WorldWideScience

Sample records for booms lifting equipment

  1. Lifting operations and lifting equipment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douwes, M.

    2013-01-01

    Lifting operations are inherent to many occupations in the construction industry. They can be performed manually or using lifting equipment. Both manual lifting and mechanical lifting operations can put construction workers at great risk of injury or health symptoms causing sick leave or disability.

  2. UF{sub 6} cylinder lifting equipment enhancements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hortel, J.M. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Piketon, OH (United States)

    1991-12-31

    This paper presents numerous enhancements that have been made to the Portsmouth lifting equipment to ensure the safe handling of cylinders containing liquid uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}). The basic approach has been to provide redundancy to all components of the lift path so that any one component failure would not cause the load to drop or cause any undesirable movement.

  3. A/sub 2/Rs-B 15400. 120 boom stacker - high capacity equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goehring, H.

    1982-05-01

    This article presents specifications and technical details of the largest boom stacker built by TAKRAF for spoil bank build-up in brown coal surface mines. The technical specifications include: 260,000 m/sup 3/d overburden conveying capacity, length of stacking boom up to 195 m, driving speed 9 m/min, equipment weight 3,800 t, conveyor belt speed 6.7 m/s, conveyor belt width 2.5 m. Details are given on the design of the undercarriage and the crawler tracks; 2 versions with either 6 or 12 crawler chains are available. The upper structure is capable of slewing 220 degrees, features of its design are given. The conveyor system consists of 3 belt conveyors, 2 with a driving force of 1,500 kW, the third belt is driven by 2x630 kW. Facilities for operating personnel and auxiliary equipment for machine cleaning, maintenance and repair are also described. (In German)

  4. Electrohydraulic stand for testing lifting means

    OpenAIRE

    Natalya Babochenko

    2014-01-01

    Article is devoted to electrohydraulic to create test benches for lifting equipment. The author suggests a test stand electrohydraulic lifting means in the form of large-scale working model of the hinge-rod hydraulic manipulator with articulated boom and with one space drive mechanism, as well as examining the use of electrohydraulic control system.

  5. The A/SUB/2Rs-B 7200. 95 boom spreader - newly developed equipment from Koethen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, H.J.

    1984-04-01

    This paper explains design and performance of this TAKRAF boom spreader for overburden removal in brown coal surface mines. The spreader was developed for medium sized surface mines; its design is a further improvement of the A/SUB/2Rs-B 6300.95 boom spreader, employed in various surface mines in Hungary, Bulgaria and Romania. The new spreader has a spoil removal capacity of 90,000 m/SUP/3/d, a mass of 1,550 tons, spreading boom length of 95 m and a 1,800 m wide conveyor belt system. Two men operate the equipment. The first new spreader has been assembled and is ready for continuous operation in the Drmno brown coal surface mine in Yugoslavia for block working in a width of 80 m, spoil bank height of 25 m and a spreading volume of 2,000 m/SUP/3/m. Further design details and specifications are provided. (In German)

  6. Design and operation of the JET articulated boom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After tritium introduction, planned for JET about 1991, remote handling maintenance is vital to the continued operation of the machine. An articulated boom has been designed at JET as the sole support device for in-vessel transport of all equipment and servo-manipulators and is part of the JET Remote Handling plan. The boom was manufactured by NEI Thompson of Wolverhampton and AET of Coventry, England, delivered to JET in October 1984 and has been commissioned successfully to its full design performance. The boom has been used during the June 1985 maintenance period as a hands-on lifting device using a hand-held, push-button controller. Dynamic computer modelling of the boom has been carried out to analyse cross-coupling inertial effects arising in the horizontal plane. A/sup 1//5-scale, mechanical model has also been used to control the boom in a master-slave mode

  7. Iterative method research on lifting capacity of telescopic boom crane%伸缩臂起重机起重性能迭代算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘阚元; 高顺德; 王欣; 陈礼; 赵福令

    2011-01-01

    The calculation of lifting capacity of telescopic boom crane is a difficult point in the entire machine design. In order to obtain the maximum lifting mass under certain working condition, after the initial lifting mass is given, the lifting mass for next calculation was iterated based on the ratio of calculated complex stress to allowable stress, and the complex stress and lifting mass was re-calculated until the difference between calculated complex stress and allowable stress is very small, which is taken as the maximal lifting mass under this working condition. In this paper, constant increment method, proportional method and Lagrange method are proposed, by using examples, the influence on calculation by different Iterative methods under linear and nonlinear theories was compared. The result has indicated that it is the Lagrange method among three methods that the calculation efficiency is the highest.%伸缩臂起重机起重性能的计算是整机设计的一个难点.为得到某种工况下的最大起吊质量,给定初始起吊质量,根据计算出的复合应力与许用应力的比值迭代出下一次计算的起吊质量,重新计算复合应力与起吊质量,直至计算出复合应力与许用应力差别很小的起吊质量,作为此工况下的最大起吊质量.文中提出恒增量法、比例法和拉格朗日法3种迭代算法,通过算例比较线性和非线性理论下不同迭代算法对计算的影响,结果表明:3种方法之中拉格朗日法的计算效率最高.

  8. Musculoskeletal pain among critical-care nurses by availability and use of patient lifting equipment: An analysis of cross-sectional survey data

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, SJ; Faucett, J; Gillen, M; Krause, N.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Patient handling is a major risk factor for musculoskeletal injuries among nurses. Lifting equipment is a main component of safe patient handling programs that aim to prevent musculoskeletal injury. However, the actual levels of lift availability and usage are far from optimal. Objective: To examine the effect of patient lifting equipment on musculoskeletal pain by level of lift availability and lift use among critical-care nurses. Design and participants: A cross-sectional postal...

  9. 78 FR 3356 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Wing Lift Struts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... corrosion inhibitor to each wing lift strut. Apply the corrosion inhibitor following Piper MSB No. 528D... requirements in the Appendix to this AD are met, before further flight, apply corrosion inhibitor to each wing lift strut. Apply the corrosion inhibitor following Piper MSB No. 528D, dated October 19, 1990,...

  10. 78 FR 73997 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped with Wing Lift Struts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... inspection required in paragraph (i)(1) of this AD, before further flight, apply corrosion inhibitor to each..., apply corrosion inhibitor to each wing lift strut following Piper MSB No. 528D, dated October 19, 1990...-based couplants, containing appropriate corrosion inhibitors, may be utilized, provided they are...

  11. Cost-Effective Integration of Efficient Low-Lift Baseload Cooling Equipment: FY08 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Armstrong, P. R.; Wang, Weimin; Fernandez, Nicholas; Cho, Heejin; Goetzler, W.; Burgos, J.; Radhakrishnan, R.; Ahlfeldt, C.

    2010-01-31

    Documentation of a study to investigate one heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system option, low-lift cooling, which offers potentially exemplary HVAC energy performance relative to American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 90.1-2004.

  12. Inclined boom system with hydrofoil for waters with waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, K.V.; Miller, M.K.; Boccabella, A. [Miami Univ., Coral Gables, FL (United States)

    2005-07-01

    It is inevitable that spills and accidental discharges of oil will occur while transporting oil in tanker ships. Although marine oil spills have been reduced due to doubled hulled tankers and environmental regulations, oil spills still present a threat to bays, shorelines and marine life. Therefore, oil response must be rapid, effective and thorough. An innovative oil containment boom that can collect oil in waters with waves was designed and constructed. Booms contain the spread of oil after a spill and also concentrate oil into thicker layers, making recovery more effective. They can be used to direct and channel oil slicks along desired paths into skimming equipment. This newly designed boom includes a ramp placed at an angle of 12 degrees from the horizontal. Three collection zones are used in which oil is pumped out to an oil storage tank. The design incorporates a hydrofoil for stability. The hydrofoil counteracts the lift created by the ramp. Results show that the hydrofoils were effective at high flow rates and waves. At low flow rates, the boom units relied mostly on the Styrofoam flotation devices for stability. For experiments without waves, the collection efficiency ranged from 95.9 per cent to 99.6 per cent. At least 3 forward waves were created for the high and intermediate velocities. Five forward waves were created at the low velocity. The collection efficiency ranged from 51.7 per cent to 69.3 per cent. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  13. 铝合金桁架环缝自动焊机的研制%Design and manufacture of automatic circumferential welding equipment for aluminium alloy boom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田松亚; 封艳

    2012-01-01

    根据铝合金桁架铝合金管材与接头环缝焊接要求,设计并制造了一台专用焊接设备.根据焊接时序要求,采用可编程控制器实现对焊接设备逻辑顺序的控制,并制定了铝合金桁架铝合金管材与接头环缝的惰性气体保护焊MIG自动焊接工艺.结果表明,该焊机自动化程度高、性能稳定、操作简便,能够满足铝桁架铝合金管材与接头环缝自动焊生产要求,同时提高了生产率.依据制定的焊接工艺,进行了焊接试验.焊接试验表明,制定的工艺所获得的铝合金桁架铝合全管材与接头对接接头,满足焊缝质量要求.%According to the requirements of aluminium alloy boom circumferential welding,this paper design and manufacture a special automatic welding equipment.In terms of weld time sequence requirement,PLC is used to implement the control of welding device logical subsequence.besides.work out the MIG automatic welding procedure of circumferential welding.The Result shows that the welding device displays high degree of automation,stable performance and convenient movement,which could satisfy production requirements of aluminium alloy boom automatic circumferential welding and improve productivity .Based on the welding procedure, welding experiment is done.The result indicates that welding procedure could reach the quality requirements of welding joint.

  14. Cost-Effective Integration of Efficient Low-Lift Base Load Cooling Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Wei; Winiarski, David W.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Armstrong, Peter R.

    2008-01-14

    The long-term goal of DOE’s Commercial Buildings Integration subprogram is to develop cost-effective technologies and building practices that will enable the design and construction of net Zero Energy Buildings — commercial buildings that produce as much energy as they use on an annual basis — by 2025. To support this long-term goal, DOE further called for — as part of its FY07 Statement of Needs — the development by 2010 of “five cost-effective design technology option sets using highly efficient component technologies, integrated controls, improved construction practices, streamlined commissioning, maintenance and operating procedures that will make new and existing commercial buildings durable, healthy and safe for occupants.” In response, PNNL proposed and DOE funded a scoping study investigation of one such technology option set, low-lift cooling, that offers potentially exemplary HVAC energy performance relative to ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004. The primary purpose of the scoping study was to estimate the national technical energy savings potential of this TOS.

  15. Design of Hydraulic Protection Equipment Served the Disabled Weight-lifting%残疾人举重液压伺服保护装置设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪功明

    2015-01-01

    A kind of hydraulic protection equipment served the disabled weight⁃lifting was designed. The equipment consisted of guide rail, hydraulic following unit and hydraulic lifting unit. It mainly depended on hydraulic servo theory to work. The technical pro⁃posal and the model designs of the core structure of the equipment were stated.%设计一种残疾人举重保护装置,该装置由导轨、液压跟随单元、液压托举单元等三部分组成,主要依据液压伺服原理工作。阐述了该装置的技术方案,并对装置的核心结构做了选型设计。

  16. Water discharging over weir with installed boom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kupriyanov Vladimir Pavlovich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers a possibility of booms application at spillway dams in order to reduce gates size and capacity of weight lifting device without changing weir discharge capacity. The prospects of booms application at weir top were proved during hydraulic researches conducted at JSC “NIIES” (Joint Stock Company “Scientific Research Institute of Energy Structures”. Basing on the conducted researches the recommendations of booms application at spillway facilities of Yumaguzinskaya and Upper Krasnogorskaya hydropower schemes, as well as at spillway facilities of Sayano-Shushenskaya and Plyavinskaya hydropower plants have been worked out. The main factor limiting wide application of booms at weirs is lack of feasible data for designing. At first, this data has to conclude methods of defining spillway discharge capacity and elevation of boom installation, which allows to keep the same spillway discharge capacity at rated head. The equations to define optimal elevation of boom installation and weir discharge capacity without its submergence have been analytically obtained for nappe-crested weir with installed boom. At the present time it is needed to conduct methodical experimental studies to define the discharge ratio and vertical compression according to different types of booms.

  17. Analysis of boom spreader mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, H.J.

    1983-03-01

    The paper investigates weight and size of large boom spreaders employed for overburden haulage in surface mining. Major steel parts of the upper spreader construction are set in relation to one another (main frame, spreading boom, counterbalance mass, boom of counter mass etc.); their mass is compared for 16 boom spreaders with haulage capacities ranging from 4,400 to 15,400 m/sup 3//h of overburden removal. A formula is derived for calculating the mass of the upper structure in relation to its capacity and boom length. The influence of total equipment ground pressure and the mass of the spreader undercarriage is further analyzed: a diagram is given for the undercarriage mass required to achieve the necessary load bearing capacity. In order to maintain ground pressure values, length and width of undercarriage crawler tracks can be varied. Series of two to twelve crawler track undercarriages are available. Optimum size and mass of undercarriages is shown by parameters of 6 TAKRAF undercarriages.

  18. Portable Sonic Boom Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, Joe

    2006-05-01

    A method is presented to simulate sonic booms using high fidelity and custom-built audio equipment that output to an acoustically treated listening environment, all of which is contained in a portable vehicle. The audio system has inherent low and high frequency performance limitations and also introduces distortion due to the frequency response of the system. The limitations of the system are compensated for by band-pass filtering a full-fidelity sonic boom signature and applying a system equalization filter. The purpose of the band-pass filter is to remove frequency content above and below the capabilities of the system yet retain the audible and felt characteristics of the full-fidelity waveform. The equalization filter, computed from time-domain Wiener filtering, compensates for the frequency-dependent system response of the audio system at several listening positions. The system performance is evaluated by comparing the PLdB, SEL(A) and SEL(C) of the measured system output to the full-fidelity waveform. Results show good agreement between the loudness levels of the full-fidelity waveform and the corresponding measured system output.

  19. Floating boom assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, J.D.

    1994-08-03

    A floating boom has associated means for injecting one or more flows of fluid (gas and/or liquid) adjacent an external surface of the boom. Such a flow may be arranged to rise up the side of the boom, staying close to it owing to the Coanda effect. This may serve to discourage a lighter liquid (e.g. oil) on the surface of the bulk liquid from passing under the boom and/or assist passage of the lighter liquid over a weir into a reservoir (which may be provided within the boom). (Author)

  20. 基于WORKBENCH平台参数化建模的橇座优化设计%Simulation of Equipment Skid Lifting Process Based on ANSYS WORKBENCH Software

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈颖; 李东芳; 于真真; 王海峰

    2012-01-01

    基于ANSYS软件WORKBENCH平台,对成套设备橇座吊装过程进行模拟并对此进行优化设计.计算结果表明,参数化建模可以减少分析时间,方便快捷地对结构进行优化设计.优化后的模型在保证吊装安全的前提下,降低了橇座质量,为平台上安装节省了空间,达到了经济性与安全性兼顾的目的.%Lifting process of the equipment skid based on the ANSYS WORKBENCH software was simulated, and the model was optimized. The results showed that parametric modeling could reduce the analysis time, being convenient to optimize the design of the structure. In the premise of ensuring the safety of lifting, optimized model reducing the skid base weight, saving the material, and saves space for the installation on the platform, both the economy and security could be well considered.

  1. Tornado lift

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanchin, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    It is shown that one of the causes for tornado is Tornado Lift. At increasing vortex diameter its kinetic energy decreases to keep the moment of momentum constant. A kinetic energy gradient of such vortex is Tornado Lift. Evaluation shows that contribution of Tornado Lift in air lifting in a tornado is comparable to buoyancy according to the order of magnitude.

  2. Equipment selection calculation ofvertical shafttemporary change mixed lifting%立井临时改绞混合提升设备选型计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵鹏

    2015-01-01

    Sincea bucket hoist systemcan not satisfy efficient construction in mine construction stage ,a mixed lifting scheme ofdouble cage with double skipin temporary change twist period isproposed .By computing and security check ,equipment selection programis determined that the cage hoisting system uses a 18 × 7‐28‐1770 wire rope ,TXG2000 /28‐type steel sheave ,2JK‐2 .5 /20‐hoist ,skip hoisting system uses 2JK‐3 .5 /20 hoist .,and its lifting capacity were calculated too .The results show that a mixed lifting scheme ofdouble cage with double skip in temporary change twist period can significantly increase lift capacity ,shorten the construction cycle by six months ,bring considerable economic benefits ,and provide the theoretical basis and scientific support fora coal mine shaft hoist system construction .%针对某基建矿井吊桶提升无法满足高效建设的现状,提出了双罐笼加双箕斗的混合提升临时改绞方案。通过选型计算和安全校验,确定了罐笼提升系统采用18×7‐28‐1770型钢丝绳、TXG2000/28型铸钢天轮、2JK‐2.5/20型提升机,箕斗提升系统采用2JK‐3.5/20型提升机的设备选型方案,并对其提升能力进行了计算。结果表明,立井临时改绞混合提升系统能够大幅提高矿井提升能力,缩短建井周期6个月,带来可观的经济效益,同时可为基建矿井立井提升提供理论基础和科学保障。

  3. On Printing Head Lifting Mechanism of Digital Hot Stamping Equipment%无版烫印设备烫印头升降机构研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伊拓夫; 陈虹; 云丹丹

    2015-01-01

    无版烫印设备中的烫印头升降机构控制烫印头与烫印箔及承印物接触并适时调节压力,是无版烫印的关键部件。为了解决对烫印头压力检测的问题,采用一种优化的压力检测方法,保证了检测的精度、一致性和稳定性。同时,针对无版烫印设备承印物范围广、烫印压力变化范围大的问题,运用SolidWorks Simulation软件,对烫印头升降装置进行了有限元静力学分析,提出了结构改进方案。结果表明:该方案可有效减小烫印头与烫印头安装板螺钉连接处的应力。%The lifting mechanism controls the movement and the pressure of printing head to the foil belt and substrates, it is the key components of the digital hot stamping equipment. For the pressure detection of printing head, a kind of optimized method is used to ensure the accuracy, consistency and stability of pressure detect. Meanwhile, in order to guarantee the application of wide range of stamping pressure caused by the variation of substrates, this research uses SolidWorks Simulation software to do the finite element static analysis for the printing head lifting mechanism, a kind of structure improvement is proposed to reduce the stress of the bolted joint of printing head and the mounting plate effectively.

  4. Booming Sand Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriend, Nathalie

    "Booming" sand dunes are able to produce low-frequency sound that resembles a pure note from a music instrument. The sound has a dominant audible frequency (70-105 Hz) and several higher harmonics and may be heard from far distances away. A natural or induced avalanche from a slip face of the booming dune triggers the emission that may last for several minutes. There are various references in travel literature to the phenomenon, but to date no scientific explanation covered all field observations. This thesis introduces a new physical model that describes the phenomenon of booming dunes. The waveguide model explains the selection of the booming frequency and the amplification of the sound in terms of constructive interference in a confined geometry. The frequency of the booming is a direct function of the dimensions and velocities in the waveguide. The higher harmonics are related to the higher modes of propagation in the waveguide. The experimental validation includes quantitative field research at the booming dunes of the Mojave Desert and Death Valley National Park. Microphone and geophone recordings of the acoustic and seismic emission show a variation of booming frequency in space and time. The analysis of the sensor data quantifies wave propagation characteristics such as speed, dispersion, and nonlinear effects and allows the distinction between the source mechanism of the booming and the booming itself. The migration of sand dunes results from a complicated interplay between dune building, wind regime, and precipitation. The morphological and morphodynamical characteristics of two field locations are analyzed with various geophysical techniques. Ground-penetrating radar images the subsurface structure of the dunes and reveal a natural, internal layering that is directly related to the history of dune migration. The seismic velocity increases abruptly with depth and gradually increases with downhill position due to compaction. Sand sampling shows local

  5. Scheme discussion on lifting vertical equipment by using double plate lugs%采用双板式吊耳吊装立式设备的方案探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘应国; 毛卫华

    2016-01-01

    By analysis made to the lifting scheme of vertical equipment,this paper discussed the comprehensive influence coefficient when using 2 plate-type lugs. The result showed that,using 2 plate-type lugs for lifting vertical equipment can resolve lifting difficulty in special situation,avoid using large-scale crawler crane for transportation,long time assembly, defect of high expense for getting in and out the site,and can effectively reduce lifting cost and improve economic benefit.%通过对立式设备吊装方案的分析,探讨采用2个板式吊耳进行吊装时的综合影响系数。结果表明,采用2个板式吊耳吊装立式设备,可以解决特殊情况下的吊装困难,避免使用大型履带吊车运输、组装时间长、进出场费用高的缺陷。能够有效降低吊装成本,提高经济效益。

  6. Universal machine ''Shtrek'' and the tractor-lifter with pneumatic-equipment control. [Auxiliary multipurpose materials handling equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bal' bert, B.M.; Borumenskiy, V.A.; Lishenko, A.P.; Mitchenko, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    The machine ''Shtrek'' is described. It makes it possible to mechanize over 20 auxiliary operations: loading-unloading operations: extraction of old and deformed timbering; dissmantling of obstructions; erection of different types of timbering; making and restoring of drainage channels; laying and straightening of a drift and its leveling; assembly and disassembly of pipelines and mine equipment, etc. Depending on the type of operation, the machine has the corresponding suspended equipment. The elementary variant has a limited area of application at mines of the central region of the Dunbass. Currently a pneumatic variant of the machine ''Shtrek'' has been developed. The electric motor and the starter of the pumping equipment of the machine have been replaced by a pneumatic motor and pneumatically controlled valve KTM-50. In this case there was significant reduction in the weight of the pumping equipment and in its overall dimensions; the electric drive of the hydraulic distributors for controlling the mechanisms were replaced by simpler pneumatic ones; the logical circuit of the control system was constructed on the USEPPA elements. A specialized tractor-lifter designed for moving suspended loads is described for auxiliary operations in the near-face zone of the preparatory drifts. The machine also lifts and lowers the boom, rotates the boom by 270/sup 0/ and additionally lifts and lowers the weight-lifting hook.

  7. Lightweight Design of Special Emergency Lifting Device of a Special Equipment%特种装备专用应急起重装置轻量化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑艳琴; 向敢; 刘建华; 柯争华; 方利卡; 翁泽宇

    2012-01-01

    In according to the needs of use, maintenance and repair of a special equipment, and make clear the basic requirements of design of special emergency lifting device of a special equipment, the paper introduced the overall plan of design of this special emergency lifting device. Proceeded to finite element analysis on this lifting device with software ANSYS and checked the intensity of overall structure. Introduced a concept of lightweight design and carried on structure optimization on overall structure of this special emergency lifting device and focused on weight reduction on side plate of girder. The finite element analysis results show that the new design of overall structure of the emergency lifting device can meet the required intensity and at the same time the whole weight can reduce from 220 kg to 181 kg compare with the original project. [ Ch,6 fig. 11 ref. ]%根据某特种装备使用、维护和维修的需要,明确该设备专用应急起重装置的设计基本要求,确定总体方案设计.利用有限元软件ANSYS对该起重装置整体结构进行有限元分析,验算整体结构的强度.引入轻量化设计理念,对该专用应急起重装置整体结构进行结构优化,大粱侧板进行了重点的减重处理.有限元分析结果表明,新设计的应急起重装置总体结构在满足强度要求的同时,整体重量从原结构方案的220 kg减轻到181 kg.

  8. Multidisciplinary design optimization for sonic boom mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcer, Isik A.

    Automated, parallelized, time-efficient surface definition and grid generation and flow simulation methods are developed for sharp and accurate sonic boom signal computation in three dimensions in the near and mid-field of an aircraft using Euler/Full-Potential unstructured/structured computational fluid dynamics. The full-potential mid-field sonic boom prediction code is an accurate and efficient solver featuring automated grid generation, grid adaptation and shock fitting, and parallel processing. This program quickly marches the solution using a single nonlinear equation for large distances that cannot be covered with Euler solvers due to large memory and long computational time requirements. The solver takes into account variations in temperature and pressure with altitude. The far-field signal prediction is handled using the classical linear Thomas Waveform Parameter Method where the switching altitude from the nonlinear to linear prediction is determined by convergence of the ground signal pressure impulse value. This altitude is determined as r/L ≈ 10 from the source for a simple lifting wing, and r/L ≈ 40 for a real complex aircraft. Unstructured grid adaptation and shock fitting methodology developed for the near-field analysis employs an Hessian based anisotropic grid adaptation based on error equidistribution. A special field scalar is formulated to be used in the computation of the Hessian based error metric which enhances significantly the adaptation scheme for shocks. The entire cross-flow of a complex aircraft is resolved with high fidelity using only 500,000 grid nodes after only about 10 solution/adaptation cycles. Shock fitting is accomplished using Roe's Flux-Difference Splitting scheme which is an approximate Riemann type solver and by proper alignment of the cell faces with respect to shock surfaces. Simple to complex real aircraft geometries are handled with no user-interference required making the simulation methods suitable tools for

  9. Boom Booom Net Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Yong, Louisa; Dobie, Ian

    1999-01-01

    of an existing Internet radio station; Boom Booom Net Radio. Whilst necessity dictates some use of technology-related terminology, wherever possible we have endeavoured to keep such jargon to a minimum and to either explain it in the text or to provide further explanation in the appended glossary....

  10. Beyond the Boom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ANDY XIE

    2006-01-01

    @@ Annual GDP growth has averaged 10 percent in China in the past three years and 8 percent in India. During the same period,the global economy has enjoyed the biggest boom in decades,averaging 4.5 percent growth a year.

  11. Subjective Response to Simulated Sonic Booms in Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, David A.; Brown, Sherilyn A.

    1996-01-01

    One of the environmental issues affecting the development of a second-generation supersonic commercial transport is the impact of sonic booms on people. Aircraft designers are attempting to design the transport to produce sonic boom signatures that will have minimum impact on the public. Current supersonic commercial aircraft produce an 'N-wave' sonic boom pressure signature that is considered unacceptable by the public. This has resulted in first-generation supersonic transports being banned from flying supersonic over land in the United States, a severe economic constraint. By tailoring aircraft volume and lift distributions, designers hope to produce sonic boom signatures having specific shapes other than 'N-wave' that may be more acceptable to the public. As part of the effort to develop a second-generation supersonic commercial transport, Langley Research Center is conducting research to study people's subjective response to sonic booms. As part of that research, a system was developed for performing studies of the subjective response of people to the occurrence of simulated sonic booms in their homes. The In-Home Noise Generation/Response System (IHONORS) provides a degree of situational realism not available in the laboratory and a degree of control over the noise exposure not found in community surveys. The computer-controlled audio system generates the simulated sonic booms, measures the noise levels, and records the subjects' ratings and can be placed and operated in individual homes for extended periods of time. The system was used to conduct an in-home study of subjective response to simulated sonic booms. The primary objective of the study was to determine the effect on annoyance of the number of sonic boom occurrences in a realistic environment. The effects on annoyance of several other parameters were also examined. Initially, data analyses were based on all the data collected. However, further analyser found that test subjects adapted to the sonic

  12. Booming Dune Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreotti, B.; Bonneau, L.

    2009-12-01

    Sand avalanches flowing down the leeward face of some desert dunes spontaneously produce a loud sound with a characteristic vibrato around a well-defined frequency, a phenomenon called the “song of dunes.” Here, we show through theory that a homogenous granular surface flow is linearly unstable towards growing elastic waves when a localized shear band forms at the interface between the avalanche and the static part of the dune. We unravel the nature of the acoustic amplifying mechanism at the origin of this booming instability. The dispersion relation and the shape of the most unstable modes are computed and compared to field measurements.

  13. 静态RCS测量雷达的设备布局及升降塔结构设计%Equipment Layout Design of Static RCS Measure Radar and Structure Design of Lift Tower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兴唐; 李志兵; 马萍

    2012-01-01

    文中对静态RCS全频段测量雷达多天线和多收发设备的布局进行了设计,针对结构设计的核心部分——可移动高架天线塔进行了详细论述,对升降塔风栽荷进行了分析计算并用有限元法校核了天线塔身和天线安装架的强度,结果满足结构设计强度要求。解决了高架天线塔升降、天线安装调整、天线塔所装设备维修性和安全性的问题。对多波段静态RCS测量设备总体布局设计和高架升降塔的设计具有参考借鉴意义。%This paper designs the layout of antennas and T/R equipments for whole frequency bands static RCS measure radar. Detailed discussion is per formed for the mobile antenna tower which is the key part of structure design. Wind-load computing is carried out for the lift tower, the strength of antenna tower and an- tenna mounting structure is checked by finite element method, the results meet the design requirements. The problems of antenna going up and down, antenna stance adjusting, maintenance and security of equipments in antenna tower are solved in this paper. Study results of this paper are helpful to the layout design of multi- bands static RCS measure equipments and the structure design of lift tower.

  14. 自动升降式灯具装置的设计与研究%Design and Research of Automatic Lifting Lamp Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时佳

    2015-01-01

    Generally, outdoor lighting lamps are fixed in the building or the lamppost, and we can not adjust the height of the lamp, or we can only manually adjust the height of lamps.The paper presents a lamp automatic lifting device for lifting, real -time monitoring of the water level, and automatically adjusting the lamp height.It ensures the space between lamps and water surface, which both stops dangers of lamps flooded, and keeps the best illumination.%一般户外照明灯具均固定在建筑或灯杆上,不能调整灯具的高度,或者只能通过人为操作才能调整灯具高度。介绍了一种灯具自动升降装置,用于实时监测水位的升降,并自动调节灯具的高度,保证灯具与水面的间距,既杜绝灯具浸水的危险,又能保持最佳的照明效果。

  15. Analysis of Nozzle Jet Plume Effects on Sonic Boom Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Trong

    2010-01-01

    An axisymmetric full Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study was conducted to examine nozzle exhaust jet plume effects on the sonic boom signature of a supersonic aircraft. A simplified axisymmetric nozzle geometry, representative of the nozzle on the NASA Dryden NF-15B Lift and Nozzle Change Effects on Tail Shock (LaNCETS) research airplane, was considered. The highly underexpanded nozzle flow is found to provide significantly more reduction in the tail shock strength in the sonic boom N-wave pressure signature than perfectly expanded and overexpanded nozzle flows. A tail shock train in the sonic boom signature, similar to what was observed in the LaNCETS flight data, is observed for the highly underexpanded nozzle flow. The CFD results provide a detailed description of the nozzle flow physics involved in the LaNCETS nozzle at different nozzle expansion conditions and help in interpreting LaNCETS flight data as well as in the eventual CFD analysis of a full LaNCETS aircraft. The current study also provided important information on proper modeling of the LaNCETS aircraft nozzle. The primary objective of the current CFD research effort was to support the LaNCETS flight research data analysis effort by studying the detailed nozzle exhaust jet plume s imperfect expansion effects on the sonic boom signature of a supersonic aircraft. Figure 1 illustrates the primary flow physics present in the interaction between the exhaust jet plume shock and the sonic boom coming off of an axisymmetric body in supersonic flight. The steeper tail shock from highly expanded jet plume reduces the dip of the sonic boom N-wave signature. A structured finite-volume compressible full Navier-Stokes CFD code was used in the current study. This approach is not limited by the simplifying assumptions inherent in previous sonic boom analysis efforts. Also, this study was the first known jet plume sonic boom CFD study in which the full viscous nozzle flow field was modeled, without

  16. The booming dune instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreotti, B.; Bonneau, L.

    2009-12-01

    Sand avalanches flowing down the leeward face of some desert dunes spontaneously produce a loud sound with a characteristic vibrato around a well defined frequency, a phenomenon called the "song of dunes". Here, we show theoretically that an homogenous granular surface flow is linearly unstable towards growing elastic waves when a localized shear band form at the interface between the avalanche and the static part of the dune. We unravel the nature of the acoustic amplifying mechanism at the origin of this booming instability. The dispersion relation and the shape of the most unstable modes are computed and compared to field records performed in the Atlantic Sahara. We finally show that several characteristics predicted by the model and observed in the field allow to dismiss former hypothesis based on resonances or the synchronisation of sand grain collisions.

  17. Round table on the Supply Chain for NPPs construction: Localization - Daya Bay Experience; REEL Handling and Lifting Systems, More than 60 years expertise in lifting and handling equipment in production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The second day afternoon began with the round table on the Supply Chain for NPPs construction with Philippe Frantz, President of REEL, Marc Lachaise, Head of procurement of NNB at EDF Energy, and Steven Lau, First Deputy General Manager of DNMC. Philippe Frantz started to present the activities and the contribution of REEL in the construction of NPPs as a main supplier of handling system. Then, Marc Lachaise took the lead to present Hinkley Point C Project, the Values of NNB and the key role of the supply chain in this Project. Steven Lau went on to describe the link of the supply chain with the operating of NPPs and explained the cooperation between EDF and CGNPC in order to secure the supply of equipment. Following their presentation, they started the open discussion with the audience by explaining their strategy to make or to buy and the link of this strategy to their core business. They also highlighted the new relations and the new partnership between supplier and customer. They insisted on the necessity to invest on supply chain and to have a strong Nuclear Safety Culture in the supply chain

  18. Further development of overcast equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlitz, G.; Scholze, U.

    1987-04-01

    Spoil overcast technology is outlined in surface mines by excavator, mobile transfer conveyor and boom spreader combinations. The technology is regarded as adequate for small to medium sited mines with either thin, disturbed, split or multiple seams. The TAKRAF manufacturer, GDR, produces a variety of spreaders (series A/sub 2/ Rs) and transfer conveyors (series BRs). Spoil removal capacity ranges up to 18,000 m/sup 3//h. Schemes of general spreader design are provided. Technological advantages compared to overburden conveyor bridges are noted. Specifications including conveyor boom length, spreading height, equipment mobility, equipment positioning for multiple bench mining and other aspects are discussed. New TAKRAF mobile transfer conveyors (BRs 1200 to BRs 1600) are being developed with extended spreading booms for direct spoil overcast and low equipment height (to fit beneath belt conveyor booms of other surface mining equipment). 4 refs.

  19. Animation of boom failure processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer animations of oil boom failure mechanisms were discussed. The animations are useful in demonstrating the transient processes of boom failure. They consist of a series of images obtained from the graphical output of a computational fluid dynamics program, FLUENT, while the modeling is based on boom failure experiments carried out in flowing water channels. The animations can be viewed on a PC running under Windows '95. Three types of failures are presented, i. e. drainage failure, droplet entrainment and critical accumulation. 11 refs., 3 figs

  20. Lateral Cutoff Analysis and Results from NASA's Farfield Investigation of No-Boom Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliatt, Larry J., II; Haering, Edward A., Jr.; Arnac, Sarah R.; Hill, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    In support of the ongoing effort by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to bring supersonic commercial travel to the public, the NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) and the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), in partnership with other industry organizations and academia, conducted a flight research experiment to analyze acoustic propagation at the lateral edge of the sonic boom carpet. The name of the effort was the Farfield Investigation of No-boom Thresholds (FaINT). The test helped to build a dataset that will go toward further understanding of the unique acoustic propagation characteristics near the sonic boom carpet extremity. The FaINT was an effort that collected finely-space sonic boom data across the entire lateral cutoff transition region. A major objective of the effort was to investigate the acoustic phenomena that occur at the audible edge of a sonic boom carpet, including the transition and shadow zones. A NASA F-18B aircraft made supersonic passes such that its sonic boom carpet transition zone would intersect a linear 60-microphone, 7500-ft long array. A TG-14 motor glider equipped with a microphone on its wing also attempted to capture the same sonic boom rays that were measured on the ground, at altitudes of 3000 - 6000 ft above ground level. This paper determined an appropriate metric for sonic boom waveforms in the transition and shadow zones called Perceived Sound Exposure Level, and established a value of 65 dB as a limit for the acoustic levels defining the lateral extent of a sonic boom's noise region; analyzed the change in sonic boom levels as a function of distance from flight path both on the ground and 4500 ft above the ground; and compared between sonic boom measurements and numerical predictions.

  1. Modified Linear Theory Aircraft Design Tools and Sonic Boom Minimization Strategy Applied to Signature Freezing via F-function Lobe Balancing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Timothy Paul

    Commercial supersonic travel has strong business potential; however, in order for the Federal Aviation Administration to lift its ban on supersonic flight overland, designers must reduce aircraft sonic boom strength to an acceptable level. An efficient methodology and associated tools for designing aircraft for minimized sonic booms are presented. The computer-based preliminary design tool, RapidF, based on modified linear theory, enables quick assessment of an aircraft's sonic boom with run times less than 30 seconds on a desktop computer. A unique feature of RapidF is that it tracks where on the aircraft each segment of the of the sonic boom came from, enabling precise modifications, speeding the design process. Sonic booms from RapidF are compared to flight test data, showing that it is capability of predicting a sonic boom duration, overpressure, and interior shock locations. After the preliminary design is complete, scaled flight tests should be conducted to validate the low boom design. When conducting such tests, it is insufficient to just scale the length; thus, equations to scale the weight and propagation distance are derived. Using RapidF, a conceptual supersonic business jet design is presented that uses F-function lobe balancing to create a frozen sonic boom using lifting surfaces. The leading shock is reduced from 1.4 to 0.83 psf, and the trailing shock from 1.2 to 0.87 psf, 41% and 28% reductions respectfully. By changing the incidence angle of the surfaces, different sonic boom shapes can be created, and allowing the lobes to be re-balanced for new flight conditions. Computational fluid dynamics is conducted to validate the sonic boom predictions. Off-design analysis is presented that varies weight, altitude, Mach number, and propagation angle, demonstrating that lobe-balance is robust. Finally, the Perceived Level of Loudness metric is analyzed, resulting in a modified design that incorporates other boom minimization techniques to further reduce

  2. Boom clay pore water chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Belgium, geological disposal in clay is the primary option for the isolation of high-level radioactive waste and spent fuel from the biosphere. The Boom Clay is studied as the potential host rock for methodological studies on the geological disposal of radioactive waste. It is present under the facilities of the SCK-CEN at Mol, at a depth of 190 to 293 m. The current R and D programme focuses on the feasibility and safety of radioactive waste disposal in the Boom Clay. In this framework, a detailed characterisation of the clay is performed (mechanical, physico-chemical and hydrogeological properties, variability, role of organic matter,...). In addition, high priority is given to the understanding of the basic phenomena which control the retention o f radionuclides in the clay. Therefore, it is very important to characterise and understand the pore water composition in the host rock. All the available information from previous studies on the Boom Clay pore water chemistry was synthesise d in a 'state of the art' report, status 2004. This report describes the pore water sampling and analytical techniques, the results, and interpretation of a series of studies carried out in-situ in the HADES URF and in the laboratories. The objective of this study was to evaluate the most reliable technique(s) to obtain representative pore water samples, to determine the variation of the pore water composition in the Boom Clay, to present a coherent geochemical model for explaining the mechanisms controlling the Boom Clay pore water composition, and to propose a reference pore water composition to be used in the laboratory experiments, for speciation calculations, and for assessments of perturbation that might influence the Boom Clay pore water. The main conclusions will be presented here. (authors)

  3. CFD Analysis of Nozzle Jet Plume Effects on Sonic Boom Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Trong T.

    2009-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics study is conducted to examine nozzle exhaust jet plume effects on the Sonic boom signature of a supersonic aircraft. A simplified axisymmetric nozzle geometry, representative of the nozzle on the NASA Dryden NF-15B Lift and Nozzle Change Effects on Tail Shock research airplane, is considered. The computational fluid dynamics code is validated using available wind-tunnel sonic boom experimental data. The effects of grid size, spatial order of accuracy. grid type, and flow viscosity on the accuracy of the predicted sonic boom pressure signature are quantified. Grid lines parallel to the Mach wave direction are found to give the best results. Second-order accurate upwind methods are required as a minimum for accurate sonic boom simulations. The highly underexpanded nozzle flow is found to provide significantly more reduction in the tail shock strength in the sonic boom N-wave pressure signature than perfectly expanded and overexpanded nozzle flows. A tail shock train in the sonic boom signature is observed for the highly underexpanded nozzle flow. Axisymmetric computational fluid dynamics simulations show the flow physics inside the F-15 nozzle to be nonisentropic and complex.

  4. Lift truck safety review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents safety information about powered industrial trucks. The basic lift truck, the counterbalanced sit down rider truck, is the primary focus of the report. Lift truck engineering is briefly described, then a hazard analysis is performed on the lift truck. Case histories and accident statistics are also given. Rules and regulations about lift trucks, such as the US Occupational Safety an Health Administration laws and the Underwriter`s Laboratories standards, are discussed. Safety issues with lift trucks are reviewed, and lift truck safety and reliability are discussed. Some quantitative reliability values are given.

  5. Lift truck safety review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents safety information about powered industrial trucks. The basic lift truck, the counterbalanced sit down rider truck, is the primary focus of the report. Lift truck engineering is briefly described, then a hazard analysis is performed on the lift truck. Case histories and accident statistics are also given. Rules and regulations about lift trucks, such as the US Occupational Safety an Health Administration laws and the Underwriter's Laboratories standards, are discussed. Safety issues with lift trucks are reviewed, and lift truck safety and reliability are discussed. Some quantitative reliability values are given

  6. Realism Assessment of Sonic Boom Simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Brenda M.; Davies, Patrica; Hodgdon, Kthleen K.; Salamone, Joseph A., III; Pilon, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Developments in small supersonic aircraft design are predicted to result in low-intensity sonic booms. Booms generated by current aircraft are similar to those that led to the ban on commercial supersonic fli ght over the US, so are unsuitable for parametric studies of psychoac oustic response to low-intensity booms. Therefore, simulators have be en used to study the impact of predicted low-intensity sonic booms. H owever, simulators have been criticized because, when simulating conv entional-level booms, the sounds were observed to be unrealistic by p eople experienced in listening to sonic booms. Thus, two studies were conducted to measure the perceived realism of three sonic boom simul ators. Experienced listeners rated the realism of conventional sonic boom signatures when played in these simulators. The effects on percei ved realism of factors such as duration of post-boom noise, exclusion of very low frequency components, inclusion of ground reflections, a nd type of simulator were examined. Duration of post-boom noise was f ound to have a strong effect on perceived realism, while type of simu lator had a weak effect. It was determined that post-boom noise had t o be at least 1.5 seconds long for the sound to be rated very realist ic. Loudness level did not affect realism for the range of sounds pla yed in the tests (80-93 dB ASEL).

  7. Methodology for the Regulation of Boom Sprayers Operating in Circular Trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Serreta

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A methodology for the regulation of boom sprayers working in circular trajectories has been developed. In this type of trajectory, the areas of the plots of land treated by the outer nozzles of the boom are treated at reduced rates, and those treated by the inner nozzles are treated in excess. The goal of this study was to establish the methodology to determine the flow of the individual nozzles on the boom to guarantee that the dose of the product applied per surface unit is similar across the plot. This flow is a function of the position of the equipment (circular trajectory radius and of the displacement velocity such that the treatment applied per surface unit is uniform. GPS technology was proposed as a basis to establish the position and displacement velocity of the tractor. The viability of this methodology was simulated considering two circular plots with radii of 160 m and 310 m, using three sets of equipment with boom widths of 14.5, 24.5 and 29.5 m. Data showed as increasing boom widths produce bigger errors in the surface dose applied (L/m2. Error also increases with decreasing plot surface. As an example, considering the three boom widths of 14.5, 24.5 and 29.5 m working on a circular plot with a radius of 160 m, the percentage of surface with errors in the applied surface dose greater than 5% was 30%, 58% and 65% respectively. Considering a circular plot with radius of 310 m the same errors were 8%, 22% and 31%. To obtain a uniform superficial dose two sprayer regulation alternatives have been simulated considering a 14.5 m boom: the regulation of the pressure of each nozzle and the regulation of the pressure of each boom section. The viability of implementing the proposed methodology on commercial boom sprayers using GPS antennas to establish the position and displacement velocity of the tractor was justified with a field trial in which a self-guiding commercial GPS system was used along with three precision GPS systems located in

  8. Methodology for the regulation of boom sprayers operating in circular trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ramos, Francisco Javier; Vidal, Mariano; Boné, Antonio; Serreta, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    A methodology for the regulation of boom sprayers working in circular trajectories has been developed. In this type of trajectory, the areas of the plots of land treated by the outer nozzles of the boom are treated at reduced rates, and those treated by the inner nozzles are treated in excess. The goal of this study was to establish the methodology to determine the flow of the individual nozzles on the boom to guarantee that the dose of the product applied per surface unit is similar across the plot. This flow is a function of the position of the equipment (circular trajectory radius) and of the displacement velocity such that the treatment applied per surface unit is uniform. GPS technology was proposed as a basis to establish the position and displacement velocity of the tractor. The viability of this methodology was simulated considering two circular plots with radii of 160 m and 310 m, using three sets of equipment with boom widths of 14.5, 24.5 and 29.5 m. Data showed as increasing boom widths produce bigger errors in the surface dose applied (L/m(2)). Error also increases with decreasing plot surface. As an example, considering the three boom widths of 14.5, 24.5 and 29.5 m working on a circular plot with a radius of 160 m, the percentage of surface with errors in the applied surface dose greater than 5% was 30%, 58% and 65% respectively. Considering a circular plot with radius of 310 m the same errors were 8%, 22% and 31%. To obtain a uniform superficial dose two sprayer regulation alternatives have been simulated considering a 14.5 m boom: the regulation of the pressure of each nozzle and the regulation of the pressure of each boom section. The viability of implementing the proposed methodology on commercial boom sprayers using GPS antennas to establish the position and displacement velocity of the tractor was justified with a field trial in which a self-guiding commercial GPS system was used along with three precision GPS systems located in the sprayer

  9. Debris booms for protection of spillways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is included of concerns pertaining to the use of booms to protect spillways of dams from blockage by floating debris. A well designed and constructed debris boom, if properly maintained can help to protect spillways from blockage. For reservoirs with spillways which could be plugged by small amounts of debris, booms offer questionable protection because low floating wood can pass under even with low water velocity, and small debris can be washed over by wave action. The failure of a debris boom could cause spillway blockage. The strength of boom components can deteriorate rapidly and unpredictably because of various natural forces. For installations at high altitude, there must be time between ice breakup and and spilling to prevent damage if a boom is to be used. Boom design is very site specific. Debris consisting of whole trees with limbs exert very high forces. Debris inflow to a reservoir is difficult to predict on a long term basis. Booms will not stop the passage of all debris, and their effectiveness varies with the type of debris, and with weather and flood conditions. Aspects described include: boom types, boom loadings, location, durability, small dams, conclusions and recommendations. 2 refs., 11 figs

  10. Unstructured grids for sonic-boom analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouladi, Kamran

    1993-01-01

    A fast and efficient unstructured grid scheme is evaluated for sonic-boom applications. The scheme is used to predict the near-field pressure signatures of a body of revolution at several body lengths below the configuration, and those results are compared with experimental data. The introduction of the 'sonic-boom grid topology' to this scheme make it well suited for sonic-boom applications, thus providing an alternative to conventional multiblock structured grid schemes.

  11. Dynamic Analysis of The Intelligent Sprayer Boom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiggers, Sine Leergaard; Maagaard, Jørgen; Terp, Christian Istjord;

    As part of the 3 year project “The intelligent Sprayer Boom”, financed by The Danish National Advanced Technology Foundation, the dynamics of the sprayer boom is to be analysed. In order to minimize the amount of herbicides used to kill the weeds in agriculture a new sprayer boom is being developed...... in Matlab. The model is made in order to analyse the boom movements. The purpose of the model is to support the development of the patented active damping system for the sprayer boom. The Multibody Dynamics model has been made based on data retrieved from a CAD model and a Finite Element model...

  12. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the American National...) Belting off to an adjacent pole, structure, or equipment while working from an aerial lift shall not be... Qualification Procedure, AWS B3.0-41. (ii) Recommended Practices for Automotive Welding Design, AWS...

  13. Bearings for the biomass boom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacQueen, Duncan

    2011-03-15

    Biomass energy is booming –– more than two billion people depend on biomass for their energy and the International Energy Agency predicts that biomass' share of the global energy supply will treble by 2050. But in many developing countries it is still regarded as a traditional and dirty solution that is often criminalised, unsustainable and poorly paid. A more sophisticated approach that legalises and secures sustainable production by and for local people could help improve energy security, cut carbon emissions, protect forests and reduce poverty.

  14. Stress analysis of an articulated boom for in-vessel-handling of fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the high radioactivity levels, in-vessel maintenance work in the plasma chamber of a tokamak fusion machine can be done only by remote handling equipment, which is introduced into the torus-type plasma chamber by means of an articulated boom. The remote handling units have to be operated without any support provided for at the walls of the plasma chamber. A new articulated boom design is currently developed in the KfK for the NET project. This device is to bear at its tip working loads of up to 3900 kg (max. weight of remote handling equipment 2900 kg, of interchangeable components 1000 kg). In order to allow as precise manipulation as possible, the degree of sogging of the boom tip under its own load or under the working load has to be kept as small as possible. (orig./DG)

  15. Water-cooled, fire boom blanket, test and evaluation for system prototype development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Initial development of actively cooled fire booms indicated that water-cooled barriers could withstand direct oil fire for several hours with little damage if cooling water were continuously supplied. Despite these early promising developments, it was realized that to build reliable full-scale system for Navy host salvage booms would require several development tests and lengthy evaluations. In this experiment several types of water-cooled fire blankets were tested at the Oil and Hazardous Materials Simulated Test Tank (OHMSETT). After the burn test the blankets were inspected for damage and additional tests were conducted to determine handling characteristics for deployment, recovery, cleaning and maintenance. Test results showed that water-cooled fire boom blankets can be used on conventional offshore oil containment booms to extend their use for controlling large floating-oil marine fires. Results also demonstrated the importance of using thermoset rubber coated fabrics in the host boom to maintain sufficient reserve seam strength at elevated temperatures. The suitability of passively cooled covers should be investigated to protect equipment and boom from indirect fire exposure. 1 ref., 2 tabs., 8 figs

  16. Experts: Chinese Economic Boom Against Global Slowdown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China economic boom to last until at least 2020"The cycle of economic boom in China, the world’s fastest-growing major economy, would last until at least 2020", said an expert with the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC), the top economic planner.

  17. Basin sidewall effects during comparable boom testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quantitative investigation of the effects of boom sidewall clearance during first and gross oil loss speed tests was discussed. A second measure of sidewall was quantified in terms of flow characteristics at specific location in the boom apex. The test boom was rigged in 5 different configurations. First oil loss and gross oil loss tow speeds, and relative horizontal flow velocities within the boom apex were obtained for each configuration. Flow velocities of 0.5 to 1.5 knots in 0.25 knot increments were measured. Flow velocities illustrated similar flow characteristics within the apex regardless of side wall clearance. The results of the study illustrated that boom to basin sidewall clearance may be an independent test parameter without a significant bias. 5 tabs., 8 figs.,

  18. Oil containment tests of fire booms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil collection performance of five currently available fire booms were tested in an Ohmsett test tank. Test tank performance was compared with at-sea tow test results for planing/submergence failure to establish the potential for use in in-situ burning of marine oil spills. It was found that the buoyancy-to-weight ratio of the booms had a loose correlation to oil containment performance. However, it was the material and the construction of the booms that appeared to have the most significant effect on performance. Steel-skirted booms showed better performance than fabric-skirted booms, despite lower buoyancy-to-weight ratio. Performance in the tank test was better than that in at-sea tests. 7 refs., 5 tabs., 8 figs

  19. Fuel Cell Powered Lift Truck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulden, Steve [Sysco Food Service, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-08-20

    This project, entitled “Recovery Act: Fuel Cell-Powered Lift Truck Sysco (Houston) Fleet Deployment”, was in response to DOE funding opportunity announcement DE-PS36-08GO98009, Topic 7B, which promotes the deployment of fuel cell powered material handling equipment in large, multi-shift distribution centers. This project promoted large-volume commercialdeployments and helped to create a market pull for material handling equipment (MHE) powered fuel cell systems. Specific outcomes and benefits involved the proliferation of fuel cell systems in 5-to 20-kW lift trucks at a high-profile, real-world site that demonstrated the benefits of fuel cell technology and served as a focal point for other nascent customers. The project allowed for the creation of expertise in providing service and support for MHE fuel cell powered systems, growth of existing product manufacturing expertise, and promoted existing fuel cell system and component companies. The project also stimulated other MHE fleet conversions helping to speed the adoption of fuel cell systems and hydrogen fueling technology. This document also contains the lessons learned during the project in order to communicate the successes and difficulties experienced, which could potentially assist others planning similar projects.

  20. Structural analysis of oil containment booms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, major oil spills, such as the Exxon Valdez incident, and many smaller spills have given rise to a worldwide marine environmental concern. One of the most successful devices for containing and facilitating the recovery of spilled oil, and one which does not endanger or alter the environment in any way, is the oil containment boom. Described in this paper is a finite element (FE)-based method for structural analysis of oil booms. In general, a number of FE models for a typical oil boom section are set up using the COSMOS FEA code. These models differ from one another in oil boom geometry, deployment configurations, and oil boom components. The FEA (fimite element analysis) models are made from the plate elements (skirt and tube), truss elements (tension members and ballast chain), and beam elements (end connector). Loads due to tow/current velocity, wind velocity, wave action, and ballasting, as determined from aero/hydrodynamics analysis, are applied as distributed pressures on the plate and beam elements. This method will predict boom tensile load strength, detailed stress distribution, and distortion characteristics for a particular boom with specific deployment configuration and environmental condition. The derived information can be used to highlight critical design features, thereby optimizing the oil boom design. Alternatively, this information can be used for the selection of an oil boom suited for a particular application and, more importantly, can provide the user with a control evaluation tool to determine whether a given oil boom design can withstand the stresses of its intended application

  1. 重型清障车吊臂和托臂的优化设计及应力分析%Optimized Design Heavy Wrecker Boom and the Carrier Arm and Stress Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郎玉勤; 朱运东; 周晓峰; 周超

    2015-01-01

    清障车是一种具有道路抢险作业装备,能够起吊和托起事故、违章或损坏车辆,并能快速离开事故现场的专用车辆.文章采用UG软件对吊臂模型处理,通过其自带软件NX NASTRAN对托臂总成进行有限元分析,根据实际作业工况对托臂总成进行约束与载荷施加,使托臂的强度分析更具有可信度.其结果为吊臂和托臂总成的设计及优化提供了参考依据.%The wrecker is a kind of road rescue operations equipment, capable of lifting and hold accidents, illegal,or damage to the vehicle,and quickly left the scene of special vehicles. Base model using UG soft-ware to handle the boom, comes with software by NX NASTRAN for the carriage arm assembly finite ele-ment analysis, according to the actual working condition of the bracket arm assembly constraints and load is applied, the strength of the supporting arm of analysis more credibility. As a result,the boom and the carrier arm assembly design and optimization provides a reference for.

  2. Tractor Mounted Inclined Lifts

    OpenAIRE

    Grisso, Robert D. (Robert Dwight), 1956-; Perumpral, John V.; Ohanehi, Donatus Chukwubueze, 1949-

    2013-01-01

    This fact sheet provides design details for an inclined tractor lift designed specifically for placing a disabled client on the driver's seat of a Kubota L3400 tractor with a front-end loader. This design, however, can easily be altered to match similar utility tractors in the 30-75 hp range. The lift has an electric motor driven lead screw (or ball screw) as actuator to take the lift seat up and down on two inclined rails mounted in front of the rear tire on the side where steps are located.

  3. Cart3D Analysis of Plume and Shock Interaction Effects on Sonic Boom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castner, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    A plume and shock interaction study was developed to collect data and perform CFD on a configuration where a nozzle plume passed through the shock generated from the wing or tail of a supersonic vehicle. The wing or tail was simulated with a wedge-shaped shock generator. Three configurations were analyzed consisting of two strut mounted wedges and one propulsion pod with an aft deck from a low boom vehicle concept. Research efforts at NASA were intended to enable future supersonic flight over land in the United States. Two of these efforts provided data for regulatory change and enabled design of low boom aircraft. Research has determined that sonic boom is a function of aircraft lift and volume distribution. Through careful tailoring of these variables, the sonic boom of concept vehicles has been reduced. One aspect of vehicle tailoring involved how the aircraft engine exhaust interacted with aft surfaces on a supersonic aircraft, such as the tail and wing trailing edges. In this work, results from Euler CFD simulations are compared to experimental data collected on sub-scale components in a wind tunnel. Three configurations are studied to simulate the nozzle plume interaction with representative wing and tail surfaces. Results demonstrate how the plume and tail shock structure moves with increasing nozzle pressure ratio. The CFD captures the main features of the plume and shock interaction. Differences are observed in the plume and deck shock structure that warrant further research and investigation.

  4. Simulator Study of Indoor Annoyance Caused by Shaped Sonic Boom Stimuli With and Without Rattle Augmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathsam, Jonathan; Loubeau, Alexandra; Klos, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's High Speed Project is developing a predictive capability for annoyance caused by shaped sonic booms transmitted indoors. The predictive capability is intended for use by aircraft designers as well as by aircraft noise regulators who are considering lifting the current prohibition on overland civil supersonic flight. The goal of the current study is to use an indoor simulator to validate two models developed using headphone tests for annoyance caused by sonic booms with and without rattle augmentation. The predictors in the proposed models include Moore and Glasberg's Stationary Loudness Level, the time derivative of Moore and Glasberg's time-varying short-term Loudness Level, and the difference between two weighted sound exposure levels, CSEL-ASEL. The indoor simulator provides a more realistic listening environment than headphones due to lowfrequency sound reproduction down to 6 Hz, which also causes perceptible tactile vibration. The results of this study show that a model consisting of {PL + (CSEL-ASEL)} is a reliable predictor of annoyance caused by shaped sonic booms alone, rattle sounds alone, and shaped sonic booms and rattle sounds together.

  5. Design of a Versatile, Teleoperable, Towable Lifting Machine with Robotic Capabilities for Use in Nasa's Lunar Base Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Elizabeth; Ogle, James; Schoppe, Dean

    1989-01-01

    The lifting machine will assist in lifting cargo off of landers sent to the Moon and in the construction of a lunar base. Three possible designs were considered for the overall configuration of the lifting machine: the variable angle crane, the tower crane, and the gantry crane. Alternate designs were developed for the major components of the lifting machine. A teleoperable, variable angle crane was chosen as its final design. The design consists of a telescoping boom mounted to a chassis that is supported by two conical wheels for towing and four outriggers for stability. Attached to the end of the boom is a seven degree of freedom robot arm for light, dexterous, lifting operations. A cable and hook suspends from the end of the boom for heavy, gross, lifting operations. Approximate structural sizes were determined for the lifter and its components. However, further analysis is needed to determine the optimum design dimensions. The design team also constructed a model of the design which demonstrates its features and operating principals.

  6. Control and operation of JET articulated boom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the 1987 shutdown 32 toroidal limiters and 8 antennae have been installed using the JET articulated boom under visual control. Trials were done simulating remote conditions. This involved positioning of components up to 350 kg at a distance of 10 m, with 1mm accuracy. The boom has 8 main and 11 additional degrees of freedom for 3 TV camera articulated arms. The authors describe a dynamic simulation of the boom behaviour, including inertia cross coupling and elasticity of the joints, validated on the real system

  7. Wind tower service lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliphant, David; Quilter, Jared; Andersen, Todd; Conroy, Thomas

    2011-09-13

    An apparatus used for maintaining a wind tower structure wherein the wind tower structure may have a plurality of legs and may be configured to support a wind turbine above the ground in a better position to interface with winds. The lift structure may be configured for carrying objects and have a guide system and drive system for mechanically communicating with a primary cable, rail or other first elongate member attached to the wind tower structure. The drive system and guide system may transmit forces that move the lift relative to the cable and thereby relative to the wind tower structure. A control interface may be included for controlling the amount and direction of the power into the guide system and drive system thereby causing the guide system and drive system to move the lift relative to said first elongate member such that said lift moves relative to said wind tower structure.

  8. Advanced underwater lift device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, David T.; Hopkins, Robert C.

    1993-01-01

    Flexible underwater lift devices ('lift bags') are used in underwater operations to provide buoyancy to submerged objects. Commercially available designs are heavy, bulky, and awkward to handle, and thus are limited in size and useful lifting capacity. An underwater lift device having less than 20 percent of the bulk and less than 10 percent of the weight of commercially available models was developed. The design features a dual membrane envelope, a nearly homogeneous envelope membrane stress distribution, and a minimum surface-to-volume ratio. A proof-of-concept model of 50 kg capacity was built and tested. Originally designed to provide buoyancy to mock-ups submerged in NASA's weightlessness simulators, the device may have application to water-landed spacecraft which must deploy flotation upon impact, and where launch weight and volume penalties are significant. The device may also be useful for the automated recovery of ocean floor probes or in marine salvage applications.

  9. FREIGHT CONTAINER LIFTING STANDARD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    POWERS DJ; SCOTT MA; MACKEY TC

    2010-01-13

    This standard details the correct methods of lifting and handling Series 1 freight containers following ISO-3874 and ISO-1496. The changes within RPP-40736 will allow better reading comprehension, as well as correcting editorial errors.

  10. Witnessing the Booming Home Textile Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanzy Wang

    2012-01-01

    This August, Intertextile Home Textiles concluded successfully in the city of Shanghai with record-breaking number of exhibitors and buyers, presenting the booming home textiles markets both in China and abroad.

  11. Spray controller for horizontal boom movements compensation

    OpenAIRE

    El Bahir, Loussain; Lebeau, Frédéric; Destain, Marie-France; Kinnaert; Hanus, Raymond

    2002-01-01

    Longitudinal spray distribution is mainly affected by the horizontal speed variations of the nozzles. Manufacturers classically try to reduce unwanted nozzles movements using horizontal boom suspension but these methods show performance and price limitations. The purpose of this paper is to propose a spray controller aiming to compensate the effect of the horizontal boom movements on the spray distribution besides the effect of tractor speed variations. The controller is based on ...

  12. Indian Retail Boom : The Human Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Maan, Mahima

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The dissertation aims to study the Indian retail boom from the perspective of its people. The people of India have reacted in a negative way by protesting against the recent developments, especially the entry of big foreign (Wal-Mart) and domestic companies. So, it becomes interesting to know the opinion of its different sections of people. The various sections views were studied with respect to the advent of foreign companies, consumer ethnocentrism, the impact of retail boom a...

  13. The Boom Clay geochemistry: Natural evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Belgium, the Boom Clay is studied as the reference formation for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent fuel. As the Boom Clay is considered as the main barrier for radionuclide migration/retention, a thorough characterisation of the clay and its pore water was done. This facilitates better understanding of the long-term geological processes and the distribution of the trace elements and radionuclides. From a mineralogical/geochemical point of view, the Boom Clay is considered as a rather homogeneous sediment, vertically as well as laterally. It is composed of detrital minerals, organic matter and fossils. Minerals are mainly clay minerals, quartz and feldspars. Minor amounts of pyrite and carbonates are also present. Small variations in mineralogical/geochemical composition are related to granulometrical variations. The radiochemical study indicates that the Boom Clay is in a state of secular radioactive equilibrium, meaning that the Boom Clay has not been disturbed for a very long time. Pore water sampling is done in situ from various piezometers, or by the squeezing or leaching of clay cores in the laboratory. These three pore water sampling techniques have been compared and evaluated. Boom Clay pore water is a NaHCO3 solution of 15 mM, containing 115 mg·l-1 of dissolved natural organic carbon. Some slight variations in pore water composition have been observed and can be explained by principles of chemical equilibrium. (author)

  14. Activities of the Boom and Chassis Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    dell, Jason Scott; Meeks, Thomas Bayne; Merkel, Kelly; Nelson, Brent; Winchell, Tom

    Group One of the NASA Lunar Enabler Project has designed the primary chassis and boom structures for the lunar vehicle. Both components also feature V-clamps that were adapted to interface connections within the structure. The chassis features a front end, rear end section, middle cross-section, and face plate. The rear section contains an extra compartment for the engine, hydraulic pump, fuel bottles, and oil reservoir necessary for the wheel drives. Each section consists of tubular aluminum 6061-T6. The boom features four degrees of freedom system, where the minimum factor of safety of any part is 1.5 (but, normally much higher). It consists of a tapered upper boom, lower boom, and three elbows that complement the articulation joints. Each section of the boom has been constructed from aluminum 6061-T6. There are four joints and eight V-clamps in the boom assembly. The V-clamps feature support rings that prevent axial rotation. They provide easy adaptability and assembly.

  15. Sleipner mishap jolts booming Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on Norway's buoyant offshore industry that was stunned when the concrete substructure for Sleipner natural gas field's main production platform sank in the Grandsfjord off Stavanger late last month. The accident, a blow to Norway's gas sales program in Europe, came with offshore activity in the Norwegian North Sea moving into a new boom period. Currently, 10 oil and gas fields are under development, and several projects are on the drawing board. Aker Oil and Gas, a leading offshore firm, says the country's construction industry will be working at capacity for the next 4 years. Norwegian oil production has been hovering just below 2 million b/d since the beginning of this year, making Norway the North Sea's largest producer, a position formerly held by the U.K. Gas production averages about 3 bcfd. With European gas demand sharply increasing, Norway is under pressure to increase output from new fields in the mid to late 1990s. The Sleipner setback forces state owned Den norske stats oljeselskap AS (Statoil) to cast around for supplies. Sleipner was to have begun deliveries to a consortium of continental gas companies in October 1993. Statoil believes it can fill the gap from existing fields in Norwegian waters

  16. LIFT11 linnas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Tallinn 2011 programmi kuuluva installatsioonide festivali "Lift11" avalikule ideekonkursile esitati 129 tööd, välja valiti 17. Tutvustatakse Maarja Kase ja Ralf Lõokese tööd "L", Tomomi Hayashi tööd "Merele!", Toomas Paaveri, Teele Pehki ja Triin Talki tööd "Kalarand"

  17. Lift11 / Ingrid Ruudi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruudi, Ingrid, 1978-

    2010-01-01

    23. augustist 11. oktoobrini 2010 toimuvast konkursist, mille eesmärk on leida kultuuripealinna üritusena toimuva linnainstallatsioonide festivali "Lift11" tarvis installatsioonide ideekavandeid. Festivali kuraatorid on kunstiteadlased Maarin Mürk ja Ingrid Ruudi ning arhitektid Margit Aule ja Margit Argus

  18. [Subperiosteal midface lifting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnefon, A

    2006-04-01

    Since 1990, when we had found the solutions about the oval of the face and the neck problems by the vertical lift, our whole attention was focused on the midface. We have been through the "cheek lift", high SMAS incision. We followed Oscar Ramirez and Richard Anderson in the subperiosteal undermining of the mid face under endoscopic control by a buccal and temporal incision. The actual technic made possible by Paul Tessier's work who initiated the subperiosteal undermining and Oscar Ramirez who initiated the endoscopy. The endoscopy allowed us to go through this technic, but now we don't use it anymore. We have to credit Thierry Besins who mixed these concepts alltogether to obtain a complete and effective technic. The idea is to move up the centrofacial structures and to secure them reliably because of the perioste strengh. This technic solve in an unparallel way, all the stigmata of the centrofacial aging; so, we have a scarless lifting. For the one who have a neck problem, we associate the deep vertical lift. PMID:16631299

  19. Heterotic weight lifting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gato-Rivera, B. [NIKHEF Theory Group, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Schellekens, A.N., E-mail: t58@nikhef.n [NIKHEF Theory Group, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain); IMAPP, Radboud Universiteit, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2010-03-21

    We describe a method for constructing genuinely asymmetric (2,0) heterotic strings out of N=2 minimal models in the fermionic sector, whereas the bosonic sector is only partly build out of N=2 minimal models. This is achieved by replacing one minimal model plus the superfluous E{sub 8} factor by a non-supersymmetric CFT with identical modular properties. This CFT generically lifts the weights in the bosonic sector, giving rise to a spectrum with fewer massless states. We identify more than 30 such lifts, and we expect many more to exist. This yields more than 450 different combinations. Remarkably, despite the lifting of all Ramond states, it is still possible to get chiral spectra. Even more surprisingly, these chiral spectra include examples with a certain number of chiral families of SO(10), SU(5) or other subgroups, including just SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1). The number of families and mirror families is typically smaller than in standard Gepner models. Furthermore, in a large number of different cases, spectra with three chiral families can be obtained. Based on a first scan of about 10% of the lifted Gepner models we can construct, we have collected more than 10,000 distinct spectra with three families, including examples without mirror fermions. We present an example where the GUT group is completely broken to the standard model, but the resulting and inevitable fractionally charged particles are confined by an additional gauge group factor.

  20. Analysis of a boom/bust cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper sets out to measure and quantify the impact of the oil shale development cycle of the 1980's. Information used for this analysis is the recently released U.S. Census Bureau population statistics compared to the population projections made in 1980 by the Colorado West Area Council of Governments. Actually anyone who was here and experienced the oil shale development cycle in the 1980's believes it was a severe boom and bust. It is just a matter of quantifying it. Andy Gulliford, the author of open-quotes Boomtown Bluesclose quotes describes in detail how many residents experienced their own personal boom/bust cycle in our region. Anyone interested in the cause and effects of the boom/bust cycle should read a copy of his book

  1. Helicopter Toy and Lift Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakerin, Said

    2013-01-01

    A $1 plastic helicopter toy (called a Wacky Whirler) can be used to demonstrate lift. Students can make basic measurements of the toy, use reasonable assumptions and, with the lift formula, estimate the lift, and verify that it is sufficient to overcome the toy's weight. (Contains 1 figure.)

  2. Exhaust Nozzle Plume Effects on Sonic Boom Test Results for Vectored Nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castner, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    Reducing or eliminating the operational restrictions of supersonic aircraft over populated areas has led to extensive research at NASA. Restrictions were due to the disturbance of the sonic boom, caused by the coalescence of shock waves formed off the aircraft. Recent work has been performed to reduce the magnitude of the sonic boom N-wave generated by airplane components with a focus on shock waves caused by the exhaust nozzle plume. Previous Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis showed how the shock wave formed at the nozzle lip interacts with the nozzle boat-tail expansion wave. An experiment was conducted in the 1- by 1-foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT) at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Results show how the shock generated at the nozzle lip affects the near field pressure signature, and thereby the potential sonic boom contribution for a nozzle at vector angles from 3 to 8 . The experiment was based on the NASA F-15 nozzle used in the Lift and Nozzle Change Effects on Tail Shock experiment, which possessed a large external boat-tail angle. In this case, the large boat-tail angle caused a dramatic expansion, which dominated the near field pressure signature. The impact of nozzle vector angle and nozzle pressure ratio are summarized.

  3. The A/sub 2/Rs-B 8800. 110 boom spreader and modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, H.-J.

    1988-10-01

    Reviews design and specifications of the 8800.110 boom spreader series produced by the TAKRAF manufacturer of the GDR. The equipment was introduced in 1967 and 34 units have since been built in different versions. Spreaders have booms from 95 to 140 m long, conveyor belts with 1.80 or 2.00 m belt width and an overburden removal capacity between 4,000 and 15,000 m/sup 3//h. A list of spreaders operating in GDR, Soviet and Polish surface mines is provided. The most advanced versions are types 10000.100 and 15000.100 for conveyor belt widths of 2.00 and 2.25 m. The manufacturer is preparing 9 new units for production. Schemes of equipment variants are shown.

  4. Heterotic Weight Lifting

    CERN Document Server

    Gato-Rivera, B

    2009-01-01

    We describe a method for constructing genuinely asymmetric (2,0) heterotic strings out of N=2 minimal models in the fermionic sector, whereas the bosonic sector is only partly build out of N=2 minimal models. This is achieved by replacing one minimal model plus the superfluous E_8 factor by a non-supersymmetric CFT with identical modular properties. This CFT generically lifts the weights in the bosonic sector, giving rise to a spectrum with fewer massless states. We identify more than 30 such lifts, and we expect many more to exist. This yields more than 450 different combinations. Remarkably, despite the lifting of all Ramond states, it is still possible to get chiral spectra. Even more surprisingly, these chiral spectra include examples with a certain number of chiral families of SO(10), SU(5) or other subgroups, including just SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1). The number of families and mirror families is typically smaller than in standard Gepner models. Furthermore, in a large number of different cases, spectra with ...

  5. GLOBAL Auto Shows Boom in 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ China's independent brands have been booming in recent years when the country's auto industry has seen a rapid growth. They have attracted the global attention, but still need to upgrade constantly whether in technology or business performance in order to strengthen their presence in the global market and become internationalized.

  6. Global credit and domestic credit booms

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Borio; Robert McCauley; Patrick McGuire

    2011-01-01

    US dollar credit is growing quickly outside the United States, especially in Asia, and in some economies it has outpaced overall credit growth. Cross-border sources of credit bear watching in view of their record of outgrowing overall credit in credit booms. Foreign currency and cross-border sources of credit raise policy issues.

  7. Active suspension for a field sprayer boom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Skovsgaard; Sørensen, Paul Haase

    1998-01-01

    The possibilities of implementing an active boom suspension is investigated. The performance improvement of an active suspension over a traditional passive one is studied in simulation, and shows a significant improvement. A closed-loop control system involving two ultrasonic distance transducers...

  8. Flow distortion on boom mounted cup anemometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindeloew-Marsden, P.; Pedersen, Troels F.; Gottschall, J.; Vesth, A.; Paulsen, R.W.U.; Courtney, M.S.

    2010-08-15

    In this report we investigate on wind direction dependent errors in the measurement of the horizontal wind speed by boom mounted cup anemometers. The boom mounting on the studied lattice tower is performed according to IEC standard design rules, yet, larger deviations than predicted by flow models are observed. The errors on the measurements are likely caused by an underestimation of the flow distortions around the tower. In this paper an experimental method for deriving a correction formula and an in-field calibration is suggested. The method is based on measurements with two cup anemometers mounted with booms at the same height but pointing in 60 deg. different directions. In the examined case of a 1.9 m wide equilateral triangular lattice tower with booms protruding 4.1 m at 80 m height the measurement errors are observed to reach up to +- 2 %. Errors of this magnitude are severely problematic in the measurement of wind turbine power performance, wind resource assessment and for providing purposeful in-field comparisons between different sensors, e.g. lidar anemometers. With the proposed method, direction dependent errors can be extracted and the mast flow distortion effect on the wind measurements corrected to an uncertainty estimated to better than 0.5%. This level of uncertainty is probably acceptable for the above mentioned applications. (author)

  9. Empirically Bounding of Space Booms with Tape Spring Hinges

    OpenAIRE

    Jennings, A. L.; Black, J; C. Allen

    2013-01-01

    Self-deploying structures seek to provide a compact launch package for large, lightweight satellite booms. One self-deploying method is a foldable tape spring. This paper examines the large scale behavior of a boom attached by a tape spring hinge during mock deployments. A boom attached by tape spring to a rigid stand was released and the boom bounced up to 60° before coming to rest (as opposed to snap-through behavior). These large amplitude bounces can cause the boom to collide with sensors...

  10. Knees Lifted High

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-04

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Knees Lifted High gives children fun ideas for active outdoor play.  Created: 8/4/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/5/2008.

  11. Lift application development cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia, Gilberto T

    2013-01-01

    Lift Application Development Cookbook contains practical recipes on everything you will need to create secure web applications using this amazing framework.The book first teaches you basic topics such as starting a new application and gradually moves on to teach you advanced topics to achieve a certain task. Then, it explains every step in detail so that you can build your knowledge about how things work.This book is for developers who have at least some basic knowledge about Scala and who are looking for a functional, secure, and modern web framework. Prior experience with HTML and JavaScript

  12. Load up technique to lift equipment from AHTS deck; Mecanismo de elevacao de equipamento de alta carga de 'deck' em embarcacao do tipo AHTS - 'load-up'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Melquisedec F.; Neves, Cassiano R. [SUBSIN - Subsea Integrity Engenharia e Projetos Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents an alternative way, using an auxiliary submersible structure, to install manifolds or subsea equipment transported to the location by an AHTS or an auxiliary barge. The objective of the structure is to positioning the manifold at the sea water level and make the deployment feasible without the use of large barges with high load capacity or specific vessel equipped with high load A-frame. The structure is towed and positioned by an AHTS or auxiliary vessel and does not have any energy source, propulsion, embarked crew or storage tank for combustible. All these things are at the towed vessel. The manifold uplift is performed by a hydraulic crane positioned at the top of the structure, or by buoyancy pontoons. The manifold also could be suspended by the supply crane. The submersible structure is designed using the modular concept, to facilitate the assembly and transportation. Pipes, connections and all other structure accessories are classified accordingly with the mechanic loads on the structure. (author)

  13. Flow distortion on boom mounted cup anemometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindelöw, Per Jonas Petter; Friis Pedersen, Troels; Gottschall, Julia;

    in the measurement of wind turbine power performance, wind resource assessment and for providing purposeful in-field comparisons between different sensors, e.g. lidar anemometers. With the proposed method, direction dependent errors can be extracted and the mast flow distortion effect on the wind measurements......In this report we investigate on wind direction dependent errors in the measurement of the horizontal wind speed by boom mounted cup anemometers. The boom mounting on the studied lattice tower is performed according to IEC standard design rules, yet, larger deviations than predicted by flow models...... are observed. The errors on the measurements are likely caused by an underestimation of the flow distortions around the tower. In this paper an experimental method for deriving a correction formula and an in-field calibration is suggested. The method is based on measurements with two cup anemometers mounted...

  14. Immigration and Housing Booms: Evidence from Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Gonz??lez Luna, Libertad; Ortega, Francesc

    2009-01-01

    We estimate empirically the effect of immigration on house prices and residential construction activity in Spain over the period 1998-2008. This decade is characterized by both a spectacular housing market boom and a stunning immigration wave. We exploit the variation in immigration across Spanish provinces and construct an instrument based on the historical location patterns of immigrants by country of origin. The evidence points to a sizeable causal effect of immigration on b...

  15. Stock Price Booms and Expected Capital Gains

    OpenAIRE

    Adam, Klaus; Beutel, Johannes; Marcet, Albert

    2014-01-01

    The booms and busts in U.S. stock prices over the post-war period can to a large extent be explained by fluctuations in investors' subjective capital gains expectations. Survey measures of these expectations display excessive optimism at market peaks and excessive pessimism at market troughs. Formally incorporating subjective price beliefs into an otherwise standard asset pricing model with utility maximizing investors, we show how subjective belief dynamics can temporarily delink stock price...

  16. Internet video monitoring of ice boom performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ice released into the Niagara River from Lake Erie in the early freeze-up period of winter has been known to cause significant power generation losses at the hydroelectric power plants on the Niagara River. A monitoring program has been developed by the New York Power Authority and Ontario Hydro to help minimize the impacts of ice on power generation in the area. Water level gauges, water temperature probes and low-light-level television cameras are used to obtain real-time observations of certain ice and hydraulic characteristics. Visual observations of ice conditions in the vicinity of the intakes are also recorded. An ice boom, which is about 2,700 m long, is located nearly 50 km upstream from the generating stations which are about 11 km downstream of Niagara Falls. First-hand knowledge of the ice conditions at the ice boom is important for forecasting the availability of power from the Niagara River generating stations and planning possibilities for the power system. The monitoring program has proven to be useful in the evaluation of an ice boom design improvement. 25 figs

  17. On The Thermal Consolidation Of Boom Clay

    CERN Document Server

    Delage, Pierre; Cui, Yu-Jun

    2012-01-01

    When a mass of saturated clay is heated, as in the case of host soils surrounding nuclear waste disposals at great depth, the thermal expansion of the constituents generates excess pore pressures. The mass of clay is submitted to gradients of pore pressure and temperature, to hydraulic and thermal flows, and to changes in its mechanical properties. In this work, some of these aspects were experimentally studied in the case of Boom clay, so as to help predicting the response of the soil, in relation with investigations made in the Belgian underground laboratory at Mol. Results of slow heating tests with careful volume change measurements showed that a reasonable prediction of the thermal expansion of the clay-water system was obtained by using the thermal properties of free water. In spite of the density of Boom clay, no significant effect of water adsorption was observed. The thermal consolidation of Boom clay was studied through fast heating tests. A simple analysis shows that the hydraulic and thermal trans...

  18. An improved method for lifting and transporting anesthetized pigs within an animal facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher-Petersen, Camilla; Hammelev, Karsten Pharao; Flescher, Jens Erik

    2014-01-01

    Transporting anesthetized pigs in a laboratory setting often requires strenuous manual lifting, posing a hazard to the safety of animal care personnel and to the welfare of the pigs. The authors developed an improved approach to lifting and transporting anesthetized pigs weighing up to 350 kg using...... mechanical lifts. Different equipment was used to accommodate pigs of different sizes as well as the building designs of three animal facilities. Using the lifts, anesthetized pigs are carried on sheets to maintain their comfort while being transported. The approach refines previous methods for handling...... and transporting anesthetized pigs and reduces the risk of injury to personnel....

  19. by Lifting Line Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horia Dumitrescu

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The vortex model of propellers is modified and applied to the high-speed horizontal axis turbines. The turbine blades are replaced by lifting lines and trailing vortices which shed along the blade span. The model is not a free wake model, but it is still a nonlinear one which should be solved iteratively. In addition to the regular case where the trailing vortices are constrained to distribute along a helical surface, another version, where each trailing vortex sheding from the blade grows as a free helical vortex line, is also included. Performance parameters are calculated by application of the Biot-Savart law along with the Kutta-Joukowski theorem. Predictions are, shown to compare favorably with existing numerical data from more involved free wake methods, but require less computational effort. Thereby, the present method may be a very useful tool for calculating the aerodynamic loads on horizontal-axis wind turbine blades.

  20. ANALYSIS OF VIBROACOUSTIC SIGNALS RECORDED IN THE PASSENGER LIFT CABIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Szydło

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of private tests is presented in the article. The applicable tests refer to accelerations, the level of the sound pressure as well as to the sound power emitted by the passenger lift cabin at different technical conditions of the lift. For a group of lifting devices the accelerations were tested at three axes with the use of an accelerometer. The accelerometer was placed in the central part of the cabin with simultaneous measurement of the acoustic parameters with the sound analyzer equipped with the sound volume double microphone probe. The attempt was made to determine the impact of the frame - cabin system construction as well as the lift technical condition on the recorded parameters. It can allow to establish the limit values of the lift structure parameters under which a rapid drop of comfort takes place while travelling in the lift as well as to indicate those construction elements the modification of which would affect the improvement of the operation noiselessness.

  1. Deployment and Characterisation of a Telescopic Boom for Sounding Rockets

    OpenAIRE

    Wylie, Mark; Keegan, John; Curran, Stephen; Vather, Dinesh; Duffy, Paul

    2011-01-01

    In any sounding rocket, volume and mass are at a premium. Payload designers strive towards smaller, lighter and cheaper mechanisms which can achieve the same goals. This project aims to reduce the mass and volume for probe deployment booms and their deployment mechanisms. An experiment (Telescobe) to test a low cost novel method of boom deployment using telescopic carbon fibre poles was developed. A custom camera measurement system was also developed to measure boom length and harmonic deflec...

  2. Automata-Based Analysis of Stage Suspended Boom Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Anping He; Jinzhao Wu; Shihan Yang; Yongquan Zhou; Juan Wang

    2013-01-01

    A stage suspended boom system is an automatic steeve system orchestrated by the PLC (programmable logic controller). Security and fault-recovering are two important properties. In this paper, we analyze and verify the boom system formally. We adopt the hybrid automaton to model the boom system. The forward reachability is used to verify the properties with the reachable states. We also present a case study to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed verification.

  3. Laboratory testing of a flexible boom for ice management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combating oil spills in the Arctic is a major challenge. Drilling or producing oil or gas in the marginal ice zone (MIZ) may allow booms to be deployed upstream of an offshore structure to clear the water of ice, thereby enabling conventional oil spill countermeasures to be used. Such a boom would be kept in place by two ice-going service vessels or by moored buoys. SINTEF NHL and NRC have performed a number of small-scale tests with a flexible boom in the NRC ice basin in Ottawa. The purpose of the tests was to measure the effectiveness of using a flexible boom for collecting ice, and to determine the loads associated with collecting the ice. In the tests, various boom configurations were towed against a broken ice field consisting of ice pieces typically 50--100 mm across and 30 mm thick. The ice concentration was usually 10/10, but it was reduced to 8/10 and 5/10 for two tests. The boom was towed at speeds of 20 and 50 mm-s-1. Both the width of the boom and the slackness of the boom were varied over reasonable ranges. Two six-component dynamometers were used to support the boom. Thus, the force components on each end of the boom were measured. Further, two video cameras were used to record the effectiveness of each boom configuration. In this paper, the full results of this test program are presented and the application of the test results to the full-scale situation are discussed. The tests show that, under certain conditions, the use of boom is feasible for ice management in oil-contaminated water

  4. Performance of floating oil booms in unsheltered waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Gregorio; Castro, Alberte

    2013-04-01

    Oil booms are a fundamental tool to diminish the impact of an oil spill. They tend to perform reasonably well in sheltered waters, e.g. within a harbour. However, their performance is often inadequate in open water conditions, under waves, winds and currents. And it is precisely in those conditions that they are needed if oil slicks are to be prevented from reaching certain particularly sensitive areas, such as estuaries, rias, etc. (Castro et al., 2010; Iglesias et al., 2010). In this work the performance of floating oil booms under waves and currents is assessed on the basis of laboratory experiments carried out in a state-of-the-art wave-current flume. Different oil boom models are used, representative of booms with long and short skirts and with different weights. The results show that different booms behave very differently under waves and currents, hence the importance of selecting the boom design that is appropriate for the actual conditions under which it will have to contain the oil slick. Thus, different oil booms should be used for different areas. References A. Castro, G. Iglesias, R. Carballo, J.A. Fraguela, 2010. Floating boom performance under waves and currents, Journal of Hazardous Materials 174, 226-235 G. Iglesias, A.Castro, J.A.Fraguela, 2010. Artificial intelligence applied to floating boom behavior under waves and currents, Ocean Engineering 37, 1513-1521.

  5. Waveforms and Sonic Boom Perception and Response (WSPR): Low-Boom Community Response Program Pilot Test Design, Execution, and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Juliet A.; Hodgdon, Kathleen K.; Krecker, Peg; Cowart, Robbie; Hobbs, Chris; Wilmer, Clif; Koening, Carrie; Holmes, Theresa; Gaugler, Trent; Shumway, Durland L.; Rosenberger, James L.; Philips, Daisy

    2014-01-01

    The Waveforms and Sonic boom Perception and Response (WSPR) Program was designed to test and demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of techniques to gather data relating human subjective response to multiple low-amplitude sonic booms. It was in essence a practice session for future wider scale testing on naive communities, using a purpose built low-boom demonstrator aircraft. The low-boom community response pilot experiment was conducted in California in November 2011. The WSPR team acquired sufficient data to assess and evaluate the effectiveness of the various physical and psychological data gathering techniques and analysis methods.

  6. Wavelets and the lifting scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Jensen, Arne

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this article is to give a concise introduction to the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) based on a technique called lifting. The lifting technique allows one to give an elementary, but rigorous, definition of the DWT, with modest requirements on the reader. A basic knowledge of li...... of linear algebra and signal processing will suffice. The lifting based definition is equivalent to the usual filer bank based definition of the DWT. The article does not discuss applications in any detail. The reader is referred to other articles in this collection....

  7. Wavelets and the Lifting Scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Jensen, Arne

    The objective of this article is to give a concise introduction to the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) based on a technique called lifting. The lifting technique allows one to give an elementary, but rigorous, definition of the DWT, with modest requirements on the reader. A basic knowledge of li...... of linear algebra and signal processing will suffice. The lifting based definition is equivalent to the usual filer bank based definition of the DWT. The article does not discuss applications in any detail. The reader is referred to other articles in this collection....

  8. Wavelets and the lifting scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Jensen, Arne

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this article is to give a concise introduction to the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) based on a technique called lifting. The lifting technique allows one to give an elementary, but rigorous, definition of the DWT, with modest requirements on the reader. A basic knowledge of li...... of linear algebra and signal processing will suffice. The lifting based definition is equivalent to the usual filer bank based definition of the DWT. The article does not discuss applications in any detail. The reader is referred to other articles in this collection....

  9. Trade booms, trade busts, and trade costs

    OpenAIRE

    David S. Jacks; Christopher M. Meissner; Novy, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    What has driven trade booms and trade busts in the past and present? We derive a micro-founded measure of trade frictions from leading trade theories and use it to gauge the importance of bilateral trade costs in determining international trade flows. We construct a new balanced sample of bilateral trade flows for 130 country pairs across the Americas, Asia, Europe, and Oceania for the period from 1870 to 2000 and demonstrate an overriding role for declining trade costs in the pre-World War I...

  10. Lifting strength in two-person teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tzu-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of lifting range, hand-to-toe distance, and lifting direction on single-person lifting strengths and two-person teamwork lifting strengths. Six healthy males and seven healthy females participated in this study. Two-person teamwork lifting strengths were examined in both strength-matched and strength-unmatched groups. Our results showed that lifting strength significantly decreased with increasing lifting range or hand-to-toe distance. However, lifting strengths were not affected by lifting direction. Teamwork lifting strength did not conform to the law of additivity for both strength-matched and strength-unmatched groups. In general, teamwork lifting strength was dictated by the weaker of the two members, implying that weaker members might be exposed to a higher potential danger in teamwork exertions. To avoid such overexertion in teamwork, members with significantly different strength ability should not be assigned to the same team.

  11. Shocks and sonic booms in the intracluster medium X-ray shells and radio galaxy activity

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, C S; Begelman, M C

    2001-01-01

    Motivated by hydrodynamic simulations, we discuss the X-ray appearance of radio galaxies embedded in the intracluster medium (ICM) of a galaxy cluster. We distinguish three regimes. In the early life of a powerful source, the entire radio cocoon is expanding supersonically and hence drives a strong shock into the ICM. Eventually, the sides of the cocoon become subsonic and the ICM is disturbed by the sonic booms of the jet's working surface. In both of these regimes, X-ray observations would find an X-ray shell. In the strong shock regime, this shell will be hot and relatively thin. However, in the weak shock (sonic-boom) regime, the shell will be approximately the same temperature as the undisturbed ICM. If a cooling flow is present, the observed shell may even be cooler than the undisturbed ICM due to the lifting of cooler material into the shell from the inner (cooler) regions of the cluster. In the third and final regime, the cocoon has collapsed and no well-defined X-ray shell will be seen. We discuss wa...

  12. Lifted Graphical Models: A Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Mihalkova, Lilyana

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a survey of work on lifted graphical models. We review a general form for a lifted graphical model, a par-factor graph, and show how a number of existing statistical relational representations map to this formalism. We discuss inference algorithms, including lifted inference algorithms, that efficiently compute the answers to probabilistic queries. We also review work in learning lifted graphical models from data. It is our belief that the need for statistical relational models (whether it goes by that name or another) will grow in the coming decades, as we are inundated with data which is a mix of structured and unstructured, with entities and relations extracted in a noisy manner from text, and with the need to reason effectively with this data. We hope that this synthesis of ideas from many different research groups will provide an accessible starting point for new researchers in this expanding field.

  13. On the generalized lifting problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Bolondi

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available We construct curves for which the generalized lifting property does not hold, with high degree. We discuss the behaviour of the Hilbert function of the general plane section of these curves.

  14. Nordic noir and lifted localities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    What I do here is to draw attention to a particular visual quality of recent Nordic noir and to relate the visuality of TV-drama to what I – with a term borrowed from Roland Robertson – dub lifted localites.......What I do here is to draw attention to a particular visual quality of recent Nordic noir and to relate the visuality of TV-drama to what I – with a term borrowed from Roland Robertson – dub lifted localites....

  15. Predicting the transverse volume distribution under an agricultural spray boom

    OpenAIRE

    Leunda, P.; Debouche, Charles; Caussin, R.

    1990-01-01

    The volume distribution of spray below individual agricultural flat-fan spray nozzles was fitted to a truncated normal distribution. This expresses the parameters as a function of the spray liquid pressure, the boom height and the nozzle orifice size. This model was used to predict the transverse distribution below an agricultural spray boom. Peer reviewed

  16. Face lift postoperative recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottura, A Aldo

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe what I have studied and experienced, mainly regarding the control and prediction of the postoperative edema; how to achieve an agreeable recovery and give positive support to the patient, who in turn will receive pleasant sensations that neutralize the negative consequences of the surgery.After the skin is lifted, the drainage flow to the flaps is reversed abruptly toward the medial part of the face, where the flap bases are located. The thickness and extension of the flap determines the magnitude of the post-op edema, which is also augmented by medial surgeries (blepharo, rhino) whose trauma obstruct their natural drainage, increasing the congestion and edema. To study the lymphatic drainage, the day before an extended face lift (FL) a woman was infiltrated in the cheek skin with lynfofast (solution of tecmesio) and the absorption was observed by gamma camera. Seven days after the FL she underwent the same study; we observed no absorption by the lymphatic, concluding that a week after surgery, the lymphatic network was still damaged. To study the venous return during surgery, a fine catheter was introduced into the external jugular vein up to the mandibular border to measure the peripheral pressure. Following platysma plication the pressure rose, and again after a simple bandage, but with an elastic bandage it increased even further, diminishing considerably when it was released. Hence, platysma plication and the elastic bandage on the neck augment the venous congestion of the face. There are diseases that produce and can prolong the surgical edema: cardiac, hepatic, and renal insufficiencies, hypothyroidism, malnutrition, etc. According to these factors, the post-op edema can be predicted, the surgeon can choose between a wide dissection or a medial surgery, depending on the social or employment compromises the patient has, or the patient must accept a prolonged recovery if a complex surgery is necessary. Operative

  17. Doppler effect induced spin relaxation boom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinyu; Huang, Peihao; Hu, Xuedong

    2016-03-01

    We study an electron spin qubit confined in a moving quantum dot (QD), with our attention on both spin relaxation, and the product of spin relaxation, the emitted phonons. We find that Doppler effect leads to several interesting phenomena. In particular, spin relaxation rate peaks when the QD motion is in the transonic regime, which we term a spin relaxation boom in analogy to the classical sonic boom. This peak indicates that a moving spin qubit may have even lower relaxation rate than a static qubit, pointing at the possibility of coherence-preserving transport for a spin qubit. We also find that the emitted phonons become strongly directional and narrow in their frequency range as the qubit reaches the supersonic regime, similar to Cherenkov radiation. In other words, fast moving excited spin qubits can act as a source of non-classical phonons. Compared to classical Cherenkov radiation, we show that quantum dot confinement produces a small but important correction on the Cherenkov angle. Taking together, these results have important implications to both spin-based quantum information processing and coherent phonon dynamics in semiconductor nanostructures.

  18. On the thermal behaviour of Boom clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delage, P.; Cui Yu Jun [Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussees, Paris (France); Sultan, N. [IFREMER, Brest (France)

    2004-07-01

    When temperature is increased, the various phenomena that occur in a saturated natural potential host clay for nuclear waste disposal (Boom clay from SCK-CEN in Mol, Belgium) were experimentally investigated in a temperature controlled high stress triaxial cell. Firstly, the pore pressure build-up due to the difference in thermal dilation of both water and minerals was investigated through thermal consolidation tests. Interesting information was obtained about the dissipation of thermally induced pore pressure in Boom clay, based on the standard Terzaghi consolidation theory. Secondly, the volume change behaviour in drained conditions (i.e. under a very slow temperature increase) confirmed that the clay overconsolidation ratio (OCR) controlled the nature of the volume changes. Whereas overconsolidated soils use to dilate as any material when temperature is elevated, normally consolidated soils present a decrease in volume, which is less common. The principles of a coupled thermo-elasto-plastic model that was specifically developed to model this particular behaviour are finally presented. Obviously, it appears necessary to account in detail for these thermal phenomena in order to properly understand the response of the geological barrier in the near field once nuclear waste has been stored. (orig.)

  19. On the thermal behaviour of Boom clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When temperature is increased, the various phenomena that occur in a saturated natural potential host clay for nuclear waste disposal (Boom clay from SCK-CEN in Mol, Belgium) were experimentally investigated in a temperature controlled high stress triaxial cell. Firstly, the pore pressure build-up due to the difference in thermal dilation of both water and minerals was investigated through thermal consolidation tests. Interesting information was obtained about the dissipation of thermally induced pore pressure in Boom clay, based on the standard Terzaghi consolidation theory. Secondly, the volume change behaviour in drained conditions (i.e. under a very slow temperature increase) confirmed that the clay overconsolidation ratio (OCR) controlled the nature of the volume changes. Whereas overconsolidated soils use to dilate as any material when temperature is elevated, normally consolidated soils present a decrease in volume, which is less common. The principles of a coupled thermo-elasto-plastic model that was specifically developed to model this particular behaviour are finally presented. Obviously, it appears necessary to account in detail for these thermal phenomena in order to properly understand the response of the geological barrier in the near field once nuclear waste has been stored. (orig.)

  20. Thirty years of the Koethen haulage equipment and crane building plant. [GDR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlitz, G.

    1981-10-01

    This paper presents a review of the production of heavy surface mining equipment in the Koethen engineering plant. The plant, part of the TAKRAF company, specializes in boom spreaders and mobile transfer conveyors for overburden removal in brown coal surface mines. Five tables and 8 photographs show equipment series and types, along with figures on equipment weight, and on the amount of equipment produced. Countries in which this equipment is employed are also listed. The plant has built 4 different bucket chain excavator types, 22 boom spreader types, 9 different mobile transfer conveyors and 18 types of stackers and reclaimers for open air storage facilities. A total of 159 boom spreaders with equipment weight of 340 t to 3,800 t per unit have been built over a 30 year period; 98 of these were exported predominantly to COMECON member countries. Seventy nine mobile transfer conveyors with equipment weight of 66 t to 504 t each have been built; 39 of them were exported to 6 European countries. New and heavier surface mine equipment is being developed, e.g. a boom spreader with 4,000 t weight, a capacity of 8,000 m/SUP/3/h overburden and a boom length of 195 m will be ready for operation in 1985.

  1. Optimisation of a vertical spray boom for greenhouse spraying applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuyttens, D; Windey, S; Braekman, P; De Moor, A; Sonck, B

    2003-01-01

    The European Crop Protection Association (ECPA) and CLO-DVL joined forces in a project to stimulate a safe use of pesticides in Southern European countries. CLO-DVL optimised a method with mineral chelates to evaluate deposition tests. This quantitative method to evaluate spray deposits and to check spray distributions is used to assess two novel spraying techniques. Deposition tests with water-sensitive paper and mainly with the manganese and molybdenum chelates as tracer elements were performed with a manually pulled trolley and a motorised vehicle both equipped with vertical spray booms. Filter papers were attached to the tomato and pepper plants at several heights to obtain an indication of the spray distribution in the crop. Particular attention was paid to the effect on the spray distribution of the vertical nozzle distance (35 cm vs. 50 cm) and the spray distance to the crop. The tests proved that a nozzle spacing of 35 cm delivers a much better spray distribution than one of 50 cm. The optimal spray distance for flat fan nozzles with a spray angle of 80 degrees and a nozzle spacing of 35 cm is about 30 cm. PMID:15151329

  2. Domestic Crop Booms, Livelihood Pathways and Nested Transitions: Charting the Implications of Bangladesh’s Pangasius Boom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belton, B.; Asseldonk, van I.J.M.; Bush, S.R.

    2016-01-01

    Rapidly transforming Asian food systems are oriented largely towards domestic markets, yet literature on Asian crop booms deals almost exclusively with commodities produced for export. With reference to pangasius aquaculture in Bangladesh, we argue that ‘domestic crop booms’ - agricultural booms dri

  3. Re-engineering of a stainless steel fire boom for use in conjunction with conventional fire booms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Re-engineering a large stainless steel oil retention boom to reduce its size, weight and cost is described. The large offshore stainless steel boom was redesigned to serve as a high-strength, durable burn pocket inserted between two lengths of conventional fabric fire boom. Deployment, sea-keeping, towing and retrieval characteristics of the pocket boom have been considered to be very good. Oil containment tests at Ohmsett showed that the boom can withstand catenary tow speeds of 1,5 m/sec without failure. Exposure to burning oil does not affect the oil containment characteristics of the boom; exposure to six hours of fire with full-scale heat fluxes of three hours of diesel fires and three hours of enhanced propane fires resulting in only minor damage, none of which would have detracted significantly from the boom's oil containment capabilities. The connector section incorporates various design modifications to ensure that the boom's service life will be at least one million wave cycles, or 45 days at sea at Sea State 3. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 13 figs

  4. Study on dynamic characteristics of coupled model for deep-water lifting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunxia; Lu, Jianhui; Zhang, Chunlei

    2016-10-01

    The underwater installation of marine equipment in deep-water development requires safe lifting and accurate positioning. The heave compensation system is an important technology to ensure normal operation and improve work accuracy. To provide a theoretical basis for the heave compensation system, in this paper, the continuous modeling method is employed to build up a coupled model of deep-water lifting systems in vertical direction. The response characteristics of dynamic movement are investigated. The simulation results show that the resonance problem appears in the process of the whole releasing load, the lifting system generates resonance and the displacement response of the lifting load is maximal when the sinking depth is about 2000 m. This paper also analyzes the main influencing factors on the dynamic response of load including cable stiffness, damping coefficient of the lifting system, mass and added mass of lifting load, among which cable stiffness and damping coefficient of the lifting system have the greatest influence on dynamic response of lifting load when installation load is determined. So the vertical dynamic movement response of the load is reduced by installing a damper on the lifting cable and selecting the appropriate cable stiffness.

  5. Baby boom generation at the retirement onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojilković Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudden increase in the number of live births after the Second World War due to an increase in fertility rates has led to the formation of cohorts with specific characteristics or baby boom generation. This generation is unique in the history of the demographic phenomenon that has affected and affects the functioning of many segments of society. The aim of this paper is to assess structure of baby boomers who are few years away from retirement, using demographic data. Impact of baby boomer age structure of current and future retirees is described with a graphical display of current and projected age pyramid of baby boomers. Demographic pattern that women live longer than men is evident in the projected pyramid. In addition, the number of baby boomers will lead to a "younger" old population. The imbalance in the number of men and women pensioners, as well as older cohorts of women and female baby boomers was analyzed. As a result, an increasing trend of women's age pensioners who are members of the baby boom generation was clearly observed, which is opposite to the older cohort of women who often were family pensioners. Different circumstances and conditions in which female boomers lived and worked will form a new "pension model" because they will gain their benefits as well as men, for the first time in significant number, unlike their mothers, which gained the right to retire after they become widows. Number of women age pensioners is getting greater comparing to men, as the result of changes in the economic activities of women in the last half of the 20th century. When baby boomers retire and exit the working population, this will create a vacuum, because the numerically smaller generations will enter working population, while the sudden and very shortly, the number of population older than 60 or 65 will increase, most of them will likely to acquire the right to a pension. It is undeniable that baby boomers had impact on demographic structure

  6. Normalized lift: an energy interpretation of the lift coefficient simplifies comparisons of the lifting ability of rotating and flapping surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Burgers

    Full Text Available For a century, researchers have used the standard lift coefficient C(L to evaluate the lift, L, generated by fixed wings over an area S against dynamic pressure, ½ρv(2, where v is the effective velocity of the wing. Because the lift coefficient was developed initially for fixed wings in steady flow, its application to other lifting systems requires either simplifying assumptions or complex adjustments as is the case for flapping wings and rotating cylinders.This paper interprets the standard lift coefficient of a fixed wing slightly differently, as the work exerted by the wing on the surrounding flow field (L/ρ·S, compared against the total kinetic energy required for generating said lift, ½v(2. This reinterpreted coefficient, the normalized lift, is derived from the work-energy theorem and compares the lifting capabilities of dissimilar lift systems on a similar energy footing. The normalized lift is the same as the standard lift coefficient for fixed wings, but differs for wings with more complex motions; it also accounts for such complex motions explicitly and without complex modifications or adjustments. We compare the normalized lift with the previously-reported values of lift coefficient for a rotating cylinder in Magnus effect, a bat during hovering and forward flight, and a hovering dipteran.The maximum standard lift coefficient for a fixed wing without flaps in steady flow is around 1.5, yet for a rotating cylinder it may exceed 9.0, a value that implies that a rotating cylinder generates nearly 6 times the maximum lift of a wing. The maximum normalized lift for a rotating cylinder is 1.5. We suggest that the normalized lift can be used to evaluate propellers, rotors, flapping wings of animals and micro air vehicles, and underwater thrust-generating fins in the same way the lift coefficient is currently used to evaluate fixed wings.

  7. Brazil's sugarcane boom could affect regional temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-04-01

    With the world seeking to cut its dependence on fossil fuels, the use of bioethanol and other biofuels is on the rise. In Brazil, the second largest producer and consumer of bioethanol, this has led to a boom in sugarcane production. Based on new laws and trade agreements, researchers expect Brazil's production of sugarcane-derived ethanol to increase tenfold over the next decade, with considerable land being converted for growing sugarcane. Much of this expansion is expected to come at a loss of some of the country's cerrado savannas. So while a major aim of the turn to biofuels is to reduce the transfer of carbon to the atmosphere and mitigate global climate change, the shifting agricultural activity could have direct consequences on Brazil's climate by changing the region's physical and biogeochemical properties.

  8. Comparative study of models for oil boom simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, C.F.; Barron, R.M. [Windsor Univ., Fluid Dynamics Research Institute, Windsor, ON (Canada)

    1998-09-01

    The use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) as a tool for simulating a variety of fluid flows, including oil spills on water was discussed. A common response to an oil spill on water is to use an oil retention boom to contain the oil, and to use a skimmer to recover it. In order to be as efficient as possible in oil recovery, the speed of oil herding should be as high as possible, but if it exceeds a critical value, boom failure can occur and the oil may escape underneath the boom because of hydrodynamic forces. In this computational study, the flows around a flat plate barrier and a real boom configuration with the same draft were compared. Results showed that the flow patterns for the two cases at low velocity were almost the same. The exception was for the boom tip and oil slick regions where small differences in velocity and pressure were noticed. It was concluded that in studying boom failure, a simple flat plate barrier can be used instead of a real boom configuration with the same draft. 9 refs., 8 figs.

  9. Empirically Bounding of Space Booms with Tape Spring Hinges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Jennings

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-deploying structures seek to provide a compact launch package for large, lightweight satellite booms. One self-deploying method is a foldable tape spring. This paper examines the large scale behavior of a boom attached by a tape spring hinge during mock deployments. A boom attached by tape spring to a rigid stand was released and the boom bounced up to 60° before coming to rest (as opposed to snap-through behavior. These large amplitude bounces can cause the boom to collide with sensors, other booms or arrays causing damage or preventing full deployment. Results show the first bounce of deployment is nearly bounded by a four parameter ellipse. The ellipses of similar folds are similar also, suggesting that a model can be developed. Free-fall tests simulating the free-free condition found in microgravity also show similar elliptical motion. Envelopes that bound the extents of the boom motion allow for collisions to be prevented by adjustment of the design.

  10. Testing fire resistant boom in waves and flames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A near full-scale screening test to evaluate the durability and ability of refractory-fabric fire resistant booms to contain oil during an in-situ burn without the environmental problems of burning crude oil or the cost of testing offshore, was developed. The boom was first flexed under tension for two hours, then deployed in a U-configuration in an outdoor wave tank. Propane gas was burned in the pocket of the boom to simulate the collection and burning phases of an in-situ burn. Finally, the boom was returned to the indoor wave flume for another two hours of wave action and then inspected for damage. Results indicated damage of the same type as suffered in previously conducted sea trials, although the extent of damage was less severe. These results led to recommendations for improvement of the test protocol which included: (1) increasing the heat flux to the boom, (2) improving the heat flux measurement, (3) increasing the tension in the fire boom during flame testing, and (4) improving the characterization of the waves near the fire boom. 16 refs., 6 figs

  11. Comparative study of models for oil boom simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) as a tool for simulating a variety of fluid flows, including oil spills on water was discussed. A common response to an oil spill on water is to use an oil retention boom to contain the oil, and to use a skimmer to recover it. In order to be as efficient as possible in oil recovery, the speed of oil herding should be as high as possible, but if it exceeds a critical value, boom failure can occur and the oil may escape underneath the boom because of hydrodynamic forces. In this computational study, the flows around a flat plate barrier and a real boom configuration with the same draft were compared. Results showed that the flow patterns for the two cases at low velocity were almost the same. The exception was for the boom tip and oil slick regions where small differences in velocity and pressure were noticed. It was concluded that in studying boom failure, a simple flat plate barrier can be used instead of a real boom configuration with the same draft. 9 refs., 8 figs

  12. High-Lift Propeller System Configuration Selection for NASA's SCEPTOR Distributed Electric Propulsion Flight Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Michael D.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Borer, Nicholas K.

    2016-01-01

    Although the primary function of propellers is typically to produce thrust, aircraft equipped with distributed electric propulsion (DEP) may utilize propellers whose main purpose is to act as a form of high-lift device. These \\high-lift propellers" can be placed upstream of wing such that, when the higher-velocity ow in the propellers' slipstreams interacts with the wing, the lift is increased. This technique is a main design feature of a new NASA advanced design project called Scalable Convergent Electric Propulsion Technology Operations Research (SCEPTOR). The goal of the SCEPTOR project is design, build, and y a DEP aircraft to demonstrate that such an aircraft can be much more ecient than conventional designs. This paper provides details into the high-lift propeller system con guration selection for the SCEPTOR ight demonstrator. The methods used in the high-lift propeller system conceptual design and the tradeo s considered in selecting the number of propellers are discussed.

  13. Stacker/reclaimers line up for a boom time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    The current commodity boom and record freight rates are proving a boom for heavy materials handling plant manufacturers. New steel mills are to be built in Brazil and India. TKF has been awarded a contract for a further coal handling plant at Jimah in India. Techint, which recently acquired the German company Takraf, is to supply bucket-wheel stacker/reclaimers for the expansion of Ust-Luga coal terminal in Russia. Schade recently delivered six boom type stackers and six portal reclaimers to the Dawson coal consolidation project in Queensland. Five further stacker/reclaimers have been ordered for the Lake Linsay mine. 2 photos.

  14. Spray boom for selectively spraying a herbicidal composition onto dicots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    There is provided a method and spray boom for discriminating cereal crop (monocot) and weeds (dicots). The spray boom includes means for digitally recording an image of a selected area to be treated by a nozzle on the spray boom, whereby a plant material is identified based on a segmentation...... procedure; and means for detecting the edges and estimating the angles of the edges of the leaves so as to discriminate between dicots and monocots; and means for activating one or more of the spray nozzles in response to detected dicots so as to selectively apply the herbicidal composition onto the sensed...

  15. Sonic Boom Computations for a Mach 1.6 Cruise Low Boom Configuration and Comparisons with Wind Tunnel Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmiligui, Alaa A.; Cliff, Susan E.; Wilcox, Floyd; Nemec, Marian; Bangert, Linda; Aftosmis, Michael J.; Parlette, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Accurate analysis of sonic boom pressure signatures using computational fluid dynamics techniques remains quite challenging. Although CFD shows accurate predictions of flow around complex configurations, generating grids that can resolve the sonic boom signature far away from the body is a challenge. The test case chosen for this study corresponds to an experimental wind-tunnel test that was conducted to measure the sonic boom pressure signature of a low boom configuration designed by Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation. Two widely used NASA codes, USM3D and AERO, are examined for their ability to accurately capture sonic boom signature. Numerical simulations are conducted for a free-stream Mach number of 1.6, angle of attack of 0.3 and Reynolds number of 3.85x10(exp 6) based on model reference length. Flow around the low boom configuration in free air and inside the Langley Unitary plan wind tunnel are computed. Results from the numerical simulations are compared with wind tunnel data. The effects of viscous and turbulence modeling along with tunnel walls on the computed sonic boom signature are presented and discussed.

  16. Endoscopic brow lifts uber alles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bhupendra C K

    2006-12-01

    Innumerable approaches to the ptotic brow and forehead have been described in the past. Over the last twenty-five years, we have used all these techniques in cosmetic and reconstructive patients. We have used the endoscopic brow lift technique since 1995. While no one technique is applicable to all patients, the endoscopic brow lift, with appropriate modifications for individual patients, can be used effectively for most patients with brow ptosis. We present the nuances of this technique and show several different fixation methods we have found useful.

  17. STRUCTURAL AND GEOMETRICAL ANALYSIS OF THE LIFTING MANIPULATORS FOR A GREEN ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana POPESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The lifting and getting off the bins, to and from the body of special waste trucks, by some planar linkage – manipulators are studied. These lifting manipulators are equipped with gripper systems in order to load and unload the bins. Several kinematical schemas of type mono– and bi-mobile manipulators are analyzed, these being driven by one or two linear actuators. The kinematical geometry of these planar manipulators by means of scale drawing of the kinematical schema is displayed. Two solutions for a better efficiency and a green environment have been proposed. Finally, a modeling and simulation case of the lifting manipulator is presented.

  18. 46 CFR 153.214 - Personnel emergency and safety equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... lifting an injured person from a pumproom or a cargo tank. (b) In addition to any similar equipment... minutes capacity each. (2) A set of overalls or large apron, boots, long sleeved gloves, and goggles,...

  19. Elastic Deployable Composite Tubular Roll-Out Boom Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Deployable Space Systems (DSS) has developed an affordable and ultra-lightweight elastically self-deployable Roll-Out Boom technology that provides affordability...

  20. Elastic Deployable Composite Tubular Roll-Out Boom Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — DSS's innovative Elastic Deployable Composite Tubular Roll-Out Boom will provide revolutionary performance when compared to conventional state-of-the-art...

  1. Numerical modeling of oil containment by a boom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hydrodynamic model of a boom for oil containment was developed. The physical phenomena which relate to oil containment were analysed. The important parameters from the analysis were used to develop a numerical model of interfacial instabilities for a two-phase system consisting of a layer of oil on top of a uniform flowing water stream. Vortex sheets were used to represent interfaces (air-water, air-oil, oil-water) and solid boundaries (boom, bottom). Flow velocities were calculated using Biot-Savart's law. The objective was to use the model to analyse oil containment failure mechanisms causing substantial loss of oil under the boom. Model calculations were found to be stable and accurate. Applications of the model to realistic cases of oil containment by a boom were presented. 33 refs., 12 figs

  2. 自动调平喷杆式喷药机设计与试验研究%Design and Experimental Research on Automatic Levelling Boom Sprayer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佳文; 杨自栋

    2016-01-01

    For the characters of undulating gentle slope of arable land and the different height of different crops, we de-sign this boom sprayer.The spray bar could remain parallel to the ground.The boom sprayer could lift freely within the al-lowable range through the hydraulic system.The boom sprayer also could complete the leveling work in the field.The spray bar is lifted by the hydraulic system and movable block.The spring and balancing dampers are used to complete the mechanical leveling work of spray bar.The boom sprayer plays a positive role in Improving the utilization of pesticides and reducing crop production costs.%针对耕地存在缓坡起伏及不同农作物具有不同的植株高度的特点,设计一套能够自由调节喷杆高度的喷杆式喷药机. 该机喷杆始终保持与地面平行,使喷药机在田间工作时能够通过液压系统进行自由提升,且在田间工作时可利用机械部件完成喷杆的调平工作. 系统利用动滑轮和液压系统完成喷杆的提升,利用弹簧和阻尼器完成喷杆的机械调平工作. 该喷药机对提高农药的利用率、降低农作物生产成本都具有积极的推动作用.

  3. Safe lifting in patients with chronic low back pain : Comparing FCE lifting task and NIOSH lifting guideline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijer, Wietske; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Brouwer, Sandra; Reneman, Michiel F.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Both the floor-to-waist lifting task of the Isernhagen Work Systems Functional Capacity Evaluation (IWS FCE) and recommended weight limit (RWL) of the NIOSH produce safe lifting weights and are used world-wide nowadays. It is unknown whether they produce similar safe lifting weights. A

  4. Tracking the Boom in Queensland’s Gasfields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will Rifkin

    2014-09-01

    The research reported in this paper, though only mid-way to completion, suggests that an action-research approach to developing indicators of cumulative impacts on housing, business, employment, liveability and trust in government shows promise for enabling stakeholders to track the multi-faceted effects of a resource boom.  We hope that such work helps stakeholders to mitigate the ups and downs of the cycle of boom, bust and recovery that can be driven by resource development.

  5. Design and Development of Animal Drawn Ground Metered Axle Mechanism Boom Sprayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Amonye

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A spraying technology was developed for use by rural farmers in Northern Nigeria. The farming systems in these areas are put into consideration and in keeping with appropriate technology initiative. The technology was designed to offer the farmers an equitable sprayer that shall be drawn by animal farm power and that is effective and affordable. The equipment was constructed using the parameters obtained from design and tested at a farmland within the University premises of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, in Nigeria. The equipment consists of a boom with multiple Controlled Droplet Applicator (CDA atomizer nozzles, a gear pump, a chemical tank, and chair for an operator; all attached to a framework bolted to a rear axle. It was observed that the Dynamic Wheel Load assuming even distribution of load was found to be 1575N and a net pull of 820N. The net pull offers convenient task and shall easily swallow energy requirement for spraying uphill terrains.

  6. Assessment of Near-Field Sonic Boom Simulation Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, J. H.; Cliff, S. E.; Thomas, S. D.; Park, M. A.; McMullen, M. S.; Melton, J. E.; Durston, D. A.

    2008-01-01

    A recent study for the Supersonics Project, within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, has been conducted to assess current in-house capabilities for the prediction of near-field sonic boom. Such capabilities are required to simulate the highly nonlinear flow near an aircraft, wherein a sonic-boom signature is generated. There are many available computational fluid dynamics codes that could be used to provide the near-field flow for a sonic boom calculation. However, such codes have typically been developed for applications involving aerodynamic configuration, for which an efficiently generated computational mesh is usually not optimum for a sonic boom prediction. Preliminary guidelines are suggested to characterize a state-of-the-art sonic boom prediction methodology. The available simulation tools that are best suited to incorporate into that methodology are identified; preliminary test cases are presented in support of the selection. During this phase of process definition and tool selection, parallel research was conducted in an attempt to establish criteria that link the properties of a computational mesh to the accuracy of a sonic boom prediction. Such properties include sufficient grid density near shocks and within the zone of influence, which are achieved by adaptation and mesh refinement strategies. Prediction accuracy is validated by comparison with wind tunnel data.

  7. Lifted Region-Based Belief Propagation

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, David; Singla, Parag; Gogate, Vibhav

    2016-01-01

    Due to the intractable nature of exact lifted inference, research has recently focused on the discovery of accurate and efficient approximate inference algorithms in Statistical Relational Models (SRMs), such as Lifted First-Order Belief Propagation. FOBP simulates propositional factor graph belief propagation without constructing the ground factor graph by identifying and lifting over redundant message computations. In this work, we propose a generalization of FOBP called Lifted Generalized ...

  8. 49 CFR 37.203 - Lift maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lift maintenance. 37.203 Section 37.203... DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.203 Lift maintenance. (a) The entity shall establish a system of regular and frequent maintenance checks of lifts sufficient to determine if they are...

  9. Innovations in Equipment Erection of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    • PFBR equipment erection was a challenging task where thin walled vessels had transported and handled with utmost precautions to avoid redial forces on the vessels, which could buckle the vessels. • There was a real challenge in lifting the vessels without swing, placement of large size and heavy vessel at a distance of 57 meters where the crane operator has no line of sight to equipment's being erected. • Lot of care had been taken during lifting, handling and erection of thin walled ODC with innovative methods used for lifting fixtures, guiding arrangements, alignment fixtures and achieved the stringent erection tolerances

  10. Optical MEMS: boom, bust and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, Chandra Mouli

    2005-10-01

    Optical Telecommunications bandwidth, spurred by the growth of the internet, experienced unprecedented growth in the late 1990's. The creation of new enterprises was vast and the expansion of established component, system and services companies was also breathtaking. This period of speculative growth was followed in 2001-2004 by one of the most significant market crashes in history. While $20B of venture capital was invested in optical telecom in the last 10 years, the vast majority of that has been written off in the last four. Countless start-ups inaugurated with great fanfare at the end of the 20th century were unceremoniously shut down at the start of the 21st. (1) As in all speculative bubbles, innovative technologies were born and buried. Nonetheless, new capabilities emerge from the chaos and disruption; one such example is the advent of Optical MEMS (MOEMS). Its development was vigorously pursued in both academic and corporate laboratories during the boom and, in the author's view; MOEMS constitutes a powerful and versatile tool set that is an invaluable residual of the last few years. In Telecommunications, MOEMS has proven to be the technology of choice for many optical switching and wavelength management applications. (2) Variable Optical Attenuators (VOA), Wavelength Blockers (WB), Dynamic Gain Equalizers (DGE), and most recently Wavelength Selective Switches (WSS) are being used in the numerous recent network deployments. Moreover, agile networks of the future will have MOEMS at every node. This presentation will provide an overview of the history of MOEMS in Telecommunications, discuss its byproducts and project the future of the technology.

  11. Eisenhart lifts and symmetries of time-dependent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cariglia, M; Gibbons, G W; Horvathy, P A

    2016-01-01

    Certain dissipative systems, such as Caldirola and Kannai's damped simple harmonic oscillator, may be modelled by time-dependent Lagrangian and hence time dependent Hamiltonian systems with $n$ degrees of freedom. In this paper we treat these systems, their projective and conformal symmetries as well as their quantisation from the point of view of the Eisenhart lift to a Bargmann spacetime in $n+2$ dimensions, equipped with its covariantly constant null Killing vector field. Reparametrization of the time variable corresponds to conformal rescalings of the Bargmann metric. We show how the Arnold map lifts to Bargmann spacetime. We contrast the greater generality of the Caldirola-Kannai approach with that of Arnold and Bateman. At the level of quantum mechanics, we are able to show how the relevant Schr\\"odinger equation emerges naturally using the techniques of quantum field theory in curved spacetimes, since a covariantly constant null Killing vector field gives rise to well defined one particle Hilbert space...

  12. The relationship between maximal lifting capacity and maximum acceptable lift in strength-based soldiering tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Robert J; Best, Stuart A; Carstairs, Greg L; Ham, Daniel J

    2012-07-01

    Psychophysical assessments, such as the maximum acceptable lift, have been used to establish worker capability and set safe load limits for manual handling tasks in occupational settings. However, in military settings, in which task demand is set and capable workers must be selected, subjective measurements are inadequate, and maximal capacity testing must be used to assess lifting capability. The aim of this study was to establish and compare the relationship between maximal lifting capacity and a self-determined tolerable lifting limit, maximum acceptable lift, across a range of military-relevant lifting tasks. Seventy male soldiers (age 23.7 ± 6.1 years) from the Australian Army performed 7 strength-based lifting tasks to determine their maximum lifting capacity and maximum acceptable lift. Comparisons were performed to identify maximum acceptable lift relative to maximum lifting capacity for each individual task. Linear regression was used to identify the relationship across all tasks when the data were pooled. Strong correlations existed between all 7 lifting tasks (rrange = 0.87-0.96, p lift relative to maximum lifting capacity across all tasks (p = 0.46). When data were pooled, maximum acceptable lift was equal to 84 ± 8% of the maximum lifting capacity. This study is the first to illustrate the strong and consistent relationship between maximum lifting capacity and maximum acceptable lift for multiple single lifting tasks. The relationship developed between these indices may be used to help assess self-selected manual handling capability through occupationally relevant maximal performance tests. PMID:22643137

  13. Facts and features of radionuclide migration in Boom Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution which took place during ten years of research on the behaviour of radionuclides in Boom Clay is described. Initially, the Boom Clay was regarded as a chemically inert exchanger and the radiochemical research aimed at determining the distribution of cations between the clay and some liquid phases. The observation that Boom Clay deteriorates in contact with air and loses important intrinsic properties formed a major breakthrough in the research and led to a careful examination of the real in-situ conditions. Efforts devoted to the understanding of the chemical factors pertaining to the pH, the redox potential, the extent of the buffering capacity of FeS2 and CaCO3 in equilibrium with the interstitial aqueous phase are reviewed. Also emerging from the overall picture was the role of the organic material present in the Boom Clay. In contrast to the water percolating fractured formations which may not be in equilibrium with the rock, the interstitial aqueous phase is completely in equilibrium with Boom Clay mainly because of its low permeability and the large excesses of buffering components. As the retention mechanisms are better understood, a more coherent picture is obtained from distribution and diffusion experiments and the effects of consolidation are being investigated in detail. 23 refs.; 4 figs.; 3 tabs

  14. First clinical experience with a novel forearm boom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaulke, R; Abdulkareem, M; O'Loughlin, P F; Oszwald, M; Probst, C; Hildebrand, F; Krettek, C

    2010-01-01

    The optimal forearm boom should facilitate dynamic investigation of the wrist and approaches for wrist arthroscopy. It should be safely fixed at the operating table without any contact with the patient. It must be compatible with the arm of any patient and should be sterilisable. Repositioning of distal radius fractures, fluoroscopy and insertion of Kirschner-wires should not be restricted. According to these criteria the current investigators designed a new forearm boom which was subsequently used in 19 wrist arthroscopies and 9 distal radius fracture fixations. Twenty-eight patients with heights between 150 and 205 cm and forearm lengths between 17.5 to 37 cm were treated. Preoperatively, wrist motion was tested in those 19 wrists, that underwent wrist arthroscopy, before and after fixation by the forearm boom and any restriction due to usage of the novel device was found. The new forearm boom satisfied all of the criteria cited above. Therefore the current authors believe the new forearm boom may be valuable for the indications mentioned. PMID:21209480

  15. Research of low boom and low drag supersonic aircraft design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Xiaoqiang; Li Zhanke; Song Bifeng

    2014-01-01

    Sonic boom reduction will be an issue of utmost importance in future supersonic trans-port, due to strong regulations on acoustic nuisance. The paper describes a new multi-objective optimization method for supersonic aircraft design. The method is developed by coupling Seebass-George-Darden (SGD) inverse design method and multi-objective genetic algorithm. Based on the method, different codes are developed. Using a computational architecture, a concep-tual supersonic aircraft design environment (CSADE) is constructed. The architecture of CSADE includes inner optimization level and out optimization level. The low boom configuration is gener-ated in inner optimization level by matching the target equivalent area distribution and actual equivalent area distribution. And low boom/low drag configuration is generated in outer optimiza-tion level by using NSGA-II multi-objective genetic algorithm to optimize the control parameters of SGD method and aircraft shape. Two objective functions, low sonic boom and low wave drag, are considered in CSADE. Physically reasonable Pareto solutions are obtained from the present optimization. Some supersonic aircraft configurations are selected from Pareto front and the optimization results indicate that the swept forward wing configuration has benefits in both sonic boom reduction and wave drag reduction. The results are validated by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis.

  16. Management System of Safety Monitoring for Structure of Internet of Things Applied in Lifting Equipment of Hydropower Station%应用于水电站起重设备的物联网架构安全监控管理系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨太正

    2016-01-01

    介绍一种基于物联网架构的起重机械安全监控管理系统在水电站起重设备中的应用,实时监控起重机的工作参数:视频、起重量、幅度、速度、位移、高度、倾斜度、风速、防撞等重要信息。同时通过网络架构设计,使得起重机运行参数得以实时传输至云平台处理中心,实现远程监控、分析和管理的目的。%The management system of safety monitoring for lifting machinery based on the structure of the internet of things applied in the hy-dropower station is introduced.The system monitor in real time the operation parameters of the lift such as data of video, lifting weight, am-plitude, speed, displacement, height, inclination degree, wind speed, collision prevention, etc.Meanwhile, through the design of the net-work structure, the lift operation parameters can be transmitted in real time to the processing center of the cloud platform, realizing the remote monitoring, analysis and management.

  17. Modeling and simulation of the agricultural sprayer boom leveling system

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jian

    2011-01-01

    According to the agricultural precision requirements, the distance from sprayer nozzles to the corps should be kept between 50 cm to 70 cm. The sprayer boom also needs to be kept parallel to the field during the application process. Thus we can guarantee the quality of the chemical droplets distribution on the crops. In this paper we design a sprayer boom leveling system for agricultural sprayer vehicles combined with a four-rod linkage self-leveling suspension and electro-hydraulic auto-leveling system. The dynamic analysis shows that the suspension can realize an excellent self-leveling in a comparative small inclination range. In addition we build compensation controller for the electro-hydraulic system based on the mathematical model. With simulations we can optimize the performance of this controller to make sure a fast leveling response to the inclined sprayer boom. © 2011 IEEE.

  18. Shuttle sonic boom - Technology and predictions. [environmental impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, P. F.; Wilhold, G. A.; Jones, J. H.; Garcia, F., Jr.; Hicks, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    Because the shuttle differs significantly in both geometric and operational characteristics from conventional supersonic aircraft, estimation of sonic boom characteristics required a new technology base. The prediction procedures thus developed are reviewed. Flight measurements obtained for both the ascent and entry phases of the Apollo 15 and 16 and for the ascent phase only of the Apollo 17 missions are presented which verify the techniques established for application to shuttle. Results of extensive analysis of the sonic boom overpressure characteristics completed to date are presented which indicate that this factor of the shuttle's environmental impact is predictable, localized, of short duration and acceptable. Efforts are continuing to define the shuttle sonic boom characteristics to a fine level of detail based on the final system design.

  19. Calculation and comparative measurement of a manipulator boom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A manipulator system is fabricated for the use in a fusion reactor. The system allows to take in any arbitrary position in a plane. It consists of seven linked arms. During resting position, the manipulator boom is folded together in an antechamber. For the working position, the individual links are moved out through the opening to operate in a ring-shaped vacuum vessel. The stress analysis of the boom follows three steps: calculation of the global forces with a beam model dependent on the different working positions of the boom; calculation of the local stresses in the jointed arms with Finite-Element-Models for the worst load combination; and comparison of the calculations with strain gauge measurements

  20. Estimation of towing forces on oil spill containment booms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of towing tests on oil retention booms are described which were carried out at the OHMSETT Test Facility to estimate the towing forces on a number of booms using a range of gap ratios, wave conditions and tow speeds. Data from the towing tests were used to develop a relationship to predict the tow force and the required tensile strength for the various boom and tow parameters. The value of the constant varied from as low as 1.2 to an average 1.9 for the calm condition, increasing sharply to an average 3.0 and 3.4 for the regular wave and harbour chop, respectively. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig

  1. Deformation mechanisms in experimentally deformed Boom Clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbois, Guillaume; Schuck, Bernhard; Urai, Janos

    2016-04-01

    Bulk mechanical and transport properties of reference claystones for deep disposal of radioactive waste have been investigated since many years but little is known about microscale deformation mechanisms because accessing the relevant microstructure in these soft, very fine-grained, low permeable and low porous materials remains difficult. Recent development of ion beam polishing methods to prepare high quality damage free surfaces for scanning electron microscope (SEM) is opening new fields of microstructural investigation in claystones towards a better understanding of the deformation behavior transitional between rocks and soils. We present results of Boom Clay deformed in a triaxial cell in a consolidated - undrained test at a confining pressure of 0.375 MPa (i.e. close to natural value), with σ1 perpendicular to the bedding. Experiments stopped at 20 % strain. As a first approximation, the plasticity of the sample can be described by a Mohr-Coulomb type failure envelope with a coefficient of cohesion C = 0.117 MPa and an internal friction angle ϕ = 18.7°. After deformation test, the bulk sample shows a shear zone at an angle of about 35° from the vertical with an offset of about 5 mm. We used the "Lamipeel" method that allows producing a permanent absolutely plane and large size etched micro relief-replica in order to localize and to document the shear zone at the scale of the deformed core. High-resolution imaging of microstructures was mostly done by using the BIB-SEM method on key-regions identified after the "Lamipeel" method. Detailed BIB-SEM investigations of shear zones show the following: the boundaries between the shear zone and the host rock are sharp, clay aggregates and clastic grains are strongly reoriented parallel to the shear direction, and the porosity is significantly reduced in the shear zone and the grain size is smaller in the shear zone than in the host rock but there is no evidence for broken grains. Comparison of microstructures

  2. The Impact of the Fracking Boom on Arab Oil Producers

    OpenAIRE

    Kilian, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    This article contributes to the debate about the impact of the U.S. fracking boom on U.S. oil imports, on Arab oil exports, and on the global price of crude oil. First, I investigate the extent to which this oil boom has caused Arab oil exports to the United States to decline since late 2008. Second, I examine to what extent increased U.S. exports of refined products made from domestically produced crude oil have caused Arab oil exports to the rest of the world to decline. Third, the article ...

  3. The geochemical behaviour of uranium in the Boom Clay

    OpenAIRE

    Delécaut, Grégory

    2004-01-01

    In Belgium, the Boom Clay is currently studied as the reference host formation for the disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive waste. In case of direct disposal of spent fuel, uranium isotopes are important contributors along with their daughters to the dose rate at very long term. Therefore, it is essential to study the migration of uranium in the host formation. The present work contributes to improve the knowledge of uranium speciation in the Boom Clay, U(IV) versus U(VI), and of...

  4. The Productivity Paradox and the Australian Mining Boom and Bust

    OpenAIRE

    Neil Dias Karunaratne

    2015-01-01

    Australia in the 1990s experienced a surge in multifactor productivity ushering in the ¡®golden age¡¯ of productivity. The subsequent 2000 decade witnessed a dramatic slump in productivity whilst the economy was riding the crest of the biggest terms- of- trade boom in its recorded history. This plummeting productivity occurring with a mining boom was a paradox. It created much concern and politicians and policymakers call for urgent action to reverse the productivity slump as it posed a threa...

  5. Simulated lift testing using computerized isokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porterfield, J A; Mostardi, R A; King, S; Ariki, P; Moats, E; Noe, D

    1987-09-01

    Eighty-four volunteer asymptomatic men between 18 and 40 years of age were evaluated as to their ability to lift. An innovative isokinetic device was used to measure lifting force. This device does not isolate any specific body part, yet it measures the muscular force of lifting an object whose speed of ascent is controlled. Two lifting methods (bent knee, straight leg) and two foot positions were used. The results indicate the bent-knee lift method and forward-foot position was the position of optimal force production. Force production increase was inversely proportional to age. The authors concluded that the isokinetic lift device has promising capabilities to produce repeatable data and may be advantageous in generating standards for rehabilitation and specific job criteria. PMID:3686220

  6. Influence of vehicle configuration and flight profile on X-30 sonic booms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglieri, Domenic J.; Sothcott, Victor E.; Hicks, John

    1990-10-01

    The role of vehicle configuration and the flight profile on sonic booms produced by the experimental NASP X-30 is investigated. Sonic boom signatures, overpressure levels, and footprints for X-30 are presented and compared with sonic boom measurements for F-104, SR-71, Concorde, XB-70, and STS Orbiter. Results show that the sonic boom signatures for X-30 fall within those of previous high-speed planes.

  7. Characterization of gas-lift instabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Bin

    2005-01-01

    This dissertation mainly investigates the occurrence and characteristics of density-wave instability in gas-lift wells. The investigation is based on a simplified gas-lift system, in which water and air are used as producing fluid and lifting gas respectively, and heat transfer effect is neglected.To carry out the investigation, both linear stability analysis and numerical simulation are performed. The linear stability analysis is based on a homogenous two-phase flow model and the numerical s...

  8. Constraint Processing in Lifted Probabilistic Inference

    CERN Document Server

    Kisynski, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    First-order probabilistic models combine representational power of first-order logic with graphical models. There is an ongoing effort to design lifted inference algorithms for first-order probabilistic models. We analyze lifted inference from the perspective of constraint processing and, through this viewpoint, we analyze and compare existing approaches and expose their advantages and limitations. Our theoretical results show that the wrong choice of constraint processing method can lead to exponential increase in computational complexity. Our empirical tests confirm the importance of constraint processing in lifted inference. This is the first theoretical and empirical study of constraint processing in lifted inference.

  9. Boom in boarfish abundance: insight from otolith analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coad, Julie Olivia; Hüssy, Karin

    2012-01-01

    The boarfish Capros aper is a pelagic shoaling species widely distributed along the Northeast Atlantic continental shelf. In recent years, this species has experienced a dramatic boom in abundance in the Bay of Biscay and Celtic Sea. This study aims at resolving the mechanisms responsible for thi...

  10. Dynamic modeling of oil boom failure using computational fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil retention boom failure mechanisms have been identified and studied using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), a powerful modeling tool combining fluid dynamics and mathematics with high speed computer technology. This study utilized a commercially available CFD package, 'Fluent', to simulate the oil-water flow around a barrier. 'Drainage failure', 'droplet entrainment' and 'critical accumulation' were modeled using this software. Flow characteristics were found to be different for different failure mechanisms. In the drainage failure process, the oil slick was compressed against the barrier until the slick was deep enough for the oil to leak under the barrier. During boom failure due to droplet entrainment, the oil-water interface of the oil slick was wavy and unstable. During boom failure due to critical accumulation, the oil remained a single mass and moved under the barrier readily. The most significant observation, however, was that flow patterns around barriers are modified by the presence of oil. Therefore, towing and wave-conformity tests of booms will not be meaningful unless such tests are conducted with oil present. 15 refs., 11 figs

  11. Environmental Pollution: Noise Pollution - Sonic Boom. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Documentation Center, Alexandria, VA.

    The unclassified, annotated bibliography is Volume I of a two-volume set on Noise Pollution - Sonic Boom in a series of scheduled bibliographies on Environmental Pollution. Volume II is Confidential. Corporate author-monitoring agency, subject, title, contract, and report number indexes are included. (Author/JR)

  12. How to Lift a Heavy Object?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁凤丽

    2007-01-01

    <正>Many people hurt their backs when they try to lift heavy things from the floor. It is easy to hurt your back muscles when you pick up a heavy object. However, there is a correct way to lift things from the floor. If you pick up big or heavy objects correctly, you probably will not hurt your back.

  13. CNOOC Lifts 2011 Production Target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC), China's top offshore oil and gas producer, has lifted its 2011 production target by up to 11 percent as new projects at home and overseas come on stream.The offshore oil giant, with a market capitalization of about US$105 billion, said in a statement released in late January 2011 that it aimed to produce between 355 and 365 million barrels of oil equivalent (BOE).Oil prices climbed 15 percent in 2010 on the back of expectations that a global economic recovery will drive the demand.Analysts are similarly bullish for 2011, predicting crude prices to trade at around US$100 for the year.CNOOC, the smallest of China's triumvirate of energy companies that also includes CNPC and Sinopee, said it targeted US$8.8 billion in capital expenditure for 2011.

  14. Heavy-lift airship dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischler, M. B.; Ringland, R. F.; Jex, H. R.

    1983-01-01

    The basic aerodynamic and dynamic properties of an example heavy-lift airship (HLA) configuration are analyzed using a nonlinear, multibody, 6-degrees-of-freedom digital simulation. The slung-payload model is described, and a preliminary analysis of the coupled vehicle-payload dynamics is presented. Trim calculations show the importance of control mixing selection and suggest performance deficiencies in crosswind stationkeeping for the unloaded example HLA. Numerically linearized dynamics of the unloaded vehicle exhibit a divergent yaw mode and an oscillatory pitch mode whose stability characteristic is sensitive to flight speed. An analysis of the vehicle-payload dynamics shows significant coupling of the payload dynamics with those of the basic HLA. It is shown that significant improvement in the vehicle's dynamic behavior can be achieved with the incorporation of a simple flight controller having proportional, rate, and integral-error feedbacks.

  15. Lift conference | 5-7 February

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    Since 2006, Lift Events explore the business and social implications of new technologies through the organisation of international event series and open innovation programs in Europe, Asia and America. The next conference will be held on 5-7 February in Geneva.   (Image: © Lift Conference) The Lift Conference is one of the leading conferences on innovation in Europe and a key annual meeting for individuals and organizations wishing to understand and anticipate trends and innovation. Held every year in February in Geneva (5-7 February 2014), the Lift Conference is a three-day event consisting of talks, interactive workshops, exhibitions, and discussions bringing together over 1’000 participants from all society’s sectors and industries in a dynamic and informal environment with the aim to learn, connect, share and leverage innovation opportunities.   Extraordinary speakers will take to the stage at Lift14: Porter Erisman, former VP of Alibaba.com turned...

  16. Occupational lifting and pelvic pain during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Juhl, Mette;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Pelvic pain during pregnancy is a common ailment, and the disease is a major cause of sickness absence during pregnancy. It is plausible that occupational lifting may be a risk factor of pelvic pain during pregnancy, but no previous studies have examined this specific exposure. The aim...... of this study was to examine the association between occupational lifting and pelvic pain during pregnancy. METHODS: The study comprised 50 143 pregnant women, enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort in the period from 1996-2002. During pregnancy, the women provided information on occupational lifting...... (weight load and daily frequency), and six months post partum on pelvic pain. Adjusted odds ratios for pelvic pain during pregnancy according to occupational lifting were calculated by logistic regression. RESULTS: Any self-reported occupational lifting (>1 time/day and loads weighing >10 kg...

  17. Lifting index of the niosh lifting equation and low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Remor Teixeira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to assess the relationship of the Lifting Index obtained through the application of the NIOSH Lifting Equation and the incidence of low back pain among forty-eight workers involved in manual lifting tasks. It was applied the equation in eleven tasks and the workers were interviewed. The most unfavorable conditions presented themselves in the lifting destination. The variables that most contributed to the inadequate values of the Lifting Index were: the horizontal location, the lifting frequency and the vertical distance, beyond the high weight of the load. The incidence of low back pain in the last twelve months was 19%, whereas the incidence of work-related low back pain in the same period was 10%. In 72.7% of the tasks evaluated the Composite Lifting Index was more than three, which are considered as high ergonomic risk.

  18. Development of predictive equations for lifting strengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine relationship between lifting strengths of male and female subjects and body posture, type of lift (stoop or squat) and velocity of lift. Thirty normal young adults (18 males and 12 females) volunteered for the study. All subjects were required to perform a total of 56 tasks. Of these, 28 were stoop lifts and 28 were squat lifts. In each of the categories of stoop and squat lifts, the strengths were tested in standard posture, isokinetic (linear velocity of 500 mm/s), and isometric modes at half, three-quarters and full horizontal individual reach distances in sagittal, 30 degrees lateral and 60 degrees lateral planes. The strengths were measured using a static dynamic strength tester with a load cell and an IBM microcomputer with an A/D card. The peak and average strength values were extracted and statistically compared across conditions and gender (ANOVA). Finally a multiple regression analysis was carried out to predict strength as a function of reach, posture and velocity of lift. The ANOVA revealed a highly significant effect of gender, reach, plane and velocity (p capabilities for industrial application based on simple anthropometric and strength characteristics.

  19. New York Marcellus Shale: Industry boom put on hold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercurio, Angelique

    2012-01-16

    , New Mexico, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, West Virginia, and Wyoming are pursuing. Positive labor market impacts are another major economic draw. According to the Revised Draft SGEIS on the Oil, Gas and Solution Mining Regulatory Program (September 2011), hydraulic fracturing would create between 4,408 and 17,634 full-time equivalent (FTE) direct construction jobs in New York State. Indirect employment in other sectors would add an additional 29,174 FTE jobs. Furthermore, the SGEIS analysis suggests that drilling activities could add an estimated $621.9 million to $2.5 billion in employee earnings (direct and indirect) per year, depending upon how much of the shale is developed. The state would also receive direct tax receipts from leasing land, and has the potential to see an increase in generated indirect revenue. Estimates range from $31 million to $125 million per year in personal income tax receipts, and local governments would benefit from revenue sharing. Some landowner groups say the continued delay in drilling is costing tens of thousands of jobs and millions of dollars in growth for New York, especially in the economically stunted upstate. A number of New York counties near Pennsylvania, such as Chemung, NY, have experienced economic uptick from Pennsylvania drilling activity just across the border. Chemung officials reported that approximately 1,300 county residents are currently employed by the drilling industry in Pennsylvania. The Marcellus shale boom is expected to continue over the next decade and beyond. By 2015, gas drilling activity could bring 20,000 jobs to New York State alone. Other states, such as Pennsylvania and West Virginia, are also expected to see a significant increase in the number of jobs. Catalyst 2: Political Reality of the Moratorium. Oil and gas drilling has taken place in New York since the 19th century, and it remains an important industry with more than 13,000 currently active wells. The

  20. Explicit Frobenius lifts on elliptic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Carls, Robert

    2009-01-01

    In this article we give explicit formulae for a lift of the relative Frobenius morphism between elliptic curves and show how one can compute this lift in the case of ordinary reduction in odd characteristic. Our theory can also be used in the case of supersingular reduction. By means of the explicit formulae that describe a Frobenius lift, we are able to generalize Mestre's 2-adic arithmetic geometric mean (AGM) sequence of elliptic curves to odd characteristic, and prove its convergence. As an application, we give an efficient point counting algorithm for ordinary elliptic curves which is based on the generalized AGM sequence.

  1. Aerodynamic Effects of a 24-foot Multisegmented Telescoping Nose Boom on an F-15B Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Stephen B.; Smith, Mark S.; Frederick, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    An experimental multisegmented telescoping nose boom has been installed on an F-15B airplane to be tested in a flight environment. The experimental nose boom is representative of one that could be used to tailor the sonic boom signature of an airplane such as a supersonic business jet. The nose boom consists of multiple sections and could be extended during flight to a length of 24 ft. The preliminary analyses indicate that the addition of the experimental nose boom could adversely affect vehicle flight characteristics and air data systems. Before the boom was added, a series of flights was conducted to update the aerodynamic model and characterize the air data systems of the baseline airplane. The baseline results have been used in conjunction with estimates of the nose boom's influence to prepare for a series of research flights conducted with the nose boom installed. Data from these flights indicate that the presence of the experimental boom reduced the static pitch and yaw stability of the airplane. The boom also adversely affected the static-position error of the airplane but did not significantly affect angle-of-attack or angle-of-sideslip measurements. The research flight series has been successfully completed.

  2. Midface lift: our current approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botti, G; Botti, C

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years, surgery of the ageing face seems to have shifted from tissue uplifting and tightening to mere filling. We do not agree with this trend. We are positive that ageing brings about 2 basic phenomena: on one hand bone and fat volume reduction, whilst on the other a deterioration of the skin lining (elastosis) leading to an increase in its compliance and extension. We therefore deem of the utmost importance to couple soft tissue filling with indispensable tightening and repositioning together with resection of overabundant skin. For what concerns the mid-face area in particular, we suggest to resort to 3 different lifting techniques, according to the kind of defect to be treated. It is important to take the right pulling vector into consideration as well as the need of skin excess removal. The procedures can be tailored to suit any peculiar need such as malar bag, lower lid border malposition, tear trough deformity, etc. Different cases will be taken into consideration as examples of the various indications and techniques. PMID:25162240

  3. Did housing policies cause the postwar boom in homeownership?

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Chambers; Carlos Garriga; Donald E. Schlagenhauf

    2012-01-01

    After the collapse of housing markets during the Great Depression, the U.S. government played a large role in shaping the future of housing finance and policy. Soon thereafter, housing markets witnessed the largest boom in recent history. The objective in this paper is to quantify the contribution of government interventions in housing markets in the expansion of U.S. homeownership using an equilibrium model of tenure choice. In the model, home buyers have access to a menu of mortgage choices...

  4. Static dissolution of UO2 in interstitial Boom Clay water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Static dissolution experiments were performed with unirradiated UO2 in Boom Clay water. The objectives were (1) to measure the solubility of uranium species in Boom Clay water, with UO2 as the solid phase, and (2) to assess the impact of dissolved organic matter and carbonate concentration on this solubility. The tests were supported by calculations with geochemical codes to indicate possibly solubility controlling solid phases. The tests were performed in anoxic and reducing conditions, at 20 and 25 C. The following conclusions could be drawn: (1) Within 2 months in anoxic conditions, the uranium concentrations appear to approach saturation. (2) The near-saturation concentrations are between 2.4 and 7.8x10-7 M. (3) The influence of the carbonate concentration and humic acids on the uranium concentration was apparently small, but the interpretation is hampered by pH and Eh and/or pH conditions; this can probably be explained by small differences in experimental conditions. (5) The measured near steady-state uranium concentration in the real clay water agrees relatively well with the solubility calculated for uraninite. (6) Addition of sulfide species reduced the redox potential, but not the uranium concentrations, except in real Boom Clay water

  5. CO2 production from the Boom clay under thermal load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Organic matter is an important constituent of the clayey rocks studied as natural barriers in the context of radioactive waste disposal. The Boom Clay, currently considered by the Belgian agency for radioactive waste and enriched fissile materials Ondraf/Niras as a potential host formation for geological disposal, contains a substantial amount of organic matter (0.5-5 wt%) of low maturity. Low maturity of the organic matter together with the other diagenetic indicators point to the fact that Boom Clay was never deeply buried and thus never experienced temperatures significantly higher than present T of 15-20 C in the course of its geological history. In contrast to past geological evolution, the temperature in the near-field of a repository for heat-emitting radioactive wastes in the Boom Clay can reach 80-90 C depending on the waste type, cooling time prior to disposal and gallery spacing. It is well documented that Boom Clay kerogen will release significant amounts of CO2 even under mild thermal stress. The production of gaseous compounds like CO2 under moderate thermal stress may have a significant impact on the physico-chemical parameters of the pore water in the near field of the repository and thus may affect speciation and migration behaviour of the radionuclides. Until now, a number of experiments have been performed to determine the source and total CO2 yields under variable conditions, time and temperature regimes. In this contribution, we bring an overview of the available results on the Boom Clay capacity to produce CO2 as a response to thermal stress, its implications for the pore water chemistry and we put forward some perspectives with respect to future research. Deniau et al. (2005) and Lorant et al. (2008) performed closed pyrolyses on the isolated Boom Clay kerogen of the same origin at T between 80 and 200 C. It is estimated that the maximum amount of 'labile' CO2 that can be generated by the

  6. Uranium release from boom clay in bicarbonate media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The release of natural uranium from Boom Clay was studied to better understand the mechanisms governing the solid-liquid partitioning of uranium. Batch leaching experiments suggested that the portion of natural uranium released from clay is associated with colloids at a low bicarbonate concentration prevailing in Boom Clay. At increased bicarbonate concentrations, uranium was present predominantly as dissolved species indicating a formation of uranium carbonate complexes. The in situ aqueous uranium concentration, i.e., the concentration in the pore waters collected by piezometers was found to be 2 to 3 orders of magnitudes lower than the one measured by the batch techniques. These results illustrated that the batch techniques may cause a remobilization of uranium containing colloids from clay surfaces into solution when clay is suspended, agitated, and mechanically perturbed. These colloids are attributed to artefacts and are not considered to exist in situ because of the high compaction of Boom Clay. Due to the presence of colloids, a laboratory derived solid-liquid partitioning coefficient is not equivalent to and cannot simply be converted to the distribution coefficient Kd currently used in performance assessment calculations. (orig.)

  7. Boom accomodation effects on plasma and field measurements with RPWI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes Correa, P.; Eriksson, A. I.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Odelstad, E.; Vaivads, A.; Bergman, J.

    2013-09-01

    While the JUICE spacecraft configuration and main contractor are yet to be decided, it is still possible to investigate general issues on the impact of various boom accomodation alternatives for measurements of plasma and electric fields using the Langmuir probe system of the Radio and Plasma Waves Investigation. These probes can be used as classical Langmuir probes, as electric field probes, or for mutual impedance measurements, and the impact of e.g. varying illumination and wake interference are different for each type of measurement. While there is a nominal JUICE trajectory for the main science mission, we have to do assumptions on the spacecraft pointing, e.g. nadir pointing during flybys of the various moons. The detailed spacecraft layout is not known, but we can arrive at general conclusions on the suitability of various boom accomodations by assuming a cube-like spacecraft with solar panels as rectangular wings. For disturbing structures like wakes and photoelectron clouds we use simple models based on previous simulations. Even though the detailed pointing and spacecraft design will quite certainly deviate from our assumptions, and the model has uncertainties also in other respects, we can still give some general conclusions on boom accomodation alternatives.

  8. Lifting scheme of symmetric tight wavelets frames

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUANG BoJin; YUAN WeiTao; PENG LiZhong

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to realize the lifting scheme of tight frame wavelet filters. As for 4-channel tight frame wavelet filter, the tight frame transforms' ma-trix is 2×4, but the lifting scheme transforms' matrix must be 4×4. And in the case of 3-channel tight frame wavelet filter, the transforms' matrix is 2×3, but the lifting scheme transforms' matrix must be 3×3. In order to solve this problem, we intro-duce two concepts: transferred polyphase matrix for 4-channel filters and trans-ferred unitary matrix for 3-channel filters. The transferred polyphase matrix is sym-metric/antisymmetric. Thus, we use this advantage to realize the lifting scheme.

  9. Design of heavy lift cargo aircraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the bird of the skies of the future. The heavy lift cargo aircraft which is currently being developed by me has twice the payload capacity of an Antonov...

  10. Design report for cask transportation equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Korea, the spent fuels stored in the spent fuel storage pools in the domestic nuclear power plants significantly affects the continuation of the power plant operation. To solve this problem, KAERI has developed KSC-4 spent fuel shipping cask, which can transport 4 PWR spent fuel assemblies. Besides the development of the cask, KAERI developed transportation equipment which needed to use of KSC-4 cask. These equipment consist of cask handling tools such as lifting yoke, lid handling tool and spent fuel handling tool, etc. and transportation equipment such as trailer. In this report the usages, structures and functions of these tools and equipment were described, and the safety evaluation was carried out for each equipment

  11. Texas passes first law for safe patient handling in America: landmark legislation protects health-care workers and patients from injury related to manual patient lifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Mary Anne

    2005-01-01

    On June 17,2005, Texas Governor Rick Perry (R) signed into law Senate Bill 1525, making Texas the first state in the nation to require hospitals and nursing homes to implement safe patient handling and movement programs. Governor Perry is to be commended for this heroic first stand for safe patient handling in America. The landmark legislation will take effect January 1, 2006, requiring the establishment of policy to identify, assess, and develop methods of controlling the risk of injury to patients and nurses associated with lifting, transferring, repositioning, and movement of patients; evaluation of alternative methods from manual lifting to reduce the risk of injury from patient lifting, including equipment and patient care environment; restricting, to the extent feasible with existing equipment, manual handling of all or most of a patient's weight to emergency, life-threatening, or exceptional circumstances; and provision for refusal to perform patient handling tasks believed to involve unacceptable risks of injury to a patient or nurse. Manually lifting patients has been called deplorable, inefficient, dangerous to nurses, and painful and brutal to patients; manual lifting can cause needless suffering and injury to patients, with dangers including pain, bruising, skin tears, abrasions, tube dislodgement, dislocations, fractures, and being dropped by nursing staff during attempts to manually lift. Use of safe, secure, mechanical lift equipment and gentle friction-reducing devices for patient maneuvering tasks could eliminate such needless brutality. Research has proven that manual patient lifting is extremely hazardous to health-care workers, creating substantial risk of low-back injury, whether with one or two patient handlers. Studies on the use of mechanical patient lift equipment, by either nursing staff or lift teams, have proven repeatedly that most nursing staff back injury is preventable, leading to substantial savings to employers on medical and

  12. Suture Fixation Technique for Endoscopic Brow Lift

    OpenAIRE

    Foustanos, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Endoscopic brow lift has become widely accepted as a procedure for restoring a youthful brow, as only three, hardly noticeable incisions of the scalp are needed for this subperiosteal dissection and final repositioning of the brow. It has become an acceptable technique, an alternative to the conventional technique or transcoronal browpexy. Endoscopic brow lift allows separation and repositioning of the periosteum of the orbital rims and zygomaxilla. In a 7-year period beginning September 1999...

  13. ATLAS IV in situ heating test in Boom Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The small scale in-situ ATLAS (Admissible Thermal Loading for Argillaceous Storage) tests are performed to assess the hydro-mechanical effects of a thermal transient on the host Boom clay at the HADES underground research facility in Mol, Belgium. The initial test set-up, consisting of a heater borehole and two observation boreholes, was installed in 1991-1992. The first test (later named 'ATLAS I') was then performed from July 1993 to June 1996; during this time, the heater dissipated a constant power of 900 W. During the second phase ('ATLAS II'), the heating power was doubled (1800 W) and maintained constant from June 1996 to May 1997. This was followed by shutdown and natural cooling starting from June 1997 on. To broaden the THM characterization of the Boom clay at a larger scale and at different temperature levels, the test set-up was extended in 2006 by drilling two additional instrumented boreholes (AT97E and AT98E). The heater was switched on again from April 2007 to April 2008 with a stepwise power increase, followed by an instantaneous shutdown. This phase is called 'ATLAS III'. The above tests have provided a large set of good quality and well documented data on temperature, pore water pressure and total stress; these data allowed to make several interesting observations regarding the thermal anisotropy and THM coupling in the Boom clay. The straightforward geometry and well defined boundary conditions of the tests facilitate the comparison between measurement and numerical modeling studies. Based on the three dimensional coupled THM modeling of the ATLAS III test, the good agreement between measurement and numerical modeling of temperature and pore water pressure yields a set of THM parameters and confirms the thermo-mechanical anisotropy of the Boom clay. To get a better insight in the anisotropic THM behavior of the Boom clay, a new upward instrumented borehole was drilled above the ATLAS heater at

  14. Training for lifting; an unresolved ergonomic issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgwick, A W; Gormley, J T

    1998-10-01

    The paper describes a nine year project on lifting training which included nine trans-Australia consensus conferences attended by more than 900 health professionals. Major outcomes were: (1) The essence of lifting work is the need for the performer to cope with variability in task, environment, and self, and the essence of lifting skill is therefore adaptability; (2) the semi-squat approach provides the safest and most effective basis for lifting training; (3) for lifting training to be effective, the basic principles of skill learning must be systematically applied, with adaptability as a specific goal; (4) physical work capacity (aerobic power, strength, endurance, joint mobility) is a decisive ingredient of safe and effective lifting and, in addition to skill learning, should be incorporated in the training of people engaging regularly in heavy manual work; (5) if effective compliance with recommended skilled behaviour is to be achieved, then training must apply the principles and methods appropriate to adult learning and behaviour modification. PMID:9703354

  15. Plunger lift analysis, troubleshooting and optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowlan, O.L.; McCoy, J.N. [Echometer Co., Wichita Falls, TX (United States); Podio, A.L. [Texas Univ. at Austin, Austin, TX (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Plunger lifting is used to lift liquids such as condensates, water and oil from liquid loaded gas wells. This paper described a portable system designed to monitor gas plunger lift. The system digitized, stored and processed acoustic pulse signals generated by the plunger as it fell through each tubing collar recess when the well was shut in. Data were used to determine depth; fall velocity; the amount of appropriate cycle times for optimum operation; and the volume and rate of gas flowing into the well. The stored signals were then used to determine plunger position, plunger fall velocity, and plunger arrival at the liquid level in the tubing. Analysis of the data were used to optimize and troubleshoot the operation of plunger lifted wells. Examples of various operational problems encountered during the operation of the plunger lift system were also provided. It was concluded that the monitoring system increases the safety of plunger lift operations by allowing operators to know the exact placement of the plunger. 5 refs., 1 tab., 17 figs.

  16. Applications of flow visualization to the development of an innovative boom system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new oil retention boom system design was developed using a flow visualization technique. Hydrogen bubbles were generated on a fine wire cathode and placed in a stream of moving water with a strong light source to visualize the flow. Observations were made of the flow patterns around some basic shapes and booms modelled as cylinders with and without a skirt. The most effective system design had two booms with skirts in parallel with a submerged airfoil designed to cause the oil to separate and recirculate. Oil was allowed to flow above the airfoil into the recirculation region between the two floating booms. The new system is expected to outperform the conventional boom system only when flow velocity is high. Its most successful application would be in situations where flow is perpendicular to the length of the boom. 1 ref., 6 figs

  17. Effect of photoelectrons on boom-satellite potential differences during electron beam ejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data taken on the SCATHA satellite at geosynchronous altitudes during periods of electron beam ejection in sunlight showed that the potential difference between an electrically isolated boom and the satellite main body was a function of beam current, energy, and boom-sun angle. The potential difference decreased as the boom area illuminated by the sun increased; the maximum and minimum potential differences were measured when minimum and maximum boom areas, respectively, were exposed to the sun. It is shown that photoelectrons, created on the boom, could be engulfed in the electrostatic field of the highly charged satellite main body. Theoretical calculations made using a simple current balance model showed that these electrons could provide a substantial discharging current to the main body and cause the observed variations in the potential difference between the main body and the booms. copyright American Geophysica Union 1987

  18. Tc(IV) interaction with dissolved boom clay humic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The redox-sensitive fission product technetium-99 is of great interest in nuclear waste disposal studies because of its potential of contaminating the geosphere due to its very long half-life and high mobility. Under oxidising conditions, technetium is present as pertechnetate, a highly soluble, anionic species, that does not sorb significantly on minerals or sediments. Under suitable reducing conditions, eg. in the presence of a reducing solid phase which can act as an electron donor, the solubility can be limited by the reduction of pertechnetate followed by the formation of a surface precipitate with a low solubility. However, in the presence of dissolved humic substances, the solubility may be enhanced due to the formation of Tc-HS complexes. The geochemical behaviour of the redox sensitive Technetium-99 (Tc) in reducing clay environments and in the presence of organic matter, was elucidated with a number of lab-scale Boom Clay batch experiments. In a new set of experiments, the influence of FeS2 on the interaction of Tc with dissolved Boom Clay organic matter was elucidated in batch systems prepared in a similar manner as in Maes et al (2003). In a second set of experiments, the long-term (up to 113 days) behaviour of the Tc interaction with dissolved Boom Clay O.M. was studied. Finally, (ir)reversibility effects concerning the interaction of Tc(IV) with dissolved Boom Clay HS were investigated by examining newly installed equilibrium conditions upon interchanging of supernatants of Tc spiked and not-spiked Boom Clay suspensions. EXAFS measurements (Maes et al., 2004) of different series of experiments were made to further elucidate the nature and kind of Tc(IV)-humic substances species (Gorleben and Boom Clay humic substances ) and to identify Tc(IV) species formed on solid phases (pyrite and magnetite): series 1 consisted of Tc species in presence of 2 different iron-containing surfaces (acting as the necessary reducing solid phase): pyrite and magnetite

  19. Solar Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    A medical refrigeration and a water pump both powered by solar cells that convert sunlight directly into electricity are among the line of solar powered equipment manufactured by IUS (Independent Utility Systems) for use in areas where conventional power is not available. IUS benefited from NASA technology incorporated in the solar panel design and from assistance provided by Kerr Industrial Applications Center.

  20. Analyzing price level in a booming economy: the case of Azerbaijan

    OpenAIRE

    Hasanov, Fakhri

    2011-01-01

    The study analyzes price level in Azerbaijani economy over the period of 2000-2007 by employing a specific approach. The paper concludes that price increases caused by a resource boom differs from the price increases generated by a non-booming economy. Thereby, inflation mainly caused by resource boom has its own specific features in terms of impact on economy and therefore requires specific policy response. Some policy recommendations related to monetary and fiscal policies are suggested for...

  1. A Numerical Method of Large-Scale Concrete Displacing Boom Dynamic and Experimental Validation

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Ren; Yun-xin Wu; Zhao-wei Zhang; Wen-ze Shi

    2014-01-01

    Concrete displacing boom is large-scale motion manipulator. During the long distance pouring the postures needs to frequently change. This makes the real-time dynamic analysis and health monitoring difficult. Virtual spring-damper method is adopted to establish the equivalent hydraulic actuator model. Besides boom cylinder joint clearance is taken into account. Then transfer matrix method is used to build the multibody concrete placing boom model by dividing the system into two substructures....

  2. From boom to bust in the credit cycle: the role of mortgage credit

    OpenAIRE

    Bezemer, Dirk; Zhang, L.

    2014-01-01

    Based on newly collected data on 37 economies over 1970-2012, we provide a rich description of 187 credit booms, credit busts and other episodes. We explore the changing composition of bank credit over the credit cycle. In an event analysis we chart changes in capital flows, regulation, productivity and house prices over credit booms and busts. We also ask which credit boom eatures are connected to a subsequent credit growth contraction. We find that the interaction of mortgage credit growth ...

  3. Dynamic simulation of a planar flexible boom for tokamak in-vessel operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we present a dynamic model for the analysis of the vibrations of a planar articulated flexible boom to be used for tokamak in-vessel maintenance operations. The peculiarity of the mechanical structure of the boom enables us to consider separately the oscillations in the horizontal and vertical planes so that two separate models can be constructed for describing these phenomena. The results of simulations based on booms like that proposed for NET in-vessel operations are presented. (orig.)

  4. Project Plan for Vertical Lift Machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellsworth, G F

    2002-08-05

    This document describes the Project Plan for the development and manufacture of a Vertical Lift Machine. It is assumed by this project plan that the Vertical Lift Machine will be developed, designed, manufactured, and tested by a qualified vendor. LLNL will retain review and approval authority for each step given in this project plan. The Vertical Lift Machine is a single linear axis positioning device capable of lifting objects vertically at controlled rates and positioning them repeatedly at predetermined heights, in relation to other objects suspended from above, for high neutron multiplication experiments. Operation of the machine during the experiments is done remotely. The lift mechanism shall accommodate various platforms (tables) that support the objects to be raised. A frame will support additional subassemblies from above such that the lower subassembly can be raised close to and/or interface with those above. The structure must be stiff and motion of the table linear such that radial alignment is maintained (e.g. concentricity). The safe position for the Vertical Lift Machine is the lift mechanism fully retracted with the subassemblies fully separated. The machine shall reside in this position when not in use. It must return to this safe condition from any position upon failure of power sources, open safety interlocks, or operator initiated SCRAM. The Vertical Lift Machine shall have the capability of return to the safe position with no externally applied power. The Vertical Lift Machine shall have dual operator interfaces, one near the machine and another located in a remote control room. Conventional single key, key-lock switching shall be implemented to lock out the control interface not in use. The interface at the machine will be used for testing and ''dry running'' experimental setup(s) with inert subassemblies (i.e. Setup Mode). The remote interface shall provide full control and data recording capability (i.e. Assembly Mode

  5. A dynamic model of mobile concrete pump boom based on discrete time transfer matrix method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wu; Wu, Yunxin; Zhang, Zhaowei

    2013-12-01

    Mobile concrete pump boom is typical multibody large-scale motion manipulator. Due to posture constantly change in working process, kinematic rule and dynamic characteristic are difficult to solve. A dynamics model of a mobile concrete pump boom is established based on discrete time transfer matrix method (DTTMM). The boom system is divided into sub-structure A and substructure B. Sub-structure A is composed by the 1st boom and hydraulic actuator as well as the support. And substructure B is consists of the other three booms and corresponding hydraulic actuators. In the model, the booms and links are regarded as rigid elements and the hydraulic cylinders are equivalent to spring-damper. The booms are driven by the controllable hydraulic actuators. The overall dynamic equation and transfer matrix of the model can be assembled by sub-structures A and B. To get a precise result, step size and integration parameters are studied then. Next the tip displacement is calculated and compared with the result of ADAMS software. The displacement and rotation angle curves of the proposed method fit well with the ADAMS model. Besides it is convenient in modeling and saves time. So it is suitable for mobile concrete pump boom real-time monitoring and dynamic analysis. All of these provide reference to boom optimize and engineering application of such mechanisms.

  6. Numerical study on (porous) net-boom systems - Front net inclined angle effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, - FLUENT - was used to simulate the flow of oil and water against a a family of net-boom structures in which the angle of inclination of the front is varied. The study also aimed at gaining a better understanding of the physical mechanisms which cause oil to escape under the rear boom. From the simulation and analysis it was concluded that critical velocity was significantly affected by the flow rate inside the net-boom region, that the highest critical velocity was achieved when the the front is nearly vertical or slightly inclined forward, and that there is an excellent potential to raise the critical velocity by deliberately designing net-boom structures. For a single solid boom, the critical velocity was found to be 0.3 to 0.4 metre/sec. A solid boom with front perforated plates may increase critical velocity to 0.5 metre/sec. A solid boom with a partially perforated front plate, which has a solid upper part, will raise the critical velocity to one metre/sec. Results of this investigation suggest that a properly-designed net-boom structure could raise the critical velocity to about two metres/sec, or even higher. Experimental data and the computed numerical velocity profiles are in reasonably good agreement, confirming the hypothesis that computational fluid dynamics can be used as reliable predictive tools for oil boom analysis and design. 16 refs., 13 figs

  7. Ohmsett's propane-fuelled test system for fire-resistant boom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A propane-fuelled system for testing fire-resistant booms was installed at Ohmsett in the fall of 1998, the objective being to expose candidate booms to air-enhanced propane flames and waves, to reproduce a realistic in situ burning environment equal to that of a diesel or crude oil fire. Four fire boom systems have been successfully tested to date. The larger objective is to develop a complete boom performance evaluation system included this and other parameters such as towing performance and the ability to contain hot oil after exposure to flames. 5 refs., 8 figs

  8. Eisenhart lifts and symmetries of time-dependent systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariglia, M.; Duval, C.; Gibbons, G. W.; Horváthy, P. A.

    2016-10-01

    Certain dissipative systems, such as Caldirola and Kannai's damped simple harmonic oscillator, may be modelled by time-dependent Lagrangian and hence time dependent Hamiltonian systems with n degrees of freedom. In this paper we treat these systems, their projective and conformal symmetries as well as their quantisation from the point of view of the Eisenhart lift to a Bargmann spacetime in n + 2 dimensions, equipped with its covariantly constant null Killing vector field. Reparametrisation of the time variable corresponds to conformal rescalings of the Bargmann metric. We show how the Arnold map lifts to Bargmann spacetime. We contrast the greater generality of the Caldirola-Kannai approach with that of Arnold and Bateman. At the level of quantum mechanics, we are able to show how the relevant Schrödinger equation emerges naturally using the techniques of quantum field theory in curved spacetimes, since a covariantly constant null Killing vector field gives rise to well defined one particle Hilbert space. Time-dependent Lagrangians arise naturally also in cosmology and give rise to the phenomenon of Hubble friction. We provide an account of this for Friedmann-Lemaître and Bianchi cosmologies and how it fits in with our previous discussion in the non-relativistic limit.

  9. The measured field performances of eight different mechanical and air-lift water-pumping wind-turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kentfield, J.A.C. [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    Results are presented of the specific performances of eight, different, water-pumping wind-turbines subjected to impartial tests at the Alberta Renewable Energy Test Site (ARETS), Alberta, Canada. The results presented which were derived from the test data, obtained independently of the equipment manufacturers, are expressed per unit of rotor projected area to eliminate the influence of machine size. Hub-height wind speeds and water flow rates for a common lift of 5.5 m (18 ft) constitute the essential test data. A general finding was that, to a first approximation, there were no major differences in specific performance between four units equipped with conventional reciprocating pumps two of which employed reduction gearing and two of which did not. It was found that a unit equipped with a Moyno pump performed well but three air-lift machines had, as was expected, poorer specific performances than the more conventional equipment. 10 refs., 9 figs.

  10. Lift and wakes of flying snakes

    CERN Document Server

    Krishnan, Anush; Vlachos, Pavlos P; Barba, L A

    2013-01-01

    Flying snakes use a unique method of aerial locomotion: they jump from tree branches, flatten their bodies and undulate through the air to produce a glide. The shape of their body cross-section during the glide plays an important role in generating lift. This paper presents a computational investigation of the aerodynamics of the cross-sectional shape. We performed two-dimensional simulations of incompressible flow past the anatomically correct cross-section of the species Chrysopelea paradisi, showing that a significant enhancement in lift appears at an angle of attack of 35 degrees, above Reynolds numbers 2000. Previous experiments on physical models also obtained an increased lift, at the same angle of attack. The flow is inherently three-dimensional in physical experiments, due to fluid instabilities, and it is thus intriguing that the enhanced lift appears also in the two-dimensional simulations. The simulations point to the lift enhancement arising from the early separation of the boundary layer on the ...

  11. Win a lift to the future!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    The Communication Group is organising a competition offering people at CERN the chance to submit their ideas and win a ticket to the Lift10 Conference, which will be held in Geneva from 5 to7 May.   Lift is a community of technology "pioneers", created in 2006. It now involves more than 4,000 people from over 60 countries, who meet regularly in Europe and in Asia to explore the social implications of new technologies and the major shifts ahead. CERN is one of the academic partners of the next Lift conference, whose theme is "Connected people”. For this occasion, 10 free tickets to the conference will be awarded to the "CERNois" who come up with the best answers to the question: “How would you contribute to Lift10?” Those taking part in the competition can choose from among the following categories: - run workshop(s); - cover the conference on a blog; - coordinate a discussion during the breaks; - organize a lift@home ...

  12. CERN takes off at Lift11

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    CERN was especially featured at the Lift11 conference, held in Geneva early this month. Tara Shears delivered a keynote speech at the event, while Paul Oortman Gerlings (DGS-SEE) and Erik van der Bij (BE-CO) – winners of the Bulletin’s Lift11 competition – organised the CERN workshop.   Paul Oortman Gerlings takes questions at CERN's Lift11 workshop. Lift11 was an opportunity for CERN to reach today’s innovators and developers. “The event was filled with people eager to learn new ideas, who were not afraid to ask questions,” says Tara Shears, physicist from the LHCb Collaboration who presented an update on the status of the LHC. “People were amazed by what goes on inside CERN, by our science, our facilities – even by the way we carry out our day-to-day work. It is a branch of fundamental research that really seems to inspire everyone.” A small Lift11 group had the chance to take a tour of CERN, ...

  13. Mass Boom Versus Big Bang Einstein was Right

    CERN Document Server

    Alfonso-Faus, A

    2003-01-01

    When considering possible time variations of fundamental physical constants one has to keep firm well established principles. Following this approach we keep firm the Action Principle, General Relativity (the Equivalence Principle), and Mach's Principle. Also we introduce a new principle under the name of "TOTAL INTERACTION" and reconsider Weinberg's relation with a new approach. Consistent with all these principles we find that all masses increase linearly with cosmological time (THE MASS BOOM) and that Planck's constant decreases also with this time.Then the whole quantum world shrinks with time too. This is the cause of the red shift

  14. Asia-Pacific focus of coming LNG trade boom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that the Asia-Pacific region remains the centerpiece of a booming world trade in liquefied natural gas. Biggest growth in LNG demand is expected from some of the region's strongest economies such as Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan, Key LNG exporters such as Brunei, Malaysia, and Indonesia are scrambling to implement projects to meet that expected demand growth. Uncertainties cloud the outlook for Far East LNG trade, Australia, for one, is more cautious in pressing expansion of its LNG export capacity as more competing LNG expansions spring up around the world, notably in the Middle East and Africa

  15. CFD Simulations Of Sonic Booms In Near And Mid Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Samson H.; Edwards, Thomas A.; Lawrence, Scott L.

    1992-01-01

    Report discusses computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to simulate generation and propagation of sonic booms in near- and mid-field regions of supersonic flows about simplified bodies representative of advanced airplanes. Parabolized Navier-Stokes equations integrated by implicit, approximate-factorization, finite-volume algorithm in which crossflow inviscid fluxes evaluated by Roe's flux-difference-splitting scheme. Near-field solutions obtained by applying algorithm to flows immediately surrounding bodies. Solutions transferred to computer codes based on Whitham"s F-function theory for extrapolation to far-field.

  16. TMI-2 reactor vessel plenum final lift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, D C

    1986-01-01

    Removal of the plenum assembly from the TMI-2 reactor vessel was necessary to gain access to the core region for defueling. The plenum was lifted from the reactor vessel by the polar crane using three specially designed pendant assemblies. It was then transferred in air to the flooded deep end of the refueling canal and lowered onto a storage stand where it will remain throughout the defueling effort. The lift and transfer were successfully accomplished on May 15, 1985 in just under three hours by a lift team located in a shielded area within the reactor building. The success of the program is attributed to extensive mockup and training activities plus thorough preparations to address potential problems. 54 refs.

  17. Coriolis effects enhance lift on revolving wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardin, T; David, L

    2015-03-01

    At high angles of attack, an aircraft wing stalls. This dreaded event is characterized by the development of a leading edge vortex on the upper surface of the wing, followed by its shedding which causes a drastic drop in the aerodynamic lift. At similar angles of attack, the leading edge vortex on an insect wing or an autorotating seed membrane remains robustly attached, ensuring high sustained lift. What are the mechanisms responsible for both leading edge vortex attachment and high lift generation on revolving wings? We review the three main hypotheses that attempt to explain this specificity and, using direct numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations, we show that the latter originates in Coriolis effects.

  18. Lower Complexity Bounds for Lifted Inference

    CERN Document Server

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    One of the big challenges in the development of probabilistic relational (or probabilistic logical) modeling and learning frameworks is the design of inference techniques that operate on the level of the abstract model representation language, rather than on the level of ground, propositional instances of the model. Numerous approaches for such "lifted inference" techniques have been proposed. While it has been demonstrated that these techniques will lead to significantly more efficient inference on some specific models, there are only very recent and still quite restricted results that show the feasibility of lifted inference on certain syntactically defined classes of models. Lower complexity bounds that imply some limitations for the feasibility of lifted inference on more expressive model classes were established early on in (Jaeger 2000). However, it is not immediate that these results also apply to the type of modeling languages that currently receive the most attention, i.e., weighted, quantifier-free ...

  19. Asymmetric Gepner Models II. Heterotic Weight Lifting

    CERN Document Server

    Gato-Rivera, B

    2010-01-01

    A systematic study of "lifted" Gepner models is presented. Lifted Gepner models are obtained from standard Gepner models by replacing one of the N=2 building blocks and the $E_8$ factor by a modular isomorphic $N=0$ model on the bosonic side of the heterotic string. The main result is that after this change three family models occur abundantly, in sharp contrast to ordinary Gepner models. In particular, more than 250 new and unrelated moduli spaces of three family models are identified. We discuss the occurrence of fractionally charged particles in these spectra.

  20. [Anesthetic maintenance during circular face lifting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshin, V I; Pastukhova, N K

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with the specific features of anesthetic maintenance (ketamine, diprivan, dormicum, perfalgan, promedol) during circular face lifting without artificial ventilation. All intravenous anesthesia procedures have yielded good results. Narcotic analgesics may be removed from the anesthetic maintenance scheme, ruling out the necessity of their licensing, storing, and recording. The use of perfalgan causes no hallucinogenic reactions and offers the optimum level of anesthesia. During face lifting, 2.3 +/- 0.6-hour anesthesia with spontaneous breathing is possible, safe, and warranted. PMID:20524331

  1. Soccer ball lift coefficients via trajectory analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, John Eric [Department of Physics, Lynchburg College, Lynchburg, VA 24501 (United States); Carre, Matt J, E-mail: goff@lynchburg.ed [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin parameters that have not been obtained by today's wind tunnels. Our trajectory analysis technique is not only a valuable tool for professional sports scientists, it is also accessible to students with a background in undergraduate-level classical mechanics.

  2. Lifts of Convex Sets and Cone Factorizations

    OpenAIRE

    Gouveia, João; Parrilo, Pablo A.; Thomas, Rekha

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we address the basic geometric question of when a given convex set is the image under a linear map of an affine slice of a given closed convex cone. Such a representation or 'lift' of the convex set is especially useful if the cone admits an efficient algorithm for linear optimization over its affine slices. We show that the existence of a lift of a convex set to a cone is equivalent to the existence of a factorization of an operator associated to the set and its polar via eleme...

  3. Asymmetric Gepner models II. Heterotic weight lifting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gato-Rivera, B. [NIKHEF Theory Group, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Schellekens, A.N., E-mail: t58@nikhef.n [NIKHEF Theory Group, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain); IMAPP, Radboud Universiteit, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2011-05-21

    A systematic study of 'lifted' Gepner models is presented. Lifted Gepner models are obtained from standard Gepner models by replacing one of the N=2 building blocks and the E{sub 8} factor by a modular isomorphic N=0 model on the bosonic side of the heterotic string. The main result is that after this change three family models occur abundantly, in sharp contrast to ordinary Gepner models. In particular, more than 250 new and unrelated moduli spaces of three family models are identified. We discuss the occurrence of fractionally charged particles in these spectra.

  4. 76 FR 20532 - Safety Zone; Boom Days, Niagara River, Niagara Falls, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ..., Niagara River, Niagara Falls, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the Niagara River, Niagara Falls, NY for the Boom... Niagara River, Niagara Falls, NY during the Boom Days Fireworks on April 16, 2011. This temporary...

  5. On America’s Baby Boom Generation and It’s Social Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨娜

    2014-01-01

    Baby boom generation is the larger than expected generation in U.S born shortly after World War II. This post- World War II phenomenon upsets the phenomenon which had been a century-long decline in the U.S fertility rate. This paper simply analyzed America’s baby boom generation from three aspects.

  6. 76 FR 20530 - Safety Zone; Boom Days, Buffalo Outer Harbor, Buffalo, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Boom Days, Buffalo Outer Harbor, Buffalo... temporary safety zone in the Buffalo Outer Harbor, Buffalo, NY for the Boom Days Fireworks. This zone is intended to restrict vessels from Doug's Dive, the NFTA small boat harbor and a portion of the...

  7. Continued development of a test for fire booms in waves and flames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The durability of a fire resistant boom and its ability to contain oil during an in situ burn without creating any environmental damage as a result of the burning crude was evaluated. The screening test included four stages: (1) the pre-burn wave stress stage, where the test boom was flexed under tension in waves to simulate deployment of the boom and transit to the spill site, (2) the burn in wave stage, where the test boom was exposed to waves and repeated on hourly cycles of a propane gas fire to simulate oil burning operations, (3) the post-burn wave stress stage, where the test boom was again flexed under tension in waves to simulate retrieval of the boom, and (4) the oil-containment stage, where the ability of the boom to contain thick pools of hot oil was assessed. Three recommendations were made after the test program: (1) increase the heat generated by fire, (2) increase the tension on the boom, and (4) improve the data acquisition system. 10 refs., 10 tabs., 13 figs

  8. Study of the dynamic load on heavy surface mining equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backhaus, E.; Jacob, K.; Sollmann, H.

    1988-08-01

    Investigates mechanical stresses on bucket wheel excavators and boom spreaders operating in surface mines. Dynamic stresses are caused by oscillations of the machine structure in a dominant frequency range of 0 to 3 Hz, as effect of load during excavator digging and spreader travelling. The TAKRAF manufacturer developed the computer programs DYNAMIK and STABWERK for calculating oscillations of equipment boom girder structures. Calculation results of girder stability limits are demonstrated. Oscillations arising during movements of crawler track support carriages are further analyzed. The TURAS computer program is employed by the manufacturer for determining Fourier coefficients. Results of experimental measurements at a crawler chain are provided. A calculation model for the mean value function of the digging force is further established. Graphs present a comparison of calculated mean digging forces and those measured during operation of bucket wheel excavators. 3 refs.

  9. Micro-Ramps for External Compression Low-Boom Inlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybalko, Michael; Loth, Eric; Chima, Rodrick V.; Hirt, Stefanie M.; DeBonis, James R.

    2010-01-01

    The application of vortex generators for flow control in an external compression, axisymmetric, low-boom concept inlet was investigated using RANS simulations with three-dimensional (3-D), structured, chimera (overset) grids and the WIND-US code. The low-boom inlet design is based on previous scale model 1- by 1-ft wind tunnel tests and features a zero-angle cowl and relaxed isentropic compression centerbody spike, resulting in defocused oblique shocks and a weak terminating normal shock. Validation of the methodology was first performed for micro-ramps in supersonic flow on a flat plate with and without oblique shocks. For the inlet configuration, simulations with several types of vortex generators were conducted for positions both upstream and downstream of the terminating normal shock. The performance parameters included incompressible axisymmetric shape factor, separation area, inlet pressure recovery, and massflow ratio. The design of experiments (DOE) methodology was used to select device size and location, analyze the resulting data, and determine the optimal choice of device geometry. The optimum upstream configuration was found to substantially reduce the post-shock separation area but did not significantly impact recovery at the aerodynamic interface plane (AIP). Downstream device placement allowed for fuller boundary layer velocity profiles and reduced distortion. This resulted in an improved pressure recovery and massflow ratio at the AIP compared to the baseline solid-wall configuration.

  10. Sound, infrasound, and sonic boom absorption by atmospheric clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudoin, Michaël; Coulouvrat, François; Thomas, Jean-Louis

    2011-09-01

    This study quantifies the influence of atmospheric clouds on propagation of sound and infrasound, based on an existing model [Gubaidulin and Nigmatulin, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 26, 207-228 (2000)]. Clouds are considered as a dilute and polydisperse suspension of liquid water droplets within a mixture of dry air and water vapor, both considered as perfect gases. The model is limited to low and medium altitude clouds, with a small ice content. Four physical mechanisms are taken into account: viscoinertial effects, heat transfer, water phase changes (evaporation and condensation), and vapor diffusion. Physical properties of atmospheric clouds (altitude, thickness, water content and droplet size distribution) are collected, along with values of the thermodynamical coefficients. Different types of clouds have been selected. Quantitative evaluation shows that, for low audible and infrasound frequencies, absorption within clouds is several orders of magnitude larger than classical absorption. The importance of phase changes and vapor diffusion is outlined. Finally, numerical simulations for nonlinear propagation of sonic booms indicate that, for thick clouds, attenuation can lead to a very large decay of the boom at the ground level. PMID:21895057

  11. Solubility limited retention of strontium in boom clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For over 25 years, the study of Boom Clay as a geological barrier to radioactive waste has focused on laboratory batch type and diffusion experiments using artificial tracers. These experiments may suffer from artefacts and are not always representative for natural conditions and the geological time scale. Only in recent years, the research has significantly taken natural evidences into account. An important objective of the natural evidence study is to test the models representing the retention of radionuclides by confronting the observed distribution of naturally present radionuclides. The distribution and retention of naturally present strontium in Boom Clay was studied for clay cores from recent drillings in HADES (Underground Research Facilities) 2001/4 and Mol-1 boreholes. The concentration of strontium was measured both on solid clay and in pore water extracted by mechanical squeezing from the clay cores. Strontium concentration was also determined in the pore water samples collected from a multi-filter piezometer installed in the HADES 2001/4 borehole. (authors)

  12. Boom bomer boomste en die idiolek van Elsabe Steenberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth S. van der Westhuizen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Boom bomer boomste and the idiolect of Elsabe Steenberg. Elsabe Steenberg’s oeuvre,consisting among others of 42 narratives in book format, is richly textured and represents a notable depth of insight into the complexities of life. It is clear that, from an intertextual point of view, considering the entire body of her work is a way of accumulating evidence in order to discern aspects of her distinctive idiolect. This idiolect, however, also emerges when contemplating a representative work from her oeuvre. The text selected for this article, a youth novel in which the symbolism of trees manifests itself in various semantic permutations,communicating the author’s intrinsic life and world view, is Boom bomer boomste, also available in English under the title Tree-more, tree-most. The tree as object and how it functions in the narrative to become part of the theme, as well as the vision of life in this youth novel, can be scrutinised minutely if the effort is aimed at finding frequent recurring signs that maybe regarded as representative of the author’s idiolect. The use of the tree symbolism in the narrative worlds of Elsabe Steenberg points toward the most prolific sign contributing to this author’s idiolect: God is the Origin and the regenerating Force in the universe of Elsabe Steenberg’s life and work.

  13. Suction effects in deep Boom clay block samples

    CERN Document Server

    Delage, Pierre; Tang, Anh-Minh; Cui, Yu-Jun; Li, Xiang-Ling

    2008-01-01

    Extensive investigations have been and are being carried out on a stiff clay from an underground research laboratory located at Mol (Belgium) called Boom clay, in the context of research into deep nuclear waste disposal. Suction effects in deep Boom clay block samples were investigated through the characterisation of the water retention and of the swelling properties of the clay. The data obtained allowed an estimation of the sample initial suction that was reasonably compatible with the in-situ state of stress at a depth of 223 m. The relationship between suction and stress changes during loading and unloading sequences were also examined by running oedometer tests with suction measurements. A rather wide range of the ratio s/sigma 'v (being s the suction and sigma 'v the effective vertical stress) was obtained (0.61 - 1), different from that proposed by Bishop et al; (1974). Finally, the effect of suction release under an isotropic stress close to the estimated sample suction was investigated. A slight swel...

  14. Influence of ionic strength on the transport parameters of tritiated water and iodide in boom clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To fulfil its role as main barrier for High and Medium Level radioactive waste (HLW and MLW), Boom Clay relies on its advantageous capacity to minimise radionuclide transport by its slow diffusion and high retention properties. One of the key parameters in the radionuclide dispersion process is the diffusion accessible porosity (ηacc). Diffusion accessible porosity, is a transport parameter that is linked to the properties of each dispersing radionuclide and the geochemical conditions of Boom Clay. Disposing radioactive waste in Boom Clay will inevitably cause perturbations of which some can generate changes in the Boom Clay pore water chemistry. One effect of these chemical perturbations will be the increase of ionic strength of the pore water in the vicinity of a repository. This paper synthesises the results of the experimental work done to obtain the transport parameters of tritiated water and iodide for Boom Clay at different ionic strengths. (authors)

  15. 38 CFR 17.157 - Definition-adaptive equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... includes, but is not limited to, a basic automatic transmission, power steering, power brakes, power window lifts, power seats, air-conditioning equipment when necessary for the health and safety of the veteran... Health or designee as ordinarily necessary for any of the classes of losses or combination of such...

  16. Droplets spectrum of air-assisted boom sprayers under different environmental and operational conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson S. Sasaki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT During pesticide spraying, the psychrometric conditions of the air may cause evaporation of the droplets along their trajectory from the nozzle to the target. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of air psychrometric conditions and operating pressure on the droplet spectrum of air-assisted boom sprayers. The test was performed using a prototype equipped with an axial fan, a flow homogenizer, temperature and relative air humidity sensors, a spray nozzle and a gas-heating system to warm up the airflow. With the assembled system and the aid of a particle analyser, the JSF 11002 spray nozzle was evaluated with respect to droplet spectrum in four air psychrometric conditions (7, 14, 21 and 28 hPa and at four operating pressures (200, 300, 400 and 500 kPa. At the end, evaporation losses were observed during the sprayings. For a given operating pressure and for each increment of 1 hPa in vapor pressure deficit, there was a diameter reduction of approximately 0.0759, 0.518 and 1.514 μm for the parameters DV0.1, DV0.5 and DV0.9, respectively. The diameter of the droplets decreased as the operating pressure increased.

  17. Lambda-Lifting in Quadratic Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2002-01-01

    -lifting transforms a block-structured program into a set of recursive equations, one for each local function in the source program. Each equation carries extra parameters to account for the free variables of the corresponding local function and of all its callees. It is the search for these extra parameters...

  18. Lambda-Lifting in Quadratic Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2002-01-01

    local function in the source program. Each equation carries extra parameters to account for the free variables of the corresponding local function and of all its callees. It is the search for these extra parameters that yields the cubic factor in the traditional formulation of lambda-lifting, which...

  19. Lambda-Lifting in Quadratic Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2004-01-01

    -lifting transforms a block-structured program into a set of recursive equations, one for each local function in the source program. Each equation carries extra parameters to account for the free variables of the corresponding local function and of all its callees. It is the search for these extra parameters...

  20. Spherical projections and liftings in geometric tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goodey, Paul; Kiderlen, Markus; Weil, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    We consider a variety of integral transforms arising in Geometric Tomography. It will be shown that these can be put into a common framework using spherical projection and lifting operators. These operators will be applied to support functions and surface area measures of convex bodies and to...

  1. Soft sensing for gas-lift wells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, H.H.J.; Belfroid, S.P.C.; Sturm, W.L.; Verhelst, F.J.P.C.M.G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers the use of extended Kalman filtering as a soft-sensing technique for gas lift wells. This technique is deployed for the estimation of dynamic variables that are not directly measured. Possible applications are the estimation of flow rates from surface and downhole pressure measu

  2. Lifts of convex sets and cone factorizations

    CERN Document Server

    Gouveia, João; Thomas, Rekha

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we address the basic geometric question of when a given convex set is the image under a linear map of an affine slice of a given closed convex cone. Such a representation or 'lift' of the convex set is especially useful if the cone admits an efficient algorithm for linear optimization over its affine slices. We show that the existence of a lift of a convex set to a cone is equivalent to the existence of a factorization of an operator associated to the set and its polar via elements in the cone and its dual. This generalizes a theorem of Yannakakis that established a connection between polyhedral lifts of a polytope and nonnegative factorizations of its slack matrix. Symmetric lifts of convex sets can also be characterized similarly. When the cones live in a family, our results lead to the definition of the rank of a convex set with respect to this family. We present results about this rank in the context of cones of positive semidefinite matrices. Our methods provide new tools for understanding ...

  3. LIFT11 väisas Venemaad

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Arhitektuuriajakiri "Project Baltia" kutsus linnainstallatsioonide festivali LIFT11 installatsiooni "O" koos autoritega Moskvasse ja Peterburi tutvustama kaasaegset avaliku ruumi kunsti ja kohaliku linnaruumi probleemidele tähelepanu juhtima. "O" autorid on arhitektid Aet Ader, Kaarel Künnap, Grete Soosalu, kunstnikud Flo Kasearu, Andra Aaloe

  4. Classical lifting processes and multiplicative vector fields

    OpenAIRE

    Mackenzie, Kirill; Xu, Ping

    1997-01-01

    We extend the calculus of multiplicative vector fields and differential forms and their intrinsic derivatives from Lie groups to Lie groupoids; this generalization turns out to include also the classical process of complete lifting from arbitrary manifolds to tangent and cotangent bundles. Using this calculus we give a new description of the Lie bialgebroid structure associated with a Poisson groupoid.

  5. Leading-Edge Vortex lifts swifts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Videler, JJ; Stamhuis, EJ; Povel, GDE

    2004-01-01

    The current understanding of how birds fly must be revised, because birds use their hand-wings in an unconventional way to generate lift and drag. Physical models of a common swift wing in gliding posture with a 60degrees sweep of the sharp hand-wing leading edge were tested in a water tunnel. Inter

  6. Evaluation of hydraulic lift in cotton germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydraulic lift (HL) in plants is defined as the redistribution of water from wetter to drier soil through the plant roots in response to soil water potential gradients. Water is released from the roots into the dry soil when transpiration is low (night) and reabsorbed by the plant when higher transp...

  7. Biomechanical exploration on dynamic modes of lifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, M; Smyth, G

    1992-03-01

    Whatever the lifting method used, dynamic factors appear to have an effect on the safe realization of movement, and NIOSH guidelines recommend smooth lifting with no sudden acceleration effects. On the other hand, inertial forces may play an important role in the process of transfer of momentum to the load. The direction by which these inertial forces may affect the loadings on body structures and processes of energy transfers cannot be determined a priori. A biomechanical experiment was performed to examine if there were differences in the execution processes between a slow-continuous lift and an accelerated-continuous lift, and also between accelerated lifts either executed continuously or interrupted with a pause. The lifts were executed from a height of 15 cm to a height of 185 cm above the head and with two different loads (6.4 and 11.6 kg). Five experienced workers in manual materials handling were used as subjects. Films and force platforms recordings supplied the data; dynamic segmental analyses were performed to calculate net muscular moments at each joint; a planar single-muscle equivalent was used to estimate compression loadings at L5/S1; total mechanical work, joint work distribution, and energy transfers were determined from a kinetic approach based on the integration of joint power as a function of time. Analyses of variance with repeated measures were applied to the three treatments. The results showed that joint muscular moments, spinal loadings, mechanical work, and muscular utilization ratios were generally increased by the presence of acceleration without inducing benefits of improved energy transfers; therefore slower lifts with reduced acceleration may be safer when handling moderately heavy loads. The maximum values of kinematic and kinetic factors were generally not affected by the pause, but the occurrence of jerks in the movement (acceleration, ground forces, and muscular moments) suggests that the pause may not be indicated when

  8. The study of abiotic reduction of nitrate and nitrite in Boom Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Belgium, Boom Clay is studied as a reference host rock for the geological disposal of high-level and intermediate-level radioactive waste. Compatibility studies at the SCK.CEN aim at investigating a perturbation of the capacity of Boom Clay to retard the migration of radionuclides to the biosphere, after disposal of Eurobitum bituminized radioactive waste in the clay (Valcke et al., 2009; Aertsens et al., 2009; Bleyen et al., 2010).One of the geo-chemical perturbations is the possible oxidation of Boom Clay by the large amounts of nitrate that will be released by Eurobitum. A more oxidised Boom Clay could have a lower reducing capacity towards redox sensitive radionuclides, possibly enhancing their migration. As the conditions in the Boom Clay formation around a disposal gallery for Eurobitum are far from optimal for the growth of prokaryotes (limited space in the far-field, high pH in the near-field, gamma radiation by the waste during the first ∼300 years (effect limited to the primary and secondary waste package)), the impact of microbially mediated reduction of nitrate and nitrite is unclear. Therefore, batch tests are performed at the SCK.CEN to study whether nitrate and nitrite can directly oxidise the main redoxactive components of Boom Clay (dissolved organic matter, kerogen, pyrite) without the mediation of prokaryotes. In a first series of batch tests, which are reported in this paper, the activity of denitrifying and nitrate reducing prokaryotes was inhibited by the addition of NaN3. NaN3 revealed to be an efficient inhibitor for these prokaryotes without affecting considerably the geochemistry of Boom Clay and/or Boom Clay pore water. Neither in batch tests with the Boom Clay slurries (with NaNO3 (0.1 and 1 M) or NaNO2 (0.1 M)) and with Boom Clay water (with 0.05 and 0.2 M NaNO3) a pure chemical nitrate or nitrite reduction was observed after respectively 3, 7 and 17 weeks and 1 year (Boom Clay slurries) and about 2 years (Boom Clay water

  9. The study of abiotic reduction of nitrate and nitrite in Boom Clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariën, A.; Bleyen, N.; Aerts, S.; Valcke, E.

    In Belgium, Boom Clay is studied as a reference host rock for the geological disposal of high-level and intermediate-level radioactive waste. Compatibility studies at the SCK•CEN aim at investigating a perturbation of the capacity of Boom Clay to retard the migration of radionuclides to the biosphere, after disposal of Eurobitum bituminized radioactive waste in the clay ( Valcke et al., 2009; Aertsens et al., 2009; Bleyen et al., 2010). One of the geo-chemical perturbations is the possible oxidation of Boom Clay by the large amounts of nitrate that will be released by Eurobitum. A more oxidised Boom Clay could have a lower reducing capacity towards redox sensitive radionuclides, possibly enhancing their migration. As the conditions in the Boom Clay formation around a disposal gallery for Eurobitum are far from optimal for the growth of prokaryotes (limited space in the far-field, high pH in the near-field, gamma radiation by the waste during the first ∼300 years (effect limited to the primary and secondary waste package)), the impact of microbially mediated reduction of nitrate and nitrite is unclear. Therefore, batch tests are performed at the SCK•CEN to study whether nitrate and nitrite can directly oxidise the main redoxactive components of Boom Clay (dissolved organic matter, kerogen, pyrite) without the mediation of prokaryotes. In a first series of batch tests, which are reported in this paper, the activity of denitrifying and nitrate reducing prokaryotes was inhibited by the addition of NaN 3. NaN 3 revealed to be an efficient inhibitor for these prokaryotes without affecting considerably the geochemistry of Boom Clay and/or Boom Clay pore water. Neither in batch tests with the Boom Clay slurries (with NaNO 3 (0.1 and 1 M) or NaNO 2 (0.1 M)) and with Boom Clay water (with 0.05 and 0.2 M NaNO 3) a pure chemical nitrate or nitrite reduction was observed after respectively 3, 7 and 17 weeks and 1 year (Boom Clay slurries) and about 2 years (Boom Clay

  10. Coal handling equipment and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodds-Ely, L.

    2008-02-15

    A series of short articles highlights developments in the coal handling sector. These include contracts awarded to Sanvik Mining and Construction to supply equipment to ports in Greater Vancouver, Canada, Bulgaria, the UK and Australia. At the Profen mine near Leipzig, Germany, hydraulic excavators and a fleet of 12 Volvo A35D articulated haulers were employed and operated as a 'mobile coal team' by MIBRAG to recover lignite that would otherwise have been lost. Two floating terminals have recently been set up by the E-Crane - one on Venezuela and the other in the Congo. Inspectorate International has increased its inspection activities in the coal sector in Europe and Asia. Westmar Consultants increased capacity at Westshore Terminals LP (WTLP) coal exporting terminal in Roberts Bank, BC, Canada. Scantech International Pty specialises a real time analysis of minerals and coal on conveyors. Big Lift Trucks supplies stackers and open belt feeders for the coal mining industry. Takraf has supplied coal handling equipment to the new Wanino export harbor on Russia's east coast. Other developments are mentioned by Horizon Conveyor Equipment Ltd., Phoenix Yale Ltd., Martin Engineering, SGS and Bedeschi. 15 photos.

  11. Connectivity in Random Lifts of Graphs: New Techniques and Results

    OpenAIRE

    Silas, Shashwat

    2016-01-01

    We relate a randomly generated subgroup of the symmetric group on $n$ elements to random $n$-lifts of a graph. We use this relationship to bound the probability that a random $n$-lift of a graph with minimum degree $\\delta$ is $\\delta$-connected (for $\\delta \\ge 5$) and prove several related results. We also study homotopy invariants in random lifts and iterated random lifts.

  12. The Design of Wheelchair Lifting Mechanism and Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Cong; WANG Zheng-xing; JIANG Shi-hong; ZHANG Li; LIU Zheng-yu

    2014-01-01

    In order to achieve a wheelchair lift function, this paper designs a tri-scissors mechanism. Through the so-called H-type transmission and L-type swing rod, the three scissors mechanisms lift in the same rate with only one liner motor while ensuring the stability of the lift. Finite element analysis in ANSYS is performed to verify the material strength. The control system with Sunplus SCM achieves the voice control of wheelchair walking and lifting.

  13. Operational Reliability Assessment of Compressor Gearboxes with Normalized Lifting Wavelet Entropy from Condition Monitoring Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Zhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Classical reliability assessment methods have predominantly focused on probability and statistical theories, which are insufficient in assessing the operational reliability of individual mechanical equipment with time-varying characteristics. A new approach to assess machinery operational reliability with normalized lifting wavelet entropy from condition monitoring information is proposed, which is different from classical reliability assessment methods depending on probability and statistics analysis. The machinery vibration signals with time-varying operational characteristics are firstly decomposed and reconstructed by means of a lifting wavelet package transform. The relative energy of every reconstructed signal is computed as an energy percentage of the reconstructed signal in the whole signal energy. Moreover, a normalized lifting wavelet entropy is defined by the relative energy to reveal the machinery operational uncertainty. Finally, operational reliability degree is defined by the quantitative value obtained by the normalized lifting wavelet entropy belonging to the range of [0, 1]. The proposed method is applied in the operational reliability assessment of the gearbox in an oxy-generator compressor to validate the effectiveness.

  14. 21 CFR 880.5500 - AC-powered patient lift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false AC-powered patient lift. 880.5500 Section 880.5500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Devices § 880.5500 AC-powered patient lift. (a) Identification. An AC-powered lift is an...

  15. 49 CFR 178.975 - Top lift test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... opposite lifting devices, so that the hoisting forces are applied vertically for a period of five minutes; and (ii) Lifted by each pair of diagonally opposite lifting devices so that the hoisting forces are... which it is designed until clear of the floor and maintained in that position for a period of...

  16. On lifting line analysis of horizontal axis windturbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politis, G. K.; Loukakis, T. A.

    A convergent iteration scheme for lifting line performance analysis of horizontal axis windturbines is presented. Lifting line correction factors are introduced and compared with those of Prandtl and Goldstein. Lifting line and strip theory formulations are applied for the calculation of performance for two windturbines. Differences of engineering importance are shown to exist in the prediction of the Power coefficient.

  17. δ-Lifting and δ-Supplemented Modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammet Tamer Kosan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, δ-lifting and δ-supplemented modules are defined as generalizations of lifting and supplemented modules. Several properties of these modules are proved.New characterizations of δ-semiperect and b-perfect rings studied in [9] are obtained using δ-lifting and δ-supplemented modules.

  18. Mindfulness as a booming, diverse and (non) religious phenomenon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    Mindfulness has become a phenomenon with widespread appeal in many Western countries. Like yoga, it has an Eastern religious origin, but through a long history it has been transformed and adapted to new cultural and social contexts. While the majority of research on mindfulness has been conducted...... within the health sciences, the aim of this article is to investigate the distribution, meaning and function of this practice through quantitative mapping and qualitative interviews with 16 mindfulness providers in the city of Aarhus in Denmark. The analysis reveals not just a booming phenomenon......, but also a field characterized by diversity in terms of authority claims, motivations and uses. The discussion focuses on whether mindfulness can be seen as a religious practice or as a typical expression of an individualized and secularized technique....

  19. The design, construction, and observation of permanently installed safety booms in ice covered waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelnour, R.; Abdelnour, E.; Comfort, G. [BMT Fleet Technology Ltd., Kanata (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    In order to minimize potential accidents resulting from accidental intrusion, safety booms have been deployed near hydroelectric power plants to warn boaters of fast water currents. In cold regions, the booms are installed in early June and removed in October to avoid ice damage. However, in some years substantial delays caused by high river flow have meant that the booms were installed only after the summer boating season was underway. In addition, because the window of opportunity between the desired date of removal of these booms and the start of ice formation is sometimes quite short, it can be difficult to decide on a removal date. This paper described the design, construction, and observation of a typical safety boom that was installed in the summer of 2006 at the headpond of the Bark Lake flow control dam operated by Ontario Power Generation. The boom design considerations included prevailing ice conditions at the site; historical water discharge and associated currents; water level fluctuations; and the ice observed during the winter of 2007. Design challenges and improvements were also discussed. The boom has performed as expected and has remained in the water year-round for the past 2 years. It was concluded that the project has achieved success in providing river users with a warning system that remains in place until the beginning of the ice freeze up and is ready again in the spring as soon as the ice disappears. 5 refs., 4 tabs., 15 figs.

  20. Flight test measurements and analysis of sonic boom phenomena near the shock wave extremity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haglund, G. T.; Kane, E. J.

    1973-01-01

    The sonic boom flight test program conducted at Jackass Flats, Nevada, during the summer and fall of 1970 consisted of 121 sonic-boom-generating flights over the 1500 ft instrumented BREN tower. This test program was designed to provide information on several aspects of sonic boom, including caustics produced by longitudinal accelerations, caustics produced by steady flight near the threshold Mach number, sonic boom characteristics near lateral cutoff, and the vertical extent of shock waves attached to near-sonic airplanes. The measured test data, except for the near-sonic flight data, were analyzed in detail to determine sonic boom characteristics for these flight conditions and to determine the accuracy and the range of validity of linear sonic boom theory. The caustic phenomena observed during the threshold Mach number flights and during the transonic acceleration flights are documented and analyzed in detail. The theory of geometric acoustics is shown to be capable of predicting shock wave-ground intersections, and current methods for calculating sonic boom pressure signature away from caustics are shown to be reasonably accurate.

  1. Homogeneity vs. Heterogeneity of Porosity in Boom Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microstructural investigations on Boom Clay at nano- to micrometer scale, using BIB-SEM methods, result in porosity characterization for different mineral phases from direct observations on high resolution SE2-images of representative elementary areas (REAs). High quality, polished surfaces of cross-sections of ∼ 1 mm2 size were produced on three different samples from the Mol-Dessel research site (Belgium). More than 33,000 pores were detected, manually segmented and analyzed with regard to their size, shape and orientation. Two main pore classes were defined: Small pores (< 500 nm (ED)) within the clay matrices of samples and =big' pores (> 500 nm (ED)) at the interfaces between clay and non-clay mineral (NCM) grains. Samples investigated show similar porosities regarding the first pore-class, but differences occur at the interfaces between clay matrix and NCM grains. These differences were interpreted to be due to differences in quantitative mineralogy (amount of non-clay mineral grains) and grain-size distributions between samples investigated. Visible porosities were measured as 15 to 17 % for samples investigated. Pore-size distributions of pores in clay are similar for all samples, showing log-normal distributions with peaks around 60 nm (ED) and more than 95 % of the pores being smaller than 500 nm (ED). Fitting pore-size distributions using power-laws with exponents between 1.56 and 1.7, assuming self-similarity of the pore space, thus pores smaller than the pore detection resolution following the same power-laws and using these power-laws for extrapolation of pore-size distributions below the limit of pore detection resolution, results in total estimated porosities between 20 and 30 %. These results are in good agreement with data known from Mercury Porosimetry investigations (35-40 % porosity) and water content porosity measurements (∼ 36 %) performed on Boom Clay. (authors)

  2. Tracking the Boom in Queensland’s Gasfields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will Rifkin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available During rapid resource development in a highly contested arena, effective processes for characterising cumulative, social and economic impacts are needed. In this article, we explain a strategy that uses an iterative process involving stakeholders to identify indicators of impacts of onshore natural gas development. The aim of the strategy is to arrive at a small set of indicators that those in the community, government and industry agree are salient and credible.Four major joint ventures are investing more than A$60 billion to tap Queensland, Australia’s onshore natural gas resources. Thousands of wells are reaching into natural gas in seams of coal that lie below aquifers that residents refer to as essential for their heavily agricultural region. The magnitude of these developments has been depicted as threatening the traditional base of political power that has rested with farmers. Nearby coal mining has given some communities the experience of the boomtown cycle, but it is placing unfamiliar strains on municipal resources in other towns. Gas companies provide funds in attempts to mitigate impacts, satisfying requirements of their elaborate social impact management plans (SIMPs.The research reported in this paper, though only mid-way to completion, suggests that an action-research approach to developing indicators of cumulative impacts on housing, business, employment, liveability and trust in government shows promise for enabling stakeholders to track the multi-faceted effects of a resource boom.  We hope that such work helps stakeholders to mitigate the ups and downs of the cycle of boom, bust and recovery that can be driven by resource development.

  3. Boom clay pore water, home of a diverse microbial community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Boom Clay pore water (BCPW) has been studied in the framework of geological disposal of nuclear waste for over two decades, thereby mainly addressing its geochemical properties. A reference composition for synthetic clay water has been derived earlier by modelling and spatial calibration efforts, mainly based on interstitial water sampled from different layers within the Boom clay. However, since microbial activity is found in a range of extreme circumstances, the possibility of microbes interacting with future radioactive waste in a host formation like Boom Clay, cannot be ignored. In this respect, BCPW was sampled from different Boom Clay layers using the Morpheus piezometer and subsequently analysed by a complementary set of microbiological and molecular techniques, in search for overall shared and abundant microorganisms. Similar to the previous characterization of the 'average' BCPW chemical composition, the primary aim of this microbiological study is to determine a representative BCPW microbial community which can be used in laboratory studies. Secondly, the in situ activity and the metabolic properties of members of this community were addressed, aiming to assess their survival and proliferation chances in repository conditions. In a first approach, total microbial DNA of the community was extracted from the BCPW samples. This molecular approach allows a broad insight in the total microbial ecology of the BCPW samples. By polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on the highly conserved 16S rRNA genes in this DNA pool and subsequent sequencing and bio-informatics analysis, operational taxonomic units (OTUs) could be assigned to the microbial community. The bacterial community was found to be quite diverse, with OTUs belonging to 8 different phyla (Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Chlorobi, Spirochetes, Chloroflexi and Deinococcus-Thermus). These results provide an overall view of the

  4. Cleaning supplies and equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000443.htm Cleaning supplies and equipment To use the sharing features on this page, ... to clean supplies and equipment. Disinfecting Supplies and Equipment Start by wearing the right personal protective equipment ( ...

  5. Ice-load measurements on the Lake Erie-Niagara River ice boom: 1996-97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design and installation of a new ice boom at the entrance to the upper Niagara River at the north-east end of Lake Erie was described. Each year since 1964, the New York Power Authority and Ontario Hydro install a 2,700-meter long ice boom which spans the outlet of Lake Erie about three kilometres upstream of the Peace Bridge. The ice boom minimizes the impacts of ice on power generation in the Niagara River in the early freeze-up period of winter. A monitoring program has been developed in which water level gauges, water temperature probes and low-light-level television cameras are used to obtain real-time observations of certain ice and hydraulic characteristics. Visual observations of ice conditions in the vicinity of the New York Power Authority's intakes were also recorded. As a result of the monitoring program, a new boom design was developed which called for replacing the boom's Douglas Fir timbers with 0.76 m-diameter, 9.1 m-long steel pipe pontoons. In the 1996-97 season, the timbers in the boom were replaced with the steel pipe pontoons to evaluate the effectiveness of the new design through an ice load measurement program. The cable tensions and boom submergence at the three anchoring locations along the boom were measured. Several recommendations were made. In general, it was concluded that if the ice booms were composed entirely of steel pontoons, the release of ice into the river would be substantially reduced. 7 refs., 14 figs

  6. 75 FR 33320 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning a Lift Unit for an Overhead Patient Lift...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... notice that it had issued a final determination concerning the country of origin of a lift unit for an... Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) concerning the country of origin of a lift unit for an overhead... determination concerning the country of origin of the lift unit which may be offered to the U.S....

  7. Remediation of floating, open water oil spills: Comparative efficacy of commercially available polypropylene sorbent booms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several complex methods of remediation are applied to open water oil spills. Sorbing the liquid hydrocarbons with polypropylene booms is an effective and less complex means of treating such events. There are, however, a variety of commercially available booms which display different performances in sorbing different viscosity hydrocarbons. There is no acceptable A.S.T.M. protocol to evaluate these booms for performance efficiency in various weather and hydrocarbon viscosity scenarios. The current paper proposes such a protocol and evaluates the most commonly used sorbent products with the new test procedures. Nine specific performance criteria, based on actual field applications, are demonstrated

  8. Remediation of floating, open water oil spills: Comparative efficacy of commercially available polypropylene sorbent booms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Ed L.

    1991-03-01

    Several complex methods of remediation are applied to open water oil spills. Sorbing the liquid hydrocarbons with polypropylene booms is an effective and less complex means of treating such events. There are, however, a variety of commercially available booms which display different performances in sorbing different viscosity hydrocarbons. There is no acceptable A.S.T.M. protocol to evaluate these booms for performance efficiency in various weather and hydrocarbon viscosity scenarios. The current paper proposes such a protocol and evaluates the most commonly used sorbent products with the new test procedures. Nine specific performance criteria, based on actual field applications, are demonstrated.

  9. Thermo-hydro-mechanical behaviour of Boom clay; Comportement thermo-hydro-mecanique de l'argile de Boom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, T.T

    2008-01-15

    This thesis studied the thermo-hydro-mechanical properties of Boom clay, which was chosen to be the host material for the radioactive waste disposal in Mol, Belgium. Firstly, the research was concentrated on the soil water retention properties and the hydro-mechanical coupling by carrying out axial compression tests with suction monitoring. The results obtained permitted elaborating a rational experimental procedure for triaxial tests. Secondly, the systems for high pressure triaxial test at controlled temperature were developed to carry out compression, heating, and shearing tests at different temperatures. The obtained results showed clear visco-elasto-plastic behaviour of the soil. This behaviour was modelled by extending the thermo-elasto-plastic model of Cui et al. (2000) to creep effect. (author)

  10. Hoisting and haulage equipment at the 1985 Leipzig Spring Fair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyse, D.; Gruse, P.

    1985-07-01

    New machinery produced by COMECON member countries as well as by FRG and Italian manufacturers in the fields of surface mining, earthmoving, crane hoisting and materials storage are presented. New surface mining equipment produced by TAKRAF (GDR) includes a variety of bucket wheel excavators with a capacity between 2200 and 7600 m/sup 3//h. Further GDR made earthmoving, haulage and bulk handling equipment includes universal excavators, motor graders, belt conveyors, cranes for harbors and shipyards, the EL 20 high power electrical locomotive for 400 m deep Soviet surface mines, excavator gear components and other machines. Equipment from other COMECON member countries at the exhibit includes mainly small hydraulic excavators, mobile cranes, shovel loaders and Balkancar fork lifts. FRG made machines were mainly high capacity mobile cranes, mobile excavators and series of explosion protected electric and other fork lifts.

  11. An investigation of team lifting using psychophysical methods

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Suzanne Elin

    1995-01-01

    Lifting is one of the major causes of back injury in the workplace. Often, workers are told to ask for the help of another worker when the load is too great to be lifted alone, yet the effects of these team lifts have not been researched until recently. This experiment investigated some of the variables which may affect the results of team lifting tasks. The psychophysical methodology has been used for almost 30 years in trying to determine the maximum acceptable weight of lift...

  12. Particle Lifting Processes in Dust Devils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neakrase, L. D. V.; Balme, M. R.; Esposito, F.; Kelling, T.; Klose, M.; Kok, J. F.; Marticorena, B.; Merrison, J.; Patel, M.; Wurm, G.

    2016-10-01

    Particle lifting in dust devils on both Earth and Mars has been studied from many different perspectives, including how dust devils could influence the dust cycles of both planets. Here we review our current understanding of particle entrainment by dust devils by examining results from field observations on Earth and Mars, laboratory experiments (at terrestrial ambient and Mars-analog conditions), and analytical modeling. By combining insights obtained from these three methodologies, we provide a detailed overview on interactions between particle lifting processes due to mechanical, thermal, electrodynamical and pressure effects, and how these processes apply to dust devils on Earth and Mars. Experiments and observations have shown dust devils to be effective lifters of dust given the proper conditions on Earth and Mars. However, dust devil studies have yet to determine the individual roles of each of the component processes acting at any given time in dust devils.

  13. Lifting CERN entrepreneurs to new heights

    CERN Multimedia

    William Rode

    2014-01-01

    How can an international research institution help employees who wish to leave their comfort zone for the risky endeavour of starting a company? CERN encourages the creation of companies as a way of disseminating technology developed here. But what else can be done to foster these initiatives?   William Rode, a technical student in CERN’s Knowledge Transfer Group, studied spin-off creations in some leading research institutions as part of his Master's thesis in entrepreneurship at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. William, who was offered a ticket to attend the Lift14 conference in Geneva, shares some insight into how we can support entrepreneurship at CERN: "A while ago I attended the Lift conference in Geneva. The conference explores the business and social implications of technology innovation through talks and workshops, as well as through art and discussion. Innovation is at the core of the conference and is reflected in the open-mindedness of th...

  14. Lift and Drag Measurements of Superhydrophobic Hydrofoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sur, Samrat; Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Rothstein, Jonathan

    2015-11-01

    For several years, superhydrophobic surfaces which are chemically hydrophobic with micron or nanometer scale surface features have been considered for their ability to reduce drag and produce slip in microfluidic devices. More recently it has been demonstrated that superhydrophobic surfaces reduce friction coefficient in turbulent flows as well. In this talk, we will consider that modifying a hydrofoil's surface to make it superhydrophobic has on the resulting lift and drag measurements over a wide range of angles of attack. Experiments are conducted over the range of Reynolds numbers between 10,000hydrofoil is made superhydrophobic. The hydrofoils are coated Teflon that has been hot embossed with a 325grit stainless steel woven mesh to produce a regular pattern of microposts. In addition to fully superhydrophobic hydrofoils, selectively coated symmetrical hydrofoils will also be examined to study the effect that asymmetries in the surface properties can have on lift and drag. Partially funded by NSF CBET-1334962.

  15. CM values of regularized theta lifts

    OpenAIRE

    Ehlen, Stephan Jakob

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, special values of regularized theta lifts at complex multiplication (CM) points are studied. In particular, it is shown that CM values of Borcherds products can be expressed in terms of finitely many Fourier coefficients of certain harmonic weak Maass forms of weight one. As it turns out, these coefficients are logarithms of algebraic integers whose prime ideal factorization is determined by cycles on an arithmetic curve that parametrize special endomorphisms of CM elliptic cu...

  16. USMC tactical motor transport lift requirements model

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Scott Andrew

    1995-01-01

    This thesis concentrates on developing a spreadable model that can be used by Marine logisticians in computing sustainment requirements and the resulting tactical motor transport lift requirements necessary to keep a notional sized maneuver element supported on a daily basis in the Marine Corps projected maneuver warfare environment. Sustainment computations are limited to resupplying the maneuver element with food, water, fuel, and ammunition. Using an "add-in" simulation package the plannin...

  17. Lift force due to odd (Hall) viscosity

    CERN Document Server

    Kogan, E

    2016-01-01

    We study the problem of flow past an infinite cylinder at right angle to its axis at low Reynolds number when the fluid is characterised by broken time-reversal invariance, and hence by odd viscosity in addition to the normal even one. We solve the Oseen approximation to Navier-Stokes equation and calculate the lift force which appears due to the odd viscosity.

  18. Dragonfly flight. III. Lift and power requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeling, JM; Ellington, CP

    1997-02-01

    A mean lift coefficient quasi-steady analysis has been applied to the free flight of the dragonfly Sympetrum sanguineum and the damselfly Calopteryx splendens. The analysis accommodated the yaw and accelerations involved in free flight. For any given velocity or resultant aerodynamic force (thrust), the damselfly mean lift coefficient was higher than that for the dragonfly because of its clap and fling. For both species, the maximum mean lift coefficient L was higher than the steady CL,max. Both species aligned their strokes planes to be nearly normal to the thrust, a strategy that reduces the L required for flight and which is different from the previously published hovering and slow dragonfly flights with stroke planes steeply inclined to the horizontal. Owing to the relatively low costs of accelerating the wing, the aerodynamic power required for flight represents the mechanical power output from the muscles. The maximum muscle mass-specific power was estimated at 156 and 166 W kg-1 for S. sanguineum and C. splendens, respectively. Measurements of heat production immediately after flight resulted in mechanical efficiency estimates of 13 % and 9 % for S. sanguineum and C. splendens muscles, respectively.

  19. Occupational Lifting, Fetal Death and Preterm Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocevic, Emina; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff; Jørgensen, Kristian Tore;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between occupational lifting during pregnancy and risk of fetal death and preterm birth using a job exposure matrix (JEM). METHODS: For 68,086 occupationally active women in the Danish National Birth Cohort, interview information on occupational lifting...... the JEM. We used Cox regression models with gestational age as underlying time variable and adjustment for covariates. RESULTS: We observed 2,717 fetal deaths and 3,128 preterm births within the study cohort. No exposure-response relation was observed for fetal death, but for women with a prior fetal...... death, we found a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.87 (95% CI 1.37, 6.01) for stillbirth (fetal death ≥22 completed gestational weeks) among those who lifted >200 kg/day. For preterm birth, we found an exposure-response relation for primigravid women, reaching a HR of 1.43 (95% CI 1.13, 1.80) for total loads >200...

  20. Dynamic response of Hovercraft lift fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, D. D.

    1981-08-01

    Hovercraft lift fans are subjected to varying back pressure due to wave action and craft motions when these vehicles are operating in a seaway. The oscillatory back pressure causes the fans to perform dynamically, exhibiting a hysteresis type of response and a corresponding degradation in mean performance. Since Hovercraft motions are influenced by variations in lift fan pressure and discharge, it is important to understand completely the nature of the dynamic performance of lift fans in order to completely solve the Hovercraft seakeeping problem. The present study was performed to determine and classify the instabilities encountered in a centrifugal fan operating against time-varying back pressure. A model-scale experiment was developed in which the fan discharge was directed into a flow-measuring device, terminating in a rotating valve which produced an oscillatory back pressure superimposed upon a mean aerodynamic resistance. Pressure and local velocity were measured as functions of time at several locations in the fan volute. The measurements permitted the identification of rotating (or propagating) stall in the impeller. One cell and two cell configurations were classified and the transient condition connecting these two configurations was observed. The mechanisms which lead to rotating stall in a centrifugal compressor are presented and discussed with specific reference to Hovercraft applications.

  1. Kinematics Simulation and Structure Optimization of Tilting and Lifting Mechanism of ITER Tractor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ITER (international thermonuclear experimental reactor) tractor is an in-cask remote handling equipment, its tilting and lifting mechanism is important for the tractor operated with forty-five-ton plug in front of the ports of Hot Cell and VV (vacuum vessel) successfully. In order to better analyse the movement of this mechanism and decide the key design parameters accurately, a mathematical model of 7-link complicated plane mechanism was built up, and the calculation of design and kinematics simulation were implemented. The established mathematical model was proved to be valid by comparing the calculated result with that of kinematics simulation. Finally, the structure analysis and the optimization of its key part, tilting and lifting frame, were performed to guarantee the frame's strength in bearing the heavy load of plug.

  2. Integration of Engine, Plume, and CFD Analyses in Conceptual Design of Low-Boom Supersonic Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wu; Campbell, Richard; Geiselhart, Karl; Shields, Elwood; Nayani, Sudheer; Shenoy, Rajiv

    2009-01-01

    This paper documents an integration of engine, plume, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses in the conceptual design of low-boom supersonic aircraft, using a variable fidelity approach. In particular, the Numerical Propulsion Simulation System (NPSS) is used for propulsion system cycle analysis and nacelle outer mold line definition, and a low-fidelity plume model is developed for plume shape prediction based on NPSS engine data and nacelle geometry. This model provides a capability for the conceptual design of low-boom supersonic aircraft that accounts for plume effects. Then a newly developed process for automated CFD analysis is presented for CFD-based plume and boom analyses of the conceptual geometry. Five test cases are used to demonstrate the integrated engine, plume, and CFD analysis process based on a variable fidelity approach, as well as the feasibility of the automated CFD plume and boom analysis capability.

  3. An ElectroAdhesive "Stick Boom" for Mars Sample Return Orbiting Sample Capture Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Electroadhesive "Sticky Boom", an innovative method for rendezvous and docking, is proposed for the Orbiting Sample Capture (OSC) portion of the Mars...

  4. Control of large spaceborne antenna systems with flexible booms by mechanical decoupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P. K. C.

    1983-01-01

    A simple practical method for designing antenna-feed attitude control systems for large deployable spaceborne antenna systems with long flexible booms is proposed. The basic idea is to mechanically decouple the antenna-feed from the boom so that the feed-attitude control system can be designed without taking the boom dynamics into consideration, thus avoiding a complex control problem involving an infinite-dimensional distributed parameter system. The validity of the proposed method is substantiated by analytical and numerical studies using a mathematical model for the flexible boom which could undergo both bending and torsional vibrations. This approach leads to simple antenna-feed attitude control systems which are amenable to physical implementation.

  5. An evaluation of propane as a fuel for testing fire-resistant oil spill containment booms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of experiments have been conducted to measure and compare the thermal exposure to a fire-resistant boom from liquid hydrocarbon fuel and propane fires. The objective was to test the potential of propane fueled fires as a fire source for testing fire-resistant oil spill containment booms.Thermal exposure from propane fires have been measured with and without waves. Results indicated that although propane diffusion flames on water look like liquid hydrocarbon fuel flames and produce very little smoke, the heat flux at the boom location from propane fires is about 60 per cent of that from liquid hydrocarbon fuel fires. Despite the attractive features in terms of ease of application, control and smoke emissions, it was concluded that the low heat flux would preclude the application of propane as a fuel for evaluating fire resistant containment booms. 2 refs., 7 figs

  6. Second phase evaluation of a protocol for testing fire-resistant oil containment boom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The second series of fire tests for fire-resistant containment booms were conducted in a wave tank at the U.S. Coast Guard Fire and Safety Test Detachment in Mobile, Alabama, utilizing ASTM F-20 draft standards. Six different fire-resistant containment booms were used. Three of the six were modified designs of booms used in the first series of tests. The tests in this series were designed to address issues raised in the first series, namely the location of heat fluxes and thermocouples, and the protocol for water-cooled booms. The results of the second series of tests are discussed and compared to the first. Strengths and weaknesses of the test protocol and other possible improvements are also discussed. 5 refs., 5 tabs., 7 figs

  7. On the dynamic response and collapse of slender guyed booms for space application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housner, J. M.; Belvin, W. K.

    1983-01-01

    A procedure is developed for the analysis of the nonlinear transient response of an initially imperfect slender guyed boom having a concentrated mass at the tip. The analysis is compared with laboratory experiments, and the validated procedure is employed to study the transient response of a boom to suddenly applied step loads and prescribed initial velocities. Both cases approximate the transient conditions associated with commencing and terminating a slewing maneuver in space. Two nonlinear effects are examined, namely cable slackening and beam column behavior. It is shown that dynamic buckling of the boom may occur with excitations which result in slackening of a cable. It is also shown that transverse boom tip deflections are sensitive only to initial eccentricities when certain threshold values are exceeded. Design guidelines are established for combinations of pulse level and duration which meet performance requirements for allowable deflections.

  8. Sonic Boom Vibro-Acoustic Simulations using Multiple Point Sources Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AVEC proposes an innovative concept for the evaluation of human response studies to sonic booms inside realistic structures. The approach proposed is to simulate...

  9. A NASTRAN investigation of simulated projectile damage effects on a UH-1B tail boom model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futterer, A. T.

    1980-01-01

    A NASTRAN model of a UH-1B tail boom that had been designed for another project was used to investigate the effect on structural integrity of simulated projectile damage. Elements representing skin, and sections of stringers, longerons and bulkheads were systematically deleted to represent projectile damage. The structure was loaded in a manner to represent the flight loads that would be imposed on the tail boom at a 130 knot cruise. The deflection of four points on the rear of the tail boom relative to the position of these points for the unloaded, undamaged condition of the tail boom was used as a measure of the loss of structural rigidity. The same procedure was then used with the material properties of the aluminum alloys replaced with the material properties of T300/5208 high strength graphite/epoxy fibrous composite material, (0, + or - 45, 90)s for the skin and (0, + or - 45)s for the longerons, stringers, and bulk heads.

  10. Quantification of Patient and Equipment Handling for Nurses through Direct Observation and Subjective Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany Poole Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Musculoskeletal disorders have continued to plague nurses in hospitals and long-term care facilities. Low back and shoulder injuries are the most prevalent, frequently linked to patient handling activities. Exposure to patient handling has been predominantly quantified by subjective responses of nurses. Objective. To directly observe handling of patients and other medical equipment for nurses during a 12-hour work shift. Methods. Twenty nurses working in three different intensive care units at a Midwest teaching hospital were directly observed during 12-hour day shifts. Direct observation included documenting frequency and type of handling performed and whether lift assist devices were utilized. Two additional surveys were completed by nurses to assess current pain levels and perceptions of lifting being performed. The observed lifting was compared to the perceived lifting with simple inference statistics. Results. Nurses have a high prevalence of manually lifting patients and medical devices but limited use of lifting assist devices. Nurses handled patients 69 times per shift and medical equipment 6 times per shift, but less than 3% utilized a lift assist device. Nurses suffered from high levels of pain at the end of the shift, with the highest prevalence in the lower back, lower legs, and feet/ankles (all above 60%.

  11. Credit Booms and Busts in Emerging Markets: The Role of Bank Governance and Risk Managment

    OpenAIRE

    Alin Marius ANDRIES; Brown, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent risk management and corporate governance mitigate the involvement of banks in credit boom and bust cycles. Using a unique, handcollected dataset on 156 banks from Central and Eastern Europe during 2005-2012, we assess whether banks with stronger risk management and corporate governance display more moderate credit growth in the pre-crisis credit boom as well as a smaller credit contraction and fewer credit losses in the crisis period. With respect to ban...

  12. Credit Booms and Busts in Emerging Markets: The Role of Bank Governance and Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Martin; Andries, Alin

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent risk management and corporate governance mitigate the involvement of banks in credit boom and bust cycles. Using a unique, hand-collected dataset on 156 banks from Central and Eastern Europe during 2005-2012, we assess whether banks with stronger risk management and corporate governance display more moderate credit growth in the pre-crisis credit boom as well as a smaller credit contraction and fewer credit losses in the crisis period. With respect to ba...

  13. Economic Booms and Risky Sexual Behavior: Evidence from Zambian Copper Mining Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Wilson

    2010-01-01

    Existing studies suggest that individual and household level economic shocks affect the demand for and supply of risky sex. However, little evidence exists on the effects of an aggregate shock on equilibrium risky sexual behavior. This paper examines the effects of the early twenty-first century copper boom on risky sexual behavior in Zambian copper mining cities. The results indicate that the copper boom substantially reduced rates of transactional sex and multiple partnerships in copper min...

  14. Improvement Of Spray Deposit Homogeneity Using A Pwm Spray Controller To Compensate Horizontal Boom Speed Variations

    OpenAIRE

    Lebeau, Frédéric; El Bahir, L.; Destain, Marie-France; Kinnaert, M.; Hanus, R.

    2004-01-01

    Longitudinal spray distribution is mainly affected by the horizontal speed variations of the nozzles. Manufacturers classically try to reduce unwanted nozzles movements using horizontal boom suspension but these methods have performance and price limitations. This paper describes a spray controller aiming to compensate the effect of the horizontal boom movements on the spray deposits homogeneity. The controller is based on three main components: a control law describing the relati...

  15. A Novel Telescopic Boom Deployment System for Use in Upper Atmosphere Research

    OpenAIRE

    Wylie, Mark; Duffy, Paul; Vather, Dinesh; Keegan, John; Curran, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Typical measurement probe deployment systems on sounding rockets employ hinged booms which extend the probes away from the rocket. This configuration often has a significant mass and may require a considerable amount of the rocket’s valuable payload volume. In an effort to reduce both mass and volume, the DIT Space Research Group have designed a light weight carbon fibre telescopic boom system, compatible with measurement probes commonly used in upper atmosphere research. Our design has been ...

  16. Design optimization of an articulated boom for NET in-vessel handling unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-vessel components of fusion reactors must be remotely replaceable. The necessary handling will be performed from inside the torus by means of work units. A major problem is to carry the work units inside the torus. One concept to solve this problem is to use an in-vessel handling unit based on an articulated boom. It is supported outside the torus and enters the torus through an entry port. Additional supports are not available. Then the work unit (manipulator unit, diverter handling unit or antenna handling unit), attached to the end-frame of the boom, is able to reach any point inside the torus. Therefore the boom consists of eleven links connected by yaw joints. Its stretched (unfolded) length is about 25 m. Due to the scissor type of design, the boom can be folded such that the required area to store it is only 10.25 x 3.2 m. The cross-sections of the links (except those staying outside the torus) are 350 x 1350 mm. In order to allow easy repair and exchange, the drive mechanisms for the joints and the necessary cable are located above the links. The resulting overall dimensions are such that the boom may pass the entry port having an opening of 650 x 1900 mm. The maximum load at the tip of the boom is about 3900 kg. It consists of the maximum payload of 1000 kg (which is the load of a diverter plate plus gripper) and the load of the diverter handling unit of 29000 kg. The design of the boom such that the stresses and strains are within allowed limits turned out to be a difficult task. It led to a boom dead load of about 25000 kg which is 25-times the payload. In this paper the structural mechanics assessment to find an appropriate design is described

  17. In-situ PCO2 measurement in boom clay: the pegasus experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boom Clay has been studied for over twenty-five years as a potential host rock for the final disposal of radioactive waste. To assess the safety of the Boom Clay as a geological barrier, a good understanding of its geochemistry is essential as it reveals the stability of the host rock and influences the migration of radionuclides. A recent study on the geochemistry of Boom Clay pore water highlights the need of a representative value of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2 ). Until now the used value of pCO2 of Boom Clay varies between 1,61 and 4,03 mbar (10-2.8 to 10-2.4 atm). A good solution to measure representative in-situ pCO2 values, is to use a set up in which the experimental boundaries are imposed and controlled by the Boom Clay formation itself. Under normal Boom Clay physico-chemical conditions, there is no gas phase present. This is because all volatile and gaseous species, thus also carbon dioxide, are below their saturation limit. They are only present as dissolved components of the Boom Clay pore water. This paper describes a new technique, based on the proportional Henry law relationship, to determine the in-situ pCO2. The main idea of the new pCO2 measurement technique is to bring Boom Clay pore water in contact with a chemically non reactive, inert, gas phase. As a consequence of this contact the dissolved carbon dioxide starts to transform into the gaseous phase. At equilibrium the distribution of the carbon dioxide between the gas and the liquid phase is proportionally related and defined by the Henry law constant. To make this new technique work under in-situ conditions the following experimental set up has been designed and constructed. (authors)

  18. NOFI oil Vee-Sweep and extension boom test at OHMSETT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NOFI Vee-Sweep is an inflatable oil collection boom held in a V configuration by cross netting attached to the skirt of the boom. The NOFI 600S is an inflatable oil boom used to divert oil into the Vee-Sweep. The lower section of the 600S skirt consists of a feather net and a ballast chain. The booms are designed for open-ocean skimming where a skimmer is placed in the Vee-Sweep apex to remove the collected oil. During testing, the booms were preloaded with oil and towed in the OHMSETT tank at various speeds and wave conditions. Each boom was tested for its first and gross (continuous) oil loss speeds. The Vee-Sweep was also evaluated for wave performance, oil thickness vs tow speed, oil loss rate, and critical tow speed. Finally, a DESMI-250 oil skimmer was placed in the Vee-Sweep apex and oil loss tests were run while the skimmer was operating. During the critical tow speed testing, failures occurred due to apex submergence at ca 3.5 knots in calm water and short-crested waves, and 2.4 knots in harbor chop. The oil loss tests showed that the Vee-Sweep retains oil at speeds significantly higher than conventional booms. First oil loss speeds ranged from 1.3 knots in calm water to 1.0 knot in regular waves. The Vee-Sweep's high buoyancy/weight ratio gave it good wave performance in all conditions tested. The 600S oil loss speeds were higher than those of most conventional booms, and performance was better when the feather net was attached. 1 ref., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  19. Dissolution Behaviour of UO2 in Anoxic Conditions: Comparison of Ca-Bentonite and Boom Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to determine in how far the clay properties influence the dissolution of spent fuel, experiments were carried out with depleted UO2 in the presence of either compacted dry Ca-bentonite with Boom Clay groundwater (KB-BCW) or compacted dry Boom Clay with Boom Clay groundwater (BC-BCW). The leach tests were performed at 25 deg. C in anoxic atmosphere for 2 years. The U concentrations in the clay water were followed during these 2 years, and the amount of U in the clay was determined after 2 years in order to determine the UO2 dissolution rate. The uranium concentration after 0.45 μm filtration was 50 times higher in the Boom Clay with Boom Clay water (2.0 x 10-7 mol.L-1) than in Ca-bentonite with Boom Clay water (6.5 x 10-9 mol.L-1), probably due to colloid formation in the Boom Clay system. Most released uranium was found in the clay. The fraction of uranium, dissolved from the UO2 pellet and found on the clay represents about 42 % of total uranium release in the system BC-BCW and more than 76 % in the system KB-BCW. The higher uranium retention of Boom Clay goes together with a higher dissolution rate. Global dissolution rates were estimated at about 2.0 x 10-2 μg.cm-2.d-1 for the BCBCW system and 3.4 x 10-3 μg.cm-2.d-1 for the KB-BCW system. This is not much lower than for similar tests with spent fuel, reported in literature. (authors)

  20. Standardized equipment system for mining mineral resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinel, H.

    1986-08-01

    Technical specifications are presented of surface mining equipment developed by TAKRAF (GDR) for small to medium sized mines (coal, gravel, kaolin, bauxite, sulfur, limestone etc. with production capacity of less than 1 Mm/sup 3//y). The continuous bulk flow equipment consists of small bucket wheel excavators, small bucket chain excavators, mobile transfer conveyors and shiftable belt conveyors. Bucket wheel excavators (series SRs 65 to SRa 320) have a production capacity between 200 and 2300 m/sup 3//h and weigh between 45 and 290 t. The SRs 320 is suitable for mining medium thick coal seams. The ERs 50 to ERs 250 bucket chain excavator series has a production capacity between 225 and 1100 m/sup 3//h and weight between 54 and 275 t. Both bucket wheel and bucket chain excavator series have the same standard undercarriage, loading boom, slewing system and driver's cabin. Bulk conveying capacities of BRs 650 to BRs 1200 mobile transfer conveyors correspond to those of excavators. Shiftable belt conveyors (0.8 m to 1.4 m belt widths, 3100 m maximum conveyor length) complete the equipment system.

  1. High-Speed Research: 1994 Sonic Boom Workshop. Configuration, Design, Analysis and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, David A. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The third High-Speed Research Sonic Boom Workshop was held at NASA Langley Research Center on June 1-3, 1994. The purpose of this workshop was to provide a forum for Government, industry, and university participants to present and discuss progress in their research. The workshop was organized into sessions dealing with atmospheric propagation; acceptability studies; and configuration design, and testing. Attendance at the workshop was by invitation only. The workshop proceedings include papers on design, analysis, and testing of low-boom high-speed civil transport configurations and experimental techniques for measuring sonic booms. Significant progress is noted in these areas in the time since the previous workshop a year earlier. The papers include preliminary results of sonic boom wind tunnel tests conducted during 1993 and 1994 on several low-boom designs. Results of a mission performance analysis of all low-boom designs are also included. Two experimental methods for measuring near-field signatures of airplanes in flight are reported.

  2. An investigation into the effect of playback environment on perception of sonic booms when heard indoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Daniel; Davies, Patricia

    2015-10-01

    Aircraft manufacturers are interested in designing and building a new generation of supersonic aircraft that produce shaped sonic booms of lower peak amplitude than booms created by current supersonic aircraft. To determine if the noise exposure from these "low"booms is more acceptable to communities, new laboratory testing to evaluate people's responses must occur. To guide supersonic aircraft design, objective measures that predict human response to modified sonic boom waveforms and other impulsive sounds are needed. The present research phase is focused on understanding people's reactions to booms when heard inside, and therefore includes consideration of the effects of house type and the indoor acoustic environment. A test was conducted in NASA Langley's Interior Effects Room (IER), with the collaboration of NASA Langley engineers. This test was focused on the effects of low-frequency content and of vibration, and subjects sat in a small living room environment. A second test was conducted in a sound booth at Purdue University, using similar sounds played back over earphones. The sounds in this test contained less very-low-frequency energy due to limitations in the playback, and the laboratory setting is a less natural environment. For the purpose of comparison, and to improve the robustness of the model, both sonic booms and other more familiar transient sounds were used in the tests. The design of the tests and the signals are briefly described, and the results of both tests will be presented.

  3. Numerical Predictions of Sonic Boom Signatures for a Straight Line Segmented Leading Edge Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmiligui, Alaa A.; Wilcox, Floyd J.; Cliff, Susan; Thomas, Scott

    2012-01-01

    A sonic boom wind tunnel test was conducted on a straight-line segmented leading edge (SLSLE) model in the NASA Langley 4- by 4- Foot Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT). The purpose of the test was to determine whether accurate sonic boom measurements could be obtained while continuously moving the SLSLE model past a conical pressure probe. Sonic boom signatures were also obtained using the conventional move-pause data acquisition method for comparison. The continuous data acquisition approach allows for accurate signatures approximately 15 times faster than a move-pause technique. These successful results provide an incentive for future testing with greatly increased efficiency using the continuous model translation technique with the single probe to measure sonic boom signatures. Two widely used NASA codes, USM3D (Navier-Stokes) and CART3D-AERO (Euler, adjoint-based adaptive mesh), were used to compute off-body sonic boom pressure signatures of the SLSLE model at several different altitudes below the model at Mach 2.0. The computed pressure signatures compared well with wind tunnel data. The effect of the different altitude for signature extraction was evaluated by extrapolating the near field signatures to the ground and comparing pressure signatures and sonic boom loudness levels.

  4. Potential and viscous flows past an oil boom: The instability problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important problem in oil spill containment by booms is the instability of the oil-water interface at the boom. This instability, which represents the conditions under which oil can escape under the boom, is investigated. Both the potential and viscous-flow models for thin slicks in two-dimensions are developed. Analytical instability formulas are derived using the velocity potentials for attached and detached flows due to uniform current past a flat plate in finite and infinite water depths. To understand the effect of viscosity on the instability criterion, the full Navier-Stokes equations are solved by the fractional-step method in time domain to determine the pressure gradients along the boom. The numerically obtained viscous instability criterion is then compared with the potential-flow and experimentally determined instability criteria. The results show that the viscous flow model predicts a larger region of stability. It is numerically discovered from the instability criterion that the oil droplets at the boom, between the free surface and down to about 40% of the boom height can never escape, regardless of the current strength. It is also shown that the instability criterion depends weakly on the high Reynolds number. Reanalysis of the previous experimental data confirm these numerical findings

  5. The calculation of the instability criterion for a uniform viscous flow past an oil boom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important problem in oil spill containment by booms is the instability of the oil-water interface at the boom. This instability, which represents the conditions under which oil can escape under the boom, is investigated. A viscous flow model for thin slicks in two dimensions is developed. To understand the effect of viscosity on the instability criterion, the full Navier-Stokes equations are solved by the fractional-step method in time-domain to determine the pressure gradients along the boom. The numerically obtained viscous instability criterion is then compared with the potential flow and experimentally determined instability criteria. Analytical instability formulas for potential flows are based on the velocity potentials for attached and detached flows due to uniform current past a flat plate in finite and infinite water depths. The results show that the viscous flow model predicts a larger region of stability. It is numerically determined from the instability criterion that the oil droplets at the boom between the free surface and down to about 40 percent of the boom height can never escape, regardless of the current strength. It is also shown that the instability criterion depends weakly on the high Reynolds number. Reanalysis of the available experimental data confirms these findings

  6. Radionuclide solubilities in boom clay. Final report, part 1 : a report produced for ONDRAF/NIRAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The release of radionuclides from a High Level Waste repository situated in the Boom Clay at Mol would depend, in part, on their retardation within the Boom Clay. A number of parameters are required to assess such retardation; these include the solubilities of key radionuclides and their sorption behaviour. ONDRAF has identified neptunium and technetium as critical elements for which the solubility limit in Boom Clay water may be important. Selenium, uranium and plutonium have also been found to be of potential concern. AEA Technology plc was therefore requested to undertake a joint experimental and modelling study to determine the solubilities of these five elements under conditions representative of those in the Boom Clay. As well as being of use in performance assessments, such data may aid the interpretation of laboratory migration studies being carried out in Belgium. The modelling described in this report involves the use of the HARPHRQ program to guide an experimental programme for the measurement of radioelement solubility in Boom Clay water. Although, the main interest to ONDRAF is for measurements at the expected in-situ conditions in the Boom Clay, experiments may be performed at a range of pH and Eh conditions to provide a more detailed understanding of the aqueous chemistry of these key elements and to provide data for testing of geochemical models. Therefore the modelling was performed over a pH range 4-10

  7. Evaluating a protocol for testing fire-resistant oil-spill containment boom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of experiments were conducted to evaluate a protocol for testing the ability of fire-resistant booms to withstand both fire and waves. Most response plans for in situ burning of oil at sea require the use of a fire-resistant boom to contain the oil during a burn. For this study, a wave tank was designed and constructed to assess the capabilities of a 15 m section of a boom subjected to a 5 m diameter fire with 0.15 m high waves. Five typical fire-resistant oil-spill containment booms were tested. The purpose of the project was to evaluate the test procedure, therefore the overall performance of the boom was not evaluated on a pass-fail criterion. The two most important aspects of the test method were repeatability and reproducibility. Some of the parameters tested included the effect of wind, waves, fire size, and fire duration. Methods to constrain the booms were also tested. 7 refs., 6 tabs., 7 figs

  8. Boom, Bust and Beyond: Arts and Sustainability in Calumet, Michigan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richelle Winkler

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cycles of boom and bust plague mining communities around the globe, and decades after the bust the skeletons of shrunken cities remain. This article evaluates strategies for how former mining communities cope and strive for sustainability in the decades well beyond the bust, using a case study of Calumet, Michigan. In 1910, Calumet was at the center of the mining industry in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, but in the century since its peak, mining employment steadily declined until the last mine closed in 1968, and the population declined by over 80%. This paper explores challenges, opportunities, and progress toward sustainability associated with arts-related development in this context. Methods are mixed, including observation, interviews, document review, a survey, and secondary data analysis. We follow Flora and Flora’s Community Capitals Framework to analyze progress toward sustainability. Despite key challenges associated with the shrunken city context (degraded tax base, overbuilt and aging infrastructure, diminished human capital, and a rather limited set of volunteers and political actors, we find the shrunken city also offers advantages for arts development, including low rents, less risk of gentrification, access to space, and political incentive. In Calumet, we see evidence of a spiraling up pattern toward social sustainability resulting from arts development; however impacts on environmental and economic sustainability are limited.

  9. Circuits of Memory: The War Memory Boom in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Stephens

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In some Australian academic circles in the 1980s it was believed that, as the numbers of soldiers of the world wars declined over time, so would attendances at war remembrance ceremonies on Anzac Day and interest in war commemoration in general. Contrary to expectation, however, there has been a steady rise in eagerness for war memory in Australia over the past three decades manifest in media interest and increasing attendance at Anzac Day services. Rather than dying out, ‘Anzac’ is being reinvented for new generations. Emerging from this phenomenon has been a concomitant rise in war memorial and commemorative landscape building across Australia fuelled by government funding (mostly federal and our relentless search for a national story. Many more memorial landscapes have been built in Western Australia over the past thirty years than at the end of either of the World Wars, a trend set to peak in 2014 with the Centenary of Anzac. This paper examines the origins and progress of this boom in memorial building in Western Australia and argues that these new memorial settings establish ‘circuits of memory’ which ultimately re-enchant and reinforce the Anzac renaissance.

  10. R&D of Complete Equipment for 750-kV Transmission System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The rapid growth of power demand driven by national economic booming has placed challenges before power grids to build transmission lines on highar voltage level over current 500 kV. The construction of 750-kV demonstrative transmission project and promotion of present transmission capability are imperative necessities to lay foundations for research and development of 750-kV or even 1000-kV complete equipment.

  11. AN EFFECTIVE SCHEDULING SCHEME FOR LIFT CLUBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Van Wijck

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This paper describes a formula for scheduling the day-to-day operation of a lift club. The formula is remarkably simple, and can easily be implemented on a spreadsheet. It is also extremely flexible and can cater for almost any peculiarity that may arise. Much like a business, the lift club is viewed as an entity in its own right, rather than as a collection of individuals. The scheme can be used to generate interesting statistics such as percentage utilization of each member, average percentage utilization of all members, effective size of the lift club, etc. In addition, a graph, depicting each member's liability towards the club against time, can be generated. Finally, every member can obtain a record of his/her trip data over any specific period, which may be handy for income tax purposes.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie artikel beskryf 'n fonnule vir die dag-tot-dag skedulering van 'n saamryklub. Die fonnule is merkwaardig eenvoudig en kan maklik op 'n sigblad geimplementeer word. Dit is ook besonder buigsaam deurdat dit vir bykans enige gebeurlikheid voorsienning maak. Die voorgestelde skeduleringsmetode beskou die saamryklub as 'n entiteit in eie reg, en skeduleing word vanuit die saamryklub se oogpunt gedoen. Die skema kan gebruik word om interesante statistieke soos byvoorbeeld die persentasie benutting deur enige lid, die gemiddelde persentasie benutting deur aIle lede, die effektiewe grootte van die klub, ens., te genereer. Voorts kan 'n grafiek gegenereer word wat elke lid se aanspreeklikheid teenoor die klub as 'n funksie van tyd grafies vertoon. Laastens kan enige lid op enige stadium 'n rekord trek van die aantal saamrygeleenthede wat hy oor 'n bepaalde periode voorsien en ontvang het. Dit mag handig wees vir belasting doeleindes.

  12. Pure spinor equations to lift gauged supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, Dario; Tomasiello, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano-Bicocca, and INFN, sezione di Milano-Bicocca,I-20126 Milano (Italy)

    2014-01-31

    We rewrite the equations for ten-dimensional supersymmetry in a way formally identical to a necessary and sufficient G-structure system in N=2 gauged supergravity, where all four-dimensional quantities are replaced by combinations of pure spinors and fluxes in the internal space. This provides a way to look for lifts of BPS solutions without having to reduce or even rewrite the ten-dimensional action. In particular this avoids the problem of consistent truncation, and the introduction of unphysical gravitino multiplets.

  13. Lambda-Lifting in Quadratic Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2003-01-01

    Lambda-lifting is a program transformation that is used in compilers, partial evaluators, and program transformers. In this article, we show how to reduce its complexity from cubic time to quadratic time, and we present a flow-sensitive lambda-lifter that also works in quadratic time. Lambda...... on the simple observation that all functions in each component need the same extra parameters and thus a transitive closure is not needed. We therefore simplify the search for extra parameters by treating each strongly connected component instead of each function as a unit, thereby reducing the time complexity...

  14. Lambda-lifting in Quadratic Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, O.; Schultz, U.P.

    2004-01-01

    Lambda-lifting is a program transformation that is used in compilers, partial evaluators, and program transformers. In this article, we show how to reduce its complexity from cubic time to quadratic time, and we present a flow-sensitive lambda-lifter that also works in quadratic time. Lambda...... on the simple observation that all functions in each component need the same extra parameters and thus a transitive closure is not needed. We therefore simplify the search for extra parameters by treating each strongly connected component instead of each function as a unit, thereby reducing the time complexity...

  15. Lift Enhancement by Dynamically Changing Wingspan in Forward Flapping Flight

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shizhao; He, Guowei; Liu, Tianshu

    2013-01-01

    Stretching and retracting wingspan has been widely observed in the flight of birds and bats, and its effects on the aerodynamic performance particularly lift generation are intriguing. The rectangular flat-plate flapping wing with a sinusoidally stretching and retracting wingspan is proposed as a simple model of biologically-inspired dynamic morphing wings. Direct numerical simulations of the low-Reynolds-number flows around the flapping morphing wing in a parametric space are conducted by using immersed boundary method. It is found that the instantaneous and time-averaged lift coefficients of the wing can be significantly enhanced by dynamically changing wingspan in a flapping cycle. The lift enhancement is caused not only by changing the lifting surface area, but also manipulating the flow structures that are responsible to the generation of the vortex lift. The physical mechanisms behind the lift enhancement are explored by examining the three-dimensional flow structures around the flapping wing.

  16. 1995 NASA High-Speed Research Program Sonic Boom Workshop. Volume 2; Configuration Design, Analysis, and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baize, Daniel G. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The High-Speed Research Program and NASA Langley Research Center sponsored the NASA High-Speed Research Program Sonic Boom Workshop on September 12-13, 1995. The workshop was designed to bring together NASAs scientists and engineers and their counterparts in industry, other Government agencies, and academia working together in the sonic boom element of NASAs High-Speed Research Program. Specific objectives of this workshop were to: (1) report the progress and status of research in sonic boom propagation, acceptability, and design; (2) promote and disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; (3) help promote synergy among the scientists working in the Program; and (4) identify technology pacing, the development C, of viable reduced-boom High-Speed Civil Transport concepts. The Workshop was organized in four sessions: Sessions 1 Sonic Boom Propagation (Theoretical); Session 2 Sonic Boom Propagation (Experimental); Session 3 Acceptability Studies-Human and Animal; and Session 4 - Configuration Design, Analysis, and Testing.

  17. A summary of the lateral cutoff analysis and results from NASA's Farfield Investigation of No-boom Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliatt, Larry J.; Hill, Michael A.; Haering, Edward A.; Arnac, Sarah R.

    2015-10-01

    In support of the ongoing effort by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to bring supersonic commercial travel to the public, NASA, in partnership with other industry organizations, conducted a flight research experiment to analyze acoustic propagation at the lateral edge of the sonic boom carpet. The name of the effort was the Farfield Investigation of No-boom Thresholds (FaINT). The research from FaINT determined an appropriate metric for sonic boom waveforms in the transition and shadow zones called Perceived Sound Exposure Level, established a value of 65 dB as a limit for the acoustic lateral extent of a sonic boom's noise region, analyzed change in sonic boom levels near lateral cutoff, and compared between real sonic boom measurements and numerical predictions.

  18. Linnainstallatsioonide festival "Lift 11" = Urban installations festival Lift 11 / Margit Aule, Margit Argus ; intervjueerinud Margit Mutso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aule, Margit, 1981-

    2012-01-01

    Linnainstallatsioonide festivalist "Lift 11", installatsioonidest. Festivali kuraatorid Margit Argus ja Margit Aule ning kaaskuraatorid Maarin Ektermann ja Ingrid Ruudi pälvisid EK arhitektuuri sihtkapitali 2011. a. arhitektuurialase tegevuse preemia avaliku linnaruumi mitmekesisust märkama, kasutama ning mõtestama ärgitanud ürituse korraldamise eest

  19. Subsonic Aerodynamic Characteristics of an Airplane Configuration with a 63 deg Sweptback Wing and Twin-Boom Tails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Howard F.; Edwards, George G.

    1959-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation has been conducted to determine the effects of an unconventional tail arrangement on the subsonic static longitudinal and lateral stability characteristics of a model having a 63 deg sweptback wing of aspect ratio 3.5 and a fuselage. Tail booms, extending rearward from approximately the midsemispan of each wing panel, supported independent tail assemblies well outboard of the usual position at the rear of the fuselage. The horizontal-tail surfaces had the leading edge swept back 45 deg and an aspect ratio of 2.4. The vertical tail surfaces were geometrically similar to one panel of the horizontal tail. For comparative purposes, the wing-body combination was also tested with conventional fuselage-mounted tail surfaces. The wind-tunnel tests were conducted at Mach numbers from 0.25 to 0.95 with a Reynolds number of 2,000,000, at a Mach number of 0.46 with a Reynolds number of 3,500,000, and at a Mach number of 0.20 with a Reynolds number of 7,000,000. The results of the investigation indicate that longitudinal stability existed to considerably higher lift coefficients for the outboard tail configuration than for the configuration with conventional tail. Wing fences were necessary with both configurations for the elimination of sudden changes in longitudinal stability at lift coefficients between 0.3 and 0.5. Sideslip angles up to 15 deg had only small effects upon the pitching-moment characteristics of the outboard tail configuration. There was an increase in the directional stability for the outboard tail configuration at the higher angles of attack as opposed to a decrease for the conventional tail configuration at most of the Mach numbers and Reynolds numbers of this investigation. The dihedral effect increased rapidly with increasing angle of attack for both the outboard and the conventional tail configurations but the increase was greater for the outboard tail configuration. The data indicate that the outboard tail is an effective

  20. Experimental Study of Air-Lift Pumps Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Naji F. Al-Saqer; Mohammed E. Al-Shibani

    2014-01-01

    The mean aim of this work is to study the Air-lift pumps characteristics according to design parameters such as the percentage of the distance between throat section and nozzle and the driving air pressure, suction head and also study the effect of each parameter on the air lift pump characteristics in order to have a better performance of such pump under various conditions. A certain geometry for air-lift pump designed and manufactured. The experiments show that there must be ...

  1. An Image Fusion Algorithm Based on Lifting Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Di; FAN Qibin; SHU Qian

    2005-01-01

    Taking the advantage of the lifting scheme's characters that can build wavelet transforms for transforming from integer to integer and the quality ofthe reconstructing imageis independent of the topology way adopted by the boundary, an image fusion algorithm based on lifting scheme is proposed. This paper discusses the fundamental theory of lifting scheme firstly and then after taking transform analysis according to a kind of images that need to be confused.

  2. Application of Boom-type Roadheader in a Metro Tunnel with Complex Cross-sections%悬臂掘进机在复杂断面地铁隧道中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    漆泰岳; 李斌

    2011-01-01

    A boom-type roadheader, a type of mechanical equipment used in the excavation of coal mines, has been used for the construction of a metro tunnel with complex cross-sections. The adaptability of this equipment directly depends on the mechanical behavior of surrounding rocks and the associated construction method. Practice has indicated that a boom-type roadheader is suitable for bench excavation without a temporary invert. The mechanical characteristics of surrounding rocks affecting the efficiency of such boom-type roadheaders include u-niaxial compressive strength and fissure spacing of the rock mass. The adaptability of the boom-type roadheaders is divided into 3 classes based on these characteristics. The problem of dust generation in the tunneling process can be solved by changing ventilation modes. Primary support and mucking are additional factors affecting the efficiency of the boom-type roadheaders. A high-strength resin anchoring bolt system and continuous mucking system pair with the boom-type roadheader very well. Through an application analysis of boom-type roadheaders, the adaptability of boom-type roadheaders in metro tunnels with complex cross-sections is discussed. Factors and problems affecting the efficiency of boom-type roadheaders are highlighted.%悬臂掘进机是应用于煤矿煤巷掘进的综合机械化掘进设备,将其应用于复杂断面的地铁隧道之中,其适用性与围岩的力学特性和施工工法有直接关系.工程实践研究表明,悬臂掘进机适用于无临时仰拱的台阶法开挖,影响悬臂掘进机掘进效率的围岩力学特性指标主要有:岩石的单轴抗压强度和围岩的裂隙间距,按照这2个指标可将悬臂掘进机的适用性分为3级;掘进过程中所产生的粉尘可通过改变通风方式来解决.除此之外,影响悬臂掘进机掘进效率的因素还有:初期支护方式和出碴运输方式,高强树脂锚固锚杆支护系统和连续运输出碴系统是否与悬

  3. Design of Experiments for Both Experimental and Analytical Study of Exhaust Plume Effects on Sonic Boom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castner, Raymond S.

    2009-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis has been performed to study the plume effects on sonic boom signature for isolated nozzle configurations. The objectives of these analyses were to provide comparison to past work using modern CFD analysis tools, to investigate the differences of high aspect ratio nozzles to circular (axisymmetric) nozzles, and to report the effects of under expanded nozzle operation on boom signature. CFD analysis was used to address the plume effects on sonic boom signature from a baseline exhaust nozzle. Nearfield pressure signatures were collected for nozzle pressure ratios (NPRs) between 6 and 10. A computer code was used to extrapolate these signatures to a ground-observed sonic boom N-wave. Trends show that there is a reduction in sonic boom N-wave signature as NPR is increased from 6 to 10. As low boom designs are developed and improved, there will be a need for understanding the interaction between the aircraft boat tail shocks and the exhaust nozzle plume. These CFD analyses will provide a baseline study for future analysis efforts. For further study, a design of experiments has been conducted to develop a hybrid method where both CFD and small scale wind tunnel testing will validate the observed trends. The CFD and testing will be used to screen a number of factors which are important to low boom propulsion integration, including boat tail angle, nozzle geometry, and the effect of spacing and stagger on nozzle pairs. To design the wind tunnel experiment, CFD was instrumental in developing a model which would provide adequate space to observe the nozzle and boat tail shock structure without interference from the wind tunnel walls.

  4. Analysis of Plume Effects on Sonic Boom Signature for Isolated Nozzle Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castner, Raymond S.

    2008-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis has been performed to study the plume effects on sonic boom signature for isolated nozzle configurations. The objectives of these analyses were to provide comparison to past work using modern CFD analysis tools, to investigate the differences of high aspect ratio nozzles to circular (axisymmetric) nozzles, and to report the effects of underexpanded nozzle operation on boom signature. CFD analysis was used to address the plume effects on sonic boom signature from a baseline exhaust nozzle. Near-field pressure signatures were collected for nozzle pressure ratios (NPRs) between 6 and 10. A computer code was used to extrapolate these signatures to a ground-observed sonic boom N-wave. Trends show that there is a reduction in sonic boom N-wave signature as NPR is increased from 6 to 10. The performance curve for this supersonic nozzle is flat, so there is not a significant loss in thrust coefficient as the NPR is increased. As a result, this benefit could be realized without significant loss of performance. Analyses were also collected for a high aspect ratio nozzle based on the baseline design for comparison. Pressure signatures were collected for nozzle pressure ratios from 8 to 12. Signatures were nearly twice as strong for the two-dimensional case, and trends also show a reduction in sonic boom signature as NPR is increased from 8 to 12. As low boom designs are developed and improved, there will be a need for understanding the interaction between the aircraft boat tail shocks and the exhaust nozzle plume. These CFD analyses will provide a baseline study for future analysis efforts.

  5. Does Malleolus non-Lifting Tympanoplasty have any Advantage Over Malleus Lifting Technique?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Vahidi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In order to achieve a higher success rate for tympanoplasty, different techniques have been developed, and a wide variety of grafting materials have been developed. One of the techniques currently receiving considerable attention involves not lifting the remaining of eardrum from the malleus and embedding the graft underneath in order to repair the eardrum correctly in its original position, as well as minimizing graft lateralization leading to progression of hearing rehabilitation. We compared the effects of tympanoplasty with and without malleus lifting on hearing loss in patients with chronic otitis media.   Materials and Methods: In this study, 30 consecutive patients diagnosed as having chronic otitis media without cholesteatoma were randomly assigned to two tympanoplasty groups; with or without malleus lifting. Air and bone conduction thresholds were recorded before and 45 days after the intervention.   Results: In groups, except for 8000 Hz, the air conduction was significantly improved following surgery. According to air conduction there was no difference between the groups before surgery at different frequencies, although it was improved to a greater degree in the group without lifting at 250 Hz postoperatively. The average post-operative air-bone gap (ABG gain was significantly higher in all study frequencies in the target group. One of the effects of this technique is inner-ear protection from physical trauma to the ossicular chain, and prevention of damage to bone conduction.   Conclusion:  A higher hearing threshold and also higher ABG gain can be achieved by not lifting the remaining eardrum from the malleus and embedding the graft undereath it, especially at lower frequencies.

  6. The value of smart artificial lift technology in mature field operations demonstrated in the Zistersdorf oilfield in Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muessig, S.; Oberndorfer, M.; Rice, D. [Rohoelaufsuchungs-AG, Wien (Austria); Soliman, K. [Montanuniversitaet Leoben (Austria)

    2013-08-01

    Currently, approximately 40% of world oil production comes from mature fields and the tendency is that this will increase with time. A significant portion of operational expenditures in mature oil fields is related to lifting costs including the cost of maintenance of the artificial lift equipment. In many cases additional, unnecessary, costs are incurred due to inadequate control of corrosion and sand production leading to premature failures of the equipment and thus to additional workover operations. In mature fields this can result in a significant loss of reserves when the production has to be abandoned prematurely because workover operations become uneconomic. In order to combat such losses of reserves RAG and its partners have developed fit-for-purpose technologies such as: continuous control of the liquid level in the annulus (i.e. bottom hole flowing pressure), innovative advanced sand control and longer lasting artificial lift equipment. On the basis of the 75 years old Zistersdorf oilfields the value of these developments in artificial lift technology is demonstrated. The Zistersdorf oilfields produce primarily from the compacted and fairly permeable 'Sarmat' sandstone formation which has many layers whereby the higher layers are poorly consolidated. The fields are currently producing from 33 producing wells some 6 900 m{sup 3} (Vn)/d gas and 48 t/d of oil at an average water cut of 97.1%. It will be shown that the implementation of the technologies described in combination with the in-house knowledge and the dedication of the field staff has extended considerably the mean time between failures of the equipment, reduced markedly the average yearly decline rate and thus extended the economic life expectancy of the fields and increased the ultimate recovery significantly.

  7. AMS gets lift on space shuttle Discovery

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    AMS-02, the CERN-recognized experiment that will seek dark matter, missing matter and antimatter in Space aboard the International Space Station (ISS), has recently got the green light to be part of the STS-134 NASA mission in 2010. Installation of AMS detectors in the Prévessin experiment hall.In a recent press release, NASA announced that the last or last-but-one mission of the Space Shuttle programme would be the one that will deliver AMS, the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, to the International Space Station. The Space Shuttle Discovery is due to lift off in July 2010 from Kennedy Space Center and its mission will include the installation of AMS to the exterior of the space station, using both the shuttle and station arms. "It wasn’t easy to get a lift on the Space Shuttle from the Bush administration," says professor Samuel Ting, spokesperson of the experiment, "since during his administration all the funds for space research w...

  8. Diagnóstico do estado nutricional dos atletas da Equipe Olímpica Permanente de Levantamento de Peso do Comitê Olímpico Brasileiro (COB Diagnostico del estado nutricional de los deportistas del equipo olímpico nacional de levantamiento de pesas del Comité Olímpico Brasileño (COB Diagnosis of the nutritional status of the Weight Lifting Permanent Olympic Team athletes of the Brazilian Olympic Committee (COB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Costa Cabral

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste estudo diagnosticar o estado nutricional da Equipe Olímpica Permanente de Levantamento de Peso do Comitê Olímpico Brasileiro (COB. A amostra foi composta por 24 atletas, na faixa etária entre 16 e 23 anos, sendo 12 do sexo masculino (19,7 ± 2,4 anos e 12 do feminino (19,2 ± 1,8 ano. Realizou-se o seguinte procedimento para o diagnóstico do estado nutricional: análise da adequação da ingestão de energia e dos macronutrientes - carboidratos (CHO, lipídios (LIP e proteínas (PRO -, por meio dos métodos Recordatório de 24 horas e Questionário de Freqüência de Consumo Alimentar, além da caracterização do perfil antropométrico. Os resultados da avaliação dietética indicaram que a distribuição energética entre os macronutrientes encontra-se adequada sendo de 54 ± 6,8% (CHO; 28,5 ± 5,9% (LIP; e 14,5 ± 3,4% (PRO para os homens e 56,3 ± 4,7% (CHO; 28,6 ± 4,6% (LIP; e 13,7 ± 2,4% (PRO para a equipe feminina. Entretanto, quanto ao consumo energético total, 83% dos atletas estavam com ingestão energética abaixo dos valores recomendados, considerando o alto nível de atividade física, promovendo deficiência calórica diária. O percentual de gordura corporal dos atletas do sexo masculino (3,6 ± 0,7% indicou que todos estavam abaixo do padrão de referência, enquanto 58% dos esportistas do sexo feminino apresentavam excesso de gordura (17,9 ± 5,8%. Tem-se, como conclusão, que, apesar de os desportistas avaliados terem realizado distribuição energética adequada entre os macronutrientes, esta ainda não foi suficiente para suprir as exigências energéticas da modalidade, necessitando assim de orientação nutricional.El objetivo de este estudio fue diagnosticar el estado nutricional de los deportistas del equipo olímpico nacional de levantamiento de pesas del Comité Olímpico Brasileño (COB. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 24 deportistas, con edades entre 16 y 23 años, siendo 12 hombres (19,7

  9. Analysis on Shock Wave Speed of Water Hammer of Lifting Pipes for Deep-Sea Mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhi-jin; YANG Ning; WANG Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Water hammer occurs whenever the fluid velocity in vertical lifting pipe systems for deep-sea mining suddenly changes.In this work,the shock wave was proven to play an important role in changing pressures and periods,and mathematical and numerical modeling technology was presented for simulated transient pressure in the abnormal pump operation.As volume concentrations were taken into account of shock wave speed,the experiment results about the pressure-time history,discharge-time history and period for the lifting pipe system showed that:as its concentrations rose up,the maximum transient pressure went down,so did its discharges; when its volume concentrations increased gradually,the period numbers of pressure decay were getting less and less,and the corresponding shock wave speed decreased.These results have highly coincided with simulation results.The conclusions are important to design lifting transporting system to prevent water hammer in order to avoid potentially devastating consequences,such as damage to components and equipment and risks to personnel.

  10. Laboratory hydro-mechanical characterisation of Boom Clay at Essen and Mol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boom Clay has been selected as a potential host rock formation for the geological disposal of radioactive waste in Belgium. In the present work, the hydro-mechanical behaviour of Boom Clay samples from the borehole Essen-1 at a depth of 220-260 m and from HADES that is the underground rock laboratory at Mol in Belgium, at 223-m depth was investigated in the laboratory by performing low pressure odometer tests (vertical effective stress ranging from 0.05 to 3.2 MPa), high pressure odometer tests (vertical effective stress ranging from 0.125 to 32 MPa), isotropic consolidation tests (confining effective stress ranging from the in situ stress to 20 MPa) and triaxial shear tests. It has been observed that the mineralogy, geotechnical properties and hydro-mechanical behaviour of Boom Clay from Essen at 227-m, 240-m and 248-m depths are similar to that of Boom Clay from Mol. As in the case of Boom Clay at Mol, the failure envelope of Boom Clay at Essen in the p'- q plane is not linear. The slope of the portion beyond the pre-consolidation stress of Boom Clay from Essen is almost the same as that from Mol, suggesting a similar internal friction angle of about 13 deg. The compression curves (void index Iv versus logarithm of vertical stress) beyond the pre-consolidation stress are the same for both samples from Mol and Essen, and situated between the intrinsic compression line (ICL) and the sedimentation compression line (SCL). The yield stress determined from odometer tests seems to be stress-path dependent and lower than the pre-consolidation stress. Thus determining the over-consolidation ratio (OCR) using the yield stress value would lead to an incorrect estimate. From a practical point view, the laboratory test results from Essen and their comparison with those from Mol provide important information regarding the transferability of knowledge on Boom Clay at different sites, taking into account the fact that most investigations have been carried out on Boom Clay at Mol

  11. AFC-Enabled Simplified High-Lift System Integration Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwich, Peter M.; Dickey, Eric D.; Sclafani, Anthony J.; Camacho, Peter; Gonzales, Antonio B.; Lawson, Edward L.; Mairs, Ron Y.; Shmilovich, Arvin

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this trade study report is to explore the potential of using Active Flow Control (AFC) for achieving lighter and mechanically simpler high-lift systems for transonic commercial transport aircraft. This assessment was conducted in four steps. First, based on the Common Research Model (CRM) outer mold line (OML) definition, two high-lift concepts were developed. One concept, representative of current production-type commercial transonic transports, features leading edge slats and slotted trailing edge flaps with Fowler motion. The other CRM-based design relies on drooped leading edges and simply hinged trailing edge flaps for high-lift generation. The relative high-lift performance of these two high-lift CRM variants is established using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions to the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations for steady flow. These CFD assessments identify the high-lift performance that needs to be recovered through AFC to have the CRM variant with the lighter and mechanically simpler high-lift system match the performance of the conventional high-lift system. Conceptual design integration studies for the AFC-enhanced high-lift systems were conducted with a NASA Environmentally Responsible Aircraft (ERA) reference configuration, the so-called ERA-0003 concept. These design trades identify AFC performance targets that need to be met to produce economically feasible ERA-0003-like concepts with lighter and mechanically simpler high-lift designs that match the performance of conventional high-lift systems. Finally, technical challenges are identified associated with the application of AFC-enabled highlift systems to modern transonic commercial transports for future technology maturation efforts.

  12. Sensorimotor memory biases weight perception during object lifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vonne evan Polanen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available When lifting an object, the brain uses visual cues and an internal object representation to predict its weight and scale fingertip forces accordingly. Once available, tactile information is rapidly integrated to update the weight prediction and refine the internal object representation. If visual cues cannot be used to predict weight, force planning relies on implicit knowledge acquired from recent lifting experience, termed sensorimotor memory. Here, we investigated whether perception of weight is similarly biased according to previous lifting experience and how this is related to force scaling. Participants grasped and lifted series of light or heavy objects in a semi-randomized order and estimated their weights. As expected, we found that forces were scaled based on previous lifts (sensorimotor memory and these effects increased depending on the length of recent lifting experience. Importantly, perceptual weight estimates were also influenced by the preceding lift, resulting in lower estimations after a heavy lift compared to a light one. In addition, the weight estimations were negatively correlated with the magnitude of planned force parameters. This perceptual bias was only found if the current lift was light, but not heavy since the magnitude of sensorimotor memory effects had, according to Weber’s law, relatively less impact on heavy compared to light objects. A control experiment tested the importance of active lifting in mediating these perceptual changes and showed that when weights are passively applied on the hand, no effect of previous sensory experience is found on perception. These results highlight how fast learning of novel object lifting dynamics can shape weight perception and demonstrate a tight link between action planning and perception control. If predictive force scaling and actual object weight do not match, the online motor corrections, rapidly implemented to downscale forces, will also downscale weight estimation in

  13. Levator plate upward lift and levator muscle strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostaminia, Ghazaleh; Peck, Jennifer; Quiroz, Lieschen; Shobeiri, S. Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of study was to compare digital palpation with the levator plate lift measured by endovaginal and transperineal dynamic ultrasound. Methods Dynamic transperineal and endovaginal ultrasound were performed as part of multicompartmental pelvic floor functional assessment. Patients were instructed to perform Kegels while a probe captured the video clip of the levator plate movement at rest and during contraction in 2D mid-sagittal posterior view. We measured the distance between the levator plate and the probe on endovaginal ultrasound as well as the distance between the levator plate and the gothic arch of the pubis in transperineal ultrasound. The change in diameter (lift) and a levator plate lift ratio (lift / rest) x 100) were calculated. Pelvic floor muscle strength was assessed by digital palpation and divided into functional and non-functional groups using the Modified Oxford Scale (MOS). Mean differences in levator plate upward lifts were compared by MOS score using student t-tests and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results 74 women were available for analysis. The mean age was 55 (SD±11.9). When measured by vaginal dynamic ultrasound, mean values of the lift and lift/rest ratio increased with increasing MOS score (ANOVA p=0.09 and p=0.04, respectively). When MOS scores were categorized to represent non-functional (MOS 0-1) and functional (MOS 2-5) muscle strength groups, the mean values of the lift (3.2 mm vs. 4.6 mm, p=0.03) and lift/rest ratio (13% vs 20%, p=0.01) were significantly higher in women with functional muscle strength. All patients with ≥ 30% lift detected by vaginal ultrasound had functional muscle strength. Conclusions Greater levator plate lift ratio detected by dynamic endovaginal ultrasound was associated with higher muscle strength as determined by MOS. This novel measurement can be incorporated into ultrasound evaluation of the levator ani function. PMID:26333568

  14. The integral lifting of sky-dome of 2RX security cover of nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiences of the integral lifting of sky-dome of 2RX security cover, weighted 170.5 tons, in the second period construction of Qinshan Nuclear Power Station is introduced, especially in four aspects of preparing jobs of lifting, simulating lifting, testing lifting, and formal lifting

  15. Analysis of sonic boom data to quantify distortions of shock profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gionfriddo, Thomas A.

    1992-01-01

    Researchers at Penn State have been examining some sonic boom waveforms recorded during overflights by the Air Force which have become available to NASA and its contractors. The quality of the digitized data and the supporting meteorological data was such that one could test the applicability of molecular relaxation theories. In the late sixties, it had been supposed that the finite rise times in the absence of turbulence had neglected the vibrational relaxation of nitrogen molecules. Bass et al. have demonstrated that molecular relaxation definitely gives the correct order of magnitude of the observed rise times. However, the Air Force data in conjunction with the recent steady-state shock profile model theory of Kang and Pierce give the first opportunity to make a detailed quantitative assessment of the molecular relaxation hypothesis. Currently an investigation is ongoing to establish a method of quantifying the distortion of a sonic boom wave from a classic N-wave shape using the Air Force data taken at Edwards AFB in 1987. Using the premise that energy will be conserved approximately for a sonic boom wave both before and after the boom passes through the Earth's turbulent boundary layer, a classic undistorted waveform is constructed from the distorted signature received at the ground. A correlation between the mean-squared deviation of the distorted and undistorted waveforms and the distance the boom travels through the turbulence is sought.

  16. Sonic booms produced by US Air Force and US Navy aircraft: Measured data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R. A.; Downing, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    A sonic measurement program was conducted at Edwards Air Force Base. Sonic boom signatures, produced by F-4, F-14, F-15, F-16, F-18, F-111, SR-71, and T-38 aircraft, were obtained under the flight track and at various lateral sites which were located up to 18 miles off-track. Thirteen monitors developed by Det 1 AL/BBE were used to collect full sonic boom waveforms, and nine modified dosimeters were used to collect supplemental peak overpressures and the C-weighted Sound Exposure Levels (CSEL) for 43 near steady supersonic flights of the above United States Air Force and United States Navy aircraft. This report describes the measured database (BOOMFILE) that contains sonic boom signatures and overpressures, aircraft tracking, and local weather data. These measured data highlight the major influences on sonic boom propagation and generation. The data from this study show that a constant offset of 26 from the peak overpressure expressed in dB gives a good estimate of the CSEL of a sonic boom.

  17. 49 CFR 178.812 - Top lift test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... devices, so that the hoisting forces are applied vertically, for a period of five minutes; and (ii) Lifted by each pair of diagonally opposite lifting devices, so that the hoisting forces are applied towards... designed until clear of the floor and maintained in that position for a period of five minutes. (2)...

  18. Effect of ship motion on spinal loading during manual lifting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, G.S.; Kingma, I.; Delleman, N.; Dieën, J. van

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of ship motion on peak spinal loading during lifting. All measurements were done on a ship at sea. In 1-min trials, which were repeated over a wide range of sailing conditions, subjects lifted an 18 kg box five times. Ship motion, whole body kinematics, ground rea

  19. Obesity-related changes in prolonged repetitive lifting performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghesmaty Sangachin, Mahboobeh; Cavuoto, Lora A

    2016-09-01

    Despite the rising prevalence of obesity, little is known about its moderating effects on injury risk factors, such as fatigue, in occupational settings. This study investigated the effect of obesity, prolonged repetitive lifting and their interaction on lifting performance of 14 participants, 7 obese (mean body mass index (BMI): 33.2 kg m(-2)) and 7 non-obese (mean BMI: 22.2 kg m(-2)) subjects. To present a physically challenging task, subjects performed repetitive lifting for 1 h at 120% of their maximum acceptable weight of lift. Generalized linear mixed models were fit to posture and acceleration data. The obese group bent to a ∼10° lower peak trunk sagittal flexion angle, had 17% lower root mean square (RMS) jerk and took 0.8 s longer per lift. Over time, the obese group increased their trunk transverse and sagittal posterior accelerations while the non-obese maintained theirs. Although the majority of lifting variables were unaffected by BMI or its interaction with prolonged lifting duration, the observed differences, combined with a greater upper body mass, necessitate a more cautious use of existing psychophysical lifting limits for individuals who are obese, particularly when fatigued. PMID:27184307

  20. Efficient assessment of exposure to manual lifting using company data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Beek, Allard J.; Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Burdorf, Alex

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study, based on an extensive dataset on manual materials handling during scaffolding, was to explore whether routinely collected company data can be used to estimate exposure to manual lifting. The number of manual lifts of scaffold parts while constructing/dismantling scaffold

  1. Efficient assessment of exposure to manual lifting using company data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, A.J. van der; Mathiassen, S.E.; Burdorf, A.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study, based on an extensive dataset on manual materials handling during scaffolding, was to explore whether routinely collected company data can be used to estimate exposure to manual lifting.The number of manual lifts of scaffold parts while constructing/dismantling scaffolds

  2. Does hydraulic lift or nighttime transpiration facilitate nitrogen acquistion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been proposed that plant species that hydraulically lift water to dry shallow soil layers should have improved nutrient relations. Yet, this idea has not been adequately tested. We choose ten Sarcobatus vermiculatus plants with different magnitudes of hydraulic lift to examine the hypothesis...

  3. Fixed Wordsize Implementation of Lifting Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Karp

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a reversible nonlinear discrete wavelet transform with predefined fixed wordsize based on lifting schemes. Restricting the dynamic range of the wavelet domain coefficients due to a fixed wordsize may result in overflow. We show how this overflow has to be handled in order to maintain reversibility of the transform. We also perform an analysis on how large a wordsize of the wavelet coefficients is needed to perform optimal lossless and lossy compressions of images. The scheme is advantageous to well-known integer-to-integer transforms since the wordsize of adders and multipliers can be predefined and does not increase steadily. This also results in significant gains in hardware implementations.

  4. Correlation of Puma airloads: Lifting-line and wake calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousman, William G.; Young, Colin; Gilbert, Neil; Toulmay, Francois; Johnson, Wayne; Riley, M. J.

    1989-01-01

    A cooperative program undertaken by organizations in the United States, England, France, and Australia has assessed the strengths and weaknesses of four lifting-line/wake methods and three CFD methods by comparing their predictions with the data obtained in flight trials of a research Puma. The Puma was tested in two configurations: a mixed bladed rotor with instrumented rectangular tip blades, and a configuration with four identical swept tip blades. The results are examined of the lifting-line predictions. The better lifting-line methods show good agreement with lift at the blade tip for the configuration with four swept tips; the moment is well predicted at 0.92 R, but deteriorates outboard. The predictions for the mixed bladed rotor configuration range from fair to good. The lift prediction is better for the swept tip blade than for the rectangular tip blade, but the reasons for this cannot be determined because of the unmodeled effects of the mixed bladed rotor.

  5. Grid connection of regenerating lift systems; Netzanbindung von rueckspeisenden Aufzugsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skauradszun, Dominik [OPPENLAENDER Rechtsanwaelte, Stuttgart (Germany); Rohr, Stephan [ThyssenKrupp Aufzugswerke GmbH, Neuhausen auf den Fildern (Germany). Entwicklung Leistungselektronik

    2010-11-15

    With a glance at the energy efficiency, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on modern lifts and on accompanying questions of the energy right. The use of new technologies enables the installation of a cheaper energy recovery also in the case of lifts with low performance. Such lifts are not contained in the EEG (= Renewable Energy Law) and KWKG (= cogeneration protection act). The operator of a lift has to make a special contract with the provider of the power grid. In individual cases, a claim on acceptance and remuneration of the excess electricity can be subsumed, if connection, acceptance and remuneration are recompensed without reason. The VDI recommendation 4707 and the regulation EN ISO 25745 can be used for the interpretation of the normative factual characteristics in favour of the operators of lifts.

  6. Refined AFC-Enabled High-Lift System Integration Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwich, Peter M.; Shmilovich, Arvin; Lacy, Douglas S.; Dickey, Eric D.; Scalafani, Anthony J.; Sundaram, P.; Yadlin, Yoram

    2016-01-01

    A prior trade study established the effectiveness of using Active Flow Control (AFC) for reducing the mechanical complexities associated with a modern high-lift system without sacrificing aerodynamic performance at low-speed flight conditions representative of takeoff and landing. The current technical report expands on this prior work in two ways: (1) a refined conventional high-lift system based on the NASA Common Research Model (CRM) is presented that is more representative of modern commercial transport aircraft in terms of stall characteristics and maximum Lift/Drag (L/D) ratios at takeoff and landing-approach flight conditions; and (2) the design trade space for AFC-enabled high-lift systems is expanded to explore a wider range of options for improving their efficiency. The refined conventional high-lift CRM (HL-CRM) concept features leading edge slats and slotted trailing edge flaps with Fowler motion. For the current AFC-enhanced high lift system trade study, the refined conventional high-lift system is simplified by substituting simply-hinged trailing edge flaps for the slotted single-element flaps with Fowler motion. The high-lift performance of these two high-lift CRM variants is established using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions to the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. These CFD assessments identify the high-lift performance that needs to be recovered through AFC to have the CRM variant with the lighter and mechanically simpler high-lift system match the performance of the conventional high-lift system. In parallel to the conventional high-lift concept development, parametric studies using CFD guided the development of an effective and efficient AFC-enabled simplified high-lift system. This included parametric trailing edge flap geometry studies addressing the effects of flap chord length and flap deflection. As for the AFC implementation, scaling effects (i.e., wind-tunnel versus full-scale flight conditions) are addressed

  7. Shape Design of Lifting body Based on Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongyuan Li

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper briefly introduces the concept and history of lifting body, and puts forward a new method for the optimization of lifting body. This method has drawn lessons from the die line design of airplane is used to parametric numerical modeling for the lifting body, and extract the characterization of shape parameters as design variables, a combination of lifting body reentry vehicle aerodynamic conditions, aerodynamic heating, volumetric Rate and the stability of performance. Multi-objective hybrid genetic algorithm is adopted to complete the aerodynamic shape optimization and design of hypersonic lifting body vehicle when under more variable and constrained condition in order to obtain the Pareto optimal solution of Common Aero Vehicle shape.

  8. Masculinity and Lifting Accidents among Danish Ambulance Personnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus D.; Nielsen, Kent J

    alone. Aim This presentation investigates whether failure to use AT is linked to male ambulance workers’ gender identity? Is lifting patients alone a way of performing masculinity for AP’s? Method Data is taken from MARS, a panel study of AP workers in Denmark (n = 1606). Information from questionnaires...... measuring traditional male role norms (MRNI), safety attitudes and safety behavior will be linked to company register information on work injuries categorized as lifting accidents. Logistic regression is used to analyse associations between masculinity, lifting behavior, and lifting accidents. Results...... alone. For those 5% scoring lowest on MRNI the probability of reporting lifting alone was 6% while this figure was 17% for those scoring above the 95th percentile. Conclusion This study suggests that male ambulance workers performance of masculinity might pose a threat to their safety. AP...

  9. The Iron Law of Financial Markets: Self-fulfilling Prophecies and Speculative Booms and Busts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ognjen Radonjić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the factors which, in the absence of strong financial regulation, sustain the Iron Law of the Financial Markets asserting that speculative booms and busts occur more or less regularly from 17 century to the present. The first factor is that financial markets are self-fulfilling system. The second is that human nature does not change and is based on egoism, materialism, loss aversion, exaggerated hopes and fears, emulation, propensity to gamble, herd behavior and so on. Lastly, there is the extreme brevity of the financial memory. In order to enable economic authorities and/or individuals to detect timely that the unsustainable boom is under the way, we have identified the common features of historically recorded speculative episodes. Stages through which the system passes on its way from unsustainable rise to inevitable fall are: displacement, boom, overtrading, financial distress and discredit or revulsion.

  10. Pilot Test of a Novel Method for Assessing Community Response to Low-Amplitude Sonic Booms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidell, Sanford; Horonjeff, Richard D.; Harris, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A pilot test of a novel method for assessing residents annoyance to sonic booms was performed. During a two-week period, residents of the base housing area at Edwards Air Force Base provided data on their reactions to sonic booms using Smartphone-based interviews. Noise measurements were conducted at the same time. The report presents information about data collection methods and about test participants reactions to low-amplitude sonic booms. The latter information should not be viewed as definitive for several reasons. It may not be reliably generalized to the wider U.S. residential population (because it was not derived from a representative random sample) and the sample itself was not large.

  11. Design methodology for a community response questionnaire on sonic boom exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farbry, John E., Jr.; Fields, James M.; Molino, John A.; Demiranda, Gwendolyn A.

    1991-05-01

    A preliminary draft questionnaire concerning community response to sonic booms was developed. Interviews were conducted in two communities that had experienced supersonic overflights of the SR-71 airplane for several years. Even though the overflights had ceased about 6 months prior to the interviews, people clearly remembered hearing sonic booms. A total of 22 people living in central Utah and 23 people living along Idaho/Washington state border took part in these interviews. The draft questionnaire was constantly modified during the study in order to evaluate different versions. Questions were developed which related to annoyance, startle, sleep disturbance, building vibration, and building damage. Based on the data collected, a proposed community response survey response instrument was developed for application in a full-scale sonic boom study.

  12. Simulation and controller design for an agricultural sprayer boom leveling system

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jian

    2011-01-01

    According to the agricultural precision requirements, the distance from sprayer nozzles to the corps should be kept between 50 cm to 70 cm. The sprayer boom also needs to be kept parallel to the field during the operation process. Thus we can guarantee the quality of the chemical droplets distribution on the crops. In this paper we introduced a sprayer boom leveling system for agricultural sprayer vehicles with electro-hydraulic auto-leveling system. The suitable hydraulic actuating cylinder and valve were selected according to the specific systemic specifications. Furthermore, a compensation controller for the electro-hydraulic system was designed based on the mathematical model. With simulations we can optimize the performance of this controller to make sure a fast leveling response to the inclined sprayer boom. © 2011 IEEE.

  13. In-situ chemical osmosis experiment in boom clay at the underground research laboratory of Mol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clay rich layers have traditionally been regarded as natural protective covers in regional aquifers because of their low permeability. In the absence of water conducting features, these deposits provide the low flow environment required for waste containment. Comprehensive understanding of the physical and chemical processes that control water and solute transport through low permeability argillaceous formations and to the environment is a key factor for assessing their suitability as host rocks. The Boom Clay, an over consolidated marine Oligocene deposit, is considered as a potential host rock for radioactive waste disposal. For more than two decades, extensive hydraulic and hydrochemical research has been carried out in the Boom Clay at the HADES Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in Mol (Belgium). The main objective of the experiments conducted at the HADES URL has been to characterize the in-situ hydrogeological conditions, to determine the hydraulic parameters, and to study the mechanisms controlling the chemistry and the composition of the Boom Clay pore water. (authors)

  14. Boom clay pore water geochemistry at Mol site - State of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Boom Clay and Ypresian clays are investigated in the framework of the Belgian research program on the long term management of high-level and/or long-lived radioactive waste coordinated by ONDRAF/NIRAS for their potential to host a deep geological disposal repository for radioactive waste. The Boom Clay pore water geochemistry has been studied for more than two decades with the main objective to better understand the mechanisms controlling its composition. The earlier attempts to determine the pore water composition employed ex-situ batch leaching, mechanical squeezing and in-situ piezometric water sampling techniques. These studies have demonstrated that (1) the ex-situ pore water sampling techniques are prone to artifacts, so do not provide representative pore water samples, (2) in-situ pore waters from piezometers are the least affected by sampling artifacts and are therefore considered as the most representative of the real Boom Clay conditions, (3) numerous pore water samples from piezometers over large scale are needed to study the variability of the Boom Clay geochemistry, (4) to unambiguously interpret a pore water composition, it is of paramount importance to determine reliably in-situ pH and pCO2 in the same pore water sample series. To provide a sufficient amount of high quality pore water samples, a piezometric network was installed around the HADES-URF. The architecture of the network allows to evaluate the variations in the Boom Clay pore water composition in both vertical and horizontal direction. The results show that the Boom Clay pore water composition is not constant at the formation scale. The concentrations of the two most abundant species (Na and HCO3-) decrease in the Boeretang Member (top Boom Clay) in contrast to relatively stable values in the Putte Member. Small variations of these concentrations were also detected at the boundary between the Putte and Boeretang Member. An abrupt increase

  15. Radionuclide solubilities in boom clay. Final report, part 2 : a report produced for ONDRAF/NIRAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The release of radionuclides from a High Level Radioactive Waste repository situated in the Boom Clay at Mol would depend, in part, on their retardation within the Boom Clay. A number of parameters are required to assess such retardation; these include the solubilities of key radionuclides and their sorption behaviour. ONDRAF/NIRAS has identified neptunium, technetium, selenium, uranium and plutonium as elements for study. AEA Technology plc was requested to undertake a joint experimental and modelling study to determine the solubilities of these five elements under conditions representative of those in the Boom Clay (the in situ chemical conditions are pH∼8, Eh ∼ -230 mV). The work programme was carried out over three years, and for completeness this final report includes all the results

  16. Study on thermally induced vibration of flexible boom in various thermal environments of vacuum chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Changduk; Oh, Kyung-Won; Park, Hyun-Bum; Sugiyama, Y.

    2005-02-01

    In order to simulate the thermally-induced vibration phenomenon of the flexible thin boom structure of the spacecraft such as the thin solar panel and the flexible cantilever with the attached tip mass in space, the thermally-induced vibration including thermal flutter of the flexible thin boom with the concentrated tip mass was experimentally investigated at various thermal environments using a heat lamp and both vacuum and air condition using the vacuum chamber. In this experimental study, divergence speed, natural frequency and thermal strains of the thermally-induced vibration were comparatively evaluated at various thermal environment conditions. Finally the thermally-induced vibration of the flexible boom structure of the earth orbit satellite in solar radiation environment from the earth eclipse region including umbra and penumbra was simulated using the vacuum chamber and power control of the heating lamp.

  17. Aerodynamic Interference between Oscillating Lifting Surfaces and Fuselage Part 2: Some Applications of Oscillating Lifting Surface Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Adrian Jean BUTOESCU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the second article of a series that deals with the calculation of the aerodynamic unsteady forces on lifting surfaces. It presents some new important details on the lifting surface theory that performs oscillations in subsonic flow. These features will be applied to the aerodynamic response to certain kind of gusts and to the flapping wing calculations.

  18. 围油栏形状优化的数值模拟%Numerical simulation of oil booms shape optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏芳; 许颖

    2011-01-01

    文中对传统围油栏进行形状优化,应用流体体积分数法(VOF),数值模拟优化后的围油栏对两种不同粘度油类拦油效果;通过分析、比较拦油失效速度、失效时间以及围油栏失效前的栏前受压,说明围油栏形状优化的可行性,以提高围油栏的拦油性能.%Floating booms is commonly used to hold back oil spill on water surface, while oil boom failure often occurs in cases of water currents with high velocity. In order to improve the performance of booms, firstly volume of fluid (VOF) method was applied to numerically simulate traditional booms, and then the optimization of oil boom was carried out by changing the structure and shape of booms. Through the analysis and comparison of the block oil failure speed, failure time and the pressure before boom failure, the numerical simulate results indicate that the optimization shape of oil booms are feasible to improve oil spill interceptions.

  19. Simplified sonic-boom prediction. [using aerodynamic configuration charts and calculators or slide rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, H. W.

    1978-01-01

    Sonic boom overpressures and signature duration may be predicted for the entire affected ground area for a wide variety of supersonic airplane configurations and spacecraft operating at altitudes up to 76 km in level flight or in moderate climbing or descending flight paths. The outlined procedure relies to a great extent on the use of charts to provide generation and propagation factors for use in relatively simple expressions for signature calculation. Computational requirements can be met by hand-held scientific calculators, or even by slide rules. A variety of correlations of predicted and measured sonic-boom data for airplanes and spacecraft serve to demonstrate the applicability of the simplified method.

  20. CAPITAL FLOWS, CONSUMPTION BOOMS AND ASSET BUBBLES: A BEHAVIOURAL ALTERNATIVE TO THE SAVINGS GLUT HYPOTHESIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laibson, David; Mollerstrom, Johanna

    2010-05-01

    Bernanke (2005) hypothesized that a "global savings glut" was causing large trade imbalances. However, we show that the global savings rates did not show a robust upward trend during the relevant period. Moreover, if there had been a global savings glut there should have been a large investment boom in the countries that imported capital. Instead, those countries experienced consumption booms. National asset bubbles explain the international imbalances. The bubbles raised consumption, resulting in large trade deficits. In a sample of 18 OECD countries plus China, movements in home prices alone explain half of the variation in trade deficits.

  1. Calculation program for the analysis of the performance of boom-type reclaimers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergonzoli, A.; Ferretti, C.

    1986-04-01

    The paper describes a calculation program which allows the performance of a slewing boom bucket wheel reclaimer to be thoroughly analysed. The features required for the correct sizing of the structural and operational components can be evaluated and the optimum operating criteria under the most frequent operating conditions can be defined. Topics covered are: general description of the calculation program including reclaiming rate analysis and power requirement analysis; and program control and description of results including representation of results with and without boom slewing, and representation of statistical parameters.

  2. 汽车起重机计算机辅助吊装方案设计%Computer-assisted lifting plan design of truck crane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓莲; 陶元芳; 李坤; 宁志强

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at problems of large working amount and low accuracy in the manual lifting planning for truck cranes, the paper analyzes and discusses the methods of selecting and determining the optimum lifting plans with computer assistance, the computer-assisted hoisting plan design system is developed through programming. The hoisting condition is analyzed at first to work out the minimum boom length and minimum radius meeting such hoisting condition; then the nonlinear equations between the hoisting capacity and working radius under different working conditions are fitted based on the data in the performance table; at last, the proposed crane model with the minimum boom length, minimum radius and load weight meeting the working condition is selected and verified.%针对手工制订汽车起重机吊装方案工作量大、精确度不高的问题,分析并探讨了利用计算机辅助进行最优吊装方案选择与确定的方法,通过编程开发了计算机辅助吊装方案设计系统.首先对吊装工况进行分析,计算出满足吊装工况的最小臂长和最小幅度;其次以其性能表中的数据为基础,拟合出不同工况下起重量与工作幅度之间的非线性方程;最后以满足吊装工况的最小臂长、最小幅度及物体质量选择拟采用的起重机型号并校核.

  3. Characterization of the wine boom in Mendoza (Argentina, 1904-1912 Caracterización del boom vitivinícola en Mendoza (Argentina, 1904-1912

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Barrio de Villanueva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mendocinean viticulture experimented between 1904 and 1912 a booming economical growth consistent with the national average growth. In this article we present the values of some variables that illustrate some representative indicators of that section of the economy. We attempt to reconstruct the production costs of grapes and wines and the possible revenues of the viticulture actorsEn consonancia con el ritmo de crecimiento de la economía nacional, la vitivinicultura mendocina vivió, entre 1904 y 1912, un verdadero boom económico-productivo. En este artículo se presenta información de dicho fenómeno a través de algunas variables representativas del sector. En segundo lugar, se intenta reconstruir los costos de producción de uva y vino, y la probable rentabilidad de los actores vitivinícolas

  4. Migrant labor supply in a booming non-renewable resource economy: Cure and transmission mechanism for de-industrialization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nulle, Grant Mark

    This paper challenges the determinism that booming resource economies suffer from de-industrialization, the "Dutch Disease". For several decades, economists have attempted to explain how a sudden surge in mineral and energy extraction affects an economy's output and employment from an aggregate and sectoral perspective. Economic theory shows that a "boom" in mineral and energy production is welfare enhancing to the economy experiencing it. However, the phenomenon also induces inter-sectoral adjustments among non-renewable resource (NRR), traditional traded, and non-traded industries that tend to crowd out traditional export sectors such as agriculture and manufacturing. In turn, this paper asks two fundamental questions: 1) Can the inter-sectoral adjustments wrought by a boom in NRR production be mitigated in the resource-abundant economy experiencing it; 2) Can the inter-sectoral adjustments be exported to a neighboring non-resource economy by movements in migrant labor supply? The theoretical model and empirical estimation approach presented in this paper introduces an endogenous migrant labor supply response to booms in NRR output to test the extent traditional tradable sectors shrink in the NRR-abundant economy during the boom and if such effects are exported to a neighboring jurisdiction. Using data at the U.S. county level, the empirical results show that booming economies experience positive and statistically significant rates of real income and traded sector job growth during the boom, attributable to the influx of migrant labor. By contrast, little evidence is found that non-booming counties adjacent to the booming counties experience declines in income or job growth because of labor supply outflows. Instead, the results suggest the larger the number of potential "donor" counties that can supply labor to the booming economies, the more likely the transmission of booming economy effects, namely evidence of de-industrialization, is diffused across all of the

  5. Heavy hauler : a new dirigible airship may introduce a paradigm shift to heavy-lift capability in the oil patch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stastny, P.

    2008-09-15

    This article discussed an extreme heavy lift dirigible airship designed by SkyHook International Inc. The JHL-40 Heavy Lifter is a new commercial rotorcraft designed to transport equipment and materials to remote regions. As a helium-filled dirigible, the SkyHook floats its own weight as well as the weight of its 4 rotors, which means that the dirigible's 20,000 horsepower can be used to lift up to 40 tonne loads. The craft also has significantly better fuel economy, reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and lower capital costs than heavy lift helicopters. Fully loaded helicopters consume the same amounts of energy as unloaded helicopters. However, the JHL-40 is capable of shutting down its lift engines for the return journey. It is expected that costs to build the airships will be 50 per cent lower than costs to build a large helicopter. An early prototype of the airship will be developed by 2010, and production of the airships may start by 2012. The article noted that helicopter usage in Canada's northern regions is increasing. 2 figs.

  6. Oil-slick instability near an oil boom: The influence of free-slip and exact free-surface conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the event of an oil spill, oil booms are often used to contain the oil before attempting to skim the oil by using oil-skimmers. Under certain conditions, the oil droplets can leave the oil slick and enter the water. A simple balance of hydrodynamic forces on such a droplet results in an instability criterion which determines whether the droplets will be swept past the boom or not. This criterion depends on the pressure gradient along the boom. In this study, the solution of viscous flow past an oil boom problem by the fractional-step method in a curvilinear coordinate system is used to calculate the pressure gradient and to study the effectiveness of oil-containment by booms. The influence of approximate free-surface conditions, such as rigid-lid no-slip, rigid-lid free-slip, and the exact free-surface condition on the instability criterion is investigated

  7. Lift Augmentation for Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald M Angle II

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of harnessing wind power has been around for centuries, and is first recorded by the Persians in 900 AD. These early uses of wind power were for the processing of food, particularly grinding grains, and consisted of stationary blades around a horizontal axis, the precursor to today’s horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT. Technology for these wind mills was essentially the same until the 1930’s when advances in aircraft propeller theories were applied to the blades of the turbine. During this development period, which has since remained basically unchanged, the design push was for increasingly larger propellers requiring heavy and costly transmissions, generators, and support towers to be installed. An alternative concept to the HAWT was developed by Georges Darrieus [5], which utilized a vertical shaft and is known as a vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT. The scientific development of the concept did not gain strong attention until the 1970’s due to the perceived low efficiency of this style. This perception was due in part to the portion of the blade’s rotary path that is adverse to the generation of power. This efficiency loss can be minimized by the mechanical movement of the blade, relative to the airflow during the upwind portion of the blades’ rotational path. Since, circulation control can alter the forces generated by an airfoil, it could be used to increase the efficiency of a VAWT by increasing the torque produced on the downwind portion of the path, while removing the need for a physical change in angle of attack. With the recent upturn in petroleum costs and global warming concerns, interest in renewable energy technologies have been reinvigorated, in particular the desire for advanced wind energy technologies, including the application of lift augmentation techniques. One of these techniques is to utilize circulation control to enhance the lifting capacity of the blades based on the location of the blade in the

  8. Isokinetic lifting strength and occupational injury. A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostardi, R A; Noe, D A; Kovacik, M W; Porterfield, J A

    1992-02-01

    One hundred seventy-one nurses had their back strength evaluated on an isokinetic lifting device and filled out an epidemiologic questionnaire. They were then followed prospectively for 2 years to determine the incidence of job-related low-back injuries. The data were analyzed to determine if the injury incidence correlated with any of the strength or epidemiologic variables collected during the original evaluation. Average peak force measured during the isokinetic lift was 63.8 kg + 13.6 kg at a lift speed of 30.5 cm/sec and 59.1 kg + 14.9 kg at a lift speed of 45.7 cm/sec. Sixteen nurses reported an occurrence of job-related low-back pain or injury during the 2-year prospective period. Discriminate statistical techniques showed that none of the strength or epidemiologic variables correlated with the incidence of pain or injury or explained significant amounts of variance when the variables were regressed on strength or work calculated from the lift force/lift height data. It was concluded that in this high risk population, in which loads are heavy and lifting postures are variable, the use of low-back strength or prior history of pain or injury are poor predictors as to subsequent low-back pain or injury. PMID:1532461

  9. Spreader equipment for open cast mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nies, G.; Jurisch, H. [MAN TAKRAF Foerdertechnik GmbH, Lauchhammer (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    In open cast mining in unconsolidated rock, continuous excavation and dumping has asserted itself throughout the world. A milestone of this development was the use of the first overburden conveyor bridge in the Lusatian open cast mine Plessa in 1924. Handling capacities of 36.000 m{sup 3}/h of loose overburden and discharge boom lengths of approx. 200 m were the highlights of the TAKRAF spreading equipment technology in unconsolidated rock. The past decade has shown that spreader equipment technology of medium-size dominated the industry. The described case studies in unconsolidated rock in Yuan Bao Shan in China and Mae Moh and Lampang in Thailand confirm this just as much as further cases in which TAKRAF spreaders are used, for example in Oslomej/Macedonia, which we have not described here. With the application of in-pit crushers, spreaders also found use in hard rock open cast mining; initially used to transport the crushed waste rock. However, with the development of the heap leach technology, they were soon also used for dumping the leached ore residues. The possibility of achieving large dumping depths with short discharge booms, makes the compact spreader the predominant spreader type for hard rock. (orig./MSK) [Deutsch] Im uebertaegigen Bergbau im Lockergestein hat sich weltweit die kontinuierliche Foerderung und Verkippung durchgesetzt. Ein Meilenstein dieser Entwicklung war 1924 der Einsatz der ersten Abraumfoerderbruecke im Lausitzer Tagebau Plessa. Foerderleistungen von 36.000 m{sup 3}/h geschuettetem Abraum und Abwurfauslegerlaengen von ca. 200 m waren Hoehenpunkte der Absetzergeraetetechnik von TAKRAF im Lockergestein. Das vergangene Jahrzehnt hat gezeigt, dass Absetzergeraetetechnik der mittleren Groessenordnung bestimmend war. Die erlaeuterten Einsatzfaelle im Lockergestein in Yuan Bao Shan in China sowie Mae Moh und Lampang in Thailand bestaetigen das ebenso wie weitere Einsatzfaelle von TAKRAF-Absetzern, wie zum Beispiel Oslomej in Mazedonien, die

  10. Motion of the Lifted Load brought by a Kinematic forcing of the Crane telescopic boom%汽车起动机运动学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bogdan posiadala; Bogdan Skalmierski; Lech Tomski; 孙新学; 张一哲

    1992-01-01

    针对汽车起重机伸缩臂架的各种可能的运动,本文研究了伸缩臂架的运动学特征.在研究分析中,笔者考虑了引起伸缩臂长度、绳索长度、臂架倾角及臂架回旋角变化的各种控制因素,本文所介绍的这6组连续函数中,臂架的各种控制可能是随意的.为了说明装有钢丝绳滑轮的臂架顶端的运动学特征,本文采用了一系列直角座标系,使直角坐标系间的相对运动转为平动,因此,大大简化了问题的叙述过程.此外,本文还导出了吊重的运动方程,并且使用Rwze-Kutta方法的第四规则解决了初始条件问题.

  11. 一种新型升降装置的设计%Design of a New Kind of Lifting Gear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗煜林; 陈怀民

    2015-01-01

    A new kind of lifting gear was designed for an automated processing equipment. This device could realize not only auto-mation, but also manual lifting. By worm gear reducer, screw with positive and negative thread on both ends was rotated to drive two groups of inclined T guide chute to move backward, so the lifting was implemented. The device has high accuracy and stability, the normal operation of the whole automation equipment can be ensured.%为自动化加工设备设计一种新型的升降装置. 此装置既可以实现自动升降, 也可以手动升降. 通过蜗轮蜗杆减速机带动两端有正反螺纹的螺杆转动, 从而带动两组斜T形导滑槽反向运动实现装置的升降. 该装置的精度和稳定性都比较高, 可以确保整台自动化设备正常运行.

  12. Propulsion integration for a hybrid propulsive-lift system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, M. K.; Renshaw, J. H.; Sweet, H. S.

    1974-01-01

    In a discussion of STOL vehicles with conventional high-lift devices, the need for efficient power-augmented lift systems is presented, and the implications of quiet operation are noted. The underlying philosophy of a promising hybrid lift system with major interactions between aerodynamic, thermodynamic, acoustic, and configuration design technologies is derived. The technique by which engine and airframe-related characteristics for this application may be matched in an optimum manner is described and illustrated by describing the features of a particular short-haul commercial STOL vehicle.

  13. Neurologic disorders associated with weight lifting and bodybuilding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busche, Kevin

    2009-02-01

    Weight lifting and other forms of strength training are becoming more common because of an increased awareness of the need to maintain individual physical fitness. Emergency room data indicate that injuries caused by weight training have become more universal over time, likely because of increased participation rates. Neurologic injuries can result from weight lifting and related practices. Although predominantly peripheral nervous system injuries have been described, central nervous system disease may also occur. This article illustrates the types of neurologic disorders associated with weight lifting.

  14. Drag and lift coefficients evolution of a Savonius rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, A.; Benghrib, D.

    1989-10-01

    The lift and drag coefficients of the rotating Savonius wind machine are determined from the pressure difference measured between the upper plane and the lower plane of a blade. Pressure measurements have been performed for two sets of experiments; the first one for U ∞ = 10 m/s and the second one for U ∞ = 12.5 m/s. In each case it is to be noted that a negative lift effect is present for low values of the tip speed ratio λ. The lift coefficient becomes positive when λ increases. The drag coefficient is of course always negative.

  15. Hydrofoils: optimum lift-off speed for sailboats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, R M

    1968-12-13

    For a hydrofoil sailboat there is a unique optimum lift-off speed. Before this speed is reached, if there are no parasitic vertical hydrofoil appendages, the submerged or partially submerged hydrofoils increase drag and degrade performance. As soon as this speed is reached and the hydrofoils are fully and promptly deployed, the performance of a hydrofoil-borne craft is significantly improved. At speeds exceeding optimum lift-off speed, partially submerged hydrofoils impair performance if there is no significant effect of loading on the hydrofoil lift-to-drag ratio.

  16. Non-Recourse Mortgage and Housing Price Boom, Bust, and Rebound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bao, Te; Ding, Li

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of non-recourse vs. recourse mortgages on housing price dynamics in major US metropolitan statistical areas for the period from 2000 to 2013. We find evidence that non-recourse states experience faster price growth during the boom period (2000-2006), a sharper pric

  17. Interactions between Eurozone and US Booms and Busts: A Bayesian Panel Markov-switching VAR Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Billio (Monica); R. Casarin (Roberto); F. Ravazzolo (Francesco); H.K. van Dijk (Herman)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Interactions between the eurozone and US booms and busts and among major eurozone economies are analyzed by introducing a panel Markov-switching VAR model well suitable for a multi-country cyclical analysis. The model accommodates changes in low and high data frequencie

  18. Construction and Control of an active suspension for a field sprayer boom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Skovsgaard; Sørensen, Paul Haase

    1998-01-01

    perforamnce of an active and passive boom suspension. A model has been made of an advanced active system, that combines a traditional trapezoid, with a spring pendulum system. The system can be described with a linear forth order model. The system has been the foundation for an active suspension...

  19. Prediction of sonic boom from experimental near-field overpressure data. Volume 2: Data base construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatt, C. R.; Reiners, S. J.; Hague, D. S.

    1975-01-01

    A computerized method for storing, updating and augmenting experimentally determined overpressure signatures has been developed. A data base of pressure signatures for a shuttle type vehicle has been stored. The data base has been used for the prediction of sonic boom with the program described in Volume I.

  20. Was Lates Late? A Null Model for the Nile Perch Boom in Lake Victoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Andrea S.; Galic, Nika; Goudswaard, Kees P. C.; van Nes, Egbert H.; Scheffer, Marten; Witte, Frans; Mooij, Wolf M.

    2013-01-01

    Nile perch (Lates niloticus) suddenly invaded Lake Victoria between 1979 and 1987, 25 years after its introduction in the Ugandan side of the lake. Nile perch then replaced the native fish diversity and irreversibly altered the ecosystem and its role to lakeshore societies: it is now a prised export product that supports millions of livelihoods. The delay in the Nile perch boom led to a hunt for triggers of the sudden boom and generated several hypotheses regarding its growth at low abundances – all hypotheses having important implications for the management of Nile perch stocks. We use logistic growth as a parsimonious null model to predict when the Nile perch invasion should have been expected, given its growth rate, initial stock size and introduction year. We find the first exponential growth phase can explain the timing of the perch boom at the scale of Lake Victoria, suggesting that complex mechanisms are not necessary to explain the Nile perch invasion or its timing. However, the boom started in Kenya before Uganda, indicating perhaps that Allee effects act at smaller scales than that of the whole Lake. The Nile perch invasion of other lakes indicates that habitat differences may also have an effect on invasion success. Our results suggest there is probably no single management strategy applicable to the whole lake that would lead to both efficient and sustainable exploitation of its resources. PMID:24204684

  1. Changing Fortunes: How China’s Boom Caused the Financial Crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Mees (Heleen)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis dissertation includes five academic papers that – one way or the other – all relate to China. The first paper delivers proof for the central thesis of this thesis, which is that China’s boom caused the 2008 financial crisis and ensuing recession. As much as I hoped from the outset t

  2. Equity in an Educational Boom: Lessons from the Expansion and Marketisation of Tertiary Schooling in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Mikolaj; Rok, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    This article shows how the probability of enrolment in tertiary schools has evolved for different social groups in Poland during the period of the educational boom. It also analyses how the socio-economic status influences the choices between full-time and part-time studies (the latter being of relatively low quality), and the probability of…

  3. Characterization of groundwater flow in the environment of the Boom Clay formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1975, the possibility to dispose of high-level radioactive waste in the Boom Clay formation has been investigated in Belgium at the test site in Mol. This research involves detailed studies of the hydrogeological system at various scales, observations of groundwater levels in the regional and local piezometric networks, several site investigations including geophysics and core-drilled boreholes. The knowledge gained during the long-term hydrogeological research is integrated in groundwater models. Major differences in the groundwater regimes above and below the Boom Clay gave rise to two models simulating these two sub-systems separately. The Neogene aquifer model is used to simulate the groundwater flow above the Boom Clay and the Deep aquifer pumping model to simulate the groundwater flow below the Boom Clay. The regional groundwater research improved the understanding of the regional flow system, since it has enabled to explain the behaviour of the aquifer system using a combination of a steady-state model for the Neogene aquifers and a transient model for the deep aquifers. This combination of modelling tools can offer a representative set of boundary conditions for the consecutive models that will depend on the scenarios required for the performance assessment of the integrated repository system. (authors)

  4. Investigating the pore-water chemistry effects on the volume change behaviour of Boom clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Essen site has been chosen as an alternative site for nuclear waste disposal in Belgium. The soil formation involved at this site is the same as at Mol site: Boom clay. However, owing to its geographical situation closer to the sea, Boom clay at Essen presents a pore water salinity 4-5 times higher than Boom clay at Mol. This study aims at studying the effects of pore water salinity on the hydro-mechanical behaviour of Boom clay. Specific odometer cells were used allowing 'flushing' the pore water in soil specimen by synthetic pore water or distilled water. The synthetic pore water used was prepared with the chemistry as that for the site water: 5.037 g/L for core Ess83 and 5.578 g/L for core Ess96. Mechanical loading was then carried out on the soil specimen after flushing. The results show that water salinity effect on the liquid limit is negligible. The saturation or pore water replacement under the in situ effective stress of 2.4 MPa does not induce significant volume change. For Ess83, hydro-mechanical behaviour was found to be slightly influenced by the water salinity; on the contrary, no obvious effect was identified on the hydro-mechanical behaviour of Ess96. This can be attributed to the higher smectite content in Ess83 than in Ess96. (authors)

  5. Amsterdam Book Design: Irma Boom, Hansje van Halem, Lesley Moore = Amsterdamskij knižnyj dizajn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Lommen

    2012-01-01

    Published on the occasion of the exhibition 'Amsterdam Book Design : Irma Boom, Hansje van Halem, Lesley Moore', from May 26th until June 17th 2012 in the creative platform Taiga Space, Saint Petersburg. In cooperation with Netherlands Institute Saint-Petersburg.

  6. Experimental Measurements of Sonic Boom Signatures Using a Continuous Data Acquisition Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Floyd J.; Elmiligui, Alaa A.

    2013-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation was conducted in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel to determine the effectiveness of a technique to measure aircraft sonic boom signatures using a single conical survey probe while continuously moving the model past the probe. Sonic boom signatures were obtained using both move-pause and continuous data acquisition methods for comparison. The test was conducted using a generic business jet model at a constant angle of attack and a single model-to-survey-probe separation distance. The sonic boom signatures were obtained at a Mach number of 2.0 and a unit Reynolds number of 2 million per foot. The test results showed that it is possible to obtain sonic boom signatures while continuously moving the model and that the time required to acquire the signature is at least 10 times faster than the move-pause method. Data plots are presented with a discussion of the results. No tabulated data or flow visualization photographs are included.

  7. Electrical equipment qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrical equipment qualification research programs being carried out by CEA, JAERI, and Sandia Laboratories are discussed. Objectives of the program are: (1) assessment of accident simulation methods for electrical equipment qualification testing; lower coarse (2) evaluation of equipment aging and accelerated aging methods; (3) determine radiation dose spectrum to electrical equipment and assess simulation methods for qualification; (4) identify inadequacies in electrical equipment qualification procedures and standards and potential failure modes; and (5) provide data for verifying and improving standards, rules and regulatory guides

  8. "Dedicated To The Continued Education, Training and Demonstration of PEM Fuel Cell Powered Lift Trucks In Real-World Applications."

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dever, Thomas J.

    2011-11-29

    The project objective was to further assist in the commercialization of fuel cell and H2 technology by building further upon the successful fuel cell lift truck deployments that were executed by LiftOne in 2007, with longer deployments of this technology in real-world applications. We involved facilities management, operators, maintenance personnel, safety groups, and Authorities Having Jurisdiction. LiftOne strived to educate a broad group from many areas of industry and the community as to the benefits of this technology. Included were First Responders from the local areas. We conducted month long deployments with end-users to validate the value proposition and the market requirements for fuel cell powered lift trucks. Management, lift truck operators, Authorities Having Jurisdiction and the general public experienced 'hands on' fuel cell experience in the material handling applications. We partnered with Hydrogenics in the execution of the deployment segment of the program. Air Products supplied the compressed H2 gas and the mobile fueler. Data from the Fuel Cell Power Packs and the mobile fueler was sent to the DOE and NREL as required. Also, LiftOne conducted the H2 Education Seminars on a rotating basis at their locations for lift trucks users and for other selected segments of the community over the project's 36 month duration. Executive Summary The technology employed during the deployments program was not new, as the equipment had been used in several previous demos and early adoptions within the material handling industry. This was the case with the new HyPx Series PEM - Fuel Cell Power Packs used, which had been demo'd before during the 2007 Greater Columbia Fuel Cell Challenge. The Air Products HF-150 Fueler was used outdoors during the deployments and had similarly been used for many previous demo programs. The methods used centered on providing this technology as the power for electric sit-down lift trucks at high profile companies

  9. Renewal of radiological equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    In this century, medical imaging is at the heart of medical practice. Besides providing fast and accurate diagnosis, advances in radiology equipment offer new and previously non-existing options for treatment guidance with quite low morbidity, resulting in the improvement of health outcomes and quality of life for the patients. Although rapid technological development created new medical imaging modalities and methods, the same progress speed resulted in accelerated technical and functional obsolescence of the same medical imaging equipment, consequently creating a need for renewal. Older equipment has a high risk of failures and breakdowns, which might cause delays in diagnosis and treatment of the patient, and safety problems both for the patient and the medical staff. The European Society of Radiology is promoting the use of up-to-date equipment, especially in the context of the EuroSafe Imaging Campaign, as the use of up-to-date equipment will improve quality and safety in medical imaging. Every healthcare institution or authority should have a plan for medical imaging equipment upgrade or renewal. This plan should look forward a minimum of 5 years, with annual updates. Teaching points • Radiological equipment has a definite life cycle span, resulting in unavoidable breakdown and decrease or loss of image quality which renders equipment useless after a certain time period.• Equipment older than 10 years is no longer state-of-the art equipment and replacement is essential. Operating costs of older equipment will be high when compared with new equipment, and sometimes maintenance will be impossible if no spare parts are available.• Older equipment has a high risk of failure and breakdown, causing delays in diagnosis and treatment of the patient and safety problems both for the patient and the medical staff.• Every healthcare institution or authority should have a plan for medical imaging equipment upgrade or replacement. This plan should look forward a

  10. Slot Nozzle Effects for Reduced Sonic Boom on a Generic Supersonic Wing Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caster, Raymond S.

    2010-01-01

    NASA has conducted research programs to reduce or eliminate the operational restrictions of supersonic aircraft over populated areas. Restrictions are due to the disturbance from the sonic boom, caused by the coalescence of shock waves formed off the aircraft. Results from two-dimensional computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analyses (performed on a baseline Mach 2.0 nozzle in a simulated Mach 2.2 flow) indicate that over-expanded and under-expanded operation of the nozzle has an effect on the N-wave boom signature. Analyses demonstrate the feasibility of reducing the magnitude of the sonic boom N-wave by controlling the nozzle plume interaction with the nozzle boat tail shock structure. This work was extended to study the impact of integrating a high aspect ratio exhaust nozzle or long slot nozzle on the trailing edge of a supersonic wing. The nozzle is operated in a highly under-expanded condition, creating a large exhaust plume and a shock at the trailing edge of the wing. This shock interacts with and suppresses the expansion wave caused by the wing, a major contributor to the sonic boom signature. The goal was to reduce the near field pressures caused by the expansion using a slot nozzle located at the wing trailing edge. Results from CFD analysis on a simulated wing cross-section and a slot nozzle indicate potential reductions in sonic boom signature compared to a baseline wing with no propulsion or trailing edge exhaust. Future studies could investigate if this effect could be useful on a supersonic aircraft for main propulsion, auxiliary propulsion, or flow control.

  11. Advanced Epitaxial Lift-Off Quantum Dot Photovoltaic Devices Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a high-efficiency, triple-junction, epitaxial lift-off (ELO) solar cell by incorporating quantum dots (QDs) within the current-limiting...

  12. "LIFT11" lõpetab installatsioon "Rada metsas" / Margit Aule

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aule, Margit

    2011-01-01

    Kadrioru pargis 24.09.-22.10.2011 avatud jaapani arhitekti Tetsuo Kondo installatsioonist "Rada metsas", linnainstallatsioonide festivali LIFT11 viimasest ja suurimast teosest. Installatsiooni on rahastanud Jaapani Fond. Arhitektist

  13. Lifting of a sector block for YE-2 at Kawasaki.

    CERN Multimedia

    R. Loveless/U. of Wisconsin

    2000-01-01

    YE-2 is build from machined sector blocks. Trial assembly is carried out horizontally. This picture represents the lifting of a machined sector block destined to the trial assembly of a half disk YE-2 at Kawasaki (KHI) Kobe, Japan.

  14. Low cost lift-off process optimization for MEMS applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Shilpi; Bansal, Deepak; Panwar, Deepak; Shukla, Neha; Kumar, Arvind; Kothari, Prateek; Verma, Seema; Rangra, K. J.

    2016-04-01

    The patterning of thin films play major role in the performance of MEMS devices. The wet etching gives an isotropic profile and etch rate depends on the temperature, size of the microstructures and repetitive use of the solution. Even with the use of selective etchants, it significantly attacks the underlying layer. On the other side, dry etching is expensive process. In this paper, double layer of photoresist is optimized for lift-off process. Double layer lift-off technique offers process simplicity, low cost, over conventional single layer lift-off or bilayer lift-off with LOR. The problem of retention and flagging is resolved. The thickness of double coat photoresist is increased by 2.3 times to single coat photo resist.

  15. LIFTING FORCE ACTING ON A GATE WITH HIGH HEAD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiao-qing; ZHAO Lan-hao; CAO Hui-ying; SUN Xiao-peng

    2011-01-01

    The hydrodynamic lifting force acting on a gate with high head is one of the key factors concerning the safety and reliability of gates.The lifting force is closely related to hydrodynamic pressure, and generally, is obtained through the model test.This work presents a method of numerical simulation based on the VOF method for the flow and FEM for the structure of a gate to investigate this kind of the lifting force.The physical model experiments were conducted about the hydrodynamic pressure and the lifting force to verify the numerical results.The comparisons of those two methods show that the maximum relantive error is sma11er than 11.40 % and the method presented in this paper is feasible and could be used in the designs of hydropower projects.

  16. Linnainstallatsioonide festival Tallinnas 2011 ehk "Lift11" / Margit Aule

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aule, Margit

    2011-01-01

    Tallinna linnainstallatsioonide festivalist "LIFT11", konkursist. 10 installatsioonist (nimetatud autorid), millest avlikku ruumi on jõudnud 8 installatsiooni. Intervjuu installatsiooni "Face it", mille sünd on veel kahtluse all, autorite Argo Peeveri ja Margus Tammega

  17. 49 CFR 178.811 - Bottom lift test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... truck with the forks centrally positioned and spaced at three quarters of the dimension of the side of... bottom lift test. The IBC must be loaded to 1.25 times its maximum permissible gross mass, the load...

  18. Innovations in Equipment Erection of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is sodium cooled, pool type reactor with generating capacity of 1250 MWt/500 MWe. Reactor assembly consists of large dimensional vessels like Safety vessel (13.54 m diameter, 12.8 m height and weight approximately 155 MT) and Main vessel (12.9 m diameter, 12.94 m height and weight approximately 202 MT including core catcher, core support structure and cooling pipes) and Steam generator (26 m length, 1.5 m diameter, and weight approximately 35 MT). PFBR reactor equipment erection was a challenging task where thin walled vessels had transported and handled with utmost precaution to avoid radial forces on the vessels which could buckle the vessels. There was a real challenge in lifting the vessels without swing, placement of large size and heavy vessel at a distance of 57 m where the crane operator had no line of site to the equipment being erected. To handle such over dimensional reactor components many mock-up tests had been carried out before erection and gained lot of confidence. Lot of care had been taken during lifting, handling and erection of thin walled over dimensional reactor components with innovative methods used for lifting fixtures, guiding arrangements, alignment fixtures and achieved the stringent erection tolerances. This paper discusses the first ever experiences gained during the handling and erection of such thin walled, over dimensional reactor components at PFBR site. (author)

  19. An analysis of cross section of helicopter tail boom for NOTARTM system%直升机环量控制尾梁截面形状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李家春; 杨卫东

    2015-01-01

    Lift on circulation control circular cylinder is calculated via numerical simulations based on 2D realizable k—Epsilon viscous model and compared with experimental data.The simu—lation result shows acceptable agreement with test data.With the proved grid and simulation method,lift on series of three different types of cross sections with different geometry parame—ters(blow angles,referenced position of slot,referenced circular cylinder diameters,and number of slots)or testing parameters(jet flow velocities,down wash flow velocities)is simulated.The results show that lift on circulation control tail boom could be increased with same power con—sumption,the stability of the attached flow could be enhanced by optimizing the shape of the cross section of the tail boom and the position of the slot(s)relative to the large curvature zone of the cross section where the attached flow is supposed to separate from the surface.It is also re—vealed that larger down wash velocity or smaller blow angle helps increasing the effect of optimi—zing of the shape and relative position of the slot(s).%基于二维可实现 k—Epsilon 湍流模型模拟计算了直升机环量控制尾梁上的升力,并与试验结果进行了对比,计算结果与试验结果之间显示出了可接受的吻合度。利用已验证的数值计算方法和网格划分方法,分别计算了三组不同截面形状的环量控制尾梁在不同几何参数(喷射角、缝位角、基准直径和狭缝数量)或试验条件(喷射气流速度、下洗流速度)下的升力。结果显示,通过优化尾梁截面形状和狭缝相对位置,引导气流在截面曲率较大的位置处脱离壁面,可以提高尾梁升力并增强附壁气流的稳定性。模拟计算结果还揭示了提高下洗流速度和降低狭缝喷射角可以提高优化尾梁截面和狭缝相对位置的效果。

  20. Searching for ski-lift injury: an uphill struggle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smartt, Pam; Chalmers, David

    2010-03-01

    Injuries arising from ski-lift malfunction are rare. Most arise from skier error when embarking or disembarking, or from improper lift operation. A search of the literature failed to uncover any studies focusing specifically on ski-lift injuries. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterise ski-lift injury resulting in hospitalisation and comment on barriers to reporting and reporting omissions. New Zealand hospitalised injury discharges 2000-2005 formed the primary dataset. To aid case identification these data were linked to ACC compensated claims for the same period and the data searched for all hospitalised cases of injury arising from ski-lifts. 44 cases were identified representing 2% of snow-skiing/snowboarding cases. 28 cases (64%) were male and 16 (36%) female, the average age was 32 yrs (range 5-73 yrs). The majority of cases were snow-skiers (35 cases, 80%). Most of the injuries were serious, or potentially so, with 1 case of traumatic pneumothorax, one of pulmonary embolism (after jumping from a ski-lift) and 28 cases sustaining fractures (six to the neck-of-femur, one to the lumbar spine and one to the pubis). ICISS scores for all cases ranged from 1.00 to 0.8182 (probability of dying in hospital 0-18.18%). Only 14 (32%) cases could be easily identified from ICD-10-AM e-codes and activity codes in the discharge summary. The ICD-10-AM external cause code for ski-lift injury V98 ("other specified transport accidents") was only assigned to 39% of cases. The type of ski-lift could only be determined in 24 cases (55%).

  1. Automation of Workplace Lifting Hazard Assessment for Musculoskeletal Injury Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Spector, June T.; Lieblich, Max; Bao, Stephen; McQuade, Kevin; Hughes, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Existing methods for practically evaluating musculoskeletal exposures such as posture and repetition in workplace settings have limitations. We aimed to automate the estimation of parameters in the revised United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) lifting equation, a standard manual observational tool used to evaluate back injury risk related to lifting in workplace settings, using depth camera (Microsoft Kinect) and skeleton algorithm technology. ...

  2. Research on the Aerodynamic Lift of Vehicle Windshield Wiper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Zhengqi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, research on the aerodynamic lift of vehicle windshield wipers is confined to the steady results, and there are very few test results. In the face of this truth, a wind tunnel test is conducted by using the Multipoint Film Force Test System (MFF. In this test, the aerodynamic lift of four kinds of wiper is measured at different wind speeds and different rotation angles. And then, relevant steady-state numerical simulations are accomplished and the mechanism of the aerodynamic lift is analyzed. Furthermore, combined with dynamic meshing and user-defined functions (UDF, transient aerodynamic characteristics of wipers are obtained through numerical simulations. It is found that the aerodynamic lift takes great effect on the stability of wipers, and there is maximum value of the lift near a certain wind speed and rotation angle. The lift force when wipers are rotating with the free stream is less than steady, and the force when rotating against the free stream is greater than steady.

  3. 75 FR 31803 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning a Lift Unit for an Overhead Patient Lift System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... products in the European Union (MDD 93/42/ EEC). Packaged for retail sale with the lift unit is a hand... batteries in a 3-step process; and, assembling the emergency strap, cover and end caps in a 14-step...

  4. What`s new in artificial lift. Part 1 -- Sucker rod pumping, progressing cavity pumping, gas lift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lea, J.F. [Amoco Production Research, Tulsa, OK (United States); Winkler, H.W. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Breaking the overall concept of artificially lifting producing oil and gas wells--vs. relying solely on the wells` ability to flow at desired rates--into two parts, this article discusses the three techniques of sucker rod and progressing cavity (PC) pumping, and gas lift. In the major category of sucker rod pumping, nine recently introduced new techniques include: a new standing valve cage; three types of improved stuffing boxes; a pump inlet gas separator; a computerized well monitor; improved paraffin removal techniques; tubing lining with polyethylene; and a novel way to dispose of produced water in a gas well. Three advances for PC pumping include: introduction of a metallic stator, a flowrate controller to prevent pump damage and a locking tubing collar to prevent backoff. Two gas-lift innovations describe a wireline retrievable valve for coiled tubing and applications of CO{sub 2} gas lift in West Texas.

  5. Physical model of a floating trash boom to control aquatic weeds at the TVA Widows Creek Fossil Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Widows Creek Fossil plant seasonally encounters adverse accumulations of aquatic weeds at the intakes of the condenser cooling water pumps. To reduce the accumulations, a floating trash boom has been proposed for the intakes. To evaluate the hydraulic feasibility of a boom, a physical model of the intakes has been built at the TVA Engineering Laboratory. The model was used to determine the boom alignment and depth of skimming needed to successfully deflect weeds away from the intakes and provide self-cleaning

  6. Swing chute with a long stacker boom from the heavy machinery construction state company TAKRAF, Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goehring, H.

    1979-09-01

    This paper presents mathematical calculations on the construction, stress and stability of the stacker boom segments. Equations are made for stresses on the truss girders and the girder mass. Construction variants for the stacker boom with conveyor belts from 1400 to 1800 mm using different truss designs are discussed; the reduction of the stacker boom mass is envisaged. The construction variants are also examined for possibilities of damage resulting from lumps and stones and for additional weight caused by walkways constructed for maintenance purposes.

  7. Swing chute with a long stacker boom from the heavy machinery engineering state company TAKRAF, Part I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goehring, H.

    1979-08-01

    This paper characterizes the construction and the statics of a TAKRAF made swing chute series. The average pressure of the chute on the ground is kept at about 8 N/cm2. The relation between the chute mass, the conveying capacity and the length and mass of the stacker boom construction is discussed and shown in graphs. The influence of a reduction of 10% and 20% of the conveying capacity on the chute mass is also presented. A light stacker boom construction is preferred. Variants of the boom truss construction and the mass distribution of the truss segments with and without load are considered.

  8. 潮汕机场航站楼钢屋盖整体提升技术%Integral Lifting Technology of Steel Roof in Chaoshan Airport Terminal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾令权; 郭正兴; 罗斌; 赵雨; 胡明坡

    2011-01-01

    潮汕机场焊接球节点钢网架屋盖采用地面拼装,分单元液压整体提升和高空补装的施工技术,该技术具有提升设备简单、地面拼装高效、安全性能好等优点.从提升过程分析、提升预埋件设计、提升吊点设计、提升过程结构承载力验算、同步提升控制措施等方面介绍了潮汕机场整体提升方案和提升设计,可有效安全地指导该机场钢屋盖施工成型,并在此基础上探讨了大跨度钢结构整体提升施工需考虑的问题.%In construction of the steel roof in Chaoshan Airport, engineers adopt the construction technology of ground assembling, integral lifting each unit with hydraulic equipment, retrofitting at high altitude, which has the merits of simple construction instrument, assembling on the ground, high efficiency and safety.The design of integral lifting program of Chaoshan Airport is introduced, including analysis of lifting process, design of embedded parts for lifting, design of lifting shelf, checking of structure capacity, control measures of synchronizing lifting, which can guide the construction of this project effectively and safely.And the problems involved in the integral lifting process of large-span steel structure are discussed.

  9. Aerodynamic Interference between Oscillating Lifting Surfaces and Fuselage Part 5: A Panel Method for Non-Lifting Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Adrian Jean BUTOESCU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the fifth article of our series we will deal with the calculation of the unsteady aerodynamic forces on non-lifting bodies. We present here a contribution to the problem of the flow about non-lifting bodies. It is a panel method available for subsonic unsteady flow. The method will be used further to the unsteady body-body and wing-body interference problems.

  10. 2007 special equipment safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of P.R.China (AQSIQ) issued a notice on May 28, 2007,requiring various locations to rectify their procedures for checking special equipment and hoisting machines for hidden problems. To further clarify and implement responsibility in the safety management of special equipment in enterprises, inspection responsibilities and test organizations related to technical assurance are to be established. Further, quality inspection departments will be supervised by law in order to improve special equipment safety.

  11. Flashback. El tiempo de los gitanos (Kusturica). Quieto, muere, resucita (Kanevski). Boom, Boom (R. Vergés). Henry, retrato de un asesino (Me Naugthon). La vida privada de Sherlock Holmes (B. Wilder). Sed de mal (Welles)

    OpenAIRE

    Nogueira, Xosé; Alonso Quintás, Enrique; Arias, Dany

    1992-01-01

    Nogueira, X.; Alonso Quintás, E.; Arias, D. (1992). Flashback. El tiempo de los gitanos (Kusturica). Quieto, muere, resucita (Kanevski). Boom, Boom (R. Vergés). Henry, retrato de un asesino (Me Naugthon). La vida privada de Sherlock Holmes (B. Wilder). Sed de mal (Welles). Vértigo. Revista de cine. (2):3-8. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/42914. 3 8 2

  12. PRODUCTION SYSTEM MODELING OF THE GAS LIFTED WELL BY MEANS OF THE PROGRAM PROSPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Koščak Kolin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A production system analysis was made for the well Šandrovac-136 equipped with a continuous gas lift. The analysis was based on the test data which served as the foundation for creating a production well model in computer program ‘PROSPER’ (Version 10.3, License 2681. The importance of the measured data in well modeling is accuracy and reliability in predicting future developments of the production system. The model design can be divided in six steps among which the most important are: calculation of the IPR curve, calculation of the gas lift system and matching of VLP and IPR curves based on the well testing. The aim of the VLP/IPR matching is to choose an appropriate method for calculating the pressure drop gradient by applying the nonlinear regression method, which results in the system working point adjusted to the measured data. This model was applied in sensitivity analysis of the well, in which three key variables are selected to predict their effect on future system changes, primarily on changes of the production and bottom dynamic pressure (the paper is published in Croatian.

  13. The treatment of gas in the performance assessment for the disposal of HLW and MLW in boom clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Belgium the Boom Clay is studied as potential host rock for the geological disposal of high level (HLW) and intermediate level radioactive waste (ILW). The Boom Clay has been chosen because of its very low hydraulic conductivity (2 10-12 m/s). Consequently, transport of contaminants in pore water of the Boom Clay is diffusion-controlled whereas advection has a negligible contribution to the overall migration. Also the transport of dissolved gas is very limited. Therefore, when gas is generated this can easily lead to a gas pressure build-up and thus to a safety concern. In the following sections the experimental evidence about gas generation and transport in Boom Clay are briefly summarised, then the approach used to treat the gas issue, followed by the assessment of the gas generation and the assessment of its potential consequences. (authors)

  14. The effect of fiscal policy in terms of government spending on private consumption in recessions and booms in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Kassaipour

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical study on measuring the effects of fiscal policy in terms of government spending on private consumption in both recession and booms over the period of 1965-2010. The proposed study uses Hodric-Prescott filter to find the cycle of recessions and booms. Then, we use autoregressive distributed lag model to estimate the changes. The results of this survey indicate that, in long term, an increase on government expenditures normally impacts private sector positively in both recessions and booms. The impact in short terms is positive during the recessions but during the booming session, there is no meaningful relationship between government spending and private spending.

  15. Cooling of electronic equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Kristensen, Anders Schmidt

    2003-01-01

    Cooling of electronic equipment is studied. The design size of electronic equipment decrease causing the thermal density to increase. This affect the cooling which can cause for example failures of critical components due to overheating or thermal induced stresses. Initially a pin fin heat sink...

  16. Sonic boom results for a nominal mission 3B. Space Shuttle engineering and operations support, engineering systems analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The results obtained in the analysis of the effects of sonic boom overpressures at ground level for a nominal Mission 3B with the current baseline guidance are reported. These results are in the form of ground level overpressures generated along the groundtrack out to lateral cutoff from Mach 3.0-1.10 at 0.10 (tenth) Mach intervals. Preliminary trajectory constraints which will reduce excess sonic boom overpressures to approximately 2.0 PSF are included.

  17. Equipment maintenance and repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walia DS

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The repair and maintenance of ophthalmic equipment, including surgical instruments and diagnostic devices, can be compared to the maintenance of a motor vehicle, something many of us understand well.If you had a car, would you drive it until the fuel runs out or until a tyre punctures, and then abandon it to buy a new car? Of course not. However, many eye care units purchase (or receive as a donation expensive and delicate equipment which, because of poor maintenance, ends up breaking down. If there is not a system in place to report breakdowns and to plan or carry out repairs, equipment can remain unusable for long periods of time. Sometimes, this equipment ends up being dumped. Good maintenance habits and an effective repair system will minimise the amount of time equipment is unusable.

  18. Validation of sonic boom propagation codes using SR-71 flight test data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanteyeva, Lyudmila G.; Kovalenko, Victor V.; Pavlyukov, Evgeny V.; Teperin, Leonid L.; Rackl, Robert G.

    2002-01-01

    The results of two sonic boom propagation codes, ZEPHYRUS (NASA) and BOOM (TsAGI), are compared with SR-71 flight test data from 1995. Options available in the computational codes are described briefly. Special processing methods are described which were applied to the experimental data. A method to transform experimental data at close ranges to the supersonic aircraft into initial data required by the codes was developed; it is applicable at any flight regime. Data are compared in near-, mid-, and far fields. The far-field observation aircraft recorded both direct and reflected waves. Comparison of computed and measured results shows good agreement with peak pressure, duration, and wave shape for direct waves, thus validating the computational codes.

  19. A unified approach to an augmented Burgers equation for the propagation of sonic booms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masafumi; Hashimoto, Atsushi; Aoyama, Takashi; Sakai, Takeharu

    2015-04-01

    Nonlinear propagation through a relaxing atmosphere of pressure disturbances extracted from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solution of the flow around a supersonic aircraft is simulated using an augmented Burgers equation. The effects of nonlinearity, geometrical spreading, atmospheric inhomogeneity, thermoviscous attenuation, and molecular vibration relaxation are taken into account. The augmented Burgers equation used for sonic boom propagation calculations is often solved by the operator splitting method, but numerical difficulties arise with this approach when dissipation is not effective. By re-examining the solution algorithms for the augmented Burgers equation, a stable method for handling the relaxation effect has been developed. This approach can handle the Burgers equation in a unified manner without operator splitting and, therefore, the resulting scheme is twice as fast as the original one. The approach is validated by comparing it with an analytical solution and a detailed CFD of dispersed plane wave propagation. In addition, a rise time prediction of low-boom supersonic aircraft is demonstrated.

  20. The effect of waves on the oil slick at a retention boom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the previous paper on this subject it was found that the oil-water interface at the retention boom becomes unstable under certain conditions permitting an oil escape under the boom. In the absence of waves, the experimental results were in fair agreement with predictions; but, when the waves were present, the instability occurred much earlier than predicted. In this paper the behavior of waves is studied both analytically and experimentally. It is found that the waves consist of a combination of stationary and progressive waves which is confirmed by the experiment, but the oil thickness variation on waves if found from experiment to be much grater than predicted. With certain modifications to the theory, the predicted onset of instability falls closely to experimental value

  1. A solid state converter for measurement of aircraft noise and sonic boom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.

    1972-01-01

    The problems inherent in present systems of instrumentation for measuring aircraft noise and sonic boom include limited frequency response, expensive connecting cables, sensitivity to cable length and type, high sensitivity to environmental conditions, and additional limitations of individual system components. Furthermore, differing requirements have resulted in the use of two different systems for aircraft noise and sonic boom measurements respectively. To alleviate these difficulties a unified system of instrumentation suitable for both types of measurements was developed. The system features a new solid state converter connected to a zero drive amplifier. The system was found insensitive to cable length and type up to at least 1000 ft and requires no impedance matching networks. The converter itself has flat frequency response from dc to 28 kHz (- 3 db), dynamic range of 72 db, and noise floor of 50 db in the band 22.4 Hz to 22.4 kHz.

  2. Laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) of congruent voxels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piqué, Alberto; Kim, Heungsoo; Auyeung, Raymond C. Y.; Beniam, Iyoel; Breckenfeld, Eric

    2016-06-01

    Laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) of functional materials offers unique advantages and capabilities for the rapid prototyping of electronic, optical and sensor elements. The use of LIFT for printing high viscosity metallic nano-inks and nano-pastes can be optimized for the transfer of voxels congruent with the shape of the laser pulse, forming thin film-like structures non-lithographically. These processes are capable of printing patterns with excellent lateral resolution and thickness uniformity typically found in 3-dimensional stacked assemblies, MEMS-like structures and free-standing interconnects. However, in order to achieve congruent voxel transfer with LIFT, the particle size and viscosity of the ink or paste suspensions must be adjusted to minimize variations due to wetting and drying effects. When LIFT is carried out with high-viscosity nano-suspensions, the printed voxel size and shape become controllable parameters, allowing the printing of thin-film like structures whose shape is determined by the spatial distribution of the laser pulse. The result is a new level of parallelization beyond current serial direct-write processes whereby the geometry of each printed voxel can be optimized according to the pattern design. This work shows how LIFT of congruent voxels can be applied to the fabrication of 2D and 3D microstructures by adjusting the viscosity of the nano-suspension and laser transfer parameters.

  3. Development of a Marine Propeller With Nonplanar Lifting Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul; Friesch, Jürgen; Kappel, Jens J.;

    2005-01-01

    The principle of non-planar lifting surfaces is applied to the design of modern aircraft wings to obtain better lift to drag ratios. Whereas a pronounced fin or winglet at the wingtip has been developed for aircraft, the application of the nonplanar principle to marine propellers, dealt with in t......The principle of non-planar lifting surfaces is applied to the design of modern aircraft wings to obtain better lift to drag ratios. Whereas a pronounced fin or winglet at the wingtip has been developed for aircraft, the application of the nonplanar principle to marine propellers, dealt...... with in this paper, has led to the KAPPEL propeller with blades curved toward the suction side integrating the fin or winglet into the propeller blade. The combined theoretical, experimental, and practical approach to develop and design marine propellers with nonplanar lifting surfaces has resulted in propellers...... with higher efficiency and lower levels of noise and vibration excitation compared to conventional state-of-the-art propellers designed for the same task. Conventional and KAPPEL propellers have been compared for a medium-sized containership and a product tanker. In total, nine KAPPEL propellers and two...

  4. Lifting Wing in Constructing Tall Buildings —Aerodynamic Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Skelton

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper builds on previous research by the authors which determined the global state-of-the-art of constructing tall buildings by surveying the most active specialist tall building professionals around the globe. That research identified the effect of wind on tower cranes as a highly ranked, common critical issue in tall building construction. The research reported here presents a design for a “Lifting Wing,” a uniquely designed shroud which potentially allows the lifting of building materials by a tower crane in higher and more unstable wind conditions, thereby reducing delay on the programmed critical path of a tall building. Wind tunnel tests were undertaken to compare the aerodynamic performance of a scale model of a typical “brick-shaped” construction load (replicating a load profile most commonly lifted via a tower crane against the aerodynamic performance of the scale model of the Lifting Wing in a range of wind conditions. The data indicate that the Lifting Wing improves the aerodynamic performance by a factor of up to 50%.

  5. Advances in Engineering Software for Lift Transportation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakoff, Alexander Borisoff

    2012-03-01

    In this paper an attempt is performed at computer modelling of ropeway ski lift systems. The logic in these systems is based on a travel form between the two terminals, which operates with high capacity cabins, chairs, gondolas or draw-bars. Computer codes AUTOCAD, MATLAB and Compaq-Visual Fortran - version 6.6 are used in the computer modelling. The rope systems computer modelling is organized in two stages in this paper. The first stage is organization of the ground relief profile and a design of the lift system as a whole, according to the terrain profile and the climatic and atmospheric conditions. The ground profile is prepared by the geodesists and is presented in an AUTOCAD view. The next step is the design of the lift itself which is performed by programmes using the computer code MATLAB. The second stage of the computer modelling is performed after the optimization of the co-ordinates and the lift profile using the computer code MATLAB. Then the co-ordinates and the parameters are inserted into a program written in Compaq Visual Fortran - version 6.6., which calculates 171 lift parameters, organized in 42 tables. The objective of the work presented in this paper is an attempt at computer modelling of the design and parameters derivation of the rope way systems and their computer variation and optimization.

  6. Conditional moment closure modeling of a lifted turbulent flame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yong; QIU Rong; ZHOU Wei; FAN Weicheng

    2005-01-01

    Results obtained using conditional moment closure (CMC) approach to modeling a lifted turbulent hydrogen flame are presented. Predictions are based on k-ε-g turbulent closure, a 23-step chemical mechanism and a radially averaged CMC model. The objectives are to find out how radially averaged CMC can represent a lifted flame and which mechanism of flame stabilization can be described by this modeling method. As a first stage of the study of multi-dimensional CMC for large eddy simulation (LES) of the lifted turbulent flames, the effect of turbulence upon combustion is included, the high-order compact finite- difference scheme (Padé) is used and previously developed characteristic-wave-based boundary conditions for multi- component perfect gas mixtures are here extended to their conditional forms but the heat release due to combustion is not part of the turbulent calculations. Attention is focused to the lift-off region of the flame which is commonly considered as a cold flow. Comparison with published experimental data and the computational results shows that the lift-off height can be accurately determined, and Favre averaged radial profiles of temperature and species mole fractions are also reasonably well predicted. Some of the current flame stabilization mechanisms are discussed.

  7. A Simple Method for High-Lift Propeller Conceptual Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Brian; Patterson, Michael; Borer, Nick

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a simple method for designing propellers that are placed upstream of the leading edge of a wing in order to augment lift. Because the primary purpose of these "high-lift propellers" is to increase lift rather than produce thrust, these props are best viewed as a form of high-lift device; consequently, they should be designed differently than traditional propellers. We present a theory that describes how these props can be designed to provide a relatively uniform axial velocity increase, which is hypothesized to be advantageous for lift augmentation based on a literature survey. Computational modeling indicates that such propellers can generate the same average induced axial velocity while consuming less power and producing less thrust than conventional propeller designs. For an example problem based on specifications for NASA's Scalable Convergent Electric Propulsion Technology and Operations Research (SCEPTOR) flight demonstrator, a propeller designed with the new method requires approximately 15% less power and produces approximately 11% less thrust than one designed for minimum induced loss. Higher-order modeling and/or wind tunnel testing are needed to verify the predicted performance.

  8. Numerical analysis of drag and lift reduction of square cylinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasenjit Dey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Flow around an extended triangular solid (thorn attached to a square cylinder is investigated numerically. The numerical analysis is carried out at low Reynolds number, Re = 100 & 180 for different non-dimensional thorn lengths (l΄ = 0. 2, 0.4 & 0.6, different inclination angles (θ = 5°, 10°, 15° and 20° and two different thorn positions. It is found that drag and lift reduction can be achieved by attaching the thorn on a square cylinder. It is observed that the fluctuation of the drag force as well as the lift force is reduced and there is a comparatively large variation of drag and lift when the thorn is placed at the front stagnation point instead of placing at rear stagnation point. The reduction of drag and lift coefficient are directly proportional to thorn length and thorn inclination angle. It is found that the drag and lift are minimized by 16% & 46% for Re = 100 respectively, and 22% & 60% for Re = 180 compared to a square model (without thorn.

  9. Revisiting the palm oil boom in Southeast Asia: The role of fuel versus food demand drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, Daniel J.; Balagtas, Joseph V; Gruere, Guillaume P.

    2012-01-01

    In the last 30 years, palm oil production has known a ninefold increase, with almost all production growth concentrated in Malaysia and Indonesia. Several public reports have associated the palm oil boom with extensive deforestation, often pointing to the increase in biofuel demand in developed nations as a main driver of this phenomenon. Other demand drivers, especially as related to the food sector, have not been studied as much. In particular, regulations on genetically modified (GM) food ...

  10. Experimental study of surface texture and resonance mechanism of booming sand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The sound-producing mechanism of booming sand has long been a pending problem in the blown sand physics. Based on the earlier researches, the authors collected some silent sand samples from Tengger Desert, Australian Desert, Kuwait Desert, beaches of Hainan Island and Japanese coast as well as the soundless booming sand samples from the Mingsha Mountain in Dunhuang to make washing experiments. In the meantime the chemical corrosion experiment of glass micro-spheres, surface coating experiment and SEM examination were also conducted. The experimental results show that the sound production of booming sand seems to have nothing to do with the presence of SiO2 gel on the surface of sand grains and unrelated to the surface chemical composition of sand grains but is related to the resonance cavities formed by porous (pit-like) physical structure resulting from a number of factors such as wind erosion, water erosion, chemical corrosion and SiO2 gel deposition, etc. Its resonance mechanism is similar to that of Hemholz resonance cavity. Under the action of external forces, numerous spherical and sand grains with smooth surface and porous surface are set in motion and rub with each other to produce extremely weak vibration sound and then become audible sound by human ears through the magnification of surface cavity resonance. However the booming sands may lose their resonance mechanism and become silent sand due to the damping action caused by the invasion of finer particles such as dust and clay into surface holes of sand grains. Therefore, clearing away fine pollutants on the quartz grain surface is an effective way to make silent sand emit audible sound.

  11. Book review: understanding the crisis in Greece: from boom to bust

    OpenAIRE

    Halikiopoulou, Daphne

    2012-01-01

    The new book from Michael Mitsopoulos & Theodore Pelagidis provides a good and honest account of the Greek economic crisis, focusing on issues that are both sensitive and critical: nepotism and corruption. At a time when elections are fast approaching, Daphne Halikiopoulou finds this book to be extremely relevant and topical. Understanding The Crisis in Greece: From Boom to Bust. Michael Mitsopoulos & Theodore Pelagidis. Second Edition. Palgrave Macmillan. March 2012. 288 pages.

  12. Thin-walled composite deployable booms with tape-spring hinges

    OpenAIRE

    Mallikarachchi, H.M. Yasitha Chinthaka

    2011-01-01

    Deployable structures made from ultra-thin composite materials can be folded elastically and are able to self-deploy by releasing the stored strain energy. Their lightness, low cost due to smaller number of components, and friction insensitive behaviour are key attractions for space applications. This dissertation presents a design methodology for lightweight composite booms with multiple tape-spring hinges. The whole process of folding and deployment of the tape-spring ...

  13. Interactions between eurozone and US booms and busts: A Bayesian panel Markov-switching VAR model

    OpenAIRE

    Billio, Monica; Casarin, Roberto; Ravazzolo, Francesco; Dijk, Herman

    2014-01-01

    Interactions between eurozone and United States booms and busts and among major eurozone economies are analyzed by introducing a panel Markov-switching VAR model. The model is well suitable for a multi-country cyclical analysis and accommodates changes in low and high data frequencies and endogenous time-varying transition matrices of the country-specific Markov chains. The transition matrix of each Markov chain depends on its own past history and on the history of other chains...

  14. Stability of 125I and 14C labelled boom clay organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The candidate host formation for the disposal of radioactive waste in Belgium is boom clay which may contain up to 4% organic matter (OM). A limited fraction (less than 0.05%) of this OM is mobile. OM can complex radionuclides and so influence their migration. The migration behaviour of the OM itself has been extensively studied but to date such studies have used absorbancy measurements to quantify the OM. Unfortunately various problems accompany the use of absorbancy measurements. The particular problems may be overcome by using radiolabelled OM. Accordingly as a precursor to planned in situ migration experiments in boom clay (BC) using radiolabelled OM, stability studies on 125I and 14C labelled materials have been conducted. The 125I containing solutions were analysed using gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and the 14C solutions using high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC). Dissappointingly at the relevant pH of 8.5, even in the absence of the clay, the 125I label was found to be unstable. However the 14C labelled OM (14C-BC-OM) was stable under the mild conditions employed in the test, so its stability was investigated in the presence of boom clay. The results were compared with that of 14C labelled humic acids (14C-HA), treated similarly. Unexpectedly the 14C labelled material was found to be partially unstable in the presence of boom clay. However the instability has not hampered the laboratory column experiments and should not hamper the proposed in situ experiments with this material. (orig.)

  15. Boom or gloom? Examining the Dutch disease in a two-speed economy

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørnland, Hilde C.; Thorsrud, Leif Anders

    2013-01-01

    Traditional studies of the Dutch disease do not typically account for productiv- ity spillovers between the booming energy sector and non-oil sectors. This study identifies and quantifies these spillovers using a Bayesian Dynamic Factor Model (BDFM). The model allows for resource movements and spending effects through a large panel of variables at the sectoral level, while also identifying disturbances to the real oil price, global demand and non-oil activity. Using Norway as a...

  16. Creep behaviour in thermal and mechanical consolidation tests on Boom clay

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Trung Tinh; Cui, Yu Jun; Delage, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Boom clay, a stiff clay from the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) at Mol (Belgium) may be the host medium for a long-term radioactive waste storage facility. To study the thermal-hydromechanical properties of this clay, an experimental investigation was carried out on a testing system permitting high pressure triaxial tests at controlled temperature. Thermal and mechanical consolidation tests were carried out, following isobar heating and isothermal compression paths. The results showed ...

  17. Dynamic Adjustments to Terms of Trade Shocks: The USA Productivity Boom and Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Richard G.; Robertson, Peter E.

    2007-01-01

    How has the USA’s “new economy” productivity boom affected Australia? We consider this question using a dynamic multi-sector growth model of the Australian and USA economies. We find that productivity growth in the USA durables sector generates small but important gains to Australia. We find that the transmission of growth is generated through increased export demand for Agriculture. Consequently we find that the USA’s productivity growth tends to favour Australia’s traditional export sectors...

  18. Design of an Indoor Sonic Boom Simulator at NASA Langley Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klos, Jacob; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Shepherd, Kevin P.

    2008-01-01

    Construction of a simulator to recreate the soundscape inside residential buildings exposed to sonic booms is scheduled to start during the summer of 2008 at NASA Langley Research Center. The new facility should be complete by the end of the year. The design of the simulator allows independent control of several factors that create the indoor soundscape. Variables that will be isolated include such factors as boom duration, overpressure, rise time, spectral shape, level of rattle, level of squeak, source of rattle and squeak, level of vibration and source of vibration. Test subjects inside the simulator will be asked to judge the simulated soundscape, which will represent realistic indoor boom exposure. Ultimately, this simulator will be used to develop a functional relationship between human response and the sound characteristics creating the indoor soundscape. A conceptual design has been developed by NASA personnel, and is currently being vetted through small-scale risk reduction tests that are being performed in-house. The purpose of this document is to introduce the conceptual design, identify how the indoor response will be simulated, briefly outline some of the risk reduction tests that have been completed to vet the design, and discuss the impact of these tests on the simulator design.

  19. Analysis of Exhaust Plume Effects on Sonic Boom for a 59-Degree Wing Body Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castner, Raymond S.

    2011-01-01

    Reducing or eliminating the operational restrictions of supersonic aircraft over populated areas has led to extensive research at NASA. Restrictions are due to the disturbance of the sonic boom, caused by the coalescence of shock waves formed off the aircraft. Recent work has been performed to reduce the magnitude of the sonic boom N-wave generated by airplane components with focus on shock waves caused by the exhaust nozzle plume. Previous Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analyses showed how the shock wave formed at the nozzle lip interacted with the nozzle boat-tail expansion wave. The nozzle lip shock moved with increasing nozzle pressure ratio (NPR) and reduced the nozzle boat-tail expansion. Lip shock movement caused a favorable change in the observed pressure signature. These results were applied to a simplified supersonic vehicle geometry with no inlets and no tail, in which the goal was to demonstrate how under-expanded nozzle operation reduced the sonic boom signature by twelve percent. A secondary goal was to demonstrate the use of the Cart3D inviscid code for off-body pressure signatures including the nozzle plume effect.

  20. Under-Track CFD-Based Shape Optimization for a Low-Boom Demonstrator Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintzer, Mathias; Ordaz, Irian; Fenbert, James W.

    2015-01-01

    The detailed outer mold line shaping of a Mach 1.6, demonstrator-sized low-boom concept is presented. Cruise trim is incorporated a priori as part of the shaping objective, using an equivalent-area-based approach. Design work is performed using a gradient-driven optimization framework that incorporates a three-dimensional, nonlinear flow solver, a parametric geometry modeler, and sensitivities derived using the adjoint method. The shaping effort is focused on reducing the under-track sonic boom level using an inverse design approach, while simultaneously satisfying the trim requirement. Conceptual-level geometric constraints are incorporated in the optimization process, including the internal layout of fuel tanks, landing gear, engine, and crew station. Details of the model parameterization and design process are documented for both flow-through and powered states, and the performance of these optimized vehicles presented in terms of inviscid L/D, trim state, pressures in the near-field and at the ground, and predicted sonic boom loudness.

  1. Current-driven plasmonic boom instability in three-dimensional gated periodic ballistic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizin, G. R.; Mikalopas, J.; Shur, M.

    2016-05-01

    An alternative approach of using a distributed transmission line analogy for solving transport equations for ballistic nanostructures is applied for solving the three-dimensional problem of electron transport in gated ballistic nanostructures with periodically changing width. The structures with varying width allow for modulation of the electron drift velocity while keeping the plasma velocity constant. We predict that in such structures biased by a constant current, a periodic modulation of the electron drift velocity due to the varying width results in the instability of the plasma waves if the electron drift velocity to plasma wave velocity ratio changes from below to above unity. The physics of such instability is similar to that of the sonic boom, but, in the periodically modulated structures, this analog of the sonic boom is repeated many times leading to a larger increment of the instability. The constant plasma velocity in the sections of different width leads to resonant excitation of the unstable plasma modes with varying bias current. This effect (that we refer to as the superplasmonic boom condition) results in a strong enhancement of the instability. The predicted instability involves the oscillating dipole charge carried by the plasma waves. The plasmons can be efficiently coupled to the terahertz electromagnetic radiation due to the periodic geometry of the gated structure. Our estimates show that the analyzed instability should enable powerful tunable terahertz electronic sources.

  2. Wind Tunnel Model Design for Sonic Boom Studies of Nozzle Jet with Shock Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff, Susan E.; Denison, Marie; Sozer, Emre; Moini-Yekta, Shayan

    2016-01-01

    NASA and Industry are performing vehicle studies of configurations with low sonic boom pressure signatures. The computational analyses of modern configuration designs have matured to the point where there is confidence in the prediction of the pressure signature from the front of the vehicle, but uncertainty in the aft signatures with often greater boundary layer effects and nozzle jet pressures. Wind tunnel testing at significantly lower Reynolds numbers than in flight and without inlet and nozzle jet pressures make it difficult to accurately assess the computational solutions of flight vehicles. A wind tunnel test in the NASA Ames 9- by 7-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel from Mach 1.6 to 2.0 will be used to assess the effects of shocks from components passing through nozzle jet plumes on the sonic boom pressure signature and provide datasets for comparison with CFD codes. A large number of high-fidelity numerical simulations of wind tunnel test models with a variety of shock generators that simulate horizontal tails and aft decks have been studied to provide suitable models for sonic boom pressure measurements using a minimally intrusive pressure rail in the wind tunnel. The computational results are presented and the evolution of candidate wind tunnel models is summarized and discussed in this paper.

  3. The interaction between Synroc-C and pure water or Boom clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors investigated the interaction between Synroc-C and deionized water or Boom clay disposal media. The authors used powdered Synroc-C to achieve high SA/V (surface area to volume) conditions (100, 1,000, 10,000 m-1). The temperature was 90 C. Reaction progress up to 10-+6 days/m was reached. They conclude that dissolution in DW is mainly controlled by initial ion exchange, followed by matrix dissolution. In both Boom clay media (a 500 g/l and a 2,000 g/l clay/claywater mixture) matrix dissolution is dominating. The depletion depth of the main Synroc constituent Ti is below 250 mn in the clay media, and below 2 nm in DW after 110 days corrosion at 100 m-1. The corrosion rates are very small, though the authors cannot present meaningful values. The effect of Boom clay is mainly to increase the solubility of Ti, Zr and the rare earths in solution

  4. Diffusion and sorption of 32Si-labelled silica in the boom clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long term corrosion rate of nuclear waste glass in a repository might be controlled by the steady-state diffusion of dissolved silica and would be enhanced by the sorption of silica onto clay minerals. Irreversible sorption and moderate retardation have been observed for dissolved silica in boom clay. Values of ηR between 10 and 20 have been determined by means of four flow-through migration experiments, while Kd in the range 20 to 100 cm3, g-1 have been measured by batch sorption tests with 32Si on fresh and slightly oxidized boom clay. As non specific interactions cannot explain the sorption of neutral Si(OH)4, or of negative silicate species (Donnan exclusion), onto negatively charged clay minerals other mechanisms must be invoked: i.a., the chemisorption of dissolved silica Si(OH)4 onto specific Lewis acid sites (Al3+, Fe3+) present at the clay surface. The suggested mechanism could be similar to this explaining the irreversible chemisorption of oxy-anions of weak acids (as phosphate, or borate) onto aluminum and iron hydroxides in soils. Ligand exchange of aqueous silica with a hydroxyl group of Al(OH)3 may form a hydroxy-aluminosilicate (HAS) surface complex. Gibbsite layers accessible on the basal plane of kaolinite and on the edges of illite and smectite are possible sorption sites for the dissolved silica in boom clay. Moreover, hydrous ferric oxide produced by pyrite oxidation significantly increases the extent of silica sorption. (orig.)

  5. Multiple element airfoils optimized for maximum lift coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormsbee, A. I.; Chen, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    Optimum airfoils in the sense of maximum lift coefficient are obtained for incompressible fluid flow at large Reynolds number. The maximum lift coefficient is achieved by requiring that the turbulent skin friction be zero in the pressure rise region on the airfoil upper surface. Under this constraint, the pressure distribution is optimized. The optimum pressure distribution is a function of Reynolds number and the trailing edge velocity. Geometries of those airfoils which will generate these optimum pressure distributions are obtained using a direct-iterative method which is developed in this study. This method can be used to design airfoils consisting of any number of elements. Numerical examples of one- and two-element airfoils are given. The maximum lift coefficients obtained range from 2 to 2.5.

  6. Lifting a large object from an anisotropic porous bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Timir; Raja Sekhar, G. P.

    2016-09-01

    An analytical study of two dimensional problem of lifting an object from the top of a fully saturated rigid porous bed is discussed. It is assumed that the porous bed is anisotropic in nature. The flow within the gap region between the object and the porous bed is assumed to be governed by Stokes equation while the flow within the porous bed is governed by Brinkman equation. The breakout phenomenon for different kinds of soil is reported. The effect of mechanical properties like anisotropic permeability, grain diameter size, and porosity on streamlines, velocity, and force is analyzed. Relevant comparison with C. C. Mei, R. W. Yeung, and K. F. Liu ["Lifting a large object from a porous bed," J. Fluid. Mech. 152, 203-215 (1985)] and Y. Chang, L. H. Huang and F. P. Y. Yang ["Two-dimensional lift-up problem for a rigid porous bed," Phys. Fluids, 27, 053101 (2015)] is done.

  7. The cycloconverter based on fuzzy controller for lift

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Gen-ping; YI Ling-zhi

    2005-01-01

    In order to ensure the lift can go up and down steadily and safely, a cycloconverter based on fuzzy control algorithm for lift was introduced, which can keep the output voltage to be symmetric sine wave. In this cycloconverter system,the main circuit structure was designed as circumfluence mode, with the strong DSP as the control unit, the fuzzy control policy of average weight accumulation decision was used to control the tuning of the triggering angle for thyristor in the main circuit, and then,the output voltage of the cycloconverter can be controlled. The experiment and simulation prove that the performance of the fuzzy cycloconverter is improved a lot and the output voltage is very similar to symmetric sine wave. This kind of cycloconverter can help the lift stop accurately, and the shock can be decreased.

  8. Lift 2013⎜February 6 to 8

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The Lift Conference returns to the Centre International de Conférence de Genève, with speakers ranging from a science fiction author to a cognitive neuroscience researcher. As one of the foremost talk events of Europe, Lift 2013 seeks to discover new trends and turn them into opportunities.   The three-day conference is designed to engage and arouse intellectual curiosity by exploring the business and social implications of technological innovation. This year’s schedule also includes discussion of the political implications of technology and the impact of the online market on the future of economy. Alongside talks, workshops will be held on a wide range of topics, including the relationship between entrepreneur and investor, designs that influence social behaviour, and how ordinary people are changing the urban space. Lift 2013 also seeks to promote new business ventures and will award prizes to the start-up company that succeeds in convincing the audience an...

  9. Influences of Lorentz force on the hydrofoil lift

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaohui Chen; Baochun Fan; Zhihua Chen; Hongzhi Li

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, Lorentz forces are proved to be able to suppress separation in flows over hydrofoils. Further-more, a differential equation of pressure distributions on the hydrofoil surface is derived, from which it is found that BVF (boundary vortex flux) cr is a suitable criterion for describing the lift coefficient variations during the electromagnetic control process. According to our numerical results, the peri-odic variations of lift for a hydrofoil at an attack angle of 17 o are analyzed and its inherent mechanism is discussed in detail with the concept of BVE On the other hand, the effects of Lorentz force on the hydrofoil's lift are investigated both experimentally and numerically for different magnitudes and locations.

  10. The 'V' heavy equipment complex in the second year of operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klose, W.; Saket, B.

    1981-05-01

    Main design features are described for the large overburden removal equipment complex with the highest capacity, which was built by TAKRAF in the German Democratic Republic. The first complex of this type began operation in the Greifenhain brown coal surface mine in March 1979, removing 30 Mm/SUP/3 of overburden between July 1979, and June 1980 with daily removal volumes up to 230,000 m/SUP/3. It is estimated that an average of 30 Mm/SUP/3/a will be reached. A second complex of this size is being assembled in the Welzow-Sued brown coal surface mine, starting operation in early 1982. Equipment specifications and schemes of the equipment complex are given. It consists of the SRs 6,3000 bucket wheel excavator with a capacity of 14,000 m/SUP/3/h during high cut operation, and a bucket wheel drive of 3 x 630 kW; a belt conveyor system with a capacity of 15,400 m/SUP/3/h, belt width of 2,500 mm, 6 m/s belt speed and maximum of six 1,500 kW belt drive units; and the A/SUB/2Rs-B 15400.120 boom spreader with a 15,400 m/SUP/3/h capacity and a 120 m long spreading boom, with which spoil bank heights of between 30 and 35 m can be reached. 6 refs.

  11. LIFT: analysis of performance in a laser assisted adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantet, Cedric; Meimon, Serge; Conan, Jean-Marc; Neichel, Benoît; Fusco, Thierry

    2014-08-01

    Laser assisted adaptive optics systems rely on Laser Guide Star (LGS) Wave-Front Sensors (WFS) for high order aberration measurements, and rely on Natural Guide Stars (NGS) WFS to complement the measurements on low orders such as tip-tilt and focus. The sky-coverage of the whole system is therefore related to the limiting magnitude of the NGS WFS. We have recently proposed LIFT, a novel phase retrieval WFS technique, that allows a 1 magnitude gain over the usually used 2×2 Shack-Hartmann WFS. After an in-lab validation, LIFT's concept has been demonstrated on sky in open loop on GeMS (the Gemini Multiconjugate adaptive optics System at Gemini South). To complete its validation, LIFT now needs to be operated in closed loop in a laser assisted adaptive optics system. The present work gives a detailed analysis of LIFT's behavior in presence of high order residuals and how to limit aliasing effects on the tip/tilt/focus estimation. Also, we study the high orders' impact on noise propagation. For this purpose, we simulate a multiconjugate adaptive optics loop representative of a GeMS-like 5 LGS configuration. The residual high orders are derived from a Fourier based simulation. We demonstrate that LIFT keeps a high performance gain over the Shack-Hartmann 2×2 whatever the turbulence conditions. Finally, we show the first simulation of a closed loop with LIFT estimating turbulent tip/tilt and focus residuals that could be induced by sodium layer's altitude variations.

  12. Lift outs: how to acquire a high-functioning team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groysberg, Boris; Abrahams, Robin

    2006-12-01

    More and more, expanding companies are hiring high-functioning groups of people who have been working together effectively within one company and can rapidly come up to speed in a new environment. These lifted-out teams don't need to get acquainted with one another or to establish shared values, mutual accountability, or group norms; their long-standing relationships and trust help them make an impact very quickly. Of course, the process is not without risks: A failed lift out can lead to loss of money, opportunity, credibility, and even native talent. Boris Groysberg and Robin Abrahams studied more than 40 high-profile moves and interviewed team leaders in multiple industries and countries to examine the risks and opportunities that lift outs present. They concluded that, regardless of industry, nationality, or size of the team, a successful lift out unfolds over four consecutive, interdependent stages that must be meticulously managed. In the courtship stage, the hiring company and the leader of the targeted team determine whether the proposed move is, in fact, a good idea, and then define their business goals and discuss strategies. At the same time, the team leader discusses the potential move with the other members of his or her group to assess their level of interest and prepare them for the change. The second stage involves the integration of the team leader with the new company's top leadership. This part of the process ensures the team's access to senior executives-the most important factor in a lift out's success. Operational integration is the focus of the third stage. Ideally, teams will start out working with the same or similar clients, vendors, and industry standards. The fourth stage entails full cultural integration. To succeed, the lifted-out team members must be willing to re-earn credibility by proving their value and winning their new colleagues' trust. PMID:17183798

  13. Complications of Lower Body Lift Surgery in Postbariatric Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Martine M.; Klein, Steven; Hoogbergen, Maarten M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is an exponential rise of patients with massive weight loss because of bariatric surgery or lifestyle changes. The result is an increase of patients with folds of redundant skin that may cause physical and psychological problems. The lower body lift is a procedure to correct deformities in the abdomen, mons, flanks, lateral thighs, and buttocks. Complication rates are quite high and could negatively affect the positive outcomes. The purpose of this study is to assess complication rates and to identify predictors of complications to optimize outcomes for patients after lower body lift surgery. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 100 patients who underwent a lower body lift procedure was performed. The patients were reviewed for complications, demographic data, comorbidities, smoking, highest lifetime body mass index, body mass index before lower body lift surgery, percentage of excess weight loss, and amount of tissue excised. Results: The overall complication rate was 78%. Twenty-two percent of the patients had major complications and 56% had minor complications. There is a linear relationship between body mass index before lower body lift surgery and complications (P = 0.03). The percentage of excess weight loss (odds ratio [OR] 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.92–1.00), highest lifetime body mass index (OR 1.08; 95% CI 1.01–1.15), body mass index before lower body lift surgery (OR 1.17; 95% CI 1.02–1.33), and smoking (OR 7.74; CI 0.98–61.16) are significantly associated with the development of complications. Conclusions: This study emphasizes the importance of a good weight status before surgery and cessation of smoking to minimize the risk of complications.

  14. Influences on lifetime of wire ropes in traction lifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, W.

    2016-05-01

    Traction lifts are complex systems with rotating and translating moving masses, springs and dampers and several system inputs from the lifts and the users. The wire ropes are essential mechanical elements. The mechanical properties of the ropes in use depend on the rope construction, the load situation, nonlinearities and the lift dimensions. The mechanical properties are important for the proper use in lifts and the ride quality. But first of all the wire ropes (for all other suspension means as well) have to satisfy the safety relevant requirements sufficient lifetime, reliable determination of discard and sufficient and limited traction capacity. The lifetime of the wire ropes better the number of trips until rope discard depends on a lot of parameters of the rope and the rope application eg use of plastic deflection sheaves and reverse bending layouts. New challenges for rope lifetime are resulting from the more or less open D/d-ratio limits possible by certificates concerning the examination of conformity by notified bodies. This paper will highlight the basics of wire rope technology, the endurance and lifetime of wire ropes running over sheaves, and the different influences from the ropes and more and more important from the lift application parameters. Very often underestimated are the influences of transport, storage, installation and maintenance. With this background we will lead over to the calculation methods of wire rope lifetime considering the actual findings of wire rope endurance research. We'll show in this paper new and innovative facts as the influence of rope length and size factor in the lifetime formular, the reduction of lifetime caused by traction grooves, the new model for the calculation in reverse bending operations and the statistically firmed possibilities for machine roomless lifts (MRL) under very small bending conditions.

  15. Bounds on Lifting Continuous Markov Chains to Speed Up Mixing

    OpenAIRE

    Ramanan, Kavita; Smith, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    It is often possible to speed up the mixing of a Markov chain $\\{ X_{t} \\}_{t \\in \\mathbb{N}}$ on a state space $\\Omega$ by \\textit{lifting}, that is, running a more efficient Markov chain $\\{ \\hat{X}_{t} \\}_{t \\in \\mathbb{N}}$ on a larger state space $\\hat{\\Omega} \\supset \\Omega$ that projects to $\\{ X_{t} \\}_{t \\in \\mathbb{N}}$ in a certain sense. In [CLP99], Chen, Lov{\\'a}sz and Pak prove that for Markov chains on finite state spaces, the mixing time of any lift of a Markov chain is at lea...

  16. The lifting scheme of 4-channel orthogonal wavelet transforms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Lizhong; CHU Xiaoyong

    2006-01-01

    The 4-channel smooth wavelets with linear phase and orthogonality are designed from the 2-channel orthogonal wavelets with high transfer vanishing moments. Reversely, for simple lifting scheme of such 4-channel orthogonal wavelet transforms, a new 2-channel orthogonal wavelet associated with this 4-channel wavelet is constructed. The new 2-channel wavelet has at least the same number of vanishing moments as the associated 4-channel one. Finally, by combining the two such 2-channel wavelet systems, the lifting scheme of 4-channel orthogonal wavelet transform, which has simple structure and is easy to apply, is presented.

  17. New constructions of twistor lifts for harmonic maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Martin; C. Wood, John

    2014-01-01

    We show that given a harmonic map \\varphi from a Riemann surface into a classical simply connected compact inner symmetric space, there is a J_2-holomorphic twistor lift of \\varphi (or its negative) if and only if it is nilconformal. In the case of harmonic maps of finite uniton number, we give...... algebraic formulae in terms of holomorphic data which describes their extended solutions. In particular, this gives explicit formulae for the twistor lifts of all harmonic maps of finite uniton number from a surface to the above symmetric spaces....

  18. Application of NIOSH lifting equation in manual lift of cylinder head%NIOSH 手工提举方程在缸盖搬运中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋林艳; 黄民继; 孙爱民; 李言明; 麦浪; 黄华仲; 刘甘霖; 陈春霞

    2014-01-01

    To improve productivity and balance the energy and stamina of operators , human potential under the premise of safety, the NIOSH lifting equation was used to the ergonomics safety assessment on manual lift of cylin -der head in machine shop.The study on horizontal distance (H), vertical distance(V), lift distance(D)and fre-quency(F)of the operator was conducted , and the weight and height coefficients of revised NIOSH lifting equation were revised.The results showed that, after a reasonable adjustment of the four major parameters , the efficiency can be improved without robots and other equipments , simultaneously, the safety and health of the operator could be ensured.%为了平衡操作人员的精力和体力,在保证人安全的前提下,提高生产力。采用 NIOSH(Na-tional Institute of Occupational Safety and Health )提举方程对机加工车间缸盖搬运上线工位进行人机工程安全评估,通过对操作工作业的水平距离(H)、垂直距离(V)、提升距离(D)以及频率(F)进行研究,并对修订版 NIOSH 提举方程的重量常量与高度系数进行了修正。结果表明,经过合理调整四大参数,可在不设起吊、机器人等设备的情况下,保证人的身心健康,节约成本,提高人的工作效能。

  19. CFD Study of an Annular-Ducted Fan Lift System for VTOL Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Yun Jiang; Bo Zhang; Tao Huang

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed at assessing a novel annular-ducted fan lift system for VTOL aircraft through computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The power and lift efficiency of the lift fan system in hover mode, the lift and drag in transition mode, the drag and flight speed of the aircraft in cruise mode and the pneumatic coupling of the tip turbine and jet exhaust were studied. The results show that the annular-ducted fan lift system can have higher lift efficiency compared to the ro...

  20. Joint effects of osmotic and matric suctions on hydro-mechanical behaviour of Boom Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. One long-term management option of the Belgian Agency for the Management of Radioactive Waste and Fissile Materials (ONDRAF/NIRAS) is the direct underground disposal of Eurobitum Bituminized radioactive Waste (BW) in Boom Clay. In Geological disposal conditions, contact of the BW which contains large amounts of highly soluble NaNO3 with groundwater will result in water uptake and swelling of the waste and in subsequent diffusion of the dissolved salt through the host clay formation. Within the framework of the compatibility of Boom Clay with large amounts of nitrate-bearing bituminized radioactive waste an experimental research program have been started to investigate the effect of the leaching of large amounts of sodium nitrate on hydro-mechanical behaviour of Boom Clay. Change of pore water chemistry can affect clays through a variety of adsorption/desorption phenomena driven by osmotic suction (concentration) effects and cationic exchange mechanisms. For Boom Clay the dominant cation present is sodium ion Na+ at a concentration of about 10-2 mol/l. Therefore, when Boom Clay is exposed to NaNO3, cation exchange effects are expected to be negligible compared to osmotic suction effects. Indeed, two processes are expected to take place, chemical consolidation and chemically induced consolidation. Chemical consolidation occurs due to the transfer of mass of water and salt from the pore space into the inter-lamellar space and/or external surface of clusters and vice versa. Chemically induced consolidation is due to the osmotic flow of water out of the sample that takes place in response to the chemical (concentration) gradient. The relevance of osmotic suction effects has been addressed by Mokni (2011) and a formulation has been proposed for the analysis of deformation induced by osmotic processes in double structure porous media. The formulation is based on the distinction within the material of a microstructural

  1. Electronic equipment packaging technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ginsberg, Gerald L

    1992-01-01

    The last twenty years have seen major advances in the electronics industry. Perhaps the most significant aspect of these advances has been the significant role that electronic equipment plays in almost all product markets. Even though electronic equipment is used in a broad base of applications, many future applications have yet to be conceived. This versatility of electron­ ics has been brought about primarily by the significant advances that have been made in integrated circuit technology. The electronic product user is rarely aware of the integrated circuits within the equipment. However, the user is often very aware of the size, weight, mod­ ularity, maintainability, aesthetics, and human interface features of the product. In fact, these are aspects of the products that often are instrumental in deter­ mining its success or failure in the marketplace. Optimizing these and other product features is the primary role of Electronic Equipment Packaging Technology. As the electronics industry continues to pr...

  2. Medical Issues: Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... strollers also have trays to carry medical equipment. Bath Chairs Specialized bath chairs provide comfortable and secure bathing for children and small adults with special needs. Bath chairs are adjustable, with multiple seat and back angles. ...

  3. Solární boom v České Republice, ekonomické souvislosti a důsledky pro krajinu

    OpenAIRE

    Ziegelbauer, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Bachelor's thesis "Solar Boom in the Czech Republic, economical contexts and effects on the environment" is focused on the continuously debated issue, which is a dramatic increase in the number of photovoltaic power plants in the Czech republic between 2008 and 2010. This work analyze solar boom in the Czech Republic, explains the causes and circumstances of its origin and describes the causes of solar boom and its effects on investors, final customers and also on nature. This bachelor's thes...

  4. The potential use of swelling clays for backfilling and sealing of underground repositories: The case of the Boom clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Belgium the SCK/CEN is studying the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in the Boom clay formation. In such an argillaceous repository, the backfilling and sealing features will be multiple: boreholes, shafts, access drifts, disposal galleries or holes and dams. A preliminary selection study screening industrial materials has been performed based on the following criteria: at least as good thermal and hydraulic properties as the in situ Boom clay, sufficient volumetric swelling and swelling pressure, proven geochemical compatibility and stability. This study has shown that swelling clays are the most promising materials. Because of its evident geochemical compatibility and its easy availability, it is a logic choice to study the re-use of the excavated clay. The hydraulic, thermal and geochemical retention and swelling properties of the Boom clay were studied and the results are compared to those of bentonites. The main results of this study are: a hydraulic conductivity as low as 10-13 m/s can be reached which is one order of magnitude lower than that of the in situ Boom clay but is one order of magnitude higher than those of bentonite; the volumetric swelling of the Boom clay is rather limited but a swelling pressure of about 4 MPa can be obtained which is about a factor five lower than for bentonites but also corresponds to the in situ lithostatic pressure; the radionuclide retention properties of the in situ Boom clay are at least as good as those of dense bentonites and are for some nuclides even better; steam drastically reduces the volumetric swelling of bentonites which also leads to a higher hydraulic conductivity. The swelling properties of the Boom clay are also to be affected by steam, but the effect is less dramatic. In particular, its low hydraulic conductivity seems to be conserved. (author). 14 refs, 4 figs, 6 tabs

  5. Modern, high capacity spoil removal equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, H.J.

    1985-09-01

    Specifications and technological advantages of overburden boom spreaders produced by TAKRAF in the GDR are described. The mobile spreaders, based on belt conveyor technology, are available in 3 main size ranges: a small sized range with an average boom length of 60 m and a spoil spreading capacity up to 90,000 m/sup 3//d; a medium sized range with spreading boom length between 80 and 110 m and a capacity between 100,000 and 140,000 m/sup 3//d; and a large sized range with boom length between 100 and 120 m and a daily spreading capacity between 150,000 and 280,000 m/sup 3/. The spreaders operate in brown coal surface mines with belt conveyor systems or in a direct spoil overcast system consisting of an excavator and spreader combination. Photographs of spreader types in operation are provided. 3 references.

  6. Excess Liquidity, Housing Price Booms and Policy Challenges in China%Excess Liquidity, Housing Price Booms and Policy Challenges in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Guo; Chen Li

    2011-01-01

    Incorporating asymmetric cost and benefit of supplying excess liquidity into an otherwise standard time inconsistency model this paper offers an explanation of the excess liquidity and housing price booms recently experienced in China. We find that the central bank's incentive to stimulate eeonomie growth with excess liquidity fuels real estate prices and accelerates inflation bias. Therefore, the central bank should free itself from the pressure to achieve an economic growth rate higher than the potential level and assign an appropriate weight to the real estate price fluctuations in the central bank's objective function, so that the central bank "s policy of stimulating economic growth with excess liquidity can be constrained.

  7. Lift of a rotating circular cylinder in unsteady flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Stefan; Mandviwalla, Xerxes; Vita, Luca;

    2012-01-01

    A cylinder rotating in steady current experiences a lift known as the Magnus effect. In the present study the effect of waves on the Magnus effect has been investigated. This situation is experienced with the novel floating offshore vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) concept called the DEEPWIND co...

  8. Hybrids for heavy-lift propulsion - Unsolved problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramohalli, Kumar; Yi, Jianwen; Wygle, Brian

    1992-01-01

    The basic unsolved problems of hybrid rockets are examined with the aim of facilitating solutions which could enable the attainment of the full potentials of the hybrid as a heavy-lift propulsion system. The advantages of safety, cost-effectiveness, stop-restart capability, and simplicity of the manufacturing process are reviewed. Attention is given to a comprehensive turbulent hybrid rocket combustion model.

  9. Direct Numerical Simulation of the Lift Force in Bubbly Flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkhuizen, Wouter; Sint Annaland, van Martin; Kuipers, Hans

    2008-01-01

    It is well-known that the lift force is responsible for the segregation of small and large bubbles encountered in bubbly flows through pipes and bubble columns: in the case of up flow small spherical bubbles move to the wall, while larger deformed bubbles move to the core region. Depending on the fl

  10. Analysis of a distributed system for lifting trucks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groote, J.F.; Pang, J.; Wouters, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    The process-algebraic language muCRL is used to analyse an existing distributed system for lifting trucks. Four errors are found in the original design. We propose solutions for these problems and show by means of model-checking that the modified system meets the requirements.

  11. Evidence for predictive control in lifting series of virtual objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawase, Firas; Karniel, Amir

    2010-06-01

    The human motor control system gracefully behaves in a dynamic and time varying environment. Here, we explored the predictive capabilities of the motor system in a simple motor task of lifting a series of virtual objects. When a subject lifts an object, she/he uses an expectation of the weight of the object to generate a motor command. All models of motor learning employ learning algorithms that essentially expect the future to be similar to the previously experienced environment. In this study, we asked subjects to lift a series of increasing weights and determined whether they extrapolated from past experience and predicted the next weight in the series even though that weight had never been experienced. The grip force at the beginning of the lifting task is a clean indication of the motor expectation. In contrast to the motor learning literature asserting adaptation by means of expecting a weighted average based on past experience, our results suggest that the motor system is able to predict the subsequent weight that follows a series of increasing weights. PMID:20428856

  12. Lowering the Error Floor of LDPC Codes Using Cyclic Liftings

    CERN Document Server

    Asvadi, Reza; Ahmadian-Attari, Mahmoud

    2010-01-01

    Cyclic liftings are proposed to lower the error floor of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. The liftings are designed to eliminate dominant trapping sets of the base code by removing the short cycles which form the trapping sets. We derive a necessary and sufficient condition for the cyclic permutations assigned to the edges of a cycle $c$ of length $\\ell(c)$ in the base graph such that the inverse image of $c$ in the lifted graph consists of only cycles of length strictly larger than $\\ell(c)$. The proposed method is universal in the sense that it can be applied to any LDPC code over any channel and for any iterative decoding algorithm. It also preserves important properties of the base code such as degree distributions, encoder and decoder structure, and in some cases, the code rate. The proposed method is applied to both structured and random codes over the binary symmetric channel (BSC). The error floor improves consistently by increasing the lifting degree, and the results show significant improvemen...

  13. Initiating Piloted Mars Expeditions with Medium-Lift Launch Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, G. R.

    A method of accomplishing manned expeditions to Mars with existing medium-lift launch systems is discussed. In this architecture, 20-tonne propulsion stages are placed individually in low-Earth orbit, where they are mated to Mars-bound payloads and ignited at successive perigees to execute trans-Mars injection. Spacecraft follow conjunction-class trajectories to the red planet and utilize aerobraking for orbital capture and descent. Return vehicles are fuelled with methane/oxygen bipropellant synthesized primarily from Martian resources. Dispatching expeditions from orbit with individual, high-energy stages - rather than directly from the Earth's surface - allows for the division of mission mass into more manageable components, which can be launched by vehicles that exist today. This plan does not require the development of heavy-lift launch technology: an effective yet costly proposition that may otherwise hinder current space exploration initiatives. Without the need for heavy-lift boosters, manned missions to Mars can be undertaken presently, and within the constraints of today's space exploration budgets. It is concluded that the mission design herein represents a less robust, though more economically viable method for initiating manned Mars exploration than proposals which require heavy-lift technology - an alternative method by which a new planet could be opened to humanity.

  14. Accelerating Wavelet Lifting on Graphics Hardware Using CUDA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, Wladimir J. van der; Jalba, Andrei C.; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    2011-01-01

    The Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) has a wide range of applications from signal processing to video and image compression. We show that this transform, by means of the lifting scheme, can be performed in a memory and computation-efficient way on modern, programmable GPUs, which can be regarded as

  15. Assembly and lifting of Pearl-Chain arches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halding, Philip Skov; Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Viebæk, N.E.;

    2015-01-01

    Pearl-Chain arches were invented at the Technical University of Denmark in cooporation with the company Abeo A/S. The system uses specially designed, pre-fabricated concrete elements that are post-tensioned together into an arch shape, which is then lifted into place. The arches can be used both ...

  16. Bubble Size Effect on the Gas-lift Technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guet, S.C.L.

    2004-01-01

    The gas-lift technique uses gas injection in vertical oil wells to decrease the gravitational pressure drop. The decreased pressure in the production pipe results in an increase of the pressure drop from the reservoir to the oil well and enhances the oil production. In this thesis we investigated th

  17. 49 CFR 178.970 - Bottom lift test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... permissible gross mass, the load being evenly distributed. (c) Test method. All Large Packaging design types must be raised and lowered twice by a lift truck with the forks centrally positioned and spaced at three quarters of the dimension of the side of entry (unless the points of entry are fixed). The...

  18. Usefulness of Kent retractor and lifting hook for Nuss procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tsubasa; Okazaki, Tadaharu; Yamataka, Atsuyuki; Uchida, Eiji

    2015-11-01

    Although the Nuss procedure for pectus excavatum has been widely employed, a variety of complications have been reported. The most dangerous complication is cardiac injury from the insertion of the introducer. To eliminate these complications, we present a sternum elevating technique using a Kent retractor and a lifting hook.

  19. Lifting the ban on brothels : Prostitution in 2000-2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daalder, A.L.

    2004-01-01

    On October 1, 2000 the general ban on brothels in the Netherlands was lifted. The core of the legislation is that those forms of prostitution in which adult prostitutes are voluntarily engaged are no longer illegal. This report is the English translation of the first comprehensive, evaluative report

  20. Variability in the hydraulic conductivity of the Boom clay in the Campine Basin, NE-Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In the framework the Belgian research program on the long term management of high-level and/or long-lived radioactive waste coordinated by ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Boom Clay has been investigated for more than 30 years as a candidate host formation for the disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive waste in Belgium. The very low hydraulic conductivity (on the order of 10-12 m/s) in combination with limited hydraulic gradients over the host formation (0.02 ∼ 0.04 m/m) results in water flow in the Boom Formation being negligible and diffusion the dominant transport mechanism. The assessment of the long-term barrier function of the host clay formation in the framework of radioactive waste disposal requires rigorous quantitative characterization of key formation properties such as the hydraulic conductivity (K). Hydraulic conductivities of Boom Clay measured through various testing techniques in the laboratory, i.e. tracer percolation experiments, constant head permeameter experiments and isostatic experiments, exhibit similar K values in the order of 10-12 m/s. Based on a large set of test samples, the impact of sample scale, hydraulic gradient range adopted in the tests, stress controlled methods and pre-existing fissures in the sample on the K value is shown to be quite limited. In situ measurements obtained from both several-centimetre long piezometer filters and percolation into a 7-metre long gallery and 21-meter long shaft at the HADES underground research facility yield K values that are very similar to values measured in the laboratory on samples of a few centimetres. This indicates that the K measurements for the Boom Clay obtained through various techniques are very consistent. K values measured on a centimetre-scale are also representative at the metre-scale, which is often the size of grid cells used in numerical simulations for long-term safety assessments. Spatial analysis of K values across the Boom

  1. About Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Equipment for Infection Control Questions About Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Print Q1. How do manufacturers ensure personal protective equipment (PPE) is safe and effective? A1. To help ...

  2. Cleft-lift operation for pilonidal sinuses under tumescent local anesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Claus Anders

    2011-01-01

    The use of tumescent local anesthesia in the Bascom cleft-lift procedure has not been described before.......The use of tumescent local anesthesia in the Bascom cleft-lift procedure has not been described before....

  3. 29 CFR 1915.114 - Chain falls and pull-lifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... marked to show the capacity and the capacity shall not be exceeded. (b) Chain falls shall be regularly... point of attachment for lifting devices such as tackles, chain falls, and pull-lifts unless...

  4. Modelling of cation concentrations in the outflow of NaNO3 percolation experiments through Boom Clay cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A laboratory percolation experiment was performed to study the effect of a NaNO3 plume on the Boom Clay. In this experiment, Boom Clay cores were consecutively percolated with Boom Clay pore water and Boom Clay pore water to which NaNO3 was added. The concentration of NaNO3 in the pore water was increased stepwise (0.1, 0.5, and 1 M NaNO3). The concentrations of Na, K, Ca, Mg and Sr in the eluted water were measured. After every switch of the NaNO3 concentration, the concentration profiles of K, Ca, Mg, and Sr showed a sharp rise, followed by a slow decrease. It was hypothesised that the cation elution curves are mainly determined by cation exchange processes. Reactive coupled transport modelling with the PHREEQC-2 code was used to describe the experimentally observed elution curves for the cations. Solute transport and water-clay interaction mechanisms, namely cation exchange, were accounted for in the model. Cation exchange parameters (cation exchange capacity and selectivity coefficients) previously determined on non-perturbed Boom Clay (De Craen et al., 2004) were used. A sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the influence of these parameter values on the goodness of the model to describe the experimental data. The model could fairly well describe the experimentally observed cation concentrations in the eluted water, confirming that cation exchange is indeed the dominant mechanism regulating the cation elution in the percolation experiments. (authors)

  5. Colloids formation versus complexation in radionuclides natural organic matter interaction studies: the case of Boom clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: Complexation of radionuclides (RN) by Natural Organic Matter (NOM) present in the host rock may pose a negative impact on the safety of a radioactive waste repository. This is because the formed complexes may increase the solubility, decrease the sorption, and thus enhance the mobility of RN. For Boom Clay, the reference host formation in Belgium for methodological research, and the one with probably the most abundant NOM content among the studied sites in the world, such a negative impact has not been demonstrated. This paper illustrates that Boom Clay NOM plays only a negligible role in RN complexation, based on data produced by the EC project TRANCOM-II. Classic approaches use a conditional stability constant (CSC) to measure the extent of interaction between RN and NOM. Such approaches borrow the theories from aquatic chemistry and model NOM as a complexing ligand. At neutral to alkaline pH, the condition relevant for most of disposal sites, side reactions such as hydrolysis and carbonate complexation interfere with the formation of RN-NOM complexes so that a CSC is highly conditional. Most of the published CSC values are very large implying high stabilities of formed RN-NOM complexes. A large value of a CSC predicts an increase in solubility and, if the formed RN-NOM complex is not sorbed, a decrease in sorption. Such predictions should be tested, before applied in safety assessments, by solubility and sorption experiments under relevant disposal conditions. Solubilities of laboratory prepared, amorphous tetravalent uranium and thorium phases were determined under geochemical conditions of Boom Clay with varying concentrations of NOM, mainly humic acid. Experimental results showed that Boom Clay NOM did not have an observable impact on the solubility of U(IV) and Th. For both actinides, however, NOM facilitated the formation of U/Th bearing colloids resulting in an apparent increase of U(IV) and Th concentration 3 orders of

  6. Key Points Analysis of Wind Power Lifting Technology in Wind Power Project%风电工程风电吊装技术要点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马赛雄

    2015-01-01

    The use of suitable and effective wind power engineering wind power lifting technology and equipment, to improve the wind power engineering construction quality and operation performance of wind power has positive significance. Therefore, this paper expounds the technical characteristics and special requirements of wind turbine lifting, illustrates the status of wind turbine lifting technology, a brief analysis of the wind turbine lifting technology development trend, and discussed based on wind machine hoisting technology and its advantages.%采用合适、有效的风电工程风电吊装技术和设备,对提高风电工程风电吊装的施工质量和运行性能有积极的意义。因此,阐述了风电机组吊装的技术特点和特殊要求,说明了风电机组吊装技术的现状,简要分析了风电机组吊装技术的发展趋势,并探讨了基于风机主机的吊装技术及其优点。

  7. Equipment Operational Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwalt, B; Henderer, B; Hibbard, W; Mercer, M

    2009-06-11

    The Iraq Department of Border Enforcement is rich in personnel, but poor in equipment. An effective border control system must include detection, discrimination, decision, tracking and interdiction, capture, identification, and disposition. An equipment solution that addresses only a part of this will not succeed, likewise equipment by itself is not the answer without considering the personnel and how they would employ the equipment. The solution should take advantage of the existing in-place system and address all of the critical functions. The solutions are envisioned as being implemented in a phased manner, where Solution 1 is followed by Solution 2 and eventually by Solution 3. This allows adequate time for training and gaining operational experience for successively more complex equipment. Detailed descriptions of the components follow the solution descriptions. Solution 1 - This solution is based on changes to CONOPs, and does not have a technology component. It consists of observers at the forts and annexes, forward patrols along the swamp edge, in depth patrols approximately 10 kilometers inland from the swamp, and checkpoints on major roads. Solution 2 - This solution adds a ground sensor array to the Solution 1 system. Solution 3 - This solution is based around installing a radar/video camera system on each fort. It employs the CONOPS from Solution 1, but uses minimal ground sensors deployed only in areas with poor radar/video camera coverage (such as canals and streams shielded by vegetation), or by roads covered by radar but outside the range of the radar associated cameras. This document provides broad operational requirements for major equipment components along with sufficient operational details to allow the technical community to identify potential hardware candidates. Continuing analysis will develop quantities required and more detailed tactics, techniques, and procedures.

  8. Structural health monitoring of an inflatable boom subjected to simulated micrometeoroid/orbital debris damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarazaga, Pablo A.; Peairs, Daniel M.; Wilkie, W. Keats; Inman, Daniel J.

    2006-03-01

    Inflatable-rigidizeable composite space structures are an emerging technology that could revolutionize the design of large on-orbit satellites. These structural systems have the advantages of low mass, high packaging efficiency, low life cycle cost, low part counts, and high deployment reliability. As they are rigidized on-orbit, they do not depend on internal pressure to maintain their shape once deployed. However, as thin-walled structures, micrometeoroids and orbital debris (MMOD) are still a potential threat to their structural integrity. Such impacts will create punctures on the structure of varying sizes related to the size and kinetic energy of the debris/meteorite. For closed-cell geometries, such as booms or struts, MMOD objects can penetrate the outer wall twice, once on initial impact and once upon exiting the structure. As impact damage and structural degradation will be cumulative over time, being able to monitor the structural integrity of these satellites would be of great interest. Impedance-based structural health monitoring schemes using distributed piezoelectric transducers are one possible approach. In this study, several Macro-Fiber Composite (MFC) piezoelectric devices were installed on a representative space-inflatable rigidizeable composite boom and used in ground tests as collocated sensor-actuators for detecting and assessing simulated micrometeoroid/orbital debris strike damage. Electrical impedance signatures were compared before and after application of the simulated damage to determine the extent of the damage sustained. Both small and large footprint MFC piezocomposite sensor/actuators were shown to be effective in characterizing simulated MMOD punctures along the entire length of the boom.

  9. In situ and laboratory migration experiments through boom clay at Mol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physico-chemical characterization and migration studies in the Boom clay, envisaged as a potential host sediment for high level waste disposal in Belgium, were started some 15 years ago. A synthesis study of this experimental work has recently been conducted to compile all available data. From a comparison of the available migration data and the data requirements as derived from the performance assessment studies PAGIS (1988) and PACOMA (1991) the new migration programme (1991-1995) was defined. The critical radionuclides, both with relation to dose rates to man and to missing or unreliable migration data, turned out to be 14 C, 99 Tc. 135 Cs and 237 Np. A second group of radionuclides was found to be possibly critical: 79 Se, 93 Zr, 107 Pd, U-, Am-, Cm-, and Pu-isotopes. This report concentrates on the experimental results as obtained from the migration experiments started in the previous migration programme. Some of the reported radionuclides e.g. 90 Sr) have lost their critical character and will not be further studied within the new programme. New experimental data from laboratory tests have become available for Np, Cs, Sr and C (as HC03-) and the first results on the migration of organic molecules dissolved in the interstitial Boom clay water are reported. The hydraulic parameters (the hydraulic conductivity K and the storage coefficient So) were calculated from both laboratory percolation experiments and in situ piezometric measurements. Conclusions concerning Boom clay anisotropy are drawn. Finally, a short description of the ongoing in situ HTO injection experiment is given and the experimental data are analyzed and discussed. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  10. The design of a large scale heater test in boom clay - the Praclay experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PRACLAY aims to demonstrate the suitability of the Boom Clay host rock, in terms of performance of the disposal, to undergo the thermal load induced by the vitrified HI. PRACLAY represents an important milestone for the Safety and Feasibility Cases 1 (2013) and II (2020). PRACLAY is developed to be design-independent to overcome possible future changes in the design. The temperature criterion is: The maximum temperature in clay-based backfill materials, used as engineered barriers, for heat producing radioactive waste, must be kept below 100 C. PRACLAY regroups a set of four experiments. The PRACLAY Crossing consists in the intersection of the connecting gallery and the PRACLAY gallery, and aims to demonstrate that it is possible to construct a crossing between an access gallery and a disposal gallery at an acceptable cost and limiting the perturbation in the host-rock. The PRACLAY Heater Test has to demonstrate that Boom Clay will behave as predicted under a thermal load. The PRACLAY Plug Test is aimed at demonstrating that it is possible to cut-off hydraulically the Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ) and the engineered barriers of the disposal galleries with a horizontal plug. 4. The PRACLAY backfill test aims to test the installation and the performance of different types of backfill or buffer material (cement, slaked lime, bentonite, Boom Clay...) that could be considered in the design of disposal galleries. The paper will present the objectives, the preliminary model predictions, and, as a result of these, the design of the test, including the monitoring plan and the choices regarding the boundary and initial conditions. (authors)

  11. A second hydrocarbon boom threatens the Peruvian Amazon: trends, projections, and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Peruvian Amazon is home to extraordinary biological and cultural diversity, and vast swaths of this mega-diverse region remain largely intact. Recent analysis indicates, however, that the rapid proliferation of oil and gas exploration zones now threatens the region's biodiversity, indigenous peoples, and wilderness areas. To better elucidate this dynamic situation, we analyzed official Peruvian government hydrocarbon information and generated a quantitative analysis of the past, present, and future of oil and gas activities in the Peruvian Amazon. We document an extensive hydrocarbon history for the region-over 104 000 km of seismic lines and 679 exploratory and production wells-highlighted by a major exploration boom in the early 1970s. We show that an unprecedented 48.6% of the Peruvian Amazon has been recently covered by oil and gas concessions, up from just 7.1% in 2003. These oil and gas concessions overlap 17.1% of the Peruvian Amazon protected area system and over half of all titled indigenous lands. Moreover, we found that up to 72% of the Peruvian Amazon has been zoned for hydrocarbon activities (concessions plus technical evaluation agreements and proposed concessions) in the past two years, and over 84% at some point during the past 40 years. We project that the recent rapid proliferation of hydrocarbon zones will lead to a second exploration boom, characterized by over 20 000 km of new seismic testing and construction of over 180 new exploratory wells in remote, intact, and sensitive forest areas. As the Peruvian Amazon oil frontier rapidly expands, we conclude that a rigorous policy debate is urgently needed in order to avoid the major environmental impacts associated with the first exploration boom of the 1970s and to minimize the social conflict that recently led to deadly encounters between indigenous protesters and government forces.

  12. Effect of excavation induced fractures on radionuclide migration through the boom clay (Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Belgium, the Boom Clay at a depth of 200 m below surface is being evaluated as a potential host formation for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste. In order to investigate this option, an underground research facility composed of two access shafts and a 200 m long gallery was excavated in the Boom Clay for research purposes (HADES-URF). Around the gallery, excavation induced fractures are observed. The majority of these fractures are approximately parallel planes with an average spacing of around 70 cm, a strike approximately perpendicular to the tunnel axis and a dip between 30 and 70 degrees. fracturing and self-sealing processes in Boom (and Opalinus) Clay were studied in the EC SELFRAC project (EC contract FIKW-CT2001-00182). The research performed in the framework of this project shows that the excavation induced fractures around the connecting gallery are limited to a zone of 1 m. This gallery was excavated using an industrial technique and with minimal radial convergence. Moreover self-sealing processes, which will further limit the influence of these fractures, have clearly been demonstrated in laboratory and in-situ experiments. The potential effect of these excavation induced fractures on the radionuclide migration through the clay is investigated in this study under the conservative assumption that no self-sealing occurs. A hydrogeological model of the clay is built with a radionuclide source in the middle of the clay surrounded by different fracture configurations. The radionuclide flux through the upper and lower boundaries of the clay into the surrounding aquifers is calculated and compared for different fracture configurations. (authors)

  13. El auge económico latinoamericano The Latin American Economic Boom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ ANTONIO OCAMPO

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo argumenta que el auge latinoamericano reciente tiene su origen en la coincidencia de una bonanza de precios de materias primas (más de productos mineros que agrícolas con condiciones de financiamiento externo excepcionales. Se ha reflejado en una reducción del endeudamiento externo y una acumulación de reservas internacionales, pero no en austeridad fiscal, y ha reforzado la especialización tradicional de la región en exportaciones basadas en recursos naturales. Junto con el menor crecimiento de la oferta laboral, ha facilitado el aumento de la tasa de ocupación y la difusión de los beneficios del auge a un conjunto más amplio de la población, pero no ha logrado revertir el deterioro acumulado en la calidad de los puestos de trabajo.This paper argues that the recent Latin American boom is the joint effect of the commodity price boom (primarily of mineral rather than agricultural goods and exceptional external financial conditions. It has been reflected in a reduction in foreign indebtedness and increased international reserves, but not in fiscal austerity, and has reinforced the traditional specialization of the region in natural resource-based exports. Together with a slower growth of the workforce, it has generated a rapid increase in the employment rate and the diffusion of the benefits of the boom to a broader segment of the population, but it has not reversed the accumulated deterioration in job quality.

  14. Sonic Booms on Big Structures (SonicBOBS) Phase I Database; NASA Dryden Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haering, Edward A., Jr.; Arnac, Sarah Renee

    2010-01-01

    This DVD contains 13 channels of microphone and up to 22 channels of pressure transducer data collected in September, 2009 around several buildings located at Edwards Air Force Base. These data were recorded by NASA Dryden. Not included are data taken by NASA Langley and Gulfstream. Each day's data is in a separate folder and each pass is in a file beginning with "SonicBOBS_" (for microphone data) or "SonicBOBSBB_" (for BADS and BASS data) followed by the month, day, year as two digits each, followed by the hour, minute, sec after midnight GMT. The filename time given is for the END time of the raw recording file. In the case of the microphone data, this time may be several minutes after the sonic boom, and is according to the PC's uncalibrated clock. The Matlab data files have the actual time as provided by a GPS-based IRIG-B signal recorded concurrently with the data. Microphone data is given for 5 seconds prior to 20 seconds after the sonic boom. BADS and BASS data is given for the full recording, 6 seconds for the BADS and 10 seconds for the BASS. As an example of the naming convention, file "SonicBOBS_091209154618.mat" is from September 12, 2009 at 15:46:18 GMT. Note that data taken on September 12, 2009 prior to 01:00:00 GMT was of the Space Shuttle Discovery (a sonic boom of opportunity), which was on September 11, 2009 in local Pacific Daylight Time.

  15. MODERNIZATION OF CUPOLA EQUIPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Rovin, S. L.; L. E. Rovin; T. M. Zayats; L. N. Rusaya

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an automated cupola complex, developed by scientific-production enterprise «Technolit» together with GSTU named after P. O. Sukhoi, launched in the spring of 2015 at the plant «Stroiex» in the city of Chelyabinsk (the Russian Federation). The old cupolas (open type) have been replaced by the new cupolas of the closed type, equipped with automatic control and management system and multistage wet gas treatment system. Cupolas are equipped with systems of post-combustion ga...

  16. 21 CFR 880.5510 - Non-AC-powered patient lift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Non-AC-powered patient lift. 880.5510 Section 880.5510 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Devices § 880.5510 Non-AC-powered patient lift. (a) Identification. A non-AC-powered patient lift is...

  17. Occupational heavy lifting and risk of ischemic heart disease and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christina Bjørk; Eriksen, Louise; Tolstrup, Janne S;

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Occupational heavy lifting is known to impose a high cardiovascular strain, but the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) from occupational heavy lifting is unknown. The objective was to investigate the association between occupational heavy lifting and risk of IHD and all...

  18. 75 FR 17754 - Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Lift Boat GARY CHIASSON ELEVATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Lift Boat GARY CHIASSON ELEVATOR AGENCY... Compliance was issued for the lift boat GARY CHIASSON ELEVATOR as required by 33 U.S.C. 1605(c) and 33 CFR 81... Regulations, Parts 81 and 89, has been issued for the lift boat GARY CHIASSON ELEVATOR. The Certificate...

  19. Investigation of Maximum Blade Loading Capability of Lift-Offset Rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Hyeonsoo; Johnson, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Maximum blade loading capability of a coaxial, lift-offset rotor is investigated using a rotorcraft configuration designed in the context of short-haul, medium-size civil and military missions. The aircraft was sized for a 6600-lb payload and a range of 300 nm. The rotor planform and twist were optimized for hover and cruise performance. For the present rotor performance calculations, the collective pitch angle is progressively increased up to and through stall with the shaft angle set to zero. The effects of lift offset on rotor lift, power, controls, and blade airloads and structural loads are examined. The maximum lift capability of the coaxial rotor increases as lift offset increases and extends well beyond the McHugh lift boundary as the lift potential of the advancing blades are fully realized. A parametric study is conducted to examine the differences between the present coaxial rotor and the McHugh rotor in terms of maximum lift capabilities and to identify important design parameters that define the maximum lift capability of the rotor. The effects of lift offset on rotor blade airloads and structural loads are also investigated. Flap bending moment increases substantially as lift offset increases to carry the hub roll moment even at low collective values. The magnitude of flap bending moment is dictated by the lift-offset value (hub roll moment) but is less sensitive to collective and speed.

  20. 10 CFR 71.45 - Lifting and tie-down standards for all packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lifting and tie-down standards for all packages. 71.45... MATERIAL Package Approval Standards § 71.45 Lifting and tie-down standards for all packages. (a) Any..., or must be designed with strength equivalent to that required for lifting attachments. (b)...