanto G3 teve maiores frequências em uso prévio de beta-lactâmicos e tosse seca, maior duração dos sintomas antes da admissão e menor frequência de uso de drenos torácicos que G4 e G5, ao passo que G3 teve média de idade maior e menor frequência de náuseas/vômitos que G4, assim como menor uso de assistência ventilatória que G5. A coinfecção M. pneumoniae/S. pneumoniae aumentou a duração dos sintomas até a admissão. CONCLUSÕES: Nesta amostra, a prevalência de PAC e DPP por M. pneumoniae foi de 12,75%. Embora a doença apresentasse quadros mais leves que aquela por outros organismos, a evolução foi mais prolongada. Nossos dados sugerem a necessidade de uma maior diligência na investigação de M. pneumoniae em crianças e adolescentes com PAC e DPP em nosso meio.OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and the characteristics of Mycoplasma pneumoniae-related community-acquired pneumonia (CAP and parapneumonic pleural effusion (PPE in children and adolescents

  5. Chlamydophila pneumoniae Infection and Its Role in Neurological Disorders

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    Enrico Granieri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydophila pneumoniae is an intracellular pathogen responsible for a number of different acute and chronic infections. The recent deepening of knowledge on the biology and the use of increasingly more sensitive and specific molecular techniques has allowed demonstration of C. pneumoniae in a large number of persons suffering from different diseases including cardiovascular (atherosclerosis and stroke and central nervous system (CNS disorders. Despite this, many important issues remain unanswered with regard to the role that C. pneumoniae may play in initiating atheroma or in the progression of the disease. A growing body of evidence concerns the involvement of this pathogen in chronic neurological disorders and particularly in Alzheimer's disease (AD and Multiple Sclerosis (MS. Monocytes may traffic C. pneumoniae across the blood-brain-barrier, shed the organism in the CNS and induce neuroinflammation. The demonstration of C. pneumoniae by histopathological, molecular and culture techniques in the late-onset AD dementia has suggested a relationship between CNS infection with C. pneumoniae and the AD neuropathogenesis. In particular subsets of MS patients, C. pneumoniae could induce a chronic persistent brain infection acting as a cofactor in the development of the disease. The role of Chlamydia in the pathogenesis of mental or neurobehavioral disorders including schizophrenia and autism is uncertain and fragmentary and will require further confirmation.

  6. Ultrasound in Rheumatologic Interstitial Lung Disease: A Case Report of Nonspecific Interstitial Pneumonia in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laria, A; Lurati, A; Scarpellini, M

    2015-01-01

    According to the American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society consensus classification, idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) include several clinic-radiologic-pathologic entities: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP), nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, acute interstitial pneumonia, respiratory bronchiolitis-associated ILD, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, and lymphoid interstitial pneumonia. Ultrasound Lung Comets (ULCs) are an echographic chest-sonography hallmark of pulmonary interstitial fibrosis. We describe the ultrasound (US) findings in the follow-up of a NSIP's case in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). PMID:26240772

  7. Ultrasound in Rheumatologic Interstitial Lung Disease: A Case Report of Nonspecific Interstitial Pneumonia in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Laria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the American Thoracic Society (ATS/European Respiratory Society consensus classification, idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs include several clinic-radiologic-pathologic entities: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP, nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP, cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, acute interstitial pneumonia, respiratory bronchiolitis-associated ILD, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, and lymphoid interstitial pneumonia. Ultrasound Lung Comets (ULCs are an echographic chest-sonography hallmark of pulmonary interstitial fibrosis. We describe the ultrasound (US findings in the follow-up of a NSIP’s case in rheumatoid arthritis (RA.

  8. Meningoencefalitis por Mycoplasma pneumoniae en un adulto joven Mycoplasma pneumoniae meningoencephalitis in a young adult

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    Marcelo del Castillo

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones por Mycoplasma pneumoniae presentan complicaciones del sistema nervioso de distinto tipo, que si bien son infrecuentes pueden ser graves; habitualmente tienen evolución favorable pero pueden dejar secuelas permanentes. Se presenta una paciente adulta joven con una meningoencefalitis aguda que no dejó secuelas como complicación de una infección respiratoria baja. El diagnóstico se efectuó por detección de anticuerpos específicos.Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections have extrapulmonary complications that involve the nervous system. The neurologic manifestations are diverse. Although the prognosis is usually favorable, the patients can undergo severe permanent sequelae. We present a young female adult with acute meningoencephalitis as a complication of a lower respiratory infection, which followed a benign course without neurologic sequelae.

  9. [An autopsy case of pulmonary tumor thrombotic microangiopathy complicated with interstitial pneumonia and lipoid pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Kyoko; Matsuyama, Masashi; Kokuho, Nariaki; Masuko, Hironori; Hayashi, Hiroki; Iizuka, Takashi; Hayashibara, Kenji; Saito, Takefumi; Kawabata, Yoshinori

    2009-06-01

    A 67-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of progressive dyspnea, cough, bloody sputum, and backache. Chest radiography and CT scans showed bilateral diffuse interstitial shadows, bilateral pleural effusion and dilatation of the pulmonary artery. Echocardiography indicated pulmonary hypertension, and the serum tumor marker levels were elevated. We performed right cardiac catheterization, and withdrew some blood from a pulmonary artery catheter in the wedge position. We confirmed moderate pulmonary hypertension, and adenocarcinoma-like malignant cells were seen in the aspirated blood. The patient died of progressive respiratory failure despite supportive care. In addition to PTTM and lymphangiosis carcinomatosa, autopsy of the right lung revealed interstitial pneumonia and lipoid pneumonia, both of which were not reported before to be associated with PTTM. PMID:19601530

  10. Comparison of radiological findings and microbial aetiology of childhood pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korppi, M; Kiekara, O; Heiskanen-Kosma, T; Soimakallio, S

    1993-04-01

    Sixty-one children were treated in hospital from 1981 to 1982 because of both radiologically and microbiologically verified viral or bacterial pneumonia. The chest radiographs were interpreted by two radiologists, not familiar with the clinical data, on two occasions three years apart, and only those patients with a definite alveolar (n = 27) or interstitial (n = 34) pneumonia at both evaluations were included in the present analysis. In addition, all patients had viral (n = 20), mixed viral-bacterial (n = 21) or bacterial (n = 20) infections diagnosed by viral or bacterial antibody or antigen assays. Viral infection alone was seen in 7 (26%), mixed viral-bacterial infection in 8 (30%) and bacterial infection alone in 12 (44%) of the 27 patients with alveolar pneumonia. The respective figures were 13 (38%), 13 (38%) and 8 (24%) for the 34 patients with interstitial pneumonia. C-reactive protein concentration was greater than 40 mg/l (a screening limit for viral and bacterial infections) in 15 (56%) of the patients with alveolar and in 11 (32%) of the patients with interstitial pneumonia. Thus 74% of the patients with alveolar and 62% with interstitial pneumonia had bacterial infection, either alone or as a mixed viral-bacterial infection. Our results suggest that the presence of an alveolar infiltrate in a chest radiograph is a specific but insensitive indicator of bacterial pneumonia. We conclude that patients with alveolar pneumonia should be treated with antibiotics. In patients with interstitial pneumonia, however, both viral and bacterial aetiology are possible. In those, the decision concerning antibiotic treatment should be based on clinical and laboratory findings. PMID:8318803

  11. STUDY OF SERUM ALBUMIN LEVEL IN COMMUNITY ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA

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    Lokendra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION AND AIM: Patients who are admitted to hospital with pneumonia are at risk of subsequent recurrent pneumonia and death even after discharge. This risk may be even higher in patients, who have a low serum albumin level on admission. This study was conducted to determine serum albumin level in patients with CAP as compared to healthy individuals and to observe the correlation of serum albumin level with severity of CAP. METHODOLOGY: This study was carried in department of TB-chest at Gandhi medical college, Bhopal. The study includes 30 cases of CAP and 30 age and sex matched healthy controls. The cases were divided according to CRB-65- BTS criteria, in less severe pneumonia group A (score0-1, n=16, moderate pneumonia group B (score2-3, n=8, very severe pneumonia group C (score4, n=6. The serum was assayed quantitatively for albumin in biochemistry department and compared statistically. RESULTS: Patients with CAP have low levels of serum albumin (mean value 2.91±0.09 gm/dl and this value further decreases significantly with increasing severity of pneumonia (p<0.001. In control group, mean value of serum albumin was 3.21±0.10g/dl with no significant effect of age and sex. In pneumonia cases, serum albumin shows decreasing trend along with increasing severity of pneumonia with statistically significant (p<0.001 difference in mean serum albumin level in all three CAP groups with different level of severity. CONCLUSION: Serum albumin may be a good easily available and cheap indirect marker of not only nutritional status of the patient but also, it can be correlated with severity of community acquired pneumonia and thus prognosis.

  12. The volatile metabolome of Klebsiella pneumoniae in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Christiaan A; Smolinska, Agnieszka; Hill, Jane E

    2016-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important cause of bloodstream infections in critically-ill patients, with mortality exceeding 50% for infections caused by antibiotic-resistant strains. Despite its importance as a bacteremia-causing agent, there is little known about the metabolism of K. pneumoniae during growth in pure human blood. Here, we comprehensively profile the volatile metabolites produced by K. pneumoniae during growth in human blood to approximately mid-exponential (7 h) and early stationary (12 h) phases using 2D gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS). We identified 33 volatile molecules that were significantly more abundant in K. pneumoniae cultures relative to sterile blood, of which 22 were detected in cultures only. We identified nine molecules that have not previously been reported as K. pneumoniae-associated headspace volatiles, four of which we believe to be novel bacterial-associated volatiles. We also identified a set of 17 volatile molecules that discriminate between 7 h and 12 h K. pneumoniae cultures, indicating either growth phase or cell density-associated changes in the composition of headspace volatiles. Our analysis of the volatile molecules produced by K. pneumoniae during growth in human blood using GC×GC-TOFMS has doubled the number of volatiles reported for this organism in blood-containing media, and increased the total number of K. pneumoniae-associated volatiles by 20%. The volatile molecules produced by K. pneumoniae in blood may represent novel biomarkers for the diagnosis of bacteremia. PMID:27163334

  13. Emerging resistant serotypes of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshafie, Sittana; Taj-Aldeen, Saad J

    2016-01-01

    Background Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of meningitis and sepsis. The aim of the study was to analyze the distribution, vaccine serotype coverage, and antibiotic resistance of S. pneumoniae serotypes isolated from patients with invasive diseases, after the introduction of pneumococcal 7-valent conjugated vaccine (PCV-7). Methods A total of 134 isolates were collected from blood and cerebrospinal fluid specimens at Hamad Hospital during the period from 2005 to 2009. Isolate serotyping was done using the Quellung reaction. The prevaccination period was considered before 2005. Results The most common serotypes for all age groups were 3 (12.70%), 14 (11.90%), 1 (11.90%), 19A (9.00%), 9V (5.20%), 23F (5.20%), and 19F (4.50%). Coverage rates for infant conjugated vaccine (PCV-10), and the 13-valent conjugated vaccine (PCV-13) were 34.78%, 52.17%, and 78.26%, respectively. Coverage rates of these vaccines were 50%, 67.86%, and 75% for the 2–5 years age group; 27.12%, 40.68%, and 64.41% for the age group 6–64 years; and 25%, 33.33%, and 66.67% for the ≥65 years age group, respectively. The percentage of nonsusceptible isolates to penicillin, cefotaxime, and erythromycin were 43.86%, 16.66%, and 22.81%, respectively. Thirty-seven isolates (32.46%) were multidrug resistant (MDR) and belonged to serotypes 14, 19A, 19F, 23F, 1, 9V, 12F, 4, 6B, 3, and 15A. Compared to previous results before the introduction of PCV-7, there was a significant reduction in penicillin-nonsusceptable S. pneumoniae from 66.67% to 43.86%, and a slight insignificant reduction in erythromycin nonsusceptible strains from 27.60% to 22.8%, while there was a significant increase in cefotaxime nonsusceptible strains from 3.55% to 16.66%. Conclusion Invasive pneumococcal strains and the emergence of MDR serotypes is a global burden that must be addressed through multiple strategies, including vaccination, antibiotic stewardship, and continuous surveillance. PMID:27418844

  14. Alveolar damage in AIDS-related Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, T L; Prentø, P; Junge, Jette;

    1997-01-01

    P carinii pneumonia, whereas none without P carinii pneumonia had this finding (p < 0.05). Erosion of the type II pneumocyte was not observed. CONCLUSION: Inflammation, interstitial fibrosis, and alveolar epithelial erosion are characteristic features of P carinii pneumonia. The changes may form the......, exudate, fibrosts, type II pneumocyte proliferation, and cellular infiltration of the alveolar wall when compared with other lung diseases (all p < 0.05). Electron microscopy showed apposition of the trophozoite to the type I pneumocyte. Erosion of type I pneumocytes was observed in 13 of 15 patients with...

  15. Assessing Pneumonia Identification from Time-Ordered Narrative Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejan, Cosmin A.; Vanderwende, Lucy; Wurfel, Mark M.; Yetisgen-Yildiz, Meliha

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present a natural language processing system that can be used in hospital surveillance applications with the purpose of identifying patients with pneumonia. For this purpose, we built a sequence of supervised classifiers, where the dataset corresponding to each classifier consists of a restricted set of time-ordered narrative reports. In this way the pneumonia surveillance application will be able to invoke the most suitable classifier for each patient based on the period of time that has elapsed since the patient was admitted into the hospital. Our system achieves significantly better results when compared with a baseline previously proposed for pneumonia identification. PMID:23304388

  16. ASSOCIATION OF MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE WITH RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN

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    Osama Mohammed Saed Abdul-Wahab

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma pneumoniae is one of four most common species of organisms that are responsible for most clinically significant infections in humans. It is a frequent cause of acute respiratory infections in both children and adults. The organism can cause pharyngitis, otitis, tracheobronchitis, or community-acquired pneumonia, but patients may also remain totally asymptomatic. Aim of this prospective study for children, was to investigate the association of M. pneumoniae with respiratory tract infections in a Saudi population. This study was designed as a case-control study in which 90 patients (Mean age of the patients in case group was 5.94±2.73 and in control group was 6.51±2.26 of either sexes were included. These patients were classified into two groups: first group (case group, included 45 patients who had been admitted in hospital with diagnosis of respiratory tract infections and the second group (control group, included 45 healthy patients who had no history of respiratory tract infections. Both the groups were age and sex matched. Presence of IgM antibodies to Mycoplasma pneumoniae was assessed by ELISA technique in both groups. In the case group, 4 (9% cases out of 45 children were positive for anti-mycoplasma antibody whereas in the control group, all children were negative. All positive case group patients had symptoms of acute pneumonia. 18 (40% of the patients were diagnosed with bronchial asthma (40% inclusive of all the four cases diagnosed with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. The relative risk for the occurrence of mycoplasma infection was estimated to be 9 (95%C.I = 0.49-162.43. However, on comparing the case and control groups, the result was not found to be statistically significant. (Fischer Exact Test p = 0.0583. Children in Saudi Arabia are at a relatively higher risk of developing Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection especially those predisposed with underlying chronic respiratory illnesses such as asthma. This is a first

  17. Acute exogenous lipoid pneumonia, on a fire eating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of an adult 19 years of age, fire juggler and manipulator is presented. The young came in to the medical emergency service of the Hospital Dr. Rafael A. Calderon Guardia, because of a sudden episode of right thoracic pain and dyspnea. A right pleural effusion was documented and a round mass at the base of the left lung. A suggestive clinic of bronchopneumonia started after hours, it was localized first as community acquired pneumonia. Considering his work history and clinical characteristics, the case was reoriented and concluded that this is what the medical literature in English is called fire-eater pneumonia, uncommon aspiration pneumonia which was a literature review. (author)

  18. [Epidemiology of community-acquired pneumonia in children. Current data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marguet, C; Bocquel, N; Mallet, E

    1998-01-01

    Viruses, particularly syncitial respiratory virus, are the main aetiology of community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections in infants, while bacterial agents are more frequently responsible in children older than 3 years. Antimicrobial therapy must take into account the development of reduced susceptibility of penicillin to strains of Streptoccocus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae with beta-lactamase, and high frequency of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae infections. Although the mortality rate has remained low in France, the morbidity appeared to increase in recent years. PMID:10223154

  19. Severe respiratory failure secondary to Varicella zoster pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lütfiye Mülazımoğlu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Varicella is one of the most contagious diseases of childhood. Whenever varicella is seen in adults, it can cause serious complications. Pneumonia is one of the most serious complications of varicella during adulthood and it has a high mortality rate. Cases of varicella pneumonia which need mechanical ventilation in intensive care unit, have %50 of mortality rate.This report presents a patient who was diagnosed as varicella pneumonia in our intensive care unit. Our treatment and diagnostic approach is presented together with actual literature.

  20. High-resolution CT of lymphoid interstitial pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three patients with lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (two HIV 1+ patients with chronic lymphadenopathic syndromes and one with a not-characterized autoimmune disease) have been studied with high-resolution computed tomography (HR-CT). This technique reveals septal lines, small reticulonodular opacities, polyhedral micronodular opacities, 'ground-glass' opacities and a dense, subpleural, curved broken line in one patient. The lesions dominate in the bases of the lungs. They are not characteristic for lymphoid interstitial pneumonia. If a patient presents with a chronic lymphadenopathic syndrome, the diagnosis of an opportunistic infection should not be automatically made, since the syndrome can be caused by lymphoid interstitial pneumonia

  1. Antibiogram Typing and Biochemical Characterization of Klebsiella pneumoniae after Biofield Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) is a common nosocomial pathogen causing respiratory tract (pneumoniae) and blood stream infections. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates of K. pneumoniae infections are difficult to treat in patients in health care settings. Aim of the present study was to determine the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment on four MDR clinical lab isolates (LS) of K. pneumoniae (LS 2, LS 6, LS 7, and LS 14). Samples were divided into two groups i.e. control and ...

  2. Chlamydia pneumoniae Inhibits Activated Human T Lymphocyte Proliferation by the Induction of Apoptotic and Pyroptotic Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Olivares-Zavaleta, Norma; Carmody, Aaron; Messer, Ronald; Whitmire, William M.; Caldwell, Harlan D.

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is an omnipresent obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen that infects numerous host species. C. pneumoniae infections of humans are a common cause of community acquired pneumonia but have also been linked to chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, and asthma. Persistent infection and immune avoidance are believed to play important roles in the pathophysiology of C. pneumoniae disease. We found that C. pneumoniae organisms inhibited activated but ...

  3. Another Face of Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing Pneumonia

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    Mark O Turner

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A 47-year-old man presented with an eight-day history of nonproductive cough and constitutional symptoms progressing to respiratory failure. High resolution computed tomography revealed a diffuse micronodular pattern and a ‘tree-in-bud’ pattern in the lower lung zones. Transbronchial biopsy showed features consistent with bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP. After an initially difficult clinical course, the patient responded well to long term treatment with corticosteroids, including improvement of air flow obstruction. This case illustrates a variant of BOOP characterized by a comparatively acute onset, a component of proliferative bronchiolitis, an obstructive rather than restrictive pattern of pulmonary function testing and good clinical response to corticosteroid therapy.

  4. Radiological differential diagnosis in chronic aspiration pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    6% of all patients suffering from a cerebro-vascular injury die from aspiration pneumonia within the first year. The high temporal resolution of high-speed cineradiography (HFK) (50 frames/sec.) allows the recording of the 0.7 sec. process of pharyngeal swallow. Five case-examples are presented (total number of cases: 95) illustrating the possibility of differentiation between three types of aspiration by means of cineradiography. These types are the so-called pre-, intra- and postdeglutitive aspiration, that is aspiration before or after triggering of the swallowing reflex. This differentiation is of great therapeutic importance. The analysis of disturbances of pharyngo-laryngeal motility and the temporal coordination allows setting up individual surgical and/or conservative programme for rehabilitation. (orig.)

  5. Severe Varicella Pneumonia. A Pediatric Case Presentation

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    Ariel Efrén Uriarte Méndez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The case of a 12 years child old child, white skin, obese, from urban procedence and with a history of Crohn's disease who was admitted to the Intensive Care Unit at the "Paquito González Cueto” Pediatric University Hospital because of bloody diarrhea and severe dehydration is presented. After controlling the acute phase, the patient was taken to the gastroenterology room where he began presenting vesicular lesions on the trunk, diagnosed as varicella. A further complication appeared when the patient developed a severe pneumonia that quickly evolved into an acute respiratory distress syndrome which required transfer to intensive care unit with intensive therapeutic intervention, especially ventilatory management. Both radiologic and laboratory parameters were very characteristic, similar to those described in the literature. Despite intensive sustained treatment, the patient died a month after diagnosis was performed. Considering how infrequent this complication is in the case of children, it was decided to have the case published.

  6. Bortezomib-Induced Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing Pneumonia

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    E. Vandeix

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Bortezomib is a proteasome inhibitor indicated for the treatment of multiple myeloma patients. The most frequent side effects are gastrointestinal and neurological. Serious pulmonary complications have been described rarely. Observation. This case involves a 74-year-old man suffering from IgG Kappa myeloma treated with bortezomib, melphalan, and dexamethasone. After administering chemotherapy, the patient developed an acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. A surgical pulmonary biopsy proved the existence of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP lesions. Systemic corticotherapy led to a rapid improvement in the patient’s condition. Conclusion. This is the first reported histologically confirmed case of bortezomid-induced BOOP. Faced with severe respiratory symptoms in the absence of other etiologies, complications due to bortezomid treatment should be evoked and corticotherapy considered.

  7. The case of malignancy mimicking legionella pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Karakuş

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Legionella pneumophila is a bacterium, which can grow inwater pipe networks and climate systems. Contaminationoccurs by aspiration of infected water or aerosol inhalation.It is usually presented with fever, bradycardia, andchange in mental status, hyponatremia, elevation of liverenzymes and deterioration of renal function. The definitediagnosis is established by detection of the antigens andcultivating in the culture medium. Also, malign lung tumorscan encounter with the same clinical findings, so lungcancer should be remembered in differential diagnosis.The patient hospitalized for the Legionella pneumophiladue to the physical examination and laboratory findingsduring the first evaluation in the emergency department.However, further examinations pointed to the cancer. Weaimed to emphasize the probability of malignant tumorsin terms of hyponatremia, increase in the liver enzymes,and failure in the renal functions, which were usually experiencedin emergency unit. J Clin Exp Invest 2013; 4(3: 390-392Key words: Legionella pneumophila, pneumonia, lung malignancy

  8. The capsular network of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassone, A; Garaci, E

    1977-06-01

    Attempts at improving chemical fixation for electron-microscopic observation of the capsule of Klebsiella pneumoniae were made. The capsule was preserved by using alcian blue - lanthanum and tris-(1-aziridinyl) phosphine oxide (TAPO) - aldehyde - osmium procedures. Despite the different retention of the overall capsular material and minor variations in morphological details, in both cases the interpretation of ultrastructural patterns suggested that the capsule be composed of a meshed network of thin polysaccharide fibrils radiating from the cell wall. This organization is in keeping with all recognized chemical properties of bacterial polysaccharide capsules or, at least, does not contradict them. Moreover, an effective preservation of bacterial structures other than capsule has been obtained, mostly in specimens fixed by the TAPO-aldehyde-osmium method, a fact which gives further reliability to the technical approach used for capsule visualization. PMID:326360

  9. Detection of respiratory pathogens in air samples from acutely infected pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Hermann, Joseph R.; Brockmeier, Susan L.; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Zimmerman, Jeffrey J.

    2008-01-01

    Pathogens causing significant respiratory disease in growing pigs include Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Porcine circovirus 2, swine influenza virus, porcine respiratory coronavirus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, and Bordetella bronchiseptica. The objective of this research was to characterize the respiratory excretion of these pathogens by acutely infected pigs. Pigs were inoculated under experimental conditions with 1 pathogen. Samples were collected from the upper respira...

  10. 21 CFR 522.2630 - Tulathromycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... multocida, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Haemophilus parasuis, and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae; and for the control of SRD associated with A. pleuropneumoniae, P. multocida, and M. hyopneumoniae in groups of pigs..., Histophilus somni, and Mycoplasma bovis. For the control of respiratory disease in cattle at high risk...

  11. Amoxicillin Is Effective against Penicillin-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae Strains in a Mouse Pneumonia Model Simulating Human Pharmacokinetics▿

    OpenAIRE

    Abgueguen, Pierre; Azoulay-Dupuis, Esther; Noel, Violaine; Moine, Pierre; Rieux, Veronique; Fantin, Bruno; Bedos, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    High-dose oral amoxicillin (3 g/day) is the recommended empirical outpatient treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in many European guidelines. To investigate the clinical efficacy of this treatment in CAP caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae strains with MICs of amoxicillin ≥2 μg/ml, we used a lethal bacteremic pneumonia model in leukopenic female Swiss mice with induced renal failure to replicate amoxicillin kinetics in humans given 1 g/8 h orally. Amoxicillin (15 mg/kg of body weig...

  12. Differentiation of tuberculous pneumonia and community-acquired pneumonia; usefulness of chest radiography and serum CA-125

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine whether tuberculous pneumonia can be distinguished from community-acquired pneumonia on the basis of chest radiographic findings only and the diagnostic utility of differences in serum CA-125 levels. Forty-five patients with a high fever (>38 .deg. C) in whom chest radiography revealed lobar consolidation were retrospectively studied. In 27 cases, the presence of acid-fast bacilli in sputum (n=21), the isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from bronchoscopic biopsy tissue and sputum cultures (n=16), and improvement in the findings of serial radiography and in clinical symptoms during antituberculous therapy (n=1) let to a diagnosis of tuberculous pneumonia. A diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (n=18) was based on improvement in the serial radiographic findings obtained during antibacterial therapy (n=16), and the isolation of bacteria from sputum and pleural fluid culture (n=2). On the basis of independently analysed findings, radiologist determined the presence or absence of nodular density, cavitary lesions and loss of lung volume, while two radiologists differentiated between tuberculous pneumonia and community-acquired pneumonia. Initial chest radiographs of tuberculous pneumonia revealed nodular density in 89% of cases, cavitary lesions in 29%, and loss of lung volume nodular density was in 26%, while those of community-acquired pneumonia demonstrated nodular density in only 22%, cavitary lesions in 6%, and loss of lung volume in none was a significant statistical difference in nodular density, cavitary lesions and loss of lung volume (p < 0.005). The average serum CA-125 level in tuberculous pneumonia was 306.5 (range, 21.3-1078) U/ml, whereas the average level in community-acquired pneumonia was 38.0 (range, 11.3-114.8) U/ml (p < 0.005). Initial chest radiography can differentiate between tuberculous and community-acquired pneumonia on the basis of nodular density, cavitary lesions and loss of lung volume and differences in CA-125

  13. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U08276-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s vulgatus ATCC 8482,... 68 5e-10 CP000937_1762( CP000937 |pid:none) Francisella philomiragia subsp.... 68 5...ncisella philomiragia subsp.... 68 7e-10 CP000387_341( CP000387 |pid...:none) Bordetella bronchiseptica strain... 66 3e-09 AY184800_1( AY184800 |pid:none) Chlam...:none) Streptococcus uberis 0140J comp... 65 3e-09 AM902716_1980( AM902716 |pid:none) Bordetella petrii stra...5 6e-09 AE015928_2229( AE015928 |pid:none) Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron VP... 65 6e-09 BX640414_260( BX640414 |pid:none) Bordetella

  14. Reversed halo sign in pneumocystis pneumonia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashimoto Kimio

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The reversed halo sign may sometimes be seen in patients with cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, but is rarely associated with other diseases. Case presentation We present a case study of a 32-year-old male patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, who had previously been treated with chemotherapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. A chest X-ray showed bilateral patchy infiltrates. High-resolution computed tomography revealed the reversed halo sign in both upper lobes. The patient was diagnosed with pneumocystis pneumonia, which was successfully treated with sulfamethoxazole trimethoprim; the reversed halo sign disappeared, leaving cystic lesions. Cases such as this one are rare, but show that the reversed halo sign may occur in patients who do not have cryptogenic organizing pneumonia. Conclusion Physicians can avoid making an incorrect diagnosis and prescribing the wrong treatment by carefully evaluating all clinical criteria rather than assuming that the reversed halo sign only occurs with cryptogenic organizing pneumonia.

  15. Gene Regulation in Streptococcus pneumoniae: interplay between nutrition and virulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.T. Hendriksen (Wouter)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractStreptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is a Gram-positive bacterium, which belongs to the species of streptococci. Other pathogenic bacteria belonging to this class include Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus suis, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus bovi

  16. IDENTIFICATION OF IMMUNOGENS OF 'MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE' BY PROTEIN BLOTTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proteins of Mycoplasma pneumoniae were separated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and transferred to a nitrocellulose sheet by blotting. Sera obtained from infected hamsters and immunized rabbits were then incubated with the nitrocellulose strips. Proteins which are capa...

  17. EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION OF THE RESPIRATORY TRACT WITH MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae, a common human respiratory pathogen, has been studied experimentally for years using intranasal inoculation of the golden Sytrian hamster. Because of recent evidence outlining the role in pulmonary immune development of particle size and depth of mycoplasma...

  18. Case Report of Necrotizing Fasciitis Associated with Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Jiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Necrotizing fasciitis, caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, is an extremely rare and life-threatening bacterial soft tissue infection. We report a case of early necrotizing fasciitis associated with Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in a 26-year-old man who was immunocompromised with mixed connective tissue disease. The patient presented with acute, painful, erythematous, and edematous skin lesions of his right lower back, which rapidly progressed to the right knee. The patient underwent surgical exploration, and a diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis was confirmed by pathological evidence of necrosis of the fascia and neutrophil infiltration in tissue biopsies. Cultures of fascial tissue biopsies and blood samples were positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae. To our knowledge, this is the first report of necrotizing fasciitis resulting from Streptococcus pneumoniae diagnosed at early phase; the patient recovered well without surgical debridement.

  19. Hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsen, Charlotte Mark

    hemorrhagic pneumonia caused by P. aeruginosa and E. coli in diagnostic material. The distribution of the two pathogens is visualized using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Two histological patterns were observed in the work presented in Article II; one was very hemorrhagic with few bacteria while...... pneumonia associated with E. coli infection. The perivascular localization, tendency for a higher frequency of a very hemorrhagic response and alveolar edema were the only differences noted between hemorrhagic pneumonia caused by P. aeruginosa compared to E. coli. Article III describes an infectious dose...... the interviews with farmers experiencing outbreaks of hemorrhagic pneumonia among their mink was that the disease always started in the mink kits, never in the adults. Furthermore, 39% reported that most deaths occurred in the male mink. The results presented in this thesis suggest that factors of the...

  20. Acute community acquired Aspergillus pneumonia in a presumed immunocompetent host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Varun; Rajagopalan, Natarajan; C, Shivaprasad; Patil, Mahantesh; Varghese, Jaicob

    2012-01-01

    Infection from Aspergillus results in a wide range of diseases from simple Aspergillus pneumonia to fatal invasive Aspergillosis. Though the fungus is known to predominantly affect the immunocompromised host, it has also been known to cause acute pneumonia in immunocompetent hosts which is invariably fatal. It presents as an acute pneumonia with bilateral chest infiltrates on radiograph. Early clinical suspicion and microbiological identification by measures such as broncho alveolar lavage and initiation of therapy with voricanozole significantly increase the chances of survival. In this article the authors discuss a case of acute community acquired Aspergillus pneumonia in an immunocompetent host who survived due to early identification and prompt treatment with appropriate antifungal medication. PMID:22605848

  1. CORONAVIRUS INFECTIONS IN THE PATHOGENESIS OF SHIPPING FEVER PNEUMONIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Investigations of two natural epizootics of Shipping Fever Pneumonia (SFP) with sequential infections of Cornaviruses and Mannheimia (M) haemolytica and Pasteurella (P) multocida were studied. A prospectively designed and controlled parameters included clinical examinations, coordinated with nasal s...

  2. Reversed halo sign in pneumocystis pneumonia: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reversed halo sign may sometimes be seen in patients with cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, but is rarely associated with other diseases. We present a case study of a 32-year-old male patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, who had previously been treated with chemotherapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. A chest X-ray showed bilateral patchy infiltrates. High-resolution computed tomography revealed the reversed halo sign in both upper lobes. The patient was diagnosed with pneumocystis pneumonia, which was successfully treated with sulfamethoxazole trimethoprim; the reversed halo sign disappeared, leaving cystic lesions. Cases such as this one are rare, but show that the reversed halo sign may occur in patients who do not have cryptogenic organizing pneumonia. Physicians can avoid making an incorrect diagnosis and prescribing the wrong treatment by carefully evaluating all clinical criteria rather than assuming that the reversed halo sign only occurs with cryptogenic organizing pneumonia

  3. Pneumonia due to pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus and Klebsiella pneumoniae capsular serotype K16 in a patient with nasopharyngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chih-Cheng; Lee, Pei-Lin; Tan, Che-Kim; Huang, Yu-Tsung; Kao, Chiang-Lian; Wang, Jin-Town; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2012-10-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus and group A Streptoccocus, but no Klebsiella pneumoniae were responsible for bacterial coinfections during the 2009 and previous influenza pandemics. We hereby report a case with concurrent bacteremic pneumonia due to an unusual capsular serotype K16 K. pneumoniae and pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza in a patient with nasopharyngeal cancer. Such a coinfection has not previously been described. PMID:22153762

  4. Risk Factors for Aspiration Pneumonia in Older Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshie Manabe

    Full Text Available Aspiration pneumonia is a dominant form of community-acquired and healthcare-associated pneumonia, and a leading cause of death among ageing populations. However, the risk factors for developing aspiration pneumonia in older adults have not been fully evaluated. The purpose of the present study was to determine the risk factors for aspiration pneumonia among the elderly.We conducted an observational study using data from a nationwide survey of geriatric medical and nursing center in Japan. The study subjects included 9930 patients (median age: 86 years, women: 76% who were divided into two groups: those who had experienced an episode of aspiration pneumonia in the previous 3 months and those who had not. Data on demographics, clinical status, activities of daily living (ADL, and major illnesses were compared between subjects with and without aspiration pneumonia. Two hundred and fifty-nine subjects (2.6% of the total sample were in the aspiration pneumonia group. In the univariate analysis, older age was not found to be a risk factor for aspiration pneumonia, but the following were: sputum suctioning (odds ratio [OR] = 17.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 13.16-22.62, p < 0.001, daily oxygen therapy (OR = 8.29, 95% CI: 4.39-15.65, feeding support dependency (OR = 8.10, 95% CI: 6.27-10.48, p < 0.001, and urinary catheterization (OR = 4.08, 95% CI: 2.81-5.91, p < 0.001. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, the risk factors associated with aspiration pneumonia after propensity-adjustment (258 subjects each were sputum suctioning (OR = 3.276, 95% CI: 1.910-5.619, deterioration of swallowing function in the past 3 months (OR = 3.584, 95% CI: 1.948-6.952, dehydration (OR = 8.019, 95% CI: 2.720-23.643, and dementia (OR = 1.618, 95% CI: 1.031-2.539.The risk factors for aspiration pneumonia were sputum suctioning, deterioration of swallowing function, dehydration, and dementia. These results could help improve clinical management for preventing

  5. Radiographic and HRCT findings of pneumocystis carinii pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To analyze the radiographic and HRCT findings of Pneumocystic carinii pneumonia. We reviewed the medical records and retrospectively analysed the chest radiographs(n=31) and HRCT scans(n=17) of 31 patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia who had been followed up at our institute between, 1993 and March 1998. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia was confirmed by cytologic evaluation of sputum stained with methenamine silver(n=25) or on the basis of clinical history(n=6). The study group included 17 men and 14 women aged 28-78(average, 53.6) years. Twenty-eight patients had underlying conditions such as hematologic diseases(n=13), AIDS(n=8), malignancy(n=2), DM(n=2) and malnutrition(n=1), and three were free from underlying diseases. Twenty patients had pure Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and 11 had combined lung diseases, namely pulmonary tuberculosis(n=4), pulmonary metastasis(n=2), bacterial pneumonia(n=2), atypical mycobacterial infection(n=1), pulmonary edema(n=1), and Kaposi' s sarcoma(n=1). Chest radiographic findings of 20 cases of pure Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia included consolidation(n=12), linear-reticular opacity(n=8), ill defined haziness(n=7), and nodules(n=6), with bilaterality in is cases and zonal predominance in ten [central(n=5), lower(n=5)]. Ancillary findings included pleural effusion(n=10), cysts(n=5), lymphadenopathy(n=4) and pneumothorax(n=1). In two patients, findings were entirely normal. HRCT findings in ten cases of pure Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia included ground-glass opacity(n=6), consolidation(n=6), linear-reticular opacity(n=8), and nodules(n=5), with bilaterallity in seven cases and zonal predominance in five [central(n=5), lower(n=2)]. Ancillary findings among these cases included pleural effusion(n=4), lymphadenopathy(n=2), cysts(n=1), and pneumothorax(n=1). HRCT findings in seven cases of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia combined with other lung diseases included nodules(n=6), ground-glass opacity(n=5), linear-reticular opacity

  6. Regulatory region of the divergent Klebsiella pneumoniae lac operon.

    OpenAIRE

    Buvinger, W E; Riley, M

    1985-01-01

    The chromosomal DNA that lies between the lacI and lacZ genes of Klebsiella pneumoniae constitutes a 196-base pair intercistronic region that contains regulatory sequences for both genes. The probable locations of specific regulatory elements for both lacI and lacZ genes were determined by analogy with the corresponding Escherichia coli sequences. A recombinational event in ancestral DNA evidently has inverted the transcriptional direction of lacI in K. pneumoniae relative to the transcriptio...

  7. Community-Acquired Pneumonia: 2012 History, Mythology, and Science

    OpenAIRE

    Donowitz, Gerald R.

    2013-01-01

    Pneumonia remains one of the major disease entities practicing physicians must manage. It is a leading cause of infection-related morbidity and mortality in all age groups, and a leading cause of death in those older than 65 years of age. Despite its frequency and importance, clinical questions have remained in the therapy of community-acquired pneumonia including when to start antibiotics, when to stop them, who to treat, and what agents to use. Answers to these questions have involved histo...

  8. Typing of Mycoplasma pneumoniae by PCR-mediated DNA fingerprinting.

    OpenAIRE

    Ursi, D.; Ieven, M; Van Bever, H; Quint, W.; Niesters, H G; H. Goossens

    1994-01-01

    PCR fingerprinting was used to characterize clinical isolates of Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Among 24 strains tested, two types were distinguished. Nineteen strains belonged to type 1, whereas only 5 strains belonged to type 2. The majority of strains isolated since 1991 in Belgium belong to type 1. No variations in fingerprinting patterns were observed within each group, confirming the highly conserved nature of the M. pneumoniae genome.

  9. Risk factors for cefotaxime resistance in children with pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Made Sucipta; Ida Bagus Subanada; Samik Wahab

    2012-01-01

    Background Pneumonia is a health problem in developing countries, often caused by bacterial agents. The widespread use of cefotaxime, a third-generation of cephalosporin to increased incidence of resistance to this antibiotic. Several studies have reported on risk factors associated with resistance to cefotaxime. Objective To oidentify risk factors for cefoxime resistence in children with pneumonia. Methods We performed a case-control study at Sanglah Hospital between January 2006-Dec...

  10. Procalcitonin for detecting community-acquired bacterial pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Gusmaiyanto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity andmortality in children under five years of age. Pneumonia can be ofbacterial or viral origin. It is difficult to distinguish between thesetwo agents based on clinical manifestations, as well as radiologicaland laboratory examinations. Furthermore, bacterial cultures taketime to incubate and positive results may only be found in 10-30%of bacterial pneumonia cases. Procalcitonin has been used as amarker to distinguish etiologies, as bacterial infections tend toincrease serum procalcitonin levels.Objective To determine the sensitivity, specificity, positivepredictive value and negative predictive value of procalcitoninin community-acquired bacterial pneumonia.Method This cross-sectional study was conducted in thePediatric Health Department of Dr. M. Djamil Hospital, Padang.Subjects were selected by consecutive sampling. Procalcitoninmeasurements and PCR screening were performed on bloodspecimens from 32 pneumonia patients and compared.Results Of the 32 subjects, most were boys (56.25%, under 5years of age (99%, and had poor nutritional status (68.75%.Using a cut-off point of 0.25 ng/mL, procalcitonin level hada sensitivity of 92%, specificity 50%, positive predictive value 88%, and negative predictive value 60% for diagnosing bacterial pneumonia. Using a cut-off point of 0.5 ng/mL, procalcitonin level had a specificity of 46%, specificity 83%, positive predictive value 91%, and negative predictive value 25%.Conclusion A cut-off point of 0.25 ng/mL of procalcitonin level may be more useful to screen for bacterial pneumonia than a cutoff point of 0.5 ng / mL. However, if the 0.25 ng/mL cut-off point is used, careful monitoring will be required for negative results, as up to 40% may actually have bacterial pneumonia. [PaediatrIndones. 2015;55:65-9.].

  11. Procalcitonin for detecting community-acquired bacterial pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Gusmaiyanto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children under five years of age. Pneumonia can be of bacterial or viral origin. It is difficult to distinguish between these two agents based on clinical manifestations, as well as radiological and laboratory examinations. Furthermore, bacterial cultures take time to incubate and positive results may only be found in 10-30% of bacterial pneumonia cases. Procalcitonin has been used as a marker to distinguish etiologies, as bacterial infections tend to increase serum procalcitonin levels. Objective To determine the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of procalcitonin in community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. Method This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Pediatric Health Department of Dr. M. Djamil Hospital, Padang. Subjects were selected by consecutive sampling. Procalcitonin measurements and PCR screening were performed on blood specimens from 32 pneumonia patients and compared. Results Of the 32 subjects, most were boys (56.25%, under 5 years of age (99%, and had poor nutritional status (68.75%. Using a cut-off point of 0.25 ng/mL, procalcitonin level had a sensitivity of 92%, specificity 50%, positive predictive value 88%, and negative predictive value 60% for diagnosing bacterial pneumonia. Using a cut-off point of 0.5 ng/mL, procalcitonin level had a specificity of 46%, specificity 83%, positive predictive value 91%, and negative predictive value 25%. Conclusion A cut-off point of 0.25 ng/mL of procalcitonin level may be more useful to screen for bacterial pneumonia than a cut-off point of 0.5 ng / mL. However, if the 0.25 ng/mL cut-off point is used, careful monitoring will be required for negative results, as up to 40% may actually have bacterial pneumonia. [Paediatr Indones. 2015;55:65-9.].

  12. Minocycline induced eosinophilic pneumonia: case report and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Klerkx, S; K. Pat; Wuyts, Wim

    2009-01-01

    A 51-year-old woman with eosinophilic pneumonia due to minocycline is described and a review of available literature is added. Until now, only 49 cases have been described, mainly in the Japanese population. Minocycline induced eosinophilic pneumonia is probably underreported and even underdiagnosed. This case highlights the importance of careful history taking, especially the use of drugs. Relatively safe drugs (like minocycline) can cause serious adverse events. On presentation, the disease...

  13. Isolation of Streptococcus pneumoniae type 3 from equine species.

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, C E; Sweeney, C.R.

    1984-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae type 3 was isolated from seven tracheobronchial aspirates and one pleural tap of seven adult horses and one foal. There was no direct evidence in these horses that isolation of the pneumococcus was related to a specific disease syndrome. Presenting complaints included two horses with chronic cough, two horses with decreased exercise tolerance, one horse with exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage, and three horses with pneumonia. Antibiotic therapy resolved the primary...

  14. Assessing Pneumonia Identification from Time-Ordered Narrative Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Bejan, Cosmin A.; Vanderwende, Lucy; Wurfel, Mark M.; Yetisgen-Yildiz, Meliha

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present a natural language processing system that can be used in hospital surveillance applications with the purpose of identifying patients with pneumonia. For this purpose, we built a sequence of supervised classifiers, where the dataset corresponding to each classifier consists of a restricted set of time-ordered narrative reports. In this way the pneumonia surveillance application will be able to invoke the most suitable classifier for each patient based on the period of...

  15. Early neurovascular uncoupling in the brain during community acquired pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Rosengarten, Bernhard; Krekel, Dennis; Kuhnert, Stefan; Schulz, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Sepsis leads to microcirculatory dysfunction and therefore a disturbed neurovascular coupling in the brain. To investigate if the dysfunction is also present in less severe inflammatory diseases we studied the neurovascular coupling in patients suffering from community acquired pneumonia. Methods Patients were investigated in the acute phase of pneumonia and after recovery. The neurovascular coupling was investigated with a simultaneous electroencephalogram (EEG)-Doppler techniqu...

  16. Use of Videofluoroscopic Swallowing Study in Patients with Aspiration Pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Seunglee; Lee, Jin-Youn; Jung, Heeyoune; Koh, Seong-Eun; Lee, In-Sik; Yoo, Kwang Ha; Lee, Seung Ah; Lee, Jongmin

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics of dysphagic elderly Korean patients diagnosed with aspiration pneumonia as well as to examine the necessity of performing a videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) in order to confirm the presence of dysphagia in such patients. Method The medical records of dysphagic elderly Korean subjects diagnosed with aspiration pneumonia were retrospectively reviewed for demographic and clinical characteristics as well as for VFSS findings. Results...

  17. Pneumocystis Jirovecii Pneumonia- Imaging findings in 19 patients

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud Goudarzi

    2009-01-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP),formely called pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, is a serious disease in immunocompromised patients, particularly those with AIDS. However, many patients with this disease are unaware of their HIV serostatus, requiring early and prompt diagnosis of the disease. Early chest radiographic findings of PJP may be subtle or equivocal. On the other hand, advances in the treatment and prevention of the disease is associated with an increased rate of atypical manif...

  18. Hospital-acquired pneumonia in intensive care patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hyllienmark, Petra

    2013-01-01

    The present thesis describes the incidence and risk factors for pneumonia and especially ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) among Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients. Bacteria in samples from the lower respiratory tract of patients receiving mechanical ventilation are reported, including the duration of treatment prior to the first occurrence of different pathogens. The frequency of VAP using Swedish criteria (Swedish Intensive Registry, SIR) was compared with the VAP rate me...

  19. Susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae to Fluoroquinolones in Canada▿

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Samir N.; McGeer, Allison; Melano, Roberto; Tyrrell, Gregory J.; Green, Karen; Dylan R Pillai; Low, Donald E.

    2011-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin, the first fluoroquinolone to be used to treat lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI), demonstrates poor potency against Streptococcus pneumoniae, and its use has been associated with the emergence of resistance. During the last decade, fluoroquinolones with enhanced in vitro activity against S. pneumoniae have replaced ciprofloxacin for the treatment of LRTI. Here, we analyzed the impact of more active fluoroquinolone usage on pneumococci by examining the fluoroquinolone usa...

  20. Evolution of beta-lactam : Resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Hæggman, Sara

    2010-01-01

    K. pneumoniae is recognized as a common opportunistic pathogen. Numerous reports have been published worldwide on outbreaks in different healthcare settings. K. pneumoniae is inherently resistant to penicillins, including semisynthetic broad-spectrum penicillins. The drug of choice for empirical treatment is often a cephalosporin. However, the use of cephalosporins is known to select for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing strains. The focus of this thesis ...