International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Korshunov, A D
2003-01-01
Monotone Boolean functions are an important object in discrete mathematics and mathematical cybernetics. Topics related to these functions have been actively studied for several decades. Many results have been obtained, and many papers published. However, until now there has been no sufficiently complete monograph or survey of results of investigations concerning monotone Boolean functions. The object of this survey is to present the main results on monotone Boolean functions obtained during the last 50 years
Computational complexity of Boolean functions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Korshunov, Aleksei D [Sobolev Institute of Mathematics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)
2012-02-28
Boolean functions are among the fundamental objects of discrete mathematics, especially in those of its subdisciplines which fall under mathematical logic and mathematical cybernetics. The language of Boolean functions is convenient for describing the operation of many discrete systems such as contact networks, Boolean circuits, branching programs, and some others. An important parameter of discrete systems of this kind is their complexity. This characteristic has been actively investigated starting from Shannon's works. There is a large body of scientific literature presenting many fundamental results. The purpose of this survey is to give an account of the main results over the last sixty years related to the complexity of computation (realization) of Boolean functions by contact networks, Boolean circuits, and Boolean circuits without branching. Bibliography: 165 titles.
Geometric Operators on Boolean Functions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Falster, Peter
In truth-functional propositional logic, any propositional formula represents a Boolean function (according to some valuation of the formula). We describe operators based on Decartes' concept of constructing coordinate systems, for translation of a propositional formula to the image of a Boolean...... function. With this image of a Boolean function corresponding to a propositional formula, we prove that the orthogonal projection operator leads to a theorem describing all rules of inference in propositional reasoning. In other words, we can capture all kinds of inference in propositional logic by means...... of a few geometric operators working on the images of Boolean functions. The operators we describe, arise from the niche area of array-based logic and have previously been tightly bound to an array-based representation of Boolean functions. We redefine the operators in an abstract form to make them...
Cryptographic Boolean functions and applications
Cusick, Thomas W
2009-01-01
Boolean functions are the building blocks of symmetric cryptographic systems. Symmetrical cryptographic algorithms are fundamental tools in the design of all types of digital security systems (i.e. communications, financial and e-commerce).Cryptographic Boolean Functions and Applications is a concise reference that shows how Boolean functions are used in cryptography. Currently, practitioners who need to apply Boolean functions in the design of cryptographic algorithms and protocols need to patch together needed information from a variety of resources (books, journal articles and other sources). This book compiles the key essential information in one easy to use, step-by-step reference. Beginning with the basics of the necessary theory the book goes on to examine more technical topics, some of which are at the frontier of current research.-Serves as a complete resource for the successful design or implementation of cryptographic algorithms or protocols using Boolean functions -Provides engineers and scient...
Quantum algorithms for testing Boolean functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Erika Andersson
2010-06-01
Full Text Available We discuss quantum algorithms, based on the Bernstein-Vazirani algorithm, for finding which variables a Boolean function depends on. There are 2^n possible linear Boolean functions of n variables; given a linear Boolean function, the Bernstein-Vazirani quantum algorithm can deterministically identify which one of these Boolean functions we are given using just one single function query. The same quantum algorithm can also be used to learn which input variables other types of Boolean functions depend on, with a success probability that depends on the form of the Boolean function that is tested, but does not depend on the total number of input variables. We also outline a procedure to futher amplify the success probability, based on another quantum algorithm, the Grover search.
On Boolean functions with generalized cryptographic properties
Braeken, A.; Nikov, V.S.; Nikova, S.I.; Preneel, B.; Canteaut, A.; Viswanathan, K.
2004-01-01
By considering a new metric, we generalize cryptographic properties of Boolean functions such as resiliency and propagation characteristics. These new definitions result in a better understanding of the properties of Boolean functions and provide a better insight in the space defined by this metric.
Totally optimal decision trees for Boolean functions
Chikalov, Igor; Hussain, Shahid; Moshkov, Mikhail
2016-01-01
We study decision trees which are totally optimal relative to different sets of complexity parameters for Boolean functions. A totally optimal tree is an optimal tree relative to each parameter from the set simultaneously. We consider the parameters
Representing Boolean Functions by Decision Trees
Chikalov, Igor
2011-01-01
A Boolean or discrete function can be represented by a decision tree. A compact form of decision tree named binary decision diagram or branching program is widely known in logic design [2, 40]. This representation is equivalent to other forms
Boolean-Valued Belief Functions
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kramosil, Ivan
2002-01-01
Roč. 31, č. 2 (2002), s. 153-181 ISSN 0308-1079 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030803 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : Dempster-Schafer theory * Boolean algebra Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.241, year: 2002
Information encryption systems based on Boolean functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aureliu Zgureanu
2011-02-01
Full Text Available An information encryption system based on Boolean functions is proposed. Information processing is done using multidimensional matrices, performing logical operations with these matrices. At the basis of ensuring high level security of the system the complexity of solving the problem of building systems of Boolean functions that depend on many variables (tens and hundreds is set. Such systems represent the private key. It varies both during the encryption and decryption of information, and during the transition from one message to another.
Totally optimal decision trees for Boolean functions
Chikalov, Igor
2016-07-28
We study decision trees which are totally optimal relative to different sets of complexity parameters for Boolean functions. A totally optimal tree is an optimal tree relative to each parameter from the set simultaneously. We consider the parameters characterizing both time (in the worst- and average-case) and space complexity of decision trees, i.e., depth, total path length (average depth), and number of nodes. We have created tools based on extensions of dynamic programming to study totally optimal trees. These tools are applicable to both exact and approximate decision trees, and allow us to make multi-stage optimization of decision trees relative to different parameters and to count the number of optimal trees. Based on the experimental results we have formulated the following hypotheses (and subsequently proved): for almost all Boolean functions there exist totally optimal decision trees (i) relative to the depth and number of nodes, and (ii) relative to the depth and average depth.
Vector Boolean Functions: applications in symmetric cryptography
Álvarez Cubero, José Antonio
2015-01-01
Esta tesis establece los fundamentos teóricos y diseña una colección abierta de clases C++ denominada VBF (Vector Boolean Functions) para analizar funciones booleanas vectoriales (funciones que asocian un vector booleano a otro vector booleano) desde una perspectiva criptográfica. Esta nueva implementación emplea la librería NTL de Victor Shoup, incorporando nuevos módulos que complementan a las funciones de NTL, adecuándolas para el análisis criptográfico. La clase fundamental que representa...
Representing Boolean Functions by Decision Trees
Chikalov, Igor
2011-01-01
A Boolean or discrete function can be represented by a decision tree. A compact form of decision tree named binary decision diagram or branching program is widely known in logic design [2, 40]. This representation is equivalent to other forms, and in some cases it is more compact than values table or even the formula [44]. Representing a function in the form of decision tree allows applying graph algorithms for various transformations [10]. Decision trees and branching programs are used for effective hardware [15] and software [5] implementation of functions. For the implementation to be effective, the function representation should have minimal time and space complexity. The average depth of decision tree characterizes the expected computing time, and the number of nodes in branching program characterizes the number of functional elements required for implementation. Often these two criteria are incompatible, i.e. there is no solution that is optimal on both time and space complexity. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.
Evolutionary Algorithms for Boolean Functions in Diverse Domains of Cryptography.
Picek, Stjepan; Carlet, Claude; Guilley, Sylvain; Miller, Julian F; Jakobovic, Domagoj
2016-01-01
The role of Boolean functions is prominent in several areas including cryptography, sequences, and coding theory. Therefore, various methods for the construction of Boolean functions with desired properties are of direct interest. New motivations on the role of Boolean functions in cryptography with attendant new properties have emerged over the years. There are still many combinations of design criteria left unexplored and in this matter evolutionary computation can play a distinct role. This article concentrates on two scenarios for the use of Boolean functions in cryptography. The first uses Boolean functions as the source of the nonlinearity in filter and combiner generators. Although relatively well explored using evolutionary algorithms, it still presents an interesting goal in terms of the practical sizes of Boolean functions. The second scenario appeared rather recently where the objective is to find Boolean functions that have various orders of the correlation immunity and minimal Hamming weight. In both these scenarios we see that evolutionary algorithms are able to find high-quality solutions where genetic programming performs the best.
On Kolmogorov's superpositions and Boolean functions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beiu, V.
1998-12-31
The paper overviews results dealing with the approximation capabilities of neural networks, as well as bounds on the size of threshold gate circuits. Based on an explicit numerical (i.e., constructive) algorithm for Kolmogorov's superpositions they will show that for obtaining minimum size neutral networks for implementing any Boolean function, the activation function of the neurons is the identity function. Because classical AND-OR implementations, as well as threshold gate implementations require exponential size (in the worst case), it will follow that size-optimal solutions for implementing arbitrary Boolean functions require analog circuitry. Conclusions and several comments on the required precision are ending the paper.
A Construction of Boolean Functions with Good Cryptographic Properties
2014-01-01
be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT...2008, LNCS 5350, Springer–Verlag, 2008, pp. 425–440. [10] C. Carlet and K. Feng, “An Infinite Class of Balanced Vectorial Boolean Functions with Optimum
Boolean Functions with a Simple Certificate for CNF Complexity
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Čepek, O.; Kučera, P.; Savický, Petr
2012-01-01
Roč. 160, 4-5 (2012), s. 365-382 ISSN 0166-218X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GP201/07/P168; GA ČR(CZ) GAP202/10/1188 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : Boolean functions * CNF representations Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.718, year: 2012
A transition calculus for Boolean functions. [logic circuit analysis
Tucker, J. H.; Bennett, A. W.
1974-01-01
A transition calculus is presented for analyzing the effect of input changes on the output of logic circuits. The method is closely related to the Boolean difference, but it is more powerful. Both differentiation and integration are considered.
Vectorial Resilient PC(l) of Order k Boolean Functions from AG-Codes
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hao CHEN; Liang MA; Jianhua LI
2011-01-01
Propagation criteria and resiliency of vectorial Boolean functions are important for cryptographic purpose (see [1- 4, 7, 8, 10, 11, 16]). Kurosawa, Stoh [8] and Carlet [1]gave a construction of Boolean functions satisfying PC(l) of order k from binary linear or nonlinear codes. In this paper, the algebraic-geometric codes over GF(2m) are used to modify the Carlet and Kurosawa-Satoh's construction for giving vectorial resilient Boolean functions satisfying PC(l) of order k criterion. This new construction is compared with previously known results.
Interpolation of the discrete logarithm in a finite field of characteristic two by Boolean functions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brandstaetter, Nina; Lange, Tanja; Winterhof, Arne
2005-01-01
We obtain bounds on degree, weight, and the maximal Fourier coefficient of Boolean functions interpolating the discrete logarithm in finite fields of characteristic two. These bounds complement earlier results for finite fields of odd characteristic....
Totally Optimal Decision Trees for Monotone Boolean Functions with at Most Five Variables
Chikalov, Igor; Hussain, Shahid; Moshkov, Mikhail
2013-01-01
In this paper, we present the empirical results for relationships between time (depth) and space (number of nodes) complexity of decision trees computing monotone Boolean functions, with at most five variables. We use Dagger (a tool for optimization
Circulant Matrices and Affine Equivalence of Monomial Rotation Symmetric Boolean Functions
2015-01-01
degree of the MRS is, we have a similar result as [40, Theorem 1.1] for n = 4p (p prime), or squarefree integers n, which along with our Theorem 5.2...Boolean functions: Construction and analysis in terms of algebraic immunity, in: H. Gilbert, H. Handschuh (Eds.), Fast Software Encryption, in: LNCS...vol. 1403, Springer-Verlag, 1998, pp. 475–488. [20] J.E. Fuller, Analysis of affine equivalent Boolean functions for cryptography (Ph.D. thesis
Totally Optimal Decision Trees for Monotone Boolean Functions with at Most Five Variables
Chikalov, Igor
2013-01-01
In this paper, we present the empirical results for relationships between time (depth) and space (number of nodes) complexity of decision trees computing monotone Boolean functions, with at most five variables. We use Dagger (a tool for optimization of decision trees and decision rules) to conduct experiments. We show that, for each monotone Boolean function with at most five variables, there exists a totally optimal decision tree which is optimal with respect to both depth and number of nodes.
Exploring candidate biological functions by Boolean Function Networks for Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maria Simak
Full Text Available The great amount of gene expression data has brought a big challenge for the discovery of Gene Regulatory Network (GRN. For network reconstruction and the investigation of regulatory relations, it is desirable to ensure directness of links between genes on a map, infer their directionality and explore candidate biological functions from high-throughput transcriptomic data. To address these problems, we introduce a Boolean Function Network (BFN model based on techniques of hidden Markov model (HMM, likelihood ratio test and Boolean logic functions. BFN consists of two consecutive tests to establish links between pairs of genes and check their directness. We evaluate the performance of BFN through the application to S. cerevisiae time course data. BFN produces regulatory relations which show consistency with succession of cell cycle phases. Furthermore, it also improves sensitivity and specificity when compared with alternative methods of genetic network reverse engineering. Moreover, we demonstrate that BFN can provide proper resolution for GO enrichment of gene sets. Finally, the Boolean functions discovered by BFN can provide useful insights for the identification of control mechanisms of regulatory processes, which is the special advantage of the proposed approach. In combination with low computational complexity, BFN can serve as an efficient screening tool to reconstruct genes relations on the whole genome level. In addition, the BFN approach is also feasible to a wide range of time course datasets.
Improving the quantum cost of reversible Boolean functions using reorder algorithm
Ahmed, Taghreed; Younes, Ahmed; Elsayed, Ashraf
2018-05-01
This paper introduces a novel algorithm to synthesize a low-cost reversible circuits for any Boolean function with n inputs represented as a Positive Polarity Reed-Muller expansion. The proposed algorithm applies a predefined rules to reorder the terms in the function to minimize the multi-calculation of common parts of the Boolean function to decrease the quantum cost of the reversible circuit. The paper achieves a decrease in the quantum cost and/or the circuit length, on average, when compared with relevant work in the literature.
Mechanical system reliability analysis using a combination of graph theory and Boolean function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tang, J.
2001-01-01
A new method based on graph theory and Boolean function for assessing reliability of mechanical systems is proposed. The procedure for this approach consists of two parts. By using the graph theory, the formula for the reliability of a mechanical system that considers the interrelations of subsystems or components is generated. Use of the Boolean function to examine the failure interactions of two particular elements of the system, followed with demonstrations of how to incorporate such failure dependencies into the analysis of larger systems, a constructive algorithm for quantifying the genuine interconnections between the subsystems or components is provided. The combination of graph theory and Boolean function provides an effective way to evaluate the reliability of a large, complex mechanical system. A numerical example demonstrates that this method an effective approaches in system reliability analysis
Characterizing short-term stability for Boolean networks over any distribution of transfer functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seshadhri, C.; Smith, Andrew M.; Vorobeychik, Yevgeniy; Mayo, Jackson R.; Armstrong, Robert C.
2016-01-01
Here we present a characterization of short-term stability of random Boolean networks under arbitrary distributions of transfer functions. Given any distribution of transfer functions for a random Boolean network, we present a formula that decides whether short-term chaos (damage spreading) will happen. We provide a formal proof for this formula, and empirically show that its predictions are accurate. Previous work only works for special cases of balanced families. Finally, it has been observed that these characterizations fail for unbalanced families, yet such families are widespread in real biological networks.
Quantum algorithms on Walsh transform and Hamming distance for Boolean functions
Xie, Zhengwei; Qiu, Daowen; Cai, Guangya
2018-06-01
Walsh spectrum or Walsh transform is an alternative description of Boolean functions. In this paper, we explore quantum algorithms to approximate the absolute value of Walsh transform W_f at a single point z0 (i.e., |W_f(z0)|) for n-variable Boolean functions with probability at least 8/π 2 using the number of O(1/|W_f(z_{0)|ɛ }) queries, promised that the accuracy is ɛ , while the best known classical algorithm requires O(2n) queries. The Hamming distance between Boolean functions is used to study the linearity testing and other important problems. We take advantage of Walsh transform to calculate the Hamming distance between two n-variable Boolean functions f and g using O(1) queries in some cases. Then, we exploit another quantum algorithm which converts computing Hamming distance between two Boolean functions to quantum amplitude estimation (i.e., approximate counting). If Ham(f,g)=t≠0, we can approximately compute Ham( f, g) with probability at least 2/3 by combining our algorithm and {Approx-Count(f,ɛ ) algorithm} using the expected number of Θ( √{N/(\\lfloor ɛ t\\rfloor +1)}+√{t(N-t)}/\\lfloor ɛ t\\rfloor +1) queries, promised that the accuracy is ɛ . Moreover, our algorithm is optimal, while the exact query complexity for the above problem is Θ(N) and the query complexity with the accuracy ɛ is O(1/ɛ 2N/(t+1)) in classical algorithm, where N=2n. Finally, we present three exact quantum query algorithms for two promise problems on Hamming distance using O(1) queries, while any classical deterministic algorithm solving the problem uses Ω(2n) queries.
Tucker, Jerry H.; Tapia, Moiez A.; Bennett, A. Wayne
1988-01-01
The concept of Boolean integration is developed, and different Boolean integral operators are introduced. Given the changes in a desired function in terms of the changes in its arguments, the ways of 'integrating' (i.e. realizing) such a function, if it exists, are presented. The necessary and sufficient conditions for integrating, in different senses, the expression specifying the changes are obtained. Boolean calculus has applications in the design of logic circuits and in fault analysis.
CIRCUIT IMPLEMENTATION OF VHDL-DESCRIPTIONS OF SYSTEMS OF PARTIAL BOOLEAN FUNCTIONS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. N. Bibilo
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Method for description of incompletely specified (partial Boolean functions in VHDL is proposed. Examples of synthesized VHDL models of partial Boolean functions are presented; and the results of experiments on circuit implementation of VHDL descriptions of systems of partial functions. The realizability of original partial functions in logical circuits was verified by formal verification. The results of the experiments show that the preliminary minimization in DNF class and in the class of BDD representations for pseudo-random systems of completely specified functions does not improve practically (and in the case of BDD sometimes worsens the results of the subsequent synthesis in the basis of FPGA unlike the significant efficiency of these procedures for the synthesis of benchmark circuits taken from the practice of the design.
Detecting small attractors of large Boolean networks by function-reduction-based strategy.
Zheng, Qiben; Shen, Liangzhong; Shang, Xuequn; Liu, Wenbin
2016-04-01
Boolean networks (BNs) are widely used to model gene regulatory networks and to design therapeutic intervention strategies to affect the long-term behaviour of systems. A central aim of Boolean-network analysis is to find attractors that correspond to various cellular states, such as cell types or the stage of cell differentiation. This problem is NP-hard and various algorithms have been used to tackle it with considerable success. The idea is that a singleton attractor corresponds to n consistent subsequences in the truth table. To find these subsequences, the authors gradually reduce the entire truth table of Boolean functions by extending a partial gene activity profile (GAP). Not only does this process delete inconsistent subsequences in truth tables, it also directly determines values for some nodes not extended, which means it can abandon the partial GAPs that cannot lead to an attractor as early as possible. The results of simulation show that the proposed algorithm can detect small attractors with length p = 4 in BNs of up to 200 nodes with average indegree K = 2.
Further Results on Constructions of Generalized Bent Boolean Functions
2016-03-01
China; 2Naval Postgraduate School, Applied Mathematics Department, Monterey, CA 93943, USA; 3Science and Technology on Communication Security...in 1976 as an interesting combinatorial object with the important property of having op- timal nonlinearity [1]. Since bent functions have many...77–94 10 Zhao Y, Li H L. On bent functions with some symmet- ric properties. Discret Appl Math, 2006, 154: 2537– 2543
On bent and semi-bent quadratic Boolean functions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Charpin, P.; Pasalic, Enes; Tavernier, C.
2005-01-01
correlation and high nonlinearity. We say that such a sequence is generated by a semi-bent function. Some new families of such function, represented by f(x) = Sigma(i=1)(n-1/2) c(i)Tr(x(2t+1)), n odd and c(i) is an element of F-2, have recently (2002) been introduced by Khoo et al. We first generalize......The maximum-length sequences, also called m-sequences, have received a lot of attention since the late 1960s. In terms of linear-feedback shift register (LFSR) synthesis they are usually generated by certain power polynomials over a finite field and in addition are characterized by a low cross...... their results to even n. We further investigate the conditions on the choice of ci for explicit definitions of new infinite families having three and four trace terms. Also, a class of nonpermutation polynomials whose composition with a quadratic function yields again a quadratic semi-bent function is specified...
2017-09-01
satisfying the strict avalanche criterion,” Discrete Math ., vol. 185, pp. 29–39, 1998. [2] R.C. Bose, “On some connections between the design of... Discrete Appl. Math ., vol. 149, pp. 73–86, 2005. [11] T.W. Cusick and P. Stănică, Cryptographic Boolean Functions and Applications, 2nd ed., San Diego...Stănică, “Bisecting binomial coefficients,” Discrete Appl. Math ., vol. 227, pp. 70–83, 2017. [28] T. Martinsen, W. Meidl, and P. Stănică, “Generalized
A quantum speedup in machine learning: finding an N-bit Boolean function for a classification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoo, Seokwon; Lee, Jinhyoung; Bang, Jeongho; Lee, Changhyoup
2014-01-01
We compare quantum and classical machines designed for learning an N-bit Boolean function in order to address how a quantum system improves the machine learning behavior. The machines of the two types consist of the same number of operations and control parameters, but only the quantum machines utilize the quantum coherence naturally induced by unitary operators. We show that quantum superposition enables quantum learning that is faster than classical learning by expanding the approximate solution regions, i.e., the acceptable regions. This is also demonstrated by means of numerical simulations with a standard feedback model, namely random search, and a practical model, namely differential evolution. (paper)
Quantum tests for the linearity and permutation invariance of Boolean functions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hillery, Mark [Department of Physics, Hunter College of the City University of New York, 695 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10021 (United States); Andersson, Erika [SUPA, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)
2011-12-15
The goal in function property testing is to determine whether a black-box Boolean function has a certain property or is {epsilon}-far from having that property. The performance of the algorithm is judged by how many calls need to be made to the black box in order to determine, with high probability, which of the two alternatives is the case. Here we present two quantum algorithms, the first to determine whether the function is linear and the second to determine whether it is symmetric (invariant under permutations of the arguments). Both require order {epsilon}{sup -2/3} calls to the oracle, which is better than known classical algorithms. In addition, in the case of linearity testing, if the function is linear, the quantum algorithm identifies which linear function it is. The linearity test combines the Bernstein-Vazirani algorithm and amplitude amplification, while the test to determine whether a function is symmetric uses projective measurements and amplitude amplification.
Programming Cell Adhesion for On-Chip Sequential Boolean Logic Functions.
Qu, Xiangmeng; Wang, Shaopeng; Ge, Zhilei; Wang, Jianbang; Yao, Guangbao; Li, Jiang; Zuo, Xiaolei; Shi, Jiye; Song, Shiping; Wang, Lihua; Li, Li; Pei, Hao; Fan, Chunhai
2017-08-02
Programmable remodelling of cell surfaces enables high-precision regulation of cell behavior. In this work, we developed in vitro constructed DNA-based chemical reaction networks (CRNs) to program on-chip cell adhesion. We found that the RGD-functionalized DNA CRNs are entirely noninvasive when interfaced with the fluidic mosaic membrane of living cells. DNA toehold with different lengths could tunably alter the release kinetics of cells, which shows rapid release in minutes with the use of a 6-base toehold. We further demonstrated the realization of Boolean logic functions by using DNA strand displacement reactions, which include multi-input and sequential cell logic gates (AND, OR, XOR, and AND-OR). This study provides a highly generic tool for self-organization of biological systems.
Goodstein, R L
2007-01-01
This elementary treatment by a distinguished mathematician employs Boolean algebra as a simple medium for introducing important concepts of modern algebra. Numerous examples appear throughout the text, plus full solutions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yih-Lon Lin
2013-01-01
Full Text Available If the given Boolean function is linearly separable, a robust uncoupled cellular neural network can be designed as a maximal margin classifier. On the other hand, if the given Boolean function is linearly separable but has a small geometric margin or it is not linearly separable, a popular approach is to find a sequence of robust uncoupled cellular neural networks implementing the given Boolean function. In the past research works using this approach, the control template parameters and thresholds are restricted to assume only a given finite set of integers, and this is certainly unnecessary for the template design. In this study, we try to remove this restriction. Minterm- and maxterm-based decomposition algorithms utilizing the soft margin and maximal margin support vector classifiers are proposed to design a sequence of robust templates implementing an arbitrary Boolean function. Several illustrative examples are simulated to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method by comparing our results with those produced by other decomposition methods with restricted weights.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kramosil, Ivan
2001-01-01
Roč. 5, č. 1 (2001), s. 45-57 ISSN 1432-7643 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030803 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : first-order predicate calculus * standard semantics * Boolean-like semantics * frequentistic semantics * completness theorems Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
Boolean integral calculus for digital systems
Tucker, J. H.; Tapia, M. A.; Bennett, A. W.
1985-01-01
The concept of Boolean integration is introduced and developed. When the changes in a desired function are specified in terms of changes in its arguments, then ways of 'integrating' (i.e., realizing) the function, if it exists, are presented. Boolean integral calculus has applications in design of logic circuits.
Boolean reasoning the logic of boolean equations
Brown, Frank Markham
2012-01-01
A systematic treatment of Boolean reasoning, this concise, newly revised edition combines the works of early logicians with recent investigations, including previously unpublished research results. Brown begins with an overview of elementary mathematical concepts and outlines the theory of Boolean algebras. Two concluding chapters deal with applications. 1990 edition.
Free Boolean Topological Groups
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ol’ga Sipacheva
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Known and new results on free Boolean topological groups are collected. An account of the properties that these groups share with free or free Abelian topological groups and properties specific to free Boolean groups is given. Special emphasis is placed on the application of set-theoretic methods to the study of Boolean topological groups.
Solomon, Alan D
2012-01-01
REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Boolean Algebra includes set theory, sentential calculus, fundamental ideas of Boolean algebras, lattices, rings and Boolean algebras, the structure of a Boolean algebra, and Boolean
Interpolative Boolean Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vladimir Dobrić
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Boolean networks are used for modeling and analysis of complex systems of interacting entities. Classical Boolean networks are binary and they are relevant for modeling systems with complex switch-like causal interactions. More descriptive power can be provided by the introduction of gradation in this model. If this is accomplished by using conventional fuzzy logics, the generalized model cannot secure the Boolean frame. Consequently, the validity of the model’s dynamics is not secured. The aim of this paper is to present the Boolean consistent generalization of Boolean networks, interpolative Boolean networks. The generalization is based on interpolative Boolean algebra, the [0,1]-valued realization of Boolean algebra. The proposed model is adaptive with respect to the nature of input variables and it offers greater descriptive power as compared with traditional models. For illustrative purposes, IBN is compared to the models based on existing real-valued approaches. Due to the complexity of the most systems to be analyzed and the characteristics of interpolative Boolean algebra, the software support is developed to provide graphical and numerical tools for complex system modeling and analysis.
Properties of Boolean orthoposets
Tkadlec, Josef
1993-10-01
A Boolean orthoposet is the orthoposet P fulfilling the following condition: If a, b ∈ P and a ∧ b = 0, then a ⊥ b. This condition seems to be a sound generalization of distributivity in orthoposets. Also, the class of (orthomodular) Boolean orthoposets may play an interesting role in quantum logic theory. This class is wide enough and, on the other hand, enjoys some properties of Boolean algebras. In this paper we summarize results on Boolean orthoposets involving distributivity, set representation, properties of the state space, existence of Jauch-Piron states, and results concerning orthocompleteness and completion.
Bent and bent(4) spectra of Boolean functions over finite fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Anbar Meidl, Nurdagül; Meidl, Wilfried
2017-01-01
For c is an element of F(2)n, a c-bent4 function f from the finite field F(2)n to F-2 is a function with a fiat spectrum with respect to the unitary transform V-f(c), which is designed to describe the component functions of modified planar functions. For c = 0 the transform V-f(c) reduces to the ...... a cubic monomial. We show that it is c-bent(4) only for c = 1, the function is then called negabent, which shows that non-quadratic functions exhibit a different behaviour. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved....
Hildreth, Charles R.
1983-01-01
This editorial addresses the issue of whether or not to provide free-text, keyword/boolean search capabilities in the information retrieval mechanisms of online public access catalogs and discusses online catalogs developed prior to 1980--keyword searching, phrase searching, and precoordination and postcoordination. (EJS)
Algebraic partial Boolean algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, Derek
2003-01-01
Partial Boolean algebras, first studied by Kochen and Specker in the 1960s, provide the structure for Bell-Kochen-Specker theorems which deny the existence of non-contextual hidden variable theories. In this paper, we study partial Boolean algebras which are 'algebraic' in the sense that their elements have coordinates in an algebraic number field. Several of these algebras have been discussed recently in a debate on the validity of Bell-Kochen-Specker theorems in the context of finite precision measurements. The main result of this paper is that every algebraic finitely-generated partial Boolean algebra B(T) is finite when the underlying space H is three-dimensional, answering a question of Kochen and showing that Conway and Kochen's infinite algebraic partial Boolean algebra has minimum dimension. This result contrasts the existence of an infinite (non-algebraic) B(T) generated by eight elements in an abstract orthomodular lattice of height 3. We then initiate a study of higher-dimensional algebraic partial Boolean algebras. First, we describe a restriction on the determinants of the elements of B(T) that are generated by a given set T. We then show that when the generating set T consists of the rays spanning the minimal vectors in a real irreducible root lattice, B(T) is infinite just if that root lattice has an A 5 sublattice. Finally, we characterize the rays of B(T) when T consists of the rays spanning the minimal vectors of the root lattice E 8
A complexity theory based on Boolean algebra
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skyum, Sven; Valiant, Leslie
1985-01-01
A projection of a Boolean function is a function obtained by substituting for each of its variables a variable, the negation of a variable, or a constant. Reducibilities among computational problems under this relation of projection are considered. It is shown that much of what is of everyday rel...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Antonio AIZPURU; Antonio GUTI(E)RREZ-D(A)VILA
2004-01-01
In this paper we will study some families and subalgebras ( ) of ( )(N) that let us characterize the unconditional convergence of series through the weak convergence of subseries ∑i∈A xi, A ∈ ( ).As a consequence, we obtain a new version of the Orlicz-Pettis theorem, for Banach spaces. We also study some relationships between algebraic properties of Boolean algebras and topological properties of the corresponding Stone spaces.
Classical Boolean logic gates with quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Renaud, N; Joachim, C
2011-01-01
An analytical method is proposed to implement any classical Boolean function in a small quantum system by taking the advantage of its electronic transport properties. The logical input, α = {α 1 , ..., α N }, is used to control well-identified parameters of the Hamiltonian of the system noted H 0 (α). The logical output is encoded in the tunneling current intensity passing through the quantum system when connected to conducting electrodes. It is demonstrated how to implement the six symmetric two-input/one-output Boolean functions in a quantum system. This system can be switched from one logic function to another by changing its structural parameters. The stability of the logic gates is discussed, perturbing the Hamiltonian with noise sources and studying the effect of decoherence.
Nonlinear threshold Boolean automata networks and phase transitions
Demongeot, Jacques; Sené, Sylvain
2010-01-01
In this report, we present a formal approach that addresses the problem of emergence of phase transitions in stochastic and attractive nonlinear threshold Boolean automata networks. Nonlinear networks considered are informally defined on the basis of classical stochastic threshold Boolean automata networks in which specific interaction potentials of neighbourhood coalition are taken into account. More precisely, specific nonlinear terms compose local transition functions that define locally t...
Computing preimages of Boolean networks.
Klotz, Johannes; Bossert, Martin; Schober, Steffen
2013-01-01
In this paper we present an algorithm based on the sum-product algorithm that finds elements in the preimage of a feed-forward Boolean networks given an output of the network. Our probabilistic method runs in linear time with respect to the number of nodes in the network. We evaluate our algorithm for randomly constructed Boolean networks and a regulatory network of Escherichia coli and found that it gives a valid solution in most cases.
Uezu, Tatsuya; Kiyokawa, Shuji
2016-06-01
We investigate the supervised batch learning of Boolean functions expressed by a two-layer perceptron with a tree-like structure. We adopt continuous weights (spherical model) and the Gibbs algorithm. We study the Parity and And machines and two types of noise, input and output noise, together with the noiseless case. We assume that only the teacher suffers from noise. By using the replica method, we derive the saddle point equations for order parameters under the replica symmetric (RS) ansatz. We study the critical value αC of the loading rate α above which the learning phase exists for cases with and without noise. We find that αC is nonzero for the Parity machine, while it is zero for the And machine. We derive the exponents barβ of order parameters expressed as (α - α C)bar{β} when α is near to αC. Furthermore, in the Parity machine, when noise exists, we find a spin glass solution, in which the overlap between the teacher and student vectors is zero but that between student vectors is nonzero. We perform Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations by simulated annealing and also by exchange Monte Carlo simulations in both machines. In the Parity machine, we study the de Almeida-Thouless stability, and by comparing theoretical and numerical results, we find that there exist parameter regions where the RS solution is unstable, and that the spin glass solution is metastable or unstable. We also study asymptotic learning behavior for large α and derive the exponents hat{β } of order parameters expressed as α - hat{β } when α is large in both machines. By simulated annealing simulations, we confirm these results and conclude that learning takes place for the input noise case with any noise amplitude and for the output noise case when the probability that the teacher's output is reversed is less than one-half.
Generalized Boolean Functions as Combiners
2017-06-01
of large runs of ones [6]. The fifth test is the Binary Rank Matrix test. This test looks at the rank of disjoint sub- matrices of the entire sequence...matrices to be of size 32x32. The sub-matrices are filled in row by row from the original 17 sequence. The rank for each sub- matrix is then computed...amLeng t h : 57 #LFSRS 58 f o r i in range ( 0 , l en ( l f s r s ) ) : 59 x i = reduce ( lambda x , y : x^y , map ( lambda x : l f s r s [ i
Complexity classifications for different equivalence and audit problems for Boolean circuits
BÃ¶hler, Elmar; Creignou, Nadia; Galota, Matthias; Reith, Steffen; Schnoor, Henning; Vollmer, Heribert
2010-01-01
We study Boolean circuits as a representation of Boolean functions and conskier different equivalence, audit, and enumeration problems. For a number of restricted sets of gate types (bases) we obtain efficient algorithms, while for all other gate types we show these problems are at least NP-hard.
Equivalence Checking of Combinational Circuits using Boolean Expression Diagrams
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hulgaard, Henrik; Williams, Poul Frederick; Andersen, Henrik Reif
1999-01-01
The combinational logic-level equivalence problem is to determine whether two given combinational circuits implement the same Boolean function. This problem arises in a number of CAD applications, for example when checking the correctness of incremental design changes (performed either manually...... or by a design automation tool).This paper introduces a data structure called Boolean Expression Diagrams (BEDs) and two algorithms for transforming a BED into a Reduced Ordered Binary Decision Diagram (OBDD). BEDs are capable of representing any Boolean circuit in linear space and can exploit structural...... similarities between the two circuits that are compared. These properties make BEDs suitable for verifying the equivalence of combinational circuits. BEDs can be seen as an intermediate representation between circuits (which are compact) and OBDDs (which are canonical).Based on a large number of combinational...
Optical programmable Boolean logic unit.
Chattopadhyay, Tanay
2011-11-10
Logic units are the building blocks of many important computational operations likes arithmetic, multiplexer-demultiplexer, radix conversion, parity checker cum generator, etc. Multifunctional logic operation is very much essential in this respect. Here a programmable Boolean logic unit is proposed that can perform 16 Boolean logical operations from a single optical input according to the programming input without changing the circuit design. This circuit has two outputs. One output is complementary to the other. Hence no loss of data can occur. The circuit is basically designed by a 2×2 polarization independent optical cross bar switch. Performance of the proposed circuit has been achieved by doing numerical simulations. The binary logical states (0,1) are represented by the absence of light (null) and presence of light, respectively.
Boolean gates on actin filaments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Siccardi, Stefano; Tuszynski, Jack A.; Adamatzky, Andrew
2016-01-01
Actin is a globular protein which forms long polar filaments in the eukaryotic cytoskeleton. Actin networks play a key role in cell mechanics and cell motility. They have also been implicated in information transmission and processing, memory and learning in neuronal cells. The actin filaments have been shown to support propagation of voltage pulses. Here we apply a coupled nonlinear transmission line model of actin filaments to study interactions between voltage pulses. To represent digital information we assign a logical TRUTH value to the presence of a voltage pulse in a given location of the actin filament, and FALSE to the pulse's absence, so that information flows along the filament with pulse transmission. When two pulses, representing Boolean values of input variables, interact, then they can facilitate or inhibit further propagation of each other. We explore this phenomenon to construct Boolean logical gates and a one-bit half-adder with interacting voltage pulses. We discuss implications of these findings on cellular process and technological applications. - Highlights: • We simulate interaction between voltage pulses using on actin filaments. • We use a coupled nonlinear transmission line model. • We design Boolean logical gates via interactions between the voltage pulses. • We construct one-bit half-adder with interacting voltage pulses.
Boolean gates on actin filaments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Siccardi, Stefano, E-mail: ssiccardi@2ssas.it [The Unconventional Computing Centre, University of the West of England, Bristol (United Kingdom); Tuszynski, Jack A., E-mail: jackt@ualberta.ca [Department of Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Adamatzky, Andrew, E-mail: andrew.adamatzky@uwe.ac.uk [The Unconventional Computing Centre, University of the West of England, Bristol (United Kingdom)
2016-01-08
Actin is a globular protein which forms long polar filaments in the eukaryotic cytoskeleton. Actin networks play a key role in cell mechanics and cell motility. They have also been implicated in information transmission and processing, memory and learning in neuronal cells. The actin filaments have been shown to support propagation of voltage pulses. Here we apply a coupled nonlinear transmission line model of actin filaments to study interactions between voltage pulses. To represent digital information we assign a logical TRUTH value to the presence of a voltage pulse in a given location of the actin filament, and FALSE to the pulse's absence, so that information flows along the filament with pulse transmission. When two pulses, representing Boolean values of input variables, interact, then they can facilitate or inhibit further propagation of each other. We explore this phenomenon to construct Boolean logical gates and a one-bit half-adder with interacting voltage pulses. We discuss implications of these findings on cellular process and technological applications. - Highlights: • We simulate interaction between voltage pulses using on actin filaments. • We use a coupled nonlinear transmission line model. • We design Boolean logical gates via interactions between the voltage pulses. • We construct one-bit half-adder with interacting voltage pulses.
Reliable dynamics in Boolean and continuous networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ackermann, Eva; Drossel, Barbara; Peixoto, Tiago P
2012-01-01
We investigate the dynamical behavior of a model of robust gene regulatory networks which possess ‘entirely reliable’ trajectories. In a Boolean representation, these trajectories are characterized by being insensitive to the order in which the nodes are updated, i.e. they always go through the same sequence of states. The Boolean model for gene activity is compared with a continuous description in terms of differential equations for the concentrations of mRNA and proteins. We found that entirely reliable Boolean trajectories can be reproduced perfectly in the continuous model when realistic Hill coefficients are used. We investigate to what extent this high correspondence between Boolean and continuous trajectories depends on the extent of reliability of the Boolean trajectories, and we identify simple criteria that enable the faithful reproduction of the Boolean dynamics in the continuous description. (paper)
GLOBAL CONVERGENCE FOR THE XOR BOOLEAN NETWORKS
Ho, Juei-Ling
2009-01-01
Shih and Ho have proved a global convergent theorem for boolean network: if a map from $\\{0,1\\}^{n}$ to itself defines a boolean network has the conditions: (1) each column of the discrete Jacobian matrix of each element of $\\{0,1\\}^{n}$ is either a unit vector or a zero vector; (2) all the boolean eigenvalues of the discrete Jacobian matrix of this map evaluated at each element of $\\{0,1\\}^{n}$ are zero, then it has a unique fixed point and this boolean network is global convergent to the fi...
Rational Verification in Iterated Electric Boolean Games
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Youssouf Oualhadj
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Electric boolean games are compact representations of games where the players have qualitative objectives described by LTL formulae and have limited resources. We study the complexity of several decision problems related to the analysis of rationality in electric boolean games with LTL objectives. In particular, we report that the problem of deciding whether a profile is a Nash equilibrium in an iterated electric boolean game is no harder than in iterated boolean games without resource bounds. We show that it is a PSPACE-complete problem. As a corollary, we obtain that both rational elimination and rational construction of Nash equilibria by a supervising authority are PSPACE-complete problems.
Expected Number of Fixed Points in Boolean Networks with Arbitrary Topology.
Mori, Fumito; Mochizuki, Atsushi
2017-07-14
Boolean network models describe genetic, neural, and social dynamics in complex networks, where the dynamics depend generally on network topology. Fixed points in a genetic regulatory network are typically considered to correspond to cell types in an organism. We prove that the expected number of fixed points in a Boolean network, with Boolean functions drawn from probability distributions that are not required to be uniform or identical, is one, and is independent of network topology if only a feedback arc set satisfies a stochastic neutrality condition. We also demonstrate that the expected number is increased by the predominance of positive feedback in a cycle.
Synthesizing biomolecule-based Boolean logic gates.
Miyamoto, Takafumi; Razavi, Shiva; DeRose, Robert; Inoue, Takanari
2013-02-15
One fascinating recent avenue of study in the field of synthetic biology is the creation of biomolecule-based computers. The main components of a computing device consist of an arithmetic logic unit, the control unit, memory, and the input and output devices. Boolean logic gates are at the core of the operational machinery of these parts, and hence to make biocomputers a reality, biomolecular logic gates become a necessity. Indeed, with the advent of more sophisticated biological tools, both nucleic acid- and protein-based logic systems have been generated. These devices function in the context of either test tubes or living cells and yield highly specific outputs given a set of inputs. In this review, we discuss various types of biomolecular logic gates that have been synthesized, with particular emphasis on recent developments that promise increased complexity of logic gate circuitry, improved computational speed, and potential clinical applications.
Synthesizing Biomolecule-based Boolean Logic Gates
Miyamoto, Takafumi; Razavi, Shiva; DeRose, Robert; Inoue, Takanari
2012-01-01
One fascinating recent avenue of study in the field of synthetic biology is the creation of biomolecule-based computers. The main components of a computing device consist of an arithmetic logic unit, the control unit, memory, and the input and output devices. Boolean logic gates are at the core of the operational machinery of these parts, hence to make biocomputers a reality, biomolecular logic gates become a necessity. Indeed, with the advent of more sophisticated biological tools, both nucleic acid- and protein-based logic systems have been generated. These devices function in the context of either test tubes or living cells and yield highly specific outputs given a set of inputs. In this review, we discuss various types of biomolecular logic gates that have been synthesized, with particular emphasis on recent developments that promise increased complexity of logic gate circuitry, improved computational speed, and potential clinical applications. PMID:23526588
Mining TCGA data using Boolean implications.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Subarna Sinha
Full Text Available Boolean implications (if-then rules provide a conceptually simple, uniform and highly scalable way to find associations between pairs of random variables. In this paper, we propose to use Boolean implications to find relationships between variables of different data types (mutation, copy number alteration, DNA methylation and gene expression from the glioblastoma (GBM and ovarian serous cystadenoma (OV data sets from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA. We find hundreds of thousands of Boolean implications from these data sets. A direct comparison of the relationships found by Boolean implications and those found by commonly used methods for mining associations show that existing methods would miss relationships found by Boolean implications. Furthermore, many relationships exposed by Boolean implications reflect important aspects of cancer biology. Examples of our findings include cis relationships between copy number alteration, DNA methylation and expression of genes, a new hierarchy of mutations and recurrent copy number alterations, loss-of-heterozygosity of well-known tumor suppressors, and the hypermethylation phenotype associated with IDH1 mutations in GBM. The Boolean implication results used in the paper can be accessed at http://crookneck.stanford.edu/microarray/TCGANetworks/.
Stability of Boolean multilevel networks.
Cozzo, Emanuele; Arenas, Alex; Moreno, Yamir
2012-09-01
The study of the interplay between the structure and dynamics of complex multilevel systems is a pressing challenge nowadays. In this paper, we use a semiannealed approximation to study the stability properties of random Boolean networks in multiplex (multilayered) graphs. Our main finding is that the multilevel structure provides a mechanism for the stabilization of the dynamics of the whole system even when individual layers work on the chaotic regime, therefore identifying new ways of feedback between the structure and the dynamics of these systems. Our results point out the need for a conceptual transition from the physics of single-layered networks to the physics of multiplex networks. Finally, the fact that the coupling modifies the phase diagram and the critical conditions of the isolated layers suggests that interdependency can be used as a control mechanism.
Elements of Boolean-Valued Dempster-Shafer Theory
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kramosil, Ivan
2000-01-01
Roč. 10, č. 5 (2000), s. 825-835 ISSN 1210-0552. [SOFSEM 2000 Workshop on Soft Computing. Milovy, 27.11.2000-28.11.2000] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/00/1489 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : Boolean algebra * belief function * Dempster-Shafer theory * Dempster combination rule * nonspecifity degree Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
Random networks of Boolean cellular automata
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miranda, Enrique [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina). Centro Atomico Bariloche
1990-01-01
Some recent results about random networks of Boolean automata -the Kauffman model- are reviewed. The structure of configuration space is explored. Ultrametricity between cycles is analyzed and the effects of noise in the dynamics are studied. (Author).
Random networks of Boolean cellular automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miranda, Enrique
1990-01-01
Some recent results about random networks of Boolean automata -the Kauffman model- are reviewed. The structure of configuration space is explored. Ultrametricity between cycles is analyzed and the effects of noise in the dynamics are studied. (Author)
SETS, Boolean Manipulation for Network Analysis and Fault Tree Analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Worrell, R.B.
1985-01-01
Description of problem or function - SETS is used for symbolic manipulation of set (or Boolean) equations, particularly the reduction of set equations by the application of set identities. It is a flexible and efficient tool for performing probabilistic risk analysis (PRA), vital area analysis, and common cause analysis. The equation manipulation capabilities of SETS can also be used to analyze non-coherent fault trees and determine prime implicants of Boolean functions, to verify circuit design implementation, to determine minimum cost fire protection requirements for nuclear reactor plants, to obtain solutions to combinatorial optimization problems with Boolean constraints, and to determine the susceptibility of a facility to unauthorized access through nullification of sensors in its protection system. 4. Method of solution - The SETS program is used to read, interpret, and execute the statements of a SETS user program which is an algorithm that specifies the particular manipulations to be performed and the order in which they are to occur. 5. Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Any properly formed set equation involving the set operations of union, intersection, and complement is acceptable for processing by the SETS program. Restrictions on the size of a set equation that can be processed are not absolute but rather are related to the number of terms in the disjunctive normal form of the equation, the number of literals in the equation, etc. Nevertheless, set equations involving thousands and even hundreds of thousands of terms can be processed successfully
Boolean Models of Biological Processes Explain Cascade-Like Behavior.
Chen, Hao; Wang, Guanyu; Simha, Rahul; Du, Chenghang; Zeng, Chen
2016-01-29
Biological networks play a key role in determining biological function and therefore, an understanding of their structure and dynamics is of central interest in systems biology. In Boolean models of such networks, the status of each molecule is either "on" or "off" and along with the molecules interact with each other, their individual status changes from "on" to "off" or vice-versa and the system of molecules in the network collectively go through a sequence of changes in state. This sequence of changes is termed a biological process. In this paper, we examine the common perception that events in biomolecular networks occur sequentially, in a cascade-like manner, and ask whether this is likely to be an inherent property. In further investigations of the budding and fission yeast cell-cycle, we identify two generic dynamical rules. A Boolean system that complies with these rules will automatically have a certain robustness. By considering the biological requirements in robustness and designability, we show that those Boolean dynamical systems, compared to an arbitrary dynamical system, statistically present the characteristics of cascadeness and sequentiality, as observed in the budding and fission yeast cell- cycle. These results suggest that cascade-like behavior might be an intrinsic property of biological processes.
Mcclenny, Levi D; Imani, Mahdi; Braga-Neto, Ulisses M
2017-11-25
Gene regulatory networks govern the function of key cellular processes, such as control of the cell cycle, response to stress, DNA repair mechanisms, and more. Boolean networks have been used successfully in modeling gene regulatory networks. In the Boolean network model, the transcriptional state of each gene is represented by 0 (inactive) or 1 (active), and the relationship among genes is represented by logical gates updated at discrete time points. However, the Boolean gene states are never observed directly, but only indirectly and incompletely through noisy measurements based on expression technologies such as cDNA microarrays, RNA-Seq, and cell imaging-based assays. The Partially-Observed Boolean Dynamical System (POBDS) signal model is distinct from other deterministic and stochastic Boolean network models in removing the requirement of a directly observable Boolean state vector and allowing uncertainty in the measurement process, addressing the scenario encountered in practice in transcriptomic analysis. BoolFilter is an R package that implements the POBDS model and associated algorithms for state and parameter estimation. It allows the user to estimate the Boolean states, network topology, and measurement parameters from time series of transcriptomic data using exact and approximated (particle) filters, as well as simulate the transcriptomic data for a given Boolean network model. Some of its infrastructure, such as the network interface, is the same as in the previously published R package for Boolean Networks BoolNet, which enhances compatibility and user accessibility to the new package. We introduce the R package BoolFilter for Partially-Observed Boolean Dynamical Systems (POBDS). The BoolFilter package provides a useful toolbox for the bioinformatics community, with state-of-the-art algorithms for simulation of time series transcriptomic data as well as the inverse process of system identification from data obtained with various expression
Acoustic logic gates and Boolean operation based on self-collimating acoustic beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Ting; Xu, Jian-yi; Cheng, Ying; Liu, Xiao-jun; Guo, Jian-zhong
2015-01-01
The reveal of self-collimation effect in two-dimensional (2D) photonic or acoustic crystals has opened up possibilities for signal manipulation. In this paper, we have proposed acoustic logic gates based on the linear interference of self-collimated beams in 2D sonic crystals (SCs) with line-defects. The line defects on the diagonal of the 2D square SCs are actually functioning as a 3 dB splitter. By adjusting the phase difference between two input signals, the basic Boolean logic functions such as XOR, OR, AND, and NOT are achieved both theoretically and experimentally. Due to the non-diffracting property of self-collimation beams, more complex Boolean logic and algorithms such as NAND, NOR, and XNOR can be realized by cascading the basic logic gates. The achievement of acoustic logic gates and Boolean operation provides a promising approach for acoustic signal computing and manipulations
Beyond-CMOS Device Benchmarking for Boolean and Non-Boolean Logic Applications
Pan, Chenyun; Naeemi, Azad
2017-01-01
The latest results of benchmarking research are presented for a variety of beyond-CMOS charge- and spin-based devices. In addition to improving the device-level models, several new device proposals and a few majorly modified devices are investigated. Deep pipelining circuits are employed to boost the throughput of low-power devices. Furthermore, the benchmarking methodology is extended to interconnect-centric analyses and non-Boolean logic applications. In contrast to Boolean circuits, non-Bo...
Evolutionary Algorithms for Boolean Queries Optimization
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Húsek, Dušan; Snášel, Václav; Neruda, Roman; Owais, S.S.J.; Krömer, P.
2006-01-01
Roč. 3, č. 1 (2006), s. 15-20 ISSN 1790-0832 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET100300414 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : evolutionary algorithms * genetic algorithms * information retrieval * Boolean query Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
Boolean Queries Optimization by Genetic Algorithms
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Húsek, Dušan; Owais, S.S.J.; Krömer, P.; Snášel, Václav
2005-01-01
Roč. 15, - (2005), s. 395-409 ISSN 1210-0552 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET100300414 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : evolutionary algorithms * genetic algorithms * genetic programming * information retrieval * Boolean query Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research
Practical algorithms for linear boolean-width
ten Brinke, C.B.; van Houten, F.J.P.; Bodlaender, H.L.
2015-01-01
In this paper, we give a number of new exact algorithms and heuristics to compute linear boolean decompositions, and experimentally evaluate these algorithms. The experimental evaluation shows that significant improvements can be made with respect to running time without increasing the width of the
Practical algorithms for linear Boolean-width
ten Brinke, C.B.; van Houten, F.J.P.; Bodlaender, H.L.
2015-01-01
In this paper, we give a number of new exact algorithms and heuristics to compute linear boolean decompositions, and experimentally evaluate these algorithms. The experimental evaluation shows that significant improvements can be made with respect to running time without increasing the width of the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wensheng Guo
Full Text Available In biological systems, the dynamic analysis method has gained increasing attention in the past decade. The Boolean network is the most common model of a genetic regulatory network. The interactions of activation and inhibition in the genetic regulatory network are modeled as a set of functions of the Boolean network, while the state transitions in the Boolean network reflect the dynamic property of a genetic regulatory network. A difficult problem for state transition analysis is the finding of attractors. In this paper, we modeled the genetic regulatory network as a Boolean network and proposed a solving algorithm to tackle the attractor finding problem. In the proposed algorithm, we partitioned the Boolean network into several blocks consisting of the strongly connected components according to their gradients, and defined the connection between blocks as decision node. Based on the solutions calculated on the decision nodes and using a satisfiability solving algorithm, we identified the attractors in the state transition graph of each block. The proposed algorithm is benchmarked on a variety of genetic regulatory networks. Compared with existing algorithms, it achieved similar performance on small test cases, and outperformed it on larger and more complex ones, which happens to be the trend of the modern genetic regulatory network. Furthermore, while the existing satisfiability-based algorithms cannot be parallelized due to their inherent algorithm design, the proposed algorithm exhibits a good scalability on parallel computing architectures.
Sun, Mengyang; Cheng, Xianrui; Socolar, Joshua E S
2013-06-01
A common approach to the modeling of gene regulatory networks is to represent activating or repressing interactions using ordinary differential equations for target gene concentrations that include Hill function dependences on regulator gene concentrations. An alternative formulation represents the same interactions using Boolean logic with time delays associated with each network link. We consider the attractors that emerge from the two types of models in the case of a simple but nontrivial network: a figure-8 network with one positive and one negative feedback loop. We show that the different modeling approaches give rise to the same qualitative set of attractors with the exception of a possible fixed point in the ordinary differential equation model in which concentrations sit at intermediate values. The properties of the attractors are most easily understood from the Boolean perspective, suggesting that time-delay Boolean modeling is a useful tool for understanding the logic of regulatory networks.
The value of less connected agents in Boolean networks
Epstein, Daniel; Bazzan, Ana L. C.
2013-11-01
In multiagent systems, agents often face binary decisions where one seeks to take either the minority or the majority side. Examples are minority and congestion games in general, i.e., situations that require coordination among the agents in order to depict efficient decisions. In minority games such as the El Farol Bar Problem, previous works have shown that agents may reach appropriate levels of coordination, mostly by looking at the history of past decisions. Not many works consider any kind of structure of the social network, i.e., how agents are connected. Moreover, when structure is indeed considered, it assumes some kind of random network with a given, fixed connectivity degree. The present paper departs from the conventional approach in some ways. First, it considers more realistic network topologies, based on preferential attachments. This is especially useful in social networks. Second, the formalism of random Boolean networks is used to help agents to make decisions given their attachments (for example acquaintances). This is coupled with a reinforcement learning mechanism that allows agents to select strategies that are locally and globally efficient. Third, we use agent-based modeling and simulation, a microscopic approach, which allows us to draw conclusions about individuals and/or classes of individuals. Finally, for the sake of illustration we use two different scenarios, namely the El Farol Bar Problem and a binary route choice scenario. With this approach we target systems that adapt dynamically to changes in the environment, including other adaptive decision-makers. Our results using preferential attachments and random Boolean networks are threefold. First we show that an efficient equilibrium can be achieved, provided agents do experimentation. Second, microscopic analysis show that influential agents tend to consider few inputs in their Boolean functions. Third, we have also conducted measurements related to network clustering and centrality
Boolean representations of simplicial complexes and matroids
Rhodes, John
2015-01-01
This self-contained monograph explores a new theory centered around boolean representations of simplicial complexes leading to a new class of complexes featuring matroids as central to the theory. The book illustrates these new tools to study the classical theory of matroids as well as their important geometric connections. Moreover, many geometric and topological features of the theory of matroids find their counterparts in this extended context. Graduate students and researchers working in the areas of combinatorics, geometry, topology, algebra and lattice theory will find this monograph appealing due to the wide range of new problems raised by the theory. Combinatorialists will find this extension of the theory of matroids useful as it opens new lines of research within and beyond matroids. The geometric features and geometric/topological applications will appeal to geometers. Topologists who desire to perform algebraic topology computations will appreciate the algorithmic potential of boolean represent...
Analysis and control of Boolean networks a semi-tensor product approach
Cheng, Daizhan; Li, Zhiqiang
2010-01-01
This book presents a new approach to the investigation of Boolean control networks, using the semi-tensor product (STP), which can express a logical function as a conventional discrete-time linear system. This makes it possible to analyze basic control problems.
Optimal stabilization of Boolean networks through collective influence
Wang, Jiannan; Pei, Sen; Wei, Wei; Feng, Xiangnan; Zheng, Zhiming
2018-03-01
Boolean networks have attracted much attention due to their wide applications in describing dynamics of biological systems. During past decades, much effort has been invested in unveiling how network structure and update rules affect the stability of Boolean networks. In this paper, we aim to identify and control a minimal set of influential nodes that is capable of stabilizing an unstable Boolean network. For locally treelike Boolean networks with biased truth tables, we propose a greedy algorithm to identify influential nodes in Boolean networks by minimizing the largest eigenvalue of a modified nonbacktracking matrix. We test the performance of the proposed collective influence algorithm on four different networks. Results show that the collective influence algorithm can stabilize each network with a smaller set of nodes compared with other heuristic algorithms. Our work provides a new insight into the mechanism that determines the stability of Boolean networks, which may find applications in identifying virulence genes that lead to serious diseases.
Finite size effects and symmetry breaking in the evolution of networks of competing Boolean nodes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, M; Bassler, K E
2011-01-01
Finite size effects on the evolutionary dynamics of Boolean networks are analyzed. In the model considered, Boolean networks evolve via a competition between nodes that punishes those in the majority. Previous studies have found that large networks evolve to a statistical steady state that is both critical and highly canalized, and that the evolution of canalization, which is a form of robustness found in genetic regulatory networks, is associated with a particular symmetry of the evolutionary dynamics. Here, it is found that finite size networks evolve in a fundamentally different way than infinitely large networks do. The symmetry of the evolutionary dynamics of infinitely large networks that selects for canalizing Boolean functions is broken in the evolutionary dynamics of finite size networks. In finite size networks, there is an additional selection for input-inverting Boolean functions that output a value opposite to the majority of input values. The reason for the symmetry breaking in the evolutionary dynamics is found to be due to the need for nodes in finite size networks to behave differently in order to cooperate so that the system collectively performs as efficiently as possible. The results suggest that both finite size effects and symmetry are fundamental for understanding the evolution of real-world complex networks, including genetic regulatory networks.
Large Sets in Boolean and Non-Boolean Groups and Topology
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Ol’ga V. Sipacheva
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Various notions of large sets in groups, including the classical notions of thick, syndetic, and piecewise syndetic sets and the new notion of vast sets in groups, are studied with emphasis on the interplay between such sets in Boolean groups. Natural topologies closely related to vast sets are considered; as a byproduct, interesting relations between vast sets and ultrafilters are revealed.
Boolean Factor Analysis by Attractor Neural Network
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Frolov, A. A.; Húsek, Dušan; Muraviev, I. P.; Polyakov, P.Y.
2007-01-01
Roč. 18, č. 3 (2007), s. 698-707 ISSN 1045-9227 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET100300419; GA ČR GA201/05/0079 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : recurrent neural network * Hopfield-like neural network * associative memory * unsupervised learning * neural network architecture * neural network application * statistics * Boolean factor analysis * dimensionality reduction * features clustering * concepts search * information retrieval Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 2.769, year: 2007
The Boolean algebra and central Galois algebras
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George Szeto
2001-01-01
Full Text Available Let B be a Galois algebra with Galois group G, Jg={b∈B∣bx=g(xb for all x∈B} for g∈G, and BJg=Beg for a central idempotent eg. Then a relation is given between the set of elements in the Boolean algebra (Ba,≤ generated by {0,eg∣g∈G} and a set of subgroups of G, and a central Galois algebra Be with a Galois subgroup of G is characterized for an e∈Ba.
An Efficient Algorithm for Computing Attractors of Synchronous And Asynchronous Boolean Networks
Zheng, Desheng; Yang, Guowu; Li, Xiaoyu; Wang, Zhicai; Liu, Feng; He, Lei
2013-01-01
Biological networks, such as genetic regulatory networks, often contain positive and negative feedback loops that settle down to dynamically stable patterns. Identifying these patterns, the so-called attractors, can provide important insights for biologists to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying many coordinated cellular processes such as cellular division, differentiation, and homeostasis. Both synchronous and asynchronous Boolean networks have been used to simulate genetic regulatory networks and identify their attractors. The common methods of computing attractors are that start with a randomly selected initial state and finish with exhaustive search of the state space of a network. However, the time complexity of these methods grows exponentially with respect to the number and length of attractors. Here, we build two algorithms to achieve the computation of attractors in synchronous and asynchronous Boolean networks. For the synchronous scenario, combing with iterative methods and reduced order binary decision diagrams (ROBDD), we propose an improved algorithm to compute attractors. For another algorithm, the attractors of synchronous Boolean networks are utilized in asynchronous Boolean translation functions to derive attractors of asynchronous scenario. The proposed algorithms are implemented in a procedure called geneFAtt. Compared to existing tools such as genYsis, geneFAtt is significantly faster in computing attractors for empirical experimental systems. Availability The software package is available at https://sites.google.com/site/desheng619/download. PMID:23585840
Adapted Boolean network models for extracellular matrix formation
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Wollbold Johannes
2009-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the rapid data accumulation on pathogenesis and progression of chronic inflammation, there is an increasing demand for approaches to analyse the underlying regulatory networks. For example, rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic inflammatory disease, characterised by joint destruction and perpetuated by activated synovial fibroblasts (SFB. These abnormally express and/or secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines, collagens causing joint fibrosis, or tissue-degrading enzymes resulting in destruction of the extra-cellular matrix (ECM. We applied three methods to analyse ECM regulation: data discretisation to filter out noise and to reduce complexity, Boolean network construction to implement logic relationships, and formal concept analysis (FCA for the formation of minimal, but complete rule sets from the data. Results First, we extracted literature information to develop an interaction network containing 18 genes representing ECM formation and destruction. Subsequently, we constructed an asynchronous Boolean network with biologically plausible time intervals for mRNA and protein production, secretion, and inactivation. Experimental gene expression data was obtained from SFB stimulated by TGFβ1 or by TNFα and discretised thereafter. The Boolean functions of the initial network were improved iteratively by the comparison of the simulation runs to the experimental data and by exploitation of expert knowledge. This resulted in adapted networks for both cytokine stimulation conditions. The simulations were further analysed by the attribute exploration algorithm of FCA, integrating the observed time series in a fine-tuned and automated manner. The resulting temporal rules yielded new contributions to controversially discussed aspects of fibroblast biology (e.g., considerable expression of TNF and MMP9 by fibroblasts stimulation and corroborated previously known facts (e.g., co-expression of collagens and MMPs after TNF
Efficient Instantiation of Parameterised Boolean Equation Systems to Parity Games
Kant, Gijs; van de Pol, Jan Cornelis; Wijs, A.J.; Bošnački, D.; Edelkamp, S.
Parameterised Boolean Equation Systems (PBESs) are sequences of Boolean fixed point equations with data variables, used for, e.g., verification of modal μ-calculus formulae for process algebraic specifications with data. Solving a PBES is usually done by instantiation to a Parity Game and then
Unlimited multistability and Boolean logic in microbial signalling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kothamachu, Varun B; Feliu, Elisenda; Cardelli, Luca
2015-01-01
The ability to map environmental signals onto distinct internal physiological states or programmes is critical for single-celled microbes. A crucial systems dynamics feature underpinning such ability is multistability. While unlimited multistability is known to arise from multi-site phosphorylation...... seen in the signalling networks of eukaryotic cells, a similarly universal mechanism has not been identified in microbial signalling systems. These systems are generally known as two-component systems comprising histidine kinase (HK) receptors and response regulator proteins engaging in phosphotransfer...... further prove that sharing of downstream components allows a system with n multi-domain hybrid HKs to attain 3n steady states. We find that such systems, when sensing distinct signals, can readily implement Boolean logic functions on these signals. Using two experimentally studied examples of two...
Boolean orthoposets and two-valued states on them
Tkadlec, Josef
1992-06-01
A Boolean orthoposet (see e.g. [2]) is the orthoposet P fulfilling the following condition: If a, b ∈ P and a ∧ b = 0 then a⊥ b. This condition seems to be a sound generalization of distributivity in orthoposets (see e.g. [8]). Also, the class of (orthomodular) Boolean orthoposets may play an interesting role in quantum logic theory. This class is wide enough (see [4,3]) and on the other hand, enjoys some properties of Boolean algebras [4,8,5]. In quantum logic theory an important role is played by so-called Jauch-Piron states [1,6,7]. In this paper we clarify the connection between Boolean orthoposets and orthoposets with "enough" two-valued Jauch-Piron states. Further, we obtain a characterization of Boolean orthoposets in terms of two-valued states.
An adaptable Boolean net trainable to control a computing robot
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lauria, F. E.; Prevete, R.; Milo, M.; Visco, S.
1999-01-01
We discuss a method to implement in a Boolean neural network a Hebbian rule so to obtain an adaptable universal control system. We start by presenting both the Boolean neural net and the Hebbian rule we have considered. Then we discuss, first, the problems arising when the latter is naively implemented in a Boolean neural net, second, the method consenting us to overcome them and the ensuing adaptable Boolean neural net paradigm. Next, we present the adaptable Boolean neural net as an intelligent control system, actually controlling a writing robot, and discuss how to train it in the execution of the elementary arithmetic operations on operands represented by numerals with an arbitrary number of digits
Simulating Quantitative Cellular Responses Using Asynchronous Threshold Boolean Network Ensembles
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Shah Imran
2011-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background With increasing knowledge about the potential mechanisms underlying cellular functions, it is becoming feasible to predict the response of biological systems to genetic and environmental perturbations. Due to the lack of homogeneity in living tissues it is difficult to estimate the physiological effect of chemicals, including potential toxicity. Here we investigate a biologically motivated model for estimating tissue level responses by aggregating the behavior of a cell population. We assume that the molecular state of individual cells is independently governed by discrete non-deterministic signaling mechanisms. This results in noisy but highly reproducible aggregate level responses that are consistent with experimental data. Results We developed an asynchronous threshold Boolean network simulation algorithm to model signal transduction in a single cell, and then used an ensemble of these models to estimate the aggregate response across a cell population. Using published data, we derived a putative crosstalk network involving growth factors and cytokines - i.e., Epidermal Growth Factor, Insulin, Insulin like Growth Factor Type 1, and Tumor Necrosis Factor α - to describe early signaling events in cell proliferation signal transduction. Reproducibility of the modeling technique across ensembles of Boolean networks representing cell populations is investigated. Furthermore, we compare our simulation results to experimental observations of hepatocytes reported in the literature. Conclusion A systematic analysis of the results following differential stimulation of this model by growth factors and cytokines suggests that: (a using Boolean network ensembles with asynchronous updating provides biologically plausible noisy individual cellular responses with reproducible mean behavior for large cell populations, and (b with sufficient data our model can estimate the response to different concentrations of extracellular ligands. Our
Message passing for quantified Boolean formulas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Pan; Ramezanpour, Abolfazl; Zecchina, Riccardo; Zdeborová, Lenka
2012-01-01
We introduce two types of message passing algorithms for quantified Boolean formulas (QBF). The first type is a message passing based heuristics that can prove unsatisfiability of the QBF by assigning the universal variables in such a way that the remaining formula is unsatisfiable. In the second type, we use message passing to guide branching heuristics of a Davis–Putnam–Logemann–Loveland (DPLL) complete solver. Numerical experiments show that on random QBFs our branching heuristics give robust exponential efficiency gain with respect to state-of-the-art solvers. We also manage to solve some previously unsolved benchmarks from the QBFLIB library. Apart from this, our study sheds light on using message passing in small systems and as subroutines in complete solvers
Multipath Detection Using Boolean Satisfiability Techniques
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Fadi A. Aloul
2011-01-01
Full Text Available A new technique for multipath detection in wideband mobile radio systems is presented. The proposed scheme is based on an intelligent search algorithm using Boolean Satisfiability (SAT techniques to search through the uncertainty region of the multipath delays. The SAT-based scheme utilizes the known structure of the transmitted wideband signal, for example, pseudo-random (PN code, to effectively search through the entire space by eliminating subspaces that do not contain a possible solution. The paper presents a framework for modeling the multipath detection problem as a SAT application. It also provides simulation results that demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme in detecting the multipath components in frequency-selective Rayleigh fading channels.
The Boolean algebra of Galois algebras
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Lianyong Xue
2003-02-01
Full Text Available Let B be a Galois algebra with Galois group G, Jg={bÃ¢ÂˆÂˆB|bx=g(xbÃ¢Â€Â‰for allÃ¢Â€Â‰xÃ¢ÂˆÂˆB} for each gÃ¢ÂˆÂˆG, and BJg=Beg for a central idempotent eg, Ba the Boolean algebra generated by {0,eg|gÃ¢ÂˆÂˆG}, e a nonzero element in Ba, and He={gÃ¢ÂˆÂˆG|eeg=e}. Then, a monomial e is characterized, and the Galois extension Be, generated by e with Galois group He, is investigated.
Optical reversible programmable Boolean logic unit.
Chattopadhyay, Tanay
2012-07-20
Computing with reversibility is the only way to avoid dissipation of energy associated with bit erase. So, a reversible microprocessor is required for future computing. In this paper, a design of a simple all-optical reversible programmable processor is proposed using a polarizing beam splitter, liquid crystal-phase spatial light modulators, a half-wave plate, and plane mirrors. This circuit can perform 16 logical operations according to three programming inputs. Also, inputs can be easily recovered from the outputs. It is named the "reversible programmable Boolean logic unit (RPBLU)." The logic unit is the basic building block of many complex computational operations. Hence the design is important in sense. Two orthogonally polarized lights are defined here as two logical states, respectively.
Boolean Operations with Prism Algebraic Patches
Bajaj, Chandrajit; Paoluzzi, Alberto; Portuesi, Simone; Lei, Na; Zhao, Wenqi
2009-01-01
In this paper we discuss a symbolic-numeric algorithm for Boolean operations, closed in the algebra of curved polyhedra whose boundary is triangulated with algebraic patches (A-patches). This approach uses a linear polyhedron as a first approximation of both the arguments and the result. On each triangle of a boundary representation of such linear approximation, a piecewise cubic algebraic interpolant is built, using a C1-continuous prism algebraic patch (prism A-patch) that interpolates the three triangle vertices, with given normal vectors. The boundary representation only stores the vertices of the initial triangulation and their external vertex normals. In order to represent also flat and/or sharp local features, the corresponding normal-per-face and/or normal-per-edge may be also given, respectively. The topology is described by storing, for each curved triangle, the two triples of pointers to incident vertices and to adjacent triangles. For each triangle, a scaffolding prism is built, produced by its extreme vertices and normals, which provides a containment volume for the curved interpolating A-patch. When looking for the result of a regularized Boolean operation, the 0-set of a tri-variate polynomial within each such prism is generated, and intersected with the analogous 0-sets of the other curved polyhedron, when two prisms have non-empty intersection. The intersection curves of the boundaries are traced and used to decompose each boundary into the 3 standard classes of subpatches, denoted in, out and on. While tracing the intersection curves, the locally refined triangulation of intersecting patches is produced, and added to the boundary representation. PMID:21516262
A short Boolean derivation of mean failure frequency for any (also non-coherent) system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schneeweiss, Winfrid G.
2009-01-01
For stationary repairable systems it is shown that the probabilistic weights for the individual components' mean failure frequencies (MFFs) that can be added to yield the system's MFF are found easily from the first step of the Boolean fault tree function's Shannon decomposition. This way one finds a general theory of a system's MFF and the case of coherence covered in standard textbooks is shown to be a subcase. Unfortunately, elegant rules for calculating system MFF from any polynomial form of the fault tree's Boolean function are only known for the coherent case, but repeated here, because they are not yet found in many textbooks. An example known from literature is treated extensively with great care.
Algebraic model checking for Boolean gene regulatory networks.
Tran, Quoc-Nam
2011-01-01
We present a computational method in which modular and Groebner bases (GB) computation in Boolean rings are used for solving problems in Boolean gene regulatory networks (BN). In contrast to other known algebraic approaches, the degree of intermediate polynomials during the calculation of Groebner bases using our method will never grow resulting in a significant improvement in running time and memory space consumption. We also show how calculation in temporal logic for model checking can be done by means of our direct and efficient Groebner basis computation in Boolean rings. We present our experimental results in finding attractors and control strategies of Boolean networks to illustrate our theoretical arguments. The results are promising. Our algebraic approach is more efficient than the state-of-the-art model checker NuSMV on BNs. More importantly, our approach finds all solutions for the BN problems.
Synchronization in an array of coupled Boolean networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Rui; Chu, Tianguang
2012-01-01
This Letter presents an analytical study of synchronization in an array of coupled deterministic Boolean networks. A necessary and sufficient criterion for synchronization is established based on algebraic representations of logical dynamics in terms of the semi-tensor product of matrices. Some basic properties of a synchronized array of Boolean networks are then derived for the existence of transient states and the upper bound of the number of fixed points. Particularly, an interesting consequence indicates that a “large” mismatch between two coupled Boolean networks in the array may result in loss of synchrony in the entire system. Examples, including the Boolean model of coupled oscillations in the cell cycle, are given to illustrate the present results. -- Highlights: ► We analytically study synchronization in an array of coupled Boolean networks. ► The study is based on the algebraic representations of logical dynamics. ► A necessary and sufficient algebraic criterion for synchronization is established. ► It reveals some basic properties of a synchronized array of Boolean networks. ► A large mismatch between two coupled networks may result in the loss of synchrony.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jens Christian Claussen
2017-06-01
Full Text Available The analysis of microbiome compositions in the human gut has gained increasing interest due to the broader availability of data and functional databases and substantial progress in data analysis methods, but also due to the high relevance of the microbiome in human health and disease. While most analyses infer interactions among highly abundant species, the large number of low-abundance species has received less attention. Here we present a novel analysis method based on Boolean operations applied to microbial co-occurrence patterns. We calibrate our approach with simulated data based on a dynamical Boolean network model from which we interpret the statistics of attractor states as a theoretical proxy for microbiome composition. We show that for given fractions of synergistic and competitive interactions in the model our Boolean abundance analysis can reliably detect these interactions. Analyzing a novel data set of 822 microbiome compositions of the human gut, we find a large number of highly significant synergistic interactions among these low-abundance species, forming a connected network, and a few isolated competitive interactions.
PATHLOGIC-S: a scalable Boolean framework for modelling cellular signalling.
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Liam G Fearnley
Full Text Available Curated databases of signal transduction have grown to describe several thousand reactions, and efficient use of these data requires the development of modelling tools to elucidate and explore system properties. We present PATHLOGIC-S, a Boolean specification for a signalling model, with its associated GPL-licensed implementation using integer programming techniques. The PATHLOGIC-S specification has been designed to function on current desktop workstations, and is capable of providing analyses on some of the largest currently available datasets through use of Boolean modelling techniques to generate predictions of stable and semi-stable network states from data in community file formats. PATHLOGIC-S also addresses major problems associated with the presence and modelling of inhibition in Boolean systems, and reduces logical incoherence due to common inhibitory mechanisms in signalling systems. We apply this approach to signal transduction networks including Reactome and two pathways from the Panther Pathways database, and present the results of computations on each along with a discussion of execution time. A software implementation of the framework and model is freely available under a GPL license.
PARAMETER ESTIMATION IN NON-HOMOGENEOUS BOOLEAN MODELS: AN APPLICATION TO PLANT DEFENSE RESPONSE
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Maria Angeles Gallego
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Many medical and biological problems require to extract information from microscopical images. Boolean models have been extensively used to analyze binary images of random clumps in many scientific fields. In this paper, a particular type of Boolean model with an underlying non-stationary point process is considered. The intensity of the underlying point process is formulated as a fixed function of the distance to a region of interest. A method to estimate the parameters of this Boolean model is introduced, and its performance is checked in two different settings. Firstly, a comparative study with other existent methods is done using simulated data. Secondly, the method is applied to analyze the longleaf data set, which is a very popular data set in the context of point processes included in the R package spatstat. Obtained results show that the new method provides as accurate estimates as those obtained with more complex methods developed for the general case. Finally, to illustrate the application of this model and this method, a particular type of phytopathological images are analyzed. These images show callose depositions in leaves of Arabidopsis plants. The analysis of callose depositions, is very popular in the phytopathological literature to quantify activity of plant immunity.
Graphene-based non-Boolean logic circuits
Liu, Guanxiong; Ahsan, Sonia; Khitun, Alexander G.; Lake, Roger K.; Balandin, Alexander A.
2013-10-01
Graphene revealed a number of unique properties beneficial for electronics. However, graphene does not have an energy band-gap, which presents a serious hurdle for its applications in digital logic gates. The efforts to induce a band-gap in graphene via quantum confinement or surface functionalization have not resulted in a breakthrough. Here we show that the negative differential resistance experimentally observed in graphene field-effect transistors of "conventional" design allows for construction of viable non-Boolean computational architectures with the gapless graphene. The negative differential resistance—observed under certain biasing schemes—is an intrinsic property of graphene, resulting from its symmetric band structure. Our atomistic modeling shows that the negative differential resistance appears not only in the drift-diffusion regime but also in the ballistic regime at the nanometer-scale—although the physics changes. The obtained results present a conceptual change in graphene research and indicate an alternative route for graphene's applications in information processing.
Exploiting Surroundedness for Saliency Detection: A Boolean Map Approach.
Zhang, Jianming; Sclaroff, Stan
2016-05-01
We demonstrate the usefulness of surroundedness for eye fixation prediction by proposing a Boolean Map based Saliency model (BMS). In our formulation, an image is characterized by a set of binary images, which are generated by randomly thresholding the image's feature maps in a whitened feature space. Based on a Gestalt principle of figure-ground segregation, BMS computes a saliency map by discovering surrounded regions via topological analysis of Boolean maps. Furthermore, we draw a connection between BMS and the Minimum Barrier Distance to provide insight into why and how BMS can properly captures the surroundedness cue via Boolean maps. The strength of BMS is verified by its simplicity, efficiency and superior performance compared with 10 state-of-the-art methods on seven eye tracking benchmark datasets.
A Boolean Approach to Airline Business Model Innovation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hvass, Kristian Anders
Research in business model innovation has identified its significance in creating a sustainable competitive advantage for a firm, yet there are few empirical studies identifying which combination of business model activities lead to success and therefore deserve innovative attention. This study...... analyzes the business models of North America low-cost carriers from 2001 to 2010 using a Boolean minimization algorithm to identify which combinations of business model activities lead to operational profitability. The research aim is threefold: complement airline literature in the realm of business model...... innovation, introduce Boolean minimization methods to the field, and propose alternative business model activities to North American carriers striving for positive operating results....
Refinement monoids, equidecomposability types, and boolean inverse semigroups
Wehrung, Friedrich
2017-01-01
Adopting a new universal algebraic approach, this book explores and consolidates the link between Tarski's classical theory of equidecomposability types monoids, abstract measure theory (in the spirit of Hans Dobbertin's work on monoid-valued measures on Boolean algebras) and the nonstable K-theory of rings. This is done via the study of a monoid invariant, defined on Boolean inverse semigroups, called the type monoid. The new techniques contrast with the currently available topological approaches. Many positive results, but also many counterexamples, are provided.
Optimization-Based Approaches to Control of Probabilistic Boolean Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Koichi Kobayashi
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Control of gene regulatory networks is one of the fundamental topics in systems biology. In the last decade, control theory of Boolean networks (BNs, which is well known as a model of gene regulatory networks, has been widely studied. In this review paper, our previously proposed methods on optimal control of probabilistic Boolean networks (PBNs are introduced. First, the outline of PBNs is explained. Next, an optimal control method using polynomial optimization is explained. The finite-time optimal control problem is reduced to a polynomial optimization problem. Furthermore, another finite-time optimal control problem, which can be reduced to an integer programming problem, is also explained.
Confluence of an extension of combinatory logic by Boolean constants
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Czajka, Łukasz
2017-01-01
We show confluence of a conditional term rewriting system CL-pc1, which is an extension of Combinatory Logic by Boolean constants. This solves problem 15 from the RTA list of open problems. The proof has been fully formalized in the Coq proof assistant....
On the Road to Genetic Boolean Matrix Factorization
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Snášel, V.; Platoš, J.; Krömer, P.; Húsek, Dušan; Frolov, A.
2007-01-01
Roč. 17, č. 6 (2007), s. 675-688 ISSN 1210-0552 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : data mining * genetic algorithms * Boolean factorization * binary data * machine learning * feature extraction Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 0.280, year: 2007
Document Ranking in E-Extended Boolean Logic
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Holub, M.; Húsek, Dušan; Pokorný, J.
1996-01-01
Roč. 4, č. 7 (1996), s. 3-17 ISSN 1310-0513. [Annual Colloquium on IR Research /19./. Aberdeen, 08.04.1997-09.04.1997] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/94/0728 Keywords : information retrieval * document ranking * extended Boolean logic
Free Boolean algebras over unions of two well orderings
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Bonnet, R.; Faouzi, L.; Kubiś, Wieslaw
2009-01-01
Roč. 156, č. 7 (2009), s. 1177-1185 ISSN 0166-8641 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Well quasi orderings * Poset algebras * Superatomic Boolean algebras * Compact distributive lattices Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.441, year: 2009
Boolean comparative analysis of qualitative data : a methodological note
Romme, A.G.L.
1995-01-01
This paper explores the use of Boolean logic in the analysis of qualitative data, especially on the basis of so-called process theories. Process theories treat independent variables as necessary conditions which are binary rather than variable in nature, while the dependent variable is a final
Parallel object-oriented term rewriting : the booleans
Rodenburg, P.H.; Vrancken, J.L.M.
As a first case study in parallel object-oriented term rewriting, we give two implementations of term rewriting algorithms for boolean terms, using the parallel object-oriented features of the language Pool-T. The term rewriting systems are specified in the specification formalism
Security analysis of boolean algebra based on Zhang-Wang digital signature scheme
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zheng, Jinbin
2014-01-01
In 2005, Zhang and Wang proposed an improvement signature scheme without using one-way hash function and message redundancy. In this paper, we show that this scheme exits potential safety concerns through the analysis of boolean algebra, such as bitwise exclusive-or, and point out that mapping is not one to one between assembly instructions and machine code actually by means of the analysis of the result of the assembly program segment, and which possibly causes safety problems unknown to the software
Security analysis of boolean algebra based on Zhang-Wang digital signature scheme
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zheng, Jinbin, E-mail: jbzheng518@163.com [School of Mathematics and Computer Science, Long Yan University, Longyan 364012 (China)
2014-10-06
In 2005, Zhang and Wang proposed an improvement signature scheme without using one-way hash function and message redundancy. In this paper, we show that this scheme exits potential safety concerns through the analysis of boolean algebra, such as bitwise exclusive-or, and point out that mapping is not one to one between assembly instructions and machine code actually by means of the analysis of the result of the assembly program segment, and which possibly causes safety problems unknown to the software.
Modeling integrated cellular machinery using hybrid Petri-Boolean networks.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Natalie Berestovsky
Full Text Available The behavior and phenotypic changes of cells are governed by a cellular circuitry that represents a set of biochemical reactions. Based on biological functions, this circuitry is divided into three types of networks, each encoding for a major biological process: signal transduction, transcription regulation, and metabolism. This division has generally enabled taming computational complexity dealing with the entire system, allowed for using modeling techniques that are specific to each of the components, and achieved separation of the different time scales at which reactions in each of the three networks occur. Nonetheless, with this division comes loss of information and power needed to elucidate certain cellular phenomena. Within the cell, these three types of networks work in tandem, and each produces signals and/or substances that are used by the others to process information and operate normally. Therefore, computational techniques for modeling integrated cellular machinery are needed. In this work, we propose an integrated hybrid model (IHM that combines Petri nets and Boolean networks to model integrated cellular networks. Coupled with a stochastic simulation mechanism, the model simulates the dynamics of the integrated network, and can be perturbed to generate testable hypotheses. Our model is qualitative and is mostly built upon knowledge from the literature and requires fine-tuning of very few parameters. We validated our model on two systems: the transcriptional regulation of glucose metabolism in human cells, and cellular osmoregulation in S. cerevisiae. The model produced results that are in very good agreement with experimental data, and produces valid hypotheses. The abstract nature of our model and the ease of its construction makes it a very good candidate for modeling integrated networks from qualitative data. The results it produces can guide the practitioner to zoom into components and interconnections and investigate them
Stochastic Boolean networks: An efficient approach to modeling gene regulatory networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liang Jinghang
2012-08-01
network inferred from a T cell immune response dataset. An SBN can also implement the function of an asynchronous PBN and is potentially useful in a hybrid approach in combination with a continuous or single-molecule level stochastic model. Conclusions Stochastic Boolean networks (SBNs are proposed as an efficient approach to modelling gene regulatory networks (GRNs. The SBN approach is able to recover biologically-proven regulatory behaviours, such as the oscillatory dynamics of the p53-Mdm2 network and the dynamic attractors in a T cell immune response network. The proposed approach can further predict the network dynamics when the genes are under perturbation, thus providing biologically meaningful insights for a better understanding of the dynamics of GRNs. The algorithms and methods described in this paper have been implemented in Matlab packages, which are attached as Additional files.
Continuous time Boolean modeling for biological signaling: application of Gillespie algorithm.
Stoll, Gautier; Viara, Eric; Barillot, Emmanuel; Calzone, Laurence
2012-08-29
Mathematical modeling is used as a Systems Biology tool to answer biological questions, and more precisely, to validate a network that describes biological observations and predict the effect of perturbations. This article presents an algorithm for modeling biological networks in a discrete framework with continuous time. There exist two major types of mathematical modeling approaches: (1) quantitative modeling, representing various chemical species concentrations by real numbers, mainly based on differential equations and chemical kinetics formalism; (2) and qualitative modeling, representing chemical species concentrations or activities by a finite set of discrete values. Both approaches answer particular (and often different) biological questions. Qualitative modeling approach permits a simple and less detailed description of the biological systems, efficiently describes stable state identification but remains inconvenient in describing the transient kinetics leading to these states. In this context, time is represented by discrete steps. Quantitative modeling, on the other hand, can describe more accurately the dynamical behavior of biological processes as it follows the evolution of concentration or activities of chemical species as a function of time, but requires an important amount of information on the parameters difficult to find in the literature. Here, we propose a modeling framework based on a qualitative approach that is intrinsically continuous in time. The algorithm presented in this article fills the gap between qualitative and quantitative modeling. It is based on continuous time Markov process applied on a Boolean state space. In order to describe the temporal evolution of the biological process we wish to model, we explicitly specify the transition rates for each node. For that purpose, we built a language that can be seen as a generalization of Boolean equations. Mathematically, this approach can be translated in a set of ordinary differential
Boolean network representation of contagion dynamics during a financial crisis
Caetano, Marco Antonio Leonel; Yoneyama, Takashi
2015-01-01
This work presents a network model for representation of the evolution of certain patterns of economic behavior. More specifically, after representing the agents as points in a space in which each dimension associated to a relevant economic variable, their relative "motions" that can be either stationary or discordant, are coded into a boolean network. Patterns with stationary averages indicate the maintenance of status quo, whereas discordant patterns represent aggregation of new agent into the cluster or departure from the former policies. The changing patterns can be embedded into a network representation, particularly using the concept of autocatalytic boolean networks. As a case study, the economic tendencies of the BRIC countries + Argentina were studied. Although Argentina is not included in the cluster formed by BRIC countries, it tends to follow the BRIC members because of strong commercial ties.
Controllability and observability of Boolean networks arising from biology
Li, Rui; Yang, Meng; Chu, Tianguang
2015-02-01
Boolean networks are currently receiving considerable attention as a computational scheme for system level analysis and modeling of biological systems. Studying control-related problems in Boolean networks may reveal new insights into the intrinsic control in complex biological systems and enable us to develop strategies for manipulating biological systems using exogenous inputs. This paper considers controllability and observability of Boolean biological networks. We propose a new approach, which draws from the rich theory of symbolic computation, to solve the problems. Consequently, simple necessary and sufficient conditions for reachability, controllability, and observability are obtained, and algorithmic tests for controllability and observability which are based on the Gröbner basis method are presented. As practical applications, we apply the proposed approach to several different biological systems, namely, the mammalian cell-cycle network, the T-cell activation network, the large granular lymphocyte survival signaling network, and the Drosophila segment polarity network, gaining novel insights into the control and/or monitoring of the specific biological systems.
3D Boolean operations in virtual surgical planning.
Charton, Jerome; Laurentjoye, Mathieu; Kim, Youngjun
2017-10-01
Boolean operations in computer-aided design or computer graphics are a set of operations (e.g. intersection, union, subtraction) between two objects (e.g. a patient model and an implant model) that are important in performing accurate and reproducible virtual surgical planning. This requires accurate and robust techniques that can handle various types of data, such as a surface extracted from volumetric data, synthetic models, and 3D scan data. This article compares the performance of the proposed method (Boolean operations by a robust, exact, and simple method between two colliding shells (BORES)) and an existing method based on the Visualization Toolkit (VTK). In all tests presented in this article, BORES could handle complex configurations as well as report impossible configurations of the input. In contrast, the VTK implementations were unstable, do not deal with singular edges and coplanar collisions, and have created several defects. The proposed method of Boolean operations, BORES, is efficient and appropriate for virtual surgical planning. Moreover, it is simple and easy to implement. In future work, we will extend the proposed method to handle non-colliding components.
On the number of different dynamics in Boolean networks with deterministic update schedules.
Aracena, J; Demongeot, J; Fanchon, E; Montalva, M
2013-04-01
Deterministic Boolean networks are a type of discrete dynamical systems widely used in the modeling of genetic networks. The dynamics of such systems is characterized by the local activation functions and the update schedule, i.e., the order in which the nodes are updated. In this paper, we address the problem of knowing the different dynamics of a Boolean network when the update schedule is changed. We begin by proving that the problem of the existence of a pair of update schedules with different dynamics is NP-complete. However, we show that certain structural properties of the interaction diagraph are sufficient for guaranteeing distinct dynamics of a network. In [1] the authors define equivalence classes which have the property that all the update schedules of a given class yield the same dynamics. In order to determine the dynamics associated to a network, we develop an algorithm to efficiently enumerate the above equivalence classes by selecting a representative update schedule for each class with a minimum number of blocks. Finally, we run this algorithm on the well known Arabidopsis thaliana network to determine the full spectrum of its different dynamics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
On the Computation of Comprehensive Boolean Gröbner Bases
Inoue, Shutaro
We show that a comprehensive Boolean Gröbner basis of an ideal I in a Boolean polynomial ring B (bar A,bar X) with main variables bar X and parameters bar A can be obtained by simply computing a usual Boolean Gröbner basis of I regarding both bar X and bar A as variables with a certain block term order such that bar X ≫ bar A. The result together with a fact that a finite Boolean ring is isomorphic to a direct product of the Galois field mathbb{GF}_2 enables us to compute a comprehensive Boolean Gröbner basis by only computing corresponding Gröbner bases in a polynomial ring over mathbb{GF}_2. Our implementation in a computer algebra system Risa/Asir shows that our method is extremely efficient comparing with existing computation algorithms of comprehensive Boolean Gröbner bases.
The mathematics of a quantum Hamiltonian computing half adder Boolean logic gate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dridi, G; Julien, R; Hliwa, M; Joachim, C
2015-01-01
The mathematics behind the quantum Hamiltonian computing (QHC) approach of designing Boolean logic gates with a quantum system are given. Using the quantum eigenvalue repulsion effect, the QHC AND, NAND, OR, NOR, XOR, and NXOR Hamiltonian Boolean matrices are constructed. This is applied to the construction of a QHC half adder Hamiltonian matrix requiring only six quantum states to fullfil a half Boolean logical truth table. The QHC design rules open a nano-architectronic way of constructing Boolean logic gates inside a single molecule or atom by atom at the surface of a passivated semi-conductor. (paper)
The mathematics of a quantum Hamiltonian computing half adder Boolean logic gate.
Dridi, G; Julien, R; Hliwa, M; Joachim, C
2015-08-28
The mathematics behind the quantum Hamiltonian computing (QHC) approach of designing Boolean logic gates with a quantum system are given. Using the quantum eigenvalue repulsion effect, the QHC AND, NAND, OR, NOR, XOR, and NXOR Hamiltonian Boolean matrices are constructed. This is applied to the construction of a QHC half adder Hamiltonian matrix requiring only six quantum states to fullfil a half Boolean logical truth table. The QHC design rules open a nano-architectronic way of constructing Boolean logic gates inside a single molecule or atom by atom at the surface of a passivated semi-conductor.
Affine Equivalence and Constructions of Cryptographically Strong Boolean Functions
2013-09-01
Math. Dissertation Supervisor Jon T. Butler Distinguished Professor Department of Elec. and Comp. Eng. David R. Canright Associate Professor...Linear structures in blockciphers,” in Advances in Cryptology, EU- ROCRYPT’87, ser. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, D. Chaum and W. L. Price, Eds
Bebop to the Boolean boogie an unconventional guide to electronics
Maxfield, Clive
2003-01-01
From reviews of the first edition:""If you want to be reminded of the joy of electronics, take a look at Clive (Max) Maxfield's book Bebop to the Boolean Boogie.""--Computer Design ""Lives up to its title as a useful and entertaining technical guide....well-suited for students, technical writers, technicians, and sales and marketing people.""--Electronic Design""Writing a book like this one takes audacity! ... Maxfield writes lucidly on a variety of complex topics without 'writing down' to his audience."" --EDN""A highly readable, well-illustrated guided tour
Two Expectation-Maximization Algorithms for Boolean Factor Analysis
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Frolov, A. A.; Húsek, Dušan; Polyakov, P.Y.
2014-01-01
Roč. 130, 23 April (2014), s. 83-97 ISSN 0925-2312 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/10/0262 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0070; GA MŠk(CZ) EE.2.3.20.0073 Program:ED Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : Boolean Factor analysis * Binary Matrix factorization * Neural networks * Binary data model * Dimension reduction * Bars problem Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 2.083, year: 2014
A boolean optimization method for reloading a nuclear reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Misse Nseke, Theophile.
1982-04-01
We attempt to solve the problem of optimal reloading of fuel assemblies in a PWR, without any assumption on the fuel nature. Any loading is marked by n 2 boolean variables usub(ij). The state of the reactor is characterized by his Ksub(eff) and the related power distribution. The resulting non-linear allocation problems are solved throught mathematical programming technics combining the simplex algorithm and an extension of the Balas-Geoffrion's one. Some optimal solutions are given for PWR with assemblies of different enrichment [fr
BEAT: A Web-Based Boolean Expression Fault-Based Test Case Generation Tool
Chen, T. Y.; Grant, D. D.; Lau, M. F.; Ng, S. P.; Vasa, V. R.
2006-01-01
BEAT is a Web-based system that generates fault-based test cases from Boolean expressions. It is based on the integration of our several fault-based test case selection strategies. The generated test cases are considered to be fault-based, because they are aiming at the detection of particular faults. For example, when the Boolean expression is in…
The pseudo-Boolean optimization approach to form the N-version software structure
Kovalev, I. V.; Kovalev, D. I.; Zelenkov, P. V.; Voroshilova, A. A.
2015-10-01
The problem of developing an optimal structure of N-version software system presents a kind of very complex optimization problem. This causes the use of deterministic optimization methods inappropriate for solving the stated problem. In this view, exploiting heuristic strategies looks more rational. In the field of pseudo-Boolean optimization theory, the so called method of varied probabilities (MVP) has been developed to solve problems with a large dimensionality. Some additional modifications of MVP have been made to solve the problem of N-version systems design. Those algorithms take into account the discovered specific features of the objective function. The practical experiments have shown the advantage of using these algorithm modifications because of reducing a search space.
Strahler, Alan H.; Li, Xiao-Wen; Jupp, David L. B.
1991-01-01
The bidirectional radiance or reflectance of a forest or woodland can be modeled using principles of geometric optics and Boolean models for random sets in a three dimensional space. This model may be defined at two levels, the scene includes four components; sunlight and shadowed canopy, and sunlit and shadowed background. The reflectance of the scene is modeled as the sum of the reflectances of the individual components as weighted by their areal proportions in the field of view. At the leaf level, the canopy envelope is an assemblage of leaves, and thus the reflectance is a function of the areal proportions of sunlit and shadowed leaf, and sunlit and shadowed background. Because the proportions of scene components are dependent upon the directions of irradiance and exitance, the model accounts for the hotspot that is well known in leaf and tree canopies.
Boolean models of biosurfactants production in Pseudomonas fluorescens.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adrien Richard
Full Text Available Cyclolipopeptides (CLPs are biosurfactants produced by numerous Pseudomonas fluorescens strains. CLP production is known to be regulated at least by the GacA/GacS two-component pathway, but the full regulatory network is yet largely unknown. In the clinical strain MFN1032, CLP production is abolished by a mutation in the phospholipase C gene (plcC and not restored by plcC complementation. Their production is also subject to phenotypic variation. We used a modelling approach with Boolean networks, which takes into account all these observations concerning CLP production without any assumption on the topology of the considered network. Intensive computation yielded numerous models that satisfy these properties. All models minimizing the number of components point to a bistability in CLP production, which requires the presence of a yet unknown key self-inducible regulator. Furthermore, all suggest that a set of yet unexplained phenotypic variants might also be due to this epigenetic switch. The simplest of these Boolean networks was used to propose a biological regulatory network for CLP production. This modelling approach has allowed a possible regulation to be unravelled and an unusual behaviour of CLP production in P. fluorescens to be explained.
Efficient Instantiation of Parameterised Boolean Equation Systems to Parity Games
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Gijs Kant
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Parameterised Boolean Equation Systems (PBESs are sequences of Boolean fixed point equations with data variables, used for, e.g., verification of modal mu-calculus formulae for process algebraic specifications with data. Solving a PBES is usually done by instantiation to a Parity Game and then solving the game. Practical game solvers exist, but the instantiation step is the bottleneck. We enhance the instantiation in two steps. First, we transform the PBES to a Parameterised Parity Game (PPG, a PBES with each equation either conjunctive or disjunctive. Then we use LTSmin, that offers transition caching, efficient storage of states and both distributed and symbolic state space generation, for generating the game graph. To that end we define a language module for LTSmin, consisting of an encoding of variables with parameters into state vectors, a grouped transition relation and a dependency matrix to indicate the dependencies between parts of the state vector and transition groups. Benchmarks on some large case studies, show that the method speeds up the instantiation significantly and decreases memory usage drastically.
Complex network analysis of state spaces for random Boolean networks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shreim, Amer [Complexity Science Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Berdahl, Andrew [Complexity Science Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Sood, Vishal [Complexity Science Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Grassberger, Peter [Complexity Science Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Paczuski, Maya [Complexity Science Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, T2N 1N4 (Canada)
2008-01-15
We apply complex network analysis to the state spaces of random Boolean networks (RBNs). An RBN contains N Boolean elements each with K inputs. A directed state space network (SSN) is constructed by linking each dynamical state, represented as a node, to its temporal successor. We study the heterogeneity of these SSNs at both local and global scales, as well as sample to-sample fluctuations within an ensemble of SSNs. We use in-degrees of nodes as a local topological measure, and the path diversity (Shreim A et al 2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 198701) of an SSN as a global topological measure. RBNs with 2 {<=} K {<=} 5 exhibit non-trivial fluctuations at both local and global scales, while K = 2 exhibits the largest sample-to-sample (possibly non-self-averaging) fluctuations. We interpret the observed 'multi scale' fluctuations in the SSNs as indicative of the criticality and complexity of K = 2 RBNs. 'Garden of Eden' (GoE) states are nodes on an SSN that have in-degree zero. While in-degrees of non-GoE nodes for K > 1 SSNs can assume any integer value between 0 and 2{sup N}, for K = 1 all the non-GoE nodes in a given SSN have the same in-degree which is always a power of two.
Complex network analysis of state spaces for random Boolean networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shreim, Amer; Berdahl, Andrew; Sood, Vishal; Grassberger, Peter; Paczuski, Maya
2008-01-01
We apply complex network analysis to the state spaces of random Boolean networks (RBNs). An RBN contains N Boolean elements each with K inputs. A directed state space network (SSN) is constructed by linking each dynamical state, represented as a node, to its temporal successor. We study the heterogeneity of these SSNs at both local and global scales, as well as sample to-sample fluctuations within an ensemble of SSNs. We use in-degrees of nodes as a local topological measure, and the path diversity (Shreim A et al 2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 198701) of an SSN as a global topological measure. RBNs with 2 ≤ K ≤ 5 exhibit non-trivial fluctuations at both local and global scales, while K = 2 exhibits the largest sample-to-sample (possibly non-self-averaging) fluctuations. We interpret the observed 'multi scale' fluctuations in the SSNs as indicative of the criticality and complexity of K = 2 RBNs. 'Garden of Eden' (GoE) states are nodes on an SSN that have in-degree zero. While in-degrees of non-GoE nodes for K > 1 SSNs can assume any integer value between 0 and 2 N , for K = 1 all the non-GoE nodes in a given SSN have the same in-degree which is always a power of two
Ari, Eszter; Ittzés, Péter; Podani, János; Thi, Quynh Chi Le; Jakó, Eena
2012-04-01
Boolean analysis (or BOOL-AN; Jakó et al., 2009. BOOL-AN: A method for comparative sequence analysis and phylogenetic reconstruction. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 52, 887-97.), a recently developed method for sequence comparison uses the Iterative Canonical Form of Boolean functions. It considers sequence information in a way entirely different from standard phylogenetic methods (i.e. Maximum Parsimony, Maximum-Likelihood, Neighbor-Joining, and Bayesian analysis). The performance and reliability of Boolean analysis were tested and compared with the standard phylogenetic methods, using artificially evolved - simulated - nucleotide sequences and the 22 mitochondrial tRNA genes of the great apes. At the outset, we assumed that the phylogeny of Hominidae is generally well established, and the guide tree of artificial sequence evolution can also be used as a benchmark. These offer a possibility to compare and test the performance of different phylogenetic methods. Trees were reconstructed by each method from 2500 simulated sequences and 22 mitochondrial tRNA sequences. We also introduced a special re-sampling method for Boolean analysis on permuted sequence sites, the P-BOOL-AN procedure. Considering the reliability values (branch support values of consensus trees and Robinson-Foulds distances) we used for simulated sequence trees produced by different phylogenetic methods, BOOL-AN appeared as the most reliable method. Although the mitochondrial tRNA sequences of great apes are relatively short (59-75 bases long) and the ratio of their constant characters is about 75%, BOOL-AN, P-BOOL-AN and the Bayesian approach produced the same tree-topology as the established phylogeny, while the outcomes of Maximum Parsimony, Maximum-Likelihood and Neighbor-Joining methods were equivocal. We conclude that Boolean analysis is a promising alternative to existing methods of sequence comparison for phylogenetic reconstruction and congruence analysis. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Inc. All
Boolean modeling in systems biology: an overview of methodology and applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Rui-Sheng; Albert, Réka; Saadatpour, Assieh
2012-01-01
Mathematical modeling of biological processes provides deep insights into complex cellular systems. While quantitative and continuous models such as differential equations have been widely used, their use is obstructed in systems wherein the knowledge of mechanistic details and kinetic parameters is scarce. On the other hand, a wealth of molecular level qualitative data on individual components and interactions can be obtained from the experimental literature and high-throughput technologies, making qualitative approaches such as Boolean network modeling extremely useful. In this paper, we build on our research to provide a methodology overview of Boolean modeling in systems biology, including Boolean dynamic modeling of cellular networks, attractor analysis of Boolean dynamic models, as well as inferring biological regulatory mechanisms from high-throughput data using Boolean models. We finally demonstrate how Boolean models can be applied to perform the structural analysis of cellular networks. This overview aims to acquaint life science researchers with the basic steps of Boolean modeling and its applications in several areas of systems biology. (paper)
Griffin: A Tool for Symbolic Inference of Synchronous Boolean Molecular Networks
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Stalin Muñoz
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Boolean networks are important models of biochemical systems, located at the high end of the abstraction spectrum. A number of Boolean gene networks have been inferred following essentially the same method. Such a method first considers experimental data for a typically underdetermined “regulation” graph. Next, Boolean networks are inferred by using biological constraints to narrow the search space, such as a desired set of (fixed-point or cyclic attractors. We describe Griffin, a computer tool enhancing this method. Griffin incorporates a number of well-established algorithms, such as Dubrova and Teslenko's algorithm for finding attractors in synchronous Boolean networks. In addition, a formal definition of regulation allows Griffin to employ “symbolic” techniques, able to represent both large sets of network states and Boolean constraints. We observe that when the set of attractors is required to be an exact set, prohibiting additional attractors, a naive Boolean coding of this constraint may be unfeasible. Such cases may be intractable even with symbolic methods, as the number of Boolean constraints may be astronomically large. To overcome this problem, we employ an Artificial Intelligence technique known as “clause learning” considerably increasing Griffin's scalability. Without clause learning only toy examples prohibiting additional attractors are solvable: only one out of seven queries reported here is answered. With clause learning, by contrast, all seven queries are answered. We illustrate Griffin with three case studies drawn from the Arabidopsis thaliana literature. Griffin is available at: http://turing.iimas.unam.mx/griffin.
Boolean Algebra Application in Analysis of Flight Accidents
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Casandra Venera BALAN
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Fault tree analysis is a deductive approach for resolving an undesired event into its causes, identifying the causes of a failure and providing a framework for a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the top event. An alternative approach to fault tree analysis methods calculus goes to logical expressions and it is based on a graphical representation of the data structure for a logic - based binary decision diagram representation. In this analysis, such sites will be reduced to a minimal size and arranged in the sense that the variables appear in the same order in each path. An event can be defined as a statement that can be true or false. Therefore, Boolean algebra rules allow restructuring of a Fault Tree into one equivalent to it, but simpler.
Logical Attractors: a Boolean Approach to the Dynamics of Psychosis
Kupper, Z.; Hoffmann, H.
A Boolean modeling approach to attractors in the dynamics of psychosis is presented: Kinetic Logic, originating from R. Thomas, describes systems on an intermediate level between a purely verbal, qualitative description and a description using nonlinear differential equations. With this method we may model impact, feedback and temporal evolution, as well as analyze the resulting attractors. In our previous research the method has been applied to general and more specific questions in the dynamics of psychotic disorders. In this paper a model is introduced that describes different dynamical patterns of chronic psychosis in the context of vocational rehabilitation. It also shows to be useful in formulating and exploring possible treatment strategies. Finally, some of the limitations and benefits of Kinetic Logic as a modeling tool for psychology and psychiatry are discussed.
Minimum energy control and optimal-satisfactory control of Boolean control network
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Fangfei; Lu, Xiwen
2013-01-01
In the literatures, to transfer the Boolean control network from the initial state to the desired state, the expenditure of energy has been rarely considered. Motivated by this, this Letter investigates the minimum energy control and optimal-satisfactory control of Boolean control network. Based on the semi-tensor product of matrices and Floyd's algorithm, minimum energy, constrained minimum energy and optimal-satisfactory control design for Boolean control network are given respectively. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the efficiency of the obtained results.
Sensitivity analysis of efficient solution in vector MINMAX boolean programming problem
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Vladimir A. Emelichev
2002-11-01
Full Text Available We consider a multiple criterion Boolean programming problem with MINMAX partial criteria. The extreme level of independent perturbations of partial criteria parameters such that efficient (Pareto optimal solution preserves optimality was obtained.
Boolean and advanced searching for EDGAR data on www.sec.gov
Securities and Exchange Commission — This search allows users to enter complex boolean queries to access all but the most recent day's EDGAR filings on www.sec.gov. Filings are from 1994 to present.
An Attractor-Based Complexity Measurement for Boolean Recurrent Neural Networks
Cabessa, Jérémie; Villa, Alessandro E. P.
2014-01-01
We provide a novel refined attractor-based complexity measurement for Boolean recurrent neural networks that represents an assessment of their computational power in terms of the significance of their attractor dynamics. This complexity measurement is achieved by first proving a computational equivalence between Boolean recurrent neural networks and some specific class of -automata, and then translating the most refined classification of -automata to the Boolean neural network context. As a result, a hierarchical classification of Boolean neural networks based on their attractive dynamics is obtained, thus providing a novel refined attractor-based complexity measurement for Boolean recurrent neural networks. These results provide new theoretical insights to the computational and dynamical capabilities of neural networks according to their attractive potentialities. An application of our findings is illustrated by the analysis of the dynamics of a simplified model of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical network simulated by a Boolean recurrent neural network. This example shows the significance of measuring network complexity, and how our results bear new founding elements for the understanding of the complexity of real brain circuits. PMID:24727866
Szejka, Agnes; Drossel, Barbara
2010-02-01
We study the evolution of Boolean networks as model systems for gene regulation. Inspired by biological networks, we select simultaneously for robust attractors and for the ability to respond to external inputs by changing the attractor. Mutations change the connections between the nodes and the update functions. In order to investigate the influence of the type of update functions, we perform our simulations with canalizing as well as with threshold functions. We compare the properties of the fitness landscapes that result for different versions of the selection criterion and the update functions. We find that for all studied cases the fitness landscape has a plateau with maximum fitness resulting in the fact that structurally very different networks are able to fulfill the same task and are connected by neutral paths in network (“genotype”) space. We find furthermore a connection between the attractor length and the mutational robustness, and an extremely long memory of the initial evolutionary stage.
Boolean network model of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing circuits.
Dallidis, Stylianos E; Karafyllidis, Ioannis G
2014-09-01
To coordinate their behavior and virulence and to synchronize attacks against their hosts, bacteria communicate by continuously producing signaling molecules (called autoinducers) and continuously monitoring the concentration of these molecules. This communication is controlled by biological circuits called quorum sensing (QS) circuits. Recently QS circuits and have been recognized as an alternative target for controlling bacterial virulence and infections without the use of antibiotics. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacterium that infects insects, plants, animals and humans and can cause acute infections. This bacterium has three interconnected QS circuits that form a very complex and versatile QS system, the operation of which is still under investigation. Here we use Boolean networks to model the complete QS system of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and we simulate and analyze its operation in both synchronous and asynchronous modes. The state space of the QS system is constructed and it turned out to be very large, hierarchical, modular and scale-free. Furthermore, we developed a simulation tool that can simulate gene knock-outs and study their effect on the regulons controlled by the three QS circuits. The model and tools we developed will give to life scientists a deeper insight to this complex QS system.
Autonomous Modeling, Statistical Complexity and Semi-annealed Treatment of Boolean Networks
Gong, Xinwei
This dissertation presents three studies on Boolean networks. Boolean networks are a class of mathematical systems consisting of interacting elements with binary state variables. Each element is a node with a Boolean logic gate, and the presence of interactions between any two nodes is represented by directed links. Boolean networks that implement the logic structures of real systems are studied as coarse-grained models of the real systems. Large random Boolean networks are studied with mean field approximations and used to provide a baseline of possible behaviors of large real systems. This dissertation presents one study of the former type, concerning the stable oscillation of a yeast cell-cycle oscillator, and two studies of the latter type, respectively concerning the statistical complexity of large random Boolean networks and an extension of traditional mean field techniques that accounts for the presence of short loops. In the cell-cycle oscillator study, a novel autonomous update scheme is introduced to study the stability of oscillations in small networks. A motif that corrects pulse-growing perturbations and a motif that grows pulses are identified. A combination of the two motifs is capable of sustaining stable oscillations. Examining a Boolean model of the yeast cell-cycle oscillator using an autonomous update scheme yields evidence that it is endowed with such a combination. Random Boolean networks are classified as ordered, critical or disordered based on their response to small perturbations. In the second study, random Boolean networks are taken as prototypical cases for the evaluation of two measures of complexity based on a criterion for optimal statistical prediction. One measure, defined for homogeneous systems, does not distinguish between the static spatial inhomogeneity in the ordered phase and the dynamical inhomogeneity in the disordered phase. A modification in which complexities of individual nodes are calculated yields vanishing
Proposal for nanoscale cascaded plasmonic majority gates for non-Boolean computation.
Dutta, Sourav; Zografos, Odysseas; Gurunarayanan, Surya; Radu, Iuliana; Soree, Bart; Catthoor, Francky; Naeemi, Azad
2017-12-19
Surface-plasmon-polariton waves propagating at the interface between a metal and a dielectric, hold the key to future high-bandwidth, dense on-chip integrated logic circuits overcoming the diffraction limitation of photonics. While recent advances in plasmonic logic have witnessed the demonstration of basic and universal logic gates, these CMOS oriented digital logic gates cannot fully utilize the expressive power of this novel technology. Here, we aim at unraveling the true potential of plasmonics by exploiting an enhanced native functionality - the majority voter. Contrary to the state-of-the-art plasmonic logic devices, we use the phase of the wave instead of the intensity as the state or computational variable. We propose and demonstrate, via numerical simulations, a comprehensive scheme for building a nanoscale cascadable plasmonic majority logic gate along with a novel referencing scheme that can directly translate the information encoded in the amplitude and phase of the wave into electric field intensity at the output. Our MIM-based 3-input majority gate displays a highly improved overall area of only 0.636 μm 2 for a single-stage compared with previous works on plasmonic logic. The proposed device demonstrates non-Boolean computational capability and can find direct utility in highly parallel real-time signal processing applications like pattern recognition.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mikko Niilo-Rämä
2014-06-01
Full Text Available A novel estimator for estimating the mean length of fibres is proposed for censored data observed in square shaped windows. Instead of observing the fibre lengths, we observe the ratio between the intensity estimates of minus-sampling and plus-sampling. It is well-known that both intensity estimators are biased. In the current work, we derive the ratio of these biases as a function of the mean length assuming a Boolean line segment model with exponentially distributed lengths and uniformly distributed directions. Having the observed ratio of the intensity estimators, the inverse of the derived function is suggested as a new estimator for the mean length. For this estimator, an approximation of its variance is derived. The accuracies of the approximations are evaluated by means of simulation experiments. The novel method is compared to other methods and applied to real-world industrial data from nanocellulose crystalline.
The spruce budworm and forest: a qualitative comparison of ODE and Boolean models
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Raina Robeva
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Boolean and polynomial models of biological systems have emerged recently as viable companions to differential equations models. It is not immediately clear however whether such models are capable of capturing the multi-stable behaviour of certain biological systems: this behaviour is often sensitive to changes in the values of the model parameters, while Boolean and polynomial models are qualitative in nature. In the past few years, Boolean models of gene regulatory systems have been shown to capture multi-stability at the molecular level, confirming that such models can be used to obtain information about the system’s qualitative dynamics when precise information regarding its parameters may not be available. In this paper, we examine Boolean approximations of a classical ODE model of budworm outbreaks in a forest and show that these models exhibit a qualitative behaviour consistent with that derived from the ODE models. In particular, we demonstrate that these models can capture the bistable nature of insect population outbreaks, thus showing that Boolean models can be successfully utilized beyond the molecular level.
Neutral space analysis for a Boolean network model of the fission yeast cell cycle network
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Gonzalo A Ruz
2014-01-01
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interactions between genes and their products give rise to complex circuits known as gene regulatory networks (GRN that enable cells to process information and respond to external stimuli. Several important processes for life, depend of an accurate and context-specific regulation of gene expression, such as the cell cycle, which can be analyzed through its GRN, where deregulation can lead to cancer in animals or a directed regulation could be applied for biotechnological processes using yeast. An approach to study the robustness of GRN is through the neutral space. In this paper, we explore the neutral space of a Schizosaccharomyces pombe (fission yeast cell cycle network through an evolution strategy to generate a neutral graph, composed of Boolean regulatory networks that share the same state sequences of the fission yeast cell cycle. RESULTS: Through simulations it was found that in the generated neutral graph, the functional networks that are not in the wildtype connected component have in general a Hamming distance more than 3 with the wildtype, and more than 10 between the other disconnected functional networks. Significant differences were found between the functional networks in the connected component of the wildtype network and the rest of the network, not only at a topological level, but also at the state space level, where significant differences in the distribution of the basin of attraction for the G1 fixed point was found for deterministic updating schemes. CONCLUSIONS: In general, functional networks in the wildtype network connected component, can mutate up to no more than 3 times, then they reach a point of no return where the networks leave the connected component of the wildtype. The proposed method to construct a neutral graph is general and can be used to explore the neutral space of other biologically interesting networks, and also formulate new biological hypotheses studying the functional networks in the
On the Boolean extension of the Birnbaum importance to non-coherent systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aliee, Hananeh; Borgonovo, Emanuele; Glaß, Michael; Teich, Jürgen
2017-01-01
The Birnbaum importance measure plays a central role in reliability analysis. It has initially been introduced for coherent systems, where several of its properties hold and where its computation is straightforward. This work introduces a Boolean expression for the notion of criticality that allows the seamless extension of the Birnbaum importance to non-coherent systems. As a key feature, the novel definition makes the computation and encoding straightforward with well-established techniques such as Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs) or Fault Trees (FTs). Several examples and a case study illustrate the findings. - Highlights: • We propose a Boolean expression for the notion of criticality in coherent and non-coherent systems. • The notion is connected with the Birnbaum importance measure. • The connection with Andrew's and Beeson extension is discussed. • The Boolean expression allows straightforward encoding in Binary Decision Diagrams.
Bent functions results and applications to cryptography
Tokareva, Natalia
2015-01-01
Bent Functions: Results and Applications to Cryptography offers a unique survey of the objects of discrete mathematics known as Boolean bent functions. As these maximal, nonlinear Boolean functions and their generalizations have many theoretical and practical applications in combinatorics, coding theory, and cryptography, the text provides a detailed survey of their main results, presenting a systematic overview of their generalizations and applications, and considering open problems in classification and systematization of bent functions. The text is appropriate for novices and advanced
Lavrova, Anastasia I; Postnikov, Eugene B; Zyubin, Andrey Yu; Babak, Svetlana V
2017-04-01
We consider two approaches to modelling the cell metabolism of 6-mercaptopurine, one of the important chemotherapy drugs used for treating acute lymphocytic leukaemia: kinetic ordinary differential equations, and Boolean networks supplied with one controlling node, which takes continual values. We analyse their interplay with respect to taking into account ATP concentration as a key parameter of switching between different pathways. It is shown that the Boolean networks, which allow avoiding the complexity of general kinetic modelling, preserve the possibility of reproducing the principal switching mechanism.
The Concept of the "Imploded Boolean Search": A Case Study with Undergraduate Chemistry Students
Tomaszewski, Robert
2016-01-01
Critical thinking and analytical problem-solving skills in research involves using different search strategies. A proposed concept for an "Imploded Boolean Search" combines three unique identifiable field types to perform a search: keyword(s), numerical value(s), and a chemical structure or reaction. The object of this type of search is…
Application of fuzzy logic to Boolean models for digital soil assessment
Gruijter, de J.J.; Walvoort, D.J.J.; Bragato, G.
2011-01-01
Boolean models based on expert knowledge are often used to classify soils into a limited number of classes of a difficult-to-measure soil attribute. Although the primary data used for these classifications contain information on whether the soil is a typical class member or a boundary case between
Boolean logic and character state identity: pitfalls of character coding in metazoan cladistics
Jenner, Ronald A.
2002-01-01
A critical study of the morphological data sets used for the most recent analyses of metazoan cladistics exposes a rather cavalier attitude towards character coding. Binary absence/presence coding is ubiquitous, but without any explicit justification. This uncompromising application of Boolean logic
A new separation algorithm for the Boolean quadric and cut polytopes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Michael Malmros; Letchford, Adam N.
2014-01-01
A separation algorithm is a procedure for generating cutting planes. Up to now, only a few polynomial-time separation algorithms were known for the Boolean quadric and cut polytopes. These polytopes arise in connection with zero–one quadratic programming and the max-cut problem, respectively. We...
Describing the What and Why of Students' Difficulties in Boolean Logic
Herman, Geoffrey L.; Loui, Michael C.; Kaczmarczyk, Lisa; Zilles, Craig
2012-01-01
The ability to reason with formal logic is a foundational skill for computer scientists and computer engineers that scaffolds the abilities to design, debug, and optimize. By interviewing students about their understanding of propositional logic and their ability to translate from English specifications to Boolean expressions, we characterized…
Complete ccc Boolean algebras, the order sequential topology, and a problem of von Neumann
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Balcar, Bohuslav; Jech, Thomas; Pazák, Tomáš
2005-01-01
Roč. 37, č. 6 (2005), s. 885-898 ISSN 0024-6093 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506; CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Boolean algebras * Maharam submeasure * weak distributivity * independent reals Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.477, year: 2005
Using Vector and Extended Boolean Matching in an Expert System for Selecting Foster Homes.
Fox, Edward A.; Winett, Sheila G.
1990-01-01
Describes FOCES (Foster Care Expert System), a prototype expert system for choosing foster care placements for children which integrates information retrieval techniques with artificial intelligence. The use of prototypes and queries in Prolog routines, extended Boolean matching, and vector correlation are explained, as well as evaluation by…
Characterization of Boolean Algebras in Terms of Certain States of Jauch-Piron Type
Matoušek, Milan; Pták, Pavel
2015-12-01
Suppose that L is an orthomodular lattice (a quantum logic). We show that L is Boolean exactly if L possesses a strongly unital set of weakly Jauch-Piron states, or if L possesses a unital set of weakly positive states. We also discuss some general properties of Jauch-Piron-like states.
User Practices in Keyword and Boolean Searching on an Online Public Access Catalog.
Ensor, Pat
1992-01-01
Discussion of keyword and Boolean searching techniques in online public access catalogs (OPACs) focuses on a study conducted at Indiana State University that examined users' attitudes toward searching on NOTIS (Northwestern Online Total Integrated System). Relevant literature is reviewed, and implications for library instruction are suggested. (17…
Ostrowski, M; Paulevé, L; Schaub, T; Siegel, A; Guziolowski, C
2016-11-01
Boolean networks (and more general logic models) are useful frameworks to study signal transduction across multiple pathways. Logic models can be learned from a prior knowledge network structure and multiplex phosphoproteomics data. However, most efficient and scalable training methods focus on the comparison of two time-points and assume that the system has reached an early steady state. In this paper, we generalize such a learning procedure to take into account the time series traces of phosphoproteomics data in order to discriminate Boolean networks according to their transient dynamics. To that end, we identify a necessary condition that must be satisfied by the dynamics of a Boolean network to be consistent with a discretized time series trace. Based on this condition, we use Answer Set Programming to compute an over-approximation of the set of Boolean networks which fit best with experimental data and provide the corresponding encodings. Combined with model-checking approaches, we end up with a global learning algorithm. Our approach is able to learn logic models with a true positive rate higher than 78% in two case studies of mammalian signaling networks; for a larger case study, our method provides optimal answers after 7min of computation. We quantified the gain in our method predictions precision compared to learning approaches based on static data. Finally, as an application, our method proposes erroneous time-points in the time series data with respect to the optimal learned logic models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Exact sampling from conditional Boolean models with applications to maximum likelihood inference
Lieshout, van M.N.M.; Zwet, van E.W.
2001-01-01
We are interested in estimating the intensity parameter of a Boolean model of discs (the bombing model) from a single realization. To do so, we derive the conditional distribution of the points (germs) of the underlying Poisson process. We demonstrate how to apply coupling from the past to generate
Nonvolatile “AND,” “OR,” and “NOT” Boolean logic gates based on phase-change memory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Y.; Zhong, Y. P.; Deng, Y. F.; Zhou, Y. X.; Xu, L.; Miao, X. S., E-mail: miaoxs@mail.hust.edu.cn [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics (WNLO), Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)
2013-12-21
Electronic devices or circuits that can implement both logic and memory functions are regarded as the building blocks for future massive parallel computing beyond von Neumann architecture. Here we proposed phase-change memory (PCM)-based nonvolatile logic gates capable of AND, OR, and NOT Boolean logic operations verified in SPICE simulations and circuit experiments. The logic operations are parallel computing and results can be stored directly in the states of the logic gates, facilitating the combination of computing and memory in the same circuit. These results are encouraging for ultralow-power and high-speed nonvolatile logic circuit design based on novel memory devices.
Nonvolatile “AND,” “OR,” and “NOT” Boolean logic gates based on phase-change memory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Y.; Zhong, Y. P.; Deng, Y. F.; Zhou, Y. X.; Xu, L.; Miao, X. S.
2013-01-01
Electronic devices or circuits that can implement both logic and memory functions are regarded as the building blocks for future massive parallel computing beyond von Neumann architecture. Here we proposed phase-change memory (PCM)-based nonvolatile logic gates capable of AND, OR, and NOT Boolean logic operations verified in SPICE simulations and circuit experiments. The logic operations are parallel computing and results can be stored directly in the states of the logic gates, facilitating the combination of computing and memory in the same circuit. These results are encouraging for ultralow-power and high-speed nonvolatile logic circuit design based on novel memory devices
Veliz-Cuba, Alan; Aguilar, Boris; Hinkelmann, Franziska; Laubenbacher, Reinhard
2014-06-26
A key problem in the analysis of mathematical models of molecular networks is the determination of their steady states. The present paper addresses this problem for Boolean network models, an increasingly popular modeling paradigm for networks lacking detailed kinetic information. For small models, the problem can be solved by exhaustive enumeration of all state transitions. But for larger models this is not feasible, since the size of the phase space grows exponentially with the dimension of the network. The dimension of published models is growing to over 100, so that efficient methods for steady state determination are essential. Several methods have been proposed for large networks, some of them heuristic. While these methods represent a substantial improvement in scalability over exhaustive enumeration, the problem for large networks is still unsolved in general. This paper presents an algorithm that consists of two main parts. The first is a graph theoretic reduction of the wiring diagram of the network, while preserving all information about steady states. The second part formulates the determination of all steady states of a Boolean network as a problem of finding all solutions to a system of polynomial equations over the finite number system with two elements. This problem can be solved with existing computer algebra software. This algorithm compares favorably with several existing algorithms for steady state determination. One advantage is that it is not heuristic or reliant on sampling, but rather determines algorithmically and exactly all steady states of a Boolean network. The code for the algorithm, as well as the test suite of benchmark networks, is available upon request from the corresponding author. The algorithm presented in this paper reliably determines all steady states of sparse Boolean networks with up to 1000 nodes. The algorithm is effective at analyzing virtually all published models even those of moderate connectivity. The problem for
Cordón García, Oscar; Moya Anegón, Félix de; Zarco Fernández, Carmen
2000-01-01
[ES] Although the fuzzy retrieval model constitutes a powerful extension of the boolean one, being able to deal with the imprecision and subjectivity existing in the Information Retrieval process, users are not usually able to express their query requirements in the form of an extended boolean query including weights. To solve this problem, different tools to assist the user in the query formulation have been proposed. In this paper, the genetic algorithm-programming technique is considered t...
Velderraín, José Dávila; Martínez-García, Juan Carlos; Álvarez-Buylla, Elena R
2017-01-01
Mathematical models based on dynamical systems theory are well-suited tools for the integration of available molecular experimental data into coherent frameworks in order to propose hypotheses about the cooperative regulatory mechanisms driving developmental processes. Computational analysis of the proposed models using well-established methods enables testing the hypotheses by contrasting predictions with observations. Within such framework, Boolean gene regulatory network dynamical models have been extensively used in modeling plant development. Boolean models are simple and intuitively appealing, ideal tools for collaborative efforts between theorists and experimentalists. In this chapter we present protocols used in our group for the study of diverse plant developmental processes. We focus on conceptual clarity and practical implementation, providing directions to the corresponding technical literature.
Realization of a quantum Hamiltonian Boolean logic gate on the Si(001):H surface.
Kolmer, Marek; Zuzak, Rafal; Dridi, Ghassen; Godlewski, Szymon; Joachim, Christian; Szymonski, Marek
2015-08-07
The design and construction of the first prototypical QHC (Quantum Hamiltonian Computing) atomic scale Boolean logic gate is reported using scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) tip-induced atom manipulation on an Si(001):H surface. The NOR/OR gate truth table was confirmed by dI/dU STS (Scanning Tunnelling Spectroscopy) tracking how the surface states of the QHC quantum circuit on the Si(001):H surface are shifted according to the input logical status.
Web-page Prediction for Domain Specific Web-search using Boolean Bit Mask
Sinha, Sukanta; Duttagupta, Rana; Mukhopadhyay, Debajyoti
2012-01-01
Search Engine is a Web-page retrieval tool. Nowadays Web searchers utilize their time using an efficient search engine. To improve the performance of the search engine, we are introducing a unique mechanism which will give Web searchers more prominent search results. In this paper, we are going to discuss a domain specific Web search prototype which will generate the predicted Web-page list for user given search string using Boolean bit mask.
Identification of control targets in Boolean molecular network models via computational algebra.
Murrugarra, David; Veliz-Cuba, Alan; Aguilar, Boris; Laubenbacher, Reinhard
2016-09-23
Many problems in biomedicine and other areas of the life sciences can be characterized as control problems, with the goal of finding strategies to change a disease or otherwise undesirable state of a biological system into another, more desirable, state through an intervention, such as a drug or other therapeutic treatment. The identification of such strategies is typically based on a mathematical model of the process to be altered through targeted control inputs. This paper focuses on processes at the molecular level that determine the state of an individual cell, involving signaling or gene regulation. The mathematical model type considered is that of Boolean networks. The potential control targets can be represented by a set of nodes and edges that can be manipulated to produce a desired effect on the system. This paper presents a method for the identification of potential intervention targets in Boolean molecular network models using algebraic techniques. The approach exploits an algebraic representation of Boolean networks to encode the control candidates in the network wiring diagram as the solutions of a system of polynomials equations, and then uses computational algebra techniques to find such controllers. The control methods in this paper are validated through the identification of combinatorial interventions in the signaling pathways of previously reported control targets in two well studied systems, a p53-mdm2 network and a blood T cell lymphocyte granular leukemia survival signaling network. Supplementary data is available online and our code in Macaulay2 and Matlab are available via http://www.ms.uky.edu/~dmu228/ControlAlg . This paper presents a novel method for the identification of intervention targets in Boolean network models. The results in this paper show that the proposed methods are useful and efficient for moderately large networks.
Complete CCC Boolean Algebras, the order Sequential Topology, and a Problem of von Neumann
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Balcar, Bohuslav; Jech, Thomas; Pazák, Tomáš
2005-01-01
Roč. 37, č. 6 (2005), s. 885-898 ISSN 0024-6093 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/02/0857; GA ČR(CZ) GA201/03/0933 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Boolean algebra * Maharam submeasure * weak distributivity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.477, year: 2005
THE METHOD OF CONSTRUCTING A BOOLEAN FORMULA OF A POLYGON IN THE DISJUNCTIVE NORMAL FORM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. A. Butov
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The paper focuses on finalizing the method of finding a polygon Boolean formula in disjunctive normal form, described in the previous article [1]. An improved method eliminates the drawback asso-ciated with the existence of a class of problems for which the solution is only approximate. The pro-posed method always allows to find an exact solution. The method can be used, in particular, in the systems of computer-aided design of integrated circuits topology.
Comparison of Seven Methods for Boolean Factor Analysis and Their Evaluation by Information Gain
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Frolov, A.; Húsek, Dušan; Polyakov, P.Y.
2016-01-01
Roč. 27, č. 3 (2016), s. 538-550 ISSN 2162-237X R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0070 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : associative memory * bars problem (BP) * Boolean factor analysis (BFA) * data mining * dimension reduction * Hebbian learning rule * information gain * likelihood maximization (LM) * neural network application * recurrent neural network * statistics Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 6.108, year: 2016
Recurrent Neural Network Based Boolean Factor Analysis and its Application to Word Clustering
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Frolov, A. A.; Húsek, Dušan; Polyakov, P.Y.
2009-01-01
Roč. 20, č. 7 (2009), s. 1073-1086 ISSN 1045-9227 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0567 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : recurrent neural network * Hopfield-like neural network * associative memory * unsupervised learning * neural network architecture * neural network application * statistics * Boolean factor analysis * concepts search * information retrieval Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 2.889, year: 2009
Qubits and quantum Hamiltonian computing performances for operating a digital Boolean 1/2-adder
Dridi, Ghassen; Faizy Namarvar, Omid; Joachim, Christian
2018-04-01
Quantum Boolean (1 + 1) digits 1/2-adders are designed with 3 qubits for the quantum computing (Qubits) and 4 quantum states for the quantum Hamiltonian computing (QHC) approaches. Detailed analytical solutions are provided to analyse the time operation of those different 1/2-adder gates. QHC is more robust to noise than Qubits and requires about the same amount of energy for running its 1/2-adder logical operations. QHC is faster in time than Qubits but its logical output measurement takes longer.
Construction of a fuzzy and all Boolean logic gates based on DNA
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
M. Zadegan, Reza; Jepsen, Mette D E; Hildebrandt, Lasse
2015-01-01
to the operation of the six Boolean logic gates AND, NAND, OR, NOR, XOR, and XNOR. The logic gate complex is shown to work also when implemented in a three-dimensional DNA origami box structure, where it controlled the position of the lid in a closed or open position. Implementation of multiple microRNA sensitive...... DNA locks on one DNA origami box structure enabled fuzzy logical operation that allows biosensing of complex molecular signals. Integrating logic gates with DNA origami systems opens a vast avenue to applications in the fields of nanomedicine for diagnostics and therapeutics....
Variances as order parameter and complexity measure for random Boolean networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luque, Bartolo; Ballesteros, Fernando J; Fernandez, Manuel
2005-01-01
Several order parameters have been considered to predict and characterize the transition between ordered and disordered phases in random Boolean networks, such as the Hamming distance between replicas or the stable core, which have been successfully used. In this work, we propose a natural and clear new order parameter: the temporal variance. We compute its value analytically and compare it with the results of numerical experiments. Finally, we propose a complexity measure based on the compromise between temporal and spatial variances. This new order parameter and its related complexity measure can be easily applied to other complex systems
Variances as order parameter and complexity measure for random Boolean networks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luque, Bartolo [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada y EstadIstica, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros Aeronauticos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Plaza Cardenal Cisneros 3, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Ballesteros, Fernando J [Observatori Astronomic, Universitat de Valencia, Ed. Instituts d' Investigacio, Pol. La Coma s/n, E-46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Fernandez, Manuel [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada y EstadIstica, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros Aeronauticos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Plaza Cardenal Cisneros 3, Madrid 28040 (Spain)
2005-02-04
Several order parameters have been considered to predict and characterize the transition between ordered and disordered phases in random Boolean networks, such as the Hamming distance between replicas or the stable core, which have been successfully used. In this work, we propose a natural and clear new order parameter: the temporal variance. We compute its value analytically and compare it with the results of numerical experiments. Finally, we propose a complexity measure based on the compromise between temporal and spatial variances. This new order parameter and its related complexity measure can be easily applied to other complex systems.
Efficient Multi-Valued Bounded Model Checking for LTL over Quasi-Boolean Algebras
Andrade, Jefferson O.; Kameyama, Yukiyoshi
2012-01-01
Multi-valued Model Checking extends classical, two-valued model checking to multi-valued logic such as Quasi-Boolean logic. The added expressivity is useful in dealing with such concepts as incompleteness and uncertainty in target systems, while it comes with the cost of time and space. Chechik and others proposed an efficient reduction from multi-valued model checking problems to two-valued ones, but to the authors' knowledge, no study was done for multi-valued bounded model checking. In thi...
Assessment of Electronic Circuits Reliability Using Boolean Truth Table Modeling Method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
EI-Shanshoury, A.I.
2011-01-01
This paper explores the use of Boolean Truth Table modeling Method (BTTM) in the analysis of qualitative data. It is widely used in certain fields especially in the fields of electrical and electronic engineering. Our work focuses on the evaluation of power supply circuit reliability using (BTTM) which involves systematic attempts to falsify and identify hypotheses on the basis of truth tables constructed from qualitative data. Reliability parameters such as the system's failure rates for the power supply case study are estimated. All possible state combinations (operating and failed states) of the major components in the circuit were listed and their effects on overall system were studied
Strahler, Alan H.; Jupp, David L. B.
1990-01-01
Geometric-optical discrete-element mathematical models for forest canopies have been developed using the Boolean logic and models of Serra. The geometric-optical approach is considered to be particularly well suited to describing the bidirectional reflectance of forest woodland canopies, where the concentration of leaf material within crowns and the resulting between-tree gaps make plane-parallel, radiative-transfer models inappropriate. The approach leads to invertible formulations, in which the spatial and directional variance provides the means for remote estimation of tree crown size, shape, and total cover from remotedly sensed imagery.
Li, X Y; Yang, G W; Zheng, D S; Guo, W S; Hung, W N N
2015-04-28
Genetic regulatory networks are the key to understanding biochemical systems. One condition of the genetic regulatory network under different living environments can be modeled as a synchronous Boolean network. The attractors of these Boolean networks will help biologists to identify determinant and stable factors. Existing methods identify attractors based on a random initial state or the entire state simultaneously. They cannot identify the fixed length attractors directly. The complexity of including time increases exponentially with respect to the attractor number and length of attractors. This study used the bounded model checking to quickly locate fixed length attractors. Based on the SAT solver, we propose a new algorithm for efficiently computing the fixed length attractors, which is more suitable for large Boolean networks and numerous attractors' networks. After comparison using the tool BooleNet, empirical experiments involving biochemical systems demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of our approach.
Boolean logic analysis for flow regime recognition of gas–liquid horizontal flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramskill, Nicholas P; Wang, Mi
2011-01-01
In order to develop a flowmeter for the accurate measurement of multiphase flows, it is of the utmost importance to correctly identify the flow regime present to enable the selection of the optimal method for metering. In this study, the horizontal flow of air and water in a pipeline was studied under a multitude of conditions using electrical resistance tomography but the flow regimes that are presented in this paper have been limited to plug and bubble air–water flows. This study proposes a novel method for recognition of the prevalent flow regime using only a fraction of the data, thus rendering the analysis more efficient. By considering the average conductivity of five zones along the central axis of the tomogram, key features can be identified, thus enabling the recognition of the prevalent flow regime. Boolean logic and frequency spectrum analysis has been applied for flow regime recognition. Visualization of the flow using the reconstructed images provides a qualitative comparison between different flow regimes. Application of the Boolean logic scheme enables a quantitative comparison of the flow patterns, thus reducing the subjectivity in the identification of the prevalent flow regime
Feedback topology and XOR-dynamics in Boolean networks with varying input structure
Ciandrini, L.; Maffi, C.; Motta, A.; Bassetti, B.; Cosentino Lagomarsino, M.
2009-08-01
We analyze a model of fixed in-degree random Boolean networks in which the fraction of input-receiving nodes is controlled by the parameter γ . We investigate analytically and numerically the dynamics of graphs under a parallel XOR updating scheme. This scheme is interesting because it is accessible analytically and its phenomenology is at the same time under control and as rich as the one of general Boolean networks. We give analytical formulas for the dynamics on general graphs, showing that with a XOR-type evolution rule, dynamic features are direct consequences of the topological feedback structure, in analogy with the role of relevant components in Kauffman networks. Considering graphs with fixed in-degree, we characterize analytically and numerically the feedback regions using graph decimation algorithms (Leaf Removal). With varying γ , this graph ensemble shows a phase transition that separates a treelike graph region from one in which feedback components emerge. Networks near the transition point have feedback components made of disjoint loops, in which each node has exactly one incoming and one outgoing link. Using this fact, we provide analytical estimates of the maximum period starting from topological considerations.
Feedback topology and XOR-dynamics in Boolean networks with varying input structure.
Ciandrini, L; Maffi, C; Motta, A; Bassetti, B; Cosentino Lagomarsino, M
2009-08-01
We analyze a model of fixed in-degree random Boolean networks in which the fraction of input-receiving nodes is controlled by the parameter gamma. We investigate analytically and numerically the dynamics of graphs under a parallel XOR updating scheme. This scheme is interesting because it is accessible analytically and its phenomenology is at the same time under control and as rich as the one of general Boolean networks. We give analytical formulas for the dynamics on general graphs, showing that with a XOR-type evolution rule, dynamic features are direct consequences of the topological feedback structure, in analogy with the role of relevant components in Kauffman networks. Considering graphs with fixed in-degree, we characterize analytically and numerically the feedback regions using graph decimation algorithms (Leaf Removal). With varying gamma , this graph ensemble shows a phase transition that separates a treelike graph region from one in which feedback components emerge. Networks near the transition point have feedback components made of disjoint loops, in which each node has exactly one incoming and one outgoing link. Using this fact, we provide analytical estimates of the maximum period starting from topological considerations.
Attractor-Based Obstructions to Growth in Homogeneous Cyclic Boolean Automata.
Khan, Bilal; Cantor, Yuri; Dombrowski, Kirk
2015-11-01
We consider a synchronous Boolean organism consisting of N cells arranged in a circle, where each cell initially takes on an independently chosen Boolean value. During the lifetime of the organism, each cell updates its own value by responding to the presence (or absence) of diversity amongst its two neighbours' values. We show that if all cells eventually take a value of 0 (irrespective of their initial values) then the organism necessarily has a cell count that is a power of 2. In addition, the converse is also proved: if the number of cells in the organism is a proper power of 2, then no matter what the initial values of the cells are, eventually all cells take on a value of 0 and then cease to change further. We argue that such an absence of structure in the dynamical properties of the organism implies a lack of adaptiveness, and so is evolutionarily disadvantageous. It follows that as the organism doubles in size (say from m to 2m) it will necessarily encounter an intermediate size that is a proper power of 2, and suffers from low adaptiveness. Finally we show, through computational experiments, that one way an organism can grow to more than twice its size and still avoid passing through intermediate sizes that lack structural dynamics, is for the organism to depart from assumptions of homogeneity at the cellular level.
Boolean network model for cancer pathways: predicting carcinogenesis and targeted therapy outcomes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Herman F Fumiã
Full Text Available A Boolean dynamical system integrating the main signaling pathways involved in cancer is constructed based on the currently known protein-protein interaction network. This system exhibits stationary protein activation patterns--attractors--dependent on the cell's microenvironment. These dynamical attractors were determined through simulations and their stabilities against mutations were tested. In a higher hierarchical level, it was possible to group the network attractors into distinct cell phenotypes and determine driver mutations that promote phenotypic transitions. We find that driver nodes are not necessarily central in the network topology, but at least they are direct regulators of central components towards which converge or through which crosstalk distinct cancer signaling pathways. The predicted drivers are in agreement with those pointed out by diverse census of cancer genes recently performed for several human cancers. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that cell phenotypes can evolve towards full malignancy through distinct sequences of accumulated mutations. In particular, the network model supports routes of carcinogenesis known for some tumor types. Finally, the Boolean network model is employed to evaluate the outcome of molecularly targeted cancer therapies. The major find is that monotherapies were additive in their effects and that the association of targeted drugs is necessary for cancer eradication.
Super-transient scaling in time-delay autonomous Boolean network motifs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
D' Huys, Otti, E-mail: otti.dhuys@phy.duke.edu; Haynes, Nicholas D. [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Lohmann, Johannes [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Institut für Theoretische Physik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstraße 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Gauthier, Daniel J. [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)
2016-09-15
Autonomous Boolean networks are commonly used to model the dynamics of gene regulatory networks and allow for the prediction of stable dynamical attractors. However, most models do not account for time delays along the network links and noise, which are crucial features of real biological systems. Concentrating on two paradigmatic motifs, the toggle switch and the repressilator, we develop an experimental testbed that explicitly includes both inter-node time delays and noise using digital logic elements on field-programmable gate arrays. We observe transients that last millions to billions of characteristic time scales and scale exponentially with the amount of time delays between nodes, a phenomenon known as super-transient scaling. We develop a hybrid model that includes time delays along network links and allows for stochastic variation in the delays. Using this model, we explain the observed super-transient scaling of both motifs and recreate the experimentally measured transient distributions.
Fisher information at the edge of chaos in random Boolean networks.
Wang, X Rosalind; Lizier, Joseph T; Prokopenko, Mikhail
2011-01-01
We study the order-chaos phase transition in random Boolean networks (RBNs), which have been used as models of gene regulatory networks. In particular we seek to characterize the phase diagram in information-theoretic terms, focusing on the effect of the control parameters (activity level and connectivity). Fisher information, which measures how much system dynamics can reveal about the control parameters, offers a natural interpretation of the phase diagram in RBNs. We report that this measure is maximized near the order-chaos phase transitions in RBNs, since this is the region where the system is most sensitive to its parameters. Furthermore, we use this study of RBNs to clarify the relationship between Shannon and Fisher information measures.
Lima, Ricardo
2016-06-16
This paper addresses the solution of a cardinality Boolean quadratic programming problem using three different approaches. The first transforms the original problem into six mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) formulations. The second approach takes one of the MILP formulations and relies on the specific features of an MILP solver, namely using starting incumbents, polishing, and callbacks. The last involves the direct solution of the original problem by solvers that can accomodate the nonlinear combinatorial problem. Particular emphasis is placed on the definition of the MILP reformulations and their comparison with the other approaches. The results indicate that the data of the problem has a strong influence on the performance of the different approaches, and that there are clear-cut approaches that are better for some instances of the data. A detailed analysis of the results is made to identify the most effective approaches for specific instances of the data. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York
Lima, Ricardo; Grossmann, Ignacio E.
2016-01-01
This paper addresses the solution of a cardinality Boolean quadratic programming problem using three different approaches. The first transforms the original problem into six mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) formulations. The second approach takes one of the MILP formulations and relies on the specific features of an MILP solver, namely using starting incumbents, polishing, and callbacks. The last involves the direct solution of the original problem by solvers that can accomodate the nonlinear combinatorial problem. Particular emphasis is placed on the definition of the MILP reformulations and their comparison with the other approaches. The results indicate that the data of the problem has a strong influence on the performance of the different approaches, and that there are clear-cut approaches that are better for some instances of the data. A detailed analysis of the results is made to identify the most effective approaches for specific instances of the data. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chao Luo
Full Text Available A novel algebraic approach is proposed to study dynamics of asynchronous random Boolean networks where a random number of nodes can be updated at each time step (ARBNs. In this article, the logical equations of ARBNs are converted into the discrete-time linear representation and dynamical behaviors of systems are investigated. We provide a general formula of network transition matrices of ARBNs as well as a necessary and sufficient algebraic criterion to determine whether a group of given states compose an attractor of length[Formula: see text] in ARBNs. Consequently, algorithms are achieved to find all of the attractors and basins in ARBNs. Examples are showed to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed scheme.
Recurrent-neural-network-based Boolean factor analysis and its application to word clustering.
Frolov, Alexander A; Husek, Dusan; Polyakov, Pavel Yu
2009-07-01
The objective of this paper is to introduce a neural-network-based algorithm for word clustering as an extension of the neural-network-based Boolean factor analysis algorithm (Frolov , 2007). It is shown that this extended algorithm supports even the more complex model of signals that are supposed to be related to textual documents. It is hypothesized that every topic in textual data is characterized by a set of words which coherently appear in documents dedicated to a given topic. The appearance of each word in a document is coded by the activity of a particular neuron. In accordance with the Hebbian learning rule implemented in the network, sets of coherently appearing words (treated as factors) create tightly connected groups of neurons, hence, revealing them as attractors of the network dynamics. The found factors are eliminated from the network memory by the Hebbian unlearning rule facilitating the search of other factors. Topics related to the found sets of words can be identified based on the words' semantics. To make the method complete, a special technique based on a Bayesian procedure has been developed for the following purposes: first, to provide a complete description of factors in terms of component probability, and second, to enhance the accuracy of classification of signals to determine whether it contains the factor. Since it is assumed that every word may possibly contribute to several topics, the proposed method might be related to the method of fuzzy clustering. In this paper, we show that the results of Boolean factor analysis and fuzzy clustering are not contradictory, but complementary. To demonstrate the capabilities of this attempt, the method is applied to two types of textual data on neural networks in two different languages. The obtained topics and corresponding words are at a good level of agreement despite the fact that identical topics in Russian and English conferences contain different sets of keywords.
Computing the Algebraic Immunity of Boolean Functions on the SRC-6 Reconfigurable Computer
2012-03-01
INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE...BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR...additional amount of logic and delay is negligible for a four-input transeunt triangle, the increases become overwhelming for significantly larger
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Frolov, A. A.; Húsek, Dušan; Muraviev, I. P.; Polyakov, P.Y.
2010-01-01
Roč. 73, č. 7-9 (2010), s. 1394-1404 ISSN 0925-2312 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1079; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0567 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : Boolean factor analysis * Hopfield neural Network * unsupervised learning * dimension reduction * data mining Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 1.429, year: 2010
Zhu, Zheng; Andresen, Juan Carlos; Janzen, Katharina; Katzgraber, Helmut G.
2013-03-01
We study the equilibrium and nonequilibrium properties of Boolean decision problems with competing interactions on scale-free graphs in a magnetic field. Previous studies at zero field have shown a remarkable equilibrium stability of Boolean variables (Ising spins) with competing interactions (spin glasses) on scale-free networks. When the exponent that describes the power-law decay of the connectivity of the network is strictly larger than 3, the system undergoes a spin-glass transition. However, when the exponent is equal to or less than 3, the glass phase is stable for all temperatures. First we perform finite-temperature Monte Carlo simulations in a field to test the robustness of the spin-glass phase and show, in agreement with analytical calculations, that the system exhibits a de Almeida-Thouless line. Furthermore, we study avalanches in the system at zero temperature to see if the system displays self-organized criticality. This would suggest that damage (avalanches) can spread across the whole system with nonzero probability, i.e., that Boolean decision problems on scale-free networks with competing interactions are fragile when not in thermal equilibrium.
Zhu, Zheng; Andresen, Juan Carlos; Moore, M. A.; Katzgraber, Helmut G.
2014-02-01
We study the equilibrium and nonequilibrium properties of Boolean decision problems with competing interactions on scale-free networks in an external bias (magnetic field). Previous studies at zero field have shown a remarkable equilibrium stability of Boolean variables (Ising spins) with competing interactions (spin glasses) on scale-free networks. When the exponent that describes the power-law decay of the connectivity of the network is strictly larger than 3, the system undergoes a spin-glass transition. However, when the exponent is equal to or less than 3, the glass phase is stable for all temperatures. First, we perform finite-temperature Monte Carlo simulations in a field to test the robustness of the spin-glass phase and show that the system has a spin-glass phase in a field, i.e., exhibits a de Almeida-Thouless line. Furthermore, we study avalanche distributions when the system is driven by a field at zero temperature to test if the system displays self-organized criticality. Numerical results suggest that avalanches (damage) can spread across the whole system with nonzero probability when the decay exponent of the interaction degree is less than or equal to 2, i.e., that Boolean decision problems on scale-free networks with competing interactions can be fragile when not in thermal equilibrium.
Damage Spreading in Spatial and Small-world Random Boolean Networks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lu, Qiming [Fermilab; Teuscher, Christof [Portland State U.
2014-02-18
The study of the response of complex dynamical social, biological, or technological networks to external perturbations has numerous applications. Random Boolean Networks (RBNs) are commonly used a simple generic model for certain dynamics of complex systems. Traditionally, RBNs are interconnected randomly and without considering any spatial extension and arrangement of the links and nodes. However, most real-world networks are spatially extended and arranged with regular, power-law, small-world, or other non-random connections. Here we explore the RBN network topology between extreme local connections, random small-world, and pure random networks, and study the damage spreading with small perturbations. We find that spatially local connections change the scaling of the relevant component at very low connectivities ($\\bar{K} \\ll 1$) and that the critical connectivity of stability $K_s$ changes compared to random networks. At higher $\\bar{K}$, this scaling remains unchanged. We also show that the relevant component of spatially local networks scales with a power-law as the system size N increases, but with a different exponent for local and small-world networks. The scaling behaviors are obtained by finite-size scaling. We further investigate the wiring cost of the networks. From an engineering perspective, our new findings provide the key design trade-offs between damage spreading (robustness), the network's wiring cost, and the network's communication characteristics.
An Improvement to a Multi-Client Searchable Encryption Scheme for Boolean Queries.
Jiang, Han; Li, Xue; Xu, Qiuliang
2016-12-01
The migration of e-health systems to the cloud computing brings huge benefits, as same as some security risks. Searchable Encryption(SE) is a cryptography encryption scheme that can protect the confidentiality of data and utilize the encrypted data at the same time. The SE scheme proposed by Cash et al. in Crypto2013 and its follow-up work in CCS2013 are most practical SE Scheme that support Boolean queries at present. In their scheme, the data user has to generate the search tokens by the counter number one by one and interact with server repeatedly, until he meets the correct one, or goes through plenty of tokens to illustrate that there is no search result. In this paper, we make an improvement to their scheme. We allow server to send back some information and help the user to generate exact search token in the search phase. In our scheme, there are only two round interaction between server and user, and the search token has [Formula: see text] elements, where n is the keywords number in query expression, and [Formula: see text] is the minimum documents number that contains one of keyword in query expression, and the computation cost of server is [Formula: see text] modular exponentiation operation.
Efficient Multi-Valued Bounded Model Checking for LTL over Quasi-Boolean Algebras
Andrade, Jefferson O.; Kameyama, Yukiyoshi
Multi-valued Model Checking extends classical, two-valued model checking to multi-valued logic such as Quasi-Boolean logic. The added expressivity is useful in dealing with such concepts as incompleteness and uncertainty in target systems, while it comes with the cost of time and space. Chechik and others proposed an efficient reduction from multi-valued model checking problems to two-valued ones, but to the authors' knowledge, no study was done for multi-valued bounded model checking. In this paper, we propose a novel, efficient algorithm for multi-valued bounded model checking. A notable feature of our algorithm is that it is not based on reduction of multi-values into two-values; instead, it generates a single formula which represents multi-valuedness by a suitable encoding, and asks a standard SAT solver to check its satisfiability. Our experimental results show a significant improvement in the number of variables and clauses and also in execution time compared with the reduction-based one.
The boolean algebra with restricted variables as a tool for fault tree modularization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caldarola, L.; Wickenhaeuser, A.
1981-08-01
The number of minimal cut sets (m.c.s.) of very complex and highly interconnected fault trees can become extremely large (e.g. more than 10 7 ). In this case the usual analytical approach of dissecting the fault tree TOP variable into m.c.s. is not only computationally prohibitively expensive, but also meaningless because it does not offer any synthetic overview of system behavior. The method proposed in this paper overcomes the deficiencies of the analytical method. It is shown that, by applying boolean algebra with restricted variables (b.a.w.r.v.), the concept of fault tree modularization can be straightforwardly extended from a single gate to a set of gates. Thus, large fault trees are divided into smaller fault trees (modules), which are connected to each other according to a simple scheme. This scheme is represented by a block diagram in which each block is a module. The modules are analyzed separately by the m.c.s. method, and the results are combined according of the TOP event. The method allows the calculation of very large fault trees in a short time and offers a synthetic overview of systems behavior through the block diagram. Numerical examples are also included. Calculations have been carried out by using the computer code MUSTAMO, which is based on the theory developed in this paper. (orig.) [de
Attractor controllability of Boolean networks by flipping a subset of their nodes
Rafimanzelat, Mohammad Reza; Bahrami, Fariba
2018-04-01
The controllability analysis of Boolean networks (BNs), as models of biomolecular regulatory networks, has drawn the attention of researchers in recent years. In this paper, we aim at governing the steady-state behavior of BNs using an intervention method which can easily be applied to most real system, which can be modeled as BNs, particularly to biomolecular regulatory networks. To this end, we introduce the concept of attractor controllability of a BN by flipping a subset of its nodes, as the possibility of making a BN converge from any of its attractors to any other one, by one-time flipping members of a subset of BN nodes. Our approach is based on the algebraic state-space representation of BNs using semi-tensor product of matrices. After introducing some new matrix tools, we use them to derive necessary and sufficient conditions for the attractor controllability of BNs. A forward search algorithm is then suggested to identify the minimal perturbation set for attractor controllability of a BN. Next, a lower bound is derived for the cardinality of this set. Two new indices are also proposed for quantifying the attractor controllability of a BN and the influence of each network variable on the attractor controllability of the network and the relationship between them is revealed. Finally, we confirm the efficiency of the proposed approach by applying it to the BN models of some real biomolecular networks.
Prescribed burning impact on forest soil properties--a Fuzzy Boolean Nets approach.
Castro, Ana C Meira; Paulo Carvalho, Joao; Ribeiro, S
2011-02-01
The Portuguese northern forests are often and severely affected by wildfires during the Summer season. These occurrences significantly affect and negatively impact all ecosystems, namely soil, fauna and flora. In order to reduce the occurrences of natural wildfires, some measures to control the availability of fuel mass are regularly implemented. Those preventive actions concern mainly prescribed burnings and vegetation pruning. This work reports on the impact of a prescribed burning on several forest soil properties, namely pH, soil moisture, organic matter content and iron content, by monitoring the soil self-recovery capabilities during a one year span. The experiments were carried out in soil cover over a natural site of Andaluzitic schist, in Gramelas, Caminha, Portugal, which was kept intact from prescribed burnings during a period of four years. Soil samples were collected from five plots at three different layers (0-3, 3-6 and 6-18) 1 day before prescribed fire and at regular intervals after the prescribed fire. This paper presents an approach where Fuzzy Boolean Nets (FBN) and Fuzzy reasoning are used to extract qualitative knowledge regarding the effect of prescribed fire burning on soil properties. FBN were chosen due to the scarcity on available quantitative data. The results showed that soil properties were affected by prescribed burning practice and were unable to recover their initial values after one year. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Banach spaces of continuous functions as dual spaces
Dales, H G; Lau, A T -M; Strauss, D
2016-01-01
This book gives a coherent account of the theory of Banach spaces and Banach lattices, using the spaces C_0(K) of continuous functions on a locally compact space K as the main example. The study of C_0(K) has been an important area of functional analysis for many years. It gives several new constructions, some involving Boolean rings, of this space as well as many results on the Stonean space of Boolean rings. The book also discusses when Banach spaces of continuous functions are dual spaces and when they are bidual spaces.
Coded diffraction system in X-ray crystallography using a boolean phase coded aperture approximation
Pinilla, Samuel; Poveda, Juan; Arguello, Henry
2018-03-01
Phase retrieval is a problem present in many applications such as optics, astronomical imaging, computational biology and X-ray crystallography. Recent work has shown that the phase can be better recovered when the acquisition architecture includes a coded aperture, which modulates the signal before diffraction, such that the underlying signal is recovered from coded diffraction patterns. Moreover, this type of modulation effect, before the diffraction operation, can be obtained using a phase coded aperture, just after the sample under study. However, a practical implementation of a phase coded aperture in an X-ray application is not feasible, because it is computationally modeled as a matrix with complex entries which requires changing the phase of the diffracted beams. In fact, changing the phase implies finding a material that allows to deviate the direction of an X-ray beam, which can considerably increase the implementation costs. Hence, this paper describes a low cost coded X-ray diffraction system based on block-unblock coded apertures that enables phase reconstruction. The proposed system approximates the phase coded aperture with a block-unblock coded aperture by using the detour-phase method. Moreover, the SAXS/WAXS X-ray crystallography software was used to simulate the diffraction patterns of a real crystal structure called Rhombic Dodecahedron. Additionally, several simulations were carried out to analyze the performance of block-unblock approximations in recovering the phase, using the simulated diffraction patterns. Furthermore, the quality of the reconstructions was measured in terms of the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR). Results show that the performance of the block-unblock phase coded apertures approximation decreases at most 12.5% compared with the phase coded apertures. Moreover, the quality of the reconstructions using the boolean approximations is up to 2.5 dB of PSNR less with respect to the phase coded aperture reconstructions.
Realization of logical functions by vector programs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lapkin, L Ya
1983-03-01
Recent computing and control applications often require program realization of finite automata in general and of an important particular class of memoryless automata specified by systems of Boolean functions. Logical control and computing machines which receive sequences of discrete signals on the input and convert them into sequences of discrete output signals using finite memory may be described by a finite automation model. However, in distinction from the circuit interpretation of finite automata, the automaton algorithm represents the structure of the automaton program and not the structure of the machine itself. Therefore, the complexity of the computer realization of an automaton is the complexity of the computer program, and not the complexity of the hardware. Two classes of programs currently used to evalute boolean functions are operator programs and binary programs. However, computing machines, including microcomputers, are equipped with additional possibilities for evaluation of Boolean functions, which are not utilized in programs of these two basic classes. In this article, we consider the design of vector programs for program realization of systems of Boolean functions. 3 references.
Lu, Jiao Yang; Zhang, Xin Xing; Huang, Wei Tao; Zhu, Qiu Yan; Ding, Xue Zhi; Xia, Li Qiu; Luo, Hong Qun; Li, Nian Bing
2017-09-19
The most serious and yet unsolved problems of molecular logic computing consist in how to connect molecular events in complex systems into a usable device with specific functions and how to selectively control branchy logic processes from the cascading logic systems. This report demonstrates that a Boolean logic tree is utilized to organize and connect "plug and play" chemical events DNA, nanomaterials, organic dye, biomolecule, and denaturant for developing the dual-signal electrochemical evolution aptasensor system with good resettability for amplification detection of thrombin, controllable and selectable three-state logic computation, and keypad lock security operation. The aptasensor system combines the merits of DNA-functionalized nanoamplification architecture and simple dual-signal electroactive dye brilliant cresyl blue for sensitive and selective detection of thrombin with a wide linear response range of 0.02-100 nM and a detection limit of 1.92 pM. By using these aforementioned chemical events as inputs and the differential pulse voltammetry current changes at different voltages as dual outputs, a resettable three-input biomolecular keypad lock based on sequential logic is established. Moreover, the first example of controllable and selectable three-state molecular logic computation with active-high and active-low logic functions can be implemented and allows the output ports to assume a high impediment or nothing (Z) state in addition to the 0 and 1 logic levels, effectively controlling subsequent branchy logic computation processes. Our approach is helpful in developing the advanced controllable and selectable logic computing and sensing system in large-scale integration circuits for application in biomedical engineering, intelligent sensing, and control.
Lovrics, Anna
2014-11-14
We have assembled a network of cell-fate determining transcription factors that play a key role in the specification of the ventral neuronal subtypes of the spinal cord on the basis of published transcriptional interactions. Asynchronous Boolean modelling of the network was used to compare simulation results with reported experimental observations. Such comparison highlighted the need to include additional regulatory connections in order to obtain the fixed point attractors of the model associated with the five known progenitor cell types located in the ventral spinal cord. The revised gene regulatory network reproduced previously observed cell state switches between progenitor cells observed in knock-out animal models or in experiments where the transcription factors were overexpressed. Furthermore the network predicted the inhibition of Irx3 by Nkx2.2 and this prediction was tested experimentally. Our results provide evidence for the existence of an as yet undescribed inhibitory connection which could potentially have significance beyond the ventral spinal cord. The work presented in this paper demonstrates the strength of Boolean modelling for identifying gene regulatory networks.
Loke, Desmond; Skelton, Jonathan M; Chong, Tow-Chong; Elliott, Stephen R
2016-12-21
One of the requirements for achieving faster CMOS electronics is to mitigate the unacceptably large chip areas required to steer heat away from or, more recently, toward the critical nodes of state-of-the-art devices. Thermal-guiding (TG) structures can efficiently direct heat by "meta-materials" engineering; however, some key aspects of the behavior of these systems are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate control of the thermal-diffusion properties of TG structures by using nanometer-scale, CMOS-integrable, graphene-on-silica stacked materials through finite-element-methods simulations. It has been shown that it is possible to implement novel, controllable, thermally based Boolean-logic and spike-timing-dependent plasticity operations for advanced (neuromorphic) computing applications using such thermal-guide architectures.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shohag Barman
Full Text Available Inferring a gene regulatory network from time-series gene expression data in systems biology is a challenging problem. Many methods have been suggested, most of which have a scalability limitation due to the combinatorial cost of searching a regulatory set of genes. In addition, they have focused on the accurate inference of a network structure only. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop a network inference method to search regulatory genes efficiently and to predict the network dynamics accurately.In this study, we employed a Boolean network model with a restricted update rule scheme to capture coarse-grained dynamics, and propose a novel mutual information-based Boolean network inference (MIBNI method. Given time-series gene expression data as an input, the method first identifies a set of initial regulatory genes using mutual information-based feature selection, and then improves the dynamics prediction accuracy by iteratively swapping a pair of genes between sets of the selected regulatory genes and the other genes. Through extensive simulations with artificial datasets, MIBNI showed consistently better performance than six well-known existing methods, REVEAL, Best-Fit, RelNet, CST, CLR, and BIBN in terms of both structural and dynamics prediction accuracy. We further tested the proposed method with two real gene expression datasets for an Escherichia coli gene regulatory network and a fission yeast cell cycle network, and also observed better results using MIBNI compared to the six other methods.Taken together, MIBNI is a promising tool for predicting both the structure and the dynamics of a gene regulatory network.
Cryptographic Properties of the Hidden Weighted Bit Function
2013-12-23
valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 23 DEC 2013 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE...K. Feng, An Infinite Class of Balanced Vectorial Boolean Functions with Optimum Algebraic Immunity and Good Nonlinearity, in: IWCC 2009, In: LNCS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Piriou, Pierre-Yves; Faure, Jean-Marc; Lesage, Jean-Jacques
2017-01-01
This paper presents a modeling framework that permits to describe in an integrated manner the structure of the critical system to analyze, by using an enriched fault tree, the dysfunctional behavior of its components, by means of Markov processes, and the reconfiguration strategies that have been planned to ensure safety and availability, with Moore machines. This framework has been developed from BDMP (Boolean logic Driven Markov Processes), a previous framework for dynamic repairable systems. First, the contribution is motivated by pinpointing the limitations of BDMP to model complex reconfiguration strategies and the failures of the control of these strategies. The syntax and semantics of GBDMP (Generalized Boolean logic Driven Markov Processes) are then formally defined; in particular, an algorithm to analyze the dynamic behavior of a GBDMP model is developed. The modeling capabilities of this framework are illustrated on three representative examples. Last, qualitative and quantitative analysis of GDBMP models highlight the benefits of the approach.
Ye, Weiming; Li, Pengfei; Huang, Xuhui; Xia, Qinzhi; Mi, Yuanyuan; Chen, Runsheng; Hu, Gang
2010-10-01
Exploring the principle and relationship of gene transcriptional regulations (TR) has been becoming a generally researched issue. So far, two major mathematical methods, ordinary differential equation (ODE) method and Boolean map (BM) method have been widely used for these purposes. It is commonly believed that simplified BMs are reasonable approximations of more realistic ODEs, and both methods may reveal qualitatively the same essential features though the dynamical details of both systems may show some differences. In this Letter we exhaustively enumerated all the 3-gene networks and many autonomous randomly constructed TR networks with more genes by using both the ODE and BM methods. In comparison we found that both methods provide practically identical results in most of cases of steady solutions. However, to our great surprise, most of network structures showing periodic cycles with the BM method possess only stationary states in ODE descriptions. These observations strongly suggest that many periodic oscillations and other complicated oscillatory states revealed by the BM rule may be related to the computational errors of variable and time discretizations and rarely have correspondence in realistic biology transcriptional regulatory circuits.
Boolean Reasoning and Informed Search in the Minimization of Logic Circuits
1992-03-01
between a symbolic representation of a PLA using Os and is and the physical layout of the function. 2. Computer-aided design (CAD) tools have made it easy...Svoboda, Antonin and Donnamaie White. Advanced Logical Circuit Design Tech- niques. New York: Garland STPM Press, 1979. [Tison 67] Tison, Pierre
On algorithmic equivalence of instruction sequences for computing bit string functions
Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.
2015-01-01
Every partial function from bit strings of a given length to bit strings of a possibly different given length can be computed by a finite instruction sequence that contains only instructions to set and get the content of Boolean registers, forward jump instructions, and a termination instruction. We
On algorithmic equivalence of instruction sequences for computing bit string functions
Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.
2014-01-01
Every partial function from bit strings of a given length to bit strings of a possibly different given length can be computed by a finite instruction sequence that contains only instructions to set and get the content of Boolean registers, forward jump instructions, and a termination instruction. We
Gao, Guoyou; Jiang, Chunsheng; Chen, Tao; Hui, Chun
2018-05-01
Industrial robots are widely used in various processes of surface manufacturing, such as thermal spraying. The established robot programming methods are highly time-consuming and not accurate enough to fulfil the demands of the actual market. There are many off-line programming methods developed to reduce the robot programming effort. This work introduces the principle of several based robot trajectory generation strategy on planar surface and curved surface. Since the off-line programming software is widely used and thus facilitates the robot programming efforts and improves the accuracy of robot trajectory, the analysis of this work is based on the second development of off-line programming software Robot studio™. To meet the requirements of automotive paint industry, this kind of software extension helps provide special functions according to the users defined operation parameters. The presented planning strategy generates the robot trajectory by moving an orthogonal surface according to the information of coating surface, a series of intersection curves are then employed to generate the trajectory points. The simulation results show that the path curve created with this method is successive and smooth, which corresponds to the requirements of automotive spray industrial applications.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mahdieh Saadat Foomani
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Hazardous wastes include numerous kinds of discarded chemicals and other wastes generated from industrial, commercial, and institutional activities. These types of waste present immediate or long-term risks to humans, animals, plants, or the environment and therefore require special handling for safe disposal. Landfills that can accept hazardous wastes are excavated or engineered sites where these special types of waste can be disposed of securely. Since landfills are permanent sites, special attention must be afforded in selecting the location. This paper investigated the use of the Boolean theory and Fuzzy logic in combination with Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP methods by applying GIS and IDRISI software for the selection of a hazardous waste landfill site in the Iranian province of Hormozgan. The best location was determined via the Fuzzy and the Boolean methodologies. By collating the area selected for the hazardous waste landfill, this study found that Fuzzy logic with an AND operator had the best options for this purpose. In the end, the most suitable area for a hazardous waste landfill was about 1.6 km2 which was obtained by employing Fuzzy in combination with AHP and by using an AND operator. In addition, all the fundamental criteria affecting the landfill location were considered.
Fusama, Mie; Miura, Yasushi; Yukioka, Kumiko; Kuroiwa, Takanori; Yukioka, Chikako; Inoue, Miyako; Nakanishi, Tae; Murata, Norikazu; Takai, Noriko; Higashi, Kayoko; Kuritani, Taro; Maeda, Keiji; Sano, Hajime; Yukioka, Masao; Nakahara, Hideko
2015-09-01
To evaluate whether the psychological state is related to the Boolean-based definition of patient global assessment (PGA) remission in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Patients with RA who met the criteria of swollen joint count (SJC) ≤ 1, tender joint count (TJC) ≤ 1 and C-reactive protein (CRP) ≤ 1 were divided into two groups, PGA remission group (PGA ≤ 1 cm) and non-remission group (PGA > 1 cm). Anxiety was evaluated utilizing the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety (HADS-A), while depression was evaluated with HADS-Depression (HADS-D) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Comparison analyses were done between the PGA remission and non-remission groups in HADS-A, HADS-D and CES-D. Seventy-eight patients met the criteria for SJC ≤ 1, TJC ≤ 1 and CRP ≤ 1. There were no significant differences between the PGA remission group (n = 45) and the non-remission group (n = 33) in age, sex, disease duration and Steinbrocker's class and stage. HADS-A, HADS-D and CES-D scores were significantly lower in the PGA remission group. Patients with RA who did not meet the PGA remission criteria despite good disease condition were in a poorer psychological state than those who satisfied the Boolean-based definition of clinical remission. Psychological support might be effective for improvement of PGA, resulting in the attainment of true remission.
Spaces of continuous functions
Groenewegen, G L M
2016-01-01
The space C(X) of all continuous functions on a compact space X carries the structure of a normed vector space, an algebra and a lattice. On the one hand we study the relations between these structures and the topology of X, on the other hand we discuss a number of classical results according to which an algebra or a vector lattice can be represented as a C(X). Various applications of these theorems are given. Some attention is devoted to related theorems, e.g. the Stone Theorem for Boolean algebras and the Riesz Representation Theorem. The book is functional analytic in character. It does not presuppose much knowledge of functional analysis; it contains introductions into subjects such as the weak topology, vector lattices and (some) integration theory.
Bossi, Giulia; Marcato, Gianluca; Gottardi, Guido; Borgatti, Lisa
2016-04-01
When designing the geotechnical model of a landslide the information to define the soil profile within the slope is usually inferred from a small amount of data. This is particularly true for large landslides where the study area is vast and the variability of terrains is high. In this framework, a method allowing the best locations for further field investigation campaigns to be identified would be extremely useful. The Boolean Stochastic Generation method (BoSG), which randomly generates different soil distributions of two definite soil types in both 2D and 3D models, is a newly developed algorithm that can guide in this process. In this work the method has been applied to the Mortisa landslide case study, which is located in the Cortina d'Ampezzo valley (Veneto, Italy), part of the Dolomites UNESCO World Heritage list. The mudslide is 3.5 km long, stretching from 1750 to 1300 m a.s.l., and is located in a highly antrophized area where is damaging some buildings and a national road with its almost continuous movements. In fact, from year 2008, GNSS surveys recorded rates of displacements reaching 1.2 m/year in the most active parts of the landslide; the movements occur on a slip surfaces are located between 20 and 50 m below the surface. From the borecores some wooden samples were extracted allowing to reconstruct the sequence of events that led to the development of the present-day Mortisa slope. Interdigitated layers of gravel in a silty clay matrix originated from subsequent earth and debris flows events since the Lateglacial compose the landslide body, a condition that is particularly apt to be investigated with BoSG. A BoSG run for the Mortisa landslide was performed calculating 1200 soil configurations and using laboratory test parameters for the silty-clay matrix. The results were stacked in a tridimensional matrix in order to calculate the mean and the standard deviation (SD) of displacements for each element of the model mesh. In this way maps of the SD
Satisfiability of logic programming based on radial basis function neural networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamadneh, Nawaf; Sathasivam, Saratha; Tilahun, Surafel Luleseged; Choon, Ong Hong
2014-01-01
In this paper, we propose a new technique to test the Satisfiability of propositional logic programming and quantified Boolean formula problem in radial basis function neural networks. For this purpose, we built radial basis function neural networks to represent the proportional logic which has exactly three variables in each clause. We used the Prey-predator algorithm to calculate the output weights of the neural networks, while the K-means clustering algorithm is used to determine the hidden parameters (the centers and the widths). Mean of the sum squared error function is used to measure the activity of the two algorithms. We applied the developed technique with the recurrent radial basis function neural networks to represent the quantified Boolean formulas. The new technique can be applied to solve many applications such as electronic circuits and NP-complete problems
Satisfiability of logic programming based on radial basis function neural networks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hamadneh, Nawaf; Sathasivam, Saratha; Tilahun, Surafel Luleseged; Choon, Ong Hong [School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia)
2014-07-10
In this paper, we propose a new technique to test the Satisfiability of propositional logic programming and quantified Boolean formula problem in radial basis function neural networks. For this purpose, we built radial basis function neural networks to represent the proportional logic which has exactly three variables in each clause. We used the Prey-predator algorithm to calculate the output weights of the neural networks, while the K-means clustering algorithm is used to determine the hidden parameters (the centers and the widths). Mean of the sum squared error function is used to measure the activity of the two algorithms. We applied the developed technique with the recurrent radial basis function neural networks to represent the quantified Boolean formulas. The new technique can be applied to solve many applications such as electronic circuits and NP-complete problems.
Modified planar functions and their components
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Anbar Meidl, Nurdagül; Meidl, Wilfried Meidl
2017-01-01
functions in odd characteristic as a vectorial bent function. We finally point out that though these components behave somewhat different than the multivariate bent4 functions, they are bent or semibent functions shifted by a certain quadratic term, a property which they share with their multivariate......Zhou ([20]) introduced modified planar functions in order to describe (2n; 2n; 2n; 1) relative difference sets R as a graph of a function on the finite field F2n, and pointed out that projections of R are difference sets that can be described by negabent or bent4 functions, which are Boolean...... functions given in multivariate form. One of the objectives of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of these component functions of modified planar functions. Moreover, we obtain a description of modified planar functions by their components which is similar to that of the classical planar...
ON THE ESTIMATION OF DISTANCE DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS FOR POINT PROCESSES AND RANDOM SETS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dietrich Stoyan
2011-05-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses various estimators for the nearest neighbour distance distribution function D of a stationary point process and for the quadratic contact distribution function Hq of a stationary random closed set. It recommends the use of Hanisch's estimator of D, which is of Horvitz-Thompson type, and the minussampling estimator of Hq. This recommendation is based on simulations for Poisson processes and Boolean models.
featsel: A framework for benchmarking of feature selection algorithms and cost functions
Marcelo S. Reis; Gustavo Estrela; Carlos Eduardo Ferreira; Junior Barrera
2017-01-01
In this paper, we introduce featsel, a framework for benchmarking of feature selection algorithms and cost functions. This framework allows the user to deal with the search space as a Boolean lattice and has its core coded in C++ for computational efficiency purposes. Moreover, featsel includes Perl scripts to add new algorithms and/or cost functions, generate random instances, plot graphs and organize results into tables. Besides, this framework already comes with dozens of algorithms and co...
When do evolutionary algorithms optimize separable functions in parallel?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Doerr, Benjamin; Sudholt, Dirk; Witt, Carsten
2013-01-01
is that evolutionary algorithms make progress on all subfunctions in parallel, so that optimizing a separable function does not take not much longer than optimizing the hardest subfunction-subfunctions are optimized "in parallel." We show that this is only partially true, already for the simple (1+1) evolutionary...... algorithm ((1+1) EA). For separable functions composed of k Boolean functions indeed the optimization time is the maximum optimization time of these functions times a small O(log k) overhead. More generally, for sums of weighted subfunctions that each attain non-negative integer values less than r = o(log1...
Caglar, Mehmet Umut; Pal, Ranadip
2011-03-01
Central dogma of molecular biology states that ``information cannot be transferred back from protein to either protein or nucleic acid''. However, this assumption is not exactly correct in most of the cases. There are a lot of feedback loops and interactions between different levels of systems. These types of interactions are hard to analyze due to the lack of cell level data and probabilistic - nonlinear nature of interactions. Several models widely used to analyze and simulate these types of nonlinear interactions. Stochastic Master Equation (SME) models give probabilistic nature of the interactions in a detailed manner, with a high calculation cost. On the other hand Probabilistic Boolean Network (PBN) models give a coarse scale picture of the stochastic processes, with a less calculation cost. Differential Equation (DE) models give the time evolution of mean values of processes in a highly cost effective way. The understanding of the relations between the predictions of these models is important to understand the reliability of the simulations of genetic regulatory networks. In this work the success of the mapping between SME, PBN and DE models is analyzed and the accuracy and affectivity of the control policies generated by using PBN and DE models is compared.
Bugs, Cristhian A; Librelotto, Giovani R; Mombach, José C M
2011-12-22
We introduce a method to analyze the states of regulatory Boolean models that identifies important network states and their biological influence on the global network dynamics. It consists in (1) finding the states of the network that are most frequently visited and (2) the identification of variable and frozen nodes of the network. The method, along with a simulation that includes random features, is applied to the study of stomata closure by abscisic acid (ABA) in A. thaliana proposed by Albert and coworkers. We find that for the case of study, that the dynamics of wild and mutant networks have just two states that are highly visited in their space of states and about a third of all nodes of the wild network are variable while the rest remain frozen in True or False states. This high number of frozen elements explains the low cardinality of the space of states of the wild network. Similar results are observed in the mutant networks. The application of the method allowed us to explain how wild and mutants behave dynamically in the SS and determined an essential feature of the activation of the closure node (representing stomata closure), i.e. its synchronization with the AnionEm node (representing anion efflux at the plasma membrane). The dynamics of this synchronization explains the efficiency reached by the wild and each of the mutant networks. For the biological problem analyzed, our method allows determining how wild and mutant networks differ 'phenotypically'. It shows that the different efficiencies of stomata closure reached among the simulated wild and mutant networks follow from a dynamical behavior of two nodes that are always synchronized. Additionally, we predict that the involvement of the anion efflux at the plasma membrane is crucial for the plant response to ABA. The algorithm used in the simulations is available upon request.
SYNTHESIS METHODS OF ALGEBRAIC NORMAL FORM OF MANY-VALUED LOGIC FUNCTIONS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. V. Sokolov
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The rapid development of methods of error-correcting coding, cryptography, and signal synthesis theory based on the principles of many-valued logic determines the need for a more detailed study of the forms of representation of functions of many-valued logic. In particular the algebraic normal form of Boolean functions, also known as Zhegalkin polynomial, that well describe many of the cryptographic properties of Boolean functions is widely used. In this article, we formalized the notion of algebraic normal form for many-valued logic functions. We developed a fast method of synthesis of algebraic normal form of 3-functions and 5-functions that work similarly to the Reed-Muller transform for Boolean functions: on the basis of recurrently synthesized transform matrices. We propose the hypothesis, which determines the rules of the synthesis of these matrices for the transformation from the truth table to the coefficients of the algebraic normal form and the inverse transform for any given number of variables of 3-functions or 5-functions. The article also introduces the definition of algebraic degree of nonlinearity of the functions of many-valued logic and the S-box, based on the principles of many-valued logic. Thus, the methods of synthesis of algebraic normal form of 3-functions applied to the known construction of recurrent synthesis of S-boxes of length N = 3k, whereby their algebraic degrees of nonlinearity are computed. The results could be the basis for further theoretical research and practical applications such as: the development of new cryptographic primitives, error-correcting codes, algorithms of data compression, signal structures, and algorithms of block and stream encryption, all based on the perspective principles of many-valued logic. In addition, the fast method of synthesis of algebraic normal form of many-valued logic functions is the basis for their software and hardware implementation.
Stochastic Pseudo-Boolean Optimization
2011-07-31
16 polyominoes. Given this notation, we provide the following nonlinear mixed integer programming (MIP) formulation of the exact tiling problem: PNL ...ri, cj ≥ 0 ∀ i, j, p, q, k. 8.3.3 Linear Set Partitioning Formulation We use value disjunctions to reformulate PNL as a linear MIP that can be
Multi-Valued Logic Gates, Continuous Sensitivity, Reversibility, and Threshold Functions
İlhan, Aslı Güçlükan; Ünlü, Özgün
2016-01-01
We define an invariant of a multi-valued logic gate by considering the number of certain threshold functions associated with the gate. We call this invariant the continuous sensitivity of the gate. We discuss a method for analysing continuous sensitivity of a multi-valued logic gate by using experimental data about the gate. In particular, we will show that this invariant provides a lower bound for the sensitivity of a boolean function considered as a multi-valued logic gate. We also discuss ...
Neuromorphic function learning with carbon nanotube based synapses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gacem, Karim; Filoramo, Arianna; Derycke, Vincent; Retrouvey, Jean-Marie; Chabi, Djaafar; Zhao, Weisheng; Klein, Jacques-Olivier
2013-01-01
The principle of using nanoscale memory devices as artificial synapses in neuromorphic circuits is recognized as a promising way to build ground-breaking circuit architectures tolerant to defects and variability. Yet, actual experimental demonstrations of the neural network type of circuits based on non-conventional/non-CMOS memory devices and displaying function learning capabilities remain very scarce. We show here that carbon-nanotube-based memory elements can be used as artificial synapses, combined with conventional neurons and trained to perform functions through the application of a supervised learning algorithm. The same ensemble of eight devices can notably be trained multiple times to code successively any three-input linearly separable Boolean logic function despite device-to-device variability. This work thus represents one of the very few demonstrations of actual function learning with synapses based on nanoscale building blocks. The potential of such an approach for the parallel learning of multiple and more complex functions is also evaluated. (paper)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Murilo Rezende Melo
2006-08-01
review of results for adequate laboratory section test release. Analysis of these results using Boolean rules is an interesting alternative to reduce the number of results that require manual review. MATERIAL AND METHOD: We evaluated the utilization of Boolean rules using Instrument Manager software and Architect analyzer, mainly performing sex and thyroid hormones measurement. The intervention was evaluated on: a number of rules and its easiness of construction; b blind comparison of results evaluation by clinical pathologist (printed results and set of rules in 940 consecutive tests. RESULTS: Rule creation was a complex and arduous task, especially due to hormonal profiles with several different request patterns. It was necessary to use a set of 153 Boolean (if…then rules, in a specific order. This set of rules agreed with expert opinion in 97.9% (920 tests. Rules hold 25 tests (2.7% and the clinical pathologist only nine tests. There was discordance in 20 cases; rules did not hold only two cases: a beta-hCG in a male patient (that prompted the creation of a new rule and a complete thyroid profile lacking only TSH request (pathologist opted to review the original request. CONCLUSION: Creation of an efficient set of Boolean rules proved to be a complex task requiring both technical and logics knowledge, but allowing optimization of laboratory workload. We achieved excellent concordance between the set of rules and clinical pathologist manual review, in a safe, fast and low cost system.
Complex logic functions implemented with quantum dot bionanophotonic circuits.
Claussen, Jonathan C; Hildebrandt, Niko; Susumu, Kimihiro; Ancona, Mario G; Medintz, Igor L
2014-03-26
We combine quantum dots (QDs) with long-lifetime terbium complexes (Tb), a near-IR Alexa Fluor dye (A647), and self-assembling peptides to demonstrate combinatorial and sequential bionanophotonic logic devices that function by time-gated Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). Upon excitation, the Tb-QD-A647 FRET-complex produces time-dependent photoluminescent signatures from multi-FRET pathways enabled by the capacitor-like behavior of the Tb. The unique photoluminescent signatures are manipulated by ratiometrically varying dye/Tb inputs and collection time. Fluorescent output is converted into Boolean logic states to create complex arithmetic circuits including the half-adder/half-subtractor, 2:1 multiplexer/1:2 demultiplexer, and a 3-digit, 16-combination keypad lock.
On boolean combinations forming piecewise testable languages
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Masopust, Tomáš; Thomazo, M.
2017-01-01
Roč. 682, June 19 (2017), s. 165-179 ISSN 0304-3975 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : automata * language s * k-piecewise testability Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 0.698, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S030439751730066X
Boolean integration. [applied to switching network synthesis
Tucker, J. H.; Tapia, M. A.; Bennett, A. W.
1976-01-01
This paper presents the necessary and sufficient conditions for a given differential expression to be compatibly integrable and it presents the necessary and sufficient conditions for a given expression to be exactly integrable. Methods are given for integrating a differential expression when it is exactly integrable and when it is compatibly integrable. The physical interpretation is given of the integral of order k, of a differential expression, and it is shown that any differential expression of the proper form is integrable by parts.
Image Filtering with Boolean and Statistical Operators.
1983-12-01
S3(2) COMPLEX AMAT(256, 4). BMAT (256. 4). CMAT(256. 4) CALL IOF(3. MAIN. AFLNM. DFLNI, CFLNM. MS., 82, S3) CALL OPEN(1.AFLNM* 1.IER) CALL CHECKC!ER...RDBLK(2. 6164. MAT. 16, IER) CALL CHECK(IER) DO I K-1. 4 DO I J-1.256 CMAT(J. K)-AMAT(J. K)’. BMAT (J. K) I CONTINUE S CALL WRBLK(3. 164!. CMAT. 16. IER
Pseudo Boolean Programming for Partially Ordered Genomes
Angibaud, Sébastien; Fertin, Guillaume; Thévenin, Annelyse; Vialette, Stéphane
Comparing genomes of different species is a crucial problem in comparative genomics. Different measures have been proposed to compare two genomes: number of common intervals, number of adjacencies, number of reversals, etc. These measures are classically used between two totally ordered genomes. However, genetic mapping techniques often give rise to different maps with some unordered genes. Starting from a partial order between genes of a genome, one method to find a total order consists in optimizing a given measure between a linear extension of this partial order and a given total order of a close and well-known genome. However, for most common measures, the problem turns out to be NP-hard. In this paper, we propose a (0,1)-linear programming approach to compute a linear extension of one genome that maximizes the number of common intervals (resp. the number of adjacencies) between this linear extension and a given total order. Next, we propose an algorithm to find linear extensions of two partial orders that maximize the number of adjacencies.
Boolean Approach to Dichotomic Quantum Measurement Theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nagata, K. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Nakamura, T. [Keio University, Yokohama (Japan); Batle, J. [Universitat de les Illes Balears, Balearic Islands (Spain); Abdalla, S. [King Abdulaziz University Jeddah, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Farouk, A. [Al-Zahra College for Women, Muscat (Egypt)
2017-02-15
Recently, a new measurement theory based on truth values was proposed by Nagata and Nakamura [Int. J. Theor. Phys. 55, 3616 (2016)], that is, a theory where the results of measurements are either 0 or 1. The standard measurement theory accepts a hidden variable model for a single Pauli observable. Hence, we can introduce a classical probability space for the measurement theory in this particular case. Additionally, we discuss in the present contribution the fact that projective measurement theories (the results of which are either +1 or −1) imply the Bell, Kochen, and Specker (BKS) paradox for a single Pauli observable. To justify our assertion, we present the BKS theorem in almost all the two-dimensional states by using a projective measurement theory. As an example, we present the BKS theorem in two-dimensions with white noise. Our discussion provides new insight into the quantum measurement problem by using this measurement theory based on the truth values.
Theory and calculus of cubical complexes
Perlman, M.
1973-01-01
Combination switching networks with multiple outputs may be represented by Boolean functions. Report has been prepared which describes derivation and use of extraction algorithm that may be adapted to simplification of such simultaneous Boolean functions.
Plasticity of the cis-regulatory input function of a gene.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Avraham E Mayo
2006-04-01
Full Text Available The transcription rate of a gene is often controlled by several regulators that bind specific sites in the gene's cis-regulatory region. The combined effect of these regulators is described by a cis-regulatory input function. What determines the form of an input function, and how variable is it with respect to mutations? To address this, we employ the well-characterized lac operon of Escherichia coli, which has an elaborate input function, intermediate between Boolean AND-gate and OR-gate logic. We mapped in detail the input function of 12 variants of the lac promoter, each with different point mutations in the regulator binding sites, by means of accurate expression measurements from living cells. We find that even a few mutations can significantly change the input function, resulting in functions that resemble Pure AND gates, OR gates, or single-input switches. Other types of gates were not found. The variant input functions can be described in a unified manner by a mathematical model. The model also lets us predict which functions cannot be reached by point mutations. The input function that we studied thus appears to be plastic, in the sense that many of the mutations do not ruin the regulation completely but rather result in new ways to integrate the inputs.
Gelfand, I M; Graev, M I; Vilenkin, N Y; Pyatetskii-Shapiro, I I
Volume 1 is devoted to basics of the theory of generalized functions. The first chapter contains main definitions and most important properties of generalized functions as functional on the space of smooth functions with compact support. The second chapter talks about the Fourier transform of generalized functions. In Chapter 3, definitions and properties of some important classes of generalized functions are discussed; in particular, generalized functions supported on submanifolds of lower dimension, generalized functions associated with quadratic forms, and homogeneous generalized functions are studied in detail. Many simple basic examples make this book an excellent place for a novice to get acquainted with the theory of generalized functions. A long appendix presents basics of generalized functions of complex variables.
Sun, Ying
2011-01-01
This article proposes an informative exploratory tool, the functional boxplot, for visualizing functional data, as well as its generalization, the enhanced functional boxplot. Based on the center outward ordering induced by band depth for functional data, the descriptive statistics of a functional boxplot are: the envelope of the 50% central region, the median curve, and the maximum non-outlying envelope. In addition, outliers can be detected in a functional boxplot by the 1.5 times the 50% central region empirical rule, analogous to the rule for classical boxplots. The construction of a functional boxplot is illustrated on a series of sea surface temperatures related to the El Niño phenomenon and its outlier detection performance is explored by simulations. As applications, the functional boxplot and enhanced functional boxplot are demonstrated on children growth data and spatio-temporal U.S. precipitation data for nine climatic regions, respectively. This article has supplementary material online. © 2011 American Statistical Association.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anatoliy Klimyk
2006-01-01
Full Text Available In the paper, properties of orbit functions are reviewed and further developed. Orbit functions on the Euclidean space E_n are symmetrized exponential functions. The symmetrization is fulfilled by a Weyl group corresponding to a Coxeter-Dynkin diagram. Properties of such functions will be described. An orbit function is the contribution to an irreducible character of a compact semisimple Lie group G of rank n from one of its Weyl group orbits. It is shown that values of orbit functions are repeated on copies of the fundamental domain F of the affine Weyl group (determined by the initial Weyl group in the entire Euclidean space E_n. Orbit functions are solutions of the corresponding Laplace equation in E_n, satisfying the Neumann condition on the boundary of F. Orbit functions determine a symmetrized Fourier transform and a transform on a finite set of points.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Angelis De, F.; Haentjens, J.
1995-01-01
The Functional Displays are directly derived from the Man-Machine Design key document: Function-Based Task Analysis. The presentation defines and describes the goals-means structure of the plant function along with applicable control volumes and parameters of interest. The purpose of the subject is to show, through an example of a preliminary design, what the main parts of a function are. (3 figs.)
Chitil, Olaf
2009-01-01
Functional programming is a programming paradigm like object-oriented programming and logic programming. Functional programming comprises both a specific programming style and a class of programming languages that encourage and support this programming style. Functional programming enables the programmer to describe an algorithm on a high-level, in terms of the problem domain, without having to deal with machine-related details. A program is constructed from functions that only map inputs to ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Della Pia, Eduardo Antonio; Hansen, Randi Westh; Zoonens, Manuela
2014-01-01
Amphipols are amphipathic polymers that stabilize membrane proteins isolated from their native membrane. They have been functionalized with various chemical groups in the past years for protein labeling and protein immobilization. This large toolbox of functionalized amphipols combined with their...... surfaces for various applications in synthetic biology. This review summarizes the properties of functionalized amphipols suitable for synthetic biology approaches....
Conference on Commutative rings, integer-valued polynomials and polynomial functions
Frisch, Sophie; Glaz, Sarah; Commutative Algebra : Recent Advances in Commutative Rings, Integer-Valued Polynomials, and Polynomial Functions
2014-01-01
This volume presents a multi-dimensional collection of articles highlighting recent developments in commutative algebra. It also includes an extensive bibliography and lists a substantial number of open problems that point to future directions of research in the represented subfields. The contributions cover areas in commutative algebra that have flourished in the last few decades and are not yet well represented in book form. Highlighted topics and research methods include Noetherian and non- Noetherian ring theory as well as integer-valued polynomials and functions. Specific topics include: · Homological dimensions of Prüfer-like rings · Quasi complete rings · Total graphs of rings · Properties of prime ideals over various rings · Bases for integer-valued polynomials · Boolean subrings · The portable property of domains · Probabilistic topics in Intn(D) · Closure operations in Zariski-Riemann spaces of valuation domains · Stability of do...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Campi, Stefano; Gardner, Richard; Gronchi, Paolo
2012-01-01
Variants of the brightness function of a convex body K in n-dimensional Euclidean are investigated. The Lambertian lightness function L(K; v , w ) gives the total reflected light resulting from illumination by a light source at infinity in the direction w that is visible when looking...... in the direction v . The partial brightness function R( K ; v , w ) gives the area of the projection orthogonal to v of the portion of the surface of K that is both illuminated by a light source from the direction w and visible when looking in the direction v . A class of functions called lightness functions...... is introduced that includes L(K;.) and R(K;.) as special cases. Much of the theory of the brightness function like uniqueness, stability, and the existence and properties of convex bodies of maximal and minimal volume with finitely many function values equal to those of a given convex body, is extended...
ZKBoo: Faster Zero-Knowledge for Boolean Circuits
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Giacomelli, Irene; Madsen, Jesper; Orlandi, Claudio
2016-01-01
variants of IKOS, which highlights their pros and cons for practically rele- vant soundness parameters; ◦ A generalization and simplification of their approach, which leads to faster Σ-protocols (that can be made non-interactive using the Fiat-Shamir heuristic) for state- ments of the form “I know x...
Boolean Operations, Joins, and the Extended Low Hierarchy
Hemaspaandra, Lane A.; Jiang, Zhigen; Rothe, Joerg; Watanabe, Osamu
1999-01-01
We prove that the join of two sets may actually fall into a lower level of the extended low hierarchy than either of the sets. In particular, there exist sets that are not in the second level of the extended low hierarchy, EL_2, yet their join is in EL_2. That is, in terms of extended lowness, the join operator can lower complexity. Since in a strong intuitive sense the join does not lower complexity, our result suggests that the extended low hierarchy is unnatural as a complexity measure. We...
Discovery of Boolean metabolic networks: integer linear programming based approach.
Qiu, Yushan; Jiang, Hao; Ching, Wai-Ki; Cheng, Xiaoqing
2018-04-11
Traditional drug discovery methods focused on the efficacy of drugs rather than their toxicity. However, toxicity and/or lack of efficacy are produced when unintended targets are affected in metabolic networks. Thus, identification of biological targets which can be manipulated to produce the desired effect with minimum side-effects has become an important and challenging topic. Efficient computational methods are required to identify the drug targets while incurring minimal side-effects. In this paper, we propose a graph-based computational damage model that summarizes the impact of enzymes on compounds in metabolic networks. An efficient method based on Integer Linear Programming formalism is then developed to identify the optimal enzyme-combination so as to minimize the side-effects. The identified target enzymes for known successful drugs are then verified by comparing the results with those in the existing literature. Side-effects reduction plays a crucial role in the study of drug development. A graph-based computational damage model is proposed and the theoretical analysis states the captured problem is NP-completeness. The proposed approaches can therefore contribute to the discovery of drug targets. Our developed software is available at " http://hkumath.hku.hk/~wkc/APBC2018-metabolic-network.zip ".
Reconfigurable Boolean logic using magnetic single-electron transistors
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Gonzalez-Zalba, M.F.; Ciccarelli, C.; Zarbo, Liviu; Irvine, A.C.; Campion, R.C.; Gallagher, B. L.; Jungwirth, Tomáš; Ferguson, A.J.; Wunderlich, Joerg
2015-01-01
Roč. 10, č. 4 (2015), e0125142 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026; GA ČR GB14-37427G EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 268066 - 0MSPIN Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : single-electron transitor * reconfigurable logic * ferromagnetic semiconductor Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.057, year: 2015
Marking for Structure using Boolean Feedback | Louw | Journal for ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This paper presents evidence that marking student texts with well considered checklists is more effective than marking by hand. An experiment conducted on first-year students illustrated that the checklists developed to mark introductions, conclusions and paragraphs yielded better revision results than handwritten ...
Kantorovich, L V
1982-01-01
Functional Analysis examines trends in functional analysis as a mathematical discipline and the ever-increasing role played by its techniques in applications. The theory of topological vector spaces is emphasized, along with the applications of functional analysis to applied analysis. Some topics of functional analysis connected with applications to mathematical economics and control theory are also discussed. Comprised of 18 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to the elements of the theory of topological spaces, the theory of metric spaces, and the theory of abstract measure space
Sengupta, Abhronil; Shim, Yong; Roy, Kaushik
2016-12-01
Non-Boolean computing based on emerging post-CMOS technologies can potentially pave the way for low-power neural computing platforms. However, existing work on such emerging neuromorphic architectures have either focused on solely mimicking the neuron, or the synapse functionality. While memristive devices have been proposed to emulate biological synapses, spintronic devices have proved to be efficient at performing the thresholding operation of the neuron at ultra-low currents. In this work, we propose an All-Spin Artificial Neural Network where a single spintronic device acts as the basic building block of the system. The device offers a direct mapping to synapse and neuron functionalities in the brain while inter-layer network communication is accomplished via CMOS transistors. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a neural architecture where a single nanoelectronic device is able to mimic both neurons and synapses. The ultra-low voltage operation of low resistance magneto-metallic neurons enables the low-voltage operation of the array of spintronic synapses, thereby leading to ultra-low power neural architectures. Device-level simulations, calibrated to experimental results, was used to drive the circuit and system level simulations of the neural network for a standard pattern recognition problem. Simulation studies indicate energy savings by ∼ 100× in comparison to a corresponding digital/analog CMOS neuron implementation.
Sun, Ying; Genton, Marc G.
2011-01-01
data, the descriptive statistics of a functional boxplot are: the envelope of the 50% central region, the median curve, and the maximum non-outlying envelope. In addition, outliers can be detected in a functional boxplot by the 1.5 times the 50% central
Ludwig, L; McWhirter, L; Williams, S; Derry, C; Stone, J
2016-01-01
Functional coma - here defined as a prolonged motionless dissociative attack with absent or reduced response to external stimuli - is a relatively rare presentation. In this chapter we examine a wide range of terms used to describe states of unresponsiveness in which psychologic factors are relevant to etiology, such as depressive stupor, catatonia, nonepileptic "pseudostatus," and factitious disorders, and discuss the place of functional or psychogenic coma among these. Historically, diagnosis of functional coma has sometimes been reached after prolonged investigation and exclusion of other diagnoses. However, as is the case with other functional disorders, diagnosis should preferably be made on the basis of positive findings that provide evidence of inconsistency between an apparent comatose state and normal waking nervous system functioning. In our review of physical signs, we find some evidence for the presence of firm resistance to eye opening as reasonably sensitive and specific for functional coma, as well as the eye gaze sign, in which patients tend to look to the ground when turned on to one side. Noxious stimuli such as Harvey's sign (application of high-frequency vibrating tuning fork to the nasal mucosa) can also be helpful, although patients with this disorder are often remarkably unresponsive to usually painful stimuli, particularly as more commonly applied using sternal or nail bed pressure. The use of repeated painful stimuli is therefore not recommended. We also discuss the role of general anesthesia and other physiologic triggers to functional coma. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
... RESOURCES Medical Societies Patient Education About this Website Font Size + - Home > TREATMENTS > Rhinoplasty (Functional) Nasal/Sinus Irrigation ... performed to restore breathing, it typically necessitates some type of change to the appearance of the nose. ...
Schwingenschuh, P; Deuschl, G
2016-01-01
Functional tremor is the commonest reported functional movement disorder. A confident clinical diagnosis of functional tremor is often possible based on the following "positive" criteria: a sudden tremor onset, unusual disease course, often with fluctuations or remissions, distractibility of the tremor if attention is removed from the affected body part, tremor entrainment, tremor variability, and a coactivation sign. Many patients show excessive exhaustion during examination. Other somatizations may be revealed in the medical history and patients may show additional functional neurologic symptoms and signs. In cases where the clinical diagnosis remains challenging, providing a "laboratory-supported" level of certainty aids an early positive diagnosis. In rare cases, in which the distinction from Parkinson's disease is difficult, dopamine transporter single-photon emission computed tomography (DAT-SPECT) can be indicated. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Because chemicals can adversely affect cognitive function in humans, considerable effort has been made to characterize their effects using animal models. Information from such models will be necessary to: evaluate whether chemicals identified as potentially neurotoxic by screenin...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Danvy, Olivier
2000-01-01
A string-formatting function such as printf in C seemingly requires dependent types, because its control string determines the rest of its arguments. Examples: formula here We show how changing the representation of the control string makes it possible to program printf in ML (which does not allow...... dependent types). The result is well typed and perceptibly more efficient than the corresponding library functions in Standard ML of New Jersey and in Caml....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Danvy, Olivier
1998-01-01
A string-formatting function such as printf in C seemingly requires dependent types, because its control string determines the rest of its arguments. We show how changing the representation of the control string makes it possible to program printf in ML (which does not allow dependent types......). The result is well typed and perceptibly more efficient than the corresponding library functions in Standard ML of New Jersey and in Caml....
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Bustince, H.; Fernández, J.; Mesiar, Radko; Montero, J.; Orduna, R.
2010-01-01
Roč. 72, 3-4 (2010), s. 1488-1499 ISSN 0362-546X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/08/0618 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : t-norm * Migrative property * Homogeneity property * Overlap function Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.279, year: 2010 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/E/mesiar-overlap functions.pdf
Narsai, Reena; Devenish, James; Castleden, Ian; Narsai, Kabir; Xu, Lin; Shou, Huixia; Whelan, James
2013-12-01
Omics research in Oryza sativa (rice) relies on the use of multiple databases to obtain different types of information to define gene function. We present Rice DB, an Oryza information portal that is a functional genomics database, linking gene loci to comprehensive annotations, expression data and the subcellular location of encoded proteins. Rice DB has been designed to integrate the direct comparison of rice with Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), based on orthology or 'expressology', thus using and combining available information from two pre-eminent plant models. To establish Rice DB, gene identifiers (more than 40 types) and annotations from a variety of sources were compiled, functional information based on large-scale and individual studies was manually collated, hundreds of microarrays were analysed to generate expression annotations, and the occurrences of potential functional regulatory motifs in promoter regions were calculated. A range of computational subcellular localization predictions were also run for all putative proteins encoded in the rice genome, and experimentally confirmed protein localizations have been collated, curated and linked to functional studies in rice. A single search box allows anything from gene identifiers (for rice and/or Arabidopsis), motif sequences, subcellular location, to keyword searches to be entered, with the capability of Boolean searches (such as AND/OR). To demonstrate the utility of Rice DB, several examples are presented including a rice mitochondrial proteome, which draws on a variety of sources for subcellular location data within Rice DB. Comparisons of subcellular location, functional annotations, as well as transcript expression in parallel with Arabidopsis reveals examples of conservation between rice and Arabidopsis, using Rice DB (http://ricedb.plantenergy.uwa.edu.au). © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Nambudiripad, K B M
2014-01-01
After presenting the theory in engineers' language without the unfriendly abstraction of pure mathematics, several illustrative examples are discussed in great detail to see how the various functions of the Bessel family enter into the solution of technically important problems. Axisymmetric vibrations of a circular membrane, oscillations of a uniform chain, heat transfer in circular fins, buckling of columns of varying cross-section, vibrations of a circular plate and current density in a conductor of circular cross-section are considered. The problems are formulated purely from physical considerations (using, for example, Newton's law of motion, Fourier's law of heat conduction electromagnetic field equations, etc.) Infinite series expansions, recurrence relations, manipulation of expressions involving Bessel functions, orthogonality and expansion in Fourier-Bessel series are also covered in some detail. Some important topics such as asymptotic expansions, generating function and Sturm-Lioville theory are r...
Ghoussoub, Nassif
2013-01-01
The book describes how functional inequalities are often manifestations of natural mathematical structures and physical phenomena, and how a few general principles validate large classes of analytic/geometric inequalities, old and new. This point of view leads to "systematic" approaches for proving the most basic inequalities, but also for improving them, and for devising new ones--sometimes at will and often on demand. These general principles also offer novel ways for estimating best constants and for deciding whether these are attained in appropriate function spaces. As such, improvements of Hardy and Hardy-Rellich type inequalities involving radially symmetric weights are variational manifestations of Sturm's theory on the oscillatory behavior of certain ordinary differential equations. On the other hand, most geometric inequalities, including those of Sobolev and Log-Sobolev type, are simply expressions of the convexity of certain free energy functionals along the geodesics on the Wasserstein manifold of...
Bliss, Gilbert Ames
1933-01-01
This book, immediately striking for its conciseness, is one of the most remarkable works ever produced on the subject of algebraic functions and their integrals. The distinguishing feature of the book is its third chapter, on rational functions, which gives an extremely brief and clear account of the theory of divisors.... A very readable account is given of the topology of Riemann surfaces and of the general properties of abelian integrals. Abel's theorem is presented, with some simple applications. The inversion problem is studied for the cases of genus zero and genus unity. The chapter on t
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nor Azizah Ishak
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Objective. To determine the effect of strengthening exercises for older people with low back pain (LBP. Methods. This study is a systematic review of experimental study which evaluated the evidence regarding exercises for older people with LBP by using EBSCO Academic Search Premier, EBSCO EconLit, Science Direct, PUBMED, and PEDro from 2006 to 2016. Search strategy for each database was conducted by using keywords such as “low back pain”, “older people”, and “strengthening exercise”. Boolean operators were used to combine keywords and manual exclusion was conducted to verify studies which met the inclusion criteria. The articles reviewed were evaluated and critically appraised by using PEDro scale and SPSS version 20 was used to analyze the data. Results. Three articles were found regarding strengthening exercise for older people with LBP whereas one study was conducted on multicomponent exercise. The mean, standard deviation, and variance of the PEDro score of all the studies were 5.67, 2.33, and 1.528, respectively. Overall, the qualities of all studies reviewed were fair. Two articles showed significant results when compared to control group (p<0.05. Conclusions. Strengthening exercise is a beneficial treatment for older people with LBP in reducing pain intensity, disability, and improved functional performances.
Kleibeuker, JH; Thijs, JC
2004-01-01
Purpose of review Functional dyspepsia is a common disorder, most of the time of unknown etiology and with variable pathophysiology. Therapy has been and still is largely empirical. Data from recent studies provide new clues for targeted therapy based on knowledge of etiology and pathophysiologic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fani Nolimal
2000-12-01
Full Text Available The author first defines literacy as the ability of co-operation in all fields of life and points at the features of illiterate or semi-literate individuals. The main stress is laid upon the assessment of literacy and illiteracy. In her opinion the main weak ness of this kind of evaluation are its vague psycho-metric characteristics, which leads to results valid in a single geographical or cultural environment only. She also determines the factors causing illiteracy, and she states that the level of functional literacy is more and more becoming a national indicator of successfulness.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sorichter, S.
2009-01-01
The term lung function is often restricted to the assessment of volume time curves measured at the mouth. Spirometry includes the assessment of lung volumes which can be mobilised with the corresponding flow-volume curves. In addition, lung volumes that can not be mobilised, such as the residual volume, or only partially as FRC and TLC can be measured by body plethysmography combined with the determination of the airway resistance. Body plethysmography allows the correct positioning of forced breathing manoeuvres on the volume-axis, e.g. before and after pharmacotherapy. Adding the CO single breath transfer factor (T LCO ), which includes the measurement of the ventilated lung volume using He, enables a clear diagnosis of different obstructive, restrictive or mixed ventilatory defects with and without trapped air. Tests of reversibility and provocation, as well as the assessment of inspiratory mouth pressures (PI max , P 0.1 ) help to classify the underlying disorder and to clarify treatment strategies. For further information and to complete the diagnostic of disturbances of the ventilation, diffusion and/or perfusion (capillar-)arterial bloodgases at rest and under physical strain sometimes amended by ergospirometry are recommended. Ideally, lung function measurements are amended by radiological and nuclear medicine techniques. (orig.) [de
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weber, J.; May, R.; Biland, L.; Endert, G.; Gottlob, R.; Justich, E.; Luebcke, P.; Mignon, G.; Moltz, L.; Partsch, H.; Petter, A.; Ritter, H.; Soerensen, R.; Widmer, L.K.; Widmer, M.T.; Zemp, E.
1990-01-01
The book presents a complete survey of the problems occurring in the venous system of the legs, pelvis, and abdomen. The material is arranged in the following main chapters: (1) Introduction to the phlebology of the low-pressure system in the lower part of the body; (2) Phlebographic methods; (3) Instrumented function studies and methods; (4) Pathologic findings; (5) Diagnostic methods and vein therapy; (6) Interventional radiology; (7) Expert opinions on venous lesions including insurance aspects. The first chapter encompasses a section briefly discussing the available instrumented diagnostic imaging methods. In view of the novel imaging methods, namely digital subtraction phlebology, sonography, CT and MRI, the classical phlebography remains the gold standard, so to speak: all currently available phlebographic methods for imaging the venes in the legs, pelvis and abdomen are explained and comparatively evaluated. Instrumented function tests such as Doppler effect ultrasound testing, plethysmography, peripheral and central phlebodynamometry (venous pressure measurement) are analysed for their diagnostic value and as alternative or supplementing techniques in comparison to phlebology. (orig./MG) With 843 figs., 101 tabs [de
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Deuber Dominic
2018-04-01
Full Text Available A functional credential allows a user to anonymously prove possession of a set of attributes that fulfills a certain policy. The policies are arbitrary polynomially computable predicates that are evaluated over arbitrary attributes. The key feature of this primitive is the delegation of verification to third parties, called designated verifiers. The delegation protects the privacy of the policy: A designated verifier can verify that a user satisfies a certain policy without learning anything about the policy itself. We illustrate the usefulness of this property in different applications, including outsourced databases with access control. We present a new framework to construct functional credentials that does not require (non-interactive zero-knowledge proofs. This is important in settings where the statements are complex and thus the resulting zero-knowledge proofs are not efficient. Our construction is based on any predicate encryption scheme and the security relies on standard assumptions. A complexity analysis and an experimental evaluation confirm the practicality of our approach.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rohit Tewari
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Coronary angiography underestimates or overestimates lesion severity, but still remains the cornerstone in the decision making for revascularization for an overwhelming majority of interventional cardiologists. Guidelines recommend and endorse non invasive functional evaluation ought to precede revascularization. In real world practice, this is adopted in less than 50% of patients who go on to have some form of revascularization. Fractional flow reserve (FFR is the ratio of maximal blood flow in a stenotic coronary relative to maximal flow in the same vessel, were it normal. Being independent of changes in heart rate, BP or prior infarction; and take into account the contribution of collateral blood flow. It is a majorly specific index with a reasonably high sensitivity (88%, specificity (100%, positive predictive value (100%, and overall accuracy (93%. Whilst FFR provides objective determination of ischemia and helps select appropriate candidates for revascularization (for both CABG and PCI in to cath lab itself before intervention, whereas intravascular ultrasound/optical coherence tomography guidance in PCI can secure the procedure by optimizing stent expansion. Functional angioplasty simply is incorporating both intravascular ultrasound and FFR into our daily Intervention practices.
... Home » Thyroid Function Tests Leer en Español Thyroid Function Tests FUNCTION HOW DOES THE THYROID GLAND FUNCTION? ... Cancer Thyroid Nodules in Children and Adolescents Thyroid Function Tests Resources Thyroid Function Tests Brochure PDF En ...
Bae, Hagyoul; Jang, Byung Chul; Park, Hongkeun; Jung, Soo-Ho; Lee, Hye Moon; Park, Jun-Young; Jeon, Seung-Bae; Son, Gyeongho; Tcho, Il-Woong; Yu, Kyoungsik; Im, Sung Gap; Choi, Sung-Yool; Choi, Yang-Kyu
2017-10-11
Fabric-based electronic textiles (e-textiles) are the fundamental components of wearable electronic systems, which can provide convenient hand-free access to computer and electronics applications. However, e-textile technologies presently face significant technical challenges. These challenges include difficulties of fabrication due to the delicate nature of the materials, and limited operating time, a consequence of the conventional normally on computing architecture, with volatile power-hungry electronic components, and modest battery storage. Here, we report a novel poly(ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) (pEGDMA)-textile memristive nonvolatile logic-in-memory circuit, enabling normally off computing, that can overcome those challenges. To form the metal electrode and resistive switching layer, strands of cotton yarn were coated with aluminum (Al) using a solution dip coating method, and the pEGDMA was conformally applied using an initiated chemical vapor deposition process. The intersection of two Al/pEGDMA coated yarns becomes a unit memristor in the lattice structure. The pEGDMA-Textile Memristor (ETM), a form of crossbar array, was interwoven using a grid of Al/pEGDMA coated yarns and untreated yarns. The former were employed in the active memristor and the latter suppressed cell-to-cell disturbance. We experimentally demonstrated for the first time that the basic Boolean functions, including a half adder as well as NOT, NOR, OR, AND, and NAND logic gates, are successfully implemented with the ETM crossbar array on a fabric substrate. This research may represent a breakthrough development for practical wearable and smart fibertronics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, J. Y.; Hong, G. W.; Lee, H. J.
2002-05-01
Development of fabrication process of functional ceramic materials, evaluation of characteristics and experiments for understanding of irradiation behavior of ceramics were carried out for application of ceramics to the nuclear industry. The developed processes were the SiC surface coating technology with large area for improvement of wear resistance and corrosion resistance, the fabrication technology of SiC composites for excellent irradiation resistance, performance improvement technology of SiC fiber and nano-sized powder processing by combustion ignition and spray. Typical results were CVD SiC coating with diameter of 25cm and thickness of 100μm, highly dense SiC composite by F-CVI, heat-treating technology of SiC fiber using B4C power, and nano-sized powders of ODS-Cu, Li-based breeding materials, Ni-based metal powders with primary particle diameter of 20∼50nm. Furthermore, test equipment, data productions and damage evaluations were performed to understand corrosion resistance and wear resistance of alumina, silicon carbide and silicon nitride under PWR or PHWR operation conditions. Experimental procedures and basic technologies for evaluation of irradiation behavior were also established. Additionally, highly reactive precursor powders were developed by various technologies and the powders were applied to the fabrication of 100 m long Ag/Bi-2223 multi-filamentary wires. High Tc magnets and fly wheel for energy storage were developed, as well
Special functions & their applications
Lebedev, N N
1972-01-01
Famous Russian work discusses the application of cylinder functions and spherical harmonics; gamma function; probability integral and related functions; Airy functions; hyper-geometric functions; more. Translated by Richard Silverman.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mailund, Thomas
Master functions and discover how to write functional programs in R. In this book, you'll make your functions pure by avoiding side-effects; you’ll write functions that manipulate other functions, and you’ll construct complex functions using simpler functions as building blocks. In Functional...... Programming in R, you’ll see how we can replace loops, which can have side-effects, with recursive functions that can more easily avoid them. In addition, the book covers why you shouldn't use recursion when loops are more efficient and how you can get the best of both worlds. Functional programming...... functions by combining simpler functions. You will: Write functions in R including infix operators and replacement functions Create higher order functions Pass functions to other functions and start using functions as data you can manipulate Use Filer, Map and Reduce functions to express the intent behind...
Resummed coefficient function for the shape function
Aglietti, U.
2001-01-01
We present a leading evaluation of the resummed coefficient function for the shape function. It is also shown that the coefficient function is short-distance-dominated. Our results allow relating the shape function computed on the lattice to the physical QCD distributions.
Time functions function best as functions of multiple times
Desain, P.; Honing, H.
1992-01-01
This article presents an elegant way of representing control functions at an abstractlevel. It introduces time functions that have multiple times as arguments. In this waythe generalized concept of a time function can support absolute and relative kinds of time behavior. Furthermore the
Wave-function functionals for the density
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Slamet, Marlina; Pan Xiaoyin; Sahni, Viraht
2011-01-01
We extend the idea of the constrained-search variational method for the construction of wave-function functionals ψ[χ] of functions χ. The search is constrained to those functions χ such that ψ[χ] reproduces the density ρ(r) while simultaneously leading to an upper bound to the energy. The functionals are thereby normalized and automatically satisfy the electron-nucleus coalescence condition. The functionals ψ[χ] are also constructed to satisfy the electron-electron coalescence condition. The method is applied to the ground state of the helium atom to construct functionals ψ[χ] that reproduce the density as given by the Kinoshita correlated wave function. The expectation of single-particle operators W=Σ i r i n , n=-2,-1,1,2, W=Σ i δ(r i ) are exact, as must be the case. The expectations of the kinetic energy operator W=-(1/2)Σ i ∇ i 2 , the two-particle operators W=Σ n u n , n=-2,-1,1,2, where u=|r i -r j |, and the energy are accurate. We note that the construction of such functionals ψ[χ] is an application of the Levy-Lieb constrained-search definition of density functional theory. It is thereby possible to rigorously determine which functional ψ[χ] is closer to the true wave function.
Nonlocal kinetic energy functionals by functional integration
Mi, Wenhui; Genova, Alessandro; Pavanello, Michele
2018-05-01
Since the seminal studies of Thomas and Fermi, researchers in the Density-Functional Theory (DFT) community are searching for accurate electron density functionals. Arguably, the toughest functional to approximate is the noninteracting kinetic energy, Ts[ρ], the subject of this work. The typical paradigm is to first approximate the energy functional and then take its functional derivative, δ/Ts[ρ ] δ ρ (r ) , yielding a potential that can be used in orbital-free DFT or subsystem DFT simulations. Here, this paradigm is challenged by constructing the potential from the second-functional derivative via functional integration. A new nonlocal functional for Ts[ρ] is prescribed [which we dub Mi-Genova-Pavanello (MGP)] having a density independent kernel. MGP is constructed to satisfy three exact conditions: (1) a nonzero "Kinetic electron" arising from a nonzero exchange hole; (2) the second functional derivative must reduce to the inverse Lindhard function in the limit of homogenous densities; (3) the potential is derived from functional integration of the second functional derivative. Pilot calculations show that MGP is capable of reproducing accurate equilibrium volumes, bulk moduli, total energy, and electron densities for metallic (body-centered cubic, face-centered cubic) and semiconducting (crystal diamond) phases of silicon as well as of III-V semiconductors. The MGP functional is found to be numerically stable typically reaching self-consistency within 12 iterations of a truncated Newton minimization algorithm. MGP's computational cost and memory requirements are low and comparable to the Wang-Teter nonlocal functional or any generalized gradient approximation functional.
Generalized Probability Functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexandre Souto Martinez
2009-01-01
Full Text Available From the integration of nonsymmetrical hyperboles, a one-parameter generalization of the logarithmic function is obtained. Inverting this function, one obtains the generalized exponential function. Motivated by the mathematical curiosity, we show that these generalized functions are suitable to generalize some probability density functions (pdfs. A very reliable rank distribution can be conveniently described by the generalized exponential function. Finally, we turn the attention to the generalization of one- and two-tail stretched exponential functions. We obtain, as particular cases, the generalized error function, the Zipf-Mandelbrot pdf, the generalized Gaussian and Laplace pdf. Their cumulative functions and moments were also obtained analytically.
Functionality and homogeneity.
2011-01-01
Functionality and homogeneity are two of the five Sustainable Safety principles. The functionality principle aims for roads to have but one exclusive function and distinguishes between traffic function (flow) and access function (residence). The homogeneity principle aims at differences in mass,
N-Acetylcysteine in depressive symptoms and functionality: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Fernandes, Brisa S; Dean, Olivia M; Dodd, Seetal; Malhi, Gin S; Berk, Michael
2016-04-01
To assess the utility of N-acetylcysteine administration for depressive symptoms in subjects with psychiatric conditions using a systematic review and meta-analysis. A computerized literature search was conducted in MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, SciELO, PsycINFO, Scopus, and Web of Knowledge. No year or country restrictions were used. The Boolean terms used for the electronic database search were (NAC OR N-acetylcysteine OR acetylcysteine) AND (depression OR depressive OR depressed) AND (trial). The last search was performed in November 2014. The literature was searched for double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials using N-acetylcysteine for depressive symptoms regardless of the main psychiatric condition. Using keywords and cross-referenced bibliographies, 38 studies were identified and examined in depth. Of those, 33 articles were rejected because inclusion criteria were not met. Finally, 5 studies were included. Data were extracted independently by 2 investigators. The primary outcome measure was change in depressive symptoms. Functionality, quality of life, and manic and anxiety symptoms were also examined. A full review and meta-analysis were performed. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) and odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs were calculated. Five studies fulfilled our inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis, providing data on 574 participants, of whom 291 were randomized to receive N-acetylcysteine and 283 to placebo. The follow-up varied from 12 to 24 weeks. Two studies included subjects with bipolar disorder and current depressive symptoms, 1 included subjects with MDD in a current depressive episode, and 2 included subjects with depressive symptoms in the context of other psychiatric conditions (1 trichotillomania and 1 heavy smoking). Treatment with N-acetylcysteine improved depressive symptoms as assessed by Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale when compared to placebo (SMD = 0.37; 95% CI = 0
Extraocular muscle function testing
... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003397.htm Extraocular muscle function testing To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Extraocular muscle function testing examines the function of the eye muscles. ...
Congenital platelet function defects
... pool disorder; Glanzmann's thrombasthenia; Bernard-Soulier syndrome; Platelet function defects - congenital ... Congenital platelet function defects are bleeding disorders that cause reduced platelet function. Most of the time, people with these disorders have ...
Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel
... Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) ... kidneys ) is working. What Is a Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel? A liver function panel is a blood ...
... Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Platelet Function Tests Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At ... Also Known As Platelet Aggregation Studies PFT Platelet Function Assay PFA Formal Name Platelet Function Tests This ...
Terashima, Yuji
2008-01-01
In this paper, defining Poisson functions on super manifolds, we show that the graphs of Poisson functions are Dirac structures, and find Poisson functions which include as special cases both quasi-Poisson structures and twisted Poisson structures.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monks, R.; Riley, A.L.M.
1981-01-01
This invention relates to the investigation of body function, especially small bowel function but also liver function, using bile acids and bile salts or their metabolic precursors labelled with radio isotopes and selenium or tellurium. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Antoni FERRER ROJAS
2017-07-01
Full Text Available The proliferation of programming environments such as Logo, Minecraft, Code or Scratch is a consequence of the effectiveness of a graphic language for the introduction of students in programming but, some of the newer systems, such as App Inventor, are slow in the basic interaction: “make it” / “test it”. I propose an alternative for students from the age of 15. It is called VirPLC and it is oriented to something as functional as the systems control, through two screens: one with software to program and, another one with animated hardware to simulate it. VirPLC does not pretend to turn the user into an expert in automation, but to facilitate a first contact between the student and the logic world, by posing problems in practical, near and real control systems such as: crane control; TV competition; alarm; supermarket door; garage door; traffic light; lift... The student raises both the logical operativity, as well as the hardware requirements (inputs and outputs. The software works in an evolutionary and repeated way: “make it” / “test it” and consolidate to improve it. It allows the evolution in levels of greater complexity, where it is debugged until acquiring a solid “product”, functional, safe, versatile and installable. VirPLC step by step “hooks” students who pursue challenges and offers an alternative to apply after some Boolean Algebra notions, and before written programming, with objects, events and classes. VirPLC is freeware, it works under Windows (from XP to W10 and can be downloaded from the author’s WEB. At install time, it adds a folder with more than 30 examples often deliberately incomplete, along with a mini-course with several proposed practices.
Functional bowel disorders and functional abdominal pain
Thompson, W; Longstreth, G; Drossman, D; Heaton, K; Irvine, E; Muller-Lissner, S
1999-01-01
The Rome diagnostic criteria for the functional bowel disorders and functional abdominal pain are used widely in research and practice. A committee consensus approach, including criticism from multinational expert reviewers, was used to revise the diagnostic criteria and update diagnosis and treatment recommendations, based on research results. The terminology was clarified and the diagnostic criteria and management recommendations were revised. A functional bowel disorder (FBD) is diagnosed ...
Functional microorganisms for functional food quality.
Gobbetti, M; Cagno, R Di; De Angelis, M
2010-09-01
Functional microorganisms and health benefits represent a binomial with great potential for fermented functional foods. The health benefits of fermented functional foods are expressed either directly through the interactions of ingested live microorganisms with the host (probiotic effect) or indirectly as the result of the ingestion of microbial metabolites synthesized during fermentation (biogenic effect). Since the importance of high viability for probiotic effect, two major options are currently pursued for improving it--to enhance bacterial stress response and to use alternative products for incorporating probiotics (e.g., ice cream, cheeses, cereals, fruit juices, vegetables, and soy beans). Further, it seems that quorum sensing signal molecules released by probiotics may interact with human epithelial cells from intestine thus modulating several physiological functions. Under optimal processing conditions, functional microorganisms contribute to food functionality through their enzyme portfolio and the release of metabolites. Overproduction of free amino acids and vitamins are two classical examples. Besides, bioactive compounds (e.g., peptides, γ-amino butyric acid, and conjugated linoleic acid) may be released during food processing above the physiological threshold and they may exert various in vivo health benefits. Functional microorganisms are even more used in novel strategies for decreasing phenomenon of food intolerance (e.g., gluten intolerance) and allergy. By a critical approach, this review will aim at showing the potential of functional microorganisms for the quality of functional foods.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Agerbo, Heidi
2017-01-01
Approximately a decade ago, it was suggested that a new function should be added to the lexicographical function theory: the interpretive function(1). However, hardly any research has been conducted into this function, and though it was only suggested that this new function was relevant...... to incorporate into lexicographical theory, some scholars have since then assumed that this function exists(2), including the author of this contribution. In Agerbo (2016), I present arguments supporting the incorporation of the interpretive function into the function theory and suggest how non-linguistic signs...... can be treated in specific dictionary articles. However, in the current article, due to the results of recent research, I argue that the interpretive function should not be considered an individual main function. The interpretive function, contrary to some of its definitions, is not connected...
Every storage function is a state function
Trentelman, H.L.; Willems, J.C.
1997-01-01
It is shown that for linear dynamical systems with quadratic supply rates, a storage function can always be written as a quadratic function of the state of an associated linear dynamical system. This dynamical system is obtained by combining the dynamics of the original system with the dynamics of
Persistent Functional Languages: Toward Functional Relational Databases
Wevers, L.
2014-01-01
Functional languages provide new approaches to concurrency control, based on techniques such as lazy evaluation and memoization. We have designed and implemented a persistent functional language based on these ideas, which we plan to use for the implementation of a relational database system. With
Osborne, Harold
1985-01-01
Historical background concerning the nature and function of museums is provided, and the aesthetic functions of museums are discussed. The first major aesthetic function of museums is to preserve the artistic heritage of mankind and to make it widely available. The second major function is patronage. (RM)
Hierarchical wave functions revisited
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Dingping.
1997-11-01
We study the hierarchical wave functions on a sphere and on a torus. We simplify some wave functions on a sphere or a torus using the analytic properties of wave functions. The open question, the construction of the wave function for quasi electron excitation on a torus, is also solved in this paper. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mailund, Thomas
Master functions and discover how to write functional programs in R. In this book, you'll make your functions pure by avoiding side-effects; you’ll write functions that manipulate other functions, and you’ll construct complex functions using simpler functions as building blocks. In Functional...... Programming in R, you’ll see how we can replace loops, which can have side-effects, with recursive functions that can more easily avoid them. In addition, the book covers why you shouldn't use recursion when loops are more efficient and how you can get the best of both worlds. Functional programming...... is a style of programming, like object-oriented programming, but one that focuses on data transformations and calculations rather than objects and state. Where in object-oriented programming you model your programs by describing which states an object can be in and how methods will reveal or modify...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mailund, Thomas
2017-01-01
Master functions and discover how to write functional programs in R. In this book, you'll make your functions pure by avoiding side-effects; you’ll write functions that manipulate other functions, and you’ll construct complex functions using simpler functions as building blocks. In Functional...... Programming in R, you’ll see how we can replace loops, which can have side-effects, with recursive functions that can more easily avoid them. In addition, the book covers why you shouldn't use recursion when loops are more efficient and how you can get the best of both worlds. Functional programming...... is a style of programming, like object-oriented programming, but one that focuses on data transformations and calculations rather than objects and state. Where in object-oriented programming you model your programs by describing which states an object can be in and how methods will reveal or modify...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bysted, Tommy Kristensen; Hamila, R.; Gabbouj, M.
1998-01-01
A new correlation function called the Teager correlation function is introduced in this paper. The connection between this function, the Teager energy operator and the conventional correlation function is established. Two applications are presented. The first is the minimization of the Teager error...... norm and the second one is the use of the instantaneous Teager correlation function for simultaneous estimation of TDOA and FDOA (Time and Frequency Difference of Arrivals)....
Properties of Ambiguity Functions
Mulcahy-Stanislawczyk, John
2014-01-01
The use of ambiguity functions in radar signal design and analysis is very common. Understanding the various properties and meanings of ambiguity functions allow a signal designer to understand the time delay and doppler shift properties of a given signal. Through the years, several different versions of the ambiguity function have been used. Each of these functions essentially have the same physical meaning; however, the use of different functions makes it difficult to be sure that certai...
Ergotic / epistemic / semiotic functions
Luciani , Annie
2007-01-01
International audience; Claude Cadoz has introduced a typology of human-environment relation, identifying three functions. This typology allows characterizing univocally, i.e. in a non-redundant manner, the computer devices and interfaces that allow human to interact with environment through and by computers. These three functions are: the epistemic function, the semiotic function, the ergotic function. Conversely to the terms epistemic and semiotic that are usual, the term ergotic has been s...
Variational functionals which admit discontinuous trial functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nelson, P. Jr.
1975-01-01
It is argued that variational synthesis with discontinuous trial functions requires variational principles applicable to equations involving operators acting between distinct Hilbert spaces. A description is given of a Roussopoulos-type variational principle generalized to cover this situation. This principle is suggested as the basis for a unified approach to the derivation of variational functionals. In addition to esthetics, this approach has the advantage that the mathematical details increase the understanding of the derived functional, particularly the sense in which a synthesized solution should be regarded as an approximation to the true solution. By way of illustration, the generalized Roussopoulos principle is applied to derive a class of first-order diffusion functionals which admit trial functions containing approximations at an interface. These ''asymptotic'' interface quantities are independent of the limiting approximations from either side and permit use of different trial spectra at and on either side of an interface. The class of functionals derived contains as special cases both the Lagrange multiplier method of Buslik and two functionals of Lambropoulos and Luco. Some numerical results for a simple two-group model confirm that the ''multipliers'' can closely approximate the appropriate quantity in the region near an interface. (U.S.)
Multilayer Neural Networks with Extensively Many Hidden Units
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosen-Zvi, Michal; Engel, Andreas; Kanter, Ido
2001-01-01
The information processing abilities of a multilayer neural network with a number of hidden units scaling as the input dimension are studied using statistical mechanics methods. The mapping from the input layer to the hidden units is performed by general symmetric Boolean functions, whereas the hidden layer is connected to the output by either discrete or continuous couplings. Introducing an overlap in the space of Boolean functions as order parameter, the storage capacity is found to scale with the logarithm of the number of implementable Boolean functions. The generalization behavior is smooth for continuous couplings and shows a discontinuous transition to perfect generalization for discrete ones
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Markvorsen, Steen
2007-01-01
We consider a specific function of two variables whose graph surface resembles a blue lagoon. The function has a saddle point $p$, but when the function is restricted to any given straight line through $p$ it has a {\\em{strict local minimum}} along that line at $p$.......We consider a specific function of two variables whose graph surface resembles a blue lagoon. The function has a saddle point $p$, but when the function is restricted to any given straight line through $p$ it has a {\\em{strict local minimum}} along that line at $p$....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1981-10-01
This book indicates quality function deployment with quality and deployment of quality function, process and prospect of quality function deployment and development, product process and conception of quality table, deployment of quality demand, design of quality table and application of concurrent multi design, progress design and quality development, main safe part and management of important function part, quality development and deployment of method of construction, quality deployment and economics, total system of quality function deployment and task of quality function deployment in the present and future.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Raket, Lars Lau
We propose a direction it the field of statistics which we will call functional object analysis. This subfields considers the analysis of functional objects defined on continuous domains. In this setting we will focus on model-based statistics, with a particularly emphasis on mixed......-effect formulations, where the observed functional signal is assumed to consist of both fixed and random functional effects. This thesis takes the initial steps toward the development of likelihood-based methodology for functional objects. We first consider analysis of functional data defined on high...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khan, H.
1990-01-01
This thesis explores deep inelastic scattering of a lepton beam from a polarized nuclear target with spin J=1. After reviewing the formation for spin-1/2, the structure functions for a spin-1 target are defined in terms of the helicity amplitudes for forward compton scattering. A version of the convolution model, which incorporates relativistic and binding energy corrections is used to calculate the structure functions of a neutron target. A simple parameterization of these structure functions is given in terms of a few neutron wave function parameters and the free nucleon structure functions. This allows for an easy comparison of structure functions calculated using different neutron models. (author)
From functional architecture to functional connectomics.
Reid, R Clay
2012-07-26
"Receptive Fields, Binocular Interaction and Functional Architecture in the Cat's Visual Cortex" by Hubel and Wiesel (1962) reported several important discoveries: orientation columns, the distinct structures of simple and complex receptive fields, and binocular integration. But perhaps the paper's greatest influence came from the concept of functional architecture (the complex relationship between in vivo physiology and the spatial arrangement of neurons) and several models of functionally specific connectivity. They thus identified two distinct concepts, topographic specificity and functional specificity, which together with cell-type specificity constitute the major determinants of nonrandom cortical connectivity. Orientation columns are iconic examples of topographic specificity, whereby axons within a column connect with cells of a single orientation preference. Hubel and Wiesel also saw the need for functional specificity at a finer scale in their model of thalamic inputs to simple cells, verified in the 1990s. The difficult but potentially more important question of functional specificity between cortical neurons is only now becoming tractable with new experimental techniques. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sun, Ying
2012-08-03
This article proposes functional median polish, an extension of univariate median polish, for one-way and two-way functional analysis of variance (ANOVA). The functional median polish estimates the functional grand effect and functional main factor effects based on functional medians in an additive functional ANOVA model assuming no interaction among factors. A functional rank test is used to assess whether the functional main factor effects are significant. The robustness of the functional median polish is demonstrated by comparing its performance with the traditional functional ANOVA fitted by means under different outlier models in simulation studies. The functional median polish is illustrated on various applications in climate science, including one-way and two-way ANOVA when functional data are either curves or images. Specifically, Canadian temperature data, U. S. precipitation observations and outputs of global and regional climate models are considered, which can facilitate the research on the close link between local climate and the occurrence or severity of some diseases and other threats to human health. © 2012 International Biometric Society.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gardner, Richard J.; Kiderlen, Markus
A structural theory of operations between real-valued (or extended-real-valued) functions on a nonempty subset A of Rn is initiated. It is shown, for example, that any operation ∗ on a cone of functions containing the constant functions, which is pointwise, positively homogeneous, monotonic......, and associative, must be one of 40 explicitly given types. In particular, this is the case for operations between pairs of arbitrary, or continuous, or differentiable functions. The term pointwise means that (f ∗g)(x) = F(f(x), g(x)), for all x ∈ A and some function F of two variables. Several results in the same...... spirit are obtained for operations between convex functions or between support functions. For example, it is shown that ordinary addition is the unique pointwise operation between convex functions satisfying the identity property, i.e., f ∗ 0 = 0 ∗ f = f, for all convex f, while other results classify Lp...
Kidney function tests are common lab tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working. Such tests include: ... Oh MS, Briefel G. Evaluation of renal function, water, electrolytes ... and Management by Laboratory Methods . 23rd ed. Philadelphia, ...
... digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. Liver function tests are blood tests that check to see ... as hepatitis and cirrhosis. You may have liver function tests as part of a regular checkup. Or ...
Functionalized diamond nanoparticles
Beaujuge, Pierre M.; El Tall, Omar; Raja, Inam U.
2014-01-01
A diamond nanoparticle can be functionalized with a substituted dienophile under ambient conditions, and in the absence of catalysts or additional reagents. The functionalization is thought to proceed through an addition reaction.
Smart hydrogel functional materials
Chu, Liang-Yin; Ju, Xiao-Jie
2014-01-01
This book systematically introduces smart hydrogel functional materials with the configurations ranging from hydrogels to microgels. It serves as an excellent reference for designing and fabricating artificial smart hydrogel functional materials.
Babusci, D.; Dattoli, G.; Germano, B.; Martinelli, M. R.; Ricci, P. E.
2011-01-01
We use the operator method to evaluate a class of integrals involving Bessel or Bessel-type functions. The technique we propose is based on the formal reduction of these family of functions to Gaussians.
Lott, Steven
2015-01-01
This book is for developers who want to use Python to write programs that lean heavily on functional programming design patterns. You should be comfortable with Python programming, but no knowledge of functional programming paradigms is needed.
Functionalized diamond nanoparticles
Beaujuge, Pierre M.
2014-10-21
A diamond nanoparticle can be functionalized with a substituted dienophile under ambient conditions, and in the absence of catalysts or additional reagents. The functionalization is thought to proceed through an addition reaction.
Ecological Functions of Landscapes
Kiryushin, V. I.
2018-01-01
Ecological functions of landscapes are considered a system of processes ensuring the development, preservation, and evolution of ecosystems and the biosphere as a whole. The concept of biogeocenosis can be considered a model that integrates biotic and environmental functions. The most general biogeocenotic functions specify the biodiversity, biotic links, self-organization, and evolution of ecosystems. Close interaction between biocenosis and the biotope (ecotope) is ensured by the continuous exchange of matter, energy, and information. Ecotope determines the biocenosis. The group of ecotopic functions includes atmospheric (gas exchange, heat exchange, hydroatmospheric, climate-forming), lithospheric (geodynamic, geophysical, and geochemical), hydrologic and hydrogeologic functions of landscape and ecotopic functions of soils. Bioecological functions emerge as a result of the biotope and ecotope interaction; these are the bioproductive, destructive, organoaccumulative, biochemical (gas, concentration, redox, biochemical, biopedological), pedogenetic, and energy functions
Sun, Ying; Genton, Marc G.
2012-01-01
polish is demonstrated by comparing its performance with the traditional functional ANOVA fitted by means under different outlier models in simulation studies. The functional median polish is illustrated on various applications in climate science
Hybrid functional pseudopotentials
Yang, Jing; Tan, Liang Z.; Rappe, Andrew M.
2018-02-01
The consistency between the exchange-correlation functional used in pseudopotential construction and in the actual density functional theory calculation is essential for the accurate prediction of fundamental properties of materials. However, routine hybrid density functional calculations at present still rely on generalized gradient approximation pseudopotentials due to the lack of hybrid functional pseudopotentials. Here, we present a scheme for generating hybrid functional pseudopotentials, and we analyze the importance of pseudopotential density functional consistency for hybrid functionals. For the PBE0 hybrid functional, we benchmark our pseudopotentials for structural parameters and fundamental electronic gaps of the Gaussian-2 (G2) molecular dataset and some simple solids. Our results show that using our PBE0 pseudopotentials in PBE0 calculations improves agreement with respect to all-electron calculations.
Photon structure function - theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bardeen, W.A.
1984-12-01
The theoretical status of the photon structure function is reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the hadronic mixing problem and the ability of perturbative QCD to make definitive predictions for the photon structure function. 11 references
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohsen Razzaghi
2000-01-01
Full Text Available A direct method for finding the solution of variational problems using a hybrid function is discussed. The hybrid functions which consist of block-pulse functions plus Chebyshev polynomials are introduced. An operational matrix of integration and the integration of the cross product of two hybrid function vectors are presented and are utilized to reduce a variational problem to the solution of an algebraic equation. Illustrative examples are included to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the technique.
Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Peters, Brian T.; Rescheke, Millard F.; Wood, Scott; Lawrence, Emily; Koffman, Igor; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Spiering, Barry A.; Feeback, Daniel L.;
2009-01-01
This slide presentation reviews the Functional Task Test (FTT), an interdisciplinary testing regimen that has been developed to evaluate astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. The objectives of the project are: (1) to develop a set of functional tasks that represent critical mission tasks for the Constellation Program, (2) determine the ability to perform these tasks after space flight, (3) Identify the key physiological factors that contribute to functional decrements and (4) Use this information to develop targeted countermeasures.
Pseudolinear functions and optimization
Mishra, Shashi Kant
2015-01-01
Pseudolinear Functions and Optimization is the first book to focus exclusively on pseudolinear functions, a class of generalized convex functions. It discusses the properties, characterizations, and applications of pseudolinear functions in nonlinear optimization problems.The book describes the characterizations of solution sets of various optimization problems. It examines multiobjective pseudolinear, multiobjective fractional pseudolinear, static minmax pseudolinear, and static minmax fractional pseudolinear optimization problems and their results. The authors extend these results to locally
Bialynicki-Birula, Iwo
2005-01-01
Photon wave function is a controversial concept. Controversies stem from the fact that photon wave functions can not have all the properties of the Schroedinger wave functions of nonrelativistic wave mechanics. Insistence on those properties that, owing to peculiarities of photon dynamics, cannot be rendered, led some physicists to the extreme opinion that the photon wave function does not exist. I reject such a fundamentalist point of view in favor of a more pragmatic approach. In my view, t...
On Functional Calculus Estimates
Schwenninger, F.L.
2015-01-01
This thesis presents various results within the field of operator theory that are formulated in estimates for functional calculi. Functional calculus is the general concept of defining operators of the form $f(A)$, where f is a function and $A$ is an operator, typically on a Banach space. Norm
Phylogenetic molecular function annotation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Engelhardt, Barbara E; Jordan, Michael I; Repo, Susanna T; Brenner, Steven E
2009-01-01
It is now easier to discover thousands of protein sequences in a new microbial genome than it is to biochemically characterize the specific activity of a single protein of unknown function. The molecular functions of protein sequences have typically been predicted using homology-based computational methods, which rely on the principle that homologous proteins share a similar function. However, some protein families include groups of proteins with different molecular functions. A phylogenetic approach for predicting molecular function (sometimes called 'phylogenomics') is an effective means to predict protein molecular function. These methods incorporate functional evidence from all members of a family that have functional characterizations using the evolutionary history of the protein family to make robust predictions for the uncharacterized proteins. However, they are often difficult to apply on a genome-wide scale because of the time-consuming step of reconstructing the phylogenies of each protein to be annotated. Our automated approach for function annotation using phylogeny, the SIFTER (Statistical Inference of Function Through Evolutionary Relationships) methodology, uses a statistical graphical model to compute the probabilities of molecular functions for unannotated proteins. Our benchmark tests showed that SIFTER provides accurate functional predictions on various protein families, outperforming other available methods.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yazdani, Hossein; Ortiz-Arroyo, Daniel; Kwasnicka, Halina
2016-01-01
spaces, in addition to their similarity in the vector space. Prioritized Weighted Feature Distance (PWFD) works similarly as WFD, but provides the ability to give priorities to desirable features. The accuracy of the proposed functions are compared with other similarity functions on several data sets....... Our results show that the proposed functions work better than other methods proposed in the literature....
Feldman, Carol Fleisher
1977-01-01
Author advocates the view that meaning is necessarily dependent upon the communicative function of language and examines the objections, particularly those of Noam Chomsky, to this view. Argues that while Chomsky disagrees with the idea that communication is the essential function of language, he implicitly agrees that it has a function.…
Automatic differentiation of functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Douglas, S.R.
1990-06-01
Automatic differentiation is a method of computing derivatives of functions to any order in any number of variables. The functions must be expressible as combinations of elementary functions. When evaluated at specific numerical points, the derivatives have no truncation error and are automatically found. The method is illustrated by simple examples. Source code in FORTRAN is provided
Nonparametric Transfer Function Models
Liu, Jun M.; Chen, Rong; Yao, Qiwei
2009-01-01
In this paper a class of nonparametric transfer function models is proposed to model nonlinear relationships between ‘input’ and ‘output’ time series. The transfer function is smooth with unknown functional forms, and the noise is assumed to be a stationary autoregressive-moving average (ARMA) process. The nonparametric transfer function is estimated jointly with the ARMA parameters. By modeling the correlation in the noise, the transfer function can be estimated more efficiently. The parsimonious ARMA structure improves the estimation efficiency in finite samples. The asymptotic properties of the estimators are investigated. The finite-sample properties are illustrated through simulations and one empirical example. PMID:20628584
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Son, Mi Jung; Park, Jin Han; Lim, Ki Moon
2007-01-01
We introduce a new class of functions called weakly clopen function which includes the class of almost clopen functions due to Ekici [Ekici E. Generalization of perfectly continuous, regular set-connected and clopen functions. Acta Math Hungar 2005;107:193-206] and is included in the class of weakly continuous functions due to Levine [Levine N. A decomposition of continuity in topological spaces. Am Math Mon 1961;68:44-6]. Some characterizations and several properties concerning weakly clopenness are obtained. Furthermore, relationships among weak clopenness, almost clopenness, clopenness and weak continuity are investigated
Implementing function spreadsheets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sestoft, Peter
2008-01-01
: that of turning an expression into a named function. Hence they proposed a way to define a function in terms of a worksheet with designated input and output cells; we shall call it a function sheet. The goal of our work is to develop implementations of function sheets and study their application to realistic...... examples. Therefore, we are also developing a simple yet comprehensive spreadsheet core implementation for experimentation with this technology. Here we report briefly on our experiments with function sheets as well as other uses of our spreadsheet core implementation....
Transfer function combinations
Zhou, Liang; Schott, Mathias; Hansen, Charles
2012-01-01
Direct volume rendering has been an active area of research for over two decades. Transfer function design remains a difficult task since current methods, such as traditional 1D and 2D transfer functions, are not always effective for all data sets. Various 1D or 2D transfer function spaces have been proposed to improve classification exploiting different aspects, such as using the gradient magnitude for boundary location and statistical, occlusion, or size metrics. In this paper, we present a novel transfer function method which can provide more specificity for data classification by combining different transfer function spaces. In this work, a 2D transfer function can be combined with 1D transfer functions which improve the classification. Specifically, we use the traditional 2D scalar/gradient magnitude, 2D statistical, and 2D occlusion spectrum transfer functions and combine these with occlusion and/or size-based transfer functions to provide better specificity. We demonstrate the usefulness of the new method by comparing to the following previous techniques: 2D gradient magnitude, 2D occlusion spectrum, 2D statistical transfer functions and 2D size based transfer functions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Transfer function combinations
Zhou, Liang
2012-10-01
Direct volume rendering has been an active area of research for over two decades. Transfer function design remains a difficult task since current methods, such as traditional 1D and 2D transfer functions, are not always effective for all data sets. Various 1D or 2D transfer function spaces have been proposed to improve classification exploiting different aspects, such as using the gradient magnitude for boundary location and statistical, occlusion, or size metrics. In this paper, we present a novel transfer function method which can provide more specificity for data classification by combining different transfer function spaces. In this work, a 2D transfer function can be combined with 1D transfer functions which improve the classification. Specifically, we use the traditional 2D scalar/gradient magnitude, 2D statistical, and 2D occlusion spectrum transfer functions and combine these with occlusion and/or size-based transfer functions to provide better specificity. We demonstrate the usefulness of the new method by comparing to the following previous techniques: 2D gradient magnitude, 2D occlusion spectrum, 2D statistical transfer functions and 2D size based transfer functions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Functional Maximum Autocorrelation Factors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Rasmus; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg
2005-01-01
MAF outperforms the functional PCA in concentrating the interesting' spectra/shape variation in one end of the eigenvalue spectrum and allows for easier interpretation of effects. Conclusions. Functional MAF analysis is a useful methods for extracting low dimensional models of temporally or spatially......Purpose. We aim at data where samples of an underlying function are observed in a spatial or temporal layout. Examples of underlying functions are reflectance spectra and biological shapes. We apply functional models based on smoothing splines and generalize the functional PCA in......\\verb+~+\\$\\backslash\\$cite{ramsay97} to functional maximum autocorrelation factors (MAF)\\verb+~+\\$\\backslash\\$cite{switzer85,larsen2001d}. We apply the method to biological shapes as well as reflectance spectra. {\\$\\backslash\\$bf Methods}. MAF seeks linear combination of the original variables that maximize autocorrelation between...
Data structures theory and practice
Berztiss, A T
1971-01-01
Computer Science and Applied Mathematics: Data Structures: Theory and Practice focuses on the processes, methodologies, principles, and approaches involved in data structures, including algorithms, decision trees, Boolean functions, lattices, and matrices. The book first offers information on set theory, functions, and relations, and graph theory. Discussions focus on linear formulas of digraphs, isomorphism of digraphs, basic definitions in the theory of digraphs, Boolean functions and forms, lattices, indexed sets, algebra of sets, and order pair and related concepts. The text then examines
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiri Patera
2008-01-01
Full Text Available We review and further develop the theory of $E$-orbit functions. They are functions on the Euclidean space $E_n$ obtained from the multivariate exponential function by symmetrization by means of an even part $W_{e}$ of a Weyl group $W$, corresponding to a Coxeter-Dynkin diagram. Properties of such functions are described. They are closely related to symmetric and antisymmetric orbit functions which are received from exponential functions by symmetrization and antisymmetrization procedure by means of a Weyl group $W$. The $E$-orbit functions, determined by integral parameters, are invariant withrespect to even part $W^{aff}_{e}$ of the affine Weyl group corresponding to $W$. The $E$-orbit functions determine a symmetrized Fourier transform, where these functions serve as a kernel of the transform. They also determine a transform on a finite set of points of the fundamental domain $F^{e}$ of the group $W^{aff}_{e}$ (the discrete $E$-orbit function transform.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anatoliy Klimyk
2007-02-01
Full Text Available In the paper, properties of antisymmetric orbit functions are reviewed and further developed. Antisymmetric orbit functions on the Euclidean space $E_n$ are antisymmetrized exponential functions. Antisymmetrization is fulfilled by a Weyl group, corresponding to a Coxeter-Dynkin diagram. Properties of such functions are described. These functions are closely related to irreducible characters of a compact semisimple Lie group $G$ of rank $n$. Up to a sign, values of antisymmetric orbit functions are repeated on copies of the fundamental domain $F$ of the affine Weyl group (determined by the initial Weyl group in the entire Euclidean space $E_n$. Antisymmetric orbit functions are solutions of the corresponding Laplace equation in $E_n$, vanishing on the boundary of the fundamental domain $F$. Antisymmetric orbit functions determine a so-called antisymmetrized Fourier transform which is closely related to expansions of central functions in characters of irreducible representations of the group $G$. They also determine a transform on a finite set of points of $F$ (the discrete antisymmetric orbit function transform. Symmetric and antisymmetric multivariate exponential, sine and cosine discrete transforms are given.
B Plant function analysis report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lund, D.P.
1995-09-01
The document contains the functions, function definitions, function interfaces, function interface definitions, Input Computer Automated Manufacturing Definition (IDEFO) diagrams, and a function hierarchy chart that describe what needs to be performed to deactivate B Plant
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kohli J. K.
2014-06-01
Full Text Available A new class of functions called ‘Rδ-supercontinuous functions’ is introduced. Their basic properties are studied and their place in the hierarchy of strong variants of continuity which already exist in the literature is elaborated. The class of Rδ-supercontinuous functions (Math. Bohem., to appear properly contains the class of Rz-supercontinuous functions which in its turn properly contains the class of Rcl- supercontinuous functions (Demonstratio Math. 46(1 (2013, 229-244 and so includes all Rcl-supercontinuous (≡clopen continuous functions (Applied Gen. Topol. 8(2 (2007, 293-300; Indian J. Pure Appl. Math. 14(6 (1983, 767-772 and is properly contained in the class of R-supercontinuous functions (Demonstratio Math. 43(3 (2010, 703-723.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Engel, J.
2007-01-01
The Hohenberg-Kohn theorem and Kohn-Sham procedure are extended to functionals of the localized intrinsic density of a self-bound system such as a nucleus. After defining the intrinsic-density functional, we modify the usual Kohn-Sham procedure slightly to evaluate the mean-field approximation to the functional, and carefully describe the construction of the leading corrections for a system of fermions in one dimension with a spin-degeneracy equal to the number of particles N. Despite the fact that the corrections are complicated and nonlocal, we are able to construct a local Skyrme-like intrinsic-density functional that, while different from the exact functional, shares with it a minimum value equal to the exact ground-state energy at the exact ground-state intrinsic density, to next-to-leading order in 1/N. We briefly discuss implications for real Skyrme functionals
Functional analysis and applications
Siddiqi, Abul Hasan
2018-01-01
This self-contained textbook discusses all major topics in functional analysis. Combining classical materials with new methods, it supplies numerous relevant solved examples and problems and discusses the applications of functional analysis in diverse fields. The book is unique in its scope, and a variety of applications of functional analysis and operator-theoretic methods are devoted to each area of application. Each chapter includes a set of problems, some of which are routine and elementary, and some of which are more advanced. The book is primarily intended as a textbook for graduate and advanced undergraduate students in applied mathematics and engineering. It offers several attractive features making it ideally suited for courses on functional analysis intended to provide a basic introduction to the subject and the impact of functional analysis on applied and computational mathematics, nonlinear functional analysis and optimization. It introduces emerging topics like wavelets, Gabor system, inverse pro...
Counting with symmetric functions
Mendes, Anthony
2015-01-01
This monograph provides a self-contained introduction to symmetric functions and their use in enumerative combinatorics. It is the first book to explore many of the methods and results that the authors present. Numerous exercises are included throughout, along with full solutions, to illustrate concepts and also highlight many interesting mathematical ideas. The text begins by introducing fundamental combinatorial objects such as permutations and integer partitions, as well as generating functions. Symmetric functions are considered in the next chapter, with a unique emphasis on the combinatorics of the transition matrices between bases of symmetric functions. Chapter 3 uses this introductory material to describe how to find an assortment of generating functions for permutation statistics, and then these techniques are extended to find generating functions for a variety of objects in Chapter 4. The next two chapters present the Robinson-Schensted-Knuth algorithm and a method for proving Pólya’s enu...
Relativistic plasma dispersion functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robinson, P.A.
1986-01-01
The known properties of plasma dispersion functions (PDF's) for waves in weakly relativistic, magnetized, thermal plasmas are reviewed and a large number of new results are presented. The PDF's required for the description of waves with small wave number perpendicular to the magnetic field (Dnestrovskii and Shkarofsky functions) are considered in detail; these functions also arise in certain quantum electrodynamical calculations involving strongly magnetized plasmas. Series, asymptotic series, recursion relations, integral forms, derivatives, differential equations, and approximations for these functions are discussed as are their analytic properties and connections with standard transcendental functions. In addition a more general class of PDF's relevant to waves of arbitrary perpendicular wave number is introduced and a range of properties of these functions are derived
dftools: Distribution function fitting
Obreschkow, Danail
2018-05-01
dftools, written in R, finds the most likely P parameters of a D-dimensional distribution function (DF) generating N objects, where each object is specified by D observables with measurement uncertainties. For instance, if the objects are galaxies, it can fit a mass function (D=1), a mass-size distribution (D=2) or the mass-spin-morphology distribution (D=3). Unlike most common fitting approaches, this method accurately accounts for measurement in uncertainties and complex selection functions.
Manfredi; Feix
2000-10-01
The properties of an alternative definition of quantum entropy, based on Wigner functions, are discussed. Such a definition emerges naturally from the Wigner representation of quantum mechanics, and can easily quantify the amount of entanglement of a quantum state. It is shown that smoothing of the Wigner function induces an increase in entropy. This fact is used to derive some simple rules to construct positive-definite probability distributions which are also admissible Wigner functions.
Manfredi, G.; Feix, M. R.
2002-01-01
The properties of an alternative definition of quantum entropy, based on Wigner functions, are discussed. Such definition emerges naturally from the Wigner representation of quantum mechanics, and can easily quantify the amount of entanglement of a quantum state. It is shown that smoothing of the Wigner function induces an increase in entropy. This fact is used to derive some simple rules to construct positive definite probability distributions which are also admissible Wigner functions
Fathi, Albert
2015-07-01
In this paper we revisit our joint work with Antonio Siconolfi on time functions. We will give a brief introduction to the subject. We will then show how to construct a Lipschitz time function in a simplified setting. We will end with a new result showing that the Aubry set is not an artifact of our proof of existence of time functions for stably causal manifolds.
SPLINE, Spline Interpolation Function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Allouard, Y.
1977-01-01
1 - Nature of physical problem solved: The problem is to obtain an interpolated function, as smooth as possible, that passes through given points. The derivatives of these functions are continuous up to the (2Q-1) order. The program consists of the following two subprograms: ASPLERQ. Transport of relations method for the spline functions of interpolation. SPLQ. Spline interpolation. 2 - Method of solution: The methods are described in the reference under item 10
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martin, F.
1981-03-01
The x dependence of hadron structure functions is investigated. If quarks can exist in very low mass states (10 MeV for d and u quarks) the pion structure function is predicted to behave like (1-x) and not (1-x) 2 in a x-region around 1. Relativistic and non-relativistic quark bound state pictures of hadrons are considered together with their relation with the Q 2 evolution of structure functions. Good agreement with data is in general obtained
Calculus of bivariant function
PTÁČNÍK, Jan
2011-01-01
This thesis deals with the introduction of function of two variables and differential calculus of this function. This work should serve as a textbook for students of elementary school's teacher. Each chapter contains a summary of basic concepts and explanations of relationships, then solved model exercises of the topic and finally the exercises, which should solve the student himself. Thesis have transmit to students basic knowledges of differential calculus of functions of two variables, inc...
Functional esophageal disorders
Clouse, R; Richter, J; Heading, R; Janssens, J; Wilson, J
1999-01-01
The functional esophageal disorders include globus, rumination syndrome, and symptoms that typify esophageal diseases (chest pain, heartburn, and dysphagia). Factors responsible for symptom production are poorly understood. The criteria for diagnosis rest not only on compatible symptoms but also on exclusion of structural and metabolic disorders that might mimic the functional disorders. Additionally, a functional diagnosis is precluded by the presence of a pathology-based motor disorder or p...
Functional Programming With Relations
Hutton, Graham
1991-01-01
While programming in a relational framework has much to offer over the functional style in terms of expressiveness, computing with relations is less efficient, and more semantically troublesome. In this paper we propose a novel blend of the functional and relational styles. We identify a class of "causal relations", which inherit some of the bi-directionality properties of relations, but retain the efficiency and semantic foundations of the functional style.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bardeen, W.A.
1980-11-01
Theoretical understanding of the photon structure function is reviewed. As an illustration of the pointlike component, the parton model is briefly discussed. However, the systematic study of the photon structure function is presented through the framework of the operator product expansion. Perturbative QCD is used as the theoretical basis for the calculation of leading contributions to the operator product expansion. The influence of higher order QCD effects on these results is discussed. Recent results for the polarized structure functions are discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Isawa, Toyoharu
1994-01-01
The function of the lungs is primarily the function as a gas exchanger: the venous blood returning to the lungs is arterialized with oxygen in the lungs and the arterialized blood is sent back again to the peripheral tissues of the whole body to be utilized for metabolic oxygenation. Besides the gas exchanging function which we call ''respiratory lung function'' the lungs have functions that have little to do with gas exchange itself. We categorically call the latter function of the lungs as ''nonrespiratory lung function''. The lungs consist of the conductive airways, the gas exchanging units like the alveoli, and the interstitial space that surrounds the former two compartments. The interstitial space contains the blood and lymphatic capillaries, collagen and elastic fibers and cement substances. The conductive airways and the gas exchanging units are directly exposed to the atmosphere that contains various toxic and nontoxic gases, fume and biological or nonbiological particles. Because the conductive airways are equipped with defense mechanisms like mucociliary clearance or coughs to get rid of these toxic gases, particles or locally produced biological debris, we are usually free from being succumbed to ill effects of inhaled materials. By use of nuclear medicine techniques, we can now evaluate mucociliary clearance function, and other nonrespiratory lung functions as well in vivo
Subordination by convex functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rosihan M. Ali
2006-01-01
Full Text Available For a fixed analytic function g(z=z+∑n=2∞gnzn defined on the open unit disk and γ<1, let Tg(γ denote the class of all analytic functions f(z=z+∑n=2∞anzn satisfying ∑n=2∞|angn|≤1−γ. For functions in Tg(γ, a subordination result is derived involving the convolution with a normalized convex function. Our result includes as special cases several earlier works.
Renormalization Group Functional Equations
Curtright, Thomas L
2011-01-01
Functional conjugation methods are used to analyze the global structure of various renormalization group trajectories. With minimal assumptions, the methods produce continuous flows from step-scaling {\\sigma} functions, and lead to exact functional relations for the local flow {\\beta} functions, whose solutions may have novel, exotic features, including multiple branches. As a result, fixed points of {\\sigma} are sometimes not true fixed points under continuous changes in scale, and zeroes of {\\beta} do not necessarily signal fixed points of the flow, but instead may only indicate turning points of the trajectories.
Perceptual Audio Hashing Functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Emin Anarım
2005-07-01
Full Text Available Perceptual hash functions provide a tool for fast and reliable identification of content. We present new audio hash functions based on summarization of the time-frequency spectral characteristics of an audio document. The proposed hash functions are based on the periodicity series of the fundamental frequency and on singular-value description of the cepstral frequencies. They are found, on one hand, to perform very satisfactorily in identification and verification tests, and on the other hand, to be very resilient to a large variety of attacks. Moreover, we address the issue of security of hashes and propose a keying technique, and thereby a key-dependent hash function.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Isawa, Toyoharu [Tohoku University Research Institute for Chest Disease and Cancer, Sendai (Japan)
1994-07-01
The function of the lungs is primarily the function as a gas exchanger: the venous blood returning to the lungs is arterialized with oxygen in the lungs and the arterialized blood is sent back again to the peripheral tissues of the whole body to be utilized for metabolic oxygenation. Besides the gas exchanging function which we call ''respiratory lung function'' the lungs have functions that have little to do with gas exchange itself. We categorically call the latter function of the lungs as ''nonrespiratory lung function''. The lungs consist of the conductive airways, the gas exchanging units like the alveoli, and the interstitial space that surrounds the former two compartments. The interstitial space contains the blood and lymphatic capillaries, collagen and elastic fibers and cement substances. The conductive airways and the gas exchanging units are directly exposed to the atmosphere that contains various toxic and nontoxic gases, fume and biological or nonbiological particles. Because the conductive airways are equipped with defense mechanisms like mucociliary clearance or coughs to get rid of these toxic gases, particles or locally produced biological debris, we are usually free from being succumbed to ill effects of inhaled materials. By use of nuclear medicine techniques, we can now evaluate mucociliary clearance function, and other nonrespiratory lung functions as well in vivo.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lind, Morten
2011-01-01
Multilevel Flow Modeling (MFM) has been proposed as a tool for representing goals and functions of complex industrial plants and suggested as a basis for reasoning about control situations. Lind presents an introduction to MFM but do not describe how control functions are used in the modeling....... The purpose of the present paper is to serve as a companion paper to this introduction by explaining the basic principles used in MFM for representation of control functions. A theoretical foundation for modeling control functions is presented and modeling examples are given for illustration....
Regulated functions and integrability
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ján Gunčaga
2009-04-01
Full Text Available Properties of functions defined on a bounded closed interval, weaker than continuity, have been considered by many mathematicians. Functions having both sides limits at each point are called regulated and were considered by J. Dieudonné [2], D. Fraňková [3] and others (see for example S. Banach [1], S. Saks [8]. The main class of functions we deal with consists of piece-wise constant ones. These functions play a fundamental role in the integration theory which had been developed by Igor Kluvanek (see Š. Tkacik [9]. We present an outline of this theory.
Introduction to functional methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faddeev, L.D.
1976-01-01
The functional integral is considered in relation to Feynman diagrams and phase space. The holomorphic form of the functional integral is then discussed. The main problem of the lectures, viz. the construction of the S-matrix by means of the functional integral, is considered. The functional methods described explicitly take into account the Bose statistics of the fields involved. The different procedure used to treat fermions is discussed. An introduction to the problem of quantization of gauge fields is given. (B.R.H.)
Artin, Emil
2015-01-01
This brief monograph on the gamma function was designed by the author to fill what he perceived as a gap in the literature of mathematics, which often treated the gamma function in a manner he described as both sketchy and overly complicated. Author Emil Artin, one of the twentieth century's leading mathematicians, wrote in his Preface to this book, ""I feel that this monograph will help to show that the gamma function can be thought of as one of the elementary functions, and that all of its basic properties can be established using elementary methods of the calculus."" Generations of teachers
Normal Functions As A New Way Of Defining Computable Functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leszek Dubiel
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Report sets new method of defining computable functions. This is formalization of traditional function descriptions, so it allows to define functions in very intuitive way. Discovery of Ackermann function proved that not all functions that can be easily computed can be so easily described with Hilbert’s system of recursive functions. Normal functions lack this disadvantage.
Normal Functions as a New Way of Defining Computable Functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leszek Dubiel
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Report sets new method of defining computable functions. This is formalization of traditional function descriptions, so it allows to define functions in very intuitive way. Discovery of Ackermann function proved that not all functions that can be easily computed can be so easily described with Hilbert's system of recursive functions. Normal functions lack this disadvantage.
Pick, Luboš; John, Oldrich; Fucík, Svatopluk
2012-01-01
This is the first part of the second revised and extended edition of a well established monograph. It is an introduction to function spaces defined in terms of differentiability and integrability classes. It provides a catalogue of various spaces and benefits as a handbook for those who use function spaces to study other topics such as partial differential equations. Volum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J.K. Kohli
2009-04-01
Full Text Available A strong variant of continuity called ‘F-supercontinuity’ is introduced. The class of F-supercontinuous functions strictly contains the class of z-supercontinuous functions (Indian J. Pure Appl. Math. 33 (7 (2002, 1097–1108 which in turn properly contains the class of cl-supercontinuous functions ( clopen maps (Appl. Gen. Topology 8 (2 (2007, 293–300; Indian J. Pure Appl. Math. 14 (6 (1983, 762–772. Further, the class of F-supercontinuous functions is properly contained in the class of R-supercontinuous functions which in turn is strictly contained in the class of continuous functions. Basic properties of F-supercontinuous functions are studied and their place in the hierarchy of strong variants of continuity, which already exist in the mathematical literature, is elaborated. If either domain or range is a functionally regular space (Indagationes Math. 15 (1951, 359–368; 38 (1976, 281–288, then the notions of continuity, F-supercontinuity and R-supercontinuity coincide.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bergqvist, I.
1976-01-01
Methods for extracting photon strength functions are briefly discussed. We follow the Brink-Axel approach to relate the strength functions to the giant resonances observed in photonuclear work and summarize the available data on the E1, E2 and M1 resonances. Some experimental and theoretical problems are outlined. (author)
A Functional HAZOP Methodology
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Liin, Netta; Lind, Morten; Jensen, Niels
2010-01-01
A HAZOP methodology is presented where a functional plant model assists in a goal oriented decomposition of the plant purpose into the means of achieving the purpose. This approach leads to nodes with simple functions from which the selection of process and deviation variables follow directly...
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Voos, Avery; Pelphrey, Kevin
2013-01-01
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), with its excellent spatial resolution and ability to visualize networks of neuroanatomical structures involved in complex information processing, has become the dominant technique for the study of brain function and its development. The accessibility of in-vivo pediatric brain-imaging techniques…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gauravaram, Praveen; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde
2010-01-01
functions, also called message authentication codes (MACs) serve data integrity and data origin authentication in the secret key setting. The building blocks of hash functions can be designed using block ciphers, modular arithmetic or from scratch. The design principles of the popular Merkle...
Functional Assessment Inventory Manual.
Crewe, Nancy M.; Athelstan, Gary T.
This manual, which provides extensive new instructions for administering the Functional Assessment Inventory (FAI), is intended to enable counselors to begin using the inventory without undergoing any special training. The first two sections deal with the need for functional assessment and issues in the development and use of the inventory. The…
Functional and cognitive grammars
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Anna Siewierska
2011-01-01
This paper presents a comprehensive review of the functional approach and cognitive approach to the nature of language and its relation to other aspects of human cognition. The paper starts with a brief discussion of the origins and the core tenets of the two approaches in Section 1. Section 2 discusses the similarities and differences between the three full-fledged structural functional grammars subsumed in the functional approach： Halliday＇s Systemic Functional Grammar （SFG）, Dik＇s Functional Grammar （FG）, and Van Valin＇s Role and Reference Grammar （RRG）. Section 3 deals with the major features of the three cognitive frameworks： Langacker＇s Cognitive Grammar （CG）, Goldberg＇s Cognitive Construction Grammar （CCG）, and Croft＇s Radical Construction Grammar （RCG）. Section 4 compares the two approaches and attempts to provide a unified functional-cognitive grammar. In the last section, the author concludes the paper with remarks on the unidirectional shift from functional grammar to cognitive grammar that may indicate a reinterpretation of the traditional relationship between functional and cognitive models of grammar.
Heterogeneity in kinesin function
Reddy, Babu J N; Tripathy, Suvranta; Vershinin, Michael; Tanenbaum, Marvin E; Xu, Jing; Mattson-Hoss, Michelle; Arabi, Karim; Chapman, Dail; Doolin, Tory; Hyeon, Changbong; Gross, Steven P
2017-01-01
The kinesin family proteins are often studied as prototypical molecular motors; a deeper understanding of them can illuminate regulation of intracellular transport. It is typically assumed that they function identically. Here we find that this assumption of homogeneous function appears incorrect:
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moneta, M.
1999-01-01
Thermal dielectric functions ε(k,ω) for homogeneous electron gas were determined and discussed. The ground state of the gas is described by the Fermi-Dirac momentum distribution. The low and high temperature limits of ε(k,ω) were related to the Lindhard dielectric function and to ε(k, omega) derived for Boltzmann and for classical momentum distributions, respectively. (author)
Monadic Functional Reactive Programming
A.J. van der Ploeg (Atze); C Shan
2013-01-01
htmlabstractFunctional Reactive Programming (FRP) is a way to program reactive systems in functional style, eliminating many of the problems that arise from imperative techniques. In this paper, we present an alternative FRP formulation that is based on the notion of a reactive computation: a
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Rechberger, Christian; Thomsen, Søren Steffen
2007-01-01
to the state. We propose two concrete hash functions, Grindahl-256 and Grindahl-512 with claimed security levels with respect to collision, preimage and second preimage attacks of 2^128 and 2^256, respectively. Both proposals have lower memory requirements than other hash functions at comparable speeds...
Neurophysiology of functional imaging
van Eijsden, Pieter; Hyder, Fahmeed; Rothman, Douglas L.; Shulman, Robert G.
2009-01-01
The successes of PET and fMRI in non-invasively localizing sensory functions had encouraged efforts to transform the subjective concepts of cognitive psychology into objective physical measures. The assumption was that mental functions could be decomposed into non-overlapping, context-independent
properties and luminosity functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hektor Monteiro
2007-01-01
Full Text Available In this article, we present an investigation of a sample of 1072 stars extracted from the Villanova Catalog of Spectroscopically Identified White Dwarfs (2005 on-line version, studying their distribution in the Galaxy, their physical properties and their luminosity functions. The distances and physical properties of the white dwarfs are determined through interpolation of their (B-V or (b-y colors in model grids. The solar position relative to the Galactic plane, luminosity function, as well as separate functions for each white dwarf spectral type are derived and discussed. We show that the binary fraction does not vary significantly as a function of distance from the Galactic disk out to 100 pc. We propose that the formation rates of DA and non-DAs have changed over time and/or that DAs evolve into non-DA types. The luminosity functions for DAs and DBs have peaks possibly related to a star burst event.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vedel, Mette
2016-01-01
the triad value function. Next, the applicability and validity of the concept is examined in a case study of four closed vertical supply chain triads. Findings - The case study demonstrates that the triad value function facilitates the analysis and understanding of an apparent paradox; that distributors...... are not dis-intermediated in spite of their limited contribution to activities in the triads. The results indicate practical adequacy of the triad value function. Research limitations/implications - The triad value function is difficult to apply in the study of expanded networks as the number of connections...... expands exponentially with the number of ties in the network. Moreover, it must be applied in the study of service triads and open vertical supply chain triads to further verify the practical adequacy of the concept. Practical implications - The triad value function cannot be used normatively...
Pair Correlation Function Integrals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wedberg, Nils Hejle Rasmus Ingemar; O'Connell, John P.; Peters, Günther H.J.
2011-01-01
We describe a method for extending radial distribution functions obtained from molecular simulations of pure and mixed molecular fluids to arbitrary distances. The method allows total correlation function integrals to be reliably calculated from simulations of relatively small systems. The long......-distance behavior of radial distribution functions is determined by requiring that the corresponding direct correlation functions follow certain approximations at long distances. We have briefly described the method and tested its performance in previous communications [R. Wedberg, J. P. O’Connell, G. H. Peters......, and J. Abildskov, Mol. Simul. 36, 1243 (2010); Fluid Phase Equilib. 302, 32 (2011)], but describe here its theoretical basis more thoroughly and derive long-distance approximations for the direct correlation functions. We describe the numerical implementation of the method in detail, and report...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rosenstand, Claus Andreas Foss; Laursen, Per Kyed
2013-01-01
How does one manage functional power relations between leading functions in vision driven digital media creation, and this from idea to master during the creation cycle? Functional power is informal, and it is understood as roles, e.g. project manager, that provide opportunities to contribute...... to the product quality. The area of interest is the vision driven digital media industry in general; however, the point of departure is the game industry due to its aesthetic complexity. The article's contribution to the area is a power graph, which shows the functional power of the leading functions according...... to a general digital media creation cycle. This is used to point out potential power conflicts and their consequences. It is concluded that there is normally more conflict potential in vision driven digital media creation than in digital media creation in general or in software development. The method...
Ramsay, J O
1997-01-01
Scientists today collect samples of curves and other functional observations. This monograph presents many ideas and techniques for such data. Included are expressions in the functional domain of such classics as linear regression, principal components analysis, linear modelling, and canonical correlation analysis, as well as specifically functional techniques such as curve registration and principal differential analysis. Data arising in real applications are used throughout for both motivation and illustration, showing how functional approaches allow us to see new things, especially by exploiting the smoothness of the processes generating the data. The data sets exemplify the wide scope of functional data analysis; they are drwan from growth analysis, meterology, biomechanics, equine science, economics, and medicine. The book presents novel statistical technology while keeping the mathematical level widely accessible. It is designed to appeal to students, to applied data analysts, and to experienced researc...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liran eCarmel
2012-04-01
Full Text Available The intron-exon architecture of many eukaryotic genes raises the intriguing question of whether this unique organization serves any function, or is it simply a result of the spread of functionless introns in eukaryotic genomes. In this review, we show that introns in contemporary species fulfill a broad spectrum of functions, and are involved in virtually every step of mRNA processing. We propose that this great diversity of intronic functions supports the notion that introns were indeed selfish elements in early eukaryotes, but then independently gained numerous functions in different eukaryotic lineages. We suggest a novel criterion of evolutionary conservation, dubbed intron positional conservation, which can identify functional introns.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Read, R.J.; Schierbeek, A.J.
1988-01-01
A phased translation function, which takes advantage of prior phase information to determine the position of an oriented mulecular replacement model, is examined. The function is the coefficient of correlation between the electron density computed with the prior phases and the electron density of the translated model, evaluated in reciprocal space as a Fourier transform. The correlation coefficient used in this work is closely related to an overlap function devised by Colman, Fehlhammer and Bartels. Tests with two protein structures, one of which was solved with the help of the phased translation function, show that little phase information is required to resolve the translation problem, and that the function is relatively insensitive to misorientation of the model. (orig.)
Submodular functions and optimization
Fujishige, Satoru
2005-01-01
It has widely been recognized that submodular functions play essential roles in efficiently solvable combinatorial optimization problems. Since the publication of the 1st edition of this book fifteen years ago, submodular functions have been showing further increasing importance in optimization, combinatorics, discrete mathematics, algorithmic computer science, and algorithmic economics, and there have been made remarkable developments of theory and algorithms in submodular functions. The 2nd edition of the book supplements the 1st edition with a lot of remarks and with new two chapters: "Submodular Function Minimization" and "Discrete Convex Analysis." The present 2nd edition is still a unique book on submodular functions, which is essential to students and researchers interested in combinatorial optimization, discrete mathematics, and discrete algorithms in the fields of mathematics, operations research, computer science, and economics. Key features: - Self-contained exposition of the theory of submodular ...
Minguzzi, E.
2010-09-01
Every time function on spacetime gives a (continuous) total preordering of the spacetime events which respects the notion of causal precedence. The problem of the existence of a (semi-)time function on spacetime and the problem of recovering the causal structure starting from the set of time functions are studied. It is pointed out that these problems have an analog in the field of microeconomics known as utility theory. In a chronological spacetime the semi-time functions correspond to the utilities for the chronological relation, while in a K-causal (stably causal) spacetime the time functions correspond to the utilities for the K + relation (Seifert’s relation). By exploiting this analogy, we are able to import some mathematical results, most notably Peleg’s and Levin’s theorems, to the spacetime framework. As a consequence, we prove that a K-causal (i.e. stably causal) spacetime admits a time function and that the time or temporal functions can be used to recover the K + (or Seifert) relation which indeed turns out to be the intersection of the time or temporal orderings. This result tells us in which circumstances it is possible to recover the chronological or causal relation starting from the set of time or temporal functions allowed by the spacetime. Moreover, it is proved that a chronological spacetime in which the closure of the causal relation is transitive (for instance a reflective spacetime) admits a semi-time function. Along the way a new proof avoiding smoothing techniques is given that the existence of a time function implies stable causality, and a new short proof of the equivalence between K-causality and stable causality is given which takes advantage of Levin’s theorem and smoothing techniques.
Multidisciplinary team functioning.
Kovitz, K E; Dougan, P; Riese, R; Brummitt, J R
1984-01-01
This paper advocates the need to move beyond interdisciplinary team composition as a minimum criterion for multidisciplinary functioning in child abuse treatment. Recent developments within the field reflect the practice of shared professional responsibility for detection, case management and treatment. Adherence to this particular model for intervention requires cooperative service planning and implementation as task related functions. Implicitly, this model also carries the potential to incorporate the supportive functioning essential to effective group process. However, explicit attention to the dynamics and process of small groups has been neglected in prescriptive accounts of multidisciplinary child abuse team organization. The present paper therefore focuses upon the maintenance and enhancement aspects of multidisciplinary group functioning. First, the development and philosophy of service for the Alberta Children's Hospital Child Abuse Program are reviewed. Second, composition of the team, it's mandate for service, and the population it serves are briefly described. Third, the conceptual framework within which the program functions is outlined. Strategies for effective group functioning are presented and the difficulties encountered with this model are highlighted. Finally, recommendations are offered for planning and implementing a multidisciplinary child abuse team and for maintaining its effective group functioning.
The Enzyme Function Initiative†
Gerlt, John A.; Allen, Karen N.; Almo, Steven C.; Armstrong, Richard N.; Babbitt, Patricia C.; Cronan, John E.; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra; Imker, Heidi J.; Jacobson, Matthew P.; Minor, Wladek; Poulter, C. Dale; Raushel, Frank M.; Sali, Andrej; Shoichet, Brian K.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.
2011-01-01
The Enzyme Function Initiative (EFI) was recently established to address the challenge of assigning reliable functions to enzymes discovered in bacterial genome projects; in this Current Topic we review the structure and operations of the EFI. The EFI includes the Superfamily/Genome, Protein, Structure, Computation, and Data/Dissemination Cores that provide the infrastructure for reliably predicting the in vitro functions of unknown enzymes. The initial targets for functional assignment are selected from five functionally diverse superfamilies (amidohydrolase, enolase, glutathione transferase, haloalkanoic acid dehalogenase, and isoprenoid synthase), with five superfamily-specific Bridging Projects experimentally testing the predicted in vitro enzymatic activities. The EFI also includes the Microbiology Core that evaluates the in vivo context of in vitro enzymatic functions and confirms the functional predictions of the EFI. The deliverables of the EFI to the scientific community include: 1) development of a large-scale, multidisciplinary sequence/structure-based strategy for functional assignment of unknown enzymes discovered in genome projects (target selection, protein production, structure determination, computation, experimental enzymology, microbiology, and structure-based annotation); 2) dissemination of the strategy to the community via publications, collaborations, workshops, and symposia; 3) computational and bioinformatic tools for using the strategy; 4) provision of experimental protocols and/or reagents for enzyme production and characterization; and 5) dissemination of data via the EFI’s website, enzymefunction.org. The realization of multidisciplinary strategies for functional assignment will begin to define the full metabolic diversity that exists in nature and will impact basic biochemical and evolutionary understanding, as well as a wide range of applications of central importance to industrial, medicinal and pharmaceutical efforts. PMID
The Enzyme Function Initiative.
Gerlt, John A; Allen, Karen N; Almo, Steven C; Armstrong, Richard N; Babbitt, Patricia C; Cronan, John E; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra; Imker, Heidi J; Jacobson, Matthew P; Minor, Wladek; Poulter, C Dale; Raushel, Frank M; Sali, Andrej; Shoichet, Brian K; Sweedler, Jonathan V
2011-11-22
The Enzyme Function Initiative (EFI) was recently established to address the challenge of assigning reliable functions to enzymes discovered in bacterial genome projects; in this Current Topic, we review the structure and operations of the EFI. The EFI includes the Superfamily/Genome, Protein, Structure, Computation, and Data/Dissemination Cores that provide the infrastructure for reliably predicting the in vitro functions of unknown enzymes. The initial targets for functional assignment are selected from five functionally diverse superfamilies (amidohydrolase, enolase, glutathione transferase, haloalkanoic acid dehalogenase, and isoprenoid synthase), with five superfamily specific Bridging Projects experimentally testing the predicted in vitro enzymatic activities. The EFI also includes the Microbiology Core that evaluates the in vivo context of in vitro enzymatic functions and confirms the functional predictions of the EFI. The deliverables of the EFI to the scientific community include (1) development of a large-scale, multidisciplinary sequence/structure-based strategy for functional assignment of unknown enzymes discovered in genome projects (target selection, protein production, structure determination, computation, experimental enzymology, microbiology, and structure-based annotation), (2) dissemination of the strategy to the community via publications, collaborations, workshops, and symposia, (3) computational and bioinformatic tools for using the strategy, (4) provision of experimental protocols and/or reagents for enzyme production and characterization, and (5) dissemination of data via the EFI's Website, http://enzymefunction.org. The realization of multidisciplinary strategies for functional assignment will begin to define the full metabolic diversity that exists in nature and will impact basic biochemical and evolutionary understanding, as well as a wide range of applications of central importance to industrial, medicinal, and pharmaceutical efforts.
Polysheroidal periodic functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Truskova, N.F.
1985-01-01
Separation of variables in the Helmholtz N-dimensional (N≥4) equation in polyspheroidal coordinate systems leads to the necessity of solving equations going over into equations for polyspheroidal periodic functions used for solving the two-centre problem in quantum mechanics, the three-body problem with Coulomb interaction, etc. For these functions the expansions are derived in terms of the Jacobi polynomials and Bessel functions. Their basic properties, asymptotics are considered. The algorithm of their computer calculations is developed. The results of numerical calculations are given
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Singh
2007-10-01
Full Text Available Basic properties of cl-supercontinuity, a strong variant of continuity, due to Reilly and Vamanamurthy [Indian J. Pure Appl. Math., 14 (1983, 767–772], who call such maps clopen continuous, are studied. Sufficient conditions on domain or range for a continuous function to be cl-supercontinuous are observed. Direct and inverse transfer of certain topological properties under cl-supercontinuous functions are studied and existence or nonexistence of certain cl-supercontinuous function with specified domain or range is outlined.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos A. Berenstein
1980-01-01
Full Text Available We show that any mean-periodic function f can be represented in terms of exponential-polynomial solutions of the same convolution equation f satisfies, i.e., u∗f=0(μ∈E′(ℝn. This extends to n-variables the work of L. Schwartz on mean-periodicity and also extends L. Ehrenpreis' work on partial differential equations with constant coefficients to arbitrary convolutors. We also answer a number of open questions about mean-periodic functions of one variable. The basic ingredient is our work on interpolation by entire functions in one and several complex variables.
Functional Amyloids in Reproduction.
Hewetson, Aveline; Do, Hoa Quynh; Myers, Caitlyn; Muthusubramanian, Archana; Sutton, Roger Bryan; Wylie, Benjamin J; Cornwall, Gail A
2017-06-29
Amyloids are traditionally considered pathological protein aggregates that play causative roles in neurodegenerative disease, diabetes and prionopathies. However, increasing evidence indicates that in many biological systems nonpathological amyloids are formed for functional purposes. In this review, we will specifically describe amyloids that carry out biological roles in sexual reproduction including the processes of gametogenesis, germline specification, sperm maturation and fertilization. Several of these functional amyloids are evolutionarily conserved across several taxa, including human, emphasizing the critical role amyloids perform in reproduction. Evidence will also be presented suggesting that, if altered, some functional amyloids may become pathological.
What Is the Unit of Visual Attention? Object for Selection, but Boolean Map for Access
Huang, Liqiang
2010-01-01
In the past 20 years, numerous theories and findings have suggested that the unit of visual attention is the object. In this study, I first clarify 2 different meanings of unit of visual attention, namely the unit of access in the sense of measurement and the unit of selection in the sense of division. In accordance with this distinction, I argue…
Continuous time Boolean modeling for biological signaling: application of Gillespie algorithm.
Stoll, Gautier; Viara, Eric; Barillot, Emmanuel; Calzone, Laurence
2012-01-01
Abstract Mathematical modeling is used as a Systems Biology tool to answer biological questions, and more precisely, to validate a network that describes biological observations and predict the effect of perturbations. This article presents an algorithm for modeling biological networks in a discrete framework with continuous time. Background There exist two major types of mathematical modeling approaches: (1) quantitative modeling, representing various chemical species concentrations by real...
Yu, Ruomeng; Wu, Wenzhuo; Pan, Caofeng; Wang, Zhaona; Ding, Yong; Wang, Zhong Lin
2015-02-04
Using polarization charges created at the metal-cadmium sulfide interface under strain to gate/modulate electrical transport and optoelectronic processes of charge carriers, the piezo-phototronic effect is applied to process mechanical and optical stimuli into electronic controlling signals. The cascade nanowire networks are demonstrated for achieving logic gates, binary computations, and gated D latches to store information carried by these stimuli. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Efficient Solving of Large Non-linear Arithmetic Constraint Systems with Complex Boolean Structure
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Fränzle, M.; Herde, C.; Teige, T.; Ratschan, Stefan; Schubert, T.
2007-01-01
Roč. 1, - (2007), s. 209-236 ISSN 1574-0617 Grant - others:AVACS(DE) SFB/TR 14 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : interval-based arithmetic constraint solving * SAT modulo theories Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
Evaluation of an automatic weighting in a Boolean retrieval system with thesaurus, 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ebinuma, Yukio
1980-01-01
Ranking performances created by the weighting of search terms are manifested with the same search topics and data files as in the test for the weighting of index terms. Weighted looser queries evince favourable retrieval performances on an average, though these are slightly inferior to conventional man prepared medium and tighter queries. The weight generation sample taken from a data file for over two months can be applied roughly to weighting in another data file. Degrees of improvement in precision and loss in recall at each ranked score position in other weight applied outputs are estimated from rank-precision curves for some weight generation samples. This relevance ranking scheme results in a considerable benefit in most of retrievals but is inferior to the weighting of index terms in view of applicability and ranking performances. (author)
From Boolean logic to switching circuits and automata. Towards modern information technology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stankovic, Radomir S. [Nis Univ. (RS). Dept. of Computer Science; Astola, Jaakko [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Dept. of Signal Processing
2011-07-01
Logic networks and automata are facets of digital systems. The change of the design of logic networks from skills and art into a scientific discipline was possible by the development of the underlying mathematical theory called the Switching Theory. The fundamentals of this theory come from the attempts towards an algebraic description of laws of thoughts presented in the works by George J. Boole and the works on logic by Augustus De Morgan. As often the case in engineering, when the importance of a problem and the need for solving it reach certain limits, the solutions are searched by many scholars in different parts of the word, simultaneously or at about the same time, however, quite independently and often unaware of the work by other scholars. The formulation and rise of Switching Theory is such an example. This book presents a brief account of the developments of Switching Theory and highlights some less known facts in the history of it. The readers will find the book a fresh look into the development of the field revealing how difficult it has been to arrive at many of the concepts that we now consider obvious. Researchers in the history or philosophy of computing will find this book a valuable source of information that complements the standard presentations of the topic. (orig.)
LTREE - a lisp-based algorithm for cutset generation using Boolean reduction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Finnicum, D.J.; Rzasa, P.W.
1985-01-01
Fault tree analysis is an important tool for evaluating the safety of nuclear power plants. The basic objective of fault tree analysis is to determine the probability that an undesired event or combination of events will occur. Fault tree analysis involves four main steps: (1) specifying the undesired event or events; (2) constructing the fault tree which represents the ways in which the postulated event(s) could occur; (3) qualitative evaluation of the logic model to identify the minimal cutsets; and (4) quantitative evaluation of the logic model to determine the probability that the postulated event(s) will occur given the probability of occurrence for each individual fault. This paper describes a LISP-based algorithm for the qualitative evaluation of fault trees. Development of this algorithm is the first step in a project to apply expert systems technology to the automation of the fault tree analysis process. The first section of this paper provides an overview of LISP and its capabilities, the second section describes the LTREE algorithm and the third section discusses the on-going research areas
A Logical Deduction Based Clause Learning Algorithm for Boolean Satisfiability Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qingshan Chen
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Clause learning is the key component of modern SAT solvers, while conflict analysis based on the implication graph is the mainstream technology to generate the learnt clauses. Whenever a clause in the clause database is falsified by the current variable assignments, the SAT solver will try to analyze the reason by using different cuts (i.e., the Unique Implication Points on the implication graph. Those schemes reflect only the conflict on the current search subspace, does not reflect the inherent conflict directly involved in the rest space. In this paper, we propose a new advanced clause learning algorithm based on the conflict analysis and the logical deduction, which reconstructs a linear logical deduction by analyzing the relationship of different decision variables between the backjumping level and the current decision level. The logical deduction result is then added into the clause database as a newly learnt clause. The resulting implementation in Minisat improves the state-of-the-art performance in SAT solving.
Gschwind, Michael K [Chappaqua, NY
2011-03-01
Mechanisms for implementing a floating point only single instruction multiple data instruction set architecture are provided. A processor is provided that comprises an issue unit, an execution unit coupled to the issue unit, and a vector register file coupled to the execution unit. The execution unit has logic that implements a floating point (FP) only single instruction multiple data (SIMD) instruction set architecture (ISA). The floating point vector registers of the vector register file store both scalar and floating point values as vectors having a plurality of vector elements. The processor may be part of a data processing system.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Hill, Justin
2003-01-01
...., a logical OR, AND, or a majority vote of the classifiers in the system). An established method for evaluating a classifier is measuring some aspect of its Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC...
THE PSEUDO-SMARANDACHE FUNCTION
David Gorski
2007-01-01
The Pseudo-Smarandache Function is part of number theory. The function comes from the Smarandache Function. The Pseudo-Smarandache Function is represented by Z(n) where n represents any natural number.
Coded Network Function Virtualization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Al-Shuwaili, A.; Simone, O.; Kliewer, J.
2016-01-01
Network function virtualization (NFV) prescribes the instantiation of network functions on general-purpose network devices, such as servers and switches. While yielding a more flexible and cost-effective network architecture, NFV is potentially limited by the fact that commercial off......-the-shelf hardware is less reliable than the dedicated network elements used in conventional cellular deployments. The typical solution for this problem is to duplicate network functions across geographically distributed hardware in order to ensure diversity. In contrast, this letter proposes to leverage channel...... coding in order to enhance the robustness on NFV to hardware failure. The proposed approach targets the network function of uplink channel decoding, and builds on the algebraic structure of the encoded data frames in order to perform in-network coding on the signals to be processed at different servers...
Functional Use Database (FUse)
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There are five different files for this dataset: 1. A dataset listing the reported functional uses of chemicals (FUse) 2. All 729 ToxPrint descriptors obtained from...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Törpel, Bettina
2006-01-01
The objective of this paper is the design of computer supported joint action spaces. It is argued against a view of functionality as residing in computer applications. In such a view the creation of functionality is equivalent to the creation of computer applications. Functionality, in the view...... advocated in this paper, emerges in the specific dynamic interplay of actors, objectives, structures, practices and means. In this view, functionality is the result of creating, harnessing and inhabiting computer supported joint action spaces. The successful creation and further development of a computer...... supported joint action space comprises a whole range of appropriate design contributions. The approach is illustrated by the example of the creation of the computer supported joint action space "exchange network of voluntary union educators". As part of the effort a group of participants created...
... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...
Introduction to structure functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kwiecinski, J.
1996-07-01
The theory of deep inelastic scattering structure functions is reviewed with an emphasis put on the QCD expectations of their behaviour in the region of small values of Bjorken parameter x. (author). 56 refs
Bioprinting: Functional droplet networks
Durmus, Naside Gozde; Tasoglu, Savas; Demirci, Utkan
2013-06-01
Tissue-mimicking printed networks of droplets separated by lipid bilayers that can be functionalized with membrane proteins are able to spontaneously fold and transmit electrical currents along predefined paths.
Center for Functional Nanomaterials
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN) explores the unique properties of materials and processes at the nanoscale. The CFN is a user-oriented research center...
density functional theory approach
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
YOGESH ERANDE
2017-07-27
Jul 27, 2017 ... a key role in all optical switching devices, since their optical properties can be .... optimized in the gas phase using Density Functional Theory. (DFT).39 The ...... The Mediation of Electrostatic Effects by Sol- vents J. Am. Chem.
Reasoning about Function Objects
Nordio, Martin; Calcagno, Cristiano; Meyer, Bertrand; Müller, Peter; Tschannen, Julian
Modern object-oriented languages support higher-order implementations through function objects such as delegates in C#, agents in Eiffel, or closures in Scala. Function objects bring a new level of abstraction to the object-oriented programming model, and require a comparable extension to specification and verification techniques. We introduce a verification methodology that extends function objects with auxiliary side-effect free (pure) methods to model logical artifacts: preconditions, postconditions and modifies clauses. These pure methods can be used to specify client code abstractly, that is, independently from specific instantiations of the function objects. To demonstrate the feasibility of our approach, we have implemented an automatic prover, which verifies several non-trivial examples.
... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Normal Functioning Family Page Content Article Body Is there any way ...
Fundamentals of functional analysis
Farenick, Douglas
2016-01-01
This book provides a unique path for graduate or advanced undergraduate students to begin studying the rich subject of functional analysis with fewer prerequisites than is normally required. The text begins with a self-contained and highly efficient introduction to topology and measure theory, which focuses on the essential notions required for the study of functional analysis, and which are often buried within full-length overviews of the subjects. This is particularly useful for those in applied mathematics, engineering, or physics who need to have a firm grasp of functional analysis, but not necessarily some of the more abstruse aspects of topology and measure theory normally encountered. The reader is assumed to only have knowledge of basic real analysis, complex analysis, and algebra. The latter part of the text provides an outstanding treatment of Banach space theory and operator theory, covering topics not usually found together in other books on functional analysis. Written in a clear, concise manner,...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arnold, V.I.
2006-03-01
To describe the topological structure of a real smooth function one associates to it the graph, formed by the topological variety, whose points are the connected components of the level hypersurface of the function. For a Morse function, such a graph is a tree. Generically, it has T triple vertices, T + 2 endpoints, 2T + 2 vertices and 2T + 1 arrows. The main goal of the present paper is to study the statistics of the graphs, corresponding to T triple points: what is the growth rate of the number φ(T) of different graphs? Which part of these graphs is representable by the polynomial functions of corresponding degree? A generic polynomial of degree n has at most (n - 1) 2 critical points on R 2 , corresponding to 2T + 2 = (n - 1) 2 + 1, that is to T = 2k(k - 1) saddle-points for degree n = 2k
McGraw, John T [Placitas, NM; Zimmer, Peter C [Albuquerque, NM; Ackermann, Mark R [Albuquerque, NM
2012-01-24
Methods and apparatus for a structure function monitor provide for generation of parameters characterizing a refractive medium. In an embodiment, a structure function monitor acquires images of a pupil plane and an image plane and, from these images, retrieves the phase over an aperture, unwraps the retrieved phase, and analyzes the unwrapped retrieved phase. In an embodiment, analysis yields atmospheric parameters measured at spatial scales from zero to the diameter of a telescope used to collect light from a source.
Clayton, Anita H; Harsh, Veronica
2016-03-01
Women experience multiple changes in social and reproductive statuses across the life span which can affect sexual functioning. Various phases of the sexual response cycle may be impacted and can lead to sexual dysfunction. Screening for sexual problems and consideration of contributing factors such as neurobiology, reproductive life events, medical problems, medication use, and depression can help guide appropriate treatment and thereby improve the sexual functioning and quality of life of affected women. Treatment options include psychotropic medications, hormone therapy, and psychotherapy.
Inequalities for Humbert functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ayman Shehata
2014-04-01
Full Text Available This paper is motivated by an open problem of Luke’s theorem. We consider the problem of developing a unified point of view on the theory of inequalities of Humbert functions and of their general ratios are obtained. Some particular cases and refinements are given. Finally, we obtain some important results involving inequalities of Bessel and Whittaker’s functions as applications.
Mahamood, Rasheedat Modupe
2017-01-01
This book presents the concept of functionally graded materials as well as their use and different fabrication processes. The authors describe the use of additive manufacturing technology for the production of very complex parts directly from the three dimension computer aided design of the part by adding material layer after layer. A case study is also presented in the book on the experimental analysis of functionally graded material using laser metal deposition process.
[Functional (psychogenic) vertigo].
Diukova, G M; Zamergrad, M V; Golubev, V L; Adilova, S M; Makarov, S A
Psychogenic (functional) vertigo is in second place by frequency after benign positional paroxysmal vertigo. It is often difficult to make the diagnosis, diagnostic program is expensive and traditional treatment often is not effective. This literature review covers current concepts on the terminology, clinical signs, pathogenesis and treatment approaches with regard to functional vertigo. Special attention is given to cerebral mechanisms of the pathogenesis including cognitive aspects.
NEUROFEEDBACK USING FUNCTIONAL SPECTROSCOPY
Hinds, Oliver; Wighton, Paul; Tisdall, M. Dylan; Hess, Aaron; Breiter, Hans; van der Kouwe, André
2014-01-01
Neurofeedback based on real-time measurement of the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal has potential for treatment of neurological disorders and behavioral enhancement. Commonly employed methods are based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sequences that sacrifice speed and accuracy for whole-brain coverage, which is unnecessary in most applications. We present multi-voxel functional spectroscopy (MVFS): a system for computing the BOLD signal from multiple volumes of...
Griffel, DH
2002-01-01
A stimulating introductory text, this volume examines many important applications of functional analysis to mechanics, fluid mechanics, diffusive growth, and approximation. Detailed enough to impart a thorough understanding, the text is also sufficiently straightforward for those unfamiliar with abstract analysis. Its four-part treatment begins with distribution theory and discussions of Green's functions. Essentially independent of the preceding material, the second and third parts deal with Banach spaces, Hilbert space, spectral theory, and variational techniques. The final part outlines the
Pancreatic Exocrine Function Testing
Berk, J. Edward
1982-01-01
It is important to understand which pancreatic function tests are available and how to interpret them when evaluating patients with malabsorption. Available direct tests are the secretin stimulation test, the Lundh test meal, and measurement of serum or fecal enzymes. Indirect tests assess pancreatic exocrine function by measuring the effect of pancreatic secretion on various nutrients. These include triglycerides labeled with carbon 14, cobalamin labeled with cobalt 57 and cobalt 58, and par...
Purely Functional Structured Programming
Obua, Steven
2010-01-01
The idea of functional programming has played a big role in shaping today's landscape of mainstream programming languages. Another concept that dominates the current programming style is Dijkstra's structured programming. Both concepts have been successfully married, for example in the programming language Scala. This paper proposes how the same can be achieved for structured programming and PURELY functional programming via the notion of LINEAR SCOPE. One advantage of this proposal is that m...
Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
Todorova, Tamara
2010-01-01
Exponential functions find applications in economics in relation to growth and economic dynamics. In these fields, quite often the choice variable is time and economists are trying to determine the best timing for certain economic activities to take place. An exponential function is one in which the independent variable appears in the exponent. Very often that exponent is time. In highly mathematical courses, it is a truism that students learn by doing, not by reading. Tamara Todorova’s Pr...
Handbook of functional equations functional inequalities
2014-01-01
As Richard Bellman has so elegantly stated at the Second International Conference on General Inequalities (Oberwolfach, 1978), “There are three reasons for the study of inequalities: practical, theoretical, and aesthetic.” On the aesthetic aspects, he said, “As has been pointed out, beauty is in the eye of the beholder. However, it is generally agreed that certain pieces of music, art, or mathematics are beautiful. There is an elegance to inequalities that makes them very attractive.” The content of the Handbook focuses mainly on both old and recent developments on approximate homomorphisms, on a relation between the Hardy–Hilbert and the Gabriel inequality, generalized Hardy–Hilbert type inequalities on multiple weighted Orlicz spaces, half-discrete Hilbert-type inequalities, on affine mappings, on contractive operators, on multiplicative Ostrowski and trapezoid inequalities, Ostrowski type inequalities for the Riemann–Stieltjes integral, means and related functional inequalities, Weighted G...
Functional Neuroimaging in Psychopathy.
Del Casale, Antonio; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Rapinesi, Chiara; Di Pietro, Simone; Alessi, Maria Chiara; Di Cesare, Gianluigi; Criscuolo, Silvia; De Rossi, Pietro; Tatarelli, Roberto; Girardi, Paolo; Ferracuti, Stefano
2015-01-01
Psychopathy is associated with cognitive and affective deficits causing disruptive, harmful and selfish behaviour. These have considerable societal costs due to recurrent crime and property damage. A better understanding of the neurobiological bases of psychopathy could improve therapeutic interventions, reducing the related social costs. To analyse the major functional neural correlates of psychopathy, we reviewed functional neuroimaging studies conducted on persons with this condition. We searched the PubMed database for papers dealing with functional neuroimaging and psychopathy, with a specific focus on how neural functional changes may correlate with task performances and human behaviour. Psychopathy-related behavioural disorders consistently correlated with dysfunctions in brain areas of the orbitofrontal-limbic (emotional processing and somatic reaction to emotions; behavioural planning and responsibility taking), anterior cingulate-orbitofrontal (correct assignment of emotional valence to social stimuli; violent/aggressive behaviour and challenging attitude) and prefrontal-temporal-limbic (emotional stimuli processing/response) networks. Dysfunctional areas more consistently included the inferior frontal, orbitofrontal, dorsolateral prefrontal, ventromedial prefrontal, temporal (mainly the superior temporal sulcus) and cingulated cortices, the insula, amygdala, ventral striatum and other basal ganglia. Emotional processing and learning, and several social and affective decision-making functions are impaired in psychopathy, which correlates with specific changes in neural functions. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Functional integration over geometries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mottola, E.
1995-01-01
The geometric construction of the functional integral over coset spaces M/G is reviewed. The inner product on the cotangent space of infinitesimal deformations of M defines an invariant distance and volume form, or functional integration measure on the full configuration space. Then, by a simple change of coordinates parameterizing the gauge fiber G, the functional measure on the coset space M/G is deduced. This change of integration variables leads to a Jacobian which is entirely equivalent to the Faddeev--Popov determinant of the more traditional gauge fixed approach in non-abelian gauge theory. If the general construction is applied to the case where G is the group of coordinate reparameterizations of spacetime, the continuum functional integral over geometries, i.e. metrics modulo coordinate reparameterizations may be defined. The invariant functional integration measure is used to derive the trace anomaly and effective action for the conformal part of the metric in two and four dimensional spacetime. In two dimensions this approach generates the Polyakov--Liouville action of closed bosonic non-critical string theory. In four dimensions the corresponding effective action leads to novel conclusions on the importance of quantum effects in gravity in the far infrared, and in particular, a dramatic modification of the classical Einstein theory at cosmological distance scales, signaled first by the quantum instability of classical de Sitter spacetime. Finite volume scaling relations for the functional integral of quantum gravity in two and four dimensions are derived, and comparison with the discretized dynamical triangulation approach to the integration over geometries are discussed. Outstanding unsolved problems in both the continuum definition and the simplicial approach to the functional integral over geometries are highlighted
Renal Function in Hypothyroidism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khalid, S.; Khalid, M; Elfaki, M.; Hassan, N.; Suliman, S.M.
2007-01-01
Background Hypothyroidism induces significant changes in the function of organ systems such as the heart, muscles and brain. Renal function is also influenced by thyroid status. Physiological effects include changes in water and electrolyte metabolism, notably hyponatremia, and reliable alterations of renal hemodynamics, including decrements in renal blood flow, renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Objective Renal function is profoundly influenced by thyroid status; the purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between renal function and thyroid status of patients with hypothyroidism. Design and Patients In 5 patients with primary hypothyroidism and control group renal functions are measured by serum creatinine and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using modified in diet renal disease (MDRD) formula. Result In hypothyroidism, mean serum creatinine increased and mean estimated GFR decreased, compared to the control group mean serum creatinine decreased and mean estimated GFR Increased. The hypothyroid patients showed elevated serum creatinine levels (> 1.1mg/dl) compared to control group (p value .000). In patients mean estimated GFR decreased, compared to mean estimated GFR increased in the control group (p value= .002).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Samson Z Assefa
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Sleep is a ubiquitous component of animal life including birds and mammals. The exact function of sleep has been one of the mysteries of biology. A considerable number of theories have been put forward to explain the reason(s for the necessity of sleep. To date, while a great deal is known about what happens when animals sleep, there is no definitive comprehensive explanation as to the reason that sleep is an inevitable part of animal functioning. It is well known that sleep is a homeostatically regulated body process, and that prolonged sleep deprivation is fatal in animals. In this paper, we present some of the theories as to the functions of sleep and provide a review of some hypotheses as to the overall physiologic function of sleep. To better understand the purpose for sleeping, we review the effects of sleep deprivation on physical, neurocognitive and psychic function. A better understanding of the purpose for sleeping will be a great advance in our understanding of the nature of the animal kingdom, including our own.
Renal Function in Hypothyroidism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khalid, A. S; Ahmed, M.I; Elfaki, H.M; Hassan, N.; Suliman, S. M.
2006-12-01
Background hypothyroidism induces significant changes in the function of organ systems such as the heart, muscles and brain. Renal function is also influenced by thyroid status. Physiological effects include changes in water and electrolyte metabolism, notably hyponatraemia, and reliable alterations of renal hemodynamics, including decrements in renal blood flow, renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Objective renal function is profoundly influenced by thyroid status, the purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between renal function and thyroid status of patients with hypothyroidism. Design and patients in 5 patients with primary hypothyroidism and control group renal functions are measured by serum creatinine and glomerular filtration rate(GFR) using modified in diet renal disease (MDRD) formula. Result in hypothyroidism, mean serum creatinine increased and mean estimated GFR decreased, compared to the control group mean serum creatinine decreased and mean estimated GFR increased. The hypothyroid patients showed elevated serum creatinine levels(>1.1 mg/d1) compared to control group (p value= 000). In patients mean estimated GFR increased in the control group (p value=.002).Conclusion thus the kidney, in addition to the brain, heart and muscle, is an important target of the action of thyroid hormones.(Author)
The tensor distribution function.
Leow, A D; Zhu, S; Zhan, L; McMahon, K; de Zubicaray, G I; Meredith, M; Wright, M J; Toga, A W; Thompson, P M
2009-01-01
Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging is a powerful tool that can be employed to study white matter microstructure by examining the 3D displacement profile of water molecules in brain tissue. By applying diffusion-sensitized gradients along a minimum of six directions, second-order tensors (represented by three-by-three positive definite matrices) can be computed to model dominant diffusion processes. However, conventional DTI is not sufficient to resolve more complicated white matter configurations, e.g., crossing fiber tracts. Recently, a number of high-angular resolution schemes with more than six gradient directions have been employed to address this issue. In this article, we introduce the tensor distribution function (TDF), a probability function defined on the space of symmetric positive definite matrices. Using the calculus of variations, we solve the TDF that optimally describes the observed data. Here, fiber crossing is modeled as an ensemble of Gaussian diffusion processes with weights specified by the TDF. Once this optimal TDF is determined, the orientation distribution function (ODF) can easily be computed by analytic integration of the resulting displacement probability function. Moreover, a tensor orientation distribution function (TOD) may also be derived from the TDF, allowing for the estimation of principal fiber directions and their corresponding eigenvalues.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kornblum, J.J.
1974-01-01
The search for a quantitative neutron source function for the lunar surface region is justified because it contributes to our understanding of the history of the lunar surface and of nuclear process occurring on the moon since its formation. A knowledge of the neutron source function and neutron flux distribution is important for the interpretation of many experimental measurements. This dissertation uses the available pertinent experimental measurements together with theoretical calculations to obtain an estimate of the lunar neutron source function below 15 MeV. Based upon reasonable assumptions a lunar neutron source function having adjustable parameters is assumed for neutrons below 15 MeV. The lunar neutron source function is composed of several components resulting from the action of cosmic rays with lunar material. A comparison with previous neutron calculations is made and significant differences are discussed. Application of the results to the problem of lunar soil histories is examined using the statistical model for soil development proposed by Fireman. The conclusion is drawn that the moon is losing mass
Functional (psychogenic) stereotypies.
Baizabal-Carvallo, José Fidel; Jankovic, Joseph
2017-07-01
Functional (psychogenic) movement disorders (FMDs) may present with a broad spectrum of phenomenology including stereotypic movements. We aimed to characterize the phenomenology of functional stereotypies and compare these features with those observed in 65 patients with tardive dyskinesia (TD). From a cohort of 184 patients with FMDs, we identified 19 (10.3%) with functional stereotypies (FS). There were 15 women and 4 men, with a mean age at onset of 38.6 ± 17.4 years. Among the patients with FS, there were 9 (47%) with orolingual dyskinesia/stereotypy, 9 (47%) with limb stereotypies, 6 (32%) with trunk stereotypies, and 2 (11%) with respiratory dyskinesia as part of orofacial-laryngeal-trunk stereotypy. These patients showed signs commonly seen in FMDs such as sudden onset (84%), prominent distractibility (58%), and periods of unexplained improvement (84%) that were not reported in patients with TD. Besides a much lower frequency of exposure to potential offending drugs, patients with FS differed from those with classic TD by a younger age at onset, lack of self-biting, uncommon chewing movements, more frequent lingual movements without mouth dyskinesia, and associated functional tremor and abnormal speech. Lack of self-biting showed the highest sensitivity (1.0) and abnormal speech showed the highest specificity (0.9) for the diagnosis of functional orolingual dyskinesia. FS represent part of the clinical spectrum of FMDs. Clinical and demographic features are helpful in distinguishing patients with FS from those with TD.
Functional Anorectal Disorders.
Rao, Satish Sc; Bharucha, Adil E; Chiarioni, Giuseppe; Felt-Bersma, Richelle; Knowles, Charles; Malcolm, Allison; Wald, Arnold
2016-03-25
This report defines criteria and reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management of common anorectal disorders: fecal incontinence (FI), functional anorectal pain and functional defecation disorders. FI is defined as the recurrent uncontrolled passage of fecal material for at least 3 months. The clinical features of FI are useful for guiding diagnostic testing and therapy. Anorectal manometry and imaging are useful for evaluating anal and pelvic floor structure and function. Education, antidiarrheals and biofeedback therapy are the mainstay of management; surgery may be useful in refractory cases. Functional anorectal pain syndromes are defined by clinical features and categorized into three subtypes. In proctalgia fugax, the pain is typically fleeting and lasts for seconds to minutes. In levator ani syndrome (LAS) and unspecified anorectal pain the pain lasts more than 30 minutes, but in LAS there is puborectalis tenderness. Functional defecation disorders are defined by >2 symptoms of chronic constipation or irritable bowel syndrome with constipation, and with >2 features of impaired evacuation i.e., abnormal evacuation pattern on manometry, abnormal balloon expulsion test or impaired rectal evacuation by imaging. It includes two subtypes; dyssynergic defecation and inadequate defecatory propulsion. Pelvic floor biofeedback therapy is effective for treating LAS and defecatory disorders. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Blair, Clancy
2016-01-01
Executive functions are thinking skills that assist with reasoning, planning, problem solving, and managing one’s life. The brain areas that underlie these skills are interconnected with and influenced by activity in many different brain areas, some of which are associated with emotion and stress. One consequence of the stress-specific connections is that executive functions, which help us to organize our thinking, tend to be disrupted when stimulation is too high and we are stressed out, or too low when we are bored and lethargic. Given their central role in reasoning and also in managing stress and emotion, scientists have conducted studies, primarily with adults, to determine whether executive functions can be improved by training. By and large, results have shown that they can be, in part through computer-based videogame-like activities. Evidence of wider, more general benefits from such computer-based training, however, is mixed. Accordingly, scientists have reasoned that training will have wider benefits if it is implemented early, with very young children as the neural circuitry of executive functions is developing, and that it will be most effective if embedded in children’s everyday activities. Evidence produced by this research, however, is also mixed. In sum, much remains to be learned about executive function training. Without question, however, continued research on this important topic will yield valuable information about cognitive development. PMID:27906522
Staunton, H
2001-01-01
Theories on the function of REM sleep and dreaming, with which it has a contingent relationship, remain diverse. They include facilitation of memory storage, reverse learning, anatomical and functional brain maturation, catecholamine restoration, psychoanalytical (wish fulfilment or otherwise). It is possible that one function is grafted onto another as the personality develops. Given a close relationship between REM sleep and dreaming, and given that the neonate spends 18 hours asleep per day, of which 12 hours are spent in REM sleep, it is logical to look in the neonate for a primary function of dreaming. The two constants in the dreaming process are: 1) the dreamer is always present as first person observer; 2) there is always a topographical setting. Based on the foregoing, it is proposed that a major function of REM sleep is the development and maintenance of a sense of personal identity, through creating a 'being there' environment at regular intervals during prolonged periods of absence from a waking state in topographical surrounds. The infant cannot forget who he/she is. Thus, he/she develops a clear sense of his/her own identity, or the 'I'ness of me', and a sense of his/her separateness from the topographical world. At the same time, by largely forgetting the dreams, he/she is not burdened by the need for an elaborate method of storage of the vicarious and bizarre experiences.
Effect of functional overreaching on executive functions.
Dupuy, O; Renaud, M; Bherer, L; Bosquet, L
2010-09-01
The aim of this study was to investigate whether cognitive performance was a valid marker of overreaching. 10 well-trained male endurance athletes increased their training load by 100% for 2 weeks. They performed a maximal graded test, a constant speed test, a reaction time task and a computerized version of the Stroop color word-test before and after this overload period. Regarding performance results, five participants were considered as overreached and the five remaining were considered as well-trained. We found no significant differences between groups in performing the Stroop test. Noteworthy, we found a small increase in response time in the more complex condition in overreached athletes (1 188+/-261 to 1 297+/-231 ms, effect size=0.44), while it decreased moderately in the well-trained athletes (1 066+/-175 to 963+/-171 ms, effect size=-0.59). Furthermore, we found an interaction between time and group on initiation time of the reaction time task, since it increased in overreached athletes after the overload period (246+/-24 to 264+/-26 ms, p<0.05), while it remained unchanged in well-trained participants. Participants made very few anticipation errors, whatever the group or the period (error rate <2%).We concluded that an unaccustomed increase in training volume which is accompanied by a decrement in physical performance induces a deterioration of some executive functions. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.
Functional illiteracy in Slovenia
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ester Možina
1999-12-01
Full Text Available The author draws attention to the fact that, in determining functional illiteracy, there remain many terminological disagreements and diverse opinions regarding illiteracy. Furthermore, there are also different methods for measuring writing abilities, thus leading to disparate results. The introductory section presents the dilemmas relating to the term of functional illiteracy, while the second part is concerned with the various methods for measuring literacy. Thus, the author also critically assesses the research studies aimed at evaluating the scope of literacy amongst adults in Slovenia during the past decade. ln this paper, she has adopted a methodology which would not determine what is functional and what is not in our society, in order to avoid limiting the richness of individual writing praxis.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McCready, V.R.; Leach, M.O.; Sutton; Ell, P.
1986-01-01
The object of this book is to discuss and evaluate an area of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance which to date has been less emphasized than it might be, namely the use of NMR for functional studies. The book commences with a discussion of the areas in which the NMR techniques might be needed due to deficiencies in other techniques. The physics of NMR especially relating to functional measurement are then explained. Technical factors in producing functional images are discussed and the use of paramagnetic substances for carrying out flow studies are detailed. Particular attention is paid to specific studies in the various organs. The book ends with a survey of imaging in each organ and the relation of NMR images to other techniques such as ultrasound, nuclear medicine and X-rays
Quantal density functional theory
Sahni, Viraht
2016-01-01
This book deals with quantal density functional theory (QDFT) which is a time-dependent local effective potential theory of the electronic structure of matter. The treated time-independent QDFT constitutes a special case. In the 2nd edition, the theory is extended to include the presence of external magnetostatic fields. The theory is a description of matter based on the ‘quantal Newtonian’ first and second laws which is in terms of “classical” fields that pervade all space, and their quantal sources. The fields, which are explicitly defined, are separately representative of electron correlations due to the Pauli exclusion principle, Coulomb repulsion, correlation-kinetic, correlation-current-density, and correlation-magnetic effects. The book further describes Schrödinger theory from the new physical perspective of fields and quantal sources. It also describes traditional Hohenberg-Kohn-Sham DFT, and explains via QDFT the physics underlying the various energy functionals and functional derivatives o...
Protein Functionalized Nanodiamond Arrays
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liu YL
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Various nanoscale elements are currently being explored for bio-applications, such as in bio-images, bio-detection, and bio-sensors. Among them, nanodiamonds possess remarkable features such as low bio-cytotoxicity, good optical property in fluorescent and Raman spectra, and good photostability for bio-applications. In this work, we devise techniques to position functionalized nanodiamonds on self-assembled monolayer (SAMs arrays adsorbed on silicon and ITO substrates surface using electron beam lithography techniques. The nanodiamond arrays were functionalized with lysozyme to target a certain biomolecule or protein specifically. The optical properties of the nanodiamond-protein complex arrays were characterized by a high throughput confocal microscope. The synthesized nanodiamond-lysozyme complex arrays were found to still retain their functionality in interacting with E. coli.
Choice probability generating functions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fosgerau, Mogens; McFadden, Daniel; Bierlaire, Michel
2010-01-01
This paper establishes that every random utility discrete choice model (RUM) has a representation that can be characterized by a choice-probability generating function (CPGF) with specific properties, and that every function with these specific properties is consistent with a RUM. The choice...... probabilities from the RUM are obtained from the gradient of the CPGF. Mixtures of RUM are characterized by logarithmic mixtures of their associated CPGF. The paper relates CPGF to multivariate extreme value distributions, and reviews and extends methods for constructing generating functions for applications....... The choice probabilities of any ARUM may be approximated by a cross-nested logit model. The results for ARUM are extended to competing risk survival models....
Functional Programming Using F#
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Michael Reichhardt; Rischel, Hans
This comprehensive introduction to the principles of functional programming using F# shows how to apply basic theoretical concepts to produce succinct and elegant programs. It demonstrates the role of functional programming in a wide spectrum of applications including databases and systems....... Coverage also includes advanced features in the .NET library, the imperative features of F# and topics such as text processing, sequences, computation expressions and asynchronous computation. With a broad spectrum of examples and exercises, the book is perfect for courses in functional programming...... and for self-study. Enhancing its use as a text is an accompanying website with downloadable programs, lecture slides, a mini-projects and links to further F# sources....
Expanding Pseudorandom Functions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Nielsen, Jesper Buus
2002-01-01
Given any weak pseudorandom function, we present a general and efficient technique transforming such a function to a new weak pseudorandom function with an arbitrary length output. This implies, among other things, an encryption mode for block ciphers. The mode is as efficient as known (and widely...... used) encryption modes as CBC mode and counter (CTR) mode, but is provably secure against chosen-plaintext attack (CPA) already if the underlying symmetric cipher is secure against known-plaintext attack (KPA). We prove that CBC, CTR and Jutla’s integrity aware modes do not have this property....... In particular, we prove that when using a KPA secure block cipher, then: CBC mode is KPA secure, but need not be CPA secure, Jutla’s modes need not be CPA secure, and CTR mode need not be even KPA secure. The analysis is done in a concrete security framework....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levine, R.D.
1988-01-01
Statistical considerations are applied to quantum mechanical amplitudes. The physical motivation is the progress in the spectroscopy of highly excited states. The corresponding wave functions are strongly mixed. In terms of a basis set of eigenfunctions of a zeroth-order Hamiltonian with good quantum numbers, such wave functions have contributions from many basis states. The vector x is considered whose components are the expansion coefficients in that basis. Any amplitude can be written as a dagger x x. It is argued that the components of x and hence other amplitudes can be regarded as random variables. The maximum entropy formalism is applied to determine the corresponding distribution function. Two amplitudes a dagger x x and b dagger x x are independently distributed if b dagger x a = 0. It is suggested that the theory of quantal measurements implies that, in general, one can one determine the distribution of amplitudes and not the amplitudes themselves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Line A.; Zois, Nora Elisabeth; Pedersen, Henrik D.
2007-01-01
Background: Clinical studies investigating platelet function in dogs have had conflicting results that may be caused by normal physiologic variation in platelet response to agonists. Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate platelet function in clinically healthy dogs of 4...... different breeds by whole-blood aggregometry and with a point-of-care platelet function analyzer (PFA-100), and to evaluate the effect of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) administration on the results from both methods. Methods: Forty-five clinically healthy dogs (12 Cavalier King Charles Spaniels [CKCS], 12...... applied. However, the importance of these breed differences remains to be investigated. The PFA-100 method with Col + Epi as agonists, and ADP-induced platelet aggregation appear to be sensitive to ASA in dogs....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khrapko, R.I.
1985-01-01
A uniform description of various path-dependent functions is presented with the help of expansion of the type of the Taylor series. So called ''path-integrals'' and ''path-tensor'' are introduced which are systems of many-component quantities whose values are defined for arbitrary paths in coordinated region of space in such a way that they contain a complete information on the path. These constructions are considered as elementary path-dependent functions and are used instead of power monomials in the usual Taylor series. Coefficients of such an expansion are interpreted as partial derivatives dependent on the order of the differentiations or else as nonstandard cavariant derivatives called two-point derivatives. Some examples of pathdependent functions are presented.Space curvature tensor is considered whose geometrica properties are determined by the (non-transitive) translator of parallel transport of a general type. Covariant operation leading to the ''extension'' of tensor fiels is pointed out
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E
1988-01-01
Twenty-five patients with functional bowel disease were given fructose, sorbitol, fructose-sorbitol mixtures, and sucrose. The occurrence of malabsorption was evaluated by means of hydrogen breath tests and the gastrointestinal symptoms, if any, were recorded. One patient could not be evaluated...... because of lack of H2 production. Based on a cut-off level of 10 ppm rise of H2 concentration, malabsorption was apparent in 13 patients, in 7 of which the calculated absorption capacities were below 15 g. In contrast, in patients given 50 g of sucrose, malabsorption could not be detected. Ingestion...... with functional bowel disease. The findings may have direct influence on the dietary guidance given to a major group of patients with functional bowel disease and may make it possible to define separate entities in this disease complex....
Functional digital substraction sialography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yudin, L.; Saidkarimova, I.
1994-01-01
The proposed method of functional digital substraction sialography makes possible to reduce the amount of contrast substance used, by comparison to conventional sialography. The processing of the obtained image during different phases of the contrast visualisation of the gland allows for detecting and recording eventual functional disorders. A more clear-cut visualization of subtracted contrast images against the background of the eliminated bone structures is attained. A total of 37 patients presenting various diseases of salivary glands are covered in this study. The procedure applied contributes greatly to improving the quality of diagnosing information afforded by the counter-stained image of salivary glands at reduced radiation exposure and shorter time of examination. An essential advantage is the possibility provided to disclose functional and morphological changes, especially in the early phases of the disease. 11 refs. (orig.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Glaveanu, Vlad Petre
2014-01-01
of their manifold functions that integrates aesthetic and utilitarian, individual and social roles. Ornaments help us to identify and locate, tell or communicate, remind and organise our action, they guide our attention, express and individualise, can generate an experience, beautify as well as re......-present. These functions are illustrated with examples from a study of Easter egg decoration practices in northern Romania. In the end, the ‘meta-function’ of emergence is discussed and consideration is given to the spatial and temporal contexts of ornaments. Future opportunities for theorising ornamentation...
Sarason, Donald
2007-01-01
Complex Function Theory is a concise and rigorous introduction to the theory of functions of a complex variable. Written in a classical style, it is in the spirit of the books by Ahlfors and by Saks and Zygmund. Being designed for a one-semester course, it is much shorter than many of the standard texts. Sarason covers the basic material through Cauchy's theorem and applications, plus the Riemann mapping theorem. It is suitable for either an introductory graduate course or an undergraduate course for students with adequate preparation. The first edition was published with the title Notes on Co
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Virchaux, M.
1992-11-01
The present status of experimental measurements of the nucleon structure functions is reviewed. The results from nearly all deep inelastic experiments are in good mutual agreement. Principles of the analysis of these structure function data in the framework of QCD are described. The specific features of the perturbative QCD predictions are observed in the data. This provides quantitative tests of the validity of QCD as well as determinations of the various parton distributions in the nucleon and some of the most precise measurements of the strong coupling constant αs. The future of this field of experimental physics is sketched
Harmonic supergraphs. Green functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galperin, A.; Ivanov, E.; Gievetsky, V.; Sokatchev, E.
1985-01-01
The quantization procedure in the harmonic superspace approach is worked out. Harmonic distributions are introduced and are used to construct the analytic superspace delta-functions and the Green functions for the hypermultiplet and the N=2 Yang-Mills superfields. The gauge fixing is described and the relevant Faddeev-Popov ghosts are defined. The corresponding BRST transformations are found. The harmonic superspace quantization of the N=2 gauge theory turns out to be rather simple and has many parallels with that for the standard (N=0) Yang-Mills theory. In particular, no ghosts-forghosts are needed
Chromatin Structure and Function
Wolffe, Alan P
1999-01-01
The Third Edition of Chromatin: Structure and Function brings the reader up-to-date with the remarkable progress in chromatin research over the past three years. It has been extensively rewritten to cover new material on chromatin remodeling, histone modification, nuclear compartmentalization, DNA methylation, and transcriptional co-activators and co-repressors. The book is written in a clear and concise fashion, with 60 new illustrations. Chromatin: Structure and Function provides the reader with a concise and coherent account of the nature, structure, and assembly of chromatin and its active
Unpolarized Structure Functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christy, M.E.; Melnitchouk, W.
2011-01-01
Over the past decade measurements of unpolarized structure functions with unprecedented precision have significantly advanced our knowledge of nucleon structure. These have for the first time allowed quantitative tests of the phenomenon of quark-hadron duality, and provided a deeper understanding of the transition from hadron to quark degrees of freedom in inclusive scattering. Dedicated Rosenbluth-separation experiments have yielded high-precision transverse and longitudinal structure functions in regions previously unexplored, and new techniques have enabled the first glimpses of the structure of the free neutron, without contamination from nuclear effects.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Jinsoo; Lee, Soojoon; Chi, Dong Pyo
2002-01-01
The limitation on the size of quantum computers makes it important to reuse qubits for auxiliary registers even though they are entangled with others and are occupied by other computational processes. We construct a quantum algorithm that performs the functional phase rotation, which is the generalized form of the conventional conditional phase transforms, using the functional evaluation oracle. The constructed algorithm works without any a priori knowledge of the state of an auxiliary register at the beginning and it recovers the initial state of an auxiliary register at the end. This provides ample scope to choose qubits for auxiliary registers at will. (author)
Importance analysis based on logical differential calculus and Binary Decision Diagram
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zaitseva, Elena; Levashenko, Vitaly; Kostolny, Jozef
2015-01-01
System availability evaluation, sensitivity analysis, Importance Measures, and optimal design are important issues that have become research topics for reliability engineering. There are different mathematical approaches to the development of these topics. The structure function based approach is one of them. Structure function enables one to analyse a system of any complexity. But computational complexity of structure function based methods is time consuming for large-scale networks. We propose to use two mathematical approaches for decision to this problem for system importance analysis. The first of them is Direct Partial Boolean Derivative. New equations for calculating the Importance Measures are developed in terms of these derivatives. The second is Binary Decision Diagram (BDD), that supports efficient manipulation of Boolean algebra. Two algorithms for calculating Direct Partial Boolean Derivative based on BDD of structure function are proposed in this paper. The experimental results show the efficiency of new algorithms for calculating Direct Partial Boolean Derivative and Importance Measures. - Highlights: • New approach for calculation of Importance Measures is proposed. • Direct Partial Boolean Derivatives are used for calculation of Importance Measures. • New equations for Importance Measures are obtained. • New algorithm to calculate Direct Partial Boolean Derivatives by BDD is developed
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lorentzen, Jakob; Poulsen, Ingrid
2005-01-01
Early Functional Abilities (EFA), - en skala til evaluering af behandlingsforløb af svært hjerneskadede patienter i forbindelse med tidlig rehabilitering. Formål At monitorere og dokumentere rehabiliteringsforløbet for svært hjerneskadede patienter, hvor funktionsniveauet endnu ikke kan registreres...
Wine and endothelial function.
Caimi, G; Carollo, C; Lo Presti, R
2003-01-01
In recent years many studies have focused on the well-known relationship between wine consumption and cardiovascular risk. Wine exerts its protective effects through various changes in lipoprotein profile, coagulation and fibrinolytic cascades, platelet aggregation, oxidative mechanisms and endothelial function. The last has earned more attention for its implications in atherogenesis. Endothelium regulates vascular tone by a delicate balancing among vasorelaxing (nitric oxide [NO]) and vasoconstrincting (endothelins) factors produced by endothelium in response to various stimuli. In rat models, wine and other grape derivatives exerted an endothelium-dependent vasorelaxing capacity especially associated with the NO-stimulating activity of their polyphenol components. In experimental conditions, reservatrol (a stilbene polyphenol) protected hearts and kidneys from ischemia-reperfusion injury through antioxidant activity and upregulation of NO production. Wine polyphenols are also able to induce the expression of genes involved in the NO pathway within the arterial wall. The effects of wine on endothelial function in humans are not yet clearly understood. A favorable action of red wine or dealcoholized wine extract or purple grape juice on endothelial function has been observed by several authors, but discrimination between ethanol and polyphenol effects is controversial. It is, however likely that regular and prolonged moderate wine drinking positively affects endothelial function. The beneficial effects of wine on cardiovascular health are greater if wine is associated with a healthy diet. The most recent nutritional and epidemiologic studies show that the ideal diet closely resembles the Mediterranean diet.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bang, Anne Louise
2007-01-01
sensing of fabrics in function. It is proposed that tactile and visual sensing of fabrics is a way to investigate and express emotional utility values. The further purpose is to use experiments with repertory grid models as part of the mapping of the entire research project and also as a basis...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sinden, Richard R.; E. Pearson, Christopher; N. Potaman, Vladimir
1998-01-01
This chapter discusses the structure and function of DNA. DNA occupies a critical role in cells, because it is the source of all intrinsic genetic information. Chemically, DNA is a very stable molecule, a characteristic important for a macromolecule that may have to persist in an intact form...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Winther, Sally
. The first part of this thesis explores this by identifying and investigating two novel kinase regulators of brown adipocyte function. Study 1 demonstrates that spleen tyrosine kinase is a hitherto undescribed regulator of brown adipocyte differentiation and activation. Study 2 identifies glycogen synthase...
Deimling, Klaus
1985-01-01
topics. However, only a modest preliminary knowledge is needed. In the first chapter, where we introduce an important topological concept, the so-called topological degree for continuous maps from subsets ofRn into Rn, you need not know anything about functional analysis. Starting with Chapter 2, where infinite dimensions first appear, one should be familiar with the essential step of consider ing a sequence or a function of some sort as a point in the corresponding vector space of all such sequences or functions, whenever this abstraction is worthwhile. One should also work out the things which are proved in § 7 and accept certain basic principles of linear functional analysis quoted there for easier references, until they are applied in later chapters. In other words, even the 'completely linear' sections which we have included for your convenience serve only as a vehicle for progress in nonlinearity. Another point that makes the text introductory is the use of an essentially uniform mathematical languag...
Smith, Walter T., Jr.; Patterson, John M.
1984-01-01
Literature on analytical methods related to the functional groups of 17 chemical compounds is reviewed. These compounds include acids, acid azides, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, amino acids, aromatic hydrocarbons, carbodiimides, carbohydrates, ethers, nitro compounds, nitrosamines, organometallic compounds, peroxides, phenols, silicon compounds,…
Empirical microeconomics action functionals
Baaquie, Belal E.; Du, Xin; Tanputraman, Winson
2015-06-01
A statistical generalization of microeconomics has been made in Baaquie (2013), where the market price of every traded commodity, at each instant of time, is considered to be an independent random variable. The dynamics of commodity market prices is modeled by an action functional-and the focus of this paper is to empirically determine the action functionals for different commodities. The correlation functions of the model are defined using a Feynman path integral. The model is calibrated using the unequal time correlation of the market commodity prices as well as their cubic and quartic moments using a perturbation expansion. The consistency of the perturbation expansion is verified by a numerical evaluation of the path integral. Nine commodities drawn from the energy, metal and grain sectors are studied and their market behavior is described by the model to an accuracy of over 90% using only six parameters. The paper empirically establishes the existence of the action functional for commodity prices that was postulated to exist in Baaquie (2013).
Ligterink, N.E.
2007-01-01
Functional system dynamics is the analysis, modelling, and simulation of continuous systems usually described by partial differential equations. From the infinite degrees of freedom of such systems only a finite number of relevant variables have to be chosen for a practical model description. The
Objectification and Semiotic Function
Santi, George
2011-01-01
The objective of this paper is to study students' difficulties when they have to ascribe the same meaning to different representations of the same mathematical object. We address two theoretical tools that are at the core of Radford's cultural semiotic and Godino's onto-semiotic approaches: objectification and the semiotic function. The analysis…
Cobham recursive set functions
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Beckmann, A.; Buss, S.; Friedman, S.-D.; Müller, M.; Thapen, Neil
2016-01-01
Roč. 167, č. 3 (2016), s. 335-369 ISSN 0168-0072 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP202/12/G061 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : set function * polynomial time * Cobham recursion Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.647, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168007215001293
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bialynicki-Birula Iwo
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Original definition of the Wigner function can be extended in a natural manner to relativistic domain in the framework of quantum field theory. Three such generalizations are described. They cover the cases of the Dirac particles, the photon, and the full electromagnetic field.
Production Functions Behaving Badly
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fredholm, Thomas
This paper reconsiders Anwar Shaikh's critique of the neoclassical theory of growth and distribution based on its use of aggregate production functions. This is done by reconstructing and extending Franklin M. Fisher's 1971 computer simulations, which Shaikh used to support his critique. Together...
Modifiable Combining Functions
Cohen, Paul; Shafer, Glenn; Shenoy, Prakash P.
2013-01-01
Modifiable combining functions are a synthesis of two common approaches to combining evidence. They offer many of the advantages of these approaches and avoid some disadvantages. Because they facilitate the acquisition, representation, explanation, and modification of knowledge about combinations of evidence, they are proposed as a tool for knowledge engineers who build systems that reason under uncertainty, not as a normative theory of evidence.
Grover, Madhusudan; Drossman, Douglas A
2010-10-01
Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is a relatively less common functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder defined by the presence of constant or frequently recurring abdominal pain that is not associated with eating, change in bowel habits, or menstrual periods (Drossman Gastroenterology 130:1377-1390, 2006), which points to a more centrally targeted (spinal and supraspinal) basis for the symptoms. However, FAPS is frequently confused with irritable bowel syndrome and other functional GI disorders in which abdominal pain is associated with eating and bowel movements. FAPS also differs from chronic abdominal pain associated with entities such as chronic pancreatitis or chronic inflammatory bowel disease, in which the pain is associated with peripherally acting factors (eg, gut inflammation or injury). Given the central contribution to the pain experience, concomitant psychosocial disturbances are common and strongly influence the clinical expression of FAPS, which also by definition is associated with loss of daily functioning. These factors make it critical to use a biopsychosocial construct to understand and manage FAPS, because gut-directed treatments are usually not successful in managing this condition.
Micrononcasual Euclidean wave functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Enatsu, H.; Takenaka, A.; Okazaki, M.
1978-01-01
A theory which describes the internal attributes of hadrons in terms of space-time wave functions is presented. In order to develop the theory on the basis of a rather realistic model, covariant wave equations are first derived for the deuteron, in which the co-ordinates of the centre of mass of two nucleons can be defined unambiguously. Then the micro-noncasual behaviour of virtual mesons mediating between the two nucleons is expressed by means of wave functions depending only on the relative Euclidean co-ordinates with respect to the centre of mass of the two nucleons; the wave functions are assumed to obey the 0 4 and SU 2 x SU 2 groups. The properties of the wave functions under space inversion, time reversal and particle-antiparticle conjugation are investigated. It is found that the internal attributes of the mesons, such as spin, isospin, strangeness, intrinsic parity, charge parity and G-parity are explained consistently. The theory is applicable also to the case of baryons
Functional ingredients from microalgae
Buono, S.; Langellotti, A.L.; Martello, A.; Rinna, F.; Fogliano, V.
2014-01-01
A wide variety of natural sources are under investigation to evaluate their possible use for new functional ingredient formulation. Some records attested the traditional and ancient use of wild harvested microalgae as human food but their cultivation for different purposes started about 40 years
Update on Functional Heartburn
Yamasaki, Takahisa; O’Neil, Jessica
2017-01-01
The definition of functional heartburn has been refined over the years. It is currently described, based upon Rome IV criteria, as typical heartburn symptoms in the presence of normal upper endoscopy findings (including normal biopsies), normal esophageal pH testing, and a negative association between symptoms and reflux events. Functional heartburn is very common, affecting women more than men, and with reflux hypersensitivity makes up the majority of heartburn patients who fail twice-daily proton pump inhibitor therapy. These disorders overlap with other functional gastrointestinal disorders and are often accompanied by psychological comorbidities. Diagnosis is made by using endoscopy with esophageal biopsies, wireless pH capsule, pH-impedance monitoring, and high-resolution esophageal manometry. Additional diagnostic tools that may be of value include magnification endoscopy, chromoendoscopy, narrow-band imaging, autofluorescence imaging, mucosal impedance, impedance baseline values, and histopathology scores. Functional heartburn is primarily treated with neuromodulators. Psychological intervention and complementary and alternative medicine may also play important roles in the treatment of these patients. PMID:29339948
Efficient Generic Functional Programming
Alimarine, A.; Smetsers, J.E.W.
2005-01-01
Generic functions are defined by induction on the structural representation of types. As a consequence, by defining just a single generic operation, one acquires this operation over any particular data type. An instance on a specific type is generated by interpretation of the type's structure. A
Alimarine, A.; Smetsers, J.E.W.
2004-01-01
Generic functions are defined by induction on the structural representation of types. As a consequence, by defining just a single generic operation, one acquires this operation over any particular type. An instance on a specific type is generated by interpretation of the type's structure. A direct
Logarithmic-function generator
Caron, P. R.
1975-01-01
Solid-state logarithmic-function generator is compact and provides improved accuracy. Generator includes a stable multivibrator feeding into RC circuit. Resulting exponentially decaying voltage is compared with input signal. Generator output is proportional to time required for exponential voltage to decay from preset reference level to level of input signal.
Functional Communication Training
Durand, V. Mark; Moskowitz, Lauren
2015-01-01
Thirty years ago, the first experimental demonstration was published showing that educators could improve significant challenging behavior in children with disabilities by replacing these behaviors with forms of communication that served the same purpose, a procedure called functional communication training (FCT). Since the publication of that…