WorldWideScience

Sample records for bootstrap model search

  1. Bootstrapping heteroskedastic regression models: wild bootstrap vs. pairs bootstrap

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Flachaire

    2005-01-01

    In regression models, appropriate bootstrap methods for inference robust to heteroskedasticity of unknown form are the wild bootstrap and the pairs bootstrap. The finite sample performance of a heteroskedastic-robust test is investigated with Monte Carlo experiments. The simulation results suggest that one specific version of the wild bootstrap outperforms the other versions of the wild bootstrap and of the pairs bootstrap. It is the only one for which the bootstrap test gives always better r...

  2. Bootstrapping a change-point Cox model for survival data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gongjun; Sen, Bodhisattva; Ying, Zhiliang

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the (in)-consistency of various bootstrap methods for making inference on a change-point in time in the Cox model with right censored survival data. A criterion is established for the consistency of any bootstrap method. It is shown that the usual nonparametric bootstrap is inconsistent for the maximum partial likelihood estimation of the change-point. A new model-based bootstrap approach is proposed and its consistency established. Simulation studies are carried out to assess the performance of various bootstrap schemes. PMID:25400719

  3. Bootstrap prediction and Bayesian prediction under misspecified models

    OpenAIRE

    Fushiki, Tadayoshi

    2005-01-01

    We consider a statistical prediction problem under misspecified models. In a sense, Bayesian prediction is an optimal prediction method when an assumed model is true. Bootstrap prediction is obtained by applying Breiman's `bagging' method to a plug-in prediction. Bootstrap prediction can be considered to be an approximation to the Bayesian prediction under the assumption that the model is true. However, in applications, there are frequently deviations from the assumed model. In this paper, bo...

  4. Bootstrap confidence intervals for model-based surveys | Ouma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To deal with the problem, Chambers and Dorfam (1994) suggested a n alternative method based on the bootstrap methodology. Their method is meant for model-based surveys. It starts by assuming a simple linear regression model as a working model in which the ratio estimator is optimal for estimating the population total.

  5. Testing Process Factor Analysis Models Using the Parametric Bootstrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangjian

    2018-01-01

    Process factor analysis (PFA) is a latent variable model for intensive longitudinal data. It combines P-technique factor analysis and time series analysis. The goodness-of-fit test in PFA is currently unavailable. In the paper, we propose a parametric bootstrap method for assessing model fit in PFA. We illustrate the test with an empirical data set in which 22 participants rated their effects everyday over a period of 90 days. We also explore Type I error and power of the parametric bootstrap test with simulated data.

  6. A Bootstrap Cointegration Rank Test for Panels of VAR Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callot, Laurent

    functions of the individual Cointegrated VARs (CVAR) models. A bootstrap based procedure is used to compute empirical distributions of the trace test statistics for these individual models. From these empirical distributions two panel trace test statistics are constructed. The satisfying small sample...

  7. The efficiency of different search strategies in estimating parsimony jackknife, bootstrap, and Bremer support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Kai F

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For parsimony analyses, the most common way to estimate confidence is by resampling plans (nonparametric bootstrap, jackknife, and Bremer support (Decay indices. The recent literature reveals that parameter settings that are quite commonly employed are not those that are recommended by theoretical considerations and by previous empirical studies. The optimal search strategy to be applied during resampling was previously addressed solely via standard search strategies available in PAUP*. The question of a compromise between search extensiveness and improved support accuracy for Bremer support received even less attention. A set of experiments was conducted on different datasets to find an empirical cut-off point at which increased search extensiveness does not significantly change Bremer support and jackknife or bootstrap proportions any more. Results For the number of replicates needed for accurate estimates of support in resampling plans, a diagram is provided that helps to address the question whether apparently different support values really differ significantly. It is shown that the use of random addition cycles and parsimony ratchet iterations during bootstrapping does not translate into higher support, nor does any extension of the search extensiveness beyond the rather moderate effort of TBR (tree bisection and reconnection branch swapping plus saving one tree per replicate. Instead, in case of very large matrices, saving more than one shortest tree per iteration and using a strict consensus tree of these yields decreased support compared to saving only one tree. This can be interpreted as a small risk of overestimating support but should be more than compensated by other factors that counteract an enhanced type I error. With regard to Bremer support, a rule of thumb can be derived stating that not much is gained relative to the surplus computational effort when searches are extended beyond 20 ratchet iterations per

  8. Sieve bootstrapping in the Lee-Carter model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinemann, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies an alternative approach to construct confidence intervals for parameter estimates of the Lee-Carter model. First, the procedure of obtaining confidence intervals using regular nonparametric i.i.d. bootstrap is specified. Empirical evidence seems to invalidate this approach as it

  9. Finite-Size Effects for Some Bootstrap Percolation Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enter, A.C.D. van; Adler, Joan; Duarte, J.A.M.S.

    The consequences of Schonmann's new proof that the critical threshold is unity for certain bootstrap percolation models are explored. It is shown that this proof provides an upper bound for the finite-size scaling in these systems. Comparison with data for one case demonstrates that this scaling

  10. Automatic shape model building based on principal geodesic analysis bootstrapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Erik B; Fletcher, P Thomas; Pizer, Stephen M

    2008-01-01

    shape representation is deformed into the training shapes followed by computation of the shape mean and modes of shape variation. In the first iteration, a generic shape model is used as starting point - in the following iterations in the bootstrap method, the resulting mean and modes from the previous...

  11. Application of bootstrap method for assessment of linear regression models; Zastosowanie metody bootstrap do badania liniowych modeli regresyjnych

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbanski, P.; Kowalska, E.

    1997-12-31

    The principle of the bootstrap methodology applied for the assessment of parameters and prediction ability of the linear regression models was presented. Application of this method was shown on the example of calibration of the radioisotope sulphuric acid concentration gauge. The bootstrap method allows to determine not only the numerical values of the regression coefficients, but also enables to investigate their distributions. (author). 11 refs, 12 figs, 3 tabs.

  12. A Double Parametric Bootstrap Test for Topic Models

    OpenAIRE

    Seto, Skyler; Tan, Sarah; Hooker, Giles; Wells, Martin T.

    2017-01-01

    Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) is a technique for finding latent representations of data. The method has been applied to corpora to construct topic models. However, NMF has likelihood assumptions which are often violated by real document corpora. We present a double parametric bootstrap test for evaluating the fit of an NMF-based topic model based on the duality of the KL divergence and Poisson maximum likelihood estimation. The test correctly identifies whether a topic model based o...

  13. Soybean yield modeling using bootstrap methods for small samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalposso, G.A.; Uribe-Opazo, M.A.; Johann, J.A.

    2016-11-01

    One of the problems that occur when working with regression models is regarding the sample size; once the statistical methods used in inferential analyzes are asymptotic if the sample is small the analysis may be compromised because the estimates will be biased. An alternative is to use the bootstrap methodology, which in its non-parametric version does not need to guess or know the probability distribution that generated the original sample. In this work we used a set of soybean yield data and physical and chemical soil properties formed with fewer samples to determine a multiple linear regression model. Bootstrap methods were used for variable selection, identification of influential points and for determination of confidence intervals of the model parameters. The results showed that the bootstrap methods enabled us to select the physical and chemical soil properties, which were significant in the construction of the soybean yield regression model, construct the confidence intervals of the parameters and identify the points that had great influence on the estimated parameters. (Author)

  14. A Parsimonious Bootstrap Method to Model Natural Inflow Energy Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Luiz Cyrino Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian energy generation and transmission system is quite peculiar in its dimension and characteristics. As such, it can be considered unique in the world. It is a high dimension hydrothermal system with huge participation of hydro plants. Such strong dependency on hydrological regimes implies uncertainties related to the energetic planning, requiring adequate modeling of the hydrological time series. This is carried out via stochastic simulations of monthly inflow series using the family of Periodic Autoregressive models, PAR(p, one for each period (month of the year. In this paper it is shown the problems in fitting these models by the current system, particularly the identification of the autoregressive order “p” and the corresponding parameter estimation. It is followed by a proposal of a new approach to set both the model order and the parameters estimation of the PAR(p models, using a nonparametric computational technique, known as Bootstrap. This technique allows the estimation of reliable confidence intervals for the model parameters. The obtained results using the Parsimonious Bootstrap Method of Moments (PBMOM produced not only more parsimonious model orders but also adherent stochastic scenarios and, in the long range, lead to a better use of water resources in the energy operation planning.

  15. Bootstrap Determination of the Co-Integration Rank in Heteroskedastic VAR Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaliere, Giuseppe; Rahbek, Anders; Taylor, A. M. Robert

    In a recent paper Cavaliere et al. (2012) develop bootstrap implementations of the (pseudo-) likelihood ratio [PLR] co-integration rank test and associated sequential rank determination procedure of Johansen (1996). The bootstrap samples are constructed using the restricted parameter estimates...... of the underlying VAR model which obtain under the reduced rank null hypothesis. They propose methods based on an i.i.d. bootstrap re-sampling scheme and establish the validity of their proposed bootstrap procedures in the context of a co-integrated VAR model with i.i.d. innovations. In this paper we investigate...... the properties of their bootstrap procedures, together with analogous procedures based on a wild bootstrap re-sampling scheme, when time-varying behaviour is present in either the conditional or unconditional variance of the innovations. We show that the bootstrap PLR tests are asymptotically correctly sized and...

  16. Bootstrap Determination of the Co-integration Rank in Heteroskedastic VAR Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaliere, Giuseppe; Rahbek, Anders; Taylor, A.M.Robert

    In a recent paper Cavaliere et al. (2012) develop bootstrap implementations of the (pseudo-) likelihood ratio [PLR] co-integration rank test and associated sequential rank determination procedure of Johansen (1996). The bootstrap samples are constructed using the restricted parameter estimates...... of the underlying VAR model which obtain under the reduced rank null hypothesis. They propose methods based on an i.i.d. bootstrap re-sampling scheme and establish the validity of their proposed bootstrap procedures in the context of a co-integrated VAR model with i.i.d. innovations. In this paper we investigate...... the properties of their bootstrap procedures, together with analogous procedures based on a wild bootstrap re-sampling scheme, when time-varying behaviour is present in either the conditional or unconditional variance of the innovations. We show that the bootstrap PLR tests are asymptotically correctly sized and...

  17. A comparison of bootstrap approaches for estimating uncertainty of parameters in linear mixed-effects models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Hoai-Thu; Mentré, France; Holford, Nicholas H G; Veyrat-Follet, Christine; Comets, Emmanuelle

    2013-01-01

    A version of the nonparametric bootstrap, which resamples the entire subjects from original data, called the case bootstrap, has been increasingly used for estimating uncertainty of parameters in mixed-effects models. It is usually applied to obtain more robust estimates of the parameters and more realistic confidence intervals (CIs). Alternative bootstrap methods, such as residual bootstrap and parametric bootstrap that resample both random effects and residuals, have been proposed to better take into account the hierarchical structure of multi-level and longitudinal data. However, few studies have been performed to compare these different approaches. In this study, we used simulation to evaluate bootstrap methods proposed for linear mixed-effect models. We also compared the results obtained by maximum likelihood (ML) and restricted maximum likelihood (REML). Our simulation studies evidenced the good performance of the case bootstrap as well as the bootstraps of both random effects and residuals. On the other hand, the bootstrap methods that resample only the residuals and the bootstraps combining case and residuals performed poorly. REML and ML provided similar bootstrap estimates of uncertainty, but there was slightly more bias and poorer coverage rate for variance parameters with ML in the sparse design. We applied the proposed methods to a real dataset from a study investigating the natural evolution of Parkinson's disease and were able to confirm that the methods provide plausible estimates of uncertainty. Given that most real-life datasets tend to exhibit heterogeneity in sampling schedules, the residual bootstraps would be expected to perform better than the case bootstrap. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Bootstrap Determination of the Co-Integration Rank in Heteroskedastic VAR Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaliere, G.; Rahbek, Anders; Taylor, A.M.R.

    2014-01-01

    In a recent paper Cavaliere et al. (2012) develop bootstrap implementations of the (pseudo-) likelihood ratio (PLR) co-integration rank test and associated sequential rank determination procedure of Johansen (1996). The bootstrap samples are constructed using the restricted parameter estimates...... of the underlying vector autoregressive (VAR) model which obtain under the reduced rank null hypothesis. They propose methods based on an independent and individual distributed (i.i.d.) bootstrap resampling scheme and establish the validity of their proposed bootstrap procedures in the context of a co......-integrated VAR model with i.i.d. innovations. In this paper we investigate the properties of their bootstrap procedures, together with analogous procedures based on a wild bootstrap resampling scheme, when time-varying behavior is present in either the conditional or unconditional variance of the innovations. We...

  19. Internal validation of risk models in clustered data: a comparison of bootstrap schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwmeester, W.; Moons, K.G.M.; Kappen, T.H.; van Klei, W.A.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Eijkemans, M.J.C.; Vergouwe, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Internal validity of a risk model can be studied efficiently with bootstrapping to assess possible optimism in model performance. Assumptions of the regular bootstrap are violated when the development data are clustered. We compared alternative resampling schemes in clustered data for the estimation

  20. The Success of Linear Bootstrapping Models: Decision Domain-, Expertise-, and Criterion-Specific Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Esther; Wittmann, Werner W.

    2016-01-01

    The success of bootstrapping or replacing a human judge with a model (e.g., an equation) has been demonstrated in Paul Meehl’s (1954) seminal work and bolstered by the results of several meta-analyses. To date, however, analyses considering different types of meta-analyses as well as the potential dependence of bootstrapping success on the decision domain, the level of expertise of the human judge, and the criterion for what constitutes an accurate decision have been missing from the literature. In this study, we addressed these research gaps by conducting a meta-analysis of lens model studies. We compared the results of a traditional (bare-bones) meta-analysis with findings of a meta-analysis of the success of bootstrap models corrected for various methodological artifacts. In line with previous studies, we found that bootstrapping was more successful than human judgment. Furthermore, bootstrapping was more successful in studies with an objective decision criterion than in studies with subjective or test score criteria. We did not find clear evidence that the success of bootstrapping depended on the decision domain (e.g., education or medicine) or on the judge’s level of expertise (novice or expert). Correction of methodological artifacts increased the estimated success of bootstrapping, suggesting that previous analyses without artifact correction (i.e., traditional meta-analyses) may have underestimated the value of bootstrapping models. PMID:27327085

  1. Bootstrap, Wild Bootstrap and Generalized Bootstrap

    OpenAIRE

    Mammen, Enno

    1995-01-01

    Some modifications and generalizations of the bootstrap procedurehave been proposed. In this note we will consider the wild bootstrap and the generalized bootstrap and we will give two arguments why it makes sense touse these modifications instead of the original bootstrap. The firstargument is that there exist examples where generalized and wild bootstrapwork, but where the original bootstrap fails and breaks down. The secondargument will be based on higher order considerations. We will show...

  2. A bootstrap based space-time surveillance model with an application to crime occurrences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngho; O'Kelly, Morton

    2008-06-01

    This study proposes a bootstrap-based space-time surveillance model. Designed to find emerging hotspots in near-real time, the bootstrap based model is characterized by its use of past occurrence information and bootstrap permutations. Many existing space-time surveillance methods, using population at risk data to generate expected values, have resulting hotspots bounded by administrative area units and are of limited use for near-real time applications because of the population data needed. However, this study generates expected values for local hotspots from past occurrences rather than population at risk. Also, bootstrap permutations of previous occurrences are used for significant tests. Consequently, the bootstrap-based model, without the requirement of population at risk data, (1) is free from administrative area restriction, (2) enables more frequent surveillance for continuously updated registry database, and (3) is readily applicable to criminology and epidemiology surveillance. The bootstrap-based model performs better for space-time surveillance than the space-time scan statistic. This is shown by means of simulations and an application to residential crime occurrences in Columbus, OH, year 2000.

  3. Model-based bootstrapping when correcting for measurement error with application to logistic regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonaccorsi, John P; Romeo, Giovanni; Thoresen, Magne

    2018-03-01

    When fitting regression models, measurement error in any of the predictors typically leads to biased coefficients and incorrect inferences. A plethora of methods have been proposed to correct for this. Obtaining standard errors and confidence intervals using the corrected estimators can be challenging and, in addition, there is concern about remaining bias in the corrected estimators. The bootstrap, which is one option to address these problems, has received limited attention in this context. It has usually been employed by simply resampling observations, which, while suitable in some situations, is not always formally justified. In addition, the simple bootstrap does not allow for estimating bias in non-linear models, including logistic regression. Model-based bootstrapping, which can potentially estimate bias in addition to being robust to the original sampling or whether the measurement error variance is constant or not, has received limited attention. However, it faces challenges that are not present in handling regression models with no measurement error. This article develops new methods for model-based bootstrapping when correcting for measurement error in logistic regression with replicate measures. The methodology is illustrated using two examples, and a series of simulations are carried out to assess and compare the simple and model-based bootstrap methods, as well as other standard methods. While not always perfect, the model-based approaches offer some distinct improvements over the other methods. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

  4. The PIT-trap-A "model-free" bootstrap procedure for inference about regression models with discrete, multivariate responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warton, David I; Thibaut, Loïc; Wang, Yi Alice

    2017-01-01

    Bootstrap methods are widely used in statistics, and bootstrapping of residuals can be especially useful in the regression context. However, difficulties are encountered extending residual resampling to regression settings where residuals are not identically distributed (thus not amenable to bootstrapping)-common examples including logistic or Poisson regression and generalizations to handle clustered or multivariate data, such as generalised estimating equations. We propose a bootstrap method based on probability integral transform (PIT-) residuals, which we call the PIT-trap, which assumes data come from some marginal distribution F of known parametric form. This method can be understood as a type of "model-free bootstrap", adapted to the problem of discrete and highly multivariate data. PIT-residuals have the key property that they are (asymptotically) pivotal. The PIT-trap thus inherits the key property, not afforded by any other residual resampling approach, that the marginal distribution of data can be preserved under PIT-trapping. This in turn enables the derivation of some standard bootstrap properties, including second-order correctness of pivotal PIT-trap test statistics. In multivariate data, bootstrapping rows of PIT-residuals affords the property that it preserves correlation in data without the need for it to be modelled, a key point of difference as compared to a parametric bootstrap. The proposed method is illustrated on an example involving multivariate abundance data in ecology, and demonstrated via simulation to have improved properties as compared to competing resampling methods.

  5. Bootstrap model selection had similar performance for selecting authentic and noise variables compared to backward variable elimination: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Peter C

    2008-10-01

    Researchers have proposed using bootstrap resampling in conjunction with automated variable selection methods to identify predictors of an outcome and to develop parsimonious regression models. Using this method, multiple bootstrap samples are drawn from the original data set. Traditional backward variable elimination is used in each bootstrap sample, and the proportion of bootstrap samples in which each candidate variable is identified as an independent predictor of the outcome is determined. The performance of this method for identifying predictor variables has not been examined. Monte Carlo simulation methods were used to determine the ability of bootstrap model selection methods to correctly identify predictors of an outcome when those variables that are selected for inclusion in at least 50% of the bootstrap samples are included in the final regression model. We compared the performance of the bootstrap model selection method to that of conventional backward variable elimination. Bootstrap model selection tended to result in an approximately equal proportion of selected models being equal to the true regression model compared with the use of conventional backward variable elimination. Bootstrap model selection performed comparatively to backward variable elimination for identifying the true predictors of a binary outcome.

  6. A model for bootstrap current calculations with bounce averaged Fokker-Planck codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.; Peeters, A.G.

    1996-01-01

    A model is presented that allows the calculation of the neoclassical bootstrap current originating from the radial electron density and pressure gradients in standard (2+1)D bounce averaged Fokker-Planck codes. The model leads to an electron momentum source located almost exclusively at the

  7. Evaluation of bootstrap methods for estimating uncertainty of parameters in nonlinear mixed-effects models: a simulation study in population pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Hoai-Thu; Mentré, France; Holford, Nicholas H G; Veyrat-Follet, Christine; Comets, Emmanuelle

    2014-02-01

    Bootstrap methods are used in many disciplines to estimate the uncertainty of parameters, including multi-level or linear mixed-effects models. Residual-based bootstrap methods which resample both random effects and residuals are an alternative approach to case bootstrap, which resamples the individuals. Most PKPD applications use the case bootstrap, for which software is available. In this study, we evaluated the performance of three bootstrap methods (case bootstrap, nonparametric residual bootstrap and parametric bootstrap) by a simulation study and compared them to that of an asymptotic method (Asym) in estimating uncertainty of parameters in nonlinear mixed-effects models (NLMEM) with heteroscedastic error. This simulation was conducted using as an example of the PK model for aflibercept, an anti-angiogenic drug. As expected, we found that the bootstrap methods provided better estimates of uncertainty for parameters in NLMEM with high nonlinearity and having balanced designs compared to the Asym, as implemented in MONOLIX. Overall, the parametric bootstrap performed better than the case bootstrap as the true model and variance distribution were used. However, the case bootstrap is faster and simpler as it makes no assumptions on the model and preserves both between subject and residual variability in one resampling step. The performance of the nonparametric residual bootstrap was found to be limited when applying to NLMEM due to its failure to reflate the variance before resampling in unbalanced designs where the Asym and the parametric bootstrap performed well and better than case bootstrap even with stratification.

  8. Improving Web Learning through model Optimization using Bootstrap for a Tour-Guide Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael León

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We perform a review of Web Mining techniques and we describe a Bootstrap Statistics methodology applied to pattern model classifier optimization and verification for Supervised Learning for Tour-Guide Robot knowledge repository management. It is virtually impossible to test thoroughly Web Page Classifiers and many other Internet Applications with pure empirical data, due to the need for human intervention to generate training sets and test sets. We propose using the computer-based Bootstrap paradigm to design a test environment where they are checked with better reliability

  9. The PIT-trap—A “model-free” bootstrap procedure for inference about regression models with discrete, multivariate responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibaut, Loïc; Wang, Yi Alice

    2017-01-01

    Bootstrap methods are widely used in statistics, and bootstrapping of residuals can be especially useful in the regression context. However, difficulties are encountered extending residual resampling to regression settings where residuals are not identically distributed (thus not amenable to bootstrapping)—common examples including logistic or Poisson regression and generalizations to handle clustered or multivariate data, such as generalised estimating equations. We propose a bootstrap method based on probability integral transform (PIT-) residuals, which we call the PIT-trap, which assumes data come from some marginal distribution F of known parametric form. This method can be understood as a type of “model-free bootstrap”, adapted to the problem of discrete and highly multivariate data. PIT-residuals have the key property that they are (asymptotically) pivotal. The PIT-trap thus inherits the key property, not afforded by any other residual resampling approach, that the marginal distribution of data can be preserved under PIT-trapping. This in turn enables the derivation of some standard bootstrap properties, including second-order correctness of pivotal PIT-trap test statistics. In multivariate data, bootstrapping rows of PIT-residuals affords the property that it preserves correlation in data without the need for it to be modelled, a key point of difference as compared to a parametric bootstrap. The proposed method is illustrated on an example involving multivariate abundance data in ecology, and demonstrated via simulation to have improved properties as compared to competing resampling methods. PMID:28738071

  10. Effects of parameter estimation on maximum-likelihood bootstrap analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripplinger, Jennifer; Abdo, Zaid; Sullivan, Jack

    2010-08-01

    Bipartition support in maximum-likelihood (ML) analysis is most commonly assessed using the nonparametric bootstrap. Although bootstrap replicates should theoretically be analyzed in the same manner as the original data, model selection is almost never conducted for bootstrap replicates, substitution-model parameters are often fixed to their maximum-likelihood estimates (MLEs) for the empirical data, and bootstrap replicates may be subjected to less rigorous heuristic search strategies than the original data set. Even though this approach may increase computational tractability, it may also lead to the recovery of suboptimal tree topologies and affect bootstrap values. However, since well-supported bipartitions are often recovered regardless of method, use of a less intensive bootstrap procedure may not significantly affect the results. In this study, we investigate the impact of parameter estimation (i.e., assessment of substitution-model parameters and tree topology) on ML bootstrap analysis. We find that while forgoing model selection and/or setting substitution-model parameters to their empirical MLEs may lead to significantly different bootstrap values, it probably would not change their biological interpretation. Similarly, even though the use of reduced search methods often results in significant differences among bootstrap values, only omitting branch swapping is likely to change any biological inferences drawn from the data. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Extending Bootstrap

    CERN Document Server

    Niska, Christoffer

    2014-01-01

    Practical and instruction-based, this concise book will take you from understanding what Bootstrap is, to creating your own Bootstrap theme in no time! If you are an intermediate front-end developer or designer who wants to learn the secrets of Bootstrap, this book is perfect for you.

  12. Estimating Parameter Uncertainty in Binding-Energy Models by the Frequency-Domain Bootstrap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsch, G. F.; Bingham, Derek

    2017-12-01

    We propose using the frequency-domain bootstrap (FDB) to estimate errors of modeling parameters when the modeling error is itself a major source of uncertainty. Unlike the usual bootstrap or the simple χ2 analysis, the FDB can take into account correlations between errors. It is also very fast compared to the Gaussian process Bayesian estimate as often implemented for computer model calibration. The method is illustrated with a simple example, the liquid drop model of nuclear binding energies. We find that the FDB gives a more conservative estimate of the uncertainty in liquid drop parameters than the χ2 method, and is in fair accord with more empirical estimates. For the nuclear physics application, there are no apparent obstacles to apply the method to the more accurate and detailed models based on density-functional theory.

  13. Parametric bootstrap methods for testing multiplicative terms in GGE and AMMI models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkman, Johannes; Piepho, Hans-Peter

    2014-09-01

    The genotype main effects and genotype-by-environment interaction effects (GGE) model and the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) model are two common models for analysis of genotype-by-environment data. These models are frequently used by agronomists, plant breeders, geneticists and statisticians for analysis of multi-environment trials. In such trials, a set of genotypes, for example, crop cultivars, are compared across a range of environments, for example, locations. The GGE and AMMI models use singular value decomposition to partition genotype-by-environment interaction into an ordered sum of multiplicative terms. This article deals with the problem of testing the significance of these multiplicative terms in order to decide how many terms to retain in the final model. We propose parametric bootstrap methods for this problem. Models with fixed main effects, fixed multiplicative terms and random normally distributed errors are considered. Two methods are derived: a full and a simple parametric bootstrap method. These are compared with the alternatives of using approximate F-tests and cross-validation. In a simulation study based on four multi-environment trials, both bootstrap methods performed well with regard to Type I error rate and power. The simple parametric bootstrap method is particularly easy to use, since it only involves repeated sampling of standard normally distributed values. This method is recommended for selecting the number of multiplicative terms in GGE and AMMI models. The proposed methods can also be used for testing components in principal component analysis. © 2014, The International Biometric Society.

  14. Bootstrap data methodology for sequential hybrid model building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volponi, Allan J. (Inventor); Brotherton, Thomas (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A method for modeling engine operation comprising the steps of: 1. collecting a first plurality of sensory data, 2. partitioning a flight envelope into a plurality of sub-regions, 3. assigning the first plurality of sensory data into the plurality of sub-regions, 4. generating an empirical model of at least one of the plurality of sub-regions, 5. generating a statistical summary model for at least one of the plurality of sub-regions, 6. collecting an additional plurality of sensory data, 7. partitioning the second plurality of sensory data into the plurality of sub-regions, 8. generating a plurality of pseudo-data using the empirical model, and 9. concatenating the plurality of pseudo-data and the additional plurality of sensory data to generate an updated empirical model and an updated statistical summary model for at least one of the plurality of sub-regions.

  15. Bootstrap imputation with a disease probability model minimized bias from misclassification due to administrative database codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Walraven, Carl

    2017-04-01

    Diagnostic codes used in administrative databases cause bias due to misclassification of patient disease status. It is unclear which methods minimize this bias. Serum creatinine measures were used to determine severe renal failure status in 50,074 hospitalized patients. The true prevalence of severe renal failure and its association with covariates were measured. These were compared to results for which renal failure status was determined using surrogate measures including the following: (1) diagnostic codes; (2) categorization of probability estimates of renal failure determined from a previously validated model; or (3) bootstrap methods imputation of disease status using model-derived probability estimates. Bias in estimates of severe renal failure prevalence and its association with covariates were minimal when bootstrap methods were used to impute renal failure status from model-based probability estimates. In contrast, biases were extensive when renal failure status was determined using codes or methods in which model-based condition probability was categorized. Bias due to misclassification from inaccurate diagnostic codes can be minimized using bootstrap methods to impute condition status using multivariable model-derived probability estimates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A bootstrap test for instrument validity in heterogeneous treatment effect models

    OpenAIRE

    Kitagawa, Toru

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops a specification test for the instrument validity conditions in the heterogeneous treatment effect model with a binary treatment and a discrete instrument. A necessary testable implication for the joint restriction of instrument exogeneity and instrument monotonicity is given by nonnegativity of point-identifiable complier's outcome densities. Our specification test infers this testable implication using a Kolmogorov-Smirnov type test statistic. We provide a bootstrap algor...

  17. Forecasting Model for IPTV Service in Korea Using Bootstrap Ridge Regression Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byoung Chul; Kee, Seho; Kim, Jae Bum; Kim, Yun Bae

    The telecom firms in Korea are taking new step to prepare for the next generation of convergence services, IPTV. In this paper we described our analysis on the effective method for demand forecasting about IPTV broadcasting. We have tried according to 3 types of scenarios based on some aspects of IPTV potential market and made a comparison among the results. The forecasting method used in this paper is the multi generation substitution model with bootstrap ridge regression analysis.

  18. Off-critical statistical models: factorized scattering theories and bootstrap program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mussardo, G.

    1992-01-01

    We analyze those integrable statistical systems which originate from some relevant perturbations of the minimal models of conformal field theories. When only massive excitations are present, the systems can be efficiently characterized in terms of the relativistic scattering data. We review the general properties of the factorizable S-matrix in two dimensions with particular emphasis on the bootstrap principle. The classification program of the allowed spins of conserved currents and of the non-degenerate S-matrices is discussed and illustrated by means of some significant examples. The scattering theories of several massive perturbations of the minimal models are fully discussed. Among them are the Ising model, the tricritical Ising model, the Potts models, the series of the non-unitary minimal models M 2,2n+3 , the non-unitary model M 3,5 and the scaling limit of the polymer system. The ultraviolet limit of these massive integrable theories can be exploited by the thermodynamics Bethe ansatz, in particular the central charge of the original conformal theories can be recovered from the scattering data. We also consider the numerical method based on the so-called conformal space truncated approach which confirms the theoretical results and allows a direct measurement of the scattering data, i.e. the masses and the S-matrix of the particles in bootstrap interaction. The problem of computing the off-critical correlation functions is discussed in terms of the form-factor approach

  19. The effective bootstrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castedo Echeverri, Alejandro [SISSA, Trieste (Italy); INFN, Trieste (Italy); Harling, Benedict von [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Serone, Marco [SISSA, Trieste (Italy); INFN, Trieste (Italy); ICTP, Trieste (Italy)

    2016-06-15

    We study the numerical bounds obtained using a conformal-bootstrap method where different points in the plane of conformal cross ratios z and anti z are sampled. In contrast to the most used method based on derivatives evaluated at the symmetric point z= anti z=1/2, we can consistently ''integrate out'' higher-dimensional operators and get a reduced simpler, and faster to solve, set of bootstrap equations. We test this ''effective'' bootstrap by studying the 3D Ising and O(n) vector models and bounds on generic 4D CFTs, for which extensive results are already available in the literature. We also determine the scaling dimensions of certain scalar operators in the O(n) vector models, with n=2,3,4, which have not yet been computed using bootstrap techniques.

  20. Comparison of bootstrap current and plasma conductivity models applied in a self-consistent equilibrium calculation for Tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Maria Celia Ramos; Ludwig, Gerson Otto [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Lab. Associado de Plasma]. E-mail: mcr@plasma.inpe.br

    2004-07-01

    Different bootstrap current formulations are implemented in a self-consistent equilibrium calculation obtained from a direct variational technique in fixed boundary tokamak plasmas. The total plasma current profile is supposed to have contributions of the diamagnetic, Pfirsch-Schlueter, and the neoclassical Ohmic and bootstrap currents. The Ohmic component is calculated in terms of the neoclassical conductivity, compared here among different expressions, and the loop voltage determined consistently in order to give the prescribed value of the total plasma current. A comparison among several bootstrap current models for different viscosity coefficient calculations and distinct forms for the Coulomb collision operator is performed for a variety of plasma parameters of the small aspect ratio tokamak ETE (Experimento Tokamak Esferico) at the Associated Plasma Laboratory of INPE, in Brazil. We have performed this comparison for the ETE tokamak so that the differences among all the models reported here, mainly regarding plasma collisionality, can be better illustrated. The dependence of the bootstrap current ratio upon some plasma parameters in the frame of the self-consistent calculation is also analysed. We emphasize in this paper what we call the Hirshman-Sigmar/Shaing model, valid for all collisionality regimes and aspect ratios, and a fitted formulation proposed by Sauter, which has the same range of validity but is faster to compute than the previous one. The advantages or possible limitations of all these different formulations for the bootstrap current estimate are analysed throughout this work. (author)

  1. Bootstrapping integrated covariance matrix estimators in noisy jump-diffusion models with non-synchronous trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounyo, Ulrich

    covariance estimator. As an application of our results, we also consider the bootstrap for regression coefficients. We show that the wild blocks of bootstrap, appropriately centered, is able to mimic both the dependence and heterogeneity of the scores, thus justifying the construction of bootstrap percentile......We propose a bootstrap mehtod for estimating the distribution (and functionals of it such as the variance) of various integrated covariance matrix estimators. In particular, we first adapt the wild blocks of blocks bootsratp method suggested for the pre-averaged realized volatility estimator......-studentized statistics, our results justify using the bootstrap to esitmate the covariance matrix of a broad class of covolatility estimators. The bootstrap variance estimator is positive semi-definite by construction, an appealing feature that is not always shared by existing variance estimators of the integrated...

  2. Scalable Automated Model Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-20

    tributed learning environment. Specifically, how to best choose be- tween model families for supervised learning problems and config- ure the...io n Er ro r Maximum Calls 16 81 256 625 Comparison of Search Methods Across Learning Problems Figure 3: Search methods were compared across several...while several of the methods in this paper may apply to this setting, optimizing over this many hyperparameters for learning problems is not a well

  3. Bootstrapping in a language of thought: a formal model of numerical concept learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantadosi, Steven T; Tenenbaum, Joshua B; Goodman, Noah D

    2012-05-01

    In acquiring number words, children exhibit a qualitative leap in which they transition from understanding a few number words, to possessing a rich system of interrelated numerical concepts. We present a computational framework for understanding this inductive leap as the consequence of statistical inference over a sufficiently powerful representational system. We provide an implemented model that is powerful enough to learn number word meanings and other related conceptual systems from naturalistic data. The model shows that bootstrapping can be made computationally and philosophically well-founded as a theory of number learning. Our approach demonstrates how learners may combine core cognitive operations to build sophisticated representations during the course of development, and how this process explains observed developmental patterns in number word learning. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Bootstrap unloader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfiffner, H. J.

    1969-01-01

    Circuit can sample a number of transducers in sequence without drawing from them. This bootstrap unloader uses a differential amplifier with one input connected to a circuit which is the equivalent of the circuit to be unloaded, and the other input delivering the proper unloading currents.

  5. Bootstrap essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Bhaumik, Snig

    2015-01-01

    If you are a web developer who designs and develops websites and pages using HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, but have very little familiarity with Bootstrap, this is the book for you. Previous experience with HTML, CSS, and JavaScript will be helpful, while knowledge of jQuery would be an extra advantage.

  6. Replication of Major Profile Patterns in Structural Equation Modeling: Effect of Bootstrapping in a Small Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Kang

    The effect of bootstrapping was studied by examining whether major profile patterns were replicated when sample sizes were reduced. Profile patterns estimated from the original sample (n=645) of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of IntelligenceThird Edition (WPPSI-III) Standardization Data were considered major profiles. For bootstrapping,…

  7. Wild bootstrap versus moment-oriented bootstrap

    OpenAIRE

    Sommerfeld, Volker

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the relative merits of a “moment-oriented” bootstrap method of Bunke (1997) in comparison with the classical wild bootstrap of Wu (1986) in nonparametric heteroscedastic regression situations. The “moment-oriented” bootstrap is a wild bootstrap based on local estimators of higher order error moments that are smoothed by kernel smoothers. In this paper we perform an asymptotic comparison of these two dierent bootstrap procedures. We show that the moment-oriented bootstrap is in ...

  8. Bootstrap Sequential Determination of the Co-integration Rank in VAR Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaliere, Giuseppe; Rahbek, Anders; Taylor, A. M. Robert

    with empirical rejection frequencies often very much in excess of the nominal level. As a consequence, bootstrap versions of these tests have been developed. To be useful, however, sequential procedures for determining the co-integrating rank based on these bootstrap tests need to be consistent, in the sense...... in the literature by proposing a bootstrap sequential algorithm which we demonstrate delivers consistent cointegration rank estimation for general I(1) processes. Finite sample Monte Carlo simulations show the proposed procedure performs well in practice....

  9. Long multiplet bootstrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornagliotto, Martina; Lemos, Madalena; Schomerus, Volker [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group

    2017-02-15

    Applications of the bootstrap program to superconformal field theories promise unique new insights into their landscape and could even lead to the discovery of new models. Most existing results of the superconformal bootstrap were obtained form correlation functions of very special fields in short (BPS) representations of the superconformal algebra. Our main goal is to initiate a superconformal bootstrap for long multiplets, one that exploits all constraints from superprimaries and their descendants. To this end, we work out the Casimir equations for four-point correlators of long multiplets of the two-dimensional global N=2 superconformal algebra. After constructing the full set of conformal blocks we discuss two different applications. The first one concerns two-dimensional (2,0) theories. The numerical bootstrap analysis we perform serves a twofold purpose, as a feasibility study of our long multiplet bootstrap and also as an exploration of (2,0) theories. A second line of applications is directed towards four-dimensional N=3 SCFTs. In this context, our results imply a new bound c ≥ (13)/(24) for the central charge of such models. A theory that saturates this bound is not known yet.

  10. Long multiplet bootstrap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornagliotto, Martina; Lemos, Madalena; Schomerus, Volker

    2017-10-01

    Applications of the bootstrap program to superconformal field theories promise unique new insights into their landscape and could even lead to the discovery of new models. Most existing results of the superconformal bootstrap were obtained form correlation functions of very special fields in short (BPS) representations of the superconformal algebra. Our main goal is to initiate a superconformal bootstrap for long multiplets, one that exploits all constraints from superprimaries and their descendants. To this end, we work out the Casimir equations for four-point correlators of long multiplets of the two-dimensional global N=2 superconformal algebra. After constructing the full set of conformal blocks we discuss two different applications. The first one concerns two-dimensional (2,0) theories. The numerical bootstrap analysis we perform serves a twofold purpose, as a feasibility study of our long multiplet bootstrap and also as an exploration of (2,0) theories. A second line of applications is directed towards four-dimensional N=3 SCFTs. In this context, our results imply a new bound c≥ 13/24 for the central charge of such models, which we argue cannot be saturated by an interacting SCFT.

  11. Long multiplet bootstrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornagliotto, Martina; Lemos, Madalena; Schomerus, Volker

    2017-02-01

    Applications of the bootstrap program to superconformal field theories promise unique new insights into their landscape and could even lead to the discovery of new models. Most existing results of the superconformal bootstrap were obtained form correlation functions of very special fields in short (BPS) representations of the superconformal algebra. Our main goal is to initiate a superconformal bootstrap for long multiplets, one that exploits all constraints from superprimaries and their descendants. To this end, we work out the Casimir equations for four-point correlators of long multiplets of the two-dimensional global N=2 superconformal algebra. After constructing the full set of conformal blocks we discuss two different applications. The first one concerns two-dimensional (2,0) theories. The numerical bootstrap analysis we perform serves a twofold purpose, as a feasibility study of our long multiplet bootstrap and also as an exploration of (2,0) theories. A second line of applications is directed towards four-dimensional N=3 SCFTs. In this context, our results imply a new bound c ≥ (13)/(24) for the central charge of such models. A theory that saturates this bound is not known yet.

  12. A bootstrap method to avoid the effect of concurvity in generalised additive models in time series studies of air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiras, Adolfo; Roca-Pardiñas, Javier; Cadarso-Suárez, Carmen

    2005-10-01

    In recent years a great number of studies have applied generalised additive models (GAMs) to time series data to estimate the short term health effects of air pollution. Lately, however, it has been found that concurvity--the non-parametric analogue of multicollinearity--might lead to underestimation of standard errors of the effects of independent variables. Underestimation of standard errors means that for concurvity levels commonly present in the data, the risk of committing type I error rises by over threefold. This study developed a conditional bootstrap methology that consists of assuming that the outcome in any observation is conditional upon the values of the set of independent variables used. It then tested this procedure by means of a simulation study using a Poisson additive model. The response variable of this model is a function of an unobserved confounding variable (that introduces trend and seasonality), real black smoke data, and temperature. Scenarios were created with different coefficients and degrees of concurvity. Conditional bootstrap provides confidence intervals with coverages close to nominal (95%), irrespective of the degree of concurvity, number of variables in the model or magnitude of the coefficient to be estimated (for example, for a concurvity of 0.85, bootstrap confidence interval coverage is 95% compared with 71% in the case of the asymptotic interval obtained directly with S-plus gam function). The bootstrap method avoids the problem of concurvity in time series studies of air pollution, and is easily generalised to non-linear dose-risk effects. All bootstrap calculations described in this paper can be performed using S-Plus gam.boot software.

  13. A Bootstrapping Model of Frequency and Context Effects in Word Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachergis, George; Yu, Chen; Shiffrin, Richard M

    2017-04-01

    Prior research has shown that people can learn many nouns (i.e., word-object mappings) from a short series of ambiguous situations containing multiple words and objects. For successful cross-situational learning, people must approximately track which words and referents co-occur most frequently. This study investigates the effects of allowing some word-referent pairs to appear more frequently than others, as is true in real-world learning environments. Surprisingly, high-frequency pairs are not always learned better, but can also boost learning of other pairs. Using a recent associative model (Kachergis, Yu, & Shiffrin, 2012), we explain how mixing pairs of different frequencies can bootstrap late learning of the low-frequency pairs based on early learning of higher frequency pairs. We also manipulate contextual diversity, the number of pairs a given pair appears with across training, since it is naturalistically confounded with frequency. The associative model has competing familiarity and uncertainty biases, and their interaction is able to capture the individual and combined effects of frequency and contextual diversity on human learning. Two other recent word-learning models do not account for the behavioral findings. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  14. Oscillometric blood pressure estimation by combining nonparametric bootstrap with Gaussian mixture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soojeong; Rajan, Sreeraman; Jeon, Gwanggil; Chang, Joon-Hyuk; Dajani, Hilmi R; Groza, Voicu Z

    2017-06-01

    Blood pressure (BP) is one of the most important vital indicators and plays a key role in determining the cardiovascular activity of patients. This paper proposes a hybrid approach consisting of nonparametric bootstrap (NPB) and machine learning techniques to obtain the characteristic ratios (CR) used in the blood pressure estimation algorithm to improve the accuracy of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) estimates and obtain confidence intervals (CI). The NPB technique is used to circumvent the requirement for large sample set for obtaining the CI. A mixture of Gaussian densities is assumed for the CRs and Gaussian mixture model (GMM) is chosen to estimate the SBP and DBP ratios. The K-means clustering technique is used to obtain the mixture order of the Gaussian densities. The proposed approach achieves grade "A" under British Society of Hypertension testing protocol and is superior to the conventional approach based on maximum amplitude algorithm (MAA) that uses fixed CR ratios. The proposed approach also yields a lower mean error (ME) and the standard deviation of the error (SDE) in the estimates when compared to the conventional MAA method. In addition, CIs obtained through the proposed hybrid approach are also narrower with a lower SDE. The proposed approach combining the NPB technique with the GMM provides a methodology to derive individualized characteristic ratio. The results exhibit that the proposed approach enhances the accuracy of SBP and DBP estimation and provides narrower confidence intervals for the estimates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Estimates by bootstrap interval for time series forecasts obtained by theta model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Steffen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, are developed an experimental computer program in Matlab language version 7.1 from the univariate method for time series forecasting called Theta, and implementation of resampling technique known as computer intensive "bootstrap" to estimate the prediction for the point forecast obtained by this method by confidence interval. To solve this problem built up an algorithm that uses Monte Carlo simulation to obtain the interval estimation for forecasts. The Theta model presented in this work was very efficient in M3 Makridakis competition, where tested 3003 series. It is based on the concept of modifying the local curvature of the time series obtained by a coefficient theta (Θ. In it's simplest approach the time series is decomposed into two lines theta representing terms of long term and short term. The prediction is made by combining the forecast obtained by fitting lines obtained with the theta decomposition. The results of Mape's error obtained for the estimates confirm the favorable results to the method of M3 competition being a good alternative for time series forecast.

  16. Seven Stages of Bootstrap

    OpenAIRE

    Beran, Rudolf

    1994-01-01

    This essay is organized around the theoretical and computationalproblem of constructing bootstrap confidence sets, with forays into relatedtopics. The seven section headings are: Introduction; The Bootstrap World;Bootstrap Confidence Sets; Computing Bootstrap Confidence Sets; Quality ofBootstrap Confidence Sets; Iterated and Two-step Boostrap; Further Resources.

  17. Point Set Denoising Using Bootstrap-Based Radial Basis Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Khang Jie; Ramli, Ahmad; Abd Majid, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the application of a bootstrap test error estimation of radial basis functions, specifically thin-plate spline fitting, in surface smoothing. The presence of noisy data is a common issue of the point set model that is generated from 3D scanning devices, and hence, point set denoising is one of the main concerns in point set modelling. Bootstrap test error estimation, which is applied when searching for the smoothing parameters of radial basis functions, is revisited. The main contribution of this paper is a smoothing algorithm that relies on a bootstrap-based radial basis function. The proposed method incorporates a k-nearest neighbour search and then projects the point set to the approximated thin-plate spline surface. Therefore, the denoising process is achieved, and the features are well preserved. A comparison of the proposed method with other smoothing methods is also carried out in this study.

  18. Power Analysis for the Likelihood-Ratio Test in Latent Markov Models: Shortcutting the Bootstrap p-Value-Based Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudicha, Dereje W; Schmittmann, Verena D; Tekle, Fetene B; Vermunt, Jeroen K

    2016-01-01

    The latent Markov (LM) model is a popular method for identifying distinct unobserved states and transitions between these states over time in longitudinally observed responses. The bootstrap likelihood-ratio (BLR) test yields the most rigorous test for determining the number of latent states, yet little is known about power analysis for this test. Power could be computed as the proportion of the bootstrap p values (PBP) for which the null hypothesis is rejected. This requires performing the full bootstrap procedure for a large number of samples generated from the model under the alternative hypothesis, which is computationally infeasible in most situations. This article presents a computationally feasible shortcut method for power computation for the BLR test. The shortcut method involves the following simple steps: (1) obtaining the parameters of the model under the null hypothesis, (2) constructing the empirical distributions of the likelihood ratio under the null and alternative hypotheses via Monte Carlo simulations, and (3) using these empirical distributions to compute the power. We evaluate the performance of the shortcut method by comparing it to the PBP method and, moreover, show how the shortcut method can be used for sample-size determination.

  19. Comparison of tenofovir plasma and tissue exposure using a population pharmacokinetic model and bootstrap: a simulation study from observed data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jon W; Heyward Hull, J; Dumond, Julie B

    2017-12-01

    Sparse tissue sampling with intensive plasma sampling creates a unique data analysis problem in determining drug exposure in clinically relevant tissues. Tissue exposure may govern drug efficacy, as many drugs exert their actions in tissues. We compared tissue area-under-the-curve (AUC) generated from bootstrapped noncompartmental analysis (NCA) methods and compartmental nonlinear mixed effect (NLME) modeling. A model of observed data after single-dose tenofovir disoproxil fumarate was used to simulate plasma and tissue concentrations for two destructive tissue sampling schemes. Two groups of 100 data sets with densely-sampled plasma and one tissue sample per individual were created. The bootstrapped NCA (SAS 9.3) used a trapezoidal method to calculate geometric mean tissue AUC per dataset. For NLME, individual post hoc estimates of tissue AUC were determined, and the geometric mean from each dataset calculated. Median normalized prediction error (NPE) and absolute normalized prediction error (ANPE) were calculated for each method from the true values of the modeled concentrations. Both methods produced similar tissue AUC estimates close to true values. Although the NLME-generated AUC estimates had larger NPEs, it had smaller ANPEs. Overall, NLME NPEs showed AUC under-prediction but improved precision and fewer outliers. The bootstrapped NCA method produced more accurate estimates but with some NPEs > 100%. In general, NLME is preferred, as it accommodates less intensive tissue sampling with reasonable results, and provides simulation capabilities for optimizing tissue distribution. However, if the main goal is an accurate AUC for the studied scenario, and relatively intense tissue sampling is feasible, the NCA bootstrap method is a reasonable, and potentially less time-intensive solution.

  20. A cautionary note on the use of nonparametric bootstrap for estimating uncertainties in extreme value models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyselý, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 12 (2008), s. 3236-3251 ISSN 1558-8424 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/06/1535 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : bootstrap * resampling * extreme value analysis * Generalized extreme value distribution * Gumbel distribution Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.761, year: 2008

  1. Mobile-first Bootstrap

    CERN Document Server

    Magno, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    A practical, step-by-step tutorial on developing websites for mobile using Bootstrap.This book is for anyone who wants to get acquainted with the new features available in Bootstrap 3 and who wants to develop websites with the mobile-first feature of Bootstrap. The reader should have a basic knowledge of Bootstrap as a frontend framework.

  2. Inverse bootstrapping conformal field theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenliang

    2018-01-01

    We propose a novel approach to study conformal field theories (CFTs) in general dimensions. In the conformal bootstrap program, one usually searches for consistent CFT data that satisfy crossing symmetry. In the new method, we reverse the logic and interpret manifestly crossing-symmetric functions as generating functions of conformal data. Physical CFTs can be obtained by scanning the space of crossing-symmetric functions. By truncating the fusion rules, we are able to concentrate on the low-lying operators and derive some approximate relations for their conformal data. It turns out that the free scalar theory, the 2d minimal model CFTs, the ϕ 4 Wilson-Fisher CFT, the Lee-Yang CFTs and the Ising CFTs are consistent with the universal relations from the minimal fusion rule ϕ 1 × ϕ 1 = I + ϕ 2 + T , where ϕ 1 , ϕ 2 are scalar operators, I is the identity operator and T is the stress tensor.

  3. A Search Model of Discouragement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Michael; Toomet, Ott

    Discouragement is a process occurring during an unemployment spell. As the spell prolongs, an individual gradually realises that the returns to search can no longer outweigh search costs, and hence she may eventually leave the labour force. This is analysed theoretically in a framework...... of unemployed search. We construct a search model, which is stationary from the point of view of the individual, but which has nonstationary features. Namely, the unemployed worker is occasionally hit by shocks leading to a decline in job offer arrival rates. These shocks can be due to stigmatisation...... or to psychological consequences of unemployement affecting search effectiveness. This model enables us to analyse the issue of discouragement, as the returns to search will gradually decline. Even so, the model is actually stationary from the point of view of the individual, which implies that many interesting...

  4. Quasi-Maximum Likelihood Estimation and Bootstrap Inference in Fractional Time Series Models with Heteroskedasticity of Unknown Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaliere, Giuseppe; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard; Taylor, Robert

    of the estimator now depends on nuisance parameters derived both from the weak dependence and heteroskedasticity present in the shocks. We then investigate classical methods of inference based on the Wald, likelihood ratio and Lagrange multiplier tests for linear hypotheses on either or both of the long and short...... memory parameters of the model. The limiting null distributions of these test statistics are shown to be non-pivotal under heteroskedasticity, while that of a robustWald statistic (based around a sandwich estimator of the variance) is pivotal. We show that wild bootstrap implementations of the tests...

  5. Inference Based on the Best-Fitting Model can Contribute to the Replication Crisis: Assessing Model Selection Uncertainty Using a Bootstrap Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubke, Gitta H.; Campbell, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Inference and conclusions drawn from model fitting analyses are commonly based on a single “best-fitting” model. If model selection and inference are carried out using the same data model selection uncertainty is ignored. We illustrate the Type I error inflation that can result from using the same data for model selection and inference, and we then propose a simple bootstrap based approach to quantify model selection uncertainty in terms of model selection rates. A selection rate can be interpreted as an estimate of the replication probability of a fitted model. The benefits of bootstrapping model selection uncertainty is demonstrated in a growth mixture analyses of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth, and a 2-group measurement invariance analysis of the Holzinger-Swineford data. PMID:28663687

  6. Ultrafast approximation for phylogenetic bootstrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Bui Quang; Nguyen, Minh Anh Thi; von Haeseler, Arndt

    2013-05-01

    Nonparametric bootstrap has been a widely used tool in phylogenetic analysis to assess the clade support of phylogenetic trees. However, with the rapidly growing amount of data, this task remains a computational bottleneck. Recently, approximation methods such as the RAxML rapid bootstrap (RBS) and the Shimodaira-Hasegawa-like approximate likelihood ratio test have been introduced to speed up the bootstrap. Here, we suggest an ultrafast bootstrap approximation approach (UFBoot) to compute the support of phylogenetic groups in maximum likelihood (ML) based trees. To achieve this, we combine the resampling estimated log-likelihood method with a simple but effective collection scheme of candidate trees. We also propose a stopping rule that assesses the convergence of branch support values to automatically determine when to stop collecting candidate trees. UFBoot achieves a median speed up of 3.1 (range: 0.66-33.3) to 10.2 (range: 1.32-41.4) compared with RAxML RBS for real DNA and amino acid alignments, respectively. Moreover, our extensive simulations show that UFBoot is robust against moderate model violations and the support values obtained appear to be relatively unbiased compared with the conservative standard bootstrap. This provides a more direct interpretation of the bootstrap support. We offer an efficient and easy-to-use software (available at http://www.cibiv.at/software/iqtree) to perform the UFBoot analysis with ML tree inference.

  7. Evaluating experimental design for soil-plant model selection using a Bootstrap Filter and Bayesian model averaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöhling, T.; Schöniger, A.; Geiges, A.; Nowak, W.; Gayler, S.

    2013-12-01

    The objective selection of appropriate models for realistic simulations of coupled soil-plant processes is a challenging task since the processes are complex, not fully understood at larger scales, and highly non-linear. Also, comprehensive data sets are scarce, and measurements are uncertain. In the past decades, a variety of different models have been developed that exhibit a wide range of complexity regarding their approximation of processes in the coupled model compartments. We present a method for evaluating experimental design for maximum confidence in the model selection task. The method considers uncertainty in parameters, measurements and model structures. Advancing the ideas behind Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA), we analyze the changes in posterior model weights and posterior model choice uncertainty when more data are made available. This allows assessing the power of different data types, data densities and data locations in identifying the best model structure from among a suite of plausible models. The models considered in this study are the crop models CERES, SUCROS, GECROS and SPASS, which are coupled to identical routines for simulating soil processes within the modelling framework Expert-N. The four models considerably differ in the degree of detail at which crop growth and root water uptake are represented. Monte-Carlo simulations were conducted for each of these models considering their uncertainty in soil hydraulic properties and selected crop model parameters. Using a Bootstrap Filter (BF), the models were then conditioned on field measurements of soil moisture, matric potential, leaf-area index, and evapotranspiration rates (from eddy-covariance measurements) during a vegetation period of winter wheat at a field site at the Swabian Alb in Southwestern Germany. Following our new method, we derived model weights when using all data or different subsets thereof. We discuss to which degree the posterior mean outperforms the prior mean and all

  8. Bootstrapping phylogenies inferred from rearrangement data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale sequencing of genomes has enabled the inference of phylogenies based on the evolution of genomic architecture, under such events as rearrangements, duplications, and losses. Many evolutionary models and associated algorithms have been designed over the last few years and have found use in comparative genomics and phylogenetic inference. However, the assessment of phylogenies built from such data has not been properly addressed to date. The standard method used in sequence-based phylogenetic inference is the bootstrap, but it relies on a large number of homologous characters that can be resampled; yet in the case of rearrangements, the entire genome is a single character. Alternatives such as the jackknife suffer from the same problem, while likelihood tests cannot be applied in the absence of well established probabilistic models. Results We present a new approach to the assessment of distance-based phylogenetic inference from whole-genome data; our approach combines features of the jackknife and the bootstrap and remains nonparametric. For each feature of our method, we give an equivalent feature in the sequence-based framework; we also present the results of extensive experimental testing, in both sequence-based and genome-based frameworks. Through the feature-by-feature comparison and the experimental results, we show that our bootstrapping approach is on par with the classic phylogenetic bootstrap used in sequence-based reconstruction, and we establish the clear superiority of the classic bootstrap for sequence data and of our corresponding new approach for rearrangement data over proposed variants. Finally, we test our approach on a small dataset of mammalian genomes, verifying that the support values match current thinking about the respective branches. Conclusions Our method is the first to provide a standard of assessment to match that of the classic phylogenetic bootstrap for aligned sequences. Its

  9. Bootstrapping phylogenies inferred from rearrangement data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu; Rajan, Vaibhav; Moret, Bernard Me

    2012-08-29

    Large-scale sequencing of genomes has enabled the inference of phylogenies based on the evolution of genomic architecture, under such events as rearrangements, duplications, and losses. Many evolutionary models and associated algorithms have been designed over the last few years and have found use in comparative genomics and phylogenetic inference. However, the assessment of phylogenies built from such data has not been properly addressed to date. The standard method used in sequence-based phylogenetic inference is the bootstrap, but it relies on a large number of homologous characters that can be resampled; yet in the case of rearrangements, the entire genome is a single character. Alternatives such as the jackknife suffer from the same problem, while likelihood tests cannot be applied in the absence of well established probabilistic models. We present a new approach to the assessment of distance-based phylogenetic inference from whole-genome data; our approach combines features of the jackknife and the bootstrap and remains nonparametric. For each feature of our method, we give an equivalent feature in the sequence-based framework; we also present the results of extensive experimental testing, in both sequence-based and genome-based frameworks. Through the feature-by-feature comparison and the experimental results, we show that our bootstrapping approach is on par with the classic phylogenetic bootstrap used in sequence-based reconstruction, and we establish the clear superiority of the classic bootstrap for sequence data and of our corresponding new approach for rearrangement data over proposed variants. Finally, we test our approach on a small dataset of mammalian genomes, verifying that the support values match current thinking about the respective branches. Our method is the first to provide a standard of assessment to match that of the classic phylogenetic bootstrap for aligned sequences. Its support values follow a similar scale and its receiver

  10. Bootstrapping mixed correlators in the five dimensional critical O(N) models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhijin; Su, Ning [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy,Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2017-04-18

    We use the conformal bootstrap approach to explore 5D CFTs with O(N) global symmetry, which contain N scalars ϕ{sub i} transforming as O(N) vector. Specifically, we study multiple four-point correlators of the leading O(N) vector ϕ{sub i} and the O(N) singlet σ. The crossing symmetry of the four-point functions and the unitarity condition provide nontrivial constraints on the scaling dimensions (Δ{sub ϕ}, Δ{sub σ}) of ϕ{sub i} and σ. With reasonable assumptions on the gaps between scaling dimensions of ϕ{sub i} (σ) and the next O(N) vector ϕ{sub i}{sup ′} (singlet σ{sup ′}) scalar, we are able to isolate the scaling dimensions (Δ{sub ϕ}, Δ{sub σ}) in small islands. In particular, for large N=500, the isolated region is highly consistent with the result obtained from large N expansion. We also study the interacting O(N) CFTs for 1≤N≤100. Isolated regions on (Δ{sub ϕ},Δ{sub σ}) plane are obtained using conformal bootstrap program with lower order of derivatives Λ; however, they disappear after increasing Λ. For N=100, no solution can be found with Λ=25 under the assumptions on the scaling dimensions of next O(N) vector Δ{sub ϕ{sub i{sup ′}}}≥5.0 (singlet Δ{sub σ{sup ′}}≥3.3). These islands are expected to be corresponding to interacting but nonunitary O(N) CFTs. Our results suggest a lower bound on the critical value N{sub c}>100, below which the interacting O(N) CFTs turn into nonunitary.

  11. Probabilistic tractography using Lasso bootstrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chuyang; Prince, Jerry L

    2017-01-01

    Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) can be used for noninvasive imaging of white matter tracts. Using fiber tracking, which propagates fiber streamlines according to fiber orientations (FOs) computed from dMRI, white matter tracts can be reconstructed for investigation of brain diseases and the brain connectome. Because of image noise, probabilistic tractography has been proposed to characterize uncertainties in FO estimation. Bootstrap provides a nonparametric approach to the estimation of FO uncertainties and residual bootstrap has been used for developing probabilistic tractography. However, recently developed models have incorporated sparsity regularization to reduce the required number of gradient directions to resolve crossing FOs, and the residual bootstrap used in previous methods is not applicable to these models. In this work, we propose a probabilistic tractography algorithm named Lasso bootstrap tractography (LBT) for the models that incorporate sparsity. Using a fixed tensor basis and a sparsity assumption, diffusion signals are modeled using a Lasso formulation. With the residuals from the Lasso model, a distribution of diffusion signals is obtained according to a modified Lasso bootstrap strategy. FOs are then estimated from the synthesized diffusion signals by an algorithm that improves FO estimation by enforcing spatial consistency of FOs. Finally, streamlining fiber tracking is performed with the computed FOs. The LBT algorithm was evaluated on simulated and real dMRI data both qualitatively and quantitatively. Results demonstrate that LBT outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Bootstrapping language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abend, Omri; Kwiatkowski, Tom; Smith, Nathaniel J; Goldwater, Sharon; Steedman, Mark

    2017-07-01

    The semantic bootstrapping hypothesis proposes that children acquire their native language through exposure to sentences of the language paired with structured representations of their meaning, whose component substructures can be associated with words and syntactic structures used to express these concepts. The child's task is then to learn a language-specific grammar and lexicon based on (probably contextually ambiguous, possibly somewhat noisy) pairs of sentences and their meaning representations (logical forms). Starting from these assumptions, we develop a Bayesian probabilistic account of semantically bootstrapped first-language acquisition in the child, based on techniques from computational parsing and interpretation of unrestricted text. Our learner jointly models (a) word learning: the mapping between components of the given sentential meaning and lexical words (or phrases) of the language, and (b) syntax learning: the projection of lexical elements onto sentences by universal construction-free syntactic rules. Using an incremental learning algorithm, we apply the model to a dataset of real syntactically complex child-directed utterances and (pseudo) logical forms, the latter including contextually plausible but irrelevant distractors. Taking the Eve section of the CHILDES corpus as input, the model simulates several well-documented phenomena from the developmental literature. In particular, the model exhibits syntactic bootstrapping effects (in which previously learned constructions facilitate the learning of novel words), sudden jumps in learning without explicit parameter setting, acceleration of word-learning (the "vocabulary spurt"), an initial bias favoring the learning of nouns over verbs, and one-shot learning of words and their meanings. The learner thus demonstrates how statistical learning over structured representations can provide a unified account for these seemingly disparate phenomena. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Using Inverse Probability Bootstrap Sampling to Eliminate Sample Induced Bias in Model Based Analysis of Unequal Probability Samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Nahorniak

    Full Text Available In ecology, as in other research fields, efficient sampling for population estimation often drives sample designs toward unequal probability sampling, such as in stratified sampling. Design based statistical analysis tools are appropriate for seamless integration of sample design into the statistical analysis. However, it is also common and necessary, after a sampling design has been implemented, to use datasets to address questions that, in many cases, were not considered during the sampling design phase. Questions may arise requiring the use of model based statistical tools such as multiple regression, quantile regression, or regression tree analysis. However, such model based tools may require, for ensuring unbiased estimation, data from simple random samples, which can be problematic when analyzing data from unequal probability designs. Despite numerous method specific tools available to properly account for sampling design, too often in the analysis of ecological data, sample design is ignored and consequences are not properly considered. We demonstrate here that violation of this assumption can lead to biased parameter estimates in ecological research. In addition, to the set of tools available for researchers to properly account for sampling design in model based analysis, we introduce inverse probability bootstrapping (IPB. Inverse probability bootstrapping is an easily implemented method for obtaining equal probability re-samples from a probability sample, from which unbiased model based estimates can be made. We demonstrate the potential for bias in model-based analyses that ignore sample inclusion probabilities, and the effectiveness of IPB sampling in eliminating this bias, using both simulated and actual ecological data. For illustration, we considered three model based analysis tools--linear regression, quantile regression, and boosted regression tree analysis. In all models, using both simulated and actual ecological data, we

  14. Modeling error in experimental assays using the bootstrap principle: understanding discrepancies between assays using different dispensing technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Sonya M.; Ekins, Sean; Chodera, John D.

    2015-12-01

    All experimental assay data contains error, but the magnitude, type, and primary origin of this error is often not obvious. Here, we describe a simple set of assay modeling techniques based on the bootstrap principle that allow sources of error and bias to be simulated and propagated into assay results. We demonstrate how deceptively simple operations—such as the creation of a dilution series with a robotic liquid handler—can significantly amplify imprecision and even contribute substantially to bias. To illustrate these techniques, we review an example of how the choice of dispensing technology can impact assay measurements, and show how large contributions to discrepancies between assays can be easily understood and potentially corrected for. These simple modeling techniques—illustrated with an accompanying IPython notebook—can allow modelers to understand the expected error and bias in experimental datasets, and even help experimentalists design assays to more effectively reach accuracy and imprecision goals.

  15. dOFV distributions: a new diagnostic for the adequacy of parameter uncertainty in nonlinear mixed-effects models applied to the bootstrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosne, Anne-Gaëlle; Niebecker, Ronald; Karlsson, Mats O

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge of the uncertainty in model parameters is essential for decision-making in drug development. Contrarily to other aspects of nonlinear mixed effects models (NLMEM), scrutiny towards assumptions around parameter uncertainty is low, and no diagnostic exists to judge whether the estimated uncertainty is appropriate. This work aims at introducing a diagnostic capable of assessing the appropriateness of a given parameter uncertainty distribution. The new diagnostic was applied to case bootstrap examples in order to investigate for which dataset sizes case bootstrap is appropriate for NLMEM. The proposed diagnostic is a plot comparing the distribution of differences in objective function values (dOFV) of the proposed uncertainty distribution to a theoretical Chi square distribution with degrees of freedom equal to the number of estimated model parameters. The uncertainty distribution was deemed appropriate if its dOFV distribution was overlaid with or below the theoretical distribution. The diagnostic was applied to the bootstrap of two real data and two simulated data examples, featuring pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic models and datasets of 20-200 individuals with between 2 and 5 observations on average per individual. In the real data examples, the diagnostic indicated that case bootstrap was unsuitable for NLMEM analyses with around 70 individuals. A measure of parameter-specific "effective" sample size was proposed as a potentially better indicator of bootstrap adequacy than overall sample size. In the simulation examples, bootstrap confidence intervals were shown to underestimate inter-individual variability at low sample sizes. The proposed diagnostic proved a relevant tool for assessing the appropriateness of a given parameter uncertainty distribution and as such it should be routinely used.

  16. Click Models for Web Search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chuklin, A.; Markov, I.; de Rijke, M.

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid growth of web search in recent years the problem of modeling its users has started to attract more and more attention of the information retrieval community. This has several motivations. By building a model of user behavior we are essentially developing a better understanding of a

  17. Solving the 3d Ising Model with the Conformal Bootstrap II. c-Minimization and Precise Critical Exponents

    CERN Document Server

    El-Showk, Sheer; Poland, David; Rychkov, Slava; Simmons-Duffin, David; Vichi, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    We use the conformal bootstrap to perform a precision study of the operator spectrum of the critical 3d Ising model. We conjecture that the 3d Ising spectrum minimizes the central charge c in the space of unitary solutions to crossing symmetry. Because extremal solutions to crossing symmetry are uniquely determined, we are able to precisely reconstruct the first several Z2-even operator dimensions and their OPE coefficients. We observe that a sharp transition in the operator spectrum occurs at the 3d Ising dimension Delta_sigma=0.518154(15), and find strong numerical evidence that operators decouple from the spectrum as one approaches the 3d Ising point. We compare this behavior to the analogous situation in 2d, where the disappearance of operators can be understood in terms of degenerate Virasoro representations.

  18. Conceptual Models for Search Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, D. G.; Efthimiadis, E. N.

    Search engines have entered popular culture. They touch people in diverse private and public settings and thus heighten the importance of such important social matters as information privacy and control, censorship, and equitable access. To fully benefit from search engines and to participate in debate about their merits, people necessarily appeal to their understandings for how they function. In this chapter we examine the conceptual understandings that people have of search engines by performing a content analysis on the sketches that 200 undergraduate and graduate students drew when asked to draw a sketch of how a search engine works. Analysis of the sketches reveals a diverse range of conceptual approaches, metaphors, representations, and misconceptions. On the whole, the conceptual models articulated by these students are simplistic. However, students with higher levels of academic achievement sketched more complete models. This research calls attention to the importance of improving students' technical knowledge of how search engines work so they can be better equipped to develop and advocate policies for how search engines should be embedded in, and restricted from, various private and public information settings.

  19. Efficient bootstrap with weakly dependent processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravo, Francesco; Crudu, Federico

    2012-01-01

    The efficient bootstrap methodology is developed for overidentified moment conditions models with weakly dependent observation. The resulting bootstrap procedure is shown to be asymptotically valid and can be used to approximate the distributions of t-statistics, the J-statistic for overidentifying

  20. Parametric bootstrap for testing model fitting in the proportional hazards framework: an application to the survival analysis of Bruna dels Pirineus beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casellas, J; Tarrés, J; Piedrafita, J; Varona, L

    2006-10-01

    Given that correct assumptions on the baseline survival function are determinant for the validity of further inferences, specific tools to test the fit of a model to real data become essential in proportional hazards models. In this sense, we have proposed a parametric bootstrap to test the fit of survival models. Monte Carlo simulations are used to generate new data sets from the estimates obtained through the assumed models, and then bootstrap intervals can be established for the survival function along the time space studied. Significant fitting deficiencies are revealed when the real survival function is not included within the bootstrap interval. We tested this procedure in a survival data set of Bruna dels Pirineus beef calves, assuming 4 parametric models (exponential, Weibull, exponential time-dependent, Weibull time-dependent) and the Cox's semiparametric model. Fitting deficiencies were not observed for the Cox's model and the exponential time-dependent model, whereas the Weibull time-dependent model suffered from moderate overestimation at different ages. Thus, the exponential time-dependent model appears to be preferable because of its correct fit for survival data of beef calves and its smaller computational and time requirements. Exponential and Weibull models were completely rejected due to the continuous over- and underestimation of the survival probability reported. Results here highlighted the flexibility of parametric models with time-dependent effects, achieving a fit comparable to nonparametric models.

  1. UFBoot2: Improving the Ultrafast Bootstrap Approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Diep Thi; Chernomor, Olga; von Haeseler, Arndt; Minh, Bui Quang; Vinh, Le Sy

    2018-02-01

    The standard bootstrap (SBS), despite being computationally intensive, is widely used in maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses. We recently proposed the ultrafast bootstrap approximation (UFBoot) to reduce computing time while achieving more unbiased branch supports than SBS under mild model violations. UFBoot has been steadily adopted as an efficient alternative to SBS and other bootstrap approaches. Here, we present UFBoot2, which substantially accelerates UFBoot and reduces the risk of overestimating branch supports due to polytomies or severe model violations. Additionally, UFBoot2 provides suitable bootstrap resampling strategies for phylogenomic data. UFBoot2 is 778 times (median) faster than SBS and 8.4 times (median) faster than RAxML rapid bootstrap on tested data sets. UFBoot2 is implemented in the IQ-TREE software package version 1.6 and freely available at http://www.iqtree.org. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  2. Fast bootstrapping and permutation testing for assessing reproducibility and interpretability of multivariate fMRI decoding models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan R Conroy

    Full Text Available Multivariate decoding models are increasingly being applied to functional magnetic imaging (fMRI data to interpret the distributed neural activity in the human brain. These models are typically formulated to optimize an objective function that maximizes decoding accuracy. For decoding models trained on full-brain data, this can result in multiple models that yield the same classification accuracy, though some may be more reproducible than others--i.e. small changes to the training set may result in very different voxels being selected. This issue of reproducibility can be partially controlled by regularizing the decoding model. Regularization, along with the cross-validation used to estimate decoding accuracy, typically requires retraining many (often on the order of thousands of related decoding models. In this paper we describe an approach that uses a combination of bootstrapping and permutation testing to construct both a measure of cross-validated prediction accuracy and model reproducibility of the learned brain maps. This requires re-training our classification method on many re-sampled versions of the fMRI data. Given the size of fMRI datasets, this is normally a time-consuming process. Our approach leverages an algorithm called fast simultaneous training of generalized linear models (FaSTGLZ to create a family of classifiers in the space of accuracy vs. reproducibility. The convex hull of this family of classifiers can be used to identify a subset of Pareto optimal classifiers, with a single-optimal classifier selectable based on the relative cost of accuracy vs. reproducibility. We demonstrate our approach using full-brain analysis of elastic-net classifiers trained to discriminate stimulus type in an auditory and visual oddball event-related fMRI design. Our approach and results argue for a computational approach to fMRI decoding models in which the value of the interpretation of the decoding model ultimately depends upon optimizing a

  3. Bootstrap Dynamical Symmetry Breaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Shu Hou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the emergence of a 125 GeV Higgs-like particle at the LHC, we explore the possibility of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking by strong Yukawa coupling of very heavy new chiral quarks Q . Taking the 125 GeV object to be a dilaton with suppressed couplings, we note that the Goldstone bosons G exist as longitudinal modes V L of the weak bosons and would couple to Q with Yukawa coupling λ Q . With m Q ≳ 700  GeV from LHC, the strong λ Q ≳ 4 could lead to deeply bound Q Q ¯ states. We postulate that the leading “collapsed state,” the color-singlet (heavy isotriplet, pseudoscalar Q Q ¯ meson π 1 , is G itself, and a gap equation without Higgs is constructed. Dynamical symmetry breaking is affected via strong λ Q , generating m Q while self-consistently justifying treating G as massless in the loop, hence, “bootstrap,” Solving such a gap equation, we find that m Q should be several TeV, or λ Q ≳ 4 π , and would become much heavier if there is a light Higgs boson. For such heavy chiral quarks, we find analogy with the π − N system, by which we conjecture the possible annihilation phenomena of Q Q ¯ → n V L with high multiplicity, the search of which might be aided by Yukawa-bound Q Q ¯ resonances.

  4. Bootstrap evaluation of a young Douglas-fir height growth model for the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas R. Vaughn; Eric C. Turnblom; Martin W. Ritchie

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the stability of a complex regression model developed to predict the annual height growth of young Douglas-fir. This model is highly nonlinear and is fit in an iterative manner for annual growth coefficients from data with multiple periodic remeasurement intervals. The traditional methods for such a sensitivity analysis either involve laborious math or...

  5. Dynamics of bootstrap percolation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -law avalanches, while the continuous transition is characterized by truncated avalanches in a related sequential bootstrap process. We explain this behaviour on the basis of an analytical and numerical study of the avalanche distributions on ...

  6. Flexible Approaches to Computing Mediated Effects in Generalized Linear Models: Generalized Estimating Equations and Bootstrapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluchter, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    In behavioral research, interest is often in examining the degree to which the effect of an independent variable X on an outcome Y is mediated by an intermediary or mediator variable M. This article illustrates how generalized estimating equations (GEE) modeling can be used to estimate the indirect or mediated effect, defined as the amount by…

  7. The Local Fractional Bootstrap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Mikkel; Hounyo, Ulrich; Lunde, Asger

    new resampling method, the local fractional bootstrap, relies on simulating an auxiliary fractional Brownian motion that mimics the fine properties of high frequency differences of the Brownian semistationary process under the null hypothesis. We prove the first order validity of the bootstrap method...... to two empirical data sets: we assess the roughness of a time series of high-frequency asset prices and we test the validity of Kolmogorov's scaling law in atmospheric turbulence data....

  8. Bootstrap Score Tests for Fractional Integration in Heteroskedastic ARFIMA Models, with an Application to Price Dynamics in Commodity Spot and Futures Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaliere, Giuseppe; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard; Taylor, A.M. Robert

    Empirical evidence from time series methods which assume the usual I(0)/I(1) paradigm suggests that the efficient market hypothesis, stating that spot and futures prices of a commodity should cointegrate with a unit slope on futures prices, does not hold. However, these statistical methods...... fractionally integrated model we are able to find a body of evidence in support of the efficient market hypothesis for a number of commodities. Our new tests are wild bootstrap implementations of score-based tests for the order of integration of a fractionally integrated time series. These tests are designed...... principle do. A Monte Carlo simulation study demonstrates that very significant improvements infinite sample behaviour can be obtained by the bootstrap vis-à-vis the corresponding asymptotic tests in both heteroskedastic and homoskedastic environments....

  9. Coverage probability of bootstrap confidence intervals in heavy-tailed frequency models, with application to precipitation data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyselý, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 101, 3-4 (2010), s. 345-361 ISSN 0177-798X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB300420801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : bootstrap * extreme value analysis * confidence intervals * heavy-tailed distributions * precipitation amounts Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.684, year: 2010

  10. Delta method and bootstrap in linear mixed models to estimate a proportion when no event is observed: application to intralesional resection in bone tumor surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francq, Bernard G; Cartiaux, Olivier

    2016-09-10

    Resecting bone tumors requires good cutting accuracy to reduce the occurrence of local recurrence. This issue is considerably reduced with a navigated technology. The estimation of extreme proportions is challenging especially with small or moderate sample sizes. When no success is observed, the commonly used binomial proportion confidence interval is not suitable while the rule of three provides a simple solution. Unfortunately, these approaches are unable to differentiate between different unobserved events. Different delta methods and bootstrap procedures are compared in univariate and linear mixed models with simulations and real data by assuming the normality. The delta method on the z-score and parametric bootstrap provide similar results but the delta method requires the estimation of the covariance matrix of the estimates. In mixed models, the observed Fisher information matrix with unbounded variance components should be preferred. The parametric bootstrap, easier to apply, outperforms the delta method for larger sample sizes but it may be time costly. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. A combined approach of generalized additive model and bootstrap with small sample sets for fault diagnosis in fermentation process of glutamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunbo; Pan, Feng; Li, Yun

    2016-07-29

    Glutamate is of great importance in food and pharmaceutical industries. There is still lack of effective statistical approaches for fault diagnosis in the fermentation process of glutamate. To date, the statistical approach based on generalized additive model (GAM) and bootstrap has not been used for fault diagnosis in fermentation processes, much less the fermentation process of glutamate with small samples sets. A combined approach of GAM and bootstrap was developed for the online fault diagnosis in the fermentation process of glutamate with small sample sets. GAM was first used to model the relationship between glutamate production and different fermentation parameters using online data from four normal fermentation experiments of glutamate. The fitted GAM with fermentation time, dissolved oxygen, oxygen uptake rate and carbon dioxide evolution rate captured 99.6 % variance of glutamate production during fermentation process. Bootstrap was then used to quantify the uncertainty of the estimated production of glutamate from the fitted GAM using 95 % confidence interval. The proposed approach was then used for the online fault diagnosis in the abnormal fermentation processes of glutamate, and a fault was defined as the estimated production of glutamate fell outside the 95 % confidence interval. The online fault diagnosis based on the proposed approach identified not only the start of the fault in the fermentation process, but also the end of the fault when the fermentation conditions were back to normal. The proposed approach only used a small sample sets from normal fermentations excitements to establish the approach, and then only required online recorded data on fermentation parameters for fault diagnosis in the fermentation process of glutamate. The proposed approach based on GAM and bootstrap provides a new and effective way for the fault diagnosis in the fermentation process of glutamate with small sample sets.

  12. Bootstrapping pronunciation models

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davel, M

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available in a way that minimizes the human intervention required during this process. We (the authors) analyse the effectiveness of such an approach when developing a medium sized (5000–10 000-word) pronunciation lexicon. We (the authors) develop...

  13. Pronunciation modelling and bootstrapping

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davel, MH

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available machine learning and a human factors perspective. We find that even linguistically untrained users can use the system to create electronic pronunciation dictionaries accurately, in a fraction of the time the traditional approach requires. We create new...

  14. N=4 superconformal bootstrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beem, Christopher; Rastelli, Leonardo; van Rees, Balt C

    2013-08-16

    We implement the conformal bootstrap for N=4 superconformal field theories in four dimensions. The consistency of the four-point function of the stress-energy tensor multiplet imposes significant upper bounds for the scaling dimensions of unprotected local operators as functions of the central charge of the theory. At the threshold of exclusion, a particular operator spectrum appears to be singled out by the bootstrap constraints. We conjecture that this extremal spectrum is that of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory at an S-duality invariant value of the complexified gauge coupling.

  15. Closure of the operator product expansion in the non-unitary bootstrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esterlis, Ilya [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University,Via Pueblo, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Fitzpatrick, A. Liam [Department of Physics, Boston University,Commonwealth Ave, Boston, MA, 02215 (United States); Ramirez, David M. [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University,Via Pueblo, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2016-11-07

    We use the numerical conformal bootstrap in two dimensions to search for finite, closed sub-algebras of the operator product expansion (OPE), without assuming unitarity. We find the minimal models as special cases, as well as additional lines of solutions that can be understood in the Coulomb gas formalism. All the solutions we find that contain the vacuum in the operator algebra are cases where the external operators of the bootstrap equation are degenerate operators, and we argue that this follows analytically from the expressions in http://arxiv.org/abs/1202.4698 for the crossing matrices of Virasoro conformal blocks. Our numerical analysis is a special case of the “Gliozzi” bootstrap method, and provides a simpler setting in which to study technical challenges with the method. In the supplementary material, we provide a Mathematica notebook that automates the calculation of the crossing matrices and OPE coefficients for degenerate operators using the formulae of Dotsenko and Fateev.

  16. Parametric bootstrap for testing model fitting of threshold and grouped data models: an application to the analysis of calving ease of Bruna dels Pirineus beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrés, J; Fina, M; Piedrafita, J

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the goodness of fit of the threshold models with homoscedasticity or heteroscedasticity and the grouped data model for the analysis of calving ease in beef cattle by using a parametric bootstrap procedure. Field data included 8,205 records of the Bruna dels Pirineus beef cattle breed in the Pyrenean mountain areas of Catalonia (Spain). The actual distribution was 81.81% of calvings without assistance, 11.02% slightly assisted by the farmer, 5.12% strongly assisted by the farmer, 0.89% assisted by the veterinarian, and 1.16% cesarean, but these percentages were very different in the different herds. This can be explained partially by the different subjective way of scoring of each farmer. Primiparous cows had a greater (P < 0.001) difficulty calving than cows with 5 or more parities (11.74 vs. 4.49% of calvings strongly assisted by the farmer or the veterinarian and 2.8 vs. 0.65% cesarean). Male calves caused greater (P < 0.001) calving difficulty than females (7.71% of male calvings strongly assisted by the farmer or the veterinarian vs. 4.25% of females and 1.83% cesarean in males vs. 0.47% in females). The month and year of calving also had a strong influence on calving ease. These data were analyzed using 3 different models: the threshold models with homoscedasticity or heteroscedasticity and the grouped data model. The bootstrap comparison among models suggested that the threshold models, even allowing for heteroscedasticity, did not fit the herd effects well. In contrast, fitting deficiencies were not observed for the grouped data model in any factor. The variance of direct effect of the calf was estimated using the 3 models, and the heritability estimate ranged from 0.165 for the grouped data model to 0.185 for the hereroscedastic threshold model. This heritability was moderate, but it would justify the inclusion of direct effects of the calf on calving ease in the breeding objective. Overall, results highlighted the

  17. Dynamics of bootstrap percolation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    by presenting an analytic and numerical study of the problem on a Bethe lattice. The Bethe lattice does not capture all the complexities of bootstrap dynamics on periodic lattices but it does provide useful insight into what makes the avalanche distributions different in the two cases. The following presentation is self- ...

  18. Anti Submarine Warfare Search Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    www.mh-60.com/mh-60r/ Stone LD (1975) Theory of Optimal Search ( Academic Press, New York) Stone LD, Royset J, Washburn A (2016), Optimal Search of...that optimizes the operation of the helicopter and measures its effectiveness. We analyze the effect of the different input parameters, such as...helicopter speed, submarine speed, sensor detection radius, and travel time to the point of detection on the optimal dipping pattern and the probability of

  19. The bootstrap and Bayesian bootstrap method in assessing bioequivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Jianping; Zhang Kongsheng; Chen Hui

    2009-01-01

    Parametric method for assessing individual bioequivalence (IBE) may concentrate on the hypothesis that the PK responses are normal. Nonparametric method for evaluating IBE would be bootstrap method. In 2001, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) proposed a draft guidance. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the IBE between test drug and reference drug by bootstrap and Bayesian bootstrap method. We study the power of bootstrap test procedures and the parametric test procedures in FDA (2001). We find that the Bayesian bootstrap method is the most excellent.

  20. The Talent Search Model of Gifted Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assouline, Susan G.; Lupkowski-Shoplik, Ann

    2012-01-01

    The Talent Search model, founded at Johns Hopkins University by Dr. Julian C. Stanley, is fundamentally an above-level testing program. This simplistic description belies the enduring impact that the Talent Search model has had on the lives of hundreds of thousands of gifted students as well as their parents and teachers. In this article, we…

  1. Dynamics of bootstrap percolation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    transition. The first-order transition encountered in bootstrap problems has often a mixed character in the sense that the discontinuous drop in magnetization is .... Pn = p z−1. ∑ k=0. ( z − 1 k. ) [Pn+1]k[1 − Pn+1]z−1−kpk+1, pk+1 = 1 if k + 1 ≥ m, pk+1 = 0 if k + 1 < m. (1). The rationale for the above equation is as follows.

  2. Genetic search feature selection for affective modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez, Héctor P.; Yannakakis, Georgios N.

    2010-01-01

    Automatic feature selection is a critical step towards the generation of successful computational models of affect. This paper presents a genetic search-based feature selection method which is developed as a global-search algorithm for improving the accuracy of the affective models built....... The method is tested and compared against sequential forward feature selection and random search in a dataset derived from a game survey experiment which contains bimodal input features (physiological and gameplay) and expressed pairwise preferences of affect. Results suggest that the proposed method...

  3. Bayesian inference and the parametric bootstrap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efron, Bradley

    2013-01-01

    The parametric bootstrap can be used for the efficient computation of Bayes posterior distributions. Importance sampling formulas take on an easy form relating to the deviance in exponential families, and are particularly simple starting from Jeffreys invariant prior. Because of the i.i.d. nature of bootstrap sampling, familiar formulas describe the computational accuracy of the Bayes estimates. Besides computational methods, the theory provides a connection between Bayesian and frequentist analysis. Efficient algorithms for the frequentist accuracy of Bayesian inferences are developed and demonstrated in a model selection example. PMID:23843930

  4. Simplified Models for LHC New Physics Searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Daniele; Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Arora, Sanjay; Bai, Yang; Baumgart, Matthew; Berger, Joshua; Butler, Bart; Chang, Spencer; Cheng, Hsin-Chia; Cheung, Clifford; Chivukula, R. Sekhar; Cho, Won Sang; Cotta, Randy; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; El Hedri, Sonia; Essig, Rouven; Fitzpatrick, Liam; Fox, Patrick; Franceschini, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    This document proposes a collection of simplified models relevant to the design of new-physics searches at the LHC and the characterization of their results. Both ATLAS and CMS have already presented some results in terms of simplified models, and we encourage them to continue and expand this effort, which supplements both signature-based results and benchmark model interpretations. A simplified model is defined by an effective Lagrangian describing the interactions of a small number of new particles. Simplified models can equally well be described by a small number of masses and cross-sections. These parameters are directly related to collider physics observables, making simplified models a particularly effective framework for evaluating searches and a useful starting point for characterizing positive signals of new physics. This document serves as an official summary of the results from the 'Topologies for Early LHC Searches' workshop, held at SLAC in September of 2010, the purpose of which was to develop a set of representative models that can be used to cover all relevant phase space in experimental searches. Particular emphasis is placed on searches relevant for the first ∼ 50-500 pb -1 of data and those motivated by supersymmetric models. This note largely summarizes material posted at http://lhcnewphysics.org/, which includes simplified model definitions, Monte Carlo material, and supporting contacts within the theory community. We also comment on future developments that may be useful as more data is gathered and analyzed by the experiments.

  5. Simplified Models for LHC New Physics Searches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Daniele; /SLAC; Arkani-Hamed, Nima; /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study; Arora, Sanjay; /Rutgers U., Piscataway; Bai, Yang; /SLAC; Baumgart, Matthew; /Johns Hopkins U.; Berger, Joshua; /Cornell U., Phys. Dept.; Buckley, Matthew; /Fermilab; Butler, Bart; /SLAC; Chang, Spencer; /Oregon U. /UC, Davis; Cheng, Hsin-Chia; /UC, Davis; Cheung, Clifford; /UC, Berkeley; Chivukula, R.Sekhar; /Michigan State U.; Cho, Won Sang; /Tokyo U.; Cotta, Randy; /SLAC; D' Alfonso, Mariarosaria; /UC, Santa Barbara; El Hedri, Sonia; /SLAC; Essig, Rouven, (ed.); /SLAC; Evans, Jared A.; /UC, Davis; Fitzpatrick, Liam; /Boston U.; Fox, Patrick; /Fermilab; Franceschini, Roberto; /LPHE, Lausanne /Pittsburgh U. /Argonne /Northwestern U. /Rutgers U., Piscataway /Rutgers U., Piscataway /Carleton U. /CERN /UC, Davis /Wisconsin U., Madison /SLAC /SLAC /SLAC /Rutgers U., Piscataway /Syracuse U. /SLAC /SLAC /Boston U. /Rutgers U., Piscataway /Seoul Natl. U. /Tohoku U. /UC, Santa Barbara /Korea Inst. Advanced Study, Seoul /Harvard U., Phys. Dept. /Michigan U. /Wisconsin U., Madison /Princeton U. /UC, Santa Barbara /Wisconsin U., Madison /Michigan U. /UC, Davis /SUNY, Stony Brook /TRIUMF; /more authors..

    2012-06-01

    This document proposes a collection of simplified models relevant to the design of new-physics searches at the LHC and the characterization of their results. Both ATLAS and CMS have already presented some results in terms of simplified models, and we encourage them to continue and expand this effort, which supplements both signature-based results and benchmark model interpretations. A simplified model is defined by an effective Lagrangian describing the interactions of a small number of new particles. Simplified models can equally well be described by a small number of masses and cross-sections. These parameters are directly related to collider physics observables, making simplified models a particularly effective framework for evaluating searches and a useful starting point for characterizing positive signals of new physics. This document serves as an official summary of the results from the 'Topologies for Early LHC Searches' workshop, held at SLAC in September of 2010, the purpose of which was to develop a set of representative models that can be used to cover all relevant phase space in experimental searches. Particular emphasis is placed on searches relevant for the first {approx} 50-500 pb{sup -1} of data and those motivated by supersymmetric models. This note largely summarizes material posted at http://lhcnewphysics.org/, which includes simplified model definitions, Monte Carlo material, and supporting contacts within the theory community. We also comment on future developments that may be useful as more data is gathered and analyzed by the experiments.

  6. Simplified Models for LHC New Physics Searches

    CERN Document Server

    Alves, Daniele; Arora, Sanjay; Bai, Yang; Baumgart, Matthew; Berger, Joshua; Buckley, Matthew; Butler, Bart; Chang, Spencer; Cheng, Hsin-Chia; Cheung, Clifford; Chivukula, R.Sekhar; Cho, Won Sang; Cotta, Randy; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; El Hedri, Sonia; Essig, Rouven; Evans, Jared A.; Fitzpatrick, Liam; Fox, Patrick; Franceschini, Roberto; Freitas, Ayres; Gainer, James S.; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Gregoire, Thomas; Gripaios, Ben; Gunion, Jack; Han, Tao; Haas, Andy; Hansson, Per; Hewett, JoAnne; Hits, Dmitry; Hubisz, Jay; Izaguirre, Eder; Kaplan, Jared; Katz, Emanuel; Kilic, Can; Kim, Hyung-Do; Kitano, Ryuichiro; Koay, Sue Ann; Ko, Pyungwon; Krohn, David; Kuflik, Eric; Lewis, Ian; Lisanti, Mariangela; Liu, Tao; Liu, Zhen; Lu, Ran; Luty, Markus; Meade, Patrick; Morrissey, David; Mrenna, Stephen; Nojiri, Mihoko; Okui, Takemichi; Padhi, Sanjay; Papucci, Michele; Park, Michael; Park, Myeonghun; Perelstein, Maxim; Peskin, Michael; Phalen, Daniel; Rehermann, Keith; Rentala, Vikram; Roy, Tuhin; Ruderman, Joshua T.; Sanz, Veronica; Schmaltz, Martin; Schnetzer, Stephen; Schuster, Philip; Schwaller, Pedro; Schwartz, Matthew D.; Schwartzman, Ariel; Shao, Jing; Shelton, Jessie; Shih, David; Shu, Jing; Silverstein, Daniel; Simmons, Elizabeth; Somalwar, Sunil; Spannowsky, Michael; Spethmann, Christian; Strassler, Matthew; Su, Shufang; Tait, Tim; Thomas, Brooks; Thomas, Scott; Toro, Natalia; Volansky, Tomer; Wacker, Jay; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Yavin, Itay; Yu, Felix; Zhao, Yue; Zurek, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This document proposes a collection of simplified models relevant to the design of new-physics searches at the LHC and the characterization of their results. Both ATLAS and CMS have already presented some results in terms of simplified models, and we encourage them to continue and expand this effort, which supplements both signature-based results and benchmark model interpretations. A simplified model is defined by an effective Lagrangian describing the interactions of a small number of new particles. Simplified models can equally well be described by a small number of masses and cross-sections. These parameters are directly related to collider physics observables, making simplified models a particularly effective framework for evaluating searches and a useful starting point for characterizing positive signals of new physics. This document serves as an official summary of the results from the "Topologies for Early LHC Searches" workshop, held at SLAC in September of 2010, the purpose of which was to develop a...

  7. Modelling and Simulation of Search Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, Mahyuddin K. M.

    2017-01-01

    The best tool currently used to access information is a search engine. Meanwhile, the information space has its own behaviour. Systematically, an information space needs to be familiarized with mathematics so easily we identify the characteristics associated with it. This paper reveal some characteristics of search engine based on a model of document collection, which are then estimated the impact on the feasibility of information. We reveal some of characteristics of search engine on the lemma and theorem about singleton and doubleton, then computes statistically characteristic as simulating the possibility of using search engine. In this case, Google and Yahoo. There are differences in the behaviour of both search engines, although in theory based on the concept of documents collection.

  8. Query and document models for enterprise search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balog, K.; Hofmann, K.; Weerkamp, W.; de Rijke, M.; Voorhees, E.M.; Buckland, L.P.

    2008-01-01

    We describe our participation in the TREC 2007 Enterprise track and detail our language modeling-based approaches. For document search, our focus was on estimating a mixture model using a standard web collection, and on constructing query models by employing blind relevance feedback and using the

  9. MPBoot: fast phylogenetic maximum parsimony tree inference and bootstrap approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Diep Thi; Vinh, Le Sy; Flouri, Tomáš; Stamatakis, Alexandros; von Haeseler, Arndt; Minh, Bui Quang

    2018-02-02

    The nonparametric bootstrap is widely used to measure the branch support of phylogenetic trees. However, bootstrapping is computationally expensive and remains a bottleneck in phylogenetic analyses. Recently, an ultrafast bootstrap approximation (UFBoot) approach was proposed for maximum likelihood analyses. However, such an approach is still missing for maximum parsimony. To close this gap we present MPBoot, an adaptation and extension of UFBoot to compute branch supports under the maximum parsimony principle. MPBoot works for both uniform and non-uniform cost matrices. Our analyses on biological DNA and protein showed that under uniform cost matrices, MPBoot runs on average 4.7 (DNA) to 7 times (protein data) (range: 1.2-20.7) faster than the standard parsimony bootstrap implemented in PAUP*; but 1.6 (DNA) to 4.1 times (protein data) slower than the standard bootstrap with a fast search routine in TNT (fast-TNT). However, for non-uniform cost matrices MPBoot is 5 (DNA) to 13 times (protein data) (range:0.3-63.9) faster than fast-TNT. We note that MPBoot achieves better scores more frequently than PAUP* and fast-TNT. However, this effect is less pronounced if an intensive but slower search in TNT is invoked. Moreover, experiments on large-scale simulated data show that while both PAUP* and TNT bootstrap estimates are too conservative, MPBoot bootstrap estimates appear more unbiased. MPBoot provides an efficient alternative to the standard maximum parsimony bootstrap procedure. It shows favorable performance in terms of run time, the capability of finding a maximum parsimony tree, and high bootstrap accuracy on simulated as well as empirical data sets. MPBoot is easy-to-use, open-source and available at http://www.cibiv.at/software/mpboot .

  10. Bootstrapping SCFTs with Four Supercharges

    CERN Document Server

    Bobev, Nikolay; Mazac, Dalimil; Paulos, Miguel F

    2015-01-01

    We study the constraints imposed by superconformal symmetry, crossing symmetry, and unitarity for theories with four supercharges in spacetime dimension $2\\leq d\\leq 4$. We show how superconformal algebras with four Poincar\\'{e} supercharges can be treated in a formalism applicable to any, in principle continuous, value of $d$ and use this to construct the superconformal blocks for any $d\\leq 4$. We then use numerical bootstrap techniques to derive upper bounds on the conformal dimension of the first unprotected operator appearing in the OPE of a chiral and an anti-chiral superconformal primary. We obtain an intriguing structure of three distinct kinks. We argue that one of the kinks smoothly interpolates between the $d=2$, $\\mathcal N=(2,2)$ minimal model with central charge $c=1$ and the theory of a free chiral multiplet in $d=4$, passing through the critical Wess-Zumino model with cubic superpotential in intermediate dimensions.

  11. Bootstrapping SCFTs with four supercharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobev, Nikolay; El-Showk, Sheer; Mazáč, Dalimil; Paulos, Miguel F.

    2015-01-01

    We study the constraints imposed by superconformal symmetry, crossing symmetry, and unitarity for theories with four supercharges in spacetime dimension 2≤d≤4. We show how superconformal algebras with four Poincaré supercharges can be treated in a formalism applicable to any, in principle continuous, value of d and use this to construct the superconformal blocks for any d≤4. We then use numerical bootstrap techniques to derive upper bounds on the conformal dimension of the first unprotected operator appearing in the OPE of a chiral and an anti-chiral superconformal primary. We obtain an intriguing structure of three distinct kinks. We argue that one of the kinks smoothly interpolates between the d=2, N=(2,2) minimal model with central charge c=1 and the theory of a free chiral multiplet in d=4, passing through the critical Wess-Zumino model with cubic superpotential in intermediate dimensions.

  12. Uncertainty estimation in diffusion MRI using the nonlocal bootstrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Pew-Thian; An, Hongyu; Chen, Yasheng; Shen, Dinggang

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a new bootstrap scheme, called the nonlocal bootstrap (NLB) for uncertainty estimation. In contrast to the residual bootstrap, which relies on a data model, or the repetition bootstrap, which requires repeated signal measurements, NLB is not restricted by the data structure imposed by a data model and obviates the need for time-consuming multiple acquisitions. NLB hinges on the observation that local imaging information recurs in an image. This self-similarity implies that imaging information coming from spatially distant (nonlocal) regions can be exploited for more effective estimation of statistics of interest. Evaluations using in silico data indicate that NLB produces distribution estimates that are in closer agreement with those generated using Monte Carlo simulations, compared with the conventional residual bootstrap. Evaluations using in vivo data demonstrate that NLB produces results that are in agreement with our knowledge on white matter architecture.

  13. Kepler Planet Detection Metrics: Statistical Bootstrap Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jon M.; Burke, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    This document describes the data produced by the Statistical Bootstrap Test over the final three Threshold Crossing Event (TCE) deliveries to NExScI: SOC 9.1 (Q1Q16)1 (Tenenbaum et al. 2014), SOC 9.2 (Q1Q17) aka DR242 (Seader et al. 2015), and SOC 9.3 (Q1Q17) aka DR253 (Twicken et al. 2016). The last few years have seen significant improvements in the SOC science data processing pipeline, leading to higher quality light curves and more sensitive transit searches. The statistical bootstrap analysis results presented here and the numerical results archived at NASAs Exoplanet Science Institute (NExScI) bear witness to these software improvements. This document attempts to introduce and describe the main features and differences between these three data sets as a consequence of the software changes.

  14. Explorations in Statistics: the Bootstrap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This fourth installment of Explorations in Statistics explores the bootstrap. The bootstrap gives us an empirical approach to estimate the theoretical variability among possible values of a sample statistic such as the…

  15. Ultrafast Approximation for Phylogenetic Bootstrap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui Quang Minh, [No Value; Nguyen, Thi; von Haeseler, Arndt

    Nonparametric bootstrap has been a widely used tool in phylogenetic analysis to assess the clade support of phylogenetic trees. However, with the rapidly growing amount of data, this task remains a computational bottleneck. Recently, approximation methods such as the RAxML rapid bootstrap (RBS) and

  16. The wild tapered block bootstrap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounyo, Ulrich

    -based method in terms of asymptotic accuracy of variance estimation and distribution approximation. For stationary time series, the asymptotic validity, and the favorable bias properties of the new bootstrap method are shown in two important cases: smooth functions of means, and M-estimators. The first......-order asymptotic validity of the tapered block bootstrap as well as the wild tapered block bootstrap approximation to the actual distribution of the sample mean is also established when data are assumed to satisfy a near epoch dependent condition. The consistency of the bootstrap variance estimator for the sample......In this paper, a new resampling procedure, called the wild tapered block bootstrap, is introduced as a means of calculating standard errors of estimators and constructing confidence regions for parameters based on dependent heterogeneous data. The method consists in tapering each overlapping block...

  17. Measuring productivity differences in equilibrium search models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanot, Gauthier; Neumann, George R.

    1996-01-01

    Equilibrium search models require unobserved heterogeneity in productivity to fit observed wage distribution data, but provide no guidance about the location parameter of the heterogeneity. In this paper we show that the location of the productivity heterogeneity implies a mode in a kernel density...

  18. Bootstrapping quarks and gluons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chew, G.F.

    1979-04-01

    Dual topological unitarization (DTU) - the approach to S-matrix causality and unitarity through combinatorial topology - is reviewed. Amplitudes associated with triangulated spheres are shown to constitute the core of particle physics. Each sphere is covered by triangulated disc faces corresponding to hadrons. The leading current candidate for the hadron-face triangulation pattern employs 3-triangle basic subdiscs whose orientations correspond to baryon number and topological color. Additional peripheral triangles lie along the hadron-face perimeter. Certain combinations of peripheral triangles with a basic-disc triangle can be identified as quarks, the flavor of a quark corresponding to the orientation of its edges that lie on the hadron-face perimeter. Both baryon number and flavor are additively conserved. Quark helicity, which can be associated with triangle-interior orientation, is not uniformly conserved and interacts with particle momentum, whereas flavor does not. Three different colors attach to the 3 quarks associated with a single basic subdisc, but there is no additive physical conservation law associated with color. There is interplay between color and quark helicity. In hadron faces with more than one basic subdisc, there may occur pairs of adjacent flavorless but colored triangles with net helicity +-1 that are identifiable as gluons. Broken symmetry is an automatic feature of the bootstrap. T, C and P symmetries, as well as up-down flavor symmetry, persist on all orientable surfaces.

  19. Bootstrapping quarks and gluons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, G.F.

    1979-04-01

    Dual topological unitarization (DTU) - the approach to S-matrix causality and unitarity through combinatorial topology - is reviewed. Amplitudes associated with triangulated spheres are shown to constitute the core of particle physics. Each sphere is covered by triangulated disc faces corresponding to hadrons. The leading current candidate for the hadron-face triangulation pattern employs 3-triangle basic subdiscs whose orientations correspond to baryon number and topological color. Additional peripheral triangles lie along the hadron-face perimeter. Certain combinations of peripheral triangles with a basic-disc triangle can be identified as quarks, the flavor of a quark corresponding to the orientation of its edges that lie on the hadron-face perimeter. Both baryon number and flavor are additively conserved. Quark helicity, which can be associated with triangle-interior orientation, is not uniformly conserved and interacts with particle momentum, whereas flavor does not. Three different colors attach to the 3 quarks associated with a single basic subdisc, but there is no additive physical conservation law associated with color. There is interplay between color and quark helicity. In hadron faces with more than one basic subdisc, there may occur pairs of adjacent flavorless but colored triangles with net helicity +-1 that are identifiable as gluons. Broken symmetry is an automatic feature of the bootstrap. T, C and P symmetries, as well as up-down flavor symmetry, persist on all orientable surfaces

  20. Bootstrap consistency for general semiparametric M-estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Guang

    2010-10-01

    Consider M-estimation in a semiparametric model that is characterized by a Euclidean parameter of interest and an infinite-dimensional nuisance parameter. As a general purpose approach to statistical inferences, the bootstrap has found wide applications in semiparametric M-estimation and, because of its simplicity, provides an attractive alternative to the inference approach based on the asymptotic distribution theory. The purpose of this paper is to provide theoretical justifications for the use of bootstrap as a semiparametric inferential tool. We show that, under general conditions, the bootstrap is asymptotically consistent in estimating the distribution of the M-estimate of Euclidean parameter; that is, the bootstrap distribution asymptotically imitates the distribution of the M-estimate. We also show that the bootstrap confidence set has the asymptotically correct coverage probability. These general onclusions hold, in particular, when the nuisance parameter is not estimable at root-n rate, and apply to a broad class of bootstrap methods with exchangeable ootstrap weights. This paper provides a first general theoretical study of the bootstrap in semiparametric models. © Institute of Mathematical Statistics, 2010.

  1. Can bootstrapping explain concept learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Susan Carey's account of Quinean bootstrapping has been heavily criticized. While it purports to explain how important new concepts are learned, many commentators complain that it is unclear just what bootstrapping is supposed to be or how it is supposed to work. Others allege that bootstrapping falls prey to the circularity challenge: it cannot explain how new concepts are learned without presupposing that learners already have those very concepts. Drawing on discussions of concept learning from the philosophical literature, this article develops a detailed interpretation of bootstrapping that can answer the circularity challenge. The key to this interpretation is the recognition of computational constraints, both internal and external to the mind, which can endow empty symbols with new conceptual roles and thus new contents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Bootstrapping pronunciation dictionaries: practical issues

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davel, MH

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available entries, increasing the size of the dictionary in an incremental fashion. 2.1. The bootstrapping process The bootstrapping system is initialised with a large word list (containing no pronunciation information), or with a pre- existing pronunciation.... The rule set is extracted in a straightforward fashion: for every letter (grapheme), a de- fault phoneme is derived as the phoneme to which the letter is most likely to map. ?Exceptional? cases ? words for which the expected phoneme is not correct...

  3. Bootstrap for the case-cohort design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yijian

    2014-06-01

    The case-cohort design facilitates economical investigation of risk factors in a large survival study, with covariate data collected only from the cases and a simple random subset of the full cohort. Methods that accommodate the design have been developed for various semiparametric models, but most inference procedures are based on asymptotic distribution theory. Such inference can be cumbersome to derive and implement, and does not permit confidence band construction. While bootstrap is an obvious alternative, how to resample is unclear because of complications from the two-stage sampling design. We establish an equivalent sampling scheme, and propose a novel and versatile nonparametric bootstrap for robust inference with an appealingly simple single-stage resampling. Theoretical justification and numerical assessment are provided for a number of procedures under the proportional hazards model.

  4. Standard Model backgrounds to supersymmetry searches

    CERN Document Server

    Mangano, Michelangelo L

    2009-01-01

    This work presents a review of the Standard Model sources of backgrounds to the search of supersymmetry signals. Depending on the specific model, typical signals may include jets, leptons, and missing transverse energy due to the escaping lightest supersymmetric particle. We focus on the simplest case of multijets and missing energy, since this allows us to expose most of the issues common to other more complex cases. The review is not exhaustive, and is aimed at collecting a series of general comments and observations, to serve as guideline for the process that will lead to a complete experimental determination of size and features of such SM processes.

  5. Double-bootstrap methods that use a single double-bootstrap simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Jinyuan; Hall, Peter

    2014-01-01

    We show that, when the double bootstrap is used to improve performance of bootstrap methods for bias correction, techniques based on using a single double-bootstrap sample for each single-bootstrap sample can be particularly effective. In particular, they produce third-order accuracy for much less computational expense than is required by conventional double-bootstrap methods. However, this improved level of performance is not available for the single double-bootstrap methods that have been s...

  6. Search for the standard model Higgs boson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskulic, D.; de Bonis, I.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Minard, M.-N.; Pietrzyk, B.; Ariztizabal, F.; Comas, P.; Crespo, J. M.; Delfino, M.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Gaitan, V.; Garrido, Ll.; Mattison, T.; Pacheco, A.; Padilla, C.; Pascual, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Farilla, A.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Quattromini, M.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Romano, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Chai, Y.; Hu, H.; Huang, D.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, D.; Xu, R.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Blucher, E.; Bonvicini, G.; Boudreau, J.; Casper, D.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Ganis, G.; Gay, C.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, J.; Hilgart, J.; Jacobsen, R.; Jost, B.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Lohse, T.; Maggi, M.; Markou, C.; Martinez, M.; Mato, P.; Meinhard, H.; Minten, A.; Miotto, A.; Miguel, R.; Moser, H.-G.; Palazzi, P.; Pater, J. R.; Perlas, J. A.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Redlinger, G.; Rolandi, L.; Rothberg, J.; Ruan, T.; Saich, M.; Schlatter, D.; Schmelling, M.; Sefkow, F.; Tejessy, W.; Tomalin, I. R.; Veenhof, R.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wasserbaech, S.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wildish, T.; Witzeling, W.; Wotschack, J.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Badaud, F.; Bardadin-Otwinowska, M.; El Fellous, R.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Prulhière, F.; Saadi, F.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Møllerud, R.; Nilsson, B. S.; Kyriakis, A.; Simopoulou, E.; Siotis, I.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Badier, J.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J. C.; Fouque, G.; Orteu, S.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Tanaka, R.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Parsons, M. I.; Veitch, E.; Focardi, E.; Moneta, L.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Ikeda, M.; Levinthal, D.; Antonelli, A.; Baldini, R.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Cerutti, F.; Chiarella, V.; D'Ettorre-Piazzoli, B.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Picchi, P.; Colrain, P.; Ten Have, I.; Lynch, J. G.; Maitland, W.; Morton, W. T.; Raine, C.; Reeves, P.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Thompson, A. S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Brandl, B.; Braun, O.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Maumary, Y.; Putzer, A.; Rensch, B.; Stahl, A.; Tittel, K.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Cattaneo, M.; Colling, D. J.; Dornan, P. J.; Greene, A. M.; Hassard, J. F.; Lieske, N. M.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Patton, S.; Payne, D. G.; Phillips, M. J.; San Martin, G.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Wright, A. G.; Girtler, P.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Vogl, R.; Bowdery, C. K.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jackson, D.; Keemer, N. R.; Nuttall, M.; Patel, A.; Sloan, T.; Snow, S. W.; Whelan, E. P.; Kleinknecht, K.; Raab, J.; Renk, B.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmidt, H.; Steeg, F.; Walther, S. M.; Wanke, R.; Wolf, B.; Bencheikh, A. M.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Drinkard, J.; Etienne, F.; Nicod, D.; Papalexiou, S.; Payre, P.; Roos, L.; Rousseau, D.; Schwemling, P.; Talby, M.; Adlung, S.; Assmann, R.; Bauer, C.; Blum, W.; Brown, D.; Cattaneo, P.; Dehning, B.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Frank, M.; Halley, A. W.; Jakobs, K.; Lauber, J.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Richter, R.; Schröder, J.; Schwarz, A. S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Stierlin, U.; Stiegler, U.; Dennis, R. St.; Wolf, G.; Alemany, R.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Jaffe, D. E.; Janot, P.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Schune, M.-H.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Zhang, Z.; Abbaneo, D.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bottigli, U.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Foà, L.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Manneli, E. B.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Spagnolo, P.; Steinberger, J.; Techini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Triggiani, G.; Vannini, C.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Walsh, J.; Betteridge, A. P.; Gao, Y.; Green, M. G.; March, P. V.; Mir, Ll. M.; Medcalf, T.; Quazi, I. S.; Strong, J. A.; West, L. R.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Duarte, H.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Marx, B.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Rosowsky, A.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Si Mohand, D.; Vallage, B.; Johnson, R. P.; Litke, A. M.; Taylor, G.; Wear, J.; Ashman, J. G.; Babbage, W.; Booth, C. N.; Buttar, C.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Dawson, I.; Thompson, L. F.; Barberio, E.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Grupen, C.; Lutters, G.; Rivera, F.; Schäfer, U.; Smolik, L.; Bosisio, L.; Della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Ragusa, F.; Bellantoni, L.; Chen, W.; Conway, J. S.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; Grahl, J.; Harton, J. L.; Hayes, O. J.; Nachtman, J. M.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Schmitt, M.; Scott, I.; Sharma, V.; Shi, Z. H.; Turk, J. D.; Walsh, A. M.; Weber, F. V.; Sau Lan Wu; Wu, X.; Zheng, M.; Zobernig, G.; Aleph Collaboration

    1993-08-01

    Using a data sample corresponding to about 1 233 000 hadronic Z decays collected by the ALEPH experiment at LEP, the reaction e+e- → HZ∗ has been used to search for the standard model Higgs boson, in association with missing energy when Z∗ → v v¯, or with a pair of energetic leptons when Z∗ → e+e-or μ +μ -. No signal was found and, at the 95% confidence level, mH exceeds 58.4 GeV/ c2.

  7. Application of model search to lattice theory.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, M.; Wilkinson, K.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2001-08-01

    We have used the first-order model-searching programs MACE and SEM to study various problems in lattice theory. First, we present a case study in which the two programs are used to examine the differences between the stages along the way from lattice theory to Boolean algebra. Second, we answer several questions posed by Norman Megill and Mladen Pavicic on ortholattices and orthomodular lattices. The questions from Megill and Pavicic arose in their study of quantum logics, which are being investigated in connection with proposed computing devices based on quantum mechanics. Previous questions of a similar nature were answered by McCune and MACE in [2].

  8. The search for stable prognostic models in multiple imputed data sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Vet Henrica CW

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In prognostic studies model instability and missing data can be troubling factors. Proposed methods for handling these situations are bootstrapping (B and Multiple imputation (MI. The authors examined the influence of these methods on model composition. Methods Models were constructed using a cohort of 587 patients consulting between January 2001 and January 2003 with a shoulder problem in general practice in the Netherlands (the Dutch Shoulder Study. Outcome measures were persistent shoulder disability and persistent shoulder pain. Potential predictors included socio-demographic variables, characteristics of the pain problem, physical activity and psychosocial factors. Model composition and performance (calibration and discrimination were assessed for models using a complete case analysis, MI, bootstrapping or both MI and bootstrapping. Results Results showed that model composition varied between models as a result of how missing data was handled and that bootstrapping provided additional information on the stability of the selected prognostic model. Conclusion In prognostic modeling missing data needs to be handled by MI and bootstrap model selection is advised in order to provide information on model stability.

  9. On using the bootstrap for multiple comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westfall, Peter H

    2011-11-01

    There are many ways to bootstrap data for multiple comparisons procedures. Methods described here include (i) bootstrap (parametric and nonparametric) as a generalization of classical normal-based MaxT methods, (ii) bootstrap as an approximation to exact permutation methods, (iii) bootstrap as a generator of realistic null data sets, and (iv) bootstrap as a generator of realistic non-null data sets. Resampling of MinP versus MaxT is discussed, and the use of the bootstrap for closed testing is also presented. Applications to biopharmaceutical statistics are given.

  10. Quantitative Analysis of Variability and Uncertainty in Environmental Data and Models. Volume 1. Theory and Methodology Based Upon Bootstrap Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, H. Christopher [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Rhodes, David S. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1999-04-30

    This is Volume 1 of a two-volume set of reports describing work conducted at North Carolina State University sponsored by Grant Number DE-FG05-95ER30250 by the U.S. Department of Energy. The title of the project is “Quantitative Analysis of Variability and Uncertainty in Acid Rain Assessments.” The work conducted under sponsorship of this grant pertains primarily to two main topics: (1) development of new methods for quantitative analysis of variability and uncertainty applicable to any type of model; and (2) analysis of variability and uncertainty in the performance, emissions, and cost of electric power plant combustion-based NOx control technologies. These two main topics are reported separately in Volumes 1 and 2.

  11. LEP Higgs boson searches beyond the standard model and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These include the searches for charged Higgs bosons, models with two Higgs field doublets, searches for 'fermiophobic' Higgs decay, invisible Higgs boson decays, decay-mode independent searches, and limits on Yukawa and anomalous Higgs couplings. I review the searches done by the four LEP experiments and ...

  12. Advertising for attention in a consumer search model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, M.A.; Moraga González, J.L.

    We model the idea that when consumers search for products, they first visit the firm whose advertising is most salient. The gains a firm derives from being visited early increase in search costs, so equilibrium advertising increases as search costs rise. As a result, higher search costs may decrease

  13. A Model of Price Search Behavior in Electronic Marketplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Pingjun

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of online consumer behavior focuses on the development of a conceptual model and a set of propositions to explain the main factors influencing online price search. Integrates the psychological search literature into the context of online searching by incorporating ability and cost to search for information into perceived search…

  14. Search for inhomogeneous phases in fermionic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Jens; Finkbeiner, Stefan; Karbstein, Felix; Roscher, Dietrich

    2015-06-01

    We revisit the Gross-Neveu model with N fermion flavors in 1 +1 dimensions and compute its phase diagram at finite temperature and chemical potential in the large-N limit. To this end, we double the number of fermion degrees of freedom in a specific way which allows us to detect inhomogeneous phases in an efficient manner. We show analytically that this "fermion doubling trick" predicts correctly the position of the boundary between the chirally symmetric phase and the phase with broken chiral symmetry. Most importantly, we find that the emergence of an inhomogeneous ground state is predicted correctly. We critically analyze our approach based on this trick and discuss its applicability to other theories, such as fermionic models in higher dimensions, where it may be used to guide the search for inhomogeneous phases.

  15. Spurious 99% bootstrap and jackknife support for unsupported clades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Mark P; Freudenstein, John V

    2011-10-01

    Quantifying branch support using the bootstrap and/or jackknife is generally considered to be an essential component of rigorous parsimony and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses. Previous authors have described how application of the frequency-within-replicates approach to treating multiple equally optimal trees found in a given bootstrap pseudoreplicate can provide apparent support for otherwise unsupported clades. We demonstrate how a similar problem may occur when a non-representative subset of equally optimal trees are held per pseudoreplicate, which we term the undersampling-within-replicates artifact. We illustrate the frequency-within-replicates and undersampling-within-replicates bootstrap and jackknife artifacts using both contrived and empirical examples, demonstrate that the artifacts can occur in both parsimony and likelihood analyses, and show that the artifacts occur in outputs from multiple different phylogenetic-inference programs. Based on our results, we make the following five recommendations, which are particularly relevant to supermatrix analyses, but apply to all phylogenetic analyses. First, when two or more optimal trees are found in a given pseudoreplicate they should be summarized using the strict-consensus rather than frequency-within-replicates approach. Second jackknife resampling should be used rather than bootstrap resampling. Third, multiple tree searches while holding multiple trees per search should be conducted in each pseudoreplicate rather than conducting only a single search and holding only a single tree. Fourth, branches with a minimum possible optimized length of zero should be collapsed within each tree search rather than collapsing branches only if their maximum possible optimized length is zero. Fifth, resampling values should be mapped onto the strict consensus of all optimal trees found rather than simply presenting the ≥ 50% bootstrap or jackknife tree or mapping the resampling values onto a single optimal tree

  16. ATLAS Searches for Beyond the Standard Model Higgs Bosons

    CERN Document Server

    Potter, C T

    2013-01-01

    The present status of ATLAS searches for Higgs bosons in extensions of the Standard Model (SM) is presented. This includes searches for the Higgs bosons of the Two-Higgs-Doublet Model (2HDM), the Minimal Supersymmetric Model (MSSM), the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Model (NMSSM) and models with an invisibly decaying Higgs boson. A review of the phenomenology of the Higgs sectors of these models is given together with the search strategy and the resulting experimental constraints.

  17. Beta limits of a completely bootstrapped tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weening, R.H.; Bondeson, A.

    1992-03-01

    A beta limit is given for a completely bootstrapped tokamak. The beta limit is sensitive to the achievable Troyon factor and depends directly upon the strength of the tokamak bootstrap effect. (author) 16 refs

  18. Model of intelligent information searching system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yastrebkov, D.I.

    2004-01-01

    A brief description of the technique to search for electronic documents in large archives as well as drawbacks is presented. A solution close to intelligent information searching systems is proposed. (author)

  19. Top partner searches and Composite Higgs models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsedonskyi, Oleksii [DESY Hamburg (Germany); Panico, Giuliano [Barcelona Univ. Autonoma (Spain). IFAE; Wulyer, Andrea [Padova Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica e Astronomia; INFN, Padova (Italy)

    2015-12-15

    Colored fermionic partners of the top quark are well-known signatures of the Composite Higgs scenario and for this reason they have been and will be subject of an intensive experimental study at the LHC. Performing an assessment of the theoretical implications of this experimental effort is the goal of the present paper. We proceed by analyzing a set of simple benchmark models, characterized by simple two-dimensional parameter spaces where the results of the searches are conveniently visualized and their impact quantified. We only draw exclusion contours, in the hypothesis of no signal, but of course our formalism could equally well be used to report discoveries in a theoretically useful format.

  20. Top partners searches and composite Higgs models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsedonskyi, Oleksii [DESY,Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Panico, Giuliano [IFAE, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Wulzer, Andrea [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia and INFN, Sezione di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)

    2016-04-01

    Colored fermionic partners of the top quark are well-known signatures of the Composite Higgs scenario and for this reason they have been and will be subject of an intensive experimental study at the LHC. Performing an assessment of the theoretical implications of this experimental effort is the goal of the present paper. We proceed by analyzing a set of simple benchmark models, characterized by simple two-dimensional parameter spaces where the results of the searches are conveniently visualized and their impact quantified. We only draw exclusion contours, in the hypothesis of no signal, but of course our formalism could equally well be used to report discoveries in a theoretically useful format.

  1. Coefficient Omega Bootstrap Confidence Intervals: Nonnormal Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin

    2013-01-01

    The performance of the normal theory bootstrap (NTB), the percentile bootstrap (PB), and the bias-corrected and accelerated (BCa) bootstrap confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient omega was assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation under conditions not previously investigated. Of particular interests were nonnormal Likert-type and binary items.…

  2. Estimation of soil salt content (SSC) in the Ebinur Lake Wetland National Nature Reserve (ELWNNR), Northwest China, based on a Bootstrap-BP neural network model and optimal spectral indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoping; Zhang, Fei; Ding, Jianli; Kung, Hsiang-Te; Latif, Aamir; Johnson, Verner C

    2018-02-15

    Soil salinity is recognized worldwide as a major threat to agriculture, particularly in arid regions. Producers and decision-makers thus require updated and accurate maps of salinity in agronomical and environmentally relevant regions. The goals of this study were to test various regression models for estimating soil salt content based on hyperspectral data, HJ-CCD images, and Landsat OLI data using; develop optimal band Difference Index (DI), Ratio Index (RI), and Normalization Index (NDI) algorithms for monitoring soil salt content using image and spectral data; and to compare the performances of the proposed models using a Bootstrap-BP neural network model (Bootstrap-BPNN) from different data sources. The results showed that previously published optimal remote sensing parameters can be applied to estimate the soil salt content in the Ebinur Lake Wetland National Nature Reserve (ELWNNR). Optimal band combination indices based on DI, RI, and NDI were developed for different data sources. Then, the Bootstrap-BP neural network model was built using 1000 groups of Bootstrap samples of remote sensing indices (DI, RI and NDI) and soil salt content. When verifying the accuracy of hyperspectral data, the model yields an R 2 value of 0.95, a root mean square error (RMSE) of 4.38g/kg, and a residual predictive deviation (RPD) of 3.36. The optimal model for remote sensing images was the first derivative model of Landsat OLI, which yielded R 2 value of 0.91, RMSE of 4.82g/kg, and RPD of 3.32; these data indicated that this model has a high predictive ability. When comparing the salinization monitoring accuracy of satellite images to that of ground hyperspectral data, the accuracy of the first derivative of the Landsat OLI model was close to that of the hyperspectral parameter model. Soil salt content was inverted using the first derivative of the Landsat OLI model in the study area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Bootstrapping N=3 superconformal theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos, Madalena; Liendo, Pedro [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Meneghelli, Carlo [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States). Simons Center for Geometry and Physics; Mitev, Vladimir [Mainz Univ. (Germany). PRISMA Cluster of Excellence

    2016-12-15

    We initiate the bootstrap program for N=3 superconformal field theories (SCFTs) in four dimensions. The problem is considered from two fronts: the protected subsector described by a 2d chiral algebra, and crossing symmetry for half-BPS operators whose superconformal primaries parametrize the Coulomb branch of N=3 theories. With the goal of describing a protected subsector of a family of =3 SCFTs, we propose a new 2d chiral algebra with super Virasoro symmetry that depends on an arbitrary parameter, identified with the central charge of the theory. Turning to the crossing equations, we work out the superconformal block expansion and apply standard numerical bootstrap techniques in order to constrain the CFT data. We obtain bounds valid for any theory but also, thanks to input from the chiral algebra results, we are able to exclude solutions with N=4 supersymmetry, allowing us to zoom in on a specific N=3 SCFT.

  4. Mobile first design : using Bootstrap

    OpenAIRE

    Bhusal, Bipin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this project was to design and build a website for a company based in Australia. The business offers remedial massage therapy to its clients. It is a small business which works on the basis of calls and message reservation. The business currently has a temporary website designed with Wix, a cloud-based web development platform. The new website was built with responsive design using Bootstrap. This website was intended for the customers using mobile internet browsers. This design is...

  5. Modeling User Behavior and Attention in Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    In Web search, query and click log data are easy to collect but they fail to capture user behaviors that do not lead to clicks. As search engines reach the limits inherent in click data and are hungry for more data in a competitive environment, mining cursor movements, hovering, and scrolling becomes important. This dissertation investigates how…

  6. Energy confinement of tokamak plasma with consideration of bootstrap current effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Ying; Gao Qingdi

    1992-01-01

    Based on the η i -mode induced anomalous transport model of Lee et al., the energy confinement of tokamak plasmas with auxiliary heating is investigated with consideration of bootstrap current effect. The results indicate that energy confinement time increases with plasma current and tokamak major radius, and decreases with heating power, toroidal field and minor radius. This is in reasonable agreement with the Kaye-Goldston empirical scaling law. Bootstrap current always leads to an improvement of energy confinement and the contraction of inversion radius. When γ, the ratio between bootstrap current and total plasma current, is small, the part of energy confinement time contributed from bootstrap current will be about γ/2

  7. Weighted bootstrapping: a correction method for assessing the robustness of phylogenetic trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makarenkov Vladimir

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-parametric bootstrapping is a widely-used statistical procedure for assessing confidence of model parameters based on the empirical distribution of the observed data 1 and, as such, it has become a common method for assessing tree confidence in phylogenetics 2. Traditional non-parametric bootstrapping does not weigh each tree inferred from resampled (i.e., pseudo-replicated sequences. Hence, the quality of these trees is not taken into account when computing bootstrap scores associated with the clades of the original phylogeny. As a consequence, traditionally, the trees with different bootstrap support or those providing a different fit to the corresponding pseudo-replicated sequences (the fit quality can be expressed through the LS, ML or parsimony score contribute in the same way to the computation of the bootstrap support of the original phylogeny. Results In this article, we discuss the idea of applying weighted bootstrapping to phylogenetic reconstruction by weighting each phylogeny inferred from resampled sequences. Tree weights can be based either on the least-squares (LS tree estimate or on the average secondary bootstrap score (SBS associated with each resampled tree. Secondary bootstrapping consists of the estimation of bootstrap scores of the trees inferred from resampled data. The LS and SBS-based bootstrapping procedures were designed to take into account the quality of each "pseudo-replicated" phylogeny in the final tree estimation. A simulation study was carried out to evaluate the performances of the five weighting strategies which are as follows: LS and SBS-based bootstrapping, LS and SBS-based bootstrapping with data normalization and the traditional unweighted bootstrapping. Conclusions The simulations conducted with two real data sets and the five weighting strategies suggest that the SBS-based bootstrapping with the data normalization usually exhibits larger bootstrap scores and a higher robustness

  8. Assessing statistical reliability of phylogenetic trees via a speedy double bootstrap method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Aizhen; Ishida, Takashi; Akiyama, Yutaka

    2013-05-01

    Evaluating the reliability of estimated phylogenetic trees is of critical importance in the field of molecular phylogenetics, and for other endeavors that depend on accurate phylogenetic reconstruction. The bootstrap method is a well-known computational approach to phylogenetic tree assessment, and more generally for assessing the reliability of statistical models. However, it is known to be biased under certain circumstances, calling into question the accuracy of the method. Several advanced bootstrap methods have been developed to achieve higher accuracy, one of which is the double bootstrap approach, but the computational burden of this method has precluded its application to practical problems of phylogenetic tree selection. We address this issue by proposing a simple method called the speedy double bootstrap, which circumvents the second-tier resampling step in the regular double bootstrap approach. We also develop an implementation of the regular double bootstrap for comparison with our speedy method. The speedy double bootstrap suffers no significant loss of accuracy compared with the regular double bootstrap, while performing calculations significantly more rapidly (at minimum around 371 times faster, based on analysis of mammalian mitochondrial amino acid sequences and 12S and 16S rRNA genes). Our method thus enables, for the first time, the practical application of the double bootstrap technique in the context of molecular phylogenetics. The approach can also be used more generally for model selection problems wherever the maximum likelihood criterion is used. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Bootstrapped efficiency measures of oil blocks in Angola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, C.P.; Assaf, A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the technical efficiency of Angola oil blocks over the period 2002-2007. A double bootstrap data envelopment analysis (DEA) model is adopted composed in the first stage of a DEA-variable returns to scale (VRS) model and then followed in the second stage by a bootstrapped truncated regression. Results showed that on average, the technical efficiency has fluctuated over the period of study, but deep and ultradeep oil blocks have generally maintained a consistent efficiency level. Policy implications are derived.

  10. Neural field model of memory-guided search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Zachary P; Poll, Daniel B

    2017-12-01

    Many organisms can remember locations they have previously visited during a search. Visual search experiments have shown exploration is guided away from these locations, reducing redundancies in the search path before finding a hidden target. We develop and analyze a two-layer neural field model that encodes positional information during a search task. A position-encoding layer sustains a bump attractor corresponding to the searching agent's current location, and search is modeled by velocity input that propagates the bump. A memory layer sustains persistent activity bounded by a wave front, whose edges expand in response to excitatory input from the position layer. Search can then be biased in response to remembered locations, influencing velocity inputs to the position layer. Asymptotic techniques are used to reduce the dynamics of our model to a low-dimensional system of equations that track the bump position and front boundary. Performance is compared for different target-finding tasks.

  11. Neural field model of memory-guided search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Zachary P.; Poll, Daniel B.

    2017-12-01

    Many organisms can remember locations they have previously visited during a search. Visual search experiments have shown exploration is guided away from these locations, reducing redundancies in the search path before finding a hidden target. We develop and analyze a two-layer neural field model that encodes positional information during a search task. A position-encoding layer sustains a bump attractor corresponding to the searching agent's current location, and search is modeled by velocity input that propagates the bump. A memory layer sustains persistent activity bounded by a wave front, whose edges expand in response to excitatory input from the position layer. Search can then be biased in response to remembered locations, influencing velocity inputs to the position layer. Asymptotic techniques are used to reduce the dynamics of our model to a low-dimensional system of equations that track the bump position and front boundary. Performance is compared for different target-finding tasks.

  12. Searches for Beyond Standard Model Physics with ATLAS and CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Rompotis, Nikolaos; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The exploration of the high energy frontier with ATLAS and CMS experiments provides one of the best opportunities to look for physics beyond the Standard Model. In this talk, I review the motivation, the strategy and some recent results related to beyond Standard Model physics from these experiments. The review will cover beyond Standard Model Higgs boson searches, supersymmetry and searches for exotic particles.

  13. A bootstrap estimation scheme for chemical compositional data with nondetects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palarea-Albaladejo, J; Martín-Fernández, J.A; Olea, Ricardo A.

    2014-01-01

    The bootstrap method is commonly used to estimate the distribution of estimators and their associated uncertainty when explicit analytic expressions are not available or are difficult to obtain. It has been widely applied in environmental and geochemical studies, where the data generated often represent parts of whole, typically chemical concentrations. This kind of constrained data is generically called compositional data, and they require specialised statistical methods to properly account for their particular covariance structure. On the other hand, it is not unusual in practice that those data contain labels denoting nondetects, that is, concentrations falling below detection limits. Nondetects impede the implementation of the bootstrap and represent an additional source of uncertainty that must be taken into account. In this work, a bootstrap scheme is devised that handles nondetects by adding an imputation step within the resampling process and conveniently propagates their associated uncertainly. In doing so, it considers the constrained relationships between chemical concentrations originated from their compositional nature. Bootstrap estimates using a range of imputation methods, including new stochastic proposals, are compared across scenarios of increasing difficulty. They are formulated to meet compositional principles following the log-ratio approach, and an adjustment is introduced in the multivariate case to deal with nonclosed samples. Results suggest that nondetect bootstrap based on model-based imputation is generally preferable. A robust approach based on isometric log-ratio transformations appears to be particularly suited in this context. Computer routines in the R statistical programming language are provided. 

  14. Bootstrap Approach to Comparison of Alternative Methods of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A bootstrap simulation approach was used to generate values for endogenous variables of a simultaneous equation model popularly known as Keynesian Model of Income Determination. Three sample sizes 20, 30 and 40 each replicated 10, 20 and 30 times were considered. Four different estimation techniques: Ordinary ...

  15. Metastability thresholds for anisotropic bootstrap percolation in three dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Enter, A.C.D.; Fey, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we analyze several anisotropic bootstrap percolation models in three dimensions. We present the order of magnitude for the metastability thresholds for a fairly general class of models. In our proofs, we use an adaptation of the technique of dimensional reduction. We find that the

  16. Metastability Thresholds for Anisotropic Bootstrap Percolation in Three Dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Enter, A.C.D.; Fey, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we analyze several anisotropic bootstrap percolation models in three dimensions. We present the order of magnitude for the metastability thresholds for a fairly general class of models. In our proofs, we use an adaptation of the technique of dimensional reduction. We find that the

  17. Finite-size effects for anisotropic bootstrap percolation : Logarithmic corrections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Enter, Aernout C. D.; Hulshof, Tim

    In this note we analyse an anisotropic, two-dimensional bootstrap percolation model introduced by Gravner and Griffeath. We present upper and lower bounds on the finite-size effects. We discuss the similarities with the semi-oriented model introduced by Duarte.

  18. Metastability Thresholds for Anisotropic Bootstrap Percolation in Three Dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enter, Aernout C.D. van; Fey, Anne

    In this paper we analyze several anisotropic bootstrap percolation models in three dimensions. We present the order of magnitude for the metastability thresholds for a fairly general class of models. In our proofs, we use an adaptation of the technique of dimensional reduction. We find that the

  19. JuliBootS: a hands-on guide to the conformal bootstrap

    CERN Document Server

    Paulos, Miguel F

    2014-01-01

    We introduce {\\tt JuliBootS}, a package for numerical conformal bootstrap computations coded in {\\tt Julia}. The centre-piece of {\\tt JuliBootS} is an implementation of Dantzig's simplex method capable of handling arbitrary precision linear programming problems with continuous search spaces. Current supported features include conformal dimension bounds, OPE bounds, and bootstrap with or without global symmetries. The code is trivially parallelizable on one or multiple machines. We exemplify usage extensively with several real-world applications. In passing we give a pedagogical introduction to the numerical bootstrap methods.

  20. Calculation of search volume on cruise-searching planktivorous fish in foraging model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bae Kyung; Lee, Yong Seok; Park, Seok Soon

    2007-07-01

    Search volume of cruising planktivorous fish was calculated based on its detailed behavior Th examine the factors influencing search volume, a series of experiments were conducted by varying ambient conditions, such as structural complexity light intensity and turbidity Pseudorasbora parva were used in experiment as predator and Daphnia pulex was selected as prey The shape of scanning area of P parva showed elliptic and the search volume changed drastically depending on ambient conditions. Compared with the results of previous foraging model, the search volumes of the fish under previous study were larger (1.2 to 2.4 times) than those from our study These results on the changes in feeding rate can be useful in determining microhabitat requirement of P parva and othercyprinids with a similar foraging behavior The calculated search volume is compared with other foraging model andthe effect of zooplankton-planktivore interactions on aquatic ecosystem is discussed.

  1. Model unspecific search in CMS. Model unspecific limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knutzen, Simon; Albert, Andreas; Duchardt, Deborah; Hebbeker, Thomas; Lieb, Jonas; Meyer, Arnd; Pook, Tobias; Roemer, Jonas [III. Physikalisches Institut A, RWTH Aachen University (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The standard model of particle physics is increasingly challenged by recent discoveries and also by long known phenomena, representing a strong motivation to develop extensions of the standard model. The amount of theories describing possible extensions is large and steadily growing. In this presentation a new approach is introduced, verifying if a given theory beyond the standard model is consistent with data collected by the CMS detector without the need to perform a dedicated search. To achieve this, model unspecific limits on the number of additional events above the standard model expectation are calculated in every event class produced by the MUSiC algorithm. Furthermore, a tool is provided to translate these results into limits on the signal cross section of any theory. In addition to the general procedure, first results and examples are shown using the proton-proton collision data taken at a centre of mass energy of 8 TeV.

  2. A critique of astrophysical applications of Hagedorn's bootstrap

    CERN Document Server

    Nahm, W

    1980-01-01

    It has been shown that Hagedorn's bootstrap should not be applied to hadronic matter at densities large against nuclear densities. The correct predictions of the thermodynamical model do not use any relation between the mass of the fireballs and their size, whereas the astrophysical applications depend on the unreasonable assumption that the size is independent of the mass. The most spectacular prediction of the bootstrap, namely violent black hole explosions yielding 10/sup 15/ g in the last millisecond, is shown to be completely unfounded, even if such an assumption is made. (21 refs).

  3. A stochastic model for intermittent search strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benichou, O; Coppey, M; Moreau, M; Suet, P H; Voituriez, R

    2005-01-01

    It is often necessary, in scientific or everyday life problems, to find a randomly hidden target. What is then the optimal strategy to reach it as rapidly as possible? In this article, we develop a stochastic theory for intermittent search behaviours, which are often observed: the searcher alternates phases of intensive search and slow motion with fast displacements. The first results of this theory have already been announced recently. Here we provide a detailed presentation of the theory, as well as the full derivation of the results. Furthermore, we explicitly discuss the minimization of the time needed to find the target

  4. Ringed Seal Search for Global Optimization via a Sensitive Search Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadi, Younes; Yanto, Iwan Tri Riyadi; Herawan, Tutut; Balakrishnan, Vimala; Chiroma, Haruna; Risnumawan, Anhar

    2016-01-01

    The efficiency of a metaheuristic algorithm for global optimization is based on its ability to search and find the global optimum. However, a good search often requires to be balanced between exploration and exploitation of the search space. In this paper, a new metaheuristic algorithm called Ringed Seal Search (RSS) is introduced. It is inspired by the natural behavior of the seal pup. This algorithm mimics the seal pup movement behavior and its ability to search and choose the best lair to escape predators. The scenario starts once the seal mother gives birth to a new pup in a birthing lair that is constructed for this purpose. The seal pup strategy consists of searching and selecting the best lair by performing a random walk to find a new lair. Affected by the sensitive nature of seals against external noise emitted by predators, the random walk of the seal pup takes two different search states, normal state and urgent state. In the normal state, the pup performs an intensive search between closely adjacent lairs; this movement is modeled via a Brownian walk. In an urgent state, the pup leaves the proximity area and performs an extensive search to find a new lair from sparse targets; this movement is modeled via a Levy walk. The switch between these two states is realized by the random noise emitted by predators. The algorithm keeps switching between normal and urgent states until the global optimum is reached. Tests and validations were performed using fifteen benchmark test functions to compare the performance of RSS with other baseline algorithms. The results show that RSS is more efficient than Genetic Algorithm, Particles Swarm Optimization and Cuckoo Search in terms of convergence rate to the global optimum. The RSS shows an improvement in terms of balance between exploration (extensive) and exploitation (intensive) of the search space. The RSS can efficiently mimic seal pups behavior to find best lair and provide a new algorithm to be used in global

  5. Professional Education in Expert Search: A Content Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Catherine L.; Roseberry, Martha I.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a descriptive model of the subject matter taught in courses on expert search in ALA-accredited programs, answering the question: What is taught in formal professional education on search expertise? The model emerged from a grounded content analysis of 44 course descriptions and 16 syllabi, and was validated via a review of…

  6. Developing Operator Models for UAV Search Scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertuccelli, L.F.; Beckers, N.W.M.; Cummings, M.L.

    2010-01-01

    With the increased use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), it is envisioned that UAV operators will become high level mission supervisors, responsible for information management and task planning. In the context of search missions, operators supervising a large number of UAVs can become overwhelmed

  7. Generalized Bootstrap Method for Assessment of Uncertainty in Semivariogram Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olea, R.A.; Pardo-Iguzquiza, E.

    2011-01-01

    The semivariogram and its related function, the covariance, play a central role in classical geostatistics for modeling the average continuity of spatially correlated attributes. Whereas all methods are formulated in terms of the true semivariogram, in practice what can be used are estimated semivariograms and models based on samples. A generalized form of the bootstrap method to properly model spatially correlated data is used to advance knowledge about the reliability of empirical semivariograms and semivariogram models based on a single sample. Among several methods available to generate spatially correlated resamples, we selected a method based on the LU decomposition and used several examples to illustrate the approach. The first one is a synthetic, isotropic, exhaustive sample following a normal distribution, the second example is also a synthetic but following a non-Gaussian random field, and a third empirical sample consists of actual raingauge measurements. Results show wider confidence intervals than those found previously by others with inadequate application of the bootstrap. Also, even for the Gaussian example, distributions for estimated semivariogram values and model parameters are positively skewed. In this sense, bootstrap percentile confidence intervals, which are not centered around the empirical semivariogram and do not require distributional assumptions for its construction, provide an achieved coverage similar to the nominal coverage. The latter cannot be achieved by symmetrical confidence intervals based on the standard error, regardless if the standard error is estimated from a parametric equation or from bootstrap. ?? 2010 International Association for Mathematical Geosciences.

  8. More N =4 superconformal bootstrap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beem, Christopher; Rastelli, Leonardo; van Rees, Balt C.

    2017-08-01

    In this long overdue second installment, we continue to develop the conformal bootstrap program for N =4 superconformal field theories (SCFTs) in four dimensions via an analysis of the correlation function of four stress-tensor supermultiplets. We review analytic results for this correlator and make contact with the SCFT/chiral algebra correspondence of Beem et al. [Commun. Math. Phys. 336, 1359 (2015), 10.1007/s00220-014-2272-x]. We demonstrate that the constraints of unitarity and crossing symmetry require the central charge c to be greater than or equal to 3 /4 in any interacting N =4 SCFT. We apply numerical bootstrap methods to derive upper bounds on scaling dimensions and operator product expansion coefficients for several low-lying, unprotected operators as a function of the central charge. We interpret our bounds in the context of N =4 super Yang-Mills theories, formulating a series of conjectures regarding the embedding of the conformal manifold—parametrized by the complexified gauge coupling—into the space of scaling dimensions and operator product expansion coefficients. Our conjectures assign a distinguished role to points on the conformal manifold that are self-dual under a subgroup of the S -duality group. This paper contains a more detailed exposition of a number of results previously reported in Beem et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 071601 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.071601] in addition to new results.

  9. Investigations of dipole localization accuracy in MEG using the bootstrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvas, F; Rautiainen, M; Pantazis, D; Baillet, S; Benali, H; Mosher, J C; Garnero, L; Leahy, R M

    2005-04-01

    We describe the use of the nonparametric bootstrap to investigate the accuracy of current dipole localization from magnetoencephalography (MEG) studies of event-related neural activity. The bootstrap is well suited to the analysis of event-related MEG data since the experiments are repeated tens or even hundreds of times and averaged to achieve acceptable signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). The set of repetitions or epochs can be viewed as a set of independent realizations of the brain's response to the experiment. Bootstrap resamples can be generated by sampling with replacement from these epochs and averaging. In this study, we applied the bootstrap resampling technique to MEG data from somatotopic experimental and simulated data. Four fingers of the right and left hand of a healthy subject were electrically stimulated, and about 400 trials per stimulation were recorded and averaged in order to measure the somatotopic mapping of the fingers in the S1 area of the brain. Based on single-trial recordings for each finger we performed 5000 bootstrap resamples. We reconstructed dipoles from these resampled averages using the Recursively Applied and Projected (RAP)-MUSIC source localization algorithm. We also performed a simulation for two dipolar sources with overlapping time courses embedded in realistic background brain activity generated using the prestimulus segments of the somatotopic data. To find correspondences between multiple sources in each bootstrap, sample dipoles with similar time series and forward fields were assumed to represent the same source. These dipoles were then clustered by a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) clustering algorithm using their combined normalized time series and topographies as feature vectors. The mean and standard deviation of the dipole position and the dipole time series in each cluster were computed to provide estimates of the accuracy of the reconstructed source locations and time series.

  10. The analytic bootstrap in fermionic CFTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, Mark

    2018-01-01

    We apply the method of the large spin bootstrap to analyse fermionic conformal field theories with weakly broken higher spin symmetry. Through the study of correlators of composite operators, we find the anomalous dimensions and OPE coefficients in the GrossNeveu model in d = 2 + ɛ dimensions and the Gross-Neveu-Yukawa model in d = 4 - ɛ dimensions, based only on crossing symmetry. Furthermore a non-trivial solution in the d = 2 + ɛ expansion is found for a fermionic theory in which the fundamental field is not part of the spectrum. The results are perturbative in ɛ and valid to all orders in the spin, reproducing known results for operator dimensions and providing some new results for operator dimensions and OPE coefficients.

  11. Assessing blood flow control through a bootstrap method

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, D.M.; Panerai, R.B.; Ramos, E.G.; Lopes, J.M.A.; Villar Marinatto, M.N.; Nadal, J.; Evans, D.H.

    2004-01-01

    In order to assess blood flow control, the relationship between blood pressure and blood flow can be modeled by linear filters. We present a bootstrap method, which allows the statistical analysis of an index of blood flow control that is obtained from constrained system identification using an established set of pre-defined filters.

  12. Integrable deformations of conformal theories and bootstrap trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mussardo, G.

    1991-01-01

    I present recent results in the study of massive integrable quantum field theories in (1+1) dimensions considered as perturbed conformal minimal models. The on mass-shell properties of such theories, with a particular emphasis on the bootstrap principle, are investigated. (orig.)

  13. A Comparison of Non-Adjusted and Bootstrapped Methods: Bootstrapped Diagnosis Might Be Worth the Trouble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenblatt, Richard L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The diagnostic accuracy of nonadjusted and bootstrapped diagnosis was compared using a sample of 1,455 psychiatric patients who completed the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory. The usefulness of bootstrapping depended on the criteria for accuracy. Conditions under which bootstrapping might increase diagnostic accuracy are detailed. (SLD)

  14. A bootstrapped neural network model applied to prediction of the biodegradation rate of reactive Black 5 dye - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i3.16210

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleber Rogério Moreira Prado

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Current essay forwards a biodegradation model of a dye, used in the textile industry, based on a neural network propped by bootstrap remodeling. Bootstrapped neural network is set to generate estimates that are close to results obtained in an intrinsic experience in which a chemical process is applied. Pseudomonas oleovorans was used in the biodegradation of reactive Black 5. Results show a brief comparison between the information estimated by the proposed approach and the experimental data, with a coefficient of correlation between real and predicted values for a more than 0.99 biodegradation rate. Dye concentration and the solution’s pH failed to interfere in biodegradation index rates. A value above 90% of dye biodegradation was achieved between 1.000 and 1.841 mL 10 mL-1 of microorganism concentration and between 1.000 and 2.000 g 100 mL-1 of glucose concentration within the experimental conditions under analysis.   

  15. Finger Search in the Implicit Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Nielsen, Jesper Asbjørn Sindahl; Truelsen, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    , and delete in times $\\mathcal{O}(q(t))$, $\\mathcal{O}(q^{-1}(\\log n)\\log n)$, $\\mathcal{O}(\\log n)$, and $\\mathcal{O}(\\log n)$, respectively, for any q(t) = Ω(logt). Finally we show that the search operation must take Ω(logn) time for the special case where the finger is always changed to the element...

  16. Modified bootstrap consistency rates for U-quantiles

    OpenAIRE

    JANSSEN, Paul; SWANEPOEL, Jan; VERAVERBEKE, Noel

    2001-01-01

    We show that, compared to the classical bootstrap, the modified bootstrap provides faster consistency rates for the bootstrap distribution of U-quantiles. This shows that the modified bootstrap is useful, not only in cases where the classical bootstrap fails, but also in situations where it is valid.

  17. EBW-Bootstrap Current Synergy in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, R.W.; Taylor, G.

    2005-01-01

    Current driven by electron Bernstein waves (EBW) and by the electron bootstrap effect are calculated separately and concurrently with a kinetic code, to determine the degree of synergy between them. A target β = 40% NSTX plasma is examined. A simple bootstrap model in the CQL3D Fokker-Planck code is used in these studies: the transiting electron distributions are connected in velocity-space at the trapped-passing boundary to trapped-electron distributions which are displaced radially by a half-banana width outwards/inwards for the co-/counter-passing regions. This model agrees well with standard bootstrap current calculations, over the outer 60% of the plasma radius. Relatively small synergy net bootstrap current is obtained for EBW power up to 4 MW. Locally, bootstrap current density increases in proportion to increased plasma pressure, and this effect can significantly affect the radial profile of driven current

  18. Coefficient Alpha Bootstrap Confidence Interval under Nonnormality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin; Newton, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Three different bootstrap methods for estimating confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient alpha were investigated. In addition, the bootstrap methods were compared with the most promising coefficient alpha CI estimation methods reported in the literature. The CI methods were assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation utilizing conditions…

  19. Bootstrapping the O(N) Archipelago

    CERN Document Server

    Kos, Filip; Simmons-Duffin, David; Vichi, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    We study 3d CFTs with an $O(N)$ global symmetry using the conformal bootstrap for a system of mixed correlators. Specifically, we consider all nonvanishing scalar four-point functions containing the lowest dimension $O(N)$ vector $\\phi_i$ and the lowest dimension $O(N)$ singlet $s$, assumed to be the only relevant operators in their symmetry representations. The constraints of crossing symmetry and unitarity for these four-point functions force the scaling dimensions $(\\Delta_\\phi, \\Delta_s)$ to lie inside small islands. We also make rigorous determinations of current two-point functions in the $O(2)$ and $O(3)$ models, with applications to transport in condensed matter systems.

  20. How to Bootstrap Anonymous Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Sune K.; Orlandi, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    formal study in this direction. To solve this problem, we introduce the concept of anonymous steganography: think of a leaker Lea who wants to leak a large document to Joe the journalist. Using anonymous steganography Lea can embed this document in innocent looking communication on some popular website...... (such as cat videos on YouTube or funny memes on 9GAG). Then Lea provides Joe with a short key k which, when applied to the entire website, recovers the document while hiding the identity of Lea among the large number of users of the website. Our contributions include: { Introducing and formally dening...... anonymous steganography, { A construction showing that anonymous steganography is possible (which uses recent results in circuits obfuscation), { A lower bound on the number of bits which are needed to bootstrap anonymous communication....

  1. How to Bootstrap Anonymous Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Sune K.; Orlandi, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    formal study in this direction. To solve this problem, we introduce the concept of anonymous steganography: think of a leaker Lea who wants to leak a large document to Joe the journalist. Using anonymous steganography Lea can embed this document in innocent looking communication on some popular website...... (such as cat videos on YouTube or funny memes on 9GAG). Then Lea provides Joe with a short key $k$ which, when applied to the entire website, recovers the document while hiding the identity of Lea among the large number of users of the website. Our contributions include: - Introducing and formally...... defining anonymous steganography, - A construction showing that anonymous steganography is possible (which uses recent results in circuits obfuscation), - A lower bound on the number of bits which are needed to bootstrap anonymous communication....

  2. Advanced language modeling approaches, case study: Expert search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd

    2008-01-01

    This tutorial gives a clear and detailed overview of advanced language modeling approaches and tools, including the use of document priors, translation models, relevance models, parsimonious models and expectation maximization training. Expert search will be used as a case study to explain the

  3. Better Confidence Intervals: The Double Bootstrap with No Pivot

    OpenAIRE

    David Letson; B.D. McCullough

    1998-01-01

    The double bootstrap is an important advance in confidence interval generation because it converges faster than the already popular single bootstrap. Yet the usual double bootstrap requires a stable pivot that is not always available, e.g., when estimating flexibilities or substitution elasticities. A recently developed double bootstrap does not require a pivot. A Monte Carlo analysis with the Waugh data finds the double bootstrap achieves nominal coverage whereas the single bootstrap does no...

  4. Aerial Search Optimization Model (ASOM) for UAVs in Special Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kress, Moshe; Royset, Johannes O

    2007-01-01

    .... The goal is to detect the largest possible number of targets with the given resources. The model prescribes optimal deployment locations for the ground units and optimal time-phased search areas for the UAVs...

  5. Model Justified Search Algorithms for Scheduling Under Uncertainty

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Howe, Adele; Whitley, L. D

    2008-01-01

    .... We also identified plateaus as a significant barrier to superb performance of local search on scheduling and have studied several canonical discrete optimization problems to discover and model the nature of plateaus...

  6. Standard model status (in search of ''new physics'')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciano, W.J.

    1993-03-01

    A perspective on successes and shortcomings of the standard model is given. The complementarity between direct high energy probes of new physics and lower energy searches via precision measurements and rare reactions is described. Several illustrative examples are discussed

  7. On Comparison of Stochastic Reserving Methods with Bootstrapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liivika Tee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the well-known stochastic reserve estimation methods on the basis of generalized linear models, such as the (over-dispersed Poisson model, the gamma model and the log-normal model. For the likely variability of the claims reserve, bootstrap method is considered. In the bootstrapping framework, we discuss the choice of residuals, namely the Pearson residuals, the deviance residuals and the Anscombe residuals. In addition, several possible residual adjustments are discussed and compared in a case study. We carry out a practical implementation and comparison of methods using real-life insurance data to estimate reserves and their prediction errors. We propose to consider proper scoring rules for model validation, and the assessments will be drawn from an extensive case study.

  8. Passage relevance models for genomics search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frieder Ophir

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a passage relevance model for integrating syntactic and semantic evidence of biomedical concepts and topics using a probabilistic graphical model. Component models of topics, concepts, terms, and document are represented as potential functions within a Markov Random Field. The probability of a passage being relevant to a biologist's information need is represented as the joint distribution across all potential functions. Relevance model feedback of top ranked passages is used to improve distributional estimates of query concepts and topics in context, and a dimensional indexing strategy is used for efficient aggregation of concept and term statistics. By integrating multiple sources of evidence including dependencies between topics, concepts, and terms, we seek to improve genomics literature passage retrieval precision. Using this model, we are able to demonstrate statistically significant improvements in retrieval precision using a large genomics literature corpus.

  9. An extended dual search space model of scientific discovery learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Joolingen, Wouter; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.

    1997-01-01

    This article describes a theory of scientific discovery learning which is an extension of Klahr and Dunbar''s model of Scientific Discovery as Dual Search (SDDS) model. We present a model capable of describing and understanding scientific discovery learning in complex domains in terms of the SDDS

  10. Protein Folding: Search for Basic Physical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Y. Torshin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available How a unique three-dimensional structure is rapidly formed from the linear sequence of a polypeptide is one of the important questions in contemporary science. Apart from biological context of in vivo protein folding (which has been studied only for a few proteins, the roles of the fundamental physical forces in the in vitro folding remain largely unstudied. Despite a degree of success in using descriptions based on statistical and/or thermodynamic approaches, few of the current models explicitly include more basic physical forces (such as electrostatics and Van Der Waals forces. Moreover, the present-day models rarely take into account that the protein folding is, essentially, a rapid process that produces a highly specific architecture. This review considers several physical models that may provide more direct links between sequence and tertiary structure in terms of the physical forces. In particular, elaboration of such simple models is likely to produce extremely effective computational techniques with value for modern genomics.

  11. Modeling Knowledge Resource Selection in Expert Librarian Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    KAUFMAN, David R.; MEHRYAR, Maryam; CHASE, Herbert; HUNG, Peter; CHILOV, Marina; JOHNSON, Stephen B.; MENDONCA, Eneida

    2011-01-01

    Providing knowledge at the point of care offers the possibility for reducing error and improving patient outcomes. However, the vast majority of physician’s information needs are not met in a timely fashion. The research presented in this paper models an expert librarian’s search strategies as it pertains to the selection and use of various electronic information resources. The 10 searches conducted by the librarian to address physician’s information needs, varied in terms of complexity and question type. The librarian employed a total of 10 resources and used as many as 7 in a single search. The longer term objective is to model the sequential process in sufficient detail as to be able to contribute to the development of intelligent automated search agents. PMID:19380912

  12. Search of novel model for integrative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Bhushan; Mutalik, Gururaj

    2014-03-01

    This article provides global and Indian scenario with strengths and limitations of present health care system. Affordability, accessibility and availability of health care coupled with disproportionate growth and double burden of diseases have become major concerns in India. This article emphasizes need for mindset change from illness-disease-drug centric curative to person-health-wellness centric preventive and promotive approaches. It highlights innovation deficit faced pharmaceutical industry and drugs being withdrawn from market for safety reasons. Medical pluralism is a growing trend and people are exploring various options including modern, traditional, complementary and alternative medicine. In such a situation, knowledge from Ayurveda, yoga, Chinese medicine and acupuncture may play an important role. We can evolve a suitable model by integrating modern and traditional systems of medicine for affordable health care. In the larger interest of global community, Indian and Chinese systems should share knowledge and experiences for mutual intellectual enrichments and work together to evolve a novel model of integrative medicine.

  13. Definition of total bootstrap current in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    Alternative definitions of the total bootstrap current are compared. An analogous comparison is given for the ohmic and auxiliary currents. It is argued that different definitions than those usually employed lead to simpler analyses of tokamak operating scenarios

  14. Moving Block Bootstrap for Analyzing Longitudinal Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Hyunsu

    In a longitudinal study subjects are followed over time. I focus on a case where the number of replications over time is large relative to the number of subjects in the study. I investigate the use of moving block bootstrap methods for analyzing such data. Asymptotic properties of the bootstrap methods in this setting are derived. The effectiveness of these resampling methods is also demonstrated through a simulation study.

  15. A comparative study of click models for web search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grotov, A.; Chuklin, A.; Markov, I.; Stout, L.; Xumara, F.; de Rijke, M.; Mothe, J.; Savoy, J.; Kamps, J.; Pinel-Sauvagnat, K.; Jones, G.J.F.; SanJuan, E.; Cappellato, L.; Ferro, N.

    2015-01-01

    Click models have become an essential tool for understanding user behavior on a search engine result page, running simulated experiments and predicting relevance. Dozens of click models have been proposed, all aiming to tackle problems stemming from the complexity of user behavior or of contemporary

  16. Fitting Equilibrium Search Models to Labour Market Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowlus, Audra J.; Kiefer, Nicholas M.; Neumann, George R.

    1996-01-01

    Specification and estimation of a Burdett-Mortensen type equilibrium search model is considered. The estimation is nonstandard. An estimation strategy asymptotically equivalent to maximum likelihood is proposed and applied. The results indicate that specifications with a small number of productiv...... of productivity types fit the data well compared to the homogeneous model....

  17. SEARCH

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Chaitali Sinha

    Anexo B: Lista de verificación para presentar una nota conceptual en el marco de IDRC-SEARCH ....... 17 .... incluir investigación primaria y/o síntesis de estudios existentes, para generar nuevo conocimiento. Los .... de datos entre grupos diferentes de usuarios (trabajadores de la salud comunitaria, funcionarios de salud.

  18. Financial applications of a Tabu search variable selection model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvi Drezner

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We illustrate how a comparatively new technique, a Tabu search variable selection model [Drezner, Marcoulides and Salhi (1999], can be applied efficiently within finance when the researcher must select a subset of variables from among the whole set of explanatory variables under consideration. Several types of problems in finance, including corporate and personal bankruptcy prediction, mortgage and credit scoring, and the selection of variables for the Arbitrage Pricing Model, require the researcher to select a subset of variables from a larger set. In order to demonstrate the usefulness of the Tabu search variable selection model, we: (1 illustrate its efficiency in comparison to the main alternative search procedures, such as stepwise regression and the Maximum R2 procedure, and (2 show how a version of the Tabu search procedure may be implemented when attempting to predict corporate bankruptcy. We accomplish (2 by indicating that a Tabu Search procedure increases the predictability of corporate bankruptcy by up to 10 percentage points in comparison to Altman's (1968 Z-Score model.

  19. How Users Search the Mobile Web: A Model for Understanding the Impact of Motivation and Context on Search Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Wu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study explores how search motivation and context influence mobile Web search behaviors. Design/methodology/approach: We studied 30 experienced mobile Web users via questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, and an online diary tool that participants used to record their daily search activities. SQLite Developer was used to extract data from the users' phone logs for correlation analysis in Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS. Findings: One quarter of mobile search sessions were driven by two or more search motivations. It was especially difficult to distinguish curiosity from time killing in particular user reporting. Multi-dimensional contexts and motivations influenced mobile search behaviors, and among the context dimensions, gender, place, activities they engaged in while searching, task importance, portal, and interpersonal relations (whether accompanied or alone when searching correlated with each other. Research limitations: The sample was comprised entirely of college students, so our findings may not generalize to other populations. More participants and longer experimental duration will improve the accuracy and objectivity of the research. Practical implications: Motivation analysis and search context recognition can help mobile service providers design applications and services for particular mobile contexts and usages. Originality/value: Most current research focuses on specific contexts, such as studies on place, or other contextual influences on mobile search, and lacks a systematic analysis of mobile search context. Based on analysis of the impact of mobile search motivations and search context on search behaviors, we built a multi-dimensional model of mobile search behaviors.

  20. Higgs Critical Exponents and Conformal Bootstrap in Four Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antipin, Oleg; Mølgaard, Esben; Sannino, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    We investigate relevant properties of composite operators emerging in nonsupersymmetric, four-dimensional gauge-Yukawa theories with interacting conformal fixed points within a precise framework. The theories investigated in this work are structurally similar to the standard model of particle int...... bootstrap results are then compared to precise four dimensional conformal field theoretical results. To accomplish this, it was necessary to calculate explicitly the crossing symmetry relations for the global symmetry group SU($N$)$\\times$SU($N$)....

  1. 'Bootstrap' charging of surfaces composed of multiple materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stannard, P. R.; Katz, I.; Parks, D. E.

    1981-01-01

    The paper examines the charging of a checkerboard array of two materials, only one of which tends to acquire a negative potential alone, using the NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP). The influence of the charging material's field causes the otherwise 'non-charging' material to acquire a negative potential due to the suppression of its secondary emission ('bootstrap' charging). The NASCAP predictions for the equilibrium potential difference between the two materials are compared to results based on an analytical model.

  2. TruSDN: Bootstrapping Trust in Cloud Network Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Paladi, Nicolae; Gehrmann, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Software-Defined Networking (SDN) is a novel architectural model for cloud network infrastructure, improving resource utilization, scalability and administration. SDN deployments increasingly rely on virtual switches executing on commodity operating systems with large code bases, which are prime targets for adversaries attacking the net- work infrastructure. We describe and implement TruSDN, a framework for bootstrapping trust in SDN infrastructure using Intel Software Guard Extensions (SGX),...

  3. Comparison of Bootstrap Confidence Intervals Using Monte Carlo Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto S. Flowers-Cano; Ruperto Ortiz-Gómez; Jesús Enrique León-Jiménez; Raúl López Rivera; Luis A. Perera Cruz

    2018-01-01

    Design of hydraulic works requires the estimation of design hydrological events by statistical inference from a probability distribution. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we compared coverage of confidence intervals constructed with four bootstrap techniques: percentile bootstrap (BP), bias-corrected bootstrap (BC), accelerated bias-corrected bootstrap (BCA) and a modified version of the standard bootstrap (MSB). Different simulation scenarios were analyzed. In some cases, the mother distributi...

  4. Quantum bootstrapping via compressed quantum Hamiltonian learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiebe, Nathan; Granade, Christopher; Cory, D G

    2015-01-01

    A major problem facing the development of quantum computers or large scale quantum simulators is that general methods for characterizing and controlling are intractable. We provide a new approach to this problem that uses small quantum simulators to efficiently characterize and learn control models for larger devices. Our protocol achieves this by using Bayesian inference in concert with Lieb–Robinson bounds and interactive quantum learning methods to achieve compressed simulations for characterization. We also show that the Lieb–Robinson velocity is epistemic for our protocol, meaning that information propagates at a rate that depends on the uncertainty in the system Hamiltonian. We illustrate the efficiency of our bootstrapping protocol by showing numerically that an 8 qubit Ising model simulator can be used to calibrate and control a 50 qubit Ising simulator while using only about 750 kilobits of experimental data. Finally, we provide upper bounds for the Fisher information that show that the number of experiments needed to characterize a system rapidly diverges as the duration of the experiments used in the characterization shrinks, which motivates the use of methods such as ours that do not require short evolution times. (fast track communication)

  5. Bootstrap Prediction Intervals in Non-Parametric Regression with Applications to Anomaly Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sricharan; Srivistava, Ashok N.

    2012-01-01

    Prediction intervals provide a measure of the probable interval in which the outputs of a regression model can be expected to occur. Subsequently, these prediction intervals can be used to determine if the observed output is anomalous or not, conditioned on the input. In this paper, a procedure for determining prediction intervals for outputs of nonparametric regression models using bootstrap methods is proposed. Bootstrap methods allow for a non-parametric approach to computing prediction intervals with no specific assumptions about the sampling distribution of the noise or the data. The asymptotic fidelity of the proposed prediction intervals is theoretically proved. Subsequently, the validity of the bootstrap based prediction intervals is illustrated via simulations. Finally, the bootstrap prediction intervals are applied to the problem of anomaly detection on aviation data.

  6. Conformal bootstrap: non-perturbative QFT's under siege

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    [Exceptionally in Council Chamber] Originally formulated in the 70's, the conformal bootstrap is the ambitious idea that one can use internal consistency conditions to carve out, and eventually solve, the space of conformal field theories. In this talk I will review recent developments in the field which have boosted this program to a new level. I will present a method to extract quantitative informations in strongly-interacting theories, such as 3D Ising, O(N) vector model and even systems without a Lagrangian formulation. I will explain how these techniques have led to the world record determination of several critical exponents. Finally, I will review exact analytical results obtained using bootstrap techniques.

  7. Measurement Axis Searching Model for Terrestrial Laser Scans Registration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoxing Hu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, terrestrial Lidar scans can cover rather a large area; the point densities are strongly varied because of the line-of-sight measurement principle in potential overlaps with scans taken from different viewpoints. Most of the traditional methods focus on registration algorithm and ignore searching model. Sometimes the traditional methods are directly used to align two point clouds; a large critically unsolved problem of the large biases will be created in areas distant from the overlaps while the local overlaps are often aligned well. So a novel measurement axis searching model (MASM has been proposed in this paper. The method includes four steps: (1 the principal axis fitting, (2 the measurement axis generation, (3 low-high-precision search, and (4 result generation. The principal axis gives an orientation to the point cloud; the search scope is limited by the measurement axis. The point cloud orientation can be adjusted gradually until the achievement of the global optimum using low- and high-precision search. We perform some experiments with simulated point clouds and real terrestrial laser scans. The results of simulated point clouds have shown the processing steps of our method, and the results of real terrestrial laser scans have shown the sensitivity of the approach with respect to the indoor and outdoor scenes.

  8. Generalised block bootstrap and its use in meteorology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Varga

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In an earlier paper, Rakonczai et al.(2014 emphasised the importance of investigating the effective sample size in case of autocorrelated data. The simulations were based on the block bootstrap methodology. However, the discreteness of the usual block size did not allow for exact calculations. In this paper we propose a new generalisation of the block bootstrap methodology, which allows for any positive real number as expected block size. We relate it to the existing optimisation procedures and apply it to a temperature data set. Our other focus is on statistical tests, where quite often the actual sample size plays an important role, even in the case of relatively large samples. This is especially the case for copulas. These are used for investigating the dependencies among data sets. As in quite a few real applications the time dependence cannot be neglected, we investigated the effect of this phenomenon on the used test statistic. The critical value can be computed by the proposed new block bootstrap simulation, where the block size is determined by fitting a VAR model to the observations. The results are illustrated for models of the used temperature data.

  9. Stock Price Simulation Using Bootstrap and Monte Carlo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pažický Martin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an attempt is made to assessment and comparison of bootstrap experiment and Monte Carlo experiment for stock price simulation. Since the stock price evolution in the future is extremely important for the investors, there is the attempt to find the best method how to determine the future stock price of BNP Paribas′ bank. The aim of the paper is define the value of the European and Asian option on BNP Paribas′ stock at the maturity date. There are employed four different methods for the simulation. First method is bootstrap experiment with homoscedastic error term, second method is blocked bootstrap experiment with heteroscedastic error term, third method is Monte Carlo simulation with heteroscedastic error term and the last method is Monte Carlo simulation with homoscedastic error term. In the last method there is necessary to model the volatility using econometric GARCH model. The main purpose of the paper is to compare the mentioned methods and select the most reliable. The difference between classical European option and exotic Asian option based on the experiment results is the next aim of tis paper.

  10. Search for Higgs boson in beyond standard model scenarios at ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The principal physics motivation of the LHC experiments is to search for the Higgs boson and to probe the physics of TeV energy scale. Potential of discovery for Higgs bosons in various scenarios beyond standard model have been estimated for both CMS and ATLAS experiments through detailed detector simulations.

  11. Searches for phenomena beyond the Standard Model at the Large ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. LHC; ATLAS; CMS; BSM; supersymmetry; exotic. Abstract. The LHC has delivered several fb-1 of data in spring and summer 2011, opening new windows of opportunity for discovering phenomena beyond the Standard Model. A summary of the searches conducted by the ATLAS and CMS experiments based on ...

  12. Searches for phenomena beyond the Standard Model at the Large ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    metry searches at the LHC is thus the channel with large missing transverse momentum and jets of high transverse momentum. No excess above the expected SM background is observed and limits are set on supersymmetric models. Figures 1 and 2 show the limits from ATLAS [11] and CMS [12]. In addition to setting limits ...

  13. In search for animal models of female sexual dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoeren, E.M.S.

    2010-01-01

    Female Sexual Dysfunction (FSD) is a disorder that affects around 40% of the population. Low sexual arousal and low sexual desire are the most common problems. The mechanisms underlying the disorder are still unclear. The aims of this thesis were 1) the search for animal models of FSD, 2) the

  14. Standard Model Higgs boson searches with the ATLAS detector at ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The investigation of the mechanism responsible for electroweak symmetry breaking is one of the most important tasks of the scientific program of the Large Hadron Collider. The experimental results on the search of the Standard Model Higgs boson with 1 to 2 fb-1 of proton–proton collision data at s = 7 TeV recorded by the ...

  15. Searches for phenomena beyond the Standard Model at the Large

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The LHC has delivered several fb-1 of data in spring and summer 2011, opening new windows of opportunity for discovering phenomena beyond the Standard Model. A summary of the searches conducted by the ATLAS and CMS experiments based on about 1 fb-1 of data is presented.

  16. Search for Higgs boson in beyond standard model scenarios

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The principal physics motivation of the LHC experiments is to search for the Higgs boson and to probe the physics of TeV energy scale. Potential of discovery for Higgs bosons in various scenarios beyond standard model have been estimated for both CMS and ATLAS experiments through detailed detector simulations.

  17. Standard Model Higgs boson searches with the ATLAS detector

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The investigation of the mechanism responsible for electroweak symmetry breaking is one of the most important tasks of the scientific program of the Large Hadron Collider. The experimental results on the search of the Standard Model Higgs boson with 1 to 2 fb-1 of proton–proton collision data at s = 7 TeV recorded by the ...

  18. Uncertainty Estimation using Bootstrapped Kriging Predictions for Precipitation Isoscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, C.; Bowen, G. J.; Vander Zanden, H.; Wunder, M.

    2017-12-01

    Isoscapes are spatial models representing the distribution of stable isotope values across landscapes. Isoscapes of hydrogen and oxygen in precipitation are now widely used in a diversity of fields, including geology, biology, hydrology, and atmospheric science. To generate isoscapes, geostatistical methods are typically applied to extend predictions from limited data measurements. Kriging is a popular method in isoscape modeling, but quantifying the uncertainty associated with the resulting isoscapes is challenging. Applications that use precipitation isoscapes to determine sample origin require estimation of uncertainty. Here we present a simple bootstrap method (SBM) to estimate the mean and uncertainty of the krigged isoscape and compare these results with a generalized bootstrap method (GBM) applied in previous studies. We used hydrogen isotopic data from IsoMAP to explore these two approaches for estimating uncertainty. We conducted 10 simulations for each bootstrap method and found that SBM results in more kriging predictions (9/10) compared to GBM (4/10). Prediction from SBM was closer to the original prediction generated without bootstrapping and had less variance than GBM. SBM was tested on different datasets from IsoMAP with different numbers of observation sites. We determined that predictions from the datasets with fewer than 40 observation sites using SBM were more variable than the original prediction. The approaches we used for estimating uncertainty will be compiled in an R package that is under development. We expect that these robust estimates of precipitation isoscape uncertainty can be applied in diagnosing the origin of samples ranging from various type of waters to migratory animals, food products, and humans.

  19. Simplified models for dark matter searches at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdallah, Jalal; Araujo, Henrique; Arbey, Alexandre; Ashkenazi, Adi; Belyaev, Alexander; Berger, Joshua; Boehm, Celine; Boveia, Antonio; Brennan, Amelia; Brooke, Jim; Buchmueller, Oliver; Buckley, Matthew; Busoni, Giorgio; Calibbi, Lorenzo; Chauhan, Sushil; Daci, Nadir; Davies, Gavin; De Bruyn, Isabelle; De Jong, Paul; De Roeck, Albert; de Vries, Kees; Del Re, Daniele; De Simone, Andrea; Di Simone, Andrea; Doglioni, Caterina; Dolan, Matthew; Dreiner, Herbi K.; Ellis, John; Eno, Sarah; Etzion, Erez; Fairbairn, Malcolm; Feldstein, Brian; Flaecher, Henning; Feng, Eric; Fox, Patrick; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gouskos, Loukas; Gramling, Johanna; Haisch, Ulrich; Harnik, Roni; Hibbs, Anthony; Hoh, Siewyan; Hopkins, Walter; Ippolito, Valerio; Jacques, Thomas; Kahlhoefer, Felix; Khoze, Valentin V.; Kirk, Russell; Korn, Andreas; Kotov, Khristian; Kunori, Shuichi; Landsberg, Greg; Liem, Sebastian; Lin, Tongyan; Lowette, Steven; Lucas, Robyn; Malgeri, Luca; Malik, Sarah; McCabe, Christopher; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Morgante, Enrico; Mrenna, Stephen; Nakahama, Yu; Newbold, Dave; Nordstrom, Karl; Pani, Priscilla; Papucci, Michele; Pataraia, Sophio; Penning, Bjoern; Pinna, Deborah; Polesello, Giacomo; Racco, Davide; Re, Emanuele; Riotto, Antonio Walter; Rizzo, Thomas; Salek, David; Sarkar, Subir; Schramm, Steven; Skubic, Patrick; Slone, Oren; Smirnov, Juri; Soreq, Yotam; Sumner, Timothy; Tait, Tim M. P.; Thomas, Marc; Tomalin, Ian; Tunnell, Christopher; Vichi, Alessandro; Volansky, Tomer; Weiner, Neal; West, Stephen M.; Wielers, Monika; Worm, Steven; Yavin, Itay; Zaldivar, Bryan; Zhou, Ning; Zurek, Kathryn

    2015-09-01

    This document a outlines a set of simplified models for dark matter and its interactions with Standard Model particles. It is intended to summarize the main characteristics that these simplified models have when applied to dark matter searches at the LHC, and to provide a number of useful expressions for reference. The list of models includes both s-channel and t-channel scenarios. For s-channel, spin-0 and spin-1 mediations are discussed, and also realizations where the Higgs particle provides a portal between the dark and visible sectors. The guiding principles underpinning the proposed simplified models are spelled out, and some suggestions for implementation are presented.

  20. Simplified Models for Dark Matter Searches at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, Jalal; Arbey, Alexandre; Ashkenazi, Adi; Belyaev, Alexander; Berger, Joshua; Boehm, Celine; Boveia, Antonio; Brennan, Amelia; Brooke, Jim; Buchmueller, Oliver; Buckley, Matthew; Busoni, Giorgio; Calibbi, Lorenzo; Chauhan, Sushil; Daci, Nadir; Davies, Gavin; De Bruyn, Isabelle; de Jong, Paul; De Roeck, Albert; de Vries, Kees; del Re, Daniele; De Simone, Andrea; Di Simone, Andrea; Doglioni, Caterina; Dolan, Matthew; Dreiner, Herbi K.; Ellis, John; Eno, Sarah; Etzion, Erez; Fairbairn, Malcolm; Feldstein, Brian; Flaecher, Henning; Feng, Eric; Fox, Patrick; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gouskos, Loukas; Gramling, Johanna; Haisch, Ulrich; Harnik, Roni; Hibbs, Anthony; Hoh, Siewyan; Hopkins, Walter; Ippolito, Valerio; Jacques, Thomas; Kahlhoefer, Felix; Khoze, Valentin V.; Kirk, Russell; Korn, Andreas; Kotov, Khristian; Kunori, Shuichi; Landsberg, Greg; Liem, Sebastian; Lin, Tongyan; Lowette, Steven; Lucas, Robyn; Malgeri, Luca; Malik, Sarah; McCabe, Christopher; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Morgante, Enrico; Mrenna, Stephen; Nakahama, Yu; Newbold, Dave; Nordstrom, Karl; Pani, Priscilla; Papucci, Michele; Pataraia, Sophio; Penning, Bjoern; Pinna, Deborah; Polesello, Giacomo; Racco, Davide; Re, Emanuele; Riotto, Antonio Walter; Rizzo, Thomas; Salek, David; Sarkar, Subir; Schramm, Steven; Skubic, Patrick; Slone, Oren; Smirnov, Juri; Soreq, Yotam; Sumner, Timothy; Tait, Tim M.P.; Thomas, Marc; Tomalin, Ian; Tunnell, Christopher; Vichi, Alessandro; Volansky, Tomer; Weiner, Neal; West, Stephen M.; Wielers, Monika; Worm, Steven; Yavin, Itay; Zaldivar, Bryan; Zhou, Ning; Zurek, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    This document outlines a set of simplified models for dark matter and its interactions with Standard Model particles. It is intended to summarize the main characteristics that these simplified models have when applied to dark matter searches at the LHC, and to provide a number of useful expressions for reference. The list of models includes both s-channel and t-channel scenarios. For s-channel, spin-0 and spin-1 mediation is discussed, and also realizations where the Higgs particle provides a portal between the dark and visible sectors. The guiding principles underpinning the proposed simplified models are spelled out, and some suggestions for implementation are presented.

  1. Analyzing large datasets with bootstrap penalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Kuangnan; Ma, Shuangge

    2017-03-01

    Data with a large p (number of covariates) and/or a large n (sample size) are now commonly encountered. For many problems, regularization especially penalization is adopted for estimation and variable selection. The straightforward application of penalization to large datasets demands a "big computer" with high computational power. To improve computational feasibility, we develop bootstrap penalization, which dissects a big penalized estimation into a set of small ones, which can be executed in a highly parallel manner and each only demands a "small computer". The proposed approach takes different strategies for data with different characteristics. For data with a large p but a small to moderate n, covariates are first clustered into relatively homogeneous blocks. The proposed approach consists of two sequential steps. In each step and for each bootstrap sample, we select blocks of covariates and run penalization. The results from multiple bootstrap samples are pooled to generate the final estimate. For data with a large n but a small to moderate p, we bootstrap a small number of subjects, apply penalized estimation, and then conduct a weighted average over multiple bootstrap samples. For data with a large p and a large n, the natural marriage of the previous two methods is applied. Numerical studies, including simulations and data analysis, show that the proposed approach has computational and numerical advantages over the straightforward application of penalization. An R package has been developed to implement the proposed methods. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Novel web service selection model based on discrete group search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Jie; Shao, Zhiqing; Guo, Yi; Zhang, Haiteng

    2014-01-01

    In our earlier work, we present a novel formal method for the semiautomatic verification of specifications and for describing web service composition components by using abstract concepts. After verification, the instantiations of components were selected to satisfy the complex service performance constraints. However, selecting an optimal instantiation, which comprises different candidate services for each generic service, from a large number of instantiations is difficult. Therefore, we present a new evolutionary approach on the basis of the discrete group search service (D-GSS) model. With regard to obtaining the optimal multiconstraint instantiation of the complex component, the D-GSS model has competitive performance compared with other service selection models in terms of accuracy, efficiency, and ability to solve high-dimensional service composition component problems. We propose the cost function and the discrete group search optimizer (D-GSO) algorithm and study the convergence of the D-GSS model through verification and test cases.

  3. In vivo precision of bootstrap algorithms applied to diffusion tensor imaging data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorburger, Robert S; Reischauer, Carolin; Dikaiou, Katerina; Boesiger, Peter

    2012-10-01

    To determine the precision for in vivo applications of model and non-model-based bootstrap algorithms for estimating the measurement uncertainty of diffusion parameters derived from diffusion tensor imaging data. Four different bootstrap methods were applied to diffusion datasets acquired during 10 repeated imaging sessions. Measurement uncertainty was derived in eight manually selected regions of interest and in the entire brain white matter and gray matter. The precision of the bootstrap methods was analyzed using coefficients of variation and intra-class correlation coefficients. Comprehensive simulations were performed to validate the results. All bootstrap algorithms showed similar precision which slightly varied in dependence of the selected region of interest. The averaged coefficient of variation in the selected regions of interest was 13.81%, 12.35%, and 17.93% with respect to the apparent diffusion coefficient, the fractional anisotropy value, and the cone of uncertainty, respectively. The repeated measurements showed a very high similarity with intraclass-correlation coefficients larger than 0.96. The simulations confirmed most of the in vivo findings. All investigated bootstrap methods perform with a similar, high precision in deriving the measurement uncertainty of diffusion parameters. Thus, the time-efficient model-based bootstrap approaches should be the method of choice in clinical practice. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Bootstrap-based methods for estimating standard errors in Cox's regression analyses of clustered event times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yongling; Abrahamowicz, Michal

    2010-03-30

    We propose two bootstrap-based methods to correct the standard errors (SEs) from Cox's model for within-cluster correlation of right-censored event times. The cluster-bootstrap method resamples, with replacement, only the clusters, whereas the two-step bootstrap method resamples (i) the clusters, and (ii) individuals within each selected cluster, with replacement. In simulations, we evaluate both methods and compare them with the existing robust variance estimator and the shared gamma frailty model, which are available in statistical software packages. We simulate clustered event time data, with latent cluster-level random effects, which are ignored in the conventional Cox's model. For cluster-level covariates, both proposed bootstrap methods yield accurate SEs, and type I error rates, and acceptable coverage rates, regardless of the true random effects distribution, and avoid serious variance under-estimation by conventional Cox-based standard errors. However, the two-step bootstrap method over-estimates the variance for individual-level covariates. We also apply the proposed bootstrap methods to obtain confidence bands around flexible estimates of time-dependent effects in a real-life analysis of cluster event times.

  5. High Mass Standard Model Higgs searches at the Tevatron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petridis Konstantinos A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of searches for the Standard Model Higgs boson decaying predominantly to W+W− pairs, at a center-of-mass energy of √s = 1.96 TeV, using up to 8.2 fb−1 of data collected with the CDF and D0 detectors at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. The analysis techniques and the various channels considered are discussed. These searches result in exclusions across the Higgs mass range of 156.5< mH <173.7 GeV for CDF and 161< mH <170 GeV for D0.

  6. Spatial capture-recapture models for search-encounter data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, J. Andrew; Kery, Marc; Guelat, Jerome

    2011-01-01

    1. Spatial capture–recapture models make use of auxiliary data on capture location to provide density estimates for animal populations. Previously, models have been developed primarily for fixed trap arrays which define the observable locations of individuals by a set of discrete points. 2. Here, we develop a class of models for 'search-encounter' data, i.e. for detections of recognizable individuals in continuous space, not restricted to trap locations. In our hierarchical model, detection probability is related to the average distance between individual location and the survey path. The locations are allowed to change over time owing to movements of individuals, and individual locations are related formally by a model describing individual activity or home range centre which is itself regarded as a latent variable in the model. We provide a Bayesian analysis of the model in WinBUGS, and develop a custom MCMC algorithm in the R language. 3. The model is applied to simulated data and to territory mapping data for the Willow Tit from the Swiss Breeding Bird Survey MHB. While the observed density was 15 territories per nominal 1 km2 plot of unknown effective sample area, the model produced a density estimate of 21∙12 territories per square km (95% posterior interval: 17–26). 4. Spatial capture–recapture models are relevant to virtually all animal population studies that seek to estimate population size or density, yet existing models have been proposed mainly for conventional sampling using arrays of traps. Our model for search-encounter data, where the spatial pattern of searching can be arbitrary and may change over occasions, greatly expands the scope and utility of spatial capture–recapture models.

  7. Standard Model Higgs boson searches with the ATLAS detector at ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    experimental results on the search of the Standard Model Higgs boson with 1 to 2 fb. −1 of proton– ... expectations from Standard Model processes, and the production of a Higgs boson is excluded at 95% Confidence Level for the mass ... lνlν and H → Z Z. (∗) → 4l,llνν as they play important roles in setting the overall result.

  8. Model Independent Search For New Physics At The Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudalakis, Georgios [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2008-04-01

    The Standard Model of elementary particles can not be the final theory. There are theoretical reasons to expect the appearance of new physics, possibly at the energy scale of few TeV. Several possible theories of new physics have been proposed, each with unknown probability to be confirmed. Instead of arbitrarily choosing to examine one of those theories, this thesis is about searching for any sign of new physics in a model-independent way. This search is performed at the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). The Standard Model prediction is implemented in all final states simultaneously, and an array of statistical probes is employed to search for significant discrepancies between data and prediction. The probes are sensitive to overall population discrepancies, shape disagreements in distributions of kinematic quantities of final particles, excesses of events of large total transverse momentum, and local excesses of data expected from resonances due to new massive particles. The result of this search, first in 1 fb-1 and then in 2 fb-1, is null, namely no considerable evidence of new physics was found.

  9. Necessary Condition for Emergent Symmetry from the Conformal Bootstrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Yu; Ohtsuki, Tomoki

    2016-09-23

    We use the conformal bootstrap program to derive the necessary conditions for emergent symmetry enhancement from discrete symmetry (e.g., Z_{n}) to continuous symmetry [e.g., U(1)] under the renormalization group flow. In three dimensions, in order for Z_{2} symmetry to be enhanced to U(1) symmetry, the conformal bootstrap program predicts that the scaling dimension of the order parameter field at the infrared conformal fixed point must satisfy Δ_{1}>1.08. We also obtain the similar necessary conditions for Z_{3} symmetry with Δ_{1}>0.580 and Z_{4} symmetry with Δ_{1}>0.504 from the simultaneous conformal bootstrap analysis of multiple four-point functions. As applications, we show that our necessary conditions impose severe constraints on the nature of the chiral phase transition in QCD, the deconfinement criticality in Néel valence bond solid transitions, and anisotropic deformations in critical O(n) models. We prove that some fixed points proposed in the literature are unstable under the perturbation that cannot be forbidden by the discrete symmetry. In these situations, the second-order phase transition with enhanced symmetry cannot happen.

  10. Visuospatial bootstrapping: implicit binding of verbal working memory to visuospatial representations in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Stephen; Parker, Mary-Jane; Goodall, Karen E; Havelka, Jelena; Allen, Richard J

    2014-03-01

    When participants carry out visually presented digit serial recall, their performance is better if they are given the opportunity to encode extra visuospatial information at encoding-a phenomenon that has been termed visuospatial bootstrapping. This bootstrapping is the result of integration of information from different modality-specific short-term memory systems and visuospatial knowledge in long term memory, and it can be understood in the context of recent models of working memory that address multimodal binding (e.g., models incorporating an episodic buffer). Here we report a cross-sectional developmental study that demonstrated visuospatial bootstrapping in adults (n=18) and 9-year-old children (n=15) but not in 6-year-old children (n=18). This is the first developmental study addressing visuospatial bootstrapping, and results demonstrate that the developmental trajectory of bootstrapping is different from that of basic verbal and visuospatial working memory. This pattern suggests that bootstrapping (and hence integrative functions such as those associated with the episodic buffer) emerge independent of the development of basic working memory slave systems during childhood. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Beyond the Standard Model Higgs searches at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Meridiani, P

    2015-01-01

    The Run I at the LHC marks the birth of the "Higgs physics", a path which will be followed at its full extent in the future runs of the LHC. Indeed there are two complementary paths to be followed to new physics in the Higgs sector: precision measurements of the Higgs properties (couplings, mass, spin and parity), where new physics can manifest as deviation from the Standard Model, or direct search for processes not foreseen in the Standard Model (Higgs decays not foreseen in the Standard Model, additional scalars which would indicate an extended Higgs sector). The current status of these studies at the LHC is presented, focussing in particular on the direct searches for rare or invisible Higgs decays or for an extended Higgs sector. The results are based on the analysis of the proton-proton collisions at 7 and 8 TeV center-of-mass energy at the LHC by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations.

  12. Semantic Models for Scalable Search in the Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Pfisterer

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things is anticipated to connect billions of embedded devices equipped with sensors to perceive their surroundings. Thereby, the state of the real world will be available online and in real-time and can be combined with other data and services in the Internet to realize novel applications such as Smart Cities, Smart Grids, or Smart Healthcare. This requires an open representation of sensor data and scalable search over data from diverse sources including sensors. In this paper we show how the Semantic Web technologies RDF (an open semantic data format and SPARQL (a query language for RDF-encoded data can be used to address those challenges. In particular, we describe how prediction models can be employed for scalable sensor search, how these prediction models can be encoded as RDF, and how the models can be queried by means of SPARQL.

  13. Conference on Bootstrapping and Related Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Rothe, Günter; Sendler, Wolfgang

    1992-01-01

    This book contains 30 selected, refereed papers from an in- ternational conference on bootstrapping and related techni- ques held in Trier 1990. Thepurpose of the book is to in- form about recent research in the area of bootstrap, jack- knife and Monte Carlo Tests. Addressing the novice and the expert it covers as well theoretical as practical aspects of these statistical techniques. Potential users in different disciplines as biometry, epidemiology, computer science, economics and sociology but also theoretical researchers s- hould consult the book to be informed on the state of the art in this area.

  14. Early Stop Criterion from the Bootstrap Ensemble

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Larsen, Jan; Fog, Torben L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of generalization error estimation in neural networks. A new early stop criterion based on a Bootstrap estimate of the generalization error is suggested. The estimate does not require the network to be trained to the minimum of the cost function, as required...... by other methods based on asymptotic theory. Moreover, in contrast to methods based on cross-validation which require data left out for testing, and thus biasing the estimate, the Bootstrap technique does not have this disadvantage. The potential of the suggested technique is demonstrated on various time...

  15. Bootstrapping Density-Weighted Average Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cattaneo, Matias D.; Crump, Richard K.; Jansson, Michael

    Employing the "small bandwidth" asymptotic framework of Cattaneo, Crump, and Jansson (2009), this paper studies the properties of a variety of bootstrap-based inference procedures associated with the kernel-based density-weighted averaged derivative estimator proposed by Powell, Stock, and Stoker...... (1989). In many cases validity of bootstrap-based inference procedures is found to depend crucially on whether the bandwidth sequence satisfies a particular (asymptotic linearity) condition. An exception to this rule occurs for inference procedures involving a studentized estimator employing a "robust...

  16. Bootstrap percolation: a renormalisation group approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branco, N.S.; Santos, Raimundo R. dos; Queiroz, S.L.A. de.

    1984-02-01

    In bootstrap percolation, sites are occupied at random with probability p, but each site is considered active only if at least m of its neighbours are also active. Within an approximate position-space renormalization group framework on a square lattice we obtain the behaviour of the critical concentration p (sub)c and of the critical exponents ν and β for m = 0 (ordinary percolation), 1,2 and 3. We find that the bootstrap percolation problem can be cast into different universality classes, characterized by the values of m. (author) [pt

  17. A Search Model with a Quasi-Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejarque, Joao Miguel

    This paper adds a quasi-network to a search model of the labor market. Fitting the model to an average unemployment rate and to other moments in the data implies the presence of the network is not noticeable in the basic properties of the unemployment and job finding rates. However, the network...... creates downward sloping reemployment hazards which the basic model does not, and under increasing network returns these hazards are significantly convex as we see in the data. Going into more detail we find that the network gets partially destroyed in periods of high unemployment and generates less job...

  18. Search for the Standard Model Higgs Boson at LEP

    CERN Document Server

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Schlatter, D.; Sguazzoni, G.; Tejessy, W.; Teubert, F.; Valassi, A.; Videau, I.; Ward, J.J.; Badaud, F.; Dessagne, S.; Falvard, A.; Fayolle, D.; Gay, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Pallin, D.; Pascolo, J.M.; Perret, P.; Hansen, J.D.; Hansen, J.R.; Hansen, P.H.; Nilsson, B.S.; Waananen, A.; Kyriakis, A.; Markou, C.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Blondel, A.; Brient, J.C.; Machefert, F.; Rouge, A.; Swynghedauw, M.; Tanaka, R.; Videau, H.; Ciulli, V.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Chiarella, V.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G.P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Spagnolo, P.; Kennedy, J.; Lynch, J.G.; Negus, P.; O'Shea, V.; Smith, D.; Thompson, A.S.; Wasserbaech, S.; Cavanaugh, R.; Dhamotharan, S.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E.E.; Leibenguth, G.; Putzer, A.; Stenzel, H.; Tittel, K.; Werner, S.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D.M.; 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Moch, M.; Monig, Klaus; Monge, R.; Montenegro, J.; Moraes, D.; Moreno, S.; Morettini, P.; Mueller, U.; Muenich, K.; Mulders, M.; Mundim, L.; Murray, W.; Muryn, B.; Myatt, G.; Myklebust, T.; Nassiakou, M.; Navarria, F.; Nawrocki, K.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nikolenko, M.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Olshevski, A.; Onofre, A.; Orava, R.; Osterberg, K.; Ouraou, A.; Oyanguren, A.; Paganoni, M.; Paiano, S.; Palacios, J.P.; Palka, H.; Papadopoulou, T.D.; Pape, L.; Parkes, C.; Parodi, F.; Parzefall, U.; Passeri, A.; Passon, O.; Peralta, L.; Perepelitsa, V.; Perrotta, A.; Petrolini, A.; Piedra, J.; Pieri, L.; Pierre, F.; Pimenta, M.; Piotto, E.; Podobnik, T.; Poireau, V.; Pol, M.E.; Polok, G.; Poropat, P.; Pozdniakov, V.; Pukhaeva, N.; Pullia, A.; Rames, J.; Ramler, L.; Read, Alexander L.; Rebecchi, P.; Rehn, J.; Reid, D.; Reinhardt, R.; Renton, P.; Richard, F.; Ridky, J.; Rivero, M.; Rodriguez, D.; Romero, A.; Ronchese, P.; Rosenberg, E.; Roudeau, P.; Rovelli, T.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Ryabtchikov, D.; 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Zimmermann, B.; Zoller, M.; Abbiendi, G.; Ainsley, C.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Amaral, P.; Anagnostou, G.; Anderson, K.J.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Bailey, I.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, R.J.; Batley, R.J.; Bechtle, P.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bell, P.J.; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Benelli, G.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Boeriu, O.; Bock, P.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Buesser, K.; Burckhart, H.J.; Campana, S.; Carnegie, R.K.; Caron, B.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Csilling, A.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Dallison, S.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Elfgren, E.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Feld, L.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Furtjes, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, John William; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giunta, Marina; Goldberg, J.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Gupta, A.; Hajdu, C.; Hamann, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Harin-Dirac, M.; Hauschild, M.; Hauschildt, J.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Hensel, C.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Homer, R.J.; Horvath, D.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jeremie, H.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanaya, N.; Kanzaki, J.; Karapetian, G.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kim, D.H.; Klein, K.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kormos, Laura L.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kramer, T.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Krop, D.; Kruger, K.; Kupper, M.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Layter, J.G.; Leins, A.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Lillich, J.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, J.; Macpherson, A.; Mader, W.; Marcellini, S.; Marchant, T.E.; Martin, A.J.; Masetti, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.J.; McKenna, J.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Mendez-Lorenzo, P.; Menges, W.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Moed, S.; Mohr, W.; Mori, T.; Mutter, A.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; ONeale, S.W.; Oh, A.; Okpara, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pahl, C.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poli, B.; Polok, J.; Pooth, O.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rabbertz, K.; Rembser, C.; Renkel, P.; Rick, H.; Roney, J.M.; Rosati, S.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sarkisyan, E.K.G.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spagnolo, S.; Spano, F.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Tarem, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Taylor, R.J.; Teuscher, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Toya, D.; Tran, P.; Trefzger, T.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Ujvari, B.; Vachon, B.; Vollmer, C.F.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Waller, D.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wetterling, D.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zer-Zion, D.; Zivkovic, Lidija; Heinemeyer, S.; Weiglein, G.

    2003-01-01

    The four LEP collaborations, ALEPH, DELPHI, L3 and OPAL, have collected a total of 2461 pb-1 of e+e- collision data at centre-of-mass energies between 189 and 209 GeV. The data are used to search for the Standard Model Higgs boson. The search results of the four collaborations are combined and examined in a likelihood test for their consistency with two hypotheses: the background hypothesis and the signal plus background hypothesis. The corresponding confidences have been computed as functions of the hypothetical Higgs boson mass. A lower bound of 114.4 GeV/c2 is established, at the 95% confidence level, on the mass of the Standard Model Higgs boson. The LEP data are also used to set upper bounds on the HZZ coupling for various assumptions concerning the decay of the Higgs boson.

  19. Searches for Neutral Higgs Bosons in Extended Models

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, J; Adam, W; Adzic, P; Albrecht, T; Alderweireld, T; Alemany-Fernandez, R; Allmendinger, T; Allport, P P; Amaldi, Ugo; Amapane, N; Amato, S; Anashkin, E; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Anjos, N; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Ask, S; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Ballestrero, A; Bambade, P; Barbier, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G J; Baroncelli, A; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Behrmann, A; Ben-Haim, E; Benekos, N C; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Berntzon, L; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Besson, N; Bloch, D; Blom, M; Bluj, M; Bonesini, M; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Botner, O; Bouquet, B; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bracko, M; Brenner, R; Brodet, E; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buschmann, P; Calvi, M; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Carena, F; Castro, N; Cavallo, F R; Chapkin, M M; Charpentier, P; Checchia, P; Chierici, R; Shlyapnikov, P; Chudoba, J; Chung, S U; Cieslik, K; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Costa, M J; Crennell, D J; Cuevas-Maestro, J; D'Hondt, J; Dalmau, J; Da Silva, T; Da Silva, W; Della Ricca, G; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Maria, N; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Di Ciaccio, L; Di Simone, A; Doroba, K; Drees, J; Dris, M; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Espirito-Santo, M C; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, M; Fernández, J; Ferrer, A; Ferro, F; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Gandelman, M; García, C; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Gonçalves, P; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Guy, J; Haag, C; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hamilton, K; Haug, S; Hauler, F; Hedberg, V; Hennecke, M; Herr, H; Hoffman, J; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Houlden, M A; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jeans, D; Johansson, E K; Johansson, P D; Jonsson, P; Joram, C; Jungermann, L; Kapusta, F; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Kernel, G; Kersevan, B P; Kerzel, U; Kiiskinen, A P; King, B T; Kjaer, N J; Kluit, P; Kokkinias, P; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krumshtein, Z; Kucharczyk, M; Lamsa, J; Leder, G; Ledroit, F; Leinonen, L; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liebig, W; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lopes, J H; López, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J; Malek, A; Maltezos, S; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Masik, J; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McNulty, R; Meroni, C; Migliore, E; Mitaroff, W A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Moch, M; Mönig, K; Monge, R; Montenegro, J; Moraes, D; Moreno, S; Morettini, P; Müller, U; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mundim, L; Murray, W; Muryn, B; Myatt, G; Myklebust, T; Nassiakou, M; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Nawrocki, K; Nicolaidou, R; Nikolenko, M; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, R; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Oyanguren, A; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Palacios, J P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Passon, O; Peralta, L; Perepelitsa, V F; Perrotta, A; Petrolini, A; Piedra, J; Pieri, L; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Poireau, V; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Pozdnyakov, V; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, A; Rames, J; Read, A; Rebecchi, P; Rehn, J; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rivero, M; Rodríguez, D; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Roudeau, P; Rovelli, T; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ryabtchikov, D; Sadovskii, A; Salmi, L; Salt, J; Sander, C; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schwickerath, U; Segar, A; Sekulin, R L; Siebel, M; Sissakian, A N; Smadja, G; Smirnova, O G; Sokolov, A; Sopczak, A; Sosnowski, R; Spassoff, Tz; Stanitzki, M; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Szumlak, T; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Taffard, A C; Tegenfeldt, F; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Tobin, M; Todorovova, S; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortosa, P; Travnicek, P; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trochimczuk, M; Troncon, C; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyapkin, P; Tzamarias, S; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; van Dam, P; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Van Remortel, N; Van Vulpen, I; Vegni, G; Veloso, F; Venus, W; Verdier, P; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Washbrook, A J; Weiser, C; Wicke, D; Wickens, J; Wilkinson, G; Winter, M; Witek, M; Yushchenko, O P; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, P; Zavrtanik, D; Zhuravlov, V; Zimin, N I; Zintchenko, A; Zupan, M

    2004-01-01

    Searches for neutral Higgs bosons produced at LEP in association with Z bosons, in pairs and in the Yukawa process are presented in this paper. Higgs boson decays into b quarks, tau leptons, or other Higgs bosons are considered, giving rise to four-b, four-b+jets, six-b and four-tau final states, as well as mixed modes with b quarks and tau leptons. The whole mass domain kinematically accessible at LEP in these topologies is searched. The analysed data set covers both the LEP1 and LEP2 energy ranges and exploits most of the luminosity recorded by the DELPHI experiment. No convincing evidence for a signal is found, and results are presented in the form of mass-dependent upper bounds on coupling factors (in units of model-independent reference cross-sections) for all processes, allowing interpretation of the data in a large class of models.

  20. The non-local bootstrap--estimation of uncertainty in diffusion MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Pew-Thian; An, Hongyu; Chen, Yasheng; Shen, Dinggang

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion MRI is a noninvasive imaging modality that allows for the estimation and visualization of white matter connectivity patterns in the human brain. However, due to the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) nature of diffusion data, deriving useful statistics from the data is adversely affected by different sources of measurement noise. This is aggravated by the fact that the sampling distribution of the statistic of interest is often complex and unknown. In situations as such, the bootstrap, due to its distribution-independent nature, is an appealing tool for the estimation of the variability of almost any statistic, without relying on complicated theoretical calculations, but purely on computer simulation. In this work, we present new bootstrap strategies for variability estimation of diffusion statistics in association with noise. In contrast to the residual bootstrap, which relies on a predetermined data model, or the repetition bootstrap, which requires repeated signal measurements, our approach, called the non-local bootstrap (NLB), is non-parametric and obviates the need for time-consuming multiple acquisitions. The key assumption of NLB is that local image structures recur in the image. We exploit this self-similarity via a multivariate non-parametric kernel regression framework for bootstrap estimation of uncertainty. Evaluation of NLB using a set of high-resolution diffusion-weighted images, with lower than usual SNR due to the small voxel size, indicates that NLB is markedly more robust to noise and results in more accurate inferences.

  1. How to Bootstrap a Human Communication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Nicolas; Arbib, Michael; Garrod, Simon

    2013-01-01

    How might a human communication system be bootstrapped in the absence of conventional language? We argue that motivated signs play an important role (i.e., signs that are linked to meaning by structural resemblance or by natural association). An experimental study is then reported in which participants try to communicate a range of pre-specified…

  2. A Bootstrap Procedure of Propensity Score Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Haiyan

    2013-01-01

    Propensity score estimation plays a fundamental role in propensity score matching for reducing group selection bias in observational data. To increase the accuracy of propensity score estimation, the author developed a bootstrap propensity score. The commonly used propensity score matching methods: nearest neighbor matching, caliper matching, and…

  3. Pulling Econometrics Students up by Their Bootstraps

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Although the concept of the sampling distribution is at the core of much of what we do in econometrics, it is a concept that is often difficult for students to grasp. The thought process behind bootstrapping provides a way for students to conceptualize the sampling distribution in a way that is intuitive and visual. However, teaching students to…

  4. Bootstrapping Kernel-Based Semiparametric Estimators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cattaneo, Matias D.; Jansson, Michael

    by accommodating a non-negligible bias. A noteworthy feature of the assumptions under which the result is obtained is that reliance on a commonly employed stochastic equicontinuity condition is avoided. The second main result shows that the bootstrap provides an automatic method of correcting for the bias even...... when it is non-negligible....

  5. Climate time series analysis classical statistical and bootstrap methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mudelsee, Manfred

    2010-01-01

    This book presents bootstrap resampling as a computationally intensive method able to meet the challenges posed by the complexities of analysing climate data. It shows how the bootstrap performs reliably in the most important statistical estimation techniques.

  6. Efficient generation of pronunciation dictionaries: human factors factors during bootstrapping

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davel, MH

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Bootstrapping techniques have significant potential for the efficient generation of linguistic resources such as electronic pronunciation dictionaries. The authors describe a system and an approach to bootstrapping for the development...

  7. Bootstrapping Relational Affordances of Object Pairs using Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fichtl, Severin; Kraft, Dirk; Krüger, Norbert

    2018-01-01

    leverage past knowledge to accelerate current learning (which we call bootstrapping). We learn Random Forest based affordance predictors from visual inputs and demonstrate two approaches to knowledge transfer for bootstrapping. In the first approach (direct bootstrapping), the state-space for a new...

  8. Higher Order Bootstrap likelihood | Ogbonmwam | Journal of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, higher order optimal window width is used to generate bootstrap kernel density likelihood. A simulated study is conducted to compare the distributions of the higher order bootstrap likelihoods with the exact (empirical) bootstrap likelihood. Our results indicate that the optimal window width of orders 2 and 4 ...

  9. The use of the bootstrap in the analysis of case-control studies with missing data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Johansen, Christoffer

    2004-01-01

    nonparametric bootstrap, bootstrap confidence intervals, missing values, multiple imputation, matched case-control study......nonparametric bootstrap, bootstrap confidence intervals, missing values, multiple imputation, matched case-control study...

  10. In Search of Optimal Cognitive Diagnostic Model(s) for ESL Grammar Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yeon-Sook

    2017-01-01

    This study compares five cognitive diagnostic models in search of optimal one(s) for English as a Second Language grammar test data. Using a unified modeling framework that can represent specific models with proper constraints, the article first fit the full model (the log-linear cognitive diagnostic model, LCDM) and investigated which model…

  11. Assessing the uncertainty in QUANTEC's dose-response relation of lung and spinal cord with a bootstrap analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedenberg, Minna

    2013-11-15

    To apply a statistical bootstrap analysis to assess the uncertainty in the dose-response relation for the endpoints pneumonitis and myelopathy reported in the QUANTEC review. The bootstrap method assesses the uncertainty of the estimated population-based dose-response relation due to sample variability, which reflects the uncertainty due to limited numbers of patients in the studies. A large number of bootstrap replicates of the original incidence data were produced by random sampling with replacement. The analysis requires only the dose, the number of patients, and the number of occurrences of the studied endpoint, for each study. Two dose-response models, a Poisson-based model and the Lyman model, were fitted to each bootstrap replicate using maximum likelihood. The bootstrap analysis generates a family of curves representing the range of plausible dose-response relations, and the 95% bootstrap confidence intervals give an estimated upper and lower toxicity risk. The curve families for the 2 dose-response models overlap for doses included in the studies at hand but diverge beyond that, with the Lyman model suggesting a steeper slope. The resulting distributions of the model parameters indicate correlation and non-Gaussian distribution. For both data sets, the likelihood of the observed data was higher for the Lyman model in >90% of the bootstrap replicates. The bootstrap method provides a statistical analysis of the uncertainty in the estimated dose-response relation for myelopathy and pneumonitis. It suggests likely values of model parameter values, their confidence intervals, and how they interrelate for each model. Finally, it can be used to evaluate to what extent data supports one model over another. For both data sets considered here, the Lyman model was preferred over the Poisson-based model. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The cluster bootstrap consistency in generalized estimating equations

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Guang

    2013-03-01

    The cluster bootstrap resamples clusters or subjects instead of individual observations in order to preserve the dependence within each cluster or subject. In this paper, we provide a theoretical justification of using the cluster bootstrap for the inferences of the generalized estimating equations (GEE) for clustered/longitudinal data. Under the general exchangeable bootstrap weights, we show that the cluster bootstrap yields a consistent approximation of the distribution of the regression estimate, and a consistent approximation of the confidence sets. We also show that a computationally more efficient one-step version of the cluster bootstrap provides asymptotically equivalent inference. © 2012.

  13. In Search Of The Standard Model Higgs Boson

    CERN Document Server

    http://inspirehep.net/record/666184/files/fermilab-thesis-2004-35.PDF, R

    2002-01-01

    A search for the Standard Model Higgs boson is conducted using data from the L3 detector at CERN's LEP collider during the year 2000. The integrated luminosity collected was 217.4 pb−1 of electron-positron collisions at center-of-mass energies from 200 to 209 GeV. Presented here is a search for e+ e− → hZ, where the Higgs decays into b quarks and the Z boson decays into undetected neutrinos. Also presented are combined results from the other L3 channels. The L3 combined results are consistent with the Standard Model background. Preliminary results from the LEP-wide combination are also shown. The lower limit on the Standard Model Higgs mass is found to be mh>114.1GeV at95%C.L. In the LEP combination, an excess of data events is observed near mh ∼ 115.6 GeV. Whether this is due to a statistical fluctuation or to Higgs production cannot be determined from the available set of data.

  14. Search for the Standard Model Higgs Boson at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2002-01-01

    The four LEP collaborations, ALEPH, DELPHI, L3 and OPAL, have collected 2465 pb-1 of e+e- collision data at energies between 189 and 209 GeV, of which 542 pb-1 were collected above 206 GeV. Searches for the Standard Model Higgs boson have been performed by each of the LEP collaborations. Their data have been combined and examined for their consistency with the Standard Model background and various Standard Model Higgs boson mass hypotheses. A lower bound of 114.1 GeV has been obtained at the 95% confidence level for the mass of the Higgs boson. The likelihood analysis shows a preference for a Higgs boson with a mass of 115.6 GeV. At this mass, the probability for the background to generate the observed effect is 3.5%.

  15. Interpretation of searches for supersymmetry with simplified models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Aguilo, E.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Pernicka, M.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, C.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C. -E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Bansal, M.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Luyckx, S.; Mucibello, L.; Ochesanu, S.; Roland, B.; Rougny, R.; Selvaggi, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D’Hondt, J.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dero, V.; Gay, A. P. R.; Hreus, T.; Léonard, A.; Marage, P. E.; Mohammadi, A.; Reis, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Garcia, G.; Grunewald, M.; Klein, B.; Lellouch, J.; Marinov, A.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Ryckbosch, D.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Walsh, S.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Ceard, L.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Lemaitre, V.; Liao, J.; Militaru, O.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Alves, G. A.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Martins, T.; Pol, M. E.; Souza, M. H. G.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Carvalho, W.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Malbouisson, H.; Malek, M.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Soares Jorge, L.; Sznajder, A.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Anjos, T. S.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dias, F. A.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Lagana, C.; Marinho, F.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Tcholakov, V.; Trayanov, R.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Jiang, C. H.; Liang, D.; Liang, S.; Meng, X.; Tao, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Xiao, H.; Xu, M.; Zang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Guo, Y.; Li, W.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Teng, H.; Wang, D.; Zhang, L.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Osorio Oliveros, A. F.; Sanabria, J. 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A.; Sonnenschein, L.; Steggemann, J.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Weber, M.; Bontenackels, M.; Cherepanov, V.; Erdogan, Y.; Flügge, G.; Geenen, H.; Geisler, M.; Haj Ahmad, W.; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Kuessel, Y.; Lingemann, J.; Nowack, A.; Perchalla, L.; Pooth, O.; Sauerland, P.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Behr, J.; Behrenhoff, W.; Behrens, U.; Bergholz, M.; Bethani, A.; Borras, K.; Burgmeier, A.; Cakir, A.; Calligaris, L.; Campbell, A.; Castro, E.; Costanza, F.; Dammann, D.; Diez Pardos, C.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Flucke, G.; Geiser, A.; Glushkov, I.; Gunnellini, P.; Habib, S.; Hauk, J.; Hellwig, G.; Jung, H.; Kasemann, M.; Katsas, P.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, H.; Knutsson, A.; Krämer, M.; Krücker, D.; Kuznetsova, E.; Lange, W.; Leonard, J.; Lohmann, W.; Lutz, B.; Mankel, R.; Marfin, I.; Marienfeld, M.; Melzer-Pellmann, I. -A.; Meyer, A. 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R.; Lobelle Pardo, P.; Martschei, D.; Mueller, S.; Müller, Th.; Niegel, M.; Nürnberg, A.; Oberst, O.; Oehler, A.; Ott, J.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Ratnikov, F.; Ratnikova, N.; Röcker, S.; Schilling, F. -P.; Schott, G.; Simonis, H. J.; Stober, F. M.; Troendle, D.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wayand, S.; Weiler, T.; Zeise, M.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Kesisoglou, S.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Manolakos, I.; Markou, A.; Markou, C.; Ntomari, E.; Gouskos, L.; Mertzimekis, T. J.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Evangelou, I.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Patras, V.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Hidas, P.; Horvath, D.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Molnar, J.; Palinkas, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Karancsi, J.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Dhingra, N.; Gupta, R.; Kaur, M.; Mehta, M. Z.; Nishu, N.; Saini, L. K.; Sharma, A.; Singh, J. B.; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, S.; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Ranjan, K.; Sharma, V.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Banerjee, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Dutta, S.; Gomber, B.; Jain, Sa.; Jain, Sh.; Khurana, R.; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Abdulsalam, A.; Dutta, D.; Kailas, S.; Kumar, V.; Mohanty, A. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Aziz, T.; Ganguly, S.; Guchait, M.; Gurtu, A.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Mohanty, G. B.; Parida, B.; Sudhakar, K.; Wickramage, N.; Banerjee, S.; Dugad, S.; Arfaei, H.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Etesami, S. M.; Fahim, A.; Hashemi, M.; Hesari, H.; Jafari, A.; Khakzad, M.; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M.; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S.; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Barbone, L.; Calabria, C.; Chhibra, S. S.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Marangelli, B.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pacifico, N.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Singh, G.; Venditti, R.; Verwilligen, P.; Zito, G.; Abbiendi, G.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Meneghelli, M.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Odorici, F.; Perrotta, A.; Primavera, F.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. 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T.; Pazzini, J.; Pozzobon, N.; Ronchese, P.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Tosi, M.; Triossi, A.; Vanini, S.; Zotto, P.; Zucchetta, A.; Zumerle, G.; Gabusi, M.; Ratti, S. P.; Riccardi, C.; Torre, P.; Vitulo, P.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G. M.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Mantovani, G.; Menichelli, M.; Nappi, A.; Romeo, F.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Spiezia, A.; Taroni, S.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Bernardini, J.; Boccali, T.; Broccolo, G.; Castaldi, R.; D’Agnolo, R. T.; Dell’Orso, R.; Fiori, F.; Foà, L.; Giassi, A.; Kraan, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Serban, A. T.; Spagnolo, P.; Squillacioti, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. 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S.; Kwon, E.; Lee, B.; Lee, J.; Lee, S.; Seo, H.; Yu, I.; Bilinskas, M. J.; Grigelionis, I.; Janulis, M.; Juodagalvis, A.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Heredia-de La Cruz, I.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Martínez-Ortega, J.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Villasenor-Cendejas, L. M.; Carrillo Moreno, S.; Vazquez Valencia, F.; Salazar Ibarguen, H. A.; Casimiro Linares, E.; Morelos Pineda, A.; Reyes-Santos, M. A.; Krofcheck, D.; Bell, A. J.; Butler, P. H.; Doesburg, R.; Reucroft, S.; Silverwood, H.; Ahmad, M.; Asghar, M. I.; Butt, J.; Hoorani, H. R.; Khalid, S.; Khan, W. A.; Khurshid, T.; Qazi, S.; Shah, M. A.; Shoaib, M.; Bialkowska, H.; Boimska, B.; Frueboes, T.; Górski, M.; Kazana, M.; Nawrocki, K.; Romanowska-Rybinska, K.; Szleper, M.; Wrochna, G.; Zalewski, P.; Brona, G.; Bunkowski, K.; Cwiok, M.; Dominik, W.; Doroba, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Konecki, M.; Krolikowski, J.; Misiura, M.; Almeida, N.; Bargassa, P.; David, A.; Faccioli, P.; Ferreira Parracho, P. 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V.; Vinogradov, A.; Azhgirey, I.; Bayshev, I.; Bitioukov, S.; Grishin, V.; Kachanov, V.; Konstantinov, D.; Krychkine, V.; Petrov, V.; Ryutin, R.; Sobol, A.; Tourtchanovitch, L.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Uzunian, A.; Volkov, A.; Adzic, P.; Djordjevic, M.; Ekmedzic, M.; Krpic, D.; Milosevic, J.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz Maestre, J.; Arce, P.; Battilana, C.; Calvo, E.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo Llatas, M.; Colino, N.; De La Cruz, B.; Delgado Peris, A.; Domínguez Vázquez, D.; Fernandez Bedoya, C.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Ferrando, A.; Flix, J.; Fouz, M. C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gonzalez Lopez, O.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hernandez, J. M.; Josa, M. I.; Merino, G.; Puerta Pelayo, J.; Quintario Olmeda, A.; Redondo, I.; Romero, L.; Santaolalla, J.; Soares, M. S.; Willmott, C.; Albajar, C.; Codispoti, G.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Brun, H.; Cuevas, J.; Fernandez Menendez, J.; Folgueras, S.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; Lloret Iglesias, L.; Piedra Gomez, J.; Brochero Cifuentes, J. A.; Cabrillo, I. 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A.; D’Enterria, D.; Dabrowski, A.; De Roeck, A.; Di Guida, S.; Dobson, M.; Dupont-Sagorin, N.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Frisch, B.; Funk, W.; Georgiou, G.; Giffels, M.; Gigi, D.; Gill, K.; Giordano, D.; Girone, M.; Giunta, M.; Glege, F.; Gomez-Reino Garrido, R.; Govoni, P.; Gowdy, S.; Guida, R.; Gundacker, S.; Hammer, J.; Hansen, M.; Harris, P.; Hartl, C.; Harvey, J.; Hegner, B.; Hinzmann, A.; Innocente, V.; Janot, P.; Kaadze, K.; Karavakis, E.; Kousouris, K.; Lecoq, P.; Lee, Y. -J.; Lenzi, P.; Lourenço, C.; Magini, N.; Mäki, T.; Malberti, M.; Malgeri, L.; Mannelli, M.; Masetti, L.; Meijers, F.; Mersi, S.; Meschi, E.; Moser, R.; Mozer, M. U.; Mulders, M.; Musella, P.; Nesvold, E.; Orsini, L.; Palencia Cortezon, E.; Perez, E.; Perrozzi, L.; Petrilli, A.; Pfeiffer, A.; Pierini, M.; Pimiä, M.; Piparo, D.; Polese, G.; Quertenmont, L.; Racz, A.; Reece, W.; Rodrigues Antunes, J.; Rolandi, G.; Rovelli, C.; Rovere, M.; Sakulin, H.; Santanastasio, F.; Schäfer, C.; Schwick, C.; Segoni, I.; Sekmen, S.; Sharma, A.; Siegrist, P.; Silva, P.; Simon, M.; Sphicas, P.; Spiga, D.; Tsirou, A.; Veres, G. I.; Vlimant, J. R.; Wöhri, H. K.; Worm, S. D.; Zeuner, W. D.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Gabathuler, K.; Horisberger, R.; Ingram, Q.; Kaestli, H. C.; König, S.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Meier, F.; Renker, D.; Rohe, T.; Bäni, L.; Bortignon, P.; Buchmann, M. A.; Casal, B.; Chanon, N.; Deisher, A.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Donegà, M.; Dünser, M.; Eller, P.; Eugster, J.; Freudenreich, K.; Grab, C.; Hits, D.; Lecomte, P.; Lustermann, W.; Marini, A. C.; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, P.; Mohr, N.; Moortgat, F.; Nägeli, C.; Nef, P.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pandolfi, F.; Pape, L.; Pauss, F.; Peruzzi, M.; Ronga, F. J.; Rossini, M.; Sala, L.; Sanchez, A. K.; Starodumov, A.; Stieger, B.; Takahashi, M.; Tauscher, L.; Thea, A.; Theofilatos, K.; Treille, D.; Urscheler, C.; Wallny, R.; Weber, H. A.; Wehrli, L.; Amsler, C.; Chiochia, V.; De Visscher, S.; Favaro, C.; Ivova Rikova, M.; Kilminster, B.; Millan Mejias, B.; Otiougova, P.; Robmann, P.; Snoek, H.; Tupputi, S.; Verzetti, M.; Chang, Y. H.; Chen, K. H.; Ferro, C.; Kuo, C. M.; Li, S. W.; Lin, W.; Lu, Y. J.; Singh, A. P.; Volpe, R.; Yu, S. S.; Bartalini, P.; Chang, P.; Chang, Y. H.; Chang, Y. W.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. F.; Dietz, C.; Grundler, U.; Hou, W. -S.; Hsiung, Y.; Kao, K. Y.; Lei, Y. J.; Lu, R. -S.; Majumder, D.; Petrakou, E.; Shi, X.; Shiu, J. G.; Tzeng, Y. M.; Wan, X.; Wang, M.; Asavapibhop, B.; Srimanobhas, N.; Adiguzel, A.; Bakirci, M. N.; Cerci, S.; Dozen, C.; Dumanoglu, I.; Eskut, E.; Girgis, S.; Gokbulut, G.; Gurpinar, E.; Hos, I.; Kangal, E. E.; Karaman, T.; Karapinar, G.; Kayis Topaksu, A.; Onengut, G.; Ozdemir, K.; Ozturk, S.; Polatoz, A.; Sogut, K.; Sunar Cerci, D.; Tali, B.; Topakli, H.; Vergili, L. N.; Vergili, M.; Akin, I. V.; Aliev, T.; Bilin, B.; Bilmis, S.; Deniz, M.; Gamsizkan, H.; Guler, A. M.; Ocalan, K.; Ozpineci, A.; Serin, M.; Sever, R.; Surat, U. E.; Yalvac, M.; Yildirim, E.; Zeyrek, M.; Gülmez, E.; Isildak, B.; Kaya, M.; Kaya, O.; Ozkorucuklu, S.; Sonmez, N.; Cankocak, K.; Levchuk, L.; Brooke, J. J.; Clement, E.; Cussans, D.; Flacher, H.; Frazier, R.; Goldstein, J.; Grimes, M.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Kreczko, L.; Metson, S.; Newbold, D. M.; Nirunpong, K.; Poll, A.; Senkin, S.; Smith, V. J.; Williams, T.; Basso, L.; Bell, K. W.; Belyaev, A.; Brew, C.; Brown, R. M.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Coughlan, J. A.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Jackson, J.; Kennedy, B. W.; Olaiya, E.; Petyt, D.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Tomalin, I. R.; Womersley, W. J.; Bainbridge, R.; Ball, G.; Beuselinck, R.; Buchmuller, O.; Colling, D.; Cripps, N.; Cutajar, M.; Dauncey, P.; Davies, G.; Della Negra, M.; Ferguson, W.; Fulcher, J.; Futyan, D.; Gilbert, A.; Guneratne Bryer, A.; Hall, G.; Hatherell, Z.; Hays, J.; Iles, G.; Jarvis, M.; Karapostoli, G.; Lyons, L.; Magnan, A. -M.; Marrouche, J.; Mathias, B.; Nandi, R.; Nash, J.; Nikitenko, A.; Pela, J.; Pesaresi, M.; Petridis, K.; Pioppi, M.; Raymond, D. M.; Rogerson, S.; Rose, A.; Ryan, M. J.; Seez, C.; Sharp, P.; Sparrow, A.; Stoye, M.; Tapper, A.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Virdee, T.; Wakefield, S.; Wardle, N.; Whyntie, T.; Chadwick, M.; Cole, J. E.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Leggat, D.; Leslie, D.; Martin, W.; Reid, I. D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Hatakeyama, K.; Liu, H.; Scarborough, T.; Charaf, O.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Fantasia, C.; Heister, A.; St. John, J.; Lawson, P.; Lazic, D.; Rohlf, J.; Sperka, D.; Sulak, L.; Alimena, J.; Bhattacharya, S.; Christopher, G.; Cutts, D.; Demiragli, Z.; Ferapontov, A.; Garabedian, A.; Heintz, U.; Jabeen, S.; Kukartsev, G.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Luk, M.; Narain, M.; Nguyen, D.; Segala, M.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Speer, T.; Breedon, R.; Breto, G.; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M.; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Dolen, J.; Erbacher, R.; Gardner, M.; Houtz, R.; Ko, W.; Kopecky, A.; Lander, R.; Mall, O.; Miceli, T.; Pellett, D.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Rutherford, B.; Searle, M.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Tripathi, M.; Vasquez Sierra, R.; Yohay, R.; Andreev, V.; Cline, D.; Cousins, R.; Duris, J.; Erhan, S.; Everaerts, P.; Farrell, C.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Jarvis, C.; Rakness, G.; Schlein, P.; Traczyk, P.; Valuev, V.; Weber, M.; Babb, J.; Clare, R.; Dinardo, M. E.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Giordano, F.; Hanson, G.; Liu, H.; Long, O. R.; Luthra, A.; Nguyen, H.; Paramesvaran, S.; Sturdy, J.; Sumowidagdo, S.; Wilken, R.; Wimpenny, S.; Andrews, W.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; Evans, D.; Holzner, A.; Kelley, R.; Lebourgeois, M.; Letts, J.; Macneill, I.; Mangano, B.; Padhi, S.; Palmer, C.; Petrucciani, G.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Sudano, E.; Tadel, M.; Tu, Y.; Vartak, A.; Wasserbaech, S.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Yoo, J.; Barge, D.; Bellan, R.; Campagnari, C.; D’Alfonso, M.; Danielson, T.; Flowers, K.; Geffert, P.; Golf, F.; Incandela, J.; Justus, C.; Kalavase, P.; Kovalskyi, D.; Krutelyov, V.; Lowette, S.; Magaña Villalba, R.; Mccoll, N.; Pavlunin, V.; Ribnik, J.; Richman, J.; Rossin, R.; Stuart, D.; To, W.; West, C.; Apresyan, A.; Bornheim, A.; Chen, Y.; Di Marco, E.; Duarte, J.; Gataullin, M.; Ma, Y.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Rogan, C.; Spiropulu, M.; Timciuc, V.; Veverka, J.; Wilkinson, R.; Xie, S.; Yang, Y.; Zhu, R. Y.; Azzolini, V.; Calamba, A.; Carroll, R.; Ferguson, T.; Iiyama, Y.; Jang, D. W.; Liu, Y. F.; Paulini, M.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Cumalat, J. P.; Drell, B. R.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Luiggi Lopez, E.; Smith, J. G.; Stenson, K.; Ulmer, K. A.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Eggert, N.; Gibbons, L. K.; Heltsley, B.; Hopkins, W.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Kreis, B.; Mirman, N.; Nicolas Kaufman, G.; Patterson, J. R.; Ryd, A.; Salvati, E.; Sun, W.; Teo, W. D.; Thom, J.; Thompson, J.; Tucker, J.; Vaughan, J.; Weng, Y.; Winstrom, L.; Wittich, P.; Winn, D.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Anderson, J.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Chetluru, V.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gao, Y.; Green, D.; Gutsche, O.; Hanlon, J.; Harris, R. M.; Hirschauer, J.; Hooberman, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Klima, B.; Kunori, S.; Kwan, S.; Leonidopoulos, C.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Mishra, K.; Mrenna, S.; Musienko, Y.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O’Dell, V.; Prokofyev, O.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Sharma, S.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vidal, R.; Whitmore, J.; Wu, W.; Yang, F.; Yun, J. C.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Das, S.; De Gruttola, M.; Di Giovanni, G. P.; Dobur, D.; Drozdetskiy, A.; Field, R. D.; Fisher, M.; Fu, Y.; Furic, I. K.; Gartner, J.; Hugon, J.; Kim, B.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kypreos, T.; Low, J. F.; Matchev, K.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Muniz, L.; Park, M.; Remington, R.; Rinkevicius, A.; Sellers, P.; Skhirtladze, N.; Snowball, M.; Yelton, J.; Zakaria, M.; Gaultney, V.; Hewamanage, S.; Lebolo, L. M.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bochenek, J.; Chen, J.; Diamond, B.; Gleyzer, S. V.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Jenkins, M.; Johnson, K. F.; Prosper, H.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Dorney, B.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Vodopiyanov, I.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Anghel, I. M.; Apanasevich, L.; Bai, Y.; Bazterra, V. E.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Callner, J.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Khalatyan, S.; Lacroix, F.; O’Brien, C.; Silkworth, C.; Strom, D.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Akgun, U.; Albayrak, E. A.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Duru, F.; Griffiths, S.; Merlo, J. -P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Newsom, C. R.; Norbeck, E.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Sen, S.; Tan, P.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yetkin, T.; Yi, K.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bolognesi, S.; Fehling, D.; Giurgiu, G.; Gritsan, A. V.; Guo, Z. J.; Hu, G.; Maksimovic, P.; Swartz, M.; Whitbeck, A.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Kenny, R. P.; Murray, M.; Noonan, D.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Tinti, G.; Wood, J. S.; Barfuss, A. F.; Bolton, T.; Chakaberia, I.; Ivanov, A.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Shrestha, S.; Svintradze, I.; Gronberg, J.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Baden, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kirn, M.; Kolberg, T.; Lu, Y.; Marionneau, M.; Mignerey, A. C.; Pedro, K.; Skuja, A.; Temple, J.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Bauer, G.; Bendavid, J.; Busza, W.; Butz, E.; Cali, I. A.; Chan, M.; Dutta, V.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Kim, Y.; Klute, M.; Krajczar, K.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Ma, T.; Nahn, S.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rudolph, M.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stöckli, F.; Sumorok, K.; Sung, K.; Velicanu, D.; Wenger, E. A.; Wolf, R.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Yilmaz, Y.; Yoon, A. S.; Zanetti, M.; Zhukova, V.; Cooper, S. I.; Dahmes, B.; De Benedetti, A.; Franzoni, G.; Gude, A.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Mans, J.; Pastika, N.; Rusack, R.; Sasseville, M.; Singovsky, A.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Kroeger, R.; Perera, L.; Rahmat, R.; Sanders, D. A.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Eads, M.; Keller, J.; Kravchenko, I.; Lazo-Flores, J.; Malik, S.; Snow, G. R.; Godshalk, A.; Iashvili, I.; Jain, S.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Haley, J.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Trocino, D.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Anastassov, A.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Lusito, L.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Ofierzynski, R. A.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Velasco, M.; Won, S.; Antonelli, L.; Berry, D.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Chan, K. M.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kolb, J.; Lannon, K.; Luo, W.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Morse, D. M.; Pearson, T.; Planer, M.; Ruchti, R.; Slaunwhite, J.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Vuosalo, C.; Williams, G.; Winer, B. L.; Berry, E.; Elmer, P.; Halyo, V.; Hebda, P.; Hegeman, J.; Hunt, A.; Jindal, P.; Koay, S. A.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Piroué, P.; Quan, X.; Raval, A.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Werner, J. S.; Zuranski, A.; Brownson, E.; Lopez, A.; Mendez, H.; Ramirez Vargas, J. E.; Alagoz, E.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bolla, G.; Bortoletto, D.; De Mattia, M.; Everett, A.; Hu, Z.; Jones, M.; Koybasi, O.; Kress, M.; Laasanen, A. T.; Leonardo, N.; Maroussov, V.; Merkel, P.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Vidal Marono, M.; Yoo, H. D.; Zablocki, J.; Zheng, Y.; Guragain, S.; Parashar, N.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Boulahouache, C.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Li, W.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; Chung, Y. S.; Covarelli, R.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Miner, D. C.; Vishnevskiy, D.; Zielinski, M.; Bhatti, A.; Ciesielski, R.; Demortier, L.; Goulianos, K.; Lungu, G.; Malik, S.; Mesropian, C.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Lath, A.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Patel, R.; Rekovic, V.; Robles, J.; Rose, K.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Seitz, C.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Walker, M.; Cerizza, G.; Hollingsworth, M.; Spanier, S.; Yang, Z. C.; York, A.; Eusebi, R.; Flanagan, W.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Khotilovich, V.; Montalvo, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Perloff, A.; Roe, J.; Safonov, A.; Sakuma, T.; Sengupta, S.; Suarez, I.; Tatarinov, A.; Toback, D.; Akchurin, N.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Jeong, C.; Kovitanggoon, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Florez, C.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Johns, W.; Kurt, P.; Maguire, C.; Melo, A.; Sharma, M.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Arenton, M. W.; Balazs, M.; Boutle, S.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Wood, J.; Gollapinni, S.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sakharov, A.; Anderson, M.; Belknap, D. A.; Borrello, L.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Friis, E.; Gray, L.; Grogg, K. S.; Grothe, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Klukas, J.; Lanaro, A.; Lazaridis, C.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Palmonari, F.; Pierro, G. A.; Ross, I.; Savin, A.; Smith, W. H.; Swanson, J.

    2013-09-01

    The results of searches for supersymmetry by the CMS experiment are interpreted in the framework of simplified models. The results are based on data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.73 to 4.98 inverse femtobarns. The data were collected at the LHC in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. This paper describes the method of interpretation and provides upper limits on the product of the production cross section and branching fraction as a function of new particle masses for a number of simplified models. These limits and the corresponding experimental acceptance calculations can be used to constrain other theoretical models and to compare different supersymmetry-inspired analyses.

  16. The $(2,0)$ superconformal bootstrap

    CERN Document Server

    Beem, Christopher; Rastelli, Leonardo; van Rees, Balt C

    2016-01-01

    We develop the conformal bootstrap program for six-dimensional conformal field theories with $(2,0)$ supersymmetry, focusing on the universal four-point function of stress tensor multiplets. We review the solution of the superconformal Ward identities and describe the superconformal block decomposition of this correlator. We apply numerical bootstrap techniques to derive bounds on OPE coefficients and scaling dimensions from the constraints of crossing symmetry and unitarity. We also derive analytic results for the large spin spectrum using the lightcone expansion of the crossing equation. Our principal result is strong evidence that the $A_1$ theory realizes the minimal allowed central charge $(c=25)$ for any interacting $(2,0)$ theory. This implies that the full stress tensor four-point function of the $A_1$ theory is the unique unitary solution to the crossing symmetry equation at $c=25$. For this theory, we estimate the scaling dimensions of the lightest unprotected operators appearing in the stress tenso...

  17. Heptagons from the Steinmann cluster bootstrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Lance J.; McLeod, Andrew J. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). SLAC National Accelerator Lab.; Drummond, James [Southampton Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Harrington, Thomas; Spradlin, Marcus [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Papathanasiou, Georgios [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Stanford Univ., CA (United States). SLAC National Accelerator Lab.

    2016-12-15

    We reformulate the heptagon cluster bootstrap to take advantage of the Steinmann relations, which require certain double discontinuities of any amplitude to vanish. These constraints vastly reduce the number of functions needed to bootstrap seven-point amplitudes in planar N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory, making higher-loop contributions to these amplitudes more computationally accessible. In particular, dual superconformal symmetry and well-defined collinear limits suffice to determine uniquely the symbols of the three-loop NMHV and four-loop MHV seven-point amplitudes. We also show that at three loops, relaxing the dual superconformal (anti Q) relations and imposing dihedral symmetry (and for NMHV the absence of spurious poles) leaves only a single ambiguity in the heptagon amplitudes. These results point to a strong tension between the collinear properties of the amplitudes and the Steinmann relations.

  18. Heptagons from the Steinmann cluster bootstrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, Lance J.; McLeod, Andrew J.; Drummond, James; Harrington, Thomas; Spradlin, Marcus; Papathanasiou, Georgios; Stanford Univ., CA

    2016-12-01

    We reformulate the heptagon cluster bootstrap to take advantage of the Steinmann relations, which require certain double discontinuities of any amplitude to vanish. These constraints vastly reduce the number of functions needed to bootstrap seven-point amplitudes in planar N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory, making higher-loop contributions to these amplitudes more computationally accessible. In particular, dual superconformal symmetry and well-defined collinear limits suffice to determine uniquely the symbols of the three-loop NMHV and four-loop MHV seven-point amplitudes. We also show that at three loops, relaxing the dual superconformal (anti Q) relations and imposing dihedral symmetry (and for NMHV the absence of spurious poles) leaves only a single ambiguity in the heptagon amplitudes. These results point to a strong tension between the collinear properties of the amplitudes and the Steinmann relations.

  19. A Bootstrap Test for Conditional Symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Liangjun Su; Sainan Jin

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a simple consistent nonparametric test of conditional symmetry based on the principle of characteristic functions. The test statistic is shown to be asymptotically normal under the null hypothesis of conditional symmetry and consistent against any conditional asymmetric distributions. We also study the power against local alternatives, propose a bootstrap version of the test, and conduct a small Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate the finitesample performance of the test.

  20. Estimasi Regresi Wavelet Thresholding Dengan Metode Bootstrap

    OpenAIRE

    Suparti, Suparti; Mustofa, Achmad; Rusgiyono, Agus

    2007-01-01

    Wavelet is a function that has the certainly characteristic for example, it oscillate about zero point ascillating, localized in the time and frequency domain and construct the orthogonal bases in L2(R) space. On of the wavelet application is to estimate non parametric regression function. There are two kinds of wavelet estimator, i.e., linear and non linear wavelet estimator. The non linear wavelet estimator is called a thresholding wavelet rstimator. The application of the bootstrap method...

  1. Bootstrap inference when using multiple imputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, Michael; Heumann, Christian

    2018-04-16

    Many modern estimators require bootstrapping to calculate confidence intervals because either no analytic standard error is available or the distribution of the parameter of interest is nonsymmetric. It remains however unclear how to obtain valid bootstrap inference when dealing with multiple imputation to address missing data. We present 4 methods that are intuitively appealing, easy to implement, and combine bootstrap estimation with multiple imputation. We show that 3 of the 4 approaches yield valid inference, but that the performance of the methods varies with respect to the number of imputed data sets and the extent of missingness. Simulation studies reveal the behavior of our approaches in finite samples. A topical analysis from HIV treatment research, which determines the optimal timing of antiretroviral treatment initiation in young children, demonstrates the practical implications of the 4 methods in a sophisticated and realistic setting. This analysis suffers from missing data and uses the g-formula for inference, a method for which no standard errors are available. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. A Modular Simulation Framework for Assessing Swarm Search Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    overlapping more and more of the search area [19]. This wasted search effort makes random search considerably slower at ensuring that any specified fraction...representation of the search. While this feature does not directly affect the search outcome, it provides a useful tool in debugging the program as it...the escort of a high value unit, such as a carrier strike group, through contested waters . This alternate scenario would pose an intrinsically different

  3. Pearson-type goodness-of-fit test with bootstrap maximum likelihood estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Guosheng; Ma, Yanyuan

    2013-01-01

    The Pearson test statistic is constructed by partitioning the data into bins and computing the difference between the observed and expected counts in these bins. If the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) of the original data is used, the statistic generally does not follow a chi-squared distribution or any explicit distribution. We propose a bootstrap-based modification of the Pearson test statistic to recover the chi-squared distribution. We compute the observed and expected counts in the partitioned bins by using the MLE obtained from a bootstrap sample. This bootstrap-sample MLE adjusts exactly the right amount of randomness to the test statistic, and recovers the chi-squared distribution. The bootstrap chi-squared test is easy to implement, as it only requires fitting exactly the same model to the bootstrap data to obtain the corresponding MLE, and then constructs the bin counts based on the original data. We examine the test size and power of the new model diagnostic procedure using simulation studies and illustrate it with a real data set.

  4. Electron Bernstein wave-bootstrap current synergy in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, R.W.; Taylor, G.

    2005-01-01

    Current driven by electron Bernstein waves (EBW) and by the electron bootstrap effect are calculated separately and concurrently with a kinetic code to determine the degree of synergy between them. A target β=40% NSTX [M. Ono, S. Kaye, M. Peng et al., Proceedings of the 17th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, edited by M. Spak (IAEA, Vienna, Austria, 1999), Vol. 3, p. 1135] plasma is examined. A simple bootstrap model in the collisional-quasilinear CQL3D Fokker-Planck code (National Technical Information Service document No. DE93002962) is used in these studies: the transiting electron distributions are connected in velocity space at the trapped-passing boundary to trapped-electron distributions that are displaced radially by a half-banana-width outwards/inwards for the co-passing/counter-passing regions. This model agrees well with standard bootstrap current calculations over the outer 60% of the plasma radius. Relatively small synergy net bootstrap current is obtained for EBW power up to 4 MW. Locally, bootstrap current density increases in proportion to increased plasma pressure, and this effect can significantly affect the radial profile of driven current

  5. Quantifying uncertainty on sediment loads using bootstrap confidence intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaets, Johanna I. F.; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Schmitter, Petra; Hilger, Thomas; Cadisch, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Load estimates are more informative than constituent concentrations alone, as they allow quantification of on- and off-site impacts of environmental processes concerning pollutants, nutrients and sediment, such as soil fertility loss, reservoir sedimentation and irrigation channel siltation. While statistical models used to predict constituent concentrations have been developed considerably over the last few years, measures of uncertainty on constituent loads are rarely reported. Loads are the product of two predictions, constituent concentration and discharge, integrated over a time period, which does not make it straightforward to produce a standard error or a confidence interval. In this paper, a linear mixed model is used to estimate sediment concentrations. A bootstrap method is then developed that accounts for the uncertainty in the concentration and discharge predictions, allowing temporal correlation in the constituent data, and can be used when data transformations are required. The method was tested for a small watershed in Northwest Vietnam for the period 2010-2011. The results showed that confidence intervals were asymmetric, with the highest uncertainty in the upper limit, and that a load of 6262 Mg year-1 had a 95 % confidence interval of (4331, 12 267) in 2010 and a load of 5543 Mg an interval of (3593, 8975) in 2011. Additionally, the approach demonstrated that direct estimates from the data were biased downwards compared to bootstrap median estimates. These results imply that constituent loads predicted from regression-type water quality models could frequently be underestimating sediment yields and their environmental impact.

  6. Two novel applications of bootstrap currents: Snakes and jitter stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyagaraja, A.; Haas, F. A.

    1993-09-01

    Both neoclassical theory and certain turbulence theories of particle transport in tokamaks predict the existence of bootstrap (i.e., pressure-driven) currents. Two new applications of this form of noninductive current are considered in this work. In the first, an earlier model of the nonlinearly saturated m=1 tearing mode is extended to include the stabilizing effect of a bootstrap current inside the island. This is used to explain several observed features of the so-called ``snake'' reported in the Joint European Torus (JET) [R. D. Gill, A. W. Edwards, D. Pasini, and A. Weller, Nucl. Fusion 32, 723 (1992)]. The second application involves an alternating current (ac) form of bootstrap current, produced by pressure-gradient fluctuations. It is suggested that a time-dependent (in the plasma frame), radio-frequency (rf) power source can be used to produce localized pressure fluctuations of suitable frequency and amplitude to implement the dynamic stabilization method for suppressing gross modes in tokamaks suggested in a recent paper [A. Thyagaraja, R. D. Hazeltine, and A. Y. Aydemir, Phys. Fluids B 4, 2733 (1992)]. This method works by ``detuning'' the resonant layer by rapid current/shear fluctuations. Estimates made for the power source requirements both for small machines such as COMPASS and for larger machines like JET suggest that the method could be practically feasible. This ``jitter'' (i.e., dynamic) stabilization method could provide a useful form of active instability control to avoid both gross/disruptive and fine-scale/transportive instabilities, which may set severe operating/safety constraints in the reactor regime. The results are also capable, in principle, of throwing considerable light on the local properties of current generation and diffusion in tokamaks, which may be enhanced by turbulence, as has been suggested recently by several researchers.

  7. Direct search for the standard model Higgs boson

    CERN Document Server

    Janot, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    For twelve years, LEP revolutionized the knowledge of electroweak symmetry breaking within the standard model, and the direct discovery of the Higgs boson would have been the crowning achievement. Searches at the Z resonance and above the W/sup +/W/sup -/ threshold allowed an unambiguous lower limit on the mass of the standard model Higgs boson to set be at 114.1 GeV.c/sup -2/. After years of efforts to push the LEP performance far beyond the design limits, hints of what could be the first signs of the existence of a 115 GeV-c/sup -2/ Higgs boson appeared in June 2000, were confirmed in September, and were then confirmed again in November. An additional six-month period of LEP operation was enough to provide a definite answer, with an opportunity to make a fundamental discovery of prime importance. (37 refs).

  8. Interaction of bootstrap-current-driven magnetic islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegna, C.C.; Callen, J.D.

    1991-10-01

    The formation and interaction of fluctuating neoclassical pressure gradient driven magnetic islands is examined. The interaction of magnetic islands produces a stochastic region around the separatrices of the islands. This interaction causes the island pressure profile to be broadened, reducing the island bootstrap current and drive for the magnetic island. A model is presented that describes the magnetic topology as a bath of interacting magnetic islands with low to medium poloidal mode number (m congruent 3-30). The islands grow by the bootstrap current effect and damp due to the flattening of the pressure profile near the island separatrix caused by the interaction of the magnetic islands. The effect of this sporadic growth and decay of the islands (''magnetic bubbling'') is not normally addressed in theories of plasma transport due to magnetic fluctuations. The nature of the transport differs from statistical approaches to magnetic turbulence since the radial step size of the plasma transport is now given by the characteristic island width. This model suggests that tokamak experiments have relatively short-lived, coherent, long wavelength magnetic oscillations present in the steep pressure-gradient regions of the plasma. 42 refs

  9. Insight from uncertainty: bootstrap-derived diffusion metrics differentially predict memory function among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorburger, Robert S; Habeck, Christian G; Narkhede, Atul; Guzman, Vanessa A; Manly, Jennifer J; Brickman, Adam M

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging suffers from an intrinsic low signal-to-noise ratio. Bootstrap algorithms have been introduced to provide a non-parametric method to estimate the uncertainty of the measured diffusion parameters. To quantify the variability of the principal diffusion direction, bootstrap-derived metrics such as the cone of uncertainty have been proposed. However, bootstrap-derived metrics are not independent of the underlying diffusion profile. A higher mean diffusivity causes a smaller signal-to-noise ratio and, thus, increases the measurement uncertainty. Moreover, the goodness of the tensor model, which relies strongly on the complexity of the underlying diffusion profile, influences bootstrap-derived metrics as well. The presented simulations clearly depict the cone of uncertainty as a function of the underlying diffusion profile. Since the relationship of the cone of uncertainty and common diffusion parameters, such as the mean diffusivity and the fractional anisotropy, is not linear, the cone of uncertainty has a different sensitivity. In vivo analysis of the fornix reveals the cone of uncertainty to be a predictor of memory function among older adults. No significant correlation occurs with the common diffusion parameters. The present work not only demonstrates the cone of uncertainty as a function of the actual diffusion profile, but also discloses the cone of uncertainty as a sensitive predictor of memory function. Future studies should incorporate bootstrap-derived metrics to provide more comprehensive analysis.

  10. Bootstrap Restricted Likelihood Ratio Test for the Detection of Rare Variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ping; Wang, Ting

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the detection of rare variants association with continuous phenotypes of interest is investigated via the likelihood-ratio based variance component test under the framework of linear mixed models. The hypothesis testing is challenging and nonstandard, since under the null the variance component is located on the boundary of its parameter space. In this situation the usual asymptotic chisquare distribution of the likelihood ratio statistic does not necessarily hold. To circumvent the derivation of the null distribution we resort to the bootstrap method due to its generic applicability and being easy to implement. Both parametric and nonparametric bootstrap likelihood ratio tests are studied. Numerical studies are implemented to evaluate the performance of the proposed bootstrap likelihood ratio test and compare to some existing methods for the identification of rare variants. To reduce the computational time of the bootstrap likelihood ratio test we propose an effective approximation mixture for the bootstrap null distribution. The GAW17 data is used to illustrate the proposed test. PMID:26069459

  11. Choosing colors for map display icons using models of visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shive, Joshua; Francis, Gregory

    2013-04-01

    We show how to choose colors for icons on maps to minimize search time using predictions of a model of visual search. The model analyzes digital images of a search target (an icon on a map) and a search display (the map containing the icon) and predicts search time as a function of target-distractor color distinctiveness and target eccentricity. We parameterized the model using data from a visual search task and performed a series of optimization tasks to test the model's ability to choose colors for icons to minimize search time across icons. Map display designs made by this procedure were tested experimentally. In a follow-up experiment, we examined the model's flexibility to assign colors in novel search situations. The model fits human performance, performs well on the optimization tasks, and can choose colors for icons on maps with novel stimuli to minimize search time without requiring additional model parameter fitting. Models of visual search can suggest color choices that produce search time reductions for display icons. Designers should consider constructing visual search models as a low-cost method of evaluating color assignments.

  12. Understanding and modeling users of modern search engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chuklin, A.

    2017-01-01

    As search is being used by billions of people, modern search engines are becoming more and more complex. And complexity does not just come from the algorithms. Richer and richer content is being added to search engine result pages: news and sports results, definitions and translations, images and

  13. Modeling of pheromone communication system of forest Lepidopterous insects. II. Model of female searching by male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kovalev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose an agent­based simulation model search. This model allows us to evaluate the effectiveness of different males­females pheromone search strategies for Lepidoptera. In the model, we consider the simplest case of the search, when the pheromone has only one chemical component. It is assumed that the insects are able to detect the pheromone molecules and the sensory cells generate action potentials in contact with the pheromone for some time. Thereafter pheromone molecule is inactivated. This behavior can be regarded as a memory of individual. Proportion of individuals who have reached the source is selected as an integral indicator of the search efficiency. To evaluate the effectiveness, numeric experiments were performed in different conditions: random walk, search algorithm without memory, and algorithm with memory and return mechanism. The resulting effectiveness of source localization by insects for flight in turbulent flows is ~ 70 %, which corresponds to experiments with live specimens in literature. In this case, proposed pheromone search algorithm is quite simple, which makes it biologically correct. Conducted modeling calculations can be the starting point for planning of field observations and pest monitoring systems using pheromone traps.

  14. Neoclassical tearing dynamo and self-sustainment of a bootstrapped tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharjee, A.; Yuan, Y.

    1993-01-01

    It has been suggested by Boozer that a completely bootstrapped tokamak which requires no seed current is possible due to the open-quotes dynamo effectclose quotes caused by tearing modes. Numerical calculations have been carried out by Weening and Boozer confirming the feasibility of a completely bootstrapped tokamak. These calculations use the resistive MHD model, with the pressure profile held arbitrarily fixed. Several questions naturally arise. Is resistive MHD a good model in the low-collisionality regime of present-day tokamaks in which large bootstrap currents have been observed? Is it consistent to rely on pressure gradients to provide the bootstrap current, but then omit pressure gradients in investigating the tearing instabilities that provide the dynamo effect? And how realistic is it to assume that a strong pressure gradient is sustainable in the central region where current relaxation is expected to produce a dynamo effect? In this paper, the authors investigate the dynamo effect in a bootstrapped tokamak within the framework of the neoclassical MHD model which is more realistic than resistive MHD for the regime in question. Since neoclassical MHD includes trapped-particle effects, it can, in principle, provide an additional mechanism for exciting tearing modes which are known to be stabilized by temperature gradients. They investigate the properties of the dynamo field var-epsilon, and find that the original definition var-epsilon = 1 x b 1 > used in incompressible resistive MHD is no longer adequate; neoclassical MHD forces a redefinition of var-epsilon due to the requirements imposed by the helicity conservation constraint. Thus a completely steady-state bootstrapped tokamak sustained by a neoclassical tearing dynamo is realizable. However, they are pessimistic that such a tokamak, even if it were resistively stable, would be stable to ideal kink modes

  15. A wild bootstrap approach for the Aalen-Johansen estimator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluhmki, Tobias; Schmoor, Claudia; Dobler, Dennis; Pauly, Markus; Finke, Juergen; Schumacher, Martin; Beyersmann, Jan

    2018-02-16

    We suggest a wild bootstrap resampling technique for nonparametric inference on transition probabilities in a general time-inhomogeneous Markov multistate model. We first approximate the limiting distribution of the Nelson-Aalen estimator by repeatedly generating standard normal wild bootstrap variates, while the data is kept fixed. Next, a transformation using a functional delta method argument is applied. The approach is conceptually easier than direct resampling for the transition probabilities. It is used to investigate a non-standard time-to-event outcome, currently being alive without immunosuppressive treatment, with data from a recent study of prophylactic treatment in allogeneic transplanted leukemia patients. Due to non-monotonic outcome probabilities in time, neither standard survival nor competing risks techniques apply, which highlights the need for the present methodology. Finite sample performance of time-simultaneous confidence bands for the outcome probabilities is assessed in an extensive simulation study motivated by the clinical trial data. Example code is provided in the web-based Supplementary Materials. © 2018, The International Biometric Society.

  16. Bootstrap Enhanced Penalized Regression for Variable Selection with Neuroimaging Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abram, Samantha V; Helwig, Nathaniel E; Moodie, Craig A; DeYoung, Colin G; MacDonald, Angus W; Waller, Niels G

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in fMRI research highlight the use of multivariate methods for examining whole-brain connectivity. Complementary data-driven methods are needed for determining the subset of predictors related to individual differences. Although commonly used for this purpose, ordinary least squares (OLS) regression may not be ideal due to multi-collinearity and over-fitting issues. Penalized regression is a promising and underutilized alternative to OLS regression. In this paper, we propose a nonparametric bootstrap quantile (QNT) approach for variable selection with neuroimaging data. We use real and simulated data, as well as annotated R code, to demonstrate the benefits of our proposed method. Our results illustrate the practical potential of our proposed bootstrap QNT approach. Our real data example demonstrates how our method can be used to relate individual differences in neural network connectivity with an externalizing personality measure. Also, our simulation results reveal that the QNT method is effective under a variety of data conditions. Penalized regression yields more stable estimates and sparser models than OLS regression in situations with large numbers of highly correlated neural predictors. Our results demonstrate that penalized regression is a promising method for examining associations between neural predictors and clinically relevant traits or behaviors. These findings have important implications for the growing field of functional connectivity research, where multivariate methods produce numerous, highly correlated brain networks.

  17. Comparison of Bootstrap Confidence Intervals Using Monte Carlo Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto S. Flowers-Cano

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Design of hydraulic works requires the estimation of design hydrological events by statistical inference from a probability distribution. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we compared coverage of confidence intervals constructed with four bootstrap techniques: percentile bootstrap (BP, bias-corrected bootstrap (BC, accelerated bias-corrected bootstrap (BCA and a modified version of the standard bootstrap (MSB. Different simulation scenarios were analyzed. In some cases, the mother distribution function was fit to the random samples that were generated. In other cases, a distribution function different to the mother distribution was fit to the samples. When the fitted distribution had three parameters, and was the same as the mother distribution, the intervals constructed with the four techniques had acceptable coverage. However, the bootstrap techniques failed in several of the cases in which the fitted distribution had two parameters.

  18. Towards bootstrapping QED{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chester, Shai M.; Pufu, Silviu S. [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University,Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2016-08-02

    We initiate the conformal bootstrap study of Quantum Electrodynamics in 2+1 space-time dimensions (QED{sub 3}) with N flavors of charged fermions by focusing on the 4-point function of four monopole operators with the lowest unit of topological charge. We obtain upper bounds on the scaling dimension of the doubly-charged monopole operator, with and without assuming other gaps in the operator spectrum. Intriguingly, we find a (gap-dependent) kink in these bounds that comes reasonably close to the large N extrapolation of the scaling dimensions of the singly-charged and doubly-charged monopole operators down to N=4 and N=6.

  19. A tauberian theorem for the conformal bootstrap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jiaxin; Rychkov, Slava

    2017-12-01

    For expansions in one-dimensional conformal blocks, we provide a rigorous link between the asymptotics of the spectral density of exchanged primaries and the leading singularity in the crossed channel. Our result has a direct application to systems of SL(2, ℝ)-invariant correlators (also known as 1d CFTs). It also puts on solid ground a part of the lightcone bootstrap analysis of the spectrum of operators of high spin and bounded twist in CFTs in d > 2. In addition, a similar argument controls the spectral density asymptotics in large N gauge theories.

  20. A bootstrap approach to bump hunting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, B. W.

    1982-01-01

    An important question in cluster analysis and pattern recognition is the determination of the number of clusters into which a given population should be divided. Frequently, particularly when certain specific clustering methods are being used, the number of clusters is taken to be equal to the number of modes, or local maxima, in the probability density function underlying the given data set. The use of kernal density estimates in mode estimation is discussed. The test statistic to be used is defined and a bootstrap technique for assessing significance is given. An illustrative application is followed by an examination of the asymptotic behavior of the test statistic.

  1. General bootstrap equations in 4D CFTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuomo, Gabriel Francisco; Karateev, Denis; Kravchuk, Petr

    2018-01-01

    We provide a framework for generic 4D conformal bootstrap computations. It is based on the unification of two independent approaches, the covariant (embedding) formalism and the non-covariant (conformal frame) formalism. We construct their main ingredients (tensor structures and differential operators) and establish a precise connection between them. We supplement the discussion by additional details like classification of tensor structures of n-point functions, normalization of 2-point functions and seed conformal blocks, Casimir differential operators and treatment of conserved operators and permutation symmetries. Finally, we implement our framework in a Mathematica package and make it freely available.

  2. A Hybrid Model Ranking Search Result for Research Paper Searching on Social Bookmarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    pijitra jomsri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Social bookmarking and publication sharing systems are essential tools for web resource discovery. The performance and capabilities of search results from research paper bookmarking system are vital. Many researchers use social bookmarking for searching papers related to their topics of interest. This paper proposes a combination of similarity based indexing “tag title and abstract” and static ranking to improve search results. In this particular study, the year of the published paper and type of research paper publication are combined with similarity ranking called (HybridRank. Different weighting scores are employed. The retrieval performance of these weighted combination rankings are evaluated using mean values of NDCG. The results suggest that HybridRank and similarity rank with weight 75:25 has the highest NDCG scores. From the preliminary result of experiment, the combination ranking technique provide more relevant research paper search results. Furthermore the chosen heuristic ranking can improve the efficiency of research paper searching on social bookmarking websites.

  3. Evidence of Bootstrap Financing among Small Start-Up Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Howard E. Van Auken; Lynn Neeley

    1996-01-01

    This study examines the use of bootstrap financing for a sample of 78 firms in a Midwestern state. The results show that traditional sources of capital accounted for 65% of the firms' start-up capital and 35% of the start-up capital was obtained from bootstrap sources. A Chi-squared analysis indicates a significant difference between the percentage of (!) sole proprietorship versus other firms and (2) construction/manufacturing versus other types of firms using bootstrap financing as compared...

  4. Confidence Intervals for the Mean: To Bootstrap or Not to Bootstrap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzada, Maria E.; Gardner, Holly

    2011-01-01

    The results of a simulation conducted by a research team involving undergraduate and high school students indicate that when data is symmetric the student's "t" confidence interval for a mean is superior to the studied non-parametric bootstrap confidence intervals. When data is skewed and for sample sizes n greater than or equal to 10,…

  5. Using the bootstrap in a multivariadte data problem: An example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glosup, J.G.; Axelrod, M.C.

    1995-01-01

    The use of the bootstrap in the multivariate version of the paired t-test is considered and demonstrated through an example. The problem of interest involves comparing two different techniques for measuring the chemical constituents of an sample item. The bootstrap is used to form an empirical significance level for Hotelling's one-sample T-squared statistic. The bootstrap was selected to determine empirical significance levels because the implicit assumption of multivariate normality in the classic Hotelling's one-sample test night not hold. The results of both the classic and bootstrap test are presented and contrasted

  6. Fast, Exact Bootstrap Principal Component Analysis forp> 1 million.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Aaron; Caffo, Brian; Schwartz, Brian; Zipunnikov, Vadim

    Many have suggested a bootstrap procedure for estimating the sampling variability of principal component analysis (PCA) results. However, when the number of measurements per subject ( p ) is much larger than the number of subjects ( n ), calculating and storing the leading principal components from each bootstrap sample can be computationally infeasible. To address this, we outline methods for fast, exact calculation of bootstrap principal components, eigenvalues, and scores. Our methods leverage the fact that all bootstrap samples occupy the same n -dimensional subspace as the original sample. As a result, all bootstrap principal components are limited to the same n -dimensional subspace and can be efficiently represented by their low dimensional coordinates in that subspace. Several uncertainty metrics can be computed solely based on the bootstrap distribution of these low dimensional coordinates, without calculating or storing the p -dimensional bootstrap components. Fast bootstrap PCA is applied to a dataset of sleep electroencephalogram recordings ( p = 900, n = 392), and to a dataset of brain magnetic resonance images (MRIs) ( p ≈ 3 million, n = 352). For the MRI dataset, our method allows for standard errors for the first 3 principal components based on 1000 bootstrap samples to be calculated on a standard laptop in 47 minutes, as opposed to approximately 4 days with standard methods.

  7. Bootstrap-Based Inference for Cube Root Consistent Estimators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cattaneo, Matias D.; Jansson, Michael; Nagasawa, Kenichi

    This note proposes a consistent bootstrap-based distributional approximation for cube root consistent estimators such as the maximum score estimator of Manski (1975) and the isotonic density estimator of Grenander (1956). In both cases, the standard nonparametric bootstrap is known to be inconsis......This note proposes a consistent bootstrap-based distributional approximation for cube root consistent estimators such as the maximum score estimator of Manski (1975) and the isotonic density estimator of Grenander (1956). In both cases, the standard nonparametric bootstrap is known...

  8. Model unspecific search for new physics in pp collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malhotra, Shivali

    2013-01-01

    The model-independent analysis systematically scans the data taken by Compact Muon Solenoid - CMS detector for deviations from the Standard Model (SM) predictions. This approach is sensitive to a variety of models for new physics due to the minimal theoretical bias i.e. without assumptions on specific models of new physics and covering a large phase space. Possible causes of the significant deviations could be insufficient understanding of the collision event generation or detector simulation, or indeed genuine new physics in the data. Thus the output of MUSiC must be seen as only the first, but important step in the potential discovery of new physics. To get the distinctive final states, events with at least one electron or muon are classified according to their content of reconstructed objects (muons, electrons, photons, jets and missing transverse energy) and sorted into event classes. A broad scan of three kinematic distributions (scalar sum of the transverse momentum, invariant mass of reconstructed objects and missing transverse energy) in those event classes is performed by identifying deviations from SM expectations, accounting for systematic uncertainties. A scanning algorithm determines the regions in the considered distributions where the measured data deviates most from the SM predictions. This search is sensitive to an excess as well as a deficit in the comparison of data and SM background. This approach has been applied to the CMS data and we have obtained the preliminary results. I will talk about the details of the analysis techniques, its implementation in analyzing CMS data, results obtained and the discussion on the discrepancy observed

  9. Performance of Bootstrap MCEWMA: Study case of Sukuk Musyarakah data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safiih, L. Muhamad; Hila, Z. Nurul

    2014-07-01

    Sukuk Musyarakah is one of several instruments of Islamic bond investment in Malaysia, where the form of this sukuk is actually based on restructuring the conventional bond to become a Syariah compliant bond. The Syariah compliant is based on prohibition of any influence of usury, benefit or fixed return. Despite of prohibition, daily returns of sukuk are non-fixed return and in statistic, the data of sukuk returns are said to be a time series data which is dependent and autocorrelation distributed. This kind of data is a crucial problem whether in statistical and financing field. Returns of sukuk can be statistically viewed by its volatility, whether it has high volatility that describing the dramatically change of price and categorized it as risky bond or else. However, this crucial problem doesn't get serious attention among researcher compared to conventional bond. In this study, MCEWMA chart in Statistical Process Control (SPC) is mainly used to monitor autocorrelated data and its application on daily returns of securities investment data has gained widespread attention among statistician. However, this chart has always been influence by inaccurate estimation, whether on base model or its limit, due to produce large error and high of probability of signalling out-of-control process for false alarm study. To overcome this problem, a bootstrap approach used in this study, by hybridise it on MCEWMA base model to construct a new chart, i.e. Bootstrap MCEWMA (BMCEWMA) chart. The hybrid model, BMCEWMA, will be applied to daily returns of sukuk Musyarakah for Rantau Abang Capital Bhd. The performance of BMCEWMA base model showed that its more effective compare to real model, MCEWMA based on smaller error estimation, shorter the confidence interval and smaller false alarm. In other word, hybrid chart reduce the variability which shown by smaller error and false alarm. It concludes that the application of BMCEWMA is better than MCEWMA.

  10. Computing Robust, Bootstrap-Adjusted Fit Indices for Use with Nonnormal Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, David A.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    Nonnormality of data presents unique challenges for researchers who wish to carry out structural equation modeling. The subsequent SPSS syntax program computes bootstrap-adjusted fit indices (comparative fit index, Tucker-Lewis index, incremental fit index, and root mean square error of approximation) that adjust for nonnormality, along with the…

  11. Bootstrap confidence intervals for the process capability index under half-logistic distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Wararit Panichkitkosolkul

    2012-01-01

    This study concerns the construction of bootstrap confidence intervals for theprocess capability index in the case of half-logistic distribution. The bootstrap confidence intervals applied consist of standard bootstrap confidence interval, percentile bootstrap confidence interval and bias-corrected percentile bootstrap confidence interval. Using Monte Carlo simulations, the estimated coverage probabilities and average widths ofbootstrap confidence intervals are compared, with results showing ...

  12. The standard model Higgs search at the large hadron collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    most important physics goal of the experiments at the LHC. Two experiments at the LHC, CMS and ATLAS will carry out searches for Higgs bosons. Detailed search strategies are being designed to look for signatures of Higgs. Studies have also been done on measurement of Higgs properties such as coupling, spin etc. at.

  13. Image dataset for testing search and detection models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Bijl, P.; Valeton, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    The TNO Human Factors Searchû2 image dataset consists of: a set of 44 high-resolution digital color images of different complex natural scenes, the ground truth corresponding to each of these scenes, and the results of psychophysical experiments on each of these images. The images in the Searchû2

  14. Flavour Independent $h^{0}A^{0}$ Search and Two Higgs Doublet Model Interpretation of Neutral Higgs Boson Searches at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Amaral, P.; Anagnostou, G.; Anderson, K.J.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Bailey, I.; Barberio, E.; Barillari, T.; Barlow, R.J.; Batley, R.J.; Bechtle, P.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bell, P.J.; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Benelli, G.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Boeriu, O.; Bock, P.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Campana, S.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, D.G.; Ciocca, C.; Csilling, A.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, John William; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giunta, Marina; Goldberg, J.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Gupta, A.; Hajdu, C.; Hamann, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Harel, A.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Horvath, D.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jeremie, H.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanzaki, J.; Karlen, D.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kramer, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kuhl, T.; Kupper, M.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Lellouch, D.; Lettso, J.; Levinson, L.; Lillich, J.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, A.; Ludwig, J.; Mader, W.; Marcellini, S.; Martin, A.J.; Masetti, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McKenna, J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menges, W.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, Niels T.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mohr, W.; Mori, T.; Mutter, A.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Nanjo, H.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oh, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pahl, C.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Pooth, O.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rabbertz, K.; Rembser, C.; Renkel, P.; Roney, J.M.; Rossi, A.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sarkisyan, E.K.G.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schorner-Sadenius, T.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Sherwood, P.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spano, F.; Stahl, A.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Tarem, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Teuscher, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Toya, D.; Tran, P.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Ujvari, B.; Vollmer, C.F.; Vannerem, P.; Vertesi, R.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wolf, G.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zer-Zion, D.; Zivkovic, Lidija

    2005-01-01

    Upper limits on the cross-section of the pair-production process e+e- -> h0A0 assuming 100% decays into hadrons, are derived from a new search for the h0A0 -> hadrons topology, independent of the hadronic flavour of the decay products. Searches for the neutral Higgs bosons h0 and A0, are used to obtain constraints on the Type II Two Higgs Doublet Model (2HDM(11)) with no CP violation in the Higgs sector and no additional non Standard Model particles besides the five Higgs bosons. The analysis combines LEP1 and LEP2 data collected with the OPAL detctor up to the highest available centre-of-mass energies. The searches are sensitive to the h0, A0 -> qq, gg,tau+tau- and h0 -> A0A0 decay modes of the Higgs bosons. The 2HDM(II) parameter space is explored in a detailed scan. Large regions of the 2HDM(II) parameter space are excluded at the 95% CL in the (mh, mA), (mh, tanb) and (mA, tanb) planes, using both direct neutral Higgs boson searches and indirect limits derived from Standard Model high precision measuremen...

  15. Bootstrap support is not first-order correct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susko, Edward

    2009-04-01

    The appropriate interpretation of bootstrap support for splits and the question of what constitutes large bootstrap support have received considerable attention. One desirable interpretation, indeed the interpretation that was put forward when bootstrap support for splits was first introduced, is that 1-minus bootstrap support is a P value for the hypothesis that the split is not well resolved. As a P value, bootstrap support has been argued to be first-order correct. By obtaining the limiting distribution of bootstrap support for a split when maximum likelihood estimation is conducted, it is shown that bootstrap support is not first-order correct and insight is provided into the nature of the problem. Borrowing from earlier results, it is also shown that similar results hold when the neighbor-joining algorithm is used. Examples suggest that bootstrap support is generally conservative as a P value and give insight as to why this is usually the case. The analysis indicates that the problem is largely due to the unusual nature of tree space where boundary trees always have at least 2 neighbors.

  16. Bootstrap Estimates of Standard Errors in Generalizability Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Ye; Brennan, Robert L.

    2007-01-01

    Estimating standard errors of estimated variance components has long been a challenging task in generalizability theory. Researchers have speculated about the potential applicability of the bootstrap for obtaining such estimates, but they have identified problems (especially bias) in using the bootstrap. Using Brennan's bias-correcting procedures…

  17. Higher-order Gaussian kernel in bootstrap boosting algorithm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bootstrap boosting algorithm is a bias reduction scheme. The adoption of higher-order Gaussian kernel in a bootstrap boosting algorithm in kernel density estimation was investigated. The algorithm used the higher-order. Gaussian kernel instead of the regular fixed kernels. A comparison of the scheme with existing ...

  18. Learning web development with Bootstrap and AngularJS

    CERN Document Server

    Radford, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Whether you know a little about Bootstrap or AngularJS, or you're a complete beginner, this book will enhance your capabilities in both frameworks and you'll build a fully functional web app. A working knowledge of HTML, CSS, and JavaScript is required to fully get to grips with Bootstrap and AngularJS.

  19. Integral equations of hadronic correlation functions a functional- bootstrap approach

    CERN Document Server

    Manesis, E K

    1974-01-01

    A reasonable 'microscopic' foundation of the Feynman hadron-liquid analogy is offered, based on a class of models for hadron production. In an external field formalism, the equivalence (complementarity) of the exclusive and inclusive descriptions of hadronic reactions is specifically expressed in a functional-bootstrap form, and integral equations between inclusive and exclusive correlation functions are derived. Using the latest CERN-ISR data on the two-pion inclusive correlation function, and assuming rapidity translational invariance for the exclusive one, the simplest integral equation is solved in the 'central region' and an exclusive correlation length in rapidity predicted. An explanation is also offered for the unexpected similarity observed between pi /sup +/ pi /sup -/ and pi /sup -/ pi /sup -/ inclusive correlations. (31 refs).

  20. Simplifying large spin bootstrap in Mellin space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Parijat; Ghosh, Kausik; Sinha, Aninda

    2018-01-01

    We set up the conventional conformal bootstrap equations in Mellin space and analyse the anomalous dimensions and OPE coefficients of large spin double trace operators. By decomposing the equations in terms of continuous Hahn polynomials, we derive explicit expressions as an asymptotic expansion in inverse conformal spin to any order, reproducing the contribution of any primary operator and its descendants in the crossed channel. The expressions are in terms of known mathematical functions and involve generalized Bernoulli (Nørlund) polynomials and the Mack polynomials and enable us to derive certain universal properties. Comparing with the recently introduced reformulated equations in terms of crossing symmetric tree level exchange Witten diagrams, we show that to leading order in anomalous dimension but to all orders in inverse conformal spin, the equations are the same as in the conventional formulation. At the next order, the polynomial ambiguity in the Witten diagram basis is needed for the equivalence and we derive the necessary constraints for the same.

  1. Bootstrapping 3D fermions with global symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David

    2018-01-01

    We study the conformal bootstrap for 4-point functions of fermions 〈 ψ i ψ j ψ k ψ ℓ 〉 in parity-preserving 3d CFTs, where ψ i transforms as a vector under an O( N ) global symmetry. We compute bounds on scaling dimensions and central charges, finding features in our bounds that appear to coincide with the O( N ) symmetric Gross-Neveu-Yukawa fixed points. Our computations are in perfect agreement with the 1 /N expansion at large N and allow us to make nontrivial predictions at small N . For values of N for which the Gross-Neveu-Yukawa universality classes are relevant to condensed-matter systems, we compare our results to previous analytic and numerical results.

  2. The ${\\mathcal N}=2$ superconformal bootstrap

    CERN Document Server

    Beem, Christopher; Liendo, Pedro; Rastelli, Leonardo; van Rees, Balt C

    2016-01-01

    In this work we initiate the conformal bootstrap program for ${\\mathcal N}=2$ superconformal field theories in four dimensions. We promote an abstract operator-algebraic viewpoint in order to unify the description of Lagrangian and non-Lagrangian theories, and formulate various conjectures concerning the landscape of theories. We analyze in detail the four-point functions of flavor symmetry current multiplets and of ${\\mathcal N}=2$ chiral operators. For both correlation functions we review the solution of the superconformal Ward identities and describe their superconformal block decompositions. This provides the foundation for an extensive numerical analysis discussed in the second half of the paper. We find a large number of constraints for operator dimensions, OPE coefficients, and central charges that must hold for any ${\\mathcal N}=2$ superconformal field theory.

  3. Conformal bootstrap, universality and gravitational scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Jackson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We use the conformal bootstrap equations to study the non-perturbative gravitational scattering between infalling and outgoing particles in the vicinity of a black hole horizon in AdS. We focus on irrational 2D CFTs with large c and only Virasoro symmetry. The scattering process is described by the matrix element of two light operators (particles between two heavy states (BTZ black holes. We find that the operator algebra in this regime is (i universal and identical to that of Liouville CFT, and (ii takes the form of an exchange algebra, specified by an R-matrix that exactly matches the scattering amplitude of 2+1 gravity. The R-matrix is given by a quantum 6j-symbol and the scattering phase by the volume of a hyperbolic tetrahedron. We comment on the relevance of our results to scrambling and the holographic reconstruction of the bulk physics near black hole horizons.

  4. BOOTSTRAP-BASED INFERENCE FOR GROUPED DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Iván Vélez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Grouped data refers to continuous variables that are partitioned in intervals, not necessarily of the same length, to facilitate its interpretation.  Unlike in ungrouped data, estimating simple summary statistics as the mean and mode, or more complex ones as a percentile or the coefficient of variation, is a difficult endeavour in grouped data. When the probability distribution generating the data is unknown, inference in ungrouped data is carried out using parametric or nonparametric resampling methods. However, there are no equivalent methods in the case of grouped data.  Here, a bootstrap-based procedure to estimate the parameters of an unknown distribution based on grouped data is proposed, described and illustrated.

  5. Establishing Keypoint Matches on Multimodal Images with Bootstrap Strategy and Global Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Jin, Hongbin; Wu, Jiatao; Liu, Jie

    2017-04-19

    This paper proposes an algorithm of building keypoint matches on multimodal images by combining a bootstrap process and global information. The correct ratio of keypoint matches built with descriptors is typically very low on multimodal images of large spectral difference. To identify correct matches, global information is utilized for evaluating keypoint matches and a bootstrap technique is employed to reduce the computational cost. A keypoint match determines a transformation T and a similarity metric between the reference and the transformed test image by T. The similarity metric encodes global information over entire images, and hence a higher similarity indicates the match can bring more image content into alignment, implying it tends to be correct. Unfortunately, exhausting triplets/quadruples of matches for affine/projective transformation is computationally intractable when the number of keypoints is large. To reduce the computational cost, a bootstrap technique is employed that starts from single matches for a translation and rotation model, and goes increasingly to quadruples of four matches for a projective model. The global information screens for "good" matches at each stage and the bootstrap strategy makes the screening process computationally feasible. Experimental results show that the proposed method can establish reliable keypoint matches on challenging multimodal images of strong multimodality.

  6. Application of ARIMA(1,1,0 Model for Predicting Time Delay of Search Engine Crawlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeeva JOSE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available World Wide Web is growing at a tremendous rate in terms of the number of visitors and number of web pages. Search engine crawlers are highly automated programs that periodically visit the web and index web pages. The behavior of search engines could be used in analyzing server load, quality of search engines, dynamics of search engine crawlers, ethics of search engines etc. The more the number of visits of a crawler to a web site, the more it contributes to the workload. The time delay between two consecutive visits of a crawler determines the dynamicity of the crawlers. The ARIMA(1,1,0 Model in time series analysis works well with the forecasting of the time delay between the visits of search crawlers at web sites. We considered 5 search engine crawlers, all of which could be modeled using ARIMA(1,1,0.The results of this study is useful in analyzing the server load.

  7. Model-independent search for new physics at D0 experiment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Finding the evidence of new physics beyond the Standard Model is one of the primary goals of RunII of the Tevatron. Many dedicated searches for new physics are ongoing at the Tevatron but in order to broaden the scope and maximize the chances of finding the new physics, we also search in a model-independent way.

  8. Design of personalized search engine based on user-webpage dynamic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jihan; Li, Shanglin; Zhu, Yingke; Xiao, Bo

    2013-12-01

    Personalized search engine focuses on establishing a user-webpage dynamic model. In this model, users' personalized factors are introduced so that the search engine is better able to provide the user with targeted feedback. This paper constructs user and webpage dynamic vector tables, introduces singular value decomposition analysis in the processes of topic categorization, and extends the traditional PageRank algorithm.

  9. Searches for physics beyond the Standard Model at the Tevatron

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [1,2] and D0 [3,4] Collaborations have scrutinized these collisions searching for signals ... objects including ET. The ST distribution, shown in figure 1a, is used as the discriminat- ing variable. The data are found to be in good agreement with the SM ... (a) Distribution of ST, the scalar sum of transverse energy of all objects.

  10. Searches for physics beyond the Standard Model at the Tevatron

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    into jets can be reconstructed either as two jets or as a 'fat jet' with large mass. Figure 2 shows the reconstructed W Z mass for the ..... traverses the detector (like a muon), but has slower speed (low β) and larger ionization energy loss. The search uses a boosted decision tree discriminant. The data are found to be in good ...

  11. LEP Higgs boson searches beyond the standard model and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Corresponding address: CERN EP, Geneva 23, CH-1211, Switzerland. Abstract. Ever since the center-of-mass energy was increased in 1995 above the Ζ0 resonance, the four LEP experiments (ALEPH, DELPHI, OPAL and L3) have renewed their effort to search for the Higgs boson. Data taking ended in the year 2000 with ...

  12. Searches for neutral Higgs bosons in extended models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdallah, J.; Blom, M.R.; Drees, J.; Palacios, J.; van der Pol, M.; Siebel, M.; van Dam, P.A.; Zupan, M.

    2004-01-01

    Searches for neutral Higgs bosons produced at LEP in association with Z bosons, in pairs and in the Yukawa process are presented in this paper. Higgs boson decays into b quarks, τ leptons, or other Higgs bosons are considered, giving rise to four-b, four-b+jets, six-b and four-τ final states, as

  13. Model unspecific search for new physics in pp collision at

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A broad scan of three kinematic distributions in those classes is performed by identifying deviations from SM expectations, accounting for systematic uncertainties. In this particular search, no significant discrepancies have been observed in data taken by CMS in 2010 and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36.1 ...

  14. Bootstrapping Relational Affordances of Object Pairs Using Transfers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fichtl, Severin; Kraft, Dirk; Krüger, Norbert

    2018-01-01

    a tool to retrieve a desired object. We investigate how these relational affordances could be learned by a robot from its own action experience. A major challenge in this approach is to reduce the number of training samples needed to achieve accuracy, and hence we investigate an approach which can...... leverage past knowledge to accelerate current learning (which we call bootstrapping). We learn random forest-based affordance predictors from visual inputs and demonstrate two approaches to knowledge transfer for bootstrapping. In the first approach [direct bootstrapping (DB)], the state-space for a new...

  15. A new model of information behaviour based on the Search Situation Transition schema Information searching, Information behaviour, Behavior, Information retrieval, Information seeking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Pharo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a conceptual model of information behaviour. The model is part of the Search Situation Transition method schema. The method schema is developed to discover and analyse interplay between phenomena traditionally analysed as factors influencing either information retrieval or information seeking. In this paper the focus is on the model's five main categories: the work task, the searcher, the social/organisational environment, the search task, and the search process. In particular, the search process and its sub-categories search situation and transition and the relationship between these are discussed. To justify the method schema an empirical study was designed according to the schema's specifications. In the paper a subset of the study is presented analysing the effects of work tasks on Web information searching. Findings from this small-scale study indicate a strong relationship between the work task goal and the level of relevance used for judging resources during search processes.

  16. Recent results of searches for beyond Standard Model physics in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Serkin, Leonid; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Recent results of searches for beyond Standard Model physics in ATLAS are presented, with particular focus on searches for new phenomena in high jet multiplicity final states. These include searches for charged Higgs boson in the $H^{+} \\to tb $ decay channel, vector-like quark pair production, four-top-quark production in different signal benchmark scenarios and associated heavy Higgs boson production. No significant excess are observed in data and exclusion limits on cross sections and masses are given for the signal models in a number of benchmark scenarios, in most cases significantly extending the reach of previous searches.

  17. Assessing the Uncertainty in QUANTEC's Dose–Response Relation of Lung and Spinal Cord With a Bootstrap Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedenberg, Minna, E-mail: minna.wedenberg@raysearchlabs.com

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To apply a statistical bootstrap analysis to assess the uncertainty in the dose–response relation for the endpoints pneumonitis and myelopathy reported in the QUANTEC review. Methods and Materials: The bootstrap method assesses the uncertainty of the estimated population-based dose-response relation due to sample variability, which reflects the uncertainty due to limited numbers of patients in the studies. A large number of bootstrap replicates of the original incidence data were produced by random sampling with replacement. The analysis requires only the dose, the number of patients, and the number of occurrences of the studied endpoint, for each study. Two dose–response models, a Poisson-based model and the Lyman model, were fitted to each bootstrap replicate using maximum likelihood. Results: The bootstrap analysis generates a family of curves representing the range of plausible dose–response relations, and the 95% bootstrap confidence intervals give an estimated upper and lower toxicity risk. The curve families for the 2 dose–response models overlap for doses included in the studies at hand but diverge beyond that, with the Lyman model suggesting a steeper slope. The resulting distributions of the model parameters indicate correlation and non-Gaussian distribution. For both data sets, the likelihood of the observed data was higher for the Lyman model in >90% of the bootstrap replicates. Conclusions: The bootstrap method provides a statistical analysis of the uncertainty in the estimated dose–response relation for myelopathy and pneumonitis. It suggests likely values of model parameter values, their confidence intervals, and how they interrelate for each model. Finally, it can be used to evaluate to what extent data supports one model over another. For both data sets considered here, the Lyman model was preferred over the Poisson-based model.

  18. Conformal bootstrap in the Regge limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daliang; Meltzer, David; Poland, David

    2017-12-01

    We analytically solve the conformal bootstrap equations in the Regge limit for large N conformal field theories. For theories with a parametrically large gap, the amplitude is dominated by spin-2 exchanges and we show how the crossing equations naturally lead to the construction of AdS exchange Witten diagrams. We also show how this is encoded in the anomalous dimensions of double-trace operators of large spin and large twist. We use the chaos bound to prove that the anomalous dimensions are negative. Extending these results to correlators containing two scalars and two conserved currents, we show how to reproduce the CEMZ constraint that the three-point function between two currents and one stress tensor only contains the structure given by Einstein-Maxwell theory in AdS, up to small corrections. Finally, we consider the case where operators of unbounded spin contribute to the Regge amplitude, whose net effect is captured by summing the leading Regge trajectory. We compute the resulting anomalous dimensions and corrections to OPE coefficients in the crossed channel and use the chaos bound to show that both are negative.

  19. Prior Pronunciation Knowledge Bootstraps Word Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khia Anne Johnson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Learners often struggle with L2 sounds, yet little is known about the role of prior pronunciation knowledge and explicit articulatory training in language acquisition. This study asks if existing pronunciation knowledge can bootstrap word learning, and whether short-term audiovisual articulatory training for tongue position with and without a production component has an effect on lexical retention. Participants were trained and tested on stimuli with perceptually salient segments that are challenging to produce. Results indicate that pronunciation knowledge plays an important role in word learning. While much about the extent and shape of this role remains unclear, this study sheds light in three main areas. First, prior pronunciation knowledge leads to increased accuracy in word learning, as all groups trended toward lower accuracy on pseudowords with two novel segments, when compared with those with one or none. Second, all training and control conditions followed similar patterns, with training neither aiding nor inhibiting retention; this is a noteworthy result as previous work has found that the inclusion of production in training leads to decreased performance when testing for retention. Finally, higher production accuracy during practice led to higher retention after the word-learning task, indicating that individual differences and successful training are potentially important indicators of retention. This study provides support for the claim that pronunciation matters in L2 word learning.

  20. Bootstrapping: Una teoría explicativa del cambio conceptual Bootstrapping: A theory for conceptual change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Castorina

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo expone la teoría explicativa propuesta por Carey para el cambio conceptual. Primeramente, se plantea la cuestión de la reorganización conceptual en la psicología cognitiva y la posición de Carey. En segundo lugar, se ponen de relieve las condiciones epistémica que deben cumplir las "teorías" infantiles para que la reestructuración conceptual sea posible, así como los modos que adopta esta última. En tercer lugar, se muestran los resultados de investigaciones que verifican el cambio conceptual entre teorías infantiles de biología intuitiva. En cuarto lugar, se plantean las dificultades de otras teorías del cambio conceptual, para luego formular los rasgos del mecanismo alternativo de bootstrapping y su pertinencia para interpretrar los datos de las indagaciones mencionadas. Finalmente, se evalúan la originalidad de la teoría del bootstrpping en el escenario de los debates contemporáneos. Muy especialmente, se esboza una posible aproximación con las tesis dialécticas de Piaget.This paper examines the Carey's theory of conceptual change. First, it describes the conceptual reorganization in cognitive psychology and the author position. Second, the epistemic conditions that children "theories" should fulfil to make conceptual restructuring possible, as well as the ways adopted by the latter, are analyzed. In third place, findings of researches testing the conceptual change among biology intuitive children theories are explained. Subsequently, it discusses the difficulties other theories of conceptual change present, in order to state features of bootstrapping as an alternative mechanism and its relevance for the interpretation of abovementioned researches results. Finally, it evaluates the originality of "bootstrapping" theory in the scene of contemporary debates. It particularly outlines a possible approach to Piaget's dialectic theses.

  1. Adapting Language Modeling Methods for Expert Search to Rank Wikipedia Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiepu; Lu, Wei; Rong, Xianqian; Gao, Yangyan

    In this paper, we propose two methods to adapt language modeling methods for expert search to the INEX entity ranking task. In our experiments, we notice that language modeling methods for expert search, if directly applied to the INEX entity ranking task, cannot effectively distinguish entity types. Thus, our proposed methods aim at resolving this problem. First, we propose a method to take into account the INEX category query field. Second, we use an interpolation of two language models to rank entities, which can solely work on the text query. Our experiments indicate that both methods can effectively adapt language modeling methods for expert search to the INEX entity ranking task.

  2. Benchmarking the efficiency of the Chilean water and sewerage companies: a double-bootstrap approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinos-Senante, María; Donoso, Guillermo; Sala-Garrido, Ramon; Villegas, Andrés

    2018-03-01

    Benchmarking the efficiency of water companies is essential to set water tariffs and to promote their sustainability. In doing so, most of the previous studies have applied conventional data envelopment analysis (DEA) models. However, it is a deterministic method that does not allow to identify environmental factors influencing efficiency scores. To overcome this limitation, this paper evaluates the efficiency of a sample of Chilean water and sewerage companies applying a double-bootstrap DEA model. Results evidenced that the ranking of water and sewerage companies changes notably whether efficiency scores are computed applying conventional or double-bootstrap DEA models. Moreover, it was found that the percentage of non-revenue water and customer density are factors influencing the efficiency of Chilean water and sewerage companies. This paper illustrates the importance of using a robust and reliable method to increase the relevance of benchmarking tools.

  3. Climate time series analysis classical statistical and bootstrap methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mudelsee, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Written for climatologists and applied statisticians, this book explains the bootstrap algorithms (including novel adaptions) and methods for confidence interval construction. The accuracy of the algorithms is tested by means of Monte Carlo experiments.

  4. 'Bootstrap' Configuration for Multistage Pulse-Tube Coolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Bich; Nguyen, Lauren

    2008-01-01

    A bootstrap configuration has been proposed for multistage pulse-tube coolers that, for instance, provide final-stage cooling to temperatures as low as 20 K. The bootstrap configuration supplants the conventional configuration, in which customarily the warm heat exchangers of all stages reject heat at ambient temperature. In the bootstrap configuration, the warm heat exchanger, the inertance tube, and the reservoir of each stage would be thermally anchored to the cold heat exchanger of the next warmer stage. The bootstrapped configuration is superior to the conventional setup, in some cases increasing the 20 K cooler's coefficient of performance two-fold over that of an otherwise equivalent conventional layout. The increased efficiency could translate into less power consumption, less cooler mass, and/or lower cost for a given amount of cooling.

  5. Bootstrapping pre-averaged realized volatility under market microstructure noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounyo, Ulrich; Goncalves, Sílvia; Meddahi, Nour

    The main contribution of this paper is to propose a bootstrap method for inference on integrated volatility based on the pre-averaging approach of Jacod et al. (2009), where the pre-averaging is done over all possible overlapping blocks of consecutive observations. The overlapping nature of the pre......-averaged returns implies that these are kn-dependent with kn growing slowly with the sample size n. This motivates the application of a blockwise bootstrap method. We show that the "blocks of blocks" bootstrap method suggested by Politis and Romano (1992) (and further studied by Bühlmann and Künsch (1995......)) is valid only when volatility is constant. The failure of the blocks of blocks bootstrap is due to the heterogeneity of the squared pre-averaged returns when volatility is stochastic. To preserve both the dependence and the heterogeneity of squared pre-averaged returns, we propose a novel procedure...

  6. Efficient generation of pronunciation dictionaries: machine learning factors during bootstrapping

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davel, MH

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available of Pronunciation Dictionaries: Machine Learning Factors during Bootstrapping Marelie Davel and Etienne Barnard CSIR / University of Pretoria Pretoria, South Africa mdavel@csir.co.za ebarnard@up.ac.za Abstract Several factors affect the efficiency... of bootstrapping approaches to the generation of pronunciation dictionaries. We focus on factors related to the underlying rule-extraction algorithms, and demonstrate variants of the Dynamically Expanding Context al- gorithm, which are beneficial...

  7. Generalized bootstrap equations and possible implications for the NLO Odderon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartels, J. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Vacca, G.P. [INFN, Sezione di Bologna (Italy)

    2013-07-15

    We formulate and discuss generalized bootstrap equations in nonabelian gauge theories. They are shown to hold in the leading logarithmic approximation. Since their validity is related to the self-consistency of the Steinmann relations for inelastic production amplitudes they can be expected to be valid also in NLO. Specializing to the N=4 SYM, we show that the validity in NLO of these generalized bootstrap equations allows to find the NLO Odderon solution with intercept exactly at one.

  8. The JCSG MR pipeline: optimized alignments, multiple models and parallel searches

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarzenbacher, Robert; Godzik, Adam; Jaroszewski, Lukasz

    2007-01-01

    The success rate of molecular replacement (MR) falls considerably when search models share less than 35% sequence identity with their templates, but can be improved significantly by using fold-recognition methods combined with exhaustive MR searches. Models based on alignments calculated with fold-recognition algorithms are more accurate than models based on conventional alignment methods such as FASTA or BLAST, which are still widely used for MR. In addition, by designing MR pipelines that i...

  9. Bootstrap current calculations for TJ-II stellarator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinell, Julio J.; Camacho, Katia

    2016-10-01

    Bootstrap current is stellarators is usually very small since they operate solely with the magnetic confinement provided by the external currents. Since plasma pressure gradients are always present the bootstrap current is always finite, but the magnetic design can be optimized to minimize it. In the helias configuration there is no optimization and therefore it is important to estimate the actual bootstrap current generated by given pressure profiles. Here, we use the configuration of the TJ-II helias to calculate the bootstrap current for various density regimes using the kinetic code DKES. We compute the monoenergetic transport coefficients D11 and D13 to find first the thermal ambipolar diffusion coefficients and the corresponding radial electric field and then the respective bootstrap current. This is made taking experimental density and electron and ion temperature profiles. In spite of the convergence problems of DKES at low collisionality, we can obtain bootstrap current values with acceptable uncertainties, without using Monte Carlo methods. The results are compared with axisymmetric neoclassical computations. The resulting rotational transform is used to obtain the rational surfaces location and predict the transport barriers observed in the experiments. Funded by projects PAPIIT IN109115 and Conacyt 152905.

  10. Search for Physics Beyond the Standard Model at BaBar and Belle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calderini G.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent results on the search for new physics at BaBar and Belle B-factories are presented. The search for a light Higgs boson produced in the decay of different γ resonances is shown. In addition, recent measurements aimed to discover invisible final states produced by new physics mechanisms beyond the standard model are presented.

  11. Graphics-based intelligent search and abstracting using Data Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaenisch, Holger M.; Handley, James W.; Case, Carl T.; Songy, Claude G.

    2002-11-01

    This paper presents an autonomous text and context-mining algorithm that converts text documents into point clouds for visual search cues. This algorithm is applied to the task of data-mining a scriptural database comprised of the Old and New Testaments from the Bible and the Book of Mormon, Doctrine and Covenants, and the Pearl of Great Price. Results are generated which graphically show the scripture that represents the average concept of the database and the mining of the documents down to the verse level.

  12. A Bootstrap Approach to Martian Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorais, Gregory A.

    2004-01-01

    In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) is an essential element of any affordable strategy for a sustained human presence on Mars. Ideally, Martian habitats would be extremely massive to allow plenty of room to comfortably live and work, as well as to protect the occupants from the environment. Moreover, transportation and power generation systems would also require significant mass if affordable. For our approach to ISRU, we use the industrialization of the U.S. as a metaphor. The 19th century started with small blacksmith shops and ended with massive steel mills primarily accomplished by blacksmiths increasing their production capacity and product size to create larger shops, which produced small mills, which produced the large steel mills that industrialized the country. Most of the mass of a steel mill is comprised of steel in simple shapes, which are produced and repaired with few pieces of equipment also mostly made of steel in basic shapes. Due to this simplicity, we expect that the 19th century manufacturing growth can be repeated on Mars in the 21st century using robots as the primary labor force. We suggest a "bootstrap" approach to manufacturing on Mars that uses a "seed" manufacturing system that uses regolith to create major structural components and spare parts. The regolith would be melted, foamed, and sintered as needed to fabricate parts using casting and solid freeform fabrication techniques. Complex components, such as electronics, would be brought from Earth and integrated as needed. These parts would be assembled to create additional manufacturing systems, which can be both more capable and higher capacity. These subsequent manufacturing systems could refine vast amounts of raw materials to create large components, as well as assemble equipment, habitats, pressure vessels, cranes, pipelines, railways, trains, power generation stations, and other facilities needed to economically maintain a sustained human presence on Mars.

  13. Recent developments in MrBUMP: better search-model preparation, graphical interaction with search models, and solution improvement and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Ronan M; McNicholas, Stuart J; Thomas, Jens M H; Simpkin, Adam J; Simkovic, Felix; Uski, Ville; Ballard, Charles C; Winn, Martyn D; Wilson, Keith S; Rigden, Daniel J

    2018-03-01

    Increasing sophistication in molecular-replacement (MR) software and the rapid expansion of the PDB in recent years have allowed the technique to become the dominant method for determining the phases of a target structure in macromolecular X-ray crystallography. In addition, improvements in bioinformatic techniques for finding suitable homologous structures for use as MR search models, combined with developments in refinement and model-building techniques, have pushed the applicability of MR to lower sequence identities and made weak MR solutions more amenable to refinement and improvement. MrBUMP is a CCP4 pipeline which automates all stages of the MR procedure. Its scope covers everything from the sourcing and preparation of suitable search models right through to rebuilding of the positioned search model. Recent improvements to the pipeline include the adoption of more sensitive bioinformatic tools for sourcing search models, enhanced model-preparation techniques including better ensembling of homologues, and the use of phase improvement and model building on the resulting solution. The pipeline has also been deployed as an online service through CCP4 online, which allows its users to exploit large bioinformatic databases and coarse-grained parallelism to speed up the determination of a possible solution. Finally, the molecular-graphics application CCP4mg has been combined with MrBUMP to provide an interactive visual aid to the user during the process of selecting and manipulating search models for use in MR. Here, these developments in MrBUMP are described with a case study to explore how some of the enhancements to the pipeline and to CCP4mg can help to solve a difficult case.

  14. Dynamics of the job search process: developing and testing a mediated moderation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shuhua; Song, Zhaoli; Lim, Vivien K G

    2013-09-01

    Taking a self-regulatory perspective, we develop a mediated moderation model explaining how within-person changes in job search efficacy and chronic regulatory focus interactively affect the number of job interview offers and whether job search effort mediates the cross-level interactive effects. A sample of 184 graduating college students provided monthly reports of their job search activities over a period of 8 months. Findings supported the hypothesized relationships. Specifically, at the within-person level, job search efficacy was positively related with the number of interview offers for job seekers with strong prevention focus and negatively related with the number of interview offers for job seekers with strong promotion focus. Results show that job search effort mediated the moderated relationships. Findings enhance understandings of the complex self-regulatory processes underlying job search. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  15. Asymptotic Expansions and Bootstrapping Distributions for Dependent Variables: A Martingale Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mykland, Per Aslak

    1992-01-01

    The paper develops a one-step triangular array asymptotic expansion for continuous martingales which are asymptotically normal. Mixing conditions are not required, but the quadratic variations of the martingales must satisfy a law of large numbers and a central limit type condition. From this result we derive expansions for the distributions of estimators in asymptotically ergodic differential equation models, and also for the bootstrapping estimators of these distributions.

  16. Marine Search and Rescue of UAV in Long-Distance Security Modeling Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Lei

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Long-distance safety of Marine search and rescue using drones can improve the searching speed. The current method is based on the long distance security classification of UAV.The degree of accuracy is low. A long-distance security modeling approach based on ArduinoMiniPro’s Marine search-and-rescue applying UAV is proposed. The method puts the fault tree analysis and relevant calculation for risk identification into use. The main factors affecting the safety of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV are long-distance searching and rescuing. The experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively build modeling for the long-distance safety of the Marine search and rescue UAV

  17. Searching for better animal models of BPD: a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Morty, Rory E

    2016-11-01

    There have been many efforts to develop good animal models of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) to better understand the pathophysiology and mechanisms underlying development of BPD as well as to test potential strategies for its prevention and treatment. This Perspectives summarizes the features of common animal models of BPD and the strengths and limitations of such models. Potential optimal approaches to development of animal models are indicated, with the underlying concepts that require emphasis. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  18. A 3D Geometry Model Search Engine to Support Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Gary K. L.; Lau, Rynson W. H.; Zhao, Jianmin

    2009-01-01

    Due to the popularity of 3D graphics in animation and games, usage of 3D geometry deformable models increases dramatically. Despite their growing importance, these models are difficult and time consuming to build. A distance learning system for the construction of these models could greatly facilitate students to learn and practice at different…

  19. Interpretation of Higgs and Susy searches in MSUGRA and GMSB Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivie, J.B. de

    1999-10-01

    HIGGS and SUSY searches performed by the ALEPH Experiment at LEP are interpreted in the framework of two constrained R-parity conserving models: Minimal Supergravity and minimal Gauge Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking. (author)

  20. Bootstrap prediction bands for cervical spine intervertebral kinematics during in vivo three-dimensional head movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderst, William J

    2015-05-01

    There is substantial inter-subject variability in intervertebral range of motion (ROM) in the cervical spine. This makes it difficult to define "normal" ROM, and to assess the effects of age, injury, and surgical procedures on spine kinematics. The objective of this study was to define normal intervertebral kinematics in the cervical spine during dynamic functional loading. Twenty-nine participants performed dynamic flexion\\extension, axial rotation, and lateral bending while biplane radiographs were collected at 30 images/s. Vertebral motion was tracked with sub-millimeter accuracy using a validated volumetric model-based tracking process that matched subject-specific CT-based bone models to the radiographs. Gaussian point-by-point and bootstrap techniques were used to determine 90% prediction bands for the intervertebral kinematic curves at 1% intervals of each movement cycle. Cross validation was performed to estimate the true achieved coverage for each method. For a targeted coverage of 90%, the estimated true coverage using bootstrap prediction bands averaged 86±5%, while the estimated true coverage using Gaussian point-by-point intervals averaged 56±10% over all movements and all motion segments. Bootstrap prediction bands are recommended as the standard for evaluating full ROM cervical spine kinematic curves. The data presented here can be used to identify abnormal motion in patients presenting with neck pain, to drive computational models, and to assess the biofidelity of in vitro loading paradigms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessment of bootstrap resampling performance for PET data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markiewicz, P J; Reader, A J; Matthews, J C

    2015-01-07

    Bootstrap resampling has been successfully used for estimation of statistical uncertainty of parameters such as tissue metabolism, blood flow or displacement fields for image registration. The performance of bootstrap resampling as applied to PET list-mode data of the human brain and dedicated phantoms is assessed in a novel and systematic way such that: (1) the assessment is carried out in two resampling stages: the 'real world' stage where multiple reference datasets of varying statistical level are generated and the 'bootstrap world' stage where corresponding bootstrap replicates are generated from the reference datasets. (2) All resampled datasets were reconstructed yielding images from which multiple voxel and regions of interest (ROI) values were extracted to form corresponding distributions between the two stages. (3) The difference between the distributions from both stages was quantified using the Jensen-Shannon divergence and the first four moments. It was found that the bootstrap distributions are consistently different to the real world distributions across the statistical levels. The difference was explained by a shift in the mean (up to 33% for voxels and 14% for ROIs) being proportional to the inverse square root of the statistical level (number of counts). Other moments were well replicated by the bootstrap although for very low statistical levels the estimation of the variance was poor. Therefore, the bootstrap method should be used with care when estimating systematic errors (bias) and variance when very low statistical levels are present such as in early time frames of dynamic acquisitions, when the underlying population may not be sufficiently represented.

  2. Model-independent search for new physics at D0 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naimuddin, Md.

    2012-01-01

    Finding the evidence of new physics beyond the Standard Model is one of the primary goals of RunII of the Tevatron. Many dedicated searches for new physics are ongoing at the Tevatron but in order to broaden the scope and maximize the chances of finding the new physics, we also search in a model-independent way. The results of such searches for indications of new physics at the electroweak scale are presented using data collected using the D0 detector from pp-bar-interactions at √s = 1.96 TeV. (author)

  3. Experimental hemorrhagic stroke: search for a better model

    OpenAIRE

    Yabluchanskiy, Andriy; Sawle, Philip; Homer-vanniasinkam, Shervanthi; Green, Colin; Motterlini, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Hemorrhagic stroke is one of the least studied problems in the modern neurology. Development of the treatment leads to examination of the pathophysiology of the process, which mainly can be performed in animal models. Recent years few animal model of the hemorrhagic stroke have been proposed. In this review we discuss the differences and benefits of the existing models in the compliance with the process that take place in human patients with hemorrhagic stroke.

  4. Constitutional Justice Procedure in Lithuania: a Search for Optimal Model

    OpenAIRE

    Pūraitė-Andrikienė, Dovilė

    2017-01-01

    The dissertation systematically analyzes the preconditions for optimising the existing constitutional justice model, i.e. whether the current model meets the expectations of Lithuanian society and the legal community, corresponds to the capabilities of the legal system, and is in line with the tendencies of constitutional justice in European states, identifies the problematic aspects of the existing constitutional justice model and brings forward proposals regarding how the legal regulation c...

  5. Univariate and Multivariate Specification Search Indices in Covariance Structure Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Susan R.

    1993-01-01

    Simulated population data were used to compare relative performances of the modification index and C. Chou and P. M. Bentler's Lagrange multiplier test (a multivariate generalization of a modification index) for four levels of model misspecification. Both indices failed to recover the true model except at the lowest level of misspecification. (SLD)

  6. Investigating Master Students’ Mental Models of Google Search Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Safari

    2017-09-01

    According to the findings, it is necessary to consider mental model as a factor affecting information seeking behavior, in designing information systems and training users too. Understanding users’ mental models reveal their errors, misconceptions and knowledge gaps, and by this pathology, it is possible to correct these faults and flaws and increase the effectiveness of the system and training.

  7. Model unspecific search for new physics in pp collision at

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present the results of a model-independent analysis, which systematically scans the data taken by CMS for deviations from the Standard Model (SM) predictions. Due to ... A broad scan of three kinematic distributions in those classes is performed by identifying deviations from SM expectations, accounting for systematic ...

  8. Search for composite models with family gauge symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, B.R.; Huerta, R.

    1985-01-01

    We have analyzed a class of three-preon models based on a strategy expected to lead to family gauge symmetry SUsup(F)(n) and found that, in order to obey the assumption of asymptotic freedom and infrared confinement for the hypercolor group SUsub(H)(N), 't Hooft anomaly consistency conditions, especially the requirement of dynamical generation of quark-lepton masses by means of color condensates of exotic fermions, the only possible model is the three-fermion model with the hypercolor group SUsub(H)(4) and the family gauge group SUsup(F)(2). All the models considered which contain scalar-preons are excluded from being realistic models unless some new mechanism of quark-lepton mass generation is worked out. (orig.)

  9. Modelling antibody side chain conformations using heuristic database search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, D W; Kemp, G J

    1997-01-01

    We have developed a knowledge-based system which models the side chain conformations of residues in the variable domains of antibody Fv fragments. The system is written in Prolog and uses an object-oriented database of aligned antibody structures in conjunction with a side chain rotamer library. The antibody database provides 3-dimensional clusters of side chain conformations which can be copied en masse into the model structure. The object-oriented database architecture facilitates a navigational style of database access, necessary to assemble side chains clusters. Around 60% of the model is built using side chain clusters and this eliminates much of the combinatorial complexity associated with many other side chain placement algorithms. Construction and placement of side chain clusters is guided by a heuristic cost function based on a simple model of side chain packing interactions. Even with a simple model, we find that a large proportion of side chain conformations are modelled accurately. We expect our approach could be used with other homologous protein families, in addition to antibodies, both to improve the quality of model structures and to give a "smart start" to the side chain placement problem.

  10. N = 4 superconformal bootstrap of the K3 CFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying-Hsuan; Shao, Shu-Heng; Simmons-Duffin, David; Wang, Yifan; Yin, Xi

    2017-05-01

    We study two-dimensional (4, 4) superconformal field theories of central charge c = 6, corresponding to nonlinear sigma models on K3 surfaces, using the superconformal bootstrap. This is made possible through a surprising relation between the BPS N = 4 superconformal blocks with c = 6 and bosonic Virasoro conformal blocks with c = 28, and an exact result on the moduli dependence of a certain integrated BPS 4-point function. Nontrivial bounds on the non-BPS spectrum in the K3 CFT are obtained as functions of the CFT moduli, that interpolate between the free orbifold points and singular CFT points. We observe directly from the CFT perspective the signature of a continuous spectrum above a gap at the singular moduli, and find numerically an upper bound on this gap that is saturated by the A 1 N = 4 cigar CFT. We also derive an analytic upper bound on the first nonzero eigenvalue of the scalar Laplacian on K3 in the large volume regime, that depends on the K3 moduli data. As two byproducts, we find an exact equivalence between a class of BPS N = 2 superconformal blocks and Virasoro conformal blocks in two dimensions, and an upper bound on the four-point functions of operators of sufficiently low scaling dimension in three and four dimensional CFTs.

  11. N=4 Superconformal Bootstrap of the K3 CFT

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    We study two-dimensional (4,4) superconformal field theories of central charge c=6, corresponding to nonlinear σ models on K3 surfaces, using the superconformal bootstrap. This is made possible through a surprising relation between the BPS N=4 superconformal blocks with c=6 and bosonic Virasoro conformal blocks with c=28, and an exact result on the moduli dependence of a certain integrated BPS 4-point function. Nontrivial bounds on the non-BPS spectrum in the K3 CFT are obtained as functions of the CFT moduli, that interpolate between the free orbifold points and singular CFT points. We observe directly from the CFT perspective the signature of a continuous spectrum above a gap at the singular moduli, and find numerically an upper bound on this gap that is saturated by the A1 N=4 cigar CFT. We also derive an analytic upper bound on the first nonzero eigenvalue of the scalar Laplacian on K3 in the large volume regime, that depends on the K3 moduli data. As two byproducts, we find an exact equivalence...

  12. Bootstrap-based Support of HGT Inferred by Maximum Parsimony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakhleh Luay

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maximum parsimony is one of the most commonly used criteria for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Recently, Nakhleh and co-workers extended this criterion to enable reconstruction of phylogenetic networks, and demonstrated its application to detecting reticulate evolutionary relationships. However, one of the major problems with this extension has been that it favors more complex evolutionary relationships over simpler ones, thus having the potential for overestimating the amount of reticulation in the data. An ad hoc solution to this problem that has been used entails inspecting the improvement in the parsimony length as more reticulation events are added to the model, and stopping when the improvement is below a certain threshold. Results In this paper, we address this problem in a more systematic way, by proposing a nonparametric bootstrap-based measure of support of inferred reticulation events, and using it to determine the number of those events, as well as their placements. A number of samples is generated from the given sequence alignment, and reticulation events are inferred based on each sample. Finally, the support of each reticulation event is quantified based on the inferences made over all samples. Conclusions We have implemented our method in the NEPAL software tool (available publicly at http://bioinfo.cs.rice.edu/, and studied its performance on both biological and simulated data sets. While our studies show very promising results, they also highlight issues that are inherently challenging when applying the maximum parsimony criterion to detect reticulate evolution.

  13. Bootstrap-based support of HGT inferred by maximum parsimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun Jung; Jin, Guohua; Nakhleh, Luay

    2010-05-05

    Maximum parsimony is one of the most commonly used criteria for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Recently, Nakhleh and co-workers extended this criterion to enable reconstruction of phylogenetic networks, and demonstrated its application to detecting reticulate evolutionary relationships. However, one of the major problems with this extension has been that it favors more complex evolutionary relationships over simpler ones, thus having the potential for overestimating the amount of reticulation in the data. An ad hoc solution to this problem that has been used entails inspecting the improvement in the parsimony length as more reticulation events are added to the model, and stopping when the improvement is below a certain threshold. In this paper, we address this problem in a more systematic way, by proposing a nonparametric bootstrap-based measure of support of inferred reticulation events, and using it to determine the number of those events, as well as their placements. A number of samples is generated from the given sequence alignment, and reticulation events are inferred based on each sample. Finally, the support of each reticulation event is quantified based on the inferences made over all samples. We have implemented our method in the NEPAL software tool (available publicly at http://bioinfo.cs.rice.edu/), and studied its performance on both biological and simulated data sets. While our studies show very promising results, they also highlight issues that are inherently challenging when applying the maximum parsimony criterion to detect reticulate evolution.

  14. Gaussian process regression bootstrapping: exploring the effects of uncertainty in time course data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Paul D W; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2009-05-15

    Although widely accepted that high-throughput biological data are typically highly noisy, the effects that this uncertainty has upon the conclusions we draw from these data are often overlooked. However, in order to assign any degree of confidence to our conclusions, we must quantify these effects. Bootstrap resampling is one method by which this may be achieved. Here, we present a parametric bootstrapping approach for time-course data, in which Gaussian process regression (GPR) is used to fit a probabilistic model from which replicates may then be drawn. This approach implicitly allows the time dependence of the data to be taken into account, and is applicable to a wide range of problems. We apply GPR bootstrapping to two datasets from the literature. In the first example, we show how the approach may be used to investigate the effects of data uncertainty upon the estimation of parameters in an ordinary differential equations (ODE) model of a cell signalling pathway. Although we find that the parameter estimates inferred from the original dataset are relatively robust to data uncertainty, we also identify a distinct second set of estimates. In the second example, we use our method to show that the topology of networks constructed from time-course gene expression data appears to be sensitive to data uncertainty, although there may be individual edges in the network that are robust in light of present data. Matlab code for performing GPR bootstrapping is available from our web site: http://www3.imperial.ac.uk/theoreticalsystemsbiology/data-software/.

  15. Search for Higgs Bosons Beyond the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Mankel, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    While the existence of a Higgs boson with a mass near 125 GeV has been clearly established, the detailed structure of the entire Higgs sector is yet unclear. Besides the standard model interpretation, various possibilities for extended Higgs sectors are being considered. Such options include the minimal and next-to-minimal supersymmetric extensions (MSSM and NMSSM) of the standard model, more generic Two-Higgs Doublet models (2HDM), as well as truly exotic Higgs bosons decaying e.g. into totally invisible final states are considered. The talk presents recent results from the CMS experiment.

  16. Search for Higgs bosons beyond the Standard Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mankel Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While the existence of a Higgs boson with a mass near 125 GeV has been clearly established, the detailed structure of the entire Higgs sector is yet unclear. Beyond the standard model interpretation, various scenarios for extended Higgs sectors are being considered. Such options include the minimal and next-to-minimal supersymmetric extensions (MSSM and NMSSM of the standard model, more generic Two-Higgs Doublet models (2HDM, as well as truly exotic Higgs bosons decaying e.g. into totally invisible final states. This article presents recent results from the CMS experiment.

  17. Locality, bulk equations of motion and the conformal bootstrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabat, Daniel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lehman College, City University of New York,250 Bedford Park Blvd. W, Bronx NY 10468 (United States); Lifschytz, Gilad [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Natural Science, University of Haifa,199 Aba Khoushy Ave., Haifa 31905 (Israel)

    2016-10-18

    We develop an approach to construct local bulk operators in a CFT to order 1/N{sup 2}. Since 4-point functions are not fixed by conformal invariance we use the OPE to categorize possible forms for a bulk operator. Using previous results on 3-point functions we construct a local bulk operator in each OPE channel. We then impose the condition that the bulk operators constructed in different channels agree, and hence give rise to a well-defined bulk operator. We refer to this condition as the “bulk bootstrap.” We argue and explicitly show in some examples that the bulk bootstrap leads to some of the same results as the regular conformal bootstrap. In fact the bulk bootstrap provides an easier way to determine some CFT data, since it does not require knowing the form of the conformal blocks. This analysis clarifies previous results on the relation between bulk locality and the bootstrap for theories with a 1/N expansion, and it identifies a simple and direct way in which OPE coefficients and anomalous dimensions determine the bulk equations of motion to order 1/N{sup 2}.

  18. Unbiased bootstrap error estimation for linear discriminant analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Thang; Sima, Chao; Braga-Neto, Ulisses M; Dougherty, Edward R

    2014-12-01

    Convex bootstrap error estimation is a popular tool for classifier error estimation in gene expression studies. A basic question is how to determine the weight for the convex combination between the basic bootstrap estimator and the resubstitution estimator such that the resulting estimator is unbiased at finite sample sizes. The well-known 0.632 bootstrap error estimator uses asymptotic arguments to propose a fixed 0.632 weight, whereas the more recent 0.632+ bootstrap error estimator attempts to set the weight adaptively. In this paper, we study the finite sample problem in the case of linear discriminant analysis under Gaussian populations. We derive exact expressions for the weight that guarantee unbiasedness of the convex bootstrap error estimator in the univariate and multivariate cases, without making asymptotic simplifications. Using exact computation in the univariate case and an accurate approximation in the multivariate case, we obtain the required weight and show that it can deviate significantly from the constant 0.632 weight, depending on the sample size and Bayes error for the problem. The methodology is illustrated by application on data from a well-known cancer classification study.

  19. Search for the standard model Higgs boson in $l\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Dikai [Pierre and Marie Curie Univ., Paris (France)

    2013-01-01

    Humans have always attempted to understand the mystery of Nature, and more recently physicists have established theories to describe the observed phenomena. The most recent theory is a gauge quantum field theory framework, called Standard Model (SM), which proposes a model comprised of elementary matter particles and interaction particles which are fundamental force carriers in the most unified way. The Standard Model contains the internal symmetries of the unitary product group SU(3)c ⓍSU(2)L Ⓧ U(1)Y , describes the electromagnetic, weak and strong interactions; the model also describes how quarks interact with each other through all of these three interactions, how leptons interact with each other through electromagnetic and weak forces, and how force carriers mediate the fundamental interactions.

  20. Aerial Search Optimization Model (ASOM) for UAVs in Special Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kress, Moshe; Royset, Johannes O

    2007-01-01

    .... The special operations team is equipped with short-range surveillance UAVs. We combine intelligence regarding the targets with availability and capability of UAVs in an integer linear programming model...

  1. Wages, Training, and Job Turnover in a Search-Matching Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Michael; Nielsen, Michael Svarer

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we extend a job search-matching model with firm-specific investments in training developed by Mortensen (1998) to allow for different offer arrival rates in employment and unemployment. The model by Mortensen changes the original wage posting model (Burdett and Mortensen, 1998) in two...

  2. Dialect Topic Modeling for Improved Consumer Medical Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crain, Steven P. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Yang, Shuang-Hong [Georgia Institute of Technology; Zha, Hongyuan [Georgia Institute of Technology; Jiao, Yu [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Access to health information by consumers is ham- pered by a fundamental language gap. Current attempts to close the gap leverage consumer oriented health information, which does not, however, have good coverage of slang medical terminology. In this paper, we present a Bayesian model to automatically align documents with different dialects (slang, com- mon and technical) while extracting their semantic topics. The proposed diaTM model enables effective information retrieval, even when the query contains slang words, by explicitly modeling the mixtures of dialects in documents and the joint influence of dialects and topics on word selection. Simulations us- ing consumer questions to retrieve medical information from a corpus of medical documents show that diaTM achieves a 25% improvement in information retrieval relevance by nDCG@5 over an LDA baseline.

  3. Modeling carbon allocation in trees: a search for principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Oskar; Johansson, Jacob; Dewar, Roderick C; Dieckmann, Ulf; McMurtrie, Ross E; Brännström, Ake; Dybzinski, Ray

    2012-06-01

    We review approaches to predicting carbon and nitrogen allocation in forest models in terms of their underlying assumptions and their resulting strengths and limitations. Empirical and allometric methods are easily developed and computationally efficient, but lack the power of evolution-based approaches to explain and predict multifaceted effects of environmental variability and climate change. In evolution-based methods, allocation is usually determined by maximization of a fitness proxy, either in a fixed environment, which we call optimal response (OR) models, or including the feedback of an individual's strategy on its environment (game-theoretical optimization, GTO). Optimal response models can predict allocation in single trees and stands when there is significant competition only for one resource. Game-theoretical optimization can be used to account for additional dimensions of competition, e.g., when strong root competition boosts root allocation at the expense of wood production. However, we demonstrate that an OR model predicts similar allocation to a GTO model under the root-competitive conditions reported in free-air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) experiments. The most evolutionarily realistic approach is adaptive dynamics (AD) where the allocation strategy arises from eco-evolutionary dynamics of populations instead of a fitness proxy. We also discuss emerging entropy-based approaches that offer an alternative thermodynamic perspective on allocation, in which fitness proxies are replaced by entropy or entropy production. To help develop allocation models further, the value of wide-ranging datasets, such as FLUXNET, could be greatly enhanced by ancillary measurements of driving variables, such as water and soil nitrogen availability.

  4. Tests of the standard model and searches for new physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langacker, Paul [Pennsylvania Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1996-07-01

    Earlier chapters of this volume have detailed described the standard model and its renormalization, the various types of precision experiments, and their implications. This chapter is devoted to global analysis of the Z-pole, M{sub W}, and neutral current data, which contains more information that any one class of experiments. The subsequent sections will summarize some of the relevant data and theoretical formulas, the status of the standard model tests and parameter determinations, the possible classes of new physics, and the implications of the precision experiments. In particular, the model independent analysis of neutral current couplings, which establishes the standard model to first approximation; the implication of supersymmetry; supersymmetric grand unification; and a number if specific types of new physics, including heavy Z{sup '} bosons, new sources of SU{sub 2} breaking, new contributions to the gauge boson self-energies, Zb b-bar vertex corrections, certain types of new 4-Fermi operators and leptoquarks, and the exotic fermions are described.

  5. Modelling geographical graduate job search using circular statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faggian, Alessandra; Corcoran, Jonathan; McCann, Philip

    Theory suggests that the spatial patterns of migration flows are contingent both on individual human capital and underlying geographical structures. Here we demonstrate these features by using circular statistics in an econometric modelling framework applied to the flows of UK university graduates.

  6. searches for physics beyond the standard model in production at ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CERN, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland. Abstract. Preliminary combinations of measurements of the 4 LEP Collaborations of the process e+e- ff at LEP II are presented. The combined results are interpreted in terms of contact interactions and the exchange of Ζ' bosons and within models of low-scale gravity in large extra ...

  7. QUEST: A model to quantify uncertain emergency search techniques, theory and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.M.; Goldsby, M.E.; Plantenga, T.D.; Wilcox, W.B.; Hensley, W.K.

    1996-01-01

    As recent world events show, criminal and terrorist access to nuclear materials is a growing national concern. The national laboratories are taking the lead in developing technologies to counter these potential threats to our national security. Sandia National Laboratories, with support from Pacific Northwest Laboratory and the Remote Sensing Laboratory, has developed QUEST (a model to Quantify Uncertain Emergency Search Techniques), to enhance the performance of organizations in the search for lost or stolen nuclear material. In addition, QUEST supports a wide range of other applications, such as environmental monitoring, nuclear facilities inspections, and searcher training. QUEST simulates the search for nuclear materials and calculates detector response fro various source types and locations. The probability of detecting a radioactive source during a search is a function of many different variables. Through calculation of dynamic detector response, QUEST makes possible quantitative comparisons of various sensor technologies and search patterns. The QUEST model can be used to examine the impact of new detector technologies, explore alternative search concepts, and provide interactive search/inspector training

  8. Bootstrap testing for cross-correlation under low firing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Montoro, Aldana M; Cao, Ricardo; Espinosa, Nelson; Cudeiro, Javier; Mariño, Jorge

    2015-06-01

    A new cross-correlation synchrony index for neural activity is proposed. The index is based on the integration of the kernel estimation of the cross-correlation function. It is used to test for the dynamic synchronization levels of spontaneous neural activity under two induced brain states: sleep-like and awake-like. Two bootstrap resampling plans are proposed to approximate the distribution of the test statistics. The results of the first bootstrap method indicate that it is useful to discern significant differences in the synchronization dynamics of brain states characterized by a neural activity with low firing rate. The second bootstrap method is useful to unveil subtle differences in the synchronization levels of the awake-like state, depending on the activation pathway.

  9. Measuring Efficiency of Tunisian Schools in the Presence of Quasi-Fixed Inputs: A Bootstrap Data Envelopment Analysis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essid, Hedi; Ouellette, Pierre; Vigeant, Stephane

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to measure the efficiency of high schools in Tunisia. We use a statistical data envelopment analysis (DEA)-bootstrap approach with quasi-fixed inputs to estimate the precision of our measure. To do so, we developed a statistical model serving as the foundation of the data generation process (DGP). The DGP is…

  10. Improved Model Calibration From Genetically Adaptive Multi-Method Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrugt, J. A.; Robinson, B. A.

    2006-12-01

    Evolutionary optimization is a subject of intense interest in many fields of study, including computational chemistry, biology, bio-informatics, economics, computational science, geophysics and environmental science. The goal is to determine values for model parameters or state variables that provide the best possible solution to a predefined cost or objective function, or a set of optimal trade-off values in the case of two or more conflicting objectives. However, locating optimal solutions often turns out to be painstakingly tedious, or even completely beyond current or projected computational capacity. Here we present an innovative concept of genetically adaptive multi-algorithm optimization. Benchmark results show that this new optimization technique is significantly more efficient than current state-of-the-art evolutionary algorithms, approaching a factor of ten improvement for the more complex, higher dimensional optimization problems. Our new algorithm provides new opportunities for solving previously intractable environmental model calibration problems.

  11. The search for the Standard Model Higgs boson at ALEPH

    CERN Document Server

    McNamara, P A

    2002-01-01

    The standard model of elementary particles is a remarkably successful theory. The Higgs boson, the particle responsible for giving masses to those particles with mass, is the only particle in the standard model which has not been experimentally observed. In data collected in 2000 at the Large Electron-Positron Collider, at center of mass energies up to 209 GeV, an excess of Higgs-like events was observed. This excess is consistent with the production of a Higgs boson with invariant mass 115.6 ± 0.8 GeV/c 2. The effect is dominated by an excess in the four-jet channels in ALEPH caused by three high purity signal candidates.

  12. Standard model parameters and the search for new physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciano, W.J.

    1988-04-01

    In these lectures, my aim is to present an up-to-date status report on the standard model and some key tests of electroweak unification. Within that context, I also discuss how and where hints of new physics may emerge. To accomplish those goals, I have organized my presentation as follows: I discuss the standard model parameters with particular emphasis on the gauge coupling constants and vector boson masses. Examples of new physics appendages are also briefly commented on. In addition, because these lectures are intended for students and thus somewhat pedagogical, I have included an appendix on dimensional regularization and a simple computational example that employs that technique. Next, I focus on weak charged current phenomenology. Precision tests of the standard model are described and up-to-date values for the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) mixing matrix parameters are presented. Constraints implied by those tests for a 4th generation, supersymmetry, extra Z/prime/ bosons, and compositeness are also discussed. I discuss weak neutral current phenomenology and the extraction of sin/sup 2/ /theta//sub W/ from experiment. The results presented there are based on a recently completed global analysis of all existing data. I have chosen to concentrate that discussion on radiative corrections, the effect of a heavy top quark mass, and implications for grand unified theories (GUTS). The potential for further experimental progress is also commented on. I depart from the narrowest version of the standard model and discuss effects of neutrino masses and mixings. I have chosen to concentrate on oscillations, the Mikheyev-Smirnov- Wolfenstein (MSW) effect, and electromagnetic properties of neutrinos. On the latter topic, I will describe some recent work on resonant spin-flavor precession. Finally, I conclude with a prospectus on hopes for the future. 76 refs

  13. Models & Searches of CPT Violation: a personal, very partial, list

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavromatos, Nick E.

    2018-01-01

    In this talk, first I motivate theoretically, and then I review the phenomenology of, some models entailing CPT Violation (CPTV). The latter is argued to be responsible for the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry in the Cosmos, and may owe its origin to either Lorentz-violating background geometries, whose effects are strong in early epochs of the Universe but very weak today, being temperature dependent in general, or to an ill-defined CPT generator in some quantum gravity models entailing decoherence of quantum matter as a result of quantum degrees of freedom in the gravity sector that are inaccessible to the low-energy observers. In particular, for the latter category of CPTV, I argue that entangled states of neutral mesons (Kaons or B-systems), of central relevance to KLOE-2 experiment, can provide smoking-gun sensitive tests or even falsify some of these models. If CPT is ill-defined one may also encounter violations of the spin-statistics theorem, with possible consequences for the Pauli Exclusion Principle, which I only briefly touch upon.

  14. Models & Searches of CPT Violation: a personal, very partial, list

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavromatos Nick E.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this talk, first I motivate theoretically, and then I review the phenomenology of, some models entailing CPT Violation (CPTV. The latter is argued to be responsible for the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry in the Cosmos, and may owe its origin to either Lorentz-violating background geometries, whose effects are strong in early epochs of the Universe but very weak today, being temperature dependent in general, or to an ill-defined CPT generator in some quantum gravity models entailing decoherence of quantum matter as a result of quantum degrees of freedom in the gravity sector that are inaccessible to the low-energy observers. In particular, for the latter category of CPTV, I argue that entangled states of neutral mesons (Kaons or B-systems, of central relevance to KLOE-2 experiment, can provide smoking-gun sensitive tests or even falsify some of these models. If CPT is ill-defined one may also encounter violations of the spin-statistics theorem, with possible consequences for the Pauli Exclusion Principle, which I only briefly touch upon.

  15. Searching for extensions to the standard model in rare kaon decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    Small effects that are beyond the current standard models of physics are often signatures for new physics, revealing fields and mass scales far removed from contemporary experimental capabilities. This perspective motivates sensitive searches for rare decays of the kaon. The current status of these searches is reviewed, new results are presented, and progress in the near future is discussed. Opportunities for exciting physics research at a hadron facility are noted. 5 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  16. Standard Model Higgs boson searches in the weak boson decay channels with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Carrillo-Montoya, Germán; Wu, Sau Lan

    The search of the Standard Model Higgs boson decaying into a pair of weak bosons with the subsequent leptonic decay of the $W$ or $Z$ bosons is presented. The contributions achieved by this work range from the reevaluation of Higgs boson normalisation cross-sections, to the development of the analysis strategies using detailed Monte Carlo simulations and the search results for the $H\t\\to ZZ \\to l^{+}l^{-} \

  17. Website Traffics Acquisition Model for E-Business using Search Engine Optimization and Sitemap Submission (SEOSS)

    OpenAIRE

    ZULAZEZE SAHRI

    2016-01-01

    Abstract—It is inevitable to accept that today’s business trends focus on selling products online using the latest web application system and website marketing tools. This phenomenon creates a high competition on search engine ranking among website owners in gaining business leads, visitor traffics and acquisitions. This paper proposed a model on improving e-business traffics acquisitions in terms of the number of new visitors (traffics) and returning visitors using Search Engine Optimization...

  18. An inferential study of the phenotype for the chromosome 15q24 microdeletion syndrome: a bootstrap analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazón-Bru, Antonio; Ramírez-Prado, Dolores; Cortés, Ernesto; Aguilar-Segura, María Soledad; Gil-Guillén, Vicente Francisco

    2016-01-01

    In January 2012, a review of the cases of chromosome 15q24 microdeletion syndrome was published. However, this study did not include inferential statistics. The aims of the present study were to update the literature search and calculate confidence intervals for the prevalence of each phenotype using bootstrap methodology. Published case reports of patients with the syndrome that included detailed information about breakpoints and phenotype were sought and 36 were included. Deletions in megabase (Mb) pairs were determined to calculate the size of the interstitial deletion of the phenotypes studied in 2012. To determine confidence intervals for the prevalence of the phenotype and the interstitial loss, we used bootstrap methodology. Using the bootstrap percentiles method, we found wide variability in the prevalence of the different phenotypes (3-100%). The mean interstitial deletion size was 2.72 Mb (95% CI [2.35-3.10 Mb]). In comparison with our work, which expanded the literature search by 45 months, there were differences in the prevalence of 17% of the phenotypes, indicating that more studies are needed to analyze this rare disease.

  19. Characterizing economic trends by Bayesian stochastic model specification search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grassi, Stefano; Proietti, Tommaso

    on whether their parameters are fixed or evolutive. Stochastic model specification is carried out to discriminate two alternative hypotheses concerning the generation of trends: the trend-stationary hypothesis, on the one hand, for which the trend is a deterministic function of time and the short run...... dynamics are represented by a stationary autoregressive process; the difference-stationary hypothesis, on the other, according to which the trend results from the cumulation of the effects of random disturbances. We illustrate the methodology for a set of U.S. macroeconomic time series, which includes...

  20. Modeling and prediction of human word search behavior in interactive machine translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Duo; Yu, Bai; Ma, Bin; Ye, Na

    2017-12-01

    As a kind of computer aided translation method, Interactive Machine Translation technology reduced manual translation repetitive and mechanical operation through a variety of methods, so as to get the translation efficiency, and played an important role in the practical application of the translation work. In this paper, we regarded the behavior of users' frequently searching for words in the translation process as the research object, and transformed the behavior to the translation selection problem under the current translation. The paper presented a prediction model, which is a comprehensive utilization of alignment model, translation model and language model of the searching words behavior. It achieved a highly accurate prediction of searching words behavior, and reduced the switching of mouse and keyboard operations in the users' translation process.

  1. Automated search-model discovery and preparation for structure solution by molecular replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Ronan M; Winn, Martyn D

    2007-04-01

    A novel automation pipeline for macromolecular structure solution by molecular replacement is described. There is a special emphasis on the discovery and preparation of a large number of search models, all of which can be passed to the core molecular-replacement programs. For routine molecular-replacement problems, the pipeline automates what a crystallographer might do and its value is simply one of convenience. For more difficult cases, the pipeline aims to discover the particular template structure and model edits required to produce a viable search model and may succeed in finding an efficacious combination that would be missed otherwise. The pipeline is described in detail and a number of examples are given. The examples are chosen to illustrate successes in real crystallography problems and also particular features of the pipeline. It is concluded that exploring a range of search models automatically can be valuable in many cases.

  2. DEVELOPING AND PROPOSING A CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF THE FLOW EXPERIENCE DURING ONLINE INFORMATION SEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazoc Alina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Information search is an essential part of the consumer`s decision making process. The online medium offers new opportunities and challenges for information search activities (in and outside the marketing context. We are interested in the way human information experiences and behaviors are affected by this. Very often online games and social web activities are perceived as challenging, engaging and enjoyable, while online information search is far below this evaluation. Our research proposal implies that using the online medium for information search may provoke enjoyable experiences through the flow state, which may in turn positively influence an individual`s exploratory information behavior and encourage his/her pro-active market behavior. The present study sets out to improve the understanding of the online medium`s impact on human`s exploratory behavior. We hypothesize that the inclusion of the online flow experience in our research model will better explain exploratory information search behaviors. A 11-component conceptual framework is proposed to explain the manifestations of flow, its personal and technological determinants and its behavioral consequence in the context of online information search. Our research has the primary purpose to present an integrated online flow model. Its secondary objective is to stimulate extended research in the area of informational behaviors in the digital age. The paper is organized in three sections. In the first section we briefly report the analysis results of the most relevant online flow theory literature and, drawing on it, we are trying to identify variables and relationships among these. In the second part we propose a research model and use prior flow models to specify a range of testable hypothesis. Drawing on the conceptual model developed, the last section of our study presents the final conclusions and proposes further steps in evaluating the model`s validity. Future research directions

  3. Electronic Commerce Success Model: A Search for Multiple Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didi Achjari

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study attempts to develop and examine framework of e-commerce success. In order to obtain comprehensive and robust measures, the framework accomodates key factors that are identified in the literature concerning the success of electronic commerce. The structural model comprises of four exogenous variables (Internal Driver, Internal Impediment, External Driver and Exgternal Impediment and one endogenous variable (Electornic Commerce Success eith 24 observed variables. The study that was administered within large Australian companies using questionaire survey concluded that benefits for both internal organization and external parties from the use of e-commerce were the main factor tro predict perceived and/or expected success of electronic commerce.

  4. Job Search Models, the Duration of Unemployment, and the Asking Wage: Some Empirical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, William F.

    1975-01-01

    Three recent untested theoretical models of the wage setting behavior of the unemployed jobseeker by Gronau, Mortensen, and McCall are compared. The investigation supports McCall's model which indicates downward flexibility in the minimum asking wage resulting from learning during search and unemployment. (Author/MW)

  5. Hierarchical heuristic search using a Gaussian mixture model for UAV coverage planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lanny; Goodrich, Michael A

    2014-12-01

    During unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) search missions, efficient use of UAV flight time requires flight paths that maximize the probability of finding the desired subject. The probability of detecting the desired subject based on UAV sensor information can vary in different search areas due to environment elements like varying vegetation density or lighting conditions, making it likely that the UAV can only partially detect the subject. This adds another dimension of complexity to the already difficult (NP-Hard) problem of finding an optimal search path. We present a new class of algorithms that account for partial detection in the form of a task difficulty map and produce paths that approximate the payoff of optimal solutions. The algorithms use the mode goodness ratio heuristic that uses a Gaussian mixture model to prioritize search subregions. The algorithms search for effective paths through the parameter space at different levels of resolution. We compare the performance of the new algorithms against two published algorithms (Bourgault's algorithm and LHC-GW-CONV algorithm) in simulated searches with three real search and rescue scenarios, and show that the new algorithms outperform existing algorithms significantly and can yield efficient paths that yield payoffs near the optimal.

  6. Governance, Government, and the Search for New Provider Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard B. Saltman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A central problem in designing effective models of provider governance in health systems has been to ensure an appropriate balance between the concerns of public sector and/or government decision-makers, on the one hand, and of non-governmental health services actors in civil society and private life, on the other. In tax-funded European health systems up to the 1980s, the state and other public sector decision-makers played a dominant role over health service provision, typically operating hospitals through national or regional governments on a command-and-control basis. In a number of countries, however, this state role has started to change, with governments first stepping out of direct service provision and now de facto pushed to focus more on steering provider organizations rather than on direct public management. In this new approach to provider governance, the state has pulled back into a regulatory role that introduces market-like incentives and management structures, which then apply to both public and private sector providers alike. This article examines some of the main operational complexities in implementing this new governance reality/strategy, specifically from a service provision (as opposed to mostly a financing or even regulatory perspective. After briefly reviewing some of the key theoretical dilemmas, the paper presents two case studies where this new approach was put into practice: primary care in Sweden and hospitals in Spain. The article concludes that good governance today needs to reflect practical operational realities if it is to have the desired effect on health sector reform outcome.

  7. A Quasi Model Independent Search for New High $p_T$ Physics at D0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuteson, Bruce Owen [UC, Berkeley, Astron. Dept.

    2000-12-01

    We present a new quasi-model-independent strategy ("Sleuth") for searching for physics beyond the standard model. We define final states to be studied, and construct a rule that identities a set of relevant variables for any particular final state. A novel algorithm searches for regions of excess in those variables and quantities the significance of any detected excess. This strategy is applied to search for new high $p_T$ physics in $\\approx$ 100 $pb^{-1}$ of $p\\bar{p}$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 1:8 TeV collected by the D0 experiment during 1992{1996 at the Fermilab Tevatron. We systematically analyze many exclusive final states, and demonstrate sensitivity to a variety of models predicting new phenomena at the electroweak scale. No evidence of new high $p_T$ physics is observed.

  8. The JCSG MR pipeline: optimized alignments, multiple models and parallel searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarzenbacher, Robert; Godzik, Adam; Jaroszewski, Lukasz

    2008-01-01

    The practical limits of molecular replacement can be extended by using several specifically designed protein models based on fold-recognition methods and by exhaustive searches performed in a parallelized pipeline. Updated results from the JCSG MR pipeline, which to date has solved 33 molecular-replacement structures with less than 35% sequence identity to the closest homologue of known structure, are presented. The success rate of molecular replacement (MR) falls considerably when search models share less than 35% sequence identity with their templates, but can be improved significantly by using fold-recognition methods combined with exhaustive MR searches. Models based on alignments calculated with fold-recognition algorithms are more accurate than models based on conventional alignment methods such as FASTA or BLAST, which are still widely used for MR. In addition, by designing MR pipelines that integrate phasing and automated refinement and allow parallel processing of such calculations, one can effectively increase the success rate of MR. Here, updated results from the JCSG MR pipeline are presented, which to date has solved 33 MR structures with less than 35% sequence identity to the closest homologue of known structure. By using difficult MR problems as examples, it is demonstrated that successful MR phasing is possible even in cases where the similarity between the model and the template can only be detected with fold-recognition algorithms. In the first step, several search models are built based on all homologues found in the PDB by fold-recognition algorithms. The models resulting from this process are used in parallel MR searches with different combinations of input parameters of the MR phasing algorithm. The putative solutions are subjected to rigid-body and restrained crystallographic refinement and ranked based on the final values of free R factor, figure of merit and deviations from ideal geometry. Finally, crystal packing and electron-density maps

  9. Properties of bootstrap tests for N-of-1 studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sharon X; Morrison, Leanne; Smith, Peter W F; Hargood, Charlie; Weal, Mark; Yardley, Lucy

    2016-11-01

    N-of-1 study designs involve the collection and analysis of repeated measures data from an individual not using an intervention and using an intervention. This study explores the use of semi-parametric and parametric bootstrap tests in the analysis of N-of-1 studies under a single time series framework in the presence of autocorrelation. When the Type I error rates of bootstrap tests are compared to Wald tests, our results show that the bootstrap tests have more desirable properties. We compare the results for normally distributed errors with those for contaminated normally distributed errors and find that, except when there is relatively large autocorrelation, there is little difference between the power of the parametric and semi-parametric bootstrap tests. We also experiment with two intervention designs: ABAB and AB, and show the ABAB design has more power. The results provide guidelines for designing N-of-1 studies, in the sense of how many observations and how many intervention changes are needed to achieve a certain level of power and which test should be performed. © 2016 The Authors British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society.

  10. Bootstrap quantification of estimation uncertainties in network degree distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gel, Yulia R; Lyubchich, Vyacheslav; Ramirez Ramirez, L Leticia

    2017-07-19

    We propose a new method of nonparametric bootstrap to quantify estimation uncertainties in functions of network degree distribution in large ultra sparse networks. Both network degree distribution and network order are assumed to be unknown. The key idea is based on adaptation of the "blocking" argument, developed for bootstrapping of time series and re-tiling of spatial data, to random networks. We first sample a set of multiple ego networks of varying orders that form a patch, or a network block analogue, and then resample the data within patches. To select an optimal patch size, we develop a new computationally efficient and data-driven cross-validation algorithm. The proposed fast patchwork bootstrap (FPB) methodology further extends the ideas for a case of network mean degree, to inference on a degree distribution. In addition, the FPB is substantially less computationally expensive, requires less information on a graph, and is free from nuisance parameters. In our simulation study, we show that the new bootstrap method outperforms competing approaches by providing sharper and better-calibrated confidence intervals for functions of a network degree distribution than other available approaches, including the cases of networks in an ultra sparse regime. We illustrate the FPB in application to collaboration networks in statistics and computer science and to Wikipedia networks.

  11. A Statistical Mechanics Approach to Approximate Analytical Bootstrap Averages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malzahn, Dorthe; Opper, Manfred

    2003-01-01

    We apply the replica method of Statistical Physics combined with a variational method to the approximate analytical computation of bootstrap averages for estimating the generalization error. We demonstrate our approach on regression with Gaussian processes and compare our results with averages...

  12. Bootstrap confidence intervals for three-way methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, Henk A.L.

    Results from exploratory three-way analysis techniques such as CANDECOMP/PARAFAC and Tucker3 analysis are usually presented without giving insight into uncertainties due to sampling. Here a bootstrap procedure is proposed that produces percentile intervals for all output parameters. Special

  13. Uncertainty Assessment of Hydrological Frequency Analysis Using Bootstrap Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ming Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrological frequency analysis (HFA is the foundation for the hydraulic engineering design and water resources management. Hydrological extreme observations or samples are the basis for HFA; the representativeness of a sample series to the population distribution is extremely important for the estimation reliability of the hydrological design value or quantile. However, for most of hydrological extreme data obtained in practical application, the size of the samples is usually small, for example, in China about 40~50 years. Generally, samples with small size cannot completely display the statistical properties of the population distribution, thus leading to uncertainties in the estimation of hydrological design values. In this paper, a new method based on bootstrap is put forward to analyze the impact of sampling uncertainty on the design value. By bootstrap resampling technique, a large number of bootstrap samples are constructed from the original flood extreme observations; the corresponding design value or quantile is estimated for each bootstrap sample, so that the sampling distribution of design value is constructed; based on the sampling distribution, the uncertainty of quantile estimation can be quantified. Compared with the conventional approach, this method provides not only the point estimation of a design value but also quantitative evaluation on uncertainties of the estimation.

  14. Bootstrapping the energy flow in the beginning of life.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, R.; Fedonkin, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper suggests that the energy flow on which all living structures depend only started up slowly, the low-energy, initial phase starting up a second, slightly more energetic phase, and so on. In this way, the build up of the energy flow follows a bootstrapping process similar to that found in

  15. Bootstrapping the energy flow in the beginning of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, R.; Fedonkin, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper suggests that the energy flow on which all living structures depend only started up slowly, the low-energy, initial phase starting up a second, slightly more energetic phase, and so on. In this way, the build up of the energy flow follows a bootstrapping process similar to that found in

  16. Sidecoin: a snapshot mechanism for bootstrapping a blockchain

    OpenAIRE

    Krug, Joseph; Peterson, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Sidecoin is a mechanism that allows a snapshot to be taken of Bitcoin's blockchain. We compile a list of Bitcoin's unspent transaction outputs, then use these outputs and their corresponding balances to bootstrap a new blockchain. This allows the preservation of Bitcoin's economic state in the context of a new blockchain, which may provide new features and technical innovations.

  17. Adaptive Kernel In The Bootstrap Boosting Algorithm In KDE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper proposes the use of adaptive kernel in a bootstrap boosting algorithm in kernel density estimation. The algorithm is a bias reduction scheme like other existing schemes but uses adaptive kernel instead of the regular fixed kernels. An empirical study for this scheme is conducted and the findings are comparatively ...

  18. BootGraph: probabilistic fiber tractography using bootstrap algorithms and graph theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorburger, Robert S; Reischauer, Carolin; Boesiger, Peter

    2013-02-01

    Bootstrap methods have recently been introduced to diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging to estimate the measurement uncertainty of ensuing diffusion parameters directly from the acquired data without the necessity to assume a noise model. These methods have been previously combined with deterministic streamline tractography algorithms to allow for the assessment of connection probabilities in the human brain. Thereby, the local noise induced disturbance in the diffusion data is accumulated additively due to the incremental progression of streamline tractography algorithms. Graph based approaches have been proposed to overcome this drawback of streamline techniques. For this reason, the bootstrap method is in the present work incorporated into a graph setup to derive a new probabilistic fiber tractography method, called BootGraph. The acquired data set is thereby converted into a weighted, undirected graph by defining a vertex in each voxel and edges between adjacent vertices. By means of the cone of uncertainty, which is derived using the wild bootstrap, a weight is thereafter assigned to each edge. Two path finding algorithms are subsequently applied to derive connection probabilities. While the first algorithm is based on the shortest path approach, the second algorithm takes all existing paths between two vertices into consideration. Tracking results are compared to an established algorithm based on the bootstrap method in combination with streamline fiber tractography and to another graph based algorithm. The BootGraph shows a very good performance in crossing situations with respect to false negatives and permits incorporating additional constraints, such as a curvature threshold. By inheriting the advantages of the bootstrap method and graph theory, the BootGraph method provides a computationally efficient and flexible probabilistic tractography setup to compute connection probability maps and virtual fiber pathways without the drawbacks of

  19. Bootstrap finance: the art of start-ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhide, A

    1992-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is more popular than ever: courses are full, policymakers emphasize new ventures, managers yearn to go off on their own. Would-be founders often misplace their energies, however. Believing in a "big money" model of entrepreneurship, they spend a lot of time trying to attract investors instead of using wits and hustle to get their ideas off the ground. A study of 100 of the 1989 Inc. "500" list of fastest growing U.S. start-ups attests to the value of bootstrapping. In fact, what it takes to start a business often conflicts with what venture capitalists require. Investors prefer solid plans, well-defined markets, and track records. Entrepreneurs are heavy on energy and enthusiasm but may be short on credentials. They thrive in rapidly changing environments where uncertain prospects may scare off established companies. Rolling with the punches is often more important than formal plans. Striving to adhere to investors' criteria can diminish the flexibility--the try-it, fix-it approach--an entrepreneur needs to make a new venture work. Seven principles are basic for successful start-ups: get operational fast; look for quick break-even, cash-generating projects; offer high-value products or services that can sustain direct personal selling; don't try to hire the crack team; keep growth in check; focus on cash; and cultivate banks early. Growth and change are the start-up's natural environment. But change is also the reward for success: just as ventures grow, their founders usually have to take a fresh look at everything again: roles, organization, even the very policies that got the business up and running.

  20. Automated modal parameter estimation using correlation analysis and bootstrap sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghoubi, Vahid; Vakilzadeh, Majid K.; Abrahamsson, Thomas J. S.

    2018-02-01

    The estimation of modal parameters from a set of noisy measured data is a highly judgmental task, with user expertise playing a significant role in distinguishing between estimated physical and noise modes of a test-piece. Various methods have been developed to automate this procedure. The common approach is to identify models with different orders and cluster similar modes together. However, most proposed methods based on this approach suffer from high-dimensional optimization problems in either the estimation or clustering step. To overcome this problem, this study presents an algorithm for autonomous modal parameter estimation in which the only required optimization is performed in a three-dimensional space. To this end, a subspace-based identification method is employed for the estimation and a non-iterative correlation-based method is used for the clustering. This clustering is at the heart of the paper. The keys to success are correlation metrics that are able to treat the problems of spatial eigenvector aliasing and nonunique eigenvectors of coalescent modes simultaneously. The algorithm commences by the identification of an excessively high-order model from frequency response function test data. The high number of modes of this model provides bases for two subspaces: one for likely physical modes of the tested system and one for its complement dubbed the subspace of noise modes. By employing the bootstrap resampling technique, several subsets are generated from the same basic dataset and for each of them a model is identified to form a set of models. Then, by correlation analysis with the two aforementioned subspaces, highly correlated modes of these models which appear repeatedly are clustered together and the noise modes are collected in a so-called Trashbox cluster. Stray noise modes attracted to the mode clusters are trimmed away in a second step by correlation analysis. The final step of the algorithm is a fuzzy c-means clustering procedure applied to

  1. Global search tool for the Advanced Photon Source Integrated Relational Model of Installed Systems (IRMIS) database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quock, D.E.R.; Cianciarulo, M.B.

    2007-01-01

    The Integrated Relational Model of Installed Systems (IRMIS) is a relational database tool that has been implemented at the Advanced Photon Source to maintain an updated account of approximately 600 control system software applications, 400,000 process variables, and 30,000 control system hardware components. To effectively display this large amount of control system information to operators and engineers, IRMIS was initially built with nine Web-based viewers: Applications Organizing Index, IOC, PLC, Component Type, Installed Components, Network, Controls Spares, Process Variables, and Cables. However, since each viewer is designed to provide details from only one major category of the control system, the necessity for a one-stop global search tool for the entire database became apparent. The user requirements for extremely fast database search time and ease of navigation through search results led to the choice of Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX) technology in the implementation of the IRMIS global search tool. Unique features of the global search tool include a two-tier level of displayed search results, and a database data integrity validation and reporting mechanism.

  2. Simplified Models for Dark Matter and Missing Energy Searches at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdallah, Jalal [Academia Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan). Inst. of Physics; Ashkenazi, Adi [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). Dept. of Physics; Boveia, Antonio [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Enrico Fermi Inst.; Busoni, Giorgio [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), Trieste (Italy); National Inst. for Nuclear Physics (INFN), Trieste (Italy); De Simone, Andrea [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), Trieste (Italy); National Inst. for Nuclear Physics (INFN), Trieste (Italy); Doglioni, Caterina [Univ. of Geneva (Switzerland). Physics Dept.; Efrati, Aielet [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel). Dept. of Particle Physics and Astrophysics; Etzion, Erez [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). Dept. of Physics; Gramling, Johanna [Univ. of Geneva (Switzerland). Physics Dept.; Jacques, Thomas [Univ. of Geneva (Switzerland). Physics Dept.; Lin, Tongyan [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Kavli Inst. for Cosmological Physics. Enrico Fermi Inst.; Morgante, Enrico [Univ. of Geneva (Switzerland). Physics Dept.; Papucci, Michele [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Theoretical Physics Group; Penning, Bjoern [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Enrico Fermi Inst.; Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Riotto, Antonio Walter [Univ. of Geneva (Switzerland). Physics Dept.; Rizzo, Thomas [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Salek, David [National Inst. for Subatomic Physics (NIKHEF), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gravitation and AstroParticle Physics in Amsterdam (GRAPPA), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Schramm, Steven [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Physics; Slone, Oren [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). Dept. of Physics; Soreq, Yotam [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel). Dept. of Particle Physics and Astrophysics; Vichi, Alessandro [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Theoretical Physics Group; Volansky, Tomer [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). Dept. of Physics; Yavin, Itay [Perimeter Inst. for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada); McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Physics; Zhou, Ning [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Zurek, Kathryn [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Theoretical Physics Group

    2014-10-01

    The study of collision events with missing energy as searches for the dark matter (DM) component of the Universe are an essential part of the extensive program looking for new physics at the LHC. Given the unknown nature of DM, the interpretation of such searches should be made broad and inclusive. This report reviews the usage of simplified models in the interpretation of missing energy searches. We begin with a brief discussion of the utility and limitation of the effective field theory approach to this problem. The bulk of the report is then devoted to several different simplified models and their signatures, including s-channel and t-channel processes. A common feature of simplified models for DM is the presence of additional particles that mediate the interactions between the Standard Model and the particle that makes up DM. We consider these in detail and emphasize the importance of their inclusion as final states in any coherent interpretation. We also review some of the experimental progress in the field, new signatures, and other aspects of the searches themselves. We conclude with comments and recommendations regarding the use of simplified models in Run-II of the LHC.

  3. A Minimal Path Searching Approach for Active Shape Model (ASM)-based Segmentation of the Lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shengwen; Fei, Baowei

    2009-03-27

    We are developing a minimal path searching method for active shape model (ASM)-based segmentation for detection of lung boundaries on digital radiographs. With the conventional ASM method, the position and shape parameters of the model points are iteratively refined and the target points are updated by the least Mahalanobis distance criterion. We propose an improved searching strategy that extends the searching points in a fan-shape region instead of along the normal direction. A minimal path (MP) deformable model is applied to drive the searching procedure. A statistical shape prior model is incorporated into the segmentation. In order to keep the smoothness of the shape, a smooth constraint is employed to the deformable model. To quantitatively assess the ASM-MP segmentation, we compare the automatic segmentation with manual segmentation for 72 lung digitized radiographs. The distance error between the ASM-MP and manual segmentation is 1.75 ± 0.33 pixels, while the error is 1.99 ± 0.45 pixels for the ASM. Our results demonstrate that our ASM-MP method can accurately segment the lung on digital radiographs.

  4. e+e- interactions at very high energy: searching beyond the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorfan, J.

    1983-04-01

    These lectures discuss e + e - interactions at very high energies with a particular emphasis on searching the standard model which we take to be SU(3)/sub color/Λ SU(2) Λ U(1). The highest e + e - collision energy exploited to date is at PETRA where data have been taken at 38 GeV. We will consider energies above this to be the very high energy frontier. The lectures will begin with a review of the collision energies which will be available in the upgraded machines of today and the machines planned for tomorrow. Without going into great detail, we will define the essential elements of the standard model. We will remind ourselves that some of these essential elements have not yet been verified and that part of the task of searching beyond the standard model will involve experiments aimed at this verification. For if we find the standard model lacking, then clearly we are forced to find an alternative. So we will investigate how the higher energy e + e - collisions can be used to search for the top quark, the neutral Higgs scalar, provide true verification of the non-Abelian nature of QCD, etc. Having done this we will look at tests of models involving simple extensions of the standard model. Models considered are those without a top quark, those with charged Higgs scalars, with multiple and/or composite vector bosons, with additional generations and possible alternative explanations for the PETRA three jet events which don't require gluon bremsstrahlung. From the simple extensions of the standard model we will move to more radical alternatives, alternatives which have arisen from the unhappiness with the gauge hierarchy problem of the standard model. Technicolor, Supersymmetry and composite models will be discussed. In the final section we will summarize what the future holds in terms of the search beyond the standard model

  5. e/sup +/e/sup -/ interactions at very high energy: searching beyond the standard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorfan, J.

    1983-04-01

    These lectures discuss e/sup +/e/sup -/ interactions at very high energies with a particular emphasis on searching the standard model which we take to be SU(3)/sub color/..lambda.. SU(2) ..lambda.. U(1). The highest e/sup +/e/sup -/ collision energy exploited to date is at PETRA where data have been taken at 38 GeV. We will consider energies above this to be the very high energy frontier. The lectures will begin with a review of the collision energies which will be available in the upgraded machines of today and the machines planned for tomorrow. Without going into great detail, we will define the essential elements of the standard model. We will remind ourselves that some of these essential elements have not yet been verified and that part of the task of searching beyond the standard model will involve experiments aimed at this verification. For if we find the standard model lacking, then clearly we are forced to find an alternative. So we will investigate how the higher energy e/sup +/e/sup -/ collisions can be used to search for the top quark, the neutral Higgs scalar, provide true verification of the non-Abelian nature of QCD, etc. Having done this we will look at tests of models involving simple extensions of the standard model. Models considered are those without a top quark, those with charged Higgs scalars, with multiple and/or composite vector bosons, with additional generations and possible alternative explanations for the PETRA three jet events which don't require gluon bremsstrahlung. From the simple extensions of the standard model we will move to more radical alternatives, alternatives which have arisen from the unhappiness with the gauge hierarchy problem of the standard model. Technicolor, Supersymmetry and composite models will be discussed. In the final section we will summarize what the future holds in terms of the search beyond the standard model.

  6. Standard errors and confidence intervals for correlations corrected for indirect range restriction: A simulation study comparing analytic and bootstrap methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennet-Cohen, Tamar; Kleper, Dvir; Turvall, Elliot

    2018-02-01

    A frequent topic of psychological research is the estimation of the correlation between two variables from a sample that underwent a selection process based on a third variable. Due to indirect range restriction, the sample correlation is a biased estimator of the population correlation, and a correction formula is used. In the past, bootstrap standard error and confidence intervals for the corrected correlations were examined with normal data. The present study proposes a large-sample estimate (an analytic method) for the standard error, and a corresponding confidence interval for the corrected correlation. Monte Carlo simulation studies involving both normal and non-normal data were conducted to examine the empirical performance of the bootstrap and analytic methods. Results indicated that with both normal and non-normal data, the bootstrap standard error and confidence interval were generally accurate across simulation conditions (restricted sample size, selection ratio, and population correlations) and outperformed estimates of the analytic method. However, with certain combinations of distribution type and model conditions, the analytic method has an advantage, offering reasonable estimates of the standard error and confidence interval without resorting to the bootstrap procedure's computer-intensive approach. We provide SAS code for the simulation studies. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Using the Descriptive Bootstrap to Evaluate Result Replicability (Because Statistical Significance Doesn't)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinella, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    As result replicability is essential to science and difficult to achieve through external replicability, the present paper notes the insufficiency of null hypothesis statistical significance testing (NHSST) and explains the bootstrap as a plausible alternative, with a heuristic example to illustrate the bootstrap method. The bootstrap relies on…

  8. RANDOM QUADRATIC-FORMS AND THE BOOTSTRAP FOR U-STATISTICS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEHLING, H; MIKOSCH, T

    1994-01-01

    We study the bootstrap distribution for U-statistics with special emphasis on the degenerate case. For the Efron bootstrap we give a short proof of the consistency using Mallows' metrics. We also study the i.i.d. weighted bootstrap [GRAPHICS] where (X(i)) and (xi(i)) are two i.i.d. sequences,

  9. Bootstrap analysis of designed experiments for reliability improvement with a non-constant scale parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Guodong; He, Zhen; Xue, Li; Cui, Qingan; Lv, Shanshan; Zhou, Panpan

    2017-01-01

    Factors which significantly affect product reliability are of great interest to reliability practitioners. This paper proposes a bootstrap-based methodology for identifying significant factors when both location and scale parameters of the smallest extreme value distribution vary over experimental factors. An industrial thermostat experiment is presented, analyzed, and discussed as an illustrative example. The analysis results show that 1) the misspecification of a constant scale parameter may lead to misidentify spurious effects; 2) the important factors identified by different bootstrap methods (i.e., percentile bootstrapping, bias-corrected percentile bootstrapping, and bias-corrected and accelerated percentile bootstrapping) are different; 3) the number of factors affecting 10th percentile lifetime significantly is less than the number of important factors identified at 63.21th percentile. - Highlights: • Product reliability is improved by design of experiments under both scale and location parameters of smallest extreme value distribution vary with experimental factors. • A bootstrap-based methodology is proposed to identify important factors which affect 100pth lifetime percentile significantly. • Bootstrapping confidence intervals associating experimental factors are obtained by using three bootstrap methods (i.e., percentile bootstrapping, bias-corrected percentile bootstrapping, and bias-corrected and accelerated percentile bootstrapping). • The important factors identified by different bootstrap methods are different. • The number of factors affecting 10th percentile significantly is less than the number of important factors identified at 63.21th percentile.

  10. A model independent S/W framework for search-based software testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jungsup; Baik, Jongmoon; Lim, Sung-Hwa

    2014-01-01

    In Model-Based Testing (MBT) area, Search-Based Software Testing (SBST) has been employed to generate test cases from the model of a system under test. However, many types of models have been used in MBT. If the type of a model has changed from one to another, all functions of a search technique must be reimplemented because the types of models are different even if the same search technique has been applied. It requires too much time and effort to implement the same algorithm over and over again. We propose a model-independent software framework for SBST, which can reduce redundant works. The framework provides a reusable common software platform to reduce time and effort. The software framework not only presents design patterns to find test cases for a target model but also reduces development time by using common functions provided in the framework. We show the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed framework with two case studies. The framework improves the productivity by about 50% when changing the type of a model.

  11. The JCSG MR pipeline: optimized alignments, multiple models and parallel searches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzenbacher, Robert; Godzik, Adam; Jaroszewski, Lukasz

    2008-01-01

    The success rate of molecular replacement (MR) falls considerably when search models share less than 35% sequence identity with their templates, but can be improved significantly by using fold-recognition methods combined with exhaustive MR searches. Models based on alignments calculated with fold-recognition algorithms are more accurate than models based on conventional alignment methods such as FASTA or BLAST, which are still widely used for MR. In addition, by designing MR pipelines that integrate phasing and automated refinement and allow parallel processing of such calculations, one can effectively increase the success rate of MR. Here, updated results from the JCSG MR pipeline are presented, which to date has solved 33 MR structures with less than 35% sequence identity to the closest homologue of known structure. By using difficult MR problems as examples, it is demonstrated that successful MR phasing is possible even in cases where the similarity between the model and the template can only be detected with fold-recognition algorithms. In the first step, several search models are built based on all homologues found in the PDB by fold-recognition algorithms. The models resulting from this process are used in parallel MR searches with different combinations of input parameters of the MR phasing algorithm. The putative solutions are subjected to rigid-body and restrained crystallographic refinement and ranked based on the final values of free R factor, figure of merit and deviations from ideal geometry. Finally, crystal packing and electron-density maps are checked to identify the correct solution. If this procedure does not yield a solution with interpretable electron-density maps, then even more alternative models are prepared. The structurally variable regions of a protein family are identified based on alignments of sequences and known structures from that family and appropriate trimmings of the models are proposed. All combinations of these trimmings are

  12. Changes in users' mental models of Web search engines after ten ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ward's Cluster analyses including the Pseudo T² Statistical analyses were used to determine the mental model clusters for the seventeen salient design features of Web search engines at each time point. The cubic clustering criterion (CCC) and the dendogram were conducted for each sample to help determine the number ...

  13. Approaching the Affective Factors of Information Seeking: The Viewpoint of the Information Search Process Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savolainen, Reijo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The article contributes to the conceptual studies of affective factors in information seeking by examining Kuhlthau's information search process model. Method: This random-digit dial telephone survey of 253 people (75% female) living in a rural, medically under-serviced area of Ontario, Canada, follows-up a previous interview study…

  14. Research Universities for National Rejuvenation and Global Influence: China's Search for a Balanced Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postiglione, Gerard A.

    2015-01-01

    The search continues for a Chinese research university model that can balance quality and quantity in research and teaching. This paper argues that finding one depends upon deepening internationalization, defining educational sovereignty, and expanding university autonomy. The paper does this by examining selected aspects in the development of the…

  15. Search for the standard model Higgs boson in tau final states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abazov, V.M.; et al., [Unknown; Ancu, L.S.; de Jong, S.J.; Filthaut, F.; Galea, C.F.; Hegeman, J.G.; Houben, P.; Meijer, M.M.; Svoisky, P.; van den Berg, P.J.; van Leeuwen, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    We present a search for the standard model Higgs boson using hadronically decaying tau leptons, in 1 fb(-1) of data collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron p(p)over-bar collider. We select two final states: tau(+/-) plus missing transverse energy and b jets, and tau(+)tau(-) plus

  16. Model unspecific search in CMS. Results at 8 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, Andreas; Duchardt, Deborah; Hebbeker, Thomas; Knutzen, Simon; Lieb, Jonas; Meyer, Arnd; Pook, Tobias; Roemer, Jonas [III. Physikalisches Institut A, RWTH Aachen University (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In the year 2012, CMS collected a total data set of approximately 20 fb{sup -1} in proton-proton collisions at √(s)=8 TeV. Dedicated searches for physics beyond the standard model are commonly designed with the signatures of a given theoretical model in mind. While this approach allows for an optimised sensitivity to the sought-after signal, it may cause unexpected phenomena to be overlooked. In a complementary approach, the Model Unspecific Search in CMS (MUSiC) analyses CMS data in a general way. Depending on the reconstructed final state objects (e.g. electrons), collision events are sorted into classes. In each of the classes, the distributions of selected kinematic variables are compared to standard model simulation. An automated statistical analysis is performed to quantify the agreement between data and prediction. In this talk, the analysis concept is introduced and selected results of the analysis of the 2012 CMS data set are presented.

  17. Transmission network expansion planning based on hybridization model of neural networks and harmony search algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Ameli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmission Network Expansion Planning (TNEP is a basic part of power network planning that determines where, when and how many new transmission lines should be added to the network. So, the TNEP is an optimization problem in which the expansion purposes are optimized. Artificial Intelligence (AI tools such as Genetic Algorithm (GA, Simulated Annealing (SA, Tabu Search (TS and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs are methods used for solving the TNEP problem. Today, by using the hybridization models of AI tools, we can solve the TNEP problem for large-scale systems, which shows the effectiveness of utilizing such models. In this paper, a new approach to the hybridization model of Probabilistic Neural Networks (PNNs and Harmony Search Algorithm (HSA was used to solve the TNEP problem. Finally, by considering the uncertain role of the load based on a scenario technique, this proposed model was tested on the Garver’s 6-bus network.

  18. MUSiC - A model unspecific search for new physics in CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biallass, Philipp; Hof, Carsten; Hebbeker, Thomas; Meyer, Arnd [III. Physics Institute A, RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    With the start-up of the Large Hadron Collider in 2008 particle physics will enter an unknown territory. New physics is predicted to appear in these regimes by various extensions of the Standard Model such as Supersymmetry or Extra-Dimensions, but it is still unknown how exactly nature has realized such models. Therefore also the most promising signature to detect New Physics is unclear at the moment. In this context we will present a generic search strategy which aims to cover a variety of promising final state topologies without biasing itself to some expected signal. The Model Unspecific Search in CMS (MUSiC) algorithm tries to systematically compare recorded data with expectations from the Standard Model. Thus it is sensitive to deviations caused by New Physics, discrepancies caused by an imperfect simulation and differences due to a lack of understanding of the CMS detector. All three points will be equally important during the months of first data taking.

  19. Mathematical programming models for solving in equal-sized facilities layout problems. A genetic search method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavakkoli-Moghaddam, R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper present unequal-sized facilities layout solutions generated by a genetic search program. named Layout Design using a Genetic Algorithm) 9. The generalized quadratic assignment problem requiring pre-determined distance and material flow matrices as the input data and the continuous plane model employing a dynamic distance measure and a material flow matrix are discussed. Computational results on test problems are reported as compared with layout solutions generated by the branch - and bound algorithm a hybrid method merging simulated annealing and local search techniques, and an optimization process of an enveloped block

  20. Financing of the site search by a public corporation (organization model)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selmer, P.

    2005-01-01

    The paper is focussed on the development of a concept concerning the final deposit of radioactive waste in Germany in connection with the search of an appropriate site for the repository. The main features of the so called organization model are described, the financing of the site search under constitutional law and the principles of tax law is discussed in this context. Other topics are the legitimacy of a final disposal organization in the form of a public corporation with compulsory membership including unconstitutional contributions, and aspects of basic rights and constitutional legality

  1. The use of GLIM and the bootstrap in assessing a clinical trial of two drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapleson, W W

    1986-01-01

    An approach is described for estimating the dose of a new drug which is equipotent to an established dose of an old drug. The approach is basically that of the parallel-line assay but it can allow for concomitant variables and, by exploiting the facilities available in the statistical computer package GLIM (generalized linear interactive modelling), the approach can be applied when the residuals conform to one of a number of distributions and, with suitable safeguards, to continuous, discrete and even 'scored' responses. In some circumstances, it is necessary to obtain confidence limits by Efron's 'bootstrap' technique. The method is illustrated with results from a trial of two premedicant drugs in children.

  2. Developing a Process Model for the Forensic Extraction of Information from Desktop Search Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Pavlic

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Desktop search applications can contain cached copies of files that were deleted from the file system. Forensic investigators see this as a potential source of evidence, as documents deleted by suspects may still exist in the cache. Whilst there have been attempts at recovering data collected by desktop search applications, there is no methodology governing the process, nor discussion on the most appropriate means to do so. This article seeks to address this issue by developing a process model that can be applied when developing an information extraction application for desktop search applications, discussing preferred methods and the limitations of each. This work represents a more structured approach than other forms of current research.

  3. HOMCOS: an updated server to search and model complex 3D structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Takeshi

    2016-12-01

    The HOMCOS server ( http://homcos.pdbj.org ) was updated for both searching and modeling the 3D complexes for all molecules in the PDB. As compared to the previous HOMCOS server, the current server targets all of the molecules in the PDB including proteins, nucleic acids, small compounds and metal ions. Their binding relationships are stored in the database. Five services are available for users. For the services "Modeling a Homo Protein Multimer" and "Modeling a Hetero Protein Multimer", a user can input one or two proteins as the queries, while for the service "Protein-Compound Complex", a user can input one chemical compound and one protein. The server searches similar molecules by BLAST and KCOMBU. Based on each similar complex found, a simple sequence-replaced model is quickly generated by replacing the residue names and numbers with those of the query protein. A target compound is flexibly superimposed onto the template compound using the program fkcombu. If monomeric 3D structures are input as the query, then template-based docking can be performed. For the service "Searching Contact Molecules for a Query Protein", a user inputs one protein sequence as the query, and then the server searches for its homologous proteins in PDB and summarizes their contacting molecules as the predicted contacting molecules. The results are summarized in "Summary Bars" or "Site Table"display. The latter shows the results as a one-site-one-row table, which is useful for annotating the effects of mutations. The service "Searching Contact Molecules for a Query Compound" is also available.

  4. Models and Tabu Search Metaheuristics for Service Network Design with Asset-Balance Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Berliner; Crainic, T.G.; Madsen, Oli B.G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on a generic model for service network design, which includes asset positioning and utilization through constraints on asset availability at terminals. We denote these relations as "design-balance constraints" and focus on the design-balanced capacitated multicommodity network...... design model, a generalization of the capacitated multicommodity network design model generally used in service network design applications. Both arc-and cycle-based formulations for the new model are presented. The paper also proposes a tabu search metaheuristic framework for the arc-based formulation...

  5. A proof of fulfillment of the strong bootstrap condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadin, V.S.; Papa, A.

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that the kernel of the BFKL equation for the octet color state of two Reggeized gluons satisfies the strong bootstrap condition in the next-to-leading order. This condition is much more restrictive than the one obtained from the requirement of the Reggeized form for the elastic scattering amplitudes in the next-to-leading approximation. It is necessary, however, for self-consistency of the assumption of the Reggeized form of the production amplitudes in multi-Regge kinematics, which are used in the derivation of the BFKL equation. The fulfillment of the strong bootstrap condition for the kernel opens the way to a rigorous proof of the BFKL equation in the next-to-leading approximation. (author)

  6. A bootstrap lunar base: Preliminary design review 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    A bootstrap lunar base is the gateway to manned solar system exploration and requires new ideas and new designs on the cutting edge of technology. A preliminary design for a Bootstrap Lunar Base, the second provided by this contractor, is presented. An overview of the work completed is discussed as well as the technical, management, and cost strategies to complete the program requirements. The lunar base design stresses the transforming capabilities of its lander vehicles to aid in base construction. The design also emphasizes modularity and expandability in the base configuration to support the long-term goals of scientific research and profitable lunar resource exploitation. To successfully construct, develop, and inhabit a permanent lunar base, however, several technological advancements must first be realized. Some of these technological advancements are also discussed.

  7. Examining wide-arc digital breast tomosynthesis: optimization using a visual-search model observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Mini; Liang, Zhihua; Gifford, Howard C.

    2015-03-01

    Mathematical model observers are expected to assist in preclinical optimization of image acquisition and reconstruction parameters. A clinically realistic and robust model observer platform could help in multiparameter optimizations without requiring frequent human-observer validations. We are developing search-capable visual-search (VS) model observers with this potential. In this work, we present initial results on optimization of DBT scan angle and the number of projection views for low-contrast mass detection. Comparison with human-observer results shows very good agreement. These results point towards the benefits of using relatively wider arcs and low projection angles per arc degree for improved mass detection. These results are particularly interesting considering that the FDA-approved DBT systems like Hologic Selenia Dimensions uses a narrow (15-degree) acquisition arc and one projection per arc degree.

  8. Benchmark models, planes lines and points for future SUSY searches at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AbdusSalam, S.S. [The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Allanach, B.C. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics; Dreiner, H.K. [Bonn Univ. (DE). Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics and Physikalisches Inst.] (and others)

    2012-03-15

    We define benchmark models for SUSY searches at the LHC, including the CMSSM, NUHM, mGMSB, mAMSB, MM-AMSB and p19MSSM, as well as models with R-parity violation and the NMSSM. Within the parameter spaces of these models, we propose benchmark subspaces, including planes, lines and points along them. The planes may be useful for presenting results of the experimental searches in different SUSY scenarios, while the specific benchmark points may serve for more detailed detector performance tests and comparisons. We also describe algorithms for defining suitable benchmark points along the proposed lines in the parameter spaces, and we define a few benchmark points motivated by recent fits to existing experimental data.

  9. Search for the Minimum Standard Model Higgs boson at the L3 Experiment at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Mao, D N

    1992-01-01

    From a total of 408,000 hadronic events, measured by the 13 detector during both the 1990 and 1991 running periods at LEP, a search for the Minimum Standard Model Higgs has been made in the channel zo-+ Higgs+ Z* with Z*-+ vii. Cuts for selecting the Higgs events are decided based on the studies of about i001000 Monte Carlo events samples. The uncertainty in the selection efficiency has been intensively studied. Detection efficiency for a 50 GeV Higgs reaches 59% with no event surviving from the entire real and simulated data sample. From these data, the lower limit for the Minimum Standard Model Higgs is found to be 50.0 Ge Vat the 95% confidence level. Together with all the other Higgs search channels at the 13 detector, a lower mass limit of the Minimum Standard Model Higgs has been found to be 52 Ge Vat 95% confidence level.

  10. Similarity-based search of model organism, disease and drug effect phenotypes

    KAUST Repository

    Hoehndorf, Robert

    2015-02-19

    Background: Semantic similarity measures over phenotype ontologies have been demonstrated to provide a powerful approach for the analysis of model organism phenotypes, the discovery of animal models of human disease, novel pathways, gene functions, druggable therapeutic targets, and determination of pathogenicity. Results: We have developed PhenomeNET 2, a system that enables similarity-based searches over a large repository of phenotypes in real-time. It can be used to identify strains of model organisms that are phenotypically similar to human patients, diseases that are phenotypically similar to model organism phenotypes, or drug effect profiles that are similar to the phenotypes observed in a patient or model organism. PhenomeNET 2 is available at http://aber-owl.net/phenomenet. Conclusions: Phenotype-similarity searches can provide a powerful tool for the discovery and investigation of molecular mechanisms underlying an observed phenotypic manifestation. PhenomeNET 2 facilitates user-defined similarity searches and allows researchers to analyze their data within a large repository of human, mouse and rat phenotypes.

  11. Parameter Identification of the 2-Chlorophenol Oxidation Model Using Improved Differential Search Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-zhou Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parameter identification plays a crucial role for simulating and using model. This paper firstly carried out the sensitivity analysis of the 2-chlorophenol oxidation model in supercritical water using the Monte Carlo method. Then, to address the nonlinearity of the model, two improved differential search (DS algorithms were proposed to carry out the parameter identification of the model. One strategy is to adopt the Latin hypercube sampling method to replace the uniform distribution of initial population; the other is to combine DS with simplex method. The results of sensitivity analysis reveal the sensitivity and the degree of difficulty identified for every model parameter. Furthermore, the posteriori probability distribution of parameters and the collaborative relationship between any two parameters can be obtained. To verify the effectiveness of the improved algorithms, the optimization performance of improved DS in kinetic parameter estimation is studied and compared with that of the basic DS algorithm, differential evolution, artificial bee colony optimization, and quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization. And the experimental results demonstrate that the DS with the Latin hypercube sampling method does not present better performance, while the hybrid methods have the advantages of strong global search ability and local search ability and are more effective than the other algorithms.

  12. CME Velocity and Acceleration Error Estimates Using the Bootstrap Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalek, Grzegorz; Gopalswamy, Nat; Yashiro, Seiji

    2017-08-01

    The bootstrap method is used to determine errors of basic attributes of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) visually identified in images obtained by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) mission's Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) instruments. The basic parameters of CMEs are stored, among others, in a database known as the SOHO/LASCO CME catalog and are widely employed for many research studies. The basic attributes of CMEs ( e.g. velocity and acceleration) are obtained from manually generated height-time plots. The subjective nature of manual measurements introduces random errors that are difficult to quantify. In many studies the impact of such measurement errors is overlooked. In this study we present a new possibility to estimate measurements errors in the basic attributes of CMEs. This approach is a computer-intensive method because it requires repeating the original data analysis procedure several times using replicate datasets. This is also commonly called the bootstrap method in the literature. We show that the bootstrap approach can be used to estimate the errors of the basic attributes of CMEs having moderately large numbers of height-time measurements. The velocity errors are in the vast majority small and depend mostly on the number of height-time points measured for a particular event. In the case of acceleration, the errors are significant, and for more than half of all CMEs, they are larger than the acceleration itself.

  13. CME Velocity and Acceleration Error Estimates Using the Bootstrap Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalek, Grzegorz; Gopalswamy, Nat; Yashiro, Seiji

    2017-01-01

    The bootstrap method is used to determine errors of basic attributes of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) visually identified in images obtained by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) mission's Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) instruments. The basic parameters of CMEs are stored, among others, in a database known as the SOHO/LASCO CME catalog and are widely employed for many research studies. The basic attributes of CMEs (e.g. velocity and acceleration) are obtained from manually generated height-time plots. The subjective nature of manual measurements introduces random errors that are difficult to quantify. In many studies the impact of such measurement errors is overlooked. In this study we present a new possibility to estimate measurements errors in the basic attributes of CMEs. This approach is a computer-intensive method because it requires repeating the original data analysis procedure several times using replicate datasets. This is also commonly called the bootstrap method in the literature. We show that the bootstrap approach can be used to estimate the errors of the basic attributes of CMEs having moderately large numbers of height-time measurements. The velocity errors are in the vast majority small and depend mostly on the number of height-time points measured for a particular event. In the case of acceleration, the errors are significant, and for more than half of all CMEs, they are larger than the acceleration itself.

  14. Bootstrap method of interior-branch test for phylogenetic trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitnikova, T

    1996-04-01

    Statistical properties of the bootstrap test of interior branch lengths of phylogenetic trees have been studied and compared with those of the standard interior-branch test in computer simulations. Examination of the properties of the tests under the null hypothesis showed that both tests for an interior branch of a predetermined topology are quite reliable when the distribution of the branch length estimate approaches a normal distribution. Unlike the standard interior-branch test, the bootstrap test appears to retain this property even when the substitution rate varies among sites. In this case, the distribution of the branch length estimate deviates from a normal distribution, and the standard interior-branch test gives conservative confidence probability values. A simple correction method was developed for both interior-branch tests to be applied for testing the reliability of tree topologies estimated from sequence data. This correction for the standard interior-branch test appears to be as effective as that obtained in our previous study, though it is much simpler. The bootstrap and standard interior-branch tests for estimated topologies become conservative as the number of sequence groups in a star-like tree increases.

  15. An adaptive bin framework search method for a beta-sheet protein homopolymer model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoos Holger H

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The problem of protein structure prediction consists of predicting the functional or native structure of a protein given its linear sequence of amino acids. This problem has played a prominent role in the fields of biomolecular physics and algorithm design for over 50 years. Additionally, its importance increases continually as a result of an exponential growth over time in the number of known protein sequences in contrast to a linear increase in the number of determined structures. Our work focuses on the problem of searching an exponentially large space of possible conformations as efficiently as possible, with the goal of finding a global optimum with respect to a given energy function. This problem plays an important role in the analysis of systems with complex search landscapes, and particularly in the context of ab initio protein structure prediction. Results In this work, we introduce a novel approach for solving this conformation search problem based on the use of a bin framework for adaptively storing and retrieving promising locally optimal solutions. Our approach provides a rich and general framework within which a broad range of adaptive or reactive search strategies can be realized. Here, we introduce adaptive mechanisms for choosing which conformations should be stored, based on the set of conformations already stored in memory, and for biasing choices when retrieving conformations from memory in order to overcome search stagnation. Conclusion We show that our bin framework combined with a widely used optimization method, Monte Carlo search, achieves significantly better performance than state-of-the-art generalized ensemble methods for a well-known protein-like homopolymer model on the face-centered cubic lattice.

  16. Supersymmetry searches in GUT models with non-universal scalar masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannoni, M.; Gómez, M.E. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Ellis, J. [Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Physics Department, King' s College London, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Lola, S. [Department of Physics, University of Patras, 26500 Patras (Greece); De Austri, R. Ruiz, E-mail: mirco.cannoni@dfa.uhu.es, E-mail: John.Ellis@cern.ch, E-mail: mario.gomez@dfa.uhu.es, E-mail: magda@physics.upatras.gr, E-mail: rruiz@ific.uv.es [Instituto de Física Corpuscular, IFIC-UV/CSIC, Valencia (Spain)

    2016-03-01

    We study SO(10), SU(5) and flipped SU(5) GUT models with non-universal soft supersymmetry-breaking scalar masses, exploring how they are constrained by LHC supersymmetry searches and cold dark matter experiments, and how they can be probed and distinguished in future experiments. We find characteristic differences between the various GUT scenarios, particularly in the coannihilation region, which is very sensitive to changes of parameters. For example, the flipped SU(5) GUT predicts the possibility of ∼t{sub 1}−χ coannihilation, which is absent in the regions of the SO(10) and SU(5) GUT parameter spaces that we study. We use the relic density predictions in different models to determine upper bounds for the neutralino masses, and we find large differences between different GUT models in the sparticle spectra for the same LSP mass, leading to direct connections of distinctive possible experimental measurements with the structure of the GUT group. We find that future LHC searches for generic missing E{sub T}, charginos and stops will be able to constrain the different GUT models in complementary ways, as will the Xenon 1 ton and Darwin dark matter scattering experiments and future FERMI or CTA γ-ray searches.

  17. Millennial Students’ Online Search Strategies are Associated With Their Mental Models of Search. A Review of: Holman, L. (2011. Millennial students’ mental models of search: Implications for academic librarians and database developers. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 37(1, 19-27. doi:10.1016/j.acalib.2010.10.003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Bussert

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To examine first-year college students’ information seeking behaviours and determine whether their mental models of the search process influence their ability to effectively search for and find scholarly materials.Design – Mixed methods including contextual inquiry, concept mapping, observation, and interviews.Setting – University of Baltimore, a public institution in Maryland, United States of America, offering undergraduate, graduate, and professional degrees.Subjects – A total of 21 first-year undergraduate students, ages 16 to 19 years, undertaking research assignments for which they chose to use online resources.Methods – First-year students were recruited in the fall of 2008 and met with the researcher in a university usability lab for about one hour over a three week period. The researcher observed and videotaped the students as they conducted research in their chosen search engines or article databases. The searches were captured using software, and students were encouraged to think aloud about their research process, search strategies, and anticipated search results. Observation sessions concluded with a 10-question interview incorporating a review of the keywords the student used, the student’s reflection on the success of his or her searches, and possible alternate keywords. The interview also offered prompts to help the researcher learn about students’ conceptualizations of search tools’ utilization of keywords to generate results. The researcher then asked the students to provide a visual diagram of the relationship between their search terms and the items retrieved in the search tool.Data were analyzed by identifying the 21 different search tools used by the students and categorizing all 210 searches and student diagrams for further analysis. A scheme similar to Guinee, Eagleton, and Hall’s (2003 characterized the student searches into four categories: simple single-term searches, topic plus focus

  18. Non-SUSY Beyond Standard Model Searches: Recent Results from ATLAS and CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Malek, Fairouz; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Standard Model of particle physics is a sensational success, especially since the discovery of the 125 GeV Higgs boson. However, there are still numerous unanswered questions. Why is the Higgs so light? Do the interactions couplings unify and how can gravity be included? Why three fermion generations? What is dark matter? Theories Beyond the Standard Model (BSM), such as Grand Unified Theories, Extra Dimensions or Technicolour are trying to answer these questions. In this proceedings, we will focus on the most recent results obtained by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the LHC for BSM searches, excluding Higgs and supersymmetry searches. New results on Dark matter, heavy narrow bosons, new heavy quarks and third generation leptoquarks are presented. A summary of the prospects at 14 TeV and at the High Luminosity LHC period is given.

  19. A Biologically Inspired Model of Distributed Online Communication Supporting Efficient Search and Diffusion of Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya Baneerjee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We inhabit a world that is not only “small” but supports efficient decentralized search – an individual using local information can establish a line of communication with another completely unknown individual. Here we augment a hierarchical social network model with communication between and within communities. We argue that organization into communities would decrease overall decentralized search times. We take inspiration from the biological immune system which organizes search for pathogens in a hybrid modular strategy. Our strategy has relevance in search for rare amounts of information in online social networks and could have implications for massively distributed search challenges. Our work also has implications for design of efficient online networks that could have an impact on networks of human collaboration, scientific collaboration and networks used in targeted manhunts. Real world systems, like online social networks, have high associated delays for long-distance links, since they are built on top of physical networks. Such systems have been shown to densify i.e. the average number of neighbours that an individual has increases with time. Hence such networks will have a communication cost due to space and the requirement of building and maintaining and increasing number of connections. We have incorporated such a non-spatial cost to communication in order to introduce the realism of individuals communicating within communities, which we call participation cost. We introduce the notion of a community size that increases with the size of the system, which is shown to reduce the time to search for information in networks. Our final strategy balances search times and participation costs and is shown to decrease time to find information in decentralized search in online social networks. Our strategy also balances strong-ties (within communities and weak-ties over long distances (between communities that bring in diverse ideas and

  20. Prediction of job search intentions and behaviors: Testing the social cognitive model of career self-management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Robert H; Lent, Robert W; Penn, Lee T

    2016-10-01

    We present 2 studies testing the recently developed social-cognitive model of career self-management (Lent & Brown, 2013) in the context of the job search process. In the first study, a sample of 243 unemployed job seekers completed measures of job search self-efficacy, outcome expectations, social support, search intentions, conscientiousness, and perceived control (or volition) over the outcomes of the job search. The latter variable was added to the social-cognitive model to examine the possibility, derived from the psychology of working perspective, that perceived volition might moderate the relation of self-efficacy to job search intentions. The second study included 240 graduating college seniors and focused on the utility of the social-cognitive, personality, and perceived outcome control variables in predicting active engagement in the job search process. Path analyses indicated that the model generally fit the data well in both studies. In Study 1, self-efficacy and outcome expectations mediated the relations of the other predictors to job search intentions. In Study 2, job search intentions produced the primary direct path to subsequent job search behaviors; conscientiousness, support, and outcome control related to job search behavior indirectly through self-efficacy and its linkage to intentions. Outcome control moderated self-efficacy/intention relations only in Study 2, and the pattern of moderation was contrary to expectations. Implications for further inquiry and practice with job seekers are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Gender Discrimination Estimation in a Search Model with Matching and Bargaining

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Flabbi

    2004-01-01

    Gender wage differentials, conditional on observed productivity characteristics, have been considered a possible indication of prejudice against women in the labor market. However, there is no conclusive evidence on whether these differentials are due to labor market discrimination or to unobserved productivity differences. The objective of this paper is to propose a solution for this identification problem by developing and estimating a search model of the labor market with matching, bargain...

  2. Observation of an Excess in the Search for the Standard Model Higgs Boson at ALEPH

    CERN Document Server

    Barate, R.; Ghez, Philippe; Goy, C.; Jezequel, S.; Lees, J.P.; Martin, F.; Merle, E.; Minard, M.N.; Pietrzyk, B.; Bravo, S.; Casado, M.P.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J.M.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Garrido, Ll.; Grauges, E.; Lopez, J.; Martinez, M.; Merino, G.; Miquel, R.; Mir, L.M.; Pacheco, A.; Paneque, D.; Ruiz, H.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; De Filippis, N.; de Palma, M.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Tricomi, A.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Abbaneo, D.; Azzurri, P.; Barklow, T.; Boix, G.; Buchmuller, O.; Cattaneo, M.; Cerutti, F.; Clerbaux, B.; Dissertori, G.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R.W.; Frank, M.; Gianotti, F.; Greening, T.C.; Hansen, J.B.; Harvey, John; Hutchcroft, D.E.; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Kado, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Maley, P.; Mato, P.; Minten, A.; Moutoussi, A.; Ranjard, F.; Rolandi, Gigi; Schlatter, D.; Schmitt, M.; Schneider, O.; Spagnolo, P.; Tejessy, W.; Teubert, F.; Tournefier, E.; Valassi, A.; Ward, J.J.; Wright, A.E.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Badaud, F.; Dessagne, S.; Falvard, A.; Fayolle, D.; Gay, P.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Montret, J.C.; Pallin, D.; Pascolo, J.M.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Hansen, J.D.; Hansen, J.R.; Hansen, P.H.; Nilsson, B.S.; Waananen, A.; Daskalakis, G.; Kyriakis, A.; Markou, C.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Blondel, A.; Brient, J.C.; Machefert, F.; Rouge, A.; Swynghedauw, M.; Tanaka, R.; Videau, H.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Zachariadou, K.; Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Chiarella, V.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G.P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Chalmers, M.; Halley, A.W.; Kennedy, J.; Lynch, J.G.; Negus, P.; O'Shea, V.; Raeven, B.; Smith, D.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Thompson, A.S.; Cavanaugh, R.; Dhamotharan, S.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E.E.; Leibenguth, G.; Putzer, A.; Tittel, K.; Werner, S.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D.M.; Cameron, W.; Davies, G.; Dornan, P.J.; Girone, M.; Marinelli, N.; Nowell, J.; Przysiezniak, H.; Sedgbeer, J.K.; Thompson, J.C.; Thomson, Evelyn J.; White, R.; Ghete, V.M.; Girtler, P.; Kneringer, E.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Bouhova-Thacker, E.; Bowdery, C.K.; Clarke, D.P.; Ellis, G.; Finch, A.J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jones, R.W.L.; Pearson, M.R.; Robertson, N.A.; Smizanska, M.; Giehl, I.; Holldorfer, F.; Jakobs, K.; Kleinknecht, K.; Krocker, M.; Muller, A.S.; Nurnberger, H.A.; Quast, G.; Renk, B.; Rohne, E.; Sander, H.G.; Schmeling, S.; Wachsmuth, H.; Zeitnitz, C.; Ziegler, T.; Bonissent, A.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; Ealet, A.; Fouchez, D.; Leroy, O.; Kachelhoffer, T.; Payre, P.; Rousseau, D.; Tilquin, A.; Aleppo, M.; Gilardoni, Simone S.; Ragusa, F.; David, A.; Dietl, H.; Ganis, G.; Heister, A.; Huttmann, K.; Lutjens, G.; Mannert, C.; Manner, W.; Moser, H.G.; Schael, S.; Settles, R.; Stenzel, H.; Wolf, G.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.F.; Heusse, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Serin, L.; Veillet, J.J.; Videau, I.; de Vivie de Regie, J.B.; Yuan, C.; Zerwas, D.; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Boccali, T.; Calderini, G.; Ciulli, V.; Foa, L.; Giammanco, A.; Giassi, A.; Ligabue, F.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sciaba, A.; Sguazzoni, G.; Tenchini, R.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P.G.; Blair, G.A.; Coles, J.; Cowan, G.; Green, M.G.; Jones, L.T.; Medcalf, T.; Strong, J.A.; Clifft, R.W.; Edgecock, T.R.; Norton, P.R.; Tomalin, I.R.; Bloch-Devaux, Brigitte; Boumediene, D.; Colas, P.; Fabbro, B.; Lancon, E.; Lemaire, M.C.; Locci, E.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.F.; Rosowsky, A.; Seager, P.; Trabelsi, A.; Tuchming, B.; Vallage, B.; Konstantinidis, N.; Loomis, C.; Litke, A.M.; Taylor, G.; Booth, C.N.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Hodgson, P.N.; Lehto, M.; Thompson, L.F.; Affholderbach, K.; Boehrer, Armin; Brandt, S.; Grupen, C.; Hess, J.; Misiejuk, A.; Prange, G.; Sieler, U.; Borean, C.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; He, H.; Putz, J.; Rothberg, J.; Wasserbaech, S.; Armstrong, S.R.; Cranmer, K.; Elmer, P.; Ferguson, D.P.S.; Gao, Y.; Gonzalez, S.; Hayes, O.J.; Hu, H.; Jin, S.; Kile, J.; McNamara, P.A., III; Nielsen, J.; Orejudos, W.; Pan, Y.B.; Saadi, Y.; Scott, I.J.; Shao, N.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J.H.; Walsh, J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wu, J.; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, X.; Zobernig, G.

    2000-01-01

    A search has been performed for the Standard Model Higgs boson in the data sample collected with the ALEPH detector at LEP, at centre-of-mass energies up to 209 GeV. An excess of 3 $\\sigma$ beyond the background expectation is found, consistent with the production of the Higgs boson with a mass near 114 GeV=c^2 . Much of this excess is seen in the four-jet analyses, where three high purity events are selected.

  3. Search for the Standard Model Higgs boson produced in the decay ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-06

    Oct 6, 2012 ... 2Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare-Sezione di Bari, Bari, Italy 70125. E-mail: simranjit.chhibra@ba.infn.it. Abstract. Search for the Standard Model Higgs boson in the decay mode H → Z Z → 2l2τ, where l = μ, e, is presented based on CMS data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of. 1.1 fb. −1 at. √.

  4. On looking into the Black Box: Prospects and Limits in the Search for Mental Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    in discussion of mental modelo is cue utilization. In order to predict future system states or explain the current state, two things nre neaded: 1...Steven W. Keele Human Performan-.e Center Department of Psychology 330 Packard Road University of Oregon Ann Arbor, MI 48109 Eugene, OR 97403 Dr...Morris, "Limits in the Search for Mental Models" Dr. James W. Pellegrino Dr. Mike Posner University of California, University of Oregon Santa Barbara

  5. Exploration of the factor structure of the Kirton Adaption-Innovation Inventory using bootstrapping estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Subin; Min, Soonhong

    2013-04-01

    Exploratory factor analyses of the Kirton Adaption-Innovation Inventory (KAI), which serves to measure individual cognitive styles, generally indicate three factors: sufficiency of originality, efficiency, and rule/group conformity. In contrast, a 2005 study by Im and Hu using confirmatory factor analysis supported a four-factor structure, dividing the sufficiency of originality dimension into two subdimensions, idea generation and preference for change. This study extends Im and Hu's (2005) study of a derived version of the KAI by providing additional evidence of the four-factor structure. Specifically, the authors test the robustness of the parameter estimates to the violation of normality assumptions in the sample using bootstrap methods. A bias-corrected confidence interval bootstrapping procedure conducted among a sample of 356 participants--members of the Arkansas Household Research Panel, with middle SES and average age of 55.6 yr. (SD = 13.9)--showed that the four-factor model with two subdimensions of sufficiency of originality fits the data significantly better than the three-factor model in non-normality conditions.

  6. Bootstrap resampling approach to disaggregate analysis of road crashes in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Xin; Sze, N N; Wong, S C; Yao, Danya

    2016-10-01

    Road safety affects health and development worldwide; thus, it is essential to examine the factors that influence crashes and injuries. As the relationships between crashes, crash severity, and possible risk factors can vary depending on the type of collision, we attempt to develop separate prediction models for different crash types (i.e., single- versus multi-vehicle crashes and slight injury versus killed and serious injury crashes). Taking advantage of the availability of crash and traffic data disaggregated by time and space, it is possible to identify the factors that may contribute to crash risks in Hong Kong, including traffic flow, road design, and weather conditions. To remove the effects of excess zeros on prediction performance in a highly disaggregated crash prediction model, a bootstrap resampling method is applied. The results indicate that more accurate and reliable parameter estimates, with reduced standard errors, can be obtained with the use of a bootstrap resampling method. Results revealed that factors including rainfall, geometric design, traffic control, and temporal variations all determined the crash risk and crash severity. This helps to shed light on the development of remedial engineering and traffic management and control measures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Recovery of signal loss adopting the residual bootstrap method in fetal heart rate dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Kyung; Park, Young-Sun; Cha, Kyung-Joon

    2018-03-19

    Fetal heart rate (FHR) data obtained from a non-stress test (NST) can be presented in a type of time series, which is accompanied by signal loss due to physical and biological causes. To recover or estimate FHR data, which is subjected to a high rate of signal loss, time series models [second-order autoregressive (AR(2)), first-order autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (ARCH(1)) and empirical mode decomposition and vector autoregressive (EMD-VAR)] and the residual bootstrap method were applied. The ARCH(1) model with the residual bootstrap technique was the most accurate [root mean square error (RMSE), 2.065] as it reflects the nonlinearity of the FHR data [mean absolute error (MAE) for approximate entropy (ApEn), 0.081]. As a result, the goal of predicting fetal health and identifying a high-risk pregnancy could be achieved. These trials may be effectively used to save the time and cost of repeating the NST when the fetal diagnosis is impossible owing to a large amount of signal loss.

  8. Bootstrap-based procedures for inference in nonparametric receiver-operating characteristic curve regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Álvarez, María Xosé; Roca-Pardiñas, Javier; Cadarso-Suárez, Carmen; Tahoces, Pablo G

    2018-03-01

    Prior to using a diagnostic test in a routine clinical setting, the rigorous evaluation of its diagnostic accuracy is essential. The receiver-operating characteristic curve is the measure of accuracy most widely used for continuous diagnostic tests. However, the possible impact of extra information about the patient (or even the environment) on diagnostic accuracy also needs to be assessed. In this paper, we focus on an estimator for the covariate-specific receiver-operating characteristic curve based on direct regression modelling and nonparametric smoothing techniques. This approach defines the class of generalised additive models for the receiver-operating characteristic curve. The main aim of the paper is to offer new inferential procedures for testing the effect of covariates on the conditional receiver-operating characteristic curve within the above-mentioned class. Specifically, two different bootstrap-based tests are suggested to check (a) the possible effect of continuous covariates on the receiver-operating characteristic curve and (b) the presence of factor-by-curve interaction terms. The validity of the proposed bootstrap-based procedures is supported by simulations. To facilitate the application of these new procedures in practice, an R-package, known as npROCRegression, is provided and briefly described. Finally, data derived from a computer-aided diagnostic system for the automatic detection of tumour masses in breast cancer is analysed.

  9. Application of Harmony Search algorithm to the solution of groundwater management models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamer Ayvaz, M.

    2009-06-01

    This study proposes a groundwater resources management model in which the solution is performed through a combined simulation-optimization model. A modular three-dimensional finite difference groundwater flow model, MODFLOW is used as the simulation model. This model is then combined with a Harmony Search (HS) optimization algorithm which is based on the musical process of searching for a perfect state of harmony. The performance of the proposed HS based management model is tested on three separate groundwater management problems: (i) maximization of total pumping from an aquifer (steady-state); (ii) minimization of the total pumping cost to satisfy the given demand (steady-state); and (iii) minimization of the pumping cost to satisfy the given demand for multiple management periods (transient). The sensitivity of HS algorithm is evaluated by performing a sensitivity analysis which aims to determine the impact of related solution parameters on convergence behavior. The results show that HS yields nearly same or better solutions than the previous solution methods and may be used to solve management problems in groundwater modeling.

  10. Modeling visual search using three-parameter probability functions in a hierarchical Bayesian framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Shin; Heinke, Dietmar; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we applied Bayesian-based distributional analyses to examine the shapes of response time (RT) distributions in three visual search paradigms, which varied in task difficulty. In further analyses we investigated two common observations in visual search-the effects of display size and of variations in search efficiency across different task conditions-following a design that had been used in previous studies (Palmer, Horowitz, Torralba, & Wolfe, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 37, 58-71, 2011; Wolfe, Palmer, & Horowitz, Vision Research, 50, 1304-1311, 2010) in which parameters of the response distributions were measured. Our study showed that the distributional parameters in an experimental condition can be reliably estimated by moderate sample sizes when Monte Carlo simulation techniques are applied. More importantly, by analyzing trial RTs, we were able to extract paradigm-dependent shape changes in the RT distributions that could be accounted for by using the EZ2 diffusion model. The study showed that Bayesian-based RT distribution analyses can provide an important means to investigate the underlying cognitive processes in search, including stimulus grouping and the bottom-up guidance of attention.

  11. Searching for recursive causal structures in multivariate quantitative genetics mixed models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Bruno D; Rosa, Guilherme J M; de Los Campos, Gustavo; Gianola, Daniel; Silva, Martinho A

    2010-06-01

    Biology is characterized by complex interactions between phenotypes, such as recursive and simultaneous relationships between substrates and enzymes in biochemical systems. Structural equation models (SEMs) can be used to study such relationships in multivariate analyses, e.g., with multiple traits in a quantitative genetics context. Nonetheless, the number of different recursive causal structures that can be used for fitting a SEM to multivariate data can be huge, even when only a few traits are considered. In recent applications of SEMs in mixed-model quantitative genetics settings, causal structures were preselected on the basis of prior biological knowledge alone. Therefore, the wide range of possible causal structures has not been properly explored. Alternatively, causal structure spaces can be explored using algorithms that, using data-driven evidence, can search for structures that are compatible with the joint distribution of the variables under study. However, the search cannot be performed directly on the joint distribution of the phenotypes as it is possibly confounded by genetic covariance among traits. In this article we propose to search for recursive causal structures among phenotypes using the inductive causation (IC) algorithm after adjusting the data for genetic effects. A standard multiple-trait model is fitted using Bayesian methods to obtain a posterior covariance matrix of phenotypes conditional to unobservable additive genetic effects, which is then used as input for the IC algorithm. As an illustrative example, the proposed methodology was applied to simulated data related to multiple traits measured on a set of inbred lines.

  12. Parameter Estimation for Traffic Noise Models Using a Harmony Search Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deok-Soon An

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A technique has been developed for predicting road traffic noise for environmental assessment, taking into account traffic volume as well as road surface conditions. The ASJ model (ASJ Prediction Model for Road Traffic Noise, 1999, which is based on the sound power level of the noise emitted by the interaction between the road surface and tires, employs regression models for two road surface types: dense-graded asphalt (DGA and permeable asphalt (PA. However, these models are not applicable to other types of road surfaces. Accordingly, this paper introduces a parameter estimation procedure for ASJ-based noise prediction models, utilizing a harmony search (HS algorithm. Traffic noise measurement data for four different vehicle types were used in the algorithm to determine the regression parameters for several road surface types. The parameters of the traffic noise prediction models were evaluated using another measurement set, and good agreement was observed between the predicted and measured sound power levels.

  13. Semi-supervised anomaly detection - towards model-independent searches of new physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuusela, Mikael; Vatanen, Tommi; Malmi, Eric; Aaltonen, Timo; Raiko, Tapani; Nagai, Yoshikazu

    2012-01-01

    Most classification algorithms used in high energy physics fall under the category of supervised machine learning. Such methods require a training set containing both signal and background events and are prone to classification errors should this training data be systematically inaccurate for example due to the assumed MC model. To complement such model-dependent searches, we propose an algorithm based on semi-supervised anomaly detection techniques, which does not require a MC training sample for the signal data. We first model the background using a multivariate Gaussian mixture model. We then search for deviations from this model by fitting to the observations a mixture of the background model and a number of additional Gaussians. This allows us to perform pattern recognition of any anomalous excess over the background. We show by a comparison to neural network classifiers that such an approach is a lot more robust against misspecification of the signal MC than supervised classification. In cases where there is an unexpected signal, a neural network might fail to correctly identify it, while anomaly detection does not suffer from such a limitation. On the other hand, when there are no systematic errors in the training data, both methods perform comparably.

  14. Model Unspecific Search for New Physics with High pT Photons in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitz, Stefan Antonius

    2009-01-01

    In 2009 the LHC collider at the European center of particle physics CERN will start operations, colliding protons with a center of mass energy of up to 14 TeV. Designed as a large multi purpose detector CMS 3 will then start taking collision data. CMS will perform precision measurements within the Standard Model of particle physics and expand the search for new physical phenomena into regions that have not yet been probed by previous experiments. Many theories about what physics beyond the Standard Model at the TeV scale might look like have been proposed. Together these models leave room for a broad spectrum of possible experimental signatures that one might look for in the data. Various analyses focus on processing the available information with the aim of finding evidence for a specific model of choice. MUSiC as a Model Unspecific Search in CMS provides a complementary approach by scanning the data for noteworthy deviations from the Standard Model expectation while making only basic assumptions about the n...

  15. The Bootstrap Discovery Behaviour (BDB): a new outlook on usability evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsci, Simone; Londei, Alessandro; Federici, Stefano

    2011-02-01

    The value of λ is one of the main issues debated in international usability studies. The debate is centred on the deficiencies of the mathematical return on investment model (ROI model) of Nielsen and Landauer (1993). The ROI model is discussed in order to identify the base of another model that, respecting Nielsen and Landauer's one, tries to consider a large number of variables for the estimation of the number of evaluators needed for an interface. Using the bootstrap model (Efron 1979), we can take into account: (a) the interface properties, as the properties at zero condition of evaluation and (b) the probability that the population discovery behaviour is represented by all the possible discovery behaviours of a sample. Our alternative model, named Bootstrap Discovery Behaviour (BDB), provides an alternative estimation of the number of experts and users needed for a usability evaluation. Two experimental groups of users and experts are involved in the evaluation of a website (http://www.serviziocivile.it). Applying the BDB model to the problems identified by the two groups, we found that 13 experts and 20 users are needed to identify 80% of usability problems, instead of 6 experts and 7 users required according to the estimation of the discovery likelihood provided by the ROI model. The consequence of the difference between the results of those models is that in following the BDB the costs of usability evaluation increase, although this is justified considering that the results obtained have the best probability of representing the entire population of experts and users.

  16. The LAILAPS search engine: a feature model for relevance ranking in life science databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Matthias; Spies, Karl; Colmsee, Christian; Flemming, Steffen; Klapperstück, Matthias; Scholz, Uwe

    2010-03-25

    Efficient and effective information retrieval in life sciences is one of the most pressing challenge in bioinformatics. The incredible growth of life science databases to a vast network of interconnected information systems is to the same extent a big challenge and a great chance for life science research. The knowledge found in the Web, in particular in life-science databases, are a valuable major resource. In order to bring it to the scientist desktop, it is essential to have well performing search engines. Thereby, not the response time nor the number of results is important. The most crucial factor for millions of query results is the relevance ranking. In this paper, we present a feature model for relevance ranking in life science databases and its implementation in the LAILAPS search engine. Motivated by the observation of user behavior during their inspection of search engine result, we condensed a set of 9 relevance discriminating features. These features are intuitively used by scientists, who briefly screen database entries for potential relevance. The features are both sufficient to estimate the potential relevance, and efficiently quantifiable. The derivation of a relevance prediction function that computes the relevance from this features constitutes a regression problem. To solve this problem, we used artificial neural networks that have been trained with a reference set of relevant database entries for 19 protein queries. Supporting a flexible text index and a simple data import format, this concepts are implemented in the LAILAPS search engine. It can easily be used both as search engine for comprehensive integrated life science databases and for small in-house project databases. LAILAPS is publicly available for SWISSPROT data at http://lailaps.ipk-gatersleben.de.

  17. Uncertainty assessment of gamma-aminobutyric acid concentration of different brain regions in individual and group using residual bootstrap analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meng; Liao, Congyu; Chen, Song; Ding, Qiuping; Zhu, Darong; Liu, Hui; Yan, Xu; Zhong, Jianhui

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this work is to quantify individual and regional differences in the relative concentration of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in human brain with in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Spectral editing Mescher-Garwood point resolved spectroscopy (MEGA-PRESS) sequence and GABA analysis toolkit (Gannet) were used to detect and quantify GABA in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and occipital cortex (OCC) of healthy volunteers. Residual bootstrap, a model-based statistical analysis technique, was applied to resample the fitting residuals of GABA from the Gaussian fitting model (referred to as GABA + thereafter) in both individual and group data of ACC and OCC. The inter-subject coefficient of variation (CV) of GABA + in OCC (20.66 %) and ACC (12.55 %) with residual bootstrap was lower than that of a standard Gaussian model analysis (21.58 % and 16.73 % for OCC and ACC, respectively). The intra-subject uncertainty and CV of OCC were lower than that of ACC in both analyses. The residual bootstrap analysis thus provides a more robust uncertainty estimation of individual and group GABA + detection in different brain regions, which may be useful in our understanding of GABA biochemistry in brain and its use for the diagnosis of related neuropsychiatric diseases.

  18. Measuring and Benchmarking Technical Efficiency of Public Hospitals in Tianjin, China: A Bootstrap-Data Envelopment Analysis Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Dong, Siping

    2015-01-01

    China has long been stuck in applying traditional data envelopment analysis (DEA) models to measure technical efficiency of public hospitals without bias correction of efficiency scores. In this article, we have introduced the Bootstrap-DEA approach from the international literature to analyze the technical efficiency of public hospitals in Tianjin (China) and tried to improve the application of this method for benchmarking and inter-organizational learning. It is found that the bias corrected efficiency scores of Bootstrap-DEA differ significantly from those of the traditional Banker, Charnes, and Cooper (BCC) model, which means that Chinese researchers need to update their DEA models for more scientific calculation of hospital efficiency scores. Our research has helped shorten the gap between China and the international world in relative efficiency measurement and improvement of hospitals. It is suggested that Bootstrap-DEA be widely applied into afterward research to measure relative efficiency and productivity of Chinese hospitals so as to better serve for efficiency improvement and related decision making. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Standard Model Higgs searches with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Nisati, Aleandro

    2012-01-01

    The investigation of the mechanism responsible for electroweak symmetry breaking is one of the most important tasks of the scientific program of the Large Hadron Collider. The experimental results on the search of the Standard Model Higgs boson with 1 to 2 fb^-1 of proton proton collision data at sqrt s=7 TeV recorded by the ATLAS detector are presented and discussed. No significant excess of events is found with respect to the expectations from Standard Model processes, and the production of a Higgs boson is excluded at 95% Confidence Level for the mass regions 144-232, 256-282 and 296-466 GeV.

  20. Search for the Standard Model Higgs Boson with the OPAL Detector at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Amaral, P.; Anagnostou, G.; Anderson, K.J.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Bailey, I.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, R.J.; Batley, R.J.; Bechtle, P.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bell, P.J.; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Benelli, G.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Boeriu, O.; Bock, P.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Buesser, K.; Burckhart, H.J.; Campana, S.; Carnegie, R.K.; Caron, B.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Csilling, A.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Dallison, S.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Elfgren, E.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Feld, L.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Furtjes, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, John William; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giunta, Marina; Goldberg, J.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Gupta, A.; Hajdu, C.; Hamann, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Harin-Dirac, M.; Hauschild, M.; Hauschildt, J.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Hensel, C.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Homer, R.J.; Horvath, D.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jeremie, H.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanaya, N.; Kanzaki, J.; Karapetian, G.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kim, D.H.; Klein, K.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kormos, Laura L.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kramer, T.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Krop, D.; Kruger, K.; Kupper, M.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Layter, J.G.; Leins, A.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Lillich, J.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, J.; Macpherson, A.; Mader, W.; Marcellini, S.; Marchant, T.E.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Masetti, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.J.; McKenna, J.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Mendez-Lorenzo, P.; Menges, W.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Moed, S.; Mohr, W.; Mori, T.; Mutter, A.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oh, A.; Okpara, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pahl, C.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poli, B.; Polok, J.; Pooth, O.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rabbertz, K.; Rembser, C.; Renkel, P.; Rick, H.; Roney, J.M.; Rosati, S.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sarkisyan, E.K.G.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spagnolo, S.; Spano, F.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Tarem, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Taylor, R.J.; Teuscher, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Toya, D.; Tran, P.; Trefzger, T.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Ujvari, B.; Vachon, B.; Vollmer, C.F.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Waller, D.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wetterling, D.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wolf, G.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zer-Zion, D.; Zivkovic, Lidija

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarises the search for the Standard Model Higgs boson in e+e- collisions at centre-of-mass energies up to 209 GeV performed by the OPAL Collaboration at LEP. The consistency of the data with the background hypothesis and various Higgs boson mass hypotheses is examined. No indication of a signal is found in the data and a lower bound of 112.7GeV/C^2 is obtained on the mass of the Standard Model Higgs boson at the 95% CL.

  1. Search for the standard model Higgs boson in the $H \\to ZZ \\to 2l 2\

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Hoch, Michael; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Krammer, Manfred; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Christine; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Teischinger, Florian; Wagner, Philipp; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Bansal, Sunil; Benucci, Leonardo; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Luyckx, Sten; Maes, Thomas; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Charaf, Otman; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Hreus, Tomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wickens, John; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Garcia, Guillaume; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Vanelderen, Lukas; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Ceard, Ludivine; De Favereau De Jeneret, Jerome; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Grégoire, Ghislain; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Schul, Nicolas; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Alves, Gilvan; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Oguri, Vitor; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Silva Do Amaral, Sheila Mara; Soares Jorge, Luana; Sznajder, Andre; Souza Dos Anjos, Tiago; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Karadzhinova, Aneliya; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Ming; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Guo, Shuang; Guo, Yifei; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Wang, Siguang; Zhu, Bo; Zou, Wei; Cabrera, Andrés; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Dzelalija, Mile; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Khalil, Shaaban; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Hektor, Andi; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Azzolini, Virginia; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Czellar, Sandor; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Sillou, Daniel; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Millischer, Laurent; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Shreyber, Irina; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Benhabib, Lamia; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Daci, Nadir; Dahms, Torsten; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Elgammal, Sherif; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Thiebaux, Christophe; Veelken, Christian; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ferro, Cristina; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Juillot, Pierre; Karim, Mehdi; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Fassi, Farida; Mercier, Damien; Baty, Clement; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bedjidian, Marc; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Boumediene, Djamel; Brun, Hugues; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Falkiewicz, Anna; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Le Grand, Thomas; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sordini, Viola; Tosi, Silvano; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Lomidze, David; Anagnostou, Georgios; Beranek, Sarah; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Caudron, Julien; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Erdmann, Martin; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Klingebiel, Dennis; Kreuzer, Peter; Lanske, Dankfried; Lingemann, Joschka; Magass, Carsten; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Olschewski, Mark; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Weber, Martin; Bontenackels, Michael; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Davids, Martina; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Linn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Rennefeld, Jörg; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Zoeller, Marc Henning; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Dammann, Dirk; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Flossdorf, Alexander; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Hauk, Johannes; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Krämer, Mira; Krücker, Dirk; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Olzem, Jan; Petrukhin, Alexey; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Rosin, Michele; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stein, Matthias; Tomaszewska, Justyna; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Autermann, Christian; Blobel, Volker; Bobrovskyi, Sergei; Draeger, Jula; Enderle, Holger; Erfle, Joachim; Gebbert, Ulla; Görner, Martin; Hermanns, Thomas; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Lange, Jörn; Mura, Benedikt; Nowak, Friederike; Pietsch, Niklas; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Barth, Christian; Berger, Joram; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Feindt, Michael; Gruschke, Jasmin; Guthoff, Moritz; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Heinrich, Michael; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Honc, Simon; Katkov, Igor; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Kuhr, Thomas; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Nürnberg, Andreas; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Ratnikova, Natalia; Renz, Manuel; Röcker, Steffen; Saout, Christophe; Scheurer, Armin; Schieferdecker, Philipp; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schmanau, Mike; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Troendle, Daniel; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Weiler, Thomas; Zeise, Manuel; Ziebarth, Eva Barbara; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Manolakos, Ioannis; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Ntomari, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Mertzimekis, Theodoros; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Stiliaris, Efstathios; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Patras, Vaios; Triantis, Frixos A; Aranyi, Attila; Bencze, Gyorgy; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Kapusi, Anita; Krajczar, Krisztian; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Karancsi, János; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Jindal, Monika; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Anil; Singh, Jasbir; Singh, Supreet Pal; Ahuja, Sudha; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Sarkar, Subir; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Aziz, Tariq; Ganguly, Sanmay; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Saha, Anirban; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Hashemi, Majid; Hesari, Hoda; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lusito, Letizia; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Manna, Norman; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Romano, Francesco; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Singh, Gurpreet; Tupputi, Salvatore; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gianni; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Benaglia, Andrea; De Guio, Federico; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Sala, Silvano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Cavallo, Nicola; De Cosa, Annapaola; Dogangun, Oktay; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellan, Paolo; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Fanzago, Federica; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Mazzucato, Mirco; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Nespolo, Massimo; Perrozzi, Luca; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Berzano, Umberto; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Caponeri, Benedetta; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Lucaroni, Andrea; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Romeo, Francesco; Santocchia, Attilio; Taroni, Silvia; Valdata, Marisa; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Palmonari, Francesco; Rizzi, Andrea; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Fanelli, Cristiano; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Pandolfi, Francesco; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Sigamani, Michael; Soffi, Livia; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Botta, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Castello, Roberto; Costa, Marco; Demaria, Natale; Graziano, Alberto; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Belforte, Stefano; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Marone, Matteo; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Heo, Seong Gu; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Chang, Sunghyun; Chung, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Ji Eun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Ro, Sang-Ryul; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Jae Yool; Kim, Zero Jaeho; Song, Sanghyeon; Jo, Hyun Yong; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Seo, Eunsung; Sim, Kwang Souk; Choi, Minkyoo; Kang, Seokon; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Cho, Yongjin; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Min Suk; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Bilinskas, Mykolas Jurgis; Grigelionis, Ignas; Janulis, Mindaugas; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Martínez-Ortega, Jorge; Sánchez-Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A; Krofcheck, David; Bell, Alan James; Butler, Philip H; Doesburg, Robert; Reucroft, Steve; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khalid, Shoaib; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Brona, Grzegorz; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Bialkowska, Helena; Boimska, Bozena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Almeida, Nuno; Bargassa, Pedrame; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Musella, Pasquale; Nayak, Aruna; Pela, Joao; Ribeiro, Pedro Quinaz; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Belotelov, Ivan; Bunin, Pavel; Golutvin, Igor; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Savina, Maria; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Evstyukhin, Sergey; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Toropin, Alexander; Troitsky, Sergey; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Erofeeva, Maria; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kossov, Mikhail; Krokhotin, Andrey; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Markina, Anastasia; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Petrushanko, Sergey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Korablev, Andrey; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Ekmedzic, Marko; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Senghi Soares, Mara; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; Codispoti, Giuseppe; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Felcini, Marta; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Jorda, Clara; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Sobron Sanudo, Mar; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bernet, Colin; Bialas, Wojciech; Bianchi, Giovanni; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Breuker, Horst; Bunkowski, Karol; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; Curé, Benoît; D'Enterria, David; De Roeck, Albert; Di Guida, Salvatore; Dobson, Marc; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Frisch, Benjamin; Funk, Wolfgang; Gaddi, Andrea; Georgiou, Georgios; Gerwig, Hubert; Giffels, Manuel; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Giunta, Marina; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Govoni, Pietro; Gowdy, Stephen; Guida, Roberto; Guiducci, Luigi; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hartl, Christian; Harvey, John; Hegner, Benedikt; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hoffmann, Hans Falk; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kaadze, Ketino; Karavakis, Edward; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Lecoq, Paul; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Lourenco, Carlos; Maki, Tuula; Malberti, Martina; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mulders, Martijn; Nesvold, Erik; Nguyen, Matthew; Orimoto, Toyoko; Orsini, Luciano; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Perez, Emmanuelle; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Polese, Giovanni; Quertenmont, Loic; Racz, Attila; Reece, William; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Rolandi, Gigi; Rommerskirchen, Tanja; Rovelli, Chiara; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Santanastasio, Francesco; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Segoni, Ilaria; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Spiropulu, Maria; Stoye, Markus; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vichoudis, Paschalis; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Worm, Steven; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Sibille, Jennifer; Bäni, Lukas; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Chen, Zhiling; Deisher, Amanda; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Dünser, Marc; Eugster, Jürg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Mohr, Niklas; Moortgat, Filip; Nägeli, Christoph; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Rossini, Marco; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Sawley, Marie-Christine; Starodumov, Andrei; Stieger, Benjamin; Takahashi, Maiko; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Urscheler, Christina; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Wehrli, Lukas; Weng, Joanna; Aguilo, Ernest; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Favaro, Carlotta; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Otiougova, Polina; Robmann, Peter; Snoek, Hella; Verzetti, Mauro; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Liu, Zong-Kai; Lu, Yun-Ju; Mekterovic, Darko; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Majumder, Devdatta; Petrakou, Eleni; Shi, Xin; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wang, Minzu; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Karapinar, Guler; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Uzun, Dilber; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Yildirim, Eda; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Levchuk, Leonid; Bostock, Francis; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Kreczko, Lukasz; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Basso, Lorenzo; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Jackson, James; Kennedy, Bruce W; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Mathias, Bryn; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sparrow, Alex; Tapper, Alexander; Tourneur, Stephane; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardle, Nicholas; Wardrope, David; Whyntie, Tom; Barrett, Matthew; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Henderson, Conor; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; St John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; Sulak, Lawrence; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Cutts, David; Ferapontov, Alexey; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Caulfield, Matthew; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Houtz, Rachel; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Mall, Orpheus; Miceli, Tia; Nelson, Randy; Pellett, Dave; Robles, Jorge; Rutherford, Britney; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Andreev, Valeri; Arisaka, Katsushi; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Duris, Joseph; Erhan, Samim; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Plager, Charles; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Tucker, Jordan; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Babb, John; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Giordano, Ferdinando; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Liu, Hongliang; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; Evans, David; Golf, Frank; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Mangano, Boris; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pi, Haifeng; Pieri, Marco; Ranieri, Riccardo; Sani, Matteo; Sfiligoi, Igor; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Barge, Derek; Bellan, Riccardo; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Flowers, Kristen; Geffert, Paul; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Koay, Sue Ann; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lowette, Steven; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; West, Christopher; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Di Marco, Emanuele; Duarte, Javier; Gataullin, Marat; Ma, Yousi; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Rogan, Christopher; Timciuc, Vladlen; Traczyk, Piotr; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Akgun, Bora; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Jun, Soon Yung; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Drell, Brian Robert; Edelmaier, Christopher; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Heyburn, Bernadette; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Zang, Shi-Lei; Agostino, Lorenzo; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Eggert, Nicholas; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Hopkins, Walter; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Biselli, Angela; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Atac, Muzaffer; Bakken, Jon Alan; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bloch, Ingo; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Cooper, William; Eartly, David P; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Esen, Selda; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Green, Dan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jensen, Hans; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Miao, Ting; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Pivarski, James; Pordes, Ruth; Prokofyev, Oleg; Schwarz, Thomas; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Tan, Ping; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yumiceva, Francisco; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Goldberg, Sean; Hugon, Justin; Kim, Bockjoo; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Remington, Ronald; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Schmitt, Michael Houston; Scurlock, Bobby; Sellers, Paul; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Snowball, Matthew; Wang, Dayong; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Gaultney, Vanessa; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Sekmen, Sezen; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Dorney, Brian; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bai, Yuting; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Kunde, Gerd J; Lacroix, Florent; Malek, Magdalena; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Silvestre, Catherine; Strom, Derek; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Griffiths, Scott; Lae, Chung Khim; McCliment, Edward; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Bonato, Alessio; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Swartz, Morris; Tran, Nhan Viet; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Grachov, Oleg; Kenny Iii, Raymond Patrick; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Tinti, Gemma; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Zhukova, Victoria; Barfuss, Anne-Fleur; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Boutemeur, Madjid; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kirn, Malina; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice; Peterman, Alison; Rossato, Kenneth; Rumerio, Paolo; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Twedt, Elizabeth; Alver, Burak; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Dutta, Valentina; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Lee, Yen-Jie; Li, Wei; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Velicanu, Dragos; Wenger, Edward Allen; Wolf, Roger; Wyslouch, Bolek; Xie, Si; Yang, Mingming; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Cooper, Seth; Cushman, Priscilla; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Franzoni, Giovanni; Gude, Alexander; Haupt, Jason; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rekovic, Vladimir; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Godang, Romulus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Summers, Don; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Butt, Jamila; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Jindal, Pratima; Keller, Jason; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malbouisson, Helena; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R; Baur, Ulrich; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Jain, Supriya; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Shipkowski, Simon Peter; Smith, Kenneth; Wan, Zongru; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Trocino, Daniele; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Ziegler, Jill; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Hill, Christopher; Killewald, Phillip; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Vuosalo, Carl; Williams, Grayson; Adam, Nadia; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Gerbaudo, Davide; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hunt, Adam; Laird, Edward; Lopes Pegna, David; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Raval, Amita; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Acosta, Jhon Gabriel; Huang, Xing Tao; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Oliveros, Sandra; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Zatserklyaniy, Andriy; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E; 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Arora, Sanjay; Atramentov, Oleksiy; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Hits, Dmitry; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Richards, Alan; Rose, Keith; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Seitz, Claudia; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Safonov, Alexei; Sakuma, Tai; Sengupta, Sinjini; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Akchurin, Nural; Bardak, Cemile; Damgov, Jordan; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Mane, Poonam; Roh, Youn; Sill, Alan; Volobouev, Igor; Wigmans, Richard; Appelt, Eric; Brownson, Eric; Engh, Daniel; Florez, Carlos; Gabella, William; Gurrola, Alfredo; Issah, Michael; Johns, Willard; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Boutle, Sarah; Conetti, Sergio; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goadhouse, Stephen; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Yohay, Rachel; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Mattson, Mark; Milstène, Caroline; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Bachtis, Michail; Belknap, Donald; Bellinger, James Nugent; Bernardini, Jacopo; Borrello, Laura; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Efron, Jonathan; Friis, Evan; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Leonard, Jessica; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Swanson, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    A search for the standard model Higgs boson in the H to ZZ to 2l 2nu decay channel, where l = e or mu, in pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV is presented. The data were collected at the LHC, with the CMS detector, and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 4.6 inverse femtobarns. No significant excess is observed above the background expectation, and upper limits are set on the Higgs boson production cross section. The presence of the standard model Higgs boson with a mass in the 270-440 GeV range is excluded at 95% confidence level.

  2. Search for Standard Model Higgs boson in the two-photon final state in ATLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davignon Olivier

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We report on the search for the Standard Model Higgs boson decaying into two photons based on proton-proton collision data with a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV recorded by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. The dataset has an integrated luminosity of about 1:08 fb−1. The expected cross section exclusion at 95% confidence level varies between 2:0 and 5:8 times the Standard Model cross section over the diphoton mass range 110 – 150 GeV. The maximum deviations from the background-only expectation are consistent with statistical fluctuations.

  3. MUSiC. A model unspecific search in CMS based on 2010 LHC data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieta, Holger

    2012-06-20

    A Model Unspecific Search in CMS (MUSiC) is presented in this work, along with its results on the data taken in 2010 by the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). This analysis shows a sensitivity to various models for new physics and provides a broad view at the data, due to its minimal theoretical bias. Events are classified with respect to their reconstructed objects: Muons, electrons, photons, jets and missing transverse energy. Up to three kinematic variables in each of these classes are systematically scanned for continuous bin regions deviating significantly from the predictions by the Standard Model of particle physics. No deviations beyond expected fluctuations are observed, when taking systematic uncertainties into account. The sensitivity of the analysis to certain models beyond the Standard Model is demonstrated.

  4. Fuzzy rule base design using tabu search algorithm for nonlinear system modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagis, Aytekin

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to fuzzy rule base design using tabu search algorithm (TSA) for nonlinear system modeling. TSA is used to evolve the structure and the parameter of fuzzy rule base. The use of the TSA, in conjunction with a systematic neighbourhood structure for the determination of fuzzy rule base parameters, leads to a significant improvement in the performance of the model. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented method, several numerical examples given in the literature are examined. The results obtained by means of the identified fuzzy rule bases are compared with those belonging to other modeling approaches in the literature. The simulation results indicate that the method based on the use of a TSA performs an important and very effective modeling procedure in fuzzy rule base design in the modeling of the nonlinear or complex systems.

  5. Extracting T–S Fuzzy Models Using the Cuckoo Search Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad Turki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method called cuckoo search (CS is used to extract and learn the Takagi–Sugeno (T–S fuzzy model. In the proposed method, the particle or cuckoo of CS is formed by the structure of rules in terms of number and selected rules, the antecedent, and consequent parameters of the T–S fuzzy model. These parameters are learned simultaneously. The optimized T–S fuzzy model is validated by using three examples: the first a nonlinear plant modelling problem, the second a Box–Jenkins nonlinear system identification problem, and the third identification of nonlinear system, comparing the obtained results with other existing results of other methods. The proposed CS method gives an optimal T–S fuzzy model with fewer numbers of rules.

  6. A Search for the Standard Model Higgs Boson Produced in Association with a $W$ Boson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, Martin Johannes [Baylor Univ., Waco, TX (United States)

    2011-05-01

    We present a search for a standard model Higgs boson produced in association with a W boson using data collected with the CDF II detector from p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV. The search is performed in the WH → ℓvb$\\bar{b}$ channel. The two quarks usually fragment into two jets, but sometimes a third jet can be produced via gluon radiation, so we have increased the standard two-jet sample by including events that contain three jets. We reconstruct the Higgs boson using two or three jets depending on the kinematics of the event. We find an improvement in our search sensitivity using the larger sample together with this multijet reconstruction technique. Our data show no evidence of a Higgs boson, so we set 95% confidence level upper limits on the WH production rate. We set limits between 3.36 and 28.7 times the standard model prediction for Higgs boson masses ranging from 100 to 150 GeV/c2.

  7. Model unspecific search in CMS. Treatment of insufficient Monte Carlo statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieb, Jonas; Albert, Andreas; Duchardt, Deborah; Hebbeker, Thomas; Knutzen, Simon; Meyer, Arnd; Pook, Tobias; Roemer, Jonas [III. Physikalisches Institut A, RWTH Aachen University (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In 2015, the CMS detector recorded proton-proton collisions at an unprecedented center of mass energy of √(s)=13 TeV. The Model Unspecific Search in CMS (MUSiC) offers an analysis approach of these data which is complementary to dedicated analyses: By taking all produced final states into consideration, MUSiC is sensitive to indicators of new physics appearing in final states that are usually not investigated. In a two step process, MUSiC first classifies events according to their physics content and then searches kinematic distributions for the most significant deviations between Monte Carlo simulations and observed data. Such a general approach introduces its own set of challenges. One of them is the treatment of situations with insufficient Monte Carlo statistics. Complementing introductory presentations on the MUSiC event selection and classification, this talk will present a method of dealing with the issue of low Monte Carlo statistics.

  8. A search for the standard model Higgs boson using the DELPHI detector at LEP2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheridan, A.E.

    1998-11-01

    A search for the Standard Model Higgs boson is performed using the 51.59 pb -1 of data collected by the DELPHI detector at a centre-of-mass energy of 182.7 GeV. A search is made for the production of Higgs bosons with an on-shell Z boson, with the Higgs boson decaying to b-quarks and the Z to either a dielectron or dimuon pair. No significant excess is seen in the data and hence a 95% CL upper cross- section limit is set as a function of the Higgs boson mass. The results from these leptonic channels are combined with those from other Higgs and Z decay channel analyses using DELPHI data and a 95% CL lower mass limit for the Higgs boson of 87.6 GeV/c 2 is set. This limit significantly improves the limit obtained with previous data. (author)

  9. Dissecting jets and missing energy searches using n-body extended simplified models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Timothy [Institute of Theoretical Science, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403 (United States); Dolan, Matthew J. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale,School of Physics, University of Melbourne, 3010 (Australia); Hedri, Sonia El [Institut fur Physik (THEP) Johannes Gutenberg-Universitat,D-55099, Mainz (Germany); Hirschauer, James; Tran, Nhan; Whitbeck, Andrew [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)

    2016-08-04

    Simplified Models are a useful way to characterize new physics scenarios for the LHC. Particle decays are often represented using non-renormalizable operators that involve the minimal number of fields required by symmetries. Generalizing to a wider class of decay operators allows one to model a variety of final states. This approach, which we dub the n-body extension of Simplified Models, provides a unifying treatment of the signal phase space resulting from a variety of signals. In this paper, we present the first application of this framework in the context of multijet plus missing energy searches. The main result of this work is a global performance study with the goal of identifying which set of observables yields the best discriminating power against the largest Standard Model backgrounds for a wide range of signal jet multiplicities. Our analysis compares combinations of one, two and three variables, placing emphasis on the enhanced sensitivity gain resulting from non-trivial correlations. Utilizing boosted decision trees, we compare and classify the performance of missing energy, energy scale and energy structure observables. We demonstrate that including an observable from each of these three classes is required to achieve optimal performance. This work additionally serves to establish the utility of n-body extended Simplified Models as a diagnostic for unpacking the relative merits of different search strategies, thereby motivating their application to new physics signatures beyond jets and missing energy.

  10. Model unspecific search in CMS. First results at 13 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roemer, Jonas; Albert, Andreas; Duchardt, Deborah; Hebbeker, Thomas; Knutzen, Simon; Lieb, Jonas; Meyer, Arnd; Pook, Tobias [III. Physikalisches Institut A, RWTH Aachen University (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Following an upgrade in center of mass energy from √(s) = 8 TeV to 13 TeV, the LHC delivered first proton-proton collisions at this unprecedented energy in 2015. The CMS experiment recorded data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.7 fb{sup -1}. Since many theoretical models predict signal cross sections to increase strongly with the center of mass energy, the data taken at √(s) = 13 TeV are competitive to the previous data taking period even with a lower recorded integrated luminosity. The Model Unspecific Search in CMS (MUSiC) searches for physics beyond the standard model independent of theoretical models. Using an automatic method, kinematic distributions of the data are compared with the standard model expectation in every final state. Therefore, MUSiC reduces the chance of overlooking new physics, since even distributions not covered by dedicated analyses are investigated. This talk outlines changes to the analysis made necessary by the increased center of mass energy and first results with lepton triggered events.

  11. Impurities in a non-axisymmetric plasma: Transport and effect on bootstrap current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mollén, A., E-mail: albertm@chalmers.se [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg (Sweden); Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, 17491 Greifswald (Germany); Landreman, M. [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Smith, H. M.; Helander, P. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, 17491 Greifswald (Germany); Braun, S. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, 17491 Greifswald (Germany); German Aerospace Center, Institute of Engineering Thermodynamics, Pfaffenwaldring 38-40, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    Impurities cause radiation losses and plasma dilution, and in stellarator plasmas the neoclassical ambipolar radial electric field is often unfavorable for avoiding strong impurity peaking. In this work we use a new continuum drift-kinetic solver, the SFINCS code (the Stellarator Fokker-Planck Iterative Neoclassical Conservative Solver) [M. Landreman et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 042503 (2014)] which employs the full linearized Fokker-Planck-Landau operator, to calculate neoclassical impurity transport coefficients for a Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) magnetic configuration. We compare SFINCS calculations with theoretical asymptotes in the high collisionality limit. We observe and explain a 1/ν-scaling of the inter-species radial transport coefficient at low collisionality, arising due to the field term in the inter-species collision operator, and which is not found with simplified collision models even when momentum correction is applied. However, this type of scaling disappears if a radial electric field is present. We also use SFINCS to analyze how the impurity content affects the neoclassical impurity dynamics and the bootstrap current. We show that a change in plasma effective charge Z{sub eff} of order unity can affect the bootstrap current enough to cause a deviation in the divertor strike point locations.

  12. A Bootstrap Metropolis-Hastings Algorithm for Bayesian Analysis of Big Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Faming; Kim, Jinsu; Song, Qifan

    2016-01-01

    Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods have proven to be a very powerful tool for analyzing data of complex structures. However, their computer-intensive nature, which typically require a large number of iterations and a complete scan of the full dataset for each iteration, precludes their use for big data analysis. In this paper, we propose the so-called bootstrap Metropolis-Hastings (BMH) algorithm, which provides a general framework for how to tame powerful MCMC methods to be used for big data analysis; that is to replace the full data log-likelihood by a Monte Carlo average of the log-likelihoods that are calculated in parallel from multiple bootstrap samples. The BMH algorithm possesses an embarrassingly parallel structure and avoids repeated scans of the full dataset in iterations, and is thus feasible for big data problems. Compared to the popular divide-and-combine method, BMH can be generally more efficient as it can asymptotically integrate the whole data information into a single simulation run. The BMH algorithm is very flexible. Like the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm, it can serve as a basic building block for developing advanced MCMC algorithms that are feasible for big data problems. This is illustrated in the paper by the tempering BMH algorithm, which can be viewed as a combination of parallel tempering and the BMH algorithm. BMH can also be used for model selection and optimization by combining with reversible jump MCMC and simulated annealing, respectively.

  13. A Bootstrap Metropolis–Hastings Algorithm for Bayesian Analysis of Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinsu; Song, Qifan

    2016-01-01

    Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods have proven to be a very powerful tool for analyzing data of complex structures. However, their computer-intensive nature, which typically require a large number of iterations and a complete scan of the full dataset for each iteration, precludes their use for big data analysis. In this paper, we propose the so-called bootstrap Metropolis-Hastings (BMH) algorithm, which provides a general framework for how to tame powerful MCMC methods to be used for big data analysis; that is to replace the full data log-likelihood by a Monte Carlo average of the log-likelihoods that are calculated in parallel from multiple bootstrap samples. The BMH algorithm possesses an embarrassingly parallel structure and avoids repeated scans of the full dataset in iterations, and is thus feasible for big data problems. Compared to the popular divide-and-combine method, BMH can be generally more efficient as it can asymptotically integrate the whole data information into a single simulation run. The BMH algorithm is very flexible. Like the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm, it can serve as a basic building block for developing advanced MCMC algorithms that are feasible for big data problems. This is illustrated in the paper by the tempering BMH algorithm, which can be viewed as a combination of parallel tempering and the BMH algorithm. BMH can also be used for model selection and optimization by combining with reversible jump MCMC and simulated annealing, respectively. PMID:29033469

  14. A Bootstrap Approach to an Affordable Exploration Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the potential to build an affordable sustainable exploration program by adopting an approach that requires investing in technologies that can be used to build a space infrastructure from very modest initial capabilities. Human exploration has had a history of flight programs that have high development and operational costs. Since Apollo, human exploration has had very constrained budgets and they are expected be constrained in the future. Due to their high operations costs it becomes necessary to consider retiring established space facilities in order to move on to the next exploration challenge. This practice may save cost in the near term but it does so by sacrificing part of the program s future architecture. Human exploration also has a history of sacrificing fully functional flight hardware to achieve mission objectives. An affordable exploration program cannot be built when it involves billions of dollars of discarded space flight hardware, instead, the program must emphasize preserving its high value space assets and building a suitable permanent infrastructure. Further this infrastructure must reduce operational and logistics cost. The paper examines the importance of achieving a high level of logistics independence by minimizing resource consumption, minimizing the dependency on external logistics, and maximizing the utility of resources available. The approach involves the development and deployment of a core suite of technologies that have minimum initial needs yet are able expand upon initial capability in an incremental bootstrap fashion. The bootstrap approach incrementally creates an infrastructure that grows and becomes self sustaining and eventually begins producing the energy, products and consumable propellants that support human exploration. The bootstrap technologies involve new methods of delivering and manipulating energy and materials. These technologies will exploit the space environment, minimize dependencies, and

  15. The S-matrix bootstrap II: two dimensional amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulos, Miguel F.; Penedones, Joao; Toledo, Jonathan; van Rees, Balt C.; Vieira, Pedro

    2017-11-01

    We consider constraints on the S-matrix of any gapped, Lorentz invariant quantum field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions due to crossing symmetry and unitarity. In this way we establish rigorous bounds on the cubic couplings of a given theory with a fixed mass spectrum. In special cases we identify interesting integrable theories saturating these bounds. Our analytic bounds match precisely with numerical bounds obtained in a companion paper where we consider massive QFT in an AdS box and study boundary correlators using the technology of the conformal bootstrap.

  16. Check of the bootstrap conditions for the gluon Reggeization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papa, A.

    2000-01-01

    The property of gluon Reggeization plays an essential role in the derivation of the Balitsky-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov (BFKL) equation for the cross sections at high energy √s in perturbative QCD. This property has been proved to all orders of perturbation theory in the leading logarithmic approximation and it is assumed to be valid also in the next-to-leading logarithmic approximation, where it has been checked only to the first three orders of perturbation theory. From s-channel unitarity, however, very stringent 'bootstrap' conditions can be derived which, if fulfilled, leave no doubts that gluon Reggeization holds

  17. Comparing groups randomization and bootstrap methods using R

    CERN Document Server

    Zieffler, Andrew S; Long, Jeffrey D

    2011-01-01

    A hands-on guide to using R to carry out key statistical practices in educational and behavioral sciences research Computing has become an essential part of the day-to-day practice of statistical work, broadening the types of questions that can now be addressed by research scientists applying newly derived data analytic techniques. Comparing Groups: Randomization and Bootstrap Methods Using R emphasizes the direct link between scientific research questions and data analysis. Rather than relying on mathematical calculations, this book focus on conceptual explanations and

  18. Dimensional Reduction via Noncommutative Spacetime: Bootstrap and Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miao

    2002-05-01

    Unlike noncommutative space, when space and time are noncommutative, it seems necessary to modify the usual scheme of quantum mechanics. We propose in this paper a simple generalization of the time evolution equation in quantum mechanics to incorporate the feature of a noncommutative spacetime. This equation is much more constraining than the usual Schrödinger equation in that the spatial dimension noncommuting with time is effectively reduced to a point in low energy. We thus call the new evolution equation the spacetime bootstrap equation, the dimensional reduction called for by this evolution seems close to what is required by the holographic principle. We will discuss several examples to demonstrate this point.

  19. Bootstrap-Calibrated Interval Estimates for Latent Variable Scores in Item Response Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Yang, Ji Seung

    2017-09-06

    In most item response theory applications, model parameters need to be first calibrated from sample data. Latent variable (LV) scores calculated using estimated parameters are thus subject to sampling error inherited from the calibration stage. In this article, we propose a resampling-based method, namely bootstrap calibration (BC), to reduce the impact of the carryover sampling error on the interval estimates of LV scores. BC modifies the quantile of the plug-in posterior, i.e., the posterior distribution of the LV evaluated at the estimated model parameters, to better match the corresponding quantile of the true posterior, i.e., the posterior distribution evaluated at the true model parameters, over repeated sampling of calibration data. Furthermore, to achieve better coverage of the fixed true LV score, we explore the use of BC in conjunction with Jeffreys' prior. We investigate the finite-sample performance of BC via Monte Carlo simulations and apply it to two empirical data examples.

  20. Dark Matter Benchmark Models for Early LHC Run-2 Searches. Report of the ATLAS/CMS Dark Matter Forum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Daniel [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). et al.

    2015-07-06

    One of the guiding principles of this report is to channel the efforts of the ATLAS and CMS collaborations towards a minimal basis of dark matter models that should influence the design of the early Run-2 searches. At the same time, a thorough survey of realistic collider signals of Dark Matter is a crucial input to the overall design of the search program.

  1. An Optimization Model and Modified Harmony Search Algorithm for Microgrid Planning with ESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To solve problems such as the high cost of microgrids (MGs, balance between supply and demand, stability of system operation, and optimizing the MG planning model, the energy storage system (ESS and harmony search algorithm (HSA are proposed. First, the conventional MG planning optimization model is constructed and the constraint conditions are defined: the supply and demand balance and reserve requirements. Second, an ESS is integrated into the optimal model of MG planning. The model with an ESS can solve and identify parameters such as the optimal power, optimal capacity, and optimal installation year. Third, the convergence speed and robustness of the ESS are optimized and improved. A case study comprising three different cases concludes the paper. The results show that the modified HSA (MHSA can effectively improve the stability and economy of MG operation with an ESS.

  2. Searches for Physics beyond the Standard Model in Monojet and Monophoton events with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Pöttgen, R; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    There are various models for physics beyond the standard model that predict event signatures with large missing transverse energy due to invisible new particles. Such events can be identi fied in the detector if they are accompanied by an energetic photon or a jet with high transverse energy. The main contributions to the standard model background are production of Z and W bosons together with a jet, where the Z decays into 2 neutrinos or where the decay lepton from the W is not identified. This talk presents results from searches for new physics with both signatures with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The focus will be on the analyses using the full 2011 data set at a center of mass energy of sqrt(s) = 7TeV but also include updates with data recorded in 2012 at sqrt(s)=8TeV. The results are translated into exclusion limits on parameters of different theoretical models.

  3. Penentuan Posisi Hiposenter Gempabumi dengan Menggunakan Metoda Guided Grid Search dan Model Struktur Kecepatan Tiga Dimensi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendro Nugroho

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu penelitian ilmu kebumian yang perlu dilakukan untuk membantu upaya mitigasi bencana gempabumi adalah menentukan pusat gempa dengan presisi tinggi. Dalam hal ini ketelitian sangat diperlukan oleh karena adanya heterogenitas materi bumi yang dilewati gelombang gempa dari hiposenter ke stasiun pencatat. Oleh karena itu dengan bantuan model geotomografi (model struktur 3D kecepatan rambat gelombang gempa diharapkan akan dapat diperoleh posisi sumber gempa yang lebih baik. Untuk studi ini daerah penelitian yang diambil adalah Jawa dan sekitarnya, yaitu : 7° LS - 11° LS dan 105° BT - 114° BT. Data yang digunakan adalah waktu tiba gelombang P dari seismogram yang direkam pada seismograf broadband di Indonesia. Penentuan hiposenter menggunakan metoda guided grid search dengan model kecepatan 3D untuk busur Sunda. Hasil penentuan hiposenter gempa dengan pendekatan ini memberikan tingkat kesalahan yang lebih kecil dibandingkan dengan jika digunakan model kecepatan 1D.

  4. A Search for Beyond Standard Model Light Bosons Decaying into Muon Pairs

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    A dataset corresponding to $2.8~\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ of proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 13~\\mathrm{TeV}$ was recorded by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC. These data are used to search for new light bosons with a mass in the range $0.25-8.5~\\mathrm{GeV}/c^2$ decaying into muon pairs. No excess is observed in the data, and a model-independent upper limit on the product of the cross section, branching fraction and acceptance is derived. The results are interpreted in the context of two benchmark models, namely, the next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model, and dark SUSY models including those predicting a non-negligible light boson lifetime.

  5. Implications of Higgs searches on the four-generation standard model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuflik, Eric; Nir, Yosef; Volansky, Tomer

    2013-03-01

    Within the four-generation standard model, the Higgs couplings to gluons and to photons deviate in a significant way from the predictions of the three-generation standard model. As a consequence, large departures in several Higgs production and decay channels are expected. Recent Higgs search results, presented by ATLAS, CMS, and CDF, hint on the existence of a Higgs boson with a mass around 125 GeV. Using these results and assuming such a Higgs boson, we derive exclusion limits on the four-generation standard model. For m(H)=125 GeV, the model is excluded above 99.95% confidence level. For 124.5 GeV≤m(H)≤127.5 GeV, an exclusion limit above 99% confidence level is found.

  6. Search for Charged Higgs Bosons at LEP in General Two Higgs Doublet Models

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, J.; Adam, W.; Adzic, P.; Albrecht, T.; Alderweireld, T.; Alemany-Fernandez, R.; Allmendinger, T.; Allport, P.P.; Amaldi, U.; Amapane, N.; Amato, S.; Anashkin, E.; Andreazza, A.; Andringa, S.; Anjos, N.; Antilogus, P.; Apel, W.D.; Arnoud, Y.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Augustin, J.E.; Augustinus, A.; Baillon, P.; Ballestrero, A.; Bambade, P.; Barbier, R.; Bardin, D.; Barker, G.; Baroncelli, A.; Battaglia, M.; Baubillier, M.; Becks, K.H.; Begalli, M.; Behrmann, A.; Ben-Haim, E.; Benekos, N.; Benvenuti, A.; Berat, C.; Berggren, M.; Berntzon, L.; Bertrand, D.; Besancon, M.; Besson, N.; Bloch, D.; Blom, M.; Bluj, M.; Bonesini, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, P.S.L.; Borisov, G.; Botner, O.; Bouquet, B.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Boyko, I.; Bracko, M.; Brenner, R.; Brodet, E.; Bruckman, P.; Brunet, J.M.; Bugge, L.; Buschmann, P.; Calvi, M.; Camporesi, T.; Canale, V.; Carena, F.; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cavallo, F.; Chapkin, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Checchia, P.; Chierici, R.; Chliapnikov, P.; Chudoba, J.; Chung, S.U.; Cieslik, K.; Collins, P.; Contri, R.; Cosme, G.; Cossutti, F.; Costa, M.J.; Crennell, D.; Cuevas, J.; D'Hondt, J.; Dalmau, J.; da Silva, T.; Da Silva, W.; Della Ricca, G.; De Angelis, A.; De Boer, W.; De Clercq, C.; De Lotto, B.; De Maria, N.; De Min, A.; de Paula, L.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Simone, A.; Doroba, K.; Drees, J.; Dris, M.; Eigen, G.; Ekelof, T.; Ellert, M.; Elsing, M.; Espirito Santo, M.C.; Fanourakis, G.; Fassouliotis, D.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J.; Ferrer, A.; Ferro, F.; Flagmeyer, U.; Foeth, H.; Fokitis, E.; Fulda-Quenzer, F.; Fuster, J.; Gandelman, M.; Garcia, C.; Gavillet, Ph.; Gazis, Evangelos; Gokieli, R.; Golob, B.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncalves, P.; Graziani, E.; Grosdidier, G.; Grzelak, K.; Guy, J.; Haag, C.; Hallgren, A.; Hamacher, K.; Hamilton, K.; Haug, S.; Hauler, F.; Hedberg, V.; Hennecke, M.; Herr, H.; Hoffman, J.; Holmgren, S.O.; Holt, P.J.; Houlden, M.A.; Hultqvist, K.; Jackson, John Neil; Jarlskog, G.; Jarry, P.; Jeans, D.; Johansson, Erik Karl; Johansson, P.D.; Jonsson, P.; Joram, C.; Jungermann, L.; Kapusta, Frederic; Katsanevas, S.; Katsoufis, E.; Kernel, G.; Kersevan, B.P.; Kerzel, U.; Kiiskinen, A.; King, B.T.; Kjaer, N.J.; Kluit, P.; Kokkinias, P.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Kouznetsov, O.; Krumstein, Z.; Kucharczyk, M.; Lamsa, J.; Leder, G.; Ledroit, Fabienne; Leinonen, L.; Leitner, R.; Lemonne, J.; Lepeltier, V.; Lesiak, T.; Liebig, W.; Liko, D.; Lipniacka, A.; Lopes, J.H.; Lopez, J.M.; Loukas, D.; Lutz, P.; Lyons, L.; MacNaughton, J.; Malek, A.; Maltezos, S.; Mandl, F.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Marechal, B.; Margoni, M.; Marin, J.C.; Mariotti, C.; Markou, A.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Masik, J.; Mastroyiannopoulos, N.; Matorras, F.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mazzucato, F.; Mazzucato, M.; McNulty, R.; Meroni, C.; Migliore, E.; Mitaroff, W.; Mjoernmark, U.; Moa, T.; Moch, M.; Monig, Klaus; Monge, R.; Montenegro, J.; Moraes, D.; Moreno, S.; Morettini, P.; Mueller, U.; Muenich, K.; Mulders, M.; Mundim, L.; Murray, W.; Muryn, B.; Myatt, G.; Myklebust, T.; Nassiakou, M.; Navarria, F.; Nawrocki, K.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nikolenko, M.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Olshevski, A.; Onofre, A.; Orava, R.; Osterberg, K.; Ouraou, A.; Oyanguren, A.; Paganoni, M.; Paiano, S.; Palacios, J.P.; Palka, H.; Papadopoulou, Th.D.; Pape, L.; Parkes, C.; Parodi, F.; Parzefall, U.; Passeri, A.; Passon, O.; Peralta, L.; Perepelitsa, V.; Perrotta, A.; Petrolini, A.; Piedra, J.; Pieri, L.; Pierre, F.; Pimenta, M.; Piotto, E.; Podobnik, T.; Poireau, V.; Pol, M.E.; Polok, G.; Poropat, P.; Pozdniakov, V.; Pukhaeva, N.; Pullia, A.; Rames, J.; Ramler, L.; Read, Alexander L.; Rebecchi, P.; Rehn, J.; Reid, D.; Reinhardt, R.; Renton, P.; Richard, F.; Ridky, J.; Rivero, M.; Rodriguez, D.; Romero, A.; Ronchese, P.; Roudeau, P.; Rovelli, T.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Ryabtchikov, D.; Sadovsky, A.; Salmi, L.; Salt, J.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schwickerath, U.; Segar, A.; Sekulin, R.; Siebel, M.; Sisakian, A.; Smadja, G.; Smirnova, O.; Sokolov, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sosnowski, R.; Spassov, T.; Stanitzki, M.; Stocchi, A.; Strauss, J.; Stugu, B.; Szczekowski, M.; Szeptycka, M.; Szumlak, T.; Tabarelli, T.; Taffard, A.C.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Timmermans, Jan; Tkatchev, L.; Tobin, M.; Todorovova, S.; Tome, B.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortosa, P.; Travnicek, P.; Treille, D.; Tristram, G.; Trochimczuk, M.; Troncon, C.; Turluer, M.L.; Tyapkin, I.A.; Tyapkin, P.; Tzamarias, S.; Uvarov, V.; Valenti, G.; Van Dam, Piet; Van Eldik, J.; Van Lysebetten, A.; van Remortel, N.; Van Vulpen, I.; Vegni, G.; Veloso, F.; Venus, W.; Verdier, P.; Verzi, V.; Vilanova, D.; Vitale, L.; Vrba, V.; Wahlen, H.; Washbrook, A.J.; Weiser, C.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Winter, M.; Witek, M.; Yushchenko, O.; Zalewska, A.; Zalewski, P.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zimine, N.I.; Zintchenko, A.; Zupan, M.

    2004-01-01

    A search for pair-produced charged Higgs bosons was performed in the data collected by the DELPHI detector at LEP II at centre-of-mass energies from 189 GeV to 209 GeV. Five different final states, tau+ nu_tau tau- anti-nu_tau, c sbar cbar s, c sbar tau- anti-nu_tau, W* A W* A and W* A tau- anti-nu_tau were considered, accounting for the major expected decays in type I and type II Two Higgs Doublet Models. No significant excess of data compared to the expected Standard Model processes was observed. The existence of a charged Higgs boson with mass lower than 76.7 GeV/c^2 (type I) or 74.4 GeV/c^2 (type II) is excluded at the 95% confidence level, for a wide range of the model parameters. Model independent cross-section limits have also been calculated.

  7. Searching for beyond the minimal supersymmetric standard model at the laboratory and in the sky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ju Min

    2010-09-15

    We study the collider signals as well as Dark Matter candidates in supersymmetric models. We show that the collider signatures from a supersymmetric Grand Unification model based on the SO(10) gauge group can be distinguishable from those from the (constrained) minimal supersymmetric Standard Model, even though they share some common features. The N=2 supersymmetry has the characteristically distinct phenomenology, due to the Dirac nature of gauginos, as well as the extra adjoint scalars. We compute the cold Dark Matter relic density including a class of one-loop corrections. Finally, we discuss the detectability of neutralino Dark Matter candidate of the SO(10) model by the direct and indirect Dark Matter search experiments. (orig.)

  8. Quasi-steady State Reduction of Molecular Motor-Based Models of Directed Intermittent Search

    KAUST Repository

    Newby, Jay M.

    2010-02-19

    We present a quasi-steady state reduction of a linear reaction-hyperbolic master equation describing the directed intermittent search for a hidden target by a motor-driven particle moving on a one-dimensional filament track. The particle is injected at one end of the track and randomly switches between stationary search phases and mobile nonsearch phases that are biased in the anterograde direction. There is a finite possibility that the particle fails to find the target due to an absorbing boundary at the other end of the track. Such a scenario is exemplified by the motor-driven transport of vesicular cargo to synaptic targets located on the axon or dendrites of a neuron. The reduced model is described by a scalar Fokker-Planck (FP) equation, which has an additional inhomogeneous decay term that takes into account absorption by the target. The FP equation is used to compute the probability of finding the hidden target (hitting probability) and the corresponding conditional mean first passage time (MFPT) in terms of the effective drift velocity V, diffusivity D, and target absorption rate λ of the random search. The quasi-steady state reduction determines V, D, and λ in terms of the various biophysical parameters of the underlying motor transport model. We first apply our analysis to a simple 3-state model and show that our quasi-steady state reduction yields results that are in excellent agreement with Monte Carlo simulations of the full system under physiologically reasonable conditions. We then consider a more complex multiple motor model of bidirectional transport, in which opposing motors compete in a "tug-of-war", and use this to explore how ATP concentration might regulate the delivery of cargo to synaptic targets. © 2010 Society for Mathematical Biology.

  9. A New Signal Model for Axion Cavity Searches from N -body Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentz, Erik W.; Rosenberg, Leslie J. [Physics Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Quinn, Thomas R.; Tremmel, Michael J., E-mail: lentze@phys.washington.edu, E-mail: ljrosenberg@phys.washington.edu, E-mail: trq@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: mjt29@astro.washington.edu [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States)

    2017-08-20

    Signal estimates for direct axion dark matter (DM) searches have used the isothermal sphere halo model for the last several decades. While insightful, the isothermal model does not capture effects from a halo’s infall history nor the influence of baryonic matter, which has been shown to significantly influence a halo’s inner structure. The high resolution of cavity axion detectors can make use of modern cosmological structure-formation simulations, which begin from realistic initial conditions, incorporate a wide range of baryonic physics, and are capable of resolving detailed structure. This work uses a state-of-the-art cosmological N -body+Smoothed-Particle Hydrodynamics simulation to develop an improved signal model for axion cavity searches. Signal shapes from a class of galaxies encompassing the Milky Way are found to depart significantly from the isothermal sphere. A new signal model for axion detectors is proposed and projected sensitivity bounds on the Axion DM eXperiment (ADMX) data are presented.

  10. A search for neutral Higgs bosons in the MSSM and models with two scalar field doublets

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerstaff, K.; Allison, John; Altekamp, N.; Anderson, K.J.; Anderson, S.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Ashby, S.F.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Ball, A.H.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, Roger J.; Bartoldus, R.; Batley, J.R.; Baumann, S.; Bechtluft, J.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bella, G.; Bentvelsen, S.; Bethke, S.; Betts, S.; Biebel, O.; Biguzzi, A.; Bird, S.D.; Blobel, V.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Bobinski, M.; Bock, P.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Burgard, C.; Burgin, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Chrisman, D.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Cohen, I.; Conboy, J.E.; Cooke, O.C.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Coxe, R.L.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Davis, R.; De Jong, S.; del Pozo, L.A.; de Roeck, A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M.S.; Doucet, M.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Eatough, D.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.G.; Evans, M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fanti, M.; Faust, A.A.; Feld, L.; Fiedler, F.; Fierro, M.; Fischer, H.M.; Fleck, I.; Folman, R.; Fong, D.G.; Foucher, M.; Furtjes, A.; Futyan, D.I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J.W.; Gascon, J.; Gascon-Shotkin, S.M.; Geddes, N.I.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Geralis, T.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giacomelli, R.; Gibson, V.; Gibson, W.R.; Gingrich, D.M.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Goodrick, M.J.; Gorn, W.; Grandi, C.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Hajdu, C.; Hanson, G.G.; Hansroul, M.; Hapke, M.; Hargrove, C.K.; Hart, P.A.; Hartmann, C.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herndon, M.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hildreth, M.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hillier, S.J.; Hobson, P.R.; Hocker, James Andrew; Homer, R.J.; Honma, A.K.; Horvath, D.; Hossain, K.R.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Hutchcroft, D.E.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Imrie, D.C.; Ishii, K.; Jawahery, A.; Jeffreys, P.W.; Jeremie, H.; Jimack, M.; Joly, A.; Jones, C.R.; Jones, M.; Jost, U.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanzaki, J.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kayal, P.I.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kirk, J.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Koetke, D.S.; Kokott, T.P.; Kolrep, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Lahmann, R.; Lai, W.P.; Lanske, D.; Lauber, J.; Lautenschlager, S.R.; Lawson, I.; Layter, J.G.; Lazic, D.; Lee, A.M.; Lefebvre, E.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; List, B.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Long, G.D.; Losty, M.J.; Ludwig, J.; Lui, D.; Macchiolo, A.; Macpherson, A.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Markopoulos, C.; Markus, C.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Martinez, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.John; McKenna, J.; Mckigney, E.A.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menke, S.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, J.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mincer, A.; Mir, R.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nellen, B.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oakham, F.G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H.O.; Oh, A.; Oldershaw, N.J.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Palinkas, J.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Patt, J.; Perez-Ochoa, R.; Petzold, S.; Pfeifenschneider, P.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poffenberger, P.; Poli, B.; Posthaus, A.; Rembser, C.; Robertson, S.; Robins, S.A.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J.M.; Rooke, A.; Rossi, A.M.; Routenburg, P.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Ruppel, U.; Rust, D.R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sang, W.M.; Sarkisian, E.K.G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharf, F.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schleper, P.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitt, S.; Schoning, A.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.P.; Sittler, A.; Skillman, A.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Snow, G.A.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Springer, Robert Wayne; Sproston, M.; Stephens, K.; Steuerer, J.; Stockhausen, B.; Stoll, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Szymanski, P.; Tafirout, R.; Talbot, S.D.; Taras, P.; Tarem, S.; Teuscher, R.; Thiergen, M.; Thomson, M.A.; von Torne, E.; Torrence, E.; Towers, S.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turcot, A.S.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Utzat, P.; Van Kooten, Rick J.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Vikas, P.; Vokurka, E.H.; Voss, H.; Wackerle, F.; Wagner, A.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wermes, N.; White, J.S.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Yekutieli, G.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.

    1998-01-01

    A search is described for the neutral Higgs bosons h^0 and A^0 predicted by models with two scalar field doublets and, in particular, the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). The search in the Z^0 h^0 and h^0 A^0 production channels is based on data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 25 pb^{-1} from e^+e^- collisions at centre-of-mass energies between 130 and 172GeV collected with the OPAL detector at LEP. The observation of a number of candidates consistent with Standard Model background expectations is used in combination with earlier results from data collected at the Z^0 resonance to set limits on m_h and m_A in general models with two scalar field doublets and in the MSSM. For example, in the MSSM, for tan(beta) > 1, minimal and maximal scalar top quark mixing and soft SUSY-breaking masses of 1 TeV, the 95% confidence level limits m_h > 59.0 GeV and m_A > 59.5 GeV are obtained. For the first time, the MSSM parameter space is explored in a detailed scan.

  11. A New Signal Model for Axion Cavity Searches from N-body Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Erik W.; Quinn, Thomas R.; Rosenberg, Leslie J.; Tremmel, Michael J.

    2017-08-01

    Signal estimates for direct axion dark matter (DM) searches have used the isothermal sphere halo model for the last several decades. While insightful, the isothermal model does not capture effects from a halo’s infall history nor the influence of baryonic matter, which has been shown to significantly influence a halo’s inner structure. The high resolution of cavity axion detectors can make use of modern cosmological structure-formation simulations, which begin from realistic initial conditions, incorporate a wide range of baryonic physics, and are capable of resolving detailed structure. This work uses a state-of-the-art cosmological N-body+Smoothed-Particle Hydrodynamics simulation to develop an improved signal model for axion cavity searches. Signal shapes from a class of galaxies encompassing the Milky Way are found to depart significantly from the isothermal sphere. A new signal model for axion detectors is proposed and projected sensitivity bounds on the Axion DM eXperiment (ADMX) data are presented.

  12. Search for a Standard Model Higgs Boson with a Dilepton and Missing Energy Signature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerbaudo, Davide [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2011-09-01

    The subject of this thesis is the search for a standard model Higgs boson decaying to a pair of W bosons that in turn decay leptonically, H → W+W- → $\\bar{ℓ}$vℓ$\\bar{v}$. This search is performed considering events produced in p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV, where two oppositely charged lepton candidates (e+e-, e±μ±, or μ+μ}-), and missing transverse energy, have been reconstructed. The data were collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider, and are tested against the standard model predictions computed for a Higgs boson with mass in the range 115-200 GeV. No excess of events over background is observed, and limits on Standard Model Higgs boson production are determined. An interpretation of these limits within the hypothesis of a fourth-generation extension to the standard model is also given. The overall analysis scheme is the same for the three dilepton pairs being considered (e+e-, e±μ±, or μ+μ-); this thesis, however, describes in detail the study of the dimuon final state.

  13. DMSP SSM/I Daily and Monthly Polar Gridded Bootstrap Sea Ice Concentrations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — DMSP SSM/I Daily and Monthly Polar Gridded Bootstrap Sea Ice Concentrations in polar stereographic projection currently include Defense Meteorological Satellite...

  14. What Teachers Should Know About the Bootstrap: Resampling in the Undergraduate Statistics Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesterberg, Tim C.

    2015-01-01

    Bootstrapping has enormous potential in statistics education and practice, but there are subtle issues and ways to go wrong. For example, the common combination of nonparametric bootstrapping and bootstrap percentile confidence intervals is less accurate than using t-intervals for small samples, though more accurate for larger samples. My goals in this article are to provide a deeper understanding of bootstrap methods—how they work, when they work or not, and which methods work better—and to highlight pedagogical issues. Supplementary materials for this article are available online. [Received December 2014. Revised August 2015] PMID:27019512

  15. Optical Flow of Small Objects Using Wavelets, Bootstrap Methods, and Synthetic Discriminant Filters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hewer, Gary

    1997-01-01

    ...) targets in highly cluttered and noisy environments. In this paper; we present a novel wavelet detection algorithm which incorporates adaptive CFAR detection statistics using the bootstrap method...

  16. A template bank to search for gravitational waves from inspiralling compact binaries: I. Physical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babak, S; Balasubramanian, R; Churches, D; Cokelaer, T; Sathyaprakash, B S

    2006-01-01

    Gravitational waves from coalescing compact binaries are searched for using the matched filtering technique. As the model waveform depends on a number of parameters, it is necessary to filter the data through a template bank covering the astrophysically interesting region of the parameter space. The choice of templates is defined by the maximum allowed drop in signal-to-noise ratio due to the discreteness of the template bank. In this paper we describe the template-bank algorithm that was used in the analysis of data from the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) and GEO 600 detectors to search for signals from binaries consisting of non-spinning compact objects. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we study the efficiency of the bank and show that its performance is satisfactory for the design sensitivity curves of ground-based interferometric gravitational wave detectors GEO 600, initial LIGO, advanced LIGO and Virgo. The bank is efficient in searching for various compact binaries such as binary primordial black holes, binary neutron stars, binary black holes, as well as a mixed binary consisting of a non-spinning black hole and a neutron star

  17. Optimization and universality of Brownian search in a basic model of quenched heterogeneous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godec, Aljaž; Metzler, Ralf

    2015-05-01

    The kinetics of a variety of transport-controlled processes can be reduced to the problem of determining the mean time needed to arrive at a given location for the first time, the so-called mean first-passage time (MFPT) problem. The occurrence of occasional large jumps or intermittent patterns combining various types of motion are known to outperform the standard random walk with respect to the MFPT, by reducing oversampling of space. Here we show that a regular but spatially heterogeneous random walk can significantly and universally enhance the search in any spatial dimension. In a generic minimal model we consider a spherically symmetric system comprising two concentric regions with piecewise constant diffusivity. The MFPT is analyzed under the constraint of conserved average dynamics, that is, the spatially averaged diffusivity is kept constant. Our analytical calculations and extensive numerical simulations demonstrate the existence of an optimal heterogeneity minimizing the MFPT to the target. We prove that the MFPT for a random walk is completely dominated by what we term direct trajectories towards the target and reveal a remarkable universality of the spatially heterogeneous search with respect to target size and system dimensionality. In contrast to intermittent strategies, which are most profitable in low spatial dimensions, the spatially inhomogeneous search performs best in higher dimensions. Discussing our results alongside recent experiments on single-particle tracking in living cells, we argue that the observed spatial heterogeneity may be beneficial for cellular signaling processes.

  18. Dynamic model updating based on strain mode shape and natural frequency using hybrid pattern search technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ning; Yang, Zhichun; Wang, Le; Ouyang, Yan; Zhang, Xinping

    2018-05-01

    Aiming at providing a precise dynamic structural finite element (FE) model for dynamic strength evaluation in addition to dynamic analysis. A dynamic FE model updating method is presented to correct the uncertain parameters of the FE model of a structure using strain mode shapes and natural frequencies. The strain mode shape, which is sensitive to local changes in structure, is used instead of the displacement mode for enhancing model updating. The coordinate strain modal assurance criterion is developed to evaluate the correlation level at each coordinate over the experimental and the analytical strain mode shapes. Moreover, the natural frequencies which provide the global information of the structure are used to guarantee the accuracy of modal properties of the global model. Then, the weighted summation of the natural frequency residual and the coordinate strain modal assurance criterion residual is used as the objective function in the proposed dynamic FE model updating procedure. The hybrid genetic/pattern-search optimization algorithm is adopted to perform the dynamic FE model updating procedure. Numerical simulation and model updating experiment for a clamped-clamped beam are performed to validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the present method. The results show that the proposed method can be used to update the uncertain parameters with good robustness. And the updated dynamic FE model of the beam structure, which can correctly predict both the natural frequencies and the local dynamic strains, is reliable for the following dynamic analysis and dynamic strength evaluation.

  19. Bootstrapping Q Methodology to Improve the Understanding of Human Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabala, Aiora; Pascual, Unai

    2016-01-01

    Q is a semi-qualitative methodology to identify typologies of perspectives. It is appropriate to address questions concerning diverse viewpoints, plurality of discourses, or participation processes across disciplines. Perspectives are interpreted based on rankings of a set of statements. These rankings are analysed using multivariate data reduction techniques in order to find similarities between respondents. Discussing the analytical process and looking for progress in Q methodology is becoming increasingly relevant. While its use is growing in social, health and environmental studies, the analytical process has received little attention in the last decades and it has not benefited from recent statistical and computational advances. Specifically, the standard procedure provides overall and arguably simplistic variability measures for perspectives and none of these measures are associated to individual statements, on which the interpretation is based. This paper presents an innovative approach of bootstrapping Q to obtain additional and more detailed measures of variability, which helps researchers understand better their data and the perspectives therein. This approach provides measures of variability that are specific to each statement and perspective, and additional measures that indicate the degree of certainty with which each respondent relates to each perspective. This supplementary information may add or subtract strength to particular arguments used to describe the perspectives. We illustrate and show the usefulness of this approach with an empirical example. The paper provides full details for other researchers to implement the bootstrap in Q studies with any data collection design. PMID:26845694

  20. Bootstrap equations for N=4 SYM with defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liendo, Pedro [IMIP, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, IRIS Adlershof,Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Meneghelli, Carlo [Simons Center for Geometry and Physics, Stony Brook University,Stony Brook, NY 11794-3636 (United States)

    2017-01-27

    This paper focuses on the analysis of 4dN=4 superconformal theories in the presence of a defect from the point of view of the conformal bootstrap. We will concentrate first on the case of codimension one, where the defect is a boundary that preserves half of the supersymmetry. After studying the constraints imposed by supersymmetry, we will obtain the Ward identities associated to two-point functions of (1/2)-BPS operators and write their solution as a superconformal block expansion. Due to a surprising connection between spacetime and R-symmetry conformal blocks, our results not only apply to 4dN=4 superconformal theories with a boundary, but also to three more systems that have the same symmetry algebra: 4dN=4 superconformal theories with a line defect, 3dN=4 superconformal theories with no defect, and OSP(4{sup ∗}|4) superconformal quantum mechanics. The superconformal algebra implies that all these systems possess a closed subsector of operators in which the bootstrap equations become polynomial constraints on the CFT data. We derive these truncated equations and initiate the study of their solutions.