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Sample records for boophilus microplus increases

  1. Silencing of a putative immunophilin gene in the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus increases the infection rate of Babesia bovis in larval progeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is involved in the transmission of the protozoan Babesia bovis, the etiological agent of bovine babesiosis. Interactions between ticks and protozoa are poorly understood and the investigation of tick genes that affect tick fitness and protozoan inf...

  2. Failure of Boophilus microplus to transmit irradiated Babesia bovis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, I.G.; Mirre, G.B.; Mahoney, D.F.; Goodger, B.V. (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Indooroopilly (Australia). Long Pocket Labs.)

    1983-01-01

    Babesia bovis parasites which had either been freshly irradiated or had been reisolated from cattle infected 12 months previously with irradiated organisms were not transmitted transovarially by cattle ticks (Boophilus microplus). The parent unirradiated strain of B bovis was readily transmitted in this manner after being in host cattle for 12 months.

  3. Failure of Boophilus microplus to transmit irradiated Babesia bovis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babesia bovis parasites which had either been freshly irradiated or had been reisolated from cattle infected 12 months previously with irradiated organisms were not transmitted transovarially by cattle ticks (Boophilus microplus). The parent unirradiated strain of B bovis was readily transmitted in this manner after being in host cattle for 12 months. (author)

  4. Commercialisation of a recombinant vaccine against Boophilus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willadsen, P; Bird, P; Cobon, G S; Hungerford, J

    1995-01-01

    Increasingly, there is need for methods to control cattle tick (Boophilus microplus) infestations by the use of non-chemical technology. This need is brought about by a mixture of market forces and the failure or inadequacy of existing technology. A recombinant vaccine has now been developed against the tick. This vaccine relies on the uptake with the blood meal of antibody directed against a critical protein in the tick gut. The isolation of the vaccine antigen, Bm86, and its production as a recombinant protein is briefly described. The vaccine has been tested in the field, has been taken through the full registration process and is now in commercial use in Australia. A related development has occurred in Cuba. The potential for improvement of the current vaccine and for the development of similar vaccines against other haematophagous parasites is discussed. PMID:7784128

  5. Resistencia de la garrapata Boophilus microplus a los ixodicidas

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Alonso-Díaz; R I Rodríguez-Vivas; H Fragoso-Sánchez; R Rosario-Cruz

    2006-01-01

    La resistencia de las garrapatas a los ixodicidas es uno de los principales problemas que afectan a los productores bovinos en el subtrópico y trópico, donde las garrapatas, especialmente Boophilus microplus y los agentes que transmiten, tienen un efecto costo-beneficio en la producción. El objetivo de la presente revisión es dar a conocer los principales hallazgos de la resistencia de B. microplus. Se presenta la definición, desarrollo, evolución y el diagnóstico de la resistencia. Asimismo,...

  6. Resistencia de la garrapata Boophilus microplus a los ixodicidas Ixodicide resistance of the the Boophilus microplus tick to ixodicides

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Alonso-Díaz; R I Rodríguez-Vivas; H Fragoso-Sánchez; R Rosario-Cruz

    2006-01-01

    La resistencia de las garrapatas a los ixodicidas es uno de los principales problemas que afectan a los productores bovinos en el subtrópico y trópico, donde las garrapatas, especialmente Boophilus microplus y los agentes que transmiten, tienen un efecto costo-beneficio en la producción. El objetivo de la presente revisión es dar a conocer los principales hallazgos de la resistencia de B. microplus. Se presenta la definición, desarrollo, evolución y el diagnóstico de la resistencia. Asimismo,...

  7. Resistencia de la garrapata Boophilus microplus a los ixodicidas Ixodicide resistance of the the Boophilus microplus tick to ixodicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M A Alonso-Díaz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La resistencia de las garrapatas a los ixodicidas es uno de los principales problemas que afectan a los productores bovinos en el subtrópico y trópico, donde las garrapatas, especialmente Boophilus microplus y los agentes que transmiten, tienen un efecto costo-beneficio en la producción. El objetivo de la presente revisión es dar a conocer los principales hallazgos de la resistencia de B. microplus. Se presenta la definición, desarrollo, evolución y el diagnóstico de la resistencia. Asimismo, se presenta la distribución mundial de la resistencia de las garrapatas, especialmente en México. Se concluye que la resistencia de las garrapatas a los ixodicidas es un problema importante en la producción bovina y se necesitan implementar medidas estratégicas para reducir o retardar el impacto en la ganadería bovina.The tick is a major problem for cattle producers in subtropical and tropical areas where ticks, especially Boophilus microplus, and the disease agents that they transmit, are a constraint to cost-effective production. The aim of the present review is to present the most important findings of acaricide resistance in the B. microplus tick. The definition, development, evolution and diagnosis of tick resistance are presented. The distribution of tick resistance in the world, especially in Mexico is also presented. It is concluded that tick resistance is an important problem for cattle production and strategies need to be developed to reduce the impact on cattle.

  8. Assessment of bacterial diversity in the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus through tag-encoded pyrosequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bendele Kylie G

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ticks are regarded as the most relevant vectors of disease-causing pathogens in domestic and wild animals. The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, hinders livestock production in tropical and subtropical parts of the world where it is endemic. Tick microbiomes remain largely unexplored. The objective of this study was to explore the R. microplus microbiome by applying the bacterial 16S tag-encoded FLX-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP technique to characterize its bacterial diversity. Pyrosequencing was performed on adult males and females, eggs, and gut and ovary tissues from adult females derived from samples of R. microplus collected during outbreaks in southern Texas. Results Raw data from bTEFAP were screened and trimmed based upon quality scores and binned into individual sample collections. Bacteria identified to the species level include Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus chromogenes, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Staphylococcus sciuri, Serratia marcescens, Corynebacterium glutamicum, and Finegoldia magna. One hundred twenty-one bacterial genera were detected in all the life stages and tissues sampled. The total number of genera identified by tick sample comprised: 53 in adult males, 61 in adult females, 11 in gut tissue, 7 in ovarian tissue, and 54 in the eggs. Notable genera detected in the cattle tick include Wolbachia, Coxiella, and Borrelia. The molecular approach applied in this study allowed us to assess the relative abundance of the microbiota associated with R. microplus. Conclusions This report represents the first survey of the bacteriome in the cattle tick using non-culture based molecular approaches. Comparisons of our results with previous bacterial surveys provide an indication of geographic variation in the assemblages of bacteria associated with R. microplus. Additional reports on the identification of new bacterial species maintained in nature by R. microplus that may be

  9. Assessment of bacterial diversity in the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus through tag-encoded pyrosequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Bendele Kylie G; Guerrero Felix D; Dowd Scot E; Pérez de León Adalberto A; Andreotti Renato; Scoles Glen A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Ticks are regarded as the most relevant vectors of disease-causing pathogens in domestic and wild animals. The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, hinders livestock production in tropical and subtropical parts of the world where it is endemic. Tick microbiomes remain largely unexplored. The objective of this study was to explore the R. microplus microbiome by applying the bacterial 16S tag-encoded FLX-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP) technique to cha...

  10. Resistance to cypermethrin and amitraz in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus on the Santa Catarina Plateau, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Luana Paula Haubold Neis; Souza, Antonio Pereira de; Bellato, Valdomiro; Sartor, Amélia Aparecida; Nunes, Ana Paula de Oliveira; Cardoso, Helena Mondardo

    2012-01-01

    With the objective of evaluating Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus resistance to cipermetrina and amitraz, were collected engorged tick females from cattle on 20 farms on the Santa Catarina Plateau, in southern Brazil, between January of 2004 and May of 2006. Were also received 20 groups of engorged R. (B.) microplus females, collected by cattle farmers requesting acaricidal efficacy (AE) testing. Were performed in vitro tests, which consisted of immersing engorged females in cypermethrin (0.015%) and in amitraz (0.025%). An AE >95% was considered indicative of effectiveness. Of the 20 collected groups, 18 (90%) showed cypermethrin resistance and 1 (5%) showed amitraz resistance. Of the 20 received groups, 19 (95%) showed cypermethrin resistance and 2 (10%) showed amitraz resistance. The AE of cypermethrin was found to be >95%, 85-94%, and 55-64%, respectively, in 4 (57.1%), 2 (28.6%), and 1 (14.3%) of 7 reference groups, collected in the 1997-2001 period. The AE of amitraz was >95% in all of those groups. Among the groups of specimens received for analysis in that period, the AE of amitraz was >95% in 6 (85.71%) and 75-84% in 1 (14.28%). R. (B.) microplus resistance to acaricides is increasing on the Santa Catarina Plateau. PMID:22832753

  11. Competição intraespecífica em Boophilus microplus Intra-specific competition in Boophilus microplus

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    Andreia Passos dos Santos

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido no Campo Experimental da Embrapa Gado de Leite, Coronel Pacheco, Minas Gerais, Brasil, tendo como objetivo a verificação da ocorrência de competição intra-específica durante a fase parasitária do carrapato bovino Boophilus microplus e a confirmação da correlação positiva entre o peso da fêmea ingurgitada e o peso da massa de ovos. Foram feitas observações em bovinos infestados naturalmente e experimentalmente, com cargas parasitárias e intervalos diferenciados. Os animais infestados permaneceram em baias individuais durante todo o período de queda das fêmeas ingurgitadas, para que estas pudessem ser coletadas diariamente. As diferenças observadas entre as médias de peso das fêmeas ingurgitadas, no decorrer dos dias de queda, sugeriram a ocorrência de competição durante a fase de alimentação. Observou-se também que o potencial de oviposição está diretamente relacionado a sua capacidade de alimentação.This study was developed in the Experimental Station of Embrapa Dairy Cattle, Coronel Pacheco, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and had the aim of verifying the occurrence of intra-specific competition in the cattle tick Boophilus microplus during its parasite life and to confirm the relation between the weight of engorged females and the egg mass laid. Observations were done with cattle naturally and experimentally infested with different quantities of larvae during different intervals of time. The infested animals remained in individual stalls for the whole period of engorged females drop-off, in order to collect them daily. The observed differences among weight of engorged females during drop-off days suggested the competition occurrence during the feeding phase. It was also seen that the oviposition potential of an engorged female is directly related to its feeding capacity.

  12. Control de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae con extractos vegetales Control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae with vegetable extracts

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    SÔNIA MARIA FORTI BROGLIO MICHELETTI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la eficiencia de varios extractos vegetales como controladores de la garrapata Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus en condiciones de laboratorio. Hembras ingurgitadas se recolectaron de bovinos y se aislaron en cajas de petri. Se emplearon extractos orgánicos alcohólicos al 1% (p/v de semillas de Annona muricata (Annonaceae, flores de Syzygium malaccensis (Myrtaceae, hojas de Cymbopogon citratus (Poaceae, hojas de Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae y extracto hexánico de semillas de A. indica. El testigo consistió en hembras sin tratar y tratadas con agua destilada y esterilizada y dimetilsulfóxido (DMSO a una concentración de 1%. El extracto de semillas de A. muricata mostró tener mayor poder acaricida, con 100% de eficiencia, seguido de los extractos de flores de S. malaccensis (75% y 57,25% y semillas de A. indica (65% y 38,50%. Hubo 100% en la reducción de la eclosión de las larvas nacidas a partir de hembras tratadas con extracto de semillas de A. muricata.The efficacy of various plant extracts in the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus was evaluated in the laboratory. Engorged females were collected from cattle and were isolated in Petri dishes. Organic alcoholic extracts at 1% (weight/volume were used from seeds of Annona muricata (Annonaceae, flowers of Syzygium malaccensis (Myrtaceae, leaves of Cymbopogon citratus (Poaceae, leaves of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae and hexane extract 1% (weight/volume of A. indica seeds. The control groups consisted of females either untreated or treated with distilled and sterile water and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO at a concentration of 1%. The extract of A. muricata seeds showed the highest acaricide power, with 100% efficacy, followed by flower extracts of S. malaccensis (75% and 57.25% and seeds of A. indica (65% and 38.50%. There was a 100% reduction in the eclosion of larvae from eggs of females treated with the seed extract of A. muricata.

  13. Tripanosomatídeos similares a Trypanosoma theileri no carrapato dos bovinos Boophilus microplus Tripanosomatides like Trypanosoma theileri in the cattle tick Boophilus microplus

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    João Ricardo Martins

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se a ocorrência de formas epimastigotas de um tripanosomatideo na hemolinfa do carrapato do bovino Boophilus microplus no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Evidências morfológicas sugerem tratar-se de Trypanosoma theileri , espécie descrita como não patogênica aos bovinos e que usualmente é transmitida por tabanídeos.Findings of epimastigotes forms of a tripanosomatide is reported in the hemolymph of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Morphological evidences suggest they are similar to Trypanosoma theileri, a species described as non pathogenic to cattle, and usually transmitted by tabanids.

  14. Control de garrapatas Riphicephalus (Boophilus microplus en bovinos con el inmunógeno Herber biogar - Control of Riphicephalus (Boophilus microplus ticks in bovine with the Herber biogar inmunógeno

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    Botello A.R.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa presente investigación se realizó con el objetivo de controlar la garrapata Riphicephalus (Boophilus microplus por medio del inmunógeno Herber biogar en bovinos en el municipio de Guanare, Portuguesa, Venezuela.SummaryThis research was conducted with the aim of controlling the tickRiphicephalus (Boophilus microplus through Herber biogar immunogen incattle in the town of Guanare, Portuguesa, Venezuela.

  15. Control de garrapatas Riphicephalus (Boophilus) microplus en bovinos con el inmunógeno Herber biogar - Control of Riphicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks in bovine with the Herber biogar inmunógeno

    OpenAIRE

    Botello A.R.; Botello A.L.; Fajardo H.; Pérez Kirenia C.; Gómez I.A.; Borroto C.N.; Marisela Suárez; Pérez Dunia A.; Linares Belkis R.; Colicchia Maribel R.; Peraza Paula S.; Rodríguez Y.V.; González A.O.; Rodríguez A.N.; Gort A.M.

    2011-01-01

    ResumenLa presente investigación se realizó con el objetivo de controlar la garrapata Riphicephalus (Boophilus) microplus por medio del inmunógeno Herber biogar en bovinos en el municipio de Guanare, Portuguesa, Venezuela.SummaryThis research was conducted with the aim of controlling the tickRiphicephalus (Boophilus) microplus through Herber biogar immunogen incattle in the town of Guanare, Portuguesa, Venezuela.

  16. Identificación de un polimorfismo del gen Est9 relacionado con resistencia a piretroides en Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    OpenAIRE

    Edgar Diaz R.; Gustavo Vallejo

    2013-01-01

    RESUMENObjetivo. Mediante procedimientos de PCR-RFLP, detectar un polimorfismo en el gen Est9 de garrapatas Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus resistentes a piretroides en Ibagué, Colombia, determinando el grado de asociación entre los fenotipos y los genotipos resultantes. Materiales y métodos. El ADN de 30 teleoginas R. (Boophilus) microplus fenotípicamente susceptibles, resistentes o medianamente resistentes a piretroides en una prueba de Drummond modificada, fue amplificado por PCR con c...

  17. Acaricidal activity of Amburana cearensis on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

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    Anne Caroline dos Santos Dantas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This experiment was carried out to study the bioacaricidal activity of Amburana cearensis against engorged females of Rhipicephalus ( Boophilus microplus . The crude ethanolic extract from the leaves of A. cearensis was submitted to partition with organic solvents (hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate in order of increasing polarity; and evaluated using three treatments at concentrations of 5, 10 and 25mg ml-1. To evaluate the acaricidal activity, engorged females were submitted to the adult immersion test. Parameters analyzed were the weight of females; weight of egg mass; percentage of hatch; reproductive efficiency; expected rate of reproduction; and efficacy. For each extract and concentrating fraction, tests were performed in triplicate. Among all fractions, the hexane (2.5% achieved the best results in all parameters analyzed: 52.7% of inhibition of oviposition; 39% of hatching rate; 3,271 index of reproductive efficiency; and 67.0% effectiveness. The extract obtained gradual dose response with increasing concentration; and could be used as an aid in the control of R. ( B. microplus therapy.

  18. Bovine immunoprotection against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus with recombinant Bm86-Campo Grande antigen Imunoproteção de bovinos contra Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus com antígeno recombinante Bm86-Campo Grande

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Casquero Cunha; Adalberto Angel Pérez de León; Fábio Pereira Leivas Leite; Luciano da Silva Pinto; Alceu Gonçalves dos Santos Júnior; Renato Andreotti

    2012-01-01

    The southern cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, is no doubt the most economically important ectoparasite of cattle globally. The inappropriate use of chemical acaricides has driven the evolution of resistance in populations of R. (B.) microplus. Anti-tick vaccines represent a technology that can be combined with acaricides in integrated control programs to mitigate the impact of R. (B.) microplus. The recombinant form of Bm86 antigen from the Campo Grande (rBm86-CG) strai...

  19. A Novel Carbamate Insecticide with Superior Selectivity for Cattle Tick (Boophilus microplus) and Sand Fly (Phlebotomus papatasi) Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cattle tick, Boophilus microplus, and the sand fly, Phlebotomus papatasi (Pp), are vectors of infectious agents affecting cattle and humans, respectively. The purpose of this study was to characterize the inhibitor profile of acetylcholinesterases from R. microplus(BmAChE1) and Pp (PpAchE) for c...

  20. Fenvalerate resistance status in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) from Punjab, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyoti; Nandi, Abhijit; Singh, Harkirat; Singh, N K; Rath, S S

    2016-09-01

    Larval packet test was used for evaluating the resistance levels in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from different districts of central plain zone of Punjab state, India against fenvalerate. The regression graphs of probit mortality of larvae plotted against log values of progressively increasing concentrations of fenvalerate were utilized for the estimation of lethal concentration for 50 % (LC50) and 95 % (LC95) values against various field isolates of R. (B.) microplus. The slope of mortality (95 % confidence levels) varied from 0.730 ± 0.097 (0.419-1.043) to 1.455 ± 0.281 (0.558-2.352) and the value of R(2) varied from 0.881 to 0.997. From the regression equation the values of LC50 and LC95 were recorded in range of 184.39-1,338.01 and 3,253.33-112,706.26 ppm, respectively. Among the various tick isolates resistance factors in range of 1.56-54.34 were determined and all field isolates studied were found resistant against fenvalerate. Two field isolates (Jalandhar and Ludhiana) showed level I resistance; three (Patiala, Fatehgarh Sahib and Amritsar) showed level II and Kapurthala isolate showed level IV resistance. The data generated on fenvalerate resistant status will help in judicious use of the drug and formulation of effective tick control strategy for the region. PMID:27605769

  1. AVALIAÇÃO IN VITRO DE FITOTERÁPICOS NO CONTROLE DE RHIPICEPHALUS BOOPHILUS MICROPLUS

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Augusto Nicolino; Rafael Mendonça Paranhos; Willian Maciel

    2013-01-01

    The use of herbal medicines is considered an important alternative to control pests, and can reduce economic and environmental impacts the use of synthetic pesticides. The present study aimed at comparing the in vitro action of essential oils against engorged females of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Essential oil was used Azadiracta indica (Neem), Cymbopogom nardus L. Rendle (Citronella) and Cymbopogon citratus (lemon-grass) in the following concentrations: 12.5%, 6%, 3% and 1%. Maximu...

  2. Susceptibility of Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887) (Acari: Ixodidae) to seven ixodicides in Nuevo Leon, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús A. Esparza Rentería; Emily Lizett Esparza Sevilla

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results of research only. Mention of a proprietary product does not constitute an endorsement or a recommendation by the FAUANL for its use Animal husbandry and meat industry in Mexico are one of the principal activities of the agricultural sector of the country, which are threatened by factors that affect the production of meat, skin and milk; among these, the damages caused by Boophilus microplus (Canestrini), the common tick of cattle, and the diseases it transm...

  3. In vitro effects of Pilocarpus microphyllus extracts and pilocarpine hydrochloride on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    OpenAIRE

    Karina Neoob de Carvalho Castro; David Fernandes Lima; Dolores Wolschick; Ivanilza Moreira de Andrade; Raimunda Cardoso dos Santos; Francisco José de Seixas dos Santos; Leiz Maria Costa Veras; Lívio Martins Costa-Júnior

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the activity of aqueous (AE) and ethanolic extracts (EE) and pilocarpine hydrochloride, which were extracted and isolated from Pilocarpus microphyllus (Jaborandi), respectively, on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was performed to quantify these compounds. Larval packet and adult immersion tests were conducted with different concentrations. Five AE and EE concentrations, ranging from 6.2 to 100.0 mg...

  4. Boophiline, an Antimicrobial Sterol Amide from the Cattle Tick Boophilus microplus

    OpenAIRE

    Potterat, Olivier; Hostettmann, Kurt; Höltzel, Alexandra; Jung, Günther; Diehl, Peter A.; Petrini, Orlando

    2008-01-01

    Boophiline (1), a new sterol amide was isolated from the cattle tick Boophilus microplus (Ixodidae). The structure was assigned as N-[3-(sulfooxy)-25ξ-cholest-5-en-26-oyl]-L-isoleucine by detailed 2D NMR investigations in conjunction with FAB mass spectrometry and acidic hydrolyses. Complete assignment of the diastereotopic methylene protons of the ring system could be deduced from the NMR data. In agar dilution assays, 1 exhibited antifungal properties against Cladosporium cucumerinum and an...

  5. Bovine immunoprotection against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus with recombinant Bm86-Campo Grande antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Rodrigo Casquero; Pérez de León, Adalberto Angel; Leite, Fábio Pereira Leivas; Pinto, Luciano da Silva; Dos Santos Júnior, Alceu Gonçalves; Andreotti, Renato

    2012-01-01

    The southern cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, is no doubt the most economically important ectoparasite of cattle globally. The inappropriate use of chemical acaricides has driven the evolution of resistance in populations of R. (B.) microplus. Anti-tick vaccines represent a technology that can be combined with acaricides in integrated control programs to mitigate the impact of R. (B.) microplus. The recombinant form of Bm86 antigen from the Campo Grande (rBm86-CG) strain of R. (B.) microplus was produced using the Pichiapastoris expression system to test its ability to immunoprotect cattle against tick infestation. Secretion of rBm86-CG by P. pastoris through the bioprocess reported here simplified purification of the antigen. A specific humoral immune response was detected by ELISA in vaccinated cattle. Immunoblot results revealed that polyclonal antibodies from vaccinated cattle recognized a protein in larval extracts with a molecular weight corresponding to Bm86. The rBm86-CG antigen showed 31% efficacy against the Campo Grande strain of R. (B.) microplus infesting vaccinated cattle. The rBm86-CG is an antigen that could be used in a polyvalent vaccine as part of an integrated program for the control of R. (B.) microplus in the region that includes Mato Grosso do Sul. PMID:23070436

  6. Esterase mediated resistance in deltamethrin resistant reference tick colony of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Snehil; Ajith Kumar, K G; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Nagar, Gaurav; Kumar, Sachin; Saravanan, B C; Ravikumar, Gandham; Ghosh, Srikant

    2016-06-01

    Monitoring of acaricide resistance is considered as one of the important facets of integrated tick management. In an attempt of development of resistance monitoring indicators, in the present study two reference tick lines of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus maintained in the Entomology laboratory, Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI), Izatnagar, India, were studied to determine the possible contributing factors involved in development of resistance to deltamethrin. Electrophoretic profiling of esterase enzymes detected high activities of EST-1 in reference resistant tick colony designated as IVRI-IV whereas it was not detectable in reference susceptible IVRI-I line of R. (B.) microplus. Esterases were further characterized as carboxylesterase or acetylcholinesterase based on inhibitor study using PMSF, eserine sulphate, malathion, TPP and copper sulphate. It was concluded that an acetylcholinesterase, EST-1, possibly plays an important role for development of deltamethrin resistance in IVRI-IV colony of R. (B.) microplus. PMID:26979585

  7. Immunological control of ticks through vaccination with Boophilus microplus gut antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Fuente, J; Rodríguez, M; García-García, J C

    2000-01-01

    The control of tick infestations and the transmission of tick-borne diseases remain a challenge for the scientific community. Traditional control methods have been only partially successful. Recently, vaccination with recombinant Boophilus microplus gut antigens has been shown to control tick infestations. Our Bm86-containing vaccine formulation (Gavac) has been effective for the control of artificial infestations of B. annulatus, B. decoloratus, and chemically sensitive and resistant B. microplus strains from Australia, Africa, America, and Iran. Preliminary results with Hyalomma spp. and Rhipicephalus spp. suggest partial cross protection. In field trials, vaccination with Gavac controlled B. microplus and B. annulatus infestations and reduced the transmission of babesiosis, resulting in important savings for the cattle industry. Different degrees of susceptibility to the vaccination with Bm86 and sequence variations in the Bm86 locus have been reported. The Bm95 antigen was isolated from the Argentinean Bm86-resistant B. microplus strain A. A Bm95-based vaccine was used to protect cattle against tick infestations under production conditions with similar results to that obtained with Gavac. The Bm95 antigen from strain A was able to protect against infestations with Bm86-sensitive and Bm86-resistant tick strains, thus suggesting that Bm95 could be a more universal antigen in protecting cattle against infestations by B. microplus strains from different geographical areas. These results clearly demonstrate the advantage and possibilities for the immunological control of ticks. PMID:11193686

  8. Possible risk factors on Queensland dairy farms for acaricide resistance in cattle tick (Boophilus microplus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, N N; Mayer, D G; Green, P E

    2000-02-29

    A case control study was carried out within a cross-sectional survey designed to investigate the management by Queensland dairy farmers of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus. Although 199 farmers were surveyed, data on acaricide resistance were only obtained from 66 farms. Multiple models were used to predict the probability of acaricide resistance associated with 30 putative risk factors. The region of the state in which the farm was located and the frequency of acaricide application were consistently associated with acaricide resistance. The risk of resistance to all synthetic pyrethroids (Parkhurst strain) was highest in Central Queensland and increased when more than five applications of acaricide were made in the previous year, when spray races were used and when buffalo fly treatments with a synthetic pyrethroid were applied frequently. The probability of resistance to amitraz (Ulam strain) was highest in Central Queensland, increased when more than five applications of acaricide were made in the previous year, and decreased on farms when a hand-spray apparatus was used to apply acaricides to cattle. The probability of resistance to flumethrin (Lamington strain) was highest in the Wide Bay-Burnett region. PMID:10681025

  9. Susceptibility of Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae to seven ixodicides in Nuevo Leon, Mexico

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    Jesús A. Esparza Rentería

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the results of research only. Mention of a proprietary product does not constitute an endorsement or a recommendation by the FAUANL for its use Animal husbandry and meat industry in Mexico are one of the principal activities of the agricultural sector of the country, which are threatened by factors that affect the production of meat, skin and milk; among these, the damages caused by Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, the common tick of cattle, and the diseases it transmits, such as anaplasmosis and babesiosis (Xianxun and Wenshun, 1997; Yeruhan et al., 1998, are of special interest. The objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility of the larvae of Boophilus microplus to seven tick-killing agents commonly used in the state of Nuevo Leon. The methodology used for the diagnosis of the susceptibility of B. microplus tick to Organochlorine, Organophosphorate and Pyrethroid compounds was the one applied by Rodriguez-Vivas et al., (2007; in which it was used a discriminant dose (table 1, using the larvae package test technique (Stone & Haydock, 1962. The results of the CL50 to the ticks of cattle in the state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico showed a greater susceptibility to Deltamethrine, followed by Chlorfenvinphos; in third place Diazinon, then Flumethrin; after that Cypermethrin, in sixth place Lindane and a less toxicological action for the Coumaphos (Asuntol. The result was already expected due to the fact that it is the most commonly used product in the control of ticks through the larval immersion technique.

  10. Expression of recombinant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, R. annulatus and R. decoloratus Bm86 orthologs as secreted proteins in Pichia pastoris

    OpenAIRE

    Jongejan Frans; Hope Michelle; Nijhof Ard M; Naranjo Victoria; de la Lastra José; Canales Mario; de la Fuente José

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) spp. ticks economically impact on cattle production in Africa and other tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Tick vaccines constitute a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative to tick control. The R. microplus Bm86 protective antigen has been produced by recombinant DNA technology and shown to protect cattle against tick infestations. Results In this study, the genes for Bm86 (R. microplus), Ba86 (R. annulatus) and Bd86 (...

  11. Partial sequencing of Bm86 gene for studying the phylogeny of an Indian isolate of Rhipicephalus(Boophilus) microplus tick

    OpenAIRE

    Anbarasi, P.; Latha, B. R.; Dhinakar Raj, G.; Sreekumar, C.; Senthuran, S.

    2013-01-01

    Tick gut glycoprotein, designated as Bm86, found on the luminal surface of the plasma membrane of gut epithelial cells of Boophilus microplus, which is a concealed antigen, has been used as vaccine candidate molecule for immunization against ticks. To better understand the molecular diversity of Bm86 gene in ticks, a portion of the cDNA was sequenced from an Indian isolate of B. microplus. Comparison of nucleotide sequence revealed that Indian isolate had 97 % homology (18 polymorphisms) with...

  12. Infectividad de Metarhizium anisopliae en contra de cepas de garrapata Boophilus microplus sensible y resistente a los organofosforados

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    Manuel Fernández-Ruvalcaba; Elyes Zhioua; Zeferino García-Vázquez

    2005-01-01

    La infectividad del hongo entomopatogénico Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) fue probada en contra de una cepa de Boophilus microplus (Canestrini) sensible, y otra resistente a los organofosforados, por medio de un ensayo in vitro con hembras ingurgitadas de B. microplus recién desprendidas del bovino, utilizando la cepa ECS1 de M. anisopliae. El micromiceto M. anisopliae demostró ser altamente infectivo, tanto para la cepa sensible como para la resistente a los organofosforados a la conc...

  13. Immunization of cattle with synthetic peptides derived from the Boophilus microplus gut protein (Bm86).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patarroyo, J H; Portela, R W; De Castro, R O; Pimentel, J Couto; Guzman, F; Patarroyo, M E; Vargas, M I; Prates, A A; Mendes, M A Dias

    2002-09-25

    Three synthetic peptides (SBm4912, SBm7462 and SBm19733), derived from the Bm86 glycoprotein from Boophilus microplus gut, were constructed and used to immunize cattle from a tick-free area. The immunized animals received three subcutaneous doses of the peptides, with saponin as adjuvant, at 30-day intervals. The immune response was evaluated by IgG elicited against the peptides by the detection of anti-Bm86 specific antibodies in situ and by Western blotting analysis. After tick challenge, reduction in the number, weight and oviposition capacity of engorged females was observed in the tick population that had fed on immunized animals. The results pointed a high efficacy (81.05%) for the SBm7462 synthetic peptide in relation to the others (p<0.01), demonstrating the efficiency of the immune response elicited by synthetic peptides to control the cattle tick B. microplus. PMID:12127414

  14. Global comparative analysis of ESTs from the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

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    Pertea Geo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, is an economically important parasite of cattle and can transmit several pathogenic microorganisms to its cattle host during the feeding process. Understanding the biology and genomics of R. microplus is critical to developing novel methods for controlling these ticks. Results We present a global comparative genomic analysis of a gene index of R. microplus comprised of 13,643 unique transcripts assembled from 42,512 expressed sequence tags (ESTs, a significant fraction of the complement of R. microplus genes. The source material for these ESTs consisted of polyA RNA from various tissues, lifestages, and strains of R. microplus, including larvae exposed to heat, cold, host odor, and acaricide. Functional annotation using RPS-Blast analysis identified conserved protein domains in the conceptually translated gene index and assigned GO terms to those database transcripts which had informative BlastX hits. Blast Score Ratio and SimiTri analysis compared the conceptual transcriptome of the R. microplus database to other eukaryotic proteomes and EST databases, including those from 3 ticks. The most abundant protein domains in BmiGI were also analyzed by SimiTri methodology. Conclusion These results indicate that a large fraction of BmiGI entries have no homologs in other sequenced genomes. Analysis with the PartiGene annotation pipeline showed 64% of the members of BmiGI could not be assigned GO annotation, thus minimal information is available about a significant fraction of the tick genome. This highlights the important insights in tick biology which are likely to result from a tick genome sequencing project. Global comparative analysis identified some tick genes with unexpected phylogenetic relationships which detailed analysis attributed to gene losses in some members of the animal kingdom. Some tick genes were identified which had close orthologues to mammalian genes

  15. First Molecular Characterization of Anaplasma marginale in Cattle and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Ticks in Cebu, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    YBAÑEZ, Adrian Patalinghug; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; YBAÑEZ, Rochelle Haidee Daclan; RATILLA, Jowarren Catingan; PEREZ, Zandro Obligado; GABOTERO, Shirleny Reyes; Hakimi, Hassan; KAWAZU, Shin-Ichiro; MATSUMOTO, Kotaro; Yokoyama, Naoaki; INOKUMA, Hisashi; 河津, 信一郎; 松本, 高太郎; 横山, 直明; 猪熊,壽

    2013-01-01

    Anaplasma marginale has been detected in the Philippines only by peripheral blood smear examination and serological methods. This study generally aimed to molecularly detect and characterize A. marginale in cattle and ticks in Cebu, Philippines. A total of 12 bovine blood samples and 60 Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks were collected on the Cebu Island in 2011. 16S rRNA-based screening-PCR and DNA sequencing revealed 8 cattle (66.7%) and 8 ticks (13.3%) to be positive for A. marginal...

  16. Biochemical characterization of the recombinant Boophilus microplus Bm86 antigen expressed by transformed Pichia pastoris cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesino, R; Cremata, J; Rodríguez, M; Besada, V; Falcón, V; de la Fuente, J

    1996-02-01

    In the present paper we report the biochemical characteristics of the recombinant tick (Boophilus microplus) gut antigen Bm86 that previously has been cloned, expressed and recovered at high levels in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. The results demonstrate that rBm86 had a modification at position 92 (Thr replaced by Ile) and aggregated, forming particles ranging between 17 and 40 nm. The rBm86 was N-glycosylated, having at least two non-glycosylated sequons (Asn-329 and Asn-363) and a ratio of only 0.4/65 (free Cys/total Cys)/mol of protein. PMID:8867893

  17. [Evaluation of the biological control potential of Metarhizium anisopliae toward Boophilus microplus in pen trials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahiense, Thiago C; Fernandes, Everton K K; Angelo, Isabele da C; Perinotto, Wendell M de S; Bittencourt, Vãnia R E P

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the capacity of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae to control Boophilus microplus tick in pen trials. Infested calves were held in individual pen and treated with fungus suspension through aspersion bath. The results were evaluated based on ticks' mortality rate for 28 days after treatment, and on the analysis of biology of tick's samples which were transferred to an incubation chamber. It was reported 33% of mortality during the total period analyzed, and the production of eggs and nutritional rates were decreased only for a short period after treatment. PMID:18373901

  18. AVALIAÇÃO IN VITRO DE FITOTERÁPICOS NO CONTROLE DE RHIPICEPHALUS BOOPHILUS MICROPLUS

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    Carlos Augusto Nicolino

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of herbal medicines is considered an important alternative to control pests, and can reduce economic and environmental impacts the use of synthetic pesticides. The present study aimed at comparing the in vitro action of essential oils against engorged females of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. Essential oil was used Azadiracta indica (Neem, Cymbopogom nardus L. Rendle (Citronella and Cymbopogon citratus (lemon-grass in the following concentrations: 12.5%, 6%, 3% and 1%. Maximum efficiency (100% was observed for all plants at concentrations of 12.5%. At the concentration of 6% only the essential oils of neem and citronella apresntaram 100% efficiency. Citronella still showed maximum efficiency at a concentration of 3% and still got 95.30% in the lowest concentration (1%. It is concluded that the use of essential oils can be an important alternative in the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus.O uso de fitoterápicos é considerado uma alternativa importante no controle de parasitas, e podem reduzir impactos econômicos e ambientais ao uso de pesticidas sintéticos. O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar comparativamente a ação in vitro de óleos essenciais contra fêmeas ingurgitadas de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. Foi utilizado óleo essencial de Azadiracta indica (Neem, Cymbopogom nardus L. Rendle (Citronela e Cymbopogon citratus (Capim-cidreira nas seguintes concentrações: 12,5%, 6%, 3% e 1%. Eficácia máxima (100% foi observada por todas as plantas nas concentrações de 12,5%. Na concentração de 6% somente os óleos essenciais de neem e citronela apresentaram eficácia de 100%. A citronela ainda apresentou eficácia máxima na concentração de 3% e ainda obteve 95,30% na menor concentração (1%. Conclui-se que a utilização de óleos essenciais pode ser uma alternativa importante no controle de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus.

  19. Emergence of oriental theileriosis in cattle and its transmission through Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus in Assam, India

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    Parikshit Kakati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of Theileria in blood samples of crossbred and indigenous adult cows raised under unorganized small scale farming system in a Babesia and Anaplasma endemic geographical area from Assam, India and to see its transmission through Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus ticks. Materials and Methods: For the present study, 57 clinical cases of cattle suspected to be of hemoparasitic infections were taken into consideration. The parasites were identified based on morphology in giemsa stained blood smear followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Sera samples were tested for T. annulata antibodies in plate and Dot-ELISA. PCR was also conducted in eggs of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus tick collected from a Theileria orientalis positive animal. Results: PCR amplified 1124, 776, and 160 bp DNA fragments of B. bigemina (64.91%,T. orientalis(21.05% and A. marginale (14.03%, respectively. This assay further conducted in 12 T. orientalis positive blood samples with primers of Buffeli, Chitose, and Ikeda variants of T. orientalis showed 3 samples positive to Ikeda type and none for Buffeli and Chitose. Babesia bovis and Theileria annulata specific primers also did not amplify any fragment during the PCR assay of the blood samples. Further, all sera samples tested negative to T. annulata antibodies in Plate and Dot-ELISA. PCR conducted in eggs of R (B.microplus tick collected from a T. orientalis positive animal revealed presence of the parasite DNA. Gradual improvement in physical condition leading to complete recovery in 10 out of 12 T. orientalis infected clinical cases treated with buparvaquone(at 2.5mg/kg.b.wt I/M was the feedback obtained from field veterinarians and the cattle owners. Conclusion: The present investigation represents the first report of occurrence of T. orientalis in cattle of Assam with involvement of pathogenic Ikeda strain in clinical outbreaks and its possible natural

  20. In vitro activity of Artemisia annua L (Asteraceae extracts against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus Atividade in vitro de extratos de Artemisia annua L (Asteraceae sobre Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

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    Ana Carolina de Souza Chagas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The activity of plant extracts on parasites may indicate groups of substances that are potentially useful for controlling Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro action of Artemisia annua extracts on this tick. The concentrations of the sesquiterpene lactones artemisinin and deoxyartemisinin present in plant extracts were quantified via high-performance liquid chromatography. Four extracts produced from the concentrated crude extract (CCE were evaluated on larvae using the impregnated paper method, with readings after 24 hours of incubation. The engorged females were immersed in the CCE and in its four derived extracts for five minutes, with incubation for subsequent analysis of biological parameters. The extracts were not effective on the larvae at the concentrations tested (3.1 to 50 mg.mL-1. The CCE showed greater efficacy on engorged females (EC50 of 130.6 mg.mL-1 and EC90 of 302.9 mg.mL-1 than did the derived extracts. These results tend to confirm that the action of artemisinin on engorged females of R.(B. microplus is conditional to their blood intake. In this case, in vitro methods would be inadequate for effective evaluation of the action of A. annua on R. (B. microplus.A atividade de extratos vegetais sobre parasitas pode indicar grupos de substâncias de uso potencial no controle de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar a ação in vitro de extratos de Artemisia annua sobre esta espécie. A concentração das lactonas sesquiterpênicas artemisinina e deoxiartemisinina presentes nos extratos vegetais, foi quantificada via cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. Quatro extratos produzidos a partir do extrato bruto concentrado (EBC foram avaliados sobre larvas pela metodologia do papel impregnado, com leitura após 24 horas de incubação. As fêmeas ingurgitadas foram imersas por cinco minutos no EBC e nos seus quatro extratos

  1. Differential protein expression in ovaries of uninfected and Babesia-infected southern cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    Science.gov (United States)

    We used gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to investigate differences in protein expression in ovarian tissues from Babesia bovis-infected and uninfected southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Soluble and membrane proteins were extracted from ovaries of adult female ticks,...

  2. Comparative vaccination of cattle against Boophilus microplus with recombinant antigen Bm86 alone or in combination with recombinant Bm91.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willadsen, P; Smith, D; Cobon, G; McKenna, R V

    1996-05-01

    Cattle were vaccinated either with a single recombinant tick antigen, Bm86 or with a combination of two recombinant antigens, Bm86 and Bm91 from the tick Boophilus microplus. In three experiments, the responses of cattle to subsequent challenge with the tick were assessed. The addition of the Bm91 antigen enhanced the efficacy of the vaccination over that with Bm86 alone to a statistically significant degree. Moreover, co-vaccination with two antigens did not impair the response of cattle to the Bm86 antigen. Finally, responses of individual cattle to the two antigens were independent. All of these results may be relevant to the increase in efficacy expected from a dual antigen vaccine. PMID:9229376

  3. Allopatric speciation in ticks: genetic and reproductive divergence between geographic strains of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

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    Jongejan Frans

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, economically impact cattle industry in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The morphological and genetic differences among R. microplus strains have been documented in the literature, suggesting that biogeographical and ecological separation may have resulted in boophilid ticks from America/Africa and those from Australia being different species. To test the hypothesis of the presence of different boophilid species, herein we performed a series of experiments to characterize the reproductive performance of crosses between R. microplus from Australia, Africa and America and the genetic diversity of strains from Australia, Asia, Africa and America. Results The results showed that the crosses between Australian and Argentinean or Mozambican strains of boophilid ticks are infertile while crosses between Argentinean and Mozambican strains are fertile. These results showed that tick strains from Africa (Mozambique and America (Argentina are the same species, while ticks from Australia may actually represent a separate species. The genetic analysis of mitochondrial 12S and 16S rDNA and microsatellite loci were not conclusive when taken separately, but provided evidence that Australian tick strains were genetically different from Asian, African and American strains. Conclusion The results reported herein support the hypothesis that at least two different species share the name R. microplus. These species could be redefined as R. microplus (Canestrini, 1887 (for American and African strains and probably the old R. australis Fuller, 1899 (for Australian strains, which needs to be redescribed. However, experiments with a larger number of tick strains from different geographic locations are needed to corroborate these results.

  4. Identification of a synthetic peptide inducing cross-reactive antibodies binding to Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus BM86 homologues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Nadja; Diaz, Diana; Amacker, Mario; Odongo, David O; Beier, Konstantin; Nitsch, Cordula; Bishop, Richard P; Daubenberger, Claudia A

    2009-12-10

    The BM86 antigen, originally identified in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, is the basis of the only commercialized anti-tick vaccine. The long-term goal of our study is to improve BM86 based vaccines by induction of high levels of tick gut binding antibodies that are also cross-reactive with a range of BM86 homologues expressed in other important tick species. Here we have used a BD86 derived synthetic peptide, BD86-3, to raise a series of mouse monoclonal antibodies. One of these mAbs, named 12.1, recognized BM86 homologues in immuno-histochemical analyses in four out of five tick species including R. (B.) microplus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. Our results indicate that broadly cross-reactive tick gut binding antibodies can be induced after immunization with a synthetic peptide derived from the protein BD86. PMID:19808026

  5. Control of Boophilus microplus populations in grazing cattle vaccinated with a recombinant Bm86 antigen preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, M; Penichet, M L; Mouris, A E; Labarta, V; Luaces, L L; Rubiera, R; Cordovés, C; Sánchez, P A; Ramos, E; Soto, A

    1995-04-01

    Current methods for the control of cattle tick Boophilus microplus infestations are not effective and the parasite remains a serious problem for the cattle industry in tropical and subtropical areas. Recently, we developed a vaccine against B. microplus employing a recombinant Bm86 (rBm86) antigen preparation (Gavac, Heber Biotec) and it was shown to induce a protective response in vaccinated animals under controlled conditions. Here we show that, under field conditions in grazing cattle, the vaccine is able to control B. microplus populations. Two parasite-free farms were employed for the study. In the first farm, animals were vaccinated with the recombinant vaccine, while, in the second, animals received a saline injection in adjuvant. After immunization, animals were artificially infected and the infestation rate was recorded. Over the 33 weeks of the experiment, the infestation rate was lower in the vaccinated group compared with the control group. At the end of the experiment it was necessary to use chemicals in the control farm after serious losses in production and animals. PMID:7660571

  6. Suscetibilidade de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus a carrapaticidas em Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil Susceptibility of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus to acaricides in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

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    Alberto Gomes

    2011-08-01

    demonstrada aos distintos produtos testados sugere que a resistência do carrapato a diferentes classes esteja amplamente disseminada no Estado, motivo pelo qual recomenda-se a realização rotineira de testes de suscetibilidade antes da seleção e aplicação de produtos acaricidas para controle do carrapato.The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, is one of the most important ectoparasites of bovines, requiring adoption of control measures mainly in Bos taurus herds and its crossbreeds. Its control has becoming increasingly difficult due to selection of resistant populations by commercial products. This study aimed to know the status of cattle tick resistance to acaricides in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. From October 2003 to October 2006 acaricide bioassays were conducted on cattle ticks from eleven of the most important livestock regions of the state. Adult immersion tests using regular commercial products according to label recommendations were followed by the evaluation of biological parameters. Twelve acaricide products containing one or more of seven active ingredients, from three chemical classes: amidine (amitraz, synthetic pyrethroid (cypermethrin, and organophosphates (chlorfenvinphos, chlorpyriphos, diazinon, dichlorvos, and ethion were tested. Low tick susceptibility was observed in all ranches, with several populations showing virtually no susceptibility to one or more products. Despite the great variation of susceptibility shown by the populations to each acaricide, a gradient of efficacy of these products was observed. Regardless of the acaricide class, the average efficacy of products containing a single active ingredient (19.94%-64.27% was generally lower than that showed by the mixtures, pyrethroid-organophosphate (46.38%-82.68% and between organophosphates (85.28%-97.68%. The mixture containing pyrethroid + OF + synergist + repellent (cypermethrin + chlorpyrifos + citronellal + piperonyl butoxide showed 100% efficacy, although it was

  7. Distribution Patterns of Three Sodium Channel Mutations Associated with Pyrethroid Resistance in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) Microplus Populations from North and South America, South Africa and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistance to synthetic pyrethroids (SP) in the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is widespread throughout its distribution area. Three single nucleotide substitutions identified in the Domains II and III of the sodium channel gene of R. (B.) microplus are known to be associated with t...

  8. The Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Bm86 gene plays a critical role in the fitness of ticks fed on cattle during acute Babesia bovis infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is an economically important tick of cattle involved in the transmission of Babesia bovis, the etiological agent of bovine babesiosis. Commercial anti-tick vaccines based on the R. microplus Bm86 glycoprotein have shown some effect in controlling tick ...

  9. Protection against Boophilus annulatus infestations in cattle vaccinated with the B. microplus Bm86-containing vaccine Gavac. off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragoso, H; Rad, P H; Ortiz, M; Rodríguez, M; Redondo, M; Herrera, L; de la Fuente, J

    1998-12-01

    Tick infestations by Boophilus spp. constitute a major problem for the cattle industry in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. The use of traditional control methods has been only partially successful and tick infestations remain a serious problem. Recently, the gut antigen Bm86 was isolated from B. microplus. Recombinant preparations of this antigen have been used in vaccines for the control of B. microplus infestations. However, in several regions of the world, B. microplus coexists with other Boophilus species, mainly B. annulatus and B. decoloratus. Therefore, there is a need for the simultaneous control of infestations by different Boophilus species. To test the capacity of the P. pastoris-derived Bm86 antigen preparation (Gavac, Heber Biotec S.A., Havana) to control B. annulatus infestations, controlled experiments were conducted in Mexico and Iran. Cattle were vaccinated with Gavac or not vaccinated and then artificially infested with B. annulatus larvae. The results showed for the first time a high protection efficacy (> 99.9%) of Gavac in the control of B. annulatus infestations. These results support the application of Bm86-containing vaccines for the control of Boophilus spp. infestations. PMID:9796055

  10. Resistencia a los acaricidas en Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus: situación actual y mecanismos de resistencia

    OpenAIRE

    Roger Iván Rodríguez-Vivas; Hodgkinson, Jane E; Trees, Alexander J.

    2012-01-01

    Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus es una plaga endémica de ganado en las regiones tropicales y subtropicales del mundo, causando grandes pérdidas económicas a los productores de ganado. Acaricidas químicos han desempeñado un papel fundamental en el control de R. (B). microplus; sin embargo, como consecuencia de su uso extensivo, esta especie ha desarrollado resistencia a todas las clases principales de acaricidas en todo el mundo. Resistencia a organofosforados, piretroides sintéticos y ami...

  11. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus: expression and characterization of Bm86-CG in Pichia pastoris Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus: expressão e caracterização da Bm86-CG em Pichia pastoris

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Casquero Cunha; Renato Andreotti; Fábio Pereira Leivas Leite

    2011-01-01

    The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is responsible for great economic losses. It is mainly controlled chemically, with limitations regarding development of resistance to the chemicals. Vaccines may help control this parasite, thereby reducing tick pesticide use. In this light, we performed subcloning of the gene of the protein Bm86-GC, the homologue protein that currently forms the basis of vaccines (GavacTM and TickGardPLUS) that have been developed against cattle ticks. The ...

  12. The male genital accessory gland complex of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae

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    GARCIA-FERNANDEZ CASIMIRO

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A topographical and histological study of the male genital accessory gland complex of Boophilus microplus was undertaken. Ten lobes were found, the most prominent of which is the single dorso-median lobe, subdivided into antero-dorsal and postero-dorsal lobes. The other lobes are: a pair of postero-ventral lobes, a pair of lateral lobes (subdivided into dorso-lateral and postero-lateral lobes, a pair of antero-ventral lobes, a single medio-ventral lobe and a pair of latero-ventral lobes. These lobes were observed to present individual topographical and histological characteristics, with independent openings, hence the conclusion is that they form a gland complex. The secretory nature of the dorso-median lobe duct was also analysed.

  13. Alterations in the oxidative metabolism of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks in response to exposure to the insect growth regulator fluazuron

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrício Nascimento Gaudêncio; Vinícius Menezes Tunholi-Alves; Mariana Gomes Lima; Patrícia Silva Gôlo; Isabele da Costa Angelo; Rosane Nora Castro; Adivaldo Henrique da Fonseca; Fabio Barbour Scott; Jairo Pinheiro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aiming to characterize the potential off-target effects of fluazuron on ticks, biochemical analyses were conducted to evaluate changes in the carbohydrate metabolism of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks after exposure to fluazuron. Hemolymph and fat body were collected from female ticks before and after (4, 8 and 15 days) exposure to fluazuron. Spectrophotometric analyses were done to quantify glucose concentration and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in the hemolymph and...

  14. Vaccination with recombinant Boophilus annulatus Bm86 ortholog protein, Ba86, protects cattle against B. annulatus and B. microplus infestations

    OpenAIRE

    Jongejan Frans; Naranjo Victoria; Almazán Consuelo; Canales Mario; de la Fuente José

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The cattle ticks, Boophilus spp., affect cattle production in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Tick vaccines constitute a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative to tick control. The recombinant B. microplus Bm86 protective antigen has been shown to protect cattle against tick infestations. Recently, the gene coding for B. annulatus Bm86 ortholog, Ba86, was cloned and the recombinant protein was secreted and purified from the yeast Pichia past...

  15. Identification and characterization of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus candidate protective antigens for the control of cattle tick infestations

    OpenAIRE

    Almazan, C.; Lagunes, R.; Villar, M.; Canales, M.; R Rosario-Cruz; Jongejan, F; de la Fuente, J.

    2009-01-01

    The cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) spp., affect cattle production in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Tick vaccines constitute a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative to tick control. The recombinant Rhipicephalus microplus Bm86 antigen has been shown to protect cattle against tick infestations. However, variable efficacy of Bm86-based vaccines against geographic tick strains has encouraged the research for additional tick-protective antigens. Herein, ...

  16. Binding and storage of heme by vitellin from the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logullo, C; Moraes, J; Dansa-Petretski, M; Vaz, I S; Masuda, A; Sorgine, M H F; Braz, G R; Masuda, H; Oliveira, P L

    2002-12-01

    We have previously shown (, Curr. Biol. 9, 703-706) that the cattle tick Boophilus microplus does not synthesize heme, relying solely on the recovery of the heme from the diet to make all its hemeproteins. Here we present evidence that Vitellin (VN(1)), the main tick yolk protein, is a reservoir of heme for embryo development. VN was isolated from eggs at different days throughout embryogenesis. Immediately after oviposition, Boophilus VN contains approximately one mol of heme/mol of protein. During embryo development about one third of egg VN is degraded. The remaining VN molecules bind part of the heme released. These results suggest that VN functions as a heme reservoir, binding any free heme that exceeds the amount needed for development. In vitro measurement of the binding of heme to VN showed that each VN molecule binds up to 31 heme molecules. The association of heme with VN strongly inhibits heme-induced lipid peroxidation, suggesting that binding of heme is an important antioxidant mechanism to protect embryo cells from oxidative damage. This mechanism allows this hematophagous arthropod to safely store heme obtained from a blood meal inside their eggs for future use. Taken together our data suggest that, besides its known roles, VN also plays additional functions as a heme deposit and an antioxidant protective molecule. PMID:12429132

  17. The complexity of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus genome characterised through detailed analysis of two BAC clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valle Manuel

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Rmi a major cattle ectoparasite and tick borne disease vector, impacts on animal welfare and industry productivity. In arthropod research there is an absence of a complete Chelicerate genome, which includes ticks, mites, spiders, scorpions and crustaceans. Model arthropod genomes such as Drosophila and Anopheles are too taxonomically distant for a reference in tick genomic sequence analysis. This study focuses on the de-novo assembly of two R. microplus BAC sequences from the understudied R microplus genome. Based on available R. microplus sequenced resources and comparative analysis, tick genomic structure and functional predictions identify complex gene structures and genomic targets expressed during tick-cattle interaction. Results In our BAC analyses we have assembled, using the correct positioning of BAC end sequences and transcript sequences, two challenging genomic regions. Cot DNA fractions compared to the BAC sequences confirmed a highly repetitive BAC sequence BM-012-E08 and a low repetitive BAC sequence BM-005-G14 which was gene rich and contained short interspersed elements (SINEs. Based directly on the BAC and Cot data comparisons, the genome wide frequency of the SINE Ruka element was estimated. Using a conservative approach to the assembly of the highly repetitive BM-012-E08, the sequence was de-convoluted into three repeat units, each unit containing an 18S, 5.8S and 28S ribosomal RNA (rRNA encoding gene sequence (rDNA, related internal transcribed spacer and complex intergenic region. In the low repetitive BM-005-G14, a novel gene complex was found between to 2 genes on the same strand. Nested in the second intron of a large 9 Kb papilin gene was a helicase gene. This helicase overlapped in two exonic regions with the papilin. Both these genes were shown expressed in different tick life stage important in ectoparasite interaction with the host. Tick specific sequence

  18. [Prokaryotic expression of Bm86 gene of Boophilus microplus and optimization of the expression condition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Mi-Ling; Guan, Gui-Quan; Li, You-Quan; Liu, Ai-Hong; Ren, Qiao-Yun; Niu, Qing-Li; Yin, Hong; Luo, Jian-Xun

    2009-12-01

    A pair of specific primers was designed based on the reported Bm86 gene of Boophilus microplus,the Bm86 gene was cloned by PCR using the plasmid pMD18-T-Bm86 as templates, and subcloned into the prokaryotic plasmid pGEX-4T-1. The recombined plasmid was transformed into E. coli BL21(DE3) and followed by expression of the protein induced by different concentration of IPTG for different time. SDS-PAGE showed that the recombinant plasmid pGEX-4T-1/Bm86 expressed a fusion protein Bm86-GST (Mr 94 000) after being induced with IPTG. High level expression of Bm86-GST was found at 1 mmol/L IPTG condition a fter incubation for 8 h at 37 degree C, and the expression level of the recombinant Bm86-GST reached up to 29% of total E coli proteins Western-blotting analysis showed that the recombinant Bm86-GST was recognized by the rabbit anti-B. microplus positive serum. PMID:20232640

  19. In vitro effects of Pilocarpus microphyllus extracts and pilocarpine hydrochloride on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Karina Neoob de Carvalho; Lima, David Fernandes; Wolschick, Dolores; Andrade, Ivanilza Moreira de; Santos, Raimunda Cardoso Dos; Santos, Francisco José de Seixas Dos; Veras, Leiz Maria Costa; Costa-Júnior, Lívio Martins

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the activity of aqueous (AE) and ethanolic extracts (EE) and pilocarpine hydrochloride, which were extracted and isolated from Pilocarpus microphyllus (Jaborandi), respectively, on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was performed to quantify these compounds. Larval packet and adult immersion tests were conducted with different concentrations. Five AE and EE concentrations, ranging from 6.2 to 100.0 mg mL-1, and six concentrations of pilocarpine hydrochloride, ranging from 0.7 to 24.0 mg mL-1, were tested. The lethal concentration (LC50) of each extract for larvae and engorged females was calculated through Probit analysis. The concentration of pilocarpine hydrochloride obtained from the EE and the AE was 1.3 and 0.3% (m/m), respectively. Pilocarpine hydrochloride presented the highest acaricidal activity on larvae (LC50 2.6 mg mL-1) and engorged females (LC50 11.8 mg mL-1) of R.(B.) microplus, followed by the EE which presented LC50 of 56.4 and 15.9 mg mL-1, for larvae and engorged females, respectively. Such results indicate that pilocarpine hydrochloride has acaricidal activity, and may be the primary compound responsible for this activity by P. microphyllus EE. PMID:27334829

  20. In vitro effects of Pilocarpus microphyllus extracts and pilocarpine hydrochloride on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Neoob de Carvalho Castro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the activity of aqueous (AE and ethanolic extracts (EE and pilocarpine hydrochloride, which were extracted and isolated from Pilocarpus microphyllus (Jaborandi, respectively, on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was performed to quantify these compounds. Larval packet and adult immersion tests were conducted with different concentrations. Five AE and EE concentrations, ranging from 6.2 to 100.0 mg mL–1, and six concentrations of pilocarpine hydrochloride, ranging from 0.7 to 24.0 mg mL–1, were tested. The lethal concentration (LC50 of each extract for larvae and engorged females was calculated through Probit analysis. The concentration of pilocarpine hydrochloride obtained from the EE and the AE was 1.3 and 0.3% (m/m, respectively. Pilocarpine hydrochloride presented the highest acaricidal activity on larvae (LC50 2.6 mg mL–1 and engorged females (LC50 11.8 mg mL–1 of R.(B. microplus, followed by the EE which presented LC50 of 56.4 and 15.9 mg mL–1, for larvae and engorged females, respectively. Such results indicate that pilocarpine hydrochloride has acaricidal activity, and may be the primary compound responsible for this activity by P. microphyllus EE.

  1. Controle de larvas de Boophilus microplus por Metarhizium anisopliae em pastagens infestadas artificialmente Control of Boophilus microplus larvae by Metarhizium anisopliae in artificially infested pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Mara de Souza Basso

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência do controle exercido por Metarhizium anisopliae na população de Boophilus microplus, em pastagens de Brachiaria brizantha, e do híbrido Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp., artificialmente infestadas com fêmeas ingurgitadas do carrapato. Trinta canteiros com 1 m² de área cada foram distribuídos aleatoriamente. Quinze foram pulverizados com esporos do fungo e quinze controles em cada forrageira, constituindo cinco repetições de cada tratamento, foram infestados com número e peso padronizados de fêmeas ingurgitadas do ácaro. Aplicou-se o fungo, na concentração de 1,8x10(8 conídios mL-1, em três situações: pulverização antes da infestação com o carrapato, após a infestação e posterioriormente à emergência das primeiras larvas nos capins. A ação do fungo foi avaliada no 35º, 38º, 41º, 48º, 55º e 61º dia pós-infestação, por meio da contagem de larvas recuperadas. Obteve-se controle de larvas do ácaro, que, nas avaliações realizadas entre o 35º e o 48º dia pós-infestação, variou entre 87% e 94%. As médias das contagens de estágios larvares do carrapato foram menores em todas as amostragens realizadas no capim-Tifton 85, indicando que houve efeito da pastagem na ação do fungo. A situação de aplicação influencia a atividade do fungo, com melhor resultado nas coletas realizadas entre o 41º e 55º dia após infestação em B. brizantha, e aplicação dos conídios logo após a emergência das primeiras larvas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of Metarhizium anisopliae fungus against Boophilus microplus population in Brachiaria brizantha and Tifton 85 (Cynodon pastures, artificially infested with tick engorged females. Thirty plots of 1 m² each were randomly distributed in fifteen treated and fifteen control groups per type of grass, establishing five repetitions for each treatment. Pastures were infested with engorged tick females

  2. Resistance to cypermethrin and amitraz in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus on the Santa Catarina Plateau, Brazil Situação da resistência do Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus à cipermetrina e amitraz no Planalto Catarinense, Brasil

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    Luana Paula Haubold Neis Veiga

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available With the objective of evaluating Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus resistance to cipermetrina and amitraz, were collected engorged tick females from cattle on 20 farms on the Santa Catarina Plateau, in southern Brazil, between January of 2004 and May of 2006. Were also received 20 groups of engorged R. (B. microplus females, collected by cattle farmers requesting acaricidal efficacy (AE testing. Were performed in vitro tests, which consisted of immersing engorged females in cypermethrin (0.015% and in amitraz (0.025%. An AE >95% was considered indicative of effectiveness. Of the 20 collected groups, 18 (90% showed cypermethrin resistance and 1 (5% showed amitraz resistance. Of the 20 received groups, 19 (95% showed cypermethrin resistance and 2 (10% showed amitraz resistance. The AE of cypermethrin was found to be >95%, 85-94%, and 55-64%, respectively, in 4 (57.1%, 2 (28.6%, and 1 (14.3% of 7 reference groups, collected in the 1997-2001 period. The AE of amitraz was >95% in all of those groups. Among the groups of specimens received for analysis in that period, the AE of amitraz was >95% in 6 (85.71% and 75-84% in 1 (14.28%. R. (B. microplus resistance to acaricides is increasing on the Santa Catarina Plateau.Com os objetivos de avaliar a resistência do Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus à cipermetrina e ao amitraz no Planalto Catarinense, no período de janeiro de 2004 a maio de 2006, foram coletadas teleóginas em bovinos de 20 propriedades onde os produtores autorizaram a coleta (amostras por conveniência e recebidas teleóginas de mais 20 propriedades com objetivo de diagnóstico de eficácia. Os testes in vitro foram realizados por imersão de teleóginas em cipermetrina (0,015% e amitraz (0,025%. Considerando a eficácia igual ou superior a 95%, das 20 propriedades amostradas, 18 (90% apresentaram resistência à cipermetrina e uma (5% ao amitraz. Das 20 propriedades com teleóginas para diagnóstico, 19 (95% apresentaram resist

  3. Vaccination with recombinant Boophilus annulatus Bm86 ortholog protein, Ba86, protects cattle against B. annulatus and B. microplus infestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongejan Frans

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cattle ticks, Boophilus spp., affect cattle production in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Tick vaccines constitute a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative to tick control. The recombinant B. microplus Bm86 protective antigen has been shown to protect cattle against tick infestations. Recently, the gene coding for B. annulatus Bm86 ortholog, Ba86, was cloned and the recombinant protein was secreted and purified from the yeast Pichia pastoris. Results Recombinant Ba86 (Israel strain was used to immunize cattle to test its efficacy for the control of B. annulatus (Mercedes, Texas, USA strain and B. microplus (Susceptible, Mexico strain infestations. Bm86 (Gavac and Mozambique strain and adjuvant/saline were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Vaccination with Ba86 reduced tick infestations (71% and 40%, weight (8% and 15%, oviposition (22% and 5% and egg fertility (25% and 50% for B. annulatus and B. microplus, respectively. The efficacy of both Ba86 and Bm86 was higher for B. annulatus than for B. microplus. The efficacy of Ba86 was higher for B. annulatus (83.0% than for B. microplus (71.5%. The efficacy of Bm86 (Gavac; 85.2% but not Bm86 (Mozambique strain; 70.4% was higher than that of Ba86 (71.5% on B. microplus. However, the efficacy of Bm86 (both Gavac and Mozambique strain; 99.6% was higher than that of Ba86 (83.0% on B. annulatus. Conclusion These experiments showed the efficacy of recombinant Ba86 for the control of B. annulatus and B. microplus infestations in cattle and suggested that physiological differences between B. microplus and B. annulatus and those encoded in the sequence of Bm86 orthologs may be responsible for the differences in susceptibility of these tick species to Bm86 vaccines.

  4. Borrelia theileri: observação em carrapatos do gênero Boophilus microplus no município de Guaíba, RS, Brasil Borrelia theileri: observation on Boophilus microplus ticks in Guaiba, RS, Brazil

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    João Ricardo Martins

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Espiroquetas da espécie Borrelia theileri identificadas em uma estirpe de carrapatos Boophilus microplus provenientes do município de Guaíba, RS. A observação ocorreu no exame de hemolinfa de fêmeas adultas com 10 dias pós-repleçâo, corada por Giemsa. Não foram observadas espiroquetas em ovos provenientes de teleóginas infectadas. A detecção da estirpe infectada sugere a presença de borreliose em rebanhos bovinos, fato que eventualmente pode interferir em resultados de diagnóstico ou tornar-se motivo de preocupação em produtos derivados de sangue bovino tais como vacinas vivas contra anaplasmose e babesiose bovina.Spirochetes of species Borrelia theileri were identifica in afield-strain of the caule tick Boophilus microplus, in Guaíba, RS, Brazil. Hemolymph smears from females 10 days post-repletion were collected by gentty section of the tarsal-metatarsaijoint, and dropped onto a microscope slide, and stained by Giemsa. No spirochetes were observed in eggs squashed and stained by Giemsa from the same infected strain. The detection of B. microplus adult females infected with Borrelia theileri suggesfs the likely presence of borreliosis in bovine heras what might eventually interfere with the interpretation of diagnosis results or become cause for concern in blood products such as anaplasmosis and babesiosis live vaccines.

  5. Breeding for resistance to Boophilus microplus in Australian Illawarra Shorthorn and Brahman x Australian Illawarra Shorthorn cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utech, K B; Wharton, R H

    1982-02-01

    Breeding for resistance to the cattle tick Boophilus microplus was undertaken in a herd of Australian Illawarra Shorthorn (AIS) cattle from 1961 to 1978 and in a herd of Braham x AIS cattle from 1970 to 1979. Breeder cows and their progeny were assessed for tick resistance during October to January. Resistance levels were determined as the average percentage mortality of female ticks from two artificial infestations with cohorts of c 20,000 larvae. Resistance increased from 89.2% to 99% in the AIS breeding herd, as a result of the yearly introductions of more resistant individuals and culling of less resistant ones. Concurrently resistance in the AIS progeny increased from 93.7% to 97.7%, thus demonstrating that the selection and breeding of the cows and bulls resulted in genetic improvement in the resistance of the progeny. Milk production tests on heifers from the selected AIS herd during 1975 to 79 indicated that selection for tick resistance did not select against milk production. Resistance of the Brahman x AIS increased from 98.4% to 99.3% in the breeding herd and from 97.6% to 99.6% in the progeny. Female calves of both breeds were more resistant than males. PMID:7082236

  6. Bmcystatin, a cysteine proteinase inhibitor characterized from the tick Boophilus microplus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bovine tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is a blood-sucking animal, which is responsible for Babesia spp and Anaplasma marginale transmission for cattle. From a B. microplus fat body cDNA library, 465 selected clones were sequenced randomly and resulted in 60 Contigs. An open reading frame (ORF) contains 98 amino acids named Bmcystatin, due to 70% amino acid identity to a classical type 1 cystatin from Ixodes scapularis tick (GenBank Accession No. DQ066227). The Bmcystatin amino acid sequence analysis showed two cysteine residues, theoretical pI of 5.92 and Mr of 11kDa. Bmcystatin gene was cloned in pET 26b vector and the protein expressed using bacteria Escherichia coli BL21 SI. Recombinant Bmcystatin (rBmcystatin) purified by affinity chromatography on Ni-NTA-agarose column and ionic exchange chromatography on HiTrap Q column presented molecular mass of 11kDa, by SDS-PAGE and the N-terminal amino acid sequenced revealed unprocessed N-terminal containing part of pelB signal sequence. Purified rBmcystatin showed to be a C1 cysteine peptidase inhibitor with Ki value of 0.1 and 0.6nM for human cathepsin L and VTDCE (vitellin degrading cysteine endopeptidase), respectively. The rBmcystatin expression analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the amplification of a specific DNA sequence (294bp) in the fat body and ovary cDNA preparation. On the other hand, a protein band was detected in the fat body, ovary, and the salivary gland extracts using anti-Bmcystatin antibody by Western blot. The present results suggest a possible role of Bmcystatin in the ovary, even though the gene was cloned from the fat body, which could be another site of this protein synthesis

  7. Variation among Bm86 sequences in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks collected from cattle across Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewmongkol, S; Kaewmongkol, G; Inthong, N; Lakkitjaroen, N; Sirinarumitr, T; Berry, C M; Jonsson, N N; Stich, R W; Jittapalapong, S

    2015-06-01

    Anti-tick vaccines based on recombinant homologues Bm86 and Bm95 have become a more cost-effective and sustainable alternative to chemical pesticides commonly used to control the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. However, Bm86 polymorphism among geographically separate ticks is reportedly associated with reduced effectiveness of these vaccines. The purpose of this study was to investigate the variation of Bm86 among cattle ticks collected from Northern, Northeastern, Central and Southern areas across Thailand. Bm86 cDNA and deduced amino acid sequences representing 29 female tick midgut samples were 95.6-97.0 and 91.5-93.5 % identical to the nucleotide and amino acid reference sequences, respectively, of the Australian Yeerongpilly vaccine strain. Multiple sequence analyses of these Bm86 variants indicated geographical relationships and polymorphism among Thai cattle ticks. Two larger groups of cattle tick strains were discernable based on this phylogenetic analysis of Bm86, a Thai group and a Latin American group. Thai female and male cattle ticks (50 pairs) were also subjected to detailed morphological characterization to confirm their identity. The majority of female ticks had morphological features consistent with those described for R. (B.) microplus, whereas, curiously, the majority of male ticks were more consistent with the recently re-instated R. (B.) australis. A number of these ticks had features consistent with both species. Further investigations are warranted to test the efficacies of rBm86-based vaccines to homologous and heterologous challenge infestations with Thai tick strains and for in-depth study of the phylogeny of Thai cattle ticks. PMID:25777941

  8. Comportamento de queda de fêmeas ingurgitadas do carrapato Boophilus microplus The drop-off behaviour of engorged females of the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Hocayen de Paula

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available A dinâmica de queda de fêmeas ingurgitadas do carrapato Boophilus microplus foi avaliada na Estação Experimental da Embrapa Gado de Leite, em Coronel Pacheco- MG, Brasil. O objetivo foi avaliar as vantagens da modificação do horário de ordenha dos bovinos, considerando a higienização do pasto, em relação ao carrapato. O experimento constou de uma fase de verão/outono e uma de inverno, para testar diferenças no ritmo de queda dos carrapatos entre as duas estações. Os resultados mostraram diferenças significativas entre as fases. No verão/outono, as fêmeas ingurgitadas apresentaram maior porcentagem de queda entre 7 e 10 horas (35,3% e no inverno entre 6 e 9 horas (19,69% e entre 14 e 17 horas (21,79%. A porcentagem de queda de fêmeas ingurgitadas no período foi de 35,15% para o sistema de ordenha de 5-8h e 13-16h e de 45,48% para o sistema de ordenha de 8-11h e 16-19h, durante os meses de verão/outono. Nos meses de inverno, o porcentual de queda foi de 40,51% e de 32,71% para os dois horários de ordenha respectivamente. Considerando o tempo que os animais permanecem estabulados para a suplementação no cocho durante o período entre as ordenhas na época seca do ano na região (maio a setembro, a porcentagem de queda de fêmeas ingurgitadas foi de 55,83% para o sistema de ordenha de 5 a 16h e de 52,36% para o sistema de ordenha de 8 a 19h.A description of the drop-off behaviour of engorged females of the tick Boophilus microplus was carried out as a result of an experiment at the Experimental Station, Embrapa Gado de Leite, Coronel Pacheco, MG, Brazil. Its objective was to evaluate any repercussions of changing the time of milking of cattle in terms of reduced recontamination of the pastures with the tick. Such possible changes in this daily cattle management routine have recently become a reality since the advent of refrigerated on-farm storage of the milk and non-daily collection by tanker truck. The field experiment

  9. Alterations in the oxidative metabolism of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks in response to exposure to the insect growth regulator fluazuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudêncio, Fabrício Nascimento; Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Lima, Mariana Gomes; Gôlo, Patrícia Silva; Angelo, Isabele da Costa; Castro, Rosane Nora; Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique da; Scott, Fabio Barbour; Pinheiro, Jairo

    2016-03-01

    Aiming to characterize the potential off-target effects of fluazuron on ticks, biochemical analyses were conducted to evaluate changes in the carbohydrate metabolism of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks after exposure to fluazuron. Hemolymph and fat body were collected from female ticks before and after (4, 8 and 15 days) exposure to fluazuron. Spectrophotometric analyses were done to quantify glucose concentration and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in the hemolymph and the concentration of glycogen in the tick's fat body. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was employed to determine the concentration of carboxylic acids in the hemolymph and to evaluate changes in intermediary metabolic processes requiring oxygen consumption. Increases in the levels of LDH activity and lactic acid concentration indicated that fluazuron enhanced fermentative metabolism in ticks. Exposure to fluazuron was also found to increase glucose concentrations in the hemolymph over time, although no significant differences were noted daily. In addition to expanding the body of knowledge about the mode of action of fluazuron, investigations into these mechanisms may also be useful in discovering new and as yet unexplored secondary effects. PMID:26982563

  10. The Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Bm86 gene plays a critical role in the fitness of ticks fed on cattle during acute Babesia bovis infection

    OpenAIRE

    Knowles Donald P; Ueti Massaro W; Bastos Reginaldo G; Scoles Glen A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is an economically important tick of cattle involved in the transmission of Babesia bovis, the etiological agent of bovine babesiosis. Commercial anti-tick vaccines based on the R. microplus Bm86 glycoprotein have shown some effect in controlling tick infestation; however their efficacy as a stand-alone solution for tick control has been questioned. Understanding the role of the Bm86 gene product in tick biology is critical to identifyin...

  11. Two initial vaccinations with the Bm86-based Gavacplus vaccine against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus induce similar reproductive suppression to three initial vaccinations under production conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Erlinda; Suárez Marisela; Lleonart Ricardo; Méndez Luis; Rodríguez Elsa; Machado Héctor; Joglar Marisdania; Alfonso Aymé; Valdés Mario; Pérez Danny; Sánchez Dunia; Montero Carlos; Vargas Milagros; Estrada Mario P; Rodríguez-Mallón Alina

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, affects livestock production in many regions of the world. Up to now, the widespread use of chemical acaricides has led to the selection of acaricide-resistant ticks and to environmental contamination. Gavacplus is a subunit vaccine based on the recombinant Bm86 tick antigen expressed in yeast, capable to control infestations of R. microplus under controlled and production conditions. The vaccine constitutes the core el...

  12. Acaricidal activity of leaf extracts of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. (Fabaceae) against synthetic pyrethroid resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nirbhay Kumar; Jyoti; Vemu, Bhaskar; Prerna, Mranalini; Singh, Harkirat; Dumka, V K; Sharma, S K

    2016-06-01

    Resistance status of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus against synthetic pyrethroids was assessed by larval packet test which revealed level I and II resistance against cypermethrin and deltamethrin, respectively. Adult immersion test was employed to study the acaricidal activity of leaf extracts of Dalbergia sissoo (sheesham) against these ticks. Mortality and fecundity of ticks exposed to sheesham leaf aqueous (SLA) and ethanolic (SLE) extracts were evaluated at concentrations of 0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0% and controls (distilled water and 10% ethanol). Higher acaricidal activity was recorded in SLA with a lower LC50 (95% CL) value of 1.58% (0.92-2.71%) than SLE [5.25% (4.91-5.63%)]. A significant decrease in egg mass weight and reproductive index was recorded in treated ticks along with an increase in percent inhibition of oviposition. A complete inhibition of hatching was recorded in eggs laid by ticks treated with higher concentrations of SLA, whereas, SLE exhibited no effect on hatching percentage. PMID:27234528

  13. Control of Boophilus microplus ticks in cattle calves by immunization with a recombinant Bm86 glucoprotein antigen preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf-Allah, S S

    1999-06-01

    Forty Egyptian native cattle calves of 4-6 months old randomly allocated into two groups of twenty animals each were used to assess the effect of immunization of animals with a recombinant Bm86 antigen derived from Boophilus microplus ticks on induction of immunity that could protect calves during tick season. The immunization protocol involved two injections administered intramuscularly, the first was applied with complete Freund's adjuvant and the second was given with incomplete Freund's adjuvant two months later. Control calves were given saline plus adjuvant. Immunization reduced the number of adult ticks developing from a subsequent challenge infestation by 78% in immunized calves. Vaccination also, significantly reduced the weight of adult ticks in immunized calves (30.51%). The results of skin delayed hypersensitivity reaction revealed that the diameter of sites injected with the recombinant Bm86 antigen was significantly larger in immunized calves than those in controls. Analysis of the immune response indicated that there was a significant increase in the level of IgG and IgA antibodies in serum of immunized calves and protection from reinfestation was correlated with the levels of circulating antibodies. PMID:10422372

  14. Bovine immunoprotection against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus with recombinant Bm86-Campo Grande antigen Imunoproteção de bovinos contra Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus com antígeno recombinante Bm86-Campo Grande

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Casquero Cunha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The southern cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, is no doubt the most economically important ectoparasite of cattle globally. The inappropriate use of chemical acaricides has driven the evolution of resistance in populations of R. (B. microplus. Anti-tick vaccines represent a technology that can be combined with acaricides in integrated control programs to mitigate the impact of R. (B. microplus. The recombinant form of Bm86 antigen from the Campo Grande (rBm86-CG strain of R. (B. microplus was produced using the Pichiapastoris expression system to test its ability to immunoprotect cattle against tick infestation. Secretion of rBm86-CG by P. pastoris through the bioprocess reported here simplified purification of the antigen. A specific humoral immune response was detected by ELISA in vaccinated cattle. Immunoblot results revealed that polyclonal antibodies from vaccinated cattle recognized a protein in larval extracts with a molecular weight corresponding to Bm86. The rBm86-CG antigen showed 31% efficacy against the Campo Grande strain of R. (B. microplus infesting vaccinated cattle. The rBm86-CG is an antigen that could be used in a polyvalent vaccine as part of an integrated program for the control of R. (B. microplus in the region that includes Mato Grosso do Sul.O carrapato Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus é, sem dúvidas, o ectoparasito economicamente mais importante para o gado a nível mundial. A utilização inadequada de acaricidas tem impulsionado a evolução da resistência em populações de R. (B. microplus. Vacinas contra o carrapato representam uma tecnologia que pode ser combinada com acaricidas em programas de controle integrado para diminuir o impacto de R. (B. microplus. A forma recombinante da Bm86 da cepa Campo Grande (rBm86-CG de R. (B. microplus foi produzido utilizando o sistema de expressão em Pichia pastoris para testar sua capacidade de imunoproteção ao gado contra a infestação de

  15. Seroepidemiological study of Babesia bovis in support of the Uruguayan Boophilus microplus control programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovine blood samples were collected from a region endemic for Boophilus microplus and consisting of 125 ranches with a cattle population of 76,918. A total of 1,728 cattle were bled (1,485 adults and 243 calves less from 1 year of age) from 27 ranches. This sample size was determined to provide incidence and prevalence values with a precision of ±10% at a confidence level of 95%. The FAO/IAEA ELISA kit was used to detect antibody to Babesia bovis. Dispersion (proportion of ranches with babesia infection) was estimated to be 70.5% ± 8.8 (SD). A positive ranch was defined as having one or more test-positive animals. Apparent prevalence (proportion of cattle with a positive test result) within the region was estimated to be 3.5% ± 0.3, with a range from 0 to 18.5%. Incidence based on apparent prevalence in calves less than 1 year of age was estimated to be 2.8%. The dispersion, apparent prevalence, and incidence data for this region of Uruguay will be compared through a repeated sampling of cattle in this area during a three-year period to assess the effectiveness of the eradication/control campaign. (author)

  16. Pharmacological characterization of a tyramine receptor from the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Aaron D; Temeyer, Kevin B; Day, Tim A; Pérez de León, Adalberto A; Kimber, Michael J; Coats, Joel R

    2015-08-01

    The southern cattle tick (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus) is a hematophagous external parasite that vectors the causative agents of bovine babesiosis or cattle tick fever, Babesia bovis and B. bigemina, and anaplasmosis, Anaplasma marginale. The southern cattle tick is a threat to the livestock industry in many locations throughout the world. Control methods include the use of chemical acaricides including amitraz, a formamidine insecticide, which is proposed to activate octopamine receptors. Previous studies have identified a putative octopamine receptor from the southern cattle tick in Australia and the Americas. Furthermore, this putative octopamine receptor could play a role in acaricide resistance to amitraz. Recently, sequence data indicated that this putative octopamine receptor is probably a type-1 tyramine receptor (TAR1). In this study, the putative TAR1 was heterologously expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells, and the expressed receptor resulted in a 39-fold higher potency for tyramine compared to octopamine. Furthermore, the expressed receptor was strongly antagonized by yohimbine and cyproheptadine, and mildly antagonized by mianserin and phentolamine. Tolazoline and naphazoline had agonistic or modulatory activity against the expressed receptor, as did the amitraz metabolite, BTS-27271; however, this was only observed in the presence of tyramine. The southern cattle tick's tyramine receptor may serve as a target for the development of anti-parasitic compounds, in addition to being a likely target of formamidine insecticides. PMID:25958152

  17. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus: expression and characterization of Bm86-CG in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Rodrigo Casquero; Andreotti, Renato; Leite, Fábio Pereira Leivas

    2011-01-01

    The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is responsible for great economic losses. It is mainly controlled chemically, with limitations regarding development of resistance to the chemicals. Vaccines may help control this parasite, thereby reducing tick pesticide use. In this light, we performed subcloning of the gene of the protein Bm86-GC, the homologue protein that currently forms the basis of vaccines (Gavac(TM) and TickGard(PLUS)) that have been developed against cattle ticks. The subcloning was done in the pPIC9 expression vector, for transformation in the yeast Pichia pastoris. This protein was characterized by expression of the recombinant Mut+ strain, which expressed greater quantities of protein. The expressed protein (rBm86-CG) was recognized in the Western-blot assay using anti-Gavac, anti-TickGard, anti-larval extract and anti-rBm86-CG polyclonal sera. The serum produced in cattle vaccinated with the antigen CG rBm86 presented high antibody titers and recognized the native protein. The rBm86-GC has potential relevance as an immunogen for vaccine formulation against cattle ticks. PMID:21722483

  18. Polymorphism of the bm86 gene in South American strains of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sossai, Sidimar; Peconick, Ana P; Sales-Junior, Policarpo A; Marcelino, Francismar C; Vargas, Marlene I; Neves, Elisangela S; Patarroyo, Joaquín H

    2005-01-01

    Thirty Boophilus microplus strains from various geographic regions of Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Venezuela and Colombia were analyzed for the bm86 and bm95 gene. A fragment of cDNA of 794 base pairs of the parasite larvae, included between nucleotides 278-1071s, was amplified and cloned on the pGEM-T vector. Two random clones were sequenced for each population and the nucleotides 278-1071 and predicted amino acid sequences compared with the bm86 and bm95 genes. Variations from 1.76 to 3.65% were detected in the nucleotides sequence when compared with the homologous sequence of the bm86 gene and a 3.4-6.08% in the homologous amino acid sequence of the Bm86 protein. When the sequences obtained were compared with the bm95 gene, variations from 0.50 to 3.15% were detected. Variations from 1.14 to 4.56% were detected for the Bm95 protein homologous sequences in the deduced amino acid sequence. Only five of the 30 strains analyzed presented two different types of alleles expressed and the two alleles of the Alegre population and allele 1 of the Betim population were the most divergent of all those analyzed. PMID:16323051

  19. Vaccination of cattle against the Boophilus microplus using a mucin-like membrane glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, R V; Riding, G A; Jarmey, J M; Pearson, R D; Willadsen, P

    1998-07-01

    An antigen, BMA7, which induced partial immunity against tick infestation has been isolated from Boophilus microplus using two different protein fractionation protocols, accompanied by vaccination and parasite challenge trails. The antigen is a 63 kDa glycoprotein isolated from semi-engorged adult female ticks. Though significant, the induced immunity is less striking than that previously reported for antigen Bm86 from the same parasite. However, co-vaccination with Bm86 and BMA7 can enhance immunity over that seen with a commercial vaccine based on Bm86 alone. Limited peptide sequence information shows significant variation in the BMA7 protein occurs. The antigen has approximately 36 kDa of glycosylation, in both N-linked and O-linked oligosaccharides. There is evidence that both polypeptide and oligosaccharide are antigenic, but the chemical nature of the protective antigenic sites is not clear. There is little or no immunological response to the antigen during natural infestation with parasites, suggesting the antigen is 'concealed' and protective immunity dependent on artificial vaccination. The antigen has some similarities with the vertebrate mucins. It is widely distributed in tick tissues and membrane bound but its function is currently unknown. PMID:9717194

  20. Identificación de un polimorfismo del gen Est9 relacionado con resistencia a piretroides en Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Diaz R.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Mediante procedimientos de PCR-RFLP, detectar un polimorfismo en el gen Est9 de garrapatas Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus resistentes a piretroides en Ibagué, Colombia, determinando el grado de asociación entre los fenotipos y los genotipos resultantes. Materiales y métodos. El ADN de 30 teleoginas R. (Boophilus microplus fenotípicamente susceptibles, resistentes o medianamente resistentes a piretroides en una prueba de Drummond modificada, fue amplificado por PCR con cebadores específicos para obtener un fragmento de 372 pb del gen Est9, que fue sometido a digestión con la enzima EcoRI para estudiar los RFLPs generados y poder diferenciar los respectivos genotipos. El grado de asociación entre los fenotipos y los genotipos resultantes se determinó mediante la prueba exacta de Fisher. Resultados. Luego de digerir el fragmento con la endonucleasa, se generaron dos segmentos en teleoginas con algún nivel de resistencia, mientras en las teleoginas susceptibles no hubo división del fragmento de 372 pb, demostrándose así la presencia de una mutación puntual y los genotipos homocigoto natural, homocigoto mutante y heterocigoto. Las diferencias altamente significativas (p<0.01 entre teleoginas susceptibles y aquellas con algún nivel de resistencia, mostraron una relación directa entre el genotipo y el fenotipo con un nivel de confianza de p=0.0009852. Conclusiones. Se comprobó, por primera vez en Colombia, la presencia de una mutación puntual en el gen Est9 de garrapatas R. (Boophilus microplus resistentes a piretroides, sugiriendo la necesidad de realizar estudios para detectar alteraciones moleculares en otros genes relacionados con quimioresistencia.

  1. Acaricidal activity of Palicourea marcgravii, a species from the Amazon forest, on cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Wilson Castro; Martins, João Ricardo de Souza; Cesio, Maria Veronica; Azevedo, João Lúcio; Heinzen, Horacio; de Barros, Neiva Monteiro

    2011-06-30

    Leaves of Palicourea marcgravii were extracted successively with hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol in order to evaluate their acaricidal activity on larvae and adult stages of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The ethyl acetate extract showed the highest bioactivity of the tested extracts, which contained 0.12% monofluoroacetic acid. On engorged female, the ethyl acetate extract showed a lethal concentration 50% - LC(50)=30.08 mg ml(-1), inhibitory concentration 50% - IC(50)=5.79 mg ml(-1) and lethal time 50% - LT(50)=4.72 days; 100% reproduction was controlled at concentrations of 50 mg ml(-1) and on larvae the ethyl acetate extract showed a LC(50)=2.46 mg ml(-1). No alkaloids were detected in any of the extracts. This is the first report on the acaricidal activity of P. marcgravii extracts against R. microplus as well as the acaricidal properties of a plant species containing monofluoroacetic acid. PMID:21411227

  2. Partial sequencing of Bm86 gene for studying the phylogeny of an Indian isolate of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbarasi, P; Latha, B R; Dhinakar Raj, G; Sreekumar, C; Senthuran, S

    2014-09-01

    Tick gut glycoprotein, designated as Bm86, found on the luminal surface of the plasma membrane of gut epithelial cells of Boophilus microplus, which is a concealed antigen, has been used as vaccine candidate molecule for immunization against ticks. To better understand the molecular diversity of Bm86 gene in ticks, a portion of the cDNA was sequenced from an Indian isolate of B. microplus. Comparison of nucleotide sequence revealed that Indian isolate had 97 % homology (18 polymorphisms) with that of the Australian isolate and 96 % homology (20 polymorphisms) with that of the Cuban vaccine strain. Further, the Indian isolate differed from the Cuban vaccine isolate at 7 amino acid loci, including 5 substitutions (at residues 88, 94, 175, 176 and 177) and 2 deletions (at 183 and 184). However, protein prediction studies did not show any difference in the putative antigenic epitopes of the protein expressed. PMID:25035581

  3. Efecto ixodicida de los extractos etanólicos de algunas plantas sobre garrapatas Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    OpenAIRE

    Ángela Rodríguez S.; Carlos Rodríguez M.; Anastasia Cruz C.

    2010-01-01

    Objetivo. Evaluar in vitro, el efecto ixodicida del extracto etanólico de cinco plantas; Brugmasia arborea, Sambucus nigra, Nicotiana tabacum, Bidens pilosa y Ambrosia cumanenses sobre garrapatas adultas de la especie Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Materiales y métodos. El extracto de cada planta fue obtenido mediante la técnica de lixiviación. Para las pruebas, se utilizaron garrapatas adultas de dos tamaños (pequeñas y medianas), que fueron expuestas a los extractos de cada planta, ut...

  4. Evidence for the utility of the Bm86 antigen from Boophilus microplus in vaccination against other tick species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, S; Zeinstra, L; Taoufik, O; Willadsen, P; Jongejan, F

    2001-01-01

    The Bm86 antigen, as originally identified in Boophilus microplus, is the basis of commercial tick vaccines against this tick species. The potential for using this antigen or homologues of the antigen in vaccination against other tick species has been assessed. We have conducted vaccine trials in cattle using the B. microplus-derived recombinant Bm86 vaccine (TickGARD) using pairs of vaccinated calves and control calves. These were infested with B. microplus and Boophilus decoloratus larvae simultaneously. For both species, the numbers of engorged female adult ticks, their weight and egg-laying capacity were all reduced, leading to a reduction in reproductive capacity of 74% for B. microplus and 70% for B. decoloratus. Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ticks were fed both as immatures as well as adults on vaccinated calves and non-vaccinated controls. There was an overall 50% reduction in the total weight of nymphs engorging on vaccinated calves, and a suggestion of a subsequent effect on feeding adults. For Hyalomma dromedarii there was a 95% reduction in the number of nymphs engorging and a further 55% reduction in weight of those ticks surviving. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Amblyomma variegatum ticks were fed simultaneously both as immatures and subsequently as adults. There was no evidence for a significant vaccination effect. Finally, the amino acid sequence of a Bm86 homologue found in H. a. anatolicum unequivocally demonstrated the conservation of this molecule in this species. Our strategy for the development of multivalent anti-tick vaccines is discussed in relation to these findings. PMID:11523920

  5. Molecular characterization of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Bm86 homologue from Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Min; Zhou, Jinlin; Hatta, Takeshi; Umemiya, Rika; Miyoshi, Takeharu; Tsuji, Naotoshi; Xuan, Xuenan; Fujisaki, Kozo

    2007-05-15

    One sequence in the EST database of a midgut cDNA library prepared from semi-engorged female Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks has been found to be a homologue of the Bm86 gene of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks. The full-length sequence containing a 1785 bp open reading fragment (ORF) was obtained and designated as the Hl86 gene. The predicted amino acid sequence of the Hl86 gene shows a 37% identity to the Bm86 gene. Hl86 is predicted to be a GPI-anchored membrane-bound glycoprotein with a 19-amino acid signal sequence and a 22-amino acid hydrophobic region adjacent to the carboxyl terminus. The most important feature that Hl86 has in common with Bm86 is the repeated pattern of 6 cysteine residues forming epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domains. RT-PCR analysis showed that Hl86 mRNA transcripts are expressed in all the life cycles of H. longicornis, and the expression was found in the midgut of the adult tick. The Hl86 was expressed in Escherichia coli as a gene10 fusion protein. Mouse anti-recombinant Hl86 serum recognized an 86 kDa protein band in the midgut lysate of semi-engorged ticks in Western blot analysis and showed a strong reaction on the luminal surface of midgut cells in an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Silencing of the Hl86 gene by RNAi led to a significant reduction in the engorged tick body weight. This is the first report of cloning and characterization of the Bm86 homologue in different genera and species of ixodid and argasid ticks since Bm86 was first reported in 1989. PMID:17363170

  6. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick in vitro feeding methods for functional (dsRNA) and vaccine candidate (antibody) screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew-Tabor, Ala E; Bruyeres, Anthea G; Zhang, Bing; Rodriguez Valle, Manuel

    2014-09-01

    Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks cause economic losses for cattle industries throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world estimated at $US2.5 billion annually. Lack of access to efficacious long-lasting vaccination regimes and increases in tick acaricide resistance have led to the investigation of targets for the development of novel tick vaccines and treatments. In vitro tick feeding has been used for many tick species to study the effect of new acaricides on the transmission of tick-borne pathogens. Few studies have reported the use of in vitro feeding for functional genomic studies using RNA interference and/or the effect of specific anti-tick antibodies. In particular, in vitro feeding reports for the cattle tick are limited due to its relatively short hypostome. Previously published methods were further modified to broaden optimal tick sizes/weights, feeding sources including bovine and ovine serum, optimisation of commercially available blood anti-coagulant tubes, and IgG concentrations for effective antibody delivery. Ticks are fed overnight and monitored for ∼5-6 weeks to determine egg output and success of larval emergence using a humidified incubator. Lithium-heparin blood tubes provided the most reliable anti-coagulant for bovine blood feeding compared with commercial citrated (CPDA) and EDTA tubes. Although >30mg semi-engorged ticks fed more reliably, ticks as small as 15mg also fed to repletion to lay viable eggs. Ticks which gained less than ∼10mg during in vitro feeding typically did not lay eggs. One mg/ml IgG from Bm86-vaccinated cattle produced a potent anti-tick effect in vitro (83% efficacy) similar to that observed in vivo. Alternatively, feeding of dsRNA targeting Bm86 did not demonstrate anti-tick effects (11% efficacy) compared with the potent effects of ubiquitin dsRNA. This study optimises R. microplus tick in vitro feeding methods which support the development of cattle tick vaccines and

  7. In vitro acaricidal activity of ethanolic and aqueous floral extracts of Calendula officinalis against synthetic pyrethroid resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godara, R; Katoch, R; Yadav, A; Ahanger, R R; Bhutyal, A D S; Verma, P K; Katoch, M; Dutta, S; Nisa, F; Singh, N K

    2015-09-01

    Detection of resistance levels against deltamethrin and cypermethrin in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from Jammu (India) was carried out using larval packet test (LPT). The results showed the presence of resistance level II and I against deltamethrin and cypermethrin, respectively. Adult immersion test (AIT) and LPT were used to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of ethanolic and aqueous floral extracts of Calendula officinalis against synthetic pyrethroid resistant adults and larvae of R. (B.) microplus. Four concentrations (1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10 %) of each extract with four replications for each concentration were used in both the bioassays. A concentration dependent mortality was observed and it was more marked with ethanolic extract. In AIT, the LC50 values for ethanolic and aqueous extracts were calculated as 9.9 and 12.9 %, respectively. The egg weight of the live ticks treated with different concentrations of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts was significantly lower than that of control ticks; consequently, the reproductive index and the percent inhibition of oviposition values of the treated ticks were reduced. The complete inhibition of hatching was recorded at 10 % of ethanolic extract. The 10 % extracts caused 100 % mortality of larvae after 24 h. In LPT, the LC50 values for ethanolic and aqueous extracts were determined to be 2.6 and 3.2 %, respectively. It can be concluded that the ethanolic extract of C. officinalis had better acaricidal properties against adults and larvae of R. (B.) microplus than the aqueous extract. PMID:26071101

  8. Toxicity of Piper aduncum L. (Piperales: Piperaceae) from the Amazon forest for the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Wilson Castro; Martins, João Ricardo de Souza; de Souza, Hellen Emília Menezes; Heinzen, Horacio; Cesio, Maria Verônica; Mato, Mauricio; Albrecht, Francine; de Azevedo, João Lúcio; de Barros, Neiva Monteiro

    2009-10-14

    The mortality of 14-21-day-old Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus larvae, and the mortality and fertility of groups of engorged adult females exposed to different concentrations of hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of spiked pepper (Piper aduncum) were evaluated, using a completely randomized design with five treatment groups, two control groups, and two replicates for the larvae and five replicates for the adult females. Similar methodology was used to investigate the toxicity of the essential oil hydro-distillate (94.84% dillapiole) obtained from the P. aduncum crude hexane extract. The LC(50) of the hexane extract was 9.30 mg ml(-1) for larvae and the reproduction reduction ranged from 12.48% to 54.22%, while 0.1mg/ml(-1) of the essential oil induced 100% mortality in larvae. Literature reports on natural products active against R. microplus were listed and compared with the results presented here. These results indicate that P. aduncum extracts, and particularly its essential oil, are potential alternative control agents for R. microplus. PMID:19573994

  9. Efficacy of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Bm86 against Hyalomma dromedarii and Amblyomma cajennense tick infestations in camels and cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Valle, Manuel; Taoufik, Amar; Valdés, Mario; Montero, Carlos; Ibrahin, Hassan; Hassan, Shawgi Mohammed; Jongejan, Frans; de la Fuente, Jose

    2012-05-14

    The recombinant Bm86-based tick vaccines have shown their efficacy for the control of cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. annulatus infestations. However, cattle ticks often co-exist with multi-host ticks such as Hyalomma and Amblyomma species, thus requiring the control of multiple tick infestations for cattle and other hosts. Vaccination trials using a R. microplus recombinant Bm86-based vaccine were conducted in cattle and camels against Hyalomma dromedarii and in cattle against Amblyomma cajennense immature and adult ticks. The results showed an 89% reduction in the number of H. dromedarii nymphs engorging on vaccinated cattle, and a further 32% reduction in the weight of the surviving adult ticks. In vaccinated camels, a reduction of 27% and 31% of tick engorgement and egg mass weight, respectively was shown, while egg hatching was reduced by 39%. However, cattle vaccination with Bm86 did not have an effect on A. cajennense tick infestations. These results showed that Bm86 vaccines are effective against R. microplus and other tick species but improved vaccines containing new antigens are required to control multiple tick infestations. PMID:22446633

  10. Integrated control of Boophilus microplus ticks in Cuba based on vaccination with the anti-tick vaccine Gavac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Manuel Rodriguez; Mèndez, Luis; Valdez, Mario; Redondo, Miguel; Espinosa, Carlos Montero; Vargas, Milagro; Cruz, Ricardo Lleonart; Barrios, Humberto Perez; Seoane, Guillermo; Ramirez, Emerio Serrano; Boue, Oscar; Vigil, Jorge Lodos; Machado, Héctor; Nordelo, Carlos Borroto; Piñeiro, Marisdania Joglar

    2004-01-01

    Boophilus microplus has developed resistance against a range of chemical acaricides which has stimulated the development of alternative methods such as vaccination against ticks. In Cuba, the Bm86-based recombinant vaccine Gavac has been successfully used in a number of controlled laboratory and field trials in cattle against B. microplus. In this paper, we have evaluated Gavac in a large scale field trial wherein 588,573 dairy cattle were vaccinated with the aim to reduce the number of acaricidal treatments. It was found that the number of acaricidal treatments could be reduced by 87% over a period of 8 years (1995--2003). Prior to the introduction of the vaccine, 54 clinical cases of babesiosis and six fatal cases were reported per 1000 animals. Six years later, the incidence of babesiosis was reduced to 1.9 cases per 1000 cattle and mortality reduced to 0.18 per 1000. The national consumption of acaricides in Cuba could be reduced by 82% after the implementation of the integrated anti-B. microplus control program. PMID:15651533

  11. Ação larvicida de derivados arilsulfonílicos da (+- cânfora e da (+- isopinocanfona sobre o carrapato Boophilus microplus Larvicidal action of (+-camphor and (+- isopinocamphone arilsulphonyl derivatives on Boophilus microplus cattle tick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C.S. Chagas

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Testou-se a atividade larvicida de 33 derivados arilsulfonílicos da (+-cânfora e da (+-isopinocanfona no carrapato B. microplus, na busca de princípios ativos menos tóxicos para o seu controle. Os produtos foram obtidos por clorossulfonação da (+-cânfora e da (+-isopinocanfona. Eles foram submetidos à solubilização e testados separadamente e em conjunto contra larvas de carrapato encerradas em envelopes contendo papéis impregnados e acondicionadas em estufa climatizada. A mortalidade média não atingiu 5% em todos os testes realizados, indicando que a clorossulfonação não é a rota de síntese mais adequada para a obtenção de derivados sintéticos com efeito larvicida sobre B. microplus. Os 33 produtos testados sob a forma de triagem biológica não podem ser considerados como potenciais acaricidas.It was investigated the acaricidal activity of (+- camphor and (+- isopinocamphone arilsulphonyl derivatives against Boophilus microplus cattle tick. The products were obtained through the camphor and isopinocamphone clorosulfonation. Thirty-three products were submitted to solubilization and tested alone and together, against tick larvae. Ticks were caught in filter paper envelopes impregnated with products, which were incubated under controlled conditions. The average mortality did not reach 5% in all trials, indicating that clorosulfonation is not an appropiate procedure to obtain derivatives with larvicidal effect against B. microplus. The 33 products tested in the biological screening could not be considered as potential acaricides.

  12. Transmissão transovariana de Babesia bovis em Boophilus microplus: obtenção de cepa de carrapato livre de Babesia spp. Babesia bovis transovarian transmission in Boophilus microplus: obtention of a Babesia free tick strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Regina Bettin dos Santos

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou o estudo de parte do ciclo da Babesia bovis no seu hospedeiro invertebrado, o carrapato Boophilus microplus. Analisou-se a capacidade de infeccção e transmissão transovariana de B. bovis em partenóginas de B. microplus, alimentadas em bovinos portadores e enfermos por esse protozoário. No 18º dia após a infestação, coletaram-se partenóginas diretamente do corpo dos bovinos e teleóginas após o desprendimento natural, a partir do 21º dia. Todos os grupos foram incubados a 27ºC e umidade relativa superior a 70%. No 5º dia após o início da postura, realizou-se o exame de hemolinfa a fim de diagnosticar a infecção dos ínstares por B. bovis. A ausência de infecção detectada no exame de hemolinfa foi confirmada posteriormente com o teste biológico, revelando que partenóginas não transmitem B. bovis transovarianamente. Esses resultados oferecem uma técnica simplificada para a obtenção de cepas de carrapatos livres de B. bovis.In this experiment part of the life cycle of Babesia bovis in its invertebrate host, the tick Boophilus microplus was studied. In order to evaluate the capacity of infection and transmission of B. bovis were collected semi-engorged females of B. microplus fed on carrier and ill bovines. In the 18th day after infestation, semi-engorged females were collected directly from bovine bodies and after 21st day engorged females dropped on the ground. All the collected groups were incubated at 27°C and relative humidity greater than 70%. At the 5th day of oviposition the diagnosis was made by direct examination of haemolymph smears. The biological test reveled that B. bovis transovarial transmission doesn't happer in semi-engorged females. The results offer a simple techique to obtain strains of ticks free of B. bovis.

  13. Perspectives for the use of plant extracts to control the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus Perspectivas para o uso de extratos de plantas para o controle do carrapato de bovinos Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

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    Lígia Miranda Ferreira Borges

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of resistance of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus to synthetic acaricides has given rise to the need for new scientific investigations on alternative ways to control this tick. In this regard, various studies on plants have been developed in an attempt to find extracts with acaricidal properties. Evaluations on plant extracts for controlling R. (B. microplus have grown intensely over the last decade. There are many advantages from using plant extracts: for example, they can be used in organic cattle farming or even replace synthetic acaricides and they are associated with lower environmental and food contamination, slower development of resistance and lower toxicity to animals and humans. In vitro studies on plant extracts have shown promising results, but most of these extracts have not been tested on animals to validate their use. Difficulties in preparing proper formulations, differences in the chemical composition of plants of the same species due to extrinsic and intrinsic factors and sparse information on active acaricide compounds are hindrances that need to be addressed in order to enable progress within this scientific field.A evolução da resistência do Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus aos acaricidas sintéticos tem impulsionado novas investigações científicas sobre métodos alternativos para controlar este carrapato. Considerando isso, vários estudos com plantas têm sido desenvolvidos numa tentativa de encontrar extratos com propriedades acaricidas. Avalições de extratos de plantas para o controle de R. (B. microplus tem sido intensificadas nesta última década. Existem muitas vantagens com o uso de extratos de plantas no controle deste carrapato, como: eles podem ser utilizados na produção orgânica de bovinos, ou mesmo substituir os acaricidas sintéticos, além do mais, estão associados com baixa contaminação ambiental e dos alimentos, desenvolvimento mais lento de resistência e baixa toxicidade

  14. Identification and characterization of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus candidate protective antigens for the control of cattle tick infestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almazán, Consuelo; Lagunes, Rodolfo; Villar, Margarita; Canales, Mario; Rosario-Cruz, Rodrigo; Jongejan, Frans; de la Fuente, José

    2010-01-01

    The cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) spp., affect cattle production in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Tick vaccines constitute a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative to tick control. The recombinant Rhipicephalus microplus Bm86 antigen has been shown to protect cattle against tick infestations. However, variable efficacy of Bm86-based vaccines against geographic tick strains has encouraged the research for additional tick-protective antigens. Herein, we describe the analysis of R. microplus glutathione-S transferase, ubiquitin (UBQ), selenoprotein W, elongation factor-1 alpha, and subolesin (SUB) complementary DNAs (cDNAs) by RNA interference (RNAi) in R. microplus and Rhipicephalus annulatus. Candidate protective antigens were selected for vaccination experiments based on the effect of gene knockdown on tick mortality, feeding, and fertility. Two cDNA clones encoding for UBQ and SUB were used for cattle vaccination and infestation with R. microplus and R. annulatus. Control groups were immunized with recombinant Bm86 or adjuvant/saline. The highest vaccine efficacy for the control of tick infestations was obtained for Bm86. Although with low immunogenic response, the results with the SUB vaccine encourage further investigations on the use of recombinant subolesin alone or in combination with other antigens for the control of cattle tick infestations. The UBQ peptide showed low immunogenicity, and the results of the vaccination trial were inconclusive to assess the protective efficacy of this antigen. These experiments showed that RNAi could be used for the selection of candidate tick-protective antigens. However, vaccination trials are necessary to evaluate the effect of recombinant antigens in the control of tick infestations, a process that requires efficient recombinant protein production and formulation systems. PMID:19943063

  15. Efficacy of 11 Brazilian essential oils on lethality of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Ana Carolina de Souza; Oliveira, Márcia Cristina de Sena; Giglioti, Rodrigo; Santana, Raul Costa Mascarenhas; Bizzo, Humberto Ribeiro; Gama, Paola Ervatti; Chaves, Francisco Celio Maia

    2016-04-01

    Herbal extracts have been investigated as an alternative for parasite control, aiming to slow the development of resistance and to obtain low-cost biodegradable parasiticides. The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, in vitro, of 11 essential oils from Brazil on reproductive efficiency and lethality of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The effects of oils extracted from Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale, Lippia alba, Lippia gracilis, Lippia origanoides, Lippia sidoides, Mentha arvensis, Mentha piperita, Croton cajucara (white and red), and Croton sacaquinha on ticks were investigated by the Immersion Test with Engorged Females (ITEF) and the modified Larval Packet Test (LPT). Distilled water and 2% Tween 80 were used as control treatments. Chemical analysis of the oils was done with gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Analysis of the in vitro tests using Probit (SAS program) allowed the calculation of lethal concentrations (LCs). Lower reproductive efficiency indexes and higher efficacy percentages in the ITEF were obtained with the oils extracted from C. longa (24 and 71%, respectively) and M. arvensis oils (27 and 73%, respectively). Lower LC50 was reached with C. longa (10.24 mg/mL), L. alba (10.78 mg/mL), M. arvensis (22.31 mg/mL), L. sidoides (27.67 mg/mL), and C. sacaquinha (29.88 mg/mL) oils. In the LPT, species from Zingiberaceae and Verbenaceae families caused 100% lethality at 25 mg/mL, except for L. sidoides. The most effective oils were from C. longa, L. gracilis, L. origanoides, L. alba, and Z. officinale. The LC50 and LC90 were, respectively: 0.54 and 1.80 mg/mL, 3.21 and 7.03 mg/mL, 3.10 and 8.44 mg/mL, 5.85 and 11.14 mg/mL, and 7.75 and 13.62 mg/mL. The efficacy was directly related to the major components in each essential oil, and the oils derived from Croton genus presented the worst performance, suggesting the absence of synergistic effect among its compounds. Since C. longa, containing 62

  16. Gene silencing of the tick protective antigens, Bm86, Bm91 and subolesin, in the one-host tick Boophilus microplus by RNA interference

    OpenAIRE

    Nijhof, A. M.; Taoufik, A.; de la Fuente, M.R.; Kocan, K M; de Vries, E; Jongejan, F

    2007-01-01

    The use of RNA interference (RNAi) to assess gene function has been demonstrated in several three-host tick species but adaptation of RNAi to the one-host tick, Boophilus microplus, has not been reported. We evaluated the application of RNAi in B. microplus and the effect of gene silencing on three tick-protective antigens: Bm86, Bm91 and subolesin. Gene-specific double-stranded (dsRNA) was injected into two tick stages, freshly molted unfed and engorged females, and specific gene silencing w...

  17. Prevalencia de lecherías con Boophilus microplus resistentes a piretroides y factores de riesgo asociados a su presencia en el Departamento de Santa Cruz, Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Marbel Villarroel-Alvarez; Roger Iván Rodríguez-Vivas; Fidel Villegas-Anze; Hugo Fragoso-Sánchez; Alejandrina Ortiz-Nájera; Salvador Neri-Orantes

    2006-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio de sección cruzada para determinar la prevalencia de ranchos con garrapatas Boophilus microplus resistentes a piretroides sintéticos (PS), así como posibles factores de riesgo en la Zona Integrada del Departamento de Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Se muestrearon 83 ranchos, donde se colectaron al menos 10 teleoginas de B. microplus para evaluar en su progenie la respuesta a los PS. Se utilizó la prueba de paquete de larvas, con la dosis discriminante para diagnosticar resistencia ...

  18. Use of biodegradable PLGA microspheres as a slow release delivery system for the Boophilus microplus synthetic vaccine SBm7462.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales-Junior, P A; Guzman, F; Vargas, M I; Sossai, S; Patarroyo V, A M; González, C Z L; Patarroyo, J H

    2005-09-15

    The synthetic anti-Boophilus microplus vaccine SBm7462 derived from the tick intestinal protein, Bm86, induced a protective immune response when emulsified in saponin and used in cattle. Using a mice model, and with the objective of improving the vaccine by continual peptide release, it was encapsulated in PLGA 50:50 microspheres and inoculated in BALB/c mice to assess the immunological response by detection of anti-peptide IgGs. Comparative studies were made with the peptide emulsified in saponin and with another synthetic vaccine, and the microsphere/peptide was characterized for efficiency of encapsulation, in vitro release profile, morphology, size, peptide integrity after encapsulation and stability in different pHs. The findings showed that saponin enhances a better immune response from SBm7462 and that the PLGA 50:50 microspheres are suitable for use with this peptide. PMID:16002149

  19. Avaliação in vitro da ação do óleo essencial de capim limão (Cymbopogon citratus sobre o carrapato bovino Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus In vitro evaluation of the action of lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus essential oil on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

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    F.C.C. Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso indiscriminado de produtos químicos no controle do carrapato bovino constitui a principal causa do gradativo aumento do número de cepas resistentes deste parasita às bases disponíveis no mercado. A utilização de óleos essenciais e extratos vegetais é uma prática antiga no controle de carrapatos, porém só recentemente tem recebido a devida atenção dos pesquisadores. O objetivo deste experimento foi avaliar a eficácia in vitro do óleo de capim limão (Cymbopogon citratus sobre fêmeas ingurgitadas de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus através do exame de biocarrapaticidograma. Foram testadas seis diluições do óleo de C. citratus (1; 5; 10; 25; 50 e 100% em uma população de carrapatos resistentes a amidínicos e piretróides sintéticos. A inibição de postura foi de 3; 23; 46; 66; 46 e 46%, a eclosão larval foi de 83; 58; 31; 0; 38 e 25% e a eficácia do tratamento foi de 32; 64; 83; 100; 88 e 82%, respectivamente. O óleo de C. citratus apresentou controle parcial do carrapato R. microplus in vitro, mesmo frente a populações resistentes a produtos químicos.The indiscriminate use of chemical products to control the cattle tick is the main cause of the gradual increase in the number of strains of this parasite that are resistant to the bases currently available in the market. The use of essential oils and plant extracts is an ancient practice for tick control; however, only recently has it received due attention by researchers. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus essential oil on engorged females of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus through immersion test. Six concentrations of Cymbopogon citratus oil (1; 5; 10; 25; 50 and 100% were tested against a tick population resistant to synthetic formamidines and pyrethroids. The inhibition of egg-laying was 3; 23; 46; 66; 46 and 46%, the hatching was 83; 58; 31; 0; 38 and 25%, and the treatment efficacy was 32

  20. Detección de resistencia a los acaricidas en la garrapata del ganado Boophilus microplus mediante análisis de zimogramas (Acaricide resistance detection in the cattle tick Boophilus microplus by zymograms analysis.

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    Miranda, Miranda, Estefan

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available La identificación de resistencia a los productos acaricidas en la garrapata B. microplus, se hace mediante un complicado bioensayo, que requiere garrapatas de referencia y de campo cultivadas sobre bovinos vivos y restringidos durante semanas. Con el fin de evaluar una posible alternativa diagnóstica, se hicieron ensayos enzimáticos en geles de poliacrilamida-SDS, usando extractos de larvas de garrapatas provenientes de cuatro cepas de referencia con diferentes niveles de resistencia y susceptibilidad a productos acaricidas. Los ensayos que se diseñaron para detectar las enzimas esterasa, fosfodiesterasa, glutatión peroxidasa y catalasa, fueron procesados como zimogramas en imágenes digitalizadas, a partir de las cuales se obtuvieron sus respectivos densitogramas, valorando las movilidades electroforéticas relativas (Rf, así como las diferentes masas moleculares (MM en miles de Daltons (kDa y actividades enzimáticas específicas (AEE. Se identificó una elevada actividad de esterasa en posición Rf 0.52 con una MM de 47 kDa en las cepas resistentes, con un incremento en AEE del 317 % cuando se compara con las garrapatas susceptibles a los acaricidas. También se identificó una fosfodiesterasa en Rf. 0.1 con MM de 130 kDa presente en las cepas resistentes, con un incremento de AEE del 340% con respecto al nivel basal de la cepa susceptible. Se concluyó que estos ensayos enzimáticos pueden ser utilizados como indicadores de resistencia a los acaricidas en poblaciones de garrapatas aisladas de campo, constituyendo un procedimiento rápido, eficaz y económico, como alternativa al complicado bioensayo actualmente utilizado. Acaricide resistance detection in the cattle tick Boophilus microplus, is achieved by a complex bioassay which requires reference strains of ticks as well as field isolated ticks, cultured on living cattle restrained for weeks. In order to assess an alternate diagnostics procedure, enzymatic assays were performed on

  1. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae as a parasite of pampas deer (Ozoctoceros bezoarticus and cattle in Brazil's Central Pantanal Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus como parasita de veado-campeiro (Ozoctoceros bezoarticus e do gado bovino no Pantanal Central do Brasil

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    Paulo Henrique Duarte Cançado

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Pantanal, domestic and wild animals share the same habitats; their parasites and environment interact in a complex and dynamic way. The Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus is the most important cattle tick in Brazil. In the past two decades, some traditional management practices are being replaced with the aim of intensifying cattle production. Forested areas are being replaced by exotic pasture and ranch owners are replacing Nelore for European breeds. The pampas deer (Ozoctoceros bezoarticus is a medium-sized cervid that occurs in grasslands of South America. Between December 2005 and January 2007, we captured and collected ticks from 15 pampas deer and 172 bovines. The abundance, intensity, and prevalence of ticks found in cattle were lower than those in pampas deer (p No Pantanal Brasileiro, onde animais domésticos e selvagens compartilham os mesmos habitats; hospedeiros, parasitas e ambientes encontram-se em interação complexa e dinâmica. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus é o carrapato bovino mais importante no Brasil. Nas últimas duas décadas práticas de manejo vem sendo substituídas com objetivo de aumentar a produtividade. Áreas de florestas estão sendo substituídas por pastagens exóticas e os produtores começam a utilizar raças européias no lugar do Nelore. O veado-campeiro é um cervídeo que ocorre em áreas de campo na América do sul. Entre dezembro de 2005 e janeiro de 2007, foram coletados carrapatos de 20 veados-campeiros e 172 bovinos. Os valores de abundância, intensidade parasitária e prevalência de carrapatos no gado foram menores que os valores encontrados no veado-campeiro (p < 0,05, indicando que o veado-campeiro é mais susceptível que o bovino. O elevado número de fêmeas ingurgitadas coletadas, sua capacidade de ovipor e o percentual de eclosão indicam que a população veado-campeiro na região de estudo é suficiente para manter o R. (B. microplus, desta maneira participando na

  2. Immune response in mice and cattle after immunization with a Boophilus microplus DNA vaccine containing bm86 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Lina María; Orduz, Sergio; López, Elkin D; Guzmán, Fanny; Patarroyo, Manuel E; Armengol, Gemma

    2007-03-15

    Plasmid pBMC2 encoding antigen Bm86 from a Colombian strain of cattle tick Boophilus microplus, was used for DNA-mediated immunization of BALB/c mice, employing doses of 10 and 50microg, delivered by intradermic and intramuscular routes. Anti-Bm86 antibody levels were significantly higher compared to control mice treated with PBS. In the evaluation of immunoglobulin isotypes, significant levels of IgG2a and IgG2b were observed in mice immunized with 50microg of pBMC2. Measurement of interleukine (IL) levels (IL-4, IL-5, IL-12(p40)) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in the sera of mice immunized with pBMC2 indicated high levels of IL-4 and IL-5, although there were also significant levels of IFN-gamma. Mice immunized with pBMC2 showed antigen-specific stimulation of splenocytes according to the incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine and IFN-gamma secretion. In all trials, mice injected intramuscularly with 50microg of pBMC2 presented the highest immune response. Moreover, cattle immunized with this DNA vaccine showed antibody production significantly different to the negative control. In conclusion, these results suggest the potential of DNA immunization with pBMC2 to induce humoral and cellular immune responses against B. microplus. PMID:17055651

  3. Expression of recombinant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, R. annulatus and R. decoloratus Bm86 orthologs as secreted proteins in Pichia pastoris

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    Jongejan Frans

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhipicephalus (Boophilus spp. ticks economically impact on cattle production in Africa and other tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Tick vaccines constitute a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative to tick control. The R. microplus Bm86 protective antigen has been produced by recombinant DNA technology and shown to protect cattle against tick infestations. Results In this study, the genes for Bm86 (R. microplus, Ba86 (R. annulatus and Bd86 (R. decoloratus were cloned and characterized from African or Asian tick strains and the recombinant proteins were secreted and purified from P. pastoris. The secretion of recombinant Bm86 ortholog proteins in P. pastoris allowed for a simple purification process rendering a final product with high recovery (35–42% and purity (80–85% and likely to result in a more reproducible conformation closely resembling the native protein. Rabbit immunization experiments with recombinant proteins showed immune cross-reactivity between Bm86 ortholog proteins. Conclusion These experiments support the development and testing of vaccines containing recombinant Bm86, Ba86 and Bd86 secreted in P. pastoris for the control of tick infestations in Africa.

  4. Sequence variations in the Boophilus microplus Bm86 locus and implications for immunoprotection in cattle vaccinated with this antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, J C; Gonzalez, I L; González, D M; Valdés, M; Méndez, L; Lamberti, J; D'Agostino, B; Citroni, D; Fragoso, H; Ortiz, M; Rodríguez, M; de la Fuente, J

    1999-11-01

    Cattle tick infestations constitute a major problem for the cattle industry in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Traditional control methods have been only partially successful, hampered by the selection of chemical-resistant tick populations. The Boophilus microplus Bm86 protein was isolated from tick gut epithelial cells and shown to induce a protective response against tick infestations in vaccinated cattle. Vaccine preparations including the recombinant Bm86 are used to control cattle tick infestations in the field as an alternative measure to reduce the losses produced by this ectoparasite. The principle for the immunological control of tick infestations relies on a polyclonal antibody response against the target antigen and, therefore, should be difficult to select for tick-resistant populations. However, sequence variations in the Bm86 locus, among other factors, could affect the effectiveness of Bm86-containing vaccines. In the present study we have addressed this issue, employing data obtained with B. microplus strains from Australia, Mexico, Cuba, Argentina and Venezuela. The results showed a tendency in the inverse correlation between the efficacy of the vaccination with Bm86 and the sequence variations in the Bm86 locus (R2 = 0.7). The mutation fixation index in the Bm86 locus was calculated and shown to be between 0.02 and 0.1 amino acids per year. Possible implications of these findings for the immunoprotection of cattle against tick infestations employing the Bm86 antigen are discussed. PMID:10668863

  5. Successful vaccination against Boophilus microplus and Babesia bovis using recombinat antigens

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    P. Willadsen

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Current methods for the control of the cattle tick Boophils microplus and the agent of bovine babesiosis, Babesia bovis are unsatisfactory. Effective immunological control of both parasites would have great advantages. However, naturally acquired immunity to the tick is generally unable to prevent serious production losses. A vaccine against the tick, based on a novel form of immunization, is being developed. A protective antigen has been isolated from the tick, characterized and produced as an effective, recombinant protein. A vaccine incorporating this antigen is currently undergoing field trials. In the Australian situation, improved tick control will probably increase endemic instability with respect to B. bovis. Fortunately, a trivalent, recombinant B. bovis vaccine has also been developed. This too is now undergoing pre-registration field trials.

  6. Avaliação in vitro de uma cepa de campo de Boophilus microplus (Acari : Ixodidae resistente à amitraz

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    Santamaría Vargas Minerva

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso dos acaricidas químicos ainda se constitui no principal instrumento de controle do carrapato bovino Boophilus microplus. No sul do Brasil, o amitraz aplicado por imersão e aspersão é o ingrediente ativo mais utilizado, nos últimos anos, contra as cepas de carrapatos resistentes aos organofosforados (OF e piretróides sintéticos (PS. Em conseqüência, torna-se importante a realização de investigações que possam contribuir para prolongar a vida útil desse ixodicida. No presente estudo, foi analisado o comportamento toxicológico de uma cepa de B. microplus colhida na localidade de Alegrete, Rio Grande do Sul, usando-se químicos da família dos OF, PS, misturas OF/PS, além do amitraz. Os resultados indicaram que a cepa denominada "Santa Luiza" apresentou fatores de resistência (FR que variaram entre 2,3 e 3,95 para OF, 23,3 e 147,56 para PS e de 3,76 a 21.57 para amitraz em testes realizados com larvas de carrapatos. A caracterização e purificação de uma cepa de B. microplus resistente ao amitraz permitem seu uso como cepa de referência para a avaliação biológica de ixodicidas alternativos, além de padronizar e validar métodos de diagnósticos toxicológicos que possam detectar resistência frente a esse acaricida.

  7. Integrated control of acaricide-resistant Boophilus microplus populations on grazing cattle in Mexico using vaccination with Gavac and amidine treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo, M; Fragoso, H; Ortíz, M; Montero, C; Lona, J; Medellín, J A; Fría, R; Hernández, V; Franco, R; Machado, H; Rodríguez, M; de la Fuente, J

    1999-10-01

    Throughout most of the twentieth century, tick infestations on cattle have been controlled with chemical acaricides, typically administered by dipping or spraying. This approach can cause environmental and residue problems and has created a high incidence of acaricide resistance within tick populations in the field. Recently we developed a vaccine against Boophilus microplus employing a recombinant Bm86 antigen preparation (Gavac), (Heber Biotec S.A., Havana, Cuba) which has been shown to induce a protective response in vaccinated animals. Here we show for the first time under field conditions a near 100% control of B. microplus populations resistant to pyrethroids and organophosphates, by an integrated system employing vaccination with Gavac and amidine treatments. This method effectively controls tick infestations while reducing the number of chemical acaricide treatments and consequently the rise of B. microplus populations resistant to chemical acaricides. PMID:10581714

  8. Cutaneous hyperaemia elicited by larvae of the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, J R; Schleger, A V; Kemp, D H; Fawcett, A A

    1981-01-01

    The responses of skin capillary blood flow (BF) to infestation by larvae of B. microplus have been determined using radioactive microspheres. Larvae were placed in gauze-covered rings glued to the closely clipped skin. In pilot experiments on three Brahman-cross calves which had prior exposure to ticks, BF measurements at intervals up to 25 h post-infestation revealed a continuing increase. 'High' rates of infestation (5000 larvae per ring) elicited up to an 80-fold increase in BF. In four Australian Illawarra Shorthorn (AIS) calves with prior exposure to ticks, BF had increased by 0.5 h post-infestation, it reached a peak at 24 h, and fell markedly by 48 and 75 h. In contrast, two AIS calves without prior tick exposure showed no significant increase in BF until 24 h and this increase continued until observations were terminated at 72 h. BF in the neck area (normally favoured by ticks) increased most in calves of highest resistance to ticks, but the flank area (normally unfavoured) showed no consistent difference in BF response between animals of different tick resistance. It is concluded that skin capillary hyperaemia is triggered by the host's immune response to larval attachment. Within the relatively narrow range of tick resistance in the present animals, the degree of hyperaemia was directly related to level of resistance to the tick in skin regions normally favoured by ticks and therefore it may play a role in determining resistance to ticks. PMID:7259632

  9. Invitro acaricidal activity of ethnoveterinary plants and green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banumathi, Balan; Malaikozhundan, Balasubramanian; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam

    2016-01-30

    The present study was designed to investigate the invitro acaricidal effects of seven ethnoveterinary plants, zinc acetate and green synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles against the Southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The selected ethnoveterinary plants were extracted using ethanol and aqueous (water) solvents at 0.02mg/ml and 0.04mg/ml concentrations. Of these seven plants, Lobelia leschenaultiana showed the highest percentage of tick mortality. The ethanol extracts of L. leschenaultiana showed 93.33% mortality at 0.04mg/ml and its LC50 was 0.05mg/ml. However, zinc acetate exhibited 70% mortality at 0.04mg/ml (LC50: 0.0192mg/ml). Further, we synthesized ZnO nanoparticle using the leaf extracts of L. leschenaultiana and zinc acetate as the precursor material to control R. (B.) microplus. The structural characterization of the synthesized ZnO nanoparticles (Ll-ZnO NPs) was performed by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microsopy (TEM). UV-vis spectra showed the absorption band at 383nm. XRD analysis clearly showed the crystalline nature of Ll-ZnO NPs with various Bragg's reflection peaks at 100, 002, 101, 102, 110, 103, 200, 201 and 202 planes. FTIR analysis showed the possible functional groups of Ll-ZnO NPs with strong band at 3420.63 and 2922.48cm(-1). SEM and TEM analysis revealed that the Ll-ZnO NPs were spherical and hexagonal in shape with particle size ranging between 20 and 65nm. The mortality of R. (B.) microplus after treatment with Ll-ZnO NPs was 35, 57.5 and 82.5% at 0.001, 0.002 and 0.004mg/ml. On the otherhand, 100% mortality of R. (B.) microplus was observed at 0.008mg/ml (LC50: 0.0017mg/ml). The results indicated that the Ll-ZnO NPs have good acaricidal properties compared to L. leschenaultiana leaf extract and zinc acetate. PMID:26801601

  10. Avaliação in vitro da eficácia de acaricidas sobre Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae de bovinos no município de Ilhéus, Bahia, Brasil In vitro valuation of acaricides efficiency to Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae from bovines at the region of Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunezeu Alves Campos Júnior

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O carrapato Boophilus microplus é a espécie de maior distribuição geográfica e importância econômica para os países produtores de bovinos em áreas tropicais e sub-tropicais do planeta. No Brasil, a Região Nordeste apresenta algumas áreas mais favoráveis para as infestações do gado. O controle químico ainda é a forma mais eficaz de combate deste ectoparasita, mas o manejo inadequado dos acaricidas tem contribuído com o aparecimento de resistência de populações aos produtos disponíveis no mercado. O município de Ilhéus, na Região Cacaueira da Bahia, vem incrementando sua atividade pecuária em substituição à lavoura cacaueira devastada. Foram realizados 30 testes de imersão in vitro (biocarrapaticidogramas com fêmeas ingurgitadas de B. microplus colhidas em propriedades rurais aleatoriamente selecionadas num grupo de 96 entrevistadas na região. O estudo revelou a existência de resistência ou sensibilidade de populações de B. microplus frente aos carrapaticidas de contato mais utilizados nas propriedades de exploração pecuária da região de Ilhéus. Os quatro carrapaticidas testados apresentaram as seguintes eficiências médias: Amitraz - 30,95%; Deltametrina - 65,04%; Cipermetrina / diclorvos - 75,73%; e Triclorfon / coumaphos / cyfluthrin - 75,13%.The tick Boophilus microplus is the species with the greatest geographical distribution and economic importance for the countries situated at tropical and sub-tropical zones of the planet. In Brazil, the Northwest Region is showed as the most favorable to the cattle infestation. Chemical control is an efficient control method employed, but the inadequate handling of acaricides contributed for to the onset of resistant ticks to the available acaricides in the market. The county of Ilhéus, at the Cocoa's Region from Bahia, has been increasing the cattle activity instead of the devastated cocoa's plantations. Between April and September 2000, in vitro imersion tests

  11. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus: expression and characterization of Bm86-CG in Pichia pastoris Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus: expressão e caracterização da Bm86-CG em Pichia pastoris

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    Rodrigo Casquero Cunha

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus is responsible for great economic losses. It is mainly controlled chemically, with limitations regarding development of resistance to the chemicals. Vaccines may help control this parasite, thereby reducing tick pesticide use. In this light, we performed subcloning of the gene of the protein Bm86-GC, the homologue protein that currently forms the basis of vaccines (GavacTM and TickGardPLUS that have been developed against cattle ticks. The subcloning was done in the pPIC9 expression vector, for transformation in the yeast Pichia pastoris. This protein was characterized by expression of the recombinant Mut+ strain, which expressed greater quantities of protein. The expressed protein (rBm86-CG was recognized in the Western-blot assay using anti-Gavac, anti-TickGard, anti-larval extract and anti-rBm86-CG polyclonal sera. The serum produced in cattle vaccinated with the antigen CG rBm86 presented high antibody titers and recognized the native protein. The rBm86-GC has potential relevance as an immunogen for vaccine formulation against cattle ticks.O carrapato-do-boi Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus é responsável por grandes perdas econômicas. Seu controle é principalmente químico e apresenta limitações quanto ao desenvolvimento de resistência aos princípios ativos. As vacinas podem auxiliar no controle deste parasita diminuindo as aplicações de carrapaticidas. Considerando isso, foi realizada a subclonagem do gene da proteína Bm86-CG, proteína homologa a que atualmente é a base das vacinas desenvolvidas (GavacTM e TickGardPLUS contra o carrapato-do-boi, no vetor de expressão pPIC9, para ser transformado em levedura, Pichia pastoris. Esta proteína foi caracterizada pela expressão da cepa recombinante Mut+ que expressou maior quantidade de proteína. A proteína expressa, rBm86-CG, foi reconhecida no ensaio de Western-blot pelos soros policlonais anti-Gavac, anti-TickGard, anti

  12. Extratos de plantas no controle de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae em laboratório Plant extracts in control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae in laboratory

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    Sônia Maria Forti Broglio-Micheletti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Extratos vegetais foram estudados com o objetivo de avaliar suas eficiências no controle de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 em laboratório. Fêmeas ingurgitadas de carrapato foram coletadas de bovinos e mantidas em placas de Petri. Foram utilizados extratos orgânicos alcoólicos 2% (peso/volume de sementes de Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae (graviola; flores de Syzygium malaccensis (L. (Myrtaceae (jambo; folhas de Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf (Poaceae (capim-santo; folhas de Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae (nim; e extrato hexânico na mesma concentração de A. indica (sementes. Os grupos-controle foram compostos por fêmeas sem tratamento e fêmeas tratadas com água destilada e esterilizada e dimetilsulfóxido (DMSO a uma concentração de 1%. O extrato de A. muricata apresentou o maior poder acaricida, com eficácia de 100%, seguido dos extratos de S. malaccensis (75 e 59,24% e A. indica (65 e 38,49%. Houve 100% de redução na eclosão das larvas quando se utilizou o extrato de sementes de A. muricata.Plant extracts were studied to evaluate its efficiency in the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 in laboratory. Engorged female ticks were collected from the cattle, kept in Petri dishes. Organic alcoholic extracts 2% (weight/volume were used: seeds of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae (soursop; flowers of Syzygium malaccensis (L. (Myrtaceae (iamb, leaves of Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf (Poaceae (holy grass, leaves of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae (neem and hexane extract 2% (weight/volume of A. indica (seeds. The control groups consisted of untreated females and females treated with distilled water and sterile and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO a concentration of 1%. The extract of A. muricata (seed had the highest mortality with acaricide activity and 100% efficacy followed by extracts of S. malaccensis (75 and 59.24% and A. indica (65 and 38.49%. The seed extract of A. muricata

  13. PI3K/PKB signaling in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick embryo cell line BME26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Ticks are obligatory blood-sucking arthropods and important vectors of both human and animal diseases. In order to study the insulin triggered pathway and its possible roles during embryogenesis we are using a culture of embryonic Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) micro plus cells (BME26). Besides its metabolic role, insulin signaling pathway (ISP) is widely described as crucial for vertebrate and invertebrate embryogenesis and development. In such cascade Phosphatidylinositol 3-OH Kinase (PI3K) is hierarchically located upstream Protein Kinase B (PKB). Exogenous insulin is able to increase the expression level of PI3K's regulatory sub unity (p85), as determined by Real Time RT-PCR. In the presence of PI3K inhibitors (Wortmannin or LY294002) these effects were reversed. This correlates well with the activation of PKB by phosphorylation, as it appears to be PI3K-dependent. Additionally, PI3K inhibition increased the expression level of two insulin-regulated downstream targets from glycogen metabolism (GSK3b) and gluneogenesis (PEPCK) pathways. GSK3b inhibition by phosphorylation diminished in cells treated with PI3K inhibitors. These results strongly suggest the presence of an insulin sensitive PI3K-PKB axis in BME26 cells. The further study of PI3K and PKB activity in egg homogenates during embryogenesis may help us to understand the role of ISP for R. micro plus development

  14. PI3K/PKB signaling in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick embryo cell line BME26

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, L.; Fabres, A.; Logullo, C. [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Biociencias e Biotecnologia. Lab. de Quimica e Funcao de Proteinas e Peptideos (LQFPP)]. E-mail: leoabreu@uenf.br; Esteves, E.; Daffre, S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Bioquimica

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Ticks are obligatory blood-sucking arthropods and important vectors of both human and animal diseases. In order to study the insulin triggered pathway and its possible roles during embryogenesis we are using a culture of embryonic Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) micro plus cells (BME26). Besides its metabolic role, insulin signaling pathway (ISP) is widely described as crucial for vertebrate and invertebrate embryogenesis and development. In such cascade Phosphatidylinositol 3-OH Kinase (PI3K) is hierarchically located upstream Protein Kinase B (PKB). Exogenous insulin is able to increase the expression level of PI3K's regulatory sub unity (p85), as determined by Real Time RT-PCR. In the presence of PI3K inhibitors (Wortmannin or LY294002) these effects were reversed. This correlates well with the activation of PKB by phosphorylation, as it appears to be PI3K-dependent. Additionally, PI3K inhibition increased the expression level of two insulin-regulated downstream targets from glycogen metabolism (GSK3b) and gluneogenesis (PEPCK) pathways. GSK3b inhibition by phosphorylation diminished in cells treated with PI3K inhibitors. These results strongly suggest the presence of an insulin sensitive PI3K-PKB axis in BME26 cells. The further study of PI3K and PKB activity in egg homogenates during embryogenesis may help us to understand the role of ISP for R. micro plus development.

  15. Use of biotherapic in the control of the natural infestation by Boophilus microplus: pilot study Uso de bioterápico en el control de la infestación natural por Boophilus microplus: estudio piloto

    OpenAIRE

    Laerte Francisco Filippsen; José Luiz Moletta; Nilceu Lemos Silva; Alessandro Pelegrine Minho

    2008-01-01

    In the control of tick-borne disease (TBD), resistance to chemical products has been reported and a concern with the preservation of the environment requires alternative procedures to control infestation by Boophilus microplus worldwide. The use of biotherapic preparations is one of such alternatives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a biotherapic mixture including B. microplus in naturally infested cattle. 27 animals were divided in 3 groups (n=9): I – control, re...

  16. The Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus Bm86 gene plays a critical role in the fitness of ticks fed on cattle during acute Babesia bovis infection

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    Knowles Donald P

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus is an economically important tick of cattle involved in the transmission of Babesia bovis, the etiological agent of bovine babesiosis. Commercial anti-tick vaccines based on the R. microplus Bm86 glycoprotein have shown some effect in controlling tick infestation; however their efficacy as a stand-alone solution for tick control has been questioned. Understanding the role of the Bm86 gene product in tick biology is critical to identifying additional methods to utilize Bm86 to reduce R. microplus infestation and babesia transmission. Additionally, the role played by Bm86 in R. microplus fitness during B. bovis infection is unknown. Results Here we describe in two independent experiments that RNA interference-mediated silencing of Bm86 decreased the fitness of R. microplus females fed on cattle during acute B. bovis infection. Notably, Bm86 silencing decreased the number and survival of engorged females, and decreased the weight of egg masses. However, gene silencing had no significant effect on the efficiency of transovarial transmission of B. bovis from surviving female ticks to their larval offspring. The results also show that Bm86 is expressed, in addition to gut cells, in larvae, nymphs, adult males and ovaries of partially engorged adult R. microplus females, and its expression was significantly down-regulated in ovaries of ticks fed on B. bovis-infected cattle. Conclusion The R. microplus Bm86 gene plays a critical role during tick feeding and after repletion during blood digestion in ticks fed on cattle during acute B. bovis infection. Therefore, the data indirectly support the rationale for using Bm86-based vaccines, perhaps in combination with acaricides, to control tick infestation particularly in B. bovis endemic areas.

  17. Transovarial Transmission Efficiency of Babesia bovis Tick Stages Acquired by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus during Acute Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protozoan parasite Babesia bovis, a reemerging threat to U.S. cattle, is acquired by adult female ticks of the subgenus Boophilus, and is transovarially transmitted as the kinete stage to developing larval offspring. Sporozoites develop within larvae and are transmitted during larval feeding on ...

  18. New species of Ehrlichia isolated from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus shows an ortholog of the E. canis major immunogenic glycoprotein gp36 with a new sequence of tandem repeats

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz Alejandro Cabezas; Zweygarth Erich; Ribeiro Mucio Flavio Barbosa; da Silveira Julia Angelica Gonçalves; de la Fuente Jose; Grubhoffer Libor; Valdés James J; Passos Lygia Maria Friche

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Ehrlichia species are the etiological agents of emerging and life-threatening tick-borne human zoonoses that inflict serious and fatal infections in companion animals and livestock. The aim of this paper was to phylogeneticaly characterise a new species of Ehrlichia isolated from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus from Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methods The agent was isolated from the hemolymph of Rhipicephalus (B.) microplus engorged females that had been collected from natur...

  19. CattleTickBase: An integrated Internet-based bioinformatics resource for Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Rhipicephalus microplus genome is large and complex in structure, making a genome sequence difficult to assemble and costly to resource the required bioinformatics. In light of this, a consortium of international collaborators was formed to pool resources to begin sequencing this genome. We have...

  20. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus strain Deutsch, whole genome shotgun sequencing project first submission of genome sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    The size and repetitive nature of the Rhipicephalus microplus genome makes obtaining a full genome sequence difficult. Cot filtration/selection techniques were used to reduce the repetitive fraction of the tick genome and enrich for the fraction of DNA with gene-containing regions. The Cot-selected ...

  1. [Elaboration and evaluation of a candidate to the DNA vaccine using synthetic genes derived from the peptídeo SBm7462 against the carrapato Rhiphicephalus (Boophilus) microplus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Carla L; Mendonça, Bianca G; Tavares, Larissa C; Girão, Flávia A; Sossai, Sidimar; Peconick, Ana P; Carvalho, Gabriel D; Patarroyo, Joaquín H

    2008-09-01

    Rhiphicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is one of the most important arthropods in veterinary medicine due economic losses and health problems caused in cattle production. The vaccination represents optimum method evaluated with effective cost to prevent economic losses and to increase the duration and quality of life of the production animals. A synthetic peptide, SBm 7462, derived from Bm86, has been shown great results in control of ticks. The construction and synthesis of one nucleotide sequence based on this peptide might be useful for design a DNA vaccine that has many advances than peptide vaccine. A gene, called seq1, was constructed with a three repetition of nucleotide sequence of SBm 7462. It was cloned into a pCIneo vector expression in mammals and injected in BALB/c mouse. When mice were inoculated with the expression cassette they did not response in ELISA. They elevated antibody titles only when vaccinated with the synthetic peptide SBm7462®. And, the best titles of immunoglobulins were seen when the SBm7462® was administered subcutaneously. PMID:20059811

  2. Evaluation of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) resistance to different acaricide formulations using samples from Brazilian properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, Leandro de Oliveira Souza; Garcia, Marcos Valério; Barros, Jacqueline Cavalcante; Koller, Wilson Werner; Andreotti, Renato

    2016-06-01

    The Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick is responsible for considerable economic losses in Brazil, causing leather damage, weight loss and reduced milk production in cattle and results in the transmission of pathogens. Currently, the main method for controlling this tick is using acaricides, but their indiscriminate use is one of the major causes of resistance dissemination. In this study, the adult immersion test (AIT) was used to evaluate resistance in ticks from 28 properties located in five different states (Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Ceará, São Paulo, e Minas Gerais) and the Distrito Federal (DF) of Brazil. The resistance was found in 47.64% of the repetitions demonstrating an efficacy of less than 90% in various locations throughout the country. The larvae packet test was used to evaluate samples from ten properties in four states (Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo). Spray products belonging to the main classes of acaricides, including combination formulations, were used in both types of test. New cases of resistance were found on properties within the states of Ceará, Espírito Santo and Mato Grosso, where such resistance was not previously reported. PMID:27334816

  3. Characterization of proteinases from the midgut of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus involved in the generation of antimicrobial peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craik Charles S

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemoglobin is a rich source of biologically active peptides, some of which are potent antimicrobials (hemocidins. A few hemocidins have been purified from the midgut contents of ticks. Nonetheless, how antimicrobials are generated in the tick midgut and their role in immunity is still poorly understood. Here we report, for the first time, the contribution of two midgut proteinases to the generation of hemocidins. Results An aspartic proteinase, designated BmAP, was isolated from the midgut of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus using three chromatographic steps. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that BmAP is restricted to the midgut. The other enzyme is a previously characterized midgut cathepsin L-like cysteine proteinase designated BmCL1. Substrate specificities of native BmAP and recombinant BmCL1 were mapped using a synthetic combinatorial peptide library and bovine hemoglobin. BmCL1 preferred substrates containing non-polar residues at P2 subsite and polar residues at P1, whereas BmAP hydrolysed substrates containing non-polar amino acids at P1 and P1'. Conclusions BmAP and BmCL1 generate hemocidins from hemoglobin alpha and beta chains in vitro. We postulate that hemocidins may be important for the control of tick pathogens and midgut flora.

  4. IN VITRO EFFICACY OF COMMERCIAL ACARICIDES INDICATE RESISTANT POPULATIONS OF RHIPICEPHALUS (BOOPHILUS MICROPLUS IN NORTHERN REGION OF MATO GROSSO

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    C. Eckstein

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ticks are responsible for high economic and production losses on cattle production, and the use of acaricides is the main form of control applied. In recent decades, the resistance of ticks to acaricides was exacerbated by incorrect use of products, compromising the effectiveness of treatments. This study aimed to determine in vitro effectiveness of commercial acaricides in six populations of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus in northern region of Mato Grosso. On average 100 engorged females were collected from each herd, which were selected and separated into homogeneous groups, sanitized, and immersed to acaricide diluted according to the manufacturer's statement, on sequence there was incubated. After the incubation was obtained from female reproductive efficiency and effectiveness of the tested acaricides. The association cypermethrin+ chlorpyrifos + citronellal showed satisfactory efficiency (> 95% in all the properties (mean 99.86% in properties, followed by trichlorfon (83.45%, amitraz (72.33%, neem oil (67.23% and cypermethrin (22.97%, which was not effective in any property. It indicates the use of the association cypermethrin +chlorpyrifos+ citronellal on evaluated properties for control of cattle tick effectively.

  5. Evaluation of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae resistance to different acaricide formulations using samples from Brazilian properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro de Oliveira Souza Higa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus tick is responsible for considerable economic losses in Brazil, causing leather damage, weight loss and reduced milk production in cattle and results in the transmission of pathogens. Currently, the main method for controlling this tick is using acaricides, but their indiscriminate use is one of the major causes of resistance dissemination. In this study, the adult immersion test (AIT was used to evaluate resistance in ticks from 28 properties located in five different states (Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Ceará, São Paulo, e Minas Gerais and the Distrito Federal (DF of Brazil. The resistance was found in 47.64% of the repetitions demonstrating an efficacy of less than 90% in various locations throughout the country. The larvae packet test was used to evaluate samples from ten properties in four states (Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo. Spray products belonging to the main classes of acaricides, including combination formulations, were used in both types of test. New cases of resistance were found on properties within the states of Ceará, Espírito Santo and Mato Grosso, where such resistance was not previously reported.

  6. Field studies and cost-effectiveness analysis of vaccination with Gavac against the cattle tick Boophilus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, J; Rodríguez, M; Redondo, M; Montero, C; García-García, J C; Méndez, L; Serrano, E; Valdés, M; Enriquez, A; Canales, M; Ramos, E; Boué, O; Machado, H; Lleonart, R; de Armas, C A; Rey, S; Rodríguez, J L; Artiles, M; García, L

    1998-02-01

    The control of tick infestations and the transmission of tick-borne diseases remains a challenge for the cattle industry in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Traditional control methods have been only partially successful and the parasites continue to result in significant losses for the cattle industry. Recently, vaccines containing the recombinant Boophilus microplus gut antigen Bm86 have been developed. These vaccines have been shown to control tick infestations in the field. However, extensive field studies investigating the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of vaccination have not been reported and are needed to appraise the effect of this new approach for tick control. Here is reported the results of the application of Gavac in a field trial including more than 260,000 animals in Cuba. In this study the correlation between the antibody response to vaccination and the effect on ticks fertility is determined. Physiological status of the animals was found to affect the primary response to vaccination but not the antibody titers after revaccination. A cost-effectiveness analysis showed a 60% reduction in the number acaricide treatments, together with the control of tick infestations and transmission of babesiosis, which resulted in savings of $23.4 animal-1 year-1. These results clearly demonstrate the advantage of vaccination and support the application of Gavac for tick control. PMID:9607057

  7. Simulation of control strategies for the cattle tick Boophilus microplus employing vaccination with a recombinant Bm86 antigen preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labarta, V; Rodríguez, M; Penichet, M; Lleonart, R; Luaces, L L; de la Fuente, J

    1996-05-01

    Current strategies for the control of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus include the use of chemicals as the principal control method. These methods, however, have met with partially successful results. The recent development of immunological methods for the control of the cattle tick has opened new possibilities for the design of control strategies. Employing the results obtained by us in experiments testing the effect of vaccination with the recombinant vaccine, Gavac (Heber Biotec S.A.), on tick populations, we have developed a model to evaluate, through a computer program, the efficacy of the vaccine as a control method. The action of the vaccine on the control of tick populations was simulated and the specific serum antibody titers required to decrease the tick population in the field were calculated. The specific serum antibody titer required to decrease the tick population in the field after the first vaccination scheme was found to be > or = 57,200 and the antibody titer required to maintain this effect when the vaccine is already acting and after successive revaccinations was found to be > or = 27,500. Considerations about revaccination schemes and combination between vaccination and acaricide treatments as possible control strategies are discussed. PMID:8792587

  8. Abordagem sobre o controle do carrapato Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus no sul do Rio Grande do Sul Studies of the management of the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus in southern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Regina B. Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Na região sul do Rio Grande do Sul a infestação dos bovinos por Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus ocorre, principalmente, entre os meses de outubro e abril, devido às condições climáticas. Além do conhecimento do ciclo biológico desse parasito, também é fundamental conhecer a epidemiologia, para estabelecer estratégias de controle. No Rio Grande do Sul, e também no Brasil, existem poucos estudos epidemiológicos a respeito da resistência aos acaricidas. Além disso, a grande área geográfica e a deficiência estrutural quanto ao uso e acesso a bancos de dados dificultam a obtenção de dados confiáveis. O presente estudo teve como objetivo realizar um inquérito abordando a percepção dos produtores da região sul do Rio Grande do Sul, quanto à identificação de populações de R. (B. microplus difíceis de controlar com acaricidas e os fatores de risco para a seleção de populações de carrapatos resistentes. Para execução do trabalho foram coletados dados sobre o controle do carrapato de bovinos de corte, em 85 propriedades de sete municípios, localizados na região sul do Estado. Os resultados revelaram a existência de associação positiva entre a dificuldade de controlar o carrapato com os acaricidas e o grau de instrução do proprietário (até o ensino fundamental com OR=3,67 e p=0,01 e o número de aplicação de carrapaticida por ano (superior a 4 com OR=4,05 e p=0,006. Esses resultados indicam também que propriedades com mais de 100 bovinos de corte em criação extensiva, na região sul do rio Grande do Sul apresentam características que podem contribuir para uma maior vida útil dos carrapaticidas do que as verificadas em outras regiões do País.In the southern region of Rio Grande do Sul, cattle become infested with Rhipicephalus (B. microplus mainly between October and April due to the climatic conditions. In addition to knowing its life cycle, knowledge of parasite's epidemiology is essential to

  9. Synthetic vaccine (SBm7462) against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus: preservation of immunogenic determinants in different strains from South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peconick, A P; Sossai, S; Girão, F A; Rodrigues, M Q R B; Souza E Silva, C H; Guzman Q, F; Patarroyo V, A M; Vargas, M I; Patarroyo, J H

    2008-05-01

    The synthetic vaccine SBm7462 is based on three immunogenic epitopes (4822, 4823 and 4824) contained within protein Bm86 derived from the Australian Yeerongpilly strain of the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Twenty strains of the tick originating from Brazil, Argentina, Colombia and Uruguay were analysed in order to identify differences compared with sequences present in components of vaccine SBm7462. For each parasite population, three cDNA fragments containing the nucleotides coding for the epitopes 4822, 4824 and 4823 were sequenced, and the amino acid sequences were deduced and compared with those of the homologous bm86 gene. The results indicate that the epitope sequences of vaccine SBm7462 are conserved in the South American populations of the tick. The conservation of such sequences is very important for the immunological response of different populations of R. (B.) microplus. PMID:18226809

  10. Dinâmica populacional de Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887) em bovinos leiteiros mantidos em manejo de pastejo rotativo de capim-elefante

    OpenAIRE

    Kasai N.; Labruna M.B.; Pires A.V.; Louvandini H.; Abdalla A.L.; Gennari S.G.

    2000-01-01

    De maio de 1996 a abril de 1998, avaliou-se a dinâmica do parasitismo pelo Boophilus microplus em 20 novilhas mestiças, submetidas ao manejo de rotação em piquetes de capim-elefante. Os animais, pesados a cada seis meses, foram distribuídos em dois grupos de 10, sendo realizados tratamentos acaricidas em um deles (grupo tratado). As curvas de infestação nos grupos controle e tratado apresentaram padrões semelhantes, com picos de parasitismo ocorrendo na mesma época. A menor carga parasitária ...

  11. Detección inmunoquímica de esterasas en dos cepas de la garrapata boophilus microplus (acarii: ixodidae) resistentes a ixodicidas

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Rosario Cruz; Zeferino García Vázquez; John George Edward

    2000-01-01

    Se encontró una esterasa en Boophilus microplus con actividad incrementada, en dos cepas de garrapatas resistentes a acaricidas de la familia de los piretroides y organofosforados, que fue detectada después de ser separadas electroforéticamente. La proteína fue separada y utilizada en la preparación de un anticuerpo policlonal monoespecífico. La especificidad de este anticuerpo fue probada mediante un ensayo de inmunoelectrotransferencia, en extractos totales de dos cepas de garrapatas resist...

  12. Boophilus microplus: ASPECTOS BIOLÓGICOS Y MOLECULARES DE LA RESISTENCIA A LOS ACARICIDAS Y SU IMPACTO EN LA SALUD ANIMAL

    OpenAIRE

    Delia Inés Domínguez-García; Rodrigo Rosario-Cruz; Consuelo Almazán-García; Jorge Alberto Saltijeral Oaxaca; José de la Fuente

    2010-01-01

    La aplicación de ixodicidas durante mucho tiempo ha sido la alternativa de elección para el control de la garrapata Boophilus microplus, sin embargo, actualmente el uso de los ixodicidas tiene una eficacia limitada en la reducción de las infestaciones debido al desarrollo de poblaciones de garrapatas resistes. La resistencia a ixodicidas es un problema creciente que necesita ser atendido, por que en este momento está afectando la competitividad de la ganadería y la economía de miles de produc...

  13. Utilización del Boophilus microplus como remedio isopático en el control del ectoparásito en el Municipio de Aguazul (Casanare)

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Javier Niño Murcia; Edwin Gustavo Morales Arguello

    2005-01-01

    En este estudio se demostró la efectividad de un remedio isopático vía oral, para el control de la garrapata Boophilus microplus, inocuo para los animales, medio ambiente y el hombre, evitando residuos de plaguicidas en el producto final. La investigación se realizó en una finca ubicada en el municipio de Aguazul (Casanare); localizada a los 05°10’23’’ de latitud norte y 72°33’17’’ de longitud oeste desde Greenwich, altitud: 300 msnm, temperatura media: 27ÚC. Precipitación anual media: 2.441 ...

  14. Persistencia de la eficacia de dos lactonas macrocíclicas contra infestaciones naturales de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus en bovinos del trópico mexicano

    OpenAIRE

    Ronnie de Jesús Arieta-Román; Roger Iván Rodríguez-Vivas; José Alberto Rosado- Aguilara; Genny Trinidad Ramírez-Cruz; Gertrudis Basto-Estrella

    2010-01-01

    Se evaluó la persistencia de la eficacia de ivermectina-3.15% (IVM-3.15%) y moxidectina-10% (MOX-10%) contra infestaciones naturales de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus en bovinos del trópico mexicano. Para ello se utilizaron 33 bovinos hembras que fueron distribuidos en tres grupos (n=11) recibiendo los siguientes tratamientos: a) IVM-3.15% (0.63 mg/kg de peso vivo por vía subcutánea; b) MOX-10% (1 mg/kg de peso vivo por vía subcutánea); c) grupo testigo. El número de garrapatas adultas f...

  15. Control of ticks resistant to immunization with Bm86 in cattle vaccinated with the recombinant antigen Bm95 isolated from the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, J C; Montero, C; Redondo, M; Vargas, M; Canales, M; Boue, O; Rodríguez, M; Joglar, M; Machado, H; González, I L; Valdés, M; Méndez, L; de la Fuente, J

    2000-04-28

    The recombinant Bm86-containing vaccine Gavac(TM) against the cattle tick Boophilus microplus has proved its efficacy in a number of experiments, especially when combined with acaricides in an integrated manner. However, tick isolates such as the Argentinean strain A, show low susceptibility to this vaccine. In this paper we report on the isolation of the Bm95 gene from the B. microplus strain A, which was cloned and expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris producing a glycosylated and particulated recombinant protein. This new antigen was effective against different tick strains in a pen trial, including the B. microplus strain A, resistant to vaccination with Bm86. A Bm95-based vaccine was used to protect cattle against tick infestations under production conditions, lowering the number of ticks on vaccinated animals and, therefore, reducing the frequency of acaricide treatments. The Bm95 antigen from strain A was able to protect against infestations with Bm86-sensitive and Bm86-resistant tick strains, thus suggesting that Bm95 could be a more universal antigen to protect cattle against infestations by B. microplus strains from different geographical areas. PMID:10717348

  16. Evolutionary conserved microRNAs are ubiquitously expressed compared to tick-specific miRNAs in the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

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    Tateno Yoshio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that act as regulators of gene expression in eukaryotes modulating a large diversity of biological processes. The discovery of miRNAs has provided new opportunities to understand the biology of a number of species. The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, causes significant economic losses in cattle production worldwide and this drives us to further understand their biology so that effective control measures can be developed. To be able to provide new insights into the biology of cattle ticks and to expand the repertoire of tick miRNAs we utilized Illumina technology to sequence the small RNA transcriptomes derived from various life stages and selected organs of R. microplus. Results To discover and profile cattle tick miRNAs we employed two complementary approaches, one aiming to find evolutionary conserved miRNAs and another focused on the discovery of novel cattle-tick specific miRNAs. We found 51 evolutionary conserved R. microplus miRNA loci, with 36 of these previously found in the tick Ixodes scapularis. The majority of the R. microplus miRNAs are perfectly conserved throughout evolution with 11, 5 and 15 of these conserved since the Nephrozoan (640 MYA, Protostomian (620MYA and Arthropoda (540 MYA ancestor, respectively. We then employed a de novo computational screening for novel tick miRNAs using the draft genome of I. scapularis and genomic contigs of R. microplus as templates. This identified 36 novel R. microplus miRNA loci of which 12 were conserved in I. scapularis. Overall we found 87 R. microplus miRNA loci, of these 15 showed the expression of both miRNA and miRNA* sequences. R. microplus miRNAs showed a variety of expression profiles, with the evolutionary-conserved miRNAs mainly expressed in all life stages at various levels, while the expression of novel tick-specific miRNAs was mostly limited to particular life stages and/or tick organs. Conclusions

  17. Perceptions of milk producers from Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, regarding Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus control Percepção dos produtores de leite de Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, sobre o controle de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

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    Christiane Maria Barcellos Magalhães da Rocha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Semi-systematized interviews were conducted with 100 dairy cattle producers in the municipality of Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, with the aim of ascertaining their perceptions regarding the importance of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus and of combating it. Content analysis was performed and the frequency distribution of each of the variables was used to construct profiles of the producers interviewed. The production losses caused by ticks were perceived incompletely by the producers, who were unaware of the pathogen transmission caused by the parasite and the indirect losses through combating it, such as the cost of acaricide and labor. The combat operations were performed in a traditional manner, with an excessive number of inefficient treatments that aimed to control the level of infestation at that moment. The quality of the acaricide dipping/spraying applied was affected by the quality of the equipment used to apply the products, lack of knowledge of the mode of action of these products, lack of the specific information needed and lack of motivation caused by unawareness of the disadvantages of chemical combat. It was concluded that the lack of knowledge about combat methods and the acceptance of endemicity of the parasitosis were impediments to changing the realities encountered.Entrevistas semissistematizadas foram aplicadas a 100 produtores de bovinos leiteiros do município de Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, com o objetivo de verificar a sua percepção sobre a importância de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus e seu combate. Foi feita "análise de conteúdo" e a distribuição de frequência de cada uma das variáveis para a construção de perfis dos produtores entrevistados. Os prejuízos causados à produção pelo carrapato são percebidos de forma incompleta pelos produtores, que ignoram a transmissão de patógenos pelo parasito e as perdas indiretas pelo combate, como o custo do carrapaticida e da mão de obra. O combate era feito

  18. Toxicological effects and resistance to pyrethroids in Boophilus microplus from Goiás, Brazil Efeitos toxicológicos e resistência a piretróides em Boophilus microplus de Goiás

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    F.F. Fernandes

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to monitor the susceptibility of Boophilus microplus to acaricides and improve control measures, the effects of cypermethrin, deltamethrin and permethrin on larvae obtained in the city of Goiânia in the Brazilian state of Goiás were studied. Although these pyrethroids are already sold as acaricides, their cost-benefit efficiency has been questioned. Fasting 14-21 day-old larvae were immersed in solutions of the acaricides under test, maintained at 27±1° C, and relative humidity over 80%, and observed under the stereoscope within an apparatus originally designed for studying the non-parasitic phase of the tick life cycle. The observed toxicological effects were: excitability, repetitive motion, decreased motor ability, detachment, paralysis, knock-down and cuticular proliferation of liquids and gases. The materials used in the manufacture of this apparatus consisted of disposable Petri dishes, "organza" cloth and paraffin, none of which are toxic to tick larvae. Mean death rates after 24h were 76.3%, 87.5%, 77.6%, 91.2%, 86.2% and 100% for 25 and 50ppm deltamethrin, 150 and 300ppm cypermethrin and 1250 and 2500ppm permethrin, respectively. The ticks were resistant to commercial concentrations of deltamethrin and cypermethrin. Only 2500ppm permethrin produced the mortality recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture.Estudaram-se os efeitos de cipermetrina, deltametrina e permetrina sobre larvas de uma cepa de campo de Goiânia, com o objetivo de monitorar a susceptibilidade de Boophilus microplus para esses acaricidas e fomentar medidas de controle. Larvas em jejum com 14 a 21 dias, imersas em soluções desses piretróides, foram mantidas a 27±1°C e UR% > ou = 80% e observadas por 24h ao estereoscópio, contidas em dispositivo desenvolvido originalmente para estudos da fase não parasitária do ciclo evolutivo. O material utilizado em sua confecção, placa de petri descartável, tecido organza e parafina, não foi t

  19. Acaricide resistance of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus in State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil Resistência do Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus aos acaricidas no Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil

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    Renato Andreotti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to obtain an epidemiological view of acaricide resistance in populations of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul. Twenty-four tick samples were collected from municipalities in the State where farmers had reported concerns about resistance to or failure of tick control. These ticks were subjected to in vitro resistance detection assays using the adult immersion test (AIT. The efficacy of alpha-cypermethrin, cypermethrin and amitraz treatments on samples collected throughout the State was generally poor. AIT showed efficacy > 90% from the use of DDVP + chlorfenvinphos (20 out of 21 municipalities, dichlorvos + cypermethrin (10 out of 16 municipalities and cypermethrin + citronella + chlorpyrifos + piperonyl butoxide (20 out of 21 municipalities. PCR assays were used to detect the presence of pyrethroid resistance-associated sodium channel gene mutation. Larvae from three different populations that had previously been diagnosed as pyrethroid-resistant, through AIT, were evaluated. The PCR assays showed that the pyrethroid resistance-associated gene mutation was absent from these three populations. This study confirms that the emergence of resistance is a constant challenge for the livestock industry, and that development of resistance continues to be a major driver for new antiparasitic drugs to be developed.Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de se obter uma visão epidemiológica da resistência aos acaricidas nas populações de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus no Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul. Vinte e quatro amostras de carrapatos foram coletadas em cidades do estado onde os fazendeiros relataram preocupação com resistência ou falha no controle dos carrapatos. Estes carrapatos foram submetidos a testes de detecção de resistência in vitro usando o teste de imersão de adultos (TIA. A eficácia do tratamento com alfa-cipermetrina, cipermetrina e amitraz foi geralmente pobre

  20. Efecto ixodicida de los extractos etanólicos de algunas plantas sobre garrapatas Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

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    Ángela Rodríguez S.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar in vitro, el efecto ixodicida del extracto etanólico de cinco plantas; Brugmasia arborea, Sambucus nigra, Nicotiana tabacum, Bidens pilosa y Ambrosia cumanenses sobre garrapatas adultas de la especie Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. Materiales y métodos. El extracto de cada planta fue obtenido mediante la técnica de lixiviación. Para las pruebas, se utilizaron garrapatas adultas de dos tamaños (pequeñas y medianas, que fueron expuestas a los extractos de cada planta, utilizando la técnica de inmersión de garrapatas adultas. A las 24 h de exposición, se realizó la lectura de mortalidad, donde se tomó como mínimo eficaz una mortalidad del 60%. Las pruebas iniciales se realizaron con extractos puros y cuando éstos mostraban eficacia se procedía a realizar diluciones crecientes, hasta encontrar la concentración mínima eficaz. Estas pruebas fueron realizadas en clima frio y cálido. Resultados. El extracto de N. tabacum, mostró efectividad en garrapata pequeña, hasta las diluciones 0.5:10 y 1:10 en clima frio y cálido, respectivamente y con 2.5:10 y 5:10 sobre garrapata mediana en clima frio y cálido, respectivamente; B. arbórea, mostró eficacia sobre garrapata pequeña hasta la dilución 7.5:10 en ambos climas; S. nigra y B. pilosa solo fueron eficaces en clima cálido sobre garrapatas pequeñas empleando extracto puro. A. cumanenses no fue eficaz en ninguna de las pruebas. Conclusiones. N. tabacum, mostró mayor eficacia y se observó que los mejores resultados se obtuvieron con las mayores concentraciones.

  1. IN VITRO EFFECT OF THE ASSOCIATION OF CITRONELLA, SANTA MARIA HERB (Chenopodium ambrosioides AND QUASSIA TINCTURE ON CATTLE TICK Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

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    Fernanda Carlini Cunha dos Santos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus is an ectoparasite which causes high financial losses to the production of Brazilian cattle. The control of this parasite is accomplished by the administration of chemical products, but they are not adequately used, leading to high costs and stimulating the selection of resistant parasites. Thus, the objective of this experiment was to assess the in vitro efficiency of different formulations containing an association of citronella (Cymbopogon nardus, Santa Maria herb (Chenopodium ambrosioides and quassia (Quassia amara tinctures on the bovine tick R. microplus. For this, engorged females of the parasite were submitted to the laboratory immersion test. The solutions containing all three plants were tested in different concentrations. Approximately 84% of the treatments presented efficiency equal or superior to 95%. The treatments with citronella in concentration equal or superior to 5% showed better results and the concentration of 10% showed maximum efficiency, independently of the concentrations of the other two plants. The high efficiency of the solutions was attributed mainly to the reduction of egg laying and hatching rate, and, in a minor scale, to death of the engorged females. It suggests that the phytotherapic solutions are able to induce alterations on the system and reproductive capacity of the females of R. microplus in in vitro tests, besides presenting a tickicide action.

  2. [Efficacy of extracts of plants in engorged females of Boophilus microplus from the mesoregion West of Maranhão, Brazil.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Francisco B; Vasconcelos, Pádua Suely Da S; Silva, Ana Maria M; Brandão, Vivian M; Da Silva, Iran A; Teixeira, Whaubtyfran C; Guerra, Rita De Maria S N; Dos Santos, Ana Clara G

    2008-09-01

    The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of hydro-alcoholic extracts of nim and citronela at 20% and eucalipto at 10% in Boophilus microplus engorged females collected in cattle naturally infected from the mesoregion West of Maranhão. At the laboratory the females were separated, weighted and distributed in six groups of 10, in duplicate. Each group was immersed in 10mL of the solution of the extracts, for two minutes. In the nim and citronela extracts there was 32% e 17%, respectively, while larval emergence the eucalipto extracts demonstrated 96% of efficacy. In the groups treated by Cipermetrina + Clorpirifós + Citronetal and Deltametrina (positive controls) the mortality occurred after 48h of treatment, while the groups immersed in distilled water (negative control) showed 100% of eggs mass and larval emergence. According to the results, it can be concluded that the extract of eucalipto could be used as acaricide in the control of B. microplus females since it was efficient in vitro, however to nim and citronela showed not efficacy. B. microplus females were not resistant to the chemical compounds used in this experiment. PMID:20059822

  3. Selection of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks and determination of the expression profile of Bm86

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    Jongejan Frans

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For accurate and reliable gene expression analysis, normalization of gene expression data against reference genes is essential. In most studies on ticks where (semi-quantitative RT-PCR is employed, normalization occurs with a single reference gene, usually β-actin, without validation of its presumed expression stability. The first goal of this study was to evaluate the expression stability of commonly used reference genes in Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus ticks. To demonstrate the usefulness of these results, an unresolved issue in tick vaccine development was examined. Commercial vaccines against R. microplus were developed based on the recombinant antigen Bm86, but despite a high degree of sequence homology, these vaccines are not effective against R. appendiculatus. In fact, Bm86-based vaccines give better protection against some tick species with lower Bm86 sequence homology. One possible explanation is the variation in Bm86 expression levels between R. microplus and R. appendiculatus. The most stable reference genes were therefore used for normalization of the Bm86 expression profile in all life stages of both species to examine whether antigen abundance plays a role in Bm86 vaccine susceptibility. Results The transcription levels of nine potential reference genes: β-actin (ACTB, β-tubulin (BTUB, elongation factor 1α (ELF1A, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, glutathione S-transferase (GST, H3 histone family 3A (H3F3A, cyclophilin (PPIA, ribosomal protein L4 (RPL4 and TATA box binding protein (TBP were measured in all life stages of R. microplus and R. appendiculatus. ELF1A was found to be the most stable expressed gene in both species following analysis by both geNorm and Normfinder software applications, GST showed the least stability. The expression profile of Bm86 in R. appendiculatus and R. microplus revealed a more continuous Bm86 antigen abundance in R

  4. Reassociation kinetics-based approach for partial genome sequencing of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

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    Bellgard Matthew

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The size and repetitive nature of the Rhipicephalus microplus genome makes obtaining a full genome sequence fiscally and technically problematic. To selectively obtain gene-enriched regions of this tick's genome, Cot filtration was performed, and Cot-filtered DNA was sequenced via 454 FLX pyrosequencing. Results The sequenced Cot-filtered genomic DNA was assembled with an EST-based gene index of 14,586 unique entries where each EST served as a potential "seed" for scaffold formation. The new sequence assembly extended the lengths of 3,913 of the 14,586 gene index entries. Over half of the extensions corresponded to extensions of over 30 amino acids. To survey the repetitive elements in the tick genome, the complete sequences of five BAC clones were determined. Both Class I and II transposable elements were found. Comparison of the BAC and Cot filtration data indicates that Cot filtration was highly successful in filtering repetitive DNA out of the genomic DNA used in 454 sequencing. Conclusion Cot filtration is a very useful strategy to incorporate into genome sequencing projects on organisms with large genome sizes and which contain high percentages of repetitive, difficult to assemble, genomic DNA. Combining the Cot selection approach with 454 sequencing and assembly with a pre-existing EST database as seeds resulted in extensions of 27% of the members of the EST database.

  5. ESTUDO DA EFICÁCIA “IN VITRO” DO AMITRAZ E DA DELTAMETRINA COMO CARRAPATICIDA NO CONTROLE DE Boophilus microplus (CANESTRINI, 1887 NA BACIA LEITEIRA DA MICRORREGIÃO DE GOIÂNIA - GOIÁS STUDY ON THE EFFICACY OF AMITRAZ AND DELTAMETHRIN AS ACARACIDES AGAINST Boophilus microplus (CAMESTRINI, 1887 IN THE DAIRY AREA OF GOIÂNIA - GOIÁS

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    Guido Fontgalland Coelho Linhares

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Para avaliar a eficácia antiixodídica do amitraz e da deltametrina sobre o Boophilus microplus na bacia leiteira da microrregião de Goiânia - Goiás, foram realizados testes in vitro por imersão de teleóginas, colhidas diretamente de bovinos da região. Os princípios ativos foram ensaiados na concentração de 250 ppm, através da avaliação da percentagem de inibição da reprodução (%INR. Entre eles o amitraz apresentou a melhor eficácia, com valor de 97,11%, estando acima do valor mínimo exigido pelo Ministério da Agricultura para produtos carrapaticidas. A deltametrina apresentou o valor de 70,86%, revelando uma eficácia insatisfatória.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Boophilus microplus; carrapaticida; amidinas; piretróides; bovinos.

    The efficacy of amitraz and deltamethrin as acaricides against Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 was evaluated through an in vitro immersion test using engorged female ticks collected in the dairy area of the microrregion of Goiânia, State of Goiás. The effectiveness of the experimental compounds, on concentrations of 250 ppm, was determined by the effect as measured in percentages of inhibited reproduction (%INR after treatments of the ticks with liquid formulations. The results were: amitraz showed the best efficacy with a percentage of inhibited reproduction (%ITR of 97.11%; for deltamethrin such value was 70.86%, which was considered very low to be used as an acaricide.

    KEY-WORDS: Boophilus microplus; acaricides; amidines; pyrethroids; cattle.

  6. Acaricides efficiency on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus from Bahia state North-Central region Eficiência de acaricidas sobreRhipicephalus (Boophilus microplusna região Centro-Norte, Bahia

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    José Tadeu Raynal

    Full Text Available The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus is responsible for major losses in the Brazilian livestock, mainly due to reduction in cattle productive performance. Resistance development to major classes of acaricide widely used nowadays has been extensively reported, as well as the occurrence of residues from these compounds in animal products and the environment. This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of acaricides on R. (B. microplus collected from rural properties in the North-Central region of Bahia State. Ticks were collected in several cattle farms in the cited region, and an in vitro acaricide efficiency assay was performed based on the immersion of ticks in acaricide solutions made according to manufacturers' recommendations. The results obtained in the experiments indicated varying degrees of efficiency of the several bases studied, with the products benzofenilurea, macrocyclic lactone and fipronil showing the highest levels of efficiency, 100%, 100% and 97.34%, respectively. It was possible to conclude that, for the region studied, there are different degrees of commercial acaricides efficiency, and many present less than 95% effectiveness, value determined as acceptable by the Brazilian legislation.O carrapato Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus é responsável por grandes perdas na pecuária brasileira, principalmente devido à redução no desempenho produtivo dos animais. A resistência do parasita a diferentes classes de acaricidas tem sido amplamente relatada, bem como os problemas de ocorrência de resíduos desses compostos em produtos de origem animal e no ambiente. Esse estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência de diversos acaricidas sobre populações de R. (B. microplus provenientes de propriedades rurais da Região Centro-Norte do Estado da Bahia, Brasil. Teleóginas ingurgitadas foram colhidas em diferentes propriedades da região e submetidas a ensaio in vitro de eficiência de acaricidas, baseado na

  7. Infestación natural de hembras de Boophilus microplus Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae) en dos genotipos de bovinos en el trópico húmedo de Veracruz, México

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Ángel Alonso Díaz; Barud Josué López Silva; Ana Carolina Leme de Magalhães Labarthe; Roger Iván Rodríguez Vivas

    2007-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la dinámica poblacional anual de Boophilus microplus en dos genotipos de ganado bovino. El estudio se realizó en Martínez de la Torre, Veracruz, México (región trópico húmeda). Se utilizaron 20 toretes de diez meses de edad y 185 kg de peso, infestados naturalmente con garrapatas B. microplus. Se formaron dos grupos de diez animales cada uno, según el genotipo (¾ Bos taurus [½ Holstein, ¼ Simmental, ¼ Cebú] y ½ Bos taurus [½ Holstein, ½ Cebú]). ...

  8. INCIDENCE OF Boophilus microplus AND BLOOD PARAMETERS IN CROSSBRED STEERS FED OF SUNFLOWER INCIDÊNCIA DE Boophilus microplus E AVALIAÇÃO DOS PARÂMETROS SANGÜÍNEOS EM BOVINOS MESTIÇOS (HOLANDÊS x ZEBU ALIMENTADOS COM GIRASSOL

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    Sérgio Luíz S. Rezende

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed to evaluate the efficacy of sunflower meal and sunflower seeds to control Boophilus microplus in naturally infested steers. The experiment was developed in the Dairy Cattle Facilities of the Veterinary College - UFG. Two herds of steers (Holstein x zebu were allotted in a randomized block design in 2x10 factorial arrangement with six repetitions on Brachiaria decumbens pastures. After 14 days, weekly for two months, B. microplus females > 4 mm were counted, blood samples were collected and the animals were weighed. The B. microplus engorged females were collected to evaluate reproductive parameters. Blood samples were processed to determine: hematocrit, total protein, fibrinogen and leukocytes. The results had been submitted to the analysis of variance and the averages compared for the Scott-Knott test (5%. Tick counts, index (%, larval eclosion, hematocrit, total protein, fibrinogen and leukocytes were similar between treatments. The results do not corroborate the empirical reports concerning the effectiveness of the sunflower to control B. microplus in crossbred steers. KEY-WORDS: Blood values, oily seeds, parasites, tick count. Objetivou-se avaliar a ação do farelo ou das sementes de girassol no controle de Boophilus microplus em novilhos mestiços (holandês x zebu infestados naturalmente. O experimento foi desenvolvido no Setor de Bovinocultura do Departamento de Produção Animal da Escola de Veterinária (EV da UFG. Foram utilizados dois lotes de animais, distribuídos inteiramente ao acaso num fatorial 2 x 10 com seis repetições, em piquetes de Brachiaria decumbens, onde foram suplementados. Após quatorze dias de experimento e a cada sete dias, durante dois meses, num curral de manejo, efetuaram-se a contagem das fêmeas de B. microplus > 4 mm, as coletas de sangue e as pesagens dos bovinos. Colheram-se fêmeas ingurgitadas de B. microplus para avaliação de parâmetros reprodutivos. Amostras de sangue

  9. Avaliação do potencial de controle biológico do Metarhizium anisopliae sobre Boophilus microplus em teste de estábulo Evaluation of the biological control potential of Metarhizium anisopliae toward Boophilus microplus in pen trials

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    Thiago C. Bahiense

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se por meio de um teste de estábulo a capacidade de Metarhizium anisopliae em controlar o carrapato Boophilus microplus. Foram realizados tratamentos em bovinos estabulados, utilizando este fungo aplicando-se suspensão conidial em banhos por aspersão. Os resultados foram obtidos pelo percentual de mortalidade de carrapatos durante 28 dias após o tratamento e pelos índices biológicos após incubação destes em câmara climatizada. Constatou-se 33% de mortalidade no período total observado, sendo o índice de produção de ovos e índice nutricional reduzidos somente em um curto período após o tratamento.The aim of the present study was to evaluate the capacity of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae to control Boophilus microplus tick in pen trials. Infested calves were held in individual pen and treated with fungus suspension through aspersion bath. The results were evaluated based on ticks' mortality rate for 28 days after treatment, and on the analysis of biology of tick's samples which were transferred to an incubation chamber. It was reported 33% of mortality during the total period analyzed, and the production of eggs and nutritional rates were decreased only for a short period after treatment.

  10. Use of biotherapic in the control of the natural infestation by Boophilus microplus: pilot study Uso de bioterápico en el control de la infestación natural por Boophilus microplus: estudio piloto

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    Laerte Francisco Filippsen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In the control of tick-borne disease (TBD, resistance to chemical products has been reported and a concern with the preservation of the environment requires alternative procedures to control infestation by Boophilus microplus worldwide. The use of biotherapic preparations is one of such alternatives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a biotherapic mixture including B. microplus in naturally infested cattle. 27 animals were divided in 3 groups (n=9: I – control, received no treatment; II- treated with amitraz dip; III- treated with a standard commercial mixture of biotherapic 12cH, p.o. Group III presented a statistically significant decrease of ticks when compared to the control group (p Keywords: Biotherapic; Tick; Alternative control; Cattle.   Uso do bioterapico no controle da infestação natural por Boophilus microplus: estudo piloto Resumo No controle de enfermidades transmitidas por carrapatos tem sido notada a resistência a produtos químicos. A preocupação com a conservação do meio ambiente tem exigido procedimentos alternativos para controlar a infestação por Boophilus microplus, em todo o mundo. O uso de bioterápicos representa uma dessas alternativas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito de uma mistura de bioterápicos incluindo B. microplus, em gado bovino infestado naturalmente. 27 animais foram divididos em 3 grupos (n=9: I controle sem tratamento; II tratado com banho de amitraz; III tratado com mistura comercial de bioterápicos 12 cH, via oral. O grupo III apresentou uma diminuição estatísticamente significativa de carrapatos, em comparação com grupo controle (p Palavras-chave: Bioterapicos; Carrapato; Controles alternativos; Bovinos.   Uso de bioterápico en el control de la infestación natural por Boophilus microplus: estudio piloto

  11. Strategic applications of long-acting acaricides against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in northwestern Argentina, with an analysis of tick distribution among cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Santiago; Mangold, Atilio J; Canevari, José T; Guglielmone, Alberto A

    2015-03-15

    Strategic applications of long-acting acaricides for the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in northwestern Argentina were evaluated for one year. In addition, tick distribution among cattle was analyzed to evaluate if partial selective treatment or culling the small proportion of most heavily infested animals were feasible options to control R. (B.) microplus. Two different treatments schemes based on two applications of fluazuron and one application of 3.15% ivermectin were performed. Treatments were made in late winter and spring so as to act on the small 1st spring generation of R. (B.) microplus, in order to preclude the rise of the larger autumn generation. The overall treatment effect was positively significant in both schemes. The number of ticks observed in the control group was significantly higher than in the treated groups on all post-treatment counts. Group 2 exhibited more than 80% of efficacy almost throughout the study period, whereas Group 1 exhibited an efficacy percentage higher than 80% in September, October, December, February, April and May, but not in November (73.4%), January (58.3%), March (45.2%) or June (53.4%). Absolute control was observed in Group 2 in the counts of September and October, and in Group 1 in the count of February. The control strategies evaluated in this work provide an acceptable control level with only three applications of acaricides; at the same time, they prevent the occurrence of the autumn peak of tick burdens, which is characteristic of R. (B.) microplus in northwestern Argentina. Tick distribution was markedly aggregated in all counts. Although ticks were not distributed evenly among calves, the individual composition of the most heavily infested group was not consistent throughout the study period. In addition, the level of aggregation varied with tick abundance. These results suggest that applying acaricides to a portion of the herd or culling the most infested individuals at a given moment of the

  12. Two initial vaccinations with the Bm86-based Gavacplus vaccine against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus induce similar reproductive suppression to three initial vaccinations under production conditions

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    Fernández Erlinda

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, affects livestock production in many regions of the world. Up to now, the widespread use of chemical acaricides has led to the selection of acaricide-resistant ticks and to environmental contamination. Gavacplus is a subunit vaccine based on the recombinant Bm86 tick antigen expressed in yeast, capable to control infestations of R. microplus under controlled and production conditions. The vaccine constitutes the core element of broad control programs against this ectoparasite, in which acquired immunity in cattle to Bm86 is combined with a rational use of acaricides. At present, the conventional vaccine scheme consists of three doses that should be administered at weeks 0, 4 and 7, followed by a booster every six months. Results In this study we assayed a reduction in the number of the initial doses of Gavacplus, evaluated the time course and the level of bovine anti-Bm86 antibodies elicited, and analyzed the vaccine effect on ticks engorging on immunized cattle under production conditions. Following three different immunization schemes, the bovines developed a strong and specific immune response characterized by elevated anti-Bm86 IgG titers. A reduction in the weight of engorging female ticks, in the weight of the eggs laid and also in R. microplus viable eggs percentage was obtained by using only two doses of Gavacplus administered at weeks 0 and 4, followed by a booster six months later. This reduction did not differ from the results obtained on ticks engorging on cattle immunized at weeks 0, 4 and 7. It was also demonstrated that anti-Bm86 antibody titers over 1:640, measured in bovines immunized at weeks 0 and 4, were sufficient to affect weight and reproductive potential of female ticks as compared with ticks engorging on unvaccinated animals. In addition, no statistically significant differences were detected in the average weight of eggs laid by ticks engorged on

  13. Gene silencing of the tick protective antigens, Bm86, Bm91 and subolesin, in the one-host tick Boophilus microplus by RNA interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijhof, Ard M; Taoufik, Amar; de la Fuente, José; Kocan, Katherine M; de Vries, Erik; Jongejan, Frans

    2007-05-01

    The use of RNA interference (RNAi) to assess gene function has been demonstrated in several three-host tick species but adaptation of RNAi to the one-host tick, Boophilus microplus, has not been reported. We evaluated the application of RNAi in B. microplus and the effect of gene silencing on three tick-protective antigens: Bm86, Bm91 and subolesin. Gene-specific double-stranded (dsRNA) was injected into two tick stages, freshly molted unfed and engorged females, and specific gene silencing was confirmed by real time PCR. Gene silencing occurred in injected unfed females after they were allowed to feed. Injection of dsRNA into engorged females caused gene silencing in the subsequently oviposited eggs and larvae that hatched from these eggs, but not in adults that developed from these larvae. dsRNA injected into engorged females could be detected by quantitative real-time RT-PCR in eggs 14 days from the beginning of oviposition, demonstrating that unprocessed dsRNA was incorporated in the eggs. Eggs produced by engorged females injected with subolesin dsRNA were abnormal, suggesting that subolesin may play a role in embryonic development. The injection of dsRNA into engorged females to obtain gene-specific silencing in eggs and larvae is a novel method which can be used to study gene function in tick embryogenesis. PMID:17196597

  14. Efficacy of amitraz (Taktic 12.5% EC) as a dip for the control of Boophilus microplus (Canestrini) (Acari: Ixodidae) on cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, J E; Davey, R B; Ahrens, E H; Pound, J M; Drummond, R O

    1998-12-01

    Four groups of cattle infested with Boophilus microplus (Canestrini) were each dipped in a different concentration of amitraz diluted from a 12.5% EC formulation to determine the efficacy and performance of the product in an 11,400 l dipping vat. Except for the period when heifers were dipped, animals were restrained in stanchions placed individually inside 3.3 x 3.3 m2 stalls within an open-sided barn. The amitraz in the vat was stabilized with hydrated lime to maintain a pH of ca. 12. Analyses of vat samples showed that concentrations of amitraz in the vat were 7.6 to 13% lower than the targeted concentrations of 0.010, 0.015, 0.020, and 0.025% active ingredient (AI) for dilutions prepared according to instructions on the manufacturer's label. The large quantity of hydrated lime added to the vat (10 kg/1000 l) interfered with the HPLC analysis of vat samples. Therapeutic efficacy of each of the four observed concentrations (0.0088, 0.0131, 0.0174, and 0.0231% AI) of amitraz was excellent (> 99% control). However, the rapid detachment of all ticks from an animal within a few hours after treatment with amitraz, that has been frequently observed, was not pronounced in the present study. Only 47% of the B. microplus detached in the first 4 h post-treatment, and 84% detached within the first 24 h. All of the treatments, except the lowest concentration, provided protection of cattle against re-infestation by B. microplus larvae for 14 days post-treatment. Possibly as a result of the formation of a compact layer of lime and amitraz on the bottom after the vat was undisturbed for six weeks, intense agitation was required to re-suspend the active ingredient. PMID:9879580

  15. Evaluation in vitro of the infection times of engorged females of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus by the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema glaseri CCA strain Avaliação in vitro dos tempos de infecção de fêmeas ingurgitadas de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus pelo nematoide entomopatogênico Steinernema glaseri estirpe CCA

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    Leandro Barbiéri de Carvalho

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that ticks are susceptible to infection by entomopathogenic nematodes. These studies indicate different susceptibilities of ticks to infection by these fungi, depending on the tick species, development phase, entomopathogenic nematodes species and strains and the time the ticks are exposed to them. Usually this period ranges from 24 to 72 hours. The aim of this study was to evaluate the infection times in vitro of engorged Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus females by the entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema glaseri CCA strain, by analysis of the ticks' biological parameters. The results show that a 2-hour exposure time was sufficient for the engorged R. microplus females to be infected by S. glaseri CCA, but that a minimum exposure time of 24 hours was necessary to generate treatment efficacy above 90%.Os carrapatos são susceptíveis à infecção por nematoides entomopatogênicos. Essa susceptibilidade diverge quanto às espécies de carrapato estudadas, à fase evolutiva, às espécies e estirpes dos nematoides e ao tempo ao qual os carrapatos ficam expostos a estes. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os tempos de infecção in vitro de fêmeas ingurgitadas de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus pelo nematoide entomopatogênico Steinernema glaseri estirpe CCA, pela análise dos parâmetros biológicos do carrapato. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que um período de duas horas de exposição foi suficiente para que fêmeas ingurgitadas de R. microplus fossem infectadas por S. glaseri CCA e que um período de exposição mínimo de 24h foi necessário para que houvesse infecção de fêmeas ingurgitadas de R. microplus por S. glaseri estirpe CCA, capaz de gerar, in vitro, eficácia no tratamento superior a 90%.

  16. Transmisión de cepas atenuadas de babesia bigemina y babesia bovis por garrapatas rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    OpenAIRE

    Edmundo E. Rojas Ramírez; Juan J. Mosqueda Gualito; Jesús A. Álvarez Martínez; Rubén Hernández Ortíz; Juan A. Ramos Aragón; Carmen Rojas Martínez; Germinal J. Cantó Alarcón; Carlos A. Vega y Murguía; Julio V. Figueroa Millán

    2011-01-01

    Para evaluar la transmisión por garrapatas Rhipicephalus microplus (R. microplus) de una clona atenuada de Babesia bovis (BOR) y una cepa atenuada de Babesia bigemina (BIS), doce bovinos se dividieron en cuatro grupos e infestados de forma escalonada con larvas de R. microplus libres de Babesia spp. Un becerro de cada grupo se inoculó con 1x108 eritrocitos infectados (EI) con BIS, BOR, y cepas virulentas de B. bigemina y B. bovis, respectivamente. Se realizaron dos inoculaciones seriadas adic...

  17. Principal component analysis on the perceptions of milk producers about Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus control in Minas Gerais Análise de componente Principal da percepção dos produtores de leite sobre o controle do Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus em Minas Gerais

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    Christiane Maria Barcellos Magalhães da Rocha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Milk producers in Lavras, Passos and Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, were interviewed with the aim of evaluating their perceptions and attitudes regarding control over Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. Multivariate correlation between the variables was done by means of principal component analysis. The producers' perceptions and attitudes regarding R. (B. microplus were similar: most of them did not have any basic knowledge of tick biology or control, and they applied acaricide products through backpack spraying, without any defined technical criteria. Some of the results obtained were: I. a negative correlation between schooling level and the frequency of spraying cattle with acaricides; II. a positive correlation between milk production, quality of equipment for acaricide application and technological level of the farm; III. farm properties with greater production and technification tended to keep the intervals between acaricide applications constant over the course of the year. After applying principal component analysis, a positive correlation was observed between schooling level, technological level of the farm and perceptions regarding R. (B. microplus, but without any correlation with attitudes towards controlling this tick. It was concluded that higher technological level and schooling level improved the producers' perceptions relating to the biology of the tick R. (B. microplus, but did not achieve effectiveness with regard to using controls more rationally.Produtores de leite de Lavras, Passos e Divinópolis, MG, foram entrevistados com objetivo de avaliar sua percepção e atitude no controle do Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. A análise da correlação multivariada entre as variáveis foi feita através de componentes principais (ACP. A percepção e atitude sobre o R. (B. microplus foram semelhantes entre os produtores, sendo que a maioria deles não tem o conhecimento básico sobre a biologia e o controle desse carrapato

  18. Percepção dos produtores de leite do município de Passos, MG, sobre o carrapato Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae, 2001 Perception of dairy farmers from Passos county, MG, Brazil, concerning the tick Boophilus microplus (acari: ixodidae, 2001

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    Christiane Maria Barcellos Magalhães da Rocha

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Entrevistas com 25 proprietários de rebanhos com produção diária acima de 500 litros de leite, sorteados da listagem da cooperativa de Passos/MG/Brasil, foram aplicadas para caracterizar suas percepções sobre a biologia do Boophilus microplus e suas atitudes no controle de carrapatos. A maioria desses produtores tem pelo menos o ensino médio completo e está na atividade há mais de dez anos. Os prejuízos biológicos produzidos pelos carrapatos são bem percebidos por eles; porém, não demonstraram conhecimento sobre a biologia do B. microplus e as desvantagens dos banhos carrapaticidas, principalmente com relação aos riscos toxicológicos. Esses produtores realizam controle de carrapatos sem critérios técnicos e com alta freqüência, baseando-se na avaliação subjetiva da infestação nos animais. Isto favorece o estabelecimento da resistência aos acaricidas e demonstra que a transferência de tecnologia sobre controle de carrapatos para o setor pecuário é falha.Twenty five dairy farms were randomly chosen from all farms producing more than 500 liters of milk/ day in Passos, MG, Brazil. The owners were interviewed to characterize their perceptions about the biology of B. microplus and their attitudes towards tick control. Most of the producers have a college degree and more than six year-experience in the activity. The biological damages caused by ticks are perceived by the farmers. Their tick control is performed without technical criteria and they did not show a proper knowledge on the biology of B. microplus nor on the toxicological risks of acaricides application. The results reveal a gap between the technology and farmers, favoring tick resistance to acaricides.

  19. Primer caso de resistencia al amitraz en la garrapata del ganado Boophilus microplus en México

    OpenAIRE

    Noé Soberanes Céspedes; Minerva Santamaría Vargas; Hugo Fragoso Sánchez; Zeferino García Vázquez

    2002-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio fue documentar el primer caso de la resistencia de la garrapata B. microplus al Amitraz, en México. Se obtuvo una muestra de garrapatas B. microplus del municipio de Emiliano Zapata, Tabasco, con reportes de fallas de control con este acaricida. La cepa de garrapatas fue denominada “San Alfonso” y se utilizaron larvas (F1) provenientes de la generación parental de hembras repletas, éstas se probaron con dosis discriminate de Amitraz 0.0002 %, (Taktic®) en formulaci...

  20. New species of Ehrlichia isolated from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus shows an ortholog of the E. canis major immunogenic glycoprotein gp36 with a new sequence of tandem repeats

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    Cruz Alejandro Cabezas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ehrlichia species are the etiological agents of emerging and life-threatening tick-borne human zoonoses that inflict serious and fatal infections in companion animals and livestock. The aim of this paper was to phylogeneticaly characterise a new species of Ehrlichia isolated from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus from Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methods The agent was isolated from the hemolymph of Rhipicephalus (B. microplus engorged females that had been collected from naturally infested cattle in a farm in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This agent was then established and cultured in IDE8 tick cells. The molecular and phylogenetic analysis was based on 16S rRNA, groEL, dsb, gltA and gp36 genes. We used the maximum likelihood method to construct the phylogenetic trees. Results The phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA, groEL, dsb and gltA showed that the Ehrlichia spp isolated in this study falls in a clade separated from any previously reported Ehrlichia spp. The molecular analysis of the ortholog of gp36, the major immunoreactive glycoproteins in E. canis and ortholog of the E. chaffeensis gp47, showed a unique tandem repeat of 9 amino acids (VPAASGDAQ when compared with those reported for E. canis, E. chaffeensis and the related mucin-like protein in E. ruminantium. Conclusions Based on the molecular and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA, groEL, dsb and gltA genes we concluded that this tick-derived microorganism isolated in Brazil is a new species, named E. mineirensis (UFMG-EV, with predicted novel antigenic properties in the gp36 ortholog glycoprotein. Further studies on this new Ehrlichia spp should address questions about its transmissibility by ticks and its pathogenicity for mammalian hosts.

  1. Detección de resistencia a los acaricidas en la garrapata del ganado Boophilus microplus mediante análisis de zimogramas (Acaricide resistance detection in the cattle tick Boophilus microplus by zymograms analysis).

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, Miranda, Estefan; Osorio, Miranda Jorge; Cossío, Bayúgar, Raquel

    2005-01-01

    La identificación de resistencia a los productos acaricidas en la garrapata B. microplus, se hace mediante un complicado bioensayo, que requiere garrapatas de referencia y de campo cultivadas sobre bovinos vivos y restringidos durante semanas. Con el fin de evaluar una posible alternativa diagnóstica, se hicieron ensayos enzimáticos en geles de poliacrilamida-SDS, usando extractos de larvas de garrapatas provenientes de cuatro cepas de referencia con diferentes niveles de resistencia y suscep...

  2. A theoretical analysis of codon adaptation index of the Boophilus microplus bm86 gene directed to the optimization of a DNA vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Lina María; Armengol, Gemma; Habeych, Edwin; Orduz, Sergio

    2006-04-21

    DNA vaccines utilize host cell molecules for gene transcription and translation to proteins, and the interspecific difference of codon usage is one of the major obstacles for effective induction of specific and strong immune response. In an attempt to improve codon usage effects of DNA vaccine on protein expression, a quantitative study was conducted to clarify the relationship of codon usage in the tick gene bm86 and its potential expression in bovine cells. The calculated relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) and codon adaptation index (CAI) values of bm86 from Boophilus microplus and a set of 14 highly expressed genes from Bos taurus indicated that some codons utilized frequently in bm86 are rarely used in B. taurus genes and vice versa. The different translational efficiencies obtained suggested that after DNA vaccination using the wild bm86 gene, the protein Bm86 would be expressed in bovines, but it would not be the optimum sequence. However, using the codon-optimized bm86 gene to bovines, whose sequence was theoretically designed, would probably improve the level of the immune response generated against ticks. PMID:16171828

  3. [Morphologic characterization and biological aspects of evolutive forms of Babesia bigemina (Smith and Kilborne, 1893) (Protozoa: Babesiidae) in Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, Jairo D; Rossi, Maria Inês D; da Silva, Gil Vicente O; Pires, Fabiano A; Massard, Carlos L

    2005-01-01

    The development of Babesia bigemina in Boophilus microplus were studied in experimental conditions, using crossed-breed bovine from free-area of these parasites. Stages of the hemoparasites were observed in the tick vector, starting from the infected red-blood cells observed in the gut of engorged females, from the first 24 hours after detachment to the emergence of sporokinets in the larvas. In the period from 24 to 48 hours after detachment of the engorged females (DEF), the presence of some infected red-blood cells was verified, beside the occurrence of ray bodies and of vermiculars forms, known as oocynets. Since 72 hours after the DEF, the of okinets presence was observed in the cytoplasm of the epithelium cells besides of great sporokinets number in development. At same period, the presence of sporokinets of B. bigemina in the hemolymph samples was observed inside the hemocytes. After the fourth day of incubation beside the presence of the sporokinets was also verified in the Malpighi's tubes and ovaries. As well as in the ticks eggs from the sporokinets were also observed ticks eggs from the fourty day after the natural detachment of the engorged females of the host. PMID:16153336

  4. 3β-O-Tigloylmelianol from Guarea kunthiana: A New Potential Agent to Control Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, a Cattle Tick of Veterinary Significance

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    Carlos Henrique Miguita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemical investigation of Guarea kunthiana fruits, guided by their effect on the reproductive cycle of engorged females of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus—a major economic problem to the livestock industry worldwide—led to isolation of 3β-O-tigloylmelianol, a new protolimonoid, from the bioactive hexane phase obtained by partitioning the crude ethanol extract. An adult immersion test was performed. The compound strongly inhibited egg-laying and hatchability (99.2% effectiveness at a 0.01% concentration. Melianone, isolated from the same phase, yielded unremarkable results in the adult immersion test. From the dichloromethane phase, melianol, melianodiol, meliantriol, and a new protolimonoid, 3β-O-tigloylmeliantriol, were isolated, all of which, in the same manner as melianone, exhibited unremarkable results in the test. The structures of new and known compounds were mostly established by 1D- and 2D-NMR analyses and mass spectrometry data. This is the first report on the bioactivity of protolimonoids on the reproductive cycle of engorged females of R. (B. microplus. 3β-O-Tigloylmelianol proved a promising candidate for the development of a biocontrol agent against the cattle tick investigated, as an alternative to environmentally hazardous synthetic acaricides.

  5. Expression and secretion in Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus niger of a cell surface glycoprotein from the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus, by using the fungal amdS promoter system.

    OpenAIRE

    Turnbull, I F; Smith, D R; Sharp, P. J.; Cobon, G S; Hynes, M J

    1990-01-01

    A cell surface glycoprotein (Bm86) from cells of the digestive tract of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus, which has been shown to elicit a protective immunological response in vaccinated cattle, was expressed and secreted in the filamentous fungi Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus niger by using the fungal amdS promoter system. The cloned gene coded for the Bm86 secretory signal and all of the Bm86 mature polypeptide except for the hydrophobic carboxy-terminal segment. High levels of Bm8...

  6. Evaluation of antibodies production against Borrelia burgdorferi in cattle submitted to rBm86 protein Boophilus microplus tick immunization and associated challenges influence Avaliação da produção de anticorpos anti Borrelia burgdorferi em bovinos submetidos à imunização com proteína rBm86 de carrapato Boophilus microplus e influência dos desafios associados

    OpenAIRE

    Márcia Mayumi Ishikawa; Adivaldo Henrique Fonseca; Natalino Hajime Yoshinari; Ana Luiza Alves Rosa Osório

    2003-01-01

    IgG antibodies production against Borrelia burgdorferi in immunized cattle with rBm86 protein from Boophilus microplus was evaluated as well as the influence of the association between immunizations and stress through indirect ELISA test during one year. In the present study there was no influence of the isolated challenged used on the production of IgG antibodies against B. burgdorferi. The rBm86 immunogen did not cause significant oscillation in the production of IgG antibodies against B. b...

  7. ANTI-IXODIDIC EVALUATION OF DIAZINON, COUMAPHOS AND CYPERMETHRIN THROUGH IN VITRO TESTS OF ENGORGED FEMALES OF Boophilus microplus (CANESTRINI, 1887 IN THE DAIRY MICROREGION OF GOIÂNIA - GOIÁS AVALIAÇÃO ANTIIXODÍDICA DE DIAZINON, COUMAFÓS E CIPERMETRINA, ATRAVÉS DE TESTES “IN VITRO”, SOBRE FÊMEAS INGURGITADAS DE Boophilus microplus (CANESTRINI, 1887 NA BACIA LEITEIRA DA MICRORREGIÃO DE GOIÂNIA-GOIÁS

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    Reinaldo Neves Sobrinho

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The efficacy of the acaricides diazinon, coumaphos and cypermethrin against Boophilus microplus was evaluated in an attempt to study the susceptibility of this ixodid tick in the dairy region of Goiânia, GO. For this study it was collected engorged female ticks in 22 farms from March until June, 1996. In a laboratory the ticks were submitted to a conventional immersion method as an in vitro test. The acaricides and the respective concentration tested were as follows: diazinon 500 ppm, coumaphos 500 ppm and cipermethrin 150 ppm. The results showed an efficacy of 94.13% for diazinon, 91.20% for coumaphos and only 69.14% for cypermethrin.

    KEY-WORDS: Boophilus microplus; acaricide; cattle; organophosphorus; pyrethroids.

    Para avaliar a eficácia de alguns carrapaticidas sobre Boophilus microplus, colheram-se teleóginas desse ixodídeo em bovinos naturalmente infestados, em 22 propriedades da bacia leiteira de Goiânia, GO, entre março e junho de 1996. Utilizou-se a técnica de imersão das teleóginas in vitro, calculando-se a eficácia percentual das drogas, diazinon 500 ppm, coumafós 500 ppm e cipermetrina 150 ppm, pelos resultados de respectivas de inibição da reprodução: 94,13% (diazinon, 91,2% (coumafós e 69,14% (cipermetrina. Os índices alcançados permaneceram abaixo do mínimo de 95%, recomendado pelo Ministério da Agricultura e do Abastecimento para carrapaticidas, sendo, então, os três produtos reprovados pelos critérios daquele órgão.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Boophilus microplus; acaricida; gado; organofosforados; piretroides.

  8. Caracterização do controle de Haematobia irritans e Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus no Triângulo Mineiro e Alto Paranaíba, Minas Gerais Characterization of Haematobia irritans and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus control in Triângulo Mineiro and Alto Paranaíba, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luísa N. Domingues

    2012-12-01

    maior parte das propriedades tende a comprometer não apenas a eficácia dos tratamentos, mas a suscetibilidade dos parasitos e a sustentabilidade do controle.The effective control of Haematobia irritans (horn fly and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (cattle tick is crucial for increasing the productivity of livestock industry in Brazil, but still remains a challenge. A greater knowledge about parasite control in the field is necessary to establish control strategies closer to farmer's reality and easier to be performed. This study characterized the practices adopted for controlling such ectoparasites on 23 cattle ranches from the Triângulo Mineiro and Alto Paranaíba region in the state of Minas Gerais, through interviews. Most interviewees recognized the importance of these parasites to livestock, however, many problems related to parasite control were observed. Control of horn flies and cattle tick was a routine in 17.4% and 95.7% of the ranches, respectively, triggered by high infestations on animals. More than six insecticide/acaricide treatments were applied yearly in all cattle ranches controlling horn flies and in 76.5% of the ranches controlling the cattle tick. Pesticide products were applied mostly by manual backpack sprayers (63.6% without restraining the animals in 45.5% of ranches. Product dilution following manufacturer's recommendations was performed by 45.5% of interviewees, but 63.6% of them used lower doses per animal than technically recommended. Associations of organophosphates and pyrethroids were the main products used to control both parasites. Although pesticide use was a routine practice, the use of personal protective equipment (PPE was not common among surveyed people. Most interviewees were able to recognize epidemiological characteristics of the parasites; however, parasite control measures adopted at most cattle ranches tend to jeopardize the efficacy of products, susceptibility of parasites and sustainability of control programs.

  9. [Molecular analysis of the antigenic sequence (SBm7462®) from Bm86 of the Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and similarity with Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peconick, Ana P; Sossai, Sidimar; Medeiros, Carla L; Carvalho, Gabriel D; Vargas, Marlene I; Patarroyo, Joaquín H

    2008-09-01

    The vaccination represents optimum method evaluated with effective cost to prevent economic losses and to increase the duration and quality of life of the production animals. . Diverse vaccines are produced from the intestinal protein Bm86 of the Rhipicephalus. (B.) microplus. The knowledge of the conservation of the gene bm86 is very important to evaluate the vaccine efficiency and the possibility of reaction crossed between different species of ticks. Samples of R. (B.) microplus come from different localities had been sequenced. The analyses of multiple alignments of the sequences had been made through the BioEdit program 7.0.5.3 version and the verification of polymorphism for visual inspection. In this work the alignment of all was become fulfilled sequences using itself BLAST in the search for similarity. Similarity was observed enters the sequenced fragments of R. (B.) microplus with the sequence of the protein Rs86 de Rhipicephalus sanguineus and with protein HA98 of the tick Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum. The results give molecular support to synthetic the vaccine use based in the gene bm86 (SBm7462®) to be used in different species of ticks. PMID:20059809

  10. Perceptions about the biology of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus among milk producers in Divinópolis, Minas Gerais Percepção dos produtores de leite de Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, sobre a biologia do Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

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    Christiane Maria Barcellos Magalhães da Rocha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One hundred semi-systematized interviews were applied with the aim of surveying the perceptions of milk producers in the municipality of Divinópolis, Minas Gerais regarding the biology of the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. Content analysis was conducted on each of the variables surveyed and their descriptions, highlighting the higher frequencies in order to construct profiles of perceptions about each of the matters surveyed. In addition, each of the producers was categorized regarding their readiness to proceed with efficient control, from the assessment of their responses. Among the variables surveyed were the tick lifespan, duration of parasitic life, time of greatest incidence, survival in pastures and egg-laying volume. These questions are considered important for defining the knowledge needed for rational combat. It was concluded that the information needed for adopting effective practices to combat ticks was insufficient among the milk farm properties in Divinópolis. Moreover, the producers interviewed had a good perception of what they observed in their daily routine, but did not have complementary information about the tick life cycle.Foram aplicadas 100 entrevistas semissistematizadas com o objetivo de levantar a percepção dos produtores de leite do município de Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, sobre a biologia do carrapato Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. Foi feita "análise de conteúdo" de cada uma das variáveis levantadas e sua descrição com destaque das maiores frequências para a construção de perfis de percepção sobre cada um dos aspectos levantados. Além disso, cada um dos produtores foram categorizados quanto a estar ou não apto a proceder um controle eficiente pela avaliação de suas respostas. Algumas das variáveis levantadas foram tempo de vida do carrapato, tempo de vida parasitária, época de maior incidência, sobrevivência nas pastagens e volume de postura, questões consideradas importantes

  11. Proposta para teste carrapaticida por imersão de larvas de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus: avaliação em cipermetrina e amitraz Proposal of an acaricide laboratory test larvae immersion of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus: evaluation with cypermethrin and amitraz

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    Antonio P. de Souza

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se desenvolver uma técnica de avaliação de carrapaticidas por imersão de larvas de Riphicephalus (Boophilus microplus. As larvas foram obtidas a partir de ovos de 30 teleóginas coletadas em bovinos de uma propriedade rural do município de Lages, SC, Brasil, os quais foram acondicionados em alíquotas de 10mg por seringa descartável de 5ml, previamente preparadas e mantidas em câmara climatizada até a eclosão. Larvas com sete a dez dias de idade foram submetidas à imersão por 30 segundos em oito diluições de produtos carrapaticidas comerciais à base de amitraz e de cipermetrina, cada uma com dez repetições, sendo mantido um grupo controle para cada repetição e produto, o qual foi imerso em água destilada. A leitura foi realizada 24 horas após o tratamento com a contagem de larvas vivas e mortas. A média de DL50 para cipermetrina foi de 2,99ppm e o erro padrão de 0,36 e para o amitraz foi de 17,22ppm e o erro padrão de 4,20, com intervalo de confiança (IC 95%.The aim of this work was to develop a technique of acaricides evaluation by immersion of larvae. Larvae were obtained from 30 engorged females of Riphicephalus (Boophilus microplus were collected in a ranch in Lages, Santa Catarina state, Brazil. Larvae were obtained from 10mg of eggs placed into 5ml disposable syringes, previously prepared and kept under controlled conditions of laboratory, and collected between the third and the twelfth day of oviposition. Seven to ten days old larvae were submitted to the acaricide laboratory test, in ten replications, by their immersion in eight dilutions of commercial acaricides (amitraz or cypermethrin, for 30 seconds; for each replication and commercial product, a control group was immersed in distilled water. Results were evaluated 24 hours after each treatment by counting the number of live and dead larvae. The mean LD50 values and standard error of the mean for cypermethrin and amitraz were 2.99 ± 0.36 and 17.22

  12. Rusa deer (Cervus timorensis) as a host for the cattle tick (Boophilus microplus) in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, I L

    1977-04-01

    The rusa deer (Cervus timorensis) is more resistant to the cattle tick (Boophlilus microplus) than are Britsh breed cattle in Papua New Guinea. The average yield of replete female ticks from deer was 1.6% (0.3-3.2%) as compared to 11.2% (3.4-23.1%) from calves. Ticks from deer were more slender, lighter in weight and produced fewer eggs (mean 1,800) than did ticks from calves (mean 2,200) but the deer was shown to be an effective host. A cervid population can maintain a tick population in the absence of bovine hosts thus presenting an important factor in eradication programs. Nutritional stress appears to result in a higher seasonal prevalence of infestation amongst males and non-pregnant females. PMID:864854

  13. INFLUÊNCIA DO PESO INICIAL E DA ESTAÇÃO DO ANO NA CONVERSÃO EM OVOS DE FÊMEAS DE Boophilus microplus (ACARI: IXODIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraão Garcia Gomes

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a influência do peso inicial da fêmea e da estação do ano na conversão em ovos de Boophilus microplus. O índice de eficiência reprodutiva (IER de 411 fêmeas pesando entre 31 e 360 mg foi correlacionado com seu peso inicial. Para avaliar a influência das diferentes estações do ano neste parâmetro biológico, dez fêmeas ingurgitadas de B. microplus pesando acima de 150 mg foram colhidas, a cada duas semanas, e mantidas em condições climáticas controladas até a determinação do IER. Uma relação curvilinear foi observada entre o peso das fêmeas e o IER. Fêmeas pesando entre 151 e 360 mg tiveram IER’s mais altos (variando de 44,9% a 51,4% do que aquelas mais leves, as quais apresentaram uma menor capacidade de conversão em ovos (variando de 31,4% a 39,0%. Foi observado que a capacidade de as fêmeas converterem o peso em ovos variou sazonalmente. Os mais altos IER foram observados no período seco, de abril a setembro (47,6% a 58,3%, do que no período chuvoso, de outubro a março (40,2% a 43,6% (P<0,05. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Boophilus microplus, biologia, conversão em ovos, bovinos.

  14. Role of Rusa deer Cervus timorensis russa in the cycle of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus in New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barré, N; Bianchi, M; Chardonnet, L

    2001-01-01

    Two field experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of Rusa deer in the development of the cattle tick Boaphilus microplus in comparison with that of steers in the same pastures and under the same conditions of infestation. No difference was noted between a mixed steer/deer herd and a pure steer or pure deer herd in the infestation pattern of each host, suggesting that attachment to the alternative host is mechanical and not affected by the simultaneous presence of the primary host on the pasture. Deer are capable of producing engorged viable females, with weight and reproductive performances similar to or even better than females fed on steers. For moderate levels (1 million larvae per hectare) and high levels (32 million larvae per hectare) of pasture infestation, tick burdens on steers were not very different (e.g. average 1,911 and 2,681 ticks per m2 skin, respectively, on day 24). This may be because of saturation of steer skin sites at the moderate larval dose. Deer harboured 2.7-33 times fewer ticks than steers and produce no engorged females at the moderate larval level and 32 times fewer engorged females than steers at the high larval level. Infestation of deer was dose-dependent with averages of 12 and 399 ticks per m2 skin on day 25 at the moderate and high larval levels, respectively. At a high infestation level of the environment, Rusa deer may contribute, but to a limited extent, to infestation of pastures and, consequently, of cattle. However, their role in sustaining a viable tick population requires further investigation. PMID:11508531

  15. Caracterização do controle de Haematobia irritans e Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus no Triângulo Mineiro e Alto Paranaíba, Minas Gerais

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    Luísa N. Domingues

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O controle eficaz de Haematobia irritans (mosca-dos-chifres e Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (carrapato-do-boi é um fator crucial à maior rentabilidade da pecuária brasileira, porém ainda constitui-se um desafio. Um maior conhecimento das práticas adotadas no combate destes parasitos faz-se necessário para que se possam estruturar estratégias de controle mais próximas da realidade do produtor rural e mais fáceis de serem executadas. Este estudo caracterizou, através de entrevistas, as práticas adotadas no controle desses ectoparasitos em 23 propriedades da mesorregião do Triângulo Mineiro e Alto Paranaíba, Minas Gerais. A maioria dos entrevistados reconheceu a importância desses parasitos para a atividade pecuária, entretanto, diversos problemas relativos ao controle parasitário foram observados. O controle da mosca-dos-chifres e do carrapato-do-boi era uma prática rotineira em, respectivamente, 17,4% e 95,7% das propriedades, geralmente realizado em função de elevado grau de infestação dos animais. Mais de seis aplicações de ectoparasiticidas eram realizadas por ano em todas as propriedades que empregavam tratamentos para o controle da mosca e em 76,5% daquelas que combatiam o carrapato. Os produtos eram aplicados principalmente com bombas costais manuais (63,6% e sem a contenção dos animais em 45,5% das propriedades. A diluição dos produtos segundo recomendações dos fabricantes era realizada por 45,4% dos entrevistados, porém, 63,6% aplicavam um volume de solução por animal menor do que o tecnicamente recomendado. Utilizava-se principalmente a associação de piretróides e organofosforados para o controle de ambos os parasitos. Apesar de utilizar rotineiramente ectoparasiticidas, o uso de equipamento de proteção individual (EPI não era comum entre os entrevistados. A maioria dos entrevistados conhecia algumas características epidemiológicas dos parasitos, entretanto, o controle parasitário adotado na

  16. Evaluation of antibodies production against Borrelia burgdorferi in cattle submitted to rBm86 protein Boophilus microplus tick immunization and associated challenges influence Avaliação da produção de anticorpos anti Borrelia burgdorferi em bovinos submetidos à imunização com proteína rBm86 de carrapato Boophilus microplus e influência dos desafios associados

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    Márcia Mayumi Ishikawa

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available IgG antibodies production against Borrelia burgdorferi in immunized cattle with rBm86 protein from Boophilus microplus was evaluated as well as the influence of the association between immunizations and stress through indirect ELISA test during one year. In the present study there was no influence of the isolated challenged used on the production of IgG antibodies against B. burgdorferi. The rBm86 immunogen did not cause significant oscillation in the production of IgG antibodies against B. burgdorferi capable to interfere in the serological results for Lyme Borreliosis in cattle. This study demonstrated the possibility of transitory changes in the production of antibodies after the association of vaccine stimuli and stress, emphasizing the necessity of serological studies combined with epidemiological and management data.Avaliou-se a produção de anticorpos da classe Ig-G anti Borrelia burgdorferi em bovinos imunizados com proteína recombinante Bm86 de Boophilus microplus, assim como a influência de imunizações e estresse associados por meio do teste ELISA indireto no período de um ano. Não houve interferência na produção de anticorpos IgG anti B. burgdorferi pelos desafios utilizados isoladamente no presente estudo. O imunógeno rBm86 não causou oscilações significantes na produção de anticorpos IgG anti B. burgdorferi capazes de interferir nos resultados sorológicos para Borreliose de Lyme em bovinos. O estudo demonstrou a possibilidade de alterações transitórias na produção de anticorpos após estímulos vacinais e de estresse associados, ressaltando a necessidade de estudos sorológicos em conjunto a dados epidemiológicos e de manejo.

  17. In vitro analysis of the action of acaricides on Boophilus microplus strains (Canestrini, 1887 taken from dairy cattle from northeast area of the São Paulo State/ Análise in vitro da ação de carrapaticidas em cepas de Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 colhidas de bovinos leiteiros da região nordeste do Estado de São Paulo

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    Alvimar José da Costa

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of Boophilus microplus ticks to nine insecticides was evaluated in vitro through immersion test. The insecticides contained the following compounds: Alphamethrin + Dichlorvos, Amitraz, Cypermethrin, Cypermethrin + Chlorphenvinphos, Coumaphos, Deltamethrin, Dichlorvos + Cypermethrin, Dichlorvos + Chlorphenvinphos and Zetacypermethrin. Ticks were collected from dairy cows in 17 properties of the northeast of the Sao Paulo State. Only three formulations reached recommended effectiveness (³ 95,0%: Cypermethrin + Chlorphenvinphos in nine properties, with average 89,69% ± 15,49, Dichlorvos + Chlorphenvinphos in eight, with average 91,22% ± 11,50 and the Amitraz in seven, with 78,62% ± 24,47. The results did not differ significantly (P > 0,05 from each other.Avaliou-se por meio de teste de imersão “in vitro” a susceptibilidade do Boophilus microplus a nove carrapaticidas contendo os seguintes princípios ativos: Alfamethrina + Diclorvos, Amitraz, Cipermetrina, Cipermetrina + clorfenvinfós, Coumafós, Deltametrina, Diclorvos + Cipermetrina, Diclorvinil + Clorfenvinfós e Zetacipermetrina. A colheita dos carrapatos foi realizada em 17 propriedades de bovinos leiteiros da região nordeste do Estado de São Paulo. Das formulações avaliadas apenas três alcançaram eficácia superior à recomendada (³ 95,0 %: Cipermetrina + Clorfenvinfós em nove propriedades, com média 89,69 % ± 15,49, Diclorovinil + Clorfenvinfós em oito, com média 91,22% ± 11,50 e o Amitraz em sete, com 78,62% ± 24,47. Estatisticamente estes resultados não diferiram (P> 0,05 entre si.

  18. Effect of vaccination with a recombinant Bm86 antigen preparation on natural infestations of Boophilus microplus in grazing dairy and beef pure and cross-bred cattle in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, M; Massard, C L; da Fonseca, A H; Ramos, N F; Machado, H; Labarta, V; de la Fuente, J

    1995-12-01

    Current methods for the control of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus infestations are not effective and the parasite remains a serious problem for the cattle industry in tropical and sub-tropical areas. Recent advances have introduced the possibility for the immunological control of the parasite through the use of recombinant vaccines. Recently, it was shown that the recombinant vaccine Gavac (Heber Biotec S.A.) is able to control B. microplus populations in artificially infected grazing dairy cattle in Cuba. To assay the effect of the vaccine on a different B. microplus strain and under different ecological conditions, we conducted a trial in Brazil on grazing dairy and beef pure and cross-bred cattle under natural infestation conditions. A farm in the northeast of the state of Sao Paulo was selected and two groups of animals per breed were included in the experiment and were maintained grazing on separate but similar pastures. For each breed, one group was vaccinated with the vaccine Gavac and the second group was not vaccinated and was employed as a control. In vaccinated cattle, during 36 weeks of experiment, the average infestation rate was maintained below 78 ticks per animal while average infestation peaks (mean +/- S.E.) of 144 +/- 44 ticks per animal (for dairy cross-bred cattle) and 195 +/- 42 ticks per animal (for beef cross-bred cattle) were recorded in the control groups. Tick infestation rates showed statistical significant differences (p = 0.04) between both experimental groups throughout the experiment. These results clearly showed, as in the Cuban study, that the vaccine controlled tick numbers in successive generations in the field. PMID:8701597

  19. Utilización del Boophilus microplus como remedio isopático en el control del ectoparásito en el Municipio de Aguazul (Casanare

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    Francisco Javier Niño Murcia

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se demostró la efectividad de un remedio isopático vía oral, para el control de la garrapata Boophilus microplus, inocuo para los animales, medio ambiente y el hombre, evitando residuos de plaguicidas en el producto final. La investigación se realizó en una finca ubicada en el municipio de Aguazul (Casanare; localizada a los 05°10’23’’ de latitud norte y 72°33’17’’ de longitud oeste desde Greenwich, altitud: 300 msnm, temperatura media: 27ÚC. Precipitación anual media: 2.441 mm. Se contó con 32 animales de doble propósito; con la propuesta adoptada por la Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuaria, CORPOICA, en cuanto al Manejo Integrado de Plagas (MIP; acerca del control ejercido con base en niveles críticos, se inició con un conteo de garrapatas, con un tamaño entre 4.5 mm y 8 mm, por un lado del cuerpo del animal; animales con más de 20 garrapatas, entraban en el proceso de investigación, se les administró el remedio isopático, el cual correspondía al grupo A, y el placebo el cual correspondió con el grupo B, durante cuatro días consecutivos. Se administraron dos potencias del remedio, la primera con nueve centésimal (9 C, la cual no tuvo ningún efecto sobre la garrapata, la segunda potencia treinta centesimal (30 C, con la cual se observaron los resultados propuestos sobre la garrapata, se hace un segundo conteo de garrapatas con los mismos tamaños para verificar la efectividad de la segunda potencia; veinticinco días después de la administración, se hizo un último conteo de garrapatas con los mismos tamaños con los cuales se partió. Se utilizó la técnica experimental de doble ciego para obtener datos más veraces. El estudio estadístico se realizó por la técnica de análisis operacional de varianza de dos factores con varias muestras por grupo; los recuentos de garrapatas se trasformaron a la expresión logarítmica: t = Log 10 (X+1, donde X es el recuento de

  20. A Mitochondrial Membrane Exopolyphosphatase Is Modulated by, and Plays a Role in, the Energy Metabolism of Hard Tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus Embryos

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    Carlos Logullo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The physiological roles of polyphosphates (polyP recently found in arthropod mitochondria remain obscure. Here, the relationship between the mitochondrial membrane exopolyphosphatase (PPX and the energy metabolism of hard tick Rhipicephalus microplus embryos are investigated. Mitochondrial respiration was activated by adenosine diphosphate using polyP as the only source of inorganic phosphate (Pi and this activation was much greater using polyP3 than polyP15. After mitochondrial subfractionation, most of the PPX activity was recovered in the membrane fraction and its kinetic analysis revealed that the affinity for polyP3 was 10 times stronger than that for polyP15. Membrane PPX activity was also increased in the presence of the respiratory substrate pyruvic acid and after addition of the protonophore carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone. Furthermore, these stimulatory effects disappeared upon addition of the cytochrome oxidase inhibitor potassium cyanide and the activity was completely inhibited by 20 µg/mL heparin. The activity was either increased or decreased by 50% upon addition of dithiothreitol or hydrogen peroxide, respectively, suggesting redox regulation. These results indicate a PPX activity that is regulated during mitochondrial respiration and that plays a role in adenosine-5’-triphosphate synthesis in hard tick embryos.

  1. Expressed gene sequences from adult ovary and adult female gut genes over-expressed upon Babesia bovis infection of Rhipcephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boophilus ticks are vectors of Babesia bovis, the protozoan causative agent of cattle fever, a disease which is responsible for significant production losses to cattle producers in much of Africa, Central and South America and Australia. We utilized subtractive cDNA library synthesis techniques to o...

  2. 3β-O-Tigloylmelianol from Guarea kunthiana: A New Potential Agent to Control Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, a Cattle Tick of Veterinary Significance

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Henrique Miguita; Carolina da Silva Barbosa; Lidilhone Hamerski; Ulana Chaves Sarmento; José Nicácio do Nascimento; Walmir Silva Garcez; Fernanda Rodrigues Garcez

    2014-01-01

    Chemical investigation of Guarea kunthiana fruits, guided by their effect on the reproductive cycle of engorged females of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus—a major economic problem to the livestock industry worldwide—led to isolation of 3β-O-tigloylmelianol, a new protolimonoid, from the bioactive hexane phase obtained by partitioning the crude ethanol extract. An adult immersion test was performed. The compound strongly inhibited egg-laying and hatchability (99.2% effect...

  3. Detección de resistencia a los acaricidas en la garrapata del ganado Boophilus microplus mediante análisis de zimogramas

    OpenAIRE

    Estefan Miranda Miranda; Jorge Miranda Osorio; Raquel Cossío Bayúgar

    2005-01-01

    La identificación de resistencia a los productos acaricidas en la garrapata B. microplus, se hace mediante un complicado bioensayo, que requiere garrapatas de referencia y de campo cultivadas sobre bovinos vivos y restringidos durante semanas. Con el fin de evaluar una posible alternativa diagnóstica, se hicieron ensayos enzimáticos en geles de poliacrilamida- SDS, usando extractos de larvas de garrapatas provenientes de cuatro cepas de referencia con diferentes niveles de resistencia y susce...

  4. Acaricidal effects of fluazuron (2.5 mg/kg) and a combination of fluazuron (1.6 mg/kg) + ivermectin (0.63 mg/kg), administered at different routes, against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus parasitizing cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Lucas Vinicius Costa; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Teixeira, Weslen Fabricio; Felippelli, Gustavo; Maciel, Willian G; Bichuette, Murilo Abud; Ruivo, Maycon A; Alcantara Colli, Marcos Henrique; Carvalho, Rafael Silveira; Martinez, Antonio Campanha; Soares, Vando Edésio; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2015-06-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the acaricidal efficacy of fluazuron (2.5 mg/kg), administered as a pour-on, in comparison to an injectable formulation containing fluazuron (1.6 mg/kg) + ivermectin (0.63 mg/kg), against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in naturally and experimentally infested cattle. Two studies were conducted with different tick strains, one with artificial infestations (Stall Test, using leight animals per group) and one with natural infestations (utilizing ten animals per group). In both studies, the animals were randomized, according to average tick counts performed on days -3, -2 and -1, into four groups: T01, negative control (saline solution); T02, pour-on fluazuron (2.5 mg/kg); T03: subcutaneous fluazuron (1.6 mg/kg) + ivermectin (0.63 mg/kg); and T04 subcutaneous ivermectin (0.63 mg/kg). Based on obtained results, and considering the utilized tick strains, it was possible to conclude that the pour-on fluazuron (2.5 mg/kg) formulation demonstrated high acaricidal efficacy, with protection periods ranging from 49 to 77 days against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. On the other hand, for the injectable fluazuron (1.6 mg/kg) + ivermectin (0.63 mg/kg) formulation, it was not possible to observe elevated anti-R. (B.) microplus effect on both artificial and experimental infestation studies. Results observed for this combination were similar or inferior to those obtained by subcutaneous ivermectin (0.63 mg/kg). Future studies with this formulation containing fluazuron (1.6 mg/kg) + ivermectin (0.63 mg/kg), regarding pharmacokinetic and/or bioavailability profiles, or even studies analyzing both this active principles separately, are needed, seeking to better understand the effects of such combination against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus parasitizing cattle. PMID:25728230

  5. Acaricidal properties of vetiver essential oil from Chrysopogon zizanioides (Poaceae) against the tick species Amblyomma cajennense and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Roseane Nunes de Santana; Nascimento Lima, Cecília Beatriz; Passos Oliveira, Alexandre; Albano Araújo, Ana Paula; Fitzgerald Blank, Arie; Barreto Alves, Péricles; Nascimento Lima, Rafaely; Albano Araújo, Vinícius; Santana, Alisson Silva; Bacci, Leandro

    2015-09-15

    Ticks are arthropods widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, which can transmit infectious agents also responsible for zoonoses. Excessive use of conventional acaricides has resulted in the onset of drug resistance by these parasites, thus the need to use alternative methods for their control. This study evaluated the acaricidal activities of Chrysopogon zizanioides (vetiver) essential oils containing different zizanoic and khuzimol (high and low acidity) acid concentrations on Amblyomma cajennense and Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). To this aims, toxicity tests of different concentrations of examined essential oils were conducted on adult females and larval stages. Results showed that the essential oils of C. zizanioides with high and low acidity reduced oviposition of females, eggs hatch and larval survival, being more effective than some commercial products widely used to control these ectoparasites. These results indicate that the C. zizanoides essential oils are promising candidates as acaricidal agents and represent also an add value to vetiver oil with high acidity, which is commercially undervalued in the cosmetic industry. PMID:26359641

  6. Molecular analysis of Boophilus spp. (Acari: Ixodidae) tick strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuente, J; García-García, J C; González, D M; Izquierdo, G; Ochagavia, M E

    2000-10-01

    Boophilus spp. (Acari: Ixodidae) parasitize cattle and other farm and wild animals in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Ticks belonging to the genus Boophilus have undergone evolutionary processes associated with habitat adaptation following biogeographical separation, resulting in strains with marked morphological differences. We have characterized at the molecular level B. microplus strains from Latin America and Australia, employing sequences derived from the bm86 coding region, an intron located within the bm86 gene, and DNA short tandem repeats (STR). A B. annulatus strain was employed for comparison. The results indicated that variation within the bm86 coding region is higher between B. microplus strains than between some B. microplus strains and B. annulatus. The sequence of the intron was not informative for phylogenetic analysis, varying among individuals of the same strain. Two STRs were identified in B. microplus (STRs BmM1 and BmM2) and one in B. annulatus (STR Ba1). Southern hybridization experiments with STRs BmM1 and BmM2 as a probe revealed the prevalence of dispersed moderately repeated DNA in the genome of B. microplus. The analysis of polymorphism at STR locus BmM1 evidenced differences within and between populations of B. microplus. These results support at the molecular level the existing differences between B. microplus strains and suggest tools to characterize these populations. PMID:10962158

  7. Lesser protein degradation machinery correlates with higher BM86 tick vaccine efficacy in Rhipicephalus annulatus when compared to Rhipicephalus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popara, Marina; Villar, Margarita; Mateos-Hernández, Lourdes; de Mera, Isabel G Fernández; Marina, Anabel; del Valle, Mercedes; Almazán, Consuelo; Domingos, Ana; de la Fuente, José

    2013-10-01

    Infestations with cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Rhipicephalus annulatus, economically impact cattle production in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Vaccines containing the recombinant R. microplus BM86 gut antigen were developed and commercialized to induce an immunological protection in cattle against tick infestations. These vaccines demonstrated that tick control by vaccination is cost-effective, reduces environmental contamination and prevents the selection of drug resistant ticks that result from repeated acaricide applications. The protection elicited by BM86-containing vaccines against tick infestations is mediated by a collaborative action between the complement system and IgG antibodies. The efficacy of the vaccination with BM86 and other tick antigens is always higher for R. annulatus than against R. microplus, suggesting that tick genetic and/or physiological factors may affect tick vaccine efficacy. These factors may be related to BM86 protein levels or tick physiological processes such as feeding and protein degradation that could result in more efficient antibody-antigen interactions and vaccine efficacy. To test this hypothesis, we compared the proteome in R. annulatus and R. microplus female ticks after feeding on BM86-vaccinated and control cattle. The results showed that cattle proteins were under represented in R. annulatus when compared to R. microplus, suggesting that R. annulatus ticks ingested less blood, a difference that increased when feeding on vaccinated cattle, probably reflecting the effect of antibody-BM86 interactions on this process. The results also showed that tick protein degradation machinery was under represented in R. annulatus when compared to R. microplus. BM86 mRNA and protein levels were similar in both tick species, suggesting that lesser protease activity in R. annulatus results in more efficient antibody-antigen interactions and higher vaccine efficacy. These results have important

  8. Effects of fluazuron (2.5 mg/kg) and a combination of fluazuron (3.0 mg/kg) + abamectin (0.5 mg/kg) on the reproductive parameters of a field population of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus on experimentally infested cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Teixeira, Weslen Fabricio Pires; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Felippelli, Gustavo; Fávero, Flávia Carolina; Cruz, André Cayeiro; Buzzulini, Carolina; Soares, Vando Edésio; Gomes, Lucas Vinicius Costa; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; de Oliveira, Gilson Pereira; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2014-08-01

    The current study assessed the deleterious effects of two formulations of fluazuron (2.5 mg/kg fluazuron and a combination of 3.0 mg/kg fluazuron + 0.5 mg/kg abamectin) on the reproductive parameters of engorged Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus females that naturally detached from experimentally infested cattle in two experiments. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that fluazuron (2.5 mg/kg) showed deleterious effects only on the hatchability percentage in the period of 2-7 post-treatment days of this ectoparasite's engorged females. On the other hand, the fluazuron (3.0 mg/kg) + abamectin (0.5 mg/kg) combination presented harmful effects over reproductive parameters of this tick species. Further studies should be performed with a known tick population (reference susceptible strain) to determine the effect of these formulations on the reproductive parameters and to elucidate if this field population is fluazuron resistant. PMID:24837997

  9. Rhipicephalus microplus strain Deutsch, whole genome shotgun sequencing project Version 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, has a genome over 2.4 times the size of the human genome, and with over 70% of repetitive DNA, this genome would prove very costly to sequence at today's prices and difficult to assemble and analyze. Cot filtration/selection techniques were used ...

  10. Vaccination against ticks (Boophilus spp.): the experience with the Bm86-based vaccine Gavac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, J; Rodríguez, M; Montero, C; Redondo, M; García-García, J C; Méndez, L; Serrano, E; Valdés, M; Enríquez, A; Canales, M; Ramos, E; Boué, O; Machado, H; Lleonart, R

    1999-11-01

    The control of tick infestations and the transmission of tick-borne diseases remain a challenge for the cattle industry in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Traditional control methods have been only partially successful and the parasites continue to result in significant losses for the cattle industry. Recently, vaccines containing the recombinant B. microplus gut antigen Bm86 have been developed. Our vaccine formulation (Gavac, Heber Biotec S.A., Havana, Cuba) has been registered and is commercially available in Cuba, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Brazil and Mexico. In controlled pen trials, Gavac has been effective for the control of artificial infestations of B. annulatus, B. decoloratus and chemical-sensitive and resistant B. microplus strains from Australia, Africa, America and Iran. In controlled field trials in Cuba, Brazil, Argentina and Mexico, Gavac has shown a 55-100% efficacy in the control of B. microplus infestations in grazing cattle 12-36 weeks after the first vaccination. Field trials under production conditions have been conducted in Cuba, Colombia, Brazil and Mexico in pure and cross-bred cattle herds. The application of Gavac has increased the time between acaricide treatments by an average of 32 /-21 days (P = 0.0005) resulting in important savings for the cattle industry. In Cuba, a cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted in more than 260000 animals. The cost-effectiveness analysis showed a 60% reduction in the number of acaricide treatments, together with the control of tick infestations and transmission of babesiosis, which resulted in savings of 23.4 dollars animal(-1) year (-1). These results clearly demonstrate the advantage of vaccination and support the application of Gavac for the control of Boophilus spp. infestations. PMID:10596754

  11. Comparison of efficiency and reproductive aptitude indexes between a reference and field strains of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, in Sinaloa, Mexico Comparação dos índices de eficiência e aptidão reprodutiva entre uma cepa de referência e outra de campo do carrapato do gado, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, em Sinaloa, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soila Gaxiola-Camacho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the reproductive behavior of two strains of R. (B. microplus, one wild-caught (Native and one reference strain (Media Joya for two years, measuring the reproductive efficiency index (REI and reproductive aptitude index (RAI. Engorged ticks from each strain were collected monthly from February 2002 to February 2004. These were weighed and kept in the laboratory until egg-laying. Oogenic masses were individually weighed and incubated until larvae emergence. REI and RAI were calculated from each sample, grouping ticks by weight in 100 mg range classes. An analysis of variance and Duncan's multiple rank tests were carried out on the data (P O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a conduta reprodutiva de duas cepas de R. (B. microplus, uma coletada no campo (Nativa e outra de referência (Média Jóia, por dois anos, calculando o índice de eficiência reprodutiva (REI e o índice de aptidão reprodutiva (RAI. Foram coletados mensalmente carrapatos fêmeas engurgitadas de cada cepa no período de Fevereiro de 2002 a Fevereiro de 2004. Estas foram pesadas e conservadas no laboratório até ovipositar. As massas de ovos foram pesadas individualmente e incubadas até a eclosão das larvas. O REI e o RAI foram calculados para cada coleta, agrupando os carrapatos em classe de peso de 100 mg. Os dados foram submetidos a uma análise de variância e prova de classe múltipla de Duncan (P < 0,05. Foram calculados os coeficientes de correlação de Pearson (P < 0,01 para estimar a associação entre o peso dos carrapatos engurgitados e o peso e número de ovos postos e eclosionados. A cepa Nativa mostrou um peso ao engurgitamento mais alto do que a cepa Média Jóia. Os valores de REI e de RAI em ambas cepas foram similares em todos as classes de peso, mostrando tendência cuadrática na Média Jóia e linear-cuadrática na cepa Nativa (P < 0,05. Ambos os índices por classe de peso no engurgitamento foram sempre mais

  12. 9 CFR 72.1 - Ticks [Boophilus annulatus (Margaropus annulatus), Boophilus microplus, or Rhipicephalus evertsi...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ticks ; interstate movement of... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.1 Ticks ; interstate movement of infested or exposed animals prohibited. No animals infested with ticks or exposed to tick infestation...

  13. A revision of two distinct species of Rhipicephalus: R. microplus and R. australis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abid Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Rhipicephalus ( Boophilus species are monoxenous ticks with seasonal distribution in tropical and subtropical regions. For many years, Rhipicephalus microplus was considered as a single species; however, further analysis split these ticks into two distinct species. Because R. microplus and R. australis share similar attributes, it is hard to discriminate these two species and explain the changes in the classification of these parasites over the past decades. The reappearance of R. australis is an outcome of new research, which has afforded to better characterize these probably cryptic species. Evidence based on morphological features, the lack of conspecificity, microsatellite markers, mitochondrial 12S and 16S ribosomal DNA, and mitochondrial genome supports the re-classification of R. microplus as different species. Therefore, populations of R. microplus from Australia, Cambodia, Philippines, Indonesia, New Caledonia, Borneo, New Guinea, Tahiti and parts of Southeast Asia were recently reinstated as R. australis . Moreover, a better knowledge on the speciation between these two species could pave the way to important advances in tick control strategies.

  14. Histoarchitecture of the Ovary of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus annulatus during Pre- and Postengorgement Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreelekha Kanapadinchareveetil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present communication describes the detailed day wise study of histological changes of the ovary of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus annulatus in the postengorgement period together with the systematic classification of their oocytes. The ovary of R. (B. annulatus is panoistic type with an asynchronous development of oocytes. All the stages (II, III, IV, and V of oocytes except stage I were similar to R. (B. microplus. The stage I oocytes showed basophilia, which was not reported earlier in other species of ticks. Day wise changes were in the form of presence of oogonia in partially fed and day one engorged adults, considerable degeneration of oocytes on day two, emergence of new wave of oocytes on day three, presence of mature oocytes up to day eight, and complete degeneration of ovarian tissue from day eight onwards. The degenerative changes in the ovary appeared initially in the oocytes followed by germinal epithelium.

  15. A simulation study of the effects of acaricides and vaccination on Boophilus cattle-tick populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodos, J; Ochagavia, M E; Rodriguez, M; De La Fuente, J

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a simulation model to evaluate different control strategies for Boophilus microplus. The model combines a dynamic life-history module for tick-population dynamics with other modules for vaccination, sterile-hybrid larval release and use of acaricide dipping vats. The tick life-history module considers the cattle's nutritional level and allows for distribution of ticks by age at all stages of growth. Appropriately, the model was sensitive to host resistance and to host-nutritional status. The validity of the life-history module--as well as that of the vaccination and acaricide dipping--vats modules--was demonstrated by comparing simulated and real data for several geographical locations in Cuba and Brazil. Optimum tick-control strategies for the first year of vaccination were designed and the effect of long-term vaccination on tick population was also studied. PMID:10022052

  16. Acaricidal activity of synthesized titanium dioxide nanoparticles using Calotropis gigantea against Rhipicephalus microplus and Haemaphysalis bispinosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sampath Marimuthu; Moorthy Iyappan; Chinnadurai Siva; Loganathan Karthik; Kokati Venkata Bhaskara Rao; Abdul Abdul Rahuman; Chidambaram Jayaseelan; Arivarasan Vishnu Kirthi; Thirunavukkarasu Santhoshkumar; Kanayairam Velayutham; Asokan Bagavan; Chinnaperumal Kamaraj; Gandhi Elango

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the acaricidal activity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) synthesized from flower aqueous extract of Calotropis gigantea (C. gigantea) against the larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus [R. (B.) microplus] and the adult of Haemaphysalis bispinosa (H. bispinosa). Methods: The lyophilized C. gigantea flower aqueous extract of 50 mg was added with 100 mL of TiO(OH)2 (10 mM) and magnetically stirred for 6 h. Synthesized TiO2 NPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The synthesised TiO2 NPs were tested against the larvae of R. (B.) microplus and adult of H. bispinosa were exposed to filter paper impregnated method. Results:XRD confirmed the crystalline nature of the nanoparticles with the mean size of 10.52 nm. The functional groups for synthesized TiO2 NPs were 1 405.19, and 1 053.45 cm-1 for-NH2 bending, primary amines and amides and 1 053.84 and 1 078.45 cm-1 for C-O. SEM micrographs of the synthesized TiO2 NPs showed the aggregated and spherical in shape. The maximum efficacy was observed in the aqueous flower extract of C. gigantea and synthesized TiO2 NPs against R. (B.) microplus (LC50=24.63 and 5.43 mg/L and r2=0.960 and 0.988) and against H. bispinosa (LC50=35.22 and 9.15 mg/L and r2=0.969 and 0.969), respectively. Conclusions: The synthesized TiO2 NPs were highly stable and had significant acaricidal activity against the larvae of R. (B.) microplus and adult of H. bispinosa. This study provides the first report of synthesized TiO2 NPs and possessed excellent anti-parasitic activity.

  17. Vaccination of cattle with TickGARD induces cross-reactive antibodies binding to conserved linear peptides of Bm86 homologues in Boophilus decoloratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odongo, David; Kamau, Lucy; Skilton, Robert; Mwaura, Stephen; Nitsch, Cordula; Musoke, Anthony; Taracha, Evans; Daubenberger, Claudia; Bishop, Richard

    2007-01-26

    Vaccines based on recombinant Bm86 gut antigen from Boophilus microplus are a useful component of integrated control strategies against B. microplus infestations of cattle. The capacity of such vaccines to control heterologous infestations by two African tick species was investigated. The mean weight of engorged female ticks and mean egg mass per tick were significantly reduced in B. decoloratus infestations, but there was no effect of the vaccine against adult Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. We cloned, sequenced and expressed two Bm86 homologues (Bd86) from B. decoloratus. Amino acid sequence identity between Bd86 homologues (Bd86-1 and Bd86-2) and Bm86 was 86% and 85%, respectively, compared to 93% identity between the variants. Native Bd86 protein in B. decoloratus tick mid-gut sections and recombinant Bd86-1 reacted strongly with sera from TickGARD vaccinated cattle. TickGARD can therefore protect against a heterologous tick species with multiple antigen sequences. Epitope mapping using sera from TickGARD-vaccinated cattle identified two linear peptides conserved between the Bd86 homologues and Bm86. These epitopes represent candidate synthetic peptide vaccines for control of Boophilus spp. and the pathogens transmitted by these tick vectors. PMID:17070625

  18. Acaricidal properties of Ricinus communis leaf extracts against organophosphate and pyrethroids resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Srikanta; Tiwari, Shashi Shankar; Srivastava, Sharad; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Kumar, Sachin; Ray, D D; Rawat, A K S

    2013-02-18

    Indian cattle ticks have developed resistance to commonly used acaricides and an attempt has been made to formulate an ecofriendly herbal preparation for the control of acaricide resistant ticks. A 95% ethanolic extract of Ricinus communis was used to test the efficacy against reference acaricide resistant lines by in vitro assay. In in vitro assay, the extract significantly affects the mortality rate of ticks in dose-dependent manner ranging from 35.0 ± 5.0 to 95.0 ± 5.0% with an additional effect on reproductive physiology of ticks by inhibiting 36.4-63.1% of oviposition. The leaf extract was found effective in killing 48.0, 56.7 and 60.0% diazinon, deltamethrin and multi-acaricide resistant ticks, respectively. However, the cidal and oviposition limiting properties of the extract were separated when the extract was fractionated with hexane, chloroform, n-butanol and water. The HPTLC finger printing profile of R. communis leaf extract under λ(max.) - 254 showed presence of quercetin, gallic acid, flavone and kaempferol which seemed to have synergistic acaricidal action. In vivo experiment resulted in 59.9% efficacy on Ist challenge, however, following 2nd challenge the efficacy was reduced to 48.5%. The results indicated that the 95% ethanolic leaf extract of R. communis can be used effectively in integrated format for the control of acaricide resistant ticks. PMID:23084038

  19. Nuclear glycogen synthase kinase-3 β (GSK-3) in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick embryogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) is recognized as a key component of a large number of cellular processes and diseases. Several mechanisms play a part in controlling the actions of GSK3, including phosphorylation, protein complex formation, and subcellular distribution. Recent observations point to functions for phosphorylases several transcription factors in the nucleus. Also, GSK3b participate of the canonical W nt signalling pathway, which has been studied intensively in embryonic and cancer cells. Like in many other signaling pathways, most components in W nt signal transduction were highly conserved during the evolution. More than 40 proteins have been reported to be phosphorylated by GSK3, including over a dozen transcription factors. Although the mechanisms regulating GSK3 are not fully understood, precise control appears to be achieved by a combination of phosphorylation, localization, and interactions with GSK3-binding proteins. Although GSK3 is traditionally considered a cytosolic protein, it is also present in nuclei. Nuclear GSK3 is particularly interesting because of the many transcription factors that it regulates enabling GSK3 to influence many signaling pathways that converge on these transcription factors, thereby regulating the expression of many genes. Our group identified that GSK-3 β could be detected in different stage eggs of R. micro plus. In this work we detected the GSK-3 in isolated nuclear fraction from the egg homogenates of R. micro plus by western-blot analysis, using anti-GSK- 3 β antibodies. The enzyme activity was also detected radiochemically throughout embryogenesis in same fraction. The GSK-3 activity was inhibiting by using SB 216763 (selective molecule inhibitors of GSK-3). Taken together our results suggest that GSK-3 β isoform probably is involved in gene transcription factors during R. micro plus embryo development

  20. Reproductive and safety assessment of vaccination with Gavac against the cattle tick (Boophilus microplus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boué, O; Redondo, M; Montero, C; Rodríguez, M; de la Fuente, J

    1999-06-01

    Recent developments in cattle tick control have incorporated the use of recombinant Bm86 vaccines against this ectoparasite. The vaccine developed by our group (Gavac) contains an antigen expressed in Pichia pastoris, and has been successfully employed for the control of tick infestations and transmission of tick-borne diseases. Here, we examined the safety and effect of the Gavac vaccine on reproductive parameters in cattle. Toxicity tests in mice and guinea pigs demonstrated the safety of Gavac. To study the adverse effects of vaccination on reproduction, a field trial involving 9,500 animals in Cuba was conducted. The cattle at 3 farms were vaccinated while those on a fourth farm were left unvaccinated and served as the control. Following vaccination, the control of tick infestation and the transmission of babesiosis were used to demonstrate the efficacy of the vaccine. No adverse effects were observed in any of the reproductive parameters studied when comparing the data before and after vaccination with Gavac and between the vaccinated farms and the control farm. These results demonstrate that under the conditions of our study vaccination with Gavac is safe for use on cattle. PMID:10729081

  1. Cloning and expression of a protective antigen from the cattle tick Boophilus microplus.

    OpenAIRE

    Rand, K N; Moore, T.; Sriskantha, A; Spring, K; Tellam, R; P. Willadsen; Cobon, G S

    1989-01-01

    Glycoproteins located on the luminal surface of the plasma membrane of tick gut epithelial cells, when used to vaccinate cattle, are capable of stimulating an immune response that protects cattle against subsequent tick infestation. One such tick gut glycoprotein, designated Bm86, has been purified to homogeneity and the amino acid sequences of peptide fragments generated by endoproteinase Lys-C digestion have been determined. We report here the isolation and characterization of a cDNA that e...

  2. Analysis of Babesia bovis-induced gene expression changes in the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Cattle babesiosis is a tick-borne disease of cattle that has severe economic impact on cattle producers throughout the world's tropical and subtropical countries. The most severe form of the disease is caused by the apicomplexan, Babesia bovis, and transmitted to cattle through the bite ...

  3. Nuclear glycogen synthase kinase-3 {beta} (GSK-3) in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick embryogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mentzingen, Leticia; Andrade, Josiana G. de; Logullo, Carlos [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Biociencias e Biotecnologia. Lab. de Quimica e Funcao de Proteinas e Peptideos (LQFPP); Andrade, Caroline P. de; Vaz Junior, Itabajara [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Centro de Biotecnologia

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) is recognized as a key component of a large number of cellular processes and diseases. Several mechanisms play a part in controlling the actions of GSK3, including phosphorylation, protein complex formation, and subcellular distribution. Recent observations point to functions for phosphorylases several transcription factors in the nucleus. Also, GSK3b participate of the canonical W nt signalling pathway, which has been studied intensively in embryonic and cancer cells. Like in many other signaling pathways, most components in W nt signal transduction were highly conserved during the evolution. More than 40 proteins have been reported to be phosphorylated by GSK3, including over a dozen transcription factors. Although the mechanisms regulating GSK3 are not fully understood, precise control appears to be achieved by a combination of phosphorylation, localization, and interactions with GSK3-binding proteins. Although GSK3 is traditionally considered a cytosolic protein, it is also present in nuclei. Nuclear GSK3 is particularly interesting because of the many transcription factors that it regulates enabling GSK3 to influence many signaling pathways that converge on these transcription factors, thereby regulating the expression of many genes. Our group identified that GSK-3 {beta} could be detected in different stage eggs of R. micro plus. In this work we detected the GSK-3 in isolated nuclear fraction from the egg homogenates of R. micro plus by western-blot analysis, using anti-GSK- 3 {beta} antibodies. The enzyme activity was also detected radiochemically throughout embryogenesis in same fraction. The GSK-3 activity was inhibiting by using SB 216763 (selective molecule inhibitors of GSK-3). Taken together our results suggest that GSK-3 {beta} isoform probably is involved in gene transcription factors during R. micro plus embryo development.

  4. An integrative approach to understanding pyrethroid resistance in Rhipicephalus microplus and R. decoloratus ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyk, Roelof Dj van; Baron, Samantha; Maritz-Olivier, Christine

    2016-06-01

    Rhipicephalus microplus and Rhipicephalus decoloratus species occur in regions with savannah and temperate climates, typically in grassland and wooded areas used as cattle pasture. Both species are associated with the transmission of Anaplasma and Babesia spp., impacting livestock health and quality of livestock-associated products. In Africa, tick control is predominantly mediated with the use of acaricides, such as synthetic pyrethroids. After several years on the market, reports of resistance to synthetic pyrethroids escalated but limited field data and validation studies have been conducted to determine the extent of acaricide resistance in Africa. Without this data, knowledge-based tick control will remain problematic and selection pressure will remain high increasing the rate of resistance acquisition. To date, several pyrethroid resistance associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been reported for arthropods within the voltage-gated sodium channel. Three SNPs have been identified within this channel in pyrethroid resistant R. microplus ticks, but none has been reported for R. decoloratus. This study is the first to report the presence of a shared SNP within the voltage-gated sodium channel in both R. microplus and R. decoloratus, which is directly linked to pyrethroid resistance in R. microplus. As the mode of action by which these SNPs mediate pyrethroid resistance remains unknown, this study aims to set hypotheses by means of predictive structural modelling. This not only paves the way forward to elucidating the underlying biological mechanisms involved in pyrethroid resistance, but also improvement of existing acaricides and ultimately sustainable tick control management. PMID:26851840

  5. Exploring the use of an anti-tick vaccine as a tool for the integrated eradication of the cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert; Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Almazán, Consuelo; Allen, Andrew; Jory, Lauren; Yeater, Kathleen; Messenger, Matthew; Ellis, Dee; Pérez de León, Adalberto A

    2012-08-17

    Bovine babesiosis, also known as cattle fever, is a tick-borne protozoal disease foreign to the United States. It was eradicated by eliminating the vector species, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, through the efforts of the Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program (CFTEP), with the exception of a permanent quarantine zone (PQZ) in south Texas along the border with Mexico. Keeping the U.S. free of cattle fever ticks in a sustainable manner is a critical national agricultural biosecurity issue. The efficacy of a Bm86-based anti-tick vaccine commercialized outside of the U.S. was evaluated against a strain of R. annulatus originated from an outbreak in Texas. Vaccination controlled 99.9 and 91.4% of the ticks 8 weeks and 5.5 months after the initial vaccination, respectively. Computer modeling of habitat suitability within the PQZ typically at risk of re-infestation with R. annulatus from Mexico predicted that at a level of control greater than 40%, eradication would be maintained indefinitely. Efficacy and computer modeling data indicate that the integration of vaccination using a Bm86-based anti-tick vaccine with standard eradication practices within the northwestern half of the PQZ could incentivize producers to maintain cattle on pasture thereby avoiding the need to vacate infested premises. Implementing this epidemiologically proactive strategy offers the opportunity to prevent R. annulatus outbreaks in the U.S., which would represent a significant shift in the way the CFTEP operates. PMID:22687762

  6. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in bovine tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) micro plus embryogenesis and starvation larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, J.G. de; Mentizingen, L.G.; Logullo, C. [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Biociencias e Biotecnologia. Lab.de Quimica e Funcao de Proteinas e Peptideos (LQFPP); Andrade, C.P. de; Vaz Junior, Itabajara [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Centro de Biotecnologia; Daffre, S.; Esteves, E. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biomedicas

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) is considered a key rate controlling enzyme in gluconeogenesis pathway. Gluconeogenesis is a highly regulated process, catalyzed by several enzymes subject to regulation by insulin. Normally, insulin rapidly and substantially inhibits PEPCK gene transcription and the PEPCK activity is proportional to the rate of gene transcription. The transcriptional regulation of the PEPCK gene has been extensively studied. CREM is the transcription factor that bind efficiently to the putative cyclic AMP response element (CRE) in PEPCK gene. Several other transcription factors can bind to this element and activate transcription. In oviparous animals, such as bovine tick R. microplus, the embryonic development occurs outside the maternal organism, implying that all the nutrients necessary for embryogenesis must be present in the oocytes. We observed the relationship between the main energy sources and the morphogenetic changes that occur during R. microplus tick embryogenesis. Energy homeostasis is maintained by glycogen mobilization in the beginning of embryogenesis, as its content is drastically decreased during the first five days of development. Afterwards, the activity of the gluconeogenesis enzyme PEPCK increases enormously, as indicated by a concomitant increase in glucose content (Moraes et al., 2007). Here, we analyzed PEPCK gene transcription by qPCR during the embryogenesis and starvation larvae. The PEPCK transcription was higher at first and 15th day eggs of the development. In larvae the levels of PEPCK transcripts is increased at fifth day after hatch. However, the activity is continuous increased in larvae the form first up to 15th day. Now we are investigating the involvement of CREM in the PEPCK gene transcription in these cells. In this sense, we obtained CREM sequence from TIGR ESTs R. microplus bank and designed the specific primers to qPCR. Taken together our results suggest the involvement of PEPCK to the

  7. Humoral immune response of dairy cattle immunized with rBm95 (KU-VAC1) derived from Thai Rhipicephalus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jittapalapong, S; Kaewhom, P; Kengradomkij, C; Saratapan, N; Canales, M; de la Fuente, J; Stich, R W

    2010-04-01

    Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is an important cause of economic losses in Thailand through direct effects of feeding on cattle and pathogen transmission. Current tick control methods rely on expensive chemical acaricides that result in environmental contamination, residues in food animal products and acaricide-resistant ticks. Anti-tick vaccines based on concealed antigens have shown promising results in the control of cattle tick. Thus, recombinant Bm95 (rBm95) from Thai R. microplus (KU-VAC1) was cloned and expressed to test as an anti-tick vaccine in Thailand. The objective of this study was to compare antibody responses induced by KU-VAC1 to that obtained after vaccination with Gavac that is based on the Bm86 homologue. Four groups of six cattle each were immunized with KU-VAC1, Gavac, adjuvant or phosphate-buffered saline, and boosted three times at 21-day intervals. Enzyme-linked-immunosorbent serologic assay were used to measure the humoral antibody responses specific to Thai rBm95. Cattle immunized with either KU-VAC1 or Gavac showed significantly greater antibody production than the controls. Antibody titres were detected after the first immunization and peaked after the seventh week. These results indicated that KU-VAC1 and Gavac are similarly immunogenic, and that further studies are warranted to compare performance parameters of ticks fed on immunized cattle. PMID:20537117

  8. Bm86 antigen induces a protective immune response against Boophilus microplus following DNA and protein vaccination in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rose, R; McKenna, R V; Cobon, G; Tennent, J; Zakrzewski, H; Gale, K; Wood, P R; Scheerlinck, J P; Willadsen, P

    1999-11-30

    Vaccination of sheep with a plasmid bearing the full length gene for the tick antigen Bm86 either alone or co-administered with plasmid carrying the ovine genes for the cytokines, granulocyte and macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or interleukin (IL)-1beta induced a relatively low level of protection against subsequent tick infestation. This tick damage reached statistical significance only for the groups which were vaccinated with plasmid encoding for Bm86, co-administered with plasmid encoding for ovine GM-CSF. Antibody titres measured against Bm86 were also low in all groups injected with the Bm86 DNA vaccine. Antibody production and anti-tick effect were significantly less than that achieved by two vaccinations with recombinant Bm86 protein. In all cases only a low level of antigen-specific stimulation of peripheral blood lymphocytes was recorded, as measured either by the incorporation of tritiated thymidine or the release of IFN-gamma. Injection of DNA encoding for Bm86, either alone or with co-administered cytokine genes, did however prime for a strong subsequent antibody response following a single injection of recombinant Bm86 protein in adjuvant. Antibody production nevertheless appeared to be slightly less effective than following two vaccinations with recombinant protein. The persistence of antibody following vaccination was the same regardless of the method of primary sensitization. In all cases the half-life of the antibody response was approximately 40-50 days indicating that, in contrast to results reported in mice, DNA vaccination in sheep did not result in sustained antibody production. PMID:10587297

  9. Persistently Infected Calves as Reservoirs for Acquisition and Transovarial Transmission of Babesia bovis by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babesia bovis is a deadly disease of cattle resulting in severe economic losses in the vast regions of the world where it is endemic. If re-introduced into the United States, babesiosis would cause significant mortality in the naïve cattle population. In order to address the risk to U.S. cattle, i...

  10. Ixodid ticks of traditionally managed cattle in central Nigeria: where Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus does not dare (yet?)

    OpenAIRE

    Lorusso, Vincenzo; Picozzi, Kim; de Bronsvoort, Barend Mc; Majekodunmi, Ayodele; Dongkum, Charles; Balak, Gyang; Igweh, Augustine; Welburn, Susan C

    2013-01-01

    Background Ticks and tick-borne diseases (TBDs) undermine cattle fitness and productivity in the whole of sub-Saharan Africa, including Nigeria. The aim of this study was to document the composition of tick species, assessing the burden of infestation, in traditionally managed cattle in an area of central Nigeria where acaricides have not been used historically. Methods The study was carried out in September 2010 in 9 villages belonging to three neighbouring local government areas in Plateau ...

  11. Effect of the association of cattle and rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) on populations of cattle ticks (Boophilus microplus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barre, N; Bianchi, M; De Garine-Wichatitsky, M

    2002-10-01

    The wild population of rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) in New Caledonia (South Pacific) is nearly as large as the cattle population. The cattle tick is widespread and occurs all year round. Opinions are divided on the role of deer in the biological cycle of the tick: i) Do they maintain a sustainable tick population that is secondarily available for cattle? ii) Do they decrease the infestation of the environment by collecting larvae on the pasture, but preventing their development to the engorged female stage? or iii) Do they contribute to both situations? An experiment was conducted in three groups of pastures, each seeded with 450 000 larvae/ha and allowed to be grazed only by cattle, only by deer, and by a mixed herd of deer and cattle (deer representing 30% of the biomass), at approximately the same stocking rate (470-510 kg/ha). After 15 months of exposure, the tick burden per weight unit of host was 42 ticks/kg for the steers-only herd and 0.01/kg for the deer-only herd. The steers in the "mixed group" harbored 7 times fewer ticks (6.2/kg) than the cattle-only group, and the deer in the "mixed group," 130 times more (1.3/kg) than the deer-only group. Five emergency acaricide treatments had to be applied in the cattle-only group, but none in the other groups. The long-term sustainability of a viable tick population on deer as well as the potential benefit resulting from the association of deer and susceptible cattle in the tick control of cattle are highlighted. PMID:12381606

  12. Assessment of bovine immunoprotecion against Rhipicephalus microplus using Bm86-CG antigen expressed in Pichia pastoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus is a major pest of cattle in tropical and subtropical parts of the world. In addition to direct effects associated with its obligate parasitic way of life, R. microplus also transmits the pathogens that cause bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis. Commercially ...

  13. Acaricide activity in vitro of Acmella oleracea against Rhipicephalus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, K N C; Lima, D F; Vasconcelos, L C; Leite, J R S A; Santos, R C; Paz Neto, A A; Costa-Júnior, L M

    2014-10-01

    Cattle tick control has been limited by the resistance of these parasites to synthetic acaricides. Natural products are a possible alternative as they have different mechanisms of action. Acmella oleracea is a native plant with a large cultivated area in the Amazon region and could be easily used for large-scale preparation of a commercial product. This study evaluated the in vitro action of the hexane extract of the aerial parts of A. oleracea on larvae and engorged females of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. Spilanthol was the major constituent with a content of 14.8% in the extract. The hexane extract of A. oleracea was highly effective against larvae of R. microplus with an LC50 of 0.8 mg mL(-1). Against engorged females, hexane extract of A. oleracea reduced oviposition and hatchability of eggs with an LC50 of 79.7 mg mL(-1). Larvae and engorged females were killed by the hexane extract with high efficiency (>95%) at concentrations of 3.1 and 150.0 mg mL(-1), respectively. These results demonstrate that the hexane extract of A. oleracea has significant activity against R. microplus and has potential to be developed into formulations for tick control. PMID:25033813

  14. High efficacy of a 20 amino acid peptide of the acidic ribosomal protein P0 against the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Mallon, Alina; Encinosa, Pedro E; Méndez-Pérez, Lídice; Bello, Yamil; Rodríguez Fernández, Rafmary; Garay, Hilda; Cabrales, Ania; Méndez, Luis; Borroto, Carlos; Estrada, Mario Pablo

    2015-06-01

    Current strategies to control cattle ticks use integrated control programs (ICP) that include vaccination. Reduction in the use of chemicals and in the cost of tick control, the delay or elimination of acaricide resistance and the decreasing of environmental pollution are the advantages of using these programs. This integrated program is potentially applicable to all genotypes of chemical resistant ticks. However, the problem here is to improve the efficacy of anti-tick vaccines. The P0 protein is a structural component of the ribosome of all organisms. We have identified an immunogenic region of ribosomal protein P0 from Rhipicephalus spp. ticks that is not very conserved compared to the orthologous protein in their hosts. A synthetic 20 amino acid peptide from this sequence was effective as a vaccine against Rhipicephalus sanguineus infestations in an immunization and challenge experiment using rabbits. In this paper, the same peptide used as vaccine against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus Boophilus microplus shows a significant diminution in the number of engorged females recovered, in the weight of females and the weight of egg masses. The number of eggs hatched was also significantly reduced for the vaccinated group, with an overall effectivity for the antigen pP0 of 96%. These results, together with the conserved sequence of the P0 peptide among ticks, suggest that this antigen could be a good broad spectrum vaccine candidate. It would be expected to be active against many species of ticks and thus has promise in an ICP for effective control of ticks and thereby to improve the efficiency and productivity of the livestock industry. PMID:25958782

  15. Virulence of Isaria sp. and Purpureocillium lilacinum to Rhipicephalus microplus tick under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelo, Isabele C; Fernandes, Éverton K K; Bahiense, Thiago C; Perinotto, Wendell M S; Golo, Patricia S; Moraes, Ana Paula R; Bittencourt, Vânia R E P

    2012-10-01

    Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini) is an ectoparasite accountable for great economic losses. The use of entomopathogenic fungi to control arthropods has shown promising responses. The present study evaluated the virulence of Isaria farinosa (Holmsk.) Fr., Isaria fumosorosea (Wize) Brown and Smith, and Purpureocillium lilacinum (=Paecilomyces lilacinus) (Thom.) Samson to engorged females, eggs, and larvae of R. microplus. There were four treatment groups (10(5), 10(6), 10(7), and 10(8) conidia ml(-1)) and the control group (water and Tween 80, 0.1% v/v). The treatment was based on immersion of the specimen in 1 ml of the suspension or control solution. The study observed changes in egg viability and larval mortality after treatment. The results showed that I. farinosa, P. lilacinum, and I. fumosorosea caused alterations in the biological parameters of R. microplus ticks. I. fumosorosea presented the greatest potential to control R. microplus engorged females in vitro, causing a 49% decrease in nutritional index. All fungal isolates presented significant reduction in the egg production index. I. farinosa reduced the hatching percentage if the eggs were treated with the two highest conidial concentrations. All conidial concentrations of I. fumosorosea were able to reduce the hatching percentage significantly. All tested isolates showed pathogenicity toward unfed R. microplus larvae. As far as we know, this is the first study reporting the effect in vitro of I. farinosa, I. fumosorosea, and P. lilacinum to different developmental stages of R. microplus ticks. PMID:22710525

  16. A model to simulate the effect of vaccination against Boophilus ticks on cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodos, J; Boue, O; de la Fuente, J

    2000-02-01

    This paper describes a vaccination model to simulate the effect of cattle vaccination with concealed antigens on Boophilus tick spp. The model considers the vaccination effect in three parts: antibody titer, accumulation of damaging vaccination effects by parasite stages, and the effect of accumulated damage on all tick life stages. Biological parameters for ticks and hosts, as well as parameters describing tick-host interaction, were included. The validity of this model, integrated with the TICKSIM simulation program, was demonstrated for the Bm86-containing vaccine Gavac by comparing simulated and real data for several geographic locations in the Americas. All model parameters were estimated using field data collected in the different geographic locations. The model sensitivity to changes in antibody titer level and titer half-life was studied, and the impact on tick population density of changes in these parameters was evaluated. Simulation results showed that to achieve a higher level of tick control, an increase in the maximum antibody titer levels was more important than extending titer half-life in geographical locations with short seasonal peaks of tick infestation. The TICKSIM program, integrated with the new vaccination model, proved to be a framework for designing and evaluating tick control strategies, including vaccination with GavacTM. PMID:10669101

  17. VIABILIDADE ECONÔMICA DA ADOÇÃO DO CONTROLE ESTRATÉGICO DO CARRAPATO RHIPICEPHALUS (BOOPHILUS MICROPLUS (CANESTRINI, 1887 EM REBANHOS BOVINOS LEITEIROS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Monteiro de Souza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar a viabilidade econômica do programa de controle estratégico do carrapato em bovinos leiteiros adotado pela Embrapa Gado de Leite. O programa se fundamenta na racionalização do uso de carrapaticidas com a realização de tratamentos no período em que a população de carrapatos encontra-se reduzida; na escolha do produto mais adequado para o combate da população de carrapatos, por meio da realização de testes de sensibilidade dos carrapatos aos carrapaticidas; e, pela utilização do carrapaticida na diluição recomendada e quantidade suficiente para banhar todo o corpo do animal. O estudo foi realizado junto a 104 produtores rurais, criadores de gado de leite, em 27 municípios da região central e norte do estado de Minas Gerais. As informações foram coletadas por meio de questionário, no período de setembro a novembro de 2010. Constatou-se que em 68% dos rebanhos, a infestação por TPB é a que mais afeta os animais. Por causa desse e outros problemas, 79% dos consultados resolveram aderir ao Programa por recomendação do técnico e outros 70% por causa das altas infestações nos animais. Setenta e nove por cento aderiram e seguiram o Programa, de maneira correta. Nessas fazendas, a maior parte da mão de obra é contratada (46%, o sistema de exploração da atividade leiteira é o semi-intensivo (84%, o padrão racial do rebanho é o cruzamento Girolando (95% e em, 45%, a produção média diária de leite varia entre 40 a 400 litros. Antes da adesão ao Programa, em 89% das propriedades, as vacas lactantes eram as mais afetadas, seguidas de bezerros. Para escolher o carrapaticida, 41% dos produtores baseavam a escolha na indicação do balconista. Após a adesão ao Programa, 94% dos fazendeiros seguiram as orientações repassadas pelos técnicos. O primeiro motivo citado (78% para permanência com o plano de controle foi a credibilidade no teste de sensibilidade dos carrapatos aos acaricidas. Com isso, 90% notaram a diminuição dos ataques pelo parasito, mudando a maneira de realizar os banhos (100% dos produtores. Houve a redução de 57% dos gastos em reais com a compra de carrapaticidas por mês e de 33% da quantidade de tratamentos por ano. Em relação à TPB, houve queda de 60% do número médio de casos e 100% da média do número de mortes em bezerros. Portanto, os resultados indicaram que a adoção do controle estratégico do carrapato em bovinos leiteiros possibilitou a redução das despesas dos produtores com aquisição de carrapaticidas químicos. Além disso, a adoção do controle estratégico possibilitou a redução de prejuízos diretos e indiretos causados pelo carrapato, com reflexos positivos sobre a produção e a qualidade do leite e derivados.

  18. Mapping of quantitative trait loci controlling tick [Riphicephalus (Boophilus) microplus] resistance on bovine cjrp,psp,es 5, 7 and 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle breeds have diverged at approximately 10.000 years ago, the differences in the process of domestication and subsequent selection for desired phenotypes is presumed to have contributed the phenotypic and genetic differences between these subspecies. Of particu...

  19. 微小牛蜱Bm86基因的真核表达%Eukaryotic expression of Bm86 gene of Boophilus microplus in Pichia pastoris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文卉; 任巧云; 罗建勋; 殷宏; 关贵全; 马米玲; 刘志杰; 刘爱红; 党志胜; 高金亮

    2005-01-01

    采用RT-PCR技术从微小牛蜱饥饿幼蜱破解物中扩增到Bm86基因,将其与巴斯德毕赤酵母分泌型表达载体pPIC9K重组构建了重组表达载体pPIC9K-Bm86,测序正确后将其用SacⅠ内切酶线性化后采用电穿孔法转化巴斯德毕赤酵母菌GS115,经G418抗性筛选高拷贝重组菌株后用甲醇诱导表达,SDS-PAGE和Western-blotting分析结果表明,诱导表达的培养上清液中表达出具有反应活性的68 ku重组Bm86蛋白,目的蛋白约占培养上清液中蛋白总量的32%以上,诱导96 h目的蛋白的表达量为0.36 mg/mL.

  20. Selection of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks and determination of the expression profile of Bm86

    OpenAIRE

    Jongejan Frans; Postigo Milagros; Balk Jesper A; Nijhof Ard M

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background For accurate and reliable gene expression analysis, normalization of gene expression data against reference genes is essential. In most studies on ticks where (semi-)quantitative RT-PCR is employed, normalization occurs with a single reference gene, usually β-actin, without validation of its presumed expression stability. The first goal of this study was to evaluate the expression stability of commonly used reference genes in Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Rhipicephalus ...

  1. Comparison of predicted binders in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus intestine protein variants Bm86 Campo Grande strain, Bm86 and Bm95.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreotti, Renato; Pedroso, Marisela S; Caetano, Alexandre R; Martins, Natália F

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the sequence analysis of Bm86 Campo Grande strain comparing it with Bm86 and Bm95 antigens from the preparations TickGardPLUS and Gavac, respectively. The PCR product was cloned into pMOSBlue and sequenced. The secondary structure prediction tool PSIPRED was used to calculate alpha helices and beta strand contents of the predicted polypeptide. The hydrophobicity profile was calculated using the algorithms from the Hopp and Woods method, in addition to identification of potential MHC class-I binding regions in the antigens. Pair-wise alignment revealed that the similarity between Bm86 Campo Grande strain and Bm86 is 0.2% higher than that between Bm86 Campo Grande strain and Bm95 antigens. The identities were 96.5% and 96.3% respectively. Major suggestive differences in hydrophobicity were predicted among the sequences in two specific regions. PMID:18823577

  2. Boophilus microplus: estado actual de la resistencia a los acaricidas en la frontera México Estados Unidos y su impacto en la relación comercial

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Ramón González Sáenz Pardo; Rubén Hernández Ortiz

    2012-01-01

    Se aborda la importancia de las exportaciones de ganado bovino en pie a los Estados Unidos de América, destacando el valor comercial que representa para México la entrada de divisas por 700 millones USD anuales por este concepto. La comercialización de ganado se ve frenada por barreras no arancelarias, tales como la tuberculosis (TB), brucelosis y las garrapatas. Se ha formado un grupo binacional de expertos para tratar estos temas. En el tema de garrapatas se han establecido sistemas de cola...

  3. The penultimate arginine of the carboxy terminus determines slow desensitisation in a P2X receptor from the cattle tick Boophilus microplus

    Science.gov (United States)

    P2X ion channels have been functionally characterised from a range of eukaryotes. Whilst these receptors can be broadly classified into fast and slow desensitising, the molecular mechanisms underlying current desensitisation are not fully understood. Here we describe the characterisation of a P2X ch...

  4. Assessing bovine babesiosis in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus ticks and 3 to 9-month-old cattle in the middle Magdalena region, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ríos-Tobón

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Babesia sp. is a protozoan hemoparasite that affects livestock worldwide. The Colombian Middle Magdalena is an enzootic region for babesiosis, but there is no previous research providing detail on its transmission cycle. This study aims to assess some Babesia sp. infection indicators in cattle and ticks from the area, by using direct microscopic and molecular techniques to detect the infection. In the cattle, 59.9% and 3.4 % positivity values for B. bigemina and mixed infection (B. bovis + B. bigemina were found respectively. In ticks, the positivity of B. bigemina reached 79.2% and 9.4% for the mixed infection. The degree of infestation in the region was 3.2 ticks per bovine. There was positive correlation between tick control acaricide frequencies and infestation in bovines. This leads us to infer that control periodicity greater than 90 days, in stable zones, is an abiotic factor that benefits the acquisition of protective immunity in calves, the natural control of the infection and eventual disease absence. It is necessary to monitor the disease by applying new entomological and parasitological indicators showing the complexity of this phenomenon.

  5. Non-Classical Gluconeogenesis-Dependent Glucose Metabolism in Rhipicephalus microplus Embryonic Cell Line BME26

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    Renato Martins da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we evaluated several genes involved in gluconeogenesis, glycolysis and glycogen metabolism, the major pathways for carbohydrate catabolism and anabolism, in the BME26 Rhipicephalus microplus embryonic cell line. Genetic and catalytic control of the genes and enzymes associated with these pathways are modulated by alterations in energy resource availability (primarily glucose. BME26 cells in media were investigated using three different glucose concentrations, and changes in the transcription levels of target genes in response to carbohydrate utilization were assessed. The results indicate that several genes, such as glycogen synthase (GS, glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK, and glucose-6 phosphatase (GP displayed mutual regulation in response to glucose treatment. Surprisingly, the transcription of gluconeogenic enzymes was found to increase alongside that of glycolytic enzymes, especially pyruvate kinase, with high glucose treatment. In addition, RNAi data from this study revealed that the transcription of gluconeogenic genes in BME26 cells is controlled by GSK-3. Collectively, these results improve our understanding of how glucose metabolism is regulated at the genetic level in tick cells.

  6. Avaliação in vitro da ação do óleo essencial de capim limão (Cymbopogon citratus) sobre o carrapato bovino Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus In vitro evaluation of the action of lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    OpenAIRE

    F.C.C. Santos; F.S.F Vogel

    2012-01-01

    O uso indiscriminado de produtos químicos no controle do carrapato bovino constitui a principal causa do gradativo aumento do número de cepas resistentes deste parasita às bases disponíveis no mercado. A utilização de óleos essenciais e extratos vegetais é uma prática antiga no controle de carrapatos, porém só recentemente tem recebido a devida atenção dos pesquisadores. O objetivo deste experimento foi avaliar a eficácia in vitro do óleo de capim limão (Cymbopogon citratus) sobre fêmeas ingu...

  7. Comparison of predicted binders in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus intestine protein variants BM86 Campo Grande strain, BM86 and BM95 Comparação da previsão de ligação das variantes de proteína de intestino de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus Bm86 cepa Campo Grande, Bm86 e Bm95

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Andreotti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the sequence analysis of Bm86 Campo Grande strain comparing it with Bm86 and Bm95 antigens from the preparations TickGardPLUS and GavacTM, respectively. The PCR product was cloned into pMOSBlue and sequenced. The secondary structure prediction tool PSIPRED was used to calculate alpha helices and beta strand contents of the predicted polypeptide. The hydrophobicity profile was calculated using the algorithms from the Hopp and Woods method, in addition to identification of potential MHC class-I binding regions in the antigens. Pair-wise alignment revealed that the similarity between Bm86 Campo Grande strain and Bm86 is 0.2% higher than that between Bm86 Campo Grande strain and Bm95 antigens. The identities were 96.5% and 96.3% respectively. Major suggestive differences in hydrophobicity were predicted among the sequences in two specific regions.O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a seqüência de Bm86 cepa Campo Grande comparando-a com os antígenos Bm86 e Bm95 das preparações TickGardPLUS e GavacTM, respectivamente. O produto de PCR foi clonado em PMOSBlue e seqüenciado. Para calcular os conteúdos de alfa-hélice e fita beta do polipeptídio previsto, foi utilizada a ferramenta de prognóstico de estrutura secundária PSIPRED. O perfil de hidrofobicidade foi calculado usando os algoritmos de Hopp e Woods, além da identificação das possíveis regiões de ligação com MHC classe I nos antígenos. O alinhamento "pair-wise" revelou que a similaridade entre Bm86 cepa Campo Grande e Bm86 é 0,2% maior que aquela entre Bm86 cepa Campo Grande e Bm95. As identidades foram de 96,5% e 96,3%, respectivamente. Com relação à hidrofobicidade, os resultados sugerem que a maior diferença entre as seqüências está localizada em duas regiões específicas.

  8. Comparison of predicted binders in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus intestine protein variants BM86 Campo Grande strain, BM86 and BM95 Comparação da previsão de ligação das variantes de proteína de intestino de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Bm86 cepa Campo Grande, Bm86 e Bm95

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Andreotti; Marisela S. Pedroso; Caetano, Alexandre R; Natália F. Martins

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the sequence analysis of Bm86 Campo Grande strain comparing it with Bm86 and Bm95 antigens from the preparations TickGardPLUS and GavacTM, respectively. The PCR product was cloned into pMOSBlue and sequenced. The secondary structure prediction tool PSIPRED was used to calculate alpha helices and beta strand contents of the predicted polypeptide. The hydrophobicity profile was calculated using the algorithms from the Hopp and Woods method, in addition to identification of po...

  9. Influence of grooming on Rhipicephalus microplus tick infestation and serum cortisol rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ferreira Pessoa

    2012-12-01

    chamber and necklace did not affect the cortisol level, although they had prevented grooming. Consequently, animals with the artifacts had more ticks than the ones with no artifacts (34.56% versus 14.9% tick recovery rate, P< 0.05. The last blood sample collection had revealed an increase on the cortisol level, coinciding with the final parasitic life cycle of R. microplus (Table 1. No significant correlation were detected between cortisol levels and the tick recovery rate. Grooming is important to decrease the cattle tick infestation, but its limitation presented in this study, did not elevate the serum cortisol level, related to animal stress.

  10. Sequence variation of Bm86 in cattle fever ticks isolated from outbreaks in south Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prevalence of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus cattle infestations have significantly expanded beyond the original quarantine zone established in south Texas as part of the Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program. Major obstacles for containment of ticks...

  11. An update on distribution models for Rhipicephalus microplus in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva M. De Clercq

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, which reached the West African region approximately 8 years ago, has established viable populations in Côte d’Ivoire and Benin and spread rapidly from the assumed points of introduction. However, existing maps of its distribution range do not agree on the areas at risk, most probably due to suboptimal modelling approaches. Therefore, we undertook a re-investigation of the potential distribution range based on a high-quality dataset from West Africa that includes information on 104 farms located all over Benin. Focussing on climate suitability and applying advanced modelling, a subset of representative and uncorrelated climate variables was selected and fed into Maxent software to obtain an estimate of climate suitability for West Africa. The resulting map was validated using an independent dataset of 13 farms along the apparent distribution edge. The entire southern part of West Africa (covering southern Nigeria, Benin, Togo and Ghana features high climate suitability for R. microplus. All of Côte d’Ivoire is inside the distribution range of this tick and the southern rim of Burkina Faso is expected to be suitable for the establishment of R. microplus populations. The validation of the distribution, dated one year after the initial field visit, confirmed the predicted distribution range, although a small number of individuals of R. microplus were found north of the predicted limit. These low numbers might indicate that the climate is not suitable for the establishment of a viable tick population. An alternative explanation is the recent introduction by nomadic cattle herds passing through this location. In this region of the world, it is quite common for cattle owners to lead their livestock over distances of more than 500 km in search of food and water.

  12. Acaricidal activity of synthesized titanium dioxide nanoparticles using Calotropis gigantea against Rhipicephalus microplus and Haemaphysalis bispinosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sampath; Marimuthu; Abdul; Abdul; Rahuman; Chidambaram; Jayaseelan; Arivarasan; Vishnu; Kirthi; Thirunavukkarasu; Santhoshkumar; Kanayairam; Velayutham; Asokan; Bagavan; Chinnaperumal; Kamaraj; Gandhi; Elango; Moorthy; Iyappan; Chinnadurai; Siva; Loganathan; Karthik; Kokati; Venkata; Bhaskara; Rao

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To assess the acaricidal activity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles(TiO2 NPs)synthesized from flower aqueous extract of Calotropis gigantea(C.gigantea)against the larvae of Rhipicephalus(Boophilus)microplus[R.(B.)microplus]and the adult of Haemaphrysalis bispinosa(H.bispinosa).Methods:The lyophilized C.gigantea flower aqueous extract of 50 mg was added with 100 mL of TiO(OH2)(10 mM)and magnetically stirred for 6 h.Synthesized TiO2 NPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction(XRD).Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR),Scanning electron microscopy(SEM),and Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy(EDX).The synthesised TiO2 NPs were tested against the larvae of R(B.)microplus and adult of H.bispinosa were exposed to filter paper impregnated method.Results:XRD confirmed the crystalline nature of the nanoparticles with the mean size of 10.52 nm.The functional groups for synthesized TiO2NPs were 1405.19,and 1053.45 cm-1for-NH2 bending,primary amines and amides and 1053.84and 1078.45 cm-1for C-O.SEM micrographs of the synthesized TiO2 NPs showed the aggregated and spherical in shape.The maximum efficacy was observed in the aqueous flower extract of C.gigantea and synthesized TiO2 NPs against R.(B.)microplus(LC50=24.63 and 5.43 mg/L and r2=0.960 and 0.988)and against H.bispinosa(LC50=35.22 and 9.15 mg/L and r2=0.969 and 0.969).respectively.Conclusions:The synthesized TiO2 NPs were highly stable and had significant acaricidal activity against the larvae of R.(B.)microplus and adult of H.bispinosa.This study provides the first report of synthesized TiO2 NPs and possessed excellent anti-parasitic activity.

  13. Functional genomics studies of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus ticks in response to infection with the cattle protozoan parasite, Babesia bigemina

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antunes, S.; Galindo, R. C.; Almazán, C.; Rudenko, Natalia; Golovchenko, Maryna; Grubhoffer, Libor; Shkap, V.; do Rosário, A.; de la Fuente, J.; Domingos, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 2 (2012), s. 187-195. ISSN 0020-7519 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Tick * Genomics * Babesia * Rhipicephalus * Boophilus * RNA interference * Vaccine Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.637, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0020751912000033

  14. Prevalence of Resistant Strains of Rhipicephalus microplus to Acaricides in Cattle Ranch in the Tropical Region of Tecpan of Galeana, Guerrero, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Olivares-Pérez*, S. Rojas-Hernández, M.T. Valencia-Almazan, I. Gutiérrez-Segura and E.J. Míreles-Martínez

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Tick and tick borne diseases cause many problems to the cattle industry worldwide. The prevalence of resistant strains of Rhipicephalus microplus to different acaricides on cattle farms in the tropical region of Tecpan of Galeana, Guerrero, Mexico, and risk factors related to prevalence of resistant strains of R. microplus. Sixty one ranches infested were sampled; in each ranch were collected 30-50 fully-engorged female R. microplus ticks, of 10 cattle randomly selected, and evaluated in their progeny resistance to acaricides, using the larval packet test. The prevalence of resistant strains was total pyrethroids and amitraz. In organophosphorus 31.1, 48.3 and 82.2% of strains were resistant to clorpyriphos, coumaphos and diazinon, respectively. Risk factors favored (P<0.05 the development of resistant strains of acaricides. We concluded that the resistance of R. microplus to acaricides used to control a problem, and risk factors (livestock management have accelerated the development of resistance.

  15. Evaluation of tea tree oil for controlling Rhipicephalus microplus in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazinatto Boito, Jhonatan; Santos, Roberto C; Vaucher, Rodrigo A; Raffin, Renata; Machado, Gustavo; Tonin, Alexandre A; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2016-07-30

    Our research aimed to test the effects of Melaleuca alternifolia oil (pure and in nanocapsules) in the control of Rhipicephalus microplus in dairy cattle. For this purpose, the in vivo studies used 15 cows distributed in three different groups with the same number of animals. Five cows remained untreated (Group A), representing the control group; other five cows were sprayed with TTO (at 5%) in its pure form (Group B); and five cows were sprayed with nanocapsules of TTO (at 0.75%) (Group C). On days 1 and 4 post-treatments (PT), all cows had their ticks counted. On day 1 PT, two ticks from each cow were collected to evaluate the effect of the treatment on ticḱs reproduction (in vitro assays). The pure form of TTO caused a significant reduction (P0.05). Treatment with TTO in nanocapsules (Group C) interfered with R. microplus reproduction, leading to lower oviposition by female ticks and hatchability (34.5% of efficacy). On the other hand, TTO oil (Group B) did not interfere on ticḱs reproduction, i.e. showed higher hatchability than the control group. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that pure TTO has an acaricidal effect in dairy cows, in addition to an effect on ticḱs reproduction when used its nanocapsulated form. PMID:27369577

  16. The known distribution and ecological preferences of the tick subgenus Boophilus (Acari : Ixodidae) in Africa and Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    A compilation of the known distribution of Boophilus ticks in Africa and Latin America is presented, together with details on climate preferences. B. annulatus is recorded mainly in the western part of a strip from the equator to parallel 20 degrees N. It associates with woodlands and forests (lowland rain forest and secondary grassland). This species is also present in the Mediterranean region, associated to woodland and open areas. B. decoloratus extends southern to parallel 20 degrees N, i...

  17. Partial selective treatment of Rhipicephalus microplus and breed resistance variation in beef cows in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molento, Marcelo Beltrão; Fortes, Fernanda Silva; Buzatti, Andréia; Kloster, Fernando Staude; Sprenger, Lew Kan; Coimbra, Eliane; Soares, Luis Dorneles

    2013-02-18

    Rhipicephalus microplus infestation causes heavy losses in cattle. The majority of farmers control the cattle tick by using long-acting drugs throughout the year, which evidently increases selection pressure for drug resistance. Partial selective treatment (PST) may be used to directly reduce selection pressure by treating only the portion of the herd that is most infested. The objective of this work was to determine the effect of PST in two herds of beef cows and the effect of breed tolerance. The Santiago (n=306 animals) and the São Francisco de Assis (n=204 animals) herds were composed of up to eight pure breeds of Bos taurus and Bos indicus and their crosses and were evaluated during the first and second (8 months) tick generations. Ticks larger than 4.5mm were counted on one side of the animal, and the animals were treated when numbers exceeded 20 ticks per host. On both farms, the tick-tolerant breeds with a high proportion of B. indicus (Braford, Brangus, and Nellore) consistently carried fewer ticks than Charolais. The economical evaluation showed an average profit margin in the use of PST of 674.25% and 1394.5% on the Santiago and São Francisco de Assis farms, respectively, in comparison to all-herd treatment. These results indicate that PST is a reliable tool for health management and may be used as a standard protocol for tick control with significant economic benefits on farms. In addition, the maintenance of the highest possible tolerant/resilient breeds is also an essential factor that should be considered in today's more sustainable animal production systems. PMID:23219046

  18. Injectable fipronil for cattle: Plasma disposition and efficacy against Rhipicephalus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, Yara P; Ferreira, Thais P; Magalhães, Viviane S; Correia, Thais R; Scott, Fábio B

    2016-04-15

    Fipronil is a phenylpyrazole class insecticide. It is widely used as an insecticide in agriculture and in the control of ectoparasites in veterinary medicine. The application of fipronil in an injectable form (subcutaneously) becomes an innovation, since there is no commercially available preparation containing fipronil herein. The present study aimed at fipronil usage, applied subcutaneously in cattle, to control Rhipicephalus microplus. The assessing criteria used in the research have been the construction of the plasma concentration curve and efficacy studies. A method using High Performance Liquid Chromatograph with ultraviolet detection was developed for determination of fipronil in bovine plasma samples, providing a fast and simple process with good reproducibility and low limit of quantification. The validation of the analytical method showed linearity, selectivity, precision, accuracy, sensitivity and stability, thus proving it as suitable for routine analysis. This method showed to be an important investigative tool in the analysis of fipronil plasma concentration in cattle. Fipronil administered via subcutaneous in bovine reached the systemic circulation (Cmax=378.06±137.44 ng/mL), was quickly absorbed (t(max)=10±0.87 h), and its elimination occurred slowly (t(1/2)=12 days), while maintaining quantifiable blood plasma levels (23.79±12.16 ng/mL) for up to 21 days after the treatment with a 1 mg/kg dosage. The in vivo efficacy tests proved that fipronil applied subcutaneously in a single dose of 1 mg/kg in cattle exhibited a mean efficacy of 82.41% against R. microplus. The potential of subcutaneous injection as an alternative treatment route in cattle encourage the development of an injectable formulation of fipronil. PMID:26995714

  19. Cytotoxic effects of extract of Acmella oleraceae (Jambú) in Rhipicephalus microplus females ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Patrícia Rosa; de Carvalho Castro, Karina Neoob; Anholeto, Luis Adriano; Camargo Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2016-08-01

    The present study analyzed the effects of different concentrations of the hexane extract of A. oleraceae (HEAO) (Jambú) on the germ cells of semi-engorged Rhipicephalus microplus female ticks, through a morpho-histological study, evaluating the effectiveness of the extract in the genesis of the individuals. To perform this analysis, 100 semi-engorged females were divided into five groups with 20 individuals each: groups I and II, respectively constituted by distilled water control and 50% ethanol + 1% DMSO, and groups III, IV, and V constituted by treatment with HEAO in the concentrations of 12.5, 25.0 and 50.0 mg/mL, respectively. All the ticks were immersed in the different concentrations of the extract or in distilled water for 5 minutes, dried and conditioned in BOD incubator for 7 days. The individuals of the treatment groups revealed the action of this extract showing alterations in the germ cells of the females from the different groups when compared with those from the groups I and II (control groups). These alterations were mainly related to the size and shape of the oocytes; number of yolk granules; presence, number, size and location of vacuoles in the cytoplasm of all the germ cells; and the presence of nuclear alterations in these cells as well. Thus, it was demonstrated that the concentrations of HEAO affected the germ cells of R. microplus ticks. The effects of the extract are similar to those caused by renowned and efficient chemical products used to control these ticks. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:744-753, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27271726

  20. Growing hairs in shorn cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Cecília José Veríssimo; Selma D'Agostino; Fernanda Pessoa; Luciandra Macedo Toledo; Keila Maria Roncato Duarte

    2013-01-01

    The shearing operation can provide double benefits to the cattle: they can become more heat tolerant and the tick infestation decreases. The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus causes great losses to dairy cattle, especially to the Holstein cattle because they are very susceptible to this tick. Its control is becoming each day more difficult, owing to the increasing resistance to acaricides they are acquiring. The objective of this work was to study the growing of haircoat followi...

  1. Identification of Tropomyosin and Its Immunological Properties from Larvae of Cattle Tick, Boophilus Annulatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Nabian

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Boophilus annulatus is an obligate blood feeder tick that can cause great losses in animals due to anemia and its ability to injure its host skin directly. The aim of this study was identification of cattle humoral immune response to some tick proteins during experimental infestation.Methods: Immune sera against tick were collected from experimentally infested cattle with ticks. One and two-dimensional electrophoresis and Western blotting methods were used for the detection of immunogenic proteins in larval tick extract and eight of these proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF and MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometry.Results: In non-reducing one-dimensional SDS- PAGE, some bounds between 12 to more than 250-kDa appeared. In two-dimensional SDS-PAGE, numerous spot appeared and the identified immuno­genic proteins by parallel immunoblotting weighted between 14 and 97 kDa. Amino acid sequences of protein spot with 37-kDa molecular weight had identity to tropomyosin based on Mas­cot search in NCBI.Conclusion: Anti tropomyosin antibodies can be induced in experimentally infested hosts with ticks and it seems that tropomyosin can be useful for the development of anti tick vaccines.

  2. Immunity against Boophilus annulatus induced by the Bm86 (Tick-GARD) vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipano, Eugene; Alekceev, Eugene; Galker, Felicia; Fish, Lea; Samish, Michael; Shkap, Varda

    2003-01-01

    Friesian cattle were immunized with two inoculations of anti-tick Bm86 (Tick-GARD) vaccine and were challenged 30 or 90 d later with Boophilus annulatus larvae derived from 1.2 g of eggs. No nymphs or adult ticks were found on the immunized cattle during four weeks after challenge. Repeated infestations (2 to 4) with larvae on three other calves during a period of 160 and 390 d after the immunization did not result in development of nymphal and adult stages. In control, non-immunized cattle infested with corresponding batches of larvae 1380 to 4653 replete adult female ticks were collected. Larvae issued from Babesia bovis-infected female ticks transmitted the infection to Bm86-immunized cattle, but the progeny of B. bigemina-infected females did not. Since B. bigemina is transmitted exclusively by nymphal stages of Bo. annulatus these results support the observation that immunity induced by Bm86 affects the larval stage of this tick. PMID:14580066

  3. 微小牛蜱Bm86基因的原核表达与表达条件的优化%Prokaryotic Expression of Bm86 Gene of Boophilus microplus and Optimization of the Expression Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马米玲; 关贵全; 李有全; 刘爱红; 任巧云; 牛庆丽; 殷宏; 罗建勋

    2009-01-01

    根据微小牛蜱Bin86基因序列设计引物,在重组质粒pMD18-T-Bin86中克隆,并将其定向亚克隆入原核表达载体pGEX-4T-1,转化至大肠埃希菌BL21(DE3)株,用不同浓度异丙基-β-D-硫代半乳糖苷(IPTG)在不同时间进行诱导表达.十二烷基硫酸钠-聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳(SDS-PAGE)检测结果表明,37℃条件下经1 mmol/L IPTG诱导8 h后,目的 重组蛋白表达量最大,表达相对分子质量(Mr)约为94000的包涵体蛋白,与预期大小一致,目的 蛋白约占蛋白总量的29%.蛋白质印迹(Western blotting)分析表明,该重组蛋白可被兔抗微小牛蜱全蜱阳性血清所识别.

  4. Cloning of Bm86 gene of Boophilus microplus and construction of recombinant expression vector%微小牛蜱Bm86基因的克隆及真核表达载体的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文卉; 任巧云; 殷宏; 罗建勋; 刘磊; 党志胜; 高金亮; 关贵全; 刘志杰; 刘爱红; 马米玲

    2005-01-01

    为了克隆微小牛蜱Bm86基因及构建该基因的表达载体,以微小牛蜱饥饿幼蜱的破解物提取的总RNA为模板,参照已发表的微小牛蜱Bm86基因的核苷酸序列,设计了1对引物,采用 RT-PCR技术获得微小牛蜱Bm86基因;将Bm86基因克隆入载体,并进行序列分析,结果证明,克隆的Bm86基因序列与GenBank上登录的Bm86基因序列的同源性达97.4%,而且该序列包含完整的开放阅读框.将该基因克隆入真核表达载体pPIC9K,构建并获得了重组真核表达载体pPIC9K-Bm86.

  5. Cloning and expression of Bm86 gene of Boophilus microplus in E.coli%微小牛蜱Bm86基因的克隆与原核表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊瑞泉; 任巧云; 刘爱红; 罗建勋; 杨孝朴; 殷宏; 高金亮; 关贵全; 刘志杰; 党志胜; 马米玲

    2007-01-01

    根据已发表的Bm86基因序列,设计表达型引物,利用RT-PCR技术,从微小牛蜱饥饿幼蜱的研磨物中扩增Bm86基因,将PCR产物连入pGEM-T Easy载体,构建重组克隆载体pGEM-T easy-Bm86.测序分析表明:克隆的微小牛蜱Bm86基因序列与GenBank上登录的Bm86基因的核苷酸和氨基酸序列的同源性分别为97 %和95.6 %.然后对重组克隆载体pGEM-T easy-Bm86进行双酶切,获得带有粘性末端的Bm86基因片段,并将此片段定向亚克隆入原核表达载体pGEX-4T-1,构建重组原核表达载体pGEX-4T-1-Bm86,将其转化到BL21宿主菌中,用IPTG进行诱导表达.SDS-PAGE检测表明表达产物为分子量为88Ku的融合蛋白,目的蛋白约占蛋白总量的39 %,表达量约为1.08mg/mL.Western blot分析表明此表达产物能被兔抗微小牛蜱阳性血清所识别.

  6. Toxicity of Neem Seed Oil against the Larvae of Boophilus decoloratus, A One-Host Tick In Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhury, M. K.

    2009-01-01

    The in vitro toxicity of neem seed oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, family: Meliaceae, Dogon yaro in Hausa language in Nigeria) was tested against the larvae of a one-host tick, Boophilus decoloratus (family: Ixodidae or hard tick, commonly known as blue tick) parasitic mainly to cattle generally found in savannas of tropical equatorial Africa. The 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% concentrations of neem seed oil were found to kill all (100% mortality) the larvae after 27, 27, 27, 27 and 24 h respectiv...

  7. Toxicity of neem seed oil against the larvae of Boophilus decoloratus, a one-host tick in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choudhury M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro toxicity of neem seed oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, family: Meliaceae, Dogon yaro in Hausa language in Nigeria was tested against the larvae of a one-host tick, Boophilus decoloratus (family: Ixodidae or hard tick, commonly known as blue tick parasitic mainly to cattle generally found in savannas of tropical equatorial Africa. The 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% concentrations of neem seed oil were found to kill all (100% mortality the larvae after 27, 27, 27, 27 and 24 h respectively.

  8. Toxicity of Neem Seed Oil against the Larvae of Boophilus decoloratus, A One-Host Tick In Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, M K

    2009-09-01

    The in vitro toxicity of neem seed oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, family: Meliaceae, Dogon yaro in Hausa language in Nigeria) was tested against the larvae of a one-host tick, Boophilus decoloratus (family: Ixodidae or hard tick, commonly known as blue tick) parasitic mainly to cattle generally found in savannas of tropical equatorial Africa. The 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% concentrations of neem seed oil were found to kill all (100% mortality) the larvae after 27, 27, 27, 27 and 24 h respectively. PMID:20502579

  9. EFICACIA DE LA MEZCLA DE DOS CEPAS DE Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) PARA EL CONTROL DE Rhipicephalus microplus EN INFESTACIONES NATURALES EN BOVINOS

    OpenAIRE

    Uriel Jesús Rodríguez-Alcocer; Roger Iván Rodríguez-Vivas; Melina Maribel Ojeda-Chi; Edelmira Galindo-Velasco; Roberto Lezama-Gutiérrez

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la eficacia de Metarhizium anisopliae para el control de Rhipicephalus microplus en ganado bovino infestado naturalmente. El estudio se realizó en una unidad de producción de ganado bovino ubicada en el trópico Mexicano. Se formaron dos grupos de 10 bovinos basado en el número de garrapatas R. microplus adultas y fases juveniles (larvas y ninfas). Los animales del grupo tratado (promedio de 73.4 y 27.5 garrapatas adultas y juveniles respectivamente...

  10. Control de Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) mediante el uso del hongo entomopatógeno Metarhizium anisopliae (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae). Revisión

    OpenAIRE

    Melina Maribel Ojeda-Chi; Roger Ivan Rodríguez-Vivas; Edelmira Galindo-Velasco; Roberto Lezama-Gutiérrez; Carlos Cruz-Vázquez

    2011-01-01

    Las infestaciones de la garrapata del ganado, Rhipicephalus microplus, producen el mayor problema global de ectoparásitos en ganado de regiones tropicales y subtropicales, provocan importantes pérdidas económicas en la producción de carne, leche y pieles, además incrementan los gastos derivados de los programas de control, y son capaces de transmitir Babesia bovis, B. bigemina y Anaplasma marginale. El control de R. microplus se basa principalmente en el uso de ixodicidas, sin embargo, su uso...

  11. The host status of African buffaloes, Syncerus caffer, for Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G. Horak

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the host status of African buffaloes, Syncerus caffer, for the one-host tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus. To this end the R. (B. decoloratus burdens of ten buffaloes examined in three north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal Province (KZN nature reserves were compared with those of medium-sized to large antelope species in these reserves and in the southern Kruger National Park (KNP, Mpumalanga Province. The R. (B. decoloratus burdens of the buffaloes were considerably smaller than those of the antelopes in the KNP, but not those in the KZN reserves. The life-stage structure of the R. (B. decoloratus populations on the buffaloes, in which larvae predominated, was closer to that of this tick on blue wildebeest, Connochaetes taurinus, a tick-resistant animal, than to that on other antelopes. A single buffalo examined in the KNP was not infested with R. (B. decoloratus, whereas a giraffe, Giraffa camelopardalis, examined at the same locality and time, harboured a small number of ticks. In a nature reserve in Mpumalanga Province adjacent to the KNP, two immobilized buffaloes, from which only adult ticks were collected, were not infested with R. (B. decoloratus, whereas greater kudus, Tragelaphus strepsiceros, examined during the same time of year in the KNP harboured large numbers of adult ticks of this species. African buffaloes would thus appear to be resistant to infestation with R. (B. decoloratus, and this resistance is expressed as the prevention of the majority of tick larvae from developing to nymphs.

  12. High resolution predictive mapping of Rhipicephalus microplus and R. annulatus in south Texas after vaccination with the anti-tick vaccine Gavac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conventional anti-tick vaccines based on the tick gut antigen Bm86 exist commercially (TickGARD and Gavac) and could serve as an alternative to the use of acaricides to eradicate ticks, but their level of efficacy against R. microplus is too low for eradication if used alone. Therefore, the current ...

  13. In Vitro Evaluation of Ethanolic Extracts of Ageratum conyzoides and Artemisia absinthium against Cattle Tick, Rhipicephalus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Parveen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro efficacy of ethanolic extracts obtained from the aerial parts of Ageratum conyzoides and Artemisia absinthium was assessed on Rhipicephalus microplus using adult immersion test (AIT. Five concentrations of the extract (1.25%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%, and 20% with three replications for each concentration were used in the bioassay. In AIT, the maximum mortality was recorded as 40% and 66.7% at 20% concentration for A. conyzoides and A. absinthium, respectively. Acaricidal activity was found to be higher in the extract of A. absinthium with LC50 and LC95 values of 11.2% and 61.7%, respectively. Egg mass weight of the live ticks treated with different concentrations of the extracts was significantly (P<0.05 lower than that of control ticks; consequently, the reproductive index and oviposition values of the treated ticks were reduced significantly (P<0.05. The A. conyzoides inhibited 90% hatching of eggs at the 20% concentration, whereas A. absinthium showed 100% inhibition at 5%, 10%, and 20% concentrations. The results show that A. absinthium has better acaricidal properties than A. conyzoides and could be useful in controlling R. microplus.

  14. Characterisation of divergent flavivirus NS3 and NS5 protein sequences detected in Rhipicephalus microplus ticks from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Maruyama

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Transcripts similar to those that encode the nonstructural (NS proteins NS3 and NS5 from flaviviruses were found in a salivary gland (SG complementary DNA (cDNA library from the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. Tick extracts were cultured with cells to enable the isolation of viruses capable of replicating in cultured invertebrate and vertebrate cells. Deep sequencing of the viral RNA isolated from culture supernatants provided the complete coding sequences for the NS3 and NS5 proteins and their molecular characterisation confirmed similarity with the NS3 and NS5 sequences from other flaviviruses. Despite this similarity, phylogenetic analyses revealed that this potentially novel virus may be a highly divergent member of the genus Flavivirus. Interestingly, we detected the divergent NS3 and NS5 sequences in ticks collected from several dairy farms widely distributed throughout three regions of Brazil. This is the first report of flavivirus-like transcripts in R. microplus ticks. This novel virus is a potential arbovirus because it replicated in arthropod and mammalian cells; furthermore, it was detected in a cDNA library from tick SGs and therefore may be present in tick saliva. It is important to determine whether and by what means this potential virus is transmissible and to monitor the virus as a potential emerging tick-borne zoonotic pathogen.

  15. Toxicity of neem seed oil against the larvae of Boophilus decoloratus, a one-host tick in cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhury M

    2009-01-01

    The in vitro toxicity of neem seed oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, family: Meliaceae, Dogon yaro in Hausa language in Nigeria) was tested against the larvae of a one-host tick, Boophilus decoloratus (family: Ixodidae or hard tick, commonly known as blue tick) parasitic mainly to cattle generally found in savannas of tropical equatorial Africa. The 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% concentrations of neem seed oil were found to kill all (100% mortality) the larvae after 27, 27, 27, 27 and ...

  16. Distribution of cattle fever tick infestations detected in the U.S. along the Texas/Mexico border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Species identification and coordinates of geographical premises for infestations of cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus (Say) and R. (B.) microplus (Canestrini) were determined for 782 specimens submitted to the National Veterinary Services Laboratory during the eleven years betw...

  17. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U01650-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 8.g Rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus B... 34 2.0 3 ( FG285891 ) 1108770704094 New World Screwworm Egg 926...nosize Bicyclus anynan... 30 2.6 4 ( FG294764 ) 1108770717863 New World Screwworm

  18. Filiform papilla of holstein’s tongue and its relation with the Rhipicephalus microplus tick resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília José Veríssimo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Several studies describe anatomical, morphological and histological analysis of domestic and wild animals tongue. The tongue is an extendable muscular organ that performs gripping, chewing, and swallowing food actions and executes tasting and mechanical body self-cleaning functions (grooming. The distribution of these tongue characteristics may vary, according to different species, but studies made with different animals classes reveal the filiform papilla acting in mechanical body cleaning function. In order to evaluate these mechanical functions, especially the self-cleaning one, we proposed to investigate filiform papillae length or its base dimensions would be related to the heifers resistance to Rhipicephalus microplus tick. Biopsies were performed in eight (8 Holstein heifers’ tongues, with a 6 mm diameter punch, in the anterior third of tongues, at the distance of 3 cm from its tip. The animals were anesthetized with xylazine hydrochloride 2%, a sedative, analgesic and muscle relaxant and received local anesthetic, hydrochloride 2.0 g lidocaine. After tissue removal, the local lesions received an ointment of triamcinolone acetonide, 1.0 mg g-1. The Holstein heifers were one year and half old and naturally infested with ticks in a paddock situated at “Instituto de Zootecnia”. We monitored their natural infestation by counting females ticks, greater than 4.5 mm, presents in every animal, in four weekly evaluations (from 8 to 28 December – 2011. These samples were submitted to technical process of fixation and dehydration (as required by in the scanning electron microscope study, in the laboratory NAP/MEPA - ESALQ-USP. The papillae were visualized and measured with the aid of the measurement tool between two points of the software in the scanning electron microscope Zeiss LEO 435VP. Statistically analyses were performed by the SPSSP 12.0 program in a complete randomized design. We employed the Oneway method for variance analysis to

  19. First report of fluazuron resistance in Rhipicephalus microplus: a field tick population resistant to six classes of acaricides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, José; Klafke, Guilherme Marcondes; Webster, Anelise; Dall'Agnol, Bruno; Scheffer, Ramon; Souza, Ugo Araújo; Corassini, Vivian Bamberg; Vargas, Rafael; dos Santos, Julsan Silveira; Martins, João Ricardo de Souza

    2014-03-17

    The control of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus is based mainly on the use of chemical acaricides, which has contributed to the emerging problem of selection of resistant tick populations. Currently, there are six main classes of acaricides commercially available in Brazil to control cattle ticks, with fluazuron, a tick growth regulator with acaricidal properties, being the only active ingredient with no previous reports of resistance. Ticks (designated the Jaguar strain) were collected in a beef cattle ranch located at Rio Grande do Sul state, Southern Brazil, after a complaint of fluazuron treatment failure. To characterise the resistance of this strain against acaricides, larval tests were performed and showed that the Jaguar strain was resistant to all of the drugs tested: cypermethrin (resistance ratio, RR=31.242), chlorpyriphos (RR=103.926), fipronil (RR=4.441), amitraz (RR=11.907) and ivermectin (3.081). A field trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of fluazuron treatment in heifers that had been experimentally infested with the Jaguar or a susceptible strain. Between 14 and 28 days after treatment, the average efficacy in cattle experimentally infested with the susceptible strain was 96%, while for the Jaguar strain the efficacy was zero. Additionally, the Jaguar strain response to fluazuron was evaluated in vitro using a modified adult immersion test (AIT) and the artificial feeding assay (AFA). With the AIT, 50 ppm of fluazuron inhibited 99% of larvae hatching in the susceptible strain (POA) and less than 50% in the Jaguar strain. Results of the AFA showed a larval hatching rate of 67% at 2.5 ppm of fluazuron with the Jaguar strain; conversely, only 3% of larvae of the susceptible strain hatched at the same fluazuron concentration. The results showed here demonstrated the first case of fluazuron resistance in R. microplus and the first tick population resistant to six classes of acaricides in Brazil. PMID:24560364

  20. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Acaricides Used to Control the Cattle Tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, in Dairy Herds Raised in the Brazilian Southwestern Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Luciana G; Barbieri, Fábio S; Rocha, Rodrigo B; Oliveira, Márcia C S; Ribeiro, Elisana Sales

    2011-01-01

    The adult immersion test (AIT) was used to evaluate the efficacy of acaricide molecules used for control of Rhipicephalus microplus on 106 populations collected in five municipalities in the state of Rondônia in the Brazilian South Occidental Amazon region. The analysis of the data showed that the acaricide formulations had different efficacies on the tick populations surveyed. The synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) acaricides were the least effective (48.35-76.84%), followed by SP + organophosphate (OP) associations (68.91-81.47%) and amidine (51.35-100%). For the macrocyclic lactones (MLs), the milbemycin (94.84-100%) was the most effective, followed by spinosad (93.21-100%) and the avermectins (81.34-100%). The phenylpyrazole (PZ) group had similar efficacy (99.90%) to the MLs. Therefore, SP acaricides, including associations with OP, and formulations based on amidine presented low in vitro efficacy to control the R. microplus populations surveyed. PMID:21547224

  1. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Acaricides Used to Control the Cattle Tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, in Dairy Herds Raised in the Brazilian Southwestern Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana G. Brito; Barbieri, Fábio S.; Rocha, Rodrigo B.; Márcia C. S. Oliveira; Ribeiro, Elisana Sales

    2011-01-01

    The adult immersion test (AIT) was used to evaluate the efficacy of acaricide molecules used for control of Rhipicephalus microplus on 106 populations collected in five municipalities in the state of Rondônia in the Brazilian South Occidental Amazon region. The analysis of the data showed that the acaricide formulations had different efficacies on the tick populations surveyed. The synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) acaricides were the least effective (48.35–76.84%), followed by SP + organophosphate...

  2. Eosinophils increase in animals that received biotherapic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gilberto Silva Morais

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dairy industry is an important Brazilian economic activity participating of income generation. European breeds cattle aren’t adapted to parasites found in the tropics, like the Rhipicephalus microplus tick. Parasites can acquire resistance to allopathic products, but not to homeopathic products. We evaluate the efficacy of an antiparasiticide biotherapic against the R. microplus tick. The biotherapic was prepared according to the homeopathic pharmacopoeia recommendations from vegetable (Abrotanum and animal products (Rhipicephalus microplus, Amblyomma cajenennense, Haematobia irritans, Musca domestica, Dermatobia hominis, all diluted and vigorous shaken (dynamized in water or alcohol at a ratio of 1:99, in the 12th Centesimal Hahnemann (CH12, with limestone as the carrier. This homeophatic product found in veterinary pharmacies of Ituiutaba’s region, Minas Gerais State, is registered at Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA. Natural tick infestation was accessed in thirty Girolando (Gir x Holstein cows with 7 to 13 year-old, by monthly counting of tick female bigger than 6 mm, from October/2009 to July/2011. Cows were divided in three groups of 10 similar animals. The treated group (T1 received roughage, concentrate and biotherapic. The placebo group (T2 received roughage, concentrate and limestone and the control group (T3 received only roughage and concentrate. T1 and T2 groups were managed together and remained in the same paddock. T3 group was separed from T1 and T2 by a wire fence. From October 2009 to September 2010 blood cell counts and serum biochemical tests were performed monthly only in T1 and T2, but visual clinical observations were made in all animals. Any group was treated with acaricide when the count’s average reached 50 or more ticks. It was necessary 7 baths with acaricide in T1 and T2, while in T3 group (control group it was necessary 19 acaricide baths to control the cattle tick. We verified

  3. Immunologic and molecular identification of Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina in free-ranging white-tailed deer in northern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The suitability of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as hosts for the cattle ticks Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus, has been well documented. These ticks have a wide host range, and both transmit Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina, the agents resp...

  4. Acaricidal Activity of Petroleum Ether Extract of Leaves of Tetrastigma leucostaphylum (Dennst. Alston against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus annulatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Adarsh Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The acaricidal activity of the petroleum ether extract of leaves of Tetrastigma leucostaphylum (Dennst. Alston (family: Vitaceae against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus annulatus was assessed using adult immersion test (AIT. The per cent of adult mortality, inhibition of fecundity, and blocking of hatching of eggs were studied at different concentrations. The extract at 10% concentration showed 88.96% inhibition of fecundity, 58.32% of adult tick mortality, and 50% inhibition of hatching. Peak mortality rate was observed after day 5 of treatment. Mortality of engorged female ticks, inhibition of fecundity, and hatching of eggs were concentration dependent. The LC50 value of the extract against R. (B. annulatus was 10.46%. The HPTLC profiling of the petroleum ether extract revealed the presence of at least seven polyvalent components. In the petroleum ether extract, nicotine was identified as one of the components up to a concentration of 5.4%. However, nicotine did not reveal any acaricidal activity up to 20000 ppm (2%. Coconut oil, used as diluent for dissolving the extract, did not reveal any acaricidal effects. The results are indicative of the involvement of synergistic or additive action of the bioactive components in the tick mortality and inhibition of the oviposition.

  5. Acaricidal activity of the organic extracts of thirteen South African plants against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouche, Gerda; Ramafuthula, Mary; Maselela, Vusi; Mokoena, Moses; Senabe, Jeremiah; Leboho, Tlabo; Sakong, Bellonah M; Adenubi, Olubukola T; Eloff, Jacobus N; Wellington, Kevin W

    2016-07-15

    The African blue tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, is a common tick species found in South Africa and affects cattle production as well as vectoring pathogens in regions of Africa and Asia. In an attempt to develop a non-toxic, lower cost and environmentally friendly tick control method, twenty-six plant extracts were prepared from thirteen plant species using 99.5% acetone and 99% ethanol. The adapted Shaw Larval Immersion Test (SLIT) was used to test the efficacy of the extracts. A 1% solution of each of the plant extracts was prepared for efficacy testing and the ethanol extracts were found to have better acaricidal activity than the acetone extracts. The ethanol extract from the leaves and flowers of Calpurnia aurea had the best activity [corrected mortality (CM)=82.9%] which was followed by the stem extract of Cissus quadrangularis (CM=80.4%). The plant species were screened against Vero cells and were found to have low toxicity. From this study it is apparent that there is potential for the development of botanicals as natural acaricides against R. (B.) decoloratus. PMID:27270388

  6. Mitigation of Resistance Through Mixtures of Traditional Pesticides, Anti-tick Vaccines, and New Acaricides Developed by the Pharmaceutical Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past 70 years, the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, has developed resistance to every acaricide available for its control. Recently, populations of R. microplus have evolved simultaneous resistance to multiple classes of acaricides. These multi-resistant population...

  7. The effects of a pour-on formulation of fluazuron 2.5 % and flumethrin 1 % on populations of Rhipicephalus decoloratus and Rhipicephalus microplus both on and off bovine (Bonsmara breed) hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourie, Josephus J; Liebenberg, Julian E; Nyangiwe, Nnkululeko; Austin, Clinton; Horak, Ivan G; Bhushan, Chandra

    2013-08-01

    The present study demonstrated the efficacy of a pour-on formulation of fluazuron 2.5 % and flumethrin 1 % (Drastic Deadline eXtreme®) against Rhipicephalus decoloratus and Rhipicephalus microplus on cattle on pasture previously grazed by experimentally infested animals. Six tick-free cattle were placed on the pasture and treated 7 days later (Day 0) with the pour-on. They were retreated on Days 63, 126 and 189 and monthly tick counts were done. Mean numbers of adult R. decoloratus and/or R. microplus decreased from 53 and 14 on Days 56 and 112 respectively to 2 or less on all other occasions including Day 254. Compared to the numbers of R. decoloratus and/or R. microplus larvae collected from vegetation in the previous year, larval numbers declined by 40.7 % on Day 28, and thereafter reduction remained between 84 % and 100 %. Pairs of tracer calves placed on the pasture for 7 days each month were then held in pens and adult ticks that detached collected. Reduction in the numbers of R. decoloratus collected from tracer animals was 75 % on Day 56 and remained above 93 % except for Day 224 when it temporarily decreased to 78.5 %. Reduction in the numbers of R. microplus was 97.5 % on Day 28 and remained above 98 % until the conclusion of the study on Day 254. Treatment with the pour-on formulation of fluazuron and flumethrin resulted in a marked decrease in the numbers of R. decoloratus and/or R. microplus on treated cattle followed by a reduction in the numbers of larvae questing on the vegetation and ticks picked up by tracer calves. No other potential host species for R. decoloratus and/or R. microplus were present in the camps. PMID:23749085

  8. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Acaricides Used to Control the Cattle Tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, in Dairy Herds Raised in the Brazilian Southwestern Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana G. Brito

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The adult immersion test (AIT was used to evaluate the efficacy of acaricide molecules used for control of Rhipicephalus microplus on 106 populations collected in five municipalities in the state of Rondônia in the Brazilian South Occidental Amazon region. The analysis of the data showed that the acaricide formulations had different efficacies on the tick populations surveyed. The synthetic pyrethroids (SPs acaricides were the least effective (48.35–76.84%, followed by SP + organophosphate (OP associations (68.91–81.47% and amidine (51.35–100%. For the macrocyclic lactones (MLs, the milbemycin (94.84–100% was the most effective, followed by spinosad (93.21–100% and the avermectins (81.34–100%. The phenylpyrazole (PZ group had similar efficacy (99.90% to the MLs. Therefore, SP acaricides, including associations with OP, and formulations based on amidine presented low in vitro efficacy to control the R. microplus populations surveyed.

  9. Loss of in vitro Efficacy of Topical Commercial Acaricides on Rhipicephalus microplus (Ixodida: Ixodidae) From Antioquian Farms, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerta, Jonathan M; Chaparro, Jenny J; Lopez-Arias, Anderson; Arroyave, Sara Arias; Villar, David

    2015-11-01

    In Antioquia, the problems to control Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini, 1888) tick infestations have spread and ranchers claim conventional treatments are no longer effective. In this study, the in vitro efficacy of commercial topical products was tested with ticks obtained from two dairy farms in Antioquia with severe repeated infestations. About 800 engorged ticks were collected directly from animals in two separate visits at the beginning and end of the same month. The adult immersion test was used, which exposed groups of 40 ticks from each collection at the recommended concentration for five commercial products and combinations for 5 min. Efficacy was determined by comparing the reproductive index (fecundity × fertility) of each treated group to that of the control group. The values of all reproductive parameters obtained with ticks from the two collection dates were very similar. Cypermethrin (150 ppm) and amitraz (208 ppm) separately showed very low efficacies of only 10-20% at one farm, and zero at the other. The combination of chlorpyrifos + cypermethrin was the only product with an efficacy >50% at both farms and field observations corroborated to be still capable of eliminating infestations. Exposure to fluazuron at concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 500 ppm for 1 min reduced fertility in all groups by ≥99%, as would be expected for very susceptible strains. However, reduction of oviposition only occurred at the 500 ppm concentration. In conclusion, there is a high degree of resistance to all products tested except for fluazuron. PMID:26336268

  10. Otters Increasing - Threats Increasing

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Kranz

    1994-01-01

    In some parts of Central Europe populations of otters are apparently increasing. Until recently, no research was being conducted on the ecology of otters in mainly artificial habitats like fish farms. Otters are not only a new source of conflict requiring species management, but appear once again threatened by illegal hunting. Austria is dealing with this problem using compensation for otter damage, electric fencing and translocation of problem otters. Despite a rise in illegal killing, Austr...

  11. 新疆南疆微小牛蜱Bm86/Bm91双基因原核表达载体的构建%Construction of Prokaryotic Expression Vector of Bm86 and Bm91 Dual Genes of Boophilus microplus in South Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代艳艳; 赵丽; 周桐; 罗福江; 周玉琴; 王帅; 刘永宏

    2014-01-01

    为构建微小牛蜱Bm86和Bm91双基因原核表达载体,以新疆生产建设兵团塔里木畜牧科技重点实验室获得的Bm86和Bm91克隆基因阳性菌或质粒DNA为模板,参照GenBank登录的微小牛蜱Bm86和Bm91基因序列和所用载体序列,设计可以扩增Bm86和Bm91基因完整阅读框架的引物,然后对新疆南疆微小牛蜱Bm86和Bm91基因进行PCR扩增、纯化、酶切后连接,构建双基因重组质粒pET-32a-Bm并鉴定.结果显示,成功构建Bm86和Bm91双基因重组质粒pET-32a-Bm,经测序鉴定和初始获得的Bm86和Bm91基因序列一致,未发生变异.

  12. Bm86 homologues and novel ATAQ proteins with multiple epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domains from hard and soft ticks ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Nijhof, Ard M; Balk, Jesper A.; Postigo, Milagros; Rhebergen, Anne Marie; Taoufik, Amar; Jongejan, Frans

    2010-01-01

    Tick control on livestock relies principally on the use of acaricides but the development of acaricide resistance and concerns for environmental pollution underscore the need for alternative control methods, for instance through the use of anti-tick vaccines. Two commercial vaccines based on the recombinant Bm86 protein from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks were developed. Partial protection of the Bm86 vaccine against other Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) and Hyalomma tick species suggest...

  13. Report on ticks collected in the Southeast and Mid-West regions of Brazil: analyzing the potential transmission of tick-borne pathogens to man

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo Luiz Tadeu Moraes; Badra Soraya Jabur; Pereira Luiz Eloy; Szabó Matias Pablo Juan

    1999-01-01

    Specimens of ticks were collected in 1993, 1996, 1997, and 1998, mostly from wild and domestic animals in the Southeast and Mid-West regions of Brazil. Nine species of Amblyommidae were identified: Anocentor nitens, Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma fulvum, Amblyomma striatum, Amblyomma rotundatum, Boophilus microplus, Boophilus annulatus, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The potential of these tick species as transmitters of pathogens to man was analyzed. A Flaviviridade Flavivir...

  14. Evidence for the role of white-tailed deer(Artiodactyla:Cervidae)in the epidemiology of cattle ticks and southern cattle ticks (Acari:Ixodidae)in reinfestations along the Texas/Mexico border in South Texas-A review and update

    Science.gov (United States)

    From 1907 when the fever tick eradication campaign began until 1933 the tick eradication methods of dipping cattle in an acaricide or "pasture vacation" were enormously successful in eradicating southern cattle ticks [SCT, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini)], until failures began to oc...

  15. Integration of ecologically-based approaches to re-eradicate cattle fever ticks from the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we summarize highlights of research conducted as part of a NIFA-AFRI funded grant. Cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. (B.) annulatus, have been found on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) complicating eradication efforts of the USDA’s Cattle Fever Tick Eradic...

  16. Bm86 midgut protein sequence variation in south Texas cattle fever ticks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. (B.) annulatus, vector bovine and equine babesiosis, and have significantly expanded beyond the permanent quarantine zone established in South Texas. Currently, there are no vaccines approved for use within the United States for controll...

  17. Immunization of cattle with Ra86 impedes Rhipicephalus appendiculatus nymphal-to-adult molting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olds, C.; Mwaura, S.; Crowder, D.; Odongo, D.; Oers, van M.M.; Owen, J.; Bishop, R.; Daubenberger, C.

    2012-01-01

    Commercial vaccines based on the tick gut protein Bm86 have been successful in controlling the one-host tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and provide heterologous protection against certain other non-target ixodid tick species. This cross protection, however, does not extend to the three-host

  18. Developing Novel Technology for the Control of Ticks of Veterinary and Human Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among approximately 670 tick species in the world, the southern cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and the black-legged tick Ixodes scapularis received the most attention in the United States due to their roles as the vectors of disease agents affecting cattle and humans, respectively. ...

  19. Efeito do extrato aquoso do algodão de seda (Calotropis procera Aiton sobre a eficiência reprodutiva do carrapato bovino Effect of aqueous extract of silk cotton (Calotropis procera Ait. R.Br. on the reproductive performance of Rhipicephalus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F Lázaro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O carrapato Rhipicephalus microplus é um dos principais parasitos dos rebanhos bovinos. Diferentes grupos de carrapaticidas sintéticos têm sido empregados para o controle desse ácaro, contudo, o uso constante desses produtos tem selecionado populações resistentes. Na tentativa de minimizar esses impactos tem-se buscado avaliar fitoterápicos para o controle desse parasito. Assim, objetivou-se analisar a eficácia in vitro do extrato aquoso do algodão de seda em diferentes concentrações no controle da postura e eclodibilidade dos ovos do R. microplus. Foram avaliados os efeitos das concentrações 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, 75 e 100% do extrato aquoso obtido juntamente com controles com água destilada ou com cipermetrina, 12,5 mg L-1, associada a organofosforado, 150 mg L-1, sobre a eficiência reprodutiva do carrapato. Foi realizado o biocarrapaticidograma sendo que a eficácia acaricida das concentrações 5, 25 e 100% foram superiores àquela observada para o produto comercial utilizado, que correspondeu a 93,98%, indicando a importância de futuras pesquisas para avaliar o potencial toxigênico e a eficácia in vivo dessa planta para o controle do R. microplus .The tick Rhipicephalus microplus is one of the main parasites of bovine herds. Different groups of synthetic acaricides have been used to control this mite; however, the constant use of these products has selected resistant populations. In an attempt to minimize these impacts, researchers have tried to evaluate herbal remedies to control this parasite. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the in vitro efficacy of aqueous extract of silk cotton at different concentrations to control the hatchability of R. microplus eggs. The effects of the concentrations 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100% aqueous extract together with controls with distilled water or with cypermethrin, 12.5 mg L-1, associated with organophosphate, 150 mg L-1, were assessed on the reproductive efficiency of the

  20. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  1. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced, as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  2. Assessment of Acute Oral and Dermal Toxicity of 2 Ethyl-Carbamates with Activity against Rhipicephalus microplus in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Guadalupe Prado-Ochoa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The acute oral and dermal toxicity of two new ethyl-carbamates (ethyl-4-bromophenyl-carbamate and ethyl-4-chlorophenyl-carbamate with ixodicide activity was determined in rats. The oral LD50 of each carbamate was 300 to 2000 mg/kg, and the dermal LD50 of each carbamate was >5000 mg/kg. Clinically, the surviving rats that had received oral doses of each carbamate showed decreased weight gain (P<0.05 and had slight nervous system manifestations. These clinical signs were evident from the 300 mg/kg dose and were reversible, whereas the 2000 mg/kg dose caused severe damage and either caused their death or was motive for euthanasia. At necropsy, these rats had dilated stomachs and cecums with diffuse congestion, as well as moderate congestion of the liver. Histologically, the liver showed slight degenerative lesions, binucleated hepatocytes, focal coagulative necrosis, and congestion areas; the severity of the lesions increased with dosage. Furthermore, an slight increase in gamma-glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatinine was observed in the plasma. The dermal application of the maximum dose (5000 mg/kg of each carbamate did not cause clinical manifestations or liver and skin alterations. This finding demonstrates that the carbamates under study have a low oral hazard and low acute dermal toxicity.

  3. The impact of 2 dipping systems on endemic stability to bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis in cattle in 4 communally grazed areas in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.O. Rikhotso

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A 12-month study was conducted in 4 communal grazing areas in the Bushbuckridge region, Limpopo Province, South Africa. The main objective was to investigate the impact of reduced acaricide application on endemic stability to bovine babesiosis (Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis and anaplasmosis (Anaplasma marginale in the local cattle population. To this end 60 cattle in each communal grazing area were bled at the beginning and the conclusion of the experimental period and their sera were assayed for B. bovis, B. bigemina and Anaplasma antibodies. Cattle in the intensively dipped group were dipped 26 times and maintained on a 14-day dipping interval throughout the study, whereas cattle in the strategically dipped group were dipped only 13 times. Three cattle, from which adult ticks were collected, were selected from each village, while immature ticks were collected by drag-sampling the surrounding vegetation. During the dipping process, a questionnaire aimed at assessing the prevalence of clinical cases of tick-borne disease, abscesses and mortalities was completed by an Animal Health Technician at each diptank. An increase in seroprevalence to B. bovis and B. bigemina and a decrease in seroprevalence to Anaplasma was detected in the strategically dipped group while in the intensively dipped group the converse was true. Amblyomma hebraeum was the most numerous tick species on the cattle, and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus was more plentiful than Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus. Drag samples yielded more immature stages of A. hebraeum than of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus spp. The incidence of clinical cases of tick-borne disease and of abscesses increased in the strategically dipped group at the start of the survey.

  4. Protective efficacy of bacterial membranes containing surface-exposed BM95 antigenic peptides for the control of cattle tick infestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales, Mario; Labruna, Marcelo B; Soares, João F; Prudencio, Carlos R; de la Fuente, José

    2009-12-01

    The Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus BM86 and BM95 glycoproteins are homologous proteins that protect cattle against tick infestations. In this study, we demonstrated that the recombinant chimeric protein comprising tick BM95 immunogenic peptides fused to the A. marginale MSP1a N-terminal region for presentation on the Escherichia coli membrane was protective against R. microplus infestations in rabbits. This system provides a novel and simple approach for the production of tick protective antigens by surface display of antigenic protein chimera on live E. coli and suggests the possibility of using recombinant bacterial membrane fractions for vaccination against cattle tick infestations. PMID:19835826

  5. ANTI-TICK EFFECT OBSERVED IN MATURE PLANTS O TROPICAL LEGUMES Stylosanthes humilis and Stylosanthes hamata

    OpenAIRE

    CARLOS CRUZ-VAZQUEZ; MANUEL FERNANDEZ-RUVALCABA; JAIME SOLANO-VERGARA; ZEFERINO GARCIA-VAZQUEZ

    1999-01-01

    ABSTRACT The anti-tick effect of Stylosanthes humilis and Stylosanthes hamata was evaluated for mature plants on plots experimentally infested with larvae of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus. Cenchurus ciliaris was used as control grass. The effect was evaluated counting the total number of live tick larvae recovered by the double flannel flag technique from the experimental plots during a four week period. The effect observed in both Stylosanthes species did not show significant differenc...

  6. In vitro Culture of a Novel Genotype of Ehrlichia sp from Brazil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zweygarth, E.; Schol, H.; Lis, K.; Cabezas Cruz, Alejandro; Thiel, C.; Silaghi, C.; Ribeiro, M.F.B.; Passos, L.M.F.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 60, NOV 2013 (2013), s. 86-92. ISSN 1865-1674 Grant ostatní: EU(XE) FP7-PEOPLE-ITN No.238511 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Ehrlichia * Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus * in vitro culture * tick cell * DH82 * endothelial cell * cattle * 16S rRNA * Brazil Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.116, year: 2013

  7. Antiectoparasitic activity of the gum resin, gum haggar, from the East African plant, Commiphora holtziana

    OpenAIRE

    Birkett, Michael A.; Al Abassi, Sate; Kröber, Thomas; Chamberlain, Keith; Hooper, Antony M.; Guerin, Patrick M.; Pettersson, Jan; Pickett, John A.; Slade, Robin; Wadhams, Lester J.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanism of ixodid tick (Acari: Ixodidae) repellency by gum haggar, a resin produced by Commiphora holtziana (Burseraceae), was investigated by evaluating activity against the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus. In an arena bioassay, a hexane extract of the resin of C. holtziana exhibited a repellent effect lasting up to 5 h. The hydrocarbon fraction of the resin extract was shown to account for the repellent activity, and was analysed by coupled gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS...

  8. Hemelipoglycoprotein from the ornate sheep tick, Dermacentor marginatus: structural and functional characterization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dupejová, J.; Štěrba, Ján; Vancová, Marie; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 4, January (2011), s. 4. ISSN 1756-3305 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009; GA AV ČR KJB600960906 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : ORNITHODOROS PARKERI * BOOPHILUS MICROPLUS * MASS-SPECTROMETRY * CATTLE TICK * SOFT TICK * DORIN M * PROTEINS * HEMOLYMPH * VITELLOGENIN * LIPOPROTEIN Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 2.937, year: 2011

  9. Integrated strategy for sustainable cattle fever tick eradication in USA is required to mitigate the impact of global change

    OpenAIRE

    AdalbertoA.Pérez de León; PeteD.Teel; AllanN.Auclair; MatthewT.Messenger; RobertJ.Miller; GretaSchuster

    2012-01-01

    The ticks Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus and R. (B.) microplus, commonly known as cattle and southern cattle tick, respectively, impede the development and sustainability of livestock industries throughout tropical and other world regions. They affect animal productivity and wellbeing directly through their obligate blood feeding habit and indirectly by serving as vectors of the infectious agents causing bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis. The monumental scientific discovery of certain a...

  10. Integrated Strategy for Sustainable Cattle Fever Tick Eradication in USA is Required to Mitigate the Impact of Global Change

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez de León, Adalberto A.; Teel, Pete D.; Auclair, Allan N.; Messenger, Matthew T; Guerrero, Felix D; Schuster, Greta; Miller, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The ticks Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus and R. (B.) microplus, commonly known as cattle and southern cattle tick, respectively, impede the development and sustainability of livestock industries throughout tropical and other world regions. They affect animal productivity and wellbeing directly through their obligate blood-feeding habit and indirectly by serving as vectors of the infectious agents causing bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis. The monumental scientific discovery of certain a...

  11. Experimental vaccination of sheep and cattle against tick infestation using recombinant 5′-nucleotidase

    OpenAIRE

    Hope, M.; Jiang, X.; Gough, J.; CADOGAN, L; JOSH, P; Jonsson, N.; P. Willadsen

    2010-01-01

    Limited prior evidence suggests that 5′-nucleotidase, an ectoenzyme principally located in the Malpighian tubules of the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, could be an effective antigen in an anti-tick vaccine. To assess this, recombinant 5′-nucleotidase was expressed in Escherichia coli and used in vaccination trials with both sheep and cattle. Vaccinated sheep were challenged with freshly moulted adult ticks. Those with high titres of anti-nucleotidase antibodies showed significant p...

  12. HA03 as an Iranian Candidate Concealed Antigen for Vaccination against Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum: Comparative Structural and In silico Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, A.; Aghaiypour, K; Keywanfar, H.; Paykari, H.,; Tajbakhsh, H.; Jalali, A.H.,; Safavieh, S.; Foroghi, A.

    2013-01-01

    In the last decades researchers had focused on developing a vaccine against tick based on protective antigen. Recombinant vaccines based on concealed antigen from Boophilus microplus have been developed in Australia and Cuba by the name of TICKGARD and GAVAC (De La Fuente and Kocan, 2006). Further studies on this antigen have shown some extent of protection against other species (De Vos et al., 2001). In Iran most important species is Hyalomma anatolicum and limited information about its cont...

  13. Immunization and chemical conjugation of Bm95 obtained from Pichia pastoris enhances the immune response against vaccinal protein and Neisseria meningitidis capsular polysaccharide

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez Valle, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Manuel Rodriguez-Valle,1 Leonardo Canan-Hadden,2 Olivia Niebla2 1Animal Biotechnology Division, 2Analytical Division, Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Havana, Cuba Abstract: The ectoparasite Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus causes severe economic losses to the cattle industry in tropical and subtropical regions, and transmits endoparasites, such as Babesia bovis. The glycoprotein Bm95 is homologous to Bm86, a surface membrane protein of gut epithelial cells in R. microplu...

  14. Bm86 midgut protein sequence variation in South Texas cattle fever ticks

    OpenAIRE

    Kammlah Diane M; Kappmeyer Lowell S; Davey Ronald B; Freeman Jeanne M; Olafson Pia U

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. (B.) annulatus, vector bovine and equine babesiosis, and have significantly expanded beyond the permanent quarantine zone established in South Texas. Currently, there are no vaccines approved for use within the United States for controlling these vectors. Vaccines developed in Australia and Cuba based on the midgut antigen Bm86 have variable efficacy against cattle fever ticks. A possible explanation for this v...

  15. The evaluation of yeast derivatives as adjuvants for the immune response to the Bm86 antigen in cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Machado Héctor; Montero Carlos; Rodríguez Valle Manuel; Joglar Marisdania

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Background The Gavac™ vaccine against the cattle tick Boophilus microplus has proven its efficacy in a large number of controlled and field experiments. However, this vaccine could be further improved by searching for new alternative adjuvants that would induce a stronger long-lasting immune response. We conducted several experiments to assay the adjuvant effect of fractions of the recombinant yeast Pichia pastoris in mouse and cattle models. In previous experiments, the combination ...

  16. Tick loads in Bos taurus cattle grazing in two contrasting production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Salazar B; Rolando Barahona-Rosales; María-Solange Sánchez P

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To relate the effect of biotic and abiotic factors on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick loads on cows grazing either in intensive silvopastoral systems (ISS) (Lucerna) or in grass pastures associated with sugarcane plantations (La Isabela). Materials and methods. Tick counts were performed on 27 Lucerne breed animals that were in different physiological states, six of which were grazing on forage grass paddocks associated with commercial sugarcane plantations and the remain...

  17. Endectocide activity of a pour-on formulation containing 1.5 per cent ivermectin +0.5 per cent abamectin in cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Heloisa Cristina; Prette, Nancy; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Sakamoto, Cláudio Alessandro M; Buzzulini, Carolina; dos Santos, Thais Rabelo; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Teixeira, Weslen F Pires; Felippelli, Gustavo; Carvalho, Rafael Silveira; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Soares, Vando Edésio; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2015-01-01

    The present work aimed to evaluate, through ten different studies, the therapeutic efficacy of a new pour-on formulation, containing 1.5 per cent ivermectin +0.5 per cent abamectin, against parasites of cattle. Results obtained on trials against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus showed that the pour-on combination of 1.5 per cent ivermectin +0.5 per cent abamectin obtained superior efficacy indexes against this ectoparasite, when compared with formulations containing 0.5 per cent ivermectin...

  18. Ixodidas brasileiros e de alguns paizes limitrophes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique de Beaurepaire Aragão

    1936-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the Ixodidae becomes every day, more and more important owing to the fact of the increasing number of diseases of man and animals they can transmit. In Brasil besides transmitting treponemosis, piroplasmosis and anaplasmosis to several domestic animals, the ticks are also responsible fo the transmission of the brazilian rocky mountain spotted fever (A. cajennense and Amblyomma striatum and they can also harbour the virus of the yellow fever and even to transmit it in laboratory experiments (A. cajennense, O. rostratus. The Brazilian fauna of ticks is a small one and has no more than 45 well-established species belonging to the genus Argas, Ornithodoros, Ixodes, Haemaphysalis, Rhipicephalus, Boophilus, Amblyomma and Spaelaeorhynchus. The genus Amblyomma is the best represented one, with 67% of all species of ticks known in Brazil. One of the most important species in the Amblyomma cajennense owing to its abundance and its wide parasitism in many vertebrates: reptiles, birds and mammals, incluing man, who is much attacked by the larva, the nymph and the adult of this species. The other ticks who attack the man are the Amblyomma brasiliense (the pecari tick, in the forests, and the Ornithodoros, especially the species. O. rostratus and brasiliensis. Other species can bite the man, but only occasionally, like Amblyomma fossum, striatum, oblongogutatum etc. Argas persicus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Boophilus are very important species not only as parasites but specially because they transmit several diseases to animals. Some of the ticks of the brazilian wild animals are now also parasites of the domestic ones and vice-versa. Arga persicus var. dissimilis is very common among the poultry and transmits the Treponema anserinum (gallinarum. Boophilus microplus is very abundant on our domestic and wild ruminants (Bos, Cervus, Mazama etc. and can also ben found on horse, dogs, Felis onca, Felis concolor etc., and it transmits to cattle

  19. ATP Binding Cassette Transporter Mediates Both Heme and Pesticide Detoxification in Tick Midgut Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Alves Lara

    Full Text Available In ticks, the digestion of blood occurs intracellularly and proteolytic digestion of hemoglobin takes place in a dedicated type of lysosome, the digest vesicle, followed by transfer of the heme moiety of hemoglobin to a specialized organelle that accumulates large heme aggregates, called hemosomes. In the present work, we studied the uptake of fluorescent metalloporphyrins, used as heme analogs, and amitraz, one of the most regularly used acaricides to control cattle tick infestations, by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus midgut cells. Both compounds were taken up by midgut cells in vitro and accumulated inside the hemosomes. Transport of both molecules was sensitive to cyclosporine A (CsA, a well-known inhibitor of ATP binding cassette (ABC transporters. Rhodamine 123, a fluorescent probe that is also a recognized ABC substrate, was similarly directed to the hemosome in a CsA-sensitive manner. Using an antibody against conserved domain of PgP-1-type ABC transporter, we were able to immunolocalize PgP-1 in the digest vesicle membranes. Comparison between two R. microplus strains that were resistant and susceptible to amitraz revealed that the resistant strain detoxified both amitraz and Sn-Pp IX more efficiently than the susceptible strain, a process that was also sensitive to CsA. A transcript containing an ABC transporter signature exhibited 2.5-fold increased expression in the amitraz-resistant strain when compared with the susceptible strain. RNAi-induced down-regulation of this ABC transporter led to the accumulation of metalloporphyrin in the digestive vacuole, interrupting heme traffic to the hemosome. This evidence further confirms that this transcript codes for a heme transporter. This is the first report of heme transport in a blood-feeding organism. While the primary physiological function of the hemosome is to detoxify heme and attenuate its toxicity, we suggest that the use of this acaricide detoxification pathway by ticks may

  20. Proteomics Approach to the Study of Cattle Tick Adaptation to White Tailed Deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Popara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, are a serious threat to animal health and production. Some ticks feed on a single host species while others such as R. microplus infest multiple hosts. White tailed deer (WTD play a role in the maintenance and expansion of cattle tick populations. However, cattle ticks fed on WTD show lower weight and reproductive performance when compared to ticks fed on cattle, suggesting the existence of host factors that affect tick feeding and reproduction. To elucidate these factors, a proteomics approach was used to characterize tick and host proteins in R. microplus ticks fed on cattle and WTD. The results showed that R. microplus ticks fed on cattle have overrepresented tick proteins involved in blood digestion and reproduction when compared to ticks fed on WTD, while host proteins were differentially represented in ticks fed on cattle or WTD. Although a direct connection cannot be made between differentially represented tick and host proteins, these results suggested that differentially represented host proteins together with other host factors could be associated with higher R. microplus tick feeding and reproduction observed in ticks fed on cattle.

  1. Increases in Problem Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Increases in Problem Drinking Join the Fight Against Superbugs Featured Website: Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center ... Increases in Problem Drinking Join the Fight Against Superbugs Featured Website: Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center ...

  2. Tick fauna from two locations in the Brazilian savannah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan; Olegário, Maria Marlene Martins; Santos, André Luiz Quagliatto

    2007-01-01

    The Cerrado is Brazil's tropical savannah, which is arguably under greater threat than the Amazon rainforest. The Cerrado Biome of tropical South America covers about 2 million km(2) and is considered a biodiversity hot spot which means that it is especially rich in endemic species and particularly threatened by human activities. The Cerrado is increasingly exposed to agricultural activities which enhance the likelihood of mixing parasites from rural, urban and wildlife areas. Information about ticks from the Cerrado biome is scarce. In this report tick species free-living, on domestic animals and on a few wild animals in two farms in the Cerrado biome (Nova Crixás and Araguapaz municipalities, Goiás State, Brazil) are described. Amblyomma cajennense was the first and Amblyomma parvum the second host-seeking tick species found. Only two other tick species were found free-living: one Amblyomma nodosum and three Amblyomma naponense nymphs. Cattle were infested with Boophilus microplus and A. cajennense. Buffalos were infested with B. microplus and A. parvum. Dogs were infested with A. cajennense, Amblyomma ovale, A. parvum and Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks. Anocentor nitens, B. microplus, A. cajennense, and A. parvum were found on horses. Amblyomma auricularium were found attached to nine-banded armadillos and Amblyomma rotundatum to red-footed tortoise, cururu toads and a rattlesnake. The latter was also infested with an adult A. cajennense. No tick was found on a goat, a tropical rat snake and a yellow armadillo. Among the observations the infestation of several domestic animals with A. parvum seems be the main feature. It suggests that this species might become a pest. However, the life cycle of A. parvum in nature, as well as its disease vectoring capacity, are largely unknown. It would be important to determine if it is a species expanding its geographic range by adaptation to new hosts or if it has been maintained in high numbers at definite locations by

  3. Increasing productivity: Another approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, F.J.

    1996-06-10

    An engineering information (EI) and information technology (IT) organization that must improve its productivity should work to further its business goals. This paper explores a comprehensive model for increasing EI/IT productivity by supporting organizational objectives.

  4. Meeting increased demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Andrew

    2004-07-01

    New Zealand is a little country with a little economy but with a population that's rapidly aging. New Zealand's population is only 4.3 million people. It's GDP is only $US58.6 billion (2002). New Zealand's expenditure on health as a percentage of GDP is not out of line with that of other countries. As a nation we have been increasing expenditure on health over recent years. In 1990 we spent 7% of GDP on health. In 1995 that increased to 7.65% and is now 8.3%. However, in per capita terms our expenditure on health does not compare so well with like countries. The size of New Zealand's economy is restricting what our country spends on health. Health is already the second highest demand on the New Zealand tax dollar. The tolerance of New Zealanders would be challenged if a Government attempted to increase taxes further to meet the growing demands for expenditure on health, but at the same time the population's expectations are increasing. This is the challenging situation we face today. What lies ahead? Like all industrialized countries New Zealand is facing an aging population. The population below age 40 is decreasing, but it is increasing significantly over that age. 16% of the population is currently aged over 60. By 2051 this proportion will almost double to just over 31%. Coupled with the aging population is increased awareness and expectations, as access to options for treatment and technology becomes readily accessible to the population through such media as the internet. The extent of the impact of the aging population can be clearly represented by focusing on one specialty such as orthopaedics. The New Zealand Orthopaecic Association undertook a study in July 2003 which concluded (among other things) that as a result of the projected aging of the population, over the next 50 years: Musculo-skeletal operations will increase by over 30%. The number of hip replacements will nearly double. The incidence of osteoporosis will increase by a massive 201%. The number

  5. A ten-year review of commercial vaccine performance for control of tick infestations on cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, José; Almazán, Consuelo; Canales, Mario; Pérez de la Lastra, José Manuel; Kocan, Katherine M; Willadsen, Peter

    2007-06-01

    Ticks are important ectoparasites of domestic and wild animals, and tick infestations economically impact cattle production worldwide. Control of cattle tick infestations has been primarily by application of acaricides which has resulted in selection of resistant ticks and environmental pollution. Herein we discuss data from tick vaccine application in Australia, Cuba, Mexico and other Latin American countries. Commercial tick vaccines for cattle based on the Boophilus microplus Bm86 gut antigen have proven to be a feasible tick control method that offers a cost-effective, environmentally friendly alternative to the use of acaricides. Commercial tick vaccines reduced tick infestations on cattle and the intensity of acaricide usage, as well as increasing animal production and reducing transmission of some tick-borne pathogens. Although commercialization of tick vaccines has been difficult owing to previous constraints of antigen discovery, the expense of testing vaccines in cattle, and company restructuring, the success of these vaccines over the past decade has clearly demonstrated their potential as an improved method of tick control for cattle. Development of improved vaccines in the future will be greatly enhanced by new and efficient molecular technologies for antigen discovery and the urgent need for a tick control method to reduce or replace the use of acaricides, especially in regions where extensive tick resistance has occurred. PMID:17692140

  6. The quest for a universal vaccine against ticks: cross-immunity insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parizi, Luís F; Githaka, Naftaly W; Logullo, Carlos; Konnai, Satoru; Masuda, Aoi; Ohashi, Kazuhiko; da Silva Vaz, Itabajara

    2012-11-01

    As blood-sucking parasites, ticks inflict great damage to animals and humans in many parts of the world. The continued use of chemical acaricides is not sustainable due to increasing tick resistance, growing public concern over drug residues in food and in the environment, and the high cost of developing new acaricides. Therefore, an alternative control strategy is urgently needed. Vaccines against ticks have been shown to be functionally feasible, as highlighted by the success of Bm86 vaccines against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and closely related tick species. However, a limited number of tick antigens with cross-protective epitopes have been characterized so far, limiting widespread deployment of the available vaccines, including those derived from Bm86. Therefore, identifying tick antigens with potential broad-spectrum protection against multiple tick species is subject of vigorous research at present. In this paper, progress towards effective anti-tick vaccines is reviewed in the light of emerging data from studies including heterologous tick challenge. Taken together, these studies indicate that the decades-long search for a universal tick vaccine is making progress, with such a vaccine likely to be based on multiple cross-reactive antigens. PMID:22766309

  7. Seismic waves increase permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkhoury, Jean E; Brodsky, Emily E; Agnew, Duncan C

    2006-06-29

    Earthquakes have been observed to affect hydrological systems in a variety of ways--water well levels can change dramatically, streams can become fuller and spring discharges can increase at the time of earthquakes. Distant earthquakes may even increase the permeability in faults. Most of these hydrological observations can be explained by some form of permeability increase. Here we use the response of water well levels to solid Earth tides to measure permeability over a 20-year period. At the time of each of seven earthquakes in Southern California, we observe transient changes of up to 24 degrees in the phase of the water level response to the dilatational volumetric strain of the semidiurnal tidal components of wells at the Piñon Flat Observatory in Southern California. After the earthquakes, the phase gradually returns to the background value at a rate of less than 0.1 degrees per day. We use a model of axisymmetric flow driven by an imposed head oscillation through a single, laterally extensive, confined, homogeneous and isotropic aquifer to relate the phase response to aquifer properties. We interpret the changes in phase response as due to changes in permeability. At the time of the earthquakes, the permeability at the site increases by a factor as high as three. The permeability increase depends roughly linearly on the amplitude of seismic-wave peak ground velocity in the range of 0.21-2.1 cm s(-1). Such permeability increases are of interest to hydrologists and oil reservoir engineers as they affect fluid flow and might determine long-term evolution of hydrological and oil-bearing systems. They may also be interesting to seismologists, as the resulting pore pressure changes can affect earthquakes by changing normal stresses on faults. PMID:16810253

  8. Increasing mobile radiography productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Edward; Lung, Ngan Tsz; Ng, Kris; Jeor, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Mobile radiography using computed radiography (CR) cassettes is a common equipment combination with a workflow bottleneck limited by location of CR readers. Advent of direct digital radiography (DDR) mobile x-ray machines removes this limitation by immediate image review and quality control. Through the use of key performance indicators (KPIs), the increase in efficiency can be quantified. PMID:23986937

  9. Increased urinary orosomucoid excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, M S; Iversen, K; Larsen, C T;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In a previous study, urinary orosomucoid excretion rate (UOER) independently predicted cardiovascular mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. The aim of the present study was to determine whether increased UOER is associated with cardiovascular risk factors such as inflammation, im...

  10. Does salt increase thirst?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshem, Micah

    2015-02-01

    Our diet is believed to be overly rich in sodium, and it is commonly believed that sodium intake increases drinking. Hence the concern of a possible contribution of dietary sodium to beverage intake which in turn may contribute to obesity and ill health. Here we examine whether voluntary, acute intake of a sodium load, as occurs in routine eating and snacking, increases thirst and drinking. We find that after ingesting 3.5 or 4.4 g NaCl (men) and 1.9 or 3.7 g (women) on nuts during 15 minutes, there is no increase in thirst or drinking of freely available water in the following 2 h compared with eating similar amounts of sugared or unflavored nuts. This suggests that routine ingestion of boluses of salt (~30-40% of daily intake for men, ~ 20-40% for women) does not increase drinking. Methodological concerns such as about nuts as vehicle for sodium suggest further research to establish the generalizability of this unexpected result. PMID:25447020

  11. Sources of increased danger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present and future facts of absolute liability under specific laws will have to be supplemented by the legislator, and the claims for damages will have to be limited to physical and material damage. The formulation should be about as follows: 'If a person is killed by a source of increased danger or damage done to his/her body or health or material damage done, the owner of that source will be liable for payment of damages'. A standard of this kind has good chances of being realized and applied in German or even European technical and social developments of the future. The general clause of absolute reliability for sources of increased danger depends on the judge's decision and models so far, also of other countries, give no cause to doubt this. (orig./HP)

  12. Increasing income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Poulsen, Odile

    In recent decades most developed countries have experienced an increase in income inequality. In this paper, we use an equilibrium search framework to shed additional light on what is causing an income distribution to change. The major benefit of the model is that it can accommodate shocks to the...... shocks to the employees' relative productivity, i.e., skill-biased technological change, are unlikely to have caused the increase in income inequality....... skill composition in the market, employee bargaining power and productivity. Further, when our model is subjected to skill-upgrading and changes in employee bargaining power, it is capable of predicting the recent changes observed in the Danish income distribution. In addition, the model emphasizes that...

  13. Condom use increasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, W R

    1998-01-01

    Condom use is central to the prevention of AIDS among people at risk for contracting HIV. As such, condom use is increasing dramatically even though many men say that they do not like using them. Condom sales through social marketing campaigns have increased dramatically in some countries, where tens of millions of condoms are sold annually. For example, during the period 1991-96, annual social marketing sales increased about five-fold in Ethiopia to 21 million, and nine-fold in Brazil to 27 million. These sales reflect the success of condom social marketing campaigns in making condoms accessible and largely affordable. There is also a greater general awareness of AIDS than there used to be, and communication campaigns have shown that condoms are an effective solution. More condoms still need to be used in the ongoing struggle against HIV/AIDS. The author discusses the factors which affect the limited acceptance of condoms, condom use outside of marriage, social marketing, and family planning programs. PMID:12293530

  14. CHINA INCREASED PETROLEUM TAX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu Xueping

    2005-01-01

    @@ After half a year's gestation and adjustment, the State Administration of Taxation finally set new tax rate of petroleum resources. Notification issued by the Ministry of Finance and the State Administration of Taxation said the petroleum resources tax standard would be lifted nationwide, after the tax rate adjustment, tax on crude oil would be increased to RMB 14-30 yuan per ton and that on natural gas to RMB 7-15 yuan per thousand cubic meters. The new tax rate has been effective nationwide since July 1.

  15. Gas revenue increasingly significant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper briefly describes the wellhead prices of natural gas compared to crude oil over the past 70 years. Although natural gas prices have never reached price parity with crude oil, the relative value of a gas BTU has been increasing. It is one of the reasons that the total amount of money coming from natural gas wells is becoming more significant. From 1920 to 1955 the revenue at the wellhead for natural gas was only about 10% of the money received by producers. Most of the money needed for exploration, development, and production came from crude oil. At present, however, over 40% of the money from the upstream portion of the petroleum industry is from natural gas. As a result, in a few short years natural gas may become 50% of the money revenues generated from wellhead production facilities

  16. Increasing Responsibility towards Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Comanescu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In the international climate of the early millennium, the need for reconciliation between economic and social development, on one hand, and the environment, on the other hand, is essential. Therefore, sustainable development must be promoted, because it integrates economic growth, improved quality of life, health, education, social development and environmental protection.Environmental issues are particularly complex as their causes are interdependent. This requires actions at all levels: local, national, regional as well as at the European Union level, each with its own role in increasing responsibility for the environmental protection.It is widely recognized that to obtain successful results an integrated approach has to be used to manage the environment, by adopting long-term strategies and action plans. It requires a detailed analysis of the links between different policies and responsibilities, including the links between different administrative levels.

  17. Increasing Responsibility towards Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela COMĂNESCU

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the international climate of the early millennium, the need for reconciliation between economic and social development, on one hand, and the environment, on the other hand, is essential. Therefore, sustainable development must be promoted, because it integrates economic growth, improves quality of life, health, education, social development and environmental protection. Environmental issues are particularly complex as their causes are interdependent. This requires actions at all levels: local, national, regional as well as at the European Union level, each with its own role in increasing responsibility for the environmental protection. It is widely recognized that to obtain successful results an integrated approach has to be used to manage the environment, by adopting long-term strategies and action plans. It requires a detailed analysis of the links between different policies and responsibilities, including the links between different administrative levels.

  18. Poderá o carrapato transmitir a lepra?: isolamento e cultura dum bacilo acido-álcool resistente de sedimento de "Amblyomma cajennense" capturado em leproso: 2ª nota May ticks transmit leprosy?: Second Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Souza-Araujo

    1942-01-01

    Full Text Available In this 2nd note upon the possibility of transmission of human leprosy by ticks, the A. relates his stepps to obtain the collaboration of his colleagues working in leprosaria in various States of Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay in such studies. Firstly the A. describes the positive results of examination of sediment of ticks, the cattle tick Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1888, received from Paraná (Leprosário São Roque , which were put on active lepers, two of them sucking during 9 days and one during 7 days. Two out of three were killed for examination and were very strongly positive for acid-fast bacilli. A series of tubes of Loewenstein medium was smeared with the sediment of such ticks. Secondly the A. relates his personnal experiment, carried out in Rio de Janeiro, trying to infect normal ticks in lepers. The experiment with Boophilus microplus was negative and was twicely positive the experiment with Amblyomma cajennense Fabricius, 1794. The experiment is being in progress and will be continued in other places of Brazil. Finally, after being given the general characteristics of Boophilus microplus, the A. describes the non-chromogenic culture of a acid-fast bacillus isolated by him from sediment of ticks (Amblyomma cajennense captured in lepers from Colônia Santa Isabel (Minas gerais, which parasitism was spontaneous. The first isolation was obtained in Loewenstein medium after 62 days incubation at 37°C. The culture is pure and the bacillus is permanent acid-fast. The plate1, in full color, represents this culture in its four generations. The colonies are pearl-white in color, dry, elevated and rough, developing slowly and beginning as white pinhead points scattered upon the surface of the medium. The culture is not yet rich enough to be inoculated into laboratory animals, which will be done when possible.

  19. Increasing immunization coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Lawrence D; Curry, Edward S; Harlor, Allen D; Laughlin, James J; Leeds, Andrea J; Lessin, Herschel R; Rodgers, Chadwick T; Granado-Villar, Deise C; Brown, Jeffrey M; Cotton, William H; Gaines, Beverly Marie Madry; Gambon, Thresia B; Gitterman, Benjamin A; Gorski, Peter A; Kraft, Colleen A; Marino, Ronald Vincent; Paz-Soldan, Gonzalo J; Zind, Barbara

    2010-06-01

    In 1977, the American Academy of Pediatrics issued a statement calling for universal immunization of all children for whom vaccines are not contraindicated. In 1995, the policy statement "Implementation of the Immunization Policy" was published by the American Academy of Pediatrics, followed in 2003 with publication of the first version of this statement, "Increasing Immunization Coverage." Since 2003, there have continued to be improvements in immunization coverage, with progress toward meeting the goals set forth in Healthy People 2010. Data from the 2007 National Immunization Survey showed that 90% of children 19 to 35 months of age have received recommended doses of each of the following vaccines: inactivated poliovirus (IPV), measles-mumps-rubella (MMR), varicella-zoster virus (VZB), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). For diphtheria and tetanus and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine, 84.5% have received the recommended 4 doses by 35 months of age. Nevertheless, the Healthy People 2010 goal of at least 80% coverage for the full series (at least 4 doses of DTaP, 3 doses of IPV, 1 dose of MMR, 3 doses of Hib, 3 doses of HBV, and 1 dose of varicella-zoster virus vaccine) has not yet been met, and immunization coverage of adolescents continues to lag behind the goals set forth in Healthy People 2010. Despite these encouraging data, a vast number of new challenges that threaten continued success toward the goal of universal immunization coverage have emerged. These challenges include an increase in new vaccines and new vaccine combinations as well as a significant number of vaccines currently under development; a dramatic increase in the acquisition cost of vaccines, coupled with a lack of adequate payment to practitioners to buy and administer vaccines; unanticipated manufacturing and delivery problems that have caused significant shortages of various vaccine products; and the rise of a public antivaccination movement that uses the

  20. Report on ticks collected in the Southeast and Mid-West regions of Brazil: analyzing the potential transmission of tick-borne pathogens to man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueiredo Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of ticks were collected in 1993, 1996, 1997, and 1998, mostly from wild and domestic animals in the Southeast and Mid-West regions of Brazil. Nine species of Amblyommidae were identified: Anocentor nitens, Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma fulvum, Amblyomma striatum, Amblyomma rotundatum, Boophilus microplus, Boophilus annulatus, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The potential of these tick species as transmitters of pathogens to man was analyzed. A Flaviviridade Flavivirus was isolated from Amblyomma cajennense specimens collected from a sick capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris. Amblyomma cajennense is the main transmitter of Rickettsia rickettsii (=R. rickettsi, the causative agent of spotted fever in Brazil. Wild mammals, mainly capybaras and deer, infested by ticks and living in close contact with cattle, horses and dogs, offer the risk of transmission of wild zoonosis to these domestic animals and to man.

  1. Evidence of a tick RNAi pathway by comparative genomics and reverse genetics screen of targets with known loss-of-function phenotypes in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurscheid Sebastian

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Arthropods are a diverse group of organisms including Chelicerata (ticks, mites, spiders, Crustacea (crabs, shrimps, and Insecta (flies, mosquitoes, beetles, silkworm. The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, is an economically significant ectoparasite of cattle affecting cattle industries world wide. With the availability of sequence reads from the first Chelicerate genome project (the Ixodes scapularis tick and extensive R. microplus ESTs, we investigated evidence for putative RNAi proteins and studied RNA interference in tick cell cultures and adult female ticks targeting Drosophila homologues with known cell viability phenotype. Results We screened 13,643 R. microplus ESTs and I. scapularis genome reads to identify RNAi related proteins in ticks. Our analysis identified 31 RNAi proteins including a putative tick Dicer, RISC associated (Ago-2 and FMRp, RNA dependent RNA polymerase (EGO-1 and 23 homologues implicated in dsRNA uptake and processing. We selected 10 R. microplus ESTs with >80% similarity to D. melanogaster proteins associated with cell viability for RNAi functional screens in both BME26 R. microplus embryonic cells and female ticks in vivo. Only genes associated with proteasomes had an effect on cell viability in vitro. In vivo RNAi showed that 9 genes had significant effects either causing lethality or impairing egg laying. Conclusion We have identified key RNAi-related proteins in ticks and along with our loss-of-function studies support a functional RNAi pathway in R. microplus. Our preliminary studies indicate that tick RNAi pathways may differ from that of other Arthropods such as insects.

  2. Efectos garrapaticidas de algunos aceites esenciales

    OpenAIRE

    Juan F. Gil; Burillo Alquézar, Jesús; Pastor, Ana; Ringuelet, Jorge; Elder, Heriberto; Echeverri, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Soluciones acuo-etanólicas de aceites esenciales de Lippia (3 quimiotipos), Schinus molle, Tagetes, Lavandina (dos quimiotipos), Hisopo, Romero y Ciprés, fueron sometidas a ensayos in Vitro para evaluar sus efectos sobre le supervivencia y reproducción de las garrapata Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Los aceites de Lippia, Tagetes e Hisopo mostraron buenos niveles de inhibición de la oviposición y de mortalidad superiores al 50%, a una concentración del 1%; no obstante, a concentracio...

  3. Efeito do óleo de eucalipto (Corymbia citriodora) no controle do carrapato bovino Effect of eucalyptus oil (Corymbia citriodora) on the control of cattle ticks

    OpenAIRE

    Clair Jorge Olivo; Carlos Alberto Agnolin; Carla Lieda Cezimbra Parra; Fernanda Silveira Flores Vogel; Neila Silvia Pereira dos Santos Richards; Luiz Gustavo de Pellegrini; Augusto Webe; Felipe Pivoto; Luciana Araujo

    2013-01-01

    Esta pesquisa foi conduzida com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito in vitro e in vivo do óleo de eucalipto (Corymbia citriodora) sobre o carrapato bovino (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus). Na experimentação in vitro, foi utilizado o grupo controle negativo e oito concentrações de óleo de eucalipto (0,5; 1; 2; 5; 10; 20; 50; 100%), em fêmeas ingurgitadas de carrapato. A eficácia de controle foi de 0; 30,5; 75,5; 91; 100; 100; 100; 100 e 100%, respectivamente. Para a experimentação in vivo, for...

  4. Cysteine proteases from bloodfeeding arthropod ectoparasites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sojka, Daniel; Francischetti, I.M.B.; Calvo, E.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 712, - (2011), s. 177-191. ISSN 0065-2598 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600960910; GA AV ČR IAA600960811; GA AV ČR KJB600960911; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : TICK HAEMAPHYSALIS-LONGICORNIS * PROLIXUS STAL HEMIPTERA * YELLOW - FEVER MOSQUITO * BLOOD-MEAL DIGESTION * L-LIKE ENZYME * BOOPHILUS-MICROPLUS * RHODNIUS-PROLIXUS * CATHEPSIN-B * ASPARAGINYL ENDOPEPTIDASES/LEGUMAINS * PROTEOLYTIC ACTIVATION Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.093, year: 2011

  5. Prevalência de carrapatos em cães de áreas rurais da região norte do Estado do Paraná Prevalence of ticks on dogs from rural areas at northern region of Paraná

    OpenAIRE

    Labruna, M. B.; S.L.P. Souza; J.S. Guimarães Jr.; R.C. Pacheco; Pinter, A; Gennari, S.M.

    2001-01-01

    During January and February, 2000, 133 dogs from 21 farms located in eight diferent counties at the northern region of Paraná, Brazil, were examined for ticks. Ticks found on dogs were collected and identified. Information about dog rearing system was also obtained. Fifty-five ticks were collected on 19 dogs (14.3%) from 11 farms (52.4%). Four species were identified: Rhipicephalus sanguineus (20 ticks on nine dogs from seven farms), Boophilus microplus (15 ticks on five dogs from five farms)...

  6. Large-scale production in Pichia pastoris of the recombinant vaccine Gavac against cattle tick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales, M; Enríquez, A; Ramos, E; Cabrera, D; Dandie, H; Soto, A; Falcón, V; Rodríguez, M; de la Fuente, J

    1997-03-01

    A gene coding for the Bm86 tick protein was recently cloned, expressed in Pichia pastoris and shown to induce an inmunological response in cattle against ticks. Moreover, the Gavac vaccine (Heber Biotec S.A., Havana, Cuba), which contains this recombinant protein, has proved to control the Boophilus microplus populations under field conditions. This paper reviews the development and large-scale production of this vaccine, the efficacy of the resulting product and the strategy followed in designing its production plant. The production plant fulfills biosafety requirements and GMP. PMID:9141213

  7. Desarrollo de vacunas para el control de garrapatas.

    OpenAIRE

    Canales García-Menocal, Mario Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Las garrapatas Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) spp. afectan a la ganadería de los países de zonas tropicales y subtropicales provocando perdidas millonarias a la industria. Los métodos de control para combatirlas emplean baños garrapaticidas que contaminan el medio ambiente, la carne y la leche, y seleccionan garrapatas cada vez más resistentes. La vacunación, empleando la proteína rBm86 aislada del intestino de Rhipicephalus microplus como antígeno, controló eficazmente infestaciones por R. microp...

  8. Isotermas de adsorción y cinética de secado de ciertas hortalizas y aromáticas cultivadas en Misiones

    OpenAIRE

    S. V García; M.E Schmalko; A. Tanzariello

    2007-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio para conocer los acaricidas y las técnicas de aplicación utilizadas para el control de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus en el área favorable o intermedia para el desarrollo de esta garrapata del vacuno. Para ello se efectuaron 438 encuestas en establecimientos ganaderos del norte argentino donde se constató que el 81,5% de los establecimientos destinados a la producción bovina se dedican a la actividad de cría y el resto a la invernada o ciclo completo. Los acaricidas...

  9. Seroprevalencia de babesiosis bovina en la hacienda Vegas de la Clara, Gómez Plata (Antioquia), 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Zapata Salas; Natasha Lara Ramírez; Armando Baena Zapata; Julián Reyes Vélez; Leonardo Alberto Ríos Osorio

    2011-01-01

    La babesiosis es una enfermedad del ganado bovino transmitida por la garrapata Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus y causada por los parásitos protozoarios Babesia bovis y B. bigemina. Una zona se considera epizootiológicamente estable frente a Babesia spp, cuando el 75% de los bovinos entre las edades de 3 a 9 meses son serorreactivos (IgG) frente a Babesia bovis y Babesia bigemina y no hay evidencia de signos clínicos. El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar la seroprevalencia de B...

  10. Control of tick infestations in cattle vaccinated with bacterial membranes containing surface-exposed tick protective antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almazán, Consuelo; Moreno-Cantú, Orlando; Moreno-Cid, Juan A; Galindo, Ruth C; Canales, Mario; Villar, Margarita; de la Fuente, José

    2012-01-01

    Vaccines containing the Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus BM86 and BM95 antigens protect cattle against tick infestations. Tick subolesin (SUB), elongation factor 1a (EF1a) and ubiquitin (UBQ) are new candidate protective antigens for the control of cattle tick infestations. Previous studies showed that R. microplus BM95 immunogenic peptides fused to the Anaplasma marginale major surface protein (MSP) 1a N-terminal region (BM95-MSP1a) for presentation on the Escherichia coli membrane were protective against R. microplus infestations in rabbits. In this study, we extended these results by expressing SUB-MSP1a, EF1a-MSP1a and UBQ-MSP1a fusion proteins on the E. coli membrane using this system and demonstrating that bacterial membranes containing the chimeric proteins BM95-MSP1a and SUB-MSP1a were protective (>60% vaccine efficacy) against experimental R. microplus and Rhipicephalus annulatus infestations in cattle. This system provides a novel, simple and cost-effective approach for the production of tick protective antigens by surface display of antigenic protein chimera on the E. coli membrane and demonstrates the possibility of using recombinant bacterial membrane fractions in vaccine preparations to protect cattle against tick infestations. PMID:22085549

  11. Epidemiologia e controle da tristeza parasitária bovina na região sudeste do Brasil Epidemiology and control of bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis in Southeast region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Macêdo Gonçalves

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available A babesiose bovina e a anaplasmose (Tristeza Parasitária Bovina são enfermidades transmitidas pelo carrapato Boophilus microplus e por moscas hematófagas, respectivamente, ocorrendo em caráter endêmico no Brasil, acarretando elevadas perdas econômicas na pecuária. Nesse país, observa-se uma grande variedade de fatores epidemiológicos influenciando sua ocorrência, tais como: variação climática, práticas de manejo, controle de carrapato e introdução de bovinos susceptíveis. Assim, esta revisão aborda aspectos epidemiológicos do controle da anaplasmose e da babesiose bovina do Brasil, com ênfase na região sudeste. Fatores que influenciam a instabilidade e a estabilidade enzoótica de ambas as espécies também são discutidos. As medidas de controle empregadas atualmente são: quimioprofilaxia, o uso de acaricidas para o controle do carrapato vetor B. microplus, a premunição e a vacinação.Bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis are diseases transmitted by Boophilus microplus and haematophagous diptera, respectively, occurring in endemic character in Brazil, resulting in high economic loss on livestock production. In this country a wide range of epidemiological factors influencing their occurrence, such as climate variations, husbandry practices, tick control and susceptible purebreed cattle that are regularly imported to upgrade local stocks have been described. This review focuses the epidemiological control and some aspects of bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis in Brazil, with emphasis in southeast region. Factors influencing enzootic stability and instability of both species are also discussed. The control measures employed at present are chemoprophylaxis, use of acaricides for B. microplus, premunition and vaccination.

  12. Cold storage and cryopreservation of tick cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lallinger Gertrud

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tick cell lines are now available from fifteen ixodid and argasid species of medical and veterinary importance. However, some tick cell lines can be difficult to cryopreserve, and improved protocols for short- and long-term low temperature storage will greatly enhance their use as tools in tick and tick-borne pathogen research. In the present study, different protocols were evaluated for cold storage and cryopreservation of tick cell lines derived from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes scapularis. For short-term cold storage, cells were kept under refrigeration at 6°C for 15, 30 and 45 days. For cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen, use of a sucrose-phosphate-glutamate freezing buffer (SPG as cryoprotectant was compared with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO supplemented with sucrose. Cell viability was determined by the trypan blue exclusion test and cell morphology was evaluated in Giemsa-stained cytocentrifuge smears. Results Cold storage at 6°C for up to 30 days was successful in preserving R. (B. microplus, R. (B. decoloratus, I. ricinus and I. scapularis cell lines; lines from the latter three species could be easily re-cultivated after 45 days under refrigeration. While cell lines from all four tick species cryopreserved with 6% DMSO were successfully resuscitated, the R. (B. decoloratus cells did not survive freezing in SPG and of the other three species, only the R. (B. microplus cells resumed growth during the observation period. Conclusions This constitutes the first report on successful short-term refrigeration of cells derived from R. (B. decoloratus, R. (B. microplus, and I. ricinus, and use of SPG as an alternative to DMSO for cryopreservation, thus making an important contribution to more reliable and convenient tick cell culture maintenance.

  13. Increasing instruction time in school does increase learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humlum, Maria; Nandrup, Anne Brink; Andersen, Simon Calmar

    2016-01-01

    Increasing instruction time in school is a central element in the attempts of many governments to improve student learning, but prior research—mainly based on observational data—disputes the effect of this approach and points out the potential negative effects on student behavior. Based on a large......-scale, cluster-randomized trial, we find that increasing instruction time increases student learning and that a general increase in instruction time is at least as efficient as an expert-developed, detailed teaching program that increases instruction with the same amount of time. These findings support the value...

  14. Strong increase of solar panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The number of installed solar panels in 2011 has increased again. 40 megawatt of new panels have been installed. This increase is twice as high as the year before. The production of solar power increased to 90 million kWh in 2011 as a result of this expansion. However, the share of solar power in total energy use is still very limited.

  15. Babesia bovis and B. bigemina DNA detected in cattle and ticks from Zimbabwe by polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Smeenk

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available From blood collected from 94 cattle at 12 locations in the eastern and northeastern areas of Zimbabwe, DNA was extracted and analysed by polymerase chain reaction with primers previously reported to be specific for Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis. Overall, DNA of Babesia bigemina was detected in the blood of 33/94 (35 % cattle and DNA from B. bovis was detected in 27/58 (47 % of cattle. The prevalence of DNA of B. bigemina was significantly higher in young animals (<2 years (23/46 than in animals over 2 years of age (10/48; (chi2 = 8.77; P < 0.01 %. Although tick sampling was not thorough, Boophilus decoloratus could be collected at 7/9 sites sampled and Boophilus microplus at 4/9 sites. Of the 20 B. decoloratus allowed to oviposit before PCR analysis, 1 (5 % contained DNA that could be amplified with primers for B. bigemina while 12 (60 % were positive with primers for B. bovis. Of the B. microplus allowed to oviposit, 11/16 (69 % were positive for B. bovis DNAby PCR and 2/16 (12 % were positive for B. bigemina.

  16. Korea's 2015 cigarette tax increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherukupalli, Rajeev

    2016-03-01

    South Korea increased tobacco taxes in 2015 after a 10-year gap. This commentary suggests two lessons for public finance practitioners. Substantive tax increases are crucial to reducing tobacco use; particularly where prices are demonstrably lower and prevalence higher in comparison to other countries ranked similarly on economic development indicators. Second, as a rule of thumb, governments cannot afford to neglect the annual increases that ensure that tobacco taxes do not lose their efficacy over time. PMID:25673328

  17. NASA budget increases for 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leath, Audrey T.

    The fiscal year 1994 budget request for NASA is $15.3 billion, an increase of $934.6 million, or 6.5%, above the 1993 appropriation of $14.3 billion. Within this first budget request developed under NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin, the emphasis has changed and some details remain unresolved. At the agency's budget briefing, Goldin echoed Clinton's mantra for change and increased investment in new technologies. Saying that NASA was “too much into human space flight,” Goldin has proposed increased funding for technology development at the expense of the space station. He has also made reductions in some existing programs and increased funding for others.

  18. Increasing Access to Special Collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricky Erway

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In an environment where we increasingly have access to a collective collection of digitized books, special collections will become increasingly invisible if they are not accessible online. In an era of increasing expectations and decreasing budgets, finding ways to streamline some of our processes is the best way to enable us to do more with less. This report details a number of investigations into how access to special collections can be increased. It includes guidance running the gamut from digitization and rights management to policies and procedures.

  19. Increased airway glucose increases airway bacterial load in hyperglycaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Simren K; Hui, Kailyn; Farne, Hugo; Garnett, James P; Baines, Deborah L; Moore, Luke S P; Holmes, Alison H; Filloux, Alain; Tregoning, John S

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is associated with increased frequency of hospitalization due to bacterial lung infection. We hypothesize that increased airway glucose caused by hyperglycaemia leads to increased bacterial loads. In critical care patients, we observed that respiratory tract bacterial colonisation is significantly more likely when blood glucose is high. We engineered mutants in genes affecting glucose uptake and metabolism (oprB, gltK, gtrS and glk) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, strain PAO1. These mutants displayed attenuated growth in minimal medium supplemented with glucose as the sole carbon source. The effect of glucose on growth in vivo was tested using streptozocin-induced, hyperglycaemic mice, which have significantly greater airway glucose. Bacterial burden in hyperglycaemic animals was greater than control animals when infected with wild type but not mutant PAO1. Metformin pre-treatment of hyperglycaemic animals reduced both airway glucose and bacterial load. These data support airway glucose as a critical determinant of increased bacterial load during diabetes. PMID:27273266

  20. Extreme precipitation: Increases all round

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, William

    2016-05-01

    Globally, extreme rainfall is expected to increase with warming, but regional changes over land have been less certain. Now research shows that this intense precipitation has increased across both the wetter and the drier parts of the continents, and will continue to do so as global warming continues.

  1. Assessing and Increasing Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, Carole M.; Hayes, Lynda B.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing physical activity is a crucial component of any comprehensive approach to combat the growing obesity epidemic. This review summarizes recent behavioral research on the measurement of physical activity and interventions aimed at increasing physical activity and provides directions for future research.

  2. Strategies to Increase Physical Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Tuso, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    One key intervention to prevent preventable diseases and to make health care more affordable is to increase the percentage of Americans who are physically active. No single intervention will increase activity rates, but a group of interventions working together in synergy may be the stimulus needed to get Americans moving.

  3. Is the Rape Rate Increasing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Paul; And Others

    While it has been asserted that rape has increased in frequency over the past generation, part of this increase may be due to a greater willingness to report rape to the authorities. A study was conducted to examine the frequency of rape and to describe the characteristics of rape victims. A random questionnaire survey of 4,340 adults in five…

  4. Increasing Learning from TV News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perloff, Richard M.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes an experiment that manipulated two variables, repetition and pausing for viewer "digestion" of information in a news telecast. Concludes that the use of repetition increased viewers' retention of information, but that pauses did not. (FL)

  5. Cattle experimentally infected by Anaplasma marginale: Influence of splenectomy on disease pathogenesis, oxidative profile, and antioxidant status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Rovaina L; França, Raqueli T; Oliveira, Camila B; Rezer, João F P; Klafke, Guilherme M; Martins, João R; Santos, Andrea P; do Nascimento, Naíla C; Mesick, Joanne B; Lopes, Sonia T A; Leal, Daniela B R; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Andrade, Cinthia M

    2016-06-01

    Bovine anaplasmosis is caused by the obligate intraerythrocytic bacteria Anaplasma marginale. These bacteria are transmitted by tick species such as Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, blood-sucking insects, and fomites (needles, clippers, and other blood contaminated equipment). During the acute phase of infection, animals may develop fever, anemia, jaundice, and hepatosplenomegaly. The aims of this study are to quantify the bacteremia by quantitative PCR in eight naïve calves experimentally infected by A. marginale [splenectomized (n = 4), and intact/non-splenectomized (n = 4)], and to correlate these findings with markers of oxidative stress on days 0, 8, 15, 21 and 23 post-infection. Complete blood counts (CBC) were performed in both groups. Lipid peroxidation was estimated by quantifying thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS); and non-enzymatic antioxidants were assessed by erythrocyte content of non-protein thiols (NPSH). There were no significant differences in complete blood counts (CBC) between the two groups. However, both groups had a slight decrease on packet cell volume (PCV), erythrocytes and hemoglobin concentration, as well as an increase in total leukocyte counts due to elevated lymphocytes when comparing pre and post-infection with A. marginale. Progressive increase on TBARS levels and concomitant decrease on NPSH content were observed in all animals, without significant differences between splenectomized and intact animals. A positive correlation between bacteremia and TBARS, and a negative correlation between bacteremia and NPSH were observed in both groups with higher correlation for NPSH in splenectomized animals. A negative correlation between TBARS and NPSH levels was observed in both groups indicating lipid peroxidation without a non-enzymatic antioxidant response. The results of experimental infection by A. marginale in cattle showed that bacteremia has an impact on lipid peroxidation regardless of the splenectomy. PMID

  6. Requests for body computed tomography: increasing workload, increasing indications and increasing age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing numbers of increasingly elderly patients were being examined in our Body CT department. At the same time, some of our clinical colleagues perceived that their patients might be discriminated against on the basis of their age when allocating CT time. We therefore studied the population trends in our department over a 10-year period. The ages of patients attending the Body CT department were collected from the hospital's computer information system from 1995 to 2000 and from handwritten logbooks for the months of September 1988 and 1998. Comparison was made with population trends within the hospital and local demographic data. There has been an average increase of 11% per annum in the number of examinations performed in the Body CT unit. The average age of patients examined increased from 52.7 years in 1988 to 58.9 years in 1998. The largest increase occurred in the over 75-year population (18% rise per annum). Hospital and local demographic population profiles changed little during the same period. We are performing increasing numbers of body CT examinations on increasingly elderly patients. This is probably due to an increased willingness to investigate and treat elderly patients, rather than changes in the local population. There is no evidence of a general discriminatory policy on the basis of age. (orig.)

  7. Research Evaluation to Increase Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Templeton, Deborah J.

    2003-01-01

    Research evaluation, undertaken throughout the life of the research activity, is an important tool for research managers. When correctly implemented, research evaluation can help to increase the success of existing and future research projects and programs, thereby increasing the social, economic and/or environmental impact of the research. The relationship between the life-cycle of the research project and the type of evaluation determines the appropriate type of evaluation to be undertaken....

  8. INCREASING RETURN TO SMART CITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Lööf, Hans; Nabavi, Pardis

    2012-01-01

    Increased urbanization, global warming and sustainable growth belong to the major contemporary policy challenges. Today cities are home to more than 50% of the world population, the largest 600 urban centers generate about 60% of global GDP, and the agglomerated areas are responsible for 75% of world carbon emissions. The UN estimates that 70% of the world's growing population will live in cities by 2050. At the same time the world population is expected to increase from 7 billion people to 9...

  9. Meclofenamate increases ventilation in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, F A; Savich, R D; Clyman, R I; Kitterman, J A

    1989-01-01

    To investigate the effects of the prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor, meclofenamate, on postnatal ventilation, we studied 11 unanaesthetised, spontaneously-breathing lambs at an average age of 7.9 +/- 1.1 days (SEM; range 5-14 days) and an average weight of 4.9 +/- 0.5 kg (range 3.0-7.0 kg). After a 30-min control period we infused 4.23 mg/kg meclofenamate over 10 min and then gave 0.23 mg/h per kg for the remainder of the 4 h. Ventilation increased progressively from a control value of 515 +/- 72 ml/min per kg to a maximum of 753 +/- 100 ml/min per kg after 3h of infusion (P less than 0.05) due to an increased breathing rate; the effects were similar during both high- and low-voltage electrocortical activity. There were no significant changes in tidal volume, heart rate, blood pressure, arterial pH or PaCO2, the increased ventilation resulted from either an increase in dead space ventilation or an increase in CO2 production. This study indicates that meclofenamate causes an increase in ventilation in lambs but no changes in pH of PaCO2. The mechanism and site of action remain to be defined. PMID:2507622

  10. Recombinant Rhipicephalus appendiculatus gut (Ra86 and salivary gland cement (Trp64 proteins as candidate antigens for inclusion in tick vaccines: protective effects of Ra86 on infestation with adult R. appendiculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saimo M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Margaret Saimo1,2,*, David O Odongo3,4,*, Stephen Mwaura3, Just M Vlak1, Anthony J Musoke5, George W Lubega2, Richard P Bishop3, Monique M van Oers11Laboratory of Virology, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands; 2School of Veterinary Medicine, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; 3International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; 4School of Biological Sciences, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya; 5Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, Onderstepoort, Pretoria, South Africa *These two authors made an equal contribution to this workAbstract: Rhipicephalus appendiculatus gut protein Ra86 (variants Ra85A and Ra92A and the salivary gland cement protein (Trp64 were expressed in the baculovirus-insect cell system. The recombinant gut proteins expressed as soluble proteins and the recombinant cement protein, as insoluble inclusion bodies, were used to immunize rabbits, which were then challenged with larval, nymphal, and adult stages of R. appendiculatus ticks. High tick mortality (23.3% occurred on adult ticks that fed on rabbits vaccinated with the gut proteins, compared with 1.9% mortality in ticks that fed on unvaccinated naïve control rabbits. The mean weight of engorged female ticks was significantly reduced by 31.5% in rabbits vaccinated with the Ra86 recombinant protein compared with controls, as was egg production. Marked effects on these parameters were also observed in adult ticks as a result from vaccination using Trp64, but these were not statistically significant. For both antigens, there was no demonstrable effect on larval or nymphal ticks. This study demonstrates for the first time the protective efficacy of a homolog of Boophilus microplus Bm86 in reducing tick infestation by the adult stage of the three-host tick R. appendiculatus. The results demonstrate the potential of Ra86 for vaccine development against this tick and for the control of East Coast fever.Keywords: baculovirus, Ra85A, Ra92A, Boophilus

  11. Increased chromosome radiosensitivity during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was necessary to consider the risks of exposure of pregnant women, not only in relation to the child, but also in relation to their own hypersensitivity. We have demonstrated that pregnancy increases radiosensitivity of chromosome in the mouse at the end of gestation. This is of importance since it may have implications on radioprotection of pregnant women and give experimental guidelines to the problems of hypersensitivity to drugs and cancer aggravation during pregnancy. Blood obtained from women at various times of pregnancy was exposed to ionizing radiations. By comparison to non-pregnant women, an increase in chromosome breakage was observed in metaphases from lymphocytes, after short-term culture in the presence of the serum of the same donor. Immediately after delivery, this increase in radiosensitivity disappeared. In a prospective study, serial analyses showed a very strong correlation between the amount of pregnancy hormones, progesterone in particular, and the increase in radiosensitivity. Pregnant women may have an increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation during the second half of their pregnancy. This study provides the first evidence in human that radiosensitivity may vary in relation to physiological conditions

  12. Increased burnup of fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specialists' group for fuel elements of the Kerntechnische Gesellschaft e.V. held a meeting on ''Increased Burnup of Fuel Elements'' on 9th and 10th of November 1982 at the GKSS Research Center Geesthacht. Most papers dealt with the problems of burnup increase of fuel elements for light water reactors with respect to fuel manufacturing, power plant operation and reprocessing. Review papers were given on the burnup limits for high temperature gas cooled reactors and sodium fast breeder reactors. The meeting ended with a presentation of the technical equipment of the hot laboratory of the GKSS and the programs which are in progress there. (orig.)

  13. Fires increase Amazon forest productivity through increases in diffuse radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rap, A.; Spracklen, D. V.; Mercado, L.; Reddington, C. L.; Haywood, J. M.; Ellis, R. J.; Phillips, O. L.; Artaxo, P.; Bonal, D.; Restrepo Coupe, N.; Butt, N.

    2015-06-01

    Atmospheric aerosol scatters solar radiation increasing the fraction of diffuse radiation and the efficiency of photosynthesis. We quantify the impacts of biomass burning aerosol (BBA) on diffuse radiation and plant photosynthesis across Amazonia during 1998-2007. Evaluation against observed aerosol optical depth allows us to provide lower and upper BBA emissions estimates. BBA increases Amazon basin annual mean diffuse radiation by 3.4-6.8% and net primary production (NPP) by 1.4-2.8%, with quoted ranges driven by uncertainty in BBA emissions. The enhancement of Amazon basin NPP by 78-156 Tg C a-1 is equivalent to 33-65% of the annual regional carbon emissions from biomass burning. This NPP increase occurs during the dry season and acts to counteract some of the observed effect of drought on tropical production. We estimate that 30-60 Tg C a-1 of this NPP enhancement is within woody tissue, accounting for 8-16% of the observed carbon sink across mature Amazonian forests.

  14. Increased Spreading Activation in Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Paul S.; Yung, Raegan C.; Branch, Kaylei K.; Stringer, Kristi; Ferguson, Brad J.; Sullivan, William; Drago, Valeria

    2011-01-01

    The dopaminergic system is implicated in depressive disorders and research has also shown that dopamine constricts lexical/semantic networks by reducing spreading activation. Hence, depression, which is linked to reductions of dopamine, may be associated with increased spreading activation. However, research has generally found no effects of…

  15. THE INCIDENCE OF PARASITIC DISEASES IN LIVESTOCK IN BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Suratma

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The population of livestock in Bali has continuously increased from year to year. However, some problems are encountered with parasitic infections in livestock. Parasitic infections may be caused by worms, protozoa or ectoparasites. In cattle, the most common infections are those caused by Oesophagostomum sp, Ostertagia sp, Haemonchus sp, Mecistocirrus sp, and Cooperia sp which is the most dominant. Neoascaris vitulorum was reported to be as high as 29.1% in calves. Fascioliasis in cattle was found highly prevalent, between 34.9 to 56.7% and was caused by Fasciola gigantica. Also Paramphistomum infection was reported to be highly prevalent (50.1%. In addition, Boophilus microplus was recorded as high as 36.9%. In goat and sheep, the incidence of Haemonchus contortus was 27.7% and 53.6% respectively. Infestation of Paramphistomum sp in goat was 9.27%. Concerning ectoparasites, Sarcoptes scabiei was reported to be the cause of death of 67% of young goats and up to 11% of older gats in Br. Penginuman, Gilimanuk Negara. Parasitic infections in pigs were caused by Cysticercus tenuicollis (11% and Ascaris suum (24.2% and 21.1% showed Metastrongylus apri and also Sarcoptes scabiei was reported to be the cause of skin disease in pigs. In poultry, parasitic infection were caused by Raillietina (96%, Heterakis gallinae (66.7%, Capillaria sp (6.6%, Ascardia galli (56.7%, Oxyspirura mansoni (50%, Acuaria spiralis (13.3% and Syngamus trachea (3.3%. Multiple infections are common.

  16. Characterization of ferritin 2 for the control of tick infestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdusek, Ondrej; Almazán, Consuelo; Loosova, Gabriela; Villar, Margarita; Canales, Mario; Grubhoffer, Libor; Kopacek, Petr; de la Fuente, José

    2010-04-01

    Ixodes ricinus is one the most abundant tick species in Europe and these ticks transmit pathogens causing human and animal diseases. The cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) spp., affect cattle production in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Development of vaccines directed against tick proteins may reduce tick infestations and the transmission of tick-borne pathogens. However, a limiting step in tick vaccine development has been the identification of tick protective antigens. Herein, the tick iron metabolism pathway was targeted in an effort to identify new tick protective antigens. Recombinant I. ricinus (IrFER2) and Rhipicephalus microplus (RmFER2) ferritin 2 proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and used to immunize rabbits and cattle, respectively. Vaccination with IrFER2 reduced I. ricinus tick numbers, weight and fertility in rabbits with an overall vaccine efficacy (E) of 98%. Control of cattle tick, R. microplus and Rhipicephalus annulatus infestations was obtained in vaccinated cattle with overall E of 64% and 72%, respectively. Notably, the efficacy of the RmFER2 vaccine was similar to that obtained with Bm86 against R. microplus. These collective results demonstrated the feasibility of using ferritin 2 to develop vaccines for the control of tick infestations. PMID:20171306

  17. Increasing work-time influence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Garde, Anne Helene; Aust, Birgit;

    2012-01-01

    (subgroup B), or discussion of working hours (subgroup C). Only computerised self-scheduling changed the working hours and the way they were planned. These changes implied more flexible but less regular working hours and an experience of less predictability and less continuity in the care of clients and in...... and interviews with intervention-group participants (n = 32). The work units in the intervention group designed their own intervention comprising either implementation of computerised self-scheduling (subgroup A), collection of information about the employees' work-time preferences by questionnaires...... intervention study suggested that while increasing the individual flexibility, increasing work-time influence may also result in decreased regularity of the working hours and less continuity in the care of clients and co-operation with colleagues....

  18. How to increase living donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Connie L

    2011-04-01

    Living donation is the key to increasing access to successful solid organ transplantation worldwide. However, the means to expanding the number of living donors on a global scale are not known. Although there have been many suggestions for the best approach, cultural issues may limit the effectiveness of some strategies. Only a few ideas have been studied, and one in particular- outright payment to donors - may raise ethical issues that are difficult to surmount and might negatively alter altruistic behavior. With respect to the present environment, this article will describe some of the approaches that are being discussed to increase the number of living donors, with a particular focus on kidney transplantation. PMID:21210867

  19. Increasing Accuracy in Environmental Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacksier, Tracey; Fernandes, Adelino; Matthew, Matt; Lehmann, Horst

    2016-04-01

    Human activity is increasing the concentrations of green house gases (GHG) in the atmosphere which results in temperature increases. High precision is a key requirement of atmospheric measurements to study the global carbon cycle and its effect on climate change. Natural air containing stable isotopes are used in GHG monitoring to calibrate analytical equipment. This presentation will examine the natural air and isotopic mixture preparation process, for both molecular and isotopic concentrations, for a range of components and delta values. The role of precisely characterized source material will be presented. Analysis of individual cylinders within multiple batches will be presented to demonstrate the ability to dynamically fill multiple cylinders containing identical compositions without isotopic fractionation. Additional emphasis will focus on the ability to adjust isotope ratios to more closely bracket sample types without the reliance on combusting naturally occurring materials, thereby improving analytical accuracy.

  20. Price Increases from Online Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Michael R; Chen, Yu-Ching

    2001-01-01

    Consumers value keeping some information about them private from potential marketers. E-commerce dramatically increases the potential for marketers to accumulate otherwise private information about potential customers. Online marketers claim that this information enables them to better market their products. Policy makers are currently drafting rules to regulate the way in which these marketers can collect, store, and share this information. However, there is little evidence yet either of con...

  1. Turkey's Increasing Role in Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Muharrem Eksi

    2010-01-01

    TThis paper is briefly dealing with the current situation in Afghanistan within the context of Turkey’s increasing role in Afghanistan. Turkish-Afghani relations are examined in terms of politics and economy while Turkish foreign policies towards Afghanistan and the Turkish-Pakistani-Afghani triple summit attempts are analyzed. Additionally, Turkey’s security and socio-economic contributions in Afghanistan are emphasized. Turkey’s unwillingness to send troops to Afghanistan for operational pu...

  2. Does nationalization increase stakeholder democracy?

    OpenAIRE

    Simeon Scott

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the theory and practice of stakeholder democracy. After examining the liberal notion of representative democracy, the paper seeks to identify the democratic deficit associated with the shareholder and stakeholder approaches to corporate governance. Investigating stakeholder democracy in nationalized industries in both market- and state-capitalist societies, the argument presented is that neither type of society has significantly increased ...

  3. NSF and NASA budgets increased

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Research budgets of several of the federal government agencies were increased significantly over the Reagan administration's requests in the House of Representative's appropriations bill H.R. 4034. These budgets had been removed from the Reagan administration's omnibus reconciliation bill, and thus there were worries expressed that certain research funding could be in jeopardy. The rationale was that because the requests were voted on individually on the floor of the House, many sections of the budgets would be subjected to extra scrutiny, which would lead to more cuts.The National Science Foundation (NSF) budget request had been cut and reordered by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) by making sharp reductions in programs of the social sciences and in programs of science and engineering education. There were fears that these programs would be reinstated to the original request level, at the expense of the budgets of other research activities. These fears materialized, but only momentarily. Efforts to cut the research activities by the House Appropriations Committee were soundly defeated. The budget was supported, with additional increases to provide for the education programs, by a high margin, which included most Republican and Democratic members of the House of Representatives. The overall NSF budget, as passed, has a total appropriation of $1103.5 million, compared with the Administration's request of $1033.5 million (the Fiscal Year 1981 appropriation for the NSF was $1022.4 million). The House approved budget included increases of $44.9 million in research and $25.1 million in science and engineering education. Included in the research budget increase were recommendations by the House Appropriations Committee for support of the social sciences and for the international affairs programs. Also included in the recommendations was support of interdisciplinary research programs that cut across the directorates of the NSF.

  4. Hybridization increases invasive knotweed success

    OpenAIRE

    Parepa, Madalin; Fischer, Markus; Krebs, Christine; Bossdorf, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Hybridization is one of the fundamental mechanisms by which rapid evolution can occur in exotic species. If hybrids show increased vigour, this could significantly contribute to invasion success. Here, we compared the success of the two invasive knotweeds, Fallopia japonica and F. sachalinensis, and their hybrid, F. × bohemica, in competing against experimental communities of native plants. Using plant material from multiple clones of each taxon collected across a latitudinal gradient in Cent...

  5. Hybridization increases invasive knotweed success

    OpenAIRE

    Parepa, Madalin; Fischer, Markus; Krebs, Christine; Bossdorf, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Hybridization is one of the fundamental mechanisms by which rapid evolution can occur in exotic species. If hybrids show increased vigour, this could significantly contribute to invasion success. Here, we compared the success of the two invasive knotweeds, Fallopia japonica and F.sachalinensis, and their hybrid, F.x bohemica, in competing against experimental communities of native plants. Using plant material from multiple clones of each taxon collected across a latitudinal gradient in Centra...

  6. CAN INCOME EQUALITY INCREASE COMPETITIVENESS?

    OpenAIRE

    Fishman, Arthur; Simhon, Avi

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between income distribution, prices, production efficiency and aggregate output in a decentralized search economy. We show that income distribution determines how competitive the market is, and thereby affects production efficiency and aggregate output. It is shown that it is generally possible to engineer a judicious transfer of income from high to low income individuals which simultaneously increases income equality, competitiveness, and aggregate output.

  7. How trade unions increase welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Donado, Alejandro; Klaus WALDE

    2010-01-01

    Historically, worker movements have played a crucial role in making workplaces safer. Firms traditionally oppose better health standards. According to our interpretation, workplace safety is costly for firms but increases the average health of workers and thereby the aggregate labour supply. A laissez-faire approach in which firms set safety standards is suboptimal as workers are not fully informed of health risks associated with jobs. Safety standards set by better-informed trade unions are ...

  8. High Heels Increase Women's Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguen, Nicolas

    2015-11-01

    Research has found that the appearance of women's apparel helps increase their attractiveness as rated by men and that men care more about physical features in potential opposite-sex mates. However, the effect of sartorial appearance has received little interest from scientists. In a series of studies, the length of women's shoe heels was examined. A woman confederate wearing black shoes with 0, 5, or 9 cm heels asked men for help in various circumstances. In Study 1, she asked men to respond to a short survey on gender equality. In Study 2, the confederate asked men and women to participate in a survey on local food habit consumption. In Study 3, men and women in the street were observed while walking in back of the female confederate who dropped a glove apparently unaware of her loss. It was found that men's helping behavior increased as soon as heel length increased. However, heel length had no effect on women's helping behavior. It was also found that men spontaneously approached women more quickly when they wore high-heeled shoes (Study 4). Change in gait, foot-size judgment, and misattribution of sexiness and sexual intent were used as possible explanations. PMID:25408499

  9. [How to increase food production?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahamanyi, L

    1984-12-01

    Pressure of population on cultivable land, serious soil erosion, and low productivity due to scarcity of inputs have hampered efforts to provide an adequate diet for the population of Rwanda. Until the present, production has increased about as rapidly as population, but Rwanda is not totally self-sufficient in food, future climatic conditions may be less favorable than those of the past, technical and resource constraints are likely to increase, and little new land will be available for cultivation. Between 1970-80, hectares devoted to bananas and beans have increased considerably, but the marginal nature of much new land has seriously lowered productivity. Sweet potatoes are more extensively grown but their productivity is limited, and productivity of manioc has stagnated despite efforts to increase it. Peas are less frequently cultivated because the fallow land on they they are grown has almost disappeared due to population pressure. Agriculture in Rwanda has always been associated with herding, but population pressure is eliminating pastureland. Firewood for cooking is also becoming more scarce and reforestation is not proceeding rapidly enough to fill projected demand. Between 1978-80 and the year 2000, preliminary goals are to increase production in tons from 2,005,900 to 3,375,000 for bananas, from 177,400 to 330,000 for beans, from 15,200 to 45,500 for ground nuts, from 4000 to 25,000 for soybeans, from 174,800 to 288,000 for sorghum, from 81,300 to 250,000 for maize, from 3700 to 45,000 for rice, from 837,100 to 2,148,000 for sweet potatoes, from 506,600 to 1,200,000 for manioc, and from 216,000 to 600,000 for potatoes. Reaching these goals will require doubling of overall productivity per hectare. Different strategies will be required for increasing the yields of the principal crops. Priority should be given to developing strains of beans that will grow well in the poor soils, dry or cold regions, and acidic soils where they are usually planted in Rwanda

  10. Do trade missions increase trade?

    OpenAIRE

    Head, Keith; Ries, John

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to stimulate trade, Canada has conducted regular trade missions starting in 1994, often led by the Prime Minister. According to the Canadian government, these missions generated tens of billions of dollars in new business deals. This paper uses bilateral trade data to assess this claim. We find that Canada exports and imports above-normal amounts to the countries to which it sent trade missions. However, the missions do not seem to have caused an increase in trade. In the preferr...

  11. Increase Productivity Through Knowledge Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrikova, N. A.; Dolgih, I. N.; Dyrina, E. N.

    2016-04-01

    Increase in competition level requires companies to improve the efficiency of work force use characterized by labor productivity. Professional knowledge of staff and its experience play the key role in it. The results of Extrusion Line operator’s working time analysis are performed in this article. The analysis revealed that the reasons of working time ineffective use connected with inadequate information exchange and knowledge management in the company. Authors suggest the way to solve this problem: the main sources of knowledge in engineering enterprise have been defined, the conditions of success and the stages of knowledge management control have been stated.

  12. [Ozone decline and UV increase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, P; Trepte, S

    2004-02-01

    The following results have been obtained from long-term observations on the ozone layer and UV at the Meteorological Observatory Hohenpeigenberg:The seasonally varying decline of the ozone layer determines the maximum exposure to UV. Since ozone decline shows the highest rates in the spring months the UV exposure has most strongly increased in this time of the year. This is especially important because in spring the human skin is not adapted to UV exposure. Weather changes from day to day can induce rapid ozone reductions in spring about -30% which in turn is followed by an increase in UV of about 40%. Clouds, especially the transparent cirrus clouds (high clouds consisting of ice particles) have increased in frequency during spring and fall while a decrease is observed in summer. This change in cloudiness reduces the daily UV dose in spring and fall while it is enhanced in summer. With increasing height above sea level UV rises by roughly 10% per 1000 m (rule of thumb). Snow reflects the UV-radiation by up to 80% enhancing the UV-doses at relevant conditions. Strong volcano eruptions destroy ozone in the stratosphere additionally during 1-2 years after the eruption. Therafter the ozone layer recovers. In April 1993, after the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo (1991), the UV burden was still 40% higher than average. Miniholes and streamers can appear unexpected on a short-time scale and cross over Central Europe within 1-2 days, thus enhancing UV irradiation. The human skin reacts to UV exposure depending on the type of skin. The campaign "Sonne(n) mit Verstand" of the Bavarian Ministries for Environment, for Health and for Education informs about the danger of UV radiation (see www.sonne-mit-ver-stand.de). The German Weather Service informs the public on present developments of the ozone layer and relevant topics byits ozone bulletin, which is also available via internet under (www.dwd.de/deFundE/Observator/MOHp/hp2/ozon/bulletin.htm). PMID:14770335

  13. USA: Organic demand to increase

    OpenAIRE

    Paull, John

    2013-01-01

    The demand for organic food will continue to increase driven by health conscious consumers, according to a new survey of 1500 US consumers. The 155 page report by Technomic Inc advises food service executives, operators and suppliers to “consider re-evaluating their product mix to appeal to this no-longer-niche market". A key finding of the Healthy Eating Consumer Trend Report is that "the vast majority [of consumers] say that health is a priority for them and they at least try to eat hea...

  14. Increasing Security in Cloud Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Naik, Priyanka; Sanyal, Sugata

    2013-01-01

    The concept of cloud computing was introduced to meet the increase in demand for new application for a project, and to provide a large storage facility whenever or wherever a user needs it. The cloud system facility helped many industries as well as individual users to get authentic software at a very low cost. But with this new system comes the major concern of security, as the connection to the cloud is through the web and the data and application availability need to be handled for each cl...

  15. Increasing situational awareness using smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddhu, Sanjay K.; Williams, Robert L.; Wasser, Edward; Kode, Niranjan

    2012-06-01

    In recent years, the United States Armed Services and various law enforcement agencies have shown increasing interest in evaluating the feasibility of using smartphones and hand-held devices as part of the standard gear for its personnel, who are actively engaged on battlefield or in crime-prone areas. The primary motive driving analysis efforts to employ smartphone-based technologies is the prospect of the increased "Situational Awareness" achievable thru a digitally connected network of armed personnel. Personnel would be equipped with customized smart applications that use the device's sensors (GPS, camera, compass, etc...) to sense the hostile environments as well as enabling them to perform collaborative tasks to effectively complete a given mission. In this vein, as part of the Summer At The Edge (SATE) program, a group of student interns under the guidance of mentors from Qbase and AFRL, have employed smartphones and built three smart applications to tackle three real-world scenarios: PinPoint, IStream, and Cooperative GPS. This paper provides implementation details for these prototype applications, along with the supporting visualization and sensor cloud platforms and discusses results obtained from field testing of the same. Further, the paper concludes by providing the implications of the present work and insights into future work.

  16. Implications of increased ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The implications of increased ethanol production in Canada, assuming a 10% market penetration of a 10% ethanol/gasoline blend, are evaluated. Issues considered in the analysis include the provision of new markets for agricultural products, environmental sustainability, energy security, contribution to global warming, potential government cost (subsidies), alternative options to ethanol, energy efficiency, impacts on soil and water of ethanol crop production, and acceptance by fuel marketers. An economic analysis confirms that ethanol production from a stand-alone plant is not economic at current energy values. However, integration of ethanol production with a feedlot lowers the break-even price of ethanol by about 35 cents/l, and even further reductions could be achieved as technology to utilize lignocellulosic feedstock is commercialized. Ethanol production could have a positive impact on farm income, increasing cash receipts to grain farmers up to $53 million. The environmental impact of ethanol production from grain would be similar to that from crop production in general. Some concerns about ethanol/gasoline blends from the fuel industry have been reduced as those blends are now becoming recommended in some automotive warranties. However, the concerns of the larger fuel distributors are a serious constraint on an expansion of ethanol use. The economics of ethanol use could be improved by extending the federal excise tax exemption now available for pure alcohol fuels to the alcohol portion of alcohol/gasoline blends. 9 refs., 10 tabs

  17. [Patients' increasing role in healthcare].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Cinzia

    2016-03-01

    Since the late '90s citizens have been increasingly involved in healthcare, thanks to a shift in access to healthcare information, greater patients' and citizens' awareness about their rights and needs, and a change in physicians' attitudes and behavior. At the same time, to ensure the sustainability of the national health services, patients' needs are increasingly being examined in relation to the services and interventions needed, and to foster informed demand by patients and citizens, and appropriate prescriptions by physicians. Nowadays, patients already have a section in an authoritative medical journal. Working with clinicians, they set research priorities and the outcomes to be studied. Especially in UK and USA, they are invited to participate in the design and development of trials and in deciding which trials should be funded. The situation varies widely in different countries, though involving citizens in healthcare decisions is a common mantra. Even when they consult a clinician, the patients' role has evolved. People ask for information more often and want an active part in decisions about their health. Physicians start to pay more attention to the person and the social context, feelings and emotions, and person-centered care has become a reference in the doctor-patient relationship. This article offers an overview of the changing roles of patients and citizens in healthcare. PMID:27030220

  18. Increase of power plant efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increase of power plant efficiency has always been the aim of power plant manufacturers and operators. Today, after the re-orientation of the worldwide market situation, it is necessary to newly assess the power plant efficiency in the field of competition and environment. The average efficiency of power plants presently ranges worldwide at about 30%, yet the status of available technology in the year 2000 permits efficiencies between 45 an 58% depending on the fuels used. VGB PowerTech has been monitoring the technical development of power generation for 80 years up to now. From our point of view, power plant technology still has a great development potential at its disposal. (orig.)

  19. Increasing of Reliability of Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trebuňa, F.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The innovative activities in steel production invoke exploitation of new machines with the higher production capacity and productivity of labor. The paper deals with deformation and stress analysis of carrying parts of converter pedestal on the base of which the proposals and supporting measures were made that had the aim to increase reliability of the converter during steel production. This was achieved by lifespan prolongation of anchor and connecting bolts of converter pedestal, by change of stiffness of connected elements as well as by correction of nuts of bolted connections. The realization of structural changes decreased loading amplitudes and consequently the vibrations of pedestal. Solution was verified by numerical and experimental procedures of mechanics.

  20. Propofol directly increases tau phosphorylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Whittington

    Full Text Available In Alzheimer's disease (AD and other tauopathies, the microtubule-associated protein tau can undergo aberrant hyperphosphorylation potentially leading to the development of neurofibrillary pathology. Anesthetics have been previously shown to induce tau hyperphosphorylation through a mechanism involving hypothermia-induced inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A activity. However, the effects of propofol, a common clinically used intravenous anesthetic, on tau phosphorylation under normothermic conditions are unknown. We investigated the effects of a general anesthetic dose of propofol on levels of phosphorylated tau in the mouse hippocampus and cortex under normothermic conditions. Thirty min following the administration of propofol 250 mg/kg i.p., significant increases in tau phosphorylation were observed at the AT8, CP13, and PHF-1 phosphoepitopes in the hippocampus, as well as at AT8, PHF-1, MC6, pS262, and pS422 epitopes in the cortex. However, we did not detect somatodendritic relocalization of tau. In both brain regions, tau hyperphosphorylation persisted at the AT8 epitope 2 h following propofol, although the sedative effects of the drug were no longer evident at this time point. By 6 h following propofol, levels of phosphorylated tau at AT8 returned to control levels. An initial decrease in the activity and expression of PP2A were observed, suggesting that PP2A inhibition is at least partly responsible for the hyperphosphorylation of tau at multiple sites following 30 min of propofol exposure. We also examined tau phosphorylation in SH-SY5Y cells transfected to overexpress human tau. A 1 h exposure to a clinically relevant concentration of propofol in vitro was also associated with tau hyperphosphorylation. These findings suggest that propofol increases tau phosphorylation both in vivo and in vitro under normothermic conditions, and further studies are warranted to determine the impact of this anesthetic on the acceleration of

  1. Turkey's Increasing Role in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem Eksi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is briefly dealing with the current situation in Afghanistan within the context of Turkey’s increasing role in Afghanistan. Turkish-Afghani relations are examined in terms of politics and economy while Turkish foreign policies towards Afghanistan and the Turkish-Pakistani-Afghani triple summit attempts are analyzed. Additionally, Turkey’s security and socio-economic contributions in Afghanistan are emphasized. Turkey’s unwillingness to send troops to Afghanistanfor operational purposes that is frequently debated in national and international circles has been evaluated by stating the advantages and disadvantages of such decision. Turkey’s quiet approach between 2001 and 2004 towards Afghanistan, which have been energizing since 2005 and Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoğlu’s visit to Afghanistan on June 2009 have been dealt as well. By considering Davutoglu’s policies, aiming to introduce Turkey as a global actor and as the term President of the UNSC (the UN Security Council, it seems that Turkey is preparing to play a more active role in Afghanistan.

  2. Vocal attractiveness increases by averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckert, Laetitia; Bestelmeyer, Patricia; Latinus, Marianne; Rouger, Julien; Charest, Ian; Rousselet, Guillaume A; Kawahara, Hideki; Belin, Pascal

    2010-01-26

    Vocal attractiveness has a profound influence on listeners-a bias known as the "what sounds beautiful is good" vocal attractiveness stereotype [1]-with tangible impact on a voice owner's success at mating, job applications, and/or elections. The prevailing view holds that attractive voices are those that signal desirable attributes in a potential mate [2-4]-e.g., lower pitch in male voices. However, this account does not explain our preferences in more general social contexts in which voices of both genders are evaluated. Here we show that averaging voices via auditory morphing [5] results in more attractive voices, irrespective of the speaker's or listener's gender. Moreover, we show that this phenomenon is largely explained by two independent by-products of averaging: a smoother voice texture (reduced aperiodicities) and a greater similarity in pitch and timbre with the average of all voices (reduced "distance to mean"). These results provide the first evidence for a phenomenon of vocal attractiveness increases by averaging, analogous to a well-established effect of facial averaging [6, 7]. They highlight prototype-based coding [8] as a central feature of voice perception, emphasizing the similarity in the mechanisms of face and voice perception. PMID:20129047

  3. Slow motion increases perceived intent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Eugene M; Burns, Zachary C; Converse, Benjamin A

    2016-08-16

    To determine the appropriate punishment for a harmful action, people must often make inferences about the transgressor's intent. In courtrooms and popular media, such inferences increasingly rely on video evidence, which is often played in "slow motion." Four experiments (n = 1,610) involving real surveillance footage from a murder or broadcast replays of violent contact in professional football demonstrate that viewing an action in slow motion, compared with regular speed, can cause viewers to perceive an action as more intentional. This slow motion intentionality bias occurred, in part, because slow motion video caused participants to feel like the actor had more time to act, even when they knew how much clock time had actually elapsed. Four additional experiments (n = 2,737) reveal that allowing viewers to see both regular speed and slow motion replay mitigates the bias, but does not eliminate it. We conclude that an empirical understanding of the effect of slow motion on mental state attribution should inform the life-or-death decisions that are currently based on tacit assumptions about the objectivity of human perception. PMID:27482091

  4. Fewer children equals increased savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Although the precise mechanisms by which population growth affects economic development are very complex, it appears that slower growth is associated with higher savings and investment ratios, as well as income growth. A study prepared for the US's National Research Council revealed that among 70 countries, a shift from a high to a low fertility was associated with a 50& increase in the net national savings rate. In 38 countries with slower population growth during the 1980s, savings ratios averaged 18.5% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 1989, compared to savings rations averaging only 12% in 38 countries with higher population growth. At the same time, investment was 18% of GDP in the countries with higher population growth, compared to 21% in countries with slower population growth. from 1965-80, a period favorable to economic growth, 36 countries saw their per capita GDP grow by more than 3% a year. 17 of these countries had population growth rates of 2.5% or under, while 19 had growth rates above 2.5%. During these prosperous years, the average growth rate of incomes between the 2 sets of countries were nearly identical. But with the harsher economic climate of the 1980s, the fortunes of the countries diverged. Among the 19 countries with high growth rates, only 10 achieved any positive income growth in the 1980s -- and only 5 achieved annual income growth above 0.5% By contrast, among the 17 countries with slower population growth rates, 15 achieved positive income growth of a least 0.8% a year during the 1980s. The only 2 countries in this group that experienced declines in per capita income were Nigeria and Trinidad and Tobago, which suffered from declining oil prices. PMID:12285240

  5. The increasing burden of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Briley, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Recent epidemiological surveys conducted in general populations have found that the lifetime prevalence of depression is in the range of 10% to 15%. Mood disorders, as defined by the World Mental Health and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, have a 12-month prevalence which varies from 3% in Japan to over 9% in the US. A recent American survey found the prevalence of current depression to be 9% and the rate of current major depression to be 3.4%. All studies of depressive disorders have stressed the importance of the mortality and morbidity associated with depression. The mortality risk for suicide in depressed patients is more than 20-fold greater than in the general population. Recent studies have also shown the importance of depression as a risk factor for cardiovascular death. The risk of cardiac mortality after an initial myocardial infarction is greater in patients with depression and related to the severity of the depressive episode. Greater severity of depressive symptoms has been found to be associated with significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality including cardiovascular death and stroke. In addition to mortality, functional impairment and disability associated with depression have been consistently reported. Depression increases the risk of decreased workplace productivity and absenteeism resulting in lowered income or unemployment. Absenteeism and presenteeism (being physically present at work but functioning suboptimally) have been estimated to result in a loss of $36.6 billion per year in the US. Worldwide projections by the World Health Organization for the year 2030 identify unipolar major depression as the leading cause of disease burden. This article is a brief overview of how depression affects the quality of life of the subject and is also a huge burden for both the family of the depressed patient and for society at large. PMID:21750622

  6. The increasing burden of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lépine J-P

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Pierre Lépine1, Mike Briley21Hôpital Lariboisière Fernand Widal, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris Unité INSERM 705 CNRS UMR 8206, Université Paris Diderot, Paris, France; 2NeuroBiz Consulting and Communication, Castres, FranceAbstract: Recent epidemiological surveys conducted in general populations have found that the lifetime prevalence of depression is in the range of 10% to 15%. Mood disorders, as defined by the World Mental Health and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, have a 12-month prevalence which varies from 3% in Japan to over 9% in the US. A recent American survey found the prevalence of current depression to be 9% and the rate of current major depression to be 3.4%. All studies of depressive disorders have stressed the importance of the mortality and morbidity associated with depression. The mortality risk for suicide in depressed patients is more than 20-fold greater than in the general population. Recent studies have also shown the importance of depression as a risk factor for cardiovascular death. The risk of cardiac mortality after an initial myocardial infarction is greater in patients with depression and related to the severity of the depressive episode. Greater severity of depressive symptoms has been found to be associated with significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality including cardiovascular death and stroke. In addition to mortality, functional impairment and disability associated with depression have been consistently reported. Depression increases the risk of decreased workplace productivity and absenteeism resulting in lowered income or unemployment. Absenteeism and presenteeism (being physically present at work but functioning suboptimally have been estimated to result in a loss of $36.6 billion per year in the US. Worldwide projections by the World Health Organization for the year 2030 identify unipolar major depression as the leading cause of disease burden

  7. Increased skeletal muscle capillarization enhances insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Laub, Lasse; Vedel, Kenneth;

    2014-01-01

    Increased skeletal muscle capillarization is associated with improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. However, a possible causal relationship has not previously been identified. We therefore investigated whether increased skeletal muscle capillarization increases insulin sensitivity. S...

  8. Óleo de citronela no controle do carrapato de bovinos Citronella oil on the control of catle ticks

    OpenAIRE

    Clair Jorge Olivo; Nelcy Madruga de Carvalho; José Henrique Souza da Silva; Fernanda Flores Vogel; Péricles Massariol; Gilmar Meinerz; Carlos Agnolin; Ademir Farias Morel; Luiz Volnei Viau

    2008-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito in vivo e in vitro do óleo de citronela (Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle) no carrapato de bovinos (Boophilus microplus). O óleo foi obtido de folhas frescas pelo processo de destilação e o rendimento foi de 0,7%. Para as experimentações in vitro foram usadas sete (0; 0,5; 1,0; 10,0; 25,0; 50,0; 100,0%) e nove (0,1; 0,25; 0,5; 1,0; 2,0; 10,0; 25,0; 50,0; 100%) concentrações de óleo de citronela, sendo testadas em fêmeas ingurgitadas. A eficácia observ...

  9. Integrated tick and tick-borne disease control trials in crossbred dairy cattle in Malawi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Whiteland, A. P.; Mfitilodze, M. W.;

    1996-01-01

    Crossbred dairy heifers on a farm in an East Coast fever (ECF) endemic area in Malawi were immunised against Theileria parva, Anaplasma spp., Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis and Cowdria ruminantium. They were treated at infrequent intervals with chlorfenvinphos to limit infestation with adult ticks......, without providing complete tick control. In one trial, which tested a threshold dipping regimen, 20 heifers were dipped only once in 6 months to control a flush of Boophilus microplus. Unimmunised controls showed serological evidence of exposure to T. parva and B. bigemina, and one died of ECF, but there...... were no incidents of tick-borne disease in the immunised group. In a second trial, which tested a strategic dipping regimen, 107 animals were dipped 9 times over a 6 month period. Despite heavy challenge by B. bovis and moderate challenge by B. bigemina and Anaplasma spp, demonstrated serologically...

  10. Estudo comparativo do aspecto da hemolinfa de algumas espécies de carrapatos (Acari, Ixodidae: descrição da variação hemocitária de adultos de Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius Koch Comparative study of the hemolymph aspect from a few ticks species (Acari, Ixodidae: description of the hemocyte variation of adults of Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius Koch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisa Carneiro

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The hemocyte composition of adults of Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 Koch, 1844 adults consisted of three basic cellular types: prahemocyte I (PR I, plasmatocyte (PL and spherulocyte (ES II. Among the ixodids observed (A. cajennense; A. dissimile Koch, 1844; Rhipicephalus sanguineus Latreille, 1806; Anocentor nitens (Neumann, 1897 Schulze, 1937; Boophilus microplus Canestrini, 1887 and Haemaphysalis sp. only A. cajennense was different in the adult hemolymph colour. It changed from amber to deep blue as the ixodid age advanced. This fact could be associated with the presence of hemocyanin in the hemolymph and points out the need to develop further investigations about the Ixodidae hemolymph pratein composition as well as the function of all the types found in it. This information could aid the studies on ticks control.

  11. Laboratory Scale Production of Recombinant Haa86 Tick Protein in Pichia pastoris and in Escherichia coli System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Binod; P, Azhahianambi; Ghosh, Srikant

    2016-01-01

    The commercial recombinant Bm86-based vaccines against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in Australia (TickGARD™, TickGARD plus™) and in Cuba (Gavac™) provided significant impetus to researchers globally to work on anti-tick vaccines. The Bm86 homologue of Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum Izatnagar isolate, rHaa86, is considered a potent vaccine candidate against Hyalomma tick species, transmitting animal and human diseases. The two expression systems, prokaryotic, using bacterial expression plasmid vectors and Escherichia coli, and eukaryotic, using methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris and yeast expression plasmid vectors, are used in the laboratory level production of rHaa86. Unlike proteins expressed in prokaryotic system, eukaryotic system-expressed proteins are glycosylated and may be a requisite for proper immunogenicity. Here, the protocol for laboratory scale expression of rHaa86 antigen in E. coli and P. pastoris for development of an anti-Hyalomma tick vaccine is described. PMID:27076316

  12. Differential transcription of two highly divergent gut-expressed Bm86 antigen gene homologues in the tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (Acari: Ixodida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamau, L; Skilton, R A; Odongo, D O; Mwaura, S; Githaka, N; Kanduma, E; Obura, M; Kabiru, E; Orago, A; Musoke, A; Bishop, R P

    2011-02-01

    The transcriptional control of gene expression is not well documented in the Arthropoda. We describe transcriptional analysis of two exceptionally divergent homologues (Ra86) of the Bm86 gut antigen from Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. Bm86 forms the basis of a commercial vaccine for the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The R. appendiculatus Ra86 proteins contain 654 and 693 amino acids, with only 80% amino acid sequence identity. Reverse-transcription PCR of gut cDNA showed transcription of only one genotype in individual female ticks. PCR amplification of 3' untranslated sequences from genomic DNA indicated that both variants could be encoded within a single genome. When both variants were present, one of the two Ra86 genotypes was transcriptionally dominant. PMID:20854482

  13. Vaccination against ticks and the control of ticks and tick-borne disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economic losses due to ticks and tick-borne disease of livestock fall disproportionately on developing countries. Currently, tick control relies mostly on pesticides and parasite-resistant cattle. Release of a commercial recombinant vaccine against Boophilus microplus in Australia in 1994 showed that anti-tick vaccines are a feasible alternative. For vaccines, it is important to understand the efficacy needed for a beneficial outcome. In this, it is relevant that some tick antigens affect multiple tick species; that existing vaccines could be improved by the inclusion of additional tick antigens; and that vaccination against ticks can have an impact on tick-borne disease. Practically, although recombinant vaccine manufacture involves relatively few steps, issues of intellectual property rights (IPR) and requirements for registration of a product may affect economic viability of manufacture. Hence practical vaccines for the developing world will require both successful science and a creative 'business solution' for delivery in a cost-effective way. (author)

  14. Characterization of Gut-associated Cathepsin D Hemoglobinase from Tick Ixodes ricinus (IrCD1)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sojka, Daniel; Franta, Zdeněk; Frantová, Helena; Bartošová, Pavla; Horn, Martin; Váchová, Jana; O’Donoghue, A. J.; Eroy-Reveles, A. A.; Craik, C. S.; Knudsen, G. M.; Caffrey, C. R.; McKerrow, J. H.; Mareš, Michael; Kopáček, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 287, č. 25 (2012), s. 21152-21163. ISSN 0021-9258 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600960910; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009; GA AV ČR KJB600960911; GA ČR GPP502/11/P682; GA AV ČR IAA400550705; GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/10/2183 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : RHIPICEPHALUS BOOPHILUS MICROPLUS * HARD TICK * ORNITHODOROS-MOUBATA * ASPARTIC PROTEINASE * RECOGNITION DOMAIN * MOLECULAR- CLONING * ACTIVE-SITE * EXPRESSION * INHIBITOR * PROTEASE Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.651, year: 2012

  15. 3 Ways to Increase Positive Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Friend Who Cuts? 3 Ways to Increase Positive Emotions KidsHealth > For Teens > 3 Ways to Increase Positive ... to give yourself a boost. Track Your Positive Emotions Name the positive emotions you're already familiar ...

  16. ANTI-TICK EFFECT OBSERVED IN MATURE PLANTS O TROPICAL LEGUMES Stylosanthes humilis and Stylosanthes hamata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS CRUZ-VAZQUEZ

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The anti-tick effect of Stylosanthes humilis and Stylosanthes hamata was evaluated for mature plants on plots experimentally infested with larvae of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus. Cenchurus ciliaris was used as control grass. The effect was evaluated counting the total number of live tick larvae recovered by the double flannel flag technique from the experimental plots during a four week period. The effect observed in both Stylosanthes species did not show significant differences (p > 0.05 between them and the larval survival percentage was 5.1 % for S. humilis and 7.5 % for S. hamata. In the first specie the anti-tick effect was lower than the one reported for young plants, but in S. hamata this effect was similar in young and mature plants. Further studies are necessary to complement the knowledge about this plant and to establish their use in field conditions..RESUMEN El efecto anti-garrapata de plantas maduras de las leguminosas tropicales Stylosanthes humilis y Stylosanthes hamata , fue evaluado en parcelas experimentalmente infestadas con larvas de garrapata Boophilus microplus, utilizando al pasto Cenchurus ciliaris como tratamiento testigo. El efecto fue evaluado contando el número total de larvas vivas recuperadas de las parcelas experimentales por la técnica de bandera de doble recorrido durante un periodo de cuatro semanas. El efecto anti-garrapata observado en ambas especies de Stylosanthes no mostró diferencias entre ellas (p<0.05, el porcentaje de sobrevivencia de larvas fue del 5.1% para S. humilis y 7.5% para S. hamata. En la primera especie el efecto anti-garrapata fue menor que el reportado en plantas jóvenes, pero en S. hamata este efecto fue similar en plantas maduras y jóvenes. Es necesario realizar más estudios para complementar el conocimiento que se tiene acerca de estas plantas y establecer su uso en condiciones de campo

  17. Bm86 homologues and novel ATAQ proteins with multiple epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domains from hard and soft ticks☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijhof, Ard M.; Balk, Jesper A.; Postigo, Milagros; Rhebergen, Anne Marie; Taoufik, Amar; Jongejan, Frans

    2010-01-01

    Tick control on livestock relies principally on the use of acaricides but the development of acaricide resistance and concerns for environmental pollution underscore the need for alternative control methods, for instance through the use of anti-tick vaccines. Two commercial vaccines based on the recombinant Bm86 protein from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks were developed. Partial protection of the Bm86 vaccine against other Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) and Hyalomma tick species suggests that the efficacy of a Bm86-based vaccine may be enhanced when based on the orthologous recombinant Bm86 antigen. We therefore identified and analysed the Bm86 homologues from species representing the main argasid and ixodid tick genera, including two from the prostriate Ixodes ricinus tick species. A novel protein from metastriate ticks with multiple epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domains which is structurally related to Bm86 was identified by using a 3′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends (3′-RACE) method with a degenerate primer based on a highly conserved region of Bm86 and its orthologues. This second protein was named ATAQ after a part of its signature peptide. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR showed that ATAQ proteins are expressed in both midguts and Malpighian tubules, in contrast to Bm86 orthologues which are expressed exclusively in tick midguts. Furthermore, expression of this protein over the life stages of R. microplus and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus was more continuous compared with Bm86. Although a highly effective vaccine antigen, gene silencing of Bm86 by RNA interference (RNAi) produced only a weak phenotype. Similarly the RNAi phenotype of Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi females in which the expression of Ree86, ReeATAQ or a combination of both genes was silenced by RNAi did not differ from a mock-injected control group. The vaccine potential of ATAQ proteins against tick infestations is yet to be evaluated. PMID:20647015

  18. Bm86 homologues and novel ATAQ proteins with multiple epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domains from hard and soft ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijhof, Ard M; Balk, Jesper A; Postigo, Milagros; Rhebergen, Anne Marie; Taoufik, Amar; Jongejan, Frans

    2010-12-01

    Tick control on livestock relies principally on the use of acaricides but the development of acaricide resistance and concerns for environmental pollution underscore the need for alternative control methods, for instance through the use of anti-tick vaccines. Two commercial vaccines based on the recombinant Bm86 protein from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks were developed. Partial protection of the Bm86 vaccine against other Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) and Hyalomma tick species suggests that the efficacy of a Bm86-based vaccine may be enhanced when based on the orthologous recombinant Bm86 antigen. We therefore identified and analysed the Bm86 homologues from species representing the main argasid and ixodid tick genera, including two from the prostriate Ixodes ricinus tick species. A novel protein from metastriate ticks with multiple epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domains which is structurally related to Bm86 was identified by using a 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (3'-RACE) method with a degenerate primer based on a highly conserved region of Bm86 and its orthologues. This second protein was named ATAQ after a part of its signature peptide. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR showed that ATAQ proteins are expressed in both midguts and Malpighian tubules, in contrast to Bm86 orthologues which are expressed exclusively in tick midguts. Furthermore, expression of this protein over the life stages of R. microplus and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus was more continuous compared with Bm86. Although a highly effective vaccine antigen, gene silencing of Bm86 by RNA interference (RNAi) produced only a weak phenotype. Similarly the RNAi phenotype of Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi females in which the expression of Ree86, ReeATAQ or a combination of both genes was silenced by RNAi did not differ from a mock-injected control group. The vaccine potential of ATAQ proteins against tick infestations is yet to be evaluated. PMID:20647015

  19. Increasing ideological tolerance in social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbar, Yoel; Lammers, Joris

    2015-01-01

    We argue that recognizing current ideological diversity in social psychology and promoting tolerance of minority views is just as important as increasing the number of non-liberal researchers. Increasing tolerance will allow individuals in the minority to express dissenting views, which will improve psychological science by reducing bias. We present four recommendations for increasing tolerance. PMID:26786671

  20. Market overview: Increase in uranium prices continues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spot market activity totaled just over 200,000 lbs of U308 equivalent. The restricted uranium spot market price range increased from a high last month of $14.75/lb U308 to a low this month of $15.25/lb U308. There was also an increase in the unrestricted range this month with the upper end of the range increasing by $0.50/lb U308. The lower end of the spot conversion price range increased by R0.35/kg U while the upper end of the separative work price range increased by $2.00/SWU

  1. Taurine increases hippocampal neurogenesis in aging mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Gebara

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with increased inflammation and reduced hippocampal neurogenesis, which may in turn contribute to cognitive impairment. Taurine is a free amino acid found in numerous diets, with anti-inflammatory properties. Although abundant in the young brain, the decrease in taurine concentration with age may underlie reduced neurogenesis. Here, we assessed the effect of taurine on hippocampal neurogenesis in middle-aged mice. We found that taurine increased cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus through the activation of quiescent stem cells, resulting in increased number of stem cells and intermediate neural progenitors. Taurine had a direct effect on stem/progenitor cells proliferation, as observed in vitro, and also reduced activated microglia. Furthermore, taurine increased the survival of newborn neurons, resulting in a net increase in adult neurogenesis. Together, these results show that taurine increases several steps of adult neurogenesis and support a beneficial role of taurine on hippocampal neurogenesis in the context of brain aging.

  2. Pension Age Increase: Pro et Contra

    OpenAIRE

    Maleva, T.; Sinyavskaya, O.

    2010-01-01

    Population ageing and growing deficit of Russian pension system place on the agenda an issue of increasing pension age. The article reviews international practices of regulating pension ages. Authors critically discuss the pros and cons of increasing pension ages in Russia from perspectives of demographic situation and trends, labor market, pension system and public attitudes toward this issue. They prove necessity of the effective pension age increasing in Russia and present their views on h...

  3. Adolescent impatience decreases with increased frontostriatal connectivity

    OpenAIRE

    van den Bos, Wouter; Rodriguez, Christian A.; Schweitzer, Julie B.; McClure, Samuel M.

    2015-01-01

    Compared with children and adults, teens and young adults often exhibit greater impulsivity and corresponding increases in emergency room visits, accidents from drug or alcohol use, and increased mortality risk. However, it remains poorly understood how increased impulsivity during adolescence may be explained in terms of brain and cognitive development. We focused on impatience, a central component of impulsiveness. We relate impatient behavior on a decision-making task to changes in connect...

  4. CO2 Increase: Questions Beyond Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Beckmann, G.; Klopries, B.

    1990-01-01

    The increase of the tropospheric C02 (carbon dioxide) concentration is considered by scientists all over the world to be an alarming signal, as becomes evident from the huge amount of literature on the subject. The so-called greenhouse-gas effect, or, more precisely, its anthropogenic component, is mainly caused by the C02 increase. However, other trace gases have also contributed their share. Far-reaching climatic changes, a temperature increase in the tropospheric air, especially in the po...

  5. Cyberbullying: An Increasing Challenge for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Marees, Nandoli; Petermann, Franz

    2012-01-01

    The use of information and communication technology (ICT) has not only brought advantages to mankind. One downside is the emergence and increase of cyberbullying in schools. Affecting students of all ages, teachers, parents, and other educators, this special form of bullying is an increasing challenge for schools. This article offers an overview…

  6. Increasing turnover through time in tropical forests

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, O. L; Gentry, A.H.

    1994-01-01

    Tree turnover rates were assessed at 40 tropical forest sites. Averaged across inventoried forests, turnover, as measured by tree mortality and recruitment, has increased since the 1950's, with an apparent pantropical acceleration since 1980. Among 22 mature forest sites with two or more inventory periods, forest turnover also increased. The trend in forest dynamics may have profound effects on biological diversity.

  7. Separating Fact from Fiction: Increasing Running Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgia, Carla

    2008-01-01

    From a biomechanical point of view, this article explores the common belief that one must increase stride length and frequency in order to increase running speed. The limb length, explosive power, and anaerobic capacity of the athlete, as well as the type of running (sprinting vs. long distance) must be considered before making such a…

  8. Tobacco use increases susceptibility to bacterial infection

    OpenAIRE

    Demuth Donald R; Bagaitkar Juhi; Scott David A

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Active smokers and those exposed to secondhand smoke are at increased risk of bacterial infection. Tobacco smoke exposure increases susceptibility to respiratory tract infections, including tuberculosis, pneumonia and Legionnaires disease; bacterial vaginosis and sexually transmitted diseases, such as chlamydia and gonorrhoea; Helicobacter pylori infection; periodontitis; meningitis; otitis media; and post-surgical and nosocomial infections. Tobacco smoke compromises the anti-bacteri...

  9. Exergames: Increasing Physical Activity through Effective Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudella, Jennifer L.; Butz, Jennifer V.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the growing obesity epidemic in the United States, educators must consider new ways to increase physical activity in an effort to address obesity. There are a variety of ways educators can increase physical activity in the classroom, and exergames--video games that require physical movement in order to play--are a modern-day approach to…

  10. Does Twitter Increase Perceived Police Legitimacy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimmelikhuijsen, Stephan G; Meijer, Albert J

    2015-01-01

    Social media use has become increasingly popular among police forces. The literature suggests that social media use can increase perceived police legitimacy by enabling transparency and participation. Employing data from a large and representative survey of Dutch citizens (N = 4,492), this article t

  11. Worldwide Increasing Incidences of Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne E. Godar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM has been increasing at a steady rate in fair-skinned populations around the world for decades. Scientists are not certain why CMM has been steadily increasing, but strong, intermittent UVB (290–320 nm exposures, especially sunburn episodes, probably initiate, CMM, while UVA (321–400 nm passing through glass windows in offices and cars probably promotes it. The CMM incidence may be increasing at an exponential rate around the world, but it definitely decreases with increasing latitude up to ~50°N where it reverses and increases with the increasing latitude. The inversion in the incidence of CMM may occur because there is more UVA relative to UVB for most of the year at higher latitudes. If windows, allowing UVA to enter our indoor-working environment and cars, are at least partly responsible for the increasing incidence of CMM, then UV filters can be applied to reduce the rate of increase worldwide.

  12. Why does human culture increase exponentially?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enquist, M; Ghirlanda, S; Jarrick, A; Wachtmeister, C-A

    2008-08-01

    Historical records show that culture can increase exponentially in time, e.g., in number of poems, musical works, scientific discoveries. We model how human capacities for creativity and cultural transmission may make such an increase possible, suggesting that: (1) creativity played a major role at the origin of human culture and for its accumulation throughout history, because cultural transmission cannot, on its own, generate exponentially increasing amounts of culture; (2) exponential increase in amount of culture can only occur if creativity is positively influenced by culture. The evolution of cultural transmission is often considered the main genetic bottleneck for the origin of culture, because natural selection cannot favor cultural transmission without any culture to transmit. Our models suggest that an increase in individual creativity may have been the first step toward human culture, because in a population of creative individuals there may be enough non-genetic information to favor the evolution of cultural transmission. PMID:18571686

  13. Increased muscle glucose uptake during contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Thorkil; Galbo, H; Richter, E A

    1984-01-01

    We reinvestigated the prevailing concept that muscle contractions only elicit increased muscle glucose uptake in the presence of a so-called "permissive" concentration of insulin (Berger et al., Biochem. J. 146: 231-238, 1975; Vranic and Berger, Diabetes 28: 147-163, 1979). Hindquarters from rats...... in severe ketoacidosis were perfused with a perfusate containing insulin antiserum. After 60 min perfusion, electrical stimulation increased glucose uptake of the contracting muscles fivefold. Also, subsequent contractions increased glucose uptake in hindquarters from nondiabetic rats perfused for 1...... Berger et al., 3-O-methylglucose uptake increased during contractions and glucose uptake was negative at rest and zero during contractions. An increase in muscle transport and uptake of glucose during contractions does not require the presence of insulin. Furthermore, glucose transport in contracting...

  14. The level of infestation with the vector of cattle babesiosis in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto A. Guglielmone

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out to determine the differential aptitude to sustain the only vector of cattle babesiosis in Argentina, the tick Boophilus microplus, throughout the infested region of this country. Tick counts on Bos taurus cattle were used as the main criterion to classify favourable (F, intermediate (I and unfavourable (U areas for its development. The geographical limits of each area set up using data of non-parasitic tick stages, temperature, water balance and map recognition of flooded and unflooded zones. The F area contained 16.5 x 10 (elevado a sexta potência ha with a cattle population of 6 x 10 (elevado a sexta potência; the I and U areas had 25 x 10 (elevado a sexta potência ha with 2.7 x 10 (elevado a sexta potência cattle and 198 x 10 (elevado a sexta potência with population of 2.4 x 10(elevado a sexta potência cattle, respectively. Research on the relationship amongst Babesia-Boophilus-cattle is needed in the F area for tick development which coincides with the best region for cattle breeding.

  15. U.S. spending increase planned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article summarizes a paper by Salomon Brothers which published its 14th annual survey and analysis of 1996 worldwide oil and gas exploration and production expenditures. The 28-page report analyzing the December 1995 survey of 275 oil and gas companies indicates the industry is planning a worldwide E and P spending increase of 7.7% this year, over 1995 levels. This is somewhat lower than the now-expected 9.0% increase in 1995 from 1994; however, it is the largest planned increase from a year-end survey since December 1990. Results indicate the recovery in international spending that began in 1995 will be sustained at a more-modest 8.6%, compared to the 14.4% increase last year. Deferrals from 1994 are believed to have contributed to strong 1995 international spending. US spending, conversely, is expected to increase a robust 11.8% in 1996, after a 4.7% advance in 1995. US majors are pacing this increase with a planned 13.4% increase, compared to 9.3% for independents. Canadian operators project a 6.4% decline, even greater than the 4.4% drop registered in 1995

  16. NSF to receive 10% funding increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Richard M.

    Work is almost complete on the fiscal year 1994 funding bill for the National Science Foundation. On October 1, Conference Committee Chairs Louis Stokes (D-Ohio) and Barbara Mikulski (D-Md.) and their colleagues completed work on the final version of HR2491, the VA, HUD, Independent Agencies Appropriations Bill. The House and Senate will soon give their final approval to the conference report for HR2491, after which it will lack only the president's signature. NSF's overall budget increase of 10%, raising total funding to %3,005.3 million, is the highest increase among all departments and agencies. Last year's increase in NSF funding was 6.3%.Funding for research and related activities will increase 7% to $1,986 million, a compromise between the 10% House increase and the 4% Senate figure. Last year's bill cut research funding. Education and human resources funding will increase 17% to $569.6 million. This is $13.5 million above the Clinton administration's request. Last year's increase for education and human resources was 4.7%.

  17. Increased UV exposure in Finland in 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exceptionally low total ozone, up to 40% below the normal level, was measured over Northern Europe during winter and spring in 1992 and 1993. In 1993 the depletion persisted up to the end of May, resulting in a significant increase of biologically effective UV radiation. The increases were significantly smaller in 1992 and 1994 than in 1993. The UV exposure of the Finnish population was evaluated through measurements and theoretical calculations. The increase in measured erythemal (International Lighting Commission) UV falling onto horizontal surfaces on clear days was determined relative to model calculations for an average ozone amount. The increase was on average 10% from April to May 1993, and the maximal measured increase was 34%. Theoretical calculations for both erythemal and carcinogenic (Skin Cancer Utrecht-Philadelphia) UV indicated that in 1993 the theoretical annual increase to a vertical (cylinder) surface ranged from 8 to 13% in Finland. The reflection of UV from snow considerably increases facial UV doses in Northern Finland. (author)

  18. Increased UV exposure in Finland in 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, K; Leszczynski, K; Visuri, R; Ylianttila, L

    1995-07-01

    Exceptionally low total ozone, up to 40% below the normal level, was measured over Northern Europe during winter and spring in 1992 and 1993. In 1993 the depletion persisted up to the end of May, resulting in a significant increase of biologically effective UV radiation. The increases were significantly smaller in 1992 and 1993 than in 1993. The UV exposure of the Finnish population was evaluated through measurements and theoretical calculations. The increase in measured erythemal (International Lighting Commission) UV falling onto horizontal surfaces on clear day was determined relative to model calculations for an average ozone amount. The increase was on average 10% from April to May 1993, and the maximal measured increase was 34%. Theoretical calculations for both erythemal and carcinogenic (Skin Cancer Utrecht--Philadelphia) UV indicated that in 1993 the theoretical annual increase to a vertical (cylinder) surface ranged from 8 to 13% in Finland. The reflection of UV from snow considerably increases facial UV doses in Northern Finland. PMID:7638253

  19. Performance of two Bm86 antigen vaccin formulation against tick using crossbreed bovines in stall test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreotti, Renato

    2006-01-01

    Cattle tick control remains a serious problem for cattle farms in Brazil due to the limited success achieved with chemicals. In Brazil, the use of vaccines for tick control associated with the use of chemicals and pasture rotation may open possibilities for integrated control. However, it is important to know whether regional Boophilus microplus strains are sensitive to antibodies produced by the available antigens: antigen preparations Gavac™ and TickGard(PLUS). The aim of this research was to evaluate the performance of two Bm86 antigen vaccine formulation against tick using crossbred bovines in stall test antigen against a regional B. microplus strain. The experiment was carried out in central Brazil (20 degrees 27'S, 54 degrees 37'W). A trial was conducted in stall conditions on crossbred cattle under controlled infestation. Two groups of 16 animals each, homogeneous in weight and sex, were vaccinated with Gavac™ or TickGard(PLUS), two groups of eight animals as control. Challenge was performed on three alternate days, with 5,000 larvae each time, beginning 21 days after the second injection. The antibody response was measured by ELISA and vaccinated animals presented immune response considering IgG levels. The results showed 49.2% and 46.4% protection efficacy for Gavac™ and TickGard(PLUS), respectively. PMID:16978472

  20. Increased skeletal muscle capillarization enhances insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerstrom, Thorbjorn; Laub, Lasse; Vedel, Kenneth; Brand, Christian Lehn; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Lindqvist, Anna Kaufmann; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P; Hellsten, Ylva

    2014-12-15

    Increased skeletal muscle capillarization is associated with improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. However, a possible causal relationship has not previously been identified. Therefore, we investigated whether increased skeletal muscle capillarization increases insulin sensitivity. Skeletal muscle-specific angiogenesis was induced by adding the α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist prazosin to the drinking water of Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 33), whereas 34 rats served as controls. Insulin sensitivity was measured ≥40 h after termination of the 3-wk prazosin treatment, which ensured that prazosin was cleared from the blood stream. Whole body insulin sensitivity was measured in conscious, unrestrained rats by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Tissue-specific insulin sensitivity was assessed by administration of 2-deoxy-[(3)H]glucose during the plateau phase of the clamp. Whole body insulin sensitivity increased by ∼24%, and insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle 2-deoxy-[(3)H]glucose disposal increased by ∼30% concomitant with an ∼20% increase in skeletal muscle capillarization. Adipose tissue insulin sensitivity was not affected by the treatment. Insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake was enhanced independent of improvements in skeletal muscle insulin signaling to glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis, suggesting that the improvement in insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake could be due to improved diffusion conditions for glucose in the muscle. The prazosin treatment did not affect the rats on any other parameters measured. We conclude that an increase in skeletal muscle capillarization is associated with increased insulin sensitivity. These data point toward the importance of increasing skeletal muscle capillarization for prevention or treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:25352432

  1. Increasing trends of herpes zoster in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raina MacIntyre

    Full Text Available Increasing trends in incidence of herpes zoster (HZ have been reported in Australia and internationally. This may reflect the impact of childhood VZV vaccination programs introduced universally in Australia in late 2005. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in incidence of HZ and PHN in Australia over time, and associated healthcare resource utilisation.Australian data on general practice (GP encounters for HZ, specific antiviral prescribing data from the pharmaceutical benefits scheme, emergency department presentations from the states of NSW and Victoria and national hospitalisation data for HZ were analysed for time trends using regression models. Two time periods (2000-2006 and 2006-2013 were compared which correspond broadly with the pre- and post- universal VZV vaccination period.All data sources showed increasing rates of HZ with age and over time. The GP database showed a significant annual increase in encounters for HZ of 2.5 per 100,000 between 1998 and 2013, and the rates of prescriptions for HZ increased by 4.2% per year between 2002 and 2012. In the 60+ population HZ incidence was estimated to increase from 11.9 to 15.4 per 1,000 persons using GP data or from 12.8 to 14.2 per 1,000 persons using prescription data (p<0.05, between the two periods. Hospitalisation data did not show the same increasing trend over time, except for the age group ≥80 years. Most emergency visits for HZ were not admitted, and showed significant increases over time.The burden of HZ in Australia is substantial, and continues to increase over time. This increase is seen both pre- and post-universal VZV vaccination in 2005, and is most prominent in the older population. The substantial burden of HZ, along with ageing of the Australian population and the importance of healthy ageing, warrants consideration of HZ vaccination for the elderly.

  2. Increased rheumatoid factor and deep venous thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer-Olesen, Christine L; Nielsen, Sune F; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-01-01

    general population. METHODS: We included 54628 participants from the Copenhagen City Heart Study (1981-83) and the Copenhagen General Population Study (2004-12), all with a measured concentration of IgM rheumatoid factor and without autoimmune rheumatic disease or venous thromboembolism. The main outcome......BACKGROUND: The risk of deep venous thrombosis is increased in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. We tested the hypothesis that increased concentrations of rheumatoid factor are associated with increased risk of deep venous thrombosis in individuals without autoimmune rheumatic disease in the...

  3. Who Benefits from a Minimum Wage Increase?

    OpenAIRE

    John W. Lopresti; Mumford, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of how a minimum wage increase affects the wages of low-wage workers. Most studies assume that there is a simple mechanical increase in the wage for workers earning a wage between the old and the new minimum wage, with some studies allowing for spillovers to workers with wages just above this range. Rather than assume that the wages of these workers would have remained constant, this paper estimates how a minimum wage increase impacts a low-wage worker's wage...

  4. Tobacco use increases susceptibility to bacterial infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demuth Donald R

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Active smokers and those exposed to secondhand smoke are at increased risk of bacterial infection. Tobacco smoke exposure increases susceptibility to respiratory tract infections, including tuberculosis, pneumonia and Legionnaires disease; bacterial vaginosis and sexually transmitted diseases, such as chlamydia and gonorrhoea; Helicobacter pylori infection; periodontitis; meningitis; otitis media; and post-surgical and nosocomial infections. Tobacco smoke compromises the anti-bacterial function of leukocytes, including neutrophils, monocytes, T cells and B cells, providing a mechanistic explanation for increased infection risk. Further epidemiological, clinical and mechanistic research into this important area is warranted.

  5. Ethanologenic bacteria with increased resistance to furfural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Elliot Norman; Jarboe, Laura R.; Yomano, Lorraine P.; York, Sean W.; Shanmugam, Keelnatham; Ingram, Lonnie O' Neal

    2015-10-06

    The invention relates to bacterium that have increased resistance to furfural and methods of preparation. The invention also relates to methods of producing ethanol using the bacterium and corresponding kits.

  6. Big increase in Spanish reseach funding

    CERN Multimedia

    Bosch, X

    1998-01-01

    The Spanish government plans to increase spending on civilian science research and development by between 8 and 10 per cent. The exact figure is unclear since it has been included in the budget along with military research projects (1 page).

  7. An Innovative Controller to Increase Harvested Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposes an innovative energy-harvesting controller to increase energy harvested from vibrations. Energy harvesting is a process that removes mechanical energy from a vibrating structure, which necessarily results in damping. The damping associated with piezoelectric energy harvesting suppresses the amplitude of mechanical vibration and reduces the harvested energy. To address this critical problem, we devise an energy-harvesting controller that maintains the vibration amplitude as high as possible to increase the harvested energy. Our proposed switching controller is designed to intentionally stop the switching action intermittently. We experimentally demonstrate that the proposed control scheme successfully increases the harvested energy. The piezoelectric voltage with the proposed controller is larger than that with the original synchronized switching harvesting on inductor (SSHI) technique, which increases the harvested energy. The stored energy with our controller is up to 5.7 times greater than that with the conventional SSHI control scheme

  8. The ways of SOFC systems efficiency increasing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demin, A.K.; Timofeyeva, N.

    1996-04-01

    The efficiency of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) is described. This paper considers methods to lift the fuel utilization and/or the average cell voltage with the goal of increasing the cell efficiency by improved cell designs.

  9. Swaddling May Increase Chances of SIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158739.html Swaddling May Increase Chances of SIDS Study found wrapping blanket tightly ... to have a calming influence on babies that helps them sleep. However, swaddling can be risky, the ...

  10. Acute hypoxia increases the cerebral metabolic rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mark Bitsch; Lindberg, Ulrich; Aachmann-Andersen, Niels Jacob;

    2016-01-01

    imaging techniques were used to measure global cerebral blood flow and the venous oxygen saturation in the sagittal sinus. Global cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen was quantified from cerebral blood flow and arteriovenous oxygen saturation difference. Concentrations of lactate, glutamate, N......-acetylaspartate, creatine and phosphocreatine were measured in the visual cortex by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Twenty-three young healthy males were scanned for 60 min during normoxia, followed by 40 min of breathing hypoxic air. Inhalation of hypoxic air resulted in an increase in cerebral blood flow of 15.5% (p = 0.......058), and an increase in cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen of 8.5% (p = 0.035). Cerebral lactate concentration increased by 180.3% ([Formula: see text]), glutamate increased by 4.7% ([Formula: see text]) and creatine and phosphocreatine decreased by 15.2% (p[Formula: see text]). The N-acetylaspartate concentration...

  11. Does Movie Violence Increase Violent Crime?

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon Dahl; Stefano DellaVigna

    2007-01-01

    Laboratory experiments in psychology find that media violence increases aggression in the short run. We analyze whether media violence affects violent crime in the field. We exploit variation in the violence of blockbuster movies from 1995 to 2004, and study the effect on same-day assaults. We find that violent crime decreases on days with larger theater audiences for violent movies. The effect is partly due to voluntary incapacitation: between 6PM and 12AM, a one million increase in the audi...

  12. Leptin increasing sympathetic nerve outflow in obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Simonds, Stephanie E.; Cowley, Michael A.; Enriori, Pablo J.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a global problem and effective drug therapy treatment is still unavailable. Obesity develops due to an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure (EE). Understanding what happens to EE in obesity may be the key to developing new treatments for obesity. If EE in obesity can be elevated, it could be a potential therapeutic target. We recently discovered that in baseline conditions obese mice have increased EE, in terms of thermogenesis. However, this increase in EE is not...

  13. Eliciting taxpayer preferences increases tax compliance

    OpenAIRE

    De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Lamberton, Cait; Norton, Michael I.

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments show that eliciting taxpayer preferences on government spending—providing taxpayer agency--increases tax compliance. We first create an income and taxation environment in a laboratory setting to test for compliance with a lab tax. Allowing a treatment group to express nonbinding preferences over tax spending priorities, leads to a 16% increase in tax compliance. A followup online study tests this treatment with a simulation of paying US federal taxes. Allowing taxpayers to sig...

  14. Population effects of increased climate variation

    OpenAIRE

    Drake, John M.

    2005-01-01

    Global circulation models predict and numerous observations confirm that anthropogenic climate change has altered high-frequency climate variability. However, it is not yet well understood how changing patterns of environmental variation will affect wildlife population dynamics and other ecological processes. Theory predicts that a population's long-run growth rate is diminished and the chance of population extinction is increased as environmental variation increases. This results from the fa...

  15. Tourism: a Soft Touch for Increased Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, Frank

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the changes which are taking place internationally in the taxation of the tourism industry and the reasons why tourism is especially susceptible to increased taxation. It compares VAT rates in European countries and assesses the relationship between those rates and increases in international tourism receipts, concluding that there is not the direct, negative relationship which hotel associations frequently cited in their submissions to government. The canons of taxation, fi...

  16. Physical activity increases bone mass during growth

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Magnus K; Nordvist, Anders; Karlsson, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    Background: The incidence of fragility fractures has increased during the last half of the 1900?s. One important determinant of fractures is the bone mineral content (BMC) or bone mineral density (BMD), the amount of mineralised bone. If we could increase peak bone mass (the highest value of BMC reached during life) and/or decrease the age-related bone loss, we could possibly improve the skeletal resistance to fracture. Objective: This review evaluates the importance of exercise as a strategy...

  17. Increasing Engagement with the Library via Gamification

    OpenAIRE

    Barr, Matthew; Munro, Kay; Hopfgartner, Frank

    2016-01-01

    One of the main challenges faced by providers of interactive information access systems is to engage users in the use their systems. The library sector in particular can benefit significantly from increased user engagement. In this short paper, we present a preliminary analysis of a university library system that aims to trigger users' extrinsic motivation to increase their interaction with the system. Results suggest that different user groups react in different ways to such 'gamified' systems.

  18. Increasing of RFID System Read Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Vestenicky

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes some computations needed to increase RFID system read range twice without any changes in RFID reader. The increasing of read range is done only by proper selection of RFID marker parameters – coil diameter and number of turns. Another way – generating stronger magnetic field from reader – can not be used because requirements ofsome limitations given by valid standards must be taken into account.

  19. Increasing work efficiency through tax calculation automation

    OpenAIRE

    Pullinen, Lauri

    2015-01-01

    In an environment of ever-increasing price competition organizations need to find ways to renew business models in order to increase their total work efficiency. One way of accomplishing this is to automate certain work tasks. This paper introduces a partial solution to the aforementioned challenges in the form of creating an automated tax calculation tool. Design research in information systems was used as the primary research method and the actual research process was carried out in the...

  20. Minimum wage increases under straightened circumstances

    OpenAIRE

    Addison, John T.; Blackburn, McKinley L.; Cotti, Chad

    2011-01-01

    Do apparently large minimum wage increases in an environment of recession produce clearer evidence of disemployment effects than is typically observed in the new minimum wage literature? This paper augments the sparse literature on the most recent increases in the U.S. minimum wage, using three different data sets and the two main estimation strategies for handling geographically-disparate trends. The evidence is generally unsupportive of negative employment effects, still less of a 'recessio...

  1. Taurine increases hippocampal neurogenesis in aging mice

    OpenAIRE

    Elias Gebara; Florian Udry; Sébastien Sultan; Nicolas Toni

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with increased inflammation and reduced hippocampal neurogenesis, which may in turn contribute to cognitive impairment. Taurine is a free amino acid found in numerous diets, with anti-inflammatory properties. Although abundant in the young brain, the decrease in taurine concentration with age may underlie reduced neurogenesis. Here, we assessed the effect of taurine on hippocampal neurogenesis in middle-aged mice. We found that taurine increased cell proliferation in the d...

  2. Increasing incidence of diabetes after gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauenborg, Jeannet; Hansen, Torben; Jensen, Dorte Møller;

    2004-01-01

    To study the incidence of diabetes among women with previous diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the light of the general increasing incidence of overweight and diabetes and to identify risk factors for the development of diabetes.......To study the incidence of diabetes among women with previous diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the light of the general increasing incidence of overweight and diabetes and to identify risk factors for the development of diabetes....

  3. Social Closeness Increases Salivary Progesterone in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Stephanie L.; Fredrickson, Barbara L; Wirth, Michelle M.; Poulin, Michael J.; Meier, Elizabeth A.; Heaphy, Emily D.; Michael D. Cohen; Schultheiss, Oliver C.

    2009-01-01

    We examined whether interpersonal closeness increases salivary progesterone. One hundred and sixty female college students (80 dyads) were randomly assigned to participate in either a closeness task with a partner versus a neutral task with a partner. Those exposed to the closeness induction had higher levels of progesterone relative to those exposed to the neutral task. Across conditions, progesterone increase one week later predicted the willingness to sacrifice for the partner. These resul...

  4. DUAL RANDOM MODEL OF INCREASING ANNUITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HeWenjiong; ZhangYi

    2001-01-01

    The dual random models about the life insurance and social pension insurance have received considerable attention in the recent articles on actuarial theory and applications. This paper discusses a general kind of increasing annuity based on its force of interest accumulationfunction as a general random process. The dual random model of the present value of the benefits of the increasing annuity has been set, and their moments have been calculated under certainconditions.

  5. Wind increases leaf water use efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schymanski, Stanislaus J; Or, Dani

    2016-07-01

    A widespread perception is that, with increasing wind speed, transpiration from plant leaves increases. However, evidence suggests that increasing wind speed enhances carbon dioxide (CO2 ) uptake while reducing transpiration because of more efficient convective cooling (under high solar radiation loads). We provide theoretical and experimental evidence that leaf water use efficiency (WUE, carbon uptake per water transpired) commonly increases with increasing wind speed, thus improving plants' ability to conserve water during photosynthesis. Our leaf-scale analysis suggests that the observed global decrease in near-surface wind speeds could have reduced WUE at a magnitude similar to the increase in WUE attributed to global rise in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, there is indication that the effect of long-term trends in wind speed on leaf gas exchange may be compensated for by the concurrent reduction in mean leaf sizes. These unintuitive feedbacks between wind, leaf size and water use efficiency call for re-evaluation of the role of wind in plant water relations and potential re-interpretation of temporal and geographic trends in leaf sizes. PMID:26714739

  6. Energy in China: Coping with increasing demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sustaining the increasing energy consumption is crucial to future economic growth in China. This report focuses on the current and future situation of energy production and consumption in China and how China is coping with its increasing domestic energy demand. Today, coal is the most important energy resource, followed by oil and hydropower. Most energy resources are located in the inland, whereas the main demand for energy is in the coastal areas, which makes transportation and transmission of energy vital. The industrial sector is the main driver of the energy consumption in China, but the transport sector and the residential sector will increase their share of consumption in China, but the transport sector and the residential sector will increase their share of consumption by 2020. China's energy intensity decreased during the 1990s, but it is still high in a global comparison. China is projected to increase its energy consumption at least two times between 2000 and 2025. The government has an equal focus on energy conservation and to develop the current energy resources. Coal will continue to be the most important fuel, but the demand for oil, hydropower, natural gas and nuclear power will also increase. The main future challenges are transportation of energy resources within China and securing oil supply, both domestic and imports

  7. Antioxidants can increase melanoma metastasis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gal, Kristell; Ibrahim, Mohamed X; Wiel, Clotilde; Sayin, Volkan I; Akula, Murali K; Karlsson, Christin; Dalin, Martin G; Akyürek, Levent M; Lindahl, Per; Nilsson, Jonas; Bergo, Martin O

    2015-10-01

    Antioxidants in the diet and supplements are widely used to protect against cancer, but clinical trials with antioxidants do not support this concept. Some trials show that antioxidants actually increase cancer risk and a study in mice showed that antioxidants accelerate the progression of primary lung tumors. However, little is known about the impact of antioxidant supplementation on the progression of other types of cancer, including malignant melanoma. We show that administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) increases lymph node metastases in an endogenous mouse model of malignant melanoma but has no impact on the number and size of primary tumors. Similarly, NAC and the soluble vitamin E analog Trolox markedly increased the migration and invasive properties of human malignant melanoma cells but did not affect their proliferation. Both antioxidants increased the ratio between reduced and oxidized glutathione in melanoma cells and in lymph node metastases, and the increased migration depended on new glutathione synthesis. Furthermore, both NAC and Trolox increased the activation of the small guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) RHOA, and blocking downstream RHOA signaling abolished antioxidant-induced migration. These results demonstrate that antioxidants and the glutathione system play a previously unappreciated role in malignant melanoma progression. PMID:26446958

  8. Resistance status of ticks (Acari; Ixodidae) to amitraz and cypermethrin acaricides in Isoka District, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyobela, Jackson; Nkunika, Philip Obed Yobe; Mwase, Enala Tembo

    2015-12-01

    This study was designed to obtain data on the farmer's approach to tick control and to determine whether Rhipicephalus appendiculatus Neuman, Amblyomma variegatum (Fabricius), and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) were resistant to amitraz and cypermethrin acaricides, in Isoka District, Zambia. Prevailing tick control practices were documented by administering a semi-structured questionnaire to 80 randomly selected smallholder livestock farmers from four agricultural camps (Longwe, Kantenshya, Kapililonga, and Ndeke) in Isoka District. Modified larval packet test (LPT) bioassay experiments were used to determine the resistance status of the common tick species against amitraz and cypermethrin acaricides. Fifty percent of respondents practiced chemical tick control with amitraz (27 %) and cypermethrin (23 %) being the acaricides in use, and were applied with knapsack sprayers. Less than 3 l of spray wash per animal was used which was considerably lower than the recommended delivery rate of 10 l of spray wash per animal. No significant susceptibility change to amitraz at 95 % confidence level was observed in R. appendiculatus and A. variegatum against amitraz. However, a significant change in the susceptibility of R. (Bo.) microplus tested with amitraz was detected at 95 % confidence. The test population had a lower susceptibility (LD50 0.014 %; LD90 0.023 %) than the reference population (LD50 0.013 %; LD90 0.020 %). The results indicated that resistance to amitraz was developing in R. (Bo.) microplus. For cypermethrin, no significant susceptibility change at 95 % confidence was observed in any of the three species and thus resistance to this chemical was not observed. PMID:26310511

  9. Increased Mercury Bioaccumulation Follows Water Quality Improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in physical and chemical characteristics of aquatic habitats made to reduce or eliminate ecological risks can sometimes have unforeseen consequences. Environmental management activities on the U.S. Dept. of Energy reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee,have succeeded in improving water quality in streams impacted by discharges fi-om industrial facilities and waste disposal sites. The diversity and abundance of pollution-sensitive components of the benthic macroinvertebrate communities of three streams improved after new waste treatment systems or remedial actions reduced inputs of various toxic chemicals. Two of the streams were known to be mercury-contaminated from historical spills and waste disposal practices. Waterborne mercury concentrations in the third were typical of uncontaminated systems. In each case, concentrations of mercury in fish, or the apparent biological availability of mercury increased over the period during which ecological metrics indicated improved water quality. In the system where waterborne mercury concentrations were at background levels, increased mercury bioaccumulation was probably a result of reduced aqueous selenium concentrations; however, the mechanisms for increased mercury accumulation in the other two streams remain under investigation. In each of the three systems, reduced inputs of metals and inorganic anions was followed by improvements in the health of aquatic invertebrate communities. However, this reduction in risk to aquatic invertebrates was accompanied by increased risk to humans and piscivorous wildlife related to increased mercury concentrations in fish

  10. Birch Stands Growth Increase in Western Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Kuzmichev, Valeriy V.; Im, Sergey T.; Ranson, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Birch (Betula pendula Roth) growth within the Western Siberia forest-steppe was analyzed based on long-term (1897-2006) inventory data (height, diameter at breast height [dbh], and stand volume). Analysis of biometry parameters showed increased growth at the beginning of twenty-first century compared to similar stands (stands age = 40-60 years) at the end of nineteenth century. Mean height, dbh, and stem volume increased from 14 to 20 m, from 16 to 22 cm, and from approx. 63 to approx. 220 cu m/ha, respectively. Significant correlations were found between the stands mean height, dbh, and volume on the one hand, and vegetation period length (r(sub s) = 0.71 to 0.74), atmospheric CO2 concentration (r(sub s) = 0.71 to 0.76), and drought index (Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index, r(sub s) = -0.33 to -0.51) on the other hand. The results obtained have revealed apparent climate-induced impacts (e.g. increase of vegetation period length and birch habitat drying due to drought increase) on the stands growth. Along with this, a high correlation of birch biometric parameters and [CO2] in ambient air indicated an effect of CO2 fertilization. Meanwhile, further drought increase may switch birch stand growth into decline and greater mortality as has already been observed within the Trans-Baikal forest-steppe ecotone.

  11. Randomness in Sequence Evolution Increases over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangyu; Sun, Shixiang; Zhang, Zhang

    2016-01-01

    The second law of thermodynamics states that entropy, as a measure of randomness in a system, increases over time. Although studies have investigated biological sequence randomness from different aspects, it remains unknown whether sequence randomness changes over time and whether this change consists with the second law of thermodynamics. To capture the dynamics of randomness in molecular sequence evolution, here we detect sequence randomness based on a collection of eight statistical random tests and investigate the randomness variation of coding sequences with an application to Escherichia coli. Given that core/essential genes are more ancient than specific/non-essential genes, our results clearly show that core/essential genes are more random than specific/non-essential genes and accordingly indicate that sequence randomness indeed increases over time, consistent well with the second law of thermodynamics. We further find that an increase in sequence randomness leads to increasing randomness of GC content and longer sequence length. Taken together, our study presents an important finding, for the first time, that sequence randomness increases over time, which may provide profound insights for unveiling the underlying mechanisms of molecular sequence evolution. PMID:27224236

  12. Exploring Increased Productivity Through Employee Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Wayne K., Jr.

    Disengaged employees cost U.S. companies billions of dollars annually in lowered productivity, a cost which has been compounded by the difficult economic situations in the country. The potential for increasing productivity through increased employee engagement was examined in this study. Using personal engagement theory and the theory of planned behavior, the purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore how the experiences of salaried aerospace employees affected productivity and the financial performance of an organization. Interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 20 aerospace employees whose responses were codified and analyzed to identify themes. The analysis indicated that (a) the lived experiences of employees influenced employee engagement, (b) employee engagement affects organizational commitment and performance, and (c) trust and respect and leadership are essential components to keep employees engaged. Eighty percent of the participants indicated that as employee engagement increases so too does organizational performance. The implications for positive social change include new insights for leaders seeking to increase productivity and financial performance, and to support employee engagement for maintaining sustainability, retaining talent, increasing profits, and improving the economy.

  13. Is Eurasian October snow cover extent increasing?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of recent studies present evidence of an increasing trend in Eurasian snow cover extent (SCE) in the October snow onset period based on analysis of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) historical satellite record. These increases are inconsistent with fall season surface temperature warming trends across the region. Using four independent snow cover data sources (surface observations, two reanalyses, satellite passive microwave retrievals) we show that the increasing SCE is attributable to an internal trend in the NOAA CDR dataset to chart relatively more October snow cover extent over the dataset overlap period (1982–2005). Adjusting the series for this shift results in closer agreement with other independent datasets, stronger correlation with continentally-averaged air temperature anomalies, and a decrease in SCE over 1982–2011 consistent with surface air temperature warming trends over the same period. (letter)

  14. Are rates of pediatric bipolar disorder increasing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2014-01-01

    Studies from the USA suggest that rates of pediatric bipolar disorder have increased since the mid-90s, but no study outside the USA has been published on the rates of pediatric bipolar disorder. Further, it is unclear whether an increase in rates reflects a true increase in the illness or more...... diagnostic attention. Using nationwide registers of all inpatients and outpatients contacts to all psychiatric hospitals in Denmark, we investigated (1) gender-specific rates of incident pediatric mania/bipolar disorder during a period from 1995 to 2012, (2) whether age and other characteristics for...... pediatric mania/bipolar disorder changed during the calendar period (1995 to 2003 versus 2004 to 2012), and (3) whether the diagnosis is more often made at first psychiatric contact in recent time compared to earlier according to gender. Totally, 346 patients got a main diagnosis of a manic episode (F30) or...

  15. Innovative Double Bypass Engine for Increased Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, Sanjivan

    Engines continue to grow in size to meet the current thrust requirements of the civil aerospace industry. Large engines pose significant transportation problems and require them to be split in order to be shipped. Thus, large amounts of time have been spent in researching methods to increase thrust capabilities while maintaining a reasonable engine size. Unfortunately, much of this research has been focused on increasing the performance and efficiencies of individual components while limited research has been done on innovative engine configurations. This thesis focuses on an innovative engine configuration, the High Double Bypass Engine, aimed at increasing fuel efficiency and thrust while maintaining a competitive fan diameter and engine length. The 1-D analysis was done in Excel and then compared to the results from Numerical Propulsion Simulation System (NPSS) software and were found to be within 4% error. Flow performance characteristics were also determined and validated against their criteria.

  16. Alcoholic Cirrhosis Increases Risk for Autoimmune Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Lisbet; Vilstrup, Hendrik; Deleuran, Bent;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alcoholic cirrhosis is associated with hyperactivation and dysregulation of the immune system. In addition to its ability to increase risk for infections, it also may increase the risk for autoimmune diseases. We studied the incidence of autoimmune diseases among patients with...... alcohol-associated cirrhosis vs controls in Denmark. METHODS: We collected data from nationwide health care registries to identify and follow up all citizens of Denmark diagnosed with alcoholic cirrhosis from 1977 through 2010. Each patient was matched with 5 random individuals from the population...... diagnosed with alcoholic cirrhosis, 532 developed an autoimmune disease, yielding an overall increased adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR) of 1.36 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-1.50). The strongest associations were with Addison's disease (aIRR, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.04-5.85), inflammatory bowel disease (a...

  17. Nutrient enrichment increases mortality of mangroves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E Lovelock

    Full Text Available Nutrient enrichment of the coastal zone places intense pressure on marine communities. Previous studies have shown that growth of intertidal mangrove forests is accelerated with enhanced nutrient availability. However, nutrient enrichment favours growth of shoots relative to roots, thus enhancing growth rates but increasing vulnerability to environmental stresses that adversely affect plant water relations. Two such stresses are high salinity and low humidity, both of which require greater investment in roots to meet the demands for water by the shoots. Here we present data from a global network of sites that documents enhanced mortality of mangroves with experimental nutrient enrichment at sites where high sediment salinity was coincident with low rainfall and low humidity. Thus the benefits of increased mangrove growth in response to coastal eutrophication is offset by the costs of decreased resilience due to mortality during drought, with mortality increasing with soil water salinity along climatic gradients.

  18. Holographic entropy increases in quadratic curvature gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Srijit; Sarkar, Sudipta; Wall, Aron C.

    2015-09-01

    Standard methods for calculating the black hole entropy beyond general relativity are ambiguous when the horizon is nonstationary. We fix these ambiguities in all quadratic curvature gravity theories, by demanding that the entropy be increasing at every time, for linear perturbations to a stationary black hole. Our result matches with the entropy formula found previously in holographic entanglement entropy calculations. We explicitly calculate the entropy increase for Vaidya-like solutions in Ricci-tensor gravity to show that (unlike the Wald entropy) the holographic entropy obeys a second law.

  19. Licensing process for the power increase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The licensing process for the power increase of a nuclear power station is presented, this includes the description of the effective normative framework, the attributions of the one Mexican regulator organism in nuclear matter, the definition and importance of the power level of a nuclear reactor for the safety studies. Also, the types of power increase according to its magnitude, and the regulator process that it includes the scope and the detail of the required information that it should be evaluated by the one regulator organism are discussed. Finally it offers a summary of the experience that one has in Mexico for this type of processes. (Author)

  20. Increasing Incidence of Canine Leptospirosis in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Major; Ariane Schweighauser; Thierry Francey

    2014-01-01

    A marked increase in canine leptospirosis was observed in Switzerland over 10 years with a peak incidence of 28.1 diagnosed cases/100,000 dogs/year in the most affected canton. With 95% affected dogs living at altitudes <800 m, the disease presented a seasonal pattern associated with temperature (r2 0.73) and rainfall (r2 0.39), >90% cases being diagnosed between May and October. The increasing yearly incidence however was only weakly correlated with climatic data including number of ...

  1. Role of biofertilizers in increasing tea productivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P Nepolean; R Jayanthi; R Vidhya Pallavi; A Balamurugan; T Kuberan; T Beulah; R Premkumar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To increase the tea productivity using biofertilizers like VAM fungi, phosphobacteria, Azosprillium. Methods: Nitrogen fixing Azospirillum, phosphate solubilising bacteria and VAM fungi were isolated from tea soils of southern India and region specific potential strains were selected based on laboratory, greenhouse, as well as field experiments. A technology for their mass multiplication has been developed. Results: Biofertilizers were showed higher yield at the rate of 5g/seedling and VAM fungi with 15 g of formulation/bush. Conclusions: Multifunctional biofertilizers were used to reduce the chemical fertilizers, diseases and to increase soil fertility in tea.

  2. Increasing dominance of IT in ICT convergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Tadayoni, Reza

    The aim of the paper is to examine the increasing dominance of IT companies in the converging ICT industry and, on the basis of this development, to contribute to extending the theoretical understanding of market and industry convergence in the ICT area.......The aim of the paper is to examine the increasing dominance of IT companies in the converging ICT industry and, on the basis of this development, to contribute to extending the theoretical understanding of market and industry convergence in the ICT area....

  3. Fresh inflation with increasing cosmological parameter

    CERN Document Server

    Bellini, M

    2003-01-01

    I study a fresh inflationary model with an increasing F-cosmological parameter. The model provides sufficiently e-folds to solve the flatness/horizon problem and the density fluctuations agree with experimental values. The temperature increases during fresh inflation and reach its maximum value when inflation ends. I find that entropy perturbations always remain below $10^{-4}$ during fresh inflation and become negligible when fresh inflation ends. Hence, the adiabatic fluctuations dominate the primordial spectrum at the end of fresh inflation.

  4. STRATEGIES FOR INCREASING PRODUCTIVITY IN PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Pacheco

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to point a set of practical strategies that can be adopted to increase the capacity of constraints resources on production systems, when the constraint is inside the factory and not is in the market. To serve this purpose will be presented strategies based on best practices of the Theory of Constraints, Lean Manufacturing and Total Productive Maintenance. This article also presents the mains tools for the deployment of these methodologies. The survey results have provided an objective set of practical strategy that can be used to increase the capacity and productivity of production systems according to the needs of each manufacturing system.

  5. NEPAL AND INDIA MAY INCREASE POWER TRADING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Nepal and India may increase the quantity of power exchanged between the two nations to meet shortages in bordering areas. Technical paneles from the two countries have recommended that the power exchange be raised from 50MW to 150MW, according to Bholanath Chalise, chief of the state-run Nepal Electricity Authority(NEA).

  6. Towards an increase of respiratory allergies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An increase in the prevalence and severity of asthma and pollinoses is one of the predictable health consequences of climate change, as this article, based on data from numerous scientific reports, unambiguously demonstrates. It is one more reason for the health field to enlist in the fight against global warming, while its scale and speed can still be controlled. (author)

  7. Voluntary attention increases perceived spatial frequency

    OpenAIRE

    Abrams, Jared; Barbot, Antoine; Carrasco, Marisa

    2010-01-01

    Voluntary covert attention selects relevant sensory information for prioritized processing. The behavioral and neural consequences of such selection have been extensively documented, but its phenomenology has received little empirical investigation. Involuntary attention increases perceived spatial frequency (Gobell & Carrasco, 2005), but involuntary attention can differ from voluntary attention in its effects on performance in tasks mediated by spatial resolution (Yeshurun, Montagna, & Carra...

  8. Increasing Efficiency: A Process-Oriented Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbour, Jerry L.

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of the need to increase efficiency focuses on a process-oriented approach for systematically identifying and minimizing non-value-adding process steps to analyze and improve tasks, services, and production. Highlights include a historical perspective, a discussion of wasted efforts, and a case study. (Contains 16 references.) (LRW)

  9. Fullerene derivatives with increased dielectric constants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahani, Fatemeh; Torabi, Solmaz; Chiechi, Ryan C; Koster, L Jan Anton; Hummelen, Jan C

    2014-01-01

    The invention of new organic materials with high dielectric constants is of extreme importance for the development of organic-based devices such as organic solar cells. We report on a synthetic way to increase the dielectric constant of fullerene derivatives. It is demonstrated that introducing trie

  10. Increased Gonorrhea Cases - Utah, 2009-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Joanna; Carlile, Jerry; Dunn, Angela; Evans, Megan; Fratto, Erin; Hartsell, Joel; Meinor, Lynn; Mietchen, Matthew; Nakashima, Allyn

    2016-01-01

    Gonorrhea (caused by infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae) is the second most commonly reported notifiable disease in the United States (1). Left untreated, gonorrhea is associated with serious long-term adverse health effects, including pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility. Infection also facilitates transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (2,3). Effective gonorrhea control relies upon early detection and effective antimicrobial treatment. To assess gonorrhea rate trends in Utah, the Utah Department of Health (UDOH) analyzed Utah National Electronic Disease Surveillance System (UT-NEDSS) data for the state during 2009-2014. After declining during 2009-2011, the statewide gonorrhea rate increased fivefold to 49 cases per 100,000 population in 2014. During 2009-2014, the proportion of cases among women increased from 21% to 39% (decreasing among males from 79% to 61%). Among male patients, the proportion who identified as men who have sex with men (MSM) decreased from 67% to 42%. These demographic changes suggest that increased heterosexual transmission of gonorrhea in Utah might be occurring. Health departments need to work with providers to ensure populations at high risk are being screened and properly treated for gonorrhea. Clinicians need to be aware of increases in the risk for infection among women and non-MSM males when making screening and testing decisions and educate their patients regarding gonorrhea transmission and prevention practices. PMID:27583786

  11. Trust in a Time of Increasing Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examine the impact of ethnic diversity in Danish municipalities on citizens’ social trust over the last three decades. During this period, Danish society has grown increasingly ethnically diverse, and this begs the question whether this has influenced trust in others negatively...

  12. Increasing security in inter-chip communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Nathan J; Hamlet, Jason; Bauer, Todd; Helinski, Ryan

    2014-10-28

    An apparatus for increasing security in inter-chip communication includes a sending control module, a communication bus, and a receiving control module. The communication bus is coupled between the sending control module and the receiving control module. The sending control module operates to send data on the communication bus, disable the communication bus when threats are detected, or both.

  13. Explaining Increases in Higher Education Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Robert B. Archibald; David H. Feldman

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents new evidence on the conflict between two competing explanations of the increase in college costs, the cost disease theory of William Baumol and William Bowen and the revenue theory of cost of Howard Bowen. Using cross section data, the paper demonstrates that the cost disease explanation dominates.

  14. Increasing Student Participation in Science Fair Competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Rhea

    2012-01-01

    In the summer of 2009, 22 African American middle school students in eastern North Carolina became participants in the Reach Up program to increase the number of underrepresented students participating in science-, technology-, engineering-, and mathematics-related activities. One of the goals of the program was for these students to participate…

  15. Price of Vitamin B5 Increases Rapidly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The export price of vitamin B5 in China has increased constantly in 2007. According to the analysis made by experts, the demand of vitamin B5 has not grown greatly. The main reason for the price rise is the change of the supply mode.

  16. Aspirator increases relief valve poppet stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, M. E.

    1967-01-01

    Addition of an aspirator to a relief valve increases the valve poppet stroke under dynamic flow conditions. The aspirator allows poppet inlet dynamic forces to overcome relief valve spring force. It reduces the fluid pressure in the skirt cavity by providing a low pressure sense probe.

  17. Increased textural complexity in food enhances satiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Danaé S; Tang, Jingyuan; Ferguson, Lynnette R; James, Bryony J

    2016-10-01

    For the first time this study has shown a direct effect of food textural complexity on satiation. Independent of oral processing time, increasing the textural complexity of a food significantly decreased food intake. Foods with complex textures stimulate many sensory perceptions during oral processing, with a succession of textures perceived between first bite and swallow. Previously the impact of texture on satiation (commonly tested by increasing viscosities of semi-solids) has been explained by texture's influence on oral processing time; a long oral processing time enhances satiation. The results of the current study show that subjects in a randomised cross-over trial who consumed a "starter" (preload) model food with high textural complexity went on to eat significantly less of a two course ad libitum meal. Subjects who consumed a "starter" model food with low textural complexity, but with the same flavour, energy density and oral processing time, ate significantly more of the same ad libitum meal. The results show that increasing the number of textures perceived during chewing of a solid food triggers the satiation response earlier than when chewing a less texturally complex food. Increasing textural complexity of manufactured foods, to allow for greater sensory stimulation per bite, could potentially be used as a tool to enhance the satiation response and decrease food intake. PMID:27235823

  18. Portfolio Assessment: Increasing Reliability and Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffee, Dale

    2002-01-01

    Addresses the traditional understanding of reliability as it pertains to writing portfolio assessments. Offers a list of practical actions that can be taken to increase assessment reliability, including explicit definitions of what a portfolio holds, rater training, rater burnout, and consistent rating procedures. (Contains 26 references.) (NB)

  19. Barriers to increased market-oriented activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisp, Søren

    1999-01-01

    related activities still seem to attract relatively few resources is not answered by supplying another checklist or package of facilitators. Based on published conceptual writings and empirical studies this article makes an account of what the intra-organizational barriers may be to increased market...

  20. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant capacity increase options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies are being conducted by the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project on ways to increase the waste processing capacity within the current Vitrification Building structural design. The Phase 1 study on remote systems concepts identification and extent of capacity increase was completed. The study concluded that the HWVP capacity could be increased to four times the current capacity with minor design adjustments to the fixed facility design, and the required design changes would not impact the current footprint of the vitrification building. A further increase in production capacity may be achievable but would require some technology development, verification testing, and a more systematic and extensive engineering evaluation. The primary changes included a single advance melter with a higher capacity, new evaporative feed tank, offgas quench collection tank, ejector venturi scrubbers, and additional inner canister closure station,a smear test station, a new close- coupled analytical facility, waste hold capacity of 400,000 gallon, the ability to concentrate out-of-plant HWVP feed to 90 g/L waste oxide concentration, and limited changes to the current base slab construction package

  1. Increased Bone Marrow Fat in Anorexia Nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Bredella, Miriam A.; Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Miller, Karen K.; Misra, Madhusmita; Torriani, Martin; Thomas, Bijoy J.; Ghomi, Reza Hosseini; Rosen, Clifford J; Klibanski, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Context: Although women with anorexia nervosa (AN) have severe depletion of body fat, a paradoxical increase in bone marrow fat has been described. Recent data suggest that marrow fat measured by 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in combination with bone mineral density (BMD) may be more valuable than either parameter alone in detecting bone weakness.

  2. Increasing Incidence of Juvenile Thyrotoxicosis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, R. H.; Andersen, M. S.; Hansen, D.

    2015-01-01

    . Additional data were collected on children diagnosed with GD in 2008-2012. Results: In total, 237 patients with juvenile thyrotoxicosis (JT) were identified. The overall IR in 1998-2012 was 1.58/100,000 person-years and has increased significantly from 0.79/100,000 person-years in 1982-1988 (p <0.001). The...

  3. Loss of biodiversity can increase disease transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Trulove, Susan

    2010-01-01

    A paper in the Dec. 2 issue of "Nature," co-authored by a Virginia Tech faculty member, provides a review of the scientific literature relating to yet another important impact of biodiversity loss, namely how this loss can result in the increase of the transmission and spread of infectious diseases, such as Lyme disease and West Nile.

  4. Object detectability at increased ambient lighting conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under typical dark conditions encountered in diagnostic reading rooms, a reader's pupils will contract and dilate as the visual focus intermittently shifts between the high luminance display and the darker background wall, resulting in increased visual fatigue and the degradation of diagnostic performance. A controlled increase of ambient lighting may, however, reduce the severity of these pupillary adjustments by minimizing the difference between the luminance level to which the eyes adapt while viewing an image (Ladp) and the luminance level of diffusely reflected light from the area surrounding the display (Ls). Although ambient lighting in reading rooms has conventionally been kept at a minimum to maintain the perceived contrast of film images, proper Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) calibration of modern medical-grade liquid crystal displays can compensate for minor lighting increases with very little loss of image contrast. This paper describes two psychophysical studies developed to evaluate and refine optimum reading room ambient lighting conditions through the use of observational tasks intended to simulate real clinical practices. The first study utilized the biologic contrast response of the human visual system to determine a range of representative Ladp values for typical medical images. Readers identified low contrast horizontal objects in circular foregrounds of uniform luminance (5, 12, 20, and 30 cd/m2) embedded within digitized mammograms. The second study examined the effect of increased ambient lighting on the detection of subtle objects embedded in circular foregrounds of uniform luminance (5, 12, and 35 cd/m2) centered within a constant background of 12 cd/m2 luminance. The images were displayed under a dark room condition (1 lux) and an increased ambient lighting level (50 lux) such that the luminance level of the diffusely reflected light from the background wall was approximately equal to the image Ladp value of 12 cd

  5. Increased radiosensitivity of microorganisms by vacuum treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of dehydration by vacuum (down to 10-7 to r) on radiobiological processes was studied on stationary phase cells of Escherichia coli B/r and Bacillus subtilis 168, and on spores of the latter strain. X-rays of 145 kV with a dose-rate of 1 krad/min and ultraviolet irradiation of 254 nm wavelength were applied. When the microorganisms were irradiated during vacuum exposure, their radiation sensitivity had increased, compared with the wet controls, irradiated at 760 torr. For the inactivation of E. coli cells by X-rays, the slope of the dose effect curve was increased by a factor of approximately 4. This supersensitivity to X-rays was not observed in cells which were exposed in multicellular layers or in the presence of salts (PO4-buffer), 5% glucose or nutrient broth. Likewise, the sensitivity to UV-irradiation of vegetative cells and spores was increased when irradiation was applied in vacuo. It was found that specific photoproducts of the DNA, such as DNA-protein, cross-links, 5-thyminyl-5,6-dihydrothyminine-, and trans-syn thymine dimer were formed under vacuum treatment. Since these lesions are not - or only less - repairable by cell-owned enzymatic repair processes, at least one of them may be responsible for the increased UV-sensitivity in vacuo. The formation of trans-syn thymine by UV requires an at least partially denatured DNA. Therefore, it is suggested that vacuum treatment of microorganisms could induce structural changes in their DNA, such as partial denaturation of the polymer. This effect might also be responsible for the increased sensitivity of microorganisms to ionizing radiation. (author)

  6. Increased Radiosensitivity of Microorganisms by Vacuum Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of dehydration by vacuum (down to 10-7 torr) on radiobiological processes was studied on stationary phase cells of Escherichia coli B/r and Bacillus subtilis 168, and on spores of the latter strain. X-rays of 145 kV with a dose-rate of 1 krad/min and ultraviolet irradiation of 254 nm wavelength were applied. When the microorganisms were irradiated, during vacuum exposure, their radiation sensitivity had increased, compared with the wet controls, irradiated at 760 torr. For the inactivation of E. coli cells by X-rays, the slope of the dose effect curve was increased by a factor of approximately 4. This super sensitivity to X-rays was not observed in cells which were exposed in multicellular layers or in the presence of salts (Po4-buffer), 5% glucose or nutrient broth. Likewise, the sensitivity to UV-irradiation of vegetative cells and spores was increased when irradiation was applied in vacuo. It was found that specific photoproducts of the DNA, such as DNA-protein, cross-links, 5-thyminyl-, 5,6-dihydrothyminme-, and trans-syn thymine dimer were formed under vacuum treatment. Since these lesions are not - or only less - repairable by cell-owned enzymatic repair processes, at least one of them may be responsible for the increased UV-sensitivity in vacuo. The formation of trans-syn thymine dimer by UV requires an at least partially denatured DNA. Therefore, it is suggested that vacuum treatment of microorganisms could induce structural changes in their DNA, such as partial denaturation of the polymer. This effect might also be responsible for the increased sensitivity of microorganisms to ionizing radiation. (author)

  7. Increased cerebral water content in hemodialysis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Reetz

    Full Text Available Little information is available on the impact of hemodialysis on cerebral water homeostasis and its distribution in chronic kidney disease. We used a neuropsychological test battery, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and a novel technique for quantitative measurement of localized water content using 3T MRI to investigate ten hemodialysis patients (HD on a dialysis-free day and after hemodialysis (2.4±2.2 hours, and a matched healthy control group with the same time interval. Neuropsychological testing revealed mainly attentional and executive cognitive dysfunction in HD. Voxel-based-morphometry showed only marginal alterations in the right inferior medial temporal lobe white matter in HD compared to controls. Marked increases in global brain water content were found in the white matter, specifically in parietal areas, in HD patients compared to controls. Although the global water content in the gray matter did not differ between the two groups, regional increases of brain water content in particular in parieto-temporal gray matter areas were observed in HD patients. No relevant brain hydration changes were revealed before and after hemodialysis. Whereas longer duration of dialysis vintage was associated with increased water content in parieto-temporal-occipital regions, lower intradialytic weight changes were negatively correlated with brain water content in these areas in HD patients. Worse cognitive performance on an attention task correlated with increased hydration in frontal white matter. In conclusion, long-term HD is associated with altered brain tissue water homeostasis mainly in parietal white matter regions, whereas the attentional domain in the cognitive dysfunction profile in HD could be linked to increased frontal white matter water content.

  8. A mechanistic study to increase understanding of titanium dioxide nanoparticles-increased plasma glucose in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hailong; Li, Li; Guo, Qian; Jin, Sanli; Zhou, Ying; Oh, Yuri; Feng, Yujie; Wu, Qiong; Gu, Ning

    2016-09-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticle (TiO2 NP) is an authorized food additive. Previous studies determined oral administration of TiO2 NPs increases plasma glucose in mice via inducing insulin resistance. An increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been considered the possible mechanism of increasing plasma glucose. However, persistently high plasma glucose is also a mechanism of increasing ROS. This study aims to explore whether TiO2 NPs increase plasma glucose via ROS. We found after oral administration of TiO2 NPs, an increase in ROS preceded an increase in plasma glucose. Subsequently, mice were treated with two antioxidants (resveratrol and vitamin E) at the same time as oral administration of TiO2 NPs. Results showed resveratrol and vitamin E reduced TiO2 NPs-increased ROS. An increase in plasma glucose was also inhibited. Further research showed resveratrol and vitamin E inhibited the secretion of TNF-α and IL-6, and the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAPK, resulting in improved insulin resistance. These results suggest TiO2 NPs increased ROS levels, and then ROS activated inflammatory cytokines and phosphokinases, and thus induced insulin resistance, resulting in an increase in plasma glucose. Resveratrol and vitamin E can reduce TiO2 NPs-increased ROS and thereby inhibit an increase in plasma glucose in mice. PMID:27430421

  9. Increasing pulse wave velocity in a realistic cardiovascular model does not increase pulse pressure with age

    OpenAIRE

    Mohiuddin, Mohammad W.; Rihani, Ryan J.; Laine, Glen A.; Quick, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    The mechanism of the well-documented increase in aortic pulse pressure (PP) with age is disputed. Investigators assuming a classical windkessel model believe that increases in PP arise from decreases in total arterial compliance (Ctot) and increases in total peripheral resistance (Rtot) with age. Investigators assuming a more sophisticated pulse transmission model believe PP rises because increases in pulse wave velocity (cph) make the reflected pressure wave arrive earlier, augmenting systol...

  10. Increasing muscle extensibility: a matter of increasing length or modifying sensation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weppler, Cynthia Holzman; Magnusson, S Peter

    2010-01-01

    Various theories have been proposed to explain increases in muscle extensibility observed after intermittent stretching. Most of these theories advocate a mechanical increase in length of the stretched muscle. More recently, a sensory theory has been proposed suggesting instead that increases in ...

  11. Leptospirosis: a globally increasing zoonotic disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rock, Clare

    2010-01-01

    A 27-year-old previously healthy man was admitted to the intensive care unit with severe jaundice, dyspnoea with haemoptysis, anaemia, thrombocytopenia and acute renal injury. He had no recent history of foreign travel but had been building a shed in his back garden in Cork, Ireland, for the preceding week. The patient\\'s history, clinical observations, haematological and radiological results were all consistent with icteric leptospirosis or Weil\\'s disease. This was confirmed on serological testing. He completed 7 days intravenous ceftriaxone and made a complete recovery. While endemic in tropical climates, leptospirosis incidence is increasing in temperate climates. Recent cases seen in temperate climates can be severe, particularly with pulmonary manifestations. The report of this case serves to increase awareness of this re-emerging potentially fatal infectious disease.

  12. Increase of Organization in Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Georgiev, Georgi Yordanov; Gombos, Erin; Vinod, Amrit; Hoonjan, Gajinder

    2013-01-01

    Measures of complexity and entropy have not converged to a single quantitative description of levels of organization of complex systems. The need for such a measure is increasingly necessary in all disciplines studying complex systems. To address this problem, starting from the most fundamental principle in Physics, here a new measure for quantity of organization and rate of self-organization in complex systems based on the principle of least (stationary) action is applied to a model system - the central processing unit (CPU) of computers. The quantity of organization for several generations of CPUs shows a double exponential rate of change of organization with time. The exact functional dependence has a fine, S-shaped structure, revealing some of the mechanisms of self-organization. The principle of least action helps to explain the mechanism of increase of organization through quantity accumulation and constraint and curvature minimization with an attractor, the least average sum of actions of all elements ...

  13. Increasing the Size of Microwave Popcorn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoyer, Justin

    2005-03-01

    Each year Americans consume approximately 17 billion quarts of popcorn. Since the 1940s, microwaves have been the heating source of choice for most. By treating the popcorn mechanism as a thermodynamic system, it has been shown mathematically and experimentally that reducing the surrounding pressure of the unpopped kernels, results in an increased volume of the kernels [Quinn et al, http://xxx.lanl.gov/abs/cond-mat/0409434 v1 2004]. In this project an alternate method of popping with the microwave was used to further test and confirm this hypothesis. Numerous experimental trials where run to test the validity of the theory. The results show that there is a significant increase in the average kernel size as well as a reduction in the number of unpopped kernels.

  14. Do Fat Supplements Increase Physical Performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Di Felice

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Fish oil and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA belong to a popular class of food supplements known as “fat supplements”, which are claimed to reduce muscle glycogen breakdown, reduce body mass, as well as reduce muscle damage and inflammatory responses. Sport athletes consume fish oil and CLA mainly to increase lean body mass and reduce body fat. Recent evidence indicates that this kind of supplementation may have other side-effects and a new role has been identified in steroidogenensis. Preliminary findings demonstrate that fish oil and CLA may induce a physiological increase in testosterone synthesis. The aim of this review is to describe the effects of fish oil and CLA on physical performance (endurance and resistance exercise, and highlight the new results on the effects on testosterone biosynthesis. In view of these new data, we can hypothesize that fat supplements may improve the anabolic effect of exercise.

  15. Improving nuclear economics without increasing proliferation risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The postponement of recycle systems is an insurance against the premature plunge into widespread commercial use of plutonium, with its potential for increasing proliferation risks. We can afford to postpone the deployment process with little penalty by improving light water reactors in once-through mode (LWROT). This would make nuclear power cheaper without increasing proliferation risk. The deferral is desirable because very valuable information about the feasibility, competitiveness, and resistivity to proliferation of technologies such as advance converters, the once-through fast reactor, and the fusion-fission hybrid reactor will be learned in the next 10 years. There is a distinct possibility that, as far as nuclear energy is concerned, we can rely on LWR(OT)s with evolutionary improvements far into the future. 29 references, 2 tables

  16. INCREASING COMPLIANCE THROUGH EFFICIENT PUBLIC CAMPAIGNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie BANU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper starts from the assumption that the degree of compliance of the taxpayer increases in direct proportion to the effectiveness of public campaigns carried out by the tax device. Information campaigns with a view to increase voluntary compliance can be carried out in various ways. They can emphasize either the potential benefits that taxpayers would receive if the compliance were full, or the potential losses when the degree of compliance is reduced. In theory, these campaigns are effective when intersecting with the promotion or warning of taxpayers about certain fiscal aspects. Following the presentation of campaigns carried out in other states, we propose the initiation of a campaign in Romania as well. Corporate taxpayers will choose out of several campaigns and in the end we will present the results of the research based on the methods of the questionnaire and of the interview.

  17. Has risk associated with smoking increased?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Osler, M; Andersen, P K;

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Two recent much cited publications have raised the concern that risk associated with cigarette smoking has so far been underestimated. In this study we wish to determine whether excess all-cause mortality associated with smoking has increased during the last 20-30 years in a study...... population representative of the general Danish population and whether any such changes relate to changes in smoking behaviour. METHODS: Pooled data from three prospective population studies conducted in Copenhagen with detailed information on smoking habits. A total of 31,194 subjects, 17,669 males and 13....... RESULTS: Male smokers' exposure did not change during the study period whereas female smokers' exposure to tobacco increased in terms of age at smoking onset, quantity smoked and depth of inhalation. During follow-up 5744 males and 2900 females died. In males, death rate ratios (comparing continuous...

  18. Playing violent video games increases intergroup bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown how, why, and for whom violent video game play is related to aggression and aggression-related variables. In contrast, less is known about whether some individuals are more likely than others to be the target of increased aggression after violent video game play. The present research examined the idea that the effects of violent video game play are stronger when the target is a member of an outgroup rather than an ingroup. In fact, a correlational study revealed that violent video game exposure was positively related to ethnocentrism. This relation remained significant when controlling for trait aggression. Providing causal evidence, an experimental study showed that playing a violent video game increased aggressive behavior, and that this effect was more pronounced when the target was an outgroup rather than an ingroup member. Possible mediating mechanisms are discussed. PMID:24085715

  19. Increased health care utilisation in international adoptees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, Heidi Jeannet; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Kragstrup, Jakob;

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Several studies have documented thatinternational adoptees have an increased occurrence ofhealth problems and contacts to the health-care systemafter arriving to their new country of residence. This maybe explained by pre-adoption adversities, especially for theperiod immediately...... after adoption. Our study aimed to theassess health-care utilisation of international adoptees inprimary and secondary care for somatic and psychiatricdiagnoses in a late post-adoption period. Is there an increaseduse of the health-care system in this period, evenwhen increased morbidity in the group...... of internationaladoptees is taken into consideration? Methods: This was a Danish register-based cohort studyexamining health-care utilisation in a multivariable two-partmodel. The prevalence of selected outcomes and the quantityof use were assessed in a late (year three, four and five)post-adoption period. The cohort...

  20. Can increased organic consumption mitigate climate changes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, Lennart Ravn; Andersen, Laura Mørch; Christensen, Tove;

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the evidence for a positive correlation between increased consumption of organic products and potential climate change mitigation via decreased consumption of meat and it is discussed to what extent organic consumption is motivated by climate...... correlation between increasing organic budget shares and decreasing meat budget shares is found. People include food-related behaviour such as the purchase of organic food and reduced meat consumption as ways to mitigate climate change. However, other behavioural modifications such as reduction of car usage...... household data would supplement the analyses. Practical implications – Demand-side policies aiming at climate-friendly consumption could be a central factor in combating climate change. Already, food-related mitigation strategies such as lowered meat consumption are established practices among a group of...