WorldWideScience

Sample records for border regions

  1. Border region studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Williams, Allan

    2016-01-01

    The contemporary conditions of academic capitalism exert pressures on researchers to avoid ‘peripheral’ journals and ‘unfashionable’ topics. Here an attempt is made to shed light onto the structure of one such ‘offbeat’ field, namely ‘border region studies’, by discussing its geographical...... distribution, key themes, significance and impact. The review suggests that border region studies can be considered a significant and important ‘branch’ of regional studies, which accounts for a small but increasing proportion of regional studies research particularly in Europe and North America. Four main...

  2. Partition of distinct chromosomal regions: negotiable border and fixed border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Akatsuki; Horikoshi, Masami

    2004-06-01

    Chromosomes are partitioned into distinct functional regions. For example, heterochromatin regions consist of condensed chromatin and contain few transcriptionally active genes, whereas euchromatin regions are less condensed and majority of active genes reside in the euchromatin regions. Because distinct regions reside in each chromosome, borders are accordingly established between these regions. A prevailing view of the borders is that they are 'walls' that actively inhibit communication between distinct regions on chromosomes. Although little is known about the molecular bases of these walls, specific DNA elements are considered to recruit these walls to define the positions of the borders. We call the borders established with this mechanism as 'fixed borders'. Past studies have identified various insulators (boundary DNA elements) that have been suggested to recruit fixed borders to them. Another mechanism, which we introduce and focus on in this review, does not require walls recruited by specific DNA elements at the chromosomal borders. Instead, the borders are defined by a balance of opposing enzymatic activities located at the opposite sides of the resultant borders. We name these borders 'negotiable borders'. Here we review some of the recent progress in the field that offer valuable insight into mechanisms of establishing structural and functional borders on chromosomes. Copyright Blackwell Publishing Limited

  3. Structure of the animal vitreoretinal border region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Steffen

    1994-01-01

    Øjenpatologi, vitreoretinal border region, inner limiting membrane of the retina, animals, ultrastructure, comparative anatomy......Øjenpatologi, vitreoretinal border region, inner limiting membrane of the retina, animals, ultrastructure, comparative anatomy...

  4. Cross-border regional innovation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Rohde, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    The concept of cross-border regional innovation systems (CBRIS) surfaced in the literature on economic geography through discourses that highlighted the need of broadening innovation systems to cross-border contexts. Since these early discussions, the theoretical backgrounds of CBRIS have been el...... of understanding how suggested policy measures based on CBRIS reasoning have been implemented in border regions, and their effectiveness in promoting cross-border integration.......The concept of cross-border regional innovation systems (CBRIS) surfaced in the literature on economic geography through discourses that highlighted the need of broadening innovation systems to cross-border contexts. Since these early discussions, the theoretical backgrounds of CBRIS have been...... elaborated through notions of geographical scale, proximity and related variety in a range of conceptual papers proposing CBRIS as a comprehensive framework for analysing regional cross-border integration. However, the empirical literature on CBRIS has failed to keep up with the advances in conceptualisation...

  5. The Effect of the Border on Chinese Direct Investments : Evidence from Russian Border Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Novopashina, Alina

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the effects of the border on Chinese direct investments to Russian border regions. The findings of this paper show that Chinese direct investments to Russia gravitated to industries in the border regions exporting their goods to China and to the production of non-tradable goods in non-border regions. The net Chinese foreign direct investments (FDI) inflow to Russian border regions is very small but the development of border trade led to informal investments be...

  6. Cross-border regional innovation system integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Weidenfeld, Adi; Williams, Allan

    2017-01-01

    The importance of inter-regional cooperation and innovation are widely accepted in the development rhetoric of the European Union. The highlighted importance of both themes in the context of borderlands has recently led to the coining of a new concept, cross-border regional innovation system....... However, little attention has been given to the empirical analysis of the concept. This paper suggests a framework for empirically validating the concept by examining the levels of integration between cross-border regions. The outcome is a proposed framework can be operationalized by measurable indicators...... of cross-border cooperation in a regional innovation system setting. The framework was further tested with illustrative empirical cases that demonstrate its feasibility....

  7. Border regions as cross-border laboratories for regional and European integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battrup, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with barriers to regional cross border police cooperation. Leading police officers in the Schleswig-Holstein state police have experienced that the Danish police in recent years has become more reticent in regional cooperation across the border, especially in relation to coopera...

  8. Border regions as the tourist destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majstorović Vukica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism, as a global phenomenon, has found its place in every corner of the world. During a certain period of time, the tourism market has become saturated by mass tourism causing the creation of new attractive destinations for tourists. Thus, some of the border areas in the world attract and keep passers-by while transforming into the new tourist destinations. In this paper, it is possible to see relations and interconnections between tourism and international boundaries. Tourism in border regions has an opportunity to activate these areas that are often neglected by the state. Some European countries have taken advantage of this opportunity and they improved their tourism industry by developing their border regions. This kind of tourism development can be applied in Serbia and, in that way, activate the border areas of our country. However, in order to develop tourism in these areas, it is necessary to have an adequate international cooperation between two or more states. This can be achieved by various instruments of cross-border cooperation in tourism through the engagement of neighbouring countries in joint plans and cooperation.

  9. The Uzbekistan Kyrgyzstan Border: Institutional Legitimacy and Regional Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    intervention into global political economy,” than ever before in history .127 The paradox of the twenty-first century resides in the tension between two...TERMS borders, border security, border studies, legitimacy, authority, perceptions, globalization , regional stability, global context, border...27  1.  More than Static Lines: Places of Interaction and Change .....28  2.  Globalization : Borders Never Left, Just Shifted

  10. Measuring cross-border regional integration with composite indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu

    2016-01-01

    a sub-category for STI. Consequently, by ignoring cross-border innovation and knowledge flows, the Oresund integration index fails to take into account one of the most important drivers of economic growth in cross-border regions. Therefore, a new composite STI indicator (sub-category) was introduced......Earlier quantitative studies on cross-border regional integration processes have commonly neglected science, technology and innovation (STI) indicators: even the most notable example of a composite indicator approach to measuring cross-border regional integration, i.e. the Oresund index, lacks...

  11. Regional trade and border markets between Niger, Benin and Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier; Tenikué, Michel; Kuepié, Mathias

    The objective of this methodological paper is to identify a number of products or sectors whose trade is relevant for border regions in West Africa. Focusing on Niger, Benin and Nigeria, we start with contextualising the importance of border markets by quantifying the changes in the relative values...... and volumes of imports and exports passing through border posts. In a second step, we determine which are the products most commonly found among the imports and exports of the border posts. The study shows that seven products are recognised as being heavily imported, subject to significant trade from large...

  12. Geology of the border region between Coahuila and Zacatecas, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vloten, van Roger

    1954-01-01

    The border region between Coahuila and Zacatecas is part of the mountainous country south of Parras in northeastern Mexico. It includes a thickness of about 2,600 meters of Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks that were deposited along the northern border of the Mexican geosyncline along the southern

  13. Regional economic development policy of cross-border cooperation: improving trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Lutchak

    2014-11-01

    Accordingly, it is necessary to work out a proper independent regional policy of economic cross-border cooperation development that will define a strategy for border regions development and cross-border cooperation across the whole state border. In the process of implementation this policy should include programme development that will provide for the use of opportunities of cross-border cooperation for increase of living standards of border regions by forming of integrated cross-border economic space of Ukraine.

  14. Early seismicity of the Scottish Borders Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. W. Musson

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the seismicity of Southern Scotland and Northern England up to the year 1750. This area was formerly a border area between two states that eventually became politically united. Much of the area is uplands, and the seismicity is moderate to low. This makes for some problems in studying historical seismicity, yet the area provides a number of case studies of general interest in the field of historical seismology, including a rare case of being able to track down a «missing» earthquake.

  15. Frontier and Border Regions in Early Modern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esser, R.M.; Ellis, Steven G.

    2013-01-01

    That regional identities are constructed is now something of a truism in academic research. More recently regions have been conceptualized in the framework of Frontier and Border Studies, thus emphasizing their relationship to their neighbours in another state across a boundary line. In early modern

  16. Fuel tourism in border regions: The case of Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banfi, S.; Filippini, M.; Universita della Svizzera italiana, Lugano; Hunt, L.C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the issue of 'fuel tourism' in Switzerland. For the period 1985-1997, a panel data model for the border regions of Switzerland, (Italy, France, and Germany) is estimated. The results show a significant impact of the gasoline price differential on demand, suggesting that a decrease of 10% in the Swiss gasoline price leads to an increase in demand in the border areas of nearly 17.5%. It is shown that fuel tourism accounted for about 9% of overall gasoline sales in the three regions during the period 1985-1997 and that the recently proposed Swiss CO 2 -tax might, given current conditions, eliminate net fuel tourism. (author)

  17. Cross-border Cooperation as a Mechanism of Regional Marketing in the Baltic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidov Denis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The article offers a pragmatic approach to certain aspects of cross-border regionalisation. The marketing component of Euroregion development and the implementation of cross-border cooperation projects are considered as key directions of the joint activity of cross-border partner-regions. The authors analyse the opportunity to apply the territory brand model to research on the mechanisms of cross-border cooperation and to the elaboration of an efficient development strategy as a promising direction of further study of the cross-border cooperation and regionalisation phenomena.

  18. Mapping and assessing the environmental impacts of border tactical infrastructure in the Sky Island Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroline Patrick-Birdwell; Sergio Avila-Villegas; Jenny Neeley; Louise Misztal

    2013-01-01

    In this project we mapped the different types of border barriers, identified impacts of border infrastructure on public and private lands and conducted spatial analyses within the approximately 200 miles of international border in the Sky Island region. The Sky Island region, bisected by the U.S.-Mexico border, is critically important for its biodiversity and...

  19. Iberian major Regions Interregional Trade across the Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Carvalho Bruno Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trade flows that one region establishes with other regions in the same country are very rarely analyzed in the economic literature. Even less frequently are the trade relations with other regions in a neighbor country. Based on previous estimates of interregional trade within the Iberian Peninsula, this paper analyses the trade patterns of the four major trading regions: Madrid, Cataluña, Comunidad Valenciana and Lisboa e Vale do Tejo. Similarities among them are identified. A sector analysis is performed showing high levels of concentration. Confirming the literature a strong border effect is identified.

  20. Fuel tourism in border regions: The case of Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banfi, S.; Filippini, M. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland). Department of Management, Technology and Economics, Centre for Energy Policy and Economics; Universita della Svizzera italiana, Lugano (Switzerland). Istituto di microeconomia e economia Pubblica; Hunt, L.C. [University of Surrey (United Kingdom). Department of Economics, Surrey Energy Economics Centre

    2005-09-01

    This paper explores the issue of 'fuel tourism' in Switzerland. For the period 1985-1997, a panel data model for the border regions of Switzerland, (Italy, France, and Germany) is estimated. The results show a significant impact of the gasoline price differential on demand, suggesting that a decrease of 10% in the Swiss gasoline price leads to an increase in demand in the border areas of nearly 17.5%. It is shown that fuel tourism accounted for about 9% of overall gasoline sales in the three regions during the period 1985-1997 and that the recently proposed Swiss CO{sub 2}-tax might, given current conditions, eliminate net fuel tourism. (author)

  1. 40 CFR 81.99 - New Mexico Southern Border Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New Mexico Southern Border Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.99 New Mexico Southern Border Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Arizona-New Mexico Southern Border Interstate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the...

  2. The region's borders: Heterotopia and identity - Epistemological aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Pavle D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper has been developed on the margins of Foucault's idea of Heterotopia, on the basic distinction of Utopian and heterotopian. If pre-civil epoch is characterized experience of temporaries, which is overcome by going back (genealogy or leaving to the future (prediction superstition then its main feature is Utopian thinking, which means domination of the conception of Time over the conception of Space. On the contrary, the birth of Moderne introduces, gradually but surely overwhelming of Time over Space, where Utopia is being replaced by Heterotopia. It means, at the same time, abolishing of the eschatology of the pas (myths, genealogy and the future (ideal community, ideal order with an 'eschatology' of the present (here, now, which implies space variables, distribution. If Utopia is the place that is nowhere, then Heterotopia is the place that can be anywhere. Distribution means permanent change of borders, prevents institutionalization in the categories of the classical political theory, and questions categories of Tradition and Identity. In dealing with the problem of a region and regionalization, the paper starts from relation this historical transformation in human through and structuration of relations and the reality derived from these. The basic argument is that a region is paradoxical, if it lies on the local traditional, cultural, which are anachronistic values from the point of view of Heterotopia. At the same time if means that the borders of a region are of changeable, negotiable character, and that they don't have to match the previous administrative, political and cultural entities. The tendency of matching these borders means renewal of Utopia.

  3. Revitalising Borders: Memory, Mobility and Materiality in a Latvian-Russian Border Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aija Lulle

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I investigate how an international border is 'revitalised' in political discourses as opposed to lived experiences. Based on narratives I have collected from border dwellers on both sides of the current border between Latvia and Rus-sia and placing them into a broader context of current border debates, I analyse how geographical and social mobility is remembered from Soviet times and reworked in current contexts. I argue that while politically the border is revitalised through aban-doning and forgetting the Soviet past and through the idea of constant threats in the future, locally it is revitalised through giving a life to the abandoned: memories of 'vigorous times' in life-courses and material things. People who dwell at the border did not move themselves: the international border moved several times in one cen-tury leaving border dwellers' memories and significant places on the 'other' side. I focus on how these borders were crossed in the past, how they are (not crossed now, and the social meanings assigned to these circumstances. In the current con-text I follow diverse paths of reasoning that describe how the uneven flow of goods and people through the Latvian-Russian border shapes the power dynamic against which the people living in the border area used to reconstruct imaginaries of 'Soviet times' versus 'Europe' and 'vigorous times' versus decline.

  4. Effect of the US-Mexico border region in cardiovascular mortality: ecological time trend analysis of Mexican border and non-border municipalities from 1998 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya, Gabriel; Al-Delaimy, Wael K

    2017-05-06

    An array of risk factors has been associated with cardiovascular diseases, and developing nations are becoming disproportionately affected by such diseases. Cardiovascular diseases have been reported to be highly prevalent in the Mexican population, but local mortality data is poor. The Mexican side of the US-Mexico border has a culture that is closely related to a developed nation and therefore may share the same risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. We wanted to explore if there was higher cardiovascular mortality in the border region of Mexico compared to the rest of the nation. We conducted a population based cross-sectional time series analysis to estimate the effects of education, insurance and municipal size in Mexican border (n = 38) and non-border municipalities (n = 2360) and its association with cardiovascular age-adjusted mortality rates between the years 1998-2012. We used a mixed effect linear model with random effect estimation and repeated measurements to compare the main outcome variable (mortality rate), the covariates (education, insurance and population size) and the geographic delimiter (border/non-border). Mortality due to cardiovascular disease was consistently higher in the municipalities along the US-Mexico border, showing a difference of 78 · 5 (95% CI 58 · 7-98 · 3, p Mexico border region is disproportionately affected by cardiovascular disease mortality as compared to the non-border region of Mexico. This was not explained by education, population density, or insurance coverage. Proximity to the US culture and related diet and habits can be explanations of the increasing mortality trend.

  5. Regional economic development policy of cross-border cooperation: improving trends

    OpenAIRE

    O. O. Sokolovska

    2014-01-01

    Development of regional cross-border economic cooperation on the national and regional levels become increasingly important for the european integration of Ukraine. When forming the state regional policy, in the field of cross-border economic cooperation it is necessary to use the approach that is directed at strengthening the role of regions in the integration process of Ukraine and cross-border cooperation development, increasing the region’s competitiveness, that can finally result in econ...

  6. Socio-cultural proximity, daily life and shopping tourism in the Dutch–German border region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szytniewski, Bianca B.; Spierings, Bas; van der Velde, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyses feelings of socio-cultural proximity and distance with a specific focus on the tourist experience in cross-border shopping and everyday life practices in border regions. We examined shopping practices of Dutch border crossers who visit the German town Kleve in the Dutch–German

  7. Regional Joint Border Commands: A Pathway to Improving Collaboration and Effectiveness for Border Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Police xii SBI Secure Border Initiative SES Senior Executive Service SSP Secretaria de Seguridad Publica TSA Transportation Security...also been involvement from the Mexican law enforcement agency, Secretaria de Seguridad Publica (SSP) on the southwest border (CBP, 2009; ICE, 2009, p. 5

  8. Infectious disease morbidity in the US region bordering Mexico, 1990-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, T J; Bryan, R T

    2000-11-01

    The United States and Mexico share an international boundary approximately 3000 km long. This border separates 2 nations with great differences in health status. The objective of this study was to assess morbidity due to infectious diseases in the US region bordering Mexico. The incidence between 1990 and 1998 of 22 nationally notifiable infectious diseases was compared between border and nonborder regions. Disease rates, reflected as rate ratios, were higher in the border region for botulism, brucellosis, diphtheria, hepatitis A, measles, mumps, rabies, rubella, salmonellosis, and shigellosis than in either of 2 nonborder comparison regions. These data indicate that incidence rates for a variety of infectious diseases of public health importance are significantly higher in the United States along the Mexican border than in nonborder regions. These results suggest that an inadequate public health infrastructure may contribute to excess morbidity due to infectious diseases in the border region.

  9. Mladi in življenje v obmejnih regijah Slovenije = The youth and the life in border regions of Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen Kolenc-Kolnik

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This article present the results of research in which we worked with 523 Slovenian secondary school pupils who live in the border regions of Slovenia and Europe. Their opinion on the state border and multicultural diversity of border regions, their spatial identification and perspectives of their lives in different border regions are discussed.

  10. Borders as membranes :metaphors and models for improved policy in border regions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malczynski, Leonard A.; Passell, Howard David; Forster, Craig B. (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT); Cockerill, Kristan (Cockerill Consulting, Boone, NC)

    2005-10-01

    Political borders are controversial and contested spaces. In an attempt to better understand movement along and through political borders, this project applied the metaphor of a membrane to look at how people, ideas, and things ''move'' through a border. More specifically, the research team employed this metaphor in a system dynamics framework to construct a computer model to assess legal and illegal migration on the US-Mexico border. Employing a metaphor can be helpful, as it was in this project, to gain different perspectives on a complex system. In addition to the metaphor, the multidisciplinary team utilized an array of methods to gather data including traditional literature searches, an experts workshop, a focus group, interviews, and culling expertise from the individuals on the research team. Results from the qualitative efforts revealed strong social as well as economic drivers that motivate individuals to cross the border legally. Based on the information gathered, the team concluded that legal migration dynamics were of a scope we did not want to consider hence, available demographic models sufficiently capture migration at the local level. Results from both the quantitative and qualitative data searches were used to modify a 1977 border model to demonstrate the dynamic nature of illegal migration. Model runs reveal that current US-policies based on neo-classic economic theory have proven ineffective in curbing illegal migration, and that proposed enforcement policies are also likely to be ineffective. We suggest, based on model results, that improvement in economic conditions within Mexico may have the biggest impact on illegal migration to the U.S. The modeling also supports the views expressed in the current literature suggesting that demographic and economic changes within Mexico are likely to slow illegal migration by 2060 with no special interventions made by either government.

  11. Supporting decision making in cross-border regions: a health technology assessment tool for hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knies, Saskia; Lombardi, Gloria; Commers, Matt; Dauben, Hans-Peter; Evers, Silvia; Michelsen, Kai; Oortwijn, Wija; Opara, Chibuzo; Brand, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an health technology assessment (HTA) decision tool to support the decision-making process on health technologies for hospital decision makers in cross-border regions. Several methods were used to collect information necessary to develop the cross-border mini-HTA decision tool. The literature was inventoried on HTA in border regions and local settings and the use of HTA by local decision makers. Semi-structured interviews with hospital decision makers in cross-border regions were also performed. Based on group discussion of the resulting information, it was decided to use the Danish mini-HTA guideline as a starting point for development of the decision tool. After finishing the first version of the decision tool it was tested in two pilot studies. Some questions in the Danish mini-HTA guideline were not relevant. Other questions needed rephrasing and questions about cross-border situations were added. The pilots showed several missing topics, including legal questions and reimbursement issues. The final decision tool consists of three sections: a general section, a section for hospitals not cooperating cross-border and a section for hospitals that are cooperating with hospitals across a national or regional border. Based on our literature search, this may be the first cross-border mini-HTA decision tool. The decision tool will be of help for healthcare professionals and decision makers in border settings who would like to use HTA evidence to support their decision-making process.

  12. Effect of the US-Mexico border region in cardiovascular mortality: ecological time trend analysis of Mexican border and non-border municipalities from 1998 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Anaya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An array of risk factors has been associated with cardiovascular diseases, and developing nations are becoming disproportionately affected by such diseases. Cardiovascular diseases have been reported to be highly prevalent in the Mexican population, but local mortality data is poor. The Mexican side of the US-Mexico border has a culture that is closely related to a developed nation and therefore may share the same risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. We wanted to explore if there was higher cardiovascular mortality in the border region of Mexico compared to the rest of the nation. Methods We conducted a population based cross-sectional time series analysis to estimate the effects of education, insurance and municipal size in Mexican border (n = 38 and non-border municipalities (n = 2360 and its association with cardiovascular age-adjusted mortality rates between the years 1998–2012. We used a mixed effect linear model with random effect estimation and repeated measurements to compare the main outcome variable (mortality rate, the covariates (education, insurance and population size and the geographic delimiter (border/non-border. Results Mortality due to cardiovascular disease was consistently higher in the municipalities along the US-Mexico border, showing a difference of 78 · 5 (95% CI 58 · 7-98 · 3, p < 0 · 001 more cardiovascular deaths after adjusting for covariates. Larger municipal size and higher education levels showed a reduction in cardiovascular mortality of 12 · 6 (95% CI 11 · 4-13 · 8, p < 0 · 001 deaths and 8 · 6 (95% CI 5 · 5-11 · 8, p < 0 · 001 deaths respectively. Insurance coverage showed an increase in cardiovascular mortality of 3 · 6 (95% CI 3 · 1-4 · 0, p < 0 · 001 deaths per decile point increase. There was an increase in cardiovascular mortality of 0 · 3 (95% CI −0 · 001-0 · 6

  13. Scientific collaboration in the Danish-German border region of Southern Jutland-Schleswig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the geographical and organizational patterns of scientific collaboration, in terms of co-authored scientific articles, in the Danish-German border region of Southern Jutland-Schleswig. The motivation behind the approach lies in the fact that scientific collaboration...... in border regions, in general, and the studied region, in particular, has rarely been discussed in the academic literature. The integration model of cross-border regional innovation systems provides the conceptual framework for the task. The paper, thus, gives methodological insights for the measurement...

  14. Initiatives of cross-border regional planning in Matamoros-Brownsville (Mexico-United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Oliveras González

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cross-border regional planning is a recent phenomenon, which its first initiatives date back to 1960s. Currently some experiences have been conducted, most of them in Europe. The weak development of this phenomenon lies on the obstacles and limitations that it has to deal with. Those obstacles derive from the asymmetries between the political and administrative systems, urban and spatial policies, land planning and land uses, etc. on each side of an international border. In a great extent, cross-border planning has been theoretically approached from an institutional construction perspective. However, in this research it has been adopted the symbolic regional construction perspective that allows to analyze cross-border regional planning through spatial imaginaries. In this sense, crossborder planning is understood as a result of the interaction between regional actors and the social constructed values and meanings (geographical, cultural, social, economic, historical, etc. given to border and cross-border regions. This investigation pursues, in first place, to determine the spatial imaginaries on which cross-border planning is constructed and, at the same time, the spatial imaginaries that cross-border planning reproduces; in second place, to determine in which way cross-border planning contributes to deactivate the border (deborder or, on the contrary, to reproduce and reinforce the spatial differentiation process (the process by which two contiguous national or bordered spaces build spatial discontinuities as a way to distinguish of each other. To achieve these objectives, it has been conducted a content analysis based on the documentation of the spatial and urban planning and of the cross-border initiatives from a case study area; a direct observation of an ongoing cross-border initiative; and interviews to key informants (planning agencies and other organizations related to cross-border initiatives. In the Mexico-United States border region

  15. Contested ‘relational policy spaces’ in two European border regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dörry, Sabine; Walther, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Cross-border cooperation to promote economic development and political integration has been among the EU’s key themes since the 1990s, and contemporary policy networks are considered useful organisational solutions. Focusing on transport policies in the border regions of Basel and Luxembourg, we...

  16. Case for a Regional Approach to the Regulation of Cross Border ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper argues that national higher education quality regulatory agencies and frameworks may not be adequate to regulate cross border higher education, given its multinational character. Therefore, the paper argues for a regional approach to the regulation of cross border education. Thereafter, it discusses some of the ...

  17. Ecosystem Services and Border Regions. Case Study from Czech – Polish Borderland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Spyra

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Land-use management and planning of cross-border regions is a complex problem. Different legislatures, development visions and interests on both sides of the border make it even more complicated. Introducing ecosystem services concept into land-use planning and management at cross-border regions is a challenge.  However not much is said about this issue in literature.This paper aims to present result of the study concerning to ecosystem services concept in the context of cross-border part of Pradziad Euroregion. The studyed area is situated within Czech – Polish borderland. First part of the research concerns to land-cover analyze of the region. The second one to Czech and Polish land-use strategies, which are binding at NUTS 4 and 5 level in the studyed area.Resoults of the research indicates asymmetry of the cross-border landscape of the analyzed region. The asymmetry is indicated by different types, biodiversities and areas of ecosystems identified on both sides of the border. It is also identified by differences in land-use strategies concerning to the region.It is discussed to what extend ecosystem services concept can be implemented in planning legislature of the cross-border region.

  18. Amphibians and land use in the Chihuahuan Desert border region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulette L. Ford; Deborah M. Finch

    1999-01-01

    The pressures of growing borderland populations, increased land use, and Increased water use are threatening amphibians in the Chihuahuan Desert border area. In this paper, we describe potential direct threats such as loss or contamination of aquatic habitats, and indirect threats such as the sublethal effects of pesticides on developing larvae and tadpoles. More...

  19. Proximity and scientific collaboration in Northern European “cross-border regional innovation systems”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Williams, Allan

    2015-01-01

    collaboration are described through preliminary descriptive statistics. This provides an answer to the specific research question of this paper: does high levels of proximity guarantee subsequent high levels of scientific collaboration and integration in a cross-border context? Consequently, the preliminary......A novel approach, namely cross-border regional innovation system, has been recently introduced to the literature on economic geography as a framework for studying innovation and scientific collaboration in a cross-border context. However, despite the importance of the topic for cross-border regions...... and cultural statistics together with measures for accessibility and institutional and organisational similarity. These measures are linked to the varying types of proximity discussed in the literature on innovation and scientific collaboration; the impacts of proximity on the volume of cross-border scientific...

  20. Rural-urban differences in health services utilization in the US-Mexico border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Dejun; Pratt, William; Salinas, Jennifer; Wong, Rebeca; Pagán, José A

    2013-01-01

    Evaluate the association between driving distance to the US-Mexico border and rural-urban differences in the use of health services in Mexico by US border residents from Texas. Data for this study come from the Cross-Border Utilization of Health Care Survey, a population-based telephone survey conducted in the Texas border region in spring 2008. Driving distances to the border were estimated from the nearest border crossing station using Google Maps. Outcome measures included medication purchases, physician visits, dentist visits, and inpatient care in Mexico during the 12 months prior to the survey. A series of adjusted logit models were estimated after controlling for relevant confounding factors. The average driving distance to the nearest border crossing station among rural respondents was 4 times that of urban respondents (42.0 miles vs 10.3 miles [P Rural respondents were more likely to be dissatisfied than urban respondents with the health care provided on the US side of the border, yet they were less likely to use health services in Mexico. Driving distance to the border largely explained the observed rural-urban differences in medication purchases from Mexico. In the case of inpatient care, however, rural respondents reported a higher utilization rate than urban respondents and this rural-urban difference became more pronounced after adjusting for the effect of driving distance to the border. Dissatisfaction with US health care services in rural communities in the US-Mexico border region seems to be compounded by the lack of access to health care services in Mexico due to travel distance constraints. No claim to original US government works.

  1. A balanced way for China's inter-regional cross-border insolvency cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, X.

    2016-01-01

    In pursuit of solutions to China’s inter-regional cross-border insolvency cooperation, the doctoral dissertation provides 10 original recommendations accompanied with comments, which are entitled “CICIA”.

  2. Process for evaluating overweight truck corridors serving coastal port regions and border ports of entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Coastal and inland ports, regional mobility authorities, cities, and counties located near or along the Texas Gulf Coast, and along the border with Mexico, have been granted authority by the state legislature to establish permitted overweight truck c...

  3. Regional-development problematic of area near Slovene-Croatian border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Pak

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Introductory regional developmental activities in European and also in some other border areas are represented in general on some concrete examples. Analysis is following of regional developmental factors, including position, natural environ-ment, political elements as well as general and cultural development. Most border areas near Slovene-Croatian border are not developed also due to many other factors, and further development of such areas is subject to traffic approachability, development of gravitation centers and innovations in these very areas.

  4. Regional Features and National Differences in Population Distribution in China’s Border Regions (2000–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen You

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available China is of great geostrategic significance not only in the Asia-Pacific region, but also in the wider world. The population distribution in China’s border regions is of significance for the development of China and neighboring countries. Based on the LandScan Population Distribution Database, this study used GIS spatial analysis and statistics to investigate national trends in the population distribution of China’s border regions. The study areas were the buffer zones within specified Euclidean distances from the land borders of China. The results showed that: (1 Although the population agglomeration index and population size inside China’s border areas have increased, the population density inside China’s border areas is still far below China’s average population density; (2 Over the last 15 years, the population of China’s northwestern border has been sparse, with small increases in the population agglomeration index and population size. China’s northeastern and southwestern border regions have several average population density areas, but the northeastern regions have seen a substantial reduction in population size since 2000. Based on our analysis, we propose that the Chinese government introduce supporting policies for the development of border regions to maintain the population size. At the same time, considering the varied living suitability of the natural environment along the northeastern, northwestern, and southwestern borders, “moderate agglomeration” and “moderate evacuation” population development strategies should be implemented in specified areas. Tilt policy should also be implemented in areas of rapid population decline.

  5. Slovene-Croatian border region and its functions in relations between Slovenia and Croatia and in light of European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Klemenčič

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The author treats borders and border regions between Slovenia and Croatia in the context of broader connections between two neighboring states and concepts of broader connections among the European states. The author deals with many problems on the local and macro-regional (European level that came about when the Slovene-Croatian state frontier was established after 1991. This border is something special in Central Europe because it was established during a period when borders between countries of the EU are more or less nonexistent, while the number of border crossings at the borders of Eastern European countries is increasing.

  6. Tuberculosis-diabetes epidemiology in the border and non-border regions of Tamaulipas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelbary, Bassent E; Garcia-Viveros, Moncerrato; Ramirez-Oropesa, Horacio; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Restrepo, Blanca I

    2016-12-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a re-emerging risk factor for TB development and adverse TB outcomes. As a follow-up of our previous study in 1998-2004, we reassessed prevalence of DM and its associated factors among 8431 TB patients using surveillance data from 2006 to 2013 for the Mexican state of Tamaulipas, across the border with Texas. Prevalence of DM was 25.2%, with an increase of at least 2.8% over the study period. Newly discovered factors associated with TB-DM (versus no DM) were lower education and higher unemployment (p < 0.001), which are reportedly associated with poorer DM management. At least 15% of the DM patients were newly-diagnosed and younger than those previously diagnosed, showing the importance of early DM diagnosis at TB clinics. TB-DM patients were more likely to have smear-positive, pulmonary (versus extra-pulmonary) and drug-resistant TB (1.9-, 3.8- and 1.4-fold, respectively). During treatment, TB-DM patients were more likely to be smear-positive, and less likely to die or abandon TB treatment. Thus, the increasing prevalence of DM among TB, and its association with low education, features of a more contagious TB, and drug resistance, highlight the need for design of TB management programs in DM patients, blood testing of all new TB patients for DM, and if positive for DM, testing for drug resistance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. CASE STUDIES OF CROSS-BORDER CO-OPERATION IN EUROPEAN TOURISM – PERSPECTIVES AND CHALLENGES FOR THE CROSS-BORDER REGION BUCOVINA/OBLAST TSCHERNIWZI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HEIKE BÄHRE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on success factors and management models in destination management for cross-border co-operation in tourism. The method is based on literature research, case-studies in European cross-border-regions and descriptive.

  8. Limited Access to Healthcare among Hispanics in the US-Mexico Border Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Minghui; Gai, Yunwei; Feng, Li

    2016-09-01

    Using large national databases, we investigated how living in the US-Mexico border region further limited access to healthcare among the non-elderly Hispanic adult population after controlling individual and county-level characteristics. The 2008-2012 individual-level data of non-elderly Hispanic adults from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) were merged with county-level data from Area Health Resources File (AHRF). Multivariate logistic analyses were performed to predict insurance status and access to doctors using residency in the US-Mexico border region as the key predictor, adjusting individual and county-level factors. Controlling only individual characteristic, Hispanics living in the US-Mexico border region had significantly lower odds of having health insurance (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.49-0.54) and access to doctors (AOR = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.66-0.72). After including county-level measurements of healthcare system capacity and other local characteristics, the border region continued to be associated with lower likelihood of healthcare access. Hispanic residents in the U.S.-Mexico border had less access to healthcare than their inland counterparts. The findings highlight unique features in this region and support policies and initiatives to improve minority healthcare access, particularly among disadvantaged populations in this region.

  9. Integration Strategies and Barriers to Co-Operation in Cross-Border Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Povl Adler; Serin, Göran Folke

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: The purpose of the article is to analyze strategies for cross-border integration in the Øresund Region. The point of departure is that the development of strategies for cross-border integration is dependent on the development on both the general level in the EU and deregulation of economy...... and business on the global level. In this respect, the article points out the importance of market forces and their influence on institutional change. Recent economic crises have put growth center stage at both the national and regional level, and have called for regional development programs on both...

  10. Opportunities for Cross-Border Entrepreneurship Development in a Cluster Model Exemplified by the Polish–Czech Border Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kurowska-Pysz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the paper is the analysis and evaluation of cross-border entrepreneurship development opportunities on the basis of cross-border cooperation, which has gradually evolved from consisting of bilateral partnerships to a networking model or even a cluster. The study conducted at the Polish–Czech border area indicates that, in terms of the development of cross-border cooperation, the economic sphere is lagging far behind social activities such as culture, education and tourism. At the same time, Polish and Czech enterprises are not sufficiently mobilized to develop cross-border entrepreneurship, although a number of support instruments in this regard have been proposed. Sustainable development of the border should take into account both social and economic aspects. An important research problem therefore becomes determining the possibility of boosting the development of cross-border entrepreneurship on the basis of the existing forms of cross-border cooperation, including cooperation in the social sphere. The aim of this paper is to define the conditions and opportunities for the development of cluster cooperation in the area of cross-border entrepreneurship. The author has attempted to resolve whether the intensity of cross-border cooperation can be a factor which mobilizes companies to develop their cross-border entrepreneurship and whether cross-border entrepreneurship can be further developed within the cluster model.

  11. Constructing regional advantage in branding the cross-border Euroregion Galicia-northern Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Silva Oliveira, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    This paper employs a constructing regional advantage (CRA) approach in respect of examining the potential of joint branding strategies intended to position and give visibility to cross-border regions. The CRA concept is introduced here to improve understanding about the empirical significance of a

  12. Structure of the vitreoretinal border region in spontaneously diabetic BB rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, S

    1993-01-01

    The morphology of the vitreoretinal border region, also termed the inner limiting membrane, was examined in spontaneously diabetic rats (BB rats), in non-diabetes-prone rats (WB rats) and in Buffalo rats (BUF rats) by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM......). This was performed in order to visualize a possible increase in thickness of the lamina densa or in the whole vitreoretinal border region complex with duration of diabetes. The median thickness of the lamina densa in the three groups varied between 34 and 68 nm. In BB rats the thickness decreased with age...... and duration of diabetes. In WB rats the lamina densa thickened up to the 9th month and then decreased to the level of the young rats. In BUF rats the lamina densa decreased in thickness with age. The median thickness of the whole vitreoretinal border region varied between: BB rats: 84 and 126 nm (SEM) and 68...

  13. Regional development within the border town state of Sonora, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús Arroyo Alejandre; Joaquín Bracamontes Nevárez

    2006-01-01

    This work analyzes the spatial inequalities in the regional socioeconomic development of Sonora. In order to do so, a statistical model is designed and it resorts to the technique of the factorial analysis of main components which allows to estimate a Municipal Socioeconomic Development Index (IDSEM) for year 2000, which makes evident the geographic concentration of the regional development in Sonora. An econometric model was specified as well, that allowed to identify the factors that preven...

  14. Smart specialisation strategies and cross-border integration of regional innovation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, Emmanuel; Zenker, Andrea; Hufnagl, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    by illustrating its practical implementation in the Upper Rhine area (i.e. Alsace in France and Baden-Württemberg in Germany). The first section revisits not only the smart specialisation concept in itself but also discusses it vis-à-vis the thematic of cross-border regional innovation systems and outlines some...

  15. The Effect of Borders on the Linguistic Production and Perception of Regional Identity in Louisville, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Jennifer Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    A great deal of scholarly research has addressed the issue of dialect mapping in the United States. These studies, usually based on phonetic or lexical items, aim to present an overall picture of the dialect landscape. But what is often missing in these types of projects is an attention to the borders of a dialect region and to what kinds of…

  16. Cross-border dissemination of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Euregio Meuse-Rhin region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg, Ruud H; Nulens, Eric; Valvatne, Havard; Sebastian, Silvie; Driessen, Christel; Craeghs, Jos; De Brauwer, Els; Heising, Bernhard; Kraat, Yvette J; Riebe, Joachim; Stals, Frans S; Trienekens, Thera A; Scheres, Jacques; Friedrich, Alexander W; van Tiel, Frank H; Beisser, Patrick S; Stobberingh, Ellen E

    Because the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) differs among the 3 countries forming the Euregio Meuse-Rhin (EMR) region (Belgium, Germany, and the Netherlands), cross-border healthcare requires information about the spread of MRSA in the EMR. We investigated the

  17. Cross-Border Region Králíky - Międzylesie

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaishar, Antonín; Cetkovský, Stanislav; Martinát, Stanislav; Nosková, Helena; Zapletalová, Jana

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 2 (2007), s. 40-54 ISSN 1210-8812 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2D06001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518; CEZ:AV0Z80630520 Keywords : cross-border region * periphery * regional development * Králíky * Międzylesie Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  18. Fixed Links and Vague Discourses About Culture and the Making of Cross-Border Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stöber, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    It has been en vogue for official bodies to focus on ‘culture’ as a strategic factor for the development of spatial entities such as cross-border regions in the making. This focus places high expectations and a strong belief in the power of ‘culture’. In this paper I will argue that in region bui...... a regional context. Hence, the concept of governance, particularly that of networked governance structures as well co-governance will be briefly discussed. All in all, the paper shows the ‘fragmented complexity of agency and the multitude of actors related to region building...

  19. Cooperation and territorial development within northern Morocco’s border region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique López Lara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The North of Morocco, like border regional space with Spain and the European Union, is object of an intense process of promotion of policies and programs of cooperation of diverse institutions (UN, European Union, agencies of cooperation, among others that have interests in the zone, such as: fortification of a growth, safety ring in a strategic zone of the rent by the existence of a high step between neighbors, creation of a new policy of vicinity based on semi-integration, reduction of the emigration, etcetera. Question that agrees with a determined policy of the Moroccan government to relaunch socially and economically this space: process of regionalización and dowry of institutions (Agency for the Promotion of the Development in the Regions of the North, design of a strategy of growth based on the human development, and more. This paper analizes the reasons of this process, the geographic reality and the socioeconomic characterization of the border area. At the same time, it diagnoses the weaknesses and opportunities for the joint of new policies of cooperation and development for the actors who look for a territorial development in this border area, today in crisis.

  20. The utopia of cross-border regions : territorial transformation and cross-border governance on Espace Mont-Blanc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lissandrello, Enza

    2006-01-01

    The theories on globalisation, internationalisation, post-nationalism or trans-nationalism dismiss the concept of 'territoriality' within the paradigm of the beyond the 'nation-state' sovereignty. In this work, a diverse idea is sustained: borders and territoriality are not just lost terms within

  1. Transcarpathia - Ukrainian border region at the edge of the EU. Internal and external representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, P.

    2013-11-01

    Starting from 1918, multiethnic Transcarpathia changed after centuries of being an integrated part of Hungary frequently its political affiliation and is since 2004 a Ukrainian border region to the European Union. Three of the four European Union neighbour countries belong since 21.12.2007 to the Schengen zone (Poland, Slovakia, Hungary), only the southern neighbour Romania is for the time being not yet a Schengen country. After a phase of relatively open borders and relatively intensive neighbourhood relations in the first transformation years, by the Schengen regime the situation for Transcarpathia changed again. The current situation, possibly still to be intensified by the Schengen entry of Romania, is likely to persist for some time. What does this mean for Transcarpathia as well as for the wider region in the northeast of the Pannonian basin? Which factors are determining the development in Transcarpathia? Which position maintains Transcarpathia within the Ukraine, how does it look at Kiev and how is it looked at by Kiev and the cis-Carpathian areas of the Ukraine? The paper deals under these aspects with economic development in Transcarpathia, the interest of foreign investors in the region, its role in the continental transportation network, the identity of the Slavonic population majority and regionalism, also with the position of the large Hungarian minority in the region and its relation to the motherland. The paper is based on a larger research project completed and published already in 2004 (Peter Jordan, Mladen Klemenčić: Transcarpathia - Bridgehead or Periphery?), but adopts also the results of a later diploma work of a student of the author (Berenike Ecker) as well as results of more recent research by the author himself. It is found that shaping by Hungarian history, borderland location and multiethnic structure can be defined as the essential components of Transcarpathian identity. Its economic potentials and perspectives rest mainly in richness

  2. Potential risk of regional disease spread in West Africa through cross-border cattle trade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna S Dean

    Full Text Available Transboundary animal movements facilitate the spread of pathogens across large distances. Cross-border cattle trade is of economic and cultural importance in West Africa. This study explores the potential disease risk resulting from large-scale, cross-border cattle trade between Togo, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Benin, and Nigeria for the first time.A questionnaire-based survey of livestock movements of 226 cattle traders was conducted in the 9 biggest cattle markets of northern Togo in February-March 2012. More than half of the traders (53.5% operated in at least one other country. Animal flows were stochastically simulated based on reported movements and the risk of regional disease spread assessed. More than three quarters (79.2%, range: 78.1-80.0% of cattle flowing into the market system originated from other countries. Through the cattle market system of northern Togo, non-neighbouring countries were connected via potential routes for disease spread. Even for diseases with low transmissibility and low prevalence in a given country, there was a high risk of disease introduction into other countries.By stochastically simulating data collected by interviewing cattle traders in northern Togo, this study identifies potential risks for regional disease spread in West Africa through cross-border cattle trade. The findings highlight that surveillance for emerging infectious diseases as well as control activities targeting endemic diseases in West Africa are likely to be ineffective if only conducted at a national level. A regional approach to disease surveillance, prevention and control is essential.

  3. Potential Risk of Regional Disease Spread in West Africa through Cross-Border Cattle Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Anna S.; Fournié, Guillaume; Kulo, Abalo E.; Boukaya, G. Aboudou; Schelling, Esther; Bonfoh, Bassirou

    2013-01-01

    Background Transboundary animal movements facilitate the spread of pathogens across large distances. Cross-border cattle trade is of economic and cultural importance in West Africa. This study explores the potential disease risk resulting from large-scale, cross-border cattle trade between Togo, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Benin, and Nigeria for the first time. Methods and Principal Findings A questionnaire-based survey of livestock movements of 226 cattle traders was conducted in the 9 biggest cattle markets of northern Togo in February-March 2012. More than half of the traders (53.5%) operated in at least one other country. Animal flows were stochastically simulated based on reported movements and the risk of regional disease spread assessed. More than three quarters (79.2%, range: 78.1–80.0%) of cattle flowing into the market system originated from other countries. Through the cattle market system of northern Togo, non-neighbouring countries were connected via potential routes for disease spread. Even for diseases with low transmissibility and low prevalence in a given country, there was a high risk of disease introduction into other countries. Conclusions By stochastically simulating data collected by interviewing cattle traders in northern Togo, this study identifies potential risks for regional disease spread in West Africa through cross-border cattle trade. The findings highlight that surveillance for emerging infectious diseases as well as control activities targeting endemic diseases in West Africa are likely to be ineffective if only conducted at a national level. A regional approach to disease surveillance, prevention and control is essential. PMID:24130721

  4. LINGUOCULTURAL MONITORING OF THE CROSS-BORDER REGION: ALTAI VIEWED BY CHINESE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrieva, L.M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the peculiarities of linguocultural monitoring of the cross-border region. The studied group consists of Chinese students who receive education in the institutions of higher education in Barnaul. The reactions of the students to the stimulus-words related to the Altai realia are studied in the investigation. The results of the investigation show that most associations are those with positive connotation which can be explained by the desire of the students to appeal to the interlocutor and establish contacts. The results of the associative experiment once again prove the necessity of such investigations for intercultural communication.

  5. Adults Experiencing Homelessness in the US-Mexico Border Region: A Photovoice Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Eva Margarita; Chavez-Baray, Silvia M; Loweree, Jacqueline; Mattera, Brian; Martinez, Nahomi

    2017-01-01

    Homelessness is a social, economic, and political crisis in the United States. In particular, the US-Mexico Border region has seen a surge of homelessness, specifically among veterans, women victims of intimate partner violence, and immigrants. In 2014, 12 persons in El Paso, TX, with experience of being homeless used the photovoice methodology to participate in a project titled, "The Voices and Images of the Residents of the Opportunity Center for the Homeless: A Visual Project on the Identity and Challenges Homeless Adults Face on the Border Region." The project was led by faculty from the Department of Social Work and facilitated by graduate students from the Departments of Social Work, Sociology, and Anthropology at the University of Texas at El Paso. In partnership with the Opportunity Center for the Homeless, a community-based organization, a gallery of photographs with respective narratives was produced along with a video documentary. The participants identified four themes: broken systems, invisibility, opportunities and what works, and growth and determination. These themes represent participants' life experiences with homelessness and their aspirations. In addition to the photo gallery, participants supported the development of a Call to Action asking the community, policy, and decision makers to commit to changing the current social, economic, and political conditions affecting individuals experiencing homelessness. The gallery, Call to Action, and overall participant experiences with photovoice were shared during local, regional, and national conferences and events, including three State of the Homeless Conferences led by the Opportunity Center for the Homeless in partnership with the university.

  6. Cervical cancer screening in the US-Mexico border region: a binational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Dyanne G; Schiefelbein, Emily L; Smith, Ruben; Rojas, Rosalba; Mirchandani, Gita G; McDonald, Jill A

    2012-12-01

    Cervical cancer mortality is high along the US-Mexico border. We describe the prevalence of a recent Papanicolaou screening test (Pap) among US and Mexican border women. We analyzed 2006 cross-sectional data from Mexico's National Survey of Health and Nutrition and the US Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Women aged 20-77 years in 44 US border counties (n = 1,724) and 80 Mexican border municipios (n = 1,454) were studied. We computed weighted proportions for a Pap within the past year by age, education, employment, marital status, health insurance, health status, risk behaviors, and ethnicity and adjusted prevalence ratios (APR) for the US, Mexico, and the region overall. Sixty-five percent (95 %CI 60.3-68.6) of US women and 32 % (95 %CI 28.7-35.2) of Mexican women had a recent Pap. US residence (APR = 2.01, 95 %CI 1.74-2.33), marriage (APR = 1.31, 95 %CI 1.17-1.47) and insurance (APR = 1.38, 95 %CI 1.22-1.56) were positively associated with a Pap test. Among US women, insurance and marriage were associated (APR = 1.21, 95 %CI 1.05-1.38 and 1.33, 95 %CI 1.10-1.61, respectively), and women aged 20-34 years were about 25 % more likely to have received a test than older women. Insurance and marriage were also positively associated with Pap testing among Mexican women (APR = 1.39, 95 %CI 1.17-1.64 and 1.50; 95 %CI 1.23-1.82, respectively), as were lower levels of education (≤8th grade or 9th-12th grade versus some college) (APR = 1.74; 95 %CI 1.21-2.52 and 1.60; 95 %CI 1.03-2.49, respectively). Marriage and insurance were associated with a recent Pap test on both sides of the border. Binational insurance coverage increases and/or cost reductions might bolster testing among unmarried and uninsured women, leading to earlier cervical cancer diagnosis and potentially lower mortality.

  7. Cervical Cancer Screening in the US–Mexico Border Region: A Binational Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiefelbein, Emily L.; Smith, Ruben; Rojas, Rosalba; Mirchandani, Gita G.; McDonald, Jill A.

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer mortality is high along the US–Mexico border. We describe the prevalence of a recent Papanicolaou screening test (Pap) among US and Mexican border women. We analyzed 2006 cross-sectional data from Mexico’s National Survey of Health and Nutrition and the US Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Women aged 20–77 years in 44 US border counties (n = 1,724) and 80 Mexican border municipios (n = 1,454) were studied. We computed weighted proportions for a Pap within the past year by age, education, employment, marital status, health insurance, health status, risk behaviors, and ethnicity and adjusted prevalence ratios (APR) for the US, Mexico, and the region overall. Sixty-five percent (95 %CI 60.3–68.6) of US women and 32 % (95 %CI 28.7–35.2) of Mexican women had a recent Pap. US residence (APR = 2.01, 95 %CI 1.74–2.33), marriage (APR = 1.31, 95 %CI 1.17–1.47) and insurance (APR = 1.38, 95 %CI 1.22–1.56) were positively associated with a Pap test. Among US women, insurance and marriage were associated (APR = 1.21, 95 %CI 1.05–1.38 and 1.33, 95 %CI 1.10–1.61, respectively), and women aged 20–34 years were about 25 % more likely to have received a test than older women. Insurance and marriage were also positively associated with Pap testing among Mexican women (APR = 1.39, 95 %CI 1.17–1.64 and 1.50; 95 %CI 1.23–1.82, respectively), as were lower levels of education (≤8th grade or 9th–12th grade versus some college) (APR = 1.74; 95 %CI 1.21–2.52 and 1.60; 95 %CI 1.03–2.49, respectively). Marriage and insurance were associated with a recent Pap test on both sides of the border. Binational insurance coverage increases and/or cost reductions might bolster testing among unmarried and uninsured women, leading to earlier cervical cancer diagnosis and potentially lower mortality. PMID:22965734

  8. Pastoralists at War: Violence and Security in the Kenya-Sudan-Uganda Border Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonah Leff

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The majority of those living in the border region of Kenya, Sudan, and Uganda are pastoralists, whose livelihoods are dictated by the upkeep and size of their herds. Harsh environmental conditions force pastoralists to migrate in search of water and pasturelands during the dry season. With limited access to water and competing rights to land, intertribal conflict arises when pastoralists from one tribe enter the territory of another. The increased availability of small arms in the region from past wars increasingly makes ordinary clashes fatal. Governments in the region have responded with heavy-handed coercive disarmament operations. These have led to distrust and subsequent violent clashes between communities and security providers. This report reviews the scale, consequences of, and responses to the many pastoral conflicts, utilizing methodological tools such as key informant interviews, retrospective analysis, and a thorough review of available literature.

  9. The relationship between violence in Northern Mexico and potentially avoidable hospitalizations in the USA-Mexico border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, Kimberley; Stearns, Sally C; Becker, Charles; Thirumurthy, Harsha; Holmes, George M

    2016-03-01

    Substantial proportions of US residents in the USA-Mexico border region cross into Mexico for health care; increases in violence in northern Mexico may have affected this access. We quantified associations between violence in Mexico and decreases in access to care for border county residents. We also examined associations between border county residence and access. We used hospital inpatient data for Arizona, California and Texas (2005-10) to estimate associations between homicide rates and the probability of hospitalization for ambulatory care sensitive (ACS) conditions. Hospitalizations for ACS conditions were compared with homicide rates in Mexican municipalities matched by patient residence. A 1 SD increase in the homicide rate of the nearest Mexican municipality was associated with a 2.2 percentage point increase in the probability of being hospitalized for an ACS condition for border county patients. Residence in a border county was associated with a 1.3 percentage point decrease in the probability of being hospitalized for an ACS condition. Increased homicide rates in Mexico were associated with increased hospitalizations for ACS conditions in the USA, although residence in a border county was associated with decreased probability of being hospitalized for an ACS condition. Expanding access in the border region may mitigate these effects by providing alternative sources of care. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. The Challenging Task of Governing Cross-Border Investment in Peripheral Regions: Polish Investors in Northeast Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinder Sebastian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the challenging task of governing cross-border investment in peripheral regions. The main objective is to identify common opportunities and obstacles in the Pomerania Euroregion by taking the case study of Polish citizens/ entrepreneurs investing in northeast Germany. This relatively new phenomenon is accompanied by large uncertainties and risks, and lacks further empirical insights. At the same time it breaks new ground, creates alternatives, calls for the development of efficient modes of cross-border cooperation and addresses mutual governance issues on an inter-regional basis between manifold stakeholders on both sides of the border. The case study summarises findings from fieldwork, elaborates a quantitative and qualitative assessment of cross-border governance measures within formal and informal institutions, and tries to formulate policy recommendations for prospective approaches

  11. Regional incentives and patient cross-border mobility: evidence from the Italian experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenna, Elenka; Spandonaro, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Background: In recent years, accreditation of private hospitals followed by decentralisation of the Italian National Health Service (NHS) into 21 regional health systems has provided a good empirical ground for investigating the Tiebout principle of "voting with their feet". We examine the infra-regional trade-off between greater patient choice (due to an increase in hospital services supply) and financial equilibrium, and we relate it to the significant phenomenon of Cross-Border Mobility (CBM) between Italian regions. Focusing on the rules supervising the financial agreements between regional authorities and providers of hospital care, we find incentives for private accredited providers in attracting patient inflows. Methods: The analysis is undertaken from an institutional, regulatory and empirical perspective. We select a sample of five regions with higher positive CBM balance and we examine regional regulations governing the contractual agreements between purchasers and providers of hospital care. According to this sample, we provide a statistical analysis of CBM and apply a Regional Attraction Ability Index (RAAI), aimed at testing patient preferences for private/public accredited providers. Results: We find that this index is systematically higher for private providers, both in the case of distance/boundary patients and of excellence/general hospitals. Conclusion: Conclusions address both financial issues regarding the coverage of regional healthcare systems and equity issues on patient healthcare access. They also raise concerns on the new European Union (EU) directive inherent to patient mobility across Europe. PMID:26029895

  12. Regional Incentives and Patient Cross-Border Mobility: Evidence from the Italian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenka Brenna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background In recent years, accreditation of private hospitals followed by decentralisation of the Italian National Health Service (NHS into 21 regional health systems has provided a good empirical ground for investigating the Tiebout principle of “voting with their feet”. We examine the infra-regional trade-off between greater patient choice (due to an increase in hospital services supply and financial equilibrium, and we relate it to the significant phenomenon of Cross-Border Mobility (CBM between Italian regions. Focusing on the rules supervising the financial agreements between regional authorities and providers of hospital care, we find incentives for private accredited providers in attracting patient inflows. Methods The analysis is undertaken from an institutional, regulatory and empirical perspective. We select a sample of five regions with higher positive CBM balance and we examine regional regulations governing the contractual agreements between purchasers and providers of hospital care. According to this sample, we provide a statistical analysis of CBM and apply a Regional Attraction Ability Index (RAAI, aimed at testing patient preferences for private/public accredited providers. Results We find that this index is systematically higher for private providers, both in the case of distance/boundary patients and of excellence/general hospitals. Conclusion Conclusions address both financial issues regarding the coverage of regional healthcare systems and equity issues on patient healthcare access. They also raise concerns on the new European Union (EU directive inherent to patient mobility across Europe.

  13. Cross-Border Assessment of Environmental Radioactivity in the Euro-Arctic Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nalbandyan, Anna; Gwynn, Justin P.; Moeller, Bredo [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), Section High North, 9296 Tromsoe (Norway); Leppaenen, Ari-Pekka; Rasilainen, Tiina [STUK Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Regional Laboratory in Northern Finland, 96400 Rovaniemi (Finland); Kasatkina, Nadezhda; Usiagina, Irina [Murmansk Marine Biological Institute (MMBI), 183010 Murmansk (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    The Euro-Arctic region is currently experiencing rapid changes in environmental, social and economic conditions. The issue of environmental radioactivity is of special concern to the Arctic region due to numerous existing and potential sources of radioactive pollution in the immediate and adjacent areas. Due to cross-border nature of any potential radioactive contamination and common challenges in border countries, one should consider risks related to radioactivity, monitoring and protection at a regional and international level. This research presents results of cross-border cooperation between Norway, Finland and Russia and joint assessment of the status of terrestrial radioactivity in the Euro-Arctic region and in particular across Troms and Finnmark (Norway), Lapland (Finland) and Murmansk Oblast (Russia). To assess current environmental radioactivity levels in the terrestrial environment, environmental samples were collected in each country in 2010-2012. The main focus was comparison of radioactivity levels in the natural food products such as berries, mushrooms and freshwater fish. The results showed that large variations in activity concentrations exist between species and sampling areas. However, activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in all berries and mushrooms in Northern Norway, Finland and Russia were below the national limits set for commercial retail and well below the national limits for freshwater fish from Northern Norway and Finland. The sampled species from three countries were analysed in order to find out reference species available for further monitoring and data comparison. The doses to man arising from consumption of berries, mushrooms and freshwater fish were calculated. To compare overall terrestrial radioactivity levels in the Euro-Arctic region, partners exchanged long-term monitoring data available in the three countries such as data for soil, vegetation, berries, mushrooms, lichens, reindeer meat, freshwater fish, whole body counting

  14. Seasonal influenza vaccination among Mexican migrants traveling through the Mexico-US border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejebe, Ifna H; Zhang, Xiao; Rangel, Maria Gudelia; Martinez-Donate, Ana P

    2015-02-01

    Mobile populations are at high risk for communicable diseases and can serve as a bridge between sending and receiving communities. The objective of this study is to determine the rates of, and factors associated with, seasonal influenza vaccination among Mexican migrants traveling through the US-Mexico border. We used a 2013 cross-sectional population-based survey of adult mobile Mexican migrants traveling through the Mexico-US border region (N=2313; weighted N=652,500). We performed a multivariable logistic regression analysis to model the odds of receiving an influenza vaccination in the past year by sociodemographics, migration history, health status, and access to health care. The seasonal influenza vaccination rate in this population was 18.6%. Gender, health status, and health insurance were associated with the likelihood to receive an influenza vaccination. Overall, the rates of seasonal influenza vaccination in circular Mexican migrants are low compared to adults in Mexico and the US Efforts are needed to increase influenza vaccination among this highly mobile population, particularly in adults with chronic conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Seismic Hazard and risk assessment for Romania -Bulgaria cross-border region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonova, Stela; Solakov, Dimcho; Alexandrova, Irena; Vaseva, Elena; Trifonova, Petya; Raykova, Plamena

    2016-04-01

    Among the many kinds of natural and man-made disasters, earthquakes dominate with regard to their social and economical impact on the urban environment. Global seismic hazard and vulnerability to earthquakes are steadily increasing as urbanization and development occupy more areas that are prone to effects of strong earthquakes. The assessment of the seismic hazard and risk is particularly important, because it provides valuable information for seismic safety and disaster mitigation, and it supports decision making for the benefit of society. Romania and Bulgaria, situated in the Balkan Region as a part of the Alpine-Himalayan seismic belt, are characterized by high seismicity, and are exposed to a high seismic risk. Over the centuries, both countries have experienced strong earthquakes. The cross-border region encompassing the northern Bulgaria and southern Romania is a territory prone to effects of strong earthquakes. The area is significantly affected by earthquakes occurred in both countries, on the one hand the events generated by the Vrancea intermediate-depth seismic source in Romania, and on the other hand by the crustal seismicity originated in the seismic sources: Shabla (SHB), Dulovo, Gorna Orjahovitza (GO) in Bulgaria. The Vrancea seismogenic zone of Romania is a very peculiar seismic source, often described as unique in the world, and it represents a major concern for most of the northern part of Bulgaria as well. In the present study the seismic hazard for Romania-Bulgaria cross-border region on the basis of integrated basic geo-datasets is assessed. The hazard results are obtained by applying two alternative approaches - probabilistic and deterministic. The MSK64 intensity (MSK64 scale is practically equal to the new EMS98) is used as output parameter for the hazard maps. We prefer to use here the macroseismic intensity instead of PGA, because it is directly related to the degree of damages and, moreover, the epicentral intensity is the original

  16. Adults Experiencing Homelessness in the US–Mexico Border Region: A Photovoice Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Eva Margarita; Chavez-Baray, Silvia M.; Loweree, Jacqueline; Mattera, Brian; Martinez, Nahomi

    2017-01-01

    Homelessness is a social, economic, and political crisis in the United States. In particular, the US–Mexico Border region has seen a surge of homelessness, specifically among veterans, women victims of intimate partner violence, and immigrants. In 2014, 12 persons in El Paso, TX, with experience of being homeless used the photovoice methodology to participate in a project titled, “The Voices and Images of the Residents of the Opportunity Center for the Homeless: A Visual Project on the Identity and Challenges Homeless Adults Face on the Border Region.” The project was led by faculty from the Department of Social Work and facilitated by graduate students from the Departments of Social Work, Sociology, and Anthropology at the University of Texas at El Paso. In partnership with the Opportunity Center for the Homeless, a community-based organization, a gallery of photographs with respective narratives was produced along with a video documentary. The participants identified four themes: broken systems, invisibility, opportunities and what works, and growth and determination. These themes represent participants’ life experiences with homelessness and their aspirations. In addition to the photo gallery, participants supported the development of a Call to Action asking the community, policy, and decision makers to commit to changing the current social, economic, and political conditions affecting individuals experiencing homelessness. The gallery, Call to Action, and overall participant experiences with photovoice were shared during local, regional, and national conferences and events, including three State of the Homeless Conferences led by the Opportunity Center for the Homeless in partnership with the university. PMID:28580355

  17. Adults Experiencing Homelessness in the US–Mexico Border Region: A Photovoice Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Margarita Moya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Homelessness is a social, economic, and political crisis in the United States. In particular, the US–Mexico Border region has seen a surge of homelessness, specifically among veterans, women victims of intimate partner violence, and immigrants. In 2014, 12 persons in El Paso, TX, with experience of being homeless used the photovoice methodology to participate in a project titled, “The Voices and Images of the Residents of the Opportunity Center for the Homeless: A Visual Project on the Identity and Challenges Homeless Adults Face on the Border Region.” The project was led by faculty from the Department of Social Work and facilitated by graduate students from the Departments of Social Work, Sociology, and Anthropology at the University of Texas at El Paso. In partnership with the Opportunity Center for the Homeless, a community-based organization, a gallery of photographs with respective narratives was produced along with a video documentary. The participants identified four themes: broken systems, invisibility, opportunities and what works, and growth and determination. These themes represent participants’ life experiences with homelessness and their aspirations. In addition to the photo gallery, participants supported the development of a Call to Action asking the community, policy, and decision makers to commit to changing the current social, economic, and political conditions affecting individuals experiencing homelessness. The gallery, Call to Action, and overall participant experiences with photovoice were shared during local, regional, and national conferences and events, including three State of the Homeless Conferences led by the Opportunity Center for the Homeless in partnership with the university.

  18. Modeling Hydrological Processes in New Mexico-Texas-Mexico Border Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samimi, M.; Jahan, N. T.; Mirchi, A.

    2017-12-01

    Efficient allocation of limited water resources to competing use sectors is becoming increasingly critical for water-scarce regions. Understanding natural and anthropogenic processes affecting hydrological processes is key for efficient water management. We used Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to model governing hydrologic processes in New Mexico-Texas-Mexico border region. Our study area includes the Elephant Butte Irrigation District (EBID), which manages water resources to support irrigated agriculture. The region is facing water resources challenges associated with chronic water scarcity, over-allocation, diminishing water supply, and growing water demand. Agricultural activities rely on conjunctive use of Rio Grande River water supply and groundwater withdrawal. The model is calibrated and validated under baseline conditions in the arid and semi-arid climate in order to evaluate potential impacts of climate change on the agricultural sector and regional water availability. We highlight the importance of calibrating the crop growth parameters, evapotranspiration, and groundwater recharge to provide a realistic representation of the hydrological processes and water availability in the region. Furthermore, limitations of the model and its utility to inform stakeholders will be discussed.

  19. Fixed Links and Vague Discourses About Culture and the Making of Cross-border Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Stöber

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been en vogue for official bodies to focus on ‘culture’ as a strategic factor for the development of spatial entities such as cross-border regions in the making. This focus places high expectations and a strong belief in the power of ‘culture’. In this paper I will argue that in region building processes the focus on ‘culture’ is often due to an overriding wish to develop an economic well-functioning region. Moreover, it seems like ‘culture’ is used as a tool to distract people from a critique of bigger infrastructure projects that such developments entail. In order to strengthen these arguments, the paper will focus on two examples from Northern Europe, the existing Danish-Swedish Øresund link as well as the planned link between Denmark and Germany across the Femernbelt. In the course of the paper, focus will be on central bodies or actors that are taking up the issue of culture within a regional context. Hence, the concept of governance, particularly that of networked governance structures as well co-governance will be briefly discussed. All in all, the paper shows the ‘fragmented complexity of agency and the multitude of actors related to region building’ (Paasi 2010:2300.

  20. Small businesses performance in West African border regions: Do social networks pay off?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuepié, Mathias; Tenikué, Michel; Walther, Olivier

    networks are also the most successful in terms of monthly sales and profit. The paper shows that the overall economic performance of traders is affected by the socio-professional position of the actors with whom they are connected. While social ties with local religious leaders have no effect......This paper studies the link between economic performance and social networks in West Africa. Using first-hand data collected on 358 small-scale traders in five border markets between Niger, Nigeria and Benin, we are particularly interested in testing whether the most well-connected actors of trade...... on their business, support received from civil servants, politicians, and security authorities translates into economic performance. The paper also shows significant differences between countries, regions and marketplaces. Social connections developed with state representatives have a much greater effect...

  1. Comparison of the organic waste management systems in the Danish-German border region using life cycle assessment (LCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Morten Bang; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-03-01

    This study assessed the management of the organic household waste in the Danish-German border region and points out major differences between the systems and their potential effects on the environment using life cycle assessment (LCA). The treatment of organic waste from households in the Danish-German border region is very different on each side of the border; the Danish region only uses incineration for the treatment of organic household waste while the German region includes combined biogas production and composting, mechanical and biological treatment (MBT) and incineration. Data on all parts of the organic waste treatment was collected including waste composition data and data from treatment facilities and their respective energy systems. Based on that the organic waste management systems in the border region were modelled using the EASETECH waste management LCA-model. The main output is a life cycle assessment showing large differences in the environmental performance of the two different regions with the Danish region performing better in 10 out of 14 impact categories. Furthermore, the importance of the substituted district heating systems was investigated showing an impact up to 34% of the entire system for one impact category and showing large difference between each heating system substituted, e.g. in "Global Warming" the impact was from -16 to -1.1 milli person equivalent/tonne treated waste from substitution of centralised hard coal and decentralised natural gas, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. «Cross-border Environmental Peace» as the Interaction of Regional Norms and Local Power: Lessons from Cross-Regional Analysis of Water Security Debates

    OpenAIRE

    Koff, Harlan

    2016-01-01

    This article contends that notions of «peace» and «justice» in cross-border water management vary in different world regions. Moreover, it argues that «peace» and «justice» can be explained by analyzing the interaction between «regional» interpretations and implementation of water security norms and local cross-border power structures. «Regional water security» is defined as the normative commitment to provide necessary water resources to communities within world regions. «Power,» which is de...

  3. Bojkovice: Transformation of a peripheral micro-region at the Czech-Slovak border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishar Antonín

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the problem of a rural region in the peripheral position. Bojkovice micro-region on the Czech (Moravian-Slovak border has been chosen as a case study. Economic transformation of productive and non-productive branches, demographic development (depopulation and aging and networking in the area were characterized by using statistical data and field research. Development, understood as improvement in quality of life and not in sense of quantitative growth, is highlighted with regard to the changing perception of the countryside. The question remains: how to use peripherality for prosperity? Peripheral countryside is known as “the right countryside” in comparison to suburbanized and globalized countryside in core regions. Based on the research, production embedded in local sources and traditions, ecological agriculture using the protection of landscape and soft tourism are proposed as solutions. Networking like the association of municipalities, LEADER local action group or White Carpathian Euroregion could be the instruments of micro-regional collaboration. The human and social factors seem to be more important than objective conditions. Long-term population stability is the main advantage. However, a lower level of formal education could be a problem. The character of social capital is considered as a decisive circumstance - whether it is passive social capital resistant to outer innovations or active social capital open for now ideas.

  4. Comparison of the organic waste management systems in the danish-german border region using life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Bang; Scheutz, Charlotte; Møller, Jacob

    of the organic waste treatment has been collected including waste composition data and data from treatment facilities and their respective energy systems. Based on that the organic waste management systems in the border region were modelled using the EASETECH waste management LCA-model. The main output is a life......The treatment of organic waste from household in the Danish-German border region is very diverse, the Danish area only uses incineration for the treatment while the German system includes combined biogas and composting, mechanical and biological treatment and incineration. Data on all parts...

  5. Deep-apical tubules: dynamic lipid-raft microdomains in the brush-border region of enterocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gert H; Pedersen, Jens; Niels-Christiansen, Lise-Lotte

    2003-01-01

    microdomains. Deep-apical tubules were positioned close to the actin rootlets of adjacent microvilli in the terminal web region, which had a diameter of 50-100 nm, and penetrated up to 1 microm into the cytoplasm. Markers for transcytosis, IgA and the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, as well as the resident...... lipid raft-containing compartments, but little is otherwise known about these raft microdomains. We therefore studied in closer detail apical lipid-raft compartments in enterocytes by immunogold electron microscopy and biochemical analyses. Novel membrane structures, deep-apical tubules, were visualized...... brush-border enzyme aminopeptidase N, were present in these deep-apical tubules. We propose that deep-apical tubules are a specialized lipid-raft microdomain in the brush-border region functioning as a hub in membrane trafficking at the brush border. In addition, the sensitivity to cholesterol depletion...

  6. SELECTED AIR QUALITY TRENDS AND RECENT AIR POLLUTION INVESTIGATIONS IN THE U.S.-MEXICO BORDER REGION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The thirteen journal articles in this issue deal with air quality indicators due, in part, to population growth, cross-border traffic, and economic expansion since ratification of NAFTA; regions covered span from Tijuana, Baja California to Brownsville, Texas. This introductio...

  7. Laser spectroscopy of francium isotopes at the borders of the region of reflection asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Budinčević, I; Bissell, M L; Cocolios, T E; de Groote, R P; De Schepper, S; Fedosseev, V N; Flanagan, K T; Franchoo, S; Garcia Ruiz, R F; Heylen, H; Lynch, K M; Marsh, B A; Neyens, G; Procter, T J; Rossel, R E; Rothe, S; Strashnov, I; Stroke, H H; Wendt, K D A

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic dipole moments and changes in mean-square charge radii of the neutron-rich $^{218m,219,229,231}\\text{Fr}$ isotopes were measured with the newly-installed Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (CRIS) beam line at ISOLDE, CERN, probing the $7s~^{2}S_{1/2}$ to $8p~^{2}P_{3/2}$ atomic transition. The $\\delta\\langle r^{2}\\rangle^{A,221}$ values for $^{218m,219}\\text{Fr}$ and $^{229,231}\\text{Fr}$ follow the observed increasing slope of the charge radii beyond $N~=~126$. The charge radii odd-even staggering in this neutron-rich region is discussed, showing that $^{220}\\text{Fr}$ has a weakly inverted odd-even staggering while $^{228}\\text{Fr}$ has normal staggering. This suggests that both isotopes reside at the borders of a region of inverted staggering, which has been associated with reflection-asymmetric shapes. The $g(^{219}\\text{Fr}) = +0.69(1)$ value supports a $\\pi 1h_{9/2}$ shell model configuration for the ground state. The $g(^{229,231}\\text{Fr})$ values support the tentative $I^{\\pi}(^...

  8. «Cross-border Environmental Peace» as the Interaction of Regional Norms and Local Power: Lessons from Cross-Regional Analysis of Water Security Debates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harlan Koff

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article contends that notions of «peace» and «justice» in cross-border water management vary in different world regions. Moreover, it argues that «peace» and «justice» can be explained by analyzing the interaction between «regional» interpretations and implementation of water security norms and local cross-border power structures. «Regional water security» is defined as the normative commitment to provide necessary water resources to communities within world regions. «Power,» which is defined traditionally as «the ability of actors to obtain their objectives despite opposition» is viewed as a function of political entrepreneurialism and opportunity structures. This article derives from a review of the pertinent literatures on «water security» and «water justice,» the two elements of «water peace» as well as scholarship on cross-border water management in different world regions. It discusses water governance within the framework of cross-border politics and comparative regional integration. It also includes analysis of the policy documents and websites of seventeen regional organizations as well as interviews with key actors and local experts on water management in specific cross-border case studies. The article is divided into five sections. Following this introduction, part two examines «water security» and «water justice» in international affairs. Part III then discusses «power» in cross-border water governance debates and addresses the transnational face of water security discussions. Part IV presents a comparative examination of cross-border «water justice» in selected world regions which is followed by theoretical considerations that are addressed in part V, the conclusion. In general, the article emphasizes the need to promote comparative cross-regional research on cross-border water governance in order to examine how «peace,» «security» and «justice» are framed in debates over water resources. 

  9. Himawari-8 Satellite Based Dynamic Monitoring of Grassland Fire in China-Mongolia Border Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Li; Bao, Yulong; Bao, Yongbin; Na, Risu; Tong, Siqin; Si, Alu

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we used bands 7, 4, and 3 of the Advance Himawari Imager (AHI) data, combined with a Threshold Algorithm and a visual interpretation method to monitor the entire process of grassland fires that occurred on the China-Mongolia border regions, between 05:40 (UTC) on April 19th to 13:50 (UTC) on April 21st 2016. The results of the AHI data monitoring are evaluated by the fire point product data, the wind field data, and the environmental information data of the area in which the fire took place. The monitoring result shows that, the grassland fire burned for two days and eight hours with a total burned area of about 2708.29 km2. It mainly spread from the northwest to the southeast, with a maximum burning speed of 20.9 m/s, a minimum speed of 2.52 m/s, and an average speed of about 12.07 m/s. Thus, using AHI data can not only quickly and accurately track the dynamic development of a grassland fire, but also estimate the spread speed and direction. The evaluation of fire monitoring results reveals that AHI data with high precision and timeliness can be highly consistent with the actual situation. PMID:29346289

  10. [Molecular characteristics of dengue virus outbreak in China-Myanmar border region, Yunnan province, 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaofang; Yang, Mingdong; Jiang, Jinyong; Li, Huachang; Zhu, Chongge; Gui, Qin; Bu, Liqun; Zhou, Hongning

    2016-03-01

    To understand the molecular characteristics of a dengue virus outbreak in China-Myanmar border region, Yunnan province, 2015 and provide etiological evidence for the disease control and prevention. Semi-nested RTPCR was conducted to detect the capsid premembrane (CprM) gene of RNA of dengue virus by using dengue virus NS1 positive serum samples collected in Mengdin township, Gengma county, Yunnan province in July, 2015. Some positive samples were then detected by using PCR with specific primers to amplify the full E gene. The positive PCR products were directly sequenced. Then sequences generated in this study were BLAST in NCBI website and aligned in Megalign in DNAstar program. Multiple sequence alignments were carried out by using Mega 5.05 software based on the sequences generated in this study and sequences downloaded from GenBank, including the representative strains from different countries and regions. Phylogenetic trees were constructed by using Neighbor-Joining tree methods with Mega 5.05 software. Twenty one of 25 local cases and 10 of 14 imported cases from Myanmar were positive for DENV-1. Eight serum samples were negative for dengue virus. A total of 13 strains with E gene (1485 bp), including 8 local strains and 5 imported strains, were sequenced, which shared 100% nucleotide sequence identities. Twelve strains with CprM gene (406 bp) from 9 local cases and 3 imported cases shared 100% nucleotide sequence identities. Phylogenetic analyses based on E gene showed that the new 13 strains clustered in genotype I of dengue virus and formed a distinct lineage. This outbreak was caused by genotype I of DENV-1, which had the closest phylogenetic relationships with dengue virus from neighboring Burma area. Comprehensive measures of prevention and control of dengue fever should be strengthened to prevent the spread of dengue virus.

  11. Comparison of the organic waste management systems in the danish-german border region using life cycle assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Morten Bang; Scheutz, Charlotte; Møller, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of organic waste from household in the Danish-German border region is very diverse, the Danish area only uses incineration for the treatment while the German system includes combined biogas and composting, mechanical and biological treatment and incineration. Data on all parts of the organic waste treatment has been collected including waste composition data and data from treatment facilities and their respective energy systems. Based on that the organic waste management systems...

  12. Regional State configuration: The mercantile order and interpretive community on the Mexico-Guatemala border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Saúl Rojas Pérez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We offer an ethnographic description of the circulation of vegetables on the border between Mexico and Guatemala. These goods move from one country to the other through ant-style piecemeal trafficking on misdirected paths: they enter constantly as contraband in small quantities, using tolerated border crossings. The objective is to show how the interactions between the border actors involved construct a local order that is different from that of the State's normative parameters. An order is founded on a series of unwritten rules that govern the practices of crossing, thereby creating an "interpretive community." This paper clarifies why the operating personnel from different levels of the Mexican government charged with overseeing trade are not outside of this community but rather compose an important part of it and how the State is empirically constructed within it, starting from the idea that the State is not an all-encompassing and coherent entity.

  13. The Border Multiple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addressing and conceptualizing the changing character of borders in contemporary Europe, this book examines developments occurring in the light of European integration processes and an on-going tightening of Europe's external borders. Moreover, the book suggests new ways of investigating the nature...... of European borders by looking at border practices in the light of the mobility turn, and thus as dynamic, multiple, diverse and best expressed in everyday experiences of people living at and with borders, rather than focusing on static territorial divisions between states and regions at geopolitical level....... It provides border scholars and researchers as well as policymakers with new empirical and theoretical evidence on the de- and re-bordering processes going on in diverse border regions in Europe, both within and outside of the EU....

  14. The Border Multiple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of European borders by looking at border practices in the light of the mobility turn, and thus as dynamic, multiple, diverse and best expressed in everyday experiences of people living at and with borders, rather than focusing on static territorial divisions between states and regions at geopolitical level...

  15. Social networks and small businesses performance in West African border regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuépié, Mathias; Tenikue, Michel; Walther, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the link between economic performance and social networks in West Africa. Using data collected about 358 small-scale traders in five border markets, we show that social network can simultaneously be a resource which positively contributes to labor market outcomes and a social...

  16. Project GeoPower: Basic subsurface information for the utilization of geothermal energy in the Danish-German border region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirsch, Reinhard; Balling, Niels; Fuchs, Sven

    and require reliable cross-border management and planning tools. In the framework of the Interreg4a GeoPower project, fundamental geological and geophysical information of importance for the planning of geothermal energy utilization in the Danish-German border region was compiled and analyzed. A 3D geological...... on potential geothermal reservoirs, and a new 3D structural geological model was developed. The interpretation of petrophysical data (core data and well logs) allows to evaluate the hydraulic and thermal rock properties of geothermal formations and to develop a parameterized 3D thermal conductive subsurface...... constant depth intervals (1 km, 2 km, etc.) were compiled. As an example, modelled temperatures for the Middle Buntsandstein geothermal reservoir are shown with temperatures ranging between 24 and 192 °C for depths of interest....

  17. Environmental hazard of pesticides applied in the border region between Platinum and Amazon Basins at the turn to century XXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno Rieder

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To reveal the environmental risk of pesticide prescribed in a border region between the Amazon and Platinum Basins, at the turn of the 21st century. Methods: The study used data of agronomic prescriptions for pesticides issued in the biennium of 1999-2000 in 24 cities located in a border region between the Amazon and Platinum Basins, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Results: The most widely used pesticides in the study region are class II (very dangerous and III (dangerous in number of prescriptions (N = 2,828, 86.8% andquantity prescribed (N = 344,765, 90.4%. Among class III pesticides, a strong inversion was observed in the number of prescriptions (N = 1,274; 39.1% and quantity prescribed (N = 237,319; 62.2%, indicating a lower number of prescriptions, but with higher amountprescribed. The proportion of prescriptions for products amid the various classes of Potential of Environmental Dangers (PPA ranking model, apllied in Brazil changed over the two years (c2=20,814; DF=3; p < 0,01. The 10 most prescribed products (11 activecompounds were: glyphosate, 2,4-D, sulfluramid, chlorimuron ethyl, fipronil, diuron, paraquat, methamidophos, carbofuran, chlorpyrifos and lambda-cyhalothrin, and seven of them were ranked as PPA class I or II. Conclusions: The ratio between the number of pesticide prescriptions and the quantities prescribed among the various classes of PPA showed alteration over crop years. The most reported products in this border region were classified as the most dangerous ones, with diverse mechanisms of action and potential risksto living organisms. This suggests the need to define specific policies and carefully designed strategies to prevent environmental disaster in this region.

  18. Chemical diversity of essential oils from flowers, leaves, and stems of Rhanterium epapposum Oliv. growing in northern border region of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa Awad

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: Essential oils from flowers, leaves and stems of R. epapposum growing in northern border region of Saudi Arabia are considered as a rich source of monoterpenes which have biological activities.

  19. Transboundary Air-Pollution Transport in the Czech-Polish Border Region between the Cities of Ostrava and Katowice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Černikovský, Libor; Krejčí, Blanka; Blažek, Zdeněk; Volná, Vladimíra

    2016-12-01

    The Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI) estimated the transboundary transport of air pollution between the Czech Republic and Poland by assessing relationships between weather conditions and air pollution in the area as part of the "Air Quality Information System in the Polish-Czech border of the Silesian and Moravian-Silesian region" project (http://www.air-silesia.eu). Estimation of cross-border transport of pollutants is important for Czech-Polish negotiations and targeted measures for improving air quality. Direct measurement of PM 10 and sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) concentrations and the direction and wind speed from measuring stations in the vicinity of the Czech-Polish state border in 2006-2012. Taking into account all the inaccuracies, simplifications and uncertainties, by which all of the measurements are affected, it is possible to state that the PM 10 transboundary transport was greater from the direction of Poland to the Czech Republic, rather than the other way around. Nevertheless, the highest share of the overall PM 10 concentration load was recorded on days with a vaguely estimated airflow direction. This usually included days with changing wind direction or days with a distinct wind change throughout the given day. A changeable wind is most common during low wind speeds. It can be assumed that during such days with an ambiguous daily airflow, the polluted air saturated with sources on both sides of the border moves from one country to the other. Therefore, we could roughly ascribe an equal level of these concentrations to both the Czech and Polish side. PM 10 transboundary transport was higher from Poland to the Czech Republic than from the opposite direction, despite the predominant air flow from the Czech Republic to Poland. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2016

  20. The peronist incomplete re-construction of border. A study from Nahuel Huapi’s region (1946-1955

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Gabriela Núñez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the economic impact of Peronism in the Nahuel Huapi region and reviews the material and symbolic aspects of this district, which borders Chile and is associated with both the existing national park in the region and the city of Bariloche. To this end, and in dialogue with the material processes of the period, self-recognition and links to other regions were analyzed. The contribution of this manuscript is its recognition that despite Peronism having been experienced as one of the most significant development shifts in the Nahuel Huapi region, and especially in the town of San Carlos de Bariloche, documents both provide evidence of continuity processes and discuss the existing account of a break.

  1. A promotora de salud model for addressing cardiovascular disease risk factors in the US-Mexico border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcázar, Héctor; Alvarado, Matilde; Cantu, Frank; Pedregon, Veronica; Fulwood, Robert

    2009-01-01

    In 2002, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute partnered with the Health Resources and Services Administration's (HRSA's) Bureau of Primary Health Care and Office of Rural Health Policy to address cardiovascular health in the US-Mexico border region. From 2003 through 2005, the 2 agencies agreed to conduct an intervention program using Salud para su Corazón with promotores de salud (community health workers) in high-risk Hispanic communities served by community health centers (CHCs) in the border region to reduce risk factors and improve health behaviors. Promotores de salud from each CHC delivered lessons from the curriculum Your Heart, Your Life. Four centers implemented a 1-group pretest-posttest study design. Educational sessions were delivered for 2 to 3 months. To test Salud para su Corazón-HRSA health objectives, the CHCs conducted the program and assessed behavioral and clinical outcomes at baseline, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after the intervention. A 2-sample paired t test and analyses of variance were used to evaluate differences from baseline to postintervention. Changes in heart-healthy behaviors were observed, as they have been in previous Salud para su Corazón studies, lending credibility to the effectiveness of a promotores de salud program in a clinical setting. Positive changes were also observed in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, triglyceride level, waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, weight, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Results suggest that integrating promotores de salud into clinical practices is a promising strategy for culturally competent and effective service delivery. Promotores de salud build coalitions and partnerships in the community. The Salud para su Corazón-HRSA initiative was successful in helping to develop an infrastructure to support a promotores de salud workforce in the US-Mexico border region.

  2. Comparison of the organic waste management systems in the Danish-German border region using life cycle assessment (LCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Bang; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    % of the entire system for one impact category and showing large difference between each heating system substituted, e.g. in "Global Warming" the impact was from -16 to -1.1 milli person equivalent/tonne treated waste from substitution of centralised hard coal and decentralised natural gas, respectively.......This study assessed the management of the organic household waste in the Danish-German border region and points out major differences between the systems and their potential effects on the environment using life cycle assessment (LCA). The treatment of organic waste from households in the Danish...

  3. High spatial resolution telescopic multispectral imaging and spectroscopy of the Moon. 1: The Serenitatis/Tranquillitatis border region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, James F., III; Hawke, B. R.

    1994-01-01

    The region of the moon near the border between Mare Serenitatis and Mare Tranquillitatis is one of the most geologically and compositionally complex areas of the nearside. The geologic history of this region has been shaped by impacts of widely-varying spatial scale and temporal occurrence, by volcanism of variable style and composition with time, and by limited tectonism. We have been studying this region as part of a larger multi remote sensing technique effort to understand the composition, morphology, geology, and stratigraphy of the moon at spatial scales of 2 km or less. The effort has been aided by the proximity of this area to the Apollo 11, 15, and 17 landing sites and by the occurrence of one of the primary lunar spectroscopic 'standard areas' within our scene (MS2). Here, some of the findings from the multispectral imaging and spectroscopy part of this effort are reported.

  4. Willingness to use hospice care among caregivers of Latino patients in the United States-Mexico border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Eunjeong; Lee, Jaehoon; Ramirez, Carlos; Martinez, Stephanie; Lopez, Denicka

    2017-06-01

    Hospice is an important method of promoting quality end-of-life (EoL) care, yet its utilization is relatively low in underserved populations. The unique characteristics of a border community-such as a lack of healthcare resources and cultural integration-impact EoL decision making. The aim of our study was to assess the willingness to use hospice care services and its predictors among family caregivers of Latino patients in the United States (U.S.)-Mexico border region of Southern California. This study analyzes secondary data from a home health agency in the U.S.-Mexico border region. Quantitative data were collected via a face-to-face interview with 189 caregivers of patients enrolled in the agency. Bivariate tests and logistic regression were employed to address our study objectives. The majority (83%) of family caregivers were willing to use hospice services for their loved ones. The factors impacting willingness to use hospice services included the primary language of the caregiver (OR = 6.30, CI 95% = 1.68, 23.58); trust in doctors to make the right decisions (OR = 3.77, CI 95% = 1.05, 13.57); and the belief that using hospice care means giving up on life (OR = 0.52, CI 95% = 0.30; 0.88). Caregivers who trusted doctors to make the best decisions for their loved ones and English-speaking caregivers were more willing to utilize hospice services, while caregivers who held a strong belief that hospice care means giving up on life were less likely to consider using hospice care for their loved ones. The willingness of family caregivers to use hospice services for their loved ones is influenced by cultural perspectives about hospice care. As the importance of family involvement in EoL care planning has been highlighted, family caregivers' beliefs about hospice care services need to be addressed within their particular cultural context.

  5. A comparative assessment of contaminants in fish from four resacas of the Texas, USA-Tamaulipas, Mexico border region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Miguel A.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Nava, Ismael; Buckler, Denny R.

    2001-01-01

    A recent survey of contaminant information for the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV), Texas, has shown that little is known about contaminants and their impacts on biota of resacas (oxbows) along the US-Mexico border. In 1996, fish were collected from four resacas in the Texas- Tamaulipas border region to assess contaminant loadings and their impacts on fish and birds. Tissue residue concentrations in fish were analyzed and also compared to two histopathological bioindicators of unhealthy environmental conditions. Of the organochlorine insecticides measured, DDE was the most common and was present at relatively high concentrations (10 ??g/g w/w) at some sites. DDE concentrations were nearly 20 times greater in fish from resacas in Texas than from resacas in Tamaulipas, although the limited sample sizes obtained precluded statistical comparisons. DDE concentrations in fish from the two Texas resacas were also greater than those reported in fish from nearby areas during the 1980s and 1990s. Most trace element concentrations were similar among resacas from Texas and Tamaulipas. Arsenic, however, was two to six times greater in fish from a downtown resaca in Matamoros than in fish from other resacas in Tamaulipas and Texas. The bioindicators, pigment accumulation, and macrophage aggregates (MAs), in general, reflected the contamination indicated by the tissue residues for each site. Overall, it appears that some resacas of the US-Mexico border region are contaminant sinks and could pose potential health or reproductive problems for fish and wildlife, and humans that consume fish from those sites. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  6. Water Matters: Assessing the Impacts of Water and Sanitation Infrastructure in the U.S./Mexico Border Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrove, W. L.; Del Rio, M.; Korc, M.

    2017-12-01

    Using Health Impact Assessment methods, we determined: 1) the impact of water and sanitation infrastructure installed about 15 years ago in two Texas border communities; 2) the impact of failing septic tanks in a neighborhood where septic systems are more than 20 years old and failing; and 3) the impacts of hauled water as the main household water source in a colonia. We obtained a total of 147 household surveys related to water and sanitation in four communities. Households who had obtained water and sanitation infrastructure had less skin problems, neuropathy, gastrointestinal illness, and stomach infections compared to an earlier time when they relied on local domestic wells or hauled water and septic tanks. Hepatitis A incidence in El Paso County, TX dropped precipitously after the implementation of water and sanitation infrastructure. Hauling water contributed to mental stress and anxiety and was risky in terms of road safety. We also assessed the economic and community development impacts of water and sanitation infrastructure. Communities benefitted from higher property values, expanded health care services, more parks and recreation, more local businesses, and improved fire safety. We argue that though water and sanitation infrastructure is a significant contributor to addressing inequities in the border region, much remains to be done to achieve water justice in this challenging region.

  7. U.S.-MEXICO TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER; BILATERAL TECHNICAL EXCHANGES FOR SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC GROWTH IN THE BORDER REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Richard, D., Dr.

    2007-10-01

    s challenging environmental issues. The results also brought focus to the potential contributions that DOE’s science and technology could make for solving the many difficult, multi-generational problems faced by hundreds of bi-national communities along the 2,000-mile shared border of the United States and Mexico. Efforts to address these U.S.-Mexico border issues were initially sponsored by the DOE’s Albuquerque and Carlsbad offices. In subsequent years, the U.S. Congress directed appropriations to DOE’s Carlsbad office to address public health, safety and security issues prevalent within U.S.-Mexico border communities. With ASL’s assistance, DOE’s Albuquerque office developed contacts and formed partnerships with interested U.S and Mexican government, academic, and commercial organizations. Border industries, industrial effluents, and public health conditions were evaluated and documented. Relevant technologies were then matched to environmental problem sets along the border. Several technologies that were identified and subsequently supported by this effort are now operational in a number of U.S.-Mexico border communities, several communities within Mexico’s interior states, and in other parts of Latin America. As a result, some serious public health threats within these communities caused by exposure to toxic airborne pollutants have been reduced. During this time, DOE’s Carlsbad office hosted a bilateral conference to establish a cross-border consensus on what should be done on the basis of these earlier investigative efforts. Participating border region stakeholders set an agenda for technical collaborations. This agenda was supported by several Members of Congress who provided appropriations and directed DOE’s Carlsbad office to initiate technology demonstration projects. During the following two years, more than 12 private-sector and DOE-sponsored technologies were demonstrated in partnership with numerous border community stakeholders. All technologies

  8. Floristic diversity and vegetation analysis of Wadi Arar: A typical desert Wadi of the Northern Border region of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Ahmed K; Al-Ghamdi, Faraj; Bawadekji, Abdulhakim

    2014-12-01

    Wadi Arar in the Northern border region of Saudi Arabia is one of the most important Wadis of the Kingdom. The present study provides an analysis of vegetation types, life forms, as well as floristic categories and species distribution. A total of 196 species representing 31 families of vascular plants were recorded. Compositae, Gramineae and Leguminosae were the most common families. Therophytes and chamaephytes are the most frequent life forms, indicating typical desert spectrum vegetation. The distribution of these species in the different sectors of the Wadi as well as the phytochoria for the recorded species is provided. Ninety-one species (46.5%) are typical bi-regional. Furthermore, about 105 species (53.5%) are mono- or pluriregional taxa. The highest number of species (136 or 69.5%) was recorded for annual plants, while the lowest number of species (60% or 30.5%) was recorded for perennial, short perennial or annual to biennial species.

  9. Supporting the minority physician pipeline: providing global health experiences to undergraduate students in the United States-Mexico border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Jose L; Yee, Daniel; Csordas, Thomas; Vargas-Ojeda, Adriana C; Segovia, Luis A; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Olivares-Nevarez, Jose A; Ojeda, Victoria D

    2015-01-01

    The sizeable US Latino population calls for increasing the pipeline of minority and bilingual physicians who can provide culturally competent care. Currently, only 5.5% of US providers are Hispanic/Latino, compared with 16% of the US population (i.e., >50.5 million persons). By 2060, it is predicted that about one-third of all US residents will be of Latino ethnicity. This article describes the Health Frontiers in Tijuana Undergraduate Internship Program (HFiT-UIP), a new quarterly undergraduate internship program based at a US-Mexico binational student-run free clinic and sponsored by the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and the Universidad Autónoma de Baja California in Tijuana, Mexico. The HFiT-UIP provides learning opportunities for students and underrepresented minorities interested in medical careers, specifically Latino health. The HFiT-UIP might serve as a model for other educational partnerships across the US-Mexico border region and may help minority and other undergraduates seeking academic and community-based enrichment experiences. The HFiT-UIP can also support students' desires to learn about Latino, border, and global health within resource-limited settings.

  10. Supporting the minority physician pipeline: providing global health experiences to undergraduate students in the United States–Mexico border region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose L. Burgos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The sizeable US Latino population calls for increasing the pipeline of minority and bilingual physicians who can provide culturally competent care. Currently, only 5.5% of US providers are Hispanic/Latino, compared with 16% of the US population (i.e., >50.5 million persons. By 2060, it is predicted that about one-third of all US residents will be of Latino ethnicity. Activities and outcomes: This article describes the Health Frontiers in Tijuana Undergraduate Internship Program (HFiT-UIP, a new quarterly undergraduate internship program based at a US–Mexico binational student-run free clinic and sponsored by the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and the Universidad Autónoma de Baja California in Tijuana, Mexico. The HFiT-UIP provides learning opportunities for students and underrepresented minorities interested in medical careers, specifically Latino health. Discussion: The HFiT-UIP might serve as a model for other educational partnerships across the US–Mexico border region and may help minority and other undergraduates seeking academic and community-based enrichment experiences. The HFiT-UIP can also support students’ desires to learn about Latino, border, and global health within resource-limited settings.

  11. Supporting the minority physician pipeline: providing global health experiences to undergraduate students in the United States–Mexico border region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Jose L.; Yee, Daniel; Csordas, Thomas; Vargas-Ojeda, Adriana C.; Segovia, Luis A.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Olivares-Nevarez, Jose A.; Ojeda, Victoria D.

    2015-01-01

    Background The sizeable US Latino population calls for increasing the pipeline of minority and bilingual physicians who can provide culturally competent care. Currently, only 5.5% of US providers are Hispanic/Latino, compared with 16% of the US population (i.e., >50.5 million persons). By 2060, it is predicted that about one-third of all US residents will be of Latino ethnicity. Activities and outcomes This article describes the Health Frontiers in Tijuana Undergraduate Internship Program (HFiT-UIP), a new quarterly undergraduate internship program based at a US–Mexico binational student-run free clinic and sponsored by the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and the Universidad Autónoma de Baja California in Tijuana, Mexico. The HFiT-UIP provides learning opportunities for students and underrepresented minorities interested in medical careers, specifically Latino health. Discussion The HFiT-UIP might serve as a model for other educational partnerships across the US–Mexico border region and may help minority and other undergraduates seeking academic and community-based enrichment experiences. The HFiT-UIP can also support students’ desires to learn about Latino, border, and global health within resource-limited settings. PMID:26088189

  12. Mobile population dynamics and malaria vulnerability: a modelling study in the China-Myanmar border region of Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tian-Mu; Zhang, Shao-Sen; Feng, Jun; Xia, Zhi-Gui; Luo, Chun-Hai; Zeng, Xu-Can; Guo, Xiang-Rui; Lin, Zu-Rui; Zhou, Hong-Ning; Zhou, Shui-Sen

    2018-04-29

    The China-Myanmar border region presents a great challenge in malaria elimination in China, and it is essential to understand the relationship between malaria vulnerability and population mobility in this region. A community-based, cross-sectional survey was performed in five villages of Yingjiang county during September 2016. Finger-prick blood samples were obtained to identify asymptomatic infections, and imported cases were identified in each village (between January 2013 and September 2016). A stochastic simulation model (SSM) was used to test the relationship between population mobility and malaria vulnerability, according to the mechanisms of malaria importation. Thirty-two imported cases were identified in the five villages, with a 4-year average of 1 case/year (range: 0-5 cases/year). No parasites were detected in the 353 blood samples from 2016. The median density of malaria vulnerability was 0.012 (range: 0.000-0.033). The average proportion of mobile members of the study population was 32.56% (range: 28.38-71.95%). Most mobile individuals lived indoors at night with mosquito protection. The SSM model fit the investigated data (χ 2  = 0.487, P = 0.485). The average probability of infection in the members of the population that moved to Myanmar was 0.011 (range: 0.0048-0.1585). The values for simulated vulnerability increased with greater population mobility in each village. A high proportion of population mobility was associated with greater malaria vulnerability in the China-Myanmar border region. Mobile population-specific measures should be used to decrease the risk of malaria re-establishment in China.

  13. «Goroda-bliznecy»: novaja forma prigranichnogo sotrudnichestva v Baltijskom regione? [Twin cities: a new form of cross-border cooperation in the Baltic Sea Region?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anishenko Anatoly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper demonstrates the first attempt in Russian political studies to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the “twin city” movement as a form of cross-border cooperation in the Baltic region. This phenomenon emerged as a result of a global tendency towards more active involvement of municipal units in international cooperation, on the one hand, and aspirations of frontier cities and towns in the Baltic region to solve common problems together, on the other hand. This work is based on a comparative analysis method and a case study methodology. The authors consider four examples (city pairs: Tornio — Haparanda, Valga — Valka, Narva — Ivangorod and Imatra — Svetogorsk. The article specifies the terminological framework used in this field of research. The authors analyse achievements and failures of this type of international inter-municipal cooperation and emphasise that for twin cities it served not only as a means of survival in the difficult situation of the 1990s, but also as an experimental ground for new forms of crossborder cooperation. The authors arrive at the conclusion that this model proves to be promising for further development of integration processes in the Baltic region. This practice can be applied by Russian municipal, regional and federal authorities in promotion of cross-border cooperation not only in the Baltic region, but also in other regions of the country. Thus, influenced by the successful experience of Baltic frontier cities and towns, the Russian city of Nikel and the Norwegian city of Kirkenes decided to adopt this model for further development of their cooperation.

  14. Application of the region-time-length algorithm to study of earthquake precursors in the Thailand-Laos-Myanmar borders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puangjaktha, P.; Pailoplee, S.

    2018-04-01

    In order to examine the precursory seismic quiescence of upcoming hazardous earthquakes, the seismicity data available in the vicinity of the Thailand-Laos-Myanmar borders was analyzed using the Region-Time-Length (RTL) algorithm based statistical technique. The utilized earthquake data were obtained from the International Seismological Centre. Thereafter, the homogeneity and completeness of the catalogue were improved. After performing iterative tests with different values of the r0 and t0 parameters, those of r0 = 120 km and t0 = 2 yr yielded reasonable estimates of the anomalous RTL scores, in both temporal variation and spatial distribution, of a few years prior to five out of eight strong-to-major recognized earthquakes. Statistical evaluation of both the correlation coefficient and stochastic process for the RTL were checked and revealed that the RTL score obtained here excluded artificial or random phenomena. Therefore, the prospective earthquake sources mentioned here should be recognized and effective mitigation plans should be provided.

  15. Survival of female mallards along the Vermont–Quebec border region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longcore, Jerry R.; McAuley, Daniel G.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Bunck, Christine M.; Clugston, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding effects of location and timing of harvest seasons on mortality of ducks and geese from hunting is important in forming regulations that sustain viable waterfowl populations throughout their range. During 1990 and 1991 we alternately marked 80 hatching year (HY), female mallards along the Vermont–Quebec border; half with radio-transmitters and bands and half with only aluminum leg bands. We monitored radio-marked ducks daily and recorded survival status weekly for 15 weeks from August until December each year. Mallard mortalities began 25 September when the hunting season opened in the Province of Quebec, Canada. Overall survival of mallards at week 10 did not differ between years (0.51 in 1990 vs. 0.43 in 1991) or differ from that of HY American black ducks (0.44 females, 0.42 males) based on proportional hazard analysis in a Bayesian framework. The mortality rates for mallards from hunting (0.47) and causes unrelated to hunting (0.06) were similar between years and to those rates for HY black ducks at that same site. Hunter harvest accounted for most of the mortality recorded during this study and illegal feeding (i.e., baiting) at sites just before and during the hunting season was observed. Females with lower body condition index had greater mortality rates; a 1-standard-deviation increase in condition index would reduce mortality hazard by about 29%. Management options that may increase mallard survival in the area include lowering daily bag limit in Quebec and suspending split hunting seasons in Vermont that increase harvest, delaying opening date of hunting in Quebec to allow for increased body condition before hunting season opens, and improving enforcement of baiting restrictions.

  16. Sociocultural, Environmental, and Health Challenges Facing Women and Children Living Near the Borders Between Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan (AIP Region)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poureslami, Iraj M; MacLean, David R; Spiegel, Jerry; Yassi, Annalee

    2004-01-01

    Background For hundred of years, people in the region encompassed by the Afghanistan-Iran-Pakistan borders (AIP region) have been challenged by conflict and political and civil instability, mass displacement, human rights abuses, drought, and famine. It not surprising that health and quality of life of vulnerable groups in this region are among the worst in the world. In general, women and children, in particular girls, in the AIP region have had especially limited access to healthcare. Women and children have dramatically high rates of communicable and non-communicable disease, morbidity, and mortality and a general low life expectancy that is rapidly declining. In spite of national and international efforts to improve health status of vulnerable populations in this region, the key underlying sociocultural determinants of health and disparities (ie, gender, language, ethnicity, residential status, and socioeconomic status) have not been systematically studied, nor have their relationships to environmental challenges been examined. Objectives We set out to summarize existing information regarding the sociocultural, environmental, and traditional determinants of health disparities among different population groups in the AIP region; identify gaps in research regarding the communities' needs in the region; and highlight factors that must be considered in the design and implementation of future health intervention studies in the region. Methods We reviewed current health literature, official documents, and other information (eg, reports of UN agencies) related to the social, cultural, and environmental factors that may influence the health outcomes of subpopulations living in the AIP region. We also interviewed individuals who had recently worked in this region. Results Overall, the health problems faced by this underdeveloped region can be categorized into those resulting from lack of essential supplies and services and those stemming from the existing cultural

  17. Sociocultural, environmental, and health challenges facing women and children living near the borders between Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan (AIP region).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poureslami, Iraj M; MacLean, David R; Spiegel, Jerry; Yassi, Annalee

    2004-09-20

    For hundred of years, people in the region encompassed by the Afghanistan-Iran-Pakistan borders (AIP region) have been challenged by conflict and political and civil instability, mass displacement, human rights abuses, drought, and famine. It not surprising that health and quality of life of vulnerable groups in this region are among the worst in the world. In general, women and children, in particular girls, in the AIP region have had especially limited access to healthcare. Women and children have dramatically high rates of communicable and non-communicable disease, morbidity, and mortality and a general low life expectancy that is rapidly declining. In spite of national and international efforts to improve health status of vulnerable populations in this region, the key underlying sociocultural determinants of health and disparities (ie, gender, language, ethnicity, residential status, and socioeconomic status) have not been systematically studied, nor have their relationships to environmental challenges been examined. We set out to summarize existing information regarding the sociocultural, environmental, and traditional determinants of health disparities among different population groups in the AIP region; identify gaps in research regarding the communities' needs in the region; and highlight factors that must be considered in the design and implementation of future health intervention studies in the region. We reviewed current health literature, official documents, and other information (eg, reports of UN agencies) related to the social, cultural, and environmental factors that may influence the health outcomes of subpopulations living in the AIP region. We also interviewed individuals who had recently worked in this region. Overall, the health problems faced by this underdeveloped region can be categorized into those resulting from lack of essential supplies and services and those stemming from the existing cultural practices in the area. The low health

  18. Overview Of Cal-Mex 2010: US-Mexico Collaborative Project On Air Quality And Climate Change In The California-Mexico Border Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, L. T.; Cal-Mex Science Team

    2010-12-01

    The composition of the atmosphere over the US-Mexico border region is affected by cross-border transport of emissions in both directions. Air quality issues in the California-Mexico (Cal-Mex) border are associated with air masses originating in the portion of the border region adjacent to California, which includes two of the sister city pairs (Tijuana-San Diego and Mexicali-Calexico) that have the most severe air pollution problems, posing a serious health threat to their inhabitants as well as affecting ecosystem viability and regional climate for large downwind distances. During May-June 2010, an intensive field study was undertaken by US-Mexico collaborative teams to characterize the major sources of primary and secondary particulate matter and precursor gases in the California-Mexico (Cal-Mex) border region, their transport and transformation, and the impact of these emissions on regional air quality and climate. The ground-based measurements included a central fixed site located in Tijuana that housed state-of-the-science instruments to measure gases, aerosols, radiation and meteorological parameters; a mobile eddy covariance laboratory that measured surface-atmosphere exchange fluxes of carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particle number; several mobile units for criteria pollutants and meteorological parameters; and measurements of fine particles and trace gases at the border crossing areas. Preliminary results from the field study will be presented. Cal-Mex Science Team includes: Molina Center for Energy and the Environment, Texas A & M University, Scripps Institution of Oceanography/University of California at San Diego, Virginia Tech, San Diego State University, National University of Mexico, National Institute of Ecology/Mexican Ministry of the Environment, University of the State of Morelos, LT Consulting Group, University of Baja California (Mexicali, Tijuana, Ensenada, Valle de Las Palmas campuses), Secretary of the Environment of Baja California

  19. Osobennosti prigranichnogo sotrudnichestva Varmin'sko-Mazurskogo voevodstva i Kaliningradskoj oblasti v sfere turizma [Cross-border cooperation in tourism between the War-mian-Masurian voivodeship and the Kaliningrad region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batyk Iwona

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The border location of the Warmian-Masurian voivodeship and the Kaliningrad region is a prerequisite for active cooperation at different institutional levels. The development of cross-border cooperation between the Kaliningrad region and the Warmian-Masurian voivodeship was launched in 1992, when the first agreements on international cooperation were signed. As of today, a high emphasis is placed on cross-border cooperation between the Warmian-Masurian voivodeship and the Kaliningrad region, which is manifested in a series of partner agreements and contracts. The local border traffic agreement between the Kaliningrad region and selected areas of the Republic of Poland should give an additional impetus for the developmentof the economies, services sectors, and tourism industries of the border territories and facilitate the development of these regions. The article makes an attempt to identify the determinants of cross-border cooperation between the Kaliningrad region and the Warmian-Masurian voivodeship that contribute to the development of tourism between the regions, as well as to outline the barriers to their cooperation. The results of the survey presented in the article indicate that the current activities aimed at the development of cross-border cooperation between the Kaliningrad region and the border regions of Poland are not sufficient. On the basis of the survey the authors identify the major barriers to cross-border cooperation as seen by the regions’ residents and authorities. The removal of these barriers can form the basis for developmental measures to improve the situation.

  20. Assessment and Mitigation of PM pollution in the border regions of Austria and Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrner, Ulrich; Reifeltshammer, Rafael; Lackner, Bettina; Forkel, Renate; Sturm, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Many cities, towns and regions located at the southern fringe of the Alps face remarkably high PM levels particularly during the winter period. The project PMinter aimed 1) to analyse the air quality in S-Styria, S-Carinthia and N-Slovenia, 2) to evaluate local and regional measures to develop effective air quality management plans and finally 3) to support a sustainable improvement of air quality in the project region. Using wood for residential heating is very popular in Austria and in Slovenia. To assess the contribution from wood smoke to the total PM burden and the impact of regional and large scale transport as well as the impact of secondary aerosols were major goals of PMinter. Due to the complex terrain air quality and exposure assessment is challenging. To resolve sources which are located in valleys and basins, emissions were computed or processed on 1 km x 1 km resolution for the entire program area. A new combined model approach was developed and tested successfully using a state-of-the-art CTM (WRF/Chem) on the regional scale and the Lagrangian particle model GRAL on the local scale. A detailed analysis and comparisons with measurements and regional/local scale scenario simulations were carried out. Residential heating using wood was identified as the major source and PM component dominant on the "local scale" ( 10 km), secondary inorganic aerosol was the dominant PM component on the regional scale ( 10 km - 150 km) and above. Various mitigation scenarios for PM were computed. A "local" scenario where individual heating facilities using solid fuels were replaced by district heating and a regional scenario with 35% reduced ammonia emissions from agriculture proved to be most effective.

  1. Addressing regional disparities in pediatric oncology: Results of a collaborative initiative across the Mexican-North American border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristizabal, Paula; Fuller, Spencer; Rivera-Gomez, Rebeca; Ornelas, Mario; Nuno, Laura; Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos; Ribeiro, Raul; Roberts, William

    2017-06-01

    Cancer is emerging as a major cause of childhood mortality in low- and middle-income countries. In Mexico, cancer is the number one cause of death in children aged 5-14. Until recently, many children with cancer from Baja California, Mexico, went untreated. We reasoned that an initiative inspired by the St. Jude Children's Research Hospital (SJCRH) "twinning" model could successfully be applied to the San Diego-Tijuana border region. In 2008, a twinning project was initiated by Rady Children's Hospital, SJCRH, and the General Hospital Tijuana (GHT). Our aim was to establish a pediatric oncology unit in a culturally sensitive manner, adapted to the local healthcare system. An initial assessment revealed that despite existence of basic hospital infrastructure at the GHT, the essential elements of a pediatric cancer unit were lacking, including dedicated space, trained staff, and uniform treatment. A 5-year action plan was designed to offer training, support the staff financially, and improve the infrastructure. After 7 years, accomplishments include the opening of a new inpatient unit with updated technology, fully trained staff, and a dedicated, interdisciplinary team. Over 700 children have benefited from accurate diagnosis and treatment. Initiatives that implement long-term partnerships between institutions along the Mexican-North American border can be highly effective in establishing successful pediatric cancer control programs. The geographic proximity facilitated accelerated training and close monitoring of project development. Similar initiatives across other disciplines may benefit additional patients and synergize with pediatric oncology programs to reduce health disparities in underserved areas. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Diabetes and stress: an anthropological review for study of modernizing populations in the US-Mexico border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, John J; Zavaskis, Tony; Wilson, Susan L

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes is a growing worldwide problem, characterized by considerable ethnic variation and being particularly common in modernizing populations. Modernization is accompanied by a variety of stressful sociocultural changes that are believed to increase the risk of diabetes. Unfortunately, there is little accurate knowledge about impact of stress on the risk of diabetes in the US-Mexico border area. Literature searches were performed in PubMed and Google Scholar to identify anthropological studies on stress and diabetes. Snowball and opportunistic sampling were used to expand the identified literature. In total, 30 anthropological studies were identified concerning the role of stress and modernization on diabetes among Indigenous peoples. This article reviews the available information regarding stress and diabetes in different populations from various anthropological perspectives. Four different concepts of stress were indentified: physiological, psychological, psychosocial and nutritional stress. Unlike physiological and nutritional theories of diabetes, psychological and psychosocial theories of stress and disease lack etiological specificity. No study addressed all four concepts of stress and few studies addressed more than two concepts. Most studies concerned nutritional stress and the developmental origins of diabetes. Most studies were conducted on the Pima Indians of Arizona and Mexico. All four stress concepts have some evidence as determinants of diabetes. These theoretical concepts and ethnographic results can provide the basis for developing comprehensive research protocols and public health intervention targeted at diabetes. A comprehensive view of stress can potentially explain the high prevalence of diabetes in developing countries and among Indigenous peoples. These results can be used to inform public health interventions aimed at reducing diabetes in the US-Mexico border region or similar areas, help identify at-risk individuals, and guide health

  3. Environmental assessment of biowaste management in the Danish-German border region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Bang

    of the project was a recommendation to waste management companies through life cycle assessment and experimental work at a biological treatment plant. A major part of the PhD study was collecting data on all aspects of the waste management chain. Waste generation through to collection, transportation, treatment...... in the environmental performance of the two different regions, with the Danish region performing better in most impact categories. Furthermore, the importance of the energy systems was investigated, showing that a large influence on the results was the surrounding energy system. Besides comparing the two regions......’ current performances to each other, they were compared to four future scenarios featuring increased source separation and different biological treatments. In this case the life cycle assessment was used as a planning tool for a future waste management system where environmental hotspots could...

  4. Parasites and vectors carry no passport: how to fund cross-border and regional efforts to achieve malaria elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gueye Cara

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tremendous progress has been made in the last ten years in reducing morbidity and mortality caused by malaria, in part because of increases in global funding for malaria control and elimination. Today, many countries are striving for malaria elimination. However, a major challenge is the neglect of cross-border and regional initiatives in malaria control and elimination. This paper seeks to better understand Global Fund support for multi-country initiatives. Methods Documents and proposals were extracted and reviewed from two main sources, the Global Fund website and Aidspan.org. Documents and reports from the Global Fund Technical Review Panel, Board, and Secretariat documents such as guidelines and proposal templates were reviewed to establish the type of policies enacted and guidance provided from the Global Fund on multi-country initiatives and applications. From reviewing this information, the researchers created 29 variables according to eight dimensions to use in a review of Round 10 applications. All Round 10 multi-country applications (for HIV, malaria and tuberculosis and all malaria multi-country applications (6 from Rounds 1 – 10 were extracted from the Global Fund website. A blind review was conducted of Round 10 applications using the 29 variables as a framework, followed by a review of four of the six successful malaria multi-country grant applications from Rounds 1 – 10. Findings During Rounds 3 – 10 of the Global Fund, only 5.8% of grants submitted were for multi-country initiatives. Out of 83 multi-country proposals submitted, 25.3% were approved by the Technical Review Panel (TRP for funding, compared to 44.9% of single-country applications. The majority of approved multi-country applications were for HIV (76.2%, followed by malaria (19.0%, then tuberculosis (4.8%. TRP recommendations resulted in improvements to application forms, although guidance was generally vague. The in-depth review of Round 10

  5. Patient Cross-Border Mobility: New Findings and Implications in Spanish Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Blázquez-Fernández

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Spain has a National Health Service with a mixed public-private funded system. In the last decades, a huge effort has gone into reducing barriers to patient migration. We estimate a panel data based on a gravity model of migration since the process of health care decentralization has been completed in Spain. Our empirical results show that income is one of the most important drivers in explaining mobility as well as supply variables. Individual characteristics are not among the main factors for mobility. Besides, it is demonstrated there is a quality-driven mobility in Spain. However, there was no significant difference in the influence on patients’ mobility between those living in the North of the country and the Mediterranean regions. The empirical results also suggest that current regional health policies in Spain, that explain patients’ mobility, should be associated with greater funding system.

  6. NETWORKING AND COOPERATION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED FIRMS IN CROSS - BORDER REGIONS

    OpenAIRE

    ELEKTRA PITOSKA

    2005-01-01

    During the last twenty years, and in the frame of rapid globalisation, technology is causing significant changes to the organisation of firms. In the European Union these significant changes have reinforced the European economy, though they have also led to reclassifications and a rise in competition within the Union, and they have created significant problems in less competitive regions. The transitional process in former socialist countries has created (or uncovered) inequality levels that ...

  7. The Role of Cultural Diplomacy for Intensifying the Cross Border Cooperation within Danube Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasimir Koev

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The main objective of the paper is to highlight the role of cultural diplomacy for strengthening the international cooperation within the Danube macro-region. Prior Work: Some leading points of view in the field of cultural diplomacy serve as a theoretical background of the paper. In order to prove the theses of the research, existing empirical results are discussed and analyzed. Approach: The research uses interdisciplinary approach to conceptualization of cultural diplomacy and applies the methods of observation and systematic analysis and synthesis. Results: The presented empirical data indicate that some measures and actions are needed in the Danube macro-region in order to enhance the culture-based awareness of its citizens and intensify the intercultural cooperation. The establishment of a University Centre for Cultural Diplomacy in the Danube Region (UCDR is presented as a possible tool for the achievement of this goal. Implications: The results of the study can be interesting for public authorities and academics. Value: the promotion of the idea for UCDR is the first of its kind.

  8. Regional Integration and Pacta Sunt Servanda: Reflections on South African Trans-Border Higher Education Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyayambwa Mwanawina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The underpinning essence of being part of a regional organisation such as the Southern African Development Community (SADC is to achieve development through integration. Regional integration thus becomes the bedrock from which the treaties governing SADC and its member states are to be interpreted. The SADC Treaty and its various protocols articulate that members should eliminate obstacles to the free movement of people, goods and services. This should include the progressive reduction of immigration formalities in order to facilitate the freer movement of students and staff for the specific purposes of study, teaching, research and any other pursuits relating to education and training. Relying on international law principles such as pacta sunt servanda, this article establishes that though South Africa has made much progress in meeting most of the SADC obligations relating to migration and education, there are still grey policy areas that fall short of SADC standards and regional commitments. It also appraises the role of the SADC Council of Ministers, the Parliamentary Forum, the Tribunal and the National Committees in addressing these areas.

  9. West nile virus infection in the Mesopotamia region, Syria border of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakoç, Zehra Çağla; Tüzüner, Bora Mete; Ergonul, Onder; Pierro, Anna; Di Fonzo, Eugenio; Koruk, İbrahim; Sambri, Vittorio

    2013-10-01

    We described the serological prevalence of West Nile Virus (WNV) antibodies among the human population in a historical and strategic region of Turkey. A serologic survey was conducted based on suspected cases in April, 2009, in the Mesopotamia region of Turkey, in the villages that were located alongside the Zergan River. All the sera were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ELISA (Euroimmune™), and the positive samples were tested by immunofluorescent assay (IFA; Euroimmune™). As confirmation, neutralizing antibodies against WNV were tested by microneutralization assay (MNTA). In total, 307 individuals were included. The MNTA test was found to be positive among 52 individuals out of 307 (17%). In multivariate analysis, age >50 [odds ratio (OR)=5.2, confidence interval (CI) 2.76-9.97, p<0.001) and being in an occupational risk group (OR=2.02, CI 1.02-4.04, p=0.044) were found to be the risk factors for WNV seropositivity with the MNTA test. The physicians in the region should be aware of the risk of WNV infection and should be alerted to detect the clinical cases.

  10. Some aspects of cross-border cooperation in euroregions of the Czech Republic on example of the Šumava region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cetkovský, Stanislav; Klusáček, Petr; Martinát, Stanislav; Zapletalová, Jana

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2007), s. 43-55 ISSN 1210-8812 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA7118301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : Euroregions * cross-border cooperation * Šumava * regional development * environmental protection * Czech Republic Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  11. Epidemiology of Extended-Spectrum beta-Lactamase-Producing E-coli and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci in the Northern Dutch-German Cross-Border Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Xuewei; Garcia-Cobos, Silvia; Ruijs, Gijs J. H. M.; Kampinga, Greetje A.; Arends, Jan P.; Borst, Dirk M.; Moller, Lieke V.; Holman, Nicole D.; Schuurs, Theo A.; van Coppenraet, Lesla E. Bruijnesteijn; Weel, Jan F.; van Zeijl, Jan H.; Koeck, Robin; Rossen, John W. A.; Friedrich, Alexander W.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To reveal the prevalence and epidemiology of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and/or plasmid AmpC (pAmpC)- and carbapenemase (CP) producing Enterobacteriaceae and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) across the Northern Dutch-German border region. Methods: A point-prevalence study

  12. Fixed Links and Vague Discourses About Culture and the Making of Cross-Border Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stöber, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    building processes the focus on ‘culture’ is often due to an overriding wish to develop an economic well-functioning region. Moreover, it seems like ‘culture’ is used as a tool to distract people from a critique of bigger infrastructure projects that such developments entail. In order to strengthen...... these arguments, the paper will focus on two examples from Northern Europe, the existing Danish-Swedish Øresund link as well as the planned link between Denmark and Germany across the Femernbelt. In the course of the paper, focus will be on central bodies or actors that are taking up the issue of culture within...

  13. Vivre la frontière : les pratiques spatiales transfrontalières dans l’Arc jurassien franco-suisse Living the border : cross-border spatial practices in the French-Swiss Jura region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Dubois

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La construction européenne a redéfini la signification et les fonctions des frontières nationales. Cet article s’intéresse à cette mutation sous l’angle des pratiques des habitants de l’Arc jurassien franco-suisse. Une enquête par questionnaire a permis de mesurer l’intensité de certaines pratiques spatiales transfrontalières réalisées pendant le temps libre (achats, loisirs, etc. et d’en déterminer les logiques sous-jacentes. L’effet frontière se manifeste sous la forme d’un différentiel de prix (coût de la vie, taux de change, taxation de certains produits et d’un différentiel de connaissances (manque d’informations sur le pays voisin, habitude, etc. qui freinent ou incitent le franchissement de la frontière. L’effet frontière est toutefois atténué dans le contexte territorial étudié par un effet de centralité impliquant un différentiel d’offre (attraction des communes françaises à vocation résidentielle par les centres urbains helvétiques. La combinaison de ces effets explique l’intensité et l’orientation des pratiques spatiales transfrontalières.The European integration has been redefining the meaning and functions of national borders. This paper addresses this mutation from the perspective of the inhabitants’ spatial practices in the French-Swiss Jura region. Through a questionnaire survey we have measured the intensity of cross-border spatial practices done in the free time (purchasing, leisure, etc. and determined the underlying logics. The border effect appears in the form of a price differential (cost of living, exchange rate, taxation of some goods and a knowledge differential (lack of information on the neighbouring country, habits, etc. that curb or stimulate border crossing. The border effect is however mitigated in the spatial context under study by a centrality effect involving a supply differential (attraction of residential French municipalities by Swiss urban centres. The

  14. Toward Building a Cross-Border Integration Region among Five Caribbean Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cristina Mantilla Valbuena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pretende aportar insumos para proponer una zona de integración transfronteriza entre cinco países que comparten fronteras marítimo-territoriales en el c aribe: c olombia ( san andrés, Providencia y s anta c atalina, Panamá, c osta r ica, n icaragua y j amaica. s e realizó una caracterización de la zona fronteriza a partir de procesos comunes de conf iguración geohis - tórica, dinámicas de poblamiento y elementos étnicos, lingüísticos, culturales y religiosos que consolidaron la unidad sociocultural de esta región caribeña. e l desarrollo de esta caracteriza - ción permite identif icar una comunidad transfronteriza que, pese a las divisiones establecidas por los e stados, justif ica la integración regional.

  15. Modernization and Traditionalism through the Prism of the Events of the 1916 Rebellion in Central Asian Border Regions of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya A. Lysenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article within the framework of modernization theory presents an analysis of ethno-social processes in the period of the rebellion of the peoples of the Steppe Region and Turkestan in 1916. The content of this ethno-region of the Russian Empire and its modernization meant the introduction of outside institutions and values of European culture, however a short time impact of modernization trends on the traditional society (the second half of XIX – the beginning of the XX century could not give a high positive effect in the short historical perspective. Therefore a certain part of the population of Steppes and Turkestan was an active recipient of modernization, integrated into the imperial political and economic space. However, most of the traditional society perceived modernization as a form of coloniality, aimed at suppressing the cultural identity, the transformation of traditional tribal and clan ties and social relations. The analysis of the impact of modernization on the traditional society of the Central Asian border regions of Russia allowed the authors of the article to claim that contradictory of social processes of transition period was fully manifested in the course of the popular uprising in 1916. On the one hand, there were tendencies of the ethno-consolidation processes which gave to that movement a powerful impulse and scale. On the other hand, the events of 1916 demonstrated a certain division of Central Asian society, expressed in the ambiguous position of the intellectuals to the decree of Nicholas II on the mobilization of foreigners working in the rear, intra- and inter-ethnic clashes in the uprising, the restoration of archaic (from the point of view of the theory of modernization and political institutions social norms, the revival of "ethno-psychological stereotypes" of the previous era.

  16. Shallow and intermediate depth earthquakes in the Hindu Kush region across the Afghan-Pakistan border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Khaista; Ali, Wajid; Ali, Asghar; Ali, Aamir; Barkat, Adnan

    2017-10-01

    We investigated the spatio-temporal seismicity parameters of shallow (0-70 km) and intermediate (70-300 km) depth earthquakes in the Hindu Kush region, which is characterized by the occurrence of large earthquakes in a small zone of intense activity. By way of comparison, intermediate depth earthquakes dominate the Hindu Kush seismicity. Using a catalogue of 3820 earthquakes, we determined the various earthquake histograms, time-series plots, variations of frequency-magnitude distribution (b-value) and seismicity rate changes (z-value). Both time periods, encompassing pre- and post-1964 subsets of earthquakes, differ significantly in terms of reporting earthquakes, b- and z-value for shallow and intermediate seismicity. The b-values appear to be lower (1.07 and 0.90) for intermediate depth earthquakes than do the b-values produced by shallow earthquakes (1.32 and 1.06) using the pre- and post-1964 data sets. The three low b-value (Hindu Kush. The z-value maps show that the earthquakes with magnitude of 7.0 and above can only be seen in the intermediate depth earthquake maps.

  17. Brasiguaio Identities: An outcome of the pursuit of land across the Brazilian and Paraguayan shared border region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Estrada

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The movement of people between places is far from being a new or isolated phenomenon and is happening more often than before. This is also the case for individuals who moved from Brazil and Paraguay. Based on the existing literature as well as on data gathered in the landless camp Antônio Irmão, also known locally as the ‘Brasiguaios landless camp’ in Itaquiraí in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, this article explains how their search for a piece of land in either Brazil and Paraguay influenced the formation of the Brasiguaios identities. First, I briefly approach the foundation of transnationalism scholarship, which guided my research. Next, I demonstrate how land policies in Brazil and Paraguay, aimed at developing their respective border regions, played a role in the migration of Brazilians to Paraguayan and then the return of a number of them to Brazil. Last, I share the narrative of individuals in the Brasiguaio landless camp in the pursuit of land in either country. At the core of my argument is that the Brasiguaio identities of this landless group result from their pursuit of land rather than from migration processes.

  18. Mycobacterium tuberculosis population in northwestern Russia: an update from Russian-EU/Latvian border region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Mokrousov

    Pskov region in northwestern Russia.

  19. A transitional volume beneath the Sannio-Irpinia border region (southern Apennines): Different tectonic styles at different depths

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Matteo, Ada; Massa, Bruno; Milano, Girolamo; D'Auria, Luca

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the border between the Sannio and Irpinia seismogenic regions, a sector of the southern Apennine chain considered among the most active seismic areas of the Italian peninsula, to shed further light on its complex seismotectonic setting. We integrated recent seismicity with literature data. A detailed analysis of the seismicity that occurred in the 2013-2016 time interval was performed. The events were relocated, after manual re-picking, using different approaches. To retrieve information about the stress field active in the area, inversion of Fault Plane Solutions was also carried out. Hypocentral distribution of the relocated events (ML ≤ 3.5), whose depth is included between 5 and 25 km with the deepest ones located in the NW sector of the study area, shows a different pattern between the northern sector and the southern one. The computed Fault Plane Solutions can be grouped in three depth ranges: 18 km, dominated by strike-slip kinematics. Stress field inversion across the whole area shows that we are dealing with an heterogeneous set of data, apparently governed by distinct stress fields. We built an upper crustal model profile through integration of geological data, well logs and seismic tomographic profiles. Our results suggest the co-existence of different tectonic styles at distinct crustal depths: the upper crust seems to be affected mostly by normal faulting, whereas strike-slip faulting prevails in the intermediate and lower crust. We infer about the existence of a transitional volume, located between 12 and 18 km depth, between the Sannio and Irpinia regions, acting as a vertical transfer zone.

  20. O efeito fronteira das regiões brasileiras: uma aplicação do modelo gravitacional The border effect in Brazilian regions: a gravity model approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Leusin Jr.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa o efeito fronteira do Brasil e de suas regiões para o ano 1999. Esse efeito foi estimado empiricamente, utilizando-se dados de corte seccional, em um modelo gravitacional com os 26 estados brasileiros, mais o Distrito Federal e 40 países. Apesar de o Brasil ter se engajado em um processo de abertura comercial, como o ocorrido durante a década de 1990, e ter participado de Acordos Preferenciais de Comércio importantes como o Mercosul, constatou-se que o país e algumas de suas regiões apresentam elevados custos de fronteira. Os resultados encontrados indicam que o comércio entre estados brasileiros é 33 vezes superior ao comércio internacional desses estados. Para as regiões brasileiras, o efeito fronteira das regiões Norte e Nordeste é significativamente maior do que aquele observado nas regiões Sul e Sudeste.This paper analyzes the border effect for Brazilian goods market and its regions in 1999. This effect was quantified empirically by using cross-sectional data in a gravitational model for twenty-six Brazilian states plus the Federal District and forty other countries. Despite Brazil's involvement in commercial opening in the 90's, as well as important regional trade agreements such as Mercosul, we noticed that Brazil and some of its regions have high cross-border costs. The finding results of this equation suggest a trade 33 times higher between Brazilian states than the international trade of these states. Regarding each Brazilian region, the border effect found for intra-national trade among Northeast and North regions is significantly higher than the border effect for Southeast and Southern regions.

  1. Border markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this issue of Articulo – Journal of Urban Research is to examine the characteristics of border markets in a comparative perspective. In this introductory paper, I first discuss what makes African border markets different from other markets, and examine several factors that explain...

  2. REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN EU’S BORDER AREAS: CROATIA AS A REGIONAL MODEL FOR DESTINATION BRANDING STRATEGY IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja PULIC

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The newest member joined the European Union (EU with a well-conceived destination branding strategy. Croatia is becoming more and more identifiable world-wide by creating a distinctive brand in order to maintain a solid positioning as a destination place. As competition is becoming more intense, an increasing number of countries struggle to make themselves visible in the global tourism market. Tourism dominates the Croatian service sector, where the bulk of the tourist industry is concentrated along the Adriatic Sea coast. Although not very successful in public diplomacy, a complex system of coordinated activities that Croatia implemented resulted in strengthening the perception and image of the overall destination brand. This research aims at exploring the Croatian destination branding strategy as a potential model for its closest neighboring country, Bosnia and Herzegovina (BIH. Sharing a common history, borders and people, BIH and Croatia represent a unique comparative case study for regional spill-over development between the EU and non-EU countries. Therefore, this study takes into account what has been done so far on both sides regarding destination branding strategy, thus exploring what lessons could be learned from Croatia and what is the best future regional approach for creating a BIH’s destination brand.

  3. Native American lithic procurement along the international border in the boot heel region of southwestern New Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Zeigler

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Multidisciplinary field projects can be very useful to a more fundamental understanding of the world around us, though these projects are not as common as they should be. In particular, the combination of archeology and geology combines our understanding of human behavior and human use of the landscape with an intimate knowledge of geologic processes and the materials available for human use in order to gain a broader understanding of human-Earth interaction. Here we present data from a cross-disciplinary project that uses a common dataset, archeological artifacts, to explore the anthropological and geologic implications of useage patterns. Archeological excavations and surveys conducted by the Office of Contract Archeology in 2007 along the route of the proposed international border fence reveal patterns of use of geologic materials by Archaic, Formative and Protohistoric Native Americans in the Boot Heel of southwestern New Mexico. Thousands of artifacts were recorded in multiple sites from Guadalupe Pass in the southern Peloncillo Mountains to the Carrizalillo Hills west of Columbus. We identified the lithologies of artifacts, ranging from projectile points to groundstones, and then constructed material movement maps based on either known procurement sites ("quarries" or outcrops identified as the closest source to a given site for each lithology. Not unexpectedly, the majority of the rock types utilized by native peoples are local siliceous volcanic materials. However, several artifacts constructed from obsidian were transported into the region from northern Mexico and eastern Arizona, indicating long-distance travel and/or trade routes. We also examine useage pattern difference between Archaic, Formative and Protohistoric sites. Additionally, a dramatic change in distribution of sources for geologic materials occurs between one pre-Spanish site and one post-Spanish site that are adjacent to one another.

  4. Native American lithic procurement along the international border in the boot heel region of southwestern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, K. E.; Hogan, P.; Hughes, C.; Kurota, A.

    2011-06-01

    Multidisciplinary field projects can be very useful to a more fundamental understanding of the world around us, though these projects are not as common as they should be. In particular, the combination of archeology and geology combines our understanding of human behavior and human use of the landscape with an intimate knowledge of geologic processes and the materials available for human use in order to gain a broader understanding of human-Earth interaction. Here we present data from a cross-disciplinary project that uses a common dataset, archeological artifacts, to explore the anthropological and geologic implications of useage patterns. Archeological excavations and surveys conducted by the Office of Contract Archeology in 2007 along the route of the proposed international border fence reveal patterns of use of geologic materials by Archaic, Formative and Protohistoric Native Americans in the Boot Heel of southwestern New Mexico. Thousands of artifacts were recorded in multiple sites from Guadalupe Pass in the southern Peloncillo Mountains to the Carrizalillo Hills west of Columbus. We identified the lithologies of artifacts, ranging from projectile points to groundstones, and then constructed material movement maps based on either known procurement sites ("quarries") or outcrops identified as the closest source to a given site for each lithology. Not unexpectedly, the majority of the rock types utilized by native peoples are local siliceous volcanic materials. However, several artifacts constructed from obsidian were transported into the region from northern Mexico and eastern Arizona, indicating long-distance travel and/or trade routes. We also examine useage pattern difference between Archaic, Formative and Protohistoric sites. Additionally, a dramatic change in distribution of sources for geologic materials occurs between one pre-Spanish site and one post-Spanish site that are adjacent to one another.

  5. Metrics for border management systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, Ruth Ann

    2009-07-01

    There are as many unique and disparate manifestations of border systems as there are borders to protect. Border Security is a highly complex system analysis problem with global, regional, national, sector, and border element dimensions for land, water, and air domains. The complexity increases with the multiple, and sometimes conflicting, missions for regulating the flow of people and goods across borders, while securing them for national security. These systems include frontier border surveillance, immigration management and customs functions that must operate in a variety of weather, terrain, operational conditions, cultural constraints, and geopolitical contexts. As part of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project 08-684 (Year 1), the team developed a reference framework to decompose this complex system into international/regional, national, and border elements levels covering customs, immigration, and border policing functions. This generalized architecture is relevant to both domestic and international borders. As part of year two of this project (09-1204), the team determined relevant relative measures to better understand border management performance. This paper describes those relative metrics and how they can be used to improve border management systems.

  6. Chemical diversity of essential oils from flowers, leaves, and stems of Rhanterium epapposum Oliv. growing in northern border region of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Marwa Awad; Abdelrhman Abdelwahab

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the medicinal uses of Rhanterium epapposum Oliv. (R. epapposum) growing in northern border region of Saudi Arabia, through the chemical diversity of essential oils extracted from its flowers, leaves and stems. Methods: Aerial parts of R. epapposum were collected in April 2014. Air dried flowers, leaves, and stems were separately subjected to hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus for 4 h to extract the essential oils. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ana...

  7. Border installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenaerts, Koen

    1988-01-01

    Border installations cover all nuclear plants located near the border with a neighbouring state. However, the actual distance depends on the context. The distance can vary considerably. Also the prohibition on siting near a heavily populated area also defines the actual distance variably. The distance criteria may be modified by other factors of topography, prevailing climate and so on. Various examples which illustrate the problems are given. For example, the Creys-Melville nuclear power plant is 80km from Geneva and the Cattonam installation is 12km from the French border with Luxembourg and Germany. The Cattenom case is explained and the legal position within the European Institutions is discussed. The French licensing procedures for nuclear power stations are described with special reference to the Cattenom power plant. Border installations are discussed in the context of European Community Law and Public International Law. (U.K.)

  8. HS5 of the human β-globin Locus Control Region: a developmental stage-specific border in erythroid cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Wai (Albert); N. Gillemans (Nynke); S. Raguz-Bolognesi (Selina); S. Pruzina (Sara); G. Zafarana (Gaetano); D.N. Meijer (Dies); F.G. Grosveld (Frank); J.N.J. Philipsen (Sjaak)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractElements with insulator/border activity have been characterized most extensively in Drosophila melanogaster. In vertebrates, the first example of such an element was provided by a hypersensitive site of the chicken beta-globin locus, cHS4. It has been proposed that the homologous site in

  9. Better temperature predictions in geothermal modelling by improved quality of input parameters: a regional case study from the Danish-German border region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Sven; Bording, Thue S.; Balling, Niels

    2015-04-01

    Thermal modelling is used to examine the subsurface temperature field and geothermal conditions at various scales (e.g. sedimentary basins, deep crust) and in the framework of different problem settings (e.g. scientific or industrial use). In such models, knowledge of rock thermal properties is prerequisites for the parameterisation of boundary conditions and layer properties. In contrast to hydrogeological ground-water models, where parameterization of the major rock property (i.e. hydraulic conductivity) is generally conducted considering lateral variations within geological layers, parameterization of thermal models (in particular regarding thermal conductivity but also radiogenic heat production and specific heat capacity) in most cases is conducted using constant parameters for each modelled layer. For such constant thermal parameter values, moreover, initial values are normally obtained from rare core measurements and/or literature values, which raise questions for their representativeness. Some few studies have considered lithological composition or well log information, but still keeping the layer values constant. In the present thermal-modelling scenario analysis, we demonstrate how the use of different parameter input type (from literature, well logs and lithology) and parameter input style (constant or laterally varying layer values) affects the temperature model prediction in sedimentary basins. For this purpose, rock thermal properties are deduced from standard petrophysical well logs and lithological descriptions for several wells in a project area. Statistical values of thermal properties (mean, standard deviation, moments, etc.) are calculated at each borehole location for each geological formation and, moreover, for the entire dataset. Our case study is located at the Danish-German border region (model dimension: 135 x115 km, depth: 20 km). Results clearly show that (i) the use of location-specific well-log derived rock thermal properties and (i

  10. Process evaluation of a promotora de salud intervention for improving hypertension outcomes for Latinos living in a rural U.S.-Mexico border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Victoria; Cacari Stone, Lisa; Moffett, Maurice L; Nguyen, PhoungGiang; Muhammad, Michael; Bruna-Lewis, Sean; Urias-Chauvin, Rita

    2014-05-01

    Hypertension is a growing public health problem for U.S.-Mexico border Latinos, who commonly experience low levels of awareness, treatment, and control. We report on a process evaluation that assessed the delivery of Corazón por la Vida, a 9-week promotora de salud-led curriculum to help Latinos manage and reduce hypertension risks in two rural/frontier counties in the New Mexico border region. Ninety-six adults participated in the program, delivered in three waves and in three communities. We assessed program delivery and quality, adherence, exposure, and participant responsiveness. Participant outcome measures included self-reported eating and physical activities and assessment of community resources. Findings suggest that the program was fully delivered (99%) and that most participants (81.7%) were very satisfied with the educational sessions. The average participant attendance for educational sessions was 77.47%. We found significant differences in self-reported behavioral changes depending on the number of sessions completed: The higher the dose of sessions, the better the self-reported outcomes. These findings suggest that a promotora-led curriculum may be useful for promoting self-management of chronic disease in rural/frontier border Latino populations. Future evaluation should focus on training and implementation adaptations within evidence-based chronic disease programs for diverse Latino communities.

  11. Impacts of pollution on freshwater communities in the border region between Russia and Norway. Results of the 1990-96 monitoring programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noest, Terje; Lukin, Anatoli; Schartau, Ann Kristin Lien; Kashulin, Nikolai; Berger, Hans Mack; Yakovlev, Valeri; Sharov, Andrey; Dauvalter, Vladimir

    1997-05-01

    This report summarises the results and conclusions of the investigations in the border region between Russia and Norway, primary in selected monitoring lakes during 1990-96. The results of the 1996 investigations are given a more thorough presentation. Results on species composition, abundances and biomasses of phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthos and fish communities, as well as population parameters (length and age distribution) for different fish species are presented. Pathological state and trace metal accumulation in fish are analysed. The biological results are related to analyses of chemical parameters in lake sediments and water. 46 refs., 12 figs., 6 tabs

  12. Impacts of pollution on freshwater communities in the border region between Russia and Norway. Results of the 1990-96 monitoring programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noest, Terje; Lukin, Anatoli; Schartau, Ann Kristin Lien; Kashulin, Nikolai; Berger, Hans Mack; Yakovlev, Valeri; Sharov, Andrey; Dauvalter, Vladimir

    1997-05-01

    This report summarises the results and conclusions of the investigations in the border region between Russia and Norway, primary in selected monitoring lakes during 1990-96. The results of the 1996 investigations are given a more thorough presentation. Results on species composition, abundances and biomasses of phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthos and fish communities, as well as population parameters (length and age distribution) for different fish species are presented. Pathological state and trace metal accumulation in fish are analysed. The biological results are related to analyses of chemical parameters in lake sediments and water. 46 refs., 12 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Comparison of HIV-, HBV-, HCV- and co-infection prevalence between Chinese and Burmese intravenous drug users of the China-Myanmar border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan-Heng; Liu, Feng-Liang; Yao, Zhi-Hong; Duo, Lin; Li, Hong; Sun, Yi; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2011-01-21

    Co-infection with HIV and HCV and/or HBV is highly prevalent in intravenous drug users (IDUs). Because of the proximity to the "Golden Triangle", HIV prevalence among the IDUs is very high in the China-Myanmar border region. However, there are few studies about co-infection with HIV and HCV and/or HBV, especially in the region that belongs to Myanmar. 721 IDUs, including 403 Chinese and 318 Burmese, were investigated for their HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) serological status. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the differences of the epidemic situation between the Chinese IDUs and the Burmese IDUs. Among the Chinese IDUs and the Burmese IDUs, HCV infection was the most prevalent (69.0% vs 48.1%, P0.05). Besides, there were more HIV-HBV co-infected IDUs (20.1% vs 11.3%, P<0.005), and HIV-HCV co-infected IDUs (31.8% vs 23.9%, P<0.05) in China than in Myanmar, as well as HIV-HBV-HCV triple infection (19.1% vs 10.4%, P<0.005). Co-infection with HIV and HCV and/or HBV is highly prevalent among the IDUs in the China-Myanmar border region. The HIV epidemic appears to be in a downward trend, compared with previous reports. However, all infections were more prevalent among the Chinese IDUs than among the Burmese.

  14. Epidemiology of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing E. coli and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci in the Northern Dutch–German Cross-Border Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuewei Zhou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To reveal the prevalence and epidemiology of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL- and/or plasmid AmpC (pAmpC- and carbapenemase (CP producing Enterobacteriaceae and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE across the Northern Dutch–German border region.Methods: A point-prevalence study on ESBL/pAmpC/CP producing Enterobacteriaceae and VRE was carried out in hospitalized patients in the Northern Netherlands (n = 445, 2012–2013 and Germany (n = 242, 2012. Healthy individuals from the Dutch community (n = 400, 2010–2012 were also screened. In addition, a genome-wide gene-by-gene approach was applied to study the epidemiology of ESBL-Escherichia coli and VRE.Results: A total of 34 isolates from 27 patients (6.1% admitted to Dutch hospitals were ESBL/pAmpC positive and 29 ESBL-E. coli, three pAmpC-E. coli, one ESBL-Enterobacter cloacae, and one pAmpC-Proteus mirabilis were found. In the German hospital, 18 isolates (16 E. coli and 2 Klebsiella pneumoniae from 17 patients (7.7% were ESBL positive. In isolates from the hospitalized patients CTX-M-15 was the most frequently detected ESBL-gene. In the Dutch community, 11 individuals (2.75% were ESBL/pAmpC positive: 10 ESBL-E. coli (CTX-M-1 being the most prevalent gene and one pAmpC E. coli. Six Dutch (1.3% and four German (3.9% hospitalized patients were colonized with VRE. Genetic relatedness by core genome multi-locus sequence typing (cgMLST was found between two ESBL-E. coli isolates from Dutch and German cross-border hospitals and between VRE isolates from different hospitals within the same region.Conclusion: The prevalence of ESBL/pAmpC-Enterobacteriaceae was similar in hospitalized patients across the Dutch–German border region, whereas VRE prevalence was slightly higher on the German side. The overall prevalence of the studied pathogens was lower in the community than in hospitals in the Northern Netherlands. Cross-border transmission of ESBL-E. coli and VRE seems unlikely

  15. Epidemiology of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing E. coli and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci in the Northern Dutch-German Cross-Border Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuewei; García-Cobos, Silvia; Ruijs, Gijs J H M; Kampinga, Greetje A; Arends, Jan P; Borst, Dirk M; Möller, Lieke V; Holman, Nicole D; Schuurs, Theo A; Bruijnesteijn van Coppenraet, Lesla E; Weel, Jan F; van Zeijl, Jan H; Köck, Robin; Rossen, John W A; Friedrich, Alexander W

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To reveal the prevalence and epidemiology of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and/or plasmid AmpC (pAmpC)- and carbapenemase (CP) producing Enterobacteriaceae and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) across the Northern Dutch-German border region. Methods: A point-prevalence study on ESBL/pAmpC/CP producing Enterobacteriaceae and VRE was carried out in hospitalized patients in the Northern Netherlands ( n = 445, 2012-2013) and Germany ( n = 242, 2012). Healthy individuals from the Dutch community ( n = 400, 2010-2012) were also screened. In addition, a genome-wide gene-by-gene approach was applied to study the epidemiology of ESBL- Escherichia coli and VRE. Results: A total of 34 isolates from 27 patients (6.1%) admitted to Dutch hospitals were ESBL/pAmpC positive and 29 ESBL- E. coli , three pAmpC- E. coli , one ESBL- Enterobacter cloacae , and one pAmpC- Proteus mirabilis were found. In the German hospital, 18 isolates (16 E. coli and 2 Klebsiella pneumoniae ) from 17 patients (7.7%) were ESBL positive. In isolates from the hospitalized patients CTX-M-15 was the most frequently detected ESBL-gene. In the Dutch community, 11 individuals (2.75%) were ESBL/pAmpC positive: 10 ESBL - E. coli (CTX-M-1 being the most prevalent gene) and one pAmpC E. coli . Six Dutch (1.3%) and four German (3.9%) hospitalized patients were colonized with VRE. Genetic relatedness by core genome multi-locus sequence typing (cgMLST) was found between two ESBL- E. coli isolates from Dutch and German cross-border hospitals and between VRE isolates from different hospitals within the same region. Conclusion: The prevalence of ESBL/pAmpC- Enterobacteriaceae was similar in hospitalized patients across the Dutch-German border region, whereas VRE prevalence was slightly higher on the German side. The overall prevalence of the studied pathogens was lower in the community than in hospitals in the Northern Netherlands. Cross-border transmission of ESBL- E. coli and VRE seems

  16. Impacts of Land Cover and Land Use Change on the Hydrology of the US-Mexico Border Region, 1992-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, T. J.; Vivoni, E. R.; Mascaro, G.; White, D. D.

    2016-12-01

    The semi-arid US-Mexico border region has been experiencing rapid urbanization and agricultural expansion over the last several decades, due in part to the lifting of trade barriers of the 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), placing additional pressures on the region's already strained water resources. Here we examine the effects of changes in land cover/use over the period 1992-2011 on the region's hydrology and water resources, using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model with an irrigation module to estimate both natural and anthropogenic water fluxes. Land cover has been taken from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) over the US, and from the Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (INEGI) database over Mexico, for three snapshots: 1992/3, 2001/2, and 2011. We have performed 3 simulations, one per land cover snapshot, at 6 km resolution, driven by a gridded observed meteorology dataset and a climatology of land surface characteristics derived from remote sensing products. Urban water withdrawal rates were estimated from literature. The primary changes in the region's water budget over the period 1992-2011 consisted of: (1) a shift in agricultural irrigation water withdrawals from the US to Mexico, accompanied by similar shifts in runoff (via agricultural return flow) and evapotranspiration; and (2) a 50% increase in urban water withdrawals, concentrated in the US. Because groundwater supplied most of the additional agricultural withdrawals, and occurred over already over-exploited aquifers, these changes call into question the sustainability of the region's land and water management. By synthesizing the implications of these hydrologic changes, we present a novel view of how NAFTA has altered the US-Mexico border region, possibly in unintended ways.

  17. Soil transmitted helminthiasis in indigenous groups. A community cross sectional study in the Amazonian southern border region of Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Sandoval, Natalia; Ortiz-Rico, Claudia; Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor Javier; Valdivieso, Daniel; Sandoval, Carlos; Pástor, Jacob; Martín, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Background Rural communities in the Amazonian southern border of Ecuador have benefited from governmental social programmes over the past 9 years, which have addressed, among other things, diseases associated with poverty, such as soil transmitted helminth infections. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of geohelminth infection and several factors associated with it in these communities. Methods This was a cross sectional study in two indigenous communities of the Amazonian southern border of Ecuador. The data were analysed at both the household and individual levels. Results At the individual level, the prevalence of geohelminth infection reached 46.9% (95% CI 39.5% to 54.2%), with no differences in terms of gender, age, temporary migration movements or previous chemoprophylaxis. In 72.9% of households, one or more members were infected. Receiving subsidies and overcrowding were associated with the presence of helminths. Conclusions The prevalence of geohelminth infection was high. Our study suggests that it is necessary to conduct studies focusing on communities, and not simply on captive groups, such as schoolchildren, with the object of proposing more suitable and effective strategies to control this problem. PMID:28292765

  18. Assessing a cross-border logistics policy using a performance measurement system framework: the case of Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, David W. C.; Choy, K. L.; Chow, Harry K. H.; Lin, Canhong

    2014-06-01

    For the most rapidly growing economic entity in the world, China, a new logistics operation called the indirect cross-border supply chain model has recently emerged. The primary idea of this model is to reduce logistics costs by storing goods at a bonded warehouse with low storage cost in certain Chinese regions, such as the Pearl River Delta (PRD). This research proposes a performance measurement system (PMS) framework to assess the direct and indirect cross-border supply chain models. The PMS covers four categories including cost, time, quality and flexibility in the assessment of the performance of direct and indirect models. Furthermore, a survey was conducted to investigate the logistics performance of third party logistics (3PLs) at the PRD regions, including Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Hong Kong. The significance of the proposed PMS framework allows 3PLs accurately pinpoint the weakness and strengths of it current operations policy at four major performance measurement categories. Hence, this helps 3PLs further enhance the competitiveness and operations efficiency through better resources allocation at the area of warehousing and transportation.

  19. Efficacy of Cancer Care Communication Between Clinicians and Latino Patients in a Rural US-Mexico Border Region: a Qualitative Study of Barriers and Facilitators to Better Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Eunjeong; Zúñiga, María Luisa; Peacher, Diana; Palomino, Helen; Watson, Mercedes

    2018-02-01

    Quality of clinician-patient cancer communication is vital to cancer care and survivorship. Racial/ethnic minority patients in rural regions may have unique characteristics including cultural beliefs, language barriers, and low health literacy which require effective cross-cultural cancer communication. Despite the growing US population of racial/ethnic minorities and widespread emphasis on culturally appropriate health communication, little is known about challenges and facilitators of cancer communication among underserved rural Latino cancer patients in the US-Mexico border region. This study conducted secondary data analysis of interview data collected from 22 individual cancer patients living on the US side of the US-Mexico border. Thematic analysis was conducted to explore a priori questions regarding patient experiences with cancer care communication with their providers. Emerging themes included lack of language concordance, patient perspectives on clarity and accuracy of information provided, patient perceptions on provider sensitivity in giving cancer diagnosis, and improving the clinical interpersonal relationship. Practice guidelines are suggested and discussed. These findings illuminate the importance of advancing improvement of cancer communication between clinicians and Spanish language-dominant Latinos.

  20. O processo de integração regional: fronteiras abertas para os trabalhadores do Mercosul The process of regional integration: open borders for Mercosul workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia de Camargo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O que me proponho neste trabalho é discutir o tema da livre circulação dos trabalhadores no Mercosul, levando-se em conta que esta liberdade - diferentemente de outras que aparecem como objetivos essenciais a serem alcançados no processo de integração desta sub-região - não faz parte do texto do Tratado de Assunção, assinado em março de 1991. Esta ausência é reveladora, na medida em que a liberdade de circulação de pessoas constitui um dos elementos que evidencia com maior clareza a existência de um processo de integração, na medida em que afeta diretamente a vida dos cidadãos assegurando seu livre trânsito dentro do bloco e oportunidades iguais entre os nacionais e não nacionais. No texto do referido Tratado, a integração aparece limitada à circulação de capitais, bens e serviços, liberdade assegurada pela eliminação de qualquer medida que possa prejudicá-la. Partindo dessa discussão, pretendo examinar quais os avanços institucionais já alcançados no sentido da criação de políticas que, concretamente, conduzam à abertura de fronteiras entre os países do Mercosul por meio das quais seus cidadãos - neste caso, os trabalhadores - possam se deslocar livremente e residir em seu local de trabalho. Para tanto, acredito que conhecer a experiência da União Europeia possa ser de grande utilidade.My proposal for this article is to discuss the free mobility of workers inside the Mercosul block, bearing in mind that this liberty, in the contrary of others issues that arise as essential aims to be reached in the integration process of the region, wasn't incorporated in the Assunção Treaty, signed in march 1991. This absence is revealing in the sense that the liberty of circulation of persons is one of the elements that show with more evidence the existence of an integration process as it affects directly the life of its citizens ensuring their free displacement inside the region and equal opportunities among

  1. Institutions and Societal Impacts of Climate in the Lower Colorado and San Pedro Basins of the U.S.-Mexico Border Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varady, R. G.; Wilder, M.; Morehouse, B. J.; Garfin, G. M.

    2007-05-01

    The U.S. Southwest and Mexico border region feature two prominent river basins, the Colorado and Rio Grande, and ecologically important sub-basins such as the San Pedro. The area within which these transboundary basins lie is characterized by overall aridity and high climatic variability over seasonal to decadal and longer time scales. Throughout human occupation, numerous and diverse strategies for buffering climate impacts have emerged. The most notable response has been an increasingly complex system of institutions and structures designed to buffer water scarcity. The Colorado River Compact, and the laws governing allocation of waters from the Rio Grande River, together with the dams, hydropower generators, canals and other engineered features, represent two of the most complex systems. Drought nevertheless remains a looming specter across much of the binational border region. Institutional mechanisms for responding to drought range from awareness-raising and capacity-building efforts, to implementation of formal drought plans, to storing water to make up for deficits, and water conservation rules that become increasingly stringent as drought intensifies. A number of formal and informal binational institutions operate in the region. Some are venerable, like the century-old International Boundary and Water Commission (IBWC) and its Mexican counterpart the Comision Internacional de Limites y Agua (CILA). Others, like the Border Environment Cooperation Commission and the North American Development Bank, were created in the mid-1990s with the North American Free Trade Agreement. These institutions, both domestic and transnational, operate in a complex binational, bicultural environment with contrasting legal and administrative traditions. Under such constraints, they manage water resources and ecosystems and attempt to improve water and sanitation infrastructure in the context of deep and extended drought. But in spite of their efforts, society and natural habitat

  2. Opportunities and risks of cross-border cooperation of regions of the southern macroregion of Russia and regions of the South-East of Ukraine in the conditions of uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Mitrofanova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In article the political and economic innovations connected with the transformation of the region "Donbass" in the context of decrease of the risks caused by a military-political and economic conflict in Ukraine are investigated. On the basis of creative synthesis of theoretical and practical approaches of studying the evolution of nonlinear economic systems and the formation of megaregions, and also the analysis of the geopolitical situation developing on the world scene between Russia, the USA and China provisions are developed according to which the region "Donbass" can be considered as "a critical point" of the European regionalization. Authors believe that the important strategic prospect of border cooperation of Russia and Ukraine is connected with the formation of a cross-border agglomeration "Nizhnedonbassky" and "Verkhnedonbassky" the creation of which consists in realization of the linking function between Nizhnedonbassky, Volga region, Moscow and Petersburg transport corridors. One of the condition of social and economic stabilization in the subjects of the foreign Caspian and the Black Sea zones is the realization of geotransit capacity of the region "Donbass" with the formation of a geotransit architecture of its economy. Strategically realization of the processes of an international city formation is possible either on the basis of federal principles or by a geopolitical split of the territory of the region “Donbass” on the line Kharkov – Donetsk – Lugansk with a bent to Russia.

  3. Genetic Diversity and Natural Selection in 42 kDa Region of Plasmodium vivax Merozoite Surface Protein-1 from China-Myanmar Endemic Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xia; Tambo, Ernest; Su, Jing; Fang, Qiang; Ruan, Wei; Chen, Jun-Hu; Yin, Ming-Bo; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2017-10-01

    Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein-1 (PvMSP1) gene codes for a major malaria vaccine candidate antigen. However, its polymorphic nature represents an obstacle to the design of a protective vaccine. In this study, we analyzed the genetic polymorphism and natural selection of the C-terminal 42 kDa fragment within PvMSP1 gene (Pv MSP142) from 77 P. vivax isolates, collected from imported cases of China-Myanmar border (CMB) areas in Yunnan province and the inland cases from Anhui, Yunnan, and Zhejiang province in China during 2009-2012. Totally, 41 haplotypes were identified and 30 of them were new haplotypes. The differences between the rates of non-synonymous and synonymous mutations suggest that PvMSP142 has evolved under natural selection, and a high selective pressure preferentially acted on regions identified of PvMSP133. Our results also demonstrated that PvMSP142 of P. vivax isolates collected on China-Myanmar border areas display higher genetic polymorphisms than those collected from inland of China. Such results have significant implications for understanding the dynamic of the P. vivax population and may be useful information towards China malaria elimination campaign strategies.

  4. Border poetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liv Lundberg

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The language of poetry is a language of inquiry, not the language of a genre. Poetry has the capacity of entering those zones known as borderlands, where you meet strange things and foreign people. In this poetic world view, the border is not an edge along the fringe of lands, societies and experiences, but rather their very middle – and their in-between. The structures of language are social structures in which meanings and intentions are already in place, always fighting for power and dominance, with rhetorical figures and more violent weapons.

  5. Do Trends in Physical Activity, Sedentary, and Dietary Behaviors Support Trends in Obesity Prevalence in 2 Border Regions in Texas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezendam, Nicole P. M.; Springer, Andrew E.; Brug, Johannes; Oenema, Anke; Hoelscher, Deanna H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to compare the change in energy balance-related behaviors from 2000-2002 to 2004-2005 between 2 Texas regions with distinct patterns in obesity prevalence (decrease in the El Paso region [EP] and leveling off in the Rio Grande Valley region [RGV]) and to determine the role of the behaviors in the difference in…

  6. Comparison of HIV-, HBV-, HCV- and co-infection prevalence between Chinese and Burmese intravenous drug users of the China-Myanmar border region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Heng Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Co-infection with HIV and HCV and/or HBV is highly prevalent in intravenous drug users (IDUs. Because of the proximity to the "Golden Triangle", HIV prevalence among the IDUs is very high in the China-Myanmar border region. However, there are few studies about co-infection with HIV and HCV and/or HBV, especially in the region that belongs to Myanmar. METHODS: 721 IDUs, including 403 Chinese and 318 Burmese, were investigated for their HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV, and hepatitis C virus (HCV serological status. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the differences of the epidemic situation between the Chinese IDUs and the Burmese IDUs. RESULTS: Among the Chinese IDUs and the Burmese IDUs, HCV infection was the most prevalent (69.0% vs 48.1%, P0.05. Besides, there were more HIV-HBV co-infected IDUs (20.1% vs 11.3%, P<0.005, and HIV-HCV co-infected IDUs (31.8% vs 23.9%, P<0.05 in China than in Myanmar, as well as HIV-HBV-HCV triple infection (19.1% vs 10.4%, P<0.005. CONCLUSION: Co-infection with HIV and HCV and/or HBV is highly prevalent among the IDUs in the China-Myanmar border region. The HIV epidemic appears to be in a downward trend, compared with previous reports. However, all infections were more prevalent among the Chinese IDUs than among the Burmese.

  7. Substance Use and Cumulative Exposure to American Society: Findings From Both Sides of the US-Mexico Border Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Guilherme; Cherpitel, Cheryl J; Orozco, Ricardo; Zemore, Sarah E; Wallisch, Lynn; Medina-Mora, Maria-Elena; Breslau, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether Mexican immigration to the United States exerts transnational effects on substance use in Mexico and the United States. We performed a cross-sectional survey of 2336 Mexican Americans and 2460 Mexicans in 3 Texas border metropolitan areas and their sister cities in Mexico (the US-Mexico Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions, 2011-2013). We collected prevalence and risk factors for alcohol and drug use; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, alcohol-use disorders; and 2 symptoms (hazardous use and quit or control) of drug use disorder across a continuum of migration experiences in the Mexican and Mexican American populations. Compared with Mexicans with no migrant experience, the adjusted odds ratios for this continuum of migration experiences ranged from 1.10 to 8.85 for 12-month drug use, 1.09 to 5.07 for 12-month alcohol use disorder, and 1.13 to 9.95 for 12-month drug-use disorder. Odds ratios increased with longer exposure to US society. These findings are consistent with those of 3 previous studies. People of Mexican origin have increased prevalence of substance use and disorders with cumulative exposure to US society.

  8. Substance Use and Cumulative Exposure to American Society: Findings From Both Sides of the US–Mexico Border Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherpitel, Cheryl J.; Orozco, Ricardo; Zemore, Sarah E.; Wallisch, Lynn; Medina-Mora, Maria-Elena; Breslau, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated whether Mexican immigration to the United States exerts transnational effects on substance use in Mexico and the United States. Methods. We performed a cross-sectional survey of 2336 Mexican Americans and 2460 Mexicans in 3 Texas border metropolitan areas and their sister cities in Mexico (the US–Mexico Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions, 2011–2013). We collected prevalence and risk factors for alcohol and drug use; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, alcohol-use disorders; and 2 symptoms (hazardous use and quit or control) of drug use disorder across a continuum of migration experiences in the Mexican and Mexican American populations. Results. Compared with Mexicans with no migrant experience, the adjusted odds ratios for this continuum of migration experiences ranged from 1.10 to 8.85 for 12-month drug use, 1.09 to 5.07 for 12-month alcohol use disorder, and 1.13 to 9.95 for 12-month drug-use disorder. Odds ratios increased with longer exposure to US society. These findings are consistent with those of 3 previous studies. Conclusions. People of Mexican origin have increased prevalence of substance use and disorders with cumulative exposure to US society. PMID:26562124

  9. Depression, Self-Esteem, and Childhood Abuse Among Hispanic Men Residing in the U.S.-Mexico Border Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencio-Vasquez, Elias; Mata, Holly J; Tomaka, Joe; De Santis, Joseph P

    Hispanics experience health disparities in mental health and HIV infection when compared to non-Hispanic Whites, which may be related to childhood abuse. The purpose of our cross-sectional study was to examine the relationship between childhood abuse and depressive symptoms in a sample of Hispanic men (N = 103) living in a metropolitan U.S.-Mexico border area. Secondarily, we examined the role of self-esteem in mediating this relationship, and the moderating role of sexual orientation. Gay/bisexual men (n = 53) were more likely to report childhood abuse than heterosexual (n = 50) counterparts (47.2% vs. 32%). Self-esteem mediated the relationship between childhood abuse and depression for men who have sex with men, but not heterosexual men. Nurses should increase knowledge of mental health disparities that impact Hispanic men to ensure that appropriate treatment can be provided to reduce the risk of co-occurring health risks to these men, including risk for HIV infection. Copyright © 2017 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Attitudes and Prerequisites for the Establishment of an Integrated Cultural Identity within Romanian-Bulgarian Cross-Border Region along the Danube River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Popova

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: On the basis of the results from an empirical study this research aims at exploration of the prerequisites for the establishment of an integrated cultural identity within Romanian-Bulgarian Cross-Border Region along the Danube River (RBCBR. Prior Work: The paper is trying to prove the necessity of identity re-negotiation process within RBCBR. The theoretical background of the research is related to some of the most topical considerations in this scientific field. Approach: The research uses an interdisciplinary approach and combines the perspectives of regional studies, cross-cultural psychology and intercultural communication. A representative survey is the main instrument of the research. Results: Among the citizens of the RBCBR there exist favourable attitudes towards closer relations with their neighbours which can serve as a key element of the identity re-negotiation process within the region. Implications: The research results can be used by policy makers and regional authorities in the process of establishment of a new policy for territorial cooperation as well as by researchers in further development of this topic area. Value: the importance of the research is in its new approach towards the establishment of integrated regional identity as well as in the comparison of the Romanian and Bulgarian attitudes towards cooperation in the neighbourhood area.

  11. Defeating Cross Border Insurgencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-14

    population of Pakistan, the Hindus with the Hindu in India and the Buddhists in Ladakh with the Tibetans . The cross border ethnic tie between Pakistan...Ladakh region by Buddhist .9 These demographics of IAK lay out the complexity of the issue. While there is an identifiable Kashmiri ethnicity, the three...Demographics IAK Population Muslim Hindu Buddhist Sikh Jammu 4,4 mio 29 % 65 % Less than 2% Less than 5% Kashmir 5,4 mio 96 % less than 4% None Less

  12. Patient-family EoL communication and its predictors: Reports from caregivers of Latino patients in the rural U.S.-Mexico border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Eunjeong; Lee, Jaehoon; Ramirez, Carlos; Lopez, Denicka; Martinez, Stephanie

    2017-10-26

    Family caregivers play an important role in end-of-life (EoL) decision making when the patient is unable to make his/her own decisions. While communication about EoL care between patients and family is perhaps a first step toward advance care planning (ACP)/EoL decisions, not every culture puts great value on open communication about this topic. The aims of the present study were to explore EoL communication and the aspects of communication among caregivers of Latino patients in the rural United States (U.S.)-Mexico border region. This study analyzed data from a hospice needs assessment collected from 189 family caregivers of Latino patients at a home health agency in a rural U.S.-Mexico border region. Bivariate tests and logistic regression were used to address our aims. About half of the family caregivers (n = 96, 50.8%) reported to have ever engaged in EoL discussion with patients. Significant predictors of EoL discussion included life-sustaining treatment preference (odds ratio [OR] = 0.44, p communication. Also, caregivers who worried that physicians might want to stop treatments (i.e., "pull the plug") too soon were less likely to do so. Conversely, caregivers who had knowledge about ADs were more likely to engage in EoL communication. EoL communication is a complex process influenced by individual, social, and cultural values and the beliefs of both the patient and his/her family. Inclusion of family caregivers in the ACP process and facilitating culturally tailored EoL communication between patients and family caregivers is important.

  13. Crossing borders via mental bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, Dirk

    administration, and in specific on the attempt to initiate and promote cross-border regional integration via the building of mental bridges between Danish and German parts of the Femern Belt Region. Here one of the first projects aiming primarily at building mental bridges in the Femern Belt Region...

  14. Border installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenaerts, K.

    1988-01-01

    This chapter highlights the legal problems raised by the concept of a border installation. Using the Cattenom nuclear power plant as an example, the author describes the different stages of the legal conflict raised by construction of the plant and analyses the relationship between French administrative law and some provisions of the Euratom Treaty. Based on the Treaty, the Community institutions have adopted directives to strengthen inter-State co-operation and consultation between neighbouring countries. He observes that these principles of co-operation, consultation and vigilance already exist in public international law; however, international case law has not yet made it possible to establish the strict liability of the constructing state in case of a nuclear accident (NEA) [fr

  15. Business, brokers and borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    in two border regions between Niger, Nigeria, and Benin. In a business environment where transaction costs are extremely high, we find that decentralized networks are well adapted to the various uncertainties induced by long-distance trade. We also find that long-distance trade relies both on the trust...... and cooperation shared among local traders, and on the distant ties developed with foreign partners from a different origin, religion or culture. Studying the spatial structure of trade networks, we find that in those markets where trade is recent and where most of the traders are not native of the region...

  16. Cross-border shopping and tourism destination marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the economic impact that cross-border shopping has on the local tourism industry and the ways that cross-border shopping is taken advantage of in tourism destination marketing. Southern Jutland–situated in Denmark just north of the German border, where border shops situated......-border shopping into tourism destination marketing strategies. The results have wider relevance for other border regions.......This article addresses the economic impact that cross-border shopping has on the local tourism industry and the ways that cross-border shopping is taken advantage of in tourism destination marketing. Southern Jutland–situated in Denmark just north of the German border, where border shops situated...... just south of the same border enable Danes to capitalize on the lower value added tax levels in Germany–is utilized as an illustrative case example. The data was collected by analysing the relevant tourism destination marketing material and via interviews with local destination marketing organizations...

  17. Sheep wool δ13C reveals no effect of grazing on the C3/C4 ratio of vegetation in the inner Mongolia-Mongolia border region grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerswald, Karl; Wittmer, Max H O M; Tungalag, Radnaakhand; Bai, Yongfei; Schnyder, Hans

    2012-01-01

    We tested whether the abundance of C(4) vegetation in grasslands of the Mongolian plateau is influenced by grazing conditions. The analysis exploited the politically originated contrast that exists between Mongolia (low stocking rate, transhumant system) and the district of Inner Mongolia, China (high stocking rate, sedentary system). We estimated the proportion of C(4) carbon (P(C4)) in grazed vegetation from the relative carbon isotope ratio (δ(13)C) of sheep wool sampled from 298 annual shearings originating from 1996 to 2007. Annual stocking rates varying over time and between the districts of both countries were taken from regional statistics. The P(C4) pattern within the 0.7 million km(2) sampling area was geostatistically analyzed and related to stocking rates and temperature gradients. For similar climatic conditions, P(C4) was the same in both countries. Further, a unique relationship was found between P(C4) and July temperature on both sides of the border, which explained 71% of the pattern. Stocking rate and grazing system had no significant influences on present-day C(3)/C(4) abundance ratio. This finding suggests that recent changes in the C(3)/C(4) ratio of these grasslands are mainly a consequence of regional warming, not overgrazing.

  18. Sheep Wool δ13C Reveals No Effect of Grazing on the C3/C4 Ratio of Vegetation in the Inner Mongolia–Mongolia Border Region Grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerswald, Karl; Wittmer, Max H.O.M.; Tungalag, Radnaakhand; Bai, Yongfei; Schnyder, Hans

    2012-01-01

    We tested whether the abundance of C4 vegetation in grasslands of the Mongolian plateau is influenced by grazing conditions. The analysis exploited the politically originated contrast that exists between Mongolia (low stocking rate, transhumant system) and the district of Inner Mongolia, China (high stocking rate, sedentary system). We estimated the proportion of C4 carbon (PC4) in grazed vegetation from the relative carbon isotope ratio (δ13C) of sheep wool sampled from 298 annual shearings originating from 1996 to 2007. Annual stocking rates varying over time and between the districts of both countries were taken from regional statistics. The PC4 pattern within the 0.7 million km2 sampling area was geostatistically analyzed and related to stocking rates and temperature gradients. For similar climatic conditions, PC4 was the same in both countries. Further, a unique relationship was found between PC4 and July temperature on both sides of the border, which explained 71% of the pattern. Stocking rate and grazing system had no significant influences on present-day C3/C4 abundance ratio. This finding suggests that recent changes in the C3/C4 ratio of these grasslands are mainly a consequence of regional warming, not overgrazing. PMID:23029090

  19. Quality in Cross-Border Higher Education and Challenges for the Internationalization of National Quality Assurance Agencies in the Asia-Pacific Region: The Taiwanese Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Angela Yung-chi

    2014-01-01

    Cross-border higher education has created a need to build capacity -- particularly in the internationalization dimension -- for national quality assurance agencies to evaluate cross-border education provided by foreign educational providers, or jointly by local and foreign institutions. This is quickly becoming a key issue in the Asia-Pacific…

  20. Kitchen knives and homicide: a systematic study of people charged with murder in the Lothian and Borders region of Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, S H; Hughes, N S; Crichton, J H M

    2014-07-01

    A recent English study demonstrated high rates of kitchen knife use in homicides by mentally disordered offenders subject to independent inquiries. Everyone accused of homicide in Scotland undergoes psychiatric examination; all such evaluations in a Scottish region between 2006 and 2011 were systematically analysed to identify homicide characteristics. It was hypothesised that kitchen knives would be the commonest sharp instruments used, and would be associated with unplanned domestic homicide against known victims, with no independent association with mental disorder. Kitchen knives were used in 32 of 55 homicides: 94% of 34 sharp object homicides (p < 0.05). No independent association was found between kitchen knife use and planning, location, relationship, intoxication or mental disorder. Kitchen knife use in homicide appears to be a significant public health issue, and not only in the mentally disordered population. Research is recommended into kitchen knife use in non-fatal violence, and weapon control in populations at increased risk of knife violence.

  1. Temperature field and heat flow of the Danish-German border region − borehole measurements and numerical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, Sven; Balling, Niels

    and validation). The prediction uncertainties between observed and modelled temperatures at deep borehole sites are small (rms = 3.5 °C). For eight deep boreholes, new values of terrestrial surface heat flow are derived, ranging between 72 and 84 mW/m² (mean of 80 ± 5 mW/m²). Those values are up to 20 m...... parameterization with a spatial distribution of rock thermal conductivity and new heat-flow values. The latter one are used to setup the numerical lower boundary condition. Measured heat flow and borehole temperature observations (59 values from 24 wells) are used to constrain the modelling results (calibration......W/m² higher than low values reported in some previous studies for this region. Heat flow from the mantle is estimated to be between 33 and 40 mW/m² (q1–q3; mean of 37 ± 7 mW/m²). Pronounced lateral temperature variations are caused mainly by complex geological structures, including a large amount of salt...

  2. The importance of drought-pathogen interactions in driving oak mortality events in the Ozark Border Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jeffrey D.; Knapp, Benjamin O.; Muzika, Rose-Marie; Stambaugh, Michael C.; Gu, Lianhong

    2018-01-01

    Forests are expected to become more vulnerable to drought-induced tree mortality owing to rising temperatures and changing precipitation patterns that amplify drought lethality. There is a crucial knowledge gap regarding drought-pathogen interactions and their effects on tree mortality. The objectives of this research were to examine whether stand dynamics and ‘background’ mortality rates were affected by a severe drought in 2012; and to evaluate the importance of drought-pathogen interactions within the context of a mortality event that killed 10.0% and 26.5% of white (Quercus alba L.) and black (Q. velutina Lam.) oak stems, respectively, in a single year. We synthesized (i) forest inventory data (24 years), (ii) 11 years of ecosystem flux data with supporting biological data including predawn leaf water potential and annual forest inventories, (iii) tree-ring analyses of individual white oaks that were alive and ones that died in 2013, and (iv) documentation of a pathogen infection. This forest displayed stand dynamics consistent with expected patterns of decreasing tree density and increasing basal area. Continued basal area growth outpaced mortality implying a net accumulation of live biomass, which was supported by eddy covariance ecosystem carbon flux observations. Individual white and black oaks that died in 2013 displayed historically lower growth with the majority of dead trees exhibiting Biscogniauxia cankers. Our observations point to the importance of event-based oak mortality and that drought-Biscogniauxia interactions are important in shaping oak stand dynamics in this region. Although forest function has not been significantly impaired, these drought-pathogen interactions could amplify mortality under future climate conditions and thus warrant further investigation.

  3. Effects of Microclimate Condition Changes Due to Land Use and Land Cover Changes on the Survivorship of Malaria Vectors in China-Myanmar Border Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daibin Zhong

    Full Text Available In the past decade, developing countries have been experiencing rapid land use and land cover changes, including deforestation and cultivation of previously forested land. However, little is known about the impact of deforestation and land-use changes on the life history of malaria vectors and their effects on malaria transmission. This study examined the effects of deforestation and crop cultivation on the adult survivorship of major malaria mosquitoes, Anopheles sinensis and An. minimus in the China-Myanmar border region. We examined three conditions: indoor, forested, and banana plantation. Mean survival time of An. sinensis in banana plantation environment was significantly longer than those in forested environment, and mosquitoes exhibited the longest longevity in the indoor environment. This pattern held for both males and females, and also for An. minimus. To further test the effect of temperature on mosquito survival, we used two study sites with different elevation and ambient temperatures. Significantly higher survivorship of both species was found in sites with lower elevation and higher ambient temperature. Increased vector survival in the deforested area could have an important impact on malaria transmission in Southeast Asia. Understanding how deforestation impacts vector survivorship can help combat malaria transmission.

  4. Effects of Microclimate Condition Changes Due to Land Use and Land Cover Changes on the Survivorship of Malaria Vectors in China-Myanmar Border Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Daibin; Wang, Xiaoming; Xu, Tielong; Zhou, Guofa; Wang, Ying; Lee, Ming-Chieh; Hartsel, Joshua A; Cui, Liwang; Zheng, Bin; Yan, Guiyun

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, developing countries have been experiencing rapid land use and land cover changes, including deforestation and cultivation of previously forested land. However, little is known about the impact of deforestation and land-use changes on the life history of malaria vectors and their effects on malaria transmission. This study examined the effects of deforestation and crop cultivation on the adult survivorship of major malaria mosquitoes, Anopheles sinensis and An. minimus in the China-Myanmar border region. We examined three conditions: indoor, forested, and banana plantation. Mean survival time of An. sinensis in banana plantation environment was significantly longer than those in forested environment, and mosquitoes exhibited the longest longevity in the indoor environment. This pattern held for both males and females, and also for An. minimus. To further test the effect of temperature on mosquito survival, we used two study sites with different elevation and ambient temperatures. Significantly higher survivorship of both species was found in sites with lower elevation and higher ambient temperature. Increased vector survival in the deforested area could have an important impact on malaria transmission in Southeast Asia. Understanding how deforestation impacts vector survivorship can help combat malaria transmission.

  5. Temporal and spatial distributions of precursory seismicity rate changes in the Thailand-Laos-Myanmar border region: implication for upcoming hazardous earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puangjaktha, Prayot; Pailoplee, Santi

    2018-01-01

    To study the prospective areas of upcoming strong-to-major earthquakes, i.e., M w ≥ 6.0, a catalog of seismicity in the vicinity of the Thailand-Laos-Myanmar border region was generated and then investigated statistically. Based on the successful investigations of previous works, the seismicity rate change (Z value) technique was applied in this study. According to the completeness earthquake dataset, eight available case studies of strong-to-major earthquakes were investigated retrospectively. After iterative tests of the characteristic parameters concerning the number of earthquakes ( N) and time window ( T w ), the values of 50 and 1.2 years, respectively, were found to reveal an anomalous high Z-value peak (seismic quiescence) prior to the occurrence of six out of the eight major earthquake events studied. In addition, the location of the Z-value anomalies conformed fairly well to the epicenters of those earthquakes. Based on the investigation of correlation coefficient and the stochastic test of the Z values, the parameters used here ( N = 50 events and T w = 1.2 years) were suitable to determine the precursory Z value and not random phenomena. The Z values of this study and the frequency-magnitude distribution b values of a previous work both highlighted the same prospective areas that might generate an upcoming major earthquake: (i) some areas in the northern part of Laos and (ii) the eastern part of Myanmar.

  6. Modeling and direct sensitivity analysis of biogenic emissions impacts on regional ozone formation in the Mexico-U.S. border area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Dominguez, A; Wilkinson, J G; Yang, Y J; Russell, A G

    2000-01-01

    A spatially and temporally resolved biogenic hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions inventory has been developed for a region along the Mexico-U.S. border area. Average daily biogenic non-methane organic gases (NMOG) emissions for the 1700 x 1000 km2 domain were estimated at 23,800 metric tons/day (62% from Mexico and 38% from the United States), and biogenic NOx was estimated at 1230 metric tons/day (54% from Mexico and 46% from the United States) for the July 18-20, 1993, ozone episode. The biogenic NMOG represented 74% of the total NMOG emissions, and biogenic NOx was 14% of the total NOx. The CIT photochemical airshed model was used to assess how biogenic emissions impact air quality. Predicted ground-level ozone increased by 5-10 ppb in most rural areas, 10-20 ppb near urban centers, and 20-30 ppb immediately downwind of the urban centers compared to simulations in which only anthropogenic emissions were used. A sensitivity analysis of predicted ozone concentration to emissions was performed using the decoupled direct method for three dimensional air quality models (DDM-3D). The highest positive sensitivity of ground-level ozone concentration to biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions (i.e., increasing biogenic VOC emissions results in increasing ozone concentrations) was predicted to be in locations with high NOx levels, (i.e., the urban areas). One urban center--Houston--was predicted to have a slight negative sensitivity to biogenic NO emissions (i.e., increasing biogenic NO emissions results in decreasing local ozone concentrations). The highest sensitivities of ozone concentrations to on-road mobile source VOC emissions, all positive, were mainly in the urban areas. The highest sensitivities of ozone concentrations to on-road mobile source NOx emissions were predicted in both urban (either positive or negative sensitivities) and rural (positive sensitivities) locations.

  7. Cross-Border Cooperation of the Balkan Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrov, Mitko; Totev, Stoyan

    2009-01-01

    The article examines the role, prospects and policies of the cross-border cooperation in the Balkan countries border regions. The main goal is to define the reasons, due to which the cross-border cooperation between the enterprises can be considered as an "optimal" policy for the Balkan countries. The opportunities for development of mutually beneficial cross-border relations are presented based on information obtained by different studies. The potential and the barriers for the development o...

  8. Alcohol-related social problems among Mexican Americans living in U.S.-Mexico border and non-border areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaeth, Patrice A C; Caetano, Raul; Mills, Britain A; Rodriguez, Lori A

    2012-08-01

    This paper examines alcohol-related social problems among Mexican Americans living along the U.S.-Mexico border and in non-border areas. Interviews were conducted among Mexican Americans in the border regions of California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas (N=1307). Non-border respondents were interviewed primarily in Houston and Los Angeles (N=1288) as part of the Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS). Both the border and HABLAS surveys employed multistage cluster sample designs (response rates were 67% and 76%, respectively). In the bivariate analysis, there were no significant differences between border and non-border areas in the proportion of those with one or more social problem. In non-border areas, the prevalence of alcohol problems did not differ significantly by age. However, along the border the prevalence of alcohol problems was significantly different across age groups, with 18 to 29year old men and women having the highest prevalence. The final models showed no residence effect on problem likelihood. Drinking was strongly associated with problems. Although young border residents had higher problem prevalence rates than older residents, the logistic regression models showed no effect of border residence on the likelihood of problems, indicating that problems are due to alcohol consumption, not the border environment. The border, however, did appear to influence more drinking among young people. Regardless of residence, alcohol treatment and preventive interventions tailored to Mexican Americans are essential and special attention should be focused on younger individuals near the border. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Cross-border Specialization of Interregional Interaction: Applying New Assessment Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezhevich Nikolai

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cross-border cooperation as a type of interregional interaction is becoming a significant factor in the development of border regions. It can be viewed as a result of intensification of cross-border contacts and greater economic openness of cross-border regions. Thus, the roots of current development are quite easy to pinpoint. However, assessment of the impact of cross-border cooperation on the development of border regions appears to be a research challenge. In this paper, we offer an approach to the assessment of the role of cross-border cooperation in the system of interregional interaction between border regions. We present a system of indices to describe cross-border specialization of interregional interaction in certain fields, namely investment, international trade, tourism, and migration. Cross-border specialization determines the role of cross-border cooperation in regional external relations. The empiric data we have gathered is used to develop and implement a pilot assessment of cross-border specialization of interregional relations which are characteristic of the border regions of the Northwestern Federal District of the Russian Federation. The article offers cross-border specialization indices for each border region of the Northwestern Federal District. With their help, we were able to identify the spheres of interaction with the highest degree of cross-border specialization, and in particular foreign investment and business activities with the participation of foreign capital.

  10. Elastic and hegemonic borders and discourse theory: Mexico’s southern border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Marengo Camacho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Discourse theory is useful for understanding the creation of borders, whether material or imaginary. This paper addresses three situations on Mexico’s southern border between 2000 and 2015 in which elements of discourse theory may be applied. The outcomes were the following: 1 correlations may be made between the elements of the discourse moving from the northern to the southern border, but not in the opposite direction; 2 the process of securitising the discourse about migrants is continuous, and new securitising elements are regularly added; 3 an “elastic borders” phenomenon exists, where borders extend or retract, thereby creating new border regions; and 4 discourses around the southern border are constructed with more pejorative elements than the northern, despite the fact that crime rates are higher in the north.

  11. Measurement excursions for the purpose of surveillance of near-border regions. Radioiodide- and aerosols immission measurements. Soil investigation for plutonium, strontium and gamma-emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steger, F.; Lovranich, E.; Urbanich, E.; Streit, S.; Kozuh-Schneeberger, J.

    1991-04-01

    The aim of this investigation was to find out if additional radionuclide deposition, above those from the nuclear weapons tests in the 60-ties and from the Chernobyl accident, and caused by nuclear power plants in neighbouring countries can be found. Methods and results of investigations at several near-border sites in Austria for iodine, plutonium and strontium are presented. The question of frontier-crossing contamination from nuclear power plants is to be answered to the negative. (Quittner)

  12. The California Border Health Collaborative: A Strategy for Leading the Border to Better Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Edwards Matthews III

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There are hundreds of departments and organizations working on border health issues in the California/Baja California border region trying to protect and improve health without a collaborative structure that integrates jurisdictions and organizations. As a result, there is a need to effectively improve the health in the border region by coordinating these organizations to work together and benefit from each other’s best practices. The newly developed California Border Health Collaborative (CBHC can provide the leadership and collaborative culture to positively improve the health of the border region. This article aims to describe the development process of this collaborative to include key ingredients to success, the roles of mulit-level jurisdictions, and policy implications.This article describes the methods used to develop key aspects of collaborative leadership, strategic alignment and a common vision toward the building of this collective impact approach to border health. In addition, we describe the role of key local County (County of San Diego Live Well San Diego initiative, State, (California Department of Public Health- Office of Binational Border Health, Federal (US-Mexico Border Health Commission’s Leaders across Borders, Academia (e.g., University of California San Diego and San Diego State University and non-profit entities (e.g., Project Concern International, San Ysidro Health Center in forming the BHCC. Evaluating the consortium development process included a literature review of similar processes, a review of internal documents and an analysis of developmental events. To this point the CBHC has built a strong, cohesive collaborative on the U.S. side of the border. It is sharing and leveraging local expertise to address many border health issues. Even more importantly, the BHCC has reached a key stage in which it can effectively engage its Baja California, Mexico counterparts in a manner that will prove extremely powerful

  13. Changing European borders: from separation to interface? An introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen Nelles

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this special issue is to address the evolution of European borders from a comparative perspective. This collection of papers spans a wide variety of topics in the realm of borderland studies. Although each engages with a single empirical or theoretical case collectively they identify nuances relevant to the theoretical elaboration of borders, and particularly contribute to the field of sub-national cross-border cooperation. In the course of its analysis each paper contributes to a broader understanding of the definition of cross-border regions; identifies a set of barriers to cooperation in these contexts; explores the role of identities on cooperation and of the role of borders in constructing those identities; and reflects on the socio-political meanings and uses of these international boundaries. This introduction discusses theoretical significance of these contributions to major debates in the study of borders and border regions.

  14. Business, brokers and borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    Using social network analysis, this paper studies the structure of trade networks that developed across West African borders. The first part aims to understand the centralization of cross-border trade networks. In a business environment where transaction costs are extremely high, we find that dec......Using social network analysis, this paper studies the structure of trade networks that developed across West African borders. The first part aims to understand the centralization of cross-border trade networks. In a business environment where transaction costs are extremely high, we find...... developed with foreign partners from a different origin, religion or culture. In the second part, we study the spatial structure of trade networks and the influence of national borders on the development of social ties. The paper shows that the spatial form of trade networks is constrained by the historical...

  15. Small Border Traffic and Cross-Border Tourism Between Poland and the Kaliningrad Oblast of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisiewicz Renata

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Polish and Russian cross-border cooperation is governed by lawful agreements. The enlargement of the Schengen Area had a significant impact on Kaliningrad Oblast relations and cross-border cooperation with its neighbours. The introduction of visas between Poland and Russia hindered and restricted local border trade which had for years been the only measure mitigating social and economic problems of the cross-border regions. Nevertheless, border traffic between Poland and Kaliningrad grew steadily, to exceed four million in 2012.

  16. [Border effect and physiological characteristics of broomcorn millet under film mulching on ridge-furrow for harvesting rainwater model in the semi-arid region of Northern Shaanxi, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yang; Su, Wang; Li, Cui; Gao, Jin-Feng; Gao, Xiao-Li; Wang, Peng-Ke; Feng, Bai-Li; Chai, Yan

    2014-03-01

    To explore the border effect and physiological characteristic of broomcorn millet growing under different film mulching on ridge-furrow for harvesting rainwater models in the semi-arid region of Northern Shaanxi, China, a three-year field experiment was conducted with four different widths of ridge and furrow, and the bare land flat sowing as the control (NM). The width of ridge and furrow varied as ridge: furrow = 40 cm: 40 cm (P40), 60 cm: 60 cm (P60), 80 cm: 80 cm (P80), and 100 cm:100 cm (P100). The results showed that the wider the width of furrow and ridge was, the stronger the border advantage and the border effect index of the yield were. With the increase in width of furrow and ridge, the yield increasing effect of side rows increased with the maximum of 207.7%, and the yield increasing effect of middle rows decreased with the minimum of 10.3%. P60 reached the highest yield within three years. The yield contribution rate of side rows was higher than that of middle rows (P < 0.05). The chlorophyll contents, Ch1 a/Ch1 b, and photosynthetic rate of side rows were higher than those of middle rows among the different harvesting rainwater models. The wider the width of furrow and ridge was, the stronger the photosynthetic capacity of side rows was, and the weaker the photosynthetic capacity of middle rows was. The optimal type of ridge and furrow was P60 in the semi-arid region of Northern Shaanxi.

  17. Cost-Effectiveness of an Intervention to Reduce HIV/STI Incidence and Promote Condom Use among Female Sex Workers in the Mexico–US Border Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, José L.; Gaebler, Julia A.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Lozada, Remedios; Staines, Hugo; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous research demonstrated efficacy of a brief behavioral intervention to reduce incidence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, cities on Mexico's border with the US. We assessed this intervention's cost-effectiveness. Methodology and Principal Findings A life-time Markov model was developed to estimate HIV cases prevented, changes in quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE), and costs per additional quality-adjusted life year gained (QALY), comparing (in US$2,009) no intervention to a once-only and annual intervention. Future costs and health benefits were discounted annually at 3%. Sensitivity analyses evaluated model robustness. We found that for a hypothetical 1,000 FSWs receiving the once-only intervention, there were 33 HIV cases prevented and 5.7 months of QALE gained compared to no intervention. The additional cost per QALY gained was US$183. For FSWs receiving the intervention annually, there were 29 additional HIV cases prevented and 4.5 additional months of QALE compared to the once-only intervention. The additional cost per QALY was US$1,075. When highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was included in the model, the annual intervention strategy resulted in net savings and dominated both once-only and no intervention strategies, and remained robust across extensive sensitivity analyses. Even when considering clinical benefits from HAART, ignoring added costs, the cost per QALY gained remained below three times the Mexican GDP per capita, and below established cost-effectiveness thresholds. Conclusions/Significance This brief intervention was shown to be cost-effective among FSWs in two Mexico-US border cities and may have application for FSWs in other resource-limited settings. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00338845 PMID:20617193

  18. Cost-effectiveness of an intervention to reduce HIV/STI incidence and promote condom use among female sex workers in the Mexico-US border region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L Burgos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous research demonstrated efficacy of a brief behavioral intervention to reduce incidence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs among female sex workers (FSWs in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, cities on Mexico's border with the US. We assessed this intervention's cost-effectiveness.A life-time Markov model was developed to estimate HIV cases prevented, changes in quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE, and costs per additional quality-adjusted life year gained (QALY, comparing (in US$2,009 no intervention to a once-only and annual intervention. Future costs and health benefits were discounted annually at 3%. Sensitivity analyses evaluated model robustness. We found that for a hypothetical 1,000 FSWs receiving the once-only intervention, there were 33 HIV cases prevented and 5.7 months of QALE gained compared to no intervention. The additional cost per QALY gained was US$183. For FSWs receiving the intervention annually, there were 29 additional HIV cases prevented and 4.5 additional months of QALE compared to the once-only intervention. The additional cost per QALY was US$1,075. When highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART was included in the model, the annual intervention strategy resulted in net savings and dominated both once-only and no intervention strategies, and remained robust across extensive sensitivity analyses. Even when considering clinical benefits from HAART, ignoring added costs, the cost per QALY gained remained below three times the Mexican GDP per capita, and below established cost-effectiveness thresholds.This brief intervention was shown to be cost-effective among FSWs in two Mexico-US border cities and may have application for FSWs in other resource-limited settings.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00338845.

  19. Cross-border mobility and social networks: Laotians seeking medical treatment along the Thai border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochaton, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    Drawing upon research conducted on cross-border patients living in Laos and seeking care in Thailand, this paper examines the important role played by social networks in patients' decision-making and on the itineraries they choose to seek treatment on the Thai side of the border. Due to the vastly contrasting situations between the two countries in terms of healthcare supply, and considering Laotians' increasing demand for high quality healthcare, a number of them have managed to satisfy their needs by combining cross-border treatment with the use of the healthcare facilities provided by their own country. This study consisted first of household surveys conducted in five border areas (2006-2007) in Laos in order to quantify and map out cross-border healthcare-related travel patterns. Afterwards, interviews were conducted with cross-border patients (55), Laotian and Thai medical doctors (6), Thai social workers (5), and officials working in public institutions (12). While socioeconomic and spatial factors partly explain cross-border mobility, patients' social networks significantly influence treatment itineraries throughout the decision-making process, including logistical and financial considerations. The social networks existing at different geographical levels (neighbourhood, regional and global) are therefore a powerful analytical tool not only for understanding the emergence of these cross-border movements but also for justifying them in an authoritarian political environment such as Lao PDR's. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Border Crossing Entry Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics for inbound crossings at the U.S.-Canadian and the U.S.-Mexican...

  1. Border Malaria Associated with Multidrug Resistance on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia Borders: Transmission Dynamic, Vulnerability, and Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adisak Bhumiratana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review elaborates the concepts and impacts of border malaria, particularly on the emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax multidrug resistance (MDR malaria on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia borders. Border malaria encompasses any complex epidemiological settings of forest-related and forest fringe-related malaria, both regularly occurring in certain transmission areas and manifesting a trend of increased incidence in transmission prone areas along these borders, as the result of interconnections of human settlements and movement activities, cross-border population migrations, ecological changes, vector population dynamics, and multidrug resistance. For regional and global perspectives, this review analyzes and synthesizes the rationales pertaining to transmission dynamics and the vulnerabilities of border malaria that constrain surveillance and control of the world’s most MDR falciparum and vivax malaria on these chaotic borders.

  2. Border Malaria Associated with Multidrug Resistance on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia Borders: Transmission Dynamic, Vulnerability, and Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhumiratana, Adisak; Intarapuk, Apiradee; Sorosjinda-Nunthawarasilp, Prapa; Maneekan, Pannamas; Koyadun, Surachart

    2013-01-01

    This systematic review elaborates the concepts and impacts of border malaria, particularly on the emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax multidrug resistance (MDR) malaria on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia borders. Border malaria encompasses any complex epidemiological settings of forest-related and forest fringe-related malaria, both regularly occurring in certain transmission areas and manifesting a trend of increased incidence in transmission prone areas along these borders, as the result of interconnections of human settlements and movement activities, cross-border population migrations, ecological changes, vector population dynamics, and multidrug resistance. For regional and global perspectives, this review analyzes and synthesizes the rationales pertaining to transmission dynamics and the vulnerabilities of border malaria that constrain surveillance and control of the world's most MDR falciparum and vivax malaria on these chaotic borders. PMID:23865048

  3. Algeria Post Arab Spring : The Forced Virtualisation of the Borders

    OpenAIRE

    Louisa Dris-Aït Hamadouche

    2016-01-01

    Algeria is the core of the Maghreb and shares land borders with seven countries Maghreb and Sahel countries. However, since 2011, none of the seven land borders is stable and se-cure. So, even if Algeria is considered as a stable country, this stability is fragile and is likely to be more precarious if the country has to face simultaneously an economic crisis and deli-cate presidential succession. Domestic incertitude coupled to regional conflicts puts the Algerian borders under unprecedented...

  4. Rachel Crellin, Chris Fowler and Richard Tipping, eds. Prehistory without Borders: The Prehistoric Archaeology of the Tyne-Forth Region ( : Oxford: Oxbow Books, 2016, 244 pp., 124 b/w figs, 19 tables, hbk, ISBN 978-1-78-570199-3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnoldussen, Stijn

    2017-01-01

    Borders, in the sense of modern geopolitical boundaries, have no bearing on prehistoric realities, yet they do affect archaeology as a discipline―particularly when one is committed to thinking, working, and writing on regions that transcend administrative limits, whether regional or national. While

  5. The Borders of "Shopluk" and/or Shops without Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hristov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A historic and cultural region exists at the heart of the Balkans, known in geographic and ethnographic research as Shopluk. This is a region in which, over the last 150 years, state boundaries were moved several times as a result of 5 different wars. Today, the historic Shopluk is where the borders of three nations converge – Republic of Bulgaria, Republic of Serbia and the Republic of Macedonia – and, during the last decade, the region was declared one of the “Euroregions” on the Balkans. Despite the historical similarities in traditional culture and language of this population, in the 19th century it became a subject of nationalist ambitions and a propaganda “wars” between the new national states of Serbia and Bulgaria. The joining of Bulgarian-inhabited parts of Shopluk (the regions of today’s Dimitrovgrad and Bosilegrad in Serbia to the Kingdom of Serbs, Slovenes and Croats in 1919 created a long-lasting tension between the two countries, some residues of which can be felt in everyday relations even today. On the other hand, it has been a century-long tradition for men in this region to take part in seasonal labour migrations all over the Balkan Peninsula, despite political borders. In this way, preserving their cultural and lingual specifics, the groups of seasonal workers – migrants from Shopluk, became a bridge for cultural interaction and exchange with other regions in the neighbour countries. Even though today the population of Shopluk exhibits different national identities, historical similarities in culture and language can turn the Euroregion between Nish, Sofia and Skopje from one of the poorest on the Balkans to one of the most integrated and prosperous.

  6. Heavy metals in geochemical sediment fractions of the border region between Baja California, Mexico, and California, USA; Metales pesados en fracciones geoquimicas de sedimentos de la region fronteriza de Baja California, Mexico, y California, EUA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villaescusa-Celaya, Julio A; Gutierrez-Galindo, Efrain A; Flores-Munoz, Gilberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanologicas, Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Ensenada, B.C., (Mexico)

    1997-03-01

    The concentrations of the heavy metals Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Pb, Cd, Ag, Mn and Fe in the different geochemical sediment fractions are determined in this study, as a means of assessing the impact of residual wastewater on the coastal sediments of the region. During an oceanographic cruise in April 1992 (ECOBAC IV), 20 samples of surface sediments were collected from the coastal shelf of the border region between Baja California (Mexico) and California (USA), The sediment samples were subjected to a sequential extraction procedure designed to obtain the geochemical fractions defined as: exchangeable (F1), carbonates (F2), Fe and Mn oxyhydroxides (F3), organic matter/sulfides (F4) and residual or lithogenic (F5). The operational speciation of the metals indicates that the principal phases in the sediments that accumulate metal are the detrital or lithogenic matrix, the Fe and Mn oxyhydroxides and the organic Matter/sulfides, in this order. In general, the spatial distribution of the heavy metals in the reactive phase (defined as the sum of F1-F4) tended to increase in concentration in offshore sediments. The heavy metals in the reactive phase are apparently controlled by the concentration of reactive iron in the sediments, except for Pb, Cd and Ag, suggesting that the latter elements are controlled by other processes, such as particulate matter of biogenic origin. In contrast, the spatial distribution of heavy metals in the detrital phase behaved inversely, that is, the greatest concentrations of metals are found close to the coast off the wastewater treatment plant at Punta Bandera, Baja California. The average concentrations of total metals (sum of F1-F5) were 7.6, 40, 21, 68, 428, 11, 0.10 and 0.025 {mu}g{sup -}1 for Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Mn, Pb, Cd and Ag, respectively, and 2.3% for Fe. These concentrations are similar to those reported for uncontaminated reference sediments from southern California, indicating that a large amount of pollutants from the effluent of residual

  7. Crossing borders, creating boundaries : Identity making of the Angolan diaspora residing in the border town of Rundu, northern Namibia

    OpenAIRE

    Danielsson, Emelie

    2016-01-01

    This Bachelor’s thesis explores the relationship between borders, boundaries and migration, and their effect on identity making from a diasporic perspective. The study focuses on notions of national, regional, cultural, tribal and ethnic identity, and set in relation to the influence borders and boundarieshave on these processes. It investigates this topical realm within the specific conditions of the Angolan-Namibian border, following the developments from the era of colonization, independen...

  8. Seeking a Rational Approach to a Regional Refugee Crisis: Lessons from the Summer 2014 “Surge” of Central American Women and Children at the US-Mexico Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Musalo

    2017-03-01

    arrangements for unaccompanied children as required by federal law. Images of children crowded shoulder to shoulder in US Customs and Border Patrol holding cells generated a sense of urgency across the political spectrum (e.g., Fraser-Chanpong 2014; Tobias 2014. Responses to this “surge,” and explanations for it, varied widely in policy, media, and government circles. Two competing narratives emerged, rooted in two very disparate views of the “crisis.” One argues that “push” factors in the home countries of El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala drove children and families to flee as bona fide asylum seekers; the other asserted that “pull” factors drew these individuals to the United States. For those adopting the “push” factor outlook, the crisis is a humanitarian one, reflecting human rights violations and deprivations in the region, and the protection needs of refugees (UNHCR 2015b; UNHCR 2014; Musalo et al. 2015. While acknowledging that reasons for migration may be mixed, this view recognizes the seriousness of regional refugee protection needs. For those focusing on “pull” factors, the crisis has its roots in border enforcement policies that were perceived as lax by potential migrants, and that thereby acted as an inducement to migration (Harding 2014; Navarette, Jr. 2014. Each narrative, in turn, suggests a very different response to the influx of women and children at US borders. If “push” factors predominately drive migration, then protective policies in accordance with international and domestic legal obligations toward refugees must predominately inform US reaction. Even apart from the legal and moral rightness of this approach, any long-term goal of lowering the number of Central American migrants at the US-Mexico border, practically speaking, would have to address the root causes of violence in their home countries. On the other hand, if “pull” factors are granted greater causal weight, it would seem that stringent enforcement

  9. Cross-border policy effects on alcohol outcomes: drinking without thinking on the u.s.-Mexico border?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Britain A; Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice

    2014-11-01

    Rates of alcohol-related outcomes are sensitive to policy differences in politically distinct, adjacent territories. Factors that shape these cross-border effects, particularly when the policy differences are longstanding, remain poorly understood. We compared the ability of 2 classes of variables with theoretical relevance to the U.S.-Mexico border context-bar attendance and alcohol-related social-cognitive variables-to explain elevated drinking on the U.S. side of the border relative to other areas of the United States. Data were collected from multistage cluster samples of adult Mexican Americans on and off the U.S.-Mexico border (current drinker N = 1,351). Structural equation models were used to test drinking context (frequency of bar attendance) and 6 different social-cognitive variables (including alcohol-related attitudes, norms, motives, and beliefs) as mediators of border effects on a composite drinking index. The border effect on drinking varied by age (with younger adults showing a stronger effect), consistent with previous findings and known risk factors in the region. Contrary to theoretical expectations, 6 different social-cognitive variables-despite relating strongly with drinking-were comparable in border and nonborder areas (within and across age) and played no role in elevated drinking on the border. Conversely, elevated drinking among border youth was mediated by bar attendance. This mediated moderation effect held after adjusting for potential sociodemographic and neighborhood-level confounders. Increased drinking among U.S.-Mexico border youth is explained by patterns of bar attendance, but not by more permissive alcohol-related social-cognitive variables in border areas: Border youth attend bars and drink more than their nonborder counterparts, despite having comparable alcohol-related beliefs, attitudes, norms, and motives for use. Alcohol's heightened availability and visibility on both sides of the border may create opportunities for

  10. Algeria Post Arab Spring : The Forced Virtualisation of the Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa Dris-Aït Hamadouche

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Algeria is the core of the Maghreb and shares land borders with seven countries Maghreb and Sahel countries. However, since 2011, none of the seven land borders is stable and se-cure. So, even if Algeria is considered as a stable country, this stability is fragile and is likely to be more precarious if the country has to face simultaneously an economic crisis and deli-cate presidential succession. Domestic incertitude coupled to regional conflicts puts the Algerian borders under unprecedented pressure. Consequently, almost all the governmental declarations expressed worries about the vulnerability of the borders, and assurances about the security services determination to assure the state security. However, to what extant this promise can be entirely fulfilled, regarding the borders’ characteristics and the specificity of the context? Why is the virtualization of the borders forced? As regards to the growing per-meability of the borders, can their militarization guarantee their security?

  11. Comparative balance of border regulations in four neighboring Caribbean countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cristina Mantilla Valbuena

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to investigate whether there is a potential for border integration among four adjoining Caribbean countries: Colombia, Nicaragua, Panama and Costa Rica. The discussion is part of the “cross-border” concept and the integration of subnational entities in two or more nation states, with particular emphasis on the role played by the societies that inhabit border regions. A comparative analysis model is used to assess border regulations in each country’s various territorial levels based on relevant legal elements, autonomous processes and decentralization. The article concludes that the more modern each country’s border regulations and constitutional, political and administrative reforms are, the greater the likelihood of cross-border integration. Colombia and Nicaragua have the highest potential for integrating their borders, whereas Panama and Costa Rica have the lowest potential.

  12. Developing survey metrics for analysing cross-border proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Williams, Allan

    2018-01-01

    Cross-border innovation cooperation (CBIC) has been heralded as one of the corner stones of innovation-driven growth opportunities for firms located in cross-border regions (CBRs). The success of this cooperation is affected by varying types of proximities identified in the literature as geograph...

  13. The Health Mobility Is All True Mobility?; Comment on “Regional Incentives and Patient Cross-border Mobility: Evidence From the Italian Experience”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Olivadoti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In their study, Brenna and Spandonaro analyzed the mobility into Italian regions. In particular, it analyzes the situation of 5 regions, with very different backgrounds. With this paper, we try to better define the meaning of health mobility and to find its underlying causes. Furthermore, we propose a strategy that could help in controlling mobility flows that currently are the source of health inequalities.

  14. The Health Mobility Is All True Mobility? Comment on "Regional Incentives and Patient Cross-border Mobility: Evidence From the Italian Experience".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivadoti, Simona; Cislaghi, Cesare

    2015-07-24

    In their study, Brenna and Spandonaro analyzed the mobility into Italian regions. In particular, it analyzes the situation of 5 regions, with very different backgrounds. With this paper, we try to better define the meaning of health mobility and to find its underlying causes. Furthermore, we propose a strategy that could help in controlling mobility flows that currently are the source of health inequalities. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  15. The border population effects of EU integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakman, Steven; Garretsen, Harry; van Marrewijk, Charles; Oumer, Abdella

    Border cities or regions are in theory more affected by the EU integration process than more central locations as it more drastically influences their transaction costs and market potential. We find a positive empirical effect of EU enlargement as measured by the growth in population share along the

  16. From Borders to Margins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Noel

    2009-01-01

    upon Deleuze's philosophy to set out an ontology in which the continual reformulation of entities in play in ‘post-international' society can be grasped.  This entails a strategic shift from speaking about the ‘borders' between sovereign states to referring instead to the ‘margins' between a plethora...

  17. Librarians Without Borders

    OpenAIRE

    Feridun Büyükyıldız

    2014-01-01

    It is not possible for librarians, who have an universal duty of sharing and presenting professional information, to stuck in their own borders. In this respect, this article gives brief information about the set-up of the Turkey base of “Librarians Without Borders” regarding that librarians also target all humanity just like doctors, lawyers, journalists, architects, teachers.

  18. Librarians Without Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feridun Büyükyıldız

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available It is not possible for librarians, who have an universal duty of sharing and presenting professional information, to stuck in their own borders. In this respect, this article gives brief information about the set-up of the Turkey base of “Librarians Without Borders” regarding that librarians also target all humanity just like doctors, lawyers, journalists, architects, teachers.

  19. Illela border market: origin and contributions to trans-border ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Illela border market: origin and contributions to trans-border relations between Nigeria and Niger republic. ... cordial relations between her and her immediate neighbours and thus stem the scourge of smuggling and other trans-border crimes which have negatively affected the Nigerian economy and her international image.

  20. "Border Sexualities, Border Families in Schools": Queering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, John

    2012-01-01

    This essay reviews Maria Pallotta-Chiarolli's (2010) Lambda Award-winning monograph "Border Sexualities, Border Families in Schools", in which queer and mestizage pedagogies frame a groundbreaking and highly accessible exploration of the issues that sexual border dwellers experience. Her particular focus areas are bisexual "sexually fluid"…

  1. The gene for X-linked myotubular myopathy is located in an 8 Mb region at the border of Xq27.3 and Xq28

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, E. A.; Hensels, G. W.; van Oost, B. A.; Hamel, B. C.; Kemp, S.; Baas, F.; Weber, J. W.; Barth, P. G.; Bolhuis, P. A.

    1994-01-01

    X-linked recessive myotubular myopathy (XLMTM) is a rare and severe neonatal neuromuscular disease characterized by muscle weakness, hypotonia, and respiratory problems. Here we report an extensive linkage analysis in two families with XLMTM. Using 18 markers in the Xq27-Xqter region we found a

  2. Domestic and international border effects

    OpenAIRE

    Hayakawa, Kazunobu

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies in the border-effect literature surprisingly found that domestic border effects are larger than international border effects (e.g., in the United States or Brazil). One interpretation of this result is that these estimates include the effects of producer agglomeration. Therefore, in this study, we estimate those border effects exclusively for transactions for final consumption, in which such agglomeration forces will be weak, in China and Japan. As a result, we found larger i...

  3. Cross-Border Tourism and its Significance for Tourism Destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman LIVANDOVSCHI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with cross-border tourism. It enhances the importance of cross-border cooperation in tourism. Cross-border cooperation is a form of international cooperation, along with interregional, transitional and trans-frontier cooperation. Cross-border regions often share the same historical and cultural traditions and attractive natural landscapes, such is the case of the Republic of Moldova and Romania. In both cases, cross-border regions can benefit from cooperation – cooperation can help create greater diversity and differentiation of the range of tourism and environmental products; create economies of scale and make promotion more effective, and can help better address specific problems or issues for tourism development.

  4. Does Border Enforcement Protect U.S. Workers from Illegal Immigration?

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon H. Hanson; Raymond Robertson; Antonio Spilimbergo

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the impact of government enforcement of the U.S.-Mexican border on wages in the border regions of the United States and Mexico. The U.S. Border Patrol polices U.S. boundaries, seeking to apprehend any individual attempting to enter the United States illegally. These efforts are concentrated on the Mexican border, as most illegal immigrants embark from a Mexican border city and choose a U.S. border state as their final destination. We examine labor markets in southern...

  5. Information Analysis Methodology for Border Security Deployment Prioritization and Post Deployment Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booker, Paul M.; Maple, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    Due to international commerce, cross-border conflicts, and corruption, a holistic, information driven, approach to border security is required to best understand how resources should be applied to affect sustainable improvements in border security. The ability to transport goods and people by land, sea, and air across international borders with relative ease for legitimate commercial purposes creates a challenging environment to detect illicit smuggling activities that destabilize national level border security. Smuggling activities operated for profit or smuggling operations driven by cross border conflicts where militant or terrorist organizations facilitate the transport of materials and or extremists to advance a cause add complexity to smuggling interdiction efforts. Border security efforts are further hampered when corruption thwarts interdiction efforts or reduces the effectiveness of technology deployed to enhance border security. These issues necessitate the implementation of a holistic approach to border security that leverages all available data. Large amounts of information found in hundreds of thousands of documents can be compiled to assess national or regional borders to identify variables that influence border security. Location data associated with border topics of interest may be extracted and plotted to better characterize the current border security environment for a given country or region. This baseline assessment enables further analysis, but also documents the initial state of border security that can be used to evaluate progress after border security improvements are made. Then, border security threats are prioritized via a systems analysis approach. Mitigation factors to address risks can be developed and evaluated against inhibiting factor such as corruption. This holistic approach to border security helps address the dynamic smuggling interdiction environment where illicit activities divert to a new location that provides less resistance

  6. Border cell release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mravec, Jozef

    2017-01-01

    Plant border cells are specialised cells derived from the root cap with roles in the biomechanics of root growth and in forming a barrier against pathogens. The mechanism of highly localised cell separation which is essential for their release to the environment is little understood. Here I present...... in situ analysis of Brachypodium distachyon, a model organism for grasses which possess type II primary cell walls poor in pectin content. Results suggest similarity in spatial dynamics of pectic homogalacturonan during dicot and monocot border cell release. Integration of observations from different...... species leads to the hypothesis that this process most likely does not involve degradation of cell wall material but rather employs unique cell wall structural and compositional means enabling both the rigidity of the root cap as well as detachability of given cells on its surface....

  7. Stretching the Border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horstmann, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I hope to add a complementary perspective to James Scott’s recent work on avoidance strategies of subaltern mountain people by focusing on what I call the refugee public. The educated Karen elite uses the space of exile in the Thai borderland to reconstitute resources and to re-ent......-based organizations succeed to stretch the border by establishing a firm presence that is supported by the international humanitarian economy in the refugee camps in Northwestern Thailand....

  8. Distance, Borders, and Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skillicorn, David; Walther, Olivier; Zheng, Quan

    is a combination of the physical geography of the target environment, and the mental and physical cost of following a seemingly random pattern of attacks. Focusing on the distance and time between attacks and taking into consideration the transaction costs that state boundaries impose, we wish to understand what......” of North and West Africa that depicts the permeability to violence. A better understanding of how location, time, and borders condition attacks enables planning, prepositioning, and response....

  9. Border Security and Military Support: Legal Authorizations and Restrictions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vina, Stephen R

    2006-01-01

    .... Reported escalations in criminal activity and illegal immigration, however, have prompted some law makers to reevaluate the extent and type of military support that occurs in the Mexico-United States border region...

  10. Impacting Binational Health through Leadership Development: A Program Evaluation of the Leaders across Borders Program, 2010?2014

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras, Omar A.; Rosales, Cecilia B.; Gonzalez-Fagoaga, Eduardo; Valencia, Celina I.; Rangel, Maria Gudelia

    2017-01-01

    Background Workforce and leadership development is imperative for the advancement of public health along the U.S./Mexico border. The Leaders across borders (LaB) program aims to train the public health and health-care workforce of the border region. The LaB is a 6-month intensive leadership development program, which offers training in various areas of public health. Program curriculum topics include: leadership, border health epidemiology, health diplomacy, border public policies, and con...

  11. Does knowledge have borders?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tange, Hanne

    International education is often promoted through discourses of openness, cross-cultural relationship-building and global understanding. But how inclusive is the kind of knowledge offered in the so-called “global” learning environments? The paper explores possible limits to knowledge production a...... and represented within their course and academic discipline. We will present in the paper the preliminary findings of our research, pointing to some of the visible and invisible borders that one finds within the field of global education....

  12. Prevalence and characterization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella strains isolated from stray dog and coyote feces in a major leafy greens production region at the United States-Mexico border.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele T Jay-Russell

    Full Text Available In 2010, Romaine lettuce grown in southern Arizona was implicated in a multi-state outbreak of Escherichia coli O145:H28 infections. This was the first known Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC outbreak traced to the southwest desert leafy green vegetable production region along the United States-Mexico border. Limited information exists on sources of STEC and other enteric zoonotic pathogens in domestic and wild animals in this region. According to local vegetable growers, unleashed or stray domestic dogs and free-roaming coyotes are a significant problem due to intrusions into their crop fields. During the 2010-2011 leafy greens growing season, we conducted a prevalence survey of STEC and Salmonella presence in stray dog and coyote feces. Fresh fecal samples from impounded dogs and coyotes from lands near produce fields were collected and cultured using extended enrichment and serogroup-specific immunomagnetic separation (IMS followed by serotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 461 fecal samples were analyzed including 358 domestic dog and 103 coyote fecals. STEC was not detected, but atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC strains comprising 14 different serotypes were isolated from 13 (3.6% dog and 5 (4.9% coyote samples. Salmonella was cultured from 33 (9.2% dog and 33 (32% coyote samples comprising 29 serovars with 58% from dogs belonging to Senftenberg or Typhimurium. PFGE analysis revealed 17 aEPEC and 27 Salmonella distinct pulsotypes. Four (22.2% of 18 aEPEC and 4 (6.1% of 66 Salmonella isolates were resistant to two or more antibiotic classes. Our findings suggest that stray dogs and coyotes in the desert southwest may not be significant sources of STEC, but are potential reservoirs of other pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella. These results underscore the importance of good agriculture practices relating to mitigation of microbial risks from animal fecal deposits in the

  13. Type 2 diabetes mortality at Mexican borders

    OpenAIRE

    Manzanares Rivera, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To analyze type II diabetes mortality rates geographic distribution and evolution in time across both Mexican border regions during the period 1998-2013. Methods: The work is based on exploratory and inferential data analysis conducted using death reports from the national health information system. The analysis considers social determinants of health as a theoretical paradigm and includes microdata on consumption patterns at household level for the US-Mexico and Mexico-Guatemala b...

  14. three intelligence methodologies for border defence and border

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    The main security problem that any state faces today is protecting its citizens in countering organised crime and terrorism. Wars between states are less frequent than in previous eras. Border defence and border security are distinct missions requiring different forces with different training and different equipment.

  15. Microregional development in border regions of Czechia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaishar, Antonín; Zapletalová, Jana

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 20 (2009), s. 89-106. ISBN 978-83-924797-6-5. ISSN 1642-4689 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2D06001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : borderland * microregions * Czechia Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  16. Border Collision Route to Quasiperiodicity: Numerical Investigation and Experimental Confirmation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhusubaliyev, Zhanybai; Mosekilde, Erik; Maity, S.

    2006-01-01

    Numerical studies of higher-dimensional piecewise-smooth systems have recently shown how a torus can arise from a periodic cycle through a special type of border-collision bifurcation. The present article investigates this new route to quasiperiodicity in the two-dimensional piecewise-linear normal...... form map. We have obtained the chart of the dynamical modes for this map and showed that border-collision bifurcations can lead to the birth of a stable closed invariant curve associated with quasiperiodic or periodic dynamics. In the parameter regions leading to the existence of an invariant closed...... to quasiperiodicity through a border-collision bifurcation. ©2006 American Institute of Physics...

  17. Satisfaction in border tourism: An analysis with structural equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Jimber del Río

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Border tourism is the temporary displacement of people to the dividing line between two countries contiguous areas. This activity promotes the economic development of these geographical regions. The aim of this research is to analyze visitors from the Dominican Republic and Haiti border. We propose the results of an empirical study with structural equations that show correlations between the attitude factor towards the border tourism, the value factors perceived by the tourist, satisfaction and loyalty of the visitor in the destination place.

  18. Smart border initiative: a Franco-German cross-border energy optimisation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Integrated and optimised local energy systems will play a key role in achieving the energy transition objectives set by France and Germany, in line with the Energy Union's goals, and contribute to ensuring a secure, affordable and climate-friendly energy supply in the EU. In order to capitalise on the French and German expertise and experiences in developing such systems and to continue strengthening the cross-border cooperation towards a fully integrated European energy market, both Governments have decided to launch a common initiative to identify and structure a cross-border energy optimisation project. Tilia and Dena have undertaken this mission to jointly develop the Smart Border Initiative (SBI). The SBI will, on the one hand, connect policies designed by France and Germany in order to support their cities and territories in their energy transition strategies and European market integration. It is currently a paradox that, though more balanced and resilient energy systems build up, bottom-up, at the local level, borders remain an obstacle to this local integration, in spite of the numerous complementarities observed in cross-border regions, and of their specific needs, in terms of smart mobility for example. The SBI project aims at enabling European neighbouring regions separated by a border to jointly build up optimised local energy systems, and jointly develop their local economies following an integrated, sustainable and low-carbon model. On the other hand, this showcase project will initiate a new stage in the EU electricity market integration, by completing high voltage interconnections with local, low voltage integration at DSO level, opening new optimisation possibilities in managing the electricity balance, and enabling DSOs to jointly overcome some of the current challenges, notably the increased share of renewable energy (RE) and ensuring Europe's security of supply

  19. Cross-border agglomeration benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Martijn J.

    2017-01-01

    Spatial correlations exist for many economic phenomena. We also know such interactions are typically weaker across country borders than within countries, due to institutional, infrastructural or cultural factors. However, in spatial econometric analyses, the effect of borders is rarely taken into

  20. Oficios de frontera - Border trades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos López, Pascual

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to the efforts of Alfaqueques many captives were recovered from Cieza, following the violent riot Nazari in 1477. Other border trades as ejeas, almocadenes and adalides were known for centuries along the Andalusian border between Murcia and Granada.

  1. Border mythology: Turner and modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Brenna B.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Modernity has been creating spaces, new boundaries and borders, as metaphysical, mythological and symbolic marks of physical and imaginary territories. Modern space and its borders are metaphors, boundaries that are created, walls that rise to identify with some and categorize others. In this short paper we want to approach the problem of the transformation of the idea of border (geographical, cultural, symbolic, etc., for a reflection on the transformations of that civilized obsession called border. The border has always been a reference in facing the identities, names, symbols, different imaginary: it is more confrontational line between two otherness. From the previous framework, we reflect on Turnerian mythology, as we believe that behind the creation of the imagination of the northern border is the mythical vision of the American frontier as ideological canon that explains and confirms the presence of the white race in a border re–made in the image and likeness of the “American Dream”. Frederick Turner’s reflection on the role of the frontier in American history is not only the study of the importance of progress towards the West but –even more so, is the analysis of meaning that had the American frontier as a historical process that ended in 1893, as Turner said, but rather extended into the twentieth century and continues to constantly shaping the process of territorialization of the border.

  2. What is an economic migrant? Europe's new borders and the politics of classification

    OpenAIRE

    Szmagalska Follis, Karolina

    2011-01-01

    After the United States-Mexico border, the second longest border between a poor and an affluent region is the eastern external boundary of the European U nion.l This essay discusses the selective permeability of this border, drawing on a larger study of the emergence of a new border regime between Poland and Ukraine following the 2004 expansion of the European Union. In 2005-2006 I conducted twelve months months of field research in Poland and Ukraine, among border guards an...

  3. A Voice of the US Southwestern Border: The 2012 “We the Border: Envisioning a Narrative for Our Future” Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiah McC. Heyman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In July 2012, a diverse group of US residents living near the US-Mexico border met in El Paso, Texas for a conference entitled, We the Border: Envisioning a Narrative for Our Future.  This paper describes a vision for the US-Mexico border by diverse border residents that is at odds with the widespread view of the border as a threat to the United States. These border residents viewed their region as a set of human communities with rights, capacities, and valuable insights and knowledge. They embraced an alternative vision of border enforcement that would focus on “quality” (dangerous entrants and contraband over “quantity” (mass migration enforcement.  They called for investments in the functionality and security of ports of entry, rather than in between ports of entry.  They noted the low crime rate in US border cities, and examined how policies of not mixing local law enforcement with federal immigration enforcement contributed to this achievement. They saw the border region as the key transportation and brokerage zone of the emerging, integrated North American economy. In their view, the bilingual, bicultural, and binational skills that characterize border residents form part of a wider border culture that embraces diversity and engenders creativity. Under this vision the border region is not an empty enforcement zone, but is part of the national community and its residents should enjoy the same constitutional and human rights as other US residents. The conference participants emphasized the necessity and value of accountability and oversight of central government enforcement operations, and the need for border communities to participate in federal decision-making that affects their lives. 

  4. Border Biofuels Limited - maintaining a sense of balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    A brief description is given of a renewable energy initiative to grow wood fuel in the Scottish and English border region. The aim is to develop a new rural industry based on wood fuel feeding a power plant in a central location in the Borders area. The financial arrangements to grow short rotation coppice are outlined as are the environmental impacts and energy balance. (UK)

  5. Microsensors for border patrol applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkofske, Dwight; Krantz, Brian; Shimazu, Ron; Berglund, Victor

    2005-05-01

    A top concern in homeland security efforts is the lack of ability to monitor the thousands of miles of open border with our neighbors. It is not currently feasible to continually monitor the borders for illegal intrusions. The MicroSensor System (MSS) seeks to achieve a low-cost monitoring solution that can be efficiently deployed for border patrol applications. The modifications and issues regarding the unique requirements of this application will be discussed and presented. The MicroSensor System was developed by the Defense Microelectronics Activity (DMEA) for military applications, but border patrol applications, with their unique sensor requirements, demand careful adaptation and modification from the military application. Adaptation of the existing sensor design for border applications has been initiated. Coverage issues, communications needs, and other requirements need to be explored for the border patrol application. Currently, border patrol has a number of deficiencies that can be addressed with a microsensor network. First, a distributed networked sensor field could mitigate the porous border intruder detection problem. Second, a unified database needs to be available to identify aliens attempting to cross into the United States. This database needs to take unique characteristics (e.g. biometrics, fingerprints) recovered from a specialized field unit to reliably identify intruders. Finally, this sensor network needs to provide a communication ability to allow border patrol officers to have quick access to intrusion information as well as equipment tracking and voice communication. MSS already addresses the sensing portion of the solution, including detection of acoustic, infrared, magnetic, and seismic events. MSS also includes a low-power networking protocol to lengthen the battery life. In addition to current military requirements, MSS needs a solar panel solution to extend its battery life to 5 years, and an additional backbone communication link

  6. Cross-border Co-operation and Policy Networks in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trémolières, Marie; Walther, Olivier

    This publication examines how policy actors involved in cross-border co-operation contribute to the regional integration process in West Africa. It uses a pioneering methodology, known as social network analysis, to visualise the formal and informal relationships between actors involved in cross......-border policy networks, showing that borders have notable and diverse impacts on exchanges of information and the relative power of networks. The report then analyses a range of regional indicators of co-operation potential, visually demonstrating that borders can also affect the ability of sub-regions within...

  7. Knowledge-based urban development of cross-border twin cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Weidenfeld, Adi

    2016-01-01

    sets out to propose an analytical framework for empirical studies on shared KBUD processes of cross-border twin cities based on indicators adapted from the literature on cross-border regional innovation systems. The proposed framework was tested with two cases: Helsinki-Tallinn and Copenhagen......-Malmö. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the framework, guide potential further studies on KBUD and twin cities and raise relevant suggestions for urban policy-makers in border regions....

  8. Firemen without borders

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Fire knows no borders and neither should the tools for fighting it. It was with this aim in mind that delegates from 14 different countries came to CERN at the beginning of April to take part in the twentieth of a series of twice-yearly international conferences organised by the Federation of European Union Fire Officer Associations (FEU). This latest conference allowed participants to keep abreast of new developments with a view to improving the safety techniques used in their own countries. The first in the series was held in Tampere, Finland, in 1994. The FEU network's objective is to harmonise safety policies and modernise the fire-fighting programme. In particular, it aims to develop an international system for testing hotels' fire alarm systems and to improve language learning in all countries' fire-fighting services. "We want authorities throughout Europe to be aware of the importance of a good joint fire-prevention policy in order to avoid catastrophes such as the fire that destroyed Madrid's Winds...

  9. Border Security: Barriers Along the U.S. International Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-16

    Nogales, AZ; Naco , AZ; Douglas, AZ; and El Paso, TX. In 1996, Congress passed the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act... Naco , AZ; Douglas, AZ; and El Paso, TX.80 In a 1999 study which was commissioned by the INS and performed under a Memorandum of Understanding, the...Naturalization Service, Final Environmental Assessment U.S. Border Patrol Temporary Vehicle Barriers Naco and Douglas, Arizona, November 2002. Border Security

  10. 78 FR 35103 - Extension of Border Zone in the State of New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... border zone was expanded in Arizona in 1999, retail sales in the area increased and the region... view that the 25-mile border zone is antiquated and places the region at a competitive disadvantage... local economy by increasing sales, creating or saving jobs, and bolstering tax revenues. One commenter...

  11. Definig the US-Mexico border as hyperreality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Duarte-Herrera

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The US-Mexico border has been defined as a periphery, as a transborder social system, and more currently, as a station in transnational circuits. The two first definitions presuppose the strongly criticized concepts of region and cultural area. The third definition shares, along with the other two definitions, the positivist epistemological supposition that the border is a specific entity that can be known and experienced as such by any observer, no matter their social site. This paper is to support the definition of the border as a hyperreality constituted by speeches, practices, and experiences of the different social actors. From this posture, the image of the border as a formal geopolitical division is interpreted as a sustained image and reproduced by government agencies. Likewise, this writing is to support the documentation and promotion of alternative images constructed and reproduced by social actors from different power sites.

  12. Туризм в приграничных регионах: теоретические аспекты географического изучения=Tourism in Border Regions: Theoretical Aspects of a Geographical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrovsky Alexandr P.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article considers theoretical aspects of tourism studies and development in border regions. The work aims to identify key areas of geographical studies into tourism in border regions. Its research significance lies in a review of Russian and international literature on border territory and the role of tourism in socioeconomic development. In terms of methodology, it is an analytical work. The authors stress a need for a systemic approach to analysing tourism in border areas and describe the particularities of tourism on such territories. It is stressed that institutional barriers have become a major obstacle to the development of transboundary tourism regions. Borders are classed depending on the border regime and strictness of tourist entry procedures. Special attention is paid to the attractiveness of state border areas. The authors identify external and internal conditions affecting tourism development and functioning in border areas. The practical significance of the study lies in the possi­bility of using its findings in developing tourism development programmes for bor­der territories in contemporary Russia.

  13. Radioactivity in groundwater along the borders of Oman and UAE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murad, A.; Alshamsi, D.; Hou, Xiaolin

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing the quality and radioactivity of groundwater is vital as it represents valuable resource in arid regions. Here we present radioactivity level in groundwater collected from wells in a region along the border between Sultanate of Oman and United Arab Emirates (UAE). The aquifers...

  14. Cross-border innovation cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda; Makkonen, Teemu; Sørensen, Nils Karl

    2014-01-01

    of cross-border innovation cooperation. Accordingly, geographical proximity to international borders is found to have a significant, positive effect on choosing partners within EU. The multivariate probit model shows that the decision of choosing a domestic innovation partner is independent of the choice......Finding a suitable partner is paramount for the success of innovation cooperation. Thus, this paper sets out to analyse the determinants of cross-border innovation cooperation in Denmark focusing on partner selection. The aim of the article is to investigate determinants of partner selection taking...... the location of the partners into account. In particular, the discussion is tied to the notion of varying knowledge bases firms utilize in their innovation creation processes. Firm level data from the 2010 Community Innovation Survey in Denmark was used to analyse cross-border innovation cooperation patterns...

  15. Greening transportation at the border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    On February 2324, 2011, Federal agencies from the United : States, Canada, and Mexico sponsored a workshop in San : Diego, California, to discuss opportunities for improvement : regarding the greening of transportation at the borders.1 : The works...

  16. Dream vs. reality: seven case-studies on the desirability and feasibility of cross-border hospital collaboration in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinos, Irene A; Baeten, Rita

    2014-09-01

    Despite being a niche phenomenon, cross-border health care collaboration receives a lot of attention in the EU and figures visibly on the policy agenda, in particular since the policy process which eventually led to the adoption of Directive 2011/24/EU. One of the underlying assumptions is that cross-border collaboration is desirable, providing justification to both the European Commission and to border-region stakeholders for promoting it. The purpose of this paper is to question this assumption and to examine the role of actors in pushing (or not) for cross-border collaboration. The analysis takes place in two parts. First, the EU policies to promote cross-border collaboration and the tools employed are examined, namely (a) use of European funds to sponsor concrete border-region collaboration projects, (b) use of European funds to sponsor research which gives visibility to cross-border collaboration, and (c) use of the European Commission's newly acquired legal mandate to encourage "Member States to cooperate in cross-border health care provision in border-regions" (Art. 10) and support "Member States in the development of European reference networks between health care providers and centres of expertise" (Art. 12). Second, evidence gathered in 2011-2013 from seven European border-regions on hospital cross-border collaboration is systematically reviewed to assess the reality of cross-border collaboration - can it work and when, and why do actors engage in cross-border collaboration? The preliminary findings suggest that while the EU plays a prominent role in some border-region initiatives, cross-border collaboration needs such a specific set of circumstances to work that it is questionable whether it can effectively be promoted. Moreover, local actors make use of the EU (as a source of funding, legislation or legitimisation) to serve their needs. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Brujeria and the U.S.-Mexico Border Outlaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Conover

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the death metal band Brujeria, their use of both traditional and contemporary outlaw imagery, and their connection to the narcocorrido, in order to examine the tenacity of the outlaw paradigm as an expression of resistance by subordinate groups in situations of social inequality. It deals with the contemporary figure of the outlaw in connection to the U.S.-Mexico border region, as influenced by outlaw traditions in the area, and as an expression of specific contemporary historical circumstances of that region, including Mexican economic crisis, globalization, and border conflicts surrounding immigration, drug trafficking, and labor.

  18. Requirements for cross-border spatial planning technologies in the European context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This communication paper investigates requirements for cross-border spatial planning technologies. We refer to European cross-border regions, which are located in the European Baltic Sea Region. We hypothesize that there is no efficient cross-border spatial planning without engagement from various stakeholders, supported by novel spatial planning technologies. This study presents the results from a survey that identifies the requirements for spatial planning technologies adequate for cross - border regions. On the basis of this survey, carried out within the INTECRE project partners coming from the Baltic Sea Region, the study provides general recommendations about cross - border spatial planning technologies. Addressed in the survey are the following central issues: definition of the scope of such technologies, the data base and international planning data provision, features and properties of planning technologies, and stakeholder involvement. The research findings are transferable to wider European and extra- European contexts.

  19. Cross-border innovation cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda; Makkonen, Teemu; Sørensen, Nils Karl

    2017-01-01

    of innovativeness increase the likelihood of cross-border innovation cooperation. Accordingly, geographical proximity to international borders is found to have a significant, positive effect on selecting partners within the European Union. The multivariate probit model shows that the decision of choosing a domestic......Finding a suitable partner is paramount for the success of innovation cooperation. Thus, this paper sets out to analyse the determinants of cross-border innovation cooperation in Denmark by focusing on partner selection. The aim of the article is to investigate determinants of partner selection...... cooperation patterns of Danish firms focusing on their choices of foreign innovation partners. The results indicate that firm size and research and development (R&D) intensity have a positive effect on firm’s propensity to cooperate on innovation and that having R&D activities abroad as well as high level...

  20. Borders, history and identities: symbolic struggle in indigenous land demarcation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Cordeiro Ferreira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article analyzes the issue of the border based upon a study of the experiences of the Terena indigenous people in Mato Grosso do Sul. This people lives in villages situated in an international border region. I present a number of theoretical reflections on symbolic conflicts, the border development process and its effects on indigenous societies. The article contains two analytic movements: 1. an analysis of the symbolic conflict permeating the legal processes, linked to the territorial conflicts between the Terena and rural producers, showing how the idea of the border is activated in the construction of political mechanisms for excluding and (delegitimizing ethnic groups; 2. an analysis of the State’s border policies, territorial dynamics and its confrontation with indigenous symbolic policies in different local situations along the border, which also form part of the symbolic struggle for recognition of the legitimacy of indigenous identities and territories.

  1. Prospects for the Cross-Border Cooperation between Russia and Poland in the Field of Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitseva, Natalia A.; Korneevets, Valentin S.; Semenova, Lyudmila V.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the research topic is driven by the increasing role of cross-border cooperation for economic development of regions of the neighbouring countries located in the immediate vicinity to the border, as well as for the tourism development. The purpose of scientific research, the results of which are presented in the article, was the…

  2. Overweight and aerobic fitness in children in the United States/Mexico border region El sobrepeso y el acondicionamiento aeróbico en niños de la frontera mexicanoestadounidense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen J. Coleman

    2004-04-01

    overweight than were non-Hispanic white children throughout the United States. In addition, the children in El Paso were less aerobically fit than were non-Hispanic white children and than were other Mexican-American children in the United States. These results clearly show that efforts should be made in the border regions of both Mexico and the United States to develop physical activity and nutrition programs to help stem rising rates of overweight.OBJETIVO: Estudiar el sobrepeso y el acondicionamiento aeróbico en niños de tercero y cuarto grado de primaria en una ciudad de Estados Unidos de América (El Paso, Texas y una ciudad de México (Chihuahua, Chihuahua, ambas situadas en la frontera entre esos dos países o cerca de ella, así como comparar los resultados observados en esas dos ciudades con resultados obtenidos anteriormente en otras muestras infantiles en Estados Unidos. MÉTODOS: Seguimos a un grupo de niños en El Paso (427 varones y 385 niñas, 93% de los cuales eran de ascendencia mexicana que cursaban el tercero o cuarto grado de primaria y evaluamos cambios en el índice de masa corporal (IMC. En la ciudad de Chihuahua medimos el IMC en una muestra transversal de niños de tercer grado (221 varones y 237 niñas y de cuarto grado (268 varones y 215 niñas. A todos los niños estudiados en ambas ciudades se les tomaron mediciones de IMC y del pliegue cutáneo del tríceps. El IMC se usó para estimar el riesgo de sobrepeso (un IMC igual o mayor al del percentil 85 para la edad y el sexo y para detectar la presencia de sobrepeso (un IMC igual o mayor al del percentil 95 para la edad y el sexo. La distancia que los niños en El Paso corrieron en nueve minutos se usó para evaluar su grado de acondicionamiento aeróbico (el cual no se midió en los niños de Chichuaua. En El Paso los datos se recolectaron en 1999, 2000 y 2001 y en Chichuahua, en 2000 y 2001. RESULTADOS: En los varones de El Paso se observó un aumento significativo de 22 a 28% en la frecuencia

  3. Building better borders in Latin America | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-10-21

    Oct 21, 2016 ... Illegal trading and the violence that can accompany it is a scourge along Latin America's borders, but researchers from across the region are working together to find ways to combat the problem. This article is part of an ongoing series of stories about innovative projects in the developing world, ...

  4. Cross-border Banking in Europe and Financial Stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmaker, D.; Wagner, W.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose country-specific and systemic metrics that can be used to judge whether cross-border banking in a country (or region) takes a desirable form. Applying these metrics to the EU countries, we find that the countries with the largest banking centres, the UK and Germany, are

  5. Analysis of the Advantages of Creating Border Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Rosca-Sadurschi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In a changing environment and rapid globalization, competitiveness of a country or region depends increasingly more effective in innovation. The main challenge for research and innovation is to facilitate the networking of companies and research laboratories. These networks can take the form of a highly integrated cross-border economic group, but may consist of action to facilitate business linkages and inter-laboratory, or cross-border clusters. The creation of these clusters requires performing several conditions but bring significant benefits to all stakeholders.

  6. Border Crossing/Entry Data - Boarder Crossing

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics for incoming crossings at the U.S.-Canadian and the U.S.-Mexican border at the port level. Data are available...

  7. The Analysis of the Determinants of Sustainable Cross-Border Cooperation and Recommendations on Its Harmonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kurowska-Pysz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cross-border partnerships are a distinctive example of inter-organizational cooperation, embedded, in terms of territory, in the neighboring borderland regions of two or more countries. The aim of this paper is to identify factors that contribute to the sustainable cross-border cooperation and affect motivation to increase cooperation between cross-border partners. The objective implementation is connected with the verification of a hypothesis referring to the possible impact of the European Union funds on the trans-boundary cooperation transformations. Results of desk research and quantitative research involving IDI, CATI, CAWI and CATI and PAPI data collection methods, implemented in the Polish–Czech borderland in 2016 were used in this paper. Research on the Polish–Lithuanian borderland was also used in the paper to conduct comparative analysis, useful to identify and evaluate factors motivating sustainable cross-border cooperation in the Czech–Polish borderland. The sustainable, cross-border and inter-organizational cooperation in the borderlands results from the simultaneous interaction of three groups of factors: (1 people and institutions (the quality of interpersonal relationships; (2 cross-border planning, procedures and support mechanisms (e.g., the possibility of jointly planning the cross-border cooperation and obtaining EU funds for the development of the borderlands as well as the availability of other funds helpful in this kind of cooperation; and (3 environment (historical affinity and geographical proximity of neighboring border regions, system support at the regional and local level in neighboring countries.

  8. MATRIX FOR COOPERATION IN THE CROSS-BORDER AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela ȘLUSARCIUC

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The crossborder areas have no constitutional competences, therefore most of the times they are not part of the decision making process in the agreements in cross-border relationships. Although the states are the ones to decide the policies and the agreements based on their own legal rules, considering the shape of the new European Union, they should more and more accept the conditionality of a regional overstate structure linked only to some geographical parts of the countries. The present paper proposes a theoretical and intuitive frame for assessing the cross-border areas based on the factors that are influencing it, starting from a listing of them, secondly grouping them in separating and uniting, then finding the significant differences. The matrix of factors can be used for conflict resolution or for development of cross-border areas as long as it shows the points that will be a potential obstacle or a source for cooperation.

  9. Briefing : the Eritrean-Ethiopian border dispute

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    On 6 May 1998, a violent conflict erupted in the Ethiopian-Eritrean border area. This article contends that this border crisis is neither unexpected nor the result of a real border dispute. Rather, it is due to three factors: the particular history and relationship of the two insurgent movements

  10. Cross-border merger and domestic welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Arijit Mukherjee

    2006-01-01

    We consider the welfare effect of cross-border merger in presence of international R&D competition. Cross-border merger increases domestic welfare if the bargaining power of the foreign firm and the slope of the marginal cost of R&D are sufficiently low. Otherwise, domestic welfare is lower under cross-border merger.

  11. Cross-Border Exposures and Financial Contagion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; Elahi, M.A.; Penas, M.F.

    2009-01-01

    Integrated financial markets provide opportunities for expansion and improved risk sharing, but also pose threats of contagion risk through cross-border exposures. This paper examines cross-border contagion risk over the period 1999-2006. To that purpose we use aggregate cross-border exposures of

  12. Recent trends in cross-border banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haas, Ralph; van Horen, Neeltje; Beck, Thorsten; Casu, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    This chapter identifies a number of recent trends in European cross-border banking. The authors first distinguish between two main modes of international banking: cross-border versus multinational banking. Cross-border banking occurs when a bank in country A lends directly to a borrower in country

  13. European Banks Straddling Borders: Risky or Rewarding?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Duijm (Patty); D. Schoenmaker (Dirk)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractTheory suggests that cross-border banking is beneficial as long as there is a non-perfect correlation across country-specific risks. Using a unique hand-collected dataset with cross-border loans for the 61 largest European banks, we find that cross-border banking in general decreases

  14. The impact of Border policy effect on cross-border ethnic areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bie, Q. L.; Zhou, S. Y.; Li, C. S.

    2013-11-01

    Boundary effect analysis is related to border policy making in the cross-border ethnic area. The border effect literatures show that geographic boundaries have obvious impacts on economic, social and cultural relations in both sides of a nation border. Particularly in cross-border ethnic areas, each ethnic group has strong internal spatial structure relevance, and the boundary effect is more obvious. However, most of China's border areas are cross-border ethnic areas, each of border issues is unique. Under this perspective, we analyze the border effects of various boundaries can provide basis for formulating border management policies. For small scale of cross-border ethnic minority areas, how to formulate the boundary management policy is a good question to explore. This paper is demonstrated by a study of the impact of border management policies in Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture in Yunnan Province at the border area to Burma. The comparative method is used to analysis the border management policies in past 50 decades for the border area of Yunnan Province .This research aims to define trends within border policy and its influences to national security. This paper also examines Wendy Brown's liberal theory of border management policy. We found that it is not suitable for Sino-Burma border area. The conclusion is that the changes or instability of international economic and political situation has more influence to this cross-border ethnic area, and only innovative policy will be effective in cross-border ethnic area. So the border management policies should reflect the change of international context.

  15. Old Borders and New Bordering Capabilities: Cities as Frontier Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Sassen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The global city is a new frontier zone. Deregulation, privatization, and new fiscal and monetary policies create the formal instruments to construct their equivalent of the old military “fort”. The city is also a strategic frontier zone for those who lack power, and allows the making of informal politics. At the same time the border is a mix of regimes, marked by protections and opportunities for corporations and high-level professionals, and implies confinement, capture and detention for migrants. The essay discusses the transformation of the city in a frontier zone and analyses the separation between the capabilities entailed by territoriality and the geographic territory tout court. The analysis focuses on the effects of neoliberal policies that, far from making this a borderless world, have actually multiplied the bordered spaces that allow firms and markets to move across conventional borders. Cities are therefore one of the key sites where new neoliberal norms are made and where new identities emerge.

  16. Cross-border Co-operation Networks in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    initiatives that aim to cultivate co-operation between countries, regions and municipalities while ensuring the protection and promoting the interests and rights of the people living in border regions. Despite these regional initiatives, the effective functioning of cross-border co-operation still remains...... largely unknown across West Africa. The purpose of this paper is to fill that gap, with an analysis of both the social structure and the geography of West African governance networks. On the basis of this structural and geographic analysis, policy recommendations are formulated aimed at implementing...... policies that are more place-based, more attentive to relations between the actors at play in co-operation, and more specifically adapted to the constraints and opportunities of the West African region....

  17. First Philosophy in the Border Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viggo Rossvaer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article will be devoted to such problems as a idea of subsidiarity, a cosmopolitan right and a visitor figure in context and interpretation of ancient and modern philosophy. The article deals with the concept of subsidiarity which is taken as a point of departure for the discipline of borderology, an academic study with Kantian roots. Borderology, according to the principle of subsidiarity, can present as a new field of investigation which invites philosophers and social scientists to replace a “top down” with a “bottom up” procedure. The figure of the visitor is close linked with the experience of subsidiarity which means the freedom and initiative below the level of State. In Immanuel Kant’s strategy for perpetual peace, the figure of the visitor launches a critique of a tendency to self-aggrandizement, characteristic of the modern State and thereby a defense of the political independence of local border regions. The visitor also invites us to see, think and work to liberate our own subjectivity from false voices of sovereignty. Kant articulates the offer of the visitor by bringing in the term Verkehr. Using Kant scholar Otfried Höffe,s methodology we show how idea of subsidiarity is overlooked in international political theory, explain some constitutive principles of borderology, from which is more important is the methodological principle of an intercultural discourse and presents borderology as an anti-Huntingtonian model for border studies.

  18. A Strategic Spatial Planning Approach to Cross-Border Place Branding with References to Galicia and Northern Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Silva Oliveira, Eduardo; Zenker, Sebastian; Jacobsen, Björn

    2015-01-01

    This chapter adopts a strategic spatial planning approach to think strategically about potential joint place-branding initiatives between cross-border regions. The case study focuses on the extended cross-border European region composed of the NUTS III Alto Minho, Cávado, Ave, Área Metropolitina do

  19. Internal Border Controls in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carsten Willemoes; Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2012-01-01

    Recent events, involving inter alia France and Denmark, have stimulated renewed interest in the introduction of different forms of border controls at the internal borders within the European Union. These border control measures are aimed at checking either persons or goods or both. Against...... the background of these events, this article analyses the existing rules regulating controls of persons and goods, and explores how these rules may or may not stand in the way of introducing border controls at the European Union’s internal borders. These events have resulted in a call for reforms of the current...

  20. Cultural cross-border co-operation among Balkan's countries with the case of Serbia and Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojkov Borislav

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultural cross-border cooperation includes all fields of cross-border cooperation and gives base for main connections and interactions. Without strengthening cultural cross-border cooperation, it is impossible to build significant relations between neighbors. Culture, as a foundation, an activator and a purpose of development in cross-border regions, represents a cardinal and conditional factor of cross-border cooperation. Today's situation in the Balkans reveals ethnic diversity of this region and territorial dispersion of ethnic groups. This implies at the same time great cultural diversity as well as dispersal of various national cultures over the Balkan's states. During the 20th century Serbia and Bulgaria have very complex political and intrastate relations. But in the last 10 years there have been significant improvements in the cross-border cooperation between Serbia and Bulgaria. The results of these improvements are established Euro-regions and implemented cross-border projects between these two countries. Existing Euro-regions between Serbia and Bulgaria created links between various local authorities and made excellent basis for cross-border initiatives and joint projects to promote common interests across the border and cooperation for the common good of the border areas populations. The well managed cultural cross-border cooperation between these two countries will provide a clear view of common features and raise common identity for the region, contribute to tolerance and understanding between people in this area and enable them to overcome the peripheral status of the border region in their countries and improve the living conditions of the population.

  1. Cross-border reprogenetic services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couture, V; Drouin, R; Tan, S-L; Moutquin, J-M; Bouffard, C

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to synthesize the current knowledge on the international movement of patients and biopsied embryo cells for pre-implantation genetic diagnosis and its different applications. Thus far, few attempts have been made to identify the specific nature of this phenomenon called 'cross-border reprogenetic services'. There is scattered evidence, both empirical and speculative, suggesting that these services raise major issues in terms of service provision, risks for patients and the children-to-come, the legal liabilities of physicians, as well as social justice. To compile this evidence, this review uses the narrative overview protocol combined with thematic analysis. Five major themes have emerged from the literature at the conjunction of cross-border treatments and reprogenetics: 'scope', 'scale', 'motivations', 'concerns', and 'governance'. Similar themes have already been observed in the case of other medical tourism activities, but this review highlights their singularity with reprogenetic services. It emphasizes the diagnostic and autologous feature of reprogenetics, the constant risk of misdiagnosis, the restriction on certain tests for medically controversial conditions, and the uncertain accessibility of genetic counseling in cross-border settings. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Border malaria in Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; Liu, H

    1997-09-01

    Yunnan Province, due its international borders with Myanmar, Vietnam and Lao PDR has a large number of imported cases of malaria, including a high proportion of Plasmodium falciparum, as a result of the mobility of the population. This movement is due to workers coming from other provinces where there is no malaria to work in the productive tropical lowlands. Chinese nationals who have gone to work in neighboring countries, border trade and refugees from Myanmar. Much of Yunnan is peopled by ethnic minorities living in remote mountainous and forested areas which are difficult to reach. However, surveillance has been strengthened by training 3,900 primary health care workers and combining the search for visiting foreigners, returning Chinese and people from other provinces with public security, customs formalities and employers. Any visitor detected by these services is obliged to have a blood slide taken. This has resulted in an earlier and more complete detection of malaria cases, reducing incidence from 19.19 to 12.12/10,000 in the border area over the last 10 years. This is despite a considerable increase in population movement and the threat of drug resistant malaria.

  3. Is tuberculosis crossing borders at the Eastern boundary of the European Union?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werf, Marieke J; Hollo, Vahur; Noori, Teymur

    2013-12-01

    The Eastern border of the European Union (EU) consists of 10 countries after the expansion of the EU in 2004 and 2007. These 10 countries border to the East to countries with high tuberculosis (TB) notification rates. We analyzed the notification data of Europe to quantify the impact of cross-border TB at the Eastern border of the EU. We used TB surveillance data of 2010 submitted by 53 European Region countries to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control and the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. Notified TB cases were stratified by origin of the case (national/foreign). We calculated the contribution of foreign to overall TB notification. In the 10 EU countries located at the EU Eastern border, 618 notified TB cases (1.7% of all notified TB cases) were of foreign origin. Of those 618 TB cases, 173 (28.0%) were from countries bordering the EU to the East. More specifically, 90 (52.0%) were from Russia, 33 (19.1%) from Belarus, 33 (19.1%) from Ukraine, 13 (7.5%) from Moldova and 4 (2.3%) from Turkey. Currently, migrants contribute little to TB notifications in the 10 EU countries at the Eastern border of the EU, but changes in migration patterns may result in an increasing contribution. Therefore, EU countries at the Eastern border of the EU should strive to provide prompt diagnostic services and adequate treatment of migrants.

  4. Fighting to Make a Point: Policy-Making by Aggressive War on the Chinese Borders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pettis, Jr, Roy C

    2002-01-01

    .... China invaded India in 1962 and, after a month of uninterrupted military success, withdrew its forces and established unchallenged control of a border region that had been under PRC control at the beginning of the war...

  5. Mariposa port of entry bottleneck study : facilitating efficient, secure and economical cross-border transportation movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    The Arizona-Sonora border has become increasingly important to both states economy : due to increased trade between the regions following the 1994 passage of the North American : Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the establishment of maquiladora in...

  6. How Neighbours Communicate: The Role of Language in Border Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonni Olsen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a study of the linguistic situation in the border region where Norway meets Russia in the north. The aim of the study was to investigate language use when contact is revitalised after a long period with closed borders. The Norwegian and Russian languages are very different in vocabulary and structure, which makes communication difficult. How are the two languages affected by extended contact and migration across the border? The study was carried out by the author and Marit Bjerkeng through interviews, a questionnaire and observation of the linguistic situations in two Norwegian communities. The results show an ongoing development where the neighbouring language is increasingly noticeable, and there is a clear link between attitudes, identity and language use. The role of public policy seems to play an important role for the developing linguistic situation, as the Barents region as a political concept introduced in the 1990s has led to cross-border contact within various fields and also inspired local language policy, contributing to cultural pride an

  7. Znojmo Region

    OpenAIRE

    SANALLA, Merkéta

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the main findings which are focusing interdisciplinary on contemporary trends in the regional policy in Central Europe. These findings are illustrated on regional policy activities in Znojmo region which is a pioneer in so called paradiplomacy activities. These deal consequents upon geographical emplacement on the border of the former Eastern Bloc which constitute area of renewed relations in united central Europe nowadays. These results are obtained by using classical the...

  8. Reprint of: Dream vs. reality: seven case-studies on the desirability and feasibility of cross-border hospital collaboration in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinos, Irene A; Baeten, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Despite being a niche phenomenon, cross-border health care collaboration receives a lot of attention in the EU and figures visibly on the policy agenda, in particular since the policy process which eventually led to the adoption of Directive 2011/24/EU. One of the underlying assumptions is that cross-border collaboration is desirable, providing justification to both the European Commission and to border-region stakeholders for promoting it. The purpose of this paper is to question this assumption and to examine the role of actors in pushing (or not) for cross-border collaboration. The analysis takes place in two parts. First, the EU policies to promote cross-border collaboration and the tools employed are examined, namely (a) use of European funds to sponsor concrete border-region collaboration projects, (b) use of European funds to sponsor research which gives visibility to cross-border collaboration, and (c) use of the European Commission's newly acquired legal mandate to encourage "Member States to cooperate in cross-border health care provision in border-regions" (Art. 10) and support "Member States in the development of European reference networks between health care providers and centres of expertise" (Art. 12). Second, evidence gathered in 2011-2013 from seven European border-regions on hospital cross-border collaboration is systematically reviewed to assess the reality of cross-border collaboration - can it work and when, and why do actors engage in cross-border collaboration? The preliminary findings suggest that while the EU plays a prominent role in some border-region initiatives, cross-border collaboration needs such a specific set of circumstances to work that it is questionable whether it can effectively be promoted. Moreover, local actors make use of the EU (as a source of funding, legislation or legitimisation) to serve their needs. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Geotectonic structural interpretation of the basement complex at the eastern border of the Espinhaco ridge, in Guanhaes and Gouveia region, based on an integration of their U/Pb and K/Ar geochronology united

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, W.; Salvador, E.D.; Siga Junior, O.; Sato, K.; Dossin, I.A.; Dossin, T.M.

    1990-01-01

    The basement complex at the eastern border of the Espinhaco ridge is composed of predominantly gneissic rocks which were subjected to migmatization and granitization. Overall the area shows complex tectonic evolution with recurrence of tectonomagmatic and metamorphic events as supported by geological, geochronological and structural studies. The Rb/Sr geochronology carried out on the basement rocks and metavolcanics from the Espinhaco interpreted together with the published U-Pb, Rb-Sr and K-Ar data defines the following scenario for the Precambrian crustal evolution. 1. Primary origin of a sialic crust at 2.97-2.84 Ga. ago as supported by U-Pb zircon ages. 2. Crustal reworking of the Archean crust and subordinate juvenile accretion from upper mantle during the 2.2-2.OGa. period, as suggested by the isochrons. 3. Recurrence of Middle Proterozoic events over the basement rocks (gneisses and charnockites) and metavolcanics of the Espinhaco as showed by isochrons. 4. Development of Late Proterozoic migmatization over the basement rocks (0.75 Ga., R.I.= 0.787) is association with Collisional tectonics and resetting of K-Ar mineral systems. (author)

  10. Barrier effect and cross-border cooperation. The Sweden-Norway INTERREG–A territorial effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Medeiros

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Historic developments that occurred in the last centuries have affected the barrier effect of national borders in Europe and, consequently, the degree and the intensity of the cooperation between neighbouring countries. However, the establishment of the European Single Market, in the last three decades, has deepened the cross-border cooperation inside the EU Territory. In this respect, the INTERREG-A initiative has played a major role, since 1990. This article intends to shed some light on the progress of the cross-border cooperation in the Swedish-Norwegian border region, and the territorial effects of the INTERREG-A programme in the reduction of the barrier effect along the border in five dimensions (institutional-urban, accessibility, culture-social, environmental-heritage and economy-technology.

  11. Informal transborder trade between México and Guatemala from permissive border perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ernesto Ruiz Juárez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes processes of interaction, tension, conflict and economic interests in one of the major border areas between Mexico and Guatemala. Informal transborder trade involves several actors who have been building these processes pursuant to agency initiatives. Among these actors, Guatemalan transborder traders who come to buy goods from their Mexican counterparts (retail and wholesale shop owners play a prominent role, as do the camareros who transport the traders and their merchandise across the Suchiate River on rafts and other actors such as moneychangers and rickshaw drivers who participate in economic and social interaction in the region. From a conceptual perspective, supported by the dialectical relationship between the notions of a border the behavior of transborder actors, it is concluded that in the study area, an informal border-trade integration process has developed and its actors transcend the border, rendering that border permissive.

  12. Local Border Traffic as a Form of Visa Liberalisation and Territorial Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kretinin G.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the issue of visa liberalisation between Russia and the European Union, which constitutes a key aspect of the parties’ diplomatic cooperation. This work sets out to identify the main results of Russia/EU cooperation. The authors have conducted a brief historical analysis of this area of relations. The visa “regionalisation” is considered in the context of identifying the key actors of the EU — Russia negotiations: the Kaliningrad region, Germany, Poland, and Lithuania. In their analysis, the authors rely mostly on primary sources: intergovernmental agreements on simplified border traffic, border-crossing statistics for the Kaliningrad region in the framework of the local border traffic, expert interviews, and related analytic reports. Specifically, local border traffic is viewed as the most effective form of interaction in the field of visa regime simplification and border territory development. An assessment of the positions of key negotiators shows that local border traffic between the Kaliningrad region of Russia and the Polish border voivodeships is a success, which stresses the need for a prompt transition to a visa-free regime with the EU.

  13. Refining borders of genome-rearrangements including repetitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjona-Medina, J A; Trelles, O

    2016-10-25

    DNA rearrangement events have been widely studied in comparative genomic for many years. The importance of these events resides not only in the study about relatedness among different species, but also to determine the mechanisms behind evolution. Although there are many methods to identify genome-rearrangements (GR), the refinement of their borders has become a huge challenge. Until now no accepted method exists to achieve accurate fine-tuning: i.e. the notion of breakpoint (BP) is still an open issue, and despite repeated regions are vital to understand evolution they are not taken into account in most of the GR detection and refinement methods. We propose a method to refine the borders of GR including repeated regions. Instead of removing these repetitions to facilitate computation, we take advantage of them using a consensus alignment sequence of the repeated region in between two blocks. Using the concept of identity vectors for Synteny Blocks (SB) and repetitions, a Finite State Machine is designed to detect transition points in the difference between such vectors. The method does not force the BP to be a region or a point but depends on the alignment transitions within the SBs and repetitions. The accurate definition of the borders of SB and repeated genomic regions and consequently the detection of BP might help to understand the evolutionary model of species. In this manuscript we present a new proposal for such a refinement. Features of the SBs borders and BPs are different and fit with what is expected. SBs with more diversity in annotations and BPs short and richer in DNA replication and stress response, which are strongly linked with rearrangements.

  14. Refining borders of genome-rearrangements including repetitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JA Arjona-Medina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA rearrangement events have been widely studied in comparative genomic for many years. The importance of these events resides not only in the study about relatedness among different species, but also to determine the mechanisms behind evolution. Although there are many methods to identify genome-rearrangements (GR, the refinement of their borders has become a huge challenge. Until now no accepted method exists to achieve accurate fine-tuning: i.e. the notion of breakpoint (BP is still an open issue, and despite repeated regions are vital to understand evolution they are not taken into account in most of the GR detection and refinement methods. Methods and results We propose a method to refine the borders of GR including repeated regions. Instead of removing these repetitions to facilitate computation, we take advantage of them using a consensus alignment sequence of the repeated region in between two blocks. Using the concept of identity vectors for Synteny Blocks (SB and repetitions, a Finite State Machine is designed to detect transition points in the difference between such vectors. The method does not force the BP to be a region or a point but depends on the alignment transitions within the SBs and repetitions. Conclusion The accurate definition of the borders of SB and repeated genomic regions and consequently the detection of BP might help to understand the evolutionary model of species. In this manuscript we present a new proposal for such a refinement. Features of the SBs borders and BPs are different and fit with what is expected. SBs with more diversity in annotations and BPs short and richer in DNA replication and stress response, which are strongly linked with rearrangements.

  15. Mitigating the Exploitation of U.S. Borders by Jihadists and Criminal Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Steinmetz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the events of September 11, 2001, the U.S. Government began improving security in large population centers and near potential highvalue terrorist targets. Included in these efforts was the development of a more robust border security program, with an emphasis on reducing the threat of terrorist infiltration at America's borders. However, nearly a decade after 9/11, terrorism and organized crime continue to pose significant threats to the United States. As many of these threats emanate from other nations, improved border security helps mitigate these threats. This article summarizes known terrorist activity along the U.S. northern and southern borders, and highlights the threat of organized crime in the southwest border region. Furthermore, it analyzes current border security efforts and identifies key deficiencies in the system. Finally, it provides a tool kit for future border security endeavors that center on developing a larger but more coordinated and nimble border security force, driven by intelligence, and supported by proven technologies and tactical infrastructure.

  16. Aymara paradiplomacy: Empowerment in the border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Aranda Bustamante

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the border paradiplomacy used by more than 50 municipalities from Bolivia, Chile and Peru, named “Aymaras without Borders Strategic Alliance”. In spite of the differentiated historical construction of national identities, according to a literature review, it could be argued that there is an unprecedented border relation between these three countries. Furthermore, it is possible to conclude that this non-violent strategy has been successful in the last 15 years.

  17. A model for international border management systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, Ruth Ann

    2008-09-01

    To effectively manage the security or control of its borders, a country must understand its border management activities as a system. Using its systems engineering and security foundations as a Department of Energy National Security Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories has developed such an approach to modeling and analyzing border management systems. This paper describes the basic model and its elements developed under Laboratory Directed Research and Development project 08-684.

  18. Nuclear risk behind the border?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varjoranta, T.

    1995-01-01

    The condition of nuclear wastes and facilities in Russia and in the Baltic countries arouses concern in Finland. Russia has two large nuclear power plants, nuclear weapons, over 300 nuclear submarine reactors and more than ten icebreaker reactors in close proximity to Finland's eastern border. The Lithuanian Ingalina nuclear power plant is also situated close to Finland. Following the Chernobyl accident, considerable improvements have been made to the technology and safety culture of Russian nuclear power plants, for instance, through international support programmes. The unstable social climate in Russia is, however, slowing progress down. Yet it is certain that no accident in the power plants near Finland's borders would cause immediate health risks in Finland, or would threaten the health of large numbers of people in the long term, either. Russia has not always taken proper care of its nuclear waste. In particular, spent fuel from nuclear submarines stored in Northern Russia causes problems. Russians have disposed of some waste by dumping ship reactors, with their fuel, into the Arctic Ocean. Some nuclear-powered submarines have sunk with all their crew. Russia has also conducted many nuclear tests in the vicinity of Finland. (orig.)

  19. Border adjustment for European emissions trading: Competitiveness and carbon leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuik, Onno, E-mail: onno.kuik@ivm.vu.n [Institute for Environmental Studies, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hofkes, Marjan [Institute for Environmental Studies, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-04-15

    Unilateral or sub-global policies to combat climate change are potentially sensitive to free-riding and carbon leakage. One way of dealing with carbon leakage and competitiveness is the imposition of border adjustment measures for competing imports, for example in the form of the obligation to importers of goods to purchase and surrender emissions allowances to the authorities when importing. In this paper, we explore some implications of border adjustment measures in the EU ETS, for sectors that might be subject to carbon leakage. We examine the implications of two variants of these measures on the competitiveness of these sectors and on the global environment with the help of a multi-sector, multi-region computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the global economy. Our calculations suggest that border adjustment might reduce the sectoral rate of leakage of the iron and steel industry rather forcefully, but that the reduction would be less for the mineral products sector, including cement. The reduction of the overall or macro rate of leakage would be modest. So, from an environmental point of view border tax adjustments would not be a very effective policy measure, but might mainly be justified by considerations of sectoral competitiveness.

  20. Border adjustment for European emissions trading. Competitiveness and carbon leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuik, Onno; Hofkes, Marjan [Institute for Environmental Studies, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-04-15

    Unilateral or sub-global policies to combat climate change are potentially sensitive to free-riding and carbon leakage. One way of dealing with carbon leakage and competitiveness is the imposition of border adjustment measures for competing imports, for example in the form of the obligation to importers of goods to purchase and surrender emissions allowances to the authorities when importing. In this paper, we explore some implications of border adjustment measures in the EU ETS, for sectors that might be subject to carbon leakage. We examine the implications of two variants of these measures on the competitiveness of these sectors and on the global environment with the help of a multi-sector, multi-region computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the global economy. Our calculations suggest that border adjustment might reduce the sectoral rate of leakage of the iron and steel industry rather forcefully, but that the reduction would be less for the mineral products sector, including cement. The reduction of the overall or macro rate of leakage would be modest. So, from an environmental point of view border tax adjustments would not be a very effective policy measure, but might mainly be justified by considerations of sectoral competitiveness. (author)

  1. Cross-border health and productivity effects of alcohol policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Per; Pekkarinen, Tuomas; Verho, Jouko

    2014-07-01

    This paper studies the cross-border health and productivity effects of alcohol taxes. We estimate the effect of a large cut in the Finnish alcohol tax on mortality, alcohol-related illnesses and work absenteeism in Sweden. This tax cut led to large differences in the prices of alcoholic beverages between these two countries and to a considerable increase in cross-border shopping. The effect is identified using differences-in-differences strategy where changes in these outcomes in regions near the Finnish border are compared to changes in other parts of northern Sweden. We use register data where micro level data on deaths, hospitalisations and absenteeism is merged to population-wide micro data on demographics and labour market outcomes. Our results show that the Finnish tax cut did not have any clear effect on mortality or alcohol-related hospitalisations in Sweden. However, we find that workplace absenteeism increased by 9% for males and by 15% for females near the Finnish border as a result of the tax cut. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cross-Border Higher Education for Regional Integration:Analysis of the JICA-RI Survey on Leading Universities in East Asia. JICA-RI Working Paper. No. 26

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Kazuo; Yuki, Takako; Kang, Kyuwon

    2010-01-01

    Set against the backdrop of increasing economic interdependence in East Asia, the idea of regional integration is now being discussed as a long-term political process in the region. As in the field of the international economy, de facto integration and interdependence exist with respect to the internationalization of the higher education system…

  3. The cross-border cooperation agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin-Silviu SĂRARU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to achieve a short analysis of cross-border cooperation agreements between territorial-administrative units in the border areas of Romania and similar structures in neighboring states. The article investigates the form they takes these agreements – contract or treaty –, the role of multinational enterprises and the law applicable to transnational contracts, the cross-border cooperation agreement governed by Law no. 215/2001 on local public administration and its legal nature. The end of the article is discussed cross-border cooperation in international documents signed by Romania with its neighbors.

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Border Collie dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, An-Quan; Zhang, Yong-Liang; Li, Li-Li; Chen, Long; Yang, Tong-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Border Collie dog is one of the famous breed of dog. In the present work we report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Border Collie dog for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome was 16,730 bp with the base composition of 31.6% for A, 28.7% for T, 25.5% for C, and 14.2% for G and an A-T (60.3%)-rich feature was detected. It harbored 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and one non-coding control region (D-loop region). The arrangement of all genes was identical to the typical mitochondrial genomes of dogs.

  5. The South African Border War (1966 - 1989) a Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Hans Henrik

    2013-01-01

    The South African Border War – or the Bush War - was a quite remarkable conflict that took place in the border region between South-West-Africa (Namibia), Angola and the Republic of South Africa between 1966 and 1989 which makes it one of the longest conflicts on the African continent. The conflict...... is not well known because the events took place during the Cold War where the involved actors de facto acted as proxies in the overall ideological struggle between East and West. The conflict covered most of the South African region. The seed to the conflict originated from the colonial past, where most...... African countries were colonized and governed by European nations and white minorities. Following the end of World War II, African states gradually gained independence from their former colonial rulers often through a violent liberation struggle aimed against the colonial authorities but also against...

  6. Border Crossing/Entry Data - Border Crossing/Entry Data Time Series tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The dataset is known as “Border Crossing/Entry Data.” The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics to the...

  7. Novel Cross-Border Approaches to Optimise Identification of Asymptomatic and Artemisinin-Resistant Plasmodium Infection in Mobile Populations Crossing Cambodian Borders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah M Edwards

    Full Text Available Human population movement across country borders presents a real challenge for malaria control and elimination efforts in Cambodia and its neighbouring countries. To quantify Plasmodium infection among the border-crossing population, including asymptomatic and artemisinin resistant (AR parasites, three official border crossing points, one from each of Cambodia's borders with Thailand, Laos and Vietnam, were selected for sampling.A total of 3206 participants (of 4110 approached were recruited as they crossed the border, tested for malaria and interviewed. By real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, 5.4% of all screened individuals were found to harbour Plasmodium parasites. The proportion was highest at the Laos border (11.5%. Overall there were 97 P. vivax (55.7%, 55 P. falciparum (31.6%, two P. malariae (1.1% and 20 mixed infections (11.5%. Of identified infections, only 20% were febrile at the time of screening. Of the 24 P. falciparum samples where a further PCR was possible to assess AR, 15 (62.5% had mutations in the K13 propeller domain gene, all from participants at the Laos border point. Malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT pLDH/HRP-2 identified a positivity rate of 3.2% overall and sensitivity compared to RT-PCR was very low (43.1%. Main individual risk factors for infection included sex, fever, being a forest-goer, poor knowledge of malaria prevention methods and previous malaria infection. Occupation, day of the week and time of crossing (morning vs. afternoon also appeared to play an important role in predicting positive cases.This study offers a novel approach to identify asymptomatic infections and monitor AR parasite flow among mobile and migrant populations crossing the borders. Similar screening activities are recommended to identify other hot borders and characterise potential hot spots of AR. Targeted "customised" interventions and surveillance activities should be implemented in these sites to accelerate elimination efforts

  8. Irregular Female Migrant Workers along Lao-Thai Borders

    OpenAIRE

    SIRAKUL SUWINTHAWONG

    2018-01-01

    This thesis focuses on irregular migration from Laos to Thailand, and irregular migrant labour in Thailand. This research is set in Mukdahan – a small (in size and population) yet important province as a gateway to cross-border activities in the Mekong region. It draws on the experiences of Lao irregular female migrant labourers in Mukdahan, northeastern Thailand, and the practices and perspectives of Thai authorities and employers in relation to irregular migrant labour law and enforcement. ...

  9. Threats to NATO external borders in the Middle East

    OpenAIRE

    Jakubková, Jana

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to analyze the current security dilemma in Syria with the focus on production, use, and the process of disposal of chemical weapons and its impacts. Specifically, the thesis addresses the issue of Syria's chemical weapons in the context of threats to NATO external borders. Degree of Security in the region and Resistance effort are measured according to RAND. Consequently, phases of Chemical weapons Program implementation in Syria are analyzed according to ACWA model....

  10. Is the international border effect larger than the domestic border effect? Evidence from US trade

    OpenAIRE

    Cletus C. Coughlin; Dennis Novy

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have found that international borders represent large barriers to trade. But how do international borders compare to domestic border barriers? We investigate international and domestic border barriers in a unified framework. We consider a data set of exports from individual US states to foreign countries and combine it with trade flows between and within US states. After controlling for distance and country size, we estimate that relative to state-to-state trade, crossing an indi...

  11. Learning Mobility Challenging Borders: Cross-border Experiences of eastern European Immigrants in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Marcu, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    [EN] This article examines the cross-border mobility practices of eastern European immigrants across and within European Union (EU) borders, taking into account the changes in the patterns of the EU border regime, which have affected mobility in the last 20 years. Drawing on empirical research with references to in-depth qualitative interviews of eastern immigrants in Spain, this article highlights the ways in which the emerging models of cross-border mobility management are producing new geo...

  12. The Armchair at the Borders: The "Messy" Ideas of Borders and Border Epistemologies within Multicultural Science Education Scholarship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Lyn

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to further articulate multicultural science education scholarship. In particular, it explores the notions of borders and border epistemologies as intellectual resources to think again about the challenges of science education in the global world that demand more sophisticated concepts to unravel some of its complexities. It…

  13. International Issues, High-Stakes Testing, and Border Pedagogy: Social Studies at Border High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Timothy G.; McDermott, Benjamin R.

    2013-01-01

    A recently constructed border wall stands within walking distance of Border High School (BHS) and was created to impede the flow of people, goods, fauna, and contraband from Mexico into the United States (U.S.). The reality, however, is that this geopolitical border is fluid, allowing connections between sociopolitical zones. The researchers…

  14. Region 9 Tribal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Dataset of all Indian Reservations in US EPA Region 9 (California, Arizona and Nevada) with some reservation border areas of adjacent states included (adjacent areas...

  15. [Population in the northern border area. Urban dynamism and binational interrelation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham Chande, R

    1988-01-01

    The 3300 km border between Mexico and the US constitutes the geopolitical separation between an underdeveloped country on the 1 hand and 1 of the most technologically and economically powerful countries in the world on the other. The border region is characterized by the contrasts on either side of the border and by the strong interrelation between both sides. Vast streams of persons, merchandise, money, services, communications, and cultural influences flow from 1 side to the other. The border region as a seat of population has a recent history. The border was defined in near current form only in the mid-19th century, when the expansionist tendencies of the US encountered a vast area of very sparse population. In 1900, the principal localities of the border zone had only about 39,000 inhabitants, of whom fewer than 5000 lived west of Ciudad Juarez. Between 1910-20, the population of the border region increased from 53,000 to 96,000 as a result of migrants fleeing the ravages of the revolution. The population of the border region was estimated at 3.826 million in 1988, resulting from rates of growth above Mexico's national average. Settlement in the area has depended on events and conditions in Mexico and on such US occurrences as Prohibition, the Great Depression, the 2nd World War, the Bracero program, and the Program of Border Industrialization. 82% of the border population lives in urban zones, partly because of lack of water. 80% of the urban population is concentrated in 6 cities, Juarez, Tijuana, Mexicali, Nuevo Laredo, Reynosa, and Matamoros. Much of the population of the 6 cities is composed of persons born elsewhere. The border area also has a large floating population of undocumented migrants in transit to or from the US. The high rates of urbanization and of binational interaction are reflected in demographic dynamics. In 1979, 71% of women in union in the border area vs 54% in the rest of Mexico had used contraception, and the infant mortality rate was

  16. Paroxysmal Dyskinesia in Border Terriers: Clinical, Epidemiological, and Genetic Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stassen, Q E M; Koskinen, L L E; van Steenbeek, F G; Seppälä, E H; Jokinen, T S; Prins, P G M; Bok, H G J; Zandvliet, M M J M; Vos-Loohuis, M; Leegwater, P A J; Lohi, H

    2017-07-01

    In the last decade, a disorder characterized by episodes of involuntary movements and dystonia has been recognized in Border Terriers. To define clinical features of paroxysmal dyskinesia (PD) in a large number of Border Terriers and to study the genetics of the disease. 110 affected and 128 unaffected client-owned Border Terriers. A questionnaire regarding clinical characteristics of PD was designed at Utrecht University and the University of Helsinki. Thirty-five affected Border Terriers underwent physical examination and blood testing (hematology and clinical biochemistry). Diagnostic imaging of the brain was performed in 17 affected dogs and electroencephalograms (EEG) between episodes were obtained in 10 affected dogs. A genomewide association study (GWAS) was performed with DNA of 110 affected and 128 unaffected dogs. One hundred forty-seven questionnaires were included in the study. The most characteristic signs during episodes were dystonia, muscle fasciculations, and falling over. The majority of owners believed that their dogs remained conscious during the episodes. A beneficial effect of anti-epileptic therapy was observed in 29 of 43 dogs. Fifteen owners changed their dogs' diet to a hypoallergenic, gluten-free diet, and all reported reasonable to good improvement of signs. Clinical examinations and diagnostic test results were unremarkable. The GWAS did not identify significantly associated chromosome regions. The survey results and EEG studies provided further evidence that the observed syndrome is a PD rather than epilepsy. Failure to achieve conclusive results by GWAS indicates that inheritance of PD in Border Terriers probably is complex. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  17. Researching Transfronterizo Literacies in Texas Border Colonias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Patrick H.; Murillo, Luz A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines literacies practiced in bilingual households located in emerging communities along the Texas-Mexico border known as border colonias. Drawing on theoretical notions of space as geographic and temporal, the simultaneity of global and local forces at work in colonias, and expressions of agency that are "in between"…

  18. Sprouting of dormant buds on border trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.R., Jr. Trimble; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith

    1970-01-01

    As part of an evaluation of silvicultura1 systems used in managing Appalachian hardwoods, we are studying degrade of border trees surrounding harvest-cut openings made in the patch cutting and group selection systems. One facet of this research dealt with determining what portion of visually evident dormant buds on border tree boles sprouted when the openings were cut...

  19. Externalization and Border-induced Displacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemberg-Pedersen, Martin

    in-depth research of the privatization of border control through the cases of G4S, Finmeccanica and the EU’s EUROSUR system. The chapter links externalization of border control with European state-driven export markets and shows how states’ export credit agencies, the arms industry...

  20. Border Pedagogy Cafes: Grassroots Conversations that Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necochea, Juan; Cline, Zulmara

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study uses qualitative methods to analyze the impact of conversations in the Border Pedagogy "Cafes" on more than 500 binational educators from the Tijuana/San Diego area on the U.S.-Mexico border. Four important themes emerged from the analysis that describe the impact of the cafes and offer a strong foundation on which…

  1. BEYOND THE BORDER WAR: NEW PERSPECTIVES ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hennie

    they viewed as necessary cross-border-, deep penetration and/or pre-emptive strikes against the People's Liberation ... Beyond the Border War: New Perspectives on Southern Africa's Late Cold War. Conflicts falls in a .... Sasha Gear writes about veterans and the effect of the war on them and those close to them - or rather, ...

  2. Interplay between river dynamics and international borders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yousefi, Saleh; Keesstra, Saskia; Pourghasemi, Hamid Reza; Surian, Nicola; Mirzaee, Somayeh

    2017-01-01

    Fluvial dynamics in riverine borders can play an important role in political relationships between countries. Rivers move and evolve under the influence of natural processes and external drivers (e.g. land use change in river catchments). The Hirmand River is an important riverine border between

  3. Cross-border mobility of Iraqi refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraldine Chatelard

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Far more attention needs to be paid to the circulation of Iraqirefugees across the borders between Iraq and Syria or Jordan. Lackof analysis of this cross-border mobility will be to the detriment ofpolicy planning and the search for durable solutions.

  4. Green Belt Europe - borders separate, nature unites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwe Friedel

    2015-01-01

    During the period of the Cold War between 1945 and 1989, a "Green Belt" of valuable pristine landscapes developed along the border line between Eastern and Western Europe, the intensively fortified and guarded so called Iron Curtain. Due to the remoteness of the border areas, a high number of national parks and other large conservation areas can be found...

  5. Export experience and key success factors in cross-border trade: Evidence from Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shepherd Dhliwayo

    2017-02-01

    Contribution/value-add: Few studies on cross border trading have been carried out in the Southern African Development Community region. The key success factors and the constraints in this type of trade had not been adequately explored. The economic contribution of CBT, which usually goes unnoticed, was highlighted. Interventions to appropriately address the challenges faced, such as trading legitimacy and border harassment, were suggested.

  6. Unresolved legal questions in cross-border health care in Europe: liability and data protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, I N; Commers, M J

    2013-11-01

    Directive 2011/24/EU was designed to clarify the rights of EU citizens in evaluating, accessing and obtaining reimbursement for cross-border care. Based on three regional case studies, the authors attempted to assess the added value of the Directive in helping clarify issues in to two key areas that have been identified as barriers to cross-border care: liability and data protection. Qualitative case study employing secondary data sources including research of jurisprudence, that set up a Legal framework as a base to investigate liability and data protection in the context of cross-border projects. By means of three case studies that have tackled liability and data protection hurdles in cross-border care implementation, this article attempts to provide insight into legal certainty and uncertainty regarding cross-border care in Europe. The case studies reveal that the Directive has not resolved core uncertainties related to liability and data protection issues within cross-border health care. Some issues related to the practice of cross-border health care in Europe have been further clarified by the Directive and some direction has been given to possible solutions for issues connected to liability and data protection. Directive 2011/24/EU is clearly a transposition of existing regulations on data protection and ECJ case law, plus a set of additional, mostly, voluntary rules that might enhance regional border cooperation. Therefore, as shown in the case studies, a practical and case by case approach is still necessary in designing and providing cross-border care. © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Appearance and Development of Iron Production on the Border Between the «Steppe» and «Taiga» Cultural Worlds in Western Siberia (Tomsk Ob Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny V. Vodyasov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the features of the emergence and spread of iron in Tomsk Ob Region, which located in the contact zone of the two great historical and cultural worlds: hunter-fishers in the taiga and nomads in steppe. Geological specialty of Tomsk Ob Region is the lack of deposits of copper ore and the presence of high-quality iron ore. Based on the analysis of archaeological data three stages of development of iron in Tomsk Ob Region are allocated: 1. Penetration of the first iron products while the traditions of bronze casting were remain general (VIII century BC-IV century AD; 2. Mass distribution of iron products and gradual replacement of bronze tools (V-X centuries AD; 3. Development of local iron ore deposits and flourishing of iron production (X-XVII centuries AD; The hypothesis that the development of local iron ore deposits became possible only with the beginning of the "Turkic" migration at the turn of I-II millennium AD is voiced. From this moment the population of Tomsk Ob Region acquired full commodity independence. Local iron ore deposits provided the flourishing of iron production, which was interrupted only in the XVII century BC during the Russian colonization.

  8. Blood pressure control, hypertension, awareness, and treatment in adults with diabetes in the United States-Mexico border region Control de la presión arterial, hipertensión, concientización y tratamiento en adultos con diabetes de la zona fronteriza entre México y los Estados Unidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Vijayaraghavan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVE: To determine prevalence of blood pressure control, hypertension, hypertension awareness, and antihypertensive treatment among adults (> 18 years old with diabetes living in the border region between the United States of America and Mexico, and to explore variation in those variables between all adults on the Mexican side of the border ("Mexicans" and three groups on the U.S. side of the border ("all U.S. adults," "U.S.-born Hispanics," and "Mexican immigrants". METHODS: Using data from Phase I (February 2001-October 2002 of the U.S.-Mexico Border Diabetes Prevention and Control Project, a prevalence study of type 2 diabetes and its risk factors, age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension-related variables was calculated for the sample (n = 682 and differences between the border groups were examined through logistic regression. RESULTS: Less than one-third of the sample had controlled blood pressure (140/90 mm Hg, and hypertension awareness and treatment were inadequate. After adjusting for demographics, body mass index, and access to health care, there were no differences in blood pressure control, hypertension, hypertension awareness, or treatment between Mexicans and both U.S. adults and Mexican immigrants. However, compared to Mexicans and Mexican immigrants, U.S.-born Hispanics, particularly younger individuals, had the lowest rates of blood pressure control (17.3% and the highest rates of coexisting hypertension (54.8%. Compared to Mexicans, U.S.-born Hispanics had lower odds of controlled blood pressure (odds ratio [OR] 0.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.09-0.95 and greater odds of hypertension (OR 3.75, 95% CI 1.51-9.29 and hypertension awareness (OR 6.19, 95% CI 1.46-26.15. CONCLUSION: Co-occurrence of diabetes and hypertension is a major public health problem among U.S.-Mexico border residents. The low rate of blood pressure control among various border groups, especially younger U.S.-born Hispanics, suggests that initiatives

  9. Fan Letters to the Cultural Industries: Border Literature about Mass Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Fox

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of the Mexican and U.S. cultural industries in cities outside of the border region and the intermittent outsourcing of Hollywood movies to production facilities in Baja, California, have had a marked impact on the literary practice of "fronterizo" 'border' intellectuals. This essay discusses the theme of the cinema in three narratives by authors from the U.S.-Mexico border region: "Hotel Frontera" ("Border Hotel", by Gabriel Trujillo Muñoz, "Canícula," by Norma Elia Cantú, and "The Magic of Blood," by Dagoberto Gilb. These narratives provide ethnographic information about the reception of nationally distributed mass media in the border region; at the same time they produce a contestatory discourse that challenges the manner in which the border and its populations have been portrayed and employed in the U.S. and Mexican film industries. The study of film culture must take into consideration patterns of consumption as well as production, and literature about mass media is one arena through which it is possible to focus on both of these processes simultaneously. Fronteriza/o writing about cinema reveals a desire to inhabit popular cinematic genres such as film noir and the western while at the same time retaining a critical stance towards them. This ambivalence is understood as a localist response to the marginalization of fronteriza/o cultural production in a bi-national context, rather than as general suspicion toward visual mass media on the part of "traditional" literary intellectuals.

  10. Economic integration and cross-border economic organizations: The case of San Diego-Tijuana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Mendoza Cota

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The economic integration between the United States and Mexico has affected the economic, political and social relations in the border region. The paper seeks to relate the increasing economic integration and business cycles of the economies of San Diego and Tijuana to the development of both national and binational economic organizations in the border region. The methodology of analysis uses both statistical estimations of the economic integration of San Diego and Tijuana and semi-structured interviews of economic organizations to analyze the increasing economic integration and the role and achievements of the cross-border economic organizations. The results showed that cross-border cooperation is predominately controlled by federal and state governments on both sides of the border. However, the main achievements of cross-border economic cooperation have been accomplished by local private organizations. The perspective of further local economic development greatly depends on both the possibility of increased involvement of federal governments and the growing encouragement of regional organizations.

  11. Population growth, accessibility spillovers and persistent borders: Historical growth in West-European municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs-Crisioni, Chris; Koomen, Eric

    2017-06-01

    Lack of cross-border transport supply has repeatedly been blamed for the fact that national borders limit spatial interaction and, consequently, the growth of border regions. This study applies an accessibility approach to investigate for most municipalities in ten countries in mainland West Europe if foreign transport supply is lagging behind, and if population growth in these municipalities has been affected by the limits that national borders have imposed on market access. To do so, data describing historical population changes and road networks between 1961 and 2011 have been used. The results show that in the study area, cross-border transport accessibility was not at a disadvantage in 1961 and has since then grown even more than domestic accessibility. However, municipal population growth has depended almost exclusively on domestic market access. Processes of economic international integration in the study area are found to coincide with the growth of cross-border accessibility, but do not have a clear coincidence with the effects of cross-border accessibility on population growth.

  12. Non-Russian Language Space and Border in Russian Karelian Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuulikki Kurki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines Finnish language literature in Russian Karelia on the Russian-Finnish national borderland from the 1940s until the 1970s. It focuses on the concepts of the non-Russian language space and border that are constructed and studied in the context of three novels: Iira (1947, Tiny White Bird (1961, and We Karelians (1971. The article claims that the non-Russian language space and the national border started to be understood differently from the official degrees dictated by Moscow, as found in literature already from the late 1950s and early 1960s. From the 1950s onwards, the historical, linguistic, and cultural roots across the national border and the Finnish population were allowed to be recognized in literature. Furthermore, this article claims that in the 1970s, literature was able to represent such regional history, and also the closeness and permeability of the national border that influenced the lives of the Soviet Karelian non-Russian speaking population and their identity formation. This led to different ideas of the national border, in which the border and its functions and meanings became gradually more multi-voiced, ambivalent and controversial, in comparison to the conceptualization of the border as presenting a strict, impermeable boundary.

  13. Radiation Control on Uzbekistan Borders - Results and Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrenko, Vitaliy; Yuldashev, Bekhzod; Ismailov, Ulughbek; Shipilov, Nikolay; Chipizubov, Sergey; Avezov, Anvar

    2009-01-01

    The measures and actions on prevention, detection and response to criminal or unauthorized acts involving radioactive materials in Uzbekistan are presented. In frames of program of radiation monitoring to prevent illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials main customs border checkpoints were equipped with commercial radiation portal monitors. Special radiation monitors elaborated and manufactured in INP AS RU are installed in INP(main gates, research reactor and laboratory building) to provide nuclear security of Institute facilities. The experience of Uzbekistan in establishing radiation monitoring systems on its borders, their operation and maintenance would be useful for realization of proposed plan of strengthening measures to prevent illicit trafficking in Republics of Central Asia region.

  14. The border effects in Spain: an industry-level analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Llano Verduras, Carlos; Requena, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    A gravity-model approach is used to estimate the magnitude of the internal border (home bias) and external border (frontier) effects in Spain using industry-level trade flows. We find that the average border effects are about 30 and 10, respectively. Next we explore the variation in the industry-specific border effects. First, the border effects are larger in highly product differentiated industries. Second, the internal border effect is twice bigger for trade in intermediate g...

  15. Employment of Personnel at the Tucson Border Patrol Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    and Sells, Arizona. Tucson Station Border Patrol Agents (BPAs) drive to the border to perform their duties each day and night in different forms of...Station Border Patrol Agents (BPAs) drive to the border to perform their duties each day and night in different forms of personnel employment once...comprised of eight stations responsible for 262 linear miles of border from the New Mexico and Arizona border in the east to Yuma County, Arizona to

  16. Cross-Border Interactions and Health in the Brazil-Colombia-Peru Border Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Cecilia Suárez-Mutis

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The border area between Brazil, Colombia, and Peru has a population of over 100,000 people; at least a quarter are indigenous (mostly Tikuna, and the rest is composed of people from the Andean region and some itinerant groups (migrants, traders, etc.. The “twin cities”, Tabatinga (Brazil and Leticia (Colombia, receive a significant flux of people from the adjacent regions of each country, each one having a referral hospital for attending cases of moderate complexity. This region has a high incidence of  water-borne diseases, such as diarrhea and hepatitis, those transmitted by vectors, such as malaria and leishmaniasis, and other infectious diseases related to living conditions and the level of access to the health system, such as sexually transmitted infections, tuberculosis, and Hansen’s disease.. This work presents attempts to carry out a global analysis of the prevalence of some health problems introduced into the area during the last two decades, such as cholera epidemics, malaria, and HIV/AIDS infection, attempting to describe their main determinants in the region.

  17. From “Customary” to “Illegal”: Yao Ethnic Marriages on the Sino-Vietnamese Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Barabantseva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines changing governing practices in the context of the Sino-Vietnamese border in the Guangxi Autonomous Region of China. The groups inhabiting the mountainous ranges of this ethnically diverse part of Southeast Asia evaded the reach of the state until the 1970s, when China and Vietnam started tightening control over the land border after the border war. With an increasingly rigid and clearly delimited Sino-Vietnamese borderland, binary forms of classification began to replace earlier fluid identifications, and the room for diverse social and cultural expressions became restricted. It is within this context that the ethnic marriage practices straddling the borders of China and its southern neighboring states discussed in this article took place. Cross-border ethnic Yao marriages have gone from customary to illegal in recent years as a result of China’s strict population control, its changing demography, and the accelerated shortage of manual labor in its border area. Border politics have permeated the private sphere, transforming common ethnic marriage partners into illegal migrants. Although ethnic marriage partners are relegated to an illegal status, they are indispensible in the local labor market and moral economy as mothers, caretakers, translators, guides, and manual workers. This article argues that, despite being antithetical to the bordering logic of state sovereignty, they are important agents who depend on and capitalize on the border economy.

  18. Languaging the Borders of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Kramsch

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Emerging from a discomfort with the blind spots encountered within and across theorizations of language and space in the field of human geography, in this article, we argue for “making space” for conceptualizations that speak from and through the everyday territories of migrants in Europe today. Inspired by a range of writers thinking postcolonially and multi/trans-lingually, the authors draw on their own embodied migrant experience to argue for re-envisioning Europe’s borders through multiple languaging practices. “Languaging”, in this view, takes linguistic practices in a migrant context as an inherently prosthetic activity, whereby any dominant, national host language is inevitably subject to the subterranean rumblings of all the languages a migrant brings with her on her global journeys. Conceived as being saturated with prosthetic “absence(s”, migrant languaging practices rework cultural geography’s bounded, inward-looking, and security-fixated understanding of the language/territory nexus, the better to open a vital space for re-envisioning language’s everyday territories as sites for translational solidarity and becoming.

  19. Borders, boundaries and desirable wishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Pinciaroli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available “Borders, boundaries and desirable wishes” is the title of the residential workshop offered to a group of young adults (aged 18-25 of the Centro di Salute Mentale (Mental Health Center of the DSM Basaglia of ASL TO2 in Turin. The idea of the workshop, the definition of the objectives and the topics, which are clearly expressed in the title, come from the work of the team dedicated to group psychotherapies, which has been offering group psychodrama sessions to young adults of this age since 2008. In the delicate move to the adult age, these young adults are lost and stuck in static realities where it is not possible to open up to the dimension of desire nor to the transforming encounter with the Other, since they didn’t have the experience of boundaries and lack. These two elements are necessary to acquire the ability to make projects for oneself. During the workshop the following instruments were used: group, psychodrama and art therapy. The group, as a paternal function, ensured the presence of safe boundaries enabling individuals to experiment; psychodrama and art therapy enabled the bodies to experience encounters and transformations, using doing as a metaphor for the movement against the inhibition of doing and as a way to show oneself to the Other and be able to see the Other. 

  20. Semantic Borders and Incomplete Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Filho, Waldomiro J; Dazzani, Maria Virgínia

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we explore a fundamental issue of Cultural Psychology, that is our "capacity to make meaning", by investigating a thesis from contemporary philosophical semantics, namely, that there is a decisive relationship between language and rationality. Many philosophers think that for a person to be described as a rational agent he must understand the semantic content and meaning of the words he uses to express his intentional mental states, e.g., his beliefs and thoughts. Our argument seeks to investigate the thesis developed by Tyler Burge, according to which our mastery or understanding of the semantic content of the terms which form our beliefs and thoughts is an "incomplete understanding". To do this, we discuss, on the one hand, the general lines of anti-individualism or semantic externalism and, on the other, criticisms of the Burgean notion of incomplete understanding - one radical and the other moderate. We defend our understanding that the content of our beliefs must be described in the light of the limits and natural contingencies of our cognitive capacities and the normative nature of our rationality. At heart, anti-individualism leads us to think about the fact that we are social creatures, living in contingent situations, with important, but limited, cognitive capacities, and that we receive the main, and most important, portion of our knowledge simply from what others tell us. Finally, we conclude that this discussion may contribute to the current debate about the notion of borders.

  1. Dyck Words, Lattice Paths, and Abelian Borders

    OpenAIRE

    Blanchet-Sadri, F.; Chen, Kun; Hawes, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    We use results on Dyck words and lattice paths to derive a formula for the exact number of binary words of a given length with a given minimal abelian border length, tightening a bound on that number from Christodoulakis et al. (Discrete Applied Mathematics, 2014). We also extend to any number of distinct abelian borders a result of Rampersad et al. (Developments in Language Theory, 2013) on the exact number of binary words of a given length with no abelian borders. Furthermore, we generalize...

  2. Environmental exposure of road borders to zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blok, J. [Royal Haskoning, P.O. Box 151, 6500 Ad Nijmegen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: Han.Blok@royalhaskoning.com

    2005-09-15

    The emissions of zinc along roads originating from tyre wear, corrosion of safety fence and other traffic-related sources have been quantified and validated by measured long-term loads in road run-off and airborne solids (drift) for 29 published case studies. The distribution pattern over the road border at various distances from the edge of the paved surface is assessed on the basis of 38 published case studies with measured concentrations in soil. For the impact assessment, the road border is differentiated into a zone that is part of the 'technosphere' and the 'target zone' beyond that technosphere that can be considered as part of the receiving environment. The 'technosphere' of the road includes the central reservation, the hard and the soft shoulder or, if one or both shoulders are not present, the so-called obstacle 'free zone' that is defined by road engineers. Pollution within the technosphere may require appropriate management of solid disposal and isolation from groundwater to prevent further distribution of pollutants to the environment. In the target zone along regional roads, the zinc load is about 4 mg/m{sup 2} year and this is of the same order of magnitude as that of atmospheric deposition in areas beyond the influence of roads (background). In the target zone along highways, the zinc load is increased in comparison to the background deposition. The average load of about 38 mg/m{sup 2} year is similar to that in fertilised agricultural land. Because most of the emitted zinc stays in the technosphere, the total amount entering this target zone along highways is limited. From the 140 tons of zinc per year that is released from tyre wear in The Netherlands, 64 tons is emitted in the urban area, 6.5 tons reaches to the target zones of all roads and only 1.1 tons of zinc will enter the target zone along highways. This amount will be further decreased by the application of porous asphalt in the near future. The

  3. Environmental exposure of road borders to zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blok, J.

    2005-01-01

    The emissions of zinc along roads originating from tyre wear, corrosion of safety fence and other traffic-related sources have been quantified and validated by measured long-term loads in road run-off and airborne solids (drift) for 29 published case studies. The distribution pattern over the road border at various distances from the edge of the paved surface is assessed on the basis of 38 published case studies with measured concentrations in soil. For the impact assessment, the road border is differentiated into a zone that is part of the 'technosphere' and the 'target zone' beyond that technosphere that can be considered as part of the receiving environment. The 'technosphere' of the road includes the central reservation, the hard and the soft shoulder or, if one or both shoulders are not present, the so-called obstacle 'free zone' that is defined by road engineers. Pollution within the technosphere may require appropriate management of solid disposal and isolation from groundwater to prevent further distribution of pollutants to the environment. In the target zone along regional roads, the zinc load is about 4 mg/m 2 year and this is of the same order of magnitude as that of atmospheric deposition in areas beyond the influence of roads (background). In the target zone along highways, the zinc load is increased in comparison to the background deposition. The average load of about 38 mg/m 2 year is similar to that in fertilised agricultural land. Because most of the emitted zinc stays in the technosphere, the total amount entering this target zone along highways is limited. From the 140 tons of zinc per year that is released from tyre wear in The Netherlands, 64 tons is emitted in the urban area, 6.5 tons reaches to the target zones of all roads and only 1.1 tons of zinc will enter the target zone along highways. This amount will be further decreased by the application of porous asphalt in the near future. The emission from safety fence corrosion does not enter

  4. The role of ethnicity and travel on Hepatitis A vaccination coverage and disease incidence in Arizona at the United States–Mexico Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Kacey C; Erhart, Laura M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis A (HAV) incidence has decreased in the United States, yet regional disparities persist. The role of international travel has become increasingly important in HAV transmission. We compared the relative burden of HAV in border and non-border regions in Arizona and examined the role of travel in sustaining HAV transmission. Methods: HAV vaccination coverage was calculated by age and region, using Arizona State Immunization Information System data. Incidence, demographics, and risk factors of cases reported through Arizona’s infectious disease surveillance system between 2006 and 2011 were analyzed. Results: Hepatitis A incidence was higher in the border region of Arizona. Compared with the rest of Arizona, one-dose coverage in children <15 years was lower in the border region until 2008. Second dose coverage was lower in the border region, particularly among Spanish speakers. International travel among cases was generally high; however, in the border region cases were more likely to visit Mexico or South/Central America (94% vs. 80%, P value = 0.01) and be Hispanic (68% vs. 42%, P value = 0.0003). Conclusions: Rates of HAV continue to be higher in the Arizona border region; the risk appears particularly high among Hispanics with recent travel in the Americas. Border surveillance should be emphasized, along with vaccination of all travelers, to continue to decrease and control HAV. PMID:24603091

  5. INTERCEPTION OF ANIMAL-ORIGIN PRODUCTS AT LAND BORDERS IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Janice Eidt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Infectious agents and veterinary diseases can be disseminated across borders and contribute to change the country sanitary status. The aim of this study was to identify the main animal products intercepted and seized by the agricultural surveillance units. This paper studied three Agricultural Surveillance Units located at land borders in the North region of Brazil: Assis Brasil and Epitaciolândia (Acre State and Pacaraima (Roraima State, respectively borders with Peru, Bolivia and Venezuela. The main animal products confiscated were dairy products, fish, meat, sausage, veterinary products (drugs, animal food (pet foods and apiculture products. Given the clandestine nature of animal transit and its products in these borders, the possibilities of introduction of infectious agents and diseases must be better evaluated, considering the type of products confiscated, as well as the sanitary status of the countries of origin.

  6. Borders in Europe: From history to everyday life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcís Bassols

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available

    This article reflects on European borders and their everyday dynamics from a cross-border perspective. The article begins with a discussion of recent events that question current border policies in the European Union, reviews the literature on borders and border territories, and finally moves on to a discussion of the everyday effects of cross-border practices on the inhabitants of border spaces. Occasional reference is made to borders in the Americas to complete the picture of this topic. Although the issue of security is indeed relevant, we focus on the economic and social dimensions of cooperation. Three aspects are essential for border residents who attempt to use the advantages of the territories for their global nature: work, shopping, and place of residence. In conclusion, there has been a tendency toward the softening of borders and greater integration of border zones in the European Union.

  7. A Model for the crust across the San Andres fault system in Mexico-USA border region; Un modelo de la estructura de la corteza para el sistema de fallas de San Andres en la zona fronteriza Mexico- EEUU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez-Cornu, F. [Centro Universitario de la Costa, Campus Puerto Vallarta y Departamento de Geografia de la Universidad de Guadalajara, Puerto Vallarta (Mexico); Montana, C. [DGS University of Texas at el Paso, El Paso TX (United States); Frez, J.; Munguia, L.; Nava, A.; Gonzalez, J.; Mendoza, L.; Aragon, M.; Sanchez-Mora, C.; Morandi, M.; Madrid, J. [Grupo de Perfiles Sismicos del CICESE, Ensenada (Mexico)

    1996-01-01

    We report the recording and interpretation of an unreversed seismic profile between Blythe, Arizona and Ensenada, Baja California, using an explosive source in a drilled hole near Blythe (from project Delta Force). The data consist of digital seismograms from 14 three-component stations in a line between Mexicali and Ensenada (every 10 km) and 15 stations from the Southern California Network. The profile goes through three distinct regions: a) the Chocolate Mountains in Southern California; b) the Salton Trough in both Californias, and c) the Peninsular Ranges in Baja California, and is almost perpendicular to the general trend of the Salton Trough central axis. Vertical component seismograms at distances of 40-260 km are interpreted. The record section shows several secondary phases which are correlated and interpreted in a forward modelling scheme for time arrivals and relative amplitudes. No significant S-wave arrivals are identified. A preliminary interpretation produces a crustal depth of 22 km beneath the Chocolate Mountains and a crustal structure of P-wave velocities comprised by layers of 5.3, 5.5 and 6.2. km/s, with thicknesses of 4, 8 and 10 km, respectively. Results for the crustal structure of the Mexicali-Imperial Valley are consistent with the extensive refraction measurements made in the past; in addition, the presence of an upper mantle intrusion beneath the Valley is well resolved. Data are insufficient for determining crustal thickness in the Peninsular Ranges region. [Espanol] Se presentan los datos y la interpretacion de un perfil sismico de refraccion entre Blythe, Arizona y Ensenada, Baja California. Se utilizo como fuente una explosion subterranea realizada en un pozo cerca de Blythe como parte del proyecto Delta Force. Para obtener los datos se instalaron entre Mexicali y Ensenada 14 estaciones digitales portatiles con sismometros de tres componentes, cada 10 km, esta informacion se complemento con datos de 15 estaciones de la Red del Sur

  8. Borders as barriers to tourism: tourists experiences at the Beitbridge Border Post (Zimbabwean side

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getrude Kwanisai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available International borders greatly influence tourism development. In 2012 and 2013, a decline in tourists to Zimbabwe from South Africa was partially attributed to tourist border facilitation issues. It is against this background that this study sought to establish the nature of challenges faced by tourists when using the Beitbridge border post (Zimbabwean side. Questionnaire responses were thematically analysed and the study concluded that border administrative management related issues are a major barrier to tourism. Key among the study's recommendations is that the depressed tourists' border experiences obtaining at Beitbridge border post among other constraints have to be addressed as a matter of urgency. This will enhance Zimbabwe's accessibility, tourist satisfaction and the image of the country as a destination. The paper further identifies several destination managerial implications and future research priorities.

  9. Demarcation of Iraqi-Turkish border and problem of the future of communities after World war I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E V Baranova

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the process of settling territorial problems and border disputes between the mandate-holding states and Kemalist Turkey, and also the influence of this process on the international situation in the region.

  10. Externalization and Border-induced Displacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemberg-Pedersen, Martin

    This multidisciplinary Ph.D. dissertation engages with the timely and much debated topic of European border control. The first two chapters discuss several moral arguments claiming that border control facilitates solidarity and autonomy. These are assessed with reference to central debates...... in political philosophy concerning coercion, entry/exit, protection elsewhere and self-determination, and against the backdrop of empirical cases, such as the EU Commission’s UNHCR-donations, the Dublin II Regulation and the export of migrant camps to North Africa. In the third article the governance of asylum...... and the international banking sector all have overlapping interests in privatized border control. Chapter five identifies the multiple flows, technological, personnel, funds and data, maintaining Europe’s border infrastructure, As migrants are circulated between detention camps and countries, dumped in deserts...

  11. Abuses at Europe’s borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Breen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Refugees and migrants have been regularly subjected to widespread rights violations by officials at some European borders. The EU needs to allow more legal avenues for people seeking protection to reach Europe safely.

  12. Conservative Libertarianism and the Ethics of Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Camacho Beltran

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Many conservatives endorse a defence of closed borders grounded in basic liberal rights such as the basic right of association. Some conservatives also endorse libertarian principles of legitimacy. It is not clear though that this sort of defence of closed borders is somehow coherent with these libertarian ideals. I argue that conservative libertarians of this kind must reject this defence of closed borders because either it collapses into a form of statism incoherent with libertarian principles of legitimacy, or into an ideal precept without appeal regarding reality in the here and now that could only be applied to changing the very nature of the societies we know. As a result, at least conservative libertarians need to find a different source of justification for closed borders.

  13. Border Security: A Conceptual Model of Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    to aid stranded drivers with no food, water, or toilets.5 Computer manufacturers in Taiwan, Singapore, and South Korea could not ship their 3...border inspections. Washington State, for example, experienced a 50% drop in tourism and lost over $100 million in local revenue because of the...in large part because of what is known as “The Amistad Case.” The Spanish cargo ship La Amistad ran aground on the coastal border of New York

  14. Territorial borders, toleration and the English school.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, J.

    2002-01-01

    This article offers an assessment of the ethical status of territorial borders, arguing for a partial defence of their role in international relations. Utilising the English School as one way such a defence has been developed, it assesses pluralist and solidarist arguments, suggesting both are flawed. The article develops a notion of territorial borders as contributing to the value of tolerating difference in international relations, and that this is an ethically desirable thing to do. In doi...

  15. Improving food security empowerment in Indonesia- Timor Leste border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, G. D. P.; Yustikaningrum, R. V.

    2018-03-01

    Post Referendum 1999, Indonesia and Timor Leste have a strategic challenge to provide food consistently around the border. This research intended to discover an appropriate strategy to tackle fragility of food security in the land border of Indonesia-Timor Leste, to improve collaborative actions between parties, as well as, opportunity to actualize food cross-border trading between local farmers and factories. For the result, there are two approaches will be applied. First, the empowerment term refers to the strategy of empowerment in strengthening the capability and capacity of human capital as one of the determinant factors of the resilience and self-sufficiency achievement. Second, the gender approach looks at the women and men build confidence, resilience, and independence which one of them through an educational intervention that enable the local people to manage food chain. Atambua is a region count as relatively as high poverty, poor human capital, weak quality and competitiveness of agriculture products, livestock and fishery, SMEs, and infrastructure. Thus, field study research is applied to find the actual and strategic effort aim to lead the achievement of food security and to engage Atambua over food trade to Timor Leste.

  16. Genetic variation of Border disease virus species strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Giangaspero

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The 5´-untranslated region of Pestivirus strains isolated from domestic and wild animals were analysed to determine their taxonomic status according to nucleotide changes in the secondary genomic structure using the palindromic nucleotide substitutions (PNS method. A total of 131 isolates out of 536 Pestivirus strains evaluated, were clustered as Border disease virus (BDV species. The BDV strains were further divided into at least 8 genotypes or subspecies. Thirty-two isolates from small ruminants suffering from clinical symptoms of Border disease were clustered into bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1, BVDV-2 and classical swine fever (hog cholera virus species and also into the tentative BDV-2 species. Since the definition of an infectious disease is based primarily on a specific causative pathogen and taking into account the heterogeneity of the genus Pestivirus, clinical cases should be named according to the laboratory results. The PNS procedure could be useful for laboratory diagnosis of Border disease in domestic and wild ruminants.

  17. Will carbon motivated border tax adjustments function as a threat?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Aijun; Zhang Aizhen

    2012-01-01

    Due to large incremental carbon emissions, China might become an important target country of CBTA (carbon motivated border tax adjustments). To levy CBTA could reduce China’s emissions. Meanwhile, China’s emissions reduction could also be achieved by China’s climate policies (termed as CBTA-emissions-equivalent policies). This paper contributes to the discussion on CBTA by comparing the potential regional effects of CBTA and CBTA-emissions-equivalent policies. The main findings are as follows: (1) CBTA and CBTA-emissions-equivalent policies would result in relocations of outputs across regions and countries, affect the structure of economy and contribute to world’s emissions reduction. (2) There would be significant differences in the regional effects between CBTA and CBTA-emissions-equivalent policies. (3) Compared to carbon tax, CBTA would be a costly and inefficient policy instrument to reduce emissions, but could function as an effective coercion strategy. (4) These policies would result in competitiveness issue and rebound effects, wherein different countries would be affected differently. China is a large economy and energy consumer with high openness to international trade. Looking ahead, the Chinese government should consider the potential interactions between China and other economies when designing tax reforms. - Highlights: ►We compare regional effects of CBTA (carbon motivated border tax adjustments) and CBTA-emissions-equivalent policies. ► We explore the interactions between China and other economies. ► We investigate the potential international externalities and their effects across countries.

  18. Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) in Southwestern Border States: Examining Trends, Population Correlates, and Implications for Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussaini, Khaleel S; Garcia Saavedra, Luigi F

    2018-03-23

    Introduction Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is withdrawal syndrome in newborns following birth and is primarily caused by maternal drug use during pregnancy. This study examines trends, population correlates, and policy implications of NAS in two Southwest border states. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional analysis of Hospital Inpatient Discharge Data (HIDD) was utilized to examine the incidence of NAS in the Southwest border states of Arizona (AZ) and New Mexico (NM). All inpatient hospital births in AZ and NM from January 1, 2008 through December 31, 2013 with ICD9-CM codes for NAS (779.5), cocaine (760.72), or narcotics (760.75) were extracted. Results During 2008-2013 there were 1472 NAS cases in AZ and 888 in NM. The overall NAS rate during this period was 2.83 per 1000 births (95% CI 2.68-2.97) in AZ and 5.31 (95% CI 4.96-5.66) in NM. NAS rates increased 157% in AZ and 174% in NM. NAS newborns were more likely to have low birth weight, have respiratory distress, more likely to have feeding difficulties, and more likely to be on state Medicaid insurance. AZ border region (border with Mexico) had NAS rates significantly higher than the state rate (4.06 per 1000 births [95% CI 3.68-4.44] vs. 2.83 [95% CI 2.68-2.97], respectively). In NM, the border region rate (2.09 per 1000 births [95% CI 1.48-2.69]) was significantly lower than the state rate (5.31 [95% CI 4.96-5.66]). Conclusions Despite a dramatic increase in the incidence of NAS in the U.S. and, in particular, the Southwest border states of AZ and NM, there is still scant research on the overall incidence of NAS, its assessment in the southwest border, and associated long-term outcomes. The Healthy Border (HB) 2020 binational initiative of the U.S.-Mexico Border Health Commission is an initiative that addresses several public health priorities that not only include chronic and degenerative diseases, infectious diseases, injury prevention, maternal and child health but also mental health and

  19. Character of the contact and biostratigraphical feature of distribution of the microfauna on border between productive series (PS) and underlying upper Miocene sediments of Absheron oil and gas bearing region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikhlinsky, S.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Productive Series (PS) is a basic hydrocarbon object and has a wide distribution in the Absheron Oil and Gas Bearing Region (AOGBR).In the normal stratigraphic sequences PS lays between Akchagylian and Pontian Regiostages (Pontian).From microfauna point of view, PS contains rare native ostracods , fish teeth, otolithes and forams.In situ, in PS, there are 34 of microfauna species present and more than half of them are transitional, which appear in the Upper Miocene and finish the existence in the Akchagylian-Apsheronian sediments.Others taxons are having the strict stratigraphical distribution and very important for the definition of the age of different lithostratones inside PS.Stratigraphical distribution of these species has been tested in numerous natural outcrops and well sections.The large interest for geologists is the boundary between PS and underlying Upper Miocene.The stratigraphic character of the given intermediate complex of sediments depends on paleotectonic conditions and different sections on the way it is expressed differently.In one section, in other-the gradual transition from Pontian to Kalinskaya Suite (KaS).The detailed study of the samples from the numerous old explorationwells drilled before 1972 and from new contract areas located in the Caspian sea, such as Karabakh, Dan Ulduzu, Ashrafi, where sampling was made very detailed, allowed us to discover the characteristic biomarkers and to specify the character of distribution of the microfauna on the Pontian-KaS boundary.The similar contact between KaC and Pontian is observed in the Karabakh field too.KaS here is represented by monotonous carbonated shale, clay and claystone, almost not distinguished from the black Potian shale, with increase at the contact with water.Despite of it, the boundary is precisely beaten by microfauna.In the Pontian sediments we have discovered a characteristic complex of Ostracoda and microscopic Pelecypoda.

  20. Cross-border transmission capacity allocation mechanisms in South East Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristiansen, Tarjei

    2007-01-01

    South East Europe (SEE) is moving rapidly toward the creation of a regional electricity market and wholesale electricity market/power exchange that will improve competitive performance and increase liquidity and reliability. We describe the current applied and future possible congestion management methods in Europe including the SEE region. The paper identifies the potential benefits of a regional electricity and cross-border trade within the region and neighboring countries, and concludes with a brief discussion of policy issues. (author)

  1. Radiation safety without borders initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dibblee, Martha; Dickson, Howard; Krieger, Ken; Lopez, Jose; Waite, David; Weaver, Ken

    2008-01-01

    The Radiation Safety Without Borders (RSWB) initiative provides peer support to radiation safety professionals in developing countries, which bolsters the country's infrastructure and may lead the way for IRPA Associate membership. The Health Physics Society (HPS) recognizes that many nations do not possess the infrastructure to adequately control and beneficially use ionizing radiation. In a substantial number of countries, organized radiation protection programs are minimal. The RSWB initiative relies on HPS volunteers to assist their counterparts in developing countries with emerging health physics and radiation safety programs, but whose resources are limited, to provide tools that promote and support infrastructure and help these professionals help themselves. RSWB experience to date has shown that by providing refurbished instruments, promoting visits to a HPS venue, or visiting a country just to look provide valuable technical and social infrastructure experiences often missing in the developing nation's cadre of radiation safety professionals. HPS/RSWB with the assistance of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) pairs chapters with a country, with the expectation that the country's professional radiation safety personnel will form a foreign HPS chapter, and the country eventually will become an IRPA Associate. Although still in its formative stage, RSWB nonetheless has gotten valuable information in spite of the small number of missions. The RSWB initiative continues to have significant beneficial impacts, including: Improving the radiation safety infrastructure of the countries that participate; Assisting those countries without professional radiation safety societies to form one; Strengthening the humanitarian efforts of the United States; Enhancing Homeland Security efforts through improved control of radioactive material internationally. Developing countries, including those in Latin America, underwritten by IAEA, may take advantage of resources

  2. Tectono-magmatic evolution of the Chihuahua-Sinaloa border region in northern Mexico: Insights from zircon-apatite U-Pb geochronology, zircon Hf isotope composition and geochemistry of granodiorite intrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahar, Munazzam Ali; Goodell, Philip C.; Feinstein, Michael Nicholas

    2016-11-01

    We present the whole-rock geochemistry, LA-ICP-MS zircon-apatite U-Pb ages and zircon Hf isotope composition of the granodioritic plutons at the southwestern boundary of Chihuahua with the states of Sinaloa and Sonora. These granodiorites are exposed in the north and south of the Rio El Fuerte in southwest Chihuahua and northern Sinaloa. The magmatism spans over a time period of 37 Ma from 90 to 53 Ma. Zircons are exclusively magmatic with strong oscillatory zoning. No inheritance of any age has been observed. Our new U-Pb dating ( 250 analyses) does not support the involvement of older basement lithologies in the generation of the granitic magmas. The U-Pb apatite ages from granodiorites in southwest Chihuahua vary from 52 to 70 Ma. These apatite ages are 1 to 20 Ma younger than the corresponding zircon U-Pb crystallization ages, suggesting variable cooling rates from very fast to 15 °C/Ma ( 800 °C to 500 °C) and shallow to moderate emplacement depths. In contrast, U-Pb apatite ages from the Sinaloa batholith are restricted from 64 to 61 Ma and are indistinguishable from the zircon U-Pb ages range from 67 to 60 Ma within the error, indicating rapid cooling and very shallow emplacement. However, one sample from El Realito showed a larger difference of 20 Ma in zircon-apatite age pair: zircon 80 ± 0.8 Ma and apatite 60.6 ± 4 Ma, suggesting a slower cooling rate of 15 °C/Ma. The weighted mean initial εHf (t) isotope composition (2σ) of granodiorites varies from + 1.8 to + 5.2. The radiogenic Hf isotope composition coupled with previous Sr-Nd isotope data demonstrates a significant shift from multiple crustal sources in the Sonoran batholithic belt to the predominant contribution of the mantle-derived magmas in the southwest Chihuahua and northern Sinaloa. Based on U-Pb ages, the absence of inheritance, typical high Th/U ratio and radiogenic Hf isotope composition, we suggest that the Late Cretaceous-Paleogene magmatic rocks in this region are not derived from

  3. Talents, creativity and innovation in Austria and the Czech Republic: a cross-border empirical investigation:

    OpenAIRE

    Ehrenstorfer, Barbara; Nový, Jan; Peherstorfer, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive cross-border empirical investigation has been carried out in the framework of an intercultural European Union Project (The Czech Republic/Austria) in the border regions of South Bohemia and NorthernAustria. The aimwas to gain knowledge in terms of the statusquo of creativity and innovation, as well as the situation and requirements in terms of working and living in the region. Thereby, emphasis is placed on the needs and requirements of young people (talents) in order to see w...

  4. The Canarian linguistic heritage in the Mexican border with Belize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Arístides Pérez Aguilar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of words that arrived in the Mexican border with Belize during the first half of the XVIII century with Canarian colonizers whom were brought by the governor of Yucatán to populate the village of Salamanca de Bacalar in order to built a fortress to stop the English advance in the region. It is about verbs, nouns and adjectives that became embedded within certain blocks of the material life of the society from Bacalar made of indios, mestizos and Spanish whom their percentages allowed the ingrainment and diffusion of these voices which until today still have a peculiar vitality on both sides of the river.

  5. Cross-border teleradiology-Experience from two international teleradiology projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Peeter [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Tallinn University of Technology, East Tallinn Central Hospital, Paernu mnt 104, 11312 Tallinn (Estonia)], E-mail: Peeter.Ross@itk.ee; Sepper, Ruth [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Tallinn University of Technology, Akadeemia tee 15, 12618 Tallinn (Estonia)], E-mail: Ruth.Sepper@gmail.com; Pohjonen, Hanna [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Tallinn University of Technology, Akadeemia tee 15, 12618 Tallinn (Estonia)], E-mail: Hanna.Pohjonen@rosalieco.fi

    2010-01-15

    Teleradiology aims to even radiologists' workload, ensure on-call services, reduce waiting lists, consult other specialists and cut costs. Cross-border teleradiology widens this scope beyond the country borders. However, the new service should not reduce the quality of radiology. Quality and trust are key factors in establishment of teleradiology. Additionally there are organizational, technical, legal, security and linguistic issues influencing the service. Herein, we have used experiences from two partially European Union funded telemedicine projects to evaluate factors affecting cross-border teleradiology. Clinical partners from Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Lithuania and the Netherlands went through 649 radiology test cases in two different teleradiology projects to build trust and agree about the report structure. Technical set-up was established using secure Internet data transfer, streaming technology, integration of workflows and creating structured reporting tool to overcome language barriers. The biggest barrier to overcome in cross-border teleradiology was the language issue. Establishment of the service was technically and semantically successful but limited to knee and hip X-ray examinations only because the structured reporting tool did not cover any other anatomical regions yet. Special attention has to be paid to clinical quality and trust between partners in cross-border teleradiology. Our experience shows that it is achievable. Legal, security and financial aspects are not covered in this paper because today they differ country by country. There is however an European Union level harmonization process started to enable cross-border eHealth in general.

  6. TACTICS OF BORDER CROSSING MOVEMENT: EXPLORING THE MOBILITY OF BRAZILIANS THROUGH THE SCHENGEN AND UK AIRSPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Dias

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the relations between migrants, mobility, tactics, negotiation, and the contemporary definition of borders in the aftermath of 9/11.The empirical focus of this paper is how Brazilians from Alto Paranaiba journey through airports located in the Schengen area and in the British territory to London. As a main research orientation, I use the notion of journey as approached by mobility studies, where actions and skills remain an important link between the wayfarer and the social space in which s/he moves through, the embodied practice to how we grasp the world. Migrants deal and struggle against border regime, but they are not powerless social actors. They rather produce creative resistance to reinvent their journey through the surveillance apparatus, which manage and delimit places with targets and threats. In this process, I explore the notion of border crossing movement as a tactical mobility developed by migrants to overcome the border control imposed by governments in airports. The article was drawn through fieldwork conducted initially in London, between 2009 and 2013, and afterwards in Alto Paranaiba, during 2013. The ethnographic study consisted in semi-structured interviews, participant observation through snowball technique, which enabled me to access a considerable number of participants in these two regions explored. The argument that I develop is that migrants as social actors are part important in the dialogue produced between border crossing and border reinforcement.

  7. Cross-border teleradiology-Experience from two international teleradiology projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, Peeter; Sepper, Ruth; Pohjonen, Hanna

    2010-01-01

    Teleradiology aims to even radiologists' workload, ensure on-call services, reduce waiting lists, consult other specialists and cut costs. Cross-border teleradiology widens this scope beyond the country borders. However, the new service should not reduce the quality of radiology. Quality and trust are key factors in establishment of teleradiology. Additionally there are organizational, technical, legal, security and linguistic issues influencing the service. Herein, we have used experiences from two partially European Union funded telemedicine projects to evaluate factors affecting cross-border teleradiology. Clinical partners from Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Lithuania and the Netherlands went through 649 radiology test cases in two different teleradiology projects to build trust and agree about the report structure. Technical set-up was established using secure Internet data transfer, streaming technology, integration of workflows and creating structured reporting tool to overcome language barriers. The biggest barrier to overcome in cross-border teleradiology was the language issue. Establishment of the service was technically and semantically successful but limited to knee and hip X-ray examinations only because the structured reporting tool did not cover any other anatomical regions yet. Special attention has to be paid to clinical quality and trust between partners in cross-border teleradiology. Our experience shows that it is achievable. Legal, security and financial aspects are not covered in this paper because today they differ country by country. There is however an European Union level harmonization process started to enable cross-border eHealth in general.

  8. Left ventricle myocardial border detection in three-dimensional intracardiac ultrasound images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Weidong; Kanani, Prapti; Allan, John; Kerber, Richard; McKay, Charles R.; Sonka, Milan

    1997-05-01

    We have previously reported an automated approach to detection of endocardial and epicardial borders in individual intracardiac ultrasound (ICUS) images. Here, we report the method's extension to 3D ICUS image data sets. Our method is based on fully automated detection of epicardial and endocardial borders inside a single interactively identified region of interest. BOrder detection is based on an optimal graph-searching approach that utilizes a priori knowledge about left ventricular (LV) anatomy and ultrasound imaging physics. Eight cadaveric pig hearts were used for validation. Two ICUS sequences were obtained from each heart, with a 10 MHz CVIS 10F catheter positioned in the LV across (1) the aortic valve and (2) the mitral valve. Performance of the 3D automated border detection method was assessed by comparing the observer- defined and computer-determined quantitative indices of LV volume and by border positioning errors. The 3D reconstruction of the lV was performed from the sequences of the detected epicardial and endocardial borders using shape- based interpolation and surface rendering.

  9. Measuring cross-border travel times for freight : Otay Mesa international border crossing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Cross border movement of people and goods is a vital part of the North American economy. : Accurate real-time data on travel times along the US-Mexico border can help generate a range : of tangible benefits covering improved operations and security, ...

  10. Border Cracks: Approaching Border Security From a Complexity Theory and Systems Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    the Gulf Cartel is currently battling the new organization for control of smuggling routes in Tamaulipas, Nuevo Leon, and Veracruz .99...organization has also expanded its operations to Zacatecas, Veracruz , Tabasco, Campache, Quintana Roo, and Chiapas, in addition to increasing its... sale of alcoholic beverages. This created a crisis along the border and the Immigration Services Border Patrol was quickly expanded to 450 officers

  11. The Existence Of Leading Islands Securing And The Border Areas Unitary State Of Indonesia An Analysis In Law Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazali

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The research was carried with the aim to discover the existence of securing the foremost islands and state border region of the Republic of Indonesia reviewed from a legal perspective which is directly related to the existence of security and dispute resolution methods as well as the governance of the foremost islands and border region in Kalimantan which bordering Malaysia. This study was conducted in Nunukan district and the surrounding provinces of Kalimantan in this research method that used is normative legal analysis data with juridical and qualitative descriptive approach. The results showed that the security of foremost islands and border region of law perspective in accordance with the Law No. 34 of 2004 regarding the Indonesian National Army has not been implemented to the fullest to realize the security of foremost islands and border region as the frontline of the Republic of Indonesia. The existence of leading islands securing and the border region of the Republic of Indonesia still contain many weaknesses in terms of both governance and security.

  12. Tribal Boundary Polygons, Region 9, 2007, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Dataset of all Indian Reservations in US EPA Region 9 (California, Arizona and Nevada) with some reservation border areas of adjacent states included (adjacent areas...

  13. Tribal Land Polygons, Region 9, 2006, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Dataset of all Indian Reservations in US EPA Region 9 (California, Arizona and Nevada) with some reservation border areas of adjacent states included (adjacent areas...

  14. Border effects among Catalan dialects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieling, Martijn; Valls, Esteve; Baayen, R. Harald; Nerbonne, John; Speelman, Dirk; Heylen, Kris; Geeraerts, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigate which factors influence the linguistic distance of Catalan dialectal pronunciations from standard Catalan. We use pronunciations from three regions where the northwestern variety of the Catalan language is spoken (Catalonia, Aragon and Andorra). In contrast to Aragon,

  15. Sustainable rural development and cross-border cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Žaklina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of sustainable rural development comprises three aspects - social, economical and ecological. They are supposed to act in synergy, but, at the same time, these aspects are supposed to be competitive. Agriculture, as a traditional activity of rural economy, contributes to the sustainable development of rural areas only if there is an adequate resources management. If not, there will be a significant degradation of rural environment. These are the reasons why sustainable agriculture development is emphasized since it maximizes productivity and minimizes negative effects on nature and human resources. In this context, one should observe the connection between agriculture and tourism existing in the EU, where the application of sustainable agricultural development concept produces external effects connected to biodiversity protection and environment in rural areas. These become a good foundation for the development of rural and ecotourism. EU enlargement induced diversification of support programmes that EU gives to the candidate countries, as well as to those who are just entering the process of stabilization and association to the EU. Through cross-border cooperation projects, many goals can be accomplished, among which aspiration for promotion of sustainable economical and social development in border regions is one of the leading. Knowing that these regions are usually passive and underdeveloped, the projects of cross-border cooperation could induce development of those activities in local economy, which could bring better living conditions and economic prosperity on the one hand, and protection of environment on the other. Examples of this kind of projects in Serbia can usually be found in rural and ecotourism development.

  16. BTFS: The Border Trade Facilitation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, L.R.

    1999-03-18

    The author demonstrates the Border Trade Facilitation System (BTFS), an agent-based bilingual e-commerce system built to expedite the regulation, control, and execution of commercial trans-border shipments during the delivery phase. The system was built to serve maquila industries at the US/Mexican border. The BTFS uses foundation technology developed here at Sandia Laboratories' Advanced Information Systems Lab (AISL), including a distributed object substrate, a general-purpose agent development framework, dynamically generated agent-human interaction via the World-Wide Web, and a collaborative agent architecture. This technology is also the substrate for the Multi-Agent Simulation Management System (MASMAS) proposed for demonstration at this conference. The BTFS executes authenticated transactions among agents performing open trading over the Internet. With the BTFS in place, one could conduct secure international transactions from any site with an Internet connection and a web browser. The BTFS is currently being evaluated for commercialization.

  17. A CART extention using Quadratic Decision Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartelius, Karsten

    1999-01-01

    In this article we put forward an extention to the hierarchical CART classification method which uses quadratic decision borders. The original CART applies univariate splits on individual variables as well as splits on combinations of variables to recursively partition the feature-space into subs......In this article we put forward an extention to the hierarchical CART classification method which uses quadratic decision borders. The original CART applies univariate splits on individual variables as well as splits on combinations of variables to recursively partition the feature......-space into subsets which are successively more class-homogeneous. Guided by the fact that class-distributions in feature-space are very often hyper-elliptical shaped, we give an extension to the original CART which also uses quadratic shaped decision borders which can be modelled by a mean-vector and a dispersion...

  18. Of States and Borders on the Internet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shklovski, Irina; Struthers, David

    2010-01-01

    in Kazakhstan shows that the naming of a state-controlled space on the Internet, through the use of country code top-level domain names (ccTLDs), does in fact matter to the average user. People are aware of national boundary traversals as they navigate the Internet. Respondents in our study identified......The space of the Internet is often described as easy to traverse with no regard for national borders. Yet few have considered what such easy border crossings on the Internet might mean to the ordinary people actually doing the traversing. Our qualitative study of regular Internet users...... their activity on the Internet as happening within or outside the space of the state to which they felt allegiance and belonging. National borders are demarcated on the Internet through naming via ccTLDs and can result in individual expressions of various types of nationalism online. We find that cc...

  19. Russo-Japanese Territorial Dispute from the Border Region Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukiko Kuroiwa

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Debido a la disputa territorial creada a partir del final de la IIª Guerra Mundial, Japón y la Unión Soviética llevan manteniendo posturas opuestas y tienen desde entonces como consecuencia, pendiente la firma de un tratado de paz. Las negociaciones territoriales entre Japón y Rusia que se reanudaron con el fin de la Guerra Fría se llevan manteniendo desde hace más de veinte años. Sin embargo, no hay resolución a la vista. Japón persiste en su petición de que le sean devueltos los conocidos como Territorios del Norte (Islas Kuriles del Sur, según su definición rusa y que efectivamente se mantienen bajo administración rusa. ¿Cuál es la razón por la que Japón y Rusia son incapaces de alcanzar acuerdo alguno sobre la posesión de estas pequeñas islas? El propósito de este artículo es el de demostrar dónde se sitúan los obstáculos que se interponen en la resolución de esta disputa desde la perspectiva de una región fronteriza. En primer lugar, este artículo reastrea los orígenes y vicisitudes de la disputa y a continuación, examina las posturas de los pueblos indígenas y japoneses que anteriormente habitaban las Islas Kuriles, así como de la población rusa que actualmente reside en ellas. Se va a examinar igualmente la situación en Nemuro, Hokkaido, que se encuentra cerca de la frontera Rusia-Japón. Al haberse hecho esperar tanto la resolución de la disputa territorial, se han acabado estableciendo "mitos territoriales" a ambos lados de la frontera, reforzándose con ello las respectivas narrativas, lo cual hace que la resolución de la disputa se vuelva aún más difícil.

  20. Social and Symbolic Capital in Border Region Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne; Royer, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    We understand a cluster as a certain number of value adding webs around single firms overlapping each other and being constituted by a connection of horizontal, vertical and lateral value adding activities contributed by different actors in proximity to one another which all act in relation to a ...

  1. Alsace knocks down energetic borders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    The author proposes an overview of the energy production, consumption and policy in Alsace. The most part (95 per cent) of the production comes from nuclear and hydraulic power stations. He indicates the quantities of oil, gas and electricity consumed by this region, the share of housing, industry, transports and agriculture in energy consumption. He outlines the close international relationships with Germany and Switzerland, in the middle of electricity or gas networks. On the side of renewable energies, the author comments the high potential of wood. He evokes the development of heat networks and the commitment of the region for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, for the development of the use of biomass and solar energy, and for the development of low energy consumption buildings

  2. Cross-border Innovation Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda; Makkonen, Teemu; Sørensen, Nils Karl

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Increase in innovation cooperation of firms is related to; faster product life cycles, complexity of technology and sharing of risk Choice between different partners is based on significance of the knowledge they offer and cost savings (Balderboes et al. 2004). Choosing a foreign par...... partner can give access to knowledge not available in the region but comes with a cost (Boschma, 2005). Choice of partner is influenced by firm characteristics, industry and location of the firm...

  3. Cross-border mobility of workers between Galicia and north of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Falagán Mota

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we deal with cross-border flows of people within the Euroregion Galicia-North of Portugal, paying particular attention to those led by workers. Based on data for daily mobility between the places of residence and work (commuters, it can be defined, within this territory, the so-called Polycentric Urban Regions (PUR of Vigo and Porto. These regions should constitute significant referents of cross-border mobility, whose importance we begin to realize by estimating the movement of passengers across border crossings linking the south of Galicia and the north of Portugal. In this context, given the non-existence of official statistics, the reports prepared by the Eures Galicia/Região Norte office provide relevant information about the flow of cross-border workers in the area, which we have complemented by conducting two surveys directed, respectively, to involved workers and companies, and data from a recent study on labour mobility in the Euroregion. The evidence demonstrates the quantitative importance achieved in the territory analyzed by this interesting phenomenon of cross-border work and allows a description of its characteristics that shows the difficulties faced by the process of construction of a European labor market.

  4. The changing forms and nature of borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Walther

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary borders are not always where you would expect them to be. On a flight to America, for instance, the crew will inform you that passengers are not allowed to congregate in groups around the toilets or anywhere in the aircraft. This US State Department regulation applies whether you are on Swiss soil waiting for takeoff, contemplating the Atlantic Ocean at an altitude of 33’000 feet above international waters, or landing at John F. Kennedy Airport in New York City. Borders are no lo...

  5. Dimeric assembly of enterocyte brush border enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M

    1994-01-01

    The noncovalent, dimeric assembly of small intestinal brush border enzymes was studied by sedimentation analysis in density gradients of extracts of pulse-labeled pig jejunal mucosal explants. Like aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2), sucrase-isomaltase (EC 3.2.1.48-10), aminopeptidase A (EC 3...... appearance of the liposome-reconstituted enzyme [Norén et al. (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 12306-12309], showing only the inner, membrane-anchored domains of the monomers to be in close contact with one another while the outer domains are far apart. In contrast to the other brush border enzymes studied...

  6. of the U. S.-Mexico Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Meritet

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the possible impacts of liquefied natural gas (LNG projects on natural gas prices on both sides of the U. S.-Mexico border in California. In that state gas prices are high and demand is expected to grow. Several projects for LNG facilities have been proposed and have to cope with public opinions against them. In Baja California, four LNG projects are under development given the rising demand forecasted for the next years. After a detailed study of the opportunity for LNG projects, we conclude with an analysis of the fundamentals of the current and future price formation in both sides of the U. S.- Mexico border.

  7. Meteors Without Borders: a global campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heenatigala, T.

    2012-01-01

    "Meteors Without Borders" is a global project, organized by Astronomers Without Borders and launched during the Global Astronomy Month in 2010 for the Lyrid meteor shower. The project focused on encouraging amateur astronomy groups to hold public outreach events for major meteor showers, conduct meteor-related classroom activities, photography, poetry and art work. It also uses social-media platforms to connect groups around the world to share their observations and photography, live during the events. At the International Meteor Conference 2011, the progress of the project was presented along with an extended invitation for collaborations for further improvements of the project.

  8. Bridging regional innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Teis

    2013-01-01

    collaboration activity in cross-border innovation systems? This paper examines regional integration in the Oresund Region over time. It deals with a specific part of the RIS, as it analyses research collaboration between actors from the Danish and Swedish sides, with a specific emphasis on the biotech industry...

  9. Writing on the Edge: Impressions of a U.S.-Mexico Border in Rolando Hinojosa's Estampas del Valle

    OpenAIRE

    CANTU, MARIA GUADALUPE

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation engages in a critical reading of Rolando Hinojosa's early fiction in Estampas del Valle as an example of a unique border literature that highlights the multiplicity of elements that exist along the Rio Grande. By using the work of an author that has direct experience with life along the U.S.-Mexico border the aim of this study is to look at how the border region and its cultural and spatial manifestations impact on writings concerned with memory, the personal and the self. ...

  10. Crossing the Borders: An Eco-cinecritical Analysis of Plant Wars and Bird Without Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Ching Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay reads two Asian nature-oriented films from the perspective of ecocinecriticism,an ecologically minded film criticism. Plant Wars, produced by PTSTaiwan, questions the demarcation between native plants and exotic plants as well asbetween plants and human beings so as to remap the in-between border area. Thestorytelling method it applies is to feature 14 currently native plants as the maincharacters, and illustrates their relationship to aboriginal people, farmers, beekeepersand to other insect species. Bird Without Borders, also produced by PTS, tells the storyof the migration journey of a group of black-faced spoonbills flying 16,000 kilometersall the way from Tainan, Taiwan, to Japan, along the border of South and North Korea,to a remote island of China to look for feeding places and then back to Taiwan to spendthe winter. Different layers of border-crossing are shown in Bird. One similarity ofthese two PTS productions is the search for border-crossing so as to redefine or revisewhat the border means. Plant questions the biological categorization of the native plantsand the exotic plants; Bird illustrates how the crew physically follows the route of thebirds’ flight which crosses the national borders to provide a vision of remapping thenatural territory through challenging the idea of a fixed “place.” Both are seeking forways to trespass the man-made borders: Plant via environmental imagination; Bird viasome physical movement. While the title of Plant Wars seemingly expresses its positionmore strongly through “wars,” Bird Without Borders explicitly asserts a dream of noborders.

  11. “Cross-border environmental peace” in development contexts: the convergence of peace with de-territorialized development

    OpenAIRE

    Koff, Harlan; Maganda, Carmen; Conde, Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    This article contends that notions of «peace» and «justice» in cross-border water management vary in different world regions. Moreover, it argues that «peace» and «justice» can be explained by analyzing the interaction between «regional» interpretations and implementation of water security norms and local cross-border power structures. «Regional water security» is defined as the normative commitment to provide necessary water resources to communities within world regions. «Powe...

  12. A Test for Learning Style Differences for the U.S. Border Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picou, Armand; Gatlin-Watts, Rebecca; Packer, James

    1998-01-01

    This study examined learning style differences in samples of the native Spanish-speaking population of the Texas-Mexico border region, focusing on possible culture- and gender-related variation. Subjects were 187 students at six universities in Texas, who were administered a Spanish translated version of the Gregorc Style Delineator. Results…

  13. Indigenous Resistance and Racist Schooling on the Borders of Empires: Coast Salish Cultural Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The Coast Salish people of British Columbia and Washington State inhabit a borderlands region where they have negotiated the sometimes contrasting policies of two empires. Families belong to more than one village and must travel across the Canada-USA border frequently for ceremonies and events that bind the Coast Salish world together. Both…

  14. Developing Integrated Rural Tourism: Actor Practices in the English/Welsh Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Gunjan; Ilbery, Brian

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines community attitudes and distinctive practices that shape local responses to integrated rural tourism (IRT) development in the lagging rural region of the English/Welsh border area. The focus is on how actors acquire attributes as a result of their relations with others and how these assumed identities are performed in, by and…

  15. Creating borders : exploring the impact of the Ethio-Eritrean war on the local population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, G.J.

    2001-01-01

    After more than two years of bloody warfare, the leaders of Ethiopia and Eritrea signed a peace accord in Algiers on 12 December 2000. Although the peace accord paved the way for negotiations and a delineation of the Ethio-Eritrean border, political stability in the region is not expected to

  16. Border Disease Virus among Chamois, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Rosa; Cabezón, Oscar; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Casas, Encarna; Velarde, Roser; Lavín, Santiago

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 3,000 Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) died in northeastern Spain during 2005–2007. Border disease virus infection was identified by reverse transcription–PCR and sequencing analysis. These results implicate this virus as the primary cause of death, similar to findings in the previous epizootic in 2001. PMID:19239761

  17. Estimating Border Tax Evasion in Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Van Dunem, Joao Ernesto

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between border tax rates and evasion is examined for Mozambique using the methodology developed by Fisman and Wei (2004). We find that high tax rates are associated with high levels of under-reporting of import values and that tax rates have a strong and positive effect on tax...

  18. Sensory neuropathy in two Border collie puppies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeersch, K; Van Ham, L; Braund, K G; Bhatti, S; Tshamala, M; Chiers, K; Schrauwen, E

    2005-06-01

    A peripheral sensory neuropathy was diagnosed in two Border collie puppies. Neurological, electrophysiological and histopathological examinations suggested a purely sensory neuropathy with mainly distal involvement. Urinary incontinence was observed in one of the puppies and histological examination of the vagus nerve revealed degenerative changes. An inherited disorder was suspected.

  19. Cross-border flow of health information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Iorio, Concetta Tania; Carinci, Fabrizio; Brillante, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    The EUBIROD project aims to perform a cross-border flow of diabetes information across 19 European countries using the BIRO information system, which embeds privacy principles and data protection mechanisms in its architecture (privacy by design). A specific task of EUBIROD was to investigate...

  20. Leishmaniasis: sickness without borders | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A fly carrying a deadly parasite is endemic in the jungles of the Iguazu Falls, located where the borders of Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay meet. For centuries, this insect did not bother anyone in this remote area. But as its territory has been encroached on by settlements, the disease has spread. With IDRC's support ...

  1. Border Lakes land-cover classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin Bauer; Brian Loeffelholz; Doug. Shinneman

    2009-01-01

    This document contains metadata and description of land-cover classification of approximately 5.1 million acres of land bordering Minnesota, U.S.A. and Ontario, Canada. The classification focused on the separation and identification of specific forest-cover types. Some separation of the nonforest classes also was performed. The classification was derived from multi-...

  2. International Taxation and Cross-Border Banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Voget, J.; Wagner, W.B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines empirically how international taxation affects the volume and pricing of cross-border banking activities for a sample of banks in 38 countries over the 1998-2008 - period. Home country corporate income taxation of foreign-source bank income is found to reduce banking-sector FDI.

  3. International taxation and cross-border banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Voget, J.; Wagner, W.B.

    This paper examines empirically how international taxation affects the volume and pricing of cross-border banking activities for a sample of banks in 38 countries over the 1998�2008 period. International double taxation of foreign-source bank income is found to reduce banking-sector FDI.

  4. Cross-border Mergers and Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan

    This paper focuses on three topics in cross-border mergers and acquisitions (CBM&As) field: motivations for CBM&As, valuation techniques and CBM&A performance (assessment and the determinants). By taking an overview of what have been found so far in academic field and investigating...

  5. Education without borders: Internationalisation of the tourism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Education without borders: Internationalisation of the tourism business curriculum in the central Baltic area. ... Research in Hospitality Management ... This paper focuses on internationalisation of a tourism business curriculum in higher professional education in three Baltic Sea states: Finland, Estonia and Latvia. The aim of ...

  6. Border Security: The Role of the U.S. Border Patrol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nunez-Neto, Blas

    2005-01-01

    .... Today, the USBP's primary mission is to detect and prevent the entry of terrorists, weapons of mass destruction, and illegal aliens into the country, and to interdict drug smugglers and other criminals along the border...

  7. Food security in a world without borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haen, Hartwig; Thompson, Brian

    2003-01-01

    The alleviation of poverty and the eradication of hunger and malnutrition are within reach. Considerable progress has been made over the past thirty years in reducing the numbers of the hungry, and projections over the next thirty years suggest that this progress will continue. The majority of developing countries have participated in this progress and have improved nutrition but there are significant regional differences. The current challenge is to build upon and accelerate the progress already made. Everyone is involved in this struggle against hunger and malnutrition, and to achieve these goals, global partnerships to enhance co-operation and co-ordination are being strengthened. Successful country experiences for improving food security and nutrition have demonstrated the importance of peace, political stability, and stable economic growth. There is also the need for increased foreign investment and increased ODA, particularly for African agriculture, debt relief, the better integration of LDCs in the global economy, their more secure access to markets and more equitable terms of trade, enhanced South-South co-operation, training and research and new high-yield and drought-resistant crop varieties. While all these have been commented on and recognised before, we must close the credibility gap in our political will by honouring our existing commitments for providing tangible benefits at the local level. For globalisation, the key issue is how the aggregate benefits of globalisation will be distributed and how to translate this into better nutrition. The LDCs, which are the most vulnerable and disadvantaged members of the international community, should be at the centre of this drive towards food security and take genuine ownership of policies, initiatives and activities to improve development. At the same time we need to succeed in making the developed world more aware of and responsive to the conditions of the LDCs. The most effective way to improve nutrition

  8. Cross Border Business Cycle Impacts on the El Paso Housing Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokce Kincal

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available There is comparatively little empirical evidence regarding the impacts of cross border business cycle fluctuations on metropolitan housing markets located near international boundaries. This study examines the impacts of economic conditions in Mexico on sales of existing single–family houses in El Paso, Texas. Anecdotal evidence suggests that these impacts are fairly notable. Annual frequency data from the University of Texas at El Paso Border Region Modeling Project are used to test this possibility. Results indicate that solid empirical evidence of such a linkage is elusive.

  9. Binational Collaboration in Law Enforcement and Public Security Issues on the U.S.-Mexican Border

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, José María; Shirk, David Ph.D.

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines law enforcement and security context of the U.S.-Mexican border region and the new challenges that have developed since September 11 as a result of new terrorist concerns. The authors explore the conventional understanding of U.S.-Mexican relations and the question of whether there is a “security community†along the border. The authors map the law enforcement and security structures that are of significance in shaping the U.S.-Mexican relationship, particularly the new...

  10. FURGY – Cross-border Networking with Focus on Renewable Energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerstlberger, Wolfgang; Siegl, Michael; Vedder, Jan-Frederik

    FURGY (Future Renewable Energies) which is a project supported by European INTERREG IV A funds shall establish a joint center of competence in the regions north and south of the German-Danish border for renewable resources and energy efficiency, helping to build a sustainable energy cluster status...... on international level. The project started in late 2009 with a runtime of 3 years. The FURGY project pursues the goal to strengthen this existing location advantage by a vital cross-border network. In the sector of renewable energy surveys, interdisciplinary networks and active information policies shall optimize...

  11. Restructuring locality: practice, identity and place-making on the German-Polish border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandberg, Marie

    2016-01-01

    ′ leaderships are attempting to wrestle the cities out of their downmarket positioning in the global economy. Deploying a performative research strategy of methodological relationalism, the article examines intersections between these cities′ strategies of situating local youth within urban regeneration...... and cross-border projects and local youth′s preferences for engaging in other kinds of place-making. By ‘seeing’ the cities in border regions through practices of place-making within the multiscalar processes of urban regeneration, new insights about ‘place’ are generated in which city branding...

  12. The Theoretical Prerequisites for the Emergence of Interactive Marketing in the System of Management of Cross-Border Economic Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gegedosh Kristian V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to characterize the basic theoretical aspects of marketing in cross-border cooperation. It has been found that, in the current context of the IT sector development, it is of substantial relevance to apply the benefits of online marketing together with integrating it into the international regional cross-border economic relations. The author’s own conception of the use of interactive marketing to further improve interaction of the entities of neighbouring countries in various areas of cross-border cooperation (CBC has been proposed. A layout of web site interface of the interactive cross-border business center has been developed on the example of the euroregional formation of member countries in the Interregional Association «Carpathian Euroregion». One of the main challenges to the development of the CBC today is the lack of a well-functioning mechanism of interaction of «local authorities – regional development agencies – business structures». However, after building a model for development of a cross-border economy based on interactive marketing principles, the border areas on both sides will be able to better develop the regional economy and, consequently, the social well-being of the territory as a whole.

  13. O papel estratégico de cidades gêmeas no controle de mercadorias em regiões de fronteira no contexto do MERCOSUL: Uruguaiana (BR e Paso de los Libres (AR / The strategic role of twin cities in controlling goods in border regions in the MERCOSUR context: Uruguaiana (BR and Paso de los Libres (AR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heleniza Ávila Campos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O território fronteiriço, enquanto espaço potencial para projetos de desenvolvimento compartilhados entre países, apresenta, na realidade política latino-americana, claras limitações de integração. Mesmo assim, os interesses comerciais regionais apontam para uma necessária revisão dos limites e barreiras ali existentes. Neste sentido, o Mercado Comum do Sul - MERCOSUL tem se constituído, desde 1991 (ano de sua criação, em um bloco de países sul-americanos que visa a ampliar a circulação de bens, serviços e pessoas. No entanto, os projetos regionais de caráter econômico conflituam-se com a realidade desigual de suas cidades gêmeas, as quais não possuem infraestrutura nem investimentos sociais para tais dinâmicas. No contexto da América do Sul, mais especificamente da Bacia Platina, destacam-se as cidades gêmeas de Uruguaiana (BR e Paso de los Libres (AR, que têm representado um importante papel no controle de fluxos de mercadorias e pessoas, de acordo com demandas comerciais, embora suas condições de desenvolvimento sejam precárias. O artigo se propõe a discutir o papel das cidades gêmeas como nós funcional e espacialmente estratégicos no MERCOSUL. Abstract Border territory is a potential space for shared development projects between countries, but there are many challenges for integration policies in South America. Nonetheless, regional trade interests point to a necessary revision of the existing limits and barriers. In this sense, the Common Market of the South (MERCOSUL, since 1991 (year of its creation, made an agreement among its member states aiming to improve goods, services and people flow. However, regional projects has been in conflict with the unequal reality of their twin cities, which do not have infrastructure or social conditions for such dynamics. In this context, more specifically the Platina Basin, the twin cities of Uruguaiana (BRA-Paso de los Libres (ARG have assumed an important role

  14. API and PNR data in use for border control authorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Chang; McGauran, Rachel; Nelen, Hans

    Airplanes transport a large number of travelers simultaneously, and airports are often described as inland borders where strangers converge and disperse. They are also a conduit for terrorism and transnational crimes. Border control authorities have endeavored to obtain information regarding

  15. Border Security: Immigration Issues in the 108th Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seghetti, Lisa M

    2004-01-01

    .... Prior to the terrorist attacks, the priorities for border security policy were beginning to shift from immigration-related issues to issues related to facilitating legitimate cross-border commerce...

  16. Border Security -- One Step Toward Resolving the Conflict in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bennett, Mark S

    2005-01-01

    .... It will do this by proving that border security is a key component to suppressing the Iraqi insurgency and that border security operations have been hindered by a lack of interagency coordination...

  17. Hmong Across Borders or Borders Across Hmong? Social and Political Influences Upon Hmong People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasit Leepreecha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Hmong are a transnational ethnic people, because of their dispersal from China into Southeast Asia in the early 19th century and from Southeast Asia to Western countries from 1975 onward. However, even within the context of Southeast Asia and southern China, the Hmong are a transnational ethnic group, due to state boundaries and the enforcement of international laws.Scholars speak as though the Hmong population has crossed political and legal borders by their movement across state boundaries and international borders. However, I argue that it is the political, social, and legal borders that have cut across the Hmong people and subjected them to be citizens of different modern nation-states. Even in the present time, these borders still, and continuously, play important roles that cross and divide the Hmong people into distinctive subgroups and fragments. In this article, I will start by describing the generally understood situation of Hmong being across national borders, and then will explain my argument that borders are across the Hmong.

  18. Crossing borders: The Case of ethnic Dagestani in Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Meurmishvili, Giorgi

    2014-01-01

    According to William Zartman Borders run across land but through people. On maps they appear as fine one-dimensional lines, whereas on the ground they have many dimensions. Borders are boundaries in depth, space around a line, place where state meets society" (Zartman 2010:16). It is impossible to understand borders, without peripheral relations between the states and societies they contain. Itself borders are zones in which people create special relationship with other people. ...

  19. A reappraisal of the border effect on relative price volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Yin-Wong; Lai, Kon-Sun

    2006-01-01

    Engel and Rogers (1996) find that crossing the US-Canada border can considerably raise relative price volatility and that exchange rate fluctuations explain about one-third of the volatility increase. In reevaluating the border effect, this study shows that cross-country heterogeneity in price volatility can lead to significant bias in measuring the border effect unless proper adjustment is made to correct it. The analysis explores the implication of symmetric sampling for border effect estim...

  20. International Border Management Systems (IBMS) Program : visions and strategies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, Michael; Mohagheghi, Amir Hossein

    2011-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), International Border Management Systems (IBMS) Program is working to establish a long-term border security strategy with United States Central Command (CENTCOM). Efforts are being made to synthesize border security capabilities and technologies maintained at the Laboratories, and coordinate with subject matter expertise from both the New Mexico and California offices. The vision for SNL is to provide science and technology support for international projects and engagements on border security.

  1. An Analysis on Religious-Ethnic Geopolitics, Security and Development in Border Towns. Case Study: Sistan and Baluchestan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISSA EBRAHIMZADEH

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Borders and border areas require security measures, which are very important to create security on the borders. The paper also analyzes the role of ethnic groups living near borderlines. Iran is an ethnically varied country and distinguishing characteristics of ethnic groups from each other in Iran is particularly concentrated on language, religion and ethnic components. These ethnic groups have been scattered as certain minority groups in border provinces and areas. The presence of Iranian nationals in the Western, Eastern and Northern borders which are contiguous with countries with the same religion and language creates by itself an appropriate context for the occurrence of ethnic crises in border areas and boundary underdevelopment is an another cause for this problem. In addition, the three components, namely religion, ethnicity, and language, should be taken into consideration in adopting policies and strategies to deal with these areas. In Sistan and Baluchestan, Iran, there are effective national strategies taking advantage of the presence and existence of religious and ethnic groups in the border towns, adopting security and development policies taking into account these two issues. They have a deep effect on regional development and national solidarity due to construction activities and infrastructure investments on the one hand and reducing insecurity and trafficking on the other hand.

  2. Contrast kinetics of the malignant breast tumour - border versus centre enhancement on dynamic midfield MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marklund, M.; Torp-Pedersen, S.; Bentzon, N.

    2008-01-01

    receptor negative tumours. CONCLUSION: The border/centre enhancement difference in malignant breast tumours is easily visualized on midfield dynamic magnetic resonance mammography. The dynamic behaviour is significantly correlated to histological features and receptor status of the tumours Udgivelsesdato......PURPOSE: To quantify the border versus centre enhancement of malignant breast tumours on dynamic magnetic resonance mammography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-two women diagnosed with primary breast cancer underwent dynamic magnetic resonance mammography (Omniscan 0.2 mmol/kg bodyweight......) on a midfield scanner (0.6 T), prior to surgery. The following five variables were recorded from the border and centre regions of the tumours: Early Enhancement, Time to Peak, Wash-in rate, Wash-out rate and Area under Curve. Information on histology type, oestrogen and progesterone receptor status...

  3. State, socioenvironmental conflict and violence in the Amazon border of Brazil, Colombia and Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gilberto Zárate Botía

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Amazonian border region of Brazil, Colombia and Peru has been place or stage to extraction, trade and transport of a wide variety of forest and aquatic resources, including those associated with activities considered illegal like drug or some types of mining. Aditionally the borders have also been converted in areas of conflict, violence and insecurity, and these, at the same time, are produced and exacerbated by state and institutional weakness of the three states, trying substitute it increasing the military presence, with little and contested results, on the one hand, by different public policies or the existence of rules and laws also different and incompatible. In a historical and current perspective, the article shows the relationship between the state, extractive economies of natural resources and conflict in the brazilian, colombian and peruvian amazon border, taking into account the limitations and possibilities of agreements recently signed between the government Colombian Juan Manuel Santos and FARC guerrillas.

  4. Alternatives of Cross-Border Securities Settlement System in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Yul Chai

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of cross-border securities settlement system is a very important element of regional capital market integration. Despite its importance, relatively few arguments, both theoretical and practical, have been advanced on the subject. This paper aims to examine the alternatives of cross-border securities settlement system in East Asia, and analyse the feasibility and the advantages and disadvantages of each alternative. The paper underlines the need to develop a multi-currency DVP securities settlement system. The conceivable alternatives of East Asia's cross-border securities settlement system can be divided into decentralized system and centralized system. It is possible to consider a large array of institutional settings according to the depository/settlement methods. The comparison of the alternatives is based on economic efficiency, feasibility and institutional location of settlement system. In view of these criteria, it is argued that a 'big-bang' approach toward imperfectly cenralized system is the most desirable alternative.

  5. Promotion of Cultural Tourism through Cooperation in the Cross-Border Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rădulescu Corina Michaela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The uniqueness and richness of culture and heritage in the cross-border area: Hungary, Slovakia, Romania and Ukraine (HU-SK-RO-UA creates the opportunity for developing cultural tourism through innovative tourism and integrated tourism products, with the result of promoting tourism, generally in Europe and especially in Trans-Carpatic Region. For this purpose, new projects initiated can achieve better cooperation and coordination between the relevant stakeholders in the tourism sector, as well as to develop and implement joint tourism strategies. The paper presents a project proposal on promoting the culture and heritage in HU-SK-RO-UA area, through tourism function. The main activities designed in the project lead to joint cross-border tourism management in order to increase the attractiveness of cultural sites and joint cross-border touristic offer, by strengthening joint new touristic products and organizing joint cultural events.

  6. Managing Migration: Is border control fundamental to anti-trafficking and anti- smuggling interventions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Miller

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last several decades, globalisation and a growing concern over security issues, including transnational crime and terrorism, has shaped migration policies and the priorities of states. As migration rose to the top of many government agendas, a rapid tightening and regularisation of borders ensued in an attempt to keep undesirable, high-risk migrants out of potential destination countries. Concomitantly, transnational crimes, such as trafficking in persons and the smuggling of migrants, have been increasingly defined as border security problems. This article examines the extent to which border control is fundamental to anti-trafficking and anti-smuggling interventions, situating the debate within the wider nexus of globalisation and the securitisation of migration. Based upon their work with the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC Regional Centre for Southeast Asia and the Pacific, the authors take the standpoint that given it is the sovereign right of each state to control its border and regulate migration, the human rights of migrants must be considered within this realpolitik. Clearly, though, this claim is highly political and contentious. In the article, we explore some of the tensions and contradictions that have emerged in this debate, and then develop an argument to suggest that it is possible for states to combine managed migration and strict border controls with the protection of human rights in the current context of globalisation.

  7. Prices, taxes and automotive fuel cross-border shopping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal, Andres; Lopez-Laborda, Julio; Rodrigo, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to determine whether differences in automotive fuel prices among neighboring Autonomous Communities (i.e. Spanish political-administrative regions) affect the decisions taken by individuals regarding the region in which to purchase fuel. In particular, the intention is to discover if price increases in certain Autonomous Communities, as a result of the application of the regional tranche of the Hydrocarbon Retail Sales Tax (HRST) has affected fuel purchases in neighboring Communities. In order to achieve the above-mentioned objectives, the monthly purchases of automotive diesel in Aragon between January 2001 and March 2007 is estimated from the fuel price in Aragon, the relation between prices in each of the bordering Communities and Aragon, weighted by density of traffic, the number of vehicles registered in that Community, and three dummy variables representative of the implementation of the regional tranche of the HRST in Madrid, Catalonia, and Valencia. The paper finds empirical evidence to demonstrate a positive effect of the relative prices in the neighboring Communities and vehicle registrations, and also a negative effect of prices in Aragon, upon the acquisition of diesel in this region. In the case of Catalonia, some evidence suggests that the price effect may have been strengthened following the introduction of the regional tranche of the HRST in August 2004. (author)

  8. 8 CFR 1212.6 - Border crossing identification cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... combined B-1/B-2 visitor visa and non-biometric border crossing identification card or (a similar stamp in... non-biometric border crossing identification card (or similar stamp in a passport), issued by the DOS... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Border crossing identification cards. 1212...

  9. 77 FR 1497 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection....S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: 60-Day notice and...: Direct all written comments to U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Attn: Tracey Denning, Regulations and...

  10. 75 FR 60643 - Customs and Border Protection Officer Retirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., and 842 RIN 3206-AL69 Customs and Border Protection Officer Retirement AGENCY: Office of Personnel... regulations, to reflect changes in the retirement benefits available to customs and border protection officers... enhanced annuity benefits for customs and border protection officers employed by the United States...

  11. 76 FR 50883 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY 19... of Liquidation AGENCY: Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security; Department of... Regulations (``CFR'') pertaining to the method by which U.S. Customs and Border Protection (``CBP'') issues...

  12. 76 FR 65207 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Notice of Cancellation of Customs Broker Licenses AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, U.S. Department of Homeland Security.... 1641) and the U.S. Customs and Border Protection regulations (19 CFR 111.51), the following Customs...

  13. 77 FR 59206 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Foreign Assembler's Declaration AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of... written comments to U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Attn: Tracey Denning, Regulations and Rulings...

  14. 78 FR 35044 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Visa Waiver Program Carrier Agreement (CBP Form I-775) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection... information collection: 1651-0110. SUMMARY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) of the Department of...

  15. Gender, Cross-border Migrant Workers and Citizenship : Case Study ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... of the Burmese-Thai border; final technical report. Documents. Border industrialization and labour mobility : a case of Burmese migrant workers in border area factories. Rapports. Round Table Discussion on Past and Current Research on Migrant Workers in Thailand, Miracle Grand Convention Hotel, 17 January 2007 ...

  16. U.S. Border Patrol Fiscal Year Statistics Southwest border sector deaths - FY 1998 through FY 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Southwest Border Sectors include: Del Rio, El Centro, El Paso, Laredo, Rio Grande Valley, San Diego, Tucson, Yuma Southwest Border Deaths By Fiscal Year (Oct. 1st...

  17. Environmental health and hazardous waste issues related to the U.S.-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, D E; Peña, C; Varady, R; Suk, W A

    1996-06-01

    Environmental health and environmental quality issues along the U.S.-Mexico border have been of concern for several years. The enactment of the North American Free Trade Agreement and the presence of the maquiladoras (foreign-owned industries using imported raw materials) have intensified those concerns recently. Efforts to assess these issues are complicated by the fact that many of the issues affecting the border region are within federal jurisdiction, but the problems are regional and local in nature. Thus, state and local governments become involved with public concerns about real and potential problems. One major problem is that environmental health data from this region are lacking, particularly from Mexico. Some new agencies such as the Border Environment Cooperation Commission, the United States-Mexico Border Health Commission, and the North American Commission on Environmental Cooperation have joined several existing agencies at the federal and state level to address environmental quality and health. Several studies have been initiated to determine air and water quality, but little is being done in the areas of hazardous waste and health assessment. Several problems are anticipated in the generation of such data, such as its format and accessibility. Data gaps and research needs are discussed.

  18. Sustainable Development Aspects in Cross-Border Cooperation Programmes: The Case of Macedonia and Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klodjan Seferaj

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The cross-border area between Albania and Macedonia can be considered as a region with agrarian or industrial-agrarian economy, although the overall picture should take into account significant contrasts within the region, between the two countries, but also between the southern and northern part, and between mountainous areas and lowlands. Agriculture, agribusiness, light industry, mining, energy production and tourism are the main economic sectors, which also have the biggest potential in the cross-border region. Both countries are gaining experience in EU funded cross-border cooperation programmes with other neighbouring countries and with each other. The scope of the research is the evaluation and analysis of the Integrated Pre-accession Assistance (IPA Cross-border Cooperation (CBC Programme Macedonia-Albania 2007-2013 and its sustainable development aspects. The research is trying to assess the impact of the programme since its start in 2007 and the impact of the implemented grants on the sustainable development. The importance of the sustainable development aspect is recognized and is formally included into various national strategic documents, however implementation is often problematic and sustainability aspects need to be examined on a more concrete level. The methodology used was qualitative with research tools such as desk studies of relevant program documentation, strategic and planning documentation and other relevant published materials. The desk review considered well over 40 documents relevant to the program, most of which were shared by the Ministry of European Integration (MoEI and other actors.

  19. People’s Health Service Preference at the State Borders [A Policy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turniani Laksmiarti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Indonesian has 497 District consisting of 399 districts and 98 cities, some districts are adjacent to other countries with relatively short travel time and easily, so presumably there are 12.000 Indonesian citizens who went to Malaysia each year and the data of National Health Care Group international Business Development -Singapore claimed 50 percent of international patients seeking treatment in Singapore is a citizen of Indonesia. This study aims to describe of the state border regions, in particular aspects of health regulations. Methods:Operational research with cross sectional design, in which data are collected in the same time (the same fiscal year. The research was conducted in 2012 in Sanggau and Batam District. The unit of analysis is the health workers and communities in the border region. Results: People in the border region who have the financial capability prefer to have treatment in the neighboring countries because of the resources (personnel, health equipment in the border areas health facilities are still inadequate and the referral access to the capital city could not be reached by the people compared to neighboring countries’ hospitals. Recommendations:The government and local governments improve preventive programs and health promotion, improve the health facilities so that there will be no lost of foreign exchange from the health sector towards the neighboring countries.

  20. Who’s Who at the Border? A rights-based approach to identifying human trafficking at international borders

    OpenAIRE

    Marika McAdam

    2013-01-01

    International borders are widely touted as bastions in the fight against trafficking in persons. This article acknowledges the important role border officials play in preventing human trafficking, but calls for expectations to be tempered by deference to the conceptual complexity of cross-border trafficking and the migration processes involved. The fact that many trafficked victims begin their journeys as irregular or smuggled migrants highlights the challenge posed to border officials in ide...

  1. Is the international border effect larger than the domestic border effect? : evidence from U.S. trade

    OpenAIRE

    Coughlin, Cletus C.; Novy, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Many studies have found that international borders represent large barriers to trade. But how do international borders compare to domestic border barriers? We investigate international and domestic border barriers in a unified framework. We consider a unique data set of exports from individual U.S. states to foreign countries and combine it with trade flows within and between U.S. states. After controlling for distance and country size, we find that relative to state-to-state trade, crossing ...

  2. The Nature and Functions of European Political Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Zupančič

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The political border limits a state’s territory and symbolizes the extent of a state’s power and ownership. Borders give integrity to the inner state territory which they enclose (the role of establishing national integrity and at the same time form an outer boundary segregating the state territory from the surrounding politicial entities (the segregation role. European borders are old and reflect the political history of an old continent. The last major border changes happened after World War II. Over the centuries borders were merely lines separating one territory from another. Such borders were understood as »frontiers«. Forming an effective barrier against enemies was the overriding function of borders. Many borders were fortified and further enhanced by means of various defensive systems. In the second half of the 20th century the character of political borders changed. They became a contact area between countries, nations and cultures. Contemporary European borders reflect the colourful history of an old continent. They are predominantely functional markers: they represent the political and juridical delimitation of territories, they mark economic barriers and show their defensive nature and reveal the extent of cultural contact. As a result of European integration processes, the nature of political borders has changed: instead of division, their integration role is brought to the fore. A united Europe is nevertheless still not a borderless Europe! The borders within the »Schengen-area« have retained their political and administrative functions, it is just that the customs and security checks at the borders have been removed. During the period of European integration, borderlines were stabilized in accordance with the 1974 Helsinki Agreement. But despite this we can still observe ongoing changes to state borders, particularly in areas of conflict such as the Balkan peninsula. It seems after all that the process of demarcation

  3. LEGAL FRAMEWORK IN THE FULFILMENT OF RIGHT TO EDUCATION AS CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHT OF CITIZENS IN BORDER AREA OF NUNUKAN-NORTH KALIMANTAN PROVINCE (Comparison Study and Legal Framework of Right to Education of Citizens in Border Area of Indonesia-Sabah, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Ahmad Zein

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this research is not only for the development of science, especially the knowledge of Indonesian border region, but also contributes as a reference for the government related to the policy of border area management in Indonesia, particularly the reference for Local Govenrmment of Nunukan.

  4. Deaths at the borders database : evidence of deceased migrants’ bodies found along the southern external borders of the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Last, T.K.; Mirto, Giorgia; Ulusoy, O.; Urquijo, Ignacio; Harte, J.M.; Bami, Nefeli; Pérez Pérez, Marta; Macias Delgado, Flor; Tapella, Amélie; Michalaki, Alexandra; Michalitsi, Eirini; Latsoudi, Efi; Tselepi, Naya; Chatziprokopiou, Marios; Spijkerboer, T.P.

    2017-01-01

    Irregular migrants and asylum seekers have died and continue to die attempting to cross the external borders of the EU without authorisation, seeking to enter the territories of its Member States. Yet, remarkably little is known about these ‘border deaths’. In 2015, the Human Costs of Border Control

  5. Antecedents of Cross-Border Acquisition Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan; Moini, Hamid; Kuada, John Ernest

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the impacts of main implementation activities on the success of cross-border acquisitions (CBAs), using survey data from a sample of 103 CBAs conducted by the companies in Nordic countries. The results of OLS regression analysis indicate that due diligence, integration...... impact on the success, while acquisition experience exerts negative effect. However, the evidence does not support that planning and coordination will contribute to CBA performance. Taking a process perspective, this study specially focuses on the main implementation activities during acquisition process......, with the aim to empirically investigate their relative importance and joint effect on the performance of cross-border acquisitions. Such integrative understanding of how and why these actions explain acquisition success also yields important implications for managers....

  6. Centronuclear myopathy in a Border collie dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eminaga, S; Cherubini, G B; Shelton, G D

    2012-10-01

    A two-year old, male entire Border collie was presented with a one-year history of exercise-induced collapsing on the pelvic limbs. Physical examination revealed generalised muscle atrophy. Neurological examination supported a generalised neuromuscular disorder. Electromyography revealed spontaneous electrical activity in almost all muscles. Unfixed and formaldehyde-fixed biopsy samples were collected from the triceps brachii, longissimus and vastus lateralis muscles. Histopathological, histochemical and ultrastructural examinations of biopsy specimens were consistent with either centronuclear or myotubular myopathy. The dog clinically improved with supportive treatment with L-carnitine, co-enzyme Q10 and vitamin B compound. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of centronuclear/myotubular myopathy in a Border collie. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  7. Overcoming bordering practices through the arts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pace, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    During 2014, Denmark received nearly 15,000 asylum seekers, almost twice the number from the previous year as more people fleeing Syria’s war fled to Europe. By 2016, Denmark succeeded in making the country highly unattractive as a destination for refugees fleeing war torn countries. The country...... introduced a controversial “jewellery bill”, placed adverts in a newspaper in Lebanon dissuading refugees from contemplating a trip to Denmark, and cut assistance benefits for refugees by half. These state bordering practices aimed at securing some kind of “Danishness”. This article aims at ascribing agency...... to young Syrian refugees in Denmark who have experienced these bordering practices and who seek to counter these practices by participating in meaningful social interactions with their Danish counterparts. The empirical focus is an artistic enactment – a weeklong dance workshop that brought...

  8. Cross-border cooperation potential in fostering redevelopment of degraded border areas - a case study approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre Castanho, Rui; Ramírez, Beatriz; Loures, Luis; Fernández-Pozo, Luis; Cabezas, José

    2017-04-01

    Border interactions have reached unprecedented levels in recent decades, not only due to their potential for territorial integration but also considering their role in supranational processes, such as landscape reclamation, infrastructure development and land use planning on European territory. In this scenario, successful examples related to the redevelopment of degraded areas have been showing positive impacts at several levels, such as the social, economic, environmental and aesthetic ones which have ultimately related this process, positively, to sustainability issues. However, concerning to border areas, and due to their inherent legislative and bureaucratic conflicts, the intervention in these areas is more complex. Still, and taking into account previously developed projects and strategies of cross-border cooperation (CBC) in European territory it is possible to identified that the definition of common master plans and common objectives are critical issues to achieve the desired territorial success. Additionally, recent studies have put forward some noteworthy ideas highlighting that it is possible to establish a positive correlation between CBC processes and an increasing redevelopment of degraded border areas, with special focus on the reclamation of derelict landscapes fostering soil reuse and redevelopment. The present research, throughout case study analysis at the Mediterranean level - considering case studies from Portugal, Spain, Monaco and Italy - which presents specific data on border landscape redevelopment, enables us to conclude that CBC processes have a positive influence on the potential redevelopment of degraded border areas, considering not only urban but also rural land. Furthermore, this paper presents data obtained through a public participation process which highlights that these areas present a greater potential for landscape reclamation, fostering resource sustainability and sustainable growth. Keywords: Spatial planning; Land

  9. Simulation of Cross-border Impacts Resulting from Classical Swine Fever Epidemics within the Netherlands and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hop, G E; Mourits, M C M; Oude Lansink, A G J M; Saatkamp, H W

    2016-02-01

    The cross-border region of the Netherlands (NL) and the two German states of North Rhine Westphalia (NRW) and Lower Saxony (LS) is a large and highly integrated livestock production area. This region increasingly develops towards a single epidemiological area in which disease introduction is a shared veterinary and, consequently, economic risk. The objectives of this study were to examine classical swine fever (CSF) control strategies' veterinary and direct economic impacts for NL, NRW and LS given the current production structure and to analyse CSF's cross-border causes and impacts within the NL-NRW-LS region. The course of the epidemic was simulated by the use of InterSpread Plus, whereas economic analysis was restricted to calculating disease control costs and costs directly resulting from the control measures applied. Three veterinary control strategies were considered: a strategy based on the minimum EU requirements, a vaccination and a depopulation strategy based on NL and GER's contingency plans. Regardless of the veterinary control strategy, simulated outbreak sizes and durations for 2010 were much smaller than those simulated previously, using data from over 10 years ago. For example, worst-case outbreaks (50th percentile) in NL resulted in 30-40 infected farms and lasted for two to four and a half months; associated direct costs and direct consequential costs ranged from €24.7 to 28.6 million and €11.7 to 26.7 million, respectively. Both vaccination and depopulation strategies were efficient in controlling outbreaks, especially large outbreaks, whereas the EU minimum strategy was especially deficient in controlling worst-case outbreaks. Both vaccination and depopulation strategies resulted in low direct costs and direct consequential costs. The probability of cross-border disease spread was relatively low, and cross-border spread resulted in small, short outbreaks in neighbouring countries. Few opportunities for further cross-border harmonization and

  10. Intestinal parasites in children, in highly deprived areas in the border region of Chiapas, Mexico Parasitosis intestinal en niños, en áreas de alta marginación socioeconómica de la región fronteriza de Chiapas, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Marianela Morales-Espinoza

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among children in highly deprived areas, and its possible association with demographic and socioeconomic indicators. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From March to September 1998 in a convenience sample of 32 communities of the border region of Chiapas, Mexico, selected at random based on the level of poverty and distance from the community to the nearest health care unit (OBJETIVO: Estimar la prevalencia de parasitosis intestinal en niños de zonas de alta marginación y su asociación con indicadores demográficos y socioeconómicos de interés. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: En una muestra de 1478 menores de edad, de entre 1 a 14 años, provenientes de 32 comunidades de la región fronteriza de Chiapas, México, de marzo a septiembre de 1998, se recolectaron tres muestras de heces fecales, seleccionadas aleatoriamente a partir del grado de marginación (alto y muy alto del municipio al que pertenecen, y distancia de la unidad de salud más cercana a la comunidad (<1 hora; 1 hora o más. En una de cada cuatro viviendas con niños menores de 15 años de edad, seleccionadas aleatoriamente, se obtuvieron tres muestras de heces fecales de éstos. Se efectuaron análisis bivariados con la prueba de ji cuadrada y multivariados con modelos lineales generalizados. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia global de parasitosis fue de 67% (intervalo de confianza IC 95% 64-70%. Sesenta por ciento de los niños estaban multiparasitados. La prevalencia de Entamoeba histolytica/E dispar fue de 51.2%, de Giardia lamblia, 18.3% y de Ascaris lumbricoides, 14.5%. La mayor prevalencia de E histolytica/E dispar se asoció con la edad y hablar algún idioma indígena; la de Ascaris lumbricoides con el sitio de obtención de agua y la carencia de refrigerador y electricidad. CONCLUSIONES: Es necesario hacer intervenciones locales de salud (calidad del agua, sistemas de desagüe, programas de educación sanitaria (promoción de la

  11. Implementation Issues of Cross-border Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan; Moini, Hamid; Kuada, John

    This study investigates the impacts of main implementation activities on the success of cross-border acquisitions (CBAs) using the survey data from a sample of 103 CBAs conducted by the companies in Scandinavia. The results of regression analysis indicate that due diligence, integration extent......, while acquisition experience exerts negative effect. However, the evidence does not support that planning and coordination will contribute to CBA performance....

  12. Developing a simulation for border safeguarding

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Rooyen, S

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available . This limits the study to ground targets, often unarmed and with low hostility levels. Border safeguarding is a Joint Command and Control (JC2) operation between the South African National Defence Force (SANDF) and South African Police Service (SAPS... without the use of intelligent threat behaviour. Section 5 contains our conclusions. 2. Joint Control and Command Figure 1 shows how JC2 operate and communicate between the levels of war as defined in [2]. The levels signify Strategic goals...

  13. Ceroid-lipofuscinosis in border collie dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R M; Farrow, B R

    1988-01-01

    Five Border Collie dogs with ceroid-lipofuscinosis developed progressive neurological disease between 18 and 22 months of age. These dogs had behavioural abnormalities, gait and visual deficits and became progressively demented. All dogs examined had common ancestors. Light microscopic examination of tissues demonstrated extensive accumulation of granular, sudan black-staining autofluorescent material in the cytoplasm of neurones, retinal ganglion cells and some visceral cells. At ultrastructural examination inclusions of variable morphology were observed.

  14. Can cross-border pollution reduce pollution?

    OpenAIRE

    Panos Hatzipanayotou; Sajal Lahiri; Michael S. Michael

    2002-01-01

    We develop a North-South model of foreign aid and cross-border pollution resulting from production activities in the recipient country. There is both private and public abatement of pollution, the latter being financed through emissions tax revenue and foreign aid. We characterise a Nash equilibrium where the donor country chooses the amount of aid, and the recipient chooses the fraction of aid allocated to pollution abatement and/or the emission tax rate. At this equilibrium, an increase in ...

  15. Resolving international border disputes: the Irish experience

    OpenAIRE

    Coakley, John

    2017-01-01

    The literature on international border disputes has in recent years focused increasingly on the role played by norm transition in promoting or facilitating new political compromises. This article explores the value of a specific model of norm replacement in accounting for the circumstances leading to Ireland’s Good Friday agreement in 1998, which formally and finally settled the long-running territorial dispute between Ireland and the United Kingdom. Drawing on the theoretical literature, it ...

  16. Cross border M and A environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.B.

    1998-01-01

    An overview of the Canada-U.S. cross-border merger and acquisition environment and exchangeable share structure within the petroleum industry is provided. Recent U.S. acquisitions in Canada, Canadian investment conditions, indexed price analysis from January 1, 1997 to October 16, 1998, and a variety of other share price/cash flow statistics relevant to mergers and acquisitions are examined. tabs., figs

  17. Sharing Knowledge and Experience Across Borders | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In many parts of Yemen, tap water flows just once a month. Yemeni farmers have to drill their wells as deep as six metres to get enough water to irrigate crops. In this parched country — bordered by Saudi Arabia to the north and Oman to the east, with coastlines on the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, and Arabian Sea — a litre of ...

  18. Simulation of cross-border impacts resulting from classical swine fever epidemics within the Netherlands and Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hop, G.E.; Mourits, Monique C.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Saatkamp, H.W.

    2016-01-01

    The cross-border region of the Netherlands (NL) and the two German states of North Rhine Westphalia (NRW) and Lower Saxony (LS) is a large and highly integrated livestock production area. This region increasingly develops towards a single epidemiological area in which disease introduction is a

  19. 9 CFR 130.6 - User fees for inspection of live animals at land border ports along the United States-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... animals at land border ports along the United States-Mexico border. 130.6 Section 130.6 Animals and Animal... User fees for inspection of live animals at land border ports along the United States-Mexico border. (a... importation into or entry into the United States through a land border port along the United States-Mexico...

  20. The municipality borders and interdepartmental Antioquia in current territorial proposals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucella Gómez Giraldo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to provide elements to make visible the historical, socio-economic, political and administrative dynamics that characterize the interdepartmental border towns, particularly those that have not played a central role in the current proposals of land use planning and ordering developed by the Department of Antioquia, but which should be considered because they have particular features that may have great significance in the land use planning and ordering proposals, aimed to reduce municipal and regional imbalances. For this purpose, the analysis is based on the case study of the creation processes of the municipalities of La Pintada, Vigía del Fuerte and Yondó and of the socio-territorial relations and interactions that occur inside and outside of Antioquia.

  1. Freight Shuttle System: Cross-Border Movement of Goods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levien, Mary

    2011-05-31

    The Freight Shuttle System (FSS) is designed to provide freight transportation services between those short and intermediate distance locations (within 600 miles) that are currently handling large volumes of freight traffic. Much like trucks, the FSS's transporters are autonomous: each transporter has its own propulsion and travels independently of other transporters. Inspired by railroads, each FSS transporter has steel wheels operating on a steel running surface and can carry either a standardsize freight container or an over-the-road truck trailer. However, unlike either rail or trucks, the FSS runs on an elevated, dedicated guideway to avoid the interference of other transportation systems. The objective of this report is to examine the potential viability for an alternative transportation system for trailers and containers in a multi-national, cross-border setting. The El Paso-Ciudad Juarez region serves as the environment of this analysis.

  2. A (trans border´s area. The attitude’s change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Amador

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article makes part of the research for my thesis on Linguistic Attitudes appearing in the western half of the Iberian Peninsula at the Spanish and Portuguese border region (Extremadura-Alentejo/ Beira. The article aims to show the positive change in attitude that is being generated in this area due to the good relationship between these two Iberian states despite their many cultural differences and difficult history. Besides, it’s clear the positive outlook where a renewed relationship that breaks with some of the most striking negative views inherited from the past. A good example would be the linguistic term "turn its back" related to the country across the borders. In this way is perceived as within the imagination of a nation, and the political and cultural imagination, the so called borders. Sometimes, this term becomes a metaphor for transgression, but the “boundaries” do not always fulfill that role. The West Iberian border, between Spain and Portugal, could well be the case of bilateral agreements, teamwork and good relationships. Recently, a change emerged thanks to the Statute of Autonomy from the Extremadura region and the interest that people have shown for each other's culture.

  3. Symptoms of anxiety on both sides of the US-Mexico border: the role of immigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Guilherme; Zamora, Beatriz; García, José; Orozco, Ricardo; Cherpitel, Cheryl J; Zemore, Sarah E; Breslau, Joshua

    2015-02-01

    Home to about 15 million people, the US-Mexico border area has suffered stresses from increased border security efforts and a costly drug war in Mexico. Whether immigration patterns add to increasing levels of anxiety for the Mexican population and the Mexican-origin individuals living in the US-Mexico border and near the border is unknown. We used the US-Mexico Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions (UMSARC), a cross-sectional survey (2011-2013) of individuals living in border and non-border cities of the US (n = 2336) and Mexico (n = 2460). In Mexico respondents were asked if they ever migrated to the US or have a family member living in the US (328) or not (2124), while in the US respondents were asked if they were born in Mexico (697), born in the US with no US-born parents (second generation, 702) or born in the US with at least one US-born parent (third generation, 932). The prevalence and risk factors for symptoms of anxiety using the Beck Anxiety Inventory (>=10) were obtained. Mexicans with no migrant experience had a prevalence of anxiety and adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) within the last month of 6.7% (PR = reference), followed by Mexicans with migration experience of 13.1% (PR = 1.8), Mexican-born respondents living in the US of 17.3% (PR = 2.6), US born Mexican-Americans of 2nd generation of 18.6% (PR = 3.3) and finally US born 3rd + generation of 25.9% (PR = 3.8). Results help to identify regions and migration patterns at high risk for anxiety and may help to unravel causal mechanisms that underlie this risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. SYMPTOMS OF ANXIETY ON BOTH SIDES OF THE US-MEXICO BORDER: THE ROLE OF IMMIGRATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Guilherme; Zamora, Beatriz; García, José; Orozco, Ricardo; Cherpitel, Cheryl J.; Zemore, Sarah E.; Breslau, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Home to about 15 million people, the US-Mexico border area has suffered stresses from increased border security efforts and a costly drug war in Mexico. Whether immigration patterns add to increasing levels of anxiety for the Mexican population and the Mexican-origin individuals living in the US-Mexico border and near the border is unknown. We used the US-Mexico Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions (UMSARC), a cross-sectional survey (2011–2013) of individuals living in border and non-border cities of the US (n=2,336) and Mexico (n=2,460). In Mexico respondents were asked if they ever migrated to the US or have a family member living in the US (328) or not (2,124), while in the US respondents were asked if they were born in Mexico (697), born in the US with no US-born parents (second generation, 702) or born in the US with at least one US-born parent (third generation, 932). The prevalence and risk factors for symptoms of anxiety using the Beck Anxiety Inventory (>=10) were obtained. Mexicans with no migrant experience had a prevalence of anxiety and adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) within the last month of 6.7% (PR=reference), followed by Mexicans with migration experience of 13.1% (PR=1.8), Mexican-born respondents living in the US of 17.3% (PR=2.6), US born Mexican-Americans of 2nd generation of 18.6% (PR=3.3) and finally US born 3rd+ generation of 25.9% (PR=3.8). Results help to identify regions and migration patterns at high risk for anxiety and may help to unravel causal mechanisms that underlie this risk. PMID:25543519

  5. Economic analysis of the cross-border coordination of operation in the European power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, Tanguy

    2014-01-01

    The electricity high voltage transmission networks are interconnected over most of the continents but this is not the case of the power system organizations. Indeed, as described with the concept of integrated power system, the organization over these large networks is divided by several kinds of internal borders. In this context, the research object, the cross-border coordination of operation, is a set of coordination arrangements over internal borders between differing regulatory, technical and market designs. These arrangements can include for instance the famous market couplings, some cost-sharing agreements or common security assessments among several other solutions. The existence and improvement of the cross-border coordination of operation can be beneficial to the whole integrated power system. This statement is verified in the European case as in 2012 where several regional and continental coordination arrangements are successfully implemented.In order to benefit from the European experience and contribute to support the European improvement process, this thesis investigates the cross-border coordination of operation in the European case with four angles of study. First, a modular framework is built to describe the existing solutions and the implementation choices from a regulatory point of view. Second, the thesis analyses the tools available to assess the impact of an evolution of the cross-border coordination. Third, the role of the European Union (EU) is described as critical both for the existing arrangements and to support the improvement process. The last angle of study focuses on two dimensions of the economic modes of coordination between transmission system operators. (author)

  6. Bordering Binarities and Cognitive Cartography: What on Earth Does Literature Have to do with Border Transactions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Moi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Although literature and poetry have numerous borders of their own,these are rarely assumed to have any significance for the world out-side the text itself. A number of reasons for this distinctive division certainly stem from the literary field itself. This paper intends to indicate the exclusivist stance of some theories of literature, and the inclucivist of others, before exploring the possibilities of bridging between borders in text and territory by reference to the life and literature of Oscar Wilde and a performative and imaginative analysis of Paul Muldoon's epigrammatic poem The Plot.

  7. A Himalayan Border Trilogy: The Political Economies of Transport Infrastructure and Disaster Relief between China and Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galen Murton

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This photo essay illustrates and contrasts the infrastructure and operations of three international border posts between China and Nepal. Located at Zhangmu-Kodari, Kyirong-Rasuwa, and Likse-Neychung borders, these posts function as the only motorable China-Nepal border crossings and represent half of the six official, open borders recognized by Kathmandu and Beijing. In addition to China’s new position as Nepal’s number-one source of foreign direct investment, bilateral trade, humanitarian aid, and tourism traffic between the two countries continue to expand annually. As infrastructure development facilitates new political-economic dynamics between China and Nepal, these three border posts are becoming increasingly potent symbols of ongoing evolutions in Sino-Nepal relations. Because each crossing is also located at Nepal’s border with the Tibet Autonomous Region, each site exhibits a complex politics of identity, citizenship, and mobility with respect to the movement and control of local traders, Tibetan exiles, the Nepali Army, and the Chinese State Police, among other actors.

  8. Euroregions in the Podrinje region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošić Branka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Regionalization is a contemporary conception of a development within a society. We are interested in cooperation at regions whose area is intersected by the national border. One of those borders is the Drina River that in different periods had changeable role of connecting or separating. In this way we want to stress the necessity of making a stronger, functional connection and developing of overall process of integration in the Podrinje region, on a land between the two republics-Serbia and the Republic of Srpska, because we think that this area has the most reasons for that, but so far it has been done very little. The first attempts to form Euroregions in Lower Podrinje region have already started, but it lacks many activities for this area to receive a cross-border role that it deserves.

  9. Picking and Choosing the ‘Sovereign’Border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Noel; Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    We argue that the continued persistence of borders is an effect of their constitutive role for the many dimensions of a social particular. States cannot choose to have a border; but they can and do make choices amongst the materials available on the various planes of inscription for bordering....... For contemporary states the planes have become increasingly disaggregated, in the sense that they do not fall into place at one and the same border. Thus, states have to pick and choose different articulations (often inconsistently) on different planes. We illustrate these ideas with instances, present......-day and historical, of bordering. A corollary of there being more need to pick and choose is that articulations of sovereignty change. So, sovereignty is increasingly the material of ‘sovereignty games’, where sovereignty is used as a political instrument. In sum, our theory directs attention to state bordering...

  10. Managing US-Mexico "border health": an organizational field approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins-Dogrul, Julie

    2006-12-01

    During World War II Mexican and US health professionals and organizations constructed a transnational organizational field to manage the border's public health problems. Despite barriers to inter-organizational cooperation, including disparate administrative structures and North-South stratification, the field's transnational approach to health on the border has continued for 60 years. Using archival data to track changes in the number and types of organizations, this article argues that the field practitioners call "border health" reconfigured during the North American Free Trade Association (NAFTA) decade from an era of loosely organized professionals to a specialized bureaucracies era. This change brought new vitality to border health, with transnational ties increasing and diversifying, but has not weakened entrenched cross-border inequalities. The organizational history of the US-Mexico border health field demonstrates how macro-politics and inter-organizational stratification shape transnational public health problems.

  11. Border health in the shadow of the Hispanic paradox: issues in the conceptualization of health disparities in older Mexican Americans living in the Southwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Jennifer J; Su, Dejun; Al Snih, Soham

    2013-09-01

    Mexican Americans have demonstrated lower than what would be expected mortality rates and disease prevalence, given their overrepresentation among those living in poverty. However, Mexican Americans living along the US-Mexico border have been documented as carrying a higher burden of disease and disability that seems to contradict or at least challenge evidence in support of a "Hispanic Paradox". The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the concept of border health as it relates to the conceptualization and measurement of health outcomes in older Mexican Americans living in the Southwest United States. Data for this study comes from the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (Hispanic EPESE) wave 1 and mortality files up to wave 5. Border residence was determined using La Paz Agreement county and distance from a port of entry classifications. Statistical analysis was conducted to assess border versus non-border differences in cause of death, disability, disease prevalence and premature mortality. Adjusted regression models were used to predict cause of death, disability and disease-free life expectancy and premature mortality (i.e. occurring before life expectancy). Interaction models between border/non-border and median income were also performed. Finally, distance from the US-Mexico border was used to determine the effect of distance to the US-Mexico border in border-residing participants. The findings from this study indicate that participants in the HEPESE were more likely to be alive at Wave 5 if they resided in a border county, however more likely to transition into ADL disability status. These findings were not explained by behaviors, duration in the US or sociocultural characteristics of where they lived. Additionally, Hispanic EPESE subjects that lived in the border region were more likely to have died from old age and were less likely to be lost to follow up. Interaction models revealed significant effects for

  12. STUDY REGARDING OVER BORDERS TOURISM AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP CULTURE IN THE DOMAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreş Solomia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was regarded as a qualitative research that measures entrepreneurship tendencies of the two regions from the border rural environment, initiation and management measures of business in the rural environment. The study regarding entrepreneurship education knowledge of target member groups from the partner border communities from Caras-Severin and Serbia has as main objective the evaluating of entrepreneurship knowledge of communities from the two regions of the rural environment, both with a strong touristic and cultural potential, for the purpose of rebirth of border socio-economical activities and the improvement of life quality by developing rural tourism. The objective desired from this study were: a quantitative and qualitative of information level gained by the members of the target groups regarding the initiation and development of business in tourism; the establishing of an entrepreneur profile for the respondents; the identification of the activity domain with a high potential of economical exploitation. Starting from the premises that only a correct evaluation and a detailed information of these aspects will determine the fact that the results of the research will represent the basis of the elaborati2ng of a development strategy for the rural tourism for the border rural communities, the research team, to which I was also a member of, has used the method of investigation and questionnaires as useful instruments in the development of the activities of the Centre for Border Rural Tourism. These instruments have contributed to the knowledge and measuring of present dimensions from the two dimensions, qualitative and quantitative, of the level of basic entrepreneurship knowledge in order to stimulate in the future the inhabitants’ involvment in the development of tourism activities and of economical-social ones.

  13. Temporary reintroduction of border controls at French borders inside the Schengen Area

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The French authorities have informed CERN that, in view of the upcoming COP21 Paris Climate Conference, France will exceptionally reintroduce controls at its borders with Schengen states for one month from 13 November to 13 December 2015. All border posts and crossing points between France and Switzerland will be affected by this measure.   Members of the personnel are therefore reminded that, when crossing borders within the Schengen Area*, they must carry: either, in the case of citizens of European Economic Area (EEA) countries and Switzerland, an official identity document (identity card or passport); or, in the case of non-EEA and non-Swiss citizens, an identity document together with a Schengen visa if they are subject to this obligation, or an identity document together with a residence permit issued by a Schengen state** if they have one.   The French authorities will make every effort to limit the impact of this measure on cross-border traffic, and wish to thank the members of th...

  14. Promoting regional mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne

    Pricing of transport has been part of EU's common transport policy since this gained momentum in the early 1990s. Since then, it has been closely connected to the trans-European transport network (TEN-T) and to rising demands of efficient mobility systems at a local, regional and Community scale....... Development of pricing policies is contested at Community level and has taken place in a clash between different policy rationalities. Significantly though, the effects of the pricing policies are closely related to regional mobility systems, e.g. through financing large trans-border infrastructure projects...... and establishing common technical charging systems thus changing the conditions for regional mobility. This paper explores how policies of infrastructure pricing shape new ways of governing mobility which influences trans-border, regional policy-making. The key findings are that there is a tendency to include...

  15. Development of international transport in transboundary regions

    OpenAIRE

    Прокудін, Георгій; Чупайленко, Олексій

    2015-01-01

    Formation of an international cross-border transport and logistics infrastructure meets international standards, increased productivity, transport and innovation activity of enterprises in the cluster, and provide for accelerated socio - economic development of the regions.

  16. The Border Effect in the Japanese Market: Gravity Model Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Okubo, Toshihiro

    2000-01-01

    This paper analyzes the border effect, which indicates how biased interregional trade is, compared with international trade, by means of the Gravity Model. The border effect reveals how open to the foreign countries the nation is. This research suggests that the border effect in Japan is much lower than that of the US and Canada, and has declined year by year. Furthermore, in 1990, the border effect faded out. These trends may be reflected by international incidents such as the surge of the f...

  17. "Crossing Borders" ja valmimislootuses Eesti Muusika- ja Teatriakadeemia / Malle Maltis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maltis, Malle, 1977-

    2010-01-01

    19. - 29. augustini EMTAs toimunud rahvusvahelisest suvekursusest "Crossing Borders in Interpretation of Classical Music and Jazz". Kooli välissuhete prorektor sellest projektist ja muusikaakadeemia juurdeehitusest

  18. Cross-border entrepreneurship in a global world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emontspool, Julie; Servais, Per

    2017-01-01

    This paper shows that international entrepreneurship and immigrant entrepreneurship increasingly intersect in a global world. Both research streams address cross-border entrepreneurial activity in parallel to each other. International entrepreneurship focuses on outgoing entrepreneurial activity......, while immigrant entrepreneurship mainly considers incoming entrepreneurial activity. This paper critically discusses such a dichotomy, highlighting how differentiating immigrant entrepreneurs and international entrepreneurs perpetuates orientalist assumptions about cross-border business activity....... Focusing on a entrepreneurship as behaviour, the paper proposes an alternative perspective to cross-border entrepreneurship, discussing cross-border opportunity identification and exploitation between an entrepreneur’s country of residence and a foreign country. This perspective provides a number...

  19. Geo-Located Tweets. Enhancing Mobility Maps and Capturing Cross-Border Movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine I Blanford

    Full Text Available Capturing human movement patterns across political borders is difficult and this difficulty highlights the need to investigate alternative data streams. With the advent of smart phones and the ability to attach accurate coordinates to Twitter messages, users leave a geographic digital footprint of their movement when posting tweets. In this study we analyzed 10 months of geo-located tweets for Kenya and were able to capture movement of people at different temporal (daily to periodic and spatial (local, national to international scales. We were also able to capture both long and short distances travelled, highlighting regional connections and cross-border movement between Kenya and the surrounding countries. The findings from this study has broad implications for studying movement patterns and mapping inter/intra-region movement dynamics.

  20. Geo-Located Tweets. Enhancing Mobility Maps and Capturing Cross-Border Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanford, Justine I; Huang, Zhuojie; Savelyev, Alexander; MacEachren, Alan M

    2015-01-01

    Capturing human movement patterns across political borders is difficult and this difficulty highlights the need to investigate alternative data streams. With the advent of smart phones and the ability to attach accurate coordinates to Twitter messages, users leave a geographic digital footprint of their movement when posting tweets. In this study we analyzed 10 months of geo-located tweets for Kenya and were able to capture movement of people at different temporal (daily to periodic) and spatial (local, national to international) scales. We were also able to capture both long and short distances travelled, highlighting regional connections and cross-border movement between Kenya and the surrounding countries. The findings from this study has broad implications for studying movement patterns and mapping inter/intra-region movement dynamics.

  1. Criminal offences in trans-border territories. Drug trade in the Province of Tamarugal, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Corder Tapia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research addresses the drug trade in Tamarugal Province for the years 2003 to 2010, through an analysis of crime statistics from the police (Chilean Carabineros and Police Investigations Unit, and penal system institutions (National Prison Service and the Office of the Prosecutor. The analysis of the drug trade situates the drug trafficking issue in the international context of globalization and in a border area emergency that does not necessarily correspond to the traditional definition of the nation state. The research proposes to situate this issue of criminal offence in the context of the international legal order, focusing on the specific characteristics of the Tarapacá region and its condition as a trans border territory. It also proposes to situate this issue in a regional context, as well as in terms of the efforts of the international order to control illegal trafficking of drugs.

  2. Nataniel, NAFTA, and Public Health at the U.S.-Mexico Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Tom; Tapia, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    Advocating overall improvements in health for individuals and communities is a daunting but important task for nurses in particular, and for health care professionals in general. This is particularly true when focusing on the population along the 2,000-mile U.S.-Mexico border, a unique region in which distinct cultures, economies, and political systems meet. The purpose of this paper is to confront the assumption that trade and economic expansion automatically translate into improved public health, and to explore policy implications of the public health situation at the border. It uses a meta-narrative, an overarching story that draws on and illustrates collective stories from 300 participants in a study of mental health disparities, to argue for a more nuanced and complex understanding of health among the largely Hispanic population in this region.

  3. The Border Community & Immigration Stress Scale: A Preliminary Examination of a Community Responsive Measure in Two Southwest Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Scott C.; Rosales, Cecilia; Rubio-Goldsmith, Raquel; Sabo, Samantha; Ingram, Maia; McClelland, Debra Jean; Redondo, Floribella; Torres, Emma; Romero, Andrea J.; Oleary, Anna Ochoa; Sanchez, Zoila; de Zapien, Jill Guernsey

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding contemporary socio-cultural stressors may assist educational, clinical and policy-level health promotion efforts. This study presents descriptive findings on a new measure, the Border Community & Immigration Stress Scale (BCISS). Methods The data were from two community surveys as part of community based participatory projects conducted in the Southwestern US border region. This scale includes stressful experiences reflected in extant measures, with new items reflecting heightened local migration pressures and health care barriers. Results Stressors representing each main domain, including novel ones, were reported with frequency and at high intensity in the predominantly Mexican-descent samples. Total stress was also significantly associated with mental and physical health indicators. Discussion The study suggests particularly high health burdens tied to the experience of stressors in the US border region. Further, many of the stressors are also likely relevant for other communities within developed nations also experiencing high levels of migration. PMID:22430894

  4. Impacting Binational Health through Leadership Development: A Program Evaluation of the Leaders across Borders Program, 2010–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar A. Contreras

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWorkforce and leadership development is imperative for the advancement of public health along the U.S./Mexico border. The Leaders across borders (LaB program aims to train the public health and health-care workforce of the border region. The LaB is a 6-month intensive leadership development program, which offers training in various areas of public health. Program curriculum topics include: leadership, border health epidemiology, health diplomacy, border public policies, and conflict resolution.MethodsThis article describes the LaB program evaluation outcomes across four LaB cohort graduates between 2010 and 2014. LaB graduates received an invitation to participate via email in an online questionnaire. Eighty-five percent (n = 34 of evaluation participants indicated an improvement in the level of binationality since participating in the LaB program. Identified themes in the evaluation results included increased binational collaborations and partnerships across multidisciplinary organizations that work towards improving the health status of border communities. Approximately 93% (n = 37 of the LaB samples were interested in participating in future binational projects while 80% (n = 32 indicated interest in the proposal of other binational initiatives. Participants expressed feelings of gratitude from employers who supported their participation and successful completion of LaB.DiscussionPrograms such as LaB are important in providing professional development and education to a health-care workforce along the U.S./Mexico border that is dedicated to positively impacting the health outcomes of vulnerable populations residing in this region.

  5. Who’s Who at the Border? A rights-based approach to identifying human trafficking at international borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika McAdam

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available International borders are widely touted as bastions in the fight against trafficking in persons. This article acknowledges the important role border officials play in preventing human trafficking, but calls for expectations to be tempered by deference to the conceptual complexity of cross-border trafficking and the migration processes involved. The fact that many trafficked victims begin their journeys as irregular or smuggled migrants highlights the challenge posed to border officials in identifying trafficked persons among the people they encounter. Indicators of trafficking generally relate to the exploitation phase, leaving border officials with little guidance as to how persons vulnerable to trafficking can be accurately identified before any exploitation has occurred. Ultimately, this paper advocates a pragmatic rights-based approach in designating anti-trafficking functions to border officials. A rights-based approach to border control acknowledges the core work of border officials as being to uphold border integrity, while ensuring that their performance of this role does not jeopardise the rights of those they intercept nor result in missed opportunities for specialists to identify trafficked persons and other vulnerable people among them.

  6. The Border Environmental Health Initiative-investigating the transboundary Santa Cruz watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.; Callegary, James; van Riper, Charles; Gray, Floyd

    2010-01-01

    In 2004 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) launched the Border Environmental Health Initiative (BEHI), a major project encompassing the entire U.S.-Mexico border region. In 2009, a study of the Santa Cruz River Watershed (SCW), located in the border region of Arizona and Sonora, Mexico, was initiated as part of the BEHI. In this borderland region of the desert Southwest, human health and the ecosystems on which humans rely depend critically on limited water resources. Surface water is scarce during much of the year, and groundwater is the primary source for industrial, agricultural, and domestic use. In order to identify risks to water resources in the SCW, and the potential consequences to riparian ecosystems and ultimately human health, the USGS is using an interdisciplinary and integrative approach that incorporates the expertise of geographers, hydrologists, biologists, and geologists to track organic and inorganic contaminants and their effects from sources to sinks in sediment, water, plants, and animals. Existing groundwater and surface-water models are being used and modified to assess contaminant and sediment transport.

  7. Ursachen und Folgen der politischen Teilung in den Alpen -das Beispiel Dreiländereck = The causes and consequences of border settings in the Alps - the case of the "Dreilaendereck/Tre Confini/Tromeja"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Moritsch

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The discussion on the topic of »open borders« is at the dawn of the 21st century replaced with studies on landscapes without borders, but living with inherited problems of them. The process of denying the nation-state’s sole sovereignty was recently introduced in the area of the Austro-Italo-Slovene juncture. There, the communes of the region have opted to organize Winter Olympic Games in 2006 on sporting grounds and in towns of all three countries. The devolution of the nation state idea is an European process which is (or will eliminating borders among states. The border between Austria and Italy has fallen in 1998, the state of Slovenia will face the consequences of it as soon as Slovenia joins the European Union. Living without borders will change the perception of the space and of the culural landscape. Historians, geographers, anthropologists and economists from the universities of Klagenfurt and Graz in Austria, Trieste and Udine in Italy and Maribor and Ljubljana in Slovenia study the consequences and causes of the border settings in the Alps, in particular in the Dreilaendereck / Tre Confini / Tromeja region where the borders were introduced in this century. The fall of the border will have several impacts. To live without the border will be a new phenomenon which should be taught. Science and education must both do better and more in this regard.

  8. Nina Coltart and the border of Bethlehem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kime, Philip

    2016-11-01

    Nina Coltart's freedom in addressing delicate areas such as spirituality and Buddhism within a psychoanalytic framework has opened borders between different psychoanalytic communities. This paper sets out to identify a deep-rooted philosophical tension that runs through several aspects of Coltart's work starting from her 'Slouching towards Bethlehem … or, thinking the unthinkable in psychoanalysis'. In exploring this central topic in depth psychology, of the distinction between thinkable and unthinkable contents, the author argues that it is not a fundamental distinction in Coltart's work but is rather a particular example of a more fundamental structural dichotomy which pervades her approach and which manifests in several different guises. It is the breadth and sincerity of Coltart's writings which make this a useful exercise, not only for understanding the structure of her work but also in illuminating some structural tensions which permeate depth-psychological pursuits in general. © 2016, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  9. Globalization and Cross-Border Labor Organizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Armbruster

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of the world economy has opened up new possibilities for cross-border labor organizing. In fact, several U.S. unions are working together with unions from Mexico, Honduras, Guatemala, the Dominican Republic, Japan, South Korea, and many European nations. For example, over the last several years, UNITE (Union of Needletrades, Industrial, and Textile Employees, the AFL-CIO, and the international garment workers trade secretariat have worked directly with maquiladora workers in Honduras and the Dominican Republic. These efforts led to the formation of several labor unions and the first contracts ever negotiated in the maquiladoras in the Dominican Republic. In addition, labor rights and solidarity organizations, like the Campaign for Labor Rights, Witness for Peace, and the US/Guatemala Labor Education Project (US/GLEP, along with many other groups, have also played key roles in the formation of maquiladora unions in Nicaragua and Guatemala.

  10. Nuclear Plants in the Vicinity of Borders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wertz, Elmar.

    1979-01-01

    The siting of nuclear power plants in border areas is decided according to 'national criteria' which are governed by the cost/benefit principle, i.e. a comparison between investment and profit; human values are taken into consideration by transforming them into financial values according to the 'quantification' procedure. However ecology cannot be quantified as it is linked to the great complexity of the natural system. To harmonize technical criteria and ecological requirements, the jurist suggests a legal system of indemnity which takes into account both damage which has already occurred and the degree of probability of its occurrence. Thus a new criterion would be introduced in the decision-making process on plant siting: compensation costs for the national population and for the neighbouring countries would then be a factor in cost/benefit calculations. (NEA) [fr

  11. Everyday violence, structural racism and mistreatment at the US-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, Samantha; Shaw, Susan; Ingram, Maia; Teufel-Shone, Nicolette; Carvajal, Scott; de Zapien, Jill Guernsey; Rosales, Cecilia; Redondo, Flor; Garcia, Gina; Rubio-Goldsmith, Raquel

    2014-05-01

    Immigration laws that militarize communities may exacerbate ethno-racial health disparities. We aimed to document the prevalence of and ways in which immigration enforcement policy and militarization of the US-Mexico border is experienced as everyday violence. Militarization is defined as the saturation of and pervasive encounters with immigration officials including local police enacting immigration and border enforcement policy with military style tactics and weapons. Data were drawn from a random household sample of US citizen and permanent residents of Mexican descent in the Arizona border region (2006-2008). Qualitative and quantitative data documented the frequency and nature of immigration related profiling, mistreatment and resistance to institutionalized victimization. Participants described living and working in a highly militarized environment, wherein immigration-related profiling and mistreatment were common immigration law enforcement practices. Approximately 25% of respondents described an immigration-related mistreatment episode, of which 62% were personally victimized. Nearly 75% of episodes occurred in a community location rather than at a US port of entry. Participant mistreatment narratives suggest the normalization of immigration-related mistreatment among the population. Given border security remains at the core of immigration reform debates, it is imperative that scholars advance the understanding of the public health impact of such enforcement policies on the daily lives of Mexican-origin US permanent residents, and their non-immigrant US citizen co-ethnics. Immigration policy that sanctions institutional practices of discrimination, such as ethno-racial profiling and mistreatment, are forms of structural racism and everyday violence. Metrics and systems for monitoring immigration and border enforcement policies and institutional practices deleterious to the health of US citizens and residents should be established. Copyright © 2014

  12. POSTMODERN EDUCATION: CRITICAL AND BORDER PEDAGOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kurt

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the influence of postmodernism on education and investigates the main effects ofpostmodern philosophy on social sciences. It is clearly stated in the article that the effects of postmodernism cannotonly be limited to art and logically it should have an effect on education as well. This effect, described as thepostmodern educational approach, emphasizes that the rudiments of popular culture should also be incorporated toeducation and therefore to curricula. Postmodern educational approach also accentuates the significance of allowing‘others’ who have never possessed the opportunity to articulate their standpoints and desires to have a say in their owneducation. The concrete reflections of postmodern educational approach can be perceived in Critical and BorderPedagogies theorized by Henry A. Giroux. Critical pedagogy aspires to educate individuals who do not acceptoccurrences as they are and are critical of the knowledge they construct all through their education. Only by this waythese individuals will be able to discover their own voices, improve their civilian consciousness by taking risks, andacquire the ability of staying alive and functioning within social relations, traditions and experiences. Border pedagogyis as well a product of postmodern philosophy. It defends counter-text as opposed to the official ones offered, presentedand imposed to learners. Counter-consciousness represents the critical analysis of how the present reads the past andhow the past informs the present. This practice of course results in the re-evaluation of memories and traditions.Memories are the stories which were forgotten or ignored with the support of preserved traditions. It is thereforeconcluded in the article that postmodern educational approach is the critical examination towards dismissing the mainnarratives and discourses which manipulate and configure the curriculum of schools. It is the struggle exercisedtowards the recognition

  13. Cross border mobility of nurse educators: Case studies from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to raise awareness on cross border mobility of nurse educators and draw on Foucault's analysis to conceptualise the means by which cross border migration of nurse educators could be revisited. A case study design of seven nurse educators who had migrated and came back to their countries ...

  14. Communicative challenges of interpreting in cross-border ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents some of the challenges encountered by court interpreters who interpret in cross-border languages, i.e. languages spoken across the borders of two neighbouring countries. Data used in the article were collected from participants by adopting a qualitative approach, based on the observation of courtroom ...

  15. Cross-border mobility, unfamiliarity and development policy in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierings, B.; Velde, M. van der

    2013-01-01

    In this special issue, we seek to explore experiences, performances and effects of both “unfamiliarity” and “familiarity” across a diversity of inner and outer borders of the European Union. In EU integration discourse, cross-border unfamiliarity is usually considered to obstruct international

  16. National Security Threats at the U.S.-Mexico Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-24

    from Latin America. There are enhanced “push” factors of overpopulation , civil unrest, unemployment, poverty and violence. Then there are the “pull...national security threat. Nevertheless, it should be addressed concurrently with border security. Securing the border will facilitate the resolution of

  17. IDentity, crude data and narrative at the border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møhl, Perle

    (Andrejevic & Gates 2014; Tsianos & Kuster 2016), my analysis takes an ethnographic approach to the practical work of border control agents. And on the floor where borders are erected and maintained on a daily basis, surveillance, control and data base consulting are indeed very practical and mundane matters...

  18. Integrated control of the South African border environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taute, BJE

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The Border Control Operational Coordinating Committee (BCOCC) is a national body “responsible for the strategic management of the South African border environment in a coordinated manner.” This includes the key components of improved and coordinated...

  19. 77 FR 38076 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Accreditation and Approval of SGS North America, Inc., as a Commercial Gauger and Laboratory AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... vegetable oils for customs purposes, in accordance with the provisions of 19 CFR 151.12 and 19 CFR 151.13...

  20. 75 FR 70937 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Accreditation and Approval of Robinson International (USA) Inc., as a Commercial Gauger and Laboratory AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... products for customs purposes, in accordance with the provisions of 19 CFR 151.12 and 19 CFR 151.13. Anyone...