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Sample records for bone regenerative effects

  1. Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2, but Not Mesenchymal Stromal Cells, Exert Regenerative Effects on Canine and Human Nucleus Pulposus Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bach, Frances C.; Miranda-Bedate, Alberto; Van Heel, Ferdi W M; Riemers, Frank M.; Müller, Margot C M E; Creemers, Laura B.; Ito, Keita; Benz, Karin; Meij, Björn P.; Tryfonidou, Marianna A.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic back pain is related to intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration and dogs are employed as animal models to develop growth factor- and cell-based regenerative treatments. In this respect, the differential effects of transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) and bone morphogenetic protein-2

  2. Bone morphogenetic protein-2, but not mesenchymal stromal cells, exert regenerative effects on canine and human nucleus pulposus cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bach, Frances; Miranda-Bedate, Alberto; van Heel, Ferdi; Riemers, Frank; Muller, Margot; Creemers, Laura; Ito, Keita; Benz, Karin; Meij, Björn; Tryfonidou, M

    2017-01-01

    Chronic back pain is related to intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration and dogs are employed as animal models to develop growth factor- and cell-based regenerative treatments. In this respect, the differential effects of transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) and bone morphogenetic protein-2

  3. Bone morphogenetic protein-2, but not mesenchymal stromal cells, exert regenerative effects on Canine and human nucleus pulposus cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bach, F.C.; Miranda-Bedate, A.; Van Heel, F.W.M.; Riemers, F.M.; Müller, M.C.M.E.; Creemers, L.B.; Ito, K.; Benz, K.; Meij, B.P.; Tryfonidou, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic back pain is related to intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration and dogs are employed as animal models to develop growth factor- and cell-based regenerative treatments. In this respect, the differential effects of transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) and bone morphogenetic protein-2

  4. Regenerative Stem Cell Therapy for Breast Cancer Bone Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    1 AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0593 TITLE: Regenerative Stem Cell Therapy for Breast Cancer Bone Metastasis PRINCIPAL...3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 09/15/2011 - 08/14/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Regenerative Stem Cell Therapy for Breast Cancer Bone Metastasis 5a...4 Title of the Grant: Regenerative Stem Cell Therapy for Breast Cancer Bone Metastasis Award number: W81XWH-11-1-0593 Principal Investigator

  5. Adaptive scapula bone remodeling computational simulation: Relevance to regenerative medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Gulshan B.; Robertson, Douglas D.

    2013-01-01

    actual specimen. Low predicted bone density was lower than actual specimen. Differences were probably due to applied muscle and joint reaction loads, boundary conditions, and values of constants used. Work is underway to study this. Nonetheless, the results demonstrate three dimensional bone remodeling simulation validity and potential. Such adaptive predictions take physiological bone remodeling simulations one step closer to reality. Computational analyses are needed that integrate biological remodeling rules and predict how bone will respond over time. We expect the combination of computational static stress analyses together with adaptive bone remodeling simulations to become effective tools for regenerative medicine research

  6. Functional and regenerative effects of local administration of autologous mononuclear bone marrow cells combined with silicone conduit on transected femoral nerve of rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Anelise Bonilla; Schestatsky, Pedro; Torres, Vítor Félix; Gomes, Cristiano; Gianotti, Giordano Cabral; Paz, Ana Helena da Rosa; Terraciano, Paula Barros; Marques, Janete Maria Volpato; Guimarães, Karina Magano; Graça, Dominguita Lühers; Cirne-Lima, Elizabeth Obino; Contesini, Emerson Antonio

    2015-10-01

    The inoculation of cells into injury sites can accelerate and improve the quality of nerve regeneration. This study aimed to evaluate the functional and regenerative effects of mononuclear autologous bone marrow cells (MABMC) combined with silicon conduit grafting in rabbit femoral nerves. Twenty-eight animals were allocated to one of two groups: treatment group (TG) or control group (CG), divided according to the time of evaluation, at either 50 or 75 days. After neurotmesis of the femoral nerve, surgical repair was performed with nerve autografts in silicon conduits, leaving a 5mm gap in both groups. The TG received MABMC in silicon conduits, and CG received a sham saline inoculum. Histological, clinical and electrophysiological analyses detected no differences between groups, but analysis of leg diameter showed that TG diameters were larger. This cell therapy did not improve regeneration of the femoral nerve, but there was a tendency for better functional recovery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Use of carboxymethyl cellulose and collagen carrier with equine bone lyophilisate suggests late onset bone regenerative effect in a humerus drill defect - a pilot study in six sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas; Foldager, Casper Bindzus; Jakobsen, Thomas Vestergaard

    2010-01-01

    in the other. The animals were divided into three groups of two animals and observed for 8, 12 and 16 weeks. Drill holes was evaluated using quantitative computed tomography (QCT), micro computed tomography (microCT) and histomorphometry. Mean total bone mineral density (BMD) of each implantation site...... was calculated with both QCT and microCT. Bone volume to total volume (BV/TV) was analyzed using microCT and histomorphometry. Although not statistically significant, results showed increased bone BMD after 16 weeks in microCT data and an increased BV/TV after 16 weeks in both microCT and histology. Correlation...... between QCT and microCT was R(2) = 0.804. Correlation between histomorphometry and microCT BV/TV data was R(2) = 0.8935 and with an average overrepresentation of 8.2% in histomorphometry. In conclusion the CMC-Collagen + Colloss E filler seems like a viable osteogenic bone filler mid- to long term...

  8. Plug and play: combining materials and technologies to improve bone regenerative strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moroni, Lorenzo; Nandakumar, A.; Barrère, F.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Habibovic, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent advances in the development of biomaterials intended to replace natural bone grafts for the regeneration of large, clinically relevant defects, most synthetic solutions that are currently applied in the clinic are still inferior to natural bone grafts with regard to regenerative

  9. Intranasal delivery of hypoxia-preconditioned bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells enhanced regenerative effects after intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jinmei; Wei, Zheng Zachory; Gu, Xiaohuan; Zhang, James Ya; Zhang, Yongbo; Li, Jimei; Wei, Ling

    2015-10-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke (ICH) causes high mortality and morbidity with very limited treatment options. Cell-based therapy has emerged as a novel approach to replace damaged brain tissues and promote regenerative processes. In this study we tested the hypothesis that intranasally delivered hypoxia-preconditioned BMSCs could reach the brain, promote tissue repair and improve functional recovery after ICH. Hemorrhagic stroke was induced in adult C57/B6 mice by injection of collagenase IV into the striatum. Animals were randomly divided into three groups: sham group, intranasal BMSC treatment group, and vehicle treatment group. BMSCs were pre-treated with hypoxic preconditioning (HP) and pre-labeled with Hoechst before transplantation. Behavior tests, including the mNSS score, rotarod test, adhesive removal test, and locomotor function evaluation were performed at varying days, up to 21days, after ICH to evaluate the therapeutic effects of BMSC transplantation. Western blots and immunohistochemistry were performed to analyze the neurotrophic effects. Intranasally delivered HP-BMSCs were identified in peri-injury regions. NeuN+/BrdU+ co-labeled cells were markedly increased around the hematoma region, and growth factors, including BDNF, GDNF, and VEGF were significantly upregulated in the ICH brain after BMSC treatment. The BMSC treatment group showed significant improvement in behavioral performance compared with the vehicle group. Our data also showed that intranasally delivered HP-BMSCs migrated to peri-injury regions and provided growth factors to increase neurogenesis after ICH. We conclude that intranasal administration of BMSC is an effective treatment for ICH, and that it enhanced neuroregenerative effects and promoted neurological functional recovery after ICH. Overall, the investigation supports the potential therapeutic strategy for BMSC transplantation therapy against hemorrhagic stroke. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Bone Marrow Stem Cell Derived Paracrine Factors for Regenerative Medicine: Current Perspectives and Therapeutic Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom J. Burdon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past several years, there has been intense research in the field of bone marrow-derived stem cell (BMSC therapy to facilitate its translation into clinical setting. Although a lot has been accomplished, plenty of challenges lie ahead. Furthermore, there is a growing body of evidence showing that administration of BMSC-derived conditioned media (BMSC-CM can recapitulate the beneficial effects observed after stem cell therapy. BMSCs produce a wide range of cytokines and chemokines that have, until now, shown extensive therapeutic potential. These paracrine mechanisms could be as diverse as stimulating receptor-mediated survival pathways, inducing stem cell homing and differentiation or regulating the anti-inflammatory effects in wounded areas. The current review reflects the rapid shift of interest from BMSC to BMSC-CM to alleviate many logistical and technical issues regarding cell therapy and evaluates its future potential as an effective regenerative therapy.

  11. Aging of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal/stem cells: Implications on autologous regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charif, N; Li, Y Y; Targa, L; Zhang, L; Ye, J S; Li, Y P; Stoltz, J F; Han, H Z; de Isla, N

    2017-01-01

    With their proliferation, differentiation into specific cell types, and secretion properties, mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSC) are very interesting tools to be used in regenerative medicine. Bone marrow (BM) was the first MSC source characterized. In the frame of autologous MSC therapy, it is important to detect donor's parameters affecting MSC potency. Age of the donors appears as one parameter that could greatly affect MSC properties. Moreover, in vitro cell expansion is needed to obtain the number of cells necessary for clinical developments. It will lead to in vitro cell aging that could modify cell properties. This review recapitulates several studies evaluating the effect of in vitro and in vivo MSC aging on cell properties.

  12. Trophic Effects and Regenerative Potential of Mobilized Mesenchymal Stem Cells From Bone Marrow and Adipose Tissue as Alternative Cell Sources for Pulp/Dentin Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Masashi; Hayashi, Yuki; Iohara, Koichiro; Osako, Yohei; Hirose, Yujiro; Nakashima, Misako

    2015-01-01

    Dental pulp stem cell (DPSC) subsets mobilized by granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) are safe and efficacious for complete pulp regeneration. The supply of autologous pulp tissue, however, is very limited in the aged. Therefore, alternative sources of mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSCs) are needed for the cell therapy. In this study, DPSCs, bone marrow (BM), and adipose tissue (AD)-derived stem cells of the same individual dog were isolated using G-CSF-induced mobilization (MDPSCs, MBMSCs, and MADSCs). The positive rates of CXCR4 and G-CSFR in MDPSCs were similar to MADSCs and were significantly higher than those in MBMSCs. Trophic effects of MDPSCs on angiogenesis, neurite extension, migration, and antiapoptosis were higher than those of MBMSCs and MADSCs. Pulp-like loose connective tissues were regenerated in all three MSC transplantations. Significantly higher volume of regenerated pulp and higher density of vascularization and innervation were observed in response to MDPSCs compared to MBMSC and MADSC transplantation. Collagenous matrix containing dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP)-positive odontoblast-like cells was the highest in MBMSCs and significantly higher in MADSCs compared to MDPSCs. MBMSCs and MADSCs, therefore, have potential for pulp regeneration, although the volume of regenerated pulp tissue, angiogenesis, and reinnervation, were less. Thus, in conclusion, an alternative cell source for dental pulp/dentin regeneration are stem cells from BM and AD tissue.

  13. Application of human amniotic mesenchymal cells as an allogeneic transplantation cell source in bone regenerative therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuno, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Toshiko; Nogami, Makiko; Koike, Chika; Okabe, Motonori; Noto, Zenko; Arai, Naoya; Noguchi, Makoto; Nikaido, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    Autogenous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have therapeutic applications in bone regenerative therapy due to their pluripotency. However, the ability of MSCs to proliferate and differentiate varies between donors. Furthermore, alternative sources of MSCs are required for patients with contraindications to autogenous cell therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of mesenchymal cells from the human amniotic membrane (HAM) as a source of cells for allogeneic transplantation in bone regenerative therapy. Cells that retained a proliferative capacity of more than 50 population doubling level were distinguished from other HAM cells as HAMα cells and induced to osteogenic status—their in vivo osteogenesis was subsequently investigated in rats. It was found that HAMα cells were spindle shaped and were positive for MSC markers and negative for hematopoietic stem cell markers. Alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium deposition increased with osteogenic status of HAMα cells. The expression of osteocalcin mRNA was increased in HAMα cells cultured on calcium phosphate scaffolds. Moreover, xenografted HAMα cells remained viable and produced extracellular matrix for several weeks. Thus, this study suggests that human amniotic mesenchymal cells possess osteogenic differentiation potential and could be applied to allogeneic transplantation in bone regenerative therapy. - Highlights: ► Human amniotic mesenchymal cells include cells (HAMα cells) that have the properties of MSCs. ► HAMα cells have excellent osteogenic differentiation potential. ► Osteogenic differentiation ability of HAMα was amplified by calcium phosphate scaffolds. ► HAMα cells can be applicable to allogeneic cell transplantation in bone regenerative therapy.

  14. Application of human amniotic mesenchymal cells as an allogeneic transplantation cell source in bone regenerative therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuno, Hiroaki [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Yoshida, Toshiko [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Nogami, Makiko [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Koike, Chika; Okabe, Motonori [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Noto, Zenko [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Arai, Naoya; Noguchi, Makoto [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Nikaido, Toshio, E-mail: tnikaido@med.u-toyama.ac.jp [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan)

    2012-12-01

    Autogenous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have therapeutic applications in bone regenerative therapy due to their pluripotency. However, the ability of MSCs to proliferate and differentiate varies between donors. Furthermore, alternative sources of MSCs are required for patients with contraindications to autogenous cell therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of mesenchymal cells from the human amniotic membrane (HAM) as a source of cells for allogeneic transplantation in bone regenerative therapy. Cells that retained a proliferative capacity of more than 50 population doubling level were distinguished from other HAM cells as HAM{alpha} cells and induced to osteogenic status-their in vivo osteogenesis was subsequently investigated in rats. It was found that HAM{alpha} cells were spindle shaped and were positive for MSC markers and negative for hematopoietic stem cell markers. Alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium deposition increased with osteogenic status of HAM{alpha} cells. The expression of osteocalcin mRNA was increased in HAM{alpha} cells cultured on calcium phosphate scaffolds. Moreover, xenografted HAM{alpha} cells remained viable and produced extracellular matrix for several weeks. Thus, this study suggests that human amniotic mesenchymal cells possess osteogenic differentiation potential and could be applied to allogeneic transplantation in bone regenerative therapy. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Human amniotic mesenchymal cells include cells (HAM{alpha} cells) that have the properties of MSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HAM{alpha} cells have excellent osteogenic differentiation potential. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Osteogenic differentiation ability of HAM{alpha} was amplified by calcium phosphate scaffolds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HAM{alpha} cells can be applicable to allogeneic cell transplantation in bone regenerative therapy.

  15. Functionalized carbon nanotube reinforced scaffolds for bone regenerative engineering: fabrication, in vitro and in vivo evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikael, Paiyz E; Amini, Ami R; Laurencin, Cato T; Nukavarapu, Syam P; Basu, Joysurya; Josefina Arellano-Jimenez, M; Barry Carter, C; Sanders, Mary M

    2014-01-01

    Designing biodegradable scaffolds with bone-compatible mechanical properties has been a significant challenge in the field of bone tissue engineering and regenerative engineering. The objective of this work is to improve the polymeric scaffold's mechanical strength by compositing it with mechanically superior carbon nanotubes. Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microsphere scaffolds exhibit mechanical properties in the range of human cancellous bone. On the other hand, carbon nanotubes have outstanding mechanical properties. The aim of this study is to improve further the mechanical strength of PLGA scaffolds such that they may be applicable for a wide range of load-bearing repair and regeneration applications. We have formed composite microspheres of PLGA containing pristine and modified (with hydroxyl (OH), carboxylic acid (COOH)) multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and fabricated them into three-dimensional porous scaffolds. Results show that by adding only 3% MWCNTs, the compressive strength and modulus was significantly increased (35 MPa, 510.99 MPa) compared to pure PLGA scaffolds (19 MPa and 166.38 MPa). Scanning electron microscopy images showed excellent cell adhesion and proliferation. In vitro studies exhibited good cell viability, proliferation and mineralization. The in vivo study, however, indicated differences in inflammatory response throughout the 12 weeks of implantation, with OH-modified MWCNTs having the least response, followed by unmodified and COOH-modified exhibiting a more pronounced response. Overall, our results show that PLGA scaffolds containing water-dispersible MWCNTs are mechanically stronger and display good cellular and tissue compatibility, and hence are potential candidates for load-bearing bone tissue engineering. (paper)

  16. Three dimensional de novo micro bone marrow and its versatile application in drug screening and regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guanqun; Liu, Xujun; Du, Qian; Gao, Mei; An, Jing

    2015-08-01

    The finding that bone marrow hosts several types of multipotent stem cell has prompted extensive research aimed at regenerating organs and building models to elucidate the mechanisms of diseases. Conventional research depends on the use of two-dimensional (2D) bone marrow systems, which imposes several obstacles. The development of 3D bone marrow systems with appropriate molecules and materials however, is now showing promising results. In this review, we discuss the advantages of 3D bone marrow systems over 2D systems and then point out various factors that can enhance the 3D systems. The intensive research on 3D bone marrow systems has revealed multiple important clinical applications including disease modeling, drug screening, regenerative medicine, etc. We also discuss some possible future directions in the 3D bone marrow research field. © 2015 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  17. Phenotypic characterization of the bone marrow stem cells used in regenerative cellular therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macias Abraham, Consuelo; Valle Perez, Lazaro O del; Baganet Cobas, Aymara

    2011-01-01

    Regenerative medicine is a novel therapeutic method with broad potential for the treatment of various illnesses, based on the use of bone marrow (BM) stem cells, whose phenotypic characterization is limited. The paper deals with the expression of different cell membrane markers in mononuclear BM cells from 14 patients who underwent autologous cell therapy, obtained by medullary puncture and mobilization to peripheral blood, with the purpose of characterizing the different types of cells present in that heterogeneous cellular population and identifying the adhesion molecules involved in their adhesion. A greater presence was observed of adherent stem cells from the marrow stroma in mononuclear cells obtained directly from the BM; a larger population of CD90 +c ells in mononuclear cells from CD34 -/ CD45 -p eripheral blood with a high expression of molecules CD44 and CD62L, which suggests a greater presence of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in mobilized cells from the marrow stroma. The higher levels of CD34 +c ells in peripheral blood stem cells with a low expression of molecules CD117 -a nd DR -s uggests the presence of hematopoietic stem cells, hemangioblasts and progenitor endothelial cells mobilized to peripheral circulation. It was found that mononuclear cells from both the BM and peripheral blood show a high presence of stem cells with expression of adhesion molecule CD44 (MMC marker), probably involved in their migration, settling and differentiation

  18. Hydroxyapatite from fish scale for potential use as bone scaffold or regenerative material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pon-On, Weeraphat, E-mail: fsciwpp@ku.ac.th [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok (Thailand); Suntornsaratoon, Panan [Center of Calcium and Bone Research, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol [Center of Calcium and Bone Research, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Department of Physiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Thongbunchoo, Jirawan [Center of Calcium and Bone Research, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Krishnamra, Nateetip [Center of Calcium and Bone Research, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Department of Physiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Tang, I. Ming [Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand)

    2016-05-01

    The present paper studies the physico-chemical, bioactivity and biological properties of hydroxyapatite (HA) which is derived from fish scale (FS) (FSHA) and compares them with those of synthesized HA (sHA) obtained by co-precipitation from chemical solution as a standard. The analysis shows that the FSHA is composed of flat-plate nanocrystal with a narrow width size of about 15–20 nm and having a range of 100 nm in length and that the calcium phosphate ratio (Ca/P) is 2.01 (Ca-rich CaP). Whereas, synthesized HA consists of sub-micron HA particle having a Ca/P ratio of 1.65. Bioactivity test shows that the FSHA forms more new apatite than does the sHA after being incubated in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 7 days. Moreover, the biocompatibility study shows a higher osteoblast like cell adhesion on the FSHA surface than on the sHA substrate after 3 days of culturing. Our results also show the shape of the osteoblast cells on the FSHA changes from being a rounded shape to being a flattened shape reflecting its spreading behavior on this surface. MTT assay and ALP analysis show significant increases in the proliferation and activity of osteoblasts over the FSHA scaffold after 5 days of culturing as compared to those covering the sHA substrates. These results confirm that the bio-materials derived from fish scale (FSHA) are biologically better than the chemically synthesized HA and have the potential for use as a bone scaffold or as regenerative materials. - Highlights: • Preparation of hydroxyapatite (HA) which is derived from fish scale (FS) (FSHA) and their bioactivities • The FSHA is composed of flat-plate nanocrystal with a narrow size of 15–20 nm. • Bioactivity test shows that the FSHA forms more new apatite than does the sHA after being incubated SBF. • In vitro cell availability tests show a higher cell adhesion on the FSHA surface.

  19. A comparative study of the regenerative effect of sinus bone grafting with platelet-rich fibrin-mixed Bio-Oss® and commercial fibrin-mixed Bio-Oss®: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Feng; Lee, Chun-Ui; Son, Jeong-Seog; Jeong, Seung-Mi; Choi, Byung-Ho

    2014-06-01

    Anorganic bovine bone (Bio-Oss®) particles are one of the most popular grafting materials. The particles are often mixed with platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) or a commercial fibrin (Tisseel®) to form a mouldable graft material. The objective of this study was to compare the potentials of PRF-mixed Bio-Oss® and Tisseel®-mixed Bio-Oss® to enhance bone regeneration in a canine sinus model. Six mongrel dogs were used in this study. After elevating the sinus membrane in both maxillary sinus cavities, an implant was placed into the sinus cavity. In one of the sinus cavities, the PRF/Bio-Oss® composite was grafted, and the Tisseel®/Bio-Oss® composite was grafted in the other sinus cavity. After a 6 month healing period, bone formation in the graft sites and bone-implant contact were evaluated. The mean osseointegration rate was 43.5 ± 12.4% and new bone formation rate 41.8 ± 5.9% in the PRF/Bio-Oss® composite sites. In the Tisseel®/Bio-Oss® composite sites they were 30.7 ± 7.9% and 31.3 ± 6.4%. There were statistically significant differences between the groups. The findings from this study suggest that when platelet-rich fibrin is used as an adjunct to Bio-Oss® particles for bone augmentation in the maxillary sinus, bone formation in the graft sites is significantly greater than when Tisseel® is used. Copyright © 2013 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Long-term antibiotic delivery by chitosan-based composite coatings with bone regenerative potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordikhani, F.; Simchi, A.

    2014-10-01

    Composite coatings with bone-bioactivity and drug-eluting capacity are considered as promising materials for titanium bone implants. In this work, drug-eluting chitosan-bioactive glass coatings were fabricated by a single-step electrophoretic deposition technique. Drug-loading and -releasing capacity of the composite coatings were carried out using the vancomycin antibiotic. Uniform coatings with a thickness of ∼55 μm containing 23.7 wt% bioactive glass particles and various amounts of the antibiotic (380-630 μg/cm2) were produced. The coatings were bioactive in terms of apatite-forming ability in simulated body fluid and showed favorable cell adhesion and growth. In vitro biological tests also indicated that the composite coatings had better cellular affinity than pristine chitosan coatings. The in vitro elution kinetics of the composite coating revealed an initial burst release of around 40% of the drug within the first elution step of 1 h and following by a continuous eluting over 4 weeks, revealing long-term drug-delivering potential. Antibacterial tests using survival assay against Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus bacteria determined the effect of vancomycin release on reduction of infection risk. Almost no bacteria were survived on the coatings prepared from the EPD suspension containing ≥0.5 g/l vancomycin. The developed chitosan-based composite coatings with bone bioactivity and long-term drug-delivery ability may be potentially useful for metallic implants to reduce infection risk.

  1. Evaluating the feasibility of utilizing the small molecule phenamil as a novel biofactor for bone regenerative engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Kevin W-H; Ulery, Bret D; Kan, Ho Man; Ashe, Keshia M; Laurencin, Cato T

    2014-09-01

    Osteoblast cell adhesion and differentiation on biomaterials are important achievements necessary for implants to be useful in bone regenerative engineering. Recombinant bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have been shown to be important for these processes; however, there are many challenges associated with the widespread use of these proteins. A recent report demonstrated that the small molecule phenamil, a diuretic derivative, was able to induce osteoblast differentiation and mineralization in vitro via the canonical BMP signalling cascade (Park et al., 2009). In this study, the feasibility of using phenamil as a novel biofactor in conjunction with a biodegradable poly(lactide-co-glycolide acid) (PLAGA) polymeric scaffold for engineering bone tissue was evaluated. The in vitro cellular behaviour of osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on PLAGA scaffolds in the presence of phenamil at 10 μM were characterized with regard to initial cell adhesion, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and matrix mineralization. The results demonstrate that phenamil supported cell proliferation, promoted ALP activity and facilitated matrix mineralization of osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells. Moreover, in this study, we found that phenamil promoted integrin-mediated cell adhesion on PLAGA scaffolds. It was also shown that phenamil encapsulated within porous, microsphere PLAGA scaffolds retained its osteogenic activity upon release. Based on these findings, the small molecule phenamil has the potential to serve as a novel biofactor for the repair and regeneration of bone tissues. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF REGENERATIVE FEATURES IN BONE TISSUES AROUND IMPLANTS AFTER ONE-STAGE BILATERAL TOTAL HIP REPLACEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Mashkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to research the specific features of regenerative processes of bone tissue around implants after one-stage bilateral total hip replacement in experiment. Material and methods: 27 total hip replacement operations have been performed in 18 rabbits of breed "chinchilla" to which bipolar femoral endoprosthesis made of titanic alloy PT-38, one type-size, with friction pair metal-on-metal and neck-shaft angle 165 degrees have been implanted: total unilateral hip replacement operations have been performed in 9 animals (control group, one-stage bilateral total hip replacement operations have been performed in 9 animals (experimental group. During research they have been on radiological and clinical checking-up. After the experiment the animals had histological tests of the tissues around endoprosthesis components. Results and conclusions: After one-stage bilateral total hip replacement in early terms of research more expressed changes of bone tissue in the form of its thinning and decompaction were found around implants. One-stage bilateral total hip replacement did not essentially influence on the speed of osteogenesis around endoprothesis components in comparison with unilateral total hip replacement, so in late terms of observation in both groups the fixing of endoprothesis components did not differ.

  3. 3D silicon doped hydroxyapatite scaffolds decorated with Elastin-like Recombinamers for bone regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, Mercedes; García, Ana; Girotti, Alessandra; Alonso, Matilde; Rodríguez-Cabello, Jose Carlos; González-Vázquez, Arlyng; Planell, Josep A; Engel, Elisabeth; Buján, Julia; García-Honduvilla, Natalio; Vallet-Regí, María

    2016-11-01

    The current study reports on the manufacturing by rapid prototyping technique of three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds based on silicon substituted hydroxyapatite with Elastin-like Recombinamers (ELRs) functionalized surfaces. Silicon doped hydroxyapatite (Si-HA), with Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 5.7 (SiO 4 ) 0.3 (OH) 1.7 h 0.3 nominal formula, was surface functionalized with two different types of polymers designed by genetic engineering: ELR-RGD that contain cell attachment specific sequences and ELR-SN A 15/RGD with both hydroxyapatite and cells domains that interact with the inorganic phase and with the cells, respectively. These hybrid materials were subjected to in vitro assays in order to clarify if the ELRs coating improved the well-known biocompatible and bone regeneration properties of calcium phosphates materials. The in vitro tests showed that there was a total and homogeneous colonization of the 3D scaffolds by Bone marrow Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (BMSCs). In addition, the BMSCs were viable and able to proliferate and differentiate into osteoblasts. Bone tissue engineering is an area of increasing interest because its main applications are directly related to the rising life expectancy of the population, which promotes higher rates of several bone pathologies, so innovative strategies are needed for bone tissue regeneration therapies. Here we use the rapid prototyping technology to allow moulding ceramic 3D scaffolds and we use different bio-polymers for the functionalization of their surfaces in order to enhance the biological response. Combining the ceramic material (silicon doped hydroxyapatite, Si-HA) and the Elastin like Recombinamers (ELRs) polymers with the presence of the integrin-mediate adhesion domain alone or in combination with SNA15 peptide that possess high affinity for hydroxyapatite, provided an improved Bone marrow Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (BMSCs) differentiation into osteoblastic linkage. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier

  4. Honey: an effective regenerative medicine product in wound management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinotti, Simona; Bucekova, Marcela; Majtan, Juraj; Ranzato, Elia

    2018-05-10

    Honey has successfully been used in treatment of a broad spectrum of injuries including burns and non-healing wounds. It acts as antibacterial and anti-biofilm agent with anti/pro-inflammatory properties. However, besides these traditional properties, recent evidence suggests that honey is also an immunomodulator in wound healing and contains several bee and plant-derived components that may speed up the wound healing and tissue regeneration process. Identifying their exact mechanism of action allows better understanding of honey healing properties and promotes its wider translation into clinical practice. This review will discuss the physiological basis for the use of honey in wound management, its current clinical uses, as well as the potential role of honey bioactive compounds in dermal regenerative medicine and tissue re-modelling. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Placenta Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Hosted on RKKP Glass-Ceramic: A Tissue Engineering Strategy for Bone Regenerative Medicine Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Ledda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In tissue engineering protocols, the survival of transplanted stem cells is a limiting factor that could be overcome using a cell delivery matrix able to support cell proliferation and differentiation. With this aim, we studied the cell-friendly and biocompatible behavior of RKKP glass-ceramic coated Titanium (Ti surface seeded with human amniotic mesenchymal stromal cells (hAMSCs from placenta. The sol-gel synthesis procedure was used to prepare the RKKP glass-ceramic material, which was then deposited onto the Ti surface by Pulsed Laser Deposition method. The cell metabolic activity and proliferation rate, the cytoskeletal actin organization, and the cell cycle phase distribution in hAMSCs seeded on the RKKP coated Ti surface revealed no significant differences when compared to the cells grown on the treated plastic Petri dish. The health of of hAMSCs was also analysed studying the mRNA expressions of MSC key genes and the osteogenic commitment capability using qRT-PCR analysis which resulted in being unchanged in both substrates. In this study, the combination of the hAMSCs’ properties together with the bioactive characteristics of RKKP glass-ceramics was investigated and the results obtained indicate its possible use as a new and interesting cell delivery system for bone tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications.

  6. Treatment of unicameral bone cysts in pediatric patients with an injectable regenerative graft: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, John V; Weinert, Carl R; Schlechter, John A

    2013-01-01

    Multiple treatment modalities exist for unicameral bone cysts (UBC), including steroid injection, autologous bone marrow injection, mechanical decompression, intramedullary fixation, curettage, and bone grafting. All have their own potential limitations such as high recurrence rates, cyst persistence, need for multiple procedures, and prolonged immobilization. A minimally invasive regimen consisting of curettage, decompression, and injection of a calcium sulfate-calcium phosphate (CaSO4-CaPO4) composite has been utilized at our institution in an attempt to obtain optimal results for the treatment of UBCs in the pediatric population. We retrospectively evaluated 16 patients with pathologically confirmed UBC who were treated with curettage, decompression, and injection of a calcium sulfate-calcium phosphate composite between April 2006 and August 2010 at a single institution. The average age of the patients at time of surgical intervention was 9.4 years of age (range, 3 to 16 y). Average follow-up was 16 months (range, 6 to 36 mo). Radiographic healing, clinical outcomes, and complications were evaluated. Final follow-up radiographs demonstrated healing in 93.7% (15 of 16) of patients after a single procedure. Complete healing was observed in 14 of 16 patients and partially healed with a defect in 1 of 16 patients. One patient had a persistent cyst but did not wish to receive further treatment. All patients returned to full activities including sports on average at 3.1 months (range, 1 to 6 mo) and were asymptomatic on most recent follow-up. No postoperative complications, including refracture, were observed. Curettage, decompression, and injection of a calcium sulfate-calcium phosphate composite for UBC in the pediatric population demonstrates encouraging results with low recurrence rates and complications compared with conventional methods. Case series, Level of Evidence IV.

  7. Human gingiva-derived mesenchymal stem cells are superior to bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for cell therapy in regenerative medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomar, Geetanjali B.; Srivastava, Rupesh K.; Gupta, Navita; Barhanpurkar, Amruta P.; Pote, Satish T. [National Center for Cell Science, University of Pune Campus, Pune 411 007 (India); Jhaveri, Hiral M. [Department of Periodontics and Oral Implantology, Dr. D.Y. Patil Dental College and Hospital, Pune (India); Mishra, Gyan C. [National Center for Cell Science, University of Pune Campus, Pune 411 007 (India); Wani, Mohan R., E-mail: mohanwani@nccs.res.in [National Center for Cell Science, University of Pune Campus, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2010-03-12

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are capable of self-renewal and differentiation into multiple cell lineages. Presently, bone marrow is considered as a prime source of MSCs; however, there are some drawbacks and limitations in use of these MSCs for cell therapy. In this study, we demonstrate that human gingival tissue-derived MSCs have several advantages over bone marrow-derived MSCs. Gingival MSCs are easy to isolate, homogenous and proliferate faster than bone marrow MSCs without any growth factor. Importantly, gingival MSCs display stable morphology and do not loose MSC characteristic at higher passages. In addition, gingival MSCs maintain normal karyotype and telomerase activity in long-term cultures, and are not tumorigenic. Thus, we reveal that human gingiva is a better source of MSCs than bone marrow, and large number of functionally competent clinical grade MSCs can be generated in short duration for cell therapy in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering.

  8. Human gingiva-derived mesenchymal stem cells are superior to bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for cell therapy in regenerative medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomar, Geetanjali B.; Srivastava, Rupesh K.; Gupta, Navita; Barhanpurkar, Amruta P.; Pote, Satish T.; Jhaveri, Hiral M.; Mishra, Gyan C.; Wani, Mohan R.

    2010-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are capable of self-renewal and differentiation into multiple cell lineages. Presently, bone marrow is considered as a prime source of MSCs; however, there are some drawbacks and limitations in use of these MSCs for cell therapy. In this study, we demonstrate that human gingival tissue-derived MSCs have several advantages over bone marrow-derived MSCs. Gingival MSCs are easy to isolate, homogenous and proliferate faster than bone marrow MSCs without any growth factor. Importantly, gingival MSCs display stable morphology and do not loose MSC characteristic at higher passages. In addition, gingival MSCs maintain normal karyotype and telomerase activity in long-term cultures, and are not tumorigenic. Thus, we reveal that human gingiva is a better source of MSCs than bone marrow, and large number of functionally competent clinical grade MSCs can be generated in short duration for cell therapy in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering.

  9. Human periodontal ligament stem cells cultured onto cortico-cancellous scaffold drive bone regenerative process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Diomede

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to test, in vitro and in vivo, a new tissue-engineered construct constituted by porcine cortico-cancellous scaffold (Osteobiol Dual Block (DB and xeno-free ex vivo culture of human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells (hPDLSCs. hPDLSCs cultured in xeno-free media formulation preserved the stem cells’ morphological features, the expression of stemness and pluripotency markers, and their ability to differentiate into mesenchymal lineage. Transmission electron microscopy analysis suggested that after one week of culture, both noninduced and osteogenic differentiation induced cells joined and grew on DB secreting extracellular matrix (ECM that in osteogenic induced samples was hierarchically assembled in fibrils. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR showed the upregulation of key genes involved in the bone differentiation pathway in both differentiated and undifferentiated hPDLSCs cultured with DB (hPDLSCs/DB. Functional studies revealed a significant increased response of calcium transients in the presence of DB, both in undifferentiated and differentiated cells stimulated with calcitonin and parathormone, suggesting that the biomaterial could drive the osteogenic differentiation process of hPDLSCs. These data were confirmed by the increase of gene expression of L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ (VDCCL, subunits α1C and α2D1 in undifferentiated cells in the presence of DB. In vivo implantation of the hPDLSCs/DB living construct in the mouse calvaria evidenced a precocious osteointegration and vascularisation process. Our results suggest consideration of DB as a biocompatible, osteoinductive and osteoconductive biomaterial, making it a promising tool to regulate cell activities in biological environments and for a potential use in the development of new custom-made tissue engineering.

  10. Multilayer bioactive glass/zirconium titanate thin films in bone tissue engineering and regenerative dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozafari M

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Masoud Mozafari,1,2 Erfan Salahinejad,1,3 Vahid Shabafrooz,1 Mostafa Yazdimamaghani,1 Daryoosh Vashaee,4 Lobat Tayebi1,5 1Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Tulsa, OK, USA; 2Biomaterials Group, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering (Center of Excellence, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran; 3Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran; 4Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Tulsa, OK, USA; 5School of Chemical Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Tulsa, OK, USA Abstract: Surface modification, particularly coatings deposition, is beneficial to tissue-engineering applications. In this work, bioactive glass/zirconium titanate composite thin films were prepared by a sol-gel spin-coating method. The surface features of the coatings were studied by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and spectroscopic reflection analyses. The results show that uniform and sound multilayer thin films were successfully prepared through the optimization of the process variables and the application of carboxymethyl cellulose as a dispersing agent. Also, it was found that the thickness and roughness of the multilayer coatings increase nonlinearly with increasing the number of the layers. This new class of nanocomposite coatings, comprising the bioactive and inert components, is expected not only to enhance bioactivity and biocompatibility, but also to protect the surface of metallic implants against wear and corrosion. Keywords: bioactive glass, zirconium titanate, spin-coating, microstructural properties, bone/dental applications, tissue engineering

  11. Regenerative surgical therapy for peri-implantitis using deproteinized bovine bone mineral with 10% collagen, enamel matrix derivative and Doxycycline-A prospective 3-year cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Faustino; Hamlet, Stephen; Ivanovski, Saso

    2018-05-16

    There is limited evidence regarding the long-term efficacy of regenerative treatment for peri-implantitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate a combination therapy of deproteinized bovine bone mineral with 10% collagen (DBBMC), enamel matrix derivative (EMD) and Doxycycline in the regeneration of bone defects associated with peri-implantitis. Thirty patients diagnosed with peri-implantitis (BoP/suppuration, probing depth greater than 4 mm, minimum radiographic bone loss of 20%, at least 2 years in function) were enrolled in the study. Clinical measurements included probing depths, recession, radiographic bone fill, gingival inflammation and bleeding on probing/suppuration. Following surgical access and debridement, the implant surfaces were decontaminated with 24% EDTA for 2 min, and the bone defects were filled with a combined mixture of DBBMC, EMD and Doxycycline powder. The defects were covered with connective tissue grafts where necessary. Clinical measurements were recorded after 12, 24 and 36 months. The mean probing depth and bone loss at the initial visit was 8.9 mm (±1.9) and 6.92 mm (±1.26), respectively. Both mean probing depth and bone loss reduced significantly from baseline to 3.55 mm (±0.50) and 2.85 mm (±0.73) at 12 months, 3.50 (±0.50) and 2.62 mm (±0.80) at 24 months and 3.50 mm (±0.50) and 2.60 mm (±0.73) at 36 months. 56.6% of the implants were considered successfully treated (according to Successful Treatment Outcome Criterion: PD 10%, no BoP/suppuration, no recession >0.5 mm for anterior implants and >1.5 mm for posterior implants) after 36 months. Regenerative treatment of peri-implantitis using a combined mixture of DBBMC, EMD and Doxycycline achieved promising results. The benefits of this protocol incorporating EMD should be tested in randomized clinical trials. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Early Orthodontic Tooth Movement into Regenerative Bony Defects: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hui-Chen; Yao, Chung-Chen Jane; Wong, Man-Ying

    Early orthodontic tooth movement following regenerative surgery is controversial. In this case, during protraction of the maxillary right first premolar to substitute for the long-term missing maxillary right canine, Bio-Oss and Bio-Gide were used for lateral ridge augmentation at the area of the maxillary right lateral incisor and to cover the denuded surface at the buccal side of the first premolar. Orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) commenced 2 weeks after regenerative surgery. After 8 months, new bone formation was observed on the root surface of the first premolar during implant surgery. A cone beam computed tomography scan taken 1.5 years postsurgery revealed good maintenance of regenerative bone at the same site. This satisfactory outcome of early OTM following regenerative surgery suggests biomechanical stimulation may not jeopardize the regenerative effect.

  13. Methods to Analyze Bone Regenerative Response to Different rhBMP-2 Doses in Rabbit Craniofacial Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-28

    Ruggiero, S., Fantasia, J., Burakoff, R., Moorji, S.M., Paric, E., et al. Sonic hedgehog gene enhanced tissue engineering for bone regeneration. Gene Ther...discectomy and fusion: a case study. Spine J 7, 235, 2007. 8. Zara, J.N., Siu, R.K., Zhang, X., Shen, J., Ngo, R., Lee, M., et al. High doses of bone

  14. The Effect of PEI and PVP-Stabilized Gold Nanoparticles on Equine Platelets Activation: Potential Application in Equine Regenerative Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Hecold

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to assess the effect of different stabilizing agents, for example, polyethylenimine (PEI and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP, on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs and their influence on equine platelet activation and release of particular growth factors. The gold nanoparticles were produced by chemical reduction of chloroauric acid. UV-Vis spectroscopy confirmed the presence of gold nanoparticles in investigated solutions. The AuNPs were incubated with whole blood at various concentrations. The morphology of platelets in PRP prepared from the blood incubated with AuNPs was characterized by scanning transmission electron microscopy, whereas the concentrations of growth factors and cytokines were evaluated by ELISA assays. The most promising results were obtained with equine platelets incubated with 5% AuNPs stabilized by PEI, which lead to secretion of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, and fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF-1 and simultaneously cause decrease in concentration of interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α. The qRT-PCR confirmed ELISA test results. The incubation with 5% AuNPs stabilized by PEI leads to upregulation of BMP-2 and VEGF transcripts of mRNA level and to downregulating expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6. Obtained data shed a promising light on gold nanoparticle application for future regenerative medicine application.

  15. Regenerative endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, S; Smith, A J

    2014-03-01

    Significant advances in our understanding of the biological processes involved in tooth development and repair at the cellular and molecular levels have underpinned the newly emerging area of regenerative endodontics. Development of treatment protocols based on exploiting the natural wound healing properties of the dental pulp and applying tissue engineering principles has allowed reporting of case series showing preservation of tissue vitality and apexogenesis. To review current case series reporting regenerative endodontics. Current treatment approaches tend to stimulate more reparative than regenerative responses in respect of the new tissue generated, which often does not closely resemble the physiological structure of dentine-pulp. However, despite these biological limitations, such techniques appear to offer significant promise for improved treatment outcomes. Improved biological outcomes will likely emerge from the many experimental studies being reported and will further contribute to improvements in clinical treatment protocols.

  16. Effect of energy-regenerative braking on electric vehicle battery thermal management and control method based on simulation investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Jingying; Qin, Datong; Peng, Zhiyuan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A two-degree-of-freedom lumped thermal model is developed for battery. • The battery thermal model is integrated with vehicle driving model. • Real-time battery thermal responses is obtained. • Active control of current by regenerative braking ratio adjustment is proposed. • More energy is recovered with smaller battery temperature rise. - Abstract: Battery thermal management is important for the safety and reliability of electric vehicle. Based on the parameters obtained from battery hybrid pulse power characterization test, a two-degree-of-freedom lumped thermal model is established. The battery model is then integrated with vehicle driving model to simulate real-time battery thermal responses. An active control method is proposed to reduce heat generation due to regenerative braking. The proposed control method not only subjects to the braking safety regulation, but also adjusts the regenerative braking ratio through a fuzzy controller. By comparing with other regenerative braking scenarios, the effectiveness of the proposed strategy has been validated. According to the results, the proposed control strategy suppresses battery temperature rise by modifying the charge current due to regenerative braking. The overlarge components of current are filtered out whereas the small ones are magnified. Therefore, with smaller battery temperature rise, more energy is recovered. Compared to the traditional passive heat dissipating, the proposed active methodology is feasible and provides a novel solution for electric vehicle battery thermal management.

  17. The Design and Use of Animal Models for Translational Research in Bone Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    collagen based matrix (osteoid) that is mineralized with a unique carbonated hydroxyapatite . This mineralized bone matrix provides the unique...distinguish bone matrix and true biological mineralization (carbonated microcrystalline hydroxyapatite ) from scar or regions of precipitation of...lu s R at tu s n or v eg ic u s= ra tt u s O ry ct ol ag u s cu n ic u lu s C an is fa m il ia ri s C ap ra h ir cu s O v is ar ie s S u s sc ro fa C

  18. Perfluoroalkyl substances in human bone: concentrations in bones and effects on bone cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskela, A; Koponen, J; Lehenkari, P; Viluksela, M; Korkalainen, M; Tuukkanen, J

    2017-07-28

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), including two most commonly studied compounds perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), are widely distributed environmental pollutants, used extensively earlier. Due to their toxicological effects the use of PFAS is now regulated. Based on earlier studies on PFOA's distribution in bone and bone marrow in mice, we investigated PFAS levels and their possible link to bone microarchitecture of human femoral bone samples (n = 18). Soft tissue and bone biopsies were also taken from a 49-year old female cadaver for PFAS analyses. We also studied how PFOA exposure affects differentiation of human osteoblasts and osteoclasts. PFAS were detectable from all dry bone and bone marrow samples, PFOS and PFOA being the most prominent. In cadaver biopsies, lungs and liver contained the highest concentrations of PFAS, whereas PFAS were absent in bone marrow. Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) was present in the bones, PFOA and PFOS were absent. In vitro results showed no disturbance in osteogenic differentiation after PFOA exposure, but in osteoclasts, lower concentrations led to increased resorption, which eventually dropped to zero after increase in PFOA concentration. In conclusion, PFAS are present in bone and have the potential to affect human bone cells partly at environmentally relevant concentrations.

  19. The effect of antiresorptives on bone quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recker, Robert R; Armas, Laura

    2011-08-01

    Currently, antiresorptive therapy in the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis includes bisphosphonates, estrogen replacement, selective estrogen receptor modulators (raloxifene), and denosumab (a human antibody that inactivates RANKL). The original paradigm driving the development of antiresorptive therapy was that inhibition of bone resorption would allow bone formation to continue and correct the defect. However, it is now clear increases in bone density account for little of the antifracture effect of these treatments. We examined the antifracture benefit of antiresorptives deriving from bone quality changes. We searched the archive of nearly 30,000 articles accumulated over more than 40 years in our research center library using a software program (Refman™). Approximately 250 publications were identified in locating the 69 cited here. The findings document antiresorptive agents are not primarily anabolic. All cause a modest increase in bone density due to a reduction in the bone remodeling space; however, the majority of their efficacy is due to suppression of the primary cause of osteoporosis, ie, excessive bone remodeling not driven by mechanical need. All of them improve some element(s) of bone quality. Antiresorptive therapy reduces risk of fracture by improving bone quality through halting removal of bone tissue and the resultant destruction of microarchitecture of bone and, perhaps to some extent, by improving the intrinsic material properties of bone tissue. Information presented here may help clinicians to improve selection of patients for antiresorptive therapy by avoiding them in cases clearly not due to excessive bone remodeling.

  20. Multimodal Approaches for Regenerative Stroke Therapies: Combination of Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor with Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells is Not Superior to G-CSF Alone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Tudor Balseanu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Attractive therapeutic strategies to enhance post-stroke recovery of aged brains include methods of cellular therapy that can enhance the endogenous restorative mechanisms of the injured brain. Since stroke afflicts mostly the elderly, it is highly desirable to test the efficacy of cell therapy in the microenvironment of aged brains that is generally refractory to regeneration. In particular, stem cells from the bone marrow allow an autologous transplantation approach that can be translated in the near future to the clinical practice. Such a bone marrow-derived therapy includes the grafting of stem cells as well as the delayed induction of endogenous stem cell mobilization and homing by the stem cell mobilizer granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF. We tested the hypothesis that grafting of bone marrow-derived pre-differentiated mesenchymal cells (BM-MSCs in G-CSF-treated animals improves the long-term functional outcome in aged rodents. To this end, G-CSF alone (50 μg/kg or in combination with a single dose (106 cells of rat BM MSCs was administered intravenously to Sprague-Dawley rats at 6 h after transient occlusion (90 min of the middle cerebral artery. Infarct volume was measured by magnetic resonance imaging at 3 and 48 days post-stroke and additionally by immunhistochemistry at day 56. Functional recovery was tested during the entire post-stroke survival period of 56 days. Daily treatment for post-stroke aged rats with G-CSF led to a robust and consistent improvement of neurological function after 28 days. The combination therapy also led to robust angiogenesis in the formerly infarct core and beyond in the “islet of regeneration.” However, G-CSF + BM MSCs may not impact at all on the spatial reference-memory task or infarct volume and therefore did not further improve the post-stroke recovery. We suggest that in a real clinical practice involving older post-stroke patients, successful regenerative therapies

  1. Cryptomphalus aspersa Mollusc Egg Extract Promotes Regenerative Effects in Human Dermal Papilla Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Alameda

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test, by an in vitro approach, whether a natural extract derived from eggs of the mollusc Cryptomphalus aspersa (e-CAF that seems to present regenerative properties, can enhance the mobilization of human hair dermal papilla cells (HHDPCs and play a role on tissue repair and regeneration. We have tested HHDPCs proliferation by the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium-bromide (MTT assay; cell migration by using a wound healing assay, as well as the modulation of the expression of cytoskeletal (F-actin and vimentin and cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM (vinculin and P-FAK proteins. We also explored whether e-CAF could lead HHDPCs to keratinocytes and/or fibroblasts by evaluating the expression of specific markers. We have compared these e-CAF effects with those induced by TGFβ1, implicated in regulation of cell proliferation and migration. e-CAF promotes proliferation and migration of HDDPCs cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner; it also increases the migratory behavior and the expression of adhesion molecules. These results support the fact that e-CAF could play a role on skin regeneration and be used for the prevention or repair of damaged tissue, either due to external causes or as a result of cutaneous aging.

  2. The effect of the bioactive sphingolipids S1P and C1P on multipotent stromal cells--new opportunities in regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marycz, Krzysztof; Śmieszek, Agnieszka; Jeleń, Marta; Chrząstek, Klaudia; Grzesiak, Jakub; Meissner, Justyna

    2015-09-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and ceramide-1-phosphate (C1P) belong to a family of bioactive sphingolipids that act as important extracellular signaling molecules and chemoattractants. This study investigated the influence of S1P and C1P on the morphology, proliferation activity and osteogenic properties of rat multipotent stromal cells derived from bone marrow (BMSCs) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASCs). We show that S1P and C1P can influence mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), each in a different manner. S1P stimulation promoted the formation of cellular aggregates of BMSCs and ASCs, while C1P had an effect on the regular growth pattern and expanded intercellular connections, thereby increasing the proliferative activity. Although osteogenic differentiation of MSCs was enhanced by the addition of S1P, the effectiveness of osteoblast differentiation was more evident in BMSCs, particularly when biochemical and molecular marker levels were considered. The results of the functional osteogenic differentiation assay, which includes an evaluation of the efficiency of extracellular matrix mineralization (SEM-EDX), revealed the formation of numerous mineral aggregates in BMSC cultures stimulated with S1P. Our data demonstrated that in an appropriate combination, the bioactive sphingolipids S1P and C1P may find wide application in regenerative medicine, particularly in bone regeneration with the use of MSCs.

  3. Bioreactor-Based Online Recovery of Human Progenitor Cells with Uncompromised Regenerative Potential: A Bone Tissue Engineering Perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Sonnaert

    Full Text Available The use of a 3D perfusion culture environment for stem cell expansion has been shown to be beneficial for maintenance of the original cell functionality but due to several system inherent characteristics such as the presence of extracellular matrix, the continued development and implementation of 3D perfusion bioreactor technologies is hampered. Therefore, this study developed a methodology for harvesting a progenitor cell population from a 3D open porous culture surface after expansion in a perfusion bioreactor and performed a functional characterization of the expanded cells. An initial screening showed collagenase to be the most interesting reagent to release the cells from the 3D culture surface as it resulted in high yields without compromising cell viability. Subsequently a Design of Experiment approach was used to obtain optimized 3D harvest conditions by assessing the interplay of flow rate, collagenase concentration and incubation time on the harvest efficiency, viability and single cell fraction. Cells that were recovered with the optimized harvest protocol, by perfusing a 880 U/ml collagenase solution for 7 hours at a flow rate of 4 ml/min, were thereafter functionally analyzed for their characteristics as expanded progenitor cell population. As both the in vitro tri-lineage differentiation capacity and the in vivo bone forming potential were maintained after 3D perfusion bioreactor expansion we concluded that the developed seeding, culture and harvest processes did not significantly compromise the viability and potency of the cells and can contribute to the future development of integrated bioprocesses for stem cell expansion.

  4. Physical activity effects on bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E L; Gilligan, C

    1991-01-01

    The incidence of osteoporotic fractures rises exponentially with age and is increasing faster than the demographic increase in the aging population. Physical activity has great potential to reduce the risk for osteoporotic fractures. Three independent but interactive factors contribute to the risk of fractures: bone strength, the risk of falling, and the effectiveness of neuromuscular response that protects the skeleton from injury. Exercise can reduce fracture risk not only by preventing bone loss, but by decreasing the risk of falling and the force of impact by improving strength, flexibility, balance, and reaction time. Extreme inactivity causes rapid bone loss of up to 40%, while athletic activity results in bone hypertrophy of up to 40%. Exercise intervention programs have reduced bone loss or increased bone mass in both men and women of various ages and initial bone status. These benefits have been shown for arm bone mineral content, total body calcium, spine, calcium bone index, tibia, and calcaneus. In both middle-aged and elderly women, physical activity intervention reduced bone loss or increased bone mass. The mechanisms for maintenance of skeletal integrity rely on a cellular response to hormonal and mechanical load stimuli. Studies in animal models show that training affects cellular activity. In osteoporotics, cellular erosion is increased and mineral apposition rate (MAR) decreased compared with normal age-matched controls. In contrast to this, sows trained on a treadmill 20 min per day for 20 weeks had greater active periosteal surface, periosteal MAR, and osteonal MAR than untrained sows.

  5. Regenerative engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Laurencin, Cato T

    2013-01-01

    Regenerative Engineering: The Future of Medicine Saadiq F. El-Amin III , MD , PhD; Joylene W.L. Thomas, MD ; Ugonna N. Ihekweazu, MD ; Mia D. Woods, MS; and Ashim Gupta, MSCell Biology Gloria Gronowicz, PhD and Karen Sagomonyants, DMDStem Cells and Tissue Regeneration Kristen Martins-Taylor, PhD; Xiaofang Wang, MD , PhD; Xue-Jun Li, PhD; and Ren-He Xu, MD , PhDIntroduction to Materials Science Sangamesh G. Kumbar, PhD and Cato T. Laurencin, MD , PhDBiomaterials A. Jon Goldberg, PhD and Liisa T. Kuhn, PhDIn Vitro Assessment of Cell-Biomaterial Interactions Yong Wang, PhDHost Response to Biomate

  6. Autologous adipose-derived regenerative cells are effective for chronic intractable radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akita, S.; Yoshimoto, H.; Ohtsuru, A.; Hirano, A.; Yamashita, S.

    2012-01-01

    Effective therapy for chronic radiation injuries, such as ulcers, is prone to infection. Stiffness is expected since the therapeutic radiation often involves wider and deeper tissues and often requires extensive debridement and reconstruction, which are not sometimes appropriate for elderly and compromised hosts. Autologous adipose-derived regenerative cells (ADRCs) are highly yielding, forming relatively elderly aged consecutive 10 cases, 63.6±14.9 y (52-89 y), with mean radiation dose of 75.0±35.4 Gy (50-120 Gy) were included with at least 10-month follow-up. Minimal debridement and ADRC injection in the wound bed and margin along with the injection of mixture of fat and ADRCs in the periphery were tested for efficacy and regenerated tissue quality by clinically as well as imaging by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Uncultured ADRCs of 1.6±1.3 x 10 7 cells were obtained. All cases healed uneventfully after 6.6±3.2 weeks (2-10 weeks) post-operatively. The done site morbidity was negligible and without major complications, such as paralysis or massive haematoma. The regenerated tissue quality was significantly superior to the pre-operative one and the mixture of fat and ADRCs connected to the intact tissue was very soft and pliable. Mean follow-up at 1.9±0.8 y (0.9-2.9 y) revealed no recurrence or new ulceration after treatment. Thus, the ADRCs treatment for decades-long radiation injuries is effective, safe and improves the quality of wounds. (authors)

  7. Autologous adipose-derived regenerative cells are effective for chronic intractable radiation injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akita, S; Yoshimoto, H [Div. of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Dept. of Developmental and Reconstructive Medicine, Nagasaki Univ., Graduate School of Biomedical and Sciences, Nagasaki (Japan); Ohtsuru, A [Takashi Nagai Memorial International Hibakusha Medical Center, Nagasaki Univ. Hospital, Nagasaki (Japan); Hirano, A [Div. of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Dept. of Developmental and Reconstructive Medicine, Nagasaki Univ., Graduate School of Biomedical and Sciences, Nagasaki (Japan); Yamashita, S [Takashi Nagai Memorial International Hibakusha Medical Center, Nagasaki Univ. Hospital, Nagasaki (Japan); Dept. of Molecular Medicine, Atomic Bomb Disease Inst., Nagasaki Univ. School of Medicine, Nagasaki (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    Effective therapy for chronic radiation injuries, such as ulcers, is prone to infection. Stiffness is expected since the therapeutic radiation often involves wider and deeper tissues and often requires extensive debridement and reconstruction, which are not sometimes appropriate for elderly and compromised hosts. Autologous adipose-derived regenerative cells (ADRCs) are highly yielding, forming relatively elderly aged consecutive 10 cases, 63.6{+-}14.9 y (52-89 y), with mean radiation dose of 75.0{+-}35.4 Gy (50-120 Gy) were included with at least 10-month follow-up. Minimal debridement and ADRC injection in the wound bed and margin along with the injection of mixture of fat and ADRCs in the periphery were tested for efficacy and regenerated tissue quality by clinically as well as imaging by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Uncultured ADRCs of 1.6{+-}1.3 x 10{sup 7} cells were obtained. All cases healed uneventfully after 6.6{+-}3.2 weeks (2-10 weeks) post-operatively. The done site morbidity was negligible and without major complications, such as paralysis or massive haematoma. The regenerated tissue quality was significantly superior to the pre-operative one and the mixture of fat and ADRCs connected to the intact tissue was very soft and pliable. Mean follow-up at 1.9{+-}0.8 y (0.9-2.9 y) revealed no recurrence or new ulceration after treatment. Thus, the ADRCs treatment for decades-long radiation injuries is effective, safe and improves the quality of wounds. (authors)

  8. [Bone Cell Biology Assessed by Microscopic Approach. The effect of parathyroid hormone and teriparatide on bone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahata, Masahiko

    2015-10-01

    Continuous exposure to parathyroid hormone (PTH) leads to hypercalcemia and a decrease in bone volume, which is referred to as its catabolic effect, while intermittent exogenously administered PTH leads to an anabolic effect on bone. Intermittent administration of PTH dramatically increases bone remodeling and modeling through their direct and indirect effects on the functional cells of bone remodeling units and their precursors. These effects on bone metabolism differ according to dosing frequency of PTH. Therefore, different dosing frequency of PTH shows different therapeutic effects on bone in terms of bone volume and bone quality in patients with osteoporosis.

  9. Preventive and Regenerative Foam Rolling are Equally Effective in Reducing Fatigue-Related Impairments of Muscle Function following Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Fleckenstein, Jan Wilke, Lutz Vogt, Winfried Banzer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives of the study were to compare the effects of a single bout of preventive or regenerative foam rolling (FR on exercise-induced neuromuscular exhaustion. Single-centre randomised-controlled study was designed. Forty-five healthy adults (22 female; 25±2 yrs were allocated to three groups: 1 FR of the lower limb muscles prior to induction of fatigue, 2 FR after induction of fatigue, 3 no-treatment control. Neuromuscular exhaustion was provoked using a standardized and validated functional agility short-term fatigue protocol. Main outcome measure was the maximal isometric voluntary force of the knee extensors (MIVF. Secondary outcomes included pain and reactive strength (RSI. Preventive (-16% and regenerative FR (-12% resulted in a decreased loss in MIVF compared to control (-21%; p 0.8, p < 0.1. Differences over time (p < 0.001 between groups regarding pain and RSI did not turn out to be clinically meaningful. A single bout of foam rolling reduces neuromuscular exhaustion with reference to maximal force production. Regenerative rather than preventive foam rolling seems sufficient to prevent further fatigue.

  10. Regenerative adsorption distillation system

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Kim Choon

    2013-12-26

    There is provided a regenerative adsorption distillation system comprising a train of distillation effects in fluid communication with each other. The train of distillation effects comprises at least one intermediate effect between the first and last distillation effects of the train, each effect comprising a vessel and a condensing tube for flow of a fluid therein. The system further comprises a pair of adsorption-desorption beds in vapour communication with the last effect and at least one intermediate effect, wherein the beds contain an adsorbent that adsorbs vapour from the last effect and transmits desorbed vapour into at least one of the intermediate effect.

  11. Regenerative adsorption distillation system

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Kim Choon; Thu, Kyaw; Amy, Gary; Chunggaze, Mohammed; Al-Ghasham, Tawfiq

    2013-01-01

    There is provided a regenerative adsorption distillation system comprising a train of distillation effects in fluid communication with each other. The train of distillation effects comprises at least one intermediate effect between the first and last distillation effects of the train, each effect comprising a vessel and a condensing tube for flow of a fluid therein. The system further comprises a pair of adsorption-desorption beds in vapour communication with the last effect and at least one intermediate effect, wherein the beds contain an adsorbent that adsorbs vapour from the last effect and transmits desorbed vapour into at least one of the intermediate effect.

  12. Effects of histone deacetylase inhibitors on regenerative cell responses in human dental pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Z; Wang, Z; He, X; Liu, N; Liu, B; Sun, L; Wang, J; Ma, F; Duncan, H; He, W; Cooper, P

    2017-04-04

    To investigate the growth, migratory and adhesive effects of trichostatin A (TSA) and valproic acid (VPA), two histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis), on human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs). To verify that TSA or VPA functions as an HDAC inhibitor, the expressions of histones H3 and H4 were examined using Western blotting analysis. hDPSC growth and metabolic activity was evaluated by MTT viability analysis at different time-points and by cell count experiments. The expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins and apoptosis-associated proteins was examined by Western blot analysis. Migration effects were investigated using wound healing and transwell migration assays. An adhesion assay was also performed in the presence and absence of HDACis. The levels of chemokines and adhesion molecules relevant to repair in hDPSCs were also assessed by qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis. The data were analysed, where appropriate, using Student's t-test or one-way anova followed by the Student-Newman-Keuls test using SPSS software. Trichostatin A and VPA enhanced acetylation of histones H3 and H4 (P  0.05). At the same time, the expression of Cdx2 and cyclin A was upregulated by 2 nmol L -1 TSA and 1 mmol L -1 VPA (P < 0.05). Higher TSA or VPA concentrations induced apoptosis in hDPSCs in the cell count and apoptosis experiments (P < 0.05). Moreover, TSA and VPA significantly depressed the expression of Cdx2 and cyclin A (P < 0.05), whilst it significantly improved the level of p21 (P < 0.05). TSA and VPA promoted migration and adhesion of hDPSCs (P < 0.05). The levels of chemokines and adhesion molecules were significantly upregulated after exposure of hDPSCs to 20 nmol L -1 TSA or 1 mmol L -1 VPA (P < 0.05). Histone deacetylase inhibitors at specific concentrations promoted proliferation, migration and adhesion of hDPSCs, which may contribute to novel regenerative therapies for pulpal disease treatment. © 2017 International Endodontic Journal. Published

  13. Effects of murine and human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells on cuprizone induced demyelination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin Nessler

    Full Text Available For the treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis there are no regenerative approaches to enhance remyelination. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC have been proposed to exert such regenerative functions. Intravenous administration of human MSC reduced the clinical severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, an animal model mimicking some aspects of multiple sclerosis. However, it is not clear if this effect was achieved by systemic immunomodulation or if there is an active neuroregeneration in the central nervous system (CNS. In order to investigate remyelination and regeneration in the CNS we analysed the effects of intravenously and intranasally applied murine and human bone marrow-derived MSC on cuprizone induced demyelination, a toxic animal model which allows analysis of remyelination without the influence of the peripheral immune system. In contrast to EAE no effects of MSC on de- and remyelination and glial cell reactions were found. In addition, neither murine nor human MSC entered the lesions in the CNS in this toxic model. In conclusion, MSC are not directed into CNS lesions in the cuprizone model where the blood-brain-barrier is intact and thus cannot provide support for regenerative processes.

  14. Regenerative Perspective in Modern Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihnea Ioan Nicolescu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to trace the contour lines of regenerative dentistry, to offer an introductory overview on this emerging field to both dental students and practitioners. The crystallized depiction of the concept is a translational approach, connecting dental academics to scientific research and clinical utility. Therefore, this review begins by presenting the general features of regenerative medicine, and then gradually introduces the specific aspects of major dental subdomains, highlighting the progress achieved during the last years by scientific research and, in some cases, which has already been translated into clinical results. The distinct characteristics of stem cells and their microenvironment, together with their diversity in the oral cavity, are put into the context of research and clinical use. Examples of regenerative studies regarding endodontic and periodontal compartments, as well as hard (alveolar bone and soft (salivary glands related tissues, are presented to make the reader further acquainted with the topic. Instead of providing a conclusion, we will emphasize the importance for all dental community members, from young students to experienced dentists, of an early awareness rising regarding biomedical research progress in general and regenerative dentistry in particular.

  15. Research into the Effect of Supercapacitor Terminal Voltage on Regenerative Suspension Energy-Regeneration and Dynamic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruochen Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of supercapacitor initial terminal voltage on the regenerative and semiactive suspension energy-regeneration and dynamic performance, firstly, the relationship between supercapacitor terminal voltage and linear motor electromagnetic damping force and that between supercapacitor terminal voltage and recycled energy by the supercapacitor in one single switching period were both analyzed. The result shows that the linear motor electromagnetic damping force is irrelevant to the supercapacitor terminal voltage, and the recycled energy by the supercapacitor reaches the maximum when initial terminal voltage of the supercapacitor equals output terminal voltage of the linear motor. Then, performances of system dynamics and energy-regeneration were studied as the supercapacitor initial terminal voltage varied in situations of B level and C level road. The result showed that recycled energy by the supercapacitor increased at first and then decreased while the dynamic performance had no obvious change. On the basis of previous study, a mode-switching control strategy of supercapacitor for the regenerative and semiactive suspension system was proposed, and the mode-switching rule was built. According to simulation and experiment results, the system energy-regeneration efficiency can be increased by utilizing the control strategy without influencing suspension dynamic performance, which is highly valuable to practical engineering.

  16. Effects of Spaceflight on Bone: The Rat as an Animal Model for Human Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, B.; Weider, T.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1999-01-01

    The loss of weight bearing during spaceflight results in osteopenia in humans. Decrements in bone mineral reach 3-10% after as little as 75-184 days in space. Loss of bone mineral during flight decreases bone strength and increases fracture risk. The mechanisms responsible for, and the factors contributing to, the changes in bone induced by spaceflight are poorly understood. The rat has been widely used as an animal model for human bone loss during spaceflight. Despite its potential usefulness, the results of bone studies performed in the rat in space have been inconsistent. In some flights bone formation is decreased and cancellous bone volume reduced, while in others no significant changes in bone occur. In June of 1996 Drs. T. Wronski, S. Miller and myself participated in a flight experiment (STS 78) to examine the effects of glucocorticoids on bone during weightlessness. Technically the 17 day flight experiment was flawless. The results, however, were surprising. Cancellous bone volume and osteoblast surface in the proximal tibial metaphysis were the same in flight and ground-based control rats. Normal levels of cancellous bone mass and bone formation were also detected in the lumbar vertebrae and femoral neck of flight rats. Furthermore, periosteal bone formation rate was found to be identical in flight and ground-based control rats. Spaceflight had little or no effect on bone metabolism! These results prompted us to carefully review the changes in bone observed in, and the flight conditions of previous spaceflight missions.

  17. Exploring gamma radiation effect on exoelectron emission properties of bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakaria, M.; Dekhtyar, Y.; Bogucharska, T.; Noskov, V. [Riga Technical Univ., Biomedical Engineering and Nanotechnology Institute (Latvia)

    2006-07-01

    Gamma radiation is used for radiation therapy to treat carcinogenic diseases including bone cancer. Ionising radiation kills carcinogenic calls. However, there are side effects of the gamma radiation on the bone surface electron structure. One of the effects is in the form of altering electron density of states of bone that, with time, influences biomedical reactions on bone life condition. (authors)

  18. Exploring gamma radiation effect on exoelectron emission properties of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaria, M.; Dekhtyar, Y.; Bogucharska, T.; Noskov, V.

    2006-01-01

    Gamma radiation is used for radiation therapy to treat carcinogenic diseases including bone cancer. Ionising radiation kills carcinogenic calls. However, there are side effects of the gamma radiation on the bone surface electron structure. One of the effects is in the form of altering electron density of states of bone that, with time, influences biomedical reactions on bone life condition. (authors)

  19. ALVEOLAR BONE REGENERATION AFTER DEMINERALIZED FREEZE DRIED BONE ALOGRAFT (DFDBA BONE GRAFTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Oktawati

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal treatment by conventional way will result in healing repair, which easily cause recurrence. Modification of treatment should be done to get an effective result, that is the regeneration of alveolar bone and to reduce inflammation. The objective of this study is to determine the alveolar bone regeneration after using DFDBA (Demineralized Freeze Dried Bone Allograft. Quasi experimental designs with pre and post test method was used in this study. From 13 patients, 26 defects got conventional or regenerative treatment. The indicator of alveolar bone regenaration in bone height in radiographic appearance and level of osteocalsin in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF were checked before and after the treatment, then the changes that occurred were analyzed. The result of the research showed that alveolar bone regeneration only occurred to the group of regenerative treatment using DFDBA. The conclusion is the effective periodontal tissue regeneration occurred at regenerative treatment by using DFDBA, and the osteocalsin in GCF can be used as indicator of bone growth.

  20. Effect of radiotherapy on experimental liver regenerative capacities following partial hepatectomy in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Shisuo; Zeng Zhaochong; Tang Zhaoyou; Zhang Zhenyu; Wu Zheng; Shi Liusheng

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the regenerative capacities and proliferation related cytokines expression of normal and irradiated livers following 70% partial hepatectomy in rats. Methods: 90 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups. The control group was only received 70% partial hepatectomy. The two irradiated groups were performed a single dose of 4 Gy and 8 Gy photon irradiation respectively followed 70% partial hepatectomy. The remanent liver were excised at 0.5,1.0,2.0,3.0,7.0 and 10.0 d after hepatectomy, and liver regeneration capacities in normal and irradiated rats were evaluated through remanent liver weigh, BrdU incorporation, PCNA labeling, and mitotic indices. The proliferation related cytokines expression were also compared. Results: After radiotherapy and hepatectomy 1 rats died of infection in control group, and two rats in 8 Gy group died of radiation induced enteritis. The original liver weigh is regained within 12 days in control and 4 Gy group, and proliferative speed was lower in 4 Gy group than control group. The weigh of remanent liver in 8 Gy group was significantly lower than the two groups all time points from 2d. The apex of PCNA labeling index was 80.2 ± 7.6%, 71.2 ± 6.5% and 55.3 ± 4.7% in control, 4 Gy and 8 Gy groups respectively at 2d, and 44.2 ± 5.4%, 35.3 ± 5.72% and 5.3 ± 6.9% with BrdU incorporation index. HGF mRNA expression peak of 4 Gy group was significantly lower than in control at 1 d, but no apparent peak value in 8 Gy group. TGF-β1 and TGF-β RII level of radiation groups was apparently higher than the control group at different time points. Meanwhile the p53 protein tend to increase at 1 d then decline with high expression in irradiated groups. Conclusion: Whole radiation can significantly inhibit the regenerative capacities following partial hepatectomy in rats with dose dependent. (authors)

  1. Genetic engineering for skeletal regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersbach, Charles A; Phillips, Jennifer E; García, Andrés J

    2007-01-01

    The clinical challenges of skeletal regenerative medicine have motivated significant advances in cellular and tissue engineering in recent years. In particular, advances in molecular biology have provided the tools necessary for the design of gene-based strategies for skeletal tissue repair. Consequently, genetic engineering has emerged as a promising method to address the need for sustained and robust cellular differentiation and extracellular matrix production. As a result, gene therapy has been established as a conventional approach to enhance cellular activities for skeletal tissue repair. Recent literature clearly demonstrates that genetic engineering is a principal factor in constructing effective methods for tissue engineering approaches to bone, cartilage, and connective tissue regeneration. This review highlights this literature, including advances in the development of efficacious gene carriers, novel cell sources, successful delivery strategies, and optimal target genes. The current status of the field and the challenges impeding the clinical realization of these approaches are also discussed.

  2. Effects of Growth Hormone on Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tritos, Nicholas A; Klibanski, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Describe the effects of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) on the skeleton. The GH and IGF-1 axis has pleiotropic effects on the skeleton throughout the lifespan by influencing bone formation and resorption. GH deficiency leads to decreased bone turnover, delayed statural growth in children, low bone mass, and increased fracture risk in adults. GH replacement improves adult stature in GH deficient children, increases bone mineral density (BMD) in adults, and helps to optimize peak bone acquisition in patients, during the transition from adolescence to adulthood, who have persistent GH deficiency. Observational studies suggest that GH replacement may mitigate the excessive fracture risk associated with GH deficiency. Acromegaly, a state of GH and IGF-1 excess, is associated with increased bone turnover and decreased BMD in the lumbar spine observed in some studies, particularly in patients with hypogonadism. In addition, patients with acromegaly appear to be at an increased risk of morphometric-vertebral fractures, especially in the presence of active disease or concurrent hypogonadism. GH therapy also has beneficial effects on statural growth in several conditions characterized by GH insensitivity, including chronic renal failure, Turner syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, postnatal growth delay in patients with intrauterine growth retardation who do not demonstrate catchup growth, idiopathic short stature, short stature homeobox-containing (SHOX) gene mutations, and Noonan syndrome. GH and IGF-1 have important roles in skeletal physiology, and GH has an important therapeutic role in both GH deficiency and insensitivity states. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of radiations on bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.; Frindel, E.; Croizat, H.; Parmentier, C.

    1979-01-01

    After total body irradiation for kidney transplant, the initial decrease of circulating blood cells is more rapid, the nadir is reached sooner and the regeneration occurs earlier when the doses are higher than a few hundred rads. The LD 50 in man seems to be higher than 450 rads. The in vivo and in vitro assays of hemopoietic stem cells have greatly increasedd the understanding of acute and late effects. Multipotential stem cells are very radiosensitive, furthermore the differentiation of the surviving stem cells is accelerated after irradiation. This results in a severe depletion of the stem cell compartment. When this stem cell number falls below a critical value, the stem cell no longer differentiates till the completion of the regeneration of the stem cell compartment. Stem cell proliferation is regulated by inhibitors and stimulators. Release of stimulators by irradiated bone marrow has been demonstrated. Severe sequellae are observed after irradiation of animal and human bone marrow. They seem to be due either to the damage of the stromal cell or to the stem cell population. In patients, four compensating mechanisms are observed after a regional bone marrow irradiation: stimulation of non irradiated bone marrow, extension of hemopoietic areas, regeneration of irradiated bone marrow when the irradiated volume is large and increase in the amplification factor resulting in an increase in the output of mature cells for one stem cell input. Assay of progenitor cells provides useful information and a reduction in their number is still observed many years after a large regional irradiation

  4. Temporomandibular Joint Regenerative Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Van Bellinghen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The temporomandibular joint (TMJ is an articulation formed between the temporal bone and the mandibular condyle which is commonly affected. These affections are often so painful during fundamental oral activities that patients have lower quality of life. Limitations of therapeutics for severe TMJ diseases have led to increased interest in regenerative strategies combining stem cells, implantable scaffolds and well-targeting bioactive molecules. To succeed in functional and structural regeneration of TMJ is very challenging. Innovative strategies and biomaterials are absolutely crucial because TMJ can be considered as one of the most difficult tissues to regenerate due to its limited healing capacity, its unique histological and structural properties and the necessity for long-term prevention of its ossified or fibrous adhesions. The ideal approach for TMJ regeneration is a unique scaffold functionalized with an osteochondral molecular gradient containing a single stem cell population able to undergo osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation such as BMSCs, ADSCs or DPSCs. The key for this complex regeneration is the functionalization with active molecules such as IGF-1, TGF-β1 or bFGF. This regeneration can be optimized by nano/micro-assisted functionalization and by spatiotemporal drug delivery systems orchestrating the 3D formation of TMJ tissues.

  5. Researches on regenerative medicine-current state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Zheng-guo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Since 1980s, the rapid development of tissue engineering and stem cell research has pushed re-generative medicine to a new fastigium, and regenerative medicine has become a noticeable research field in the international biology and medicine. In China, about 100 million patients need repair and regeneration treatment every year, while the number is much larger in the world. Regenerative medicine could provide effective salvation for these patients. Both Chinese Academy of Sciences and Chinese Academy of Engineering have made roadmaps of 2010-2050 and 2011-2030 for regenerative medicine. The final goal of the two roadmaps is to make China go up to leading position in most research aspects of regenerative medicine. In accord with this strategy, the government and some enterprises have invested 3-5 billion RMB (0.5-0.8 billion USD for the research on regenerative medicine. In order to push the translation of regenerative medicine forward—from bench to bedside, a strategic alliance has been established, and it includes 27 top-level research institutes, medical institutes, colleges, universities and enterprises in the field of stem cell and regeneration medicine. Recently the journal, Science, has published a special issue—Regenerative Medi-cine in China, consisting of 35 papers dealing with stem cell and regeneration, tissue engineering and regeneration, trauma and regeneration and bases for tissue repair and regenerative medicine. It is predicated that a greater breakthrough in theory and practice of regenerative medicine will be achieved in the near future (20 to 30 years. Key words: Regenerative medicine; Tissue engineering; Stem cells; Wound healing

  6. The effects of surgicel and bone wax hemostatic agents on bone healing: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Nooh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The biological effects of hemostatic agends on the physiological healing process need to be tested. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of oxidized cellulose (surgicel and bone wax on bone healing in goats′ feet. Materials and Methods: Three congruent circular bone defects were created on the lateral aspects of the right and left metacarpal bones of ten goats. One defect was left unfilled and acted as a control; the remaining two defects were filled with bone wax and surgicel respectively. The 10 animals were divided into two groups of 5 animals each, to be sacrificed at the 3rd and 5th week postoperatively. Histological analysis assessing quality of bone formed and micro-computed tomography (MCT measuring the quantities of bone volume (BV and bone density (BD were performed. The results of MCT analysis pertaining to BV and BD were statistically analyzed using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and posthoc least significant difference tests. Results: Histological analysis at 3 weeks showed granulation tissue with new bone formation in the control defects, active bone formation only at the borders for surgicel filled defects and fibrous encapsulation with foreign body reaction in the bone wax filled defects. At 5 weeks, the control and surgicel filled defects showed greater bone formation; however the control defects had the greatest amount of new bone. Bone wax filled defects showed very little bone formation. The two-way ANOVA for MCT results showed significant differences for BV and BD between the different hemostatic agents during the two examination periods. Conclusion: Surgicel has superiority over bone wax in terms of osseous healing. Bone wax significantly hinders osteogenesis and induces inflammation.

  7. Regenerative endodontics: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S G; Malek, M; Sigurdsson, A; Lin, L M; Kahler, B

    2018-05-19

    The European Society of Endodontology and the American Association for Endodontists have released position statements and clinical considerations for regenerative endodontics. There is increasing literature on this field since the initial reports of Iwaya et al. (Dental Traumatology, 17, 2001, 185) and Banchs & Trope (Journal of Endodontics, 30, 2004, 196). Endogenous stem cells from an induced periapical bleeding and scaffolds using blood clot, platelet rich plasma or platelet-rich fibrin have been utilized in regenerative endodontics. This approach has been described as a 'paradigm shift' and considered the first treatment option for immature teeth with pulp necrosis. There are three treatment outcomes of regenerative endodontics; (i) resolution of clinical signs and symptoms; (ii) further root maturation; and (iii) return of neurogenesis. It is known that results are variable for these objectives, and true regeneration of the pulp/dentine complex is not achieved. Repair derived primarily from the periodontal and osseous tissues has been shown histologically. It is hoped that with the concept of tissue engineering, namely stem cells, scaffolds and signalling molecules, that true pulp regeneration is an achievable goal. This review discusses current knowledge as well as future directions for regenerative endodontics. Patient-centred outcomes such as tooth discolouration and possibly more appointments with the potential for adverse effects needs to be discussed with patients and parents. Based on the classification of Cvek (Endodontics and Dental Traumatology, 8, 1992, 45), it is proposed that regenerative endodontics should be considered for teeth with incomplete root formation although teeth with near or complete root formation may be more suited for conventional endodontic therapy or MTA barrier techniques. However, much is still not known about clinical and biological aspects of regenerative endodontics. © 2018 International Endodontic Journal. Published by

  8. Regenerative-filter-incinerator device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosebrock, T.L.

    1977-10-18

    A regenerative-filter-incinerator device, for use in the exhaust system of a diesel engine, includes a drum-like regenerative-heat exchanger-filter assembly rotatably mounted within a housing that is adapted to be installed directly in the exhaust gas stream discharged from a diesel engine as close to the engine as possible. The regenerative-heat exchanger-filter assembly provides an inner chamber which serves as a reaction chamber for the secondary combustion of exhaust gases including particulates discharged from the engine. The regenerative-heat exchanger-filter assembly includes separately rotatable heat exchange-filter elements pervious to radial flow of fluid therethrough and adapted to filter out particulates from the exhaust gases and to carry them into the reaction chamber. During engine operation, the reaction chamber is provided with a quantity of heat, as necessary, to effect secondary combustion of the exhaust gases and particulates by means of an auxiliary heat source and the heat generated within the reaction chamber is stored in the individual heat exchange-filter elements during the discharge of exhaust gases therethrough from the reaction chamber and this heat is then transferred to the inflowing volume of the exhaust gases so that, in effect, exhaust gas is discharged from the device at substantially the same temperature as it was during its inlet into the device from the engine.

  9. Regenerative medicine primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzic, Andre; Nelson, Timothy J

    2013-07-01

    The pandemic of chronic diseases, compounded by the scarcity of usable donor organs, mandates radical innovation to address the growing unmet needs of individuals and populations. Beyond life-extending measures that are often the last available option, regenerative strategies offer transformative solutions in treating degenerative conditions. By leveraging newfound knowledge of the intimate processes fundamental to organogenesis and healing, the emerging regenerative armamentarium aims to boost the aptitude of human tissues for self-renewal. Regenerative technologies strive to promote, augment, and reestablish native repair processes, restituting organ structure and function. Multimodal regenerative approaches incorporate transplant of healthy tissues into damaged environments, prompt the body to enact a regenerative response in damaged tissues, and use tissue engineering to manufacture new tissue. Stem cells and their products have a unique aptitude to form specialized tissues and promote repair signaling, providing active ingredients of regenerative regimens. Concomitantly, advances in materials science and biotechnology have unlocked additional prospects for growing tissue grafts and engineering organs. Translation of regenerative principles into practice is feasible and safe in the clinical setting. Regenerative medicine and surgery are, thus, poised to transit from proof-of-principle studies toward clinical validation and, ultimately, standardization, paving the way for next-generation individualized management algorithms. Copyright © 2013 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Regenerative medicine blueprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzic, Andre; Harper, C Michel; Gores, Gregory J; Pfenning, Michael A

    2013-12-01

    Regenerative medicine, a paragon of future healthcare, holds unprecedented potential in extending the reach of treatment modalities for individuals across diseases and lifespan. Emerging regenerative technologies, focused on structural repair and functional restoration, signal a radical transformation in medical and surgical practice. Regenerative medicine is poised to provide innovative solutions in addressing major unmet needs for patients, ranging from congenital disease and trauma to degenerative conditions. Realization of the regenerative model of care predicates a stringent interdisciplinary paradigm that will drive validated science into standardized clinical options. Designed as a catalyst in advancing rigorous new knowledge on disease causes and cures into informed delivery of quality care, the Mayo Clinic regenerative medicine blueprint offers a patient-centered, team-based strategy that optimizes the discovery-translation-application roadmap for the express purpose of science-supported practice advancement.

  11. The effect of bone marrow aspirate, bone graft and collagen composites on fixation of bone implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babiker, Hassan; Ding, Ming; Overgaard, Søren

    2007-01-01

     Introduction: Replacement of extensive local bone loss especially in revision joint arthroplasties is a significant clinical challenge. Autogenous and allogenic cancellous bone grafts have been the gold standard in reconstructive orthopaedic surgery, but it is well known that there is morbidity...... associated with harvesting of autogenous bone graft and limitations in the quantity of bone available. Disadvantages of allograft include the risk of bacterial or viral contamination and non union as well as the potential risk of disease transmission. Alternative options are attractive and continue...... to be sought. Hydroxyapatite and collagen composites have the potential in mimicking and replacing skeletal bones. Aim: This study attempted to determine the effect of hydroxyapatite/collagen composites in the fixation of bone implants. The composites used in this study is produced by Institute of Science...

  12. A study on the Regenerative Effect of Platelets Rich Plasma on Experimentally Induced Hepatic Damage In Albino Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoeib, Heba Mamdoh; Keshk, Walaa Arafa; Foda, Abdallah Mahmoud; Abo El Noeman, Saad El-Deen Abd Elfatah

    2018-02-14

    Hepatic fibrosis is a worldwide health problem with significant morbidity and mortality. Currently, there is no effective therapy for hepatic fibrosis. So that the present study was aimed to evaluate the possible regenerative effect of Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) against thioacetamide (TAA) induced hepatic damage. Eighty albino rats were included; 40 were used for PRP preparation and 40 were randomly divided into four groups. Group I (control group); group II (PRP control); group III (TAA- intoxicated in a dose of 200 mg ∕ kg body weight/twice weekly for 7 weeks, intra-peritoneal and group IV (TAA-intoxicated+ PRP treated). Macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) were immunoassayed in addition to peroxinitrite level, NADPH-quinine oxido-reductase-1 (NQO1) enzyme activity and liver function. PRP treatment showed significant improvement in hepatic function, decreased MIP-1α and peroxinitrite level. Meanwhile, significant increase in NQO1 enzyme activity and cAMP level were observed. The histopathological results confirmed the laboratory results with improvement of hepatic architecture except for some inflammatory cellular infiltrates. PRP has the ability to protect against TAA-induced liver damage possibly by improving redox status, liver histopathological architecture, disruption of the inflammatory and fibrotic response induced by TAA.

  13. Effect of the Regenerative Agent Poly(Carboxymethylglucose Sulfate) on Corneal Wound Healing After Corneal Cross-Linking for Keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kymionis, George D; Liakopoulos, Dimitrios A; Grentzelos, Michael A; Tsoulnaras, Konstantinos I; Detorakis, Efstathios T; Cochener, Béatrice; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis K

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of a regenerative agent (RGTA) [Cacicol20-poly(carboxymethyl glucose sulfate); OTR3, Paris, France] on corneal reepithelialization and pain after corneal cross-linking (CXL) for keratoconus. In this prospective comparative (contralateral) clinical study, patients with bilateral progressive keratoconus underwent CXL treatment. The corneal epithelium during CXL was removed using transepithelial phototherapeutic keratectomy (Cretan protocol). One eye of each patient was randomly instilled with an RGTA (Cacicol20) once a day (study group), whereas the fellow eye was instilled with artificial tears (control group). Patients were examined daily until complete reepithelialization. Postoperative examinations included slit-lamp biomicroscopy to assess the epithelial defect size and subjective evaluation of pain. The study enrolled 18 patients (36 eyes). The mean epithelial defect size for study and control groups was 19.6 ± 4.2 mm versus 21.5 ± 2.8 mm, respectively, at day 1 (P = 0.019) and 6.4 ± 3.4 mm versus 7.9 ± 4.3 mm, respectively, at day 2 (P = 0.014). At day 3 postoperatively, 61.1% of study eyes were fully reepithelialized, compared with 11.1% of control eyes (P = 0.002). RGTA (Cacicol20) instillation seems to result in faster corneal reepithelialization after CXL in this study. However, there was no significant effect in subjective pain/discomfort.

  14. From regenerative dentistry to regenerative medicine: progress, challenges, and potential applications of oral stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao L

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Li Xiao,1 Masanori Nasu2 1Department of Pharmacology, 2Research Center, The Nippon Dental University, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs and epithelial stem cells play essential roles in tissue repair and self-healing. Oral MSCs and epithelial stem cells can be isolated from adult human oral tissues, for example, teeth, periodontal ligament, and gingiva. Cocultivated adult oral epithelial stem cells and MSCs could represent some developmental events, such as epithelial invagination and tubular structure formation, signifying their potentials for tissue regeneration. Oral epithelial stem cells have been used in regenerative medicine over 1 decade. They are able to form a stratified cell sheet under three-dimensional culture conditions. Both experimental and clinical data indicate that the cell sheets can not only safely and effectively reconstruct the damaged cornea in humans, but also repair esophageal ulcer in animal models. Oral MSCs include dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs, stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED, stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP, periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs, and mesenchymal stem cells from gingiva (GMSCs. They are widely applied in both regenerative dentistry and medicine. DPSCs, SHED, and SCAP are able to form dentin–pulp complex when being transplanted into immunodeficient animals. They have been experimentally used for the regeneration of dental pulp, neuron, bone muscle and blood vessels in animal models and have shown promising results. PDLSCs and GMSCs are demonstrated to be ideal cell sources for repairing the damaged tissues of periodontal, muscle, and tendon. Despite the abovementioned applications of oral stem cells, only a few human clinical trials are now underway to use them for the treatment of certain diseases. Since clinical use is the end goal, their true regenerative power and safety need to be further examined.Keywords: oral mesenchymal stem cells, oral

  15. REAC regenerative treatment efficacy in experimental chondral lesions: a pilot study on ovine animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Passino E

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Eraldo Sanna Passino,1,2 Stefano Rocca,1 Sabrina Caggiu,1 Nicolò Columbano,1,2 Alessandro Castagna,3 Vania Fontani,3–5 Salvatore Rinaldi3–51Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy; 2Comparative Surgery Research Laboratory, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy; 3Department of Regenerative Medicine, Rinaldi Fontani Institute, Florence, Italy; 4Research Department, Rinaldi Fontani Foundation, Florence, Italy; 5Research Department, IRF Shanghai Biomedical Sciences, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Radioelectric asymmetric conveyor (REAC technology is a platform designed to optimize cell polarity. Cell polarity is a universal biological phenomenon that is implicated in cell differentiation, proliferation, morphogenesis, aging, and rejuvenation. In this work, we investigate a timing and administration protocol for tissue optimization regenerative treatment type C, in order to treat aging-related chondral damage or injuries and gain insights into regenerative processes of articular cartilage in humans. The chondral lesion produced in this study in an animal model (6 knee joints of 4 adult sheep was 6 mm in diameter and about 2 mm deep. These lesions, which did not involve subchondral bone, tend to increase in size and depth and are not completely repaired with normal hyaline articular cartilage since adult articular cartilage is avascular and has a very slow turnover at the cellular and molecular level. Moreover, the hydration of articular cartilage is reduced with aging and with decreased mitotic activity, synthesis, and population size of chondrocytes. Six months posttreatment, lesions appeared filled, though not completely, with newly generated tissue of the light opalescent color of healthy articular cartilage, which otherwise covered the underlying subchondral bone. The newly formed tissue surface appeared to be quite regular. Nearly complete regeneration of subchondral bone occurred, with

  16. Transcritical CO2 power cycle – Effects of regenerative heating using turbine bleed gas at intermediate pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, Subha; De, Sudipta

    2015-01-01

    For energy utilization from low temperature waste heat, CO 2 is a potential working fluid due to its lower critical temperature. In this work, assuming finite quantity of flue gas available at low temperature (200 °C), a thermodynamic model is developed for a transcritical CO 2 power cycle utilizing turbine bleed gas for regenerative heating. Analysis show that the cycle performance improves with higher value of bleed ratio. However, for a specified bleed pressure and bleed gas temperature at the regenerator exit, maximum practical value of bleed ratio may be fixed by considering the exponential growth of the regenerator size (specified by NTU (number of transfer unit)). Most significant observation is the existence of optimum bleed pressures corresponding to maximum 1st law efficiency or minimum cycle irreversibility for specified values of remaining cycle parameters. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic model for Transcritical CO 2 cycle with bleed gas are developed. • Effects of bleed ratio, pressure, and regenerator exit gas temperature are studied. • 1st and 2nd law efficiencies are estimated. • An optimum bleed pressure for maximum 1st and 2nd efficiencies is obtained. • Maximum value of 1st law efficiency is limited by regenerator size

  17. Effect of treadmill gait on bone markers and bone mineral density of quadriplegic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C.L. Carvalho

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Quadriplegic subjects present extensive muscle mass paralysis which is responsible for the dramatic decrease in bone mass, increasing the risk of bone fractures. There has been much effort to find an efficient treatment to prevent or reverse this significant bone loss. We used 21 male subjects, mean age 31.95 ± 8.01 years, with chronic quadriplegia, between C4 and C8, to evaluate the effect of treadmill gait training using neuromuscular electrical stimulation, with 30-50% weight relief, on bone mass, comparing individual dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry responses and biochemical markers of bone metabolism. Subjects were divided into gait (N = 11 and control (N = 10 groups. The gait group underwent gait training for 6 months, twice a week, for 20 min, while the control group did not perform gait. Bone mineral density (BMD of lumbar spine, femoral neck, trochanteric area, and total femur, and biochemical markers (osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase, pyridinoline, and deoxypyridinoline were measured at the beginning of the study and 6 months later. In the gait group, 81.8% of the subjects presented a significant increase in bone formation and 66.7% also presented a significant decrease of bone resorption markers, whereas 30% of the controls did not present any change in markers and 20% presented an increase in bone formation. Marker results did not always agree with BMD data. Indeed, many individuals with increased bone formation presented a decrease in BMD. Most individuals in the gait group presented an increase in bone formation markers and a decrease in bone resorption markers, suggesting that gait training, even with 30-50% body weight support, was efficient in improving the bone mass of chronic quadriplegics.

  18. Regenerative Hydride Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.

    1992-01-01

    Hydride heat pump features regenerative heating and single circulation loop. Counterflow heat exchangers accommodate different temperatures of FeTi and LaNi4.7Al0.3 subloops. Heating scheme increases efficiency.

  19. Effect of epimedium pubescen flavonoid on bone mineral status and bone turnover in male rats chronically exposed to cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shu-guang; Cheng, Ling; Li, Kang-hua; Liu, Wen-He; Xu, Mai; Jiang, Wei; Wei, Li-Cheng; Zhang, Fang-jie; Xiao, Wen-feng; Xiong, Yi-lin; Tian, Jian; Zeng, Chao; Sun, Jin-peng; Xie, Qiang; Lei, Guang-hua

    2012-06-19

    Epimedii herba is one of the most frequently used herbs in formulas that are prescribed for the treatment of osteoporosis in China and its main constituent is Epimedium pubescen flavonoid (EPF). However, it is unclear whether EPF during chronic exposure to cigarette smoke may have a protective influence on the skeleton. The present study investigated the effect of EPF on bone mineral status and bone turnover in a rat model of human relatively high exposure to cigarette smoke. Fifty male Wistar rats were randomized into five groups: controls, passive smoking groups and passive smoking rats administered EPF at three dosage levels (75, 150 or 300 mg/kg/day) in drinking water for 4 months. A rat model of passive smoking was prepared by breeding male rats in a cigarette-smoking box. Bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD), bone turnover markers, bone histomorphometric parameters and biomechanical properties were examined. Smoke exposure decreased BMC and BMD, increased bone turnover (inhibited bone formation and stimulated its resorption), affected bone histomorphometry (increased trabecular separation and osteoclast surface per bone surface; decreased trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, cortical thickness, bone formation rate and osteoblast surface per bone surface), and reduced mechanical properties. EPF supplementation during cigarette smoke exposure prevented smoke-induced changes in bone mineral status and bone turnover. The results suggest that EPF can prevent the adverse effects of smoke exposure on bone by stimulating bone formation and inhibiting bone turnover and bone resorption.

  20. Effect of cisplatin on bone transport osteogenesis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhart, Nicole; Eurell, Jo Ann C; Tommasini, Matteo; Constable, Peter D; Johnson, Ann L; Feretti, Antonio

    2002-05-01

    To document effects of cisplatin on regenerate bone formation during the distraction and consolidation phases of bone transport osteogenesis. 10 skeletally mature hounds. Bone transport osteogenesis was performed to reconstruct a 3-cm defect in the radius of each dog. Five dogs were randomly selected to receive cisplatin (70 mg/m2, IV, q 21 d for 4 cycles), and 5 were administered saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Bone mineral density was measured by use of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) on days 24, 55, and 90 after surgery. Dogs were euthanatized 90 days after surgery. Histomorphometry was performed on nondecalcified sections of regenerate bone. Bone mineral density and histomorphometric indices of newly formed bone were compared between groups. Densitometric differences in regenerate bone mineral density were not detected between groups at any time period. Cisplatin-treated dogs had decreased mineralized bone volume, decreased percentage of woven bone volume, decreased percentage of osteoblast-covered bone, increased porosity, and increased percentage of osteoblast-covered surfaces, compared with values for control dogs. Lamellar bone volume and osteoid volume did not differ significantly between groups. Regenerate bone will form and remodel during administration of cisplatin. Results of histomorphometric analysis suggest that bone formation and resorption may be uncoupled in cisplatin-treated regenerate bone as a result of increased osteoclast activity or delayed secondary bone formation during remodeling. These histomorphometric differences were modest in magnitude and did not result in clinically observable complications or decreased bone mineral density as measured by use of DEXA.

  1. The Effect of Aloe, Gelfoam, Plaster on Bone Formation in applying to the bone defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Eui Hwan; Kim, Su Gwan

    1999-01-01

    This study was to evaluate the effects of Aloe, Gelfoam, and Plaster of Paris on bone healing. Four experimental defects were created for placement of the three materials in the right femur of dogs. One defect served as an empty control site. The evaluation was performed at 1-, 6-, and 12-weeks by light microscopy and NIH image program. Radiographic and Histologic examinations showed new bone formation in the presence of Aloe, Gelfoam, and Plaster of Paris and similar bone healing reactions. On the basis of these findings, it was concluded that Aloe, Gelfoam, and Plaster of Paris may be adequate agents for use in bone procurement.

  2. Various effects of antidepressant drugs on bone microarchitectecture, mechanical properties and bone remodeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnet, N.; Bernard, P.; Beaupied, H; Bizot, J.C.; Trovero, F.; Courteix, D.; Benhamou, C.L.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of various drugs which present antidepressant properties: selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs, fluoxetine), serotonin and noradrenaline-reuptake inhibitors (Desipramine) and phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDE, rolipram and tofisopam) on bone microarchitecture and biomechanical properties. Twelve female mice were studied per group starting at an age of 10 weeks. During 4 weeks, they received subcutaneously either placebo or 20 mg kg -1 day -1 of desipramine, fluoxetine or 10 mg kg -1 day -1 of rolipram or tofisopam. Serum Osteocalcin and CTx were evaluated by ELISA. Bone microarchitecture of the distal femur was characterized by X-ray microCT (Skyscan1072). Mechanical properties were assessed by three-point bending test (Instron 4501) and antidepressant efficacy by forced swimming and open field tests. Fluoxetine displayed lower TbTh (- 6.1%, p -1 , 6431 ± 1182 MPa) than in placebo (101 ± 9 N mm -1 , 8441 ± 1180 MPa). Bone markers indicated a significantly higher bone formation in tofisopam (+ 8.6%) and a lower in fluoxetine (- 56.1%) compared to placebo. These data suggest deleterious effects for SSRIs, both on trabecular and cortical bone and a positive effect of PDE inhibitors on trabecular bone. Furthermore tofisopam anabolic effect in terms of bone markers, suggests a potential therapeutic effect of the PDE inhibitors on bone

  3. Platelet-rich fibrin: a boon in regenerative endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebentish, Priyanka D; Umashetty, Girish; Kaur, Harpreet; Doizode, Trupthi; Kaslekar, Mithun; Chowdhury, Shouvik

    2016-12-01

    Research into regenerative dentistry has contributed momentum to the field of molecular biology. Periapical surgery aims at removing periapical pathology to achieve complete wound healing and regeneration of bone and periodontal tissue. Regenerative endodontic procedures are widely being added to the current armamentarium of pulp therapy procedures. The regenerative potential of platelets has been deliberated. Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) is a wonderful tissue-engineering product and has recently gained much popularity due its promising results in wound healing bone induction. The features of this product are an attribute of platelets which, after cellular interactions, release growth factors and have shown application in diverse disciplines of dentistry. This paper is intended to shed light onto the various prospects of PRF and to provide clinical insight into regenerative endodontic therapy.

  4. Microfluidic wound-healing assay to assess the regenerative effect of HGF on wounded alveolar epithelium.

    OpenAIRE

    Felder Marcel; Sallin Pauline; Barbe Laurent; Haenni Beat; Gazdhar Amiq; Geiser Thomas; Guenat Olivier

    2012-01-01

    We present a microfluidic epithelial wound healing assay that allows characterization of the effect of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) on the regeneration of alveolar epithelium using a flow focusing technique to create a regular wound in the epithelial monolayer. The phenotype of the epithelial cell was characterized using immunostaining for tight junction (TJ) proteins and transmission electron micrographs (TEMs) of cells cultured in the microfluidic system a technique that is reported here ...

  5. Introduction to regenerative medicine and tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltz, J-F; Decot, V; Huseltein, C; He, X; Zhang, L; Magdalou, J; Li, Y P; Menu, P; Li, N; Wang, Y Y; de Isla, N; Bensoussan, D

    2012-01-01

    Human tissues don't regenerate spontaneously, explaining why regenerative medicine and cell therapy represent a promising alternative treatment (autologous cells or stem cells of different origins). The principle is simple: cells are collected, expanded and introduced with or without modification into injured tissues or organs. Among middle-term therapeutic applications, cartilage defects, bone repair, cardiac insufficiency, burns, liver or bladder, neurodegenerative disorders could be considered.

  6. Panacea seed “Nigella”: A review focusing on regenerative effects for gastric ailments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahida A. Khan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nigella sativa (NS or black cumin is a dark, thin, and crescent-shaped, seeded shrub belonging to the Ranunculaceae family commonly growing on Mediterranean coasts in Saudi Arabia, northern Africa and Asia. They have amazing curative and therapeutic features that make them one of the most popular, safe, non-detrimental, and cytoprotective medicinal plant that can be used for prevention and treatment of many complicated diseases. Originally, N. sativa was used to treat migraines and allergy, and researches have shown its effectiveness in destroying cancer cells as well. The gastro protective effect of NS oil and its constituents has also been reported earlier; however, the complete perception on etiology and pathogenesis of gastric ulcer is not yet clear. Herein, we attempt to unveil some of the potential mechanisms exhibited by NS in preventing problems related to gastric ulcers. Gastric ailments like ulcers and tumors are the most common disorders of the gastro-intestinal tract in the present day life of the industrialized world. Gastric ulcer being a multifaceted problem exhibits complex etiology and is the fourth most common cause of cancer mortality. Drug interactions and toxicity are the main hindrances in chemotherapy. The existing merits and demerits of modern-day drugs make us turn toward the plant kingdom which may provide a valuable resource of novel potent natural compounds for pharmaceuticals or alternately, as dietary supplements. In this context, the revered phytotherapeutic N. sativa comes as a promising savior in today’s times. This review aims to summarize, both the functional and disease-related effects in the area of gastroenterology.

  7. Compacted cancellous bone has a spring-back effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kold, S; Bechtold, JE; Ding, Ming

    2003-01-01

    A new surgical technique, compaction, has been shown to improve implant fixation. It has been speculated that the enhanced implant fixation with compaction could be due to a spring-back effect of compacted bone. However, such an effect has yet to be shown. Therefore we investigated in a canine mo....... Thus we found a spring-back effect of compacted bone, which may be important for increasing implant fixation by reducing initial gaps between the implant and bone....

  8. Effects of neuroinflammation on the regenerative capacity of brain stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Isabella; Barlati, Sergio; Bosetti, Francesca

    2011-03-01

    In the adult brain, neurogenesis under physiological conditions occurs in the subventricular zone and in the dentate gyrus. Although the exact molecular mechanisms that regulate neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation are largely unknown, several factors have been shown to affect neurogenesis. Decreased neurogenesis in the hippocampus has been recognized as one of the mechanisms of age-related brain dysfunction. Furthermore, in pathological conditions of the central nervous system associated with neuroinflammation, inflammatory mediators such as cytokines and chemokines can affect the capacity of brain stem cells and alter neurogenesis. In this review, we summarize the state of the art on the effects of neuroinflammation on adult neurogenesis and discuss the use of the lipopolysaccharide-model to study the effects of inflammation and reactive-microglia on brain stem cells and neurogenesis. Furthermore, we discuss the possible causes underlying reduced neurogenesis with normal aging and potential anti-inflammatory, pro-neurogenic interventions aimed at improving memory deficits in normal and pathological aging and in neurodegenerative diseases. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2011 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  9. Microfluidic wound-healing assay to assess the regenerative effect of HGF on wounded alveolar epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Marcel; Sallin, Pauline; Barbe, Laurent; Haenni, Beat; Gazdhar, Amiq; Geiser, Thomas; Guenat, Olivier

    2012-02-07

    We present a microfluidic epithelial wound-healing assay that allows characterization of the effect of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) on the regeneration of alveolar epithelium using a flow-focusing technique to create a regular wound in the epithelial monolayer. The phenotype of the epithelial cell was characterized using immunostaining for tight junction (TJ) proteins and transmission electron micrographs (TEMs) of cells cultured in the microfluidic system, a technique that is reported here for the first time. We demonstrate that alveolar epithelial cells cultured in a microfluidic environment preserve their phenotype before and after wounding. In addition, we report a wound-healing benefit induced by addition of HGF to the cell culture medium (19.2 vs. 13.5 μm h(-1) healing rate).

  10. Motor Cortex Stimulation Regenerative Effects in Peripheral Nerve Injury: An Experimental Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Nicolas; Kobaiter-Maarrawi, Sandra; Georges, Samuel; Abadjian, Gerard; Maarrawi, Joseph

    2018-06-01

    Immediate microsurgical nerve suture remains the gold standard after peripheral nerve injuries. However, functional recovery is delayed, and it is satisfactory in only 2/3 of cases. Peripheral electrical nerve stimulation proximal to the lesion enhances nerve regeneration and muscle reinnervation. This study aims to evaluate the effects of the motor cortex electrical stimulation on peripheral nerve regeneration after injury. Eighty rats underwent right sciatic nerve section, followed by immediate microsurgical epineural sutures. Rats were divided into 4 groups: Group 1 (control, n = 20): no electrical stimulation; group 2 (n = 20): immediate stimulation of the sciatic nerve just proximal to the lesion; Group 3 (n = 20): motor cortex stimulation (MCS) for 15 minutes after nerve section and suture (MCSa); group 4 (n = 20): MCS performed over the course of two weeks after nerve suture (MCSc). Assessment included electrophysiology and motor functional score at day 0 (baseline value before nerve section), and at weeks 4, 8, and 12. Rats were euthanized for histological study at week 12. Our results showed that MCS enhances functional recovery, nerve regeneration, and muscle reinnervation starting week 4 compared with the control group (P < 0.05). The MCS induces higher reinnervation rates even compared with peripheral stimulation, with better results in the MCSa group (P < 0.05), especially in terms of functional recovery. MCS seems to have a beneficial effect after peripheral nerve injury and repair in terms of nerve regeneration and muscle reinnervation, especially when acute mode is used. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Regenerative medicine applications in combat casualty care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Mark E; Bharmal, Husain; Valerio, Ian

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe regenerative medicine applications in the management of complex injuries sustained by service members injured in support of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. Improvements in body armor, resuscitative techniques and faster transport have translated into increased patient survivability and more complex wounds. Combat-related blast injuries have resulted in multiple extremity injuries, significant tissue loss and amputations. Due to the limited availability and morbidity associated with autologous tissue donor sites, the introduction of regenerative medicine has been critical in managing war extremity injuries with composite massive tissue loss. Through case reports and clinical images, this report reviews the application of regenerative medicine modalities employed to manage combat-related injuries. It illustrates that the novel use of hybrid reconstructions combining traditional and regenerative medicine approaches are an effective tool in managing wounds. Lessons learned can be adapted to civilian care.

  12. The past, present and future of ligament regenerative engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengsteab, Paulos Y; Nair, Lakshmi S; Laurencin, Cato T

    2016-12-01

    Regenerative engineering has been defined as the convergence of Advanced Materials Sciences, Stem Cell Sciences, Physics, Developmental Biology and Clinical Translation for the regeneration of complex tissues and organ systems. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction necessitates the regeneration of bone, ligament and their interface to achieve superior clinical results. In the past, the ACL has been repaired with the use of autologous and allogeneic grafts, which have their respective drawbacks. Currently, investigations on the use of biodegradable matrices to achieve knee stability and permit tissue regeneration are making promising advancements. In the future, utilizing regenerative biology cues to induce an endogenous regenerative response may aid the enhancement of clinical ACL reconstruction outcomes.

  13. Biomolecule delivery to engineer the cellular microenvironment for regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Corey J; Kim, Jayoung; Green, Jordan J

    2014-07-01

    To realize the potential of regenerative medicine, controlling the delivery of biomolecules in the cellular microenvironment is important as these factors control cell fate. Controlled delivery for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine often requires bioengineered materials and cells capable of spatiotemporal modulation of biomolecule release and presentation. This review discusses biomolecule delivery from the outside of the cell inwards through the delivery of soluble and insoluble biomolecules as well as from the inside of the cell outwards through gene transfer. Ex vivo and in vivo therapeutic strategies are discussed, as well as combination delivery of biomolecules, scaffolds, and cells. Various applications in regenerative medicine are highlighted including bone tissue engineering and wound healing.

  14. Effects of Fermented Milk Products on Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzoli, René; Biver, Emmanuel

    2018-04-01

    Fermented milk products like yogurt or soft cheese provide calcium, phosphorus, and protein. All these nutrients influence bone growth and bone loss. In addition, fermented milk products may contain prebiotics like inulin which may be added to yogurt, and provide probiotics which are capable of modifying intestinal calcium absorption and/or bone metabolism. On the other hand, yogurt consumption may ensure a more regular ingestion of milk products and higher compliance, because of various flavors and sweetness. Bone mass accrual, bone homeostasis, and attenuation of sex hormone deficiency-induced bone loss seem to benefit from calcium, protein, pre-, or probiotics ingestion, which may modify gut microbiota composition and metabolism. Fermented milk products might also represent a marker of lifestyle promoting healthy bone health.

  15. Nerve Regenerative Effects of GABA-B Ligands in a Model of Neuropathic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Magnaghi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropathic pain arises as a direct consequence of a lesion or disease affecting the peripheral somatosensory system. It may be associated with allodynia and increased pain sensitivity. Few studies correlated neuropathic pain with nerve morphology and myelin proteins expression. Our aim was to test if neuropathic pain is related to nerve degeneration, speculating whether the modulation of peripheral GABA-B receptors may promote nerve regeneration and decrease neuropathic pain. We used the partial sciatic ligation- (PSL- induced neuropathic model. The biochemical, morphological, and behavioural outcomes of sciatic nerve were analysed following GABA-B ligands treatments. Simultaneous 7-days coadministration of baclofen (10 mg/kg and CGP56433 (3 mg/kg alters tactile hypersensitivity. Concomitantly, specific changes of peripheral nerve morphology, nerve structure, and myelin proteins (P0 and PMP22 expression were observed. Nerve macrophage recruitment decreased and step coordination was improved. The PSL-induced changes in nociception correlate with altered nerve morphology and myelin protein expression. Peripheral synergic effects, via GABA-B receptor activation, promote nerve regeneration and likely ameliorate neuropathic pain.

  16. Fabrication of human hair keratin/jellyfish collagen/eggshell-derived hydroxyapatite osteoinductive biocomposite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering: From waste to regenerative medicine products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Yavuz Emre; Sezgin Arslan, Tugba; Derkus, Burak; Emregul, Emel; Emregul, Kaan C

    2017-06-01

    In the present study, we aimed at fabricating an osteoinductive biocomposite scaffold using keratin obtained from human hair, jellyfish collagen and eggshell-derived nano-sized spherical hydroxyapatite (nHA) for bone tissue engineering applications. Keratin, collagen and nHA were characterized with the modified Lowry method, free-sulfhydryl groups and hydroxyproline content analysis, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), attenuated total reflectance-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) which confirmed the success of the extraction and/or isolation processes. Human adipose mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) were isolated and the cell surface markers were characterized via flow cytometry analysis in addition to multilineage differentiation capacity. The undifferentiated hAMSCs were highly positive for CD29, CD44, CD73, CD90 and CD105, but were not seen to express hematopoietic cell surface markers such as CD14, CD34 and CD45. The cells were successfully directed towards osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic lineages in vitro. The microarchitecture of the scaffolds and cell attachment were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The cell viability on the scaffolds was assessed by the MTT assay which revealed no evidence of cytotoxicity. The osteogenic differentiation of hAMSCs on the scaffolds was determined histologically using alizarin red S, osteopontin and osteonectin stainings. Early osteogenic differentiation markers of hAMSCs were significantly expressed on the collagen-keratin-nHA scaffolds. In conclusion, it is believed that collagen-keratin-nHA osteoinductive biocomposite scaffolds have the potential of being used in bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of radiation therapy on bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kado, Bunmei; Nakajima, Tetsuo; Sakura, Mizuyoshi; Ishihara, Akinori; Sasaki, Yasuhito; Nagai, Teruo.

    1982-01-01

    With the purpose to evaluate effect of radiation therapy on bone scintigraphy, ninety nine bone scans and Ga-67 citrate tumor scans were performed on 67 patients, including 42 with lung cancer, 5 with esophageal cancer, 4 malignant lymphoma and 15 with other malignancy. The spinal uptake of Tc-99m diphosphonate and Ga-67 citrate were evaluated during or after radiation therapy involving thoracic and lumbar spines. The correlation among the spinal uptake of radioactivity in the radiation field, the irradiation dose and the interval after radiotherapy was investigated. The results revealed that 34 of 99 bone scans (34%) showed ''decreased'' radioactivity in the irradiated spines. Twenty six of 41 bone scans (63%) performed more than three months after radiotherapy showed ''decreased'' spinal uptake. Among the same 41 bone scans, 16 of 21 bone scans (76%) taken in patients who received more than 5000 rads showed ''decreased'' spinal uptake. The decreased spinal uptake was irreversible. Eight cases changed to ''decreased'' from ''equilibrated'' during follow up study after radiotherapy. Twenty two of 31 cases (71%) with Ga tumor scans, which were performed in the earlier periods and with less dose of radiotherapy as compared with bone scans, showed ''decreased'' spinal uptake, which suggests impaired Ga-67 uptake by the bone marrow rather than the spinal bone. The factors causing decreased uptake of radioactivity in bone scan after irradiation were discussed in view of irradiation effect on bone tissue. The descrepancy of uptake of radioactivity between bone scan and Ga tumor scan was also discussed reviewing difference of radiation effect on bone and bone marrow cells. (author)

  18. Immunolocalization of Myostatin (GDF-8) Following Musculoskeletal Injury and the Effects of Exogenous Myostatin on Muscle and Bone Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkasrawy, Moataz; Immel, David; Wen, Xuejun; Liu, Xiaoyan; Liang, Li-Fang

    2012-01-01

    The time course and cellular localization of myostatin expression following musculoskeletal injury are not well understood; therefore, the authors evaluated the temporal and spatial localization of myostatin during muscle and bone repair following deep penetrant injury in a mouse model. They then used hydrogel delivery of exogenous myostatin in the same injury model to determine the effects of myostatin exposure on muscle and bone healing. Results showed that a “pool” of intense myostatin staining was observed among injured skeletal muscle fibers 12–24 hr postsurgery and that myostatin was also expressed in the soft callus chondrocytes 4 days following osteotomy. Hydrogel delivery of 10 or 100 µg/ml recombinant myostatin decreased fracture callus cartilage area relative to total callus area in a dose-dependent manner by 41% and 80% (pMyostatin treatment also decreased fracture callus total bone volume by 30.6% and 38.8% (pmyostatin yielding the greatest decrease in callus bone volume. Finally, exogenous myostatin treatment caused a significant dose-dependent increase in fibrous tissue formation in skeletal muscle. Together, these findings suggest that early pharmacological inhibition of myostatin is likely to improve the regenerative potential of both muscle and bone following deep penetrant musculoskeletal injury. PMID:22205678

  19. Late effects of radiation on mature and growing bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramuz, O.; Mornex, F.; Bourhis, J.

    1997-01-01

    The physiopathology of radiation-induced bone damage is no completely elucidated. Ionizing radiation may induce an inhibition or an impairment of growing bone. This fact is of particular importance in children, and represents one of the most important dose-limiting factors in the radiotherapeutic management of children with malignant diseases. Scoliosis, epiphyseal slippage, avascular necrosis, abnormalities of craniofacial growth may be observed after radiation. Child's age at the time of treatment, location of irradiated bone and irradiation characteristics may influence the radiation related observed effects. In adults, pathological analysis of mature bone after ionizing radiation exposure are rare, suggesting that it is difficult to draw a clear feature of the action of radiation on the bone. Osteoporosis, medullary fibrosis and cytotoxicity on bone cells lead to fracture or necrosis. Various factors can influence bone tolerance to radiation such as bone involvement by tumor cells or infection, which is frequent is mandibulary osteoradionecrosis. Technical improvements in radiation techniques have also decreased radio-induced bone complications : the volume, fractionation and total dose are essential to consider. The absence of a consistent radiation-induced late effects evaluation scale has hampered efforts to analyze the influence of various therapeutic maneuvers and the comparison of results from different reported series. The currently proposed evaluation scale may help harmonizing the classification of radiation-induced bone late effects. (author)

  20. Disuse exaggerates the detrimental effects of alcohol on cortical bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefferan, Theresa E.; Kennedy, Angela M.; Evans, Glenda L.; Turner, Russell T.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcohol abuse is associated with an increased risk for osteoporosis. However, comorbidity factors may play an important role in the pathogenesis of alcohol-related bone fractures. Suboptimal mechanical loading of the skeleton, an established risk factor for bone loss, may occur in some alcohol abusers due to reduced physical activity, muscle atrophy, or both. The effect of alcohol consumption and reduced physical activity on bone metabolism has not been well studied. The purpose of this study was to determine whether mechanical disuse alters bone metabolism in a rat model for chronic alcohol abuse. METHODS: Alcohol was administered in the diet (35% caloric intake) of 6-month-old male rats for 4 weeks. Rats were hindlimb-unloaded the final 2 weeks of the experiment to prevent dynamic weight bearing. Afterward, cortical bone histomorphometry was evaluated at the tibia-fibula synostosis. RESULTS: At the periosteal surface of the tibial diaphysis, alcohol and hindlimb unloading independently decreased the mineralizing perimeter, mineral apposition rate, and bone formation rate. In addition, alcohol, but not hindlimb unloading, increased endocortical bone resorption. The respective detrimental effects of alcohol and hindlimb unloading to inhibit bone formation were additive; there was no interaction between the two variables. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced weight bearing accentuates the detrimental effects of alcohol on cortical bone in adult male rats by further inhibiting bone formation. This finding suggests that reduced physical activity may be a comorbidity factor for osteoporosis in alcohol abusers.

  1. Summary of: Regenerative endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Stephen J

    2014-03-01

    Significant advances in our understanding of the biological processes involved in tooth development and repair at the cellular and molecular levels have underpinned the newly emerging area of regenerative endodontics. Development of treatment protocols based on exploiting the natural wound healing properties of the dental pulp and applying tissue engineering principles has allowed reporting of case series showing preservation of tissue vitality and apexogenesis. To review current case series reporting regenerative endodontics. Current treatment approaches tend to stimulate more reparative than regenerative responses in respect of the new tissue generated, which often does not closely resemble the physiological structure of dentine-pulp. However, despite these biological limitations, such techniques appear to offer significant promise for improved treatment outcomes. Improved biological outcomes will likely emerge from the many experimental studies being reported and will further contribute to improvements in clinical treatment protocols.

  2. Regenerative similariton laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibault North

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Self-pulsating lasers based on cascaded reshaping and reamplification (2R are capable of initiating ultrashort pulses despite the accumulation of large amounts of nonlinearities in all-fiber resonators. The spectral properties of pulses in self-similar propagation are compatible with cascaded 2R regeneration by offset filtering, making parabolic pulses suitable for the design of a laser of this recently introduced class. A new type of regenerative laser giving birth to similaritons is numerically investigated and shows that this laser is the analog of regenerative sources based solely on self-phase modulation and offset filtering. The regenerative similariton laser does not suffer from instabilities due to excessive nonlinearities and enables ultrashort pulse generation in a simple cavity configuration.

  3. The effects of bone marrow aspirate, bone graft, and collagen composites on fixation of titanium implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babiker, Hassan; Ding, Ming; Sandri, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Replacement of extensive local bone loss especially in revision joint arthroplasty and spine fusion is a significant clinical challenge. Allograft and autograft have been considered as gold standards for bone replacement. However, there are several disadvantages such as donor site pain, bacterial...... contamination, and non union as well as the potential risk of disease transmission. Hydroxyapatite and collagen composites (HA/Collagen) have the potential in mimicking and replacing skeletal bones. This study attempted to determine the effects of newly developed HA/Collagen-composites with and without bone...... marrow aspirate (BMA) on enhancement of bone implant fixation. Method: Titanium alloy implants were inserted into bilateral femoral condyles of eight skeletally mature sheep, four implants per sheep. The implant had a circumferential gap of 2 mm. The gap was filled with: HA/Collagen; HA...

  4. Current overview on challenges in regenerative endodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Ramta; Jain, Aditya; Mittal, Sunandan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Regenerative endodontics provides hope of converting the non-vital tooth into vital once again. It focuses on substituting traumatized and pathological pulp with functional pulp tissue. Current regenerative procedures successfully produce root development but still fail to re-establish real pulp tissue and give unpredictable results. There are several drawbacks that need to be addressed to improve the quality and efficiency of the treatment. Aim: The aim of this review article is to discuss major priorities that ought to be dealt before applications of regenerative endodontics flourish the clinical practice. Materials and Methods: A web-based research on MEDLINE was done using filter terms Review, published in the last 10 years and Dental journals. Keywords used for research were “regenerative endodontics,” “dental stem cells,” “growth factor regeneration,” “scaffolds,” and “challenges in regeneration.” This review article screened about 150 articles and then the relevant information was compiled. Results: Inspite of the impressive growth in regenerative endodontic field, there are certain loopholes in the existing treatment protocols that might sometimes result in undesired and unpredictable outcomes. Conclusion: Considerable research and development efforts are required to improve and update existing regenerative endodontic strategies to make it an effective, safe, and biological mode to save teeth. PMID:25657518

  5. NOTCH-Mediated Maintenance and Expansion of Human Bone Marrow Stromal/Stem Cells: A Technology Designed for Orthopedic Regenerative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yufeng; Long, Teng; Wang, Cuicui; Mirando, Anthony J; Chen, Jianquan; O'Keefe, Regis J; Hilton, Matthew J

    2014-12-01

    Human bone marrow-derived stromal/stem cells (BMSCs) have great therapeutic potential for treating skeletal disease and facilitating skeletal repair, although maintaining their multipotency and expanding these cells ex vivo have proven difficult. Because most stem cell-based applications to skeletal regeneration and repair in the clinic would require large numbers of functional BMSCs, recent research has focused on methods for the appropriate selection, expansion, and maintenance of BMSC populations during long-term culture. We describe here a novel biological method that entails selection of human BMSCs based on NOTCH2 expression and activation of the NOTCH signaling pathway in cultured BMSCs via a tissue culture plate coated with recombinant human JAGGED1 (JAG1) ligand. We demonstrate that transient JAG1-mediated NOTCH signaling promotes human BMSC maintenance and expansion while increasing their skeletogenic differentiation capacity, both ex vivo and in vivo. This study is the first of its kind to describe a NOTCH-mediated methodology for the maintenance and expansion of human BMSCs and will serve as a platform for future clinical or translational studies aimed at skeletal regeneration and repair. ©AlphaMed Press.

  6. A regenerative approach towards mucosal fenestration closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandi, Padma; Anumala, Naveen; Reddy, Amarender; Viswa Chandra, Rampalli

    2013-01-01

    Mucosal fenestration is an opening or an interstice through the oral mucosa. A lesion which occurs with greater frequency than generally realised, its occurrence is attributed to a myriad of causes. Mucogingival procedures including connective tissue grafts, free gingival grafts and lateral pedicle grafts are generally considered to be the treatment of choice in the closure of a mucosal fenestration. More often, these procedures are performed in conjunction with other procedures such as periradicular surgery and with bone grafts. However, the concomitant use of gingival grafts and bone grafts in mucosal fenestrations secondary to infections in sites exhibiting severe bone loss is highly debatable. In this article, we report two cases of mucosal fenestrations secondary to trauma and their management by regenerative periodontal surgery with the placement of guided tissue regeneration membrane and bone graft. The final outcome was a complete closure of the fenestration in both the cases. PMID:23749826

  7. Microscale Regenerative Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Matthew E.; Stelter, Stephan; Stelter, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    The device described herein is designed primarily for use as a regenerative heat exchanger in a miniature Stirling engine or Stirling-cycle heat pump. A regenerative heat exchanger (sometimes called, simply, a "regenerator" in the Stirling-engine art) is basically a thermal capacitor: Its role in the Stirling cycle is to alternately accept heat from, then deliver heat to, an oscillating flow of a working fluid between compression and expansion volumes, without introducing an excessive pressure drop. These volumes are at different temperatures, and conduction of heat between these volumes is undesirable because it reduces the energy-conversion efficiency of the Stirling cycle.

  8. Effects of developmental exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on long bone morphology and bone cell differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koskela, A., E-mail: antti.koskela@oulu.fi [Institute of Cancer Research and Translational Medicine, MRC Oulu and Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Finnilä, M.A. [Research Unit of Medical Imaging, Physics and Technology, University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Korkalainen, M. [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Health Protection, Kuopio (Finland); Spulber, S. [Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Koponen, J. [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Health Protection, Kuopio (Finland); Håkansson, H. [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Tuukkanen, J. [Institute of Cancer Research and Translational Medicine, MRC Oulu and Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Viluksela, M. [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Health Protection, Kuopio (Finland); Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio (Finland)

    2016-06-15

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a ubiquitous and persistent environmental chemical, which has been used extensively due to its stability and surface tension-lowering properties. Toxicological effects include induction of neonatal mortality and reproductive toxicity. In this study, pregnant C57BL/6 mice were exposed orally to 0.3 mg PFOA/kg/day throughout pregnancy, and female offspring were studied at the age of 13 or 17 months. Morphometrical and biomechanical properties of femurs and tibias were analyzed with micro-computed tomography and 3-point bending, and bone PFOA concentrations were determined by mass spectrometry. The effects of PFOA on bone cell differentiation were studied in osteoclasts from C57BL/6 mice and in the MC3T3 pre-osteoblast cell line. PFOA exposed mice showed increased femoral periosteal area as well as decreased mineral density of tibias. Biomechanical properties of these bones were not affected. Bone PFOA concentrations were clearly elevated even at the age of 17 months. In osteoblasts, low concentrations of PFOA increased osteocalcin (OCN) expression and calcium secretion, but at PFOA concentrations of 100 μM and above osteocalcin (OCN) expression and calcium secretion were decreased. The number of osteoclasts was increased at all PFOA concentrations tested and resorption activity dose-dependently increased from 0.1–1.0 μM, but decreased at higher concentrations. The results show that PFOA accumulates in bone and is present in bones until the old age. PFOA has the potential to influence bone turnover over a long period of time. Therefore bone is a target tissue for PFOA, and altered bone geometry and mineral density seem to persist throughout the life of the animal. - Highlights: • Bone is a target tissue for PFOA both in vivo and in vitro. • Maternal exposure during pregnancy results in PFOA accumulation in bone of the offspring. • PFOA is present in bones until the old age. • PFOA causes mild alterations in bone morphometry

  9. Effects of developmental exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on long bone morphology and bone cell differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koskela, A.; Finnilä, M.A.; Korkalainen, M.; Spulber, S.; Koponen, J.; Håkansson, H.; Tuukkanen, J.; Viluksela, M.

    2016-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a ubiquitous and persistent environmental chemical, which has been used extensively due to its stability and surface tension-lowering properties. Toxicological effects include induction of neonatal mortality and reproductive toxicity. In this study, pregnant C57BL/6 mice were exposed orally to 0.3 mg PFOA/kg/day throughout pregnancy, and female offspring were studied at the age of 13 or 17 months. Morphometrical and biomechanical properties of femurs and tibias were analyzed with micro-computed tomography and 3-point bending, and bone PFOA concentrations were determined by mass spectrometry. The effects of PFOA on bone cell differentiation were studied in osteoclasts from C57BL/6 mice and in the MC3T3 pre-osteoblast cell line. PFOA exposed mice showed increased femoral periosteal area as well as decreased mineral density of tibias. Biomechanical properties of these bones were not affected. Bone PFOA concentrations were clearly elevated even at the age of 17 months. In osteoblasts, low concentrations of PFOA increased osteocalcin (OCN) expression and calcium secretion, but at PFOA concentrations of 100 μM and above osteocalcin (OCN) expression and calcium secretion were decreased. The number of osteoclasts was increased at all PFOA concentrations tested and resorption activity dose-dependently increased from 0.1–1.0 μM, but decreased at higher concentrations. The results show that PFOA accumulates in bone and is present in bones until the old age. PFOA has the potential to influence bone turnover over a long period of time. Therefore bone is a target tissue for PFOA, and altered bone geometry and mineral density seem to persist throughout the life of the animal. - Highlights: • Bone is a target tissue for PFOA both in vivo and in vitro. • Maternal exposure during pregnancy results in PFOA accumulation in bone of the offspring. • PFOA is present in bones until the old age. • PFOA causes mild alterations in bone morphometry

  10. Uranium's effects on bone integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souidi, Maamar; Wade-Gueye, Ndeye Marieme; Manens, Line; Blanchardon, Eric; Aigueperse, Jocelyne

    2018-01-01

    Uranium is a radioactive heavy metal naturally present in the environment. Its recent use in various civilian and military applications sometimes result in its release into the environment. After chronic ingestion, uranium accumulates in various organs, preferentially in bones. Several studies have shown that exposure to high concentrations of uranium affects bone growth. Little is known, however, about the effects of chronic exposure to low doses of uranium on bone, especially when ingested via drinking water, the main route by which the public is exposed to this radionuclide. This study examined the effects of chronic exposure to natural uranium through drinking water on bone integrity and bone turnover. Rats were contaminated with different concentrations of natural uranium (15, 10, and 40 mg / l) for 9 months. A high-resolution three-dimensional microtomography scanner was used for the first time to study uranium's impact on bone metabolism and thus on bone tissue integrity. After nine months of uranium exposure, micro-architecture analysis revealed that the cortical bone diameter of the femoral diaphysis of rats contaminated at a concentration of 40 mg/L of uranium had decreased significantly. In conclusion, our findings that chronic ingestion of uranium at low concentrations affects growth of cortical bone width suggests that it may affect bone strength. These results thus suggest the need to pay special attention to children during chronic low-dose exposure to this radionuclide. (authors)

  11. Researches on regenerative medicine-current state and prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng-Guo; Xiao, Kai

    2012-01-01

    Since 1980s, the rapid development of tissue engineering and stem cell research has pushed regenerative medicine to a new fastigium, and regenerative medicine has become a noticeable research field in the international biology and medicine. In China, about 100 million patients need repair and regeneration treatment every year, while the number is much larger in the world. Regenerative medicine could provide effective salvation for these patients. Both Chinese Academy of Sciences and Chinese Academy of Engineering have made roadmaps of 2010-2050 and 2011-2030 for regenerative medicine. The final goal of the two roadmaps is to make China go up to leading position in most research aspects of regenerative medicine. In accord with this strategy, the government and some enterprises have invested 3-5 billion RMB (0.5-0.8 billion USD) for the research on regenerative medicine. In order to push the translation of regenerative medicine forward-from bench to bedside, a strategic alliance has been established, and it includes 27 top-level research institutes, medical institutes, colleges, universities and enterprises in the field of stem cell and regeneration medicine. Recently the journal, Science, has published a special issue-Regenerative Medicine in China, consisting of 35 papers dealing with stem cell and regeneration, tissue engineering and regeneration, trauma and regeneration and bases for tissue repair and regenerative medicine. It is predicated that a greater breakthrough in theory and practice of regenerative medicine will be achieved in the near future (20 to 30 years).

  12. Bioprinting in Regenerative Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Monti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Prof. Turksen is a very well known scientist in the stem cell biology field and he is also internationally known for his fundamental studies on claudin-6. In addition to his research activity he is editor for the Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine series (Humana Press and editor-in-chief of Stem Cell Reviews and Reports.....

  13. The effect of chronic alcohol administration on bone mineral content and bone strength in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broulík, P D; Vondrová, J; Růzicka, P; Sedlácek, R; Zíma, T

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol use has been identified as a risk factor for the development of osteoporosis. Eight male Wistar rats at two months of age were alcoho-fed (7.6 g 95 % ethanol/kg b.w. per day) to evaluate the effects of long-term administration (three months) of alcohol in drinking water. We have used a dose which is considered to be comparable to a dose of 1 liter of wine or 2.5 liters of 12(°) beer used in male adults daily. The bones were tested mechanically by a three-point bending test in a Mini Bionix (MTS) testing system. The bones from alcohol-fed rats were characterized by a reduction in bone density as well as in ash, calcium and phosphate content. In alcohol-fed rats the reduction in bone mineral density (10 %) was reflected by about 12 % reduction of mechanical strength of femur (158+/-5.5 vs. 178+/-3.2 N/mm(2)). Alcohol significantly altered femoral cortical thickness. In our experiment alcohol itself did not exert any antiandrogenic effect and it did not produce changes in the weight of seminal vesicles. Liver function test (GGT, ALP, AST) did not differ between alcohol-fed rats and control rats. Alcohol-induced bone loss is associated with increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation. These results document the efficacy of alcohol at the dose of 7.6 g 95 % ethanol/kg b.w. to cause bone loss and loss of bone mechanical strength in intact rats. The results of the present study may be interpreted as supporting the hypothesis of alcohol as a risk factor for osteoporosis.

  14. Periosteal Distraction Osteogenesis: An Effective Method for Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danyang Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of bone defects is challenging and controversial. As a new technology, periosteal distraction osteogenesis (PDO uses the osteogenicity of periosteum, which creates an artificial space between the bone surface and periosteum to generate new bone by gradually expanding the periosteum with no need for corticotomy. Using the newly formed bone of PDO to treat bone defects is effective, which can not only avoid the occurrence of immune-related complications, but also solve the problem of insufficient donor. This review elucidates the availability of PDO in the aspects of mechanisms, devices, strategies, and measures. Moreover, we also focus on the future prospects of PDO and hope that PDO will be applied to the clinical treatment of bone defects in the future.

  15. The effect of radiation sterilization on human transplantable bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triantafyllou, N.; Karatzas, P.

    1974-11-01

    In order to study the effect of radiation sterilization on human transplantable bones, work was carried out on human and bovine bone tissue samples. Factors causing possible alterations in the mechanical structures of the preserved bone allografts were considered to be deep freezing (-35degC), lyophylization, irradiation, or a combination of lyophylization and irradiation. The latter could be shown to lower the mechanical strength of the bone. Crystal lattice of the bone did not show any alterations in x-ray diffraction pattern, following freeze drying and/or irradiation with doses up to 10 Mrad of gamma radiation. Deterioration in mechanical properties is probably due to damage to the organic phase of the bone matrix

  16. Effect of Probiotics Supplementation on Bone Mineral Content and Bone Mass Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolsoom Parvaneh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A few studies in animals and a study in humans showed a positive effect of probiotic on bone metabolism and bone mass density. Most of the investigated bacteria were Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium . The positive results of the probiotics were supported by the high content of dietary calcium and the high amounts of supplemented probiotics. Some of the principal mechanisms include (1 increasing mineral solubility due to production of short chain fatty acids; (2 producing phytase enzyme by bacteria to overcome the effect of mineral depressed by phytate; (3 reducing intestinal inflammation followed by increasing bone mass density; (4 hydrolysing glycoside bond food in the intestines by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria. These mechanisms lead to increase bioavailability of the minerals. In conclusion, probiotics showed potential effects on bone metabolism through different mechanisms with outstanding results in the animal model. The results also showed that postmenopausal women who suffered from low bone mass density are potential targets to consume probiotics for increasing mineral bioavailability including calcium and consequently increasing bone mass density.

  17. Effects of multi-deficiencies-diet on bone parameters of peripheral bone in ovariectomized mature rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaqif El Khassawna

    Full Text Available Many postmenopausal women have vitamin D and calcium deficiency. Therefore, vitamin D and calcium supplementation is recommended for all patients with osteopenia and osteoporosis. We used an experimental rat model to test the hypothesis that induction of osteoporosis is more efficiently achieved in peripheral bone through combining ovariectomy with a unique multi-deficiencies diet (vitamin D depletion and deficient calcium, vitamin K and phosphorus. 14-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats served as controls to examine the initial bone status. 11 rats were bilaterally ovariectomized (OVX and fed with multi-deficiencies diet. Three months later the treated group and the Sham group (n = 8 were euthanized. Bone biomechanical competence of the diaphyseal bone was examined on both, tibia and femur. Image analysis was performed on tibia via µCT, and on femur via histological analysis. Lower torsional stiffness indicated inferior mechanical competence of the tibia in 3 month OVX+Diet. Proximal metaphyseal region of the tibia showed a diminished bone tissue portion to total tissue in the µCT despite the increased total area as evaluated in both µCT and histology. Cortical bone showed higher porosity and smaller cross sectional thickness of the tibial diaphysis in the OVX+Diet rats. A lower ALP positive area and elevated serum level of RANKL exhibited the unbalanced cellular interaction in bone remodeling in the OVX+Diet rat after 3 month of treatment. Interestingly, more adipose tissue area in bone marrow indicated an effect of bone loss similar to that observed in osteoporotic patients. Nonetheless, the presence of osteoid and elevated serum level of PTH, BGP and Opn suggest the development of osteomalacia rather than an osteoporosis. As the treatment and fracture management of both osteoporotic and osteomalacia patients are clinically overlapping, this study provides a preclinical animal model to be utilized in local supplementation of minerals, drugs

  18. Effects of multi-deficiencies-diet on bone parameters of peripheral bone in ovariectomized mature rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khassawna, Thaqif; Böcker, Wolfgang; Govindarajan, Parameswari; Schliefke, Nathalie; Hürter, Britta; Kampschulte, Marian; Schlewitz, Gudrun; Alt, Volker; Lips, Katrin Susanne; Faulenbach, Miriam; Möllmann, Henriette; Zahner, Daniel; Dürselen, Lutz; Ignatius, Anita; Bauer, Natali; Wenisch, Sabine; Langheinrich, Alexander Claus; Schnettler, Reinhard; Heiss, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Many postmenopausal women have vitamin D and calcium deficiency. Therefore, vitamin D and calcium supplementation is recommended for all patients with osteopenia and osteoporosis. We used an experimental rat model to test the hypothesis that induction of osteoporosis is more efficiently achieved in peripheral bone through combining ovariectomy with a unique multi-deficiencies diet (vitamin D depletion and deficient calcium, vitamin K and phosphorus). 14-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats served as controls to examine the initial bone status. 11 rats were bilaterally ovariectomized (OVX) and fed with multi-deficiencies diet. Three months later the treated group and the Sham group (n = 8) were euthanized. Bone biomechanical competence of the diaphyseal bone was examined on both, tibia and femur. Image analysis was performed on tibia via µCT, and on femur via histological analysis. Lower torsional stiffness indicated inferior mechanical competence of the tibia in 3 month OVX+Diet. Proximal metaphyseal region of the tibia showed a diminished bone tissue portion to total tissue in the µCT despite the increased total area as evaluated in both µCT and histology. Cortical bone showed higher porosity and smaller cross sectional thickness of the tibial diaphysis in the OVX+Diet rats. A lower ALP positive area and elevated serum level of RANKL exhibited the unbalanced cellular interaction in bone remodeling in the OVX+Diet rat after 3 month of treatment. Interestingly, more adipose tissue area in bone marrow indicated an effect of bone loss similar to that observed in osteoporotic patients. Nonetheless, the presence of osteoid and elevated serum level of PTH, BGP and Opn suggest the development of osteomalacia rather than an osteoporosis. As the treatment and fracture management of both osteoporotic and osteomalacia patients are clinically overlapping, this study provides a preclinical animal model to be utilized in local supplementation of minerals, drugs and growth factors

  19. Effect of epimedium pubescen flavonoid on bone mineral status and bone turnover in male rats chronically exposed to cigarette smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Shu-guang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epimedii herba is one of the most frequently used herbs in formulas that are prescribed for the treatment of osteoporosis in China and its main constituent is Epimedium pubescen flavonoid (EPF. However, it is unclear whether EPF during chronic exposure to cigarette smoke may have a protective influence on the skeleton. The present study investigated the effect of EPF on bone mineral status and bone turnover in a rat model of human relatively high exposure to cigarette smoke. Methods Fifty male Wistar rats were randomized into five groups: controls, passive smoking groups and passive smoking rats administered EPF at three dosage levels (75, 150 or 300 mg/kg/day in drinking water for 4 months. A rat model of passive smoking was prepared by breeding male rats in a cigarette-smoking box. Bone mineral content (BMC, bone mineral density (BMD, bone turnover markers, bone histomorphometric parameters and biomechanical properties were examined. Results Smoke exposure decreased BMC and BMD, increased bone turnover (inhibited bone formation and stimulated its resorption, affected bone histomorphometry (increased trabecular separation and osteoclast surface per bone surface; decreased trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, cortical thickness, bone formation rate and osteoblast surface per bone surface, and reduced mechanical properties. EPF supplementation during cigarette smoke exposure prevented smoke-induced changes in bone mineral status and bone turnover. Conclusion The results suggest that EPF can prevent the adverse effects of smoke exposure on bone by stimulating bone formation and inhibiting bone turnover and bone resorption.

  20. Experimental study of the effects of radiation on growing bone by bone scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtake, Hisashi; Sakai, Yasuhiko; Morita, Seiichiro; Bussaka, Yoshitaka; Kikuchi, Shigeru; Okinaga, Toshichika; Oshibuchi, Masao; Umezaki, Noriyoshi

    1987-02-01

    Bones of immature rabbits were irradiated during the growth period, and followed with bone scintigraphy using Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate. The accumulation of the radionuclide was decreased in the irradiated bone at an early period as compared to the control side, and the decrease was more pronounced as the dose of irradiation was increased. In the groups irradiated with less than 4,000 rad, the accumulation ratio reached a minimum at 5 weeks and was followed by a gradual recovery. In the group irradiated with 6,000 rad, the recovery was small; and no recovery was observed in the 8,000 rad group. These changes were compared to the inhibition of the longitudinal growth of the bone. The accumulation ratio for the radionuclide was a more sensitive index of the effect of radiation than the growth rate.

  1. Recommendations on the effect of antidiabetic drugs in bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozas-Moreno, Pedro; Reyes-García, Rebeca; Jódar-Gimeno, Esteban; Varsavsky, Mariela; Luque-Fernández, Inés; Cortés-Berdonces, María; Muñoz-Torres, Manuel

    2017-03-01

    To provide recommendations on the effect of antidiabetic drugs on bone fragility to help select the most adequate antidiabetic treatment, especially in diabetic patients with high risk of fracture. Members of the Bone Metabolism Working Group of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology. The GRADE system (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) was used to establish both the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. A systematic search was made in MEDLINE (Pubmed) using the following terms associated to the name of each antidiabetic drug: AND "osteoporosis", "fractures", "bone mineral density", "bone markers", "calciotropic hormones". Papers in English with publication date before 30 April 2016 were reviewed. Recommendations were jointly discussed by the Working Group. The document summaries the data on the potential effects of antidiabetic drugs on bone metabolism and fracture risk. Copyright © 2017 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Regenerative medicine in otorhinolaryngology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormald, J C R; Fishman, J M; Juniat, S; Tolley, N; Birchall, M A

    2015-08-01

    Tissue engineering using biocompatible scaffolds, with or without cells, can permit surgeons to restore structure and function following tissue resection or in cases of congenital abnormality. Tracheal regeneration has emerged as a spearhead application of these technologies, whilst regenerative therapies are now being developed to treat most other diseases within otolaryngology. A systematic review of the literature was performed using Ovid Medline and Ovid Embase, from database inception to 15 November 2014. A total of 561 papers matched the search criteria, with 76 fulfilling inclusion criteria. Articles were predominantly pre-clinical animal studies, reflecting the current status of research in this field. Several key human research articles were identified and discussed. The main issues facing research in regenerative surgery are translation of animal model work into human models, increasing stem cell availability so it can be used to further research, and development of better facilities to enable implementation of these advances.

  3. Regenerative feedback resonant circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. Mark; Kelly, James F.; McCloy, John S.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2014-09-02

    A regenerative feedback resonant circuit for measuring a transient response in a loop is disclosed. The circuit includes an amplifier for generating a signal in the loop. The circuit further includes a resonator having a resonant cavity and a material located within the cavity. The signal sent into the resonator produces a resonant frequency. A variation of the resonant frequency due to perturbations in electromagnetic properties of the material is measured.

  4. Animal models for bone tissue engineering and modelling disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Michelle

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tissue engineering and its clinical application, regenerative medicine, are instructing multiple approaches to aid in replacing bone loss after defects caused by trauma or cancer. In such cases, bone formation can be guided by engineered biodegradable and nonbiodegradable scaffolds with clearly defined architectural and mechanical properties informed by evidence-based research. With the ever-increasing expansion of bone tissue engineering and the pioneering research conducted to date, preclinical models are becoming a necessity to allow the engineered products to be translated to the clinic. In addition to creating smart bone scaffolds to mitigate bone loss, the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine is exploring methods to treat primary and secondary bone malignancies by creating models that mimic the clinical disease manifestation. This Review gives an overview of the preclinical testing in animal models used to evaluate bone regeneration concepts. Immunosuppressed rodent models have shown to be successful in mimicking bone malignancy via the implantation of human-derived cancer cells, whereas large animal models, including pigs, sheep and goats, are being used to provide an insight into bone formation and the effectiveness of scaffolds in induced tibial or femoral defects, providing clinically relevant similarity to human cases. Despite the recent progress, the successful translation of bone regeneration concepts from the bench to the bedside is rooted in the efforts of different research groups to standardise and validate the preclinical models for bone tissue engineering approaches. PMID:29685995

  5. Bone effects of biologic drugs in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrado, Addolorata; Neve, Anna; Maruotti, Nicola; Cantatore, Francesco Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Biologic agents used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are able to reduce both disease activity and radiographic progression of joint disease. These drugs are directed against several proinflammatory cytokines (TNF α , IL-6, and IL-1) which are involved both in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation and progression of joint structural damage and in systemic and local bone loss typically observed in RA. However, the role of biologic drugs in preventing bone loss in clinical practice has not yet clearly assessed. Many clinical studies showed a trend to a positive effect of biologic agents in preventing systemic bone loss observed in RA. Although the suppression of inflammation is the main goal in the treatment of RA and the anti-inflammatory effects of biologic drugs exert a positive effect on bone metabolism, the exact relationship between the prevention of bone loss and control of inflammation has not been clearly established, and if the available biologic drugs against TNF α , IL-1, and IL-6 can exert their effect on systemic and local bone loss also through a direct mechanism on bone cell metabolism is still to be clearly defined.

  6. The biphasic effect of triiodothyronine compared to bone resorbing effect of PTH on bone modelling of mouse long bone in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soskolne, W.A.; Schwartz, Z.; Goldstein, M.; Ornoy, A.

    1990-01-01

    To examine the effects of T3 on fetal long bone modelling the radii and ulnae of 16 day old fetal mice were grown in vitro for two days. Their growth, mineralization, and resorption were assessed by measuring diaphyseal length, calcium and phosphorus content, hydroxyproline content, and the release of incorporated 45 Ca. The effects of T3 were compared to the effects of 1-34 PTH, a known resorbing agent, on the same system. Devitalized bones were used as a control. The results showed that T3 had a biphasic effect. At high concentrations (10(-5) M-10(-6) M) T3 inhibited the growth of the bones as indicated by their diaphyseal length and hydroxyproline content. Calcium and phosphorus content were significantly decreased while 45 Ca release was increased. Similar effects were also found after the addition of 1-34 PTH to the media. However, T3, at lower concentrations (10(-7) M-10(-9) M), stimulated the growth and calcification of the bones as indicated by an increase in diaphyseal length and the hydroxyproline, calcium, and phosphorus content. 45 Ca release was significantly decreased at these concentrations. Neither T3 nor 1-34 PTH affected devitalized bones in the same system. The results suggest that at physiological concentrations, T3 has a direct, anabolic effect on bone, which may explain its major role in the growth process of various species. At high doses, however, T3 stimulates bone resorption in a way similar to PTH

  7. Three-dimensional bioprinting in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guifang; Cui, Xiaofeng

    2016-02-01

    With the advances of stem cell research, development of intelligent biomaterials and three-dimensional biofabrication strategies, highly mimicked tissue or organs can be engineered. Among all the biofabrication approaches, bioprinting based on inkjet printing technology has the promises to deliver and create biomimicked tissue with high throughput, digital control, and the capacity of single cell manipulation. Therefore, this enabling technology has great potential in regenerative medicine and translational applications. The most current advances in organ and tissue bioprinting based on the thermal inkjet printing technology are described in this review, including vasculature, muscle, cartilage, and bone. In addition, the benign side effect of bioprinting to the printed mammalian cells can be utilized for gene or drug delivery, which can be achieved conveniently during precise cell placement for tissue construction. With layer-by-layer assembly, three-dimensional tissues with complex structures can be printed using converted medical images. Therefore, bioprinting based on thermal inkjet is so far the most optimal solution to engineer vascular system to the thick and complex tissues. Collectively, bioprinting has great potential and broad applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The future advances of bioprinting include the integration of different printing mechanisms to engineer biphasic or triphasic tissues with optimized scaffolds and further understanding of stem cell biology.

  8. The imperative for regenerative agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Christopher J

    2017-03-01

    A review is made of the current state of agriculture, emphasising issues of soil erosion and dependence on fossil fuels, in regard to achieving food security for a relentlessly enlarging global population. Soil has been described as "the fragile, living skin of the Earth", and yet both its aliveness and fragility have all too often been ignored in the expansion of agriculture across the face of the globe. Since it is a pivotal component in a global nexus of soil-water-air-energy, how we treat the soil can impact massively on climate change - with either beneficial or detrimental consequences, depending on whether the soil is preserved or degraded. Regenerative agriculture has at its core the intention to improve the health of soil or to restore highly degraded soil, which symbiotically enhances the quality of water, vegetation and land-productivity. By using methods of regenerative agriculture, it is possible not only to increase the amount of soil organic carbon (SOC) in existing soils, but to build new soil. This has the effect of drawing down carbon from the atmosphere, while simultaneously improving soil structure and soil health, soil fertility and crop yields, water retention and aquifer recharge - thus ameliorating both flooding and drought, and also the erosion of further soil, since runoff is reduced. Since food production on a more local scale is found to preserve the soil and its quality, urban food production should be seen as a significant potential contributor to regenerative agriculture in the future, so long as the methods employed are themselves 'regenerative'. If localisation is to become a dominant strategy for dealing with a vastly reduced use of fossil fuels, and preserving soil quality - with increased food production in towns and cities - it will be necessary to incorporate integrated ('systems') design approaches such as permaculture and the circular economy (which minimise and repurpose 'waste') within the existing urban infrastructure. In

  9. The Mechanical Properties and Biometrical Effect of 3D Preformed Titanium Membrane for Guided Bone Regeneration on Alveolar Bone Defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So-Hyoun Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of three-dimensional preformed titanium membrane (3D-PFTM to enhance mechanical properties and ability of bone regeneration on the peri-implant bone defect. 3D-PFTMs by new mechanically compressive molding technology and manually shaped- (MS- PFTMs by hand manipulation were applied in artificial peri-implant bone defect model for static compressive load test and cyclic fatigue load test. In 12 implants installed in the mandibular of three beagle dogs, six 3D-PFTMs, and six collagen membranes (CM randomly were applied to 2.5 mm peri-implant buccal bone defect with particulate bone graft materials for guided bone regeneration (GBR. The 3D-PFTM group showed about 7.4 times higher mechanical stiffness and 5 times higher fatigue resistance than the MS-PFTM group. The levels of the new bone area (NBA, %, the bone-to-implant contact (BIC, %, distance from the new bone to the old bone (NB-OB, %, and distance from the osseointegration to the old bone (OI-OB, % were significantly higher in the 3D-PFTM group than the CM group (p<.001. It was verified that the 3D-PFTM increased mechanical properties which were effective in supporting the space maintenance ability and stabilizing the particulate bone grafts, which led to highly efficient bone regeneration.

  10. The effect of sympathectomy on bone blood flow in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahtinen, T.; Alhava, E.M.; Hyoedynmaa, S.; Hendolin, H.; Oksala, I.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of lumbar sympathectomy on bone blood flow was measured in seven patients with a Xe-133 washout method. On the third postoperative day there was a significant increase of blood flow in the proximal femur and a slight increase in the proximal tibia. Two months after the operation blood flow in the proximal part of the femur was no more significantly increased but in the proximal tibia there was a significant increase. The study suggests that the positive effect of sympathectomy on bone blood flow may be of value in cases where the increase of blood flow to peripheral bones is required

  11. The effects of low environmental cadmium exposure on bone density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trzcinka-Ochocka, M., E-mail: ochocka@imp.lodz.pl [Department of Chemical Hazards, Laboratory of Biomonitoring, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland); Jakubowski, M. [Department of Chemical Hazards, Laboratory of Biomonitoring, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland); Szymczak, W. [Department of Environmental Epidemiology, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland); Insitute of Psychology, University of Lodz (Poland); Janasik, B.; Brodzka, R. [Department of Chemical Hazards, Laboratory of Biomonitoring, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland)

    2010-04-15

    Recent epidemiological data indicate that low environmental exposure to cadmium, as shown by cadmium body burden (Cd-U), is associated with renal dysfunction as well as an increased risk of cadmium-induced bone disorders. The present study was designed to assess the effects of low environmental cadmium exposure, at the level sufficient to induce kidney damage, on bone metabolism and mineral density (BMD). The project was conducted in the area contaminated with cadmium, nearby a zinc smelter located in the region of Poland where heavy industry prevails. The study population comprised 170 women (mean age=39.7; 18-70 years) and 100 men (mean age=31.9; 18-76 years). Urinary and blood cadmium and the markers of renal tubular dysfunction ({beta}{sub 2}M-U RBP, NAG), glomerular dysfunction (Alb-U and {beta}{sub 2}M-S) and bone metabolism markers (BAP-S, CTX-S) as well as forearm BMD, were measured. The results of this study based on simple dose-effect analysis showed the relationship between increasing cadmium concentrations and an increased excretion of renal dysfunction markers and decreasing bone density. However, the results of the multivariate analysis did not indicate the association between exposure to cadmium and decrease in bone density. They showed that the most important factors that have impact on bone density are body weight and age in the female subjects and body weight and calcium excretion in males. Our investigation revealed that the excretion of low molecular weight proteins occurred at a lower level of cadmium exposure than the possible loss of bone mass. It seems that renal tubular markers are the most sensitive and significant indicators of early health effects of cadmium intoxication in the general population. The correlation of urinary cadmium concentration with markers of kidney dysfunction was observed in the absence of significant correlations with bone effects. Our findings did not indicate any effects of environmental cadmium exposure on bone

  12. A newly developed snack effective for enhancing bone volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayashi Hidetaka

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of primary osteoporosis is higher in Japan than in USA and European countries. Recently, the importance of preventive medicine has been gradually recognized in the field of orthopaedic surgery with a concept that peak bone mass should be increased in childhood as much as possible for the prevention of osteoporosis. Under such background, we have developed a new bean snack with an aim to improve bone volume loss. In this study, we examined the effects of a newly developed snack on bone volume and density in osteoporosis model mice. Methods Orchiectomy (ORX and ovariectomy (OVX were performed for C57BL/6J mice of twelve-week-old (Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbar, ME, USA were used in this experiment. We prepared and given three types of powder diet e.g.: normal calcium diet (NCD, Ca: 0.9%, Clea Japan Co., Tokyo, Japan, low calcium diet (LCD, Ca: 0.63%, Clea Japan Co., and special diet (SCD, Ca: 0.9%. Eighteen weeks after surgery, all the animals were sacrified and prepared for histomorphometric analysis to quantify bone density and bone mineral content. Results As a result of histomorphometric examination, SCD was revealed to enhance bone volume irrespective of age and sex. The bone density was increased significantly in osteoporosis model mice fed the newly developmental snack as compared with the control mice. The bone mineral content was also enhanced significantly. These phenomena were revealed in both sexes. Conclusion It is shown that the newly developed bean snack is highly effective for the improvement of bone volume loss irrespective of sex. We demonstrated that newly developmental snack supplements may be a useful preventive measure for Japanese whose bone mineral density values are less than the ideal condition.

  13. Emdogain in regenerative periodontal therapy. A review of the literature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sculean, A.; Windisch, P.; Dori, F.; Keglevich, T.; Molnar, B.; Gera, I.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of regenerative periodontal therapy is the reconstitution of the lost periodontal structures (i.e. the new formation of root cementum, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone). Results from basic research have pointed to the important role of the enamel matrix protein derivative (EMD) in the

  14. Surgical Non-Regenerative Treatments for Peri-Implantitis: a Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ausra Ramanauskaite

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purposes of the present study were 1 to systematically review the literature on the surgical non-regenerative treatments of peri-implantitis and 2 to determine a predictable therapeutic option for the clinical management of peri-implantitis lesions. Material and Methods: The study search was performed on primary database MEDLINE and EMBASE from 2005 until 2016. Sequential screenings at the title, abstract, and full-text levels were performed. Clinical human studies in the English language that had reported changes in probing depth (PD and/or bleeding on probing (BOP and/or radiologic marginal bone level changes after peri-implantitis surgical non-regenerative treatment at 6-month follow-up or longer were included accordingly PRISMA guidelines. Results: The first electronic and hand search resulted in 765 citations. From 16 full-text articles reviewed, 6 were included in this systematic review. Surgical non-regenerative methods were found to be efficient in reducing clinical parameters. BOP and PD values were significantly decreased following implantoplasty and systematic administration of antibacterials, but not after local application of chemical compounds or diode laser. Similarly, significant improvement in clinical and radiographic parameters was found only after implantoplasty compared with resective surgery alone. We found significant heterogeneity in study designs and treatments provided among the pooled studies. All of the studies revealed an unclear or high risk of bias. Conclusions: Surgical non-regenerative treatment of peri-implantitis was found to be effective to reduce the soft tissue inflammation and decrease probing depth. More randomized controlled clinical trials are needed to assess the efficacy of surgical non-regenerative therapy of peri-implantitis.

  15. Advanced regenerative heat recovery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, A.; Jasti, J. K.

    1982-02-01

    A regenerative heat recovery system was designed and fabricated to deliver 1500 scfm preheated air to a maximum temperature of 1600 F. Since this system is operating at 2000 F, the internal parts were designed to be fabricated with ceramic materials. This system is also designed to be adaptable to an internal metallic structure to operate in the range of 1100 to 1500 F. A test facility was designed and fabricated to test this system. The test facility is equipped to impose a pressure differential of up to 27 inches of water column in between preheated air and flue gas lines for checking possible leakage through the seals. The preliminary tests conducted on the advanced regenerative heat recovery system indicate the thermal effectiveness in the range of 60% to 70%. Bench scale studies were conducted on various ceramic and gasket materials to identify the proper material to be used in high temperature applications. A market survey was conducted to identify the application areas for this heat recovery system. A cost/benefit analysis showed a payback period of less than one and a half years.

  16. Regenerative Medicine for Neurological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hyuk Park

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The annual meeting of the American Society for Neural Therapy and Repair (ASNTR has always introduced us to top-notch and up-to-date approaches for regenerative medicine related to neuroscience, ranging from stem cell–based therapy to novel drugs. The 16th ASNTR meeting focused on a variety of different topics, including the unknown pathogenesis or mechanisms of specific neurodegenerative diseases, stem cell biology, and development of novel alternative medicines or devices. Newly developed stem cells, such as amniotic epithelial stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, as well as well-known traditional stem cells, such as neural, embryonic, bone marrow mesenchymal, and human umbilical cord blood–derived stem cells, were reported. A number of commercialized stem cells were also covered at this meeting. Fetal neural tissues, such as ventral mesencephalon, striatum, and Schwann cells, were investigated for neurodegenerative diseases or spinal cord injury. A number of studies focused on novel methods for drug monitoring or graft tracking, and combination therapy with stem cells and medicine, such as cytokines or trophic factors. Finally, the National Institutes of Health guidelines for human stem cell research, clinical trials of commercialized stem cells without larger animal testing, and prohibition of medical tourism were big controversial issues that led to heated discussion.

  17. Effects of anticonvulsants and inactivity on bone disease in epileptics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murchison, Lilian E.; Bewsher, P. D.; Chesters, Marion; Gilbert, J.; Catto, G.; Law, Elizabeth; McKay, E.; Ross, H. S.

    1975-01-01

    No significant biochemical or radiological features of vitamin D deficiency were found in groups of juvenile and adult epileptics and control groups of non-epileptic patients in hospitals for the mentally retarded. There was evidence of hepatic enzyme induction in patients on anticonvulsants, in that urinary D-glucaric acid concentration and excretion were raised. No effect was found of prolonged anticonvulsant therapy on bone densitometry, but in children immobility was closely associated with decreased bone density. The evidence suggests that disuse osteoporosis is the major bone disease in these mentally retarded children. PMID:1161672

  18. Effects of Implant-Associated Osteomyelitis on Cefuroxime Bone Pharmacokinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøttrup, Mikkel; Bue, Mats; Koch, Janne

    2016-01-01

    Background: The prolonged antibiotic therapy that is often needed for successful management of osteomyelitis may be related to incomplete penetration of antibiotics into the target site. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of implant-associated osteomyelitis on cefuroxime...... cavity up to MICs of 2 mg/L compared with the other tissues, but the time was shorter for higher MICs.  Conclusions: Cefuroxime penetration into infected cancellous bone was incomplete but comparable with that in healthy bone. The destructive bone processes associated with acute osteomyelitis reduced...

  19. Regenerative rehabilitation: a new future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Terzic, Carmen; Childers, Martin K

    2014-11-01

    Modern rehabilitation medicine is propelled by newfound knowledge aimed at offering solutions for an increasingly aging population afflicted by chronic debilitating conditions. Considered a core component of future health care, the rollout of regenerative medicine underscores a paradigm shift in patient management targeted at restoring physiologic function and restituting normative impact. Nascent regenerative technologies offer unprecedented prospects in achieving repair of degenerated, diseased, or damaged tissues. In this context, principles of regenerative science are increasingly integrated in rehabilitation practices as illustrated in the present Supplement. Encompassing a growing multidisciplinary domain, the emergent era of "regenerative rehabilitation" brings radical innovations at the forefront of healthcare blueprints.

  20. Center for Neuroscience & Regenerative Medicine

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Neuroscience and Regenerative Medicine (CNRM) was established as a collaborative intramural federal program involving the U.S. Department of Defense...

  1. EFFECTS OF RUN TRAINING ON BONE DEVELOPMENT AND BONE MINERALIZATION IN GROWING MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Gönül

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We planned to study the body weights, bone sizes and bone mineral (Ca, Mg, Zn contents of growing mice subjected to treadmill training. Twelve 4-week-old male Swiss Albino mice were divided into sedentary and exercise groups. The mice were trained by running exercise on a flat bed treadmill with 15 m/min, 30 min/day motion, throughout 5 days per week, for 12 weeks. The body weight of animals, and length, fat-free dry weight and Ca, Mg, and Zn contents of bones were measured in both groups. Body weights of animals, and lengths and wet and dry weights of the femur and the tibia were significantly higher in the exercised group. Also, the Zn, Mg and Ca mineral contents of bones in the group that underwent exercise were higher than in the other group. Running exercise with a flat bed treadmill performed by the growing mice is an effective exercise mode, especially for bone morphology.

  2. Effects of implant drilling parameters for pilot and twist drills on temperature rise in bone analog and alveolar bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Chuan; Hsiao, Chih-Kun; Ciou, Ji-Sih; Tsai, Yi-Jung; Tu, Yuan-Kun

    2016-11-01

    This study concerns the effects of different drilling parameters of pilot drills and twist drills on the temperature rise of alveolar bones during dental implant procedures. The drilling parameters studied here include the feed rate and rotation speed of the drill. The bone temperature distribution was analyzed through experiments and numerical simulations of the drilling process. In this study, a three dimensional (3D) elasto-plastic dynamic finite element model (DFEM) was proposed to investigate the effects of drilling parameters on the bone temperature rise. In addition, the FE model is validated with drilling experiments on artificial human bones and porcine alveolar bones. The results indicate that 3D DFEM can effectively simulate the bone temperature rise during the drilling process. During the drilling process with pilot drills or twist drills, the maximum bone temperature occurred in the region of the cancellous bones close to the cortical bones. The feed rate was one of the important factors affecting the time when the maximum bone temperature occurred. Our results also demonstrate that the elevation of bone temperature was reduced as the feed rate increased and the drill speed decreased, which also effectively reduced the risk region of osteonecrosis. These findings can serve as a reference for dentists in choosing drilling parameters for dental implant surgeries. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of treatments for experimental bone tumor on prostaglandin E level and bone scintigrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, Nobuaki; Ito, Yasuhiko; Yoneda, Masaya; Muranaka, Akira; Nishishita, Soichi; Morita, Rikushi [Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan)

    1983-10-01

    The role of Prostaglandin E (PgE) level was studied experimentally as follows: 1) intrahepatic implantation of VX-2, 2) intravenous injection of VX-2, 3) effect of treatments on intramedullary implanted VX-2. The levels of PgE in intrahepatic and intravenous transplantation were not higher than that of intramedullary transplantation. Mitomycin C (MMC) did not reduce the PgE level and appearance time of bone scan abnormality was the same as that of untreated animals. A combination of indomethacin and MMC caused a delay in appearance time of bone scan abnormalities.

  4. Regenerative adsorbent heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A regenerative adsorbent heat pump process and system is provided which can regenerate a high percentage of the sensible heat of the system and at least a portion of the heat of adsorption. A series of at least four compressors containing an adsorbent is provided. A large amount of heat is transferred from compressor to compressor so that heat is regenerated. The process and system are useful for air conditioning rooms, providing room heat in the winter or for hot water heating throughout the year, and, in general, for pumping heat from a lower temperature to a higher temperature.

  5. Nanotechnologies in regenerative medicine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubinová, Šárka; Syková, Eva

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 19, 3-4 (2010), s. 144-156 ISSN 1364-5706 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500390902; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA AV ČR KAN201110651 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) 1M0538; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/09/1242; GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN200520804; EC FP6 project ENIMET(XE) LSHM-CT-2005-019063 Program:1M; GA; KA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : Nanotechnology * regenerative medicine * nanofibers Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.051, year: 2010

  6. Regenerative laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biancardi, F.R.; Landerman, A.; Melikian, G.

    1975-01-01

    Regenerative apparatus for exhausting the working medium from the optical cavity of a laser and for supplying preheated diluent to the reaction chamber of a laser is disclosed. In an aftercooler thermal energy is exchanged between the working medium exhausted from the optical cavity and a cryogenic coolant which is subsequently utilized as the motive fluid for an ejector and as a diluent in the production of laser gas. Highly toxic and corrosive gases are condensed out of the working medium as the cryogenic coolant is evaporated and superheated. A preheater transfers additional heat to the diluent before the diluent enters the reaction chamber. (U.S.)

  7. Bone turnover in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Effect of calcitonin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civitelli, R; Gonnelli, S; Zacchei, F; Bigazzi, S; Vattimo, A; Avioli, L V; Gennari, C

    1988-10-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of calcitonin treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in relation to bone turnover, we examined 53 postmenopausal osteoporotic women before and after one year of therapy with salmon calcitonin (sCT), at the dose of 50 IU every other day. Baseline evaluation revealed that 17 (32%) patients had high turnover (HTOP), and 36 (68%) normal turnover osteoporosis (NTOP) as assessed by measurement of whole body retention (WBR) of 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate. The two groups did not differ in terms of bone mineral content (BMC) measured by dual photon absorptiometry at both lumbar spine and femoral diaphysis. However, HTOP patients had higher levels of serum osteocalcin (OC) and urinary hydroxyproline excretion (HOP/Cr). Multivariate regression analysis showed no correlation between parameters of bone turnover (WBR, OC, HOP/Cr) and both femoral and vertebral bone density; the latter being negatively correlated only with the years elapsed since menopause (R2 = 0.406). Treatment with sCT resulted in a significant increase of vertebral BMC in the 53 patients taken as a whole group (+/- 7%, P less than 0.001). When the results obtained in HTOP and NTOP were analyzed separately, only those with HTOP showed a marked increment of spinal BMC (+22%, P less than 0.001), NTOP subjects neither gained nor lost bone mineral during the study. Femoral BMC decreased in the whole group after sCT therapy (-3%, P less than 0.003). However, HTOP patients maintained initial BMC values, whereas those with NTOP lost a significant amount of bone during the study period (-5%, P less than 0.001). The increase of vertebral bone mass was associated with a marked depression of bone turnover detectable in both subsets of patients and in the whole group. (a) assessment of bone turnover cannot help predict the severity of bone loss in postmenopausal osteoporosis; (b) calcitonin therapy appears to be particularly indicated for patients with high-turnover osteoporosis

  8. Biological effect of hydrolyzed collagen on bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneault, Audrey; Prawitt, Janne; Fabien Soulé, Véronique; Coxam, Véronique; Wittrant, Yohann

    2017-06-13

    Osteoporosis is a chronic and asymptomatic disease characterized by low bone mass and skeletal microarchitectural deterioration, increased risk of fracture, and associated comorbidities most prevalent in the elderly. Due to an increasingly aging population, osteoporosis has become a major health issue requiring innovative disease management. Proteins are important for bone by providing building blocks and by exerting specific regulatory function. This is why adequate protein intake plays a considerable role in both bone development and bone maintenance. More specifically, since an increase in the overall metabolism of collagen can lead to severe dysfunctions and a more fragile bone matrix and because orally administered collagen can be digested in the gut, cross the intestinal barrier, enter the circulation, and become available for metabolic processes in the target tissues, one may speculate that a collagen-enriched diet provides benefits for the skeleton. Collagen-derived products such as gelatin or hydrolyzed collagen (HC) are well acknowledged for their safety from a nutritional point of view; however, what is their impact on bone biology? In this manuscript, we critically review the evidence from literature for an effect of HC on bone tissues in order to determine whether HC may represent a relevant alternative in the design of future nutritional approaches to manage osteoporosis prevention.

  9. REGENERATIVE DESIGN PRACTICES IN NIGERIA: A CASE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2017-07-01

    Jul 1, 2017 ... a view to effectively implement the concept within the study area. ... REGENERATIVE DESIGN PRACTICES IN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF NGOZIKA HOUSING .... could mean greater acceptance of new development by the public and .... human/environment relations based on the Cartesian separation of ...

  10. Effects of Cremation on Fetal Bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zana, Michela; Magli, Francesca; Mazzucchi, Alessandra; Castoldi, Elisa; Gibelli, Daniele; Caccia, Giulia; Cornacchia, Francesca; Gaudio, Daniel A; Mattia, Mirko; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2017-09-01

    The charring process is a weak point of anthropological analysis as it changes bone morphology and reduces information obtainable, specially in fetuses. This experiment aims at verifying the conservation of fetal bones after cremation. A total of 3138 fetuses of unknown sex and age were used, deriving from legal and therapeutic abortions from different hospitals of Milan. Cremations took place in modern crematoria. Nine cremation events were analyzed, each ranging from 57 to 915 simultaneously cremated fetuses. During the cremations, 4356 skeletal remains were recovered, 3756 of which (86.2%) were morphologically distinguishable. All types of fetal skeletal elements were found, with the exception of some cranial bones. Only 3.4% of individuals could be detected after the cremation process, because of the prevalence of abortions under 12 lunar weeks. All fire alterations were observed and the results were statistically analyzed. This pilot study confirmed the possibility of preservation of fetal skeletal elements after cremation. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  11. Evaluating effects of L-carnitine on human bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Koichi; Takami, Taro; Fukui, Yumi; Quintanilha, Luiz Fernando; Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Yamamoto, Naoki; Sakaida, Isao

    2017-05-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells showing potential for use in regenerative medicine. Culture techniques that are more stable and methods for the more efficient production of MSCs with therapeutic efficacy are needed. We evaluate the effects of growing bone marrow (Bm)-derived MSCs in the presence of L-carnitine, which is believed to promote lipid metabolism and to suppress apoptosis. The presence of L-carnitine decreased the degree of drug-induced apoptosis and suppressed adipogenic differentiation. Metabolomic analysis by means of the exhaustive investigation of metabolic products showed that, in addition to increased β-oxidation and the expression of all carnitine derivatives other than deoxycarnitine (an intermediate in carnitine synthesis), polysaturated and polyunsaturated acids were down-regulated. An integrated analysis incorporating both serial analysis of gene expression and metabolomics revealed increases in cell survival, suggesting the utility of carnitine. The addition of carnitine elevated the oxygen consumption rate by BmMSCs that had been cultured for only a few generations and those that had become senescent following repeated replication indicating that mitochondrial activation occurred. Our exhaustive analysis of the effects of various carnitine metabolites thus suggests that the addition of L-carnitine to BmMSCs during expansion enables efficient cell production.

  12. The effect of nutritional rickets on bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacher, Tom D; Fischer, Philip R; Pettifor, John M

    2014-11-01

    Nutritional rickets is caused by impaired mineralization of growing bone. The effect of nutritional rickets on areal bone mineral density (aBMD) has not been established. Our objective was to determine if aBMD is lower in children with active rickets than in healthy control children. We expected that the reduction in aBMD would vary between the radial and ulnar metaphyses near the growth plates and the proximal diaphyses. Case-control study. Primary care outpatient department of a teaching hospital in Jos, Nigeria. Nigerian children with radiographically-confirmed rickets were compared with a reference group of control children without rickets from the same community. Forearm bone density measurements were performed in all children with pDXA. Age, sex, and height-adjusted bone density parameters were compared between children with rickets and control subjects. A total of 264 children with active rickets (ages 13-120 months) and 660 control children (ages 11-123 months) were included. In multivariate analyses controlling for height, age, and gender, rickets was associated with a 4% greater bone area and 7% lower aBMD of the radial and ulnar metaphyses compared with controls (P rickets on the diaphyses of the radius and ulna were more pronounced with an 11% greater bone area, 21% lower aBMD, and 24% lower bone mineral apparent density than controls (P rickets, aBMD values were unrelated to dairy product intake or serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, or 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Metaphyseal aBMD was positively associated with radiographic severity score, attributed to bone edge detection artifact by densitometry in active rickets. Rickets results in increased bone area and reduced aBMD, which are more pronounced in the diaphyseal than in the metaphyseal regions of the radius and ulna, consistent with secondary hyperparathyroidism, generalized osteoid expansion and impaired mineralization.

  13. Effects of microgravity on rat bone, cartlage and connective tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, S.

    1990-01-01

    The response to hypogravity by the skeletal system was originally thought to be the result of a reduction in weight bearing. Thus a reduced rate of new bone formation in the weight-bearing bones was accepted, when found, as an obvious result of hypogravity. However, data on non-weight-bearing tissues have begun to show that other physiological changes can be expected to occur to animals during spaceflight. This overview of the Cosmos 1887 data discusses these results as they pertain to individual bones or tissues because the response seems to depend on the architecture and metabolism of each tissue under study. Various effects were seen in different tissues from the rats flown on Cosmos 1887. The femur showed a reduced bone mineral content but only in the central region of the diaphysis. This same region in the tibia showed changes in the vascularity of bone as well as some osteocytic cell death. The humerus demonstrated reduced morphometric characteristics plus a decrease in mechanical stiffness. Bone mineral crystals did not mature normally as a result of flight, suggesting a defect in the matrix mineralization process. Note that these changes relate directly to the matrix portion of the bone or some function of bone which slowly responds to changes in the environment. However, most cellular functions of bone are rapid responders. The stimulation of osteoblast precursor cells, the osteoblast function in collagen synthesis, a change in the proliferation rate of cells in the epiphyseal growth plate, the synthesis and secretion of osteocalcin, and the movement of water into or out of tissues, are all processes which respond to environmental change. These rapidly responding events produced results from Cosmos 1887 which were frequently quite different from previous space flight data.

  14. Regenerative Medicine Build-Out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfenning, Michael A.; Gores, Gregory J.; Harper, C. Michel

    2015-01-01

    Summary Regenerative technologies strive to boost innate repair processes and restitute normative impact. Deployment of regenerative principles into practice is poised to usher in a new era in health care, driving radical innovation in patient management to address the needs of an aging population challenged by escalating chronic diseases. There is urgency to design, execute, and validate viable paradigms for translating and implementing the science of regenerative medicine into tangible health benefits that provide value to stakeholders. A regenerative medicine model of care would entail scalable production and standardized application of clinical grade biotherapies supported by comprehensive supply chain capabilities that integrate sourcing and manufacturing with care delivery. Mayo Clinic has rolled out a blueprint for discovery, translation, and application of regenerative medicine therapies for accelerated adoption into the standard of care. To establish regenerative medical and surgical service lines, the Mayo Clinic model incorporates patient access, enabling platforms and delivery. Access is coordinated through a designated portal, the Regenerative Medicine Consult Service, serving to facilitate patient/provider education, procurement of biomaterials, referral to specialty services, and/or regenerative interventions, often in clinical trials. Platforms include the Regenerative Medicine Biotrust and Good Manufacturing Practice facilities for manufacture of clinical grade products for cell-based, acellular, and/or biomaterial applications. Care delivery leverages dedicated interventional suites for provision of regenerative services. Performance is tracked using a scorecard system to inform decision making. The Mayo Clinic roadmap exemplifies an integrated organization in the discovery, development, and delivery of regenerative medicine within a growing community of practice at the core of modern health care. Significance Regenerative medicine is at the

  15. Regenerative Medicine Build-Out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzic, Andre; Pfenning, Michael A; Gores, Gregory J; Harper, C Michel

    2015-12-01

    Regenerative technologies strive to boost innate repair processes and restitute normative impact. Deployment of regenerative principles into practice is poised to usher in a new era in health care, driving radical innovation in patient management to address the needs of an aging population challenged by escalating chronic diseases. There is urgency to design, execute, and validate viable paradigms for translating and implementing the science of regenerative medicine into tangible health benefits that provide value to stakeholders. A regenerative medicine model of care would entail scalable production and standardized application of clinical grade biotherapies supported by comprehensive supply chain capabilities that integrate sourcing and manufacturing with care delivery. Mayo Clinic has rolled out a blueprint for discovery, translation, and application of regenerative medicine therapies for accelerated adoption into the standard of care. To establish regenerative medical and surgical service lines, the Mayo Clinic model incorporates patient access, enabling platforms and delivery. Access is coordinated through a designated portal, the Regenerative Medicine Consult Service, serving to facilitate patient/provider education, procurement of biomaterials, referral to specialty services, and/or regenerative interventions, often in clinical trials. Platforms include the Regenerative Medicine Biotrust and Good Manufacturing Practice facilities for manufacture of clinical grade products for cell-based, acellular, and/or biomaterial applications. Care delivery leverages dedicated interventional suites for provision of regenerative services. Performance is tracked using a scorecard system to inform decision making. The Mayo Clinic roadmap exemplifies an integrated organization in the discovery, development, and delivery of regenerative medicine within a growing community of practice at the core of modern health care. Regenerative medicine is at the vanguard of health care

  16. Effect of geometrical shape of the working substance Gadolinium on the performance of a regenerative magnetic Brayton refrigeration cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diguet, Gildas; Lin, Guoxing; Chen, Jincan

    2013-01-01

    Based on Mean Field Theory (MFT), the entropy of magnetic material Gadolinium (Gd), which is a function of the local magnetic field and temperature, is calculated and analyzed. This local magnetic field is the sum of the applied field H 0 plus the exchange field H W =λM and the demagnetizing field H d =−NM, where the demagnetizing factor N depends on the shape of magnetic materials. Hereby, the impacts of the demagnetizing factor N on the magnetic entropy, magnetic entropy change and main thermodynamics performance of a regenerative magnetic Brayton refrigeration cycle using Gd as the working substance are investigated and evaluated in detail. The results obtained underline the importance of the shape of the working substance used in magnetic refrigerators for room-temperature application; elongated materials provide better thermodynamics performance such as higher COP and net heat absorption. It is pointed out that for low external fields, the magnetic refrigerator ceased to be functional if flat materials were used. - Highlights: ► Gd entropy is calculated as a function of temperature and internal magnetic field. ► Magnetic Brayton cycle properties generally depend on the demagnetizing factor. ► Redundant heat transfer is highly sensitive to the demagnetizing factor. ► The net cooling quantity is highly sensitive to the demagnetizing factor. ► Coefficient of performance is dependant to the magnetic material shape.

  17. Parametric simulation on enhancement of the Regenerative Gas Turbine performance by effect of Inlet Air Cooling system and Steam Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aadel Abdulrazzaq Alkumait

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Iraq being one of the developing countries of the world considers energy efficiency and the impact of its generation on the environment an imperative process in improvement of its power generation policies. Iraq bearing high temperatures all year long results in reduction of air density, therefore, Inlet air Cooling and Steam Injection Gas Turbines are a striking addition to the regenerative gas turbines. Regenerating Gas turbines tend to have a high back work ratio and a high exhaust temperature, thus, it leads to a low efficiency in power generation in hotter climate. Moreover, STIG and IAC through fog cooling have known to be the best retrofitting methods available in the industry which improve the efficiency of generation from 30.5 to 43% and increase the power output from 22MW to 33.5MW as the outcomes of computer simulations reveal. Additionally, this happens without bringing about much extensive change to original features of the power generation cycle. Furthermore, STIG and spray coolers have also resulted in power boosting and exceeding generation efficiency of gas turbine power plant.

  18. Parametric Simulation on Enhancement of the Regenerative Gas Turbine Performance by Effect of Inlet Air Cooling System and Steam Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aadel A. Alkumait

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aadel Abdulrazzaq Alkumait/Tikrit Journal of Engineering Sciences 22(1 (201538-44Iraq being one of the developing countries of the world considers energy efficiency and the impact of its generation on the environment an imperative process in improvement of its power generation policies. Iraq bearing high temperatures all year long results in reduction of air density, therefore, Inlet air Cooling and Steam Injection Gas Turbines are a striking addition to the regenerative gas turbines. Regenerating Gas turbines tend to have a high back work ratio and a high exhaust temperature, thus, it leads to a low efficiency in power generation in hotter climate. Moreover, STIG and IAC through fog cooling have known to be the best retrofitting methods available in the industry which improve the efficiency of generation from 30.5 to 43% and increase the power output from 22MW to 33.5MW as the outcomes of computer simulations reveal. Additionally, this happens without bringing about much extensive change to original features of the power generation cycle. Furthermore, STIG and spray coolers have also resulted in power boosting and exceeding generation efficiency of gas turbine power plant.

  19. A regenerative elastocaloric heat pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrecht, Kurt; Eriksen, Dan; Dallolio, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    A large fraction of global energy use is for refrigeration and air-conditioning, which could be decarbonized if efficient renewable energy technologies could be found. Vapour-compression technology remains the most widely used system to move heat up the temperature scale after more than 100 years...... a regenerative elastocaloric heat pump that exhibits a temperature span of 15.3 K on the water side with a corresponding specific heating power up to 800 W kg−1 and maximum COP (coefficient-of-performance) values of up to 7. The efficiency and specific heating power of this device exceeds those of other devices...... based on caloric effects. These results open up the possibility of using the elastocaloric effect in various cooling and heat-pumping applications....

  20. [The Effects of Exercising in Childhood on Bone Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Kazuhiro; Iwamoto, Jun; Torii, Suguru; Masujima, Atsushi

    In contemporary Japan, there is a polarizing trend in children who exercise more than 1,800 minutes a week and those who exercise less than 60 minutes a week. Quite a lot of girls in particular hate exercise,and therefore they don't get enough of it. Osteoporosis is a preventable disease from childhood. It is crucial for girls to exercise and to provide appropriate stimulation to bones before menarche, which increases bone mineral content. Exercise and sports in childhood are characterized as the ways to the lifelong prevention strategies against osteoporosis and fractures. It is hoped that all children practice appropriate exercise program based on scientific evidence to promote bone health. In this review article, the effects of exercising in childhood on bone health, and the points to be noted regarding childhood sports are described.

  1. Effects of Spaceflight on Cells of Bone Marrow Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Özçivici

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Once only a subject for science fiction novels, plans for establishing habitation on space stations, the Moon, and distant planets now appear among the short-term goals of space agencies. This article reviews studies that present biomedical issues that appear to challenge humankind for long-term spaceflights. With particularly focus on cells of bone marrow origin, studies involving changes in bone, immune, and red blood cell populations and their functions due to extended weightlessness were reviewed. Furthermore, effects of mechanical disuse on primitive stem cells that reside in the bone marrow were also included in this review. Novel biomedical solutions using space biotechnology will be required in order to achieve the goal of space exploration without compromising the functions of bone marrow, as spaceflight appears to disrupt homeostasis for all given cell types.

  2. Effect of some chemical radioprotectors on mouse bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lata, Manju; Ghose, A.; Khanna, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    Effect of 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan (HT), AET and Se on mice bone marrow has been studied by counting bone marrow micronucleated cells and endogenous spleen colony count (CFU-S). Combination of HT and AET used as a radioprotector has not caused any significant variation in any of the parameter studied when administered once, it increases bone marrow micronucleated cells and decreases CFU-S slightly after daily administration for 7 days. The individual constituent of the combination administered singly does not increase micronucleated cell number. Seven consecutive doses of HT+AET and same in combination with Se enhances micronucleated cells to a higher level. Daily injection of Se alone up to 7 days also causes an increase in micronucleated cells up to same level. CFU-S pool does not show any significant change in number of bone marrow cells through out the study except in the groups where animals were treated with Se. (author). 15 refs., 3 tabs

  3. Effect of the “protein diet” and bone tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento da Silva, Zoraide; Azevedo de Jesuz, Vanessa; De Salvo Castro, Eduardo; Soares da Costa, Carlos Alberto; Teles Boaventura, Gilson; Blondet de Azeredo, Vilma

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of the hyperproteic diet consumption on bone tissue. The study was conducted during sixty days. Twenty eight Wistar albinus rats, adults, originated from Laboratory of Experimental Nutrition were divided in four groups: (n = 7); Control 1 (C1), Control 2 (C2), Hyperproteic 1 (HP1) e Hyperproteic 2 (HP2). The C2 and HP2 groups were submitted to 30% of food restriction. The hyperproteic diet was based on the Atkins diet and prepared to simulate the protein diet. At the end of the study the animals were anesthetized to performer bone densitometry analyses by DEXA and blood and tissue collection. Serum and bone minerals analyses were conducted by colorimetric methods in automated equipment. The total bone mineral density (BMD) of the pelvis and the spine of the food restriction groups (HP2 e C2) were lower (p hyperproteic groups (HP1 e HP2). It was observed similar effect on the osteocalcin level, that presented lower (p hyperproteic groups. The insulin level was lower only in HP2 and serum calcium of the HP1 and HP2 groups was lower than C1. The protein diet promotes significant bone change on femur and in the hormones levels related to bone synthesis and maintenance of this tissue.

  4. Active Magnetic Regenerative Liquefier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barclay, John A. [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Oseen-Send, Kathryn [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Ferguson, Luke [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Pouresfandiary, Jamshid [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Cousins, Anand [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Ralph, Heather [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Hampto, Tom [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-01-12

    This final report for the DOE Project entitled Active Magnetic Regenerative Liquefier (AMRL) funded under Grant DE-FG36-08GO18064 to Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy (Heracles/Prometheus) describes an active magnetic regenerative refrigerator (AMRR) prototype designed and built during the period from July 2008 through May 2011. The primary goal of this project was to make significant technical advances toward highly efficient liquefaction of hydrogen. Conventional hydrogen liquefiers at any scale have a maximum FOM of ~0.35 due primarily to the intrinsic difficulty of rapid, efficient compression of either hydrogen or helium working gases. Numerical simulation modeling of high performance AMRL designs indicates certain designs have promise to increase thermodynamic efficiency from a FOM of ~0.35 toward ~0.5 to ~0.6. The technical approach was the use of solid magnetic working refrigerants cycled in and out of high magnetic fields to build an efficient active regenerative magnetic refrigeration module providing cooling power for AMRL. A single-stage reciprocating AMRR with a design temperature span from ~290 K to ~120 K was built and tested with dual magnetic regenerators moving in and out of the conductively-cooled superconducting magnet subsystem. The heat transfer fluid (helium) was coupled to the process stream (refrigeration/liquefaction load) via high performance heat exchangers. In order to maximize AMRR efficiency a helium bypass loop with adjustable flow was incorporated in the design because the thermal mass of magnetic refrigerants is higher in low magnetic field than in high magnetic field. Heracles/Prometheus designed experiments to measure AMRR performance under a variety of different operational parameters such as cycle frequency, magnetic field strength, heat transfer fluid flow rate, amount of bypass flow of the heat transfer fluid while measuring work input, temperature span, cooling capability as a function of cold temperature

  5. The effect of Hydroxyapatite/collagen I composites, bone marrow aspirate and bone graft on fixation of bone implants in sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babiker, Hassan

      The effect of Hydroxyapatite/collagen I composites, bone marrow aspirate and bone graft on fixation of bone implants IN SHEEP   Ph.D. Student, Hassan Babiker; Associate Professor, Ph.D. Ming Ding; Professor, dr.med., Soren Overgaard. Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Odense University Hospital......, Odense, Denmark   Background: Hydroxyapatite and collagen composites (HA/coll) have the potential in mimicking and replacing skeletal bones. This study attempted to determine the effect of newly developed HA/coll-composites with and without bone marrow aspirate (BMA) in order to enhance the fixation...... of bone implants.   Materials and Methods: Titanium alloy implants were inserted into bilateral femoral condyles of 8 skeletally mature sheep, four in each sheep. The implant has a circumferential gap of 2 mm. The gap was filled with: HA/coll; HA/coll-BMA; autograft or allograft. Allograft was served...

  6. Regenerative Therapies for Diabetic Microangiopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Bassi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperglycaemia occurring in diabetes is responsible for accelerated arterial remodeling and atherosclerosis, affecting the macro- and the microcirculatory system. Vessel injury is mainly related to deregulation of glucose homeostasis and insulin/insulin-precursors production, generation of advanced glycation end-products, reduction in nitric oxide synthesis, and oxidative and reductive stress. It occurs both at extracellular level with increased calcium and matrix proteins deposition and at intracellular level, with abnormalities of intracellular pathways and increased cell death. Peripheral arterial disease, coronary heart disease, and ischemic stroke are the main causes of morbidity/mortality in diabetic patients representing a major clinical and economic issue. Pharmacological therapies, administration of growth factors, and stem cellular strategies are the most effective approaches and will be discussed in depth in this comprehensive review covering the regenerative therapies of diabetic microangiopathy.

  7. Effect of risedronate on bone in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coco, Maria; Pullman, James; Cohen, Hillel W; Lee, Sally; Shapiro, Craig; Solorzano, Clemencia; Greenstein, Stuart; Glicklich, Daniel

    2012-08-01

    Bisphosphonates may prevent or treat the bone loss promoted by the immunosuppressive regimens used in renal transplantation. Risedronate is a commonly used third-generation amino-bisphosphonate, but little is known about its effects on the bone health of renal transplant recipients. We randomly assigned 42 new living-donor kidney recipients to either 35 mg of risedronate weekly or placebo for 12 months. We obtained bone biopsies at the time of renal transplant and after 12 months of protocol treatment. Treatment with risedronate did not affect bone mineral density (BMD) in the overall cohort. In subgroup analyses, it tended to preserve BMD in female participants but did not significantly affect the BMD of male participants. Risedronate did associate with increased osteoid volume and trabecular thickness in male participants, however. There was no evidence for the development of adynamic bone disease. In summary, further study is needed before the use of prophylactic bisphosphonates to attenuate bone loss can be recommended in renal transplant recipients.

  8. Micro-computed tomography (CT) based assessment of dental regenerative therapy in the canine mandible model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khobragade, P.; Jain, A.; Setlur Nagesh, S. V.; Andreana, S.; Dziak, R.; Sunkara, S. K.; Sunkara, S.; Bednarek, D. R.; Rudin, S.; Ionita, C. N.

    2015-03-01

    High-resolution 3D bone-tissue structure measurements may provide information critical to the understanding of the bone regeneration processes and to the bone strength assessment. Tissue engineering studies rely on such nondestructive measurements to monitor bone graft regeneration area. In this study, we measured bone yield, fractal dimension and trabecular thickness through micro-CT slices for different grafts and controls. Eight canines underwent surgery to remove a bone volume (defect) in the canine's jaw at a total of 44 different locations. We kept 11 defects empty for control and filled the remaining ones with three regenerative materials; NanoGen (NG), a FDA-approved material (n=11), a novel NanoCalcium Sulfate (NCS) material (n=11) and NCS alginate (NCS+alg) material (n=11). After a minimum of four and eight weeks, the canines were sacrificed and the jaw samples were extracted. We used a custombuilt micro-CT system to acquire the data volume and developed software to measure the bone yield, fractal dimension and trabecular thickness. The software used a segmentation algorithm based on histograms derived from volumes of interest indicated by the operator. Using bone yield and fractal dimension as indices we are able to differentiate between the control and regenerative material (p<0.005). Regenerative material NCS showed an average 63.15% bone yield improvement over the control sample, NCS+alg showed 55.55% and NanoGen showed 37.5%. The bone regeneration process and quality of bone were dependent upon the position of defect and time period of healing. This study presents one of the first quantitative comparisons using non-destructive Micro-CT analysis for bone regenerative material in a large animal with a critical defect model. Our results indicate that Micro-CT measurement could be used to monitor invivo bone regeneration studies for greater regenerative process understanding.

  9. Effect of alpha-calciferol on bone mineral density, bone histomorphometry and bone biomechanics in rats by radiative injury to kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Feipeng; Wang Hongfu; Gao Linfeng; Jin Weifang

    2003-01-01

    The work is to study the effects of alpha-calciferol on bone mineral density, histomorphometry and biomechanics in rats with osteoporosis induced by irradiation of the rat kidney. 32 male SD rats of six months in age were randomly divided into 4 groups (8 rats per group), i.e. the model group, the sham group, the bone one group and the fosamax group. Osteoporosis was developed in the rats by irradiating the kidney. Then the rats were administrated orally as follows in a 90 days, 0.1 g·kg -1 BW.d of alpha-calciferol for the bone one group, 10 mg·kg -1 BW.d of alendronate sodium in 1 mL CMC for the fosamax group, and 1 mL CMC for both the model group and sham group. BMD of L1-4, bone histomorphometry and the bone biomechanical properties were measured. Compared with the model group, both the bone one group and the fosamax group were characterized with significantly higher BMD of L1-4 (p<0.01), significantly larger volume and width of bone trabecula, smaller space of bone trabecula (p<0.05, p<0.01), and significantly larger maximal stress of femur and lumbar vertebra (p<0.05, p<0.01). It is concluded that Alpha-calciferol can improve BMD, bone histomorphometry and bone biomechanical properties in rat osteoporosis induced by kidney irradiation

  10. The effect of platelet rich plasma from bone marrow aspirate with added bone morphogenetic protein-2 on the Achilles tendon-bone junction in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hak Jun; Nam, Hyok-Woo; Hur, Chang-Yong; Park, Misu; Yang, Hee Seok; Kim, Byung-Soo; Park, Jung-Ho

    2011-12-01

    To determine if exogenously injected bone marrow derived platelet-rich plasma (PRP) plus bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 could accelerate the healing of bone-tendon junction injuries and increase the junction holding strength during the early regeneration period. A direct injury model of the bone-tendon junction was made using an Achilles tendon-calcaneus bone junction in a rabbit. In the PRP/BMP-2/fibrin group, 0.05 mL of bone marrow derived PRP and 100 ng/mL of BMP-2 both incorporated into 0.1 mL of fibrin glue were injected into Achilles tendon-calcaneus bone junctions. The effect of the intervention was tested by comparing the results of an intervention group to a control group. The results of biomechanical testing, and histological and gross analyses were compared between the 2 groups at the following time points after surgery: 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks. Histologic examinations showed that woven bone developed in tendon-bone junctions at 2 weeks after surgery in the PRP/BMP-2/fibrin group. Mechanical test results showed no significant difference between the PRP/BMP-2/fibrin and control groups at 2 and 4 weeks after surgery, but the mean maximal load in the PRP/BMP-2/fibrin group was significantly higher than in the control group (p rabbit model of tendon-bone junction injury.

  11. Effect of Physical Forces on the Metastatic Bone Microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    gravitational loading does not account for the skeletal effect of botulinum toxin -induced muscle inhibition suggesting a direct effect of muscle on bone...osteoblastic properties . Cancer Res 47:4961– 4966. Schmidt AF, Nielen M, Klungel OH, Hoes AW, de Boer A, Groenwold RH, Kirpensteijn J. 2013. Prognostic

  12. Regenerative strategies for the treatment of knee joint disabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Reis, Rui

    2017-01-01

    This book presents regenerative strategies for the treatment of knee joint disabilities. The book is composed of four main sections totaling 19 chapters which review the current knowledge on the clinical management and preclinical regenerative strategies. It examines the role of different natural-based biomaterials as scaffolds and implants for addressing different tissue lesions in the knee joint. Section one provides an updated and comprehensive discussion on articular cartilage tissue regeneration. Section two focuses on the important contributions for bone and osteochondral tissue engineering. Section three overview the recent advances on meniscus repair/regeneration strategies. Finally, section four further discusses the current strategies for treatment of ligament lesions. Each chapter is prepared by world know expert on their fields, so we do firmly believe that the proposed book will be a reference in the area of biomaterials for regenerative medicine.

  13. The pharmacology of regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, George J; Saul, Justin M; Furth, Mark E; Andersson, Karl-Erik

    2013-07-01

    Regenerative medicine is a rapidly evolving multidisciplinary, translational research enterprise whose explicit purpose is to advance technologies for the repair and replacement of damaged cells, tissues, and organs. Scientific progress in the field has been steady and expectations for its robust clinical application continue to rise. The major thesis of this review is that the pharmacological sciences will contribute critically to the accelerated translational progress and clinical utility of regenerative medicine technologies. In 2007, we coined the phrase "regenerative pharmacology" to describe the enormous possibilities that could occur at the interface between pharmacology, regenerative medicine, and tissue engineering. The operational definition of regenerative pharmacology is "the application of pharmacological sciences to accelerate, optimize, and characterize (either in vitro or in vivo) the development, maturation, and function of bioengineered and regenerating tissues." As such, regenerative pharmacology seeks to cure disease through restoration of tissue/organ function. This strategy is distinct from standard pharmacotherapy, which is often limited to the amelioration of symptoms. Our goal here is to get pharmacologists more involved in this field of research by exposing them to the tools, opportunities, challenges, and interdisciplinary expertise that will be required to ensure awareness and galvanize involvement. To this end, we illustrate ways in which the pharmacological sciences can drive future innovations in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering and thus help to revolutionize the discovery of curative therapeutics. Hopefully, the broad foundational knowledge provided herein will spark sustained conversations among experts in diverse fields of scientific research to the benefit of all.

  14. A review of the regenerative endodontic treatment procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin-Na Lee,

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, apexification has been used to treat immature permanent teeth that have lost pulp vitality. This technique promotes the formation of an apical barrier to close the open apex so that the filling materials can be confined to the root canal. Because tissue regeneration cannot be achieved with apexification, a new technique called regenerative endodontic treatment was presented recently to treat immature permanent teeth. Regenerative endodontic treatment is a treatment procedure designed to replace damaged pulp tissue with viable tissue which restores the normal function of the pulp-dentin structure. After regenerative endodontic treatment, continued root development and hard tissue deposition on the dentinal wall can occur under ideal circumstances. However, it is difficult to predict the result of regenerative endodontic treatment. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to summarize multiple factors effects on the result of regenerative endodontic treatment in order to achieve more predictable results. In this study, we investigated the features of regenerative endodontic treatment in comparison with those of other pulp treatment procedures and analyzed the factors that have an effect on regenerative endodontic treatment.

  15. Protective Effects of Selected Botanical Agents on Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Jam Jolly

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a serious health problem affecting more than 200 million elderly people worldwide. The early symptoms of this disease are hardly detectable. It causes progressive bone loss, which ultimately renders the patients susceptible to fractures. Osteoporosis must be prevented because the associated fragility fractures result in high morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. Many plants used in herbal medicine contain bioactive compounds possessing skeletal protective effects. This paper explores the anti-osteoporotic properties of selected herbal plants, including their actions on osteoblasts (bone forming cells, osteoclasts (bone resorbing cells, and bone remodelling. Some of the herbal plant families included in this review are Berberidaceae, Fabaceae, Arecaceae, Labiatae, Simaroubaceaea, and Myrsinaceae. Their active constituents, mechanisms of action, and pharmaceutical applications were discussed. The literature shows that very few herbal plants have undergone human clinical trials to evaluate their pharmacological effects on bone to date. Therefore, more intensive research should be performed on these plants to validate their anti-osteoporotic properties so that they can complement the currently available conventional drugs in the battle against osteoporosis.

  16. Effects of combined hydroxyapatite and human platelet rich plasma on bone healing in rabbit model: radiological, macroscopical, hidtopathological and biomechanical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oryan, A; Meimandi Parizi, A; Shafiei-Sarvestani, Z; Bigham, A S

    2012-12-01

    Hydroxyapatite is an osteoconductive material used as a bone graft extender and exhibits excellent biocompatibility with soft tissues such as skin, muscle and gums, making it an ideal candidate for orthopedic and dental implants or components of implants. Synthetic hydroxyapatite has been widely used in repair of hard tissues, and common uses include bone repair, bone augmentation, as well as coating of implants or acting as fillers in bone or teeth. On the other hand, human platelet rich plasma (hPRP) has been used as a source of osteoinductive factor. A combination of hPRP and hydroxyapatite is expected to create a composite with both osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties. This study examined the effect of a combination of hydroxyapatite and hPRP on osteogenesis in vivo, using rabbit model bone healing. A critical size defect of 10 mm long was created in the radial diaphysis of 36 rabbit and either supplied with hydroxyapatite-human PRP or hydroxyapatite or was left empty (control group). Radiographs of each forelimb were taken postoperatively on 1st day and then at the 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th weeks post injury to evaluate bone formation, union and remodeling of the defect. The operated radiuses of half of the animals in each group were removed on 56th postoperative day and were grossly and histopathologically evaluated. In addition, biomechanical test was conducted on the operated and normal forearms of the other half of the animals of each group. This study demonstrated that hydroxyapatite-humanPRP, could promote bone regeneration in critical size defects with a high regenerative capacity. The results of the present study demonstrated that hydroxyapatite-hPRP could be an attractive alternative for reconstruction of the major diaphyseal defects of the long bones in animal models.

  17. Maxillary Bone Regeneration Based on Nanoreservoirs Functionalized ε-Polycaprolactone Biomembranes in a Mouse Model of Jaw Bone Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Strub

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Current approaches of regenerative therapies constitute strategies for bone tissue reparation and engineering, especially in the context of genetical diseases with skeletal defects. Bone regeneration using electrospun nanofibers’ implant has the following objectives: bone neoformation induction with rapid healing, reduced postoperative complications, and improvement of bone tissue quality. In vivo implantation of polycaprolactone (PCL biomembrane functionalized with BMP-2/Ibuprofen in mouse maxillary defects was followed by bone neoformation kinetics evaluation using microcomputed tomography. Wild-Type (WT and Tabby (Ta mice were used to compare effects on a normal phenotype and on a mutant model of ectodermal dysplasia (ED. After 21 days, no effect on bone neoformation was observed in Ta treated lesion (4% neoformation compared to 13% in the control lesion. Between the 21st and the 30th days, the use of biomembrane functionalized with BMP-2/Ibuprofen in maxillary bone lesions allowed a significant increase in bone neoformation peaks (resp., +8% in mutant Ta and +13% in WT. Histological analyses revealed a neoformed bone with regular trabecular structure, areas of mineralized bone inside the membrane, and an improved neovascularization in the treated lesion with bifunctionalized membrane. In conclusion, PCL functionalized biomembrane promoted bone neoformation, this effect being modulated by the Ta bone phenotype responsible for an alteration of bone response.

  18. Effect of Rosiglitazone on Radiation Damage in Bone Marrow Hemopoiesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benko', Klara; Pintye, Eva; Szabo, Boglarka; Geresi, Krisztina; Megyeri, Attila; Benko, Ilona

    2008-01-01

    To study radiobiological effects and drugs, which can modify radiation injury, has an importance if we would like to avoid harmful effects of radiation due to emergency situations or treat patients with malignant diseases by radiotherapy. During the long treatment schedules patients may be treated by not only anticancer but many other drugs because of accompanying diseases. These drugs may also modify radiobiological effects. Rosiglitazone pre-treatment proved to be myeloprotective and accelerated recovery of 5-fluorouracil-damaged bone marrow in our previous experiments. Our new studies are designed to evaluate whether rosiglitazone has similar beneficial effects in radiation-damaged hemopoiesis. Bone marrow damage was precipitated by total body irradiation (TBI) using single increasing doses (2-10 Gy) of γ--irradiation in groups of mice. Lethality was well correlated with damage in hemopoiesis measured by cellularity of bone marrow (LD 50 values were 4.8 and 5.3 gray respectively). Rosiglitazone, an insulin-sensitizing drug, had no significant effect on bone marrow cellularity. Insulin resistance associated with obesity or diabetes mellitus type 2 is intensively growing among cancer patients requiring some kind of radiotherapy. Therefore it is important to know whether drugs used for their therapy can modify radiation effects.

  19. Effect of Rosiglitazone on Radiation Damage in Bone Marrow Hemopoiesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkő, Klára; Pintye, Éva; Szabó, Boglárka; Géresi, Krisztina; Megyeri, Attila; Benkő, Ilona

    2008-12-01

    To study radiobiological effects and drugs, which can modify radiation injury, has an importance if we would like to avoid harmful effects of radiation due to emergency situations or treat patients with malignant diseases by radiotherapy. During the long treatment schedules patients may be treated by not only anticancer but many other drugs because of accompanying diseases. These drugs may also modify radiobiological effects. Rosiglitazone pre-treatment proved to be myeloprotective and accelerated recovery of 5-fluorouracil-damaged bone marrow in our previous experiments. Our new studies are designed to evaluate whether rosiglitazone has similar beneficial effects in radiation-damaged hemopoiesis. Bone marrow damage was precipitated by total body irradiation (TBI) using single increasing doses (2-10 Gy) of γ—irradiation in groups of mice. Lethality was well correlated with damage in hemopoiesis measured by cellularity of bone marrow (LD50 values were 4.8 and 5.3 gray respectively). Rosiglitazone, an insulin-sensitizing drug, had no significant effect on bone marrow cellularity. Insulin resistance associated with obesity or diabetes mellitus type 2 is intensively growing among cancer patients requiring some kind of radiotherapy. Therefore it is important to know whether drugs used for their therapy can modify radiation effects.

  20. Regenerative Therapy for Retinal Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narsis Daftarian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Major advances in various disciplines of basic sciences including embryology, molecular and cell biology, genetics, and nanotechnology, as well as stem cell biology have opened new horizons for regenerative therapy. The unique characteristics of stem cells prompt a sound understanding for their use in modern regenerative therapies. This review article discusses stem cells, developmental stages of the eye field, eye field transcriptional factors, and endogenous and exogenous sources of stem cells. Recent studies and challenges in the application of stem cells for retinal pigment epithelial degeneration models will be summarized followed by obstacles facing regenerative therapy.

  1. No effect of Osteoset, a bone graft substitute, on bone healing in humans: a prospective randomized double-blind study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petruskevicius, Juozas; Nielsen, Mette Strange; Kaalund, Søren

    2002-01-01

    We studied the effects of a newly marketed bone substitute, Osteoset, on bone healing in a tibial defect in humans. 20 patients undergoing an ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) reconstruction with bone-patella tendon-bone graft were block-randomized into 2 groups of 10 each. In the treatment group......, the tibial defect was filled manually with Osteoset pellets, in the control group the defect was left empty. CTs of the defect were taken on the first day after the operation, 6 weeks, 3 and 6 months postoperatively. We found about the same amount of bone in the defect in the Osteoset and control groups...... after 6 weeks, 3, and 6 months. In the control group, but not in the Osteoset group, the bone volume increased from 6 weeks to 3 months. The Osteoset pellets were almost resorbed after 6 weeks....

  2. Cell cytoskeletal changes effected by static compressive stress lead to changes in the contractile properties of tissue regenerative collagen membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Gellynck

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Static compressive stress can influence the matrix, which subsequently affects cell behaviour and the cell’s ability to further transform the matrix. This study aimed to assess response to static compressive stress at different stages of osteoblast differentiation and assess the cell cytoskeleton’s role as a conduit of matrix-derived stimuli. Mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs (D1 ORL UVA, osteoblastic cells (MC3T3-E1 and post-osteoblast/pre-osteocyte-like cells (MLO-A5 were seeded in hydrated and compressed collagen gels. Contraction was quantified macroscopically, and cell morphology, survival, differentiation and mineralisation assessed using confocal microscopy, alamarBlue® assay, real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR and histological stains, respectively. Confocal microscopy demonstrated cell shape changes and favourable microfilament organisation with static compressive stress of the collagen matrix; furthermore, cell survival was greater compared to the hydrated gels. The stage of osteoblast differentiation determined the degree of matrix contraction, with MSCs demonstrating the greatest amount. Introduction of microfilament disrupting inhibitors confirmed that pre-stress and tensegrity forces were under the influence of gel density, and there was increased survival and differentiation of the cells within the compressed collagen compared to the hydrated collagen. There was also relative stiffening and differentiation with time of the compressed cell-seeded collagen, allowing for greater manipulation. In conclusion, the combined collagen chemistry and increased density of the microenvironment can promote upregulation of osteogenic genes and mineralisation; MSCs can facilitate matrix contraction to form an engineered membrane with the potential to serve as a ‘pseudo-periosteum’ in the regeneration of bone defects.

  3. A survey of dental residents' expectations for regenerative endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manguno, Christine; Murray, Peter E; Howard, Cameron; Madras, Jonathan; Mangan, Stephen; Namerow, Kenneth N

    2012-02-01

    The objective was to survey a group of dental residents regarding their expectations for using regenerative endodontic procedures as part of future dental treatments. After institutional review board approval, the opinions of 32 dentists who were having postgraduate residency training to become specialists in a dental school were surveyed. The survey had 40 questions about professional status, ethical beliefs, judgment, and clinical practice. It was found that 83.9% of dentists had no continuing education or training in stem cells or regenerative endodontic procedures. Results showed that 96.8% of dentists are willing to receive training to be able to provide regenerative endodontic procedures for their patients. Of the total group, 49.1% of dentists already use membranes, scaffolds, or bioactive materials to provide dental treatment. It was determined that 47.3% of dentists agree that the costs of regenerative procedures should be comparable with current treatments. It was also found that 55.1% of dentists were unsure whether regenerative procedures would be successful. Dentists are supportive of using regenerative endodontic procedures in their dental practice, and they are willing to undergo extra training and to buy new technology to provide new procedures. Nevertheless, dentists also need more evidence for the effectiveness and safety of regenerative treatments before they will be recommended for most patients. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Bone Biomarkers on the Pathway to Effective Spaceflight Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatz, Jordan

    2009-01-01

    Osteocyte cells are the most abundant yet least understood bone cell type in the human body. However, recent discovers in osteocyte cell biology have shed light on their importance as key mechanosensing cells regulating the bone remodeling process. Thus, we propose the first ever in vitro gene expression evaluation of osteocytes exposed to simulated microgravity to determine mechanistic pathways of their gravity sensing ability. Improved understanding of the fundamental mechanisms at the osteocyte cellular level may lead to improved treatment options to mitigate the effects of bone loss encountered by astronauts on long duration space missions and provide tailored treatment options for maintaining bone strength of immobilized/partially paralyzed patients here on Earth. Aim 1: Characterize the gene expression patterns and protein levels following exposure of murine osteocytelike cell line (MLO-Y4) to simulated microgravity using the NASA Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) Bioreactor. Osteocytes are theorized to be the mechanosensors and transducers of mechanical load for bones, yet the biological mechanism of this action remains elusive. We propose to investigate the genetic regulation of the mechanism of the MLO-Y4 cell in the NASA Bioreactor as it is the accepted ground-based analog for simulating vector averaged microgravity.

  5. Dietary phosphorus depletion in sheep: Longterm effects on bone structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breves, G.; Prokop, M.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments were performed on 6 sheep from 8 months old to study effects of dietary phosphorus depletion on bone structure. Sheep were given a semisynthetic diet of chopped straw and pellets for 38 weeks. Mean daily P in the diet was 0.97 g and 3 sheep were given additional NaH2PO4.H2O, increasing daily P supply to 4.5 g (controls). Bone density was estimated photometrically within the laterodistal metaphysis of the foreleg and standardized by a copper step wedge. Metacarpal cortical thickness was also measured. Cortical thickness and bone density started to decrease about 4 weeks after start of P depletion. The trabecular structure of the distal radius was coarser and less dense with reduced cross-linking between trabeculae

  6. Effect of limestone particle size on bone quality characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of different limestone particle sizes in layer diets on bone quality characteristics at end-of-lay hens. Calcitic limestone (360 g Ca/kg DM) that is extensively used in commercial poultry diets was obtained from a specific South African source. Limestone particles were graded as ...

  7. Long term effects of formaldehyde preservation on subsequent bone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of cold and hot water maceration techniques for the development of bone specimens from cadavers. Three already dissected bodies of both sexes (two males and a female) obtained from the Department of Anatomy, Bowen University, Iwo, Osun State, Nigeria were ...

  8. Effect of resistance and aerobic exercises on bone mineral density ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Based on obtained data, it can be concluded that, resistance and aerobic exercise training program is effective in increasing BMD, muscle strength and functional ability in children with hemophilia. Keywords: Hemophilia; Resistance; Aerobic exercise; Bone mineral density; Strength; Functional ability ...

  9. The effect of vitamin D on bone and osteoporosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lips, P.T.A.M.; van Schoor, N.M.

    2011-01-01

    The main effect of the active vitamin D metabolite 1,25(OH)2D is to stimulate the absorption of calcium from the gut. The consequences of vitamin D deficiency are secondary hyperparathyroidism and bone loss, leading to osteoporosis and fractures, mineralization defects, which may lead to

  10. Perivascular cells for regenerative medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Crisan (Mihaela); M. Corselli (Mirko); W.C. Chen (William); B. Péault (Bruno)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractMesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) are currently the best candidate therapeutic cells for regenerative medicine related to osteoarticular, muscular, vascular and inflammatory diseases, although these cells remain heterogeneous and necessitate a better biological characterization. We

  11. A case of non-regenerative immune-mediated anemia treated by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 12-year-old female Shih Tzu dog was referred with diarrhea. Hematological examination indicated severe nonregenerative anemia. Bone marrow aspiration smears and core biopsy specimens revealed normal bone marrow. Based on those results, non-regenerative immune mediated anemia was diagnosed. The dog ...

  12. Personalized Regenerative Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Arjmand

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Personalized medicine as a novel field of medicine refers to the prescription of specific therapeutics procedure for an individual. This approach has established based on pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic information and data. The terms precision and personalized medicines are sometimes applied interchangeably. However, there has been a shift from “personalized medicine” towards “precision medicine”. Although personalized medicine emerged from pharmacogenetics, nowadays it covers many fields of healthcare. Accordingly, regenerative medicine and cellular therapy as the new fields of medicine use cell-based products in order to develop personalized treatments. Different sources of stem cells including mesenchymal stem cells, embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs have been considered in targeted therapies which could give many advantages. iPSCs as the novel and individual pluripotent stem cells have been introduced as the appropriate candidates for personalized cell therapies. Cellular therapies can provide a personalized approach. Because of person-to-person and population differences in the result of stem cell therapy, individualized cellular therapy must be adjusted according to the patient specific profile, in order to achieve best therapeutic results and outcomes. Several factors should be considered to achieve personalized stem cells therapy such as, recipient factors, donor factors, and the overall body environment in which the stem cells could be active and functional. In addition to these factors, the source of stem cells must be carefully chosen based on functional and physical criteria that lead to optimal outcomes.

  13. A helium regenerative compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, W.L.; Nutt, W.E.; Sixsmith, H.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and performance of a regenerative compressor that was developed primarily for use in cryogenic helium systems. The objectives for the development were to achieve acceptable efficiency in the machine using conventional motor and bearing technology while reducing the complexity of the system required to control contamination from the lubricants. A single stage compressor was built and tested. The compressor incorporates aerodynamically shaped blades on a 218 mm (8.6 inches) diameter impeller to achieve high efficiency. A gas-buffered non-contact shaft seal is used to oppose the diffusion of lubricant from the motor bearings into the cryogenic circuit. Since it is a rotating machine, the flow is continuous and steady, and the machine is very quiet. During performance testing with helium, the single stage machine has demonstrated a pressure ratio of 1.5 at a flow rate of 12 g/s with measured isothermal efficiencies in excess of 30%. This performance compares favorably with efficiencies generally achieved in oil flooded screw compressors

  14. Effectiveness of Russian current in bone regeneration process in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Aparecida de Oliveira Lima

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Russian current is an electric current of average frequency that is able to restore the properties of skeletal muscle at a low treatment cost. It is essential to know the effects of Russian current in bone tissue, since electromagnetic energy could be an efficient and low cost method to treat bone disorders. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Russian current in the consolidation of tibia fracture in adult rats. Methods: 24 adult male Albinus Wistar rats wereused. The animals were divided randomly into two groups: control group (CG, composed of 12 animals, and Intervention Group (IG consisting of 12 animals, both groups were submitted to osteotomy (proximal medial surface of the tibia. The IG underwent an electrical stimulation protocol with Russian current, while the CG did not undergo any kind of intervention. Euthanasia was performed in three animals of each group on the following days: 5, 10, 20, and 30 days of treatment. Results: The results suggested higher primary ossification, intense osteogenic activity, and increased thickness of the periosteum, characterizing more advanced ossification and a greater presence of trabecular bone marrow in rats in the group subjected to the treatment. In this way, we can assign one more beneficial effect to interventions with Russian current, for the treatment of postfracture rehabilitation. Conclusion: In both groups the bone tissue repair process occurred, but in the electrically stimulated group the osteogenesis process was more advanced.

  15. Evaluation of Amnion-derived Multipotent Progenitor (AMP) Cells and Amnion-derived Cellular Cytokine Solution (ST266) in Promoting Craniomaxillofacial Regenerative Bone Healing in Critical Size Calvarial Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-10

    well as diseases that can lead to eventual bone loss such as periodontitis (currently being evaluated in human clinical trials). A previous report...28 using ST266 treatment in a rabbit periodontal model revealed that ST266 treatment reduced inflammation and had increased new bone formation [32...The increase in new bone formation may have arisen due to the reduction in chronic inflammation by ST266 treatment, thus allowing the initiation

  16. Osteoporotic Animal Models of Bone Healing: Advantages and Pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calciolari, Elena; Donos, Nikolaos; Mardas, Nikos

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this review was to summarize the advantages and pitfalls of the available osteoporotic animal models of bone healing. A thorough literature search was performed in MEDLINE via OVID and EMBASE to identify animal studies investigating the effect of experimental osteoporosis on bone healing and bone regeneration. The osteotomy model in the proximal tibia is the most popular osseous defect model to study the bone healing process in osteoporotic-like conditions, although other well-characterized models, such as the post-extraction model, might be taken into consideration by future studies. The regenerative potential of osteoporotic bone and its response to biomaterials/regenerative techniques has not been clarified yet, and the critical size defect model might be an appropriate tool to serve this purpose. Since an ideal animal model for simulating osteoporosis does not exist, the type of bone remodeling, the animal lifespan, the age of peak bone mass, and the economic and ethical implications should be considered in our selection process. Furthermore, the influence of animal species, sex, age, and strain on the outcome measurement should be taken into account. In order to make future studies meaningful, standardized international guidelines for osteoporotic animal models of bone healing need to be set up.

  17. Regenerative Medicine for Periodontal and Peri-implant Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, L; Decker, A M; Nibali, L; Pilipchuk, S P; Berglundh, T; Giannobile, W V

    2016-03-01

    The balance between bone resorption and bone formation is vital for maintenance and regeneration of alveolar bone and supporting structures around teeth and dental implants. Tissue regeneration in the oral cavity is regulated by multiple cell types, signaling mechanisms, and matrix interactions. A goal for periodontal tissue engineering/regenerative medicine is to restore oral soft and hard tissues through cell, scaffold, and/or signaling approaches to functional and aesthetic oral tissues. Bony defects in the oral cavity can vary significantly, ranging from smaller intrabony lesions resulting from periodontal or peri-implant diseases to large osseous defects that extend through the jaws as a result of trauma, tumor resection, or congenital defects. The disparity in size and location of these alveolar defects is compounded further by patient-specific and environmental factors that contribute to the challenges in periodontal regeneration, peri-implant tissue regeneration, and alveolar ridge reconstruction. Efforts have been made over the last few decades to produce reliable and predictable methods to stimulate bone regeneration in alveolar bone defects. Tissue engineering/regenerative medicine provide new avenues to enhance tissue regeneration by introducing bioactive models or constructing patient-specific substitutes. This review presents an overview of therapies (e.g., protein, gene, and cell based) and biomaterials (e.g., resorbable, nonresorbable, and 3-dimensionally printed) used for alveolar bone engineering around teeth and implants and for implant site development, with emphasis on most recent findings and future directions. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  18. Nostril Base Augmentation Effect of Alveolar Bone Graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woojin Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The aims of alveolar bone grafting are closure of the fistula, stabilization ofthe maxillary arch, support for the roots of the teeth adjacent to the cleft on each side.We observed nostril base augmentation in patients with alveolar clefts after alveolar bonegrafting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nostril base augmentation effect ofsecondary alveolar bone grafting in patients with unilateral alveolar cleft.Methods Records of 15 children with alveolar clefts who underwent secondary alveolar bonegrafting with autogenous iliac cancellous bone between March of 2011 and May of 2012 werereviewed. Preoperative and postoperative worm’s-eye view photographs and reconstructedthree-dimensional computed tomography (CT scans were used for photogrammetry. Thedepression of the nostril base and thickness of the philtrum on the cleft side were measuredin comparison to the normal side. The depression of the cleft side pyriform aperture wasmeasured in comparison to the normal side on reconstructed three-dimensional CT.Results Significant changes were seen in the nostril base (P=0.005, the philtrum length(P=0.013, and the angle (P=0.006. The CT measurements showed significant changes in thepyriform aperture (P<0.001 and the angle (P<0.001.Conclusions An alveolar bone graft not only fills the gap in the alveolar process but alsoaugments the nostril base after surgery. In this study, only an alveolar bone graft was performedto prevent bias from other procedures. Nostril base augmentation can be achieved byperforming alveolar bone grafts in children, in whom invasive methods are not advised.

  19. Effects of different loading patterns on the trabecular bone morphology of the proximal femur using adaptive bone remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banijamali, S Mohammad Ali; Oftadeh, Ramin; Nazarian, Ara; Goebel, Ruben; Vaziri, Ashkan; Nayeb-Hashemi, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the changes in the bone density of human femur model as a result of different loadings were investigated. The model initially consisted of a solid shell representing cortical bone encompassing a cubical network of interconnected rods representing trabecular bone. A computationally efficient program was developed that iteratively changed the structure of trabecular bone by keeping the local stress in the structure within a defined stress range. The stress was controlled by either enhancing existing beam elements or removing beams from the initial trabecular frame structure. Analyses were performed for two cases of homogenous isotropic and transversely isotropic beams.Trabecular bone structure was obtained for three load cases: walking, stair climbing and stumbling without falling. The results indicate that trabecular bone tissue material properties do not have a significant effect on the converged structure of trabecular bone. In addition, as the magnitude of the loads increase, the internal structure becomes denser in critical zones. Loading associated with the stumbling results in the highest density;whereas walking, considered as a routine daily activity, results in the least internal density in different regions. Furthermore, bone volume fraction at the critical regions of the converged structure is in good agreement with previously measured data obtained from combinations of dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and computed tomography (CT). The results indicate that the converged bone architecture consisting of rods and plates are consistent with the natural bone morphology of the femur. The proposed model shows a promising means to understand the effects of different individual loading patterns on the bone density.

  20. A regenerative elastocaloric heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tušek, Jaka; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Eriksen, Dan; Dall'Olio, Stefano; Tušek, Janez; Pryds, Nini

    2016-10-01

    A large fraction of global energy use is for refrigeration and air-conditioning, which could be decarbonized if efficient renewable energy technologies could be found. Vapour-compression technology remains the most widely used system to move heat up the temperature scale after more than 100 years; however, caloric-based technologies (those using the magnetocaloric, electrocaloric, barocaloric or elastocaloric effect) have recently shown a significant potential as alternatives to replace this technology due to high efficiency and the use of green solid-state refrigerants. Here, we report a regenerative elastocaloric heat pump that exhibits a temperature span of 15.3 K on the water side with a corresponding specific heating power up to 800 W kg-1 and maximum COP (coefficient-of-performance) values of up to 7. The efficiency and specific heating power of this device exceeds those of other devices based on caloric effects. These results open up the possibility of using the elastocaloric effect in various cooling and heat-pumping applications.

  1. Effect of superparamagnetic iron oxide on bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hundt, W.; Helmberger, T.; Reiser, M.; Petsch, R.

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the effects of SPIO particles on the signal intensity of the bone marrow of the vertebra spine in patients with and without liver cirrhosis. Forty-eight patients with normal liver tissue and 56 patients with liver cirrhosis were examined before and after intravenous SPIO administration, using a 1.5-T system (Magnetom Vision, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) with a semiflexible cp-array coil. Three different pulse sequences were applied: a T1-weighted gradient-echo sequence, a T2-weighted fast spin-echo sequence with spectral fat suppression and a T2 * -weighted gradient-echo sequence. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the liver, vertebra bone and paraspinal muscle were obtained. The SNR value change in each patient group and the SNR value difference between the two groups were evaluated. For assessment of statistical significance, Student's t-test with a level of p * -weighted gradient-echo sequence, the signal intensity decrease of the normal liver tissue was approximately -65.6 % (p = 0.00), in cirrhotic liver tissue the decrease was -29.9 % (p = 0.02). The SNR values of the bone marrow showed a decrease of -27.8 % (p = 0.04) in the noncirrhotic liver group, whereas in the cirrhotic liver group it was only -11.3 % and statistically not significant. The effect of SPIO particles on the liver and bone marrow is significantly less in patients with liver cirrhosis. (orig.)

  2. Effects of ovariectomy and cadmium (Cd) on bone calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacco-Gibson, N.; Chaudhry, S.; Abrams, J.; Peterson, D.; Bhattacharyya, M.

    1991-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of Cd exposure on bone calcium following ovariectomy. Fourteen female beagles (7-9 y old) with 45 Ca prelabeled skeletons (100 μCi/kg body weight) were divided into four groups: shams (SO-; n = 3); ovariectomized (OV-; n =4); shams exposed to Cd (OV+; n = 4). Cd was given in capsules for 4 weeks, increasing dosage weekly (1,5, 15, 50 ppm), followed by exposure for 4.5, 2.0, and 15 weeks in drinking water (15 ppm). Repeated measures of bone mineral density (BMD) were made by dual photon absorptiometry. After the last Cd-water exposure, ribs, tibiae, humerii and lumbar vertebrae (L2-4; L5) were taken from each dog (except SO+, kept for further study). No consistent differences between treatment and control groups were observed in dry or ash weight, Ca content, ash/dry , Ca/dry, and Ca/ash ratios. However, 45 Ca, 45 Ca/dry, and 45 Ca/ash were significantly higher (18 to 38%) in bones of OV+ and OV- compared to SO-. In contrast, significant decreases in BMD of L 2-4 were observed in OV+ dogs (baseline to sacrifice) (OV+: -7.2 ± 1.1%; OV-: -4.0 ± 1.9%; SO-: -1.0 ± 1.7%). Our results suggest: (1) ovariectomy sensitizes bone to cadmium effects and (2) bone mineral loss due to Cd exposure, such as in Itai-Itai disease, may be due to direct effects

  3. Effect of Quercetin on Bone Mineral Status and Markers of Bone Turnover in Retinoic Acid-Induced Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oršolić Nada

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Retinoic acid-induced osteoporosis (RBM is one of the most common causes of secondary osteoporosis. This study tested the anti-osteoporetic effect of quercetin in RBM-induced bone loss model (RBM. After 14-day supplementation of 13cRA to induce RBM, rats were administered with quercetin (100 mg/kg or alendronate (40 mg/kg. We analysed changes in body and uterine weight of animals, femoral geometric characteristics, calcium and phosphorus content, bone weight index, bone hystology, bone mineral density (BMD, markers of bone turnover, lipid peroxidation, glutathione levels and SOD, CAT activity of liver, kidney spleen, and ovary as well as biochemical and haematological variables. In comparison to the control RBM rats, the treatment with quercetin increased bone weight index, BMD, osteocalcin level, femoral geometric characteristics, calcium and phosphorus content in the 13cRA-induced bone loss model. Histological results showed its protective action through promotion of bone formation. According to the results, quercetin could be an effective substitution for alendronate in 13cRA-induced osteoporosis. Good therapeutic potential of quercetin on rat skeletal system is based partly on its antioxidant capacity and estrogenic activity.

  4. The effect of radiotherapy, and radiotherapy combined with bisphosphonates or RANK ligand inhibitors on bone quality in bone metastases. A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenen, K.H.J.; Pouw, M.H.; Hannink, G.; Hosman, A.J.; van der Linden, Y.M.; Verdonschot, Nicolaas Jacobus Joseph; Tanck, E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The role of radiotherapy in stabilizing metastatic bones is unclear. This systematic review assessed the effects of (1) radiotherapy, (2) radiotherapy combined with bisphosphonates, and (3) radiotherapy combined with RANK ligand (RANKL) inhibitors on bone quality and bone strength in bone

  5. Surgical Regenerative Treatments for Peri-Implantitis: Meta-analysis of Recent Findings in a Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Povilas Daugela

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to systematically review the literature on the surgical regenerative treatment of the peri-implantitis and to determine an effective therapeutic predictable option for their clinical management. Material and Methods: The study searched MEDLINE and EMBASE databases from 2006 to 2016. Clinical human studies that had reported changes in probing depth (PD and/or bleeding on probing (BOP and/or radiologic marginal bone level (RBL changes after peri-implantitis surgical treatment at 12-month follow-up or longer were included accordingly to PRISMA guidelines. Results: The initial search obtained 883 citations. After screening and determination of eligibility, 18 articles were included in the review. The meta-analysis of selected studies revealed that the weighted mean RBL fill was 1.97 mm (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.58 to 2.35 mm, PD reduction was 2.78 mm (95% CI = 2.31 to 3.25 mm, and BOP reduced by 52.5% (95% CI = 41.6 to 63.1%. Defect fill in studies using and not using barrier membranes for graft coverage was 1.86 mm (95% CI = 1.36 to 2.36 mm and 2.12 mm (95% CI = 1.46 to 2.78 mm correspondingly. High heterogeneity among the studies regarding defects morphology, surgical protocols, and selection of biomaterials were found. Conclusions: All included studies underlined an improvement of clinical conditions after the surgical regenerative treatment of peri-implantitis, however, there is a lack of scientific evidence in the literature regarding the superiority of the regenerative versus non-regenerative surgical treatment. The presence of a barrier membrane or submergence in the regenerative procedure does not seem to be fundamental in order to obtain clinical success of the surgery.

  6. Regenerative periapical surgery: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonam Bhandari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Periapical surgery is an important treatment alternative in the presence of a large periapical cyst. To achieve optimal healing and regeneration of the bone different bone substitutes can be used. Case Report: A 35 year old male patient reported with the soft diffuse swelling in anterior palatal region and drainings in us with 21 labially. He had a history of trauma 5 years back. The clinical and radiographic diagnosis of infected periapical cyst with 11,21; invasive cervical root resorption with 21 and internal root resorption with 11 was made. Endodontic treatment was performed with11,2 followed by periapical curettage. A picectomy and retrograde filling with white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA was carried out with 11,21. The cervical resorption defect with 21 was restored with white MTA. Platelet rich fibrin (PRF was mixed with demineralised bone matrix (Osseograft and used as a regenerative biomaterial in the periapiacl defect. 14 months follow up shows satisfactory healing and regeneration of periapical region. Discussion: There is considerable clinical interest in using PRF alone or in combination with graft materials as it is a reservoir of many growth factors and have potential for accelerated soft-and hard tissue healing. PRF is a new generation of platelet concentrate, derived from patients own blood.

  7. Effects of microstructure and water on the electrical potentials in bone induced by ultrasound irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuneda, H.; Matsukawa, S.; Takayanagi, S.; Matsukawa, M., E-mail: mmatsuka@mail.doshisha.ac.jp [Wave Electronics Research Center, Laboratory of Ultrasonic Electronics, Doshisha University, 1-3, Tatara Miyakodani, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan); Mizuno, K. [Underwater Technology Collaborative Research Center, Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Yanagitani, T. [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)

    2015-02-16

    The healing mechanism of bone fractures by low intensity pulse ultrasound is yet to be fully understood. There have been many discussions regarding how the high frequency dynamic stress can stimulate numerous cell types through various pathways. As one possible initial process of this mechanism, we focus on the piezoelectricity of bone and demonstrate that bone can generate electrical potentials by ultrasound irradiation in the MHz range. We have fabricated ultrasonic bone transducers using bovine cortical bone as the piezoelectric device. The ultrasonically induced electrical potentials in the transducers change as a function of time during immersed ultrasonic pulse measurements and become stable when the bone is fully wet. In addition, the magnitude of the induced electrical potentials changes owing to the microstructure in the cortical bone. The potentials of transducers with haversian structure bone are higher than those of plexiform structure bone, which informs about the effects of bone microstructure on the piezoelectricity.

  8. The pleiotropic effects of paricalcitol: Beyond bone-mineral metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egido, Jesús; Martínez-Castelao, Alberto; Bover, Jordi; Praga, Manuel; Torregrosa, José Vicente; Fernández-Giráldez, Elvira; Solozábal, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is a common complication in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) that is characterised by elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels and a series of bone-mineral metabolism anomalies. In patients with SHPT, treatment with paricalcitol, a selective vitamin D receptor activator, has been shown to reduce PTH levels with minimal serum calcium and phosphorus variations. The classic effect of paricalcitol is that of a mediator in mineral and bone homeostasis. However, recent studies have suggested that the benefits of treatment with paricalcitol go beyond PTH reduction and, for instance, it has a positive effect on cardiovascular disease and survival. The objective of this study is to review the most significant studies on the so-called pleiotropic effects of paricalcitol treatment in patients with CKD. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Expanding the Description of Spaceflight Effects beyond Bone Mineral Density [BMD]: Trabecular Bone Score [TBS] in ISS Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, J. D.; Spector, E. R.; King, L. J.; Evans, H. J.; Smith, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry [DXA] is the widely-applied bone densitometry method used to diagnose osteoporosis in a terrestrial population known to be at risk for age-related bone loss. This medical test, which measures areal bone mineral density [aBMD] of clinically-relevant skeletal sites (e.g., hip and spine), helps the clinician to identify which persons, among postmenopausal women and men older than 50 years, are at high risk for low trauma or fragility fractures and might require an intervention. The most recognized osteoporotic fragility fracture is the vertebral compression fracture which can lead to kyphosis or hunched backs typically seen in the elderly. DXA measurement of BMD however is recognized to be insufficient as a sole index for assessing fracture risk. DXA's limitation may be related to its inability to monitor changes in structural parameters, such as trabecular vs. cortical bone volumes, bone geometry or trabecular microarchitecture. Hence, in order to understand risks to human health and performance due to space exposure, NASA needs to expand its measurements of bone to include other contributors to skeletal integrity. To this aim, the Bone and Mineral Lab conducted a pilot study for a novel measurement of bone microarchitecture that can be obtained by retrospective analysis of DXA scans. Trabecular Bone Score (TBS) assesses changes to trabecular microarchitecture by measuring the grey color "texture" information extracted from DXA images of the lumbar spine. An analysis of TBS in 51 ISS astronauts was conducted to assess if TBS could detect 1) an effect of spaceflight and 2) a response to countermeasures independent of DXA BMD. In addition, changes in trunk body lean tissue mass and in trunk body fat tissue mass were also evaluated to explore an association between body composition, as impacted by ARED exercise, and bone microarchitecture. The pilot analysis of 51 astronaut scans of the lumbar spine suggests that, following an ISS

  10. Regenerative Intelligent Brake Control for Electric Motorcycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Jesús Castillo Aguilar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle models whose propulsion system is based on electric motors are increasing in number within the automobile industry. They will soon become a reliable alternative to vehicles with conventional propulsion systems. The main advantages of this type of vehicles are the non-emission of polluting gases and noise and the effectiveness of electric motors compared to combustion engines. Some of the disadvantages that electric vehicle manufacturers still have to solve are their low autonomy due to inefficient energy storage systems, vehicle cost, which is still too high, and reducing the recharging time. Current regenerative systems in motorcycles are designed with a low fixed maximum regeneration rate in order not to cause the rear wheel to slip when braking with the regenerative brake no matter what the road condition is. These types of systems do not make use of all the available regeneration power, since more importance is placed on safety when braking. An optimized regenerative braking strategy for two-wheeled vehicles is described is this work. This system is designed to recover the maximum energy in braking processes while maintaining the vehicle’s stability. In order to develop the previously described regenerative control, tyre forces, vehicle speed and road adhesion are obtained by means of an estimation algorithm. A based-on-fuzzy-logic algorithm is programmed to carry out an optimized control with this information. This system recuperates maximum braking power without compromising the rear wheel slip and safety. Simulations show that the system optimizes energy regeneration on every surface compared to a constant regeneration strategy.

  11. Effects of growth hormone administration for 6 months on bone turnover and bone marrow fat in obese premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredella, Miriam A; Gerweck, Anu V; Barber, Lauren A; Breggia, Anne; Rosen, Clifford J; Torriani, Martin; Miller, Karen K

    2014-05-01

    Abdominal adiposity is associated with low BMD and decreased growth hormone (GH) secretion, an important regulator of bone homeostasis. The purpose of our study was to determine the effects of a short course of GH on markers of bone turnover and bone marrow fat in premenopausal women with abdominal adiposity. In a 6-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial we studied 79 abdominally obese premenopausal women (21-45 y) who underwent daily sc injections of GH vs. placebo. Main outcome measures were body composition by DXA and CT, bone marrow fat by proton MR spectroscopy, P1NP, CTX, 25(OH)D, hsCRP, undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC), preadipocyte factor 1 (Pref 1), apolipoprotein B (ApoB), and IGF-1. GH increased IGF-1, P1NP, 25(OH)D, ucOC, bone marrow fat and lean mass, and decreased abdominal fat, hsCRP, and ApoB compared with placebo (pbone formation. A six-month decrease in abdominal fat, hsCRP, and ApoB inversely predicted 6-month change in P1NP, and 6-month increase in lean mass and 25(OH)D positively predicted 6-month change in P1NP (p≤0.05), suggesting that subjects with greatest decreases in abdominal fat, inflammation and ApoB, and the greatest increases in lean mass and 25(OH)D experienced the greatest increases in bone formation. A six-month increase in bone marrow fat correlated with 6-month increase in P1NP (trend), suggesting that subjects with the greatest increases in bone formation experienced the greatest increases in bone marrow fat. Forward stepwise regression analysis indicated that increase in lean mass and decrease in abdominal fat were positive predictors of P1NP. When IGF-1 was added to the model, it became the only predictor of P1NP. GH replacement in abdominally obese premenopausal women for 6 months increased bone turnover and bone marrow fat. Reductions in abdominal fat, and inflammation, and increases in IGF-1, lean mass and vitamin D were associated with increased bone formation. The increase in bone marrow fat may

  12. Effects of a phosphocitrate analogue on osteophyte, subchondral bone advance, and bone marrow lesions in Hartley guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y; Kiraly, A J; Sun, A R; Cox, M; Mauerhan, D R; Hanley, E N

    2018-02-01

    The objectives of this study were: 1) to examine osteophyte formation, subchondral bone advance, and bone marrow lesions (BMLs) in osteoarthritis (OA)-prone Hartley guinea pigs; and 2) to assess the disease-modifying activity of an orally administered phosphocitrate 'analogue', Carolinas Molecule-01 (CM-01). Young Hartley guinea pigs were divided into two groups. The first group (n = 12) had drinking water and the second group (n = 9) had drinking water containing CM-01. Three guinea pigs in each group were euthanized at age six, 12, and 18 months, respectively. Three guinea pigs in the first group were euthanized aged three months as baseline control. Radiological, histological, and immunochemical examinations were performed to assess cartilage degeneration, osteophyte formation, subchondral bone advance, BMLs, and the levels of matrix metalloproteinse-13 (MMP13) protein expression in the knee joints of hind limbs. In addition to cartilage degeneration, osteophytes, subchondral bone advance, and BMLs increased with age. Subchondral bone advance was observed as early as six months, whereas BMLs and osteophytes were both observed mainly at 12 and 18 months. Fibrotic BMLs were found mostly underneath the degenerated cartilage on the medial side. In contrast, necrotic BMLs were found almost exclusively in the interspinous region. Orally administered CM-01 decreased all of these pathological changes and reduced the levels of MMP13 expression. Subchondral bone may play a role in cartilage degeneration. Subchondral bone changes are early events; formation of osteophytes and BMLs are later events in the OA disease process. Carolinas Molecule-01 is a promising small molecule candidate to be tested as an oral disease-modifying drug for human OA therapy. Cite this article : Y. Sun, A. J. Kiraly, A. R. Sun, M. Cox, D. R. Mauerhan, E. N. Hanley Jr. Effects of a phosphocitrate analogue on osteophyte, subchondral bone advance, and bone marrow lesions in Hartley guinea

  13. Effect of platelet-rich plasma combined with demineralised bone matrix on bone healing in rabbit ulnar defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanis, Vasilios; Fiska, Alice; Kapetanakis, Stylianos; Kazakos, Konstantinos; Demetriou, Thespis

    2017-09-01

    This study evaluates the effect of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) combined with xenogeneic demineralised bone matrix (DBM) on bone healing of critical-size ulnar defects (2-2.5 times the ulnar diameter) in New Zealand White rabbits. Critical-size defects were created unilaterally in the ulna of 36 rabbits, while keeping the contralateral limb intact. They were divided into three groups. In Group A, the defect was filled with autologous PRP and in Group B, with autologous PRP combined with DBM; in Group C, the defect remained empty. The rabbits were euthanised 12 weeks postoperatively. Radiological, biomechanical and histological assessments were carried out and statistical analysis of the results was performed. Group B had significantly higher radiological and histological scores than Groups A and C. Defects in Group B showed significant new bone formation, whereas there was minimal or no new bone formation in Groups A and C. Only specimens in Group B showed macroscopic bone union. Biomechanical evaluation of the treated and intact contralateral limbs in Group B showed significant differences. In this study, statistically significant enhancement of bone healing was found in critical-size defects treated with PRP and DBM, as shown by radiological findings, gross assessment, and biomechanical and histopathological results. Defects in the two other groups remained unbridged. Therefore, PRP was effective only when it was used in combination with a bone graft. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association

  14. Perspectives in regenerative medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Ray Banerjee, Ena

    2014-01-01

    The information given in this book tries to capture the essence of the sheer dynamicity of the cell along with useful tips on how to address critical rate limiting steps in the process of exploration and investigation of its capacity to regenerate, rebuild and replenish from within. The definitions of stem cells, stemness, and the niche concept continue to undergo revisions. In adult vertebrates, hematopoietic and some non-hematopoietic progenitors are synthesized within specialized niches of bone marrow. They migrate to designated tissues, and are either trans-differentiated or become quiescent and settle down. These form the stem cell niche reservoir in all tissues. Not only the primary hematopoietic tissue but all organs and tissues are also capable of generating progenitors which are either synthesized from these migrants or are direct recruits from other tissues. In the niches, the cells settle down and await their turn to either make more clones like themselves or differentiate and mobilize in an exigen...

  15. Aarhus Regenerative Orthopaedics Symposium (AROS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldager, Casper B.; Bendtsen, Michael; Berg, Lise C.

    2016-01-01

    to musculoskeletal pain and disability. The Aarhus Regenerative Orthopaedics Symposium (AROS) 2015 was motivated by the need to address regenerative challenges in an ageing population by engaging clinicians, basic scientists, and engineers. In this position paper, we review our contemporary understanding of societal......, patient-related, and basic science-related challenges in order to provide a reasoned roadmap for the future to deal with this compelling and urgent healthcare problem. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis on behalf of the Nordic Orthopedic Federation....

  16. Comparative study of regenerative effects of mesenchymal stem cells derived from placental amnion, chorion and umbilical cord on dermal wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, Juliane; Pichlsberger, Melanie; Tuca, Alexandru-Cristian; Wurzer, Paul; Fuchs, Jakob; Geyer, Stefan H; Maurer-Gesek, Barbara; Weninger, Wolfgang J; Pfeiffer, Dagmar; Bubalo, Vladimir; Parvizi, Daryousch; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Lang, Ingrid

    2018-05-01

    Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells derived from human term placentas (PMSCs) are novel therapeutic agents and more topical than ever. Here we evaluated the effects of three types of PMSCs on wound healing in an in vivo mouse model: Amnion-derived MSCs (AMSCs), blood vessel-derived MSCs (BV-MSCs) from the chorionic plate and Wharton's jelly-derived MSCs (WJ-MSCs) from the umbilical cord. We topically applied PMSCs onto skin wounds in mice using the dermal substitute Matriderm ® as carrier and evaluated wound healing parameters. In addition, we investigated the effects of all PMSC types under co-application with placental endothelial cells (PLECs). After 8 days, we compared the percent of wound closure and the angiogenic potential between all groups. AMSCs, BV-MSCs and WJ-MSCs significantly induced a faster healing and a higher number of blood vessels in the wound when compared to controls (Matriderm ® -alone). PLECs did not further improve the advantageous effects of PMSC-treatment. Quantitative data and 3D analysis by high resolution episcopic microscopy confirmed a lower density of vessels in Matriderm ® /PMSCs/PLECs co-application compared to Matriderm ® /PMSCs treatment. Results indicate that all three PMSC types exert similar beneficial effects on wound closure and neovascularization in our mouse model. Using Matriderm ® as carrier for PMSCs propagates rapid cell migration towards the wound area that allows a fast and clinically practicable method for stem cell application. These promising effects warrant further investigation in clinical trials. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Residual antibiofilm effects of various concentrations of double antibiotic paste used during regenerative endodontics after different application times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenks, Daniel B; Ehrlich, Ygal; Spolnik, Kenneth; Gregory, Richard L; Yassen, Ghaeth H

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the residual antibiofilm effects of different concentrations of double antibiotic paste (DAP) applied on radicular dentin for 1 or 4 weeks. Dentin samples were prepared (n=120), sterilized and pretreated for 1 or 4 weeks with the clinically used concentration of DAP (500mg/mL), low concentrations of DAP (1, 5 or 50mg/mL) loaded into a methylcellulose system, calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH) 2 ), or placebo paste. After the assigned treatment time, treatment pastes were rinsed off and the samples were kept independently in phosphate buffered saline for 3 weeks. Pretreated dentin samples were then inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis and bacterial biofilms were allowed to grow for an additional 3 weeks. Biofilms were then retrieved from dentin using biofilm disruption assays, diluted, spiral plated, and quantified. Fisher's Exact and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used for statistical comparisons (α=0.05). Dentin pretreatment for 4 weeks with 5, 50 or 500mg/mL of DAP demonstrated significantly higher residual antibiofilm effects and complete eradication of E. faecalis biofilms in comparison to a 1 week pretreatment with similar concentrations. However, dentin pretreated with 1mg/mL of DAP or Ca(OH) 2 did not provide a substantial residual antibiofilm effect regardless of the application time. Dentin pretreatment with 5mg/mL of DAP or higher for 4 weeks induced significantly higher residual antibiofilm effects in comparison to a 1 week pretreatment with the same concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pharmacological activation of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 promotes osteoblast differentiation via bone morphogenetic protein-2 and induces bone anabolic effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, Monika; Pal, Subhashis; China, Shyamsundar Pal; Porwal, Konica [Division of Endocrinology and Centre for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI), CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Dev, Kapil [Division of Medicinal and Process Chemistry, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Shrivastava, Richa [Division of Toxicology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Raju, Kanumuri Siva Rama; Rashid, Mamunur [Pharmaceutics Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Trivedi, Arun Kumar; Sanyal, Sabyasachi [Biochemistry Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Wahajuddin, Muhammad [Pharmaceutics Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Bhaduria, Smrati [Division of Toxicology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Maurya, Rakesh [Division of Medicinal and Process Chemistry, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Chattopadhyay, Naibedya, E-mail: n_chattopadhyay@cdri.res.in [Division of Endocrinology and Centre for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI), CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India)

    2017-02-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) are a family of enzymes involved in detoxifying aldehydes. Previously, we reported that an ALDH inhibitor, disulfiram caused bone loss in rats and among ALDHs, osteoblast expressed only ALDH2. Loss-of-function mutation in ALDH2 gene is reported to cause bone loss in humans which suggested its importance in skeletal homeostasis. We thus studied whether activating ALDH2 by N-(1, 3-benzodioxol-5-ylmethyl)-2, 6-dichlorobenzamide (alda-1) had osteogenic effect. We found that alda-1 increased and acetaldehyde decreased the differentiation of rat primary osteoblasts and expressions of ALDH2 and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). Silencing ALDH2 in osteoblasts abolished the alda-1 effects. Further, alda-1 attenuated the acetaldehyde-induced lipid-peroxidation and oxidative stress. BMP-2 is essential for bone regeneration and alda-1 increased its expression in osteoblasts. We then showed that alda-1 (40 mg/kg dose) augmented bone regeneration at the fracture site with concomitant increase in BMP-2 protein compared with control. The osteogenic dose (40 mg/kg) of alda-1 attained a bone marrow concentration that was stimulatory for osteoblast differentiation, suggesting that the tissue concentration of alda-1 matched its pharmacologic effect. In addition, alda-1 promoted modeling-directed bone growth and peak bone mass achievement, and increased bone mass in adult rats which reiterated its osteogenic effect. In osteopenic ovariectomized (OVX) rats, alda-1 reversed trabecular osteopenia with attendant increase in serum osteogenic marker (procollagen type I N-terminal peptide) and decrease in oxidative stress. Alda-1 has no effect on liver and kidney function. We conclude that activating ALDH2 by alda-1 had an osteoanabolic effect involving increased osteoblastic BMP-2 production and decreased OVX-induced oxidative stress. - Highlights: • Alda-1 induced osteoblast differentiation that involved upregulation of ALDH2 and BMP-2 • Alda-1

  19. Regenerative potential and healing dynamics of the periodontium: a critical-size supra-alveolar periodontal defect study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polimeni, Giuseppe; Susin, Cristiano; Wikesjö, Ulf M E

    2009-03-01

    The nature and characteristics of the newly formed periodontium obtained following regenerative procedures remain a matter of controversy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the regenerative potential of the periodontal attachment and healing dynamics as observed from the spatial distribution of newly formed cementum, periodontal ligament (PDL) and alveolar bone following optimal circumstances for wound healing/regeneration in a discriminating animal model. Critical-size, 6-mm, supra-alveolar, periodontal defects were surgically created in six young adult Beagle dogs. Space-providing ePTFE devices with 300-microm laser-drilled pores were implanted to support wound stability and space provision in one jaw quadrant/animal. Treatments were alternated between left and right jaw quadrants in subsequent animals. The gingival flaps were advanced to submerge the defect sites for primary intention healing. Histometric analysis followed an 8-week healing interval. Healing was uneventful in all animals. The histometric analysis showed that cementum regeneration (2.99 +/- 0.22 mm) was significantly greater than PDL (2.54 +/- 0.18 mm, p=0.03) and bone regeneration (2.46 +/- 0.26 mm, p=0.03). The wound area showed significant positive non-linear effect on cementum (log beta=1.25, palveolar bone virtually regenerate in parallel under optimal circumstances for periodontal wound healing/regeneration. Moreover, space provision positively influences the extent of periodontal regeneration.

  20. Effects of casein, whey and soy proteins on volumetric bone density and bone strength in immunocompromised piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budek, Alicja Zofia; Bjørnvad, Charlotte; Mølgaard, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Summary:Background and aims: Bone-promoting effect of different proteins in early life, under immunocompromised conditions, is unknown. We investigated effects of milk- and plantderived proteins on bone development in immunocompromised piglets. Methods: Newborn, colostrum-deprived piglets were...... assigned to a formula based on either casein (n=11), whey (n=11) or soy (n=10) as the protein source (each 55 g/L), and equal amounts of fat, carbohydrates, calcium and phosphorus. Results & Conclusion: Despite efforts to sustain immuno-protection (sow serum and antibiotic injections), some piglets became...... sick and were early euthanised. After 6 days, bone density (peripheral quantitative computed tomography), bone mechanical strength (three-point bending test) and serum insulin-like growth factor-I (sIGF-I) (immunoassay) were measured in the surviving piglets (casein n=5, whey n=9, soy n=5)....

  1. Osteoporosis imaging: effects of bone preservation on MDCT-based trabecular bone microstructure parameters and finite element models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, Thomas; Grande Garcia, Eduardo; Burgkart, Rainer; Gordijenko, Olga; Liebl, Hans; Jungmann, Pia M.; Gruber, Michael; Zahel, Tina; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Waldt, Simone; Bauer, Jan S.

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is defined as a skeletal disorder characterized by compromised bone strength due to a reduction of bone mass and deterioration of bone microstructure predisposing an individual to an increased risk of fracture. Trabecular bone microstructure analysis and finite element models (FEM) have shown to improve the prediction of bone strength beyond bone mineral density (BMD) measurements. These computational methods have been developed and validated in specimens preserved in formalin solution or by freezing. However, little is known about the effects of preservation on trabecular bone microstructure and FEM. The purpose of this observational study was to investigate the effects of preservation on trabecular bone microstructure and FEM in human vertebrae. Four thoracic vertebrae were harvested from each of three fresh human cadavers (n = 12). Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) images were obtained at baseline, 3 and 6 month follow-up. In the intervals between MDCT imaging, two vertebrae from each donor were formalin-fixed and frozen, respectively. BMD, trabecular bone microstructure parameters (histomorphometry and fractal dimension), and FEM-based apparent compressive modulus (ACM) were determined in the MDCT images and validated by mechanical testing to failure of the vertebrae after 6 months. Changes of BMD, trabecular bone microstructure parameters, and FEM-based ACM in formalin-fixed and frozen vertebrae over 6 months ranged between 1.0–5.6 % and 1.3–6.1 %, respectively, and were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). BMD, trabecular bone microstructure parameters, and FEM-based ACM as assessed at baseline, 3 and 6 month follow-up correlated significantly with mechanically determined failure load (r = 0.89–0.99; p < 0.05). The correlation coefficients r were not significantly different for the two preservation methods (p > 0.05). Formalin fixation and freezing up to six months showed no significant effects on trabecular bone microstructure

  2. Experimental study on the radiation effects to the bone growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Yasuhiko

    1980-01-01

    The radiation effects on growing bone were studied using immature rabbits. The irradiation was done with telecobalt to the right knee joint. The rabbits were divided into six groups according to the dose, such as 1,000, 2,000, 3,000, 4,000, 6,000 and 8,000 rad respectively. The effects of irradiation were investigated by RI-scintigraphy, X-ray photography and pathohistological examination. The following results were obtained. 1. In RI-scintigraphy using sup(99m)Tc-MDP, the change of accumulation ratio of the irradiated side was investigated. In terms of chronological observation, the accumulation ratio decreased most 5 weeks after irradiation and subsequently increased in the group irradiated with less than 4,000 rad. In the 6,000 rad group, the accumulation ratio decreased rapidly until 5 weeks after irradiation, and subsequently increased slightly. In the 8,000 rad group, the accumulation ratio progressively decreased unabated during the time observed. 2. X-ray findings of irradiated bones were as follows: In the group irradiated with more than 3,000 rad, sclerosis of the metaphysis and unclearness of the trabecula, thickening of the compact bone, bending, fissure and fracture of the bone appeared early with increased frequency with an increased in radiation doses. Also, according to an increase in radiation doses, growth inhibition in the length of the tibia was conspicuous. 3. In the histopathological findings, disturbances of the epiphyseal cartilage, the blood vessel system, trabecula, and medullary tissue becomes intense with increasing radiation doses. (author)

  3. Competition and enhancement effect in coremoval of atenolol and copper by an easily regenerative magnetic cation exchange resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qimeng; Wang, Zheng; Li, Qiang; Shuang, Chendong; Zhou, Qing; Li, Aimin; Gao, Canzhu

    2017-07-01

    This paper aimed to investigate the removal of combined Cu 2+ and atenolol (ATL) in aqueous solution by using a newly synthesized magnetic cation exchange resin (MCER) as the adsorbent. The MCER exhibited efficient removal performance in sole, binary, pre-loading and saline systems. The adsorption kinetics of Cu 2+ and ATL fitted both pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second order model, while better described by pseudo-second order model in binary system. In mixed Cu 2+ and ATL solution, the adsorption of ATL was suppressed due to direct competition of carboxylic groups, while Cu 2+ adsorption was enhanced because of the formation of surface complexes. This increasing in heterogeneity was demonstrated by adsorption isotherms, which were more suitable for Freundlich model in binary system, while better described by Langmuir model in sole system. As proved by FTIR and XPS spectra, both amino and hydroxyl groups of ATL could form complexes with Cu 2+ . Decomplexing-bridging interaction was elucidated as the leading mechanism in coremoval of Cu 2+ and ATL, which involved [Cu-ATL] decomplexing and newly created Cu- or ATL sites for additional bridging. For saline system, the resulting competition and enhancement effects in mixed solution were amplified with the addition of co-existing cations. Moreover, the MCER could be effectively regenerated by 0.01 M HCl solution and maintain high stability over 5 adsorption-desorption cycles, which render it great potential for practical applications. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. The Protein Content of Extracellular Vesicles Derived from Expanded Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived CD133+ and Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Partially Explains Why both Sources are Advantageous for Regenerative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulski, Addeli B B; Capriglione, Luiz G; Batista, Michel; Marcon, Bruna H; Senegaglia, Alexandra C; Stimamiglio, Marco A; Correa, Alejandro

    2017-04-01

    Adult stem cells have beneficial effects when exposed to damaged tissue due, at least in part, to their paracrine activity, which includes soluble factors and extracellular vesicles (EVs). Given the multiplicity of signals carried by these vesicles through the horizontal transfer of functional molecules, human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSCs) and CD133 + cell-derived EVs have been tested in various disease models and shown to recover damaged tissues. In this study, we profiled the protein content of EVs derived from expanded human CD133 + cells and bone marrow-derived hMSCs with the intention of better understanding the functions performed by these vesicles/cells and delineating the most appropriate use of each EV in future therapeutic procedures. Using LC-MS/MS analysis, we identified 623 proteins for expanded CD133 + -EVs and 797 proteins for hMSCs-EVs. Although the EVs from both origins were qualitatively similar, when protein abundance was considered, hMSCs-EVs and CD133 + -EVs were different. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis in CD133 + -EVs revealed proteins involved in a variety of angiogenesis-related functions as well proteins related to the cytoskeleton and highly implicated in cell motility and cellular activation. In contrast, when overrepresented proteins in hMSCs-EVs were analyzed, a GO cluster of immune response-related genes involved with immune response-regulating factors acting on phagocytosis and innate immunity was identified. Together our data demonstrate that from the point of view of protein content, expanded CD133 + -EVs and hMSCs-EVs are in part similar but also sufficiently different to reflect the main beneficial paracrine effects widely reported in pre-clinical studies using expanded CD133 + cells and/or hBM-MSCs.

  5. Neurite regeneration in adult rat retinas exposed to advanced glycation end-products and regenerative effects of neurotrophin-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikbova, Guzel; Oshitari, Toshiyuki; Yamamoto, Shuichi

    2013-10-09

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of low concentrations of advanced glycation end-products on neurite regeneration in isolated rat retinas, and to determine the effects of neurotrophin-4 on regeneration in advanced glycation end-products exposed retinas. Retinal explants of 4 adult Sprague-Dawley rats were cultured on collagen gel and were incubated in; (1) serum-free control culture media, (2) glucose-advanced glycation end-products-bovine serum albumin media, (3) glycolaldehyde-advanced glycation end-products-bovine serum albumin media, (4) glyceraldehyde-advanced glycation end-products-bovine serum albumin media, (5) glucose-advanced glycation end-products+neurotrophin-4 media, (6) glycolaldehyde-advanced glycation end-products+neurotrophin-4 media, or (7) glyceraldehyde-advanced glycation end-products+neurotrophin-4 supplemented culture media. After 7 days, the number of regenerating neurites from the explants was counted. Then, explants were fixed, cryosectioned, and stained for TUNEL. The ratio of TUNEL-positive cells to all cells in the ganglion cell layer was determined. Immunohistochemical examinations for the active-form of caspase-9 and apoptosis-inducing factor were performed. In retinas incubated with advanced glycation end-products containing media, the number of regenerating neurites were fewer than in retinas without advanced glycation end-products, and the number of TUNEL-positive cells and caspase-9- and apoptosis-inducing factor-immunopositive cells was significantly higher than in control media. Neurotrophin-4 supplementation increased the numbers of regenerating neuritis, and the number of TUNEL-positives, caspase-9-, and apoptosis-inducing factor-immunopositive cells were significantly fewer than that in advanced glycation end-products without neurotrophin-4 media. Low doses of advanced glycation end-products impede neurite regeneration in the rat retinas. Neurotrophin-4 significantly enhances neurite regeneration in

  6. Synergistic effect of parathyroid hormone and growth hormone on trabecular and cortical bone formation in hypophysectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevarra, Maria Sarah N; Yeh, James K; Castro Magana, Mariano; Aloia, John F

    2010-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) deficiency in pediatric patients results in short stature and osteopenia. We postulated that the GH and parathyroid hormone (PTH) combination would result in improvement in bone growth and bone formation. Forty hypophysectomized female rats at age 8 weeks were divided into hypophysectomy (HX), HX + PTH (62.5 microg/kg, s.c. daily), HX + GH (3.33 mg/kg, s.c. daily), and HX + PTH + GH for a 4-week study. GH increased body weight, bone growth, bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD), whereas PTH increased BMC and BMD without a significant effect on bone size. GH increased both periosteal and endocortical bone formation and cortical size, while PTH increased only endocortical bone formation. GH mitigated the trabecular bone loss by increasing bone formation, while PTH increased bone mass by increasing bone formation and suppressing osteoclast number per bone area. The result of combined intervention shows an increase in trabecular, periosteal and endocortical bone formation and suppression of bone resorption resulting in a synergistic effect on increasing trabecular and cortical bone volume and BMD. The combination treatment of PTH and GH increases bone growth, bone formation, decreases bone resorption and has a synergistic effect on increasing bone density and bone mass. Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Effects of Antiseptic Solutions Commonly Used in Dentistry on Bone Viability, Bone Morphology, and Release of Growth Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Kosaku; Fujioka-Kobayashi, Masako; Kobayashi, Eizaburo; Schaller, Benoit; Miron, Richard J

    2016-02-01

    Antiseptic solutions are commonly used in dentistry for a number of sterilization procedures, including harvesting of bone chips, irrigation of extraction sockets, and sterilization of osteonecrotic bone. Despite its widespread use, little information is available regarding the effects of various antiseptic solutions on bone cell viability, morphology, and the release of growth factors. The antiseptic solutions included 1) 0.5% povidone iodine (PI), 2) 0.2% chlorhexidine diguluconate (CHX), 3) 1% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and 4) 0.25% sodium hypochlorite (HYP). Bone samples collected from porcine mandibular cortical bone were rinsed in the antiseptic solutions for 10 minutes and assessed for cell viability using an MTS assay and protein release of transforming growth factor (TGF-β1), bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL)-1β, and receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at 15 minutes and 4 hours after rinsing. After antiseptic rinsing, changes to the surface protein content showed marked alterations, with an abundant protein layer remaining on CHX-rinsed bone samples. The amount of surface protein content gradually decreased in the following order: CHX, H2O2, PI, and HYP. A similar trend was also observed for the relative cell viability from within bone samples after rinsing, with up to 6 times more viable cells found in the CHX-rinsed bone samples than in the HYP- and PI-rinsed samples. An analysis of the growth factors found that both HYP and PI had significantly lower VEGF and TGF-β1 protein release from bone samples at 15 minutes and 4 hours after rinsing compared with CHX and H2O2. A similar trend was observed for RANKL and IL-1β protein release, although no change was observed for BMP2. The results from the present study have demonstrated that antiseptic solutions present with very different effects on bone samples after 10 minutes of

  8. Effect of vitamin K2 and growth hormone on the long bones in hypophysectomized young rats: a bone histomorphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Jun; Takeda, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Yoshihiro; Yeh, James K

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether vitamin K(2) and growth hormone (GH) had an additive effect on the long bones in hypophysectomized young rats. Forty-eight female Sprague-Dawley rats (6 weeks old) were assigned to the following five groups by the stratified weight randomization method: intact controls, hypophysectomy (HX) alone, HX + vitamin K(2) (30 mg/kg, p.o., daily), HX + GH (0.625 mg/kg, s.c., 5 days a week), and HX + vitamin K(2) + GH. The duration of the experiment was 4 weeks. HX resulted in a reduction of the cancellous bone volume/total tissue volume (BV/TV) at the proximal tibial metaphysis, as well as decreasing the total tissue area and cortical area of the tibial diaphysis. These changes resulted from a decrease of the longitudinal growth rate and the bone formation rate (BFR)/TV of cancellous bone, as well as a decrease of the periosteal BFR/bone surface (BS) and an increase of endocortical bone turnover (indicated by the BFR/BS) in cortical bone. Administration of vitamin K(2) to HX rats did not affect the cancellous BV/TV or the cortical area. On the other hand, GH completely prevented the decrease of total tissue area and cortical area in cortical bone, as well as the decrease of marrow area and endocortical circumference, by increasing the periosteal BFR/BS compared with that in intact controls and reversing the increase of endocortical bone turnover (BFR/BS). However, GH only partly improved the reduction of the cancellous BV/TV, despite an increase of the longitudinal growth rate and BFR/TV compared with those of intact controls. When administered with GH, vitamin K(2) counteracted the reduction of endocortical bone turnover (BFR/BS) and circumference caused by GH treatment, resulting in no significant difference of marrow area from that in untreated HX rats. These results suggest that, despite the lack of an obvious effect on bone parameters, vitamin K(2) normalizes the size of the marrow cavity during development of

  9. The effect of semelil (angipars® on bone resorption and bone formation markers in type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasani-Ranjbar Shirin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose of the study Diabetes mellitus has been recognized as a major risk factor for osteoporosis in which bone turnover is affected by different mechanisms. As the morbidity, mortality and financial cost related to osteoporosis are expected to rise in Iran in coming years, and considering the efficacy of Angipars® for improvement of different ulcers which made it a new herbal drug in diabetic foot ulcer, there is a need to evaluate the effect of this new drug on different organs including bone resorption and bone formation markers. Methods In this randomized, double- blind clinical trial, 61 diabetic patients were included. The subjects were randomly divided into intervention and control groups. Subjects of intervention group received 100 mg of Angipars® twice a day. Laboratory tests including bone resorption and bone formation markers were performed at baseline and after 3 months. Result 31 patients in study group and 30 patients in control group finished the study. The mean age of the study population and the mean disease duration was respectively 51.8 ± 6.2 and 7.5 ± 4.7 years with no significant differences between intervention and control patients. No statistically significant differences between patients and controls were observed in pyridinoline, osteocalcin, urine calcium, bone alkaline phosphatase and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α. Only urine creatinine level significantly changed between two groups after 3 month of treatment (p-value: 0.029 Conclusion In conclusion, the findings of this study indicate that Semelil (Angipars® had no beneficial or harmful effects on bone. It might be other effects of this new component on bone turnover process which need more studies and more time to be discovered.

  10. Effects of orthopedic implants with a polycaprolactone polymer coating containing bone morphogenetic protein-2 on osseointegration in bones of sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehaus, Andrew J; Anderson, David E; Samii, Valerie F; Weisbrode, Steven E; Johnson, Jed K; Noon, Mike S; Tomasko, David L; Lannutti, John J

    2009-11-01

    To determine elution characteristics of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 from a polycaprolactone coating applied to orthopedic implants and determine effects of this coating on osseointegration. 6 sheep. An in vitro study was conducted to determine BMP-2 elution from polycaprolactone-coated implants. An in vivo study was conducted to determine the effects on osseointegration when the polycaprolactone with BMP-2 coating was applied to bone screws. Osseointegration was assessed via radiography, measurement of peak removal torque and bone mineral density, and histomorphometric analysis. Physiologic response was assessed by measuring serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase activity and uptake of bone markers. Mean +/- SD elution on day 1 of the in vitro study was 263 +/- 152 pg/d, which then maintained a plateau at 59.8 +/- 29.1 pg/d. Mean peak removal torque for screws coated with polycalprolactone and BMP-2 (0.91 +/- 0.65 dN x m) and screws coated with polycaprolactone alone (0.97 +/- 1.30 dN.m) did not differ significantly from that for the control screws (2.34 +/- 1.62 dN x m). Mean bone mineral densities were 0.535 +/- 0.060 g/cm(2), 0.596 +/- 0.093 g/cm(2), and 0.524 +/- 0.142 g/cm(2) for the polycaprolactone-BMP-2-coated, polycaprolactone-coated, and control screws, respectively, and did not differ significantly among groups. Histologically, bone was in closer apposition to the implant with the control screws than with either of the coated screws. BMP-2 within the polycaprolactone coating did not stimulate osteogenesis. The polycaprolactone coating appeared to cause a barrier effect that prevented formation of new bone. A longer period or use of another carrier polymer may result in increased osseointegration.

  11. Effects of bone morphogenetic protein-2 on bone cells in primary culture: immunohistochemical and electronmicroscopical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, I.; Prochnow, N.; Mueller, K.M. [Berufsgenossenschaftliche Kliniken Bergmannsheil, Bochum (Germany). Inst. fuer Pathologie; Wiemann, M.; Schirrmacher, K.; Bingmann, D. [Essen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physiologie; Sebald, W. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physiologische Chemie II

    2001-02-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2), among other morphogenetic effects on non osseous tissues, promotes bone formation in vivo. Therefore, BMP-2 may accelerate the integration of osseous implants. Although the effects of BMPs on cell proliferation have been studied extensively in vivo or in cell lines, little is published about effects on bone cells in primary cultures, especially on cell differentiation. As such information is a prerequisite to understand and to control effects of BMPs on cells at the surface of implant materials, the present experiments aimed to describe effects of BMP-2 on primary cultures derived from calvarial fragments of neonatal rats. The cells were stimulated with 50 nM BMP-2 added to the nutrient medium for 3 or 6 days. Light- and electronmicroscopical studies showed that cells in the sprouting zones were larger and more often spindle shaped. Stimulated cells had more nucleoli than control cells and the endoplasmic reticulum was widened. They retained properties of typical bone cells: An immunhistochemical analysis showed that stimulated cells increased the activity of alkaline phosphatase, they secreted collagen type I and to a minor extent collagen type III. In BMP-2 treated cells the pattern of cells stained for actin, desmin and vimentin hardly changed whereas extracellular fibronectin appeared to be less cross-linked in BMP-2 treated cultures. The distribution and labeling strength of osteocalcin, a specific marker protein of bone cells did not change markedly. After exposure to BMP-2 cells tended to detach from the cover slips. Electron microscopy showed a reduced number of cell processes possibly facilitating the detachment and/or mobility. Stimulated cells contained an increased number of lamellar bodies which may reflect an increased synthesis and/or membrane turnover. Staining of non-osseous cells with anti-CD68-or anti-myeloid antibodies revealed that the small percentage of these cells regularly occurring in primary cultures

  12. Bone density and body composition in chronic renal failure: effects of growth hormone treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, I. M.; Boot, A. M.; Nauta, J.; Hop, W. C.; de Jong, M. C.; Lilien, M. R.; Groothoff, J. W.; van Wijk, A. E.; Pols, H. A.; Hokken-Koelega, A. C.; de Muinck Keizer-Schrama, S. M.

    2000-01-01

    Metabolic bone disease and growth retardation are common complications of chronic renal failure (CRF). We evaluated bone mineral density (BMD), bone metabolism, body composition and growth in children with CRF, and the effect of growth hormone treatment (GHRx) on these variables. Thirty-three

  13. [Effectiveness of conventional diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine in the treatment of pain from bone metastases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Eugenio Annibale; Mallardo, Vania; Vaccaro, Andrea; Santagata, Mario; Raucci, Antonio; D'Agosto, Gianfranco; Fontanarosa, Antonio; Schillirò, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Bone is one of the most common metastasis sites from solid tumors. Bone pain due to metastatic neoplastic growth is due to tumor infiltration and expansion of bone membranes. Treatment of acute and chronic pain represents one of the greatest problems in clinical oncology, requiring a multidisciplinary approach. This review focuses on the effectiveness of conventional diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine for the detection, management and treatment of pain from bone metastasis.

  14. Effects on bone geometry, density, and microarchitecture in the distal radius but not the tibia in women with primary hyperparathyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stinus; Beck Jensen, Jens-Erik; Rasmussen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) have continuously elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) and consequently increased bone turnover with negative effects on cortical (Ct) bone with preservation of trabecular (Tb) bone. High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR...

  15. Regenerative Potential of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Age-Related Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Bruna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that a therapeutic effect results from mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs transplant. No systematic information is currently available regarding whether donor age modifies MSC regenerative potential on cutaneous wound healing. Here, we evaluate whether donor age influences this potential. Two different doses of bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs from young, adult, or old mouse donors or two doses of their acellular derivatives mesenchymal stromal cells (acd-MSCs were intradermally injected around wounds in the midline of C57BL/6 mice. Every two days, wound healing was macroscopically assessed (wound closure and microscopically assessed (reepithelialization, dermal-epidermal junction, skin appendage regeneration, granulation tissue, leukocyte infiltration, and density dermal collagen fibers after 12 days from MSC transplant. Significant differences in the wound closure kinetic, quality, and healing of skin regenerated were observed in lesions which received BM-MSCs from different ages or their acd-MSCs compared to lesions which received vehicle. Nevertheless, our data shows that adult’s BM-MSCs or their acd-MSCs were the most efficient for recovery of most parameters analyzed. Our data suggest that MSC efficacy was negatively affected by donor age, where the treatment with adult’s BM-MSCs or their acd-MSCs in cutaneous wound promotes a better tissue repair/regeneration. This is due to their paracrine factors secretion.

  16. Genetic Engineering of Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Regenerative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Adam; Walczak, Piotr; Janowski, Miroslaw; Lukomska, Barbara

    2015-10-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which can be obtained from various organs and easily propagated in vitro, are one of the most extensively used types of stem cells and have been shown to be efficacious in a broad set of diseases. The unique and highly desirable properties of MSCs include high migratory capacities toward injured areas, immunomodulatory features, and the natural ability to differentiate into connective tissue phenotypes. These phenotypes include bone and cartilage, and these properties predispose MSCs to be therapeutically useful. In addition, MSCs elicit their therapeutic effects by paracrine actions, in which the metabolism of target tissues is modulated. Genetic engineering methods can greatly amplify these properties and broaden the therapeutic capabilities of MSCs, including transdifferentiation toward diverse cell lineages. However, cell engineering can also affect safety and increase the cost of therapy based on MSCs; thus, the advantages and disadvantages of these procedures should be discussed. In this review, the latest applications of genetic engineering methods for MSCs with regenerative medicine purposes are presented.

  17. The effect of carrier type on bone regeneration of demineralized bone matrix in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakol, Shima; Khoshzaban, Ahad; Azami, Mahmoud; Kashani, Iraj Ragerdi; Tavakol, Hani; Yazdanifar, Mahbube; Sorkhabadi, Seyed Mahdi Rezayat

    2013-11-01

    Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) is a bone substitute biomaterial used as an excellent grafting material. Some factors such as carrier type might affect the healing potential of this material. The background data discuss the present status of the field: Albumin as a main protein in blood and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) were applied frequently in the DBM gels. We investigated the bone-repairing properties of 2 DBMs with different carriers. Bone regeneration in 3 groups of rat calvaria treated with DBM from the Iranian Tissue Bank Research and Preparation Center, DBM from Hans Biomed Corporation, and an empty cavity was studied. Albumin and CMC as carriers were used. The results of bone regeneration in the samples after 1, 4, and 8 weeks of implantation were compared. The block of the histologic samples was stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and the percentage area of bone formation was calculated using the histomorphometry method. The results of in vivo tests showed a significantly stronger new regenerated bone occupation in the DBM with albumin carrier compared with the one with CMC 8 weeks after the implantation. The 2 types of DBM had a significant difference in bone regeneration. This difference is attributed to the type of carriers. Albumin could improve mineralization and bioactivity compared with CMC.

  18. Effects of the iron oxide nanoparticle Molday ION Rhodamine B on the viability and regenerative function of neural stem cells: relevance to clinical translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umashankar A

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abhishek Umashankar,1,2,* Mandi J Corenblum,1,* Sneha Ray,1,2,* Michel Valdez,3 Eriko S Yoshimaru,3 Theodore P Trouard,3,4 Lalitha Madhavan1,4 1Department of Neurology, 2Neuroscience and Cognitive Science Undergraduate Program, Undergraduate Biology Research Program, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, 4Evelyn F McKnight Brain Institute, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: An essential component of developing successful neural stem cell (NSC-based therapies involves the establishment of methodologies to noninvasively monitor grafted NSCs within brain tissues in real time. In this context, ex vivo labeling with ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO particles has been shown to enable efficient tracking of transplanted NSCs via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. However, whether and how USPIO labeling affects the intrinsic biology of NSCs is not thoroughly understood, and remains an active area of investigation. Here, we perform a comprehensive examination of rat NSC survival and regenerative function upon labeling with the USPIO, Molday ION Rhodamine B (MIRB, which allows for dual magnetic resonance and optical imaging. After optimization of labeling efficiency, two specific doses of MIRB (20 and 50 µg/mL were chosen and were followed for the rest of the study. We observed that both MIRB doses supported the robust detection of NSCs, over an extended period of time in vitro and in vivo after transplantation into the striata of host rats, using MRI and post hoc fluorescence imaging. Both in culture and after neural transplantation, the higher 50 µg/mL MIRB dose significantly reduced the survival, proliferation, and differentiation rate of the NSCs. Interestingly, although the lower 20 µg/mL MIRB labeling did not produce overtly negative effects, it increased the proliferation and glial differentiation of the NSCs. Additionally, application of this dose also changed the

  19. Effects of the iron oxide nanoparticle Molday ION Rhodamine B on the viability and regenerative function of neural stem cells: relevance to clinical translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umashankar, Abhishek; Corenblum, Mandi J; Ray, Sneha; Valdez, Michel; Yoshimaru, Eriko S; Trouard, Theodore P; Madhavan, Lalitha

    2016-01-01

    An essential component of developing successful neural stem cell (NSC)-based therapies involves the establishment of methodologies to noninvasively monitor grafted NSCs within brain tissues in real time. In this context, ex vivo labeling with ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) particles has been shown to enable efficient tracking of transplanted NSCs via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, whether and how USPIO labeling affects the intrinsic biology of NSCs is not thoroughly understood, and remains an active area of investigation. Here, we perform a comprehensive examination of rat NSC survival and regenerative function upon labeling with the USPIO, Molday ION Rhodamine B (MIRB), which allows for dual magnetic resonance and optical imaging. After optimization of labeling efficiency, two specific doses of MIRB (20 and 50 μg/mL) were chosen and were followed for the rest of the study. We observed that both MIRB doses supported the robust detection of NSCs, over an extended period of time in vitro and in vivo after transplantation into the striata of host rats, using MRI and post hoc fluorescence imaging. Both in culture and after neural transplantation, the higher 50 μg/mL MIRB dose significantly reduced the survival, proliferation, and differentiation rate of the NSCs. Interestingly, although the lower 20 μg/mL MIRB labeling did not produce overtly negative effects, it increased the proliferation and glial differentiation of the NSCs. Additionally, application of this dose also changed the morphological characteristics of neurons and glia produced after NSC differentiation. Importantly, the transplantation of NSCs labeled with either of the two MIRB doses upregulated the immune response in recipient animals. In particular, in animals receiving the 50 μg/mL MIRB-labeled NSCs, this immune response consisted of an increased number of CD68(+)-activated microglia, which appeared to have phagocytosed MIRB particles and cells contributing to an

  20. An overview of periodontal regenerative procedures for the general dental practitioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Siaili

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The complete regeneration of the periodontal tissues following periodontal disease remains an unmet challenge, and has presented clinicians with a remarkably difficult clinical challenge to solve given the extensive research in this area and our current understanding of the biology of the periodontal tissues. In particular as clinicians we look for treatments that will improve the predictability of the procedure, improve the magnitude of the effect of treatment, and perhaps most importantly in the long term would extend the indications for treatment beyond the need for single enclosed bony defects to allow for suprabony regeneration, preferably with beneficial effects on the gingival soft tissues. A rapid development in both innovative methods and products for the correction of periodontal deficiencies have been reported during the last three decades. For example, guided tissue regeneration with or without the use of bone supplements has been a well-proven treatment modality for the reconstruction of bony defects prior to the tissue engineering era. Active biomaterials have been subsequently introduced to the periodontal community with supporting dental literature suggesting that certain factors should be taken into consideration when undertaking periodontal regenerative procedures. These factors as well as a number of other translational research issues will need to be addressed, and ultimately it is vital that we do not extrapolate results from pre-clinical and animal studies without conducting extensive randomized clinical trials to substantiate outcomes from these procedures. Whatever the outcomes, the pursuit of regeneration of the periodontal tissues remains a goal worth pursuing for our patients. The aim of the review, therefore is to update clinicians on the recent advances in both materials and techniques in periodontal regenerative procedures and to highlight the importance of both patient factors and the technical aspects of

  1. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells and regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Masamitsu; Hamabe, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Shinichiro; Ogawa, Hisataka; Fukusumi, Takahito; Nishikawa, Shimpei; Ohta, Katsuya; Kano, Yoshihiro; Ozaki, Miyuki; Noguchi, Yuko; Sakai, Daisuke; Kudoh, Toshihiro; Kawamoto, Koichi; Eguchi, Hidetoshi; Satoh, Taroh; Tanemura, Masahiro; Nagano, Hiroaki; Doki, Yuichiro; Mori, Masaki; Ishii, Hideshi

    2013-04-01

    Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) are multipotent and can differentiate into various cell types, including osteocytes, adipocytes, neural cells, vascular endothelial cells, cardiomyocytes, pancreatic β-cells, and hepatocytes. Compared with the extraction of other stem cells such as bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), that of ADSCs requires minimally invasive techniques. In the field of regenerative medicine, the use of autologous cells is preferable to embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells. Therefore, ADSCs are a useful resource for drug screening and regenerative medicine. Here we present the methods and mechanisms underlying the induction of multilineage cells from ADSCs. © 2013 The Authors Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2013 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  2. Regenerative agriculture: merging farming and natural resource conservation profitably.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaCanne, Claire E; Lundgren, Jonathan G

    2018-01-01

    Most cropland in the United States is characterized by large monocultures, whose productivity is maintained through a strong reliance on costly tillage, external fertilizers, and pesticides (Schipanski et al., 2016). Despite this, farmers have developed a regenerative model of farm production that promotes soil health and biodiversity, while producing nutrient-dense farm products profitably. Little work has focused on the relative costs and benefits of novel regenerative farming operations, which necessitates studying in situ , farmer-defined best management practices. Here, we evaluate the relative effects of regenerative and conventional corn production systems on pest management services, soil conservation, and farmer profitability and productivity throughout the Northern Plains of the United States. Regenerative farming systems provided greater ecosystem services and profitability for farmers than an input-intensive model of corn production. Pests were 10-fold more abundant in insecticide-treated corn fields than on insecticide-free regenerative farms, indicating that farmers who proactively design pest-resilient food systems outperform farmers that react to pests chemically. Regenerative fields had 29% lower grain production but 78% higher profits over traditional corn production systems. Profit was positively correlated with the particulate organic matter of the soil, not yield. These results provide the basis for dialogue on ecologically based farming systems that could be used to simultaneously produce food while conserving our natural resource base: two factors that are pitted against one another in simplified food production systems. To attain this requires a systems-level shift on the farm; simply applying individual regenerative practices within the current production model will not likely produce the documented results.

  3. Bone-Inspired Spatially Specific Piezoelectricity Induces Bone Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peng; Ning, Chengyun; Zhang, Yu; Tan, Guoxin; Lin, Zefeng; Liu, Shaoxiang; Wang, Xiaolan; Yang, Haoqi; Li, Kang; Yi, Xin; Zhu, Ye; Mao, Chuanbin

    2017-01-01

    The extracellular matrix of bone can be pictured as a material made of parallel interspersed domains of fibrous piezoelectric collagenous materials and non-piezoelectric non-collagenous materials. To mimic this feature for enhanced bone regeneration, a material made of two parallel interspersed domains, with higher and lower piezoelectricity, respectively, is constructed to form microscale piezoelectric zones (MPZs). The MPZs are produced using a versatile and effective laser-irradiation technique in which K 0.5 Na 0.5 NbO 3 (KNN) ceramics are selectively irradiated to achieve microzone phase transitions. The phase structure of the laser-irradiated microzones is changed from a mixture of orthorhombic and tetragonal phases (with higher piezoelectricity) to a tetragonal dominant phase (with lower piezoelectricity). The microzoned piezoelectricity distribution results in spatially specific surface charge distribution, enabling the MPZs to bear bone-like microscale electric cues. Hence, the MPZs induce osteogenic differentiation of stem cells in vitro and bone regeneration in vivo even without being seeded with stem cells. The concept of mimicking the spatially specific piezoelectricity in bone will facilitate future research on the rational design of tissue regenerative materials.

  4. Feasibility investigation of allogeneic endometrial regenerative cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reid Michael

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Endometrial Regenerative Cells (ERC are a population of mesenchymal-like stem cells having pluripotent differentiation activity and ability to induce neoangiogenesis. In vitro and animal studies suggest ERC are immune privileged and in certain situations actively suppress ongoing immune responses. In this paper we describe the production of clinical grade ERC and initial safety experiences in 4 patients with multiple sclerosis treated intravenously and intrathecally. The case with the longest follow up, of more than one year, revealed no immunological reactions or treatment associated adverse effects. These preliminary data suggest feasibility of clinical ERC administration and support further studies with this novel stem cell type.

  5. MicroRNA Delivery for Regenerative Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Bo; Chen, Yongming; Leong, Kam W.

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) directs post-transcriptional regulation of a network of genes by targeting mRNA. Although relatively recent in development, many miRNAs direct differentiation of various stem cells including induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), a major player in regenerative medicine. An effective and safe delivery of miRNA holds the key to translating miRNA technologies. Both viral and nonviral delivery systems have seen success in miRNA delivery, and each approach possesses advantages an...

  6. Dental pulp stem cells: function, isolation and applications in regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatullo, Marco; Marrelli, Massimo; Shakesheff, Kevin M; White, Lisa J

    2015-11-01

    Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are a promising source of cells for numerous and varied regenerative medicine applications. Their natural function in the production of odontoblasts to create reparative dentin support applications in dentistry in the regeneration of tooth structures. However, they are also being investigated for the repair of tissues outside of the tooth. The ease of isolation of DPSCs from discarded or removed teeth offers a promising source of autologous cells, and their similarities with bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) suggest applications in musculoskeletal regenerative medicine. DPSCs are derived from the neural crest and, therefore, have a different developmental origin to BMSCs. These differences from BMSCs in origin and phenotype are being exploited in neurological and other applications. This review briefly highlights the source and functions of DPSCs and then focuses on in vivo applications across the breadth of regenerative medicine. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Mechanisms for the bone anabolic effect of parathyroid hormone treatment in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslan, Derya; Dahl Andersen, Mille; Gede, Lene Bjerring

    2012-01-01

    . However, development of the biochemical measurement of PTH in the 1980s led us to understand the regulation of PTH secretion and calcium metabolism which subsequently paved the way for the use of PTH as an anabolic treatment of osteoporosis as, when given intermittently, it has strong anabolic effects...... in bone. This could not have taken place without the basic understanding achieved by the biochemical measurements of PTH. The stimulatory effects of PTH on bone formation have been explained by the so-called ‘anabolic window’, which means that during PTH treatment, bone formation is in excess over bone...... resorption during the first 6–18 months. This is due to the following: (1) PTH up-regulates c-fos expression in bone cells, (2) IGF is essential for PTH's anabolic effect, (3) bone lining cells are driven to differentiate into osteoblasts, (4) mesenchymal stem cells adhesion to bone surface is enhanced, (5...

  8. Hysterectomy with ovarian conservation: effect on bone mineral density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lareon, G.; Baillon, L.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: There are conflicting data on the long-term effects of hysterectomy with ovarian conservation on bone mineral density (BMD). Accordingly, we performed a cross-sectional study on 58 women with premenopausal hysterectomy and ovarian conservation (group 1) and 59 women with natural menopause (group 2). No subjects had disorders or medications known to interfere with bone metabolism. Patients underwent bone densitometry of the lumbar spine and hip using a Norland XR-36. By chi-squared and one-way ANOVA, there were no differences in age: 55.4± 11.0 y (1)v 57.6± 9.8 y (2); exercise, alcohol or smoking consumption, family history of osteoporosis, height: 1.61 ± 0.08m (1) v 1.61 ± 0.08m (2); weight 67.7 ± 11.3kg (1) v 68.3 kg ± 12.5 kg (2); body mass index: 30.95 (1 ) v 26.26 (2). Lumbar spine BMD was also similar for the two groups [0.95 ± 0.18g/cm 2 (1) v 0.94± 0.21 g/cm 2 (2)]. However, hysterectomy patients had a significantly lower hip BMD: 0.63 ± 0.16 g/cm 2 v 0.76 ± 0.18 g/cm 2 (p>0.001). Multivariate logistic regression showed that spine BMD was influenced by age, family history, height and weight (R 2 = 0.37), but not prior hysterectomy. Hip BMD was related to age, hysterectomy, smoking and weight (R 2 = o 45). We conclude that prior hysterectomy with ovarian conservation has an adverse effect on hip but not spine BMD

  9. Hysterectomy with ovarian conservation: effect on bone mineral density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lareon, G.; Baillon, L. [Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW, (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound

    1997-09-01

    Full text: There are conflicting data on the long-term effects of hysterectomy with ovarian conservation on bone mineral density (BMD). Accordingly, we performed a cross-sectional study on 58 women with premenopausal hysterectomy and ovarian conservation (group 1) and 59 women with natural menopause (group 2). No subjects had disorders or medications known to interfere with bone metabolism. Patients underwent bone densitometry of the lumbar spine and hip using a Norland XR-36. By chi-squared and one-way ANOVA, there were no differences in age: 55.4{+-} 11.0 y (1)v 57.6{+-} 9.8 y (2); exercise, alcohol or smoking consumption, family history of osteoporosis, height: 1.61 {+-} 0.08m (1) v 1.61 {+-} 0.08m (2); weight 67.7 {+-} 11.3kg (1) v 68.3 kg {+-} 12.5 kg (2); body mass index: 30.95 (1 ) v 26.26 (2). Lumbar spine BMD was also similar for the two groups [0.95 {+-} 0.18g/cm{sup 2} (1) v 0.94{+-} 0.21 g/cm{sup 2} (2)]. However, hysterectomy patients had a significantly lower hip BMD: 0.63 {+-} 0.16 g/cm{sup 2} v 0.76 {+-} 0.18 g/cm{sup 2} (p>0.001). Multivariate logistic regression showed that spine BMD was influenced by age, family history, height and weight (R{sup 2} = 0.37), but not prior hysterectomy. Hip BMD was related to age, hysterectomy, smoking and weight (R{sup 2} = o 45). We conclude that prior hysterectomy with ovarian conservation has an adverse effect on hip but not spine BMD.

  10. An Intelligent Regenerative Braking Strategy for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibin Song

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative braking is an effective approach for electric vehicles (EVs to extend their driving range. A fuzzy-logic-based regenerative braking strategy (RBS integrated with series regenerative braking is developed in this paper to advance the level of energy-savings. From the viewpoint of securing car stability in braking operations, the braking force distribution between the front and rear wheels so as to accord with the ideal distribution curve are considered to prevent vehicles from experiencing wheel lock and slip phenomena during braking. Then, a fuzzy RBS using the driver’s braking force command, vehicle speed, battery SOC, battery temperature are designed to determine the distribution between friction braking force and regenerative braking force to improve the energy recuperation efficiency. The experimental results on an “LF620” prototype EV validated the feasibility and effectiveness of regenerative braking and showed that the proposed fuzzy RBS was endowed with good control performance. The maximum driving range of LF620 EV was improved by 25.7% compared with non-RBS conditions.

  11. The effects of strontium on bone mineral: A review on current knowledge and microanalytical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querido, William; Rossi, Andre L; Farina, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    The interest in effects of strontium (Sr) on bone has greatly increased in the last decade due to the development of the promising drug strontium ranelate. This drug is used for treating osteoporosis, a major bone disease affecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide, especially postmenopausal women. The novelty of strontium ranelate compared to other treatments for osteoporosis is its unique effect on bone: it simultaneously promotes bone formation by osteoblasts and inhibits bone resorption by osteoclasts. Besides affecting bone cells, treatment with strontium ranelate also has a direct effect on the mineralized bone matrix. Due to the chemical similarities between Sr and Ca, a topic that has long been of particular interest is the incorporation of Sr into bones replacing Ca from the mineral phase, which is composed by carbonated hydroxyapatite nanocrystals. Several groups have analyzed the mineral produced during treatment; however, most analysis were done with relatively large samples containing numerous nanocrystals, resulting thus on data that represents an average of many crystalline domains. The nanoscale analysis of the bone apatite crystals containing Sr has only been described in a few studies. In this study, we review the current knowledge on the effects of Sr on bone mineral and discuss the methodological approaches that have been used in the field. In particular, we focus on the great potential that advanced microscopy and microanalytical techniques may have on the detailed analysis of the nanostructure and composition of bone apatite nanocrystals produced during treatment with strontium ranelate. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on new trabecular bone during bone-tendon junction healing in a rabbit model: a synchrotron radiation micro-CT study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbin Lu

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on bone regeneration during the bone-tendon junction healing process and to explore the application of synchrotron radiation micro computed tomography in three dimensional visualization of the bone-tendon junction to evaluate the microarchitecture of new trabecular bone. Twenty four mature New Zealand rabbits underwent partial patellectomy to establish a bone-tendon junction injury model at the patella-patellar tendon complex. Animals were then divided into low-intensity pulsed ultrasound treatment (20 min/day, 7 times/week and placebo control groups, and were euthanized at week 8 and 16 postoperatively (n = 6 for each group and time point. The patella-patellar tendon specimens were harvested for radiographic, histological and synchrotron radiation micro computed tomography detection. The area of the newly formed bone in the ultrasound group was significantly greater than that of control group at postoperative week 8 and 16. The high resolution three dimensional visualization images of the bone-tendon junction were acquired by synchrotron radiation micro computed tomography. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound treatment promoted dense and irregular woven bone formation at week 8 with greater bone volume fraction, number and thickness of new trabecular bone but with lower separation. At week 16, ultrasound group specimens contained mature lamellar bone with higher bone volume fraction and thicker trabeculae than that of control group; however, there was no significant difference in separation and number of the new trabecular bone. This study confirms that low-intensity pulsed ultrasound treatment is able to promote bone formation and remodeling of new trabecular bone during the bone-tendon junction healing process in a rabbit model, and the synchrotron radiation micro computed tomography could be applied for three dimensional visualization to quantitatively evaluate

  13. [Experimental study of the effect of new bone formation on new type artificial bone composed of bioactive ceramics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Minghua; Zeng, Yi; Sun, Tao; Peng, Qiang

    2005-03-15

    To investigate the osteogenic potential of four kinds of new bioactive ceramics combined with bovine bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) and to explore the feasibility of using compounds as bone substitute material. Ninety-six rats were divided into 4 groups (24 in each group). BMP was combined with hydroxyapatite (HA), tricalcium phosphate (TCP), fluoridated-HA (FHA), and collagen-HA(CHA) respectively. The left thighs of the rats implanted with HA/BMP, TCP/BMP, FHA/BMP, and CHA/BMP were used as experimental groups. The right thighs of the rats implanted with HA, TCP, CHA, and decalcified dentin matrix (DDM) were used as control groups. The rats were sacrificed 1, 3, 5 and 7 weeks after implantation and bone induction was estimated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP), phosphorus (P), and total protein (TP) measurement. The histological observation and electronic microscope scanning of the implants were also made. The cartilage growth in the 4 experimental groups and the control group implanted with DDM was observed 1 week after operation and fibrous connective tissues were observed in the other 3 control groups. 3 weeks after implantation, lamellar bone with bone marrow and positive reaction in ALP stain were observed in the 4 experimental groups. No bone formation or positive reaction in ALP stain were observed in the control groups. The amount of ALP activity, P value, and new bone formation in the experimental groups were higher than those in the control group(P < 0.05). The amount of ALP activity, P value, and new bone formation in TCP/BMP group were higher than those in HA/BMP, CHA/BMP and FHA/BMP groups (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in TP between the BMP treatment group and the control groups. From 5th to 7th week, new bone formation, histochemistry evaluation, and the level of ALP, P, TP value were as high as those in the 3rd week. New composite artificial bone of TCP/BMP, HA/BMP, CHA/BMP, and FHA/BMP all prove to be effective, but TCP/BMP is the

  14. Application and Effect of Mobiletype-Bone Health Intervention in Korean Young Adult Women with Low Bone Mass: A Randomized Control Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Joo Park, PhD, RN

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Although both experimental groups exhibited positive outcomes in regards to the promotion of bone health, this study did not show an additional effect of the mobile application on self-management ability for the promotion of bone health. Nonetheless, the SbFb application is very meaningful as it is the first application developed with the aim of improving women's bone health.

  15. Bone Quality: The Mechanical Effects of Microarchitecture and Matrix Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.S. Day (Judd)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractIn this body of work we have examined some of the current concepts pertaining to the relation between bone mass, bone quality and the mechanical properties of bone. In our first series of studies we used a model of human osteoarthritis to investigate the implications of changes in the

  16. Effect of weightlessness on mineral saturation of bone tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnykh, I. G.

    1975-01-01

    X-ray photometry of bone density established dynamic changes in mineral saturation of bone tissues for Soyuz spacecraft and Salyut orbital station crews. Calcaneus optical bone densities in all crew members fell below initial values; an increase in spacecrew exposure time to weightlessness conditions also increased the degree of decalcification. Demineralization under weightlessness conditions took place at a higher rate than under hypodynamia.

  17. Effects of mechanical repetitive load on bone quality around implants in rat maxillae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Uto

    Full Text Available Greater understanding and acceptance of the new concept "bone quality", which was proposed by the National Institutes of Health and is based on bone cells and collagen fibers, are required. The novel protein Semaphorin3A (Sema3A is associated with osteoprotection by regulating bone cells. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of mechanical loads on Sema3A production and bone quality based on bone cells and collagen fibers around implants in rat maxillae. Grade IV-titanium threaded implants were placed at 4 weeks post-extraction in maxillary first molars. Implants received mechanical loads (10 N, 3 Hz for 1800 cycles, 2 days/week for 5 weeks from 3 weeks post-implant placement to minimize the effects of wound healing processes by implant placement. Bone structures, bone mineral density (BMD, Sema3A production and bone quality based on bone cells and collagen fibers were analyzed using microcomputed tomography, histomorphometry, immunohistomorphometry, polarized light microscopy and birefringence measurement system inside of the first and second thread (designated as thread A and B, respectively, as mechanical stresses are concentrated and differently distributed on the first two threads from the implant neck. Mechanical load significantly increased BMD, but not bone volume around implants. Inside thread B, but not thread A, mechanical load significantly accelerated Sema3A production with increased number of osteoblasts and osteocytes, and enhanced production of both type I and III collagen. Moreover, mechanical load also significantly induced preferential alignment of collagen fibers in the lower flank of thread B. These data demonstrate that mechanical load has different effects on Sema3A production and bone quality based on bone cells and collagen fibers between the inside threads of A and B. Mechanical load-induced Sema3A production may be differentially regulated by the type of bone structure or distinct stress distribution

  18. Stem Cells in Regenerative Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Sykova, Eva; Forostyak, Serhiy

    2013-01-01

    Background: A number of cardiovascular, neurological, musculoskeletal and other diseases have a limited capacity for repair and only a modest progress has been made in treatment of brain diseases. The discovery of stem cells has opened new possibilities for the treatment of these maladies, and cell therapy now stands at the cutting-edge of modern regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Experimental data and the first clinical trials employing stem cells have shown their broad therapeuti...

  19. Effects of hypogonadism on bone metabolism in female adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Madhusmita

    2012-01-24

    Gonadal steroids, including androgens and oestrogens, play a critical part in bone metabolism, and conditions associated with a deficiency of gonadal steroids can reduce BMD in adults and impair bone accrual in adolescents. In addition, other associated hormone alterations, for example, insulin-like growth factor 1 deficiency or high cortisol levels, can further exacerbate the effect of hypogonadism on bone metabolism, as can factors such as calcium and vitamin D deficiency, low body weight and exercise status. This Review discusses the effects of different hypogonadal states on bone metabolism in female adolescents and young adults, with particular emphasis on conditions associated with low energy availability, such as anorexia nervosa and athletic amenorrhoea, in which many factors other than hypogonadism affect bone. In contrast to most hypogonadal conditions, in which replacement of gonadal steroids is sufficient to normalize bone accrual rates and BMD, gonadal steroid replacement may not be sufficient to normalize bone metabolism in these states of energy deficit.

  20. Positive effects of bisphosphonates on bone and muscle in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sung-Hee; Sugamori, Kim S; Grynpas, Marc D; Mitchell, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy are at increased risk of decreased bone mineral density and bone fracture as a result of inactivity. To determine if antiresorptive bisphosphonates could improve bone quality and their effects on muscle we studied the Mdx mouse, treated with pamidronate during peak bone growth at 5 and 6 weeks of age, and examined the outcome at 13 weeks of age. Pamidronate increased cortical bone architecture and strength in femurs with increased resistance to fracture. While overall long bone growth was not affected by pamidronate, there was significant inhibition of remodeling in metaphyseal trabecular bone with evidence of residual calcified cartilage. Pamidronate treatment had positive effects on skeletal muscle in the Mdx mice with decreased serum and muscle creatine kinase and evidence of improved muscle histology and grip strength. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. LIVER AND BONE MARROW STEM/PROGENITOR CELLS AS REGULATORS OF REPARATIVE REGENERATION OF DAMAGED LIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. V. Lundup

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review the modern information about effectiveness of liver insufficiency treatment by stem/ progenitor cells of liver (oval cells and bone marrow (hemopoietic cells and mesenchymal cells was presented. It is shown that medical action of these cells is referred on normalization of liver cell interaction and reorganization of processes of a reparative regeneration in damaged liver. It is believed that application of mesenchymal stromal cells from an autological bone marrow is the most perspective strategy. However, for definitive judgement about regenerative possibilities of the autological bone marrow cells it is necessary to carry out large-scale double blind clinical researches. 

  2. Regenerative endodontics: A way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogenes, Anibal; Ruparel, Nikita B; Shiloah, Yoav; Hargreaves, Kenneth M

    2016-05-01

    Immature teeth are susceptible to infections due to trauma, anatomic anomalies, and caries. Traditional endodontic therapies for immature teeth, such as apexification procedures, promote resolution of the disease and prevent future infections. However, these procedures fail to promote continued root development, leaving teeth susceptible to fractures. Regenerative endodontic procedures (REPs) have evolved in the past decade, being incorporated into endodontic practice and becoming a viable treatment alternative for immature teeth. The authors have summarized the status of regenerative endodontics on the basis of the available published studies and provide insight into the different levels of clinical outcomes expected from these procedures. Substantial advances in regenerative endodontics are allowing a better understanding of a multitude of factors that govern stem cell-mediated regeneration and repair of the damaged pulp-dentin complex. REPs promote healing of apical periodontitis, continued radiographic root development, and, in certain cases, vitality responses. Despite the clinical success of these procedures, they appear to promote a guided endodontic repair process rather than a true regeneration of physiological-like tissue. Immature teeth with pulpal necrosis with otherwise poor prognosis can be treated with REPs. These procedures do not preclude the possibility of apexification procedures if attempts are unsuccessful. Therefore, REPs may be considered first treatment options for immature teeth with pulpal necrosis. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of hormone replacement therapy on the bone mass and urinary excretion of pyridinium cross-links

    OpenAIRE

    Pardini,Dolores Perovano; Sabino,Anibal Tagliaferri; Meneses,Ana Maria; Kasamatsu,Teresa; Vieira,José Gilberto Henriques

    2000-01-01

    CONTEXT: The menopause accelerates bone loss and is associated with an increased bone turnover. Bone formation may be evaluated by several biochemical markers. However, the establishment of an accurate marker for bone resorption has been more difficult to achieve. OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on bone mass and on the markers of bone resorption: urinary excretion of pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline. DESIGN: Cohort correlational study. SETTING: Academic...

  4. Effects of a phosphocitrate analogue on osteophyte, subchondral bone advance, and bone marrow lesions in Hartley guinea pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiraly, A. J.; Sun, A. R.; Cox, M.; Mauerhan, D. R.; Hanley, E. N.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were: 1) to examine osteophyte formation, subchondral bone advance, and bone marrow lesions (BMLs) in osteoarthritis (OA)-prone Hartley guinea pigs; and 2) to assess the disease-modifying activity of an orally administered phosphocitrate ‘analogue’, Carolinas Molecule-01 (CM-01). Methods Young Hartley guinea pigs were divided into two groups. The first group (n = 12) had drinking water and the second group (n = 9) had drinking water containing CM-01. Three guinea pigs in each group were euthanized at age six, 12, and 18 months, respectively. Three guinea pigs in the first group were euthanized aged three months as baseline control. Radiological, histological, and immunochemical examinations were performed to assess cartilage degeneration, osteophyte formation, subchondral bone advance, BMLs, and the levels of matrix metalloproteinse-13 (MMP13) protein expression in the knee joints of hind limbs. Results In addition to cartilage degeneration, osteophytes, subchondral bone advance, and BMLs increased with age. Subchondral bone advance was observed as early as six months, whereas BMLs and osteophytes were both observed mainly at 12 and 18 months. Fibrotic BMLs were found mostly underneath the degenerated cartilage on the medial side. In contrast, necrotic BMLs were found almost exclusively in the interspinous region. Orally administered CM-01 decreased all of these pathological changes and reduced the levels of MMP13 expression. Conclusion Subchondral bone may play a role in cartilage degeneration. Subchondral bone changes are early events; formation of osteophytes and BMLs are later events in the OA disease process. Carolinas Molecule-01 is a promising small molecule candidate to be tested as an oral disease-modifying drug for human OA therapy. Cite this article: Y. Sun, A. J. Kiraly, A. R. Sun, M. Cox, D. R. Mauerhan, E. N. Hanley Jr. Effects of a phosphocitrate analogue on osteophyte, subchondral bone advance, and

  5. Effects of growth hormone and low dose estrogen on bone growth and turnover in long bones of hypophysectomized rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidder, L. S.; Schmidt, I. U.; Evans, G. L.; Turner, R. T.

    1997-01-01

    Pituitary hormones are recognized as critical to longitudinal growth, but their role in the radial growth of bone and in maintaining cancellous bone balance are less clear. This investigation examines the histomorphometric effects of hypophysectomy (Hx) and ovariectomy (OVX) and the subsequent replacement of growth hormone (GH) and estrogen (E), in order to determine the effects and possible interactions between these two hormones on cortical and cancellous bone growth and turnover. The replacement of estrogen is of interest since Hx results in both pituitary and gonadal hormone insufficiencies, with the latter being caused by the Hx-associated reduction in follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). All hypophysectomized animals received daily supplements of hydrocortisone (500 microg/kg) and L-thyroxine (10 microg/kg), whereas intact animals received daily saline injections. One week following surgery, hypophysectomized animals received either daily injections of low-dose 17 beta-estradiol (4.8 microg/kg s.c.), 3 X/d recombinant human GH (2 U/kg s.c.), both, or saline for a period of two weeks. Flurochromes were administered at weekly intervals to label bone matrix undergoing mineralization. Whereas Hx resulted in reductions in body weight, uterine weight, and tibial length, OVX significantly increased body weight and tibial length, while reducing uterine weight. The combination of OVX and Hx resulted in values similar to Hx alone. Treatment with GH normalized body weight and bone length, while not affecting uterine weight in hypophysectomized animals. Estrogen increased uterine weight, while not impacting longitudinal bone growth and reduced body weight. Hypophysectomy diminished tibial cortical bone area through reductions in both mineral appositional rate (MAR) and bone formation rate (BFR). While E had no effect, GH increased both MAR and BFR, though not to sham-operated (control) levels. Hypophysectomy reduced proximal tibial trabecular number and cancellous bone

  6. Evaluation strategy of regenerative braking energy for supercapacitor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhongyue; Cao, Junyi; Cao, Binggang; Chen, Wen

    2015-03-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of energy conversion and increase the driving range of electric vehicles, the regenerative energy captured during braking process is stored in the energy storage devices and then will be re-used. Due to the high power density of supercapacitors, they are employed to withstand high current in the short time and essentially capture more regenerative energy. The measuring methods for regenerative energy should be investigated to estimate the energy conversion efficiency and performance of electric vehicles. Based on the analysis of the regenerative braking energy system of a supercapacitor vehicle, an evaluation system for energy recovery in the braking process is established using USB portable data-acquisition devices. Experiments under various braking conditions are carried out. The results verify the higher efficiency of energy regeneration system using supercapacitors and the effectiveness of the proposed measurement method. It is also demonstrated that the maximum regenerative energy conversion efficiency can reach to 88%. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Shielded regenerative neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terhune, J.H.; Neissel, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    An ion chamber type neutron detector is disclosed which has a greatly extended lifespan. The detector includes a fission chamber containing a mixture of active and breeding material and a neutron shielding material. The breeding and shielding materials are selected to have similar or substantially matching neutron capture cross-sections so that their individual effects on increased detector life are mutually enhanced

  8. Degradability of injectable calcium sulfate/mineralized collagen-based bone repair material and its effect on bone tissue regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zonggang; Kang, Lingzhi; Meng, Qing-Yuan; Liu, Huanye; Wang, Zhaoliang; Guo, Zhongwu; Cui, Fu-Zhai

    2014-01-01

    The nHAC/CSH composite is an injectable bone repair material with controllable injectability and self-setting properties prepared by introducing calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH) into mineralized collagen (nHAC). When mixed with water, the nHAC/CSH composites can be transformed into mineralized collagen/calcium sulfate dihydrate (nHAC/CSD) composites. The nHAC/CSD composites have good biocompatibility and osteogenic capability. Considering that the degradation behavior of bone repair material is another important factor for its clinical applications, the degradability of nHAC/CSD composites was studied. The results showed that the degradation ratio of the nHAC/CSD composites with lower nHAC content increased with the L/S ratio increase of injectable materials, but the variety of L/S ratio had no significant effect on the degradation ratio of the nHAC/CSD composites with higher nHAC content. Increasing nHAC content in the composites could slow down the degradation of nHAC/CSD composite. Setting accelerator had no significant effect on the degradability of nHAC/CSD composites. In vivo histological analysis suggests that the degradation rate of materials can match the growth rate of new mandibular bone tissues in the implanted site of rabbit. The regulable degradability of materials resulting from the special prescriptions of injectable nHAC/CSH composites will further improve the workability of nHAC/CSD composites. - Highlights: • The nHAC/CSH composite can be as an injectable bone repair material. • The L/S ratio and nHAC content have a significant effect on material degradability. • The degradability of bone materials can be regulated to match tissue repair. • The regulable degradability will further improve the workability of bone materials

  9. Degradability of injectable calcium sulfate/mineralized collagen-based bone repair material and its effect on bone tissue regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zonggang, E-mail: chenzg@sdu.edu.cn [National Glycoengineering Research Center, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Kang, Lingzhi [National Glycoengineering Research Center, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Meng, Qing-Yuan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu, Huanye [Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Wang, Zhaoliang [Jinan Military General Hospital of PLA, Jinan 250031 (China); Guo, Zhongwu, E-mail: zwguo@sdu.edu.cn [National Glycoengineering Research Center, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Cui, Fu-Zhai, E-mail: cuifz@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-12-01

    The nHAC/CSH composite is an injectable bone repair material with controllable injectability and self-setting properties prepared by introducing calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH) into mineralized collagen (nHAC). When mixed with water, the nHAC/CSH composites can be transformed into mineralized collagen/calcium sulfate dihydrate (nHAC/CSD) composites. The nHAC/CSD composites have good biocompatibility and osteogenic capability. Considering that the degradation behavior of bone repair material is another important factor for its clinical applications, the degradability of nHAC/CSD composites was studied. The results showed that the degradation ratio of the nHAC/CSD composites with lower nHAC content increased with the L/S ratio increase of injectable materials, but the variety of L/S ratio had no significant effect on the degradation ratio of the nHAC/CSD composites with higher nHAC content. Increasing nHAC content in the composites could slow down the degradation of nHAC/CSD composite. Setting accelerator had no significant effect on the degradability of nHAC/CSD composites. In vivo histological analysis suggests that the degradation rate of materials can match the growth rate of new mandibular bone tissues in the implanted site of rabbit. The regulable degradability of materials resulting from the special prescriptions of injectable nHAC/CSH composites will further improve the workability of nHAC/CSD composites. - Highlights: • The nHAC/CSH composite can be as an injectable bone repair material. • The L/S ratio and nHAC content have a significant effect on material degradability. • The degradability of bone materials can be regulated to match tissue repair. • The regulable degradability will further improve the workability of bone materials.

  10. Engineering growth factors for regenerative medicine applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Aaron C.; Briquez, Priscilla S.; Hubbell, Jeffrey A.; Cochran, Jennifer R.

    2016-01-15

    Growth factors are important morphogenetic proteins that instruct cell behavior and guide tissue repair and renewal. Although their therapeutic potential holds great promise in regenerative medicine applications, translation of growth factors into clinical treatments has been hindered by limitations including poor protein stability, low recombinant expression yield, and suboptimal efficacy. This review highlights current tools, technologies, and approaches to design integrated and effective growth factor-based therapies for regenerative medicine applications. The first section describes rational and combinatorial protein engineering approaches that have been utilized to improve growth factor stability, expression yield, biodistribution, and serum half-life, or alter their cell trafficking behavior or receptor binding affinity. The second section highlights elegant biomaterial-based systems, inspired by the natural extracellular matrix milieu, that have been developed for effective spatial and temporal delivery of growth factors to cell surface receptors. Although appearing distinct, these two approaches are highly complementary and involve principles of molecular design and engineering to be considered in parallel when developing optimal materials for clinical applications.

  11. Widespread differential maternal and paternal genome effects on fetal bone phenotype at mid-gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ruidong; Lee, Alice M C; Eindorf, Tanja; Javadmanesh, Ali; Ghanipoor-Samami, Mani; Gugger, Madeleine; Fitzsimmons, Carolyn J; Kruk, Zbigniew A; Pitchford, Wayne S; Leviton, Alison J; Thomsen, Dana A; Beckman, Ian; Anderson, Gail I; Burns, Brian M; Rutley, David L; Xian, Cory J; Hiendleder, Stefan

    2014-11-01

    Parent-of-origin-dependent (epi)genetic factors are important determinants of prenatal development that program adult phenotype. However, data on magnitude and specificity of maternal and paternal genome effects on fetal bone are lacking. We used an outbred bovine model to dissect and quantify effects of parental genomes, fetal sex, and nongenetic maternal effects on the fetal skeleton and analyzed phenotypic and molecular relationships between fetal muscle and bone. Analysis of 51 bone morphometric and weight parameters from 72 fetuses recovered at day 153 gestation (54% term) identified six principal components (PC1-6) that explained 80% of the variation in skeletal parameters. Parental genomes accounted for most of the variation in bone wet weight (PC1, 72.1%), limb ossification (PC2, 99.8%), flat bone size (PC4, 99.7%), and axial skeletal growth (PC5, 96.9%). Limb length showed lesser effects of parental genomes (PC3, 40.8%) and a significant nongenetic maternal effect (gestational weight gain, 29%). Fetal sex affected bone wet weight (PC1, p maternal genome effects on bone wet weight (74.1%, p paternal genome controlled limb ossification (95.1%, p maternal genome effects on growth plate height (98.6%, p maternal genome effects on fetal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (96.9%, p paternal genome effects on alkaline phosphatase (90.0%, p maternally controlled bone wet weight and paternally controlled limb ossification, respectively. Bone wet weight and flat bone size correlated positively with muscle weight (r = 0.84 and 0.77, p maternally expressed H19 regulates growth factors by miRNA interference, this suggests muscle-bone interaction via epigenetic factors. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  12. Experimental Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Demineralized Bone Matrix and Collagenated Heterologous Bone Grafts Used Alone or in Combination with Platelet-Rich Fibrin on Bone Healing in Sinus Floor Augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peker, Elif; Karaca, Inci Rana; Yildirim, Benay

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was an experimental evaluation of the effectiveness of demineralized bone matrix (DBM) and collagenated heterologous bone graft (CHBG) used alone or in combination with platelet-rich fibrin on bone healing in sinus floor augmentation procedures. In this study, 36 New Zealand rabbits were used. The bilateral sinus elevation was performed, and 72 defects were obtained. The rabbit maxillary sinuses were divided into four groups according to the augmentation biomaterials obtained: demineralized bone matrix (Grafton DBM Putty, Osteotech; DBM group), DBM combined with platelet-rich fibrin (PRF; DBM + PRF group), collagenated heterologous bone graft (CHBG; Apatos Mix, OsteoBiol, Tecnoss; CHBG group), CHBG combined with PRF (CHBG + PRF group). All groups were sacrificed at 2, 4, and 8 weeks after surgery for histologic, histomorphometric, and immunohistochemical analyses. The inflammatory reaction was moderate to intense at the second week in all groups and declined from 2 to 8 weeks. New bone formation was started at the second week and increased from 2 to 8 weeks in all groups. There was no significant difference in bone formation between the experimental groups that used PRF mixed graft material and control groups that used only graft material. The percentage of new bone formation showed a significant difference in DBM groups and DBM + PRF groups compared with other groups. There were osteoclasts around all the bone graft materials used, but the percentage of residual graft particles was significantly higher in CHBG groups and CHBG + PRF groups at the eighth week. There is no beneficial effect of the application of PRF in combination with demineralized bone matrix or collagenated heterologous bone graft on bone formation in sinus floor augmentation. The results of this study showed that both collagenated heterologous bone graft and demineralized bone matrix have osteoconductive properties, but demineralized bone matrix showed more bone formation

  13. PTH prevents the adverse effects of focal radiation on bone architecture in young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Abhishek; Lan, Shenghui; Zhu, Ji; Lin, Tiao; Zhang, Xianrong; Siclari, Valerie A; Altman, Allison R; Cengel, Keith A; Liu, X Sherry; Qin, Ling

    2013-08-01

    Radiation therapy is a common treatment regimen for cancer patients. However, its adverse effects on the neighboring bone could lead to fractures with a great impact on quality of life. The underlying mechanism is still elusive and there is no preventive or curative solution for this bone loss. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a current therapy for osteoporosis that has potent anabolic effects on bone. In this study, we found that focal radiation from frequent scans of the right tibiae in 1-month-old rats by micro-computed tomography severely decreased trabecular bone mass and deteriorated bone structure. Interestingly, PTH daily injections remarkably improved trabecular bone in the radiated tibiae with increases in trabecular number, thickness, connectivity, structure model index and stiffness, and a decrease in trabecular separation. Histomorphometric analysis revealed that radiation mainly decreased the number of osteoblasts and impaired their mineralization activity but had little effects on osteoclasts. PTH reversed these adverse effects and greatly increased bone formation to a similar level in both radiated and non-radiated bones. Furthermore, PTH protects bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from radiation-induced damage, including a decrease in number and an increase in adipogenic differentiation. While radiation generated the same amount of free radicals in the bone marrow of vehicle-treated and PTH-treated animals, the percentage of apoptotic bone marrow cells was significantly attenuated in the PTH group. Taken together, our data demonstrate a radioprotective effect of PTH on bone structure and bone marrow and shed new light on a possible clinical application of anabolic treatment in radiotherapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The application of an enamel matrix protein derivative (Emdogain) in regenerative periodontal therapy: a review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sculean, A.; Schwarz, F.; Becker, J.; Brecx, M.

    2007-01-01

    Regenerative periodontal therapy aims at reconstitution of the lost periodontal structures such as new formation of root cementum, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. Findings from basic research indicate that enamel matrix protein derivative (EMD) has a key role in periodontal wound healing.

  15. Approach to reducing the effect of bone-coal power station on radiation environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The effect of two bone-coal power stations (6 MWe) on environment wasinvestigated within the scope of the dose contribution caused by various radionucildes in different ways. It is found that the best measures to reduce the effect of bone-coal power station on radiation environment include to select a fine boiler system and a comprehensive utilization of the bone-coal cinder (BCC), soot and ash in the catchers.

  16. Effect of Clothing on Measurement of Bone Mineral Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Elizabeth A; Feldman, Anna Z; Malabanan, Alan O; Abate, Ejigayehu G; Whittaker, LaTarsha G; Yano-Litwin, Amanda; Dorazio, Jolene; Rosen, Harold N

    2016-01-01

    It is unknown whether allowing patients to have BMD (bone mineral density) studies acquired while wearing radiolucent clothing adlib contributes appreciably to the measurement error seen. To examine this question, a spine phantom was scanned 30 times without any clothing, while draped with a gown, and while draped with heavy winter clothing. The effect on mean BMD and on SD (standard deviation) was assessed. The effect of clothing on mean or SD of the area was not significant. The effect of clothing on mean and SD for BMD was small but significant and was around 1.6% for the mean. However, the effect on BMD precision was much more clinically important. Without clothing the spine phantom had an least significant change of 0.0077 gm/cm(2), while when introducing variability of clothing the least significant change rose as high as 0.0305 gm/cm(2). We conclude that, adding clothing to the spine phantom had a small but statistically significant effect on the mean BMD and on variance of the measurement. It is unlikely that the effect on mean BMD has any clinical significance, but the effect on the reproducibility (precision) of the result is likely clinically significant. Copyright © 2016 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of zoledronic acid on bone density and markers of bone turnover in a community clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ria; Zailskas, Susan; Goldsby, Tashauna U; Lukens, Carrie; Muravev, Rostislav; Dulipsingh, Latha

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to document the efficacy of zoledronic acid by comparing bone densities and markers of bone turnover, in patients with osteoporosis. Bone mineral density (BMD) and urinary N-telopeptide, a marker of bone turnover, were compared before and after treatment with intravenous zoledronic acid. 52 participants had atleast two doses of zoledronic acid over 36 months. Significant increases in BMD were found in the spine (t=4.38, Pturnover marker N-telopeptide (t=3.30, P=0.002). Small but significant correlations were determined between prior steroid use and change in BMD in the spine (r=0.35, P<0.05), and family history of osteoporosis and change in BMD in the right femur (r=0.38, P<0.05). Annual infusions of zoledronic acid for at least two years, revealed a significant increase in bone density at the spine and a decrease in urinary N-telopeptide in patients treated at our center.

  18. Regenerative endodontics and tissue engineering: what the future holds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodis, Harold E; Kinaia, Bassam Michael; Kinaia, Atheel M; Chogle, Sami M A

    2012-07-01

    The work performed by researchers in regenerative endodontics and tissue engineering over the last decades has been superb; however, many questions remain to be answered. The basic biologic mechanisms must be elucidated that will allow the development of dental pulp and dentin in situ. Stress must be placed on the many questions that will lead to the design of effective, safe treatment options and therapies. This article discusses those questions, the answers to which may become the future of regenerative endodontics. The future remains bright, but proper support and patience are required. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Performance enhancement of a solar still using cotton regenerative medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirumalai Gopal Sakthivel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the performance of a single slope solar still using cotton cloth regenerative medium. The performance was evaluated under the metrological conditions of Chennai city in India during the summer months of 2016. Two single-slope solar stills are fabricated with an effective area of 0.5 m2 with various thicknesses (2, 4, 6, and 8 mm of cotton cloth were used for the performance comparison. The results showed, the solar still with 6 mm thick cotton assisted regenerative solar still has about 28% improved productivity when compared to conventional solar still.

  20. The effect of patient age on bone formation using a fully synthetic nanocrystalline bone augmentation material in maxillary sinus grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Michael; Wurm, Alexander; Heinemann, Friedhelm; Gerber, Thomas; Reichert, Christoph; Jäger, Andreas; Götz, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Maxillary sinus floor augmentation is a treatment that has been proposed for patients in whom the alveolar bone height is insufficient. This procedure is commonly used in patients aged 40 to 70 years and older. However, little information exists whether the factor of age might influence the outcome of augmentation procedures. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the patient's age has an effect on bone formation and incorporation in maxillary sinus floor augmentation procedures. A fully synthetic nanocrystalline bone augmentation material (NanoBone, Artoss) was used for sinus floor augmentation in patients with a subantral vertical bone height of at least 3 mm and maximum of 7 mm. After 7 months healing time, biopsy specimens were taken and were divided into two groups according to the patient's age. Exclusion criteria were poor general health (eg, severe renal/and or liver disease), history of a radiotherapy in the head region, chemotherapy at the time of surgical procedure, noncompensated diabetes mellitus, symptoms of a maxillary sinus disease, active periodontal or systemic diseases, smoking, and poor oral hygiene. Histologic analyses with hematoxylin-eosin stain were performed. Multinucleated osteoclast-like cells were identified by histochemical staining (tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase [TRAP]). Quantitative and age-dependent assessment of bone formation, residual bone grafting material, and soft tissue formation following sinus augmentation was performed using histomorphometric analysis and the Bonferroni adjustment of the Student t test. Twenty biopsy specimens from 17 patients were taken and divided into two groups according to age (group 1: 41 to 52 years; group 2: 66 to 71 years) containing 10 specimens each, which were analyzed in triplicate resulting in a total of 30 specimens per group. A regeneration process with varying amounts of newly formed bone surrounded by marrow-like tissue was present in all augmented regions. No signs of

  1. Effect of Denosumab on Peripheral Compartmental Bone Density, Microarchitecture and Estimated Bone Strength in De Novo Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonani, Marco; Meyer, Ursina; Frey, Diana; Graf, Nicole; Bischoff-Ferrari, Heike A; Wüthrich, Rudolf P

    2016-01-01

    In a randomized controlled clinical trial in kidney transplant recipients (NCT01377467) we have recently shown that RANKL inhibition with denosumab significantly improved areal bone mineral density (aBMD) when given during the first year after transplantation. The effect of denosumab on skeletal microstructure and bone strength in kidney transplant recipients is not known. The purpose of the present bone microarchitecture ancillary study was to investigate high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HRpQCT) data from the distal tibia and distal radius in 24 study patients that had been randomized to receive either two injections of denosumab 60 mg at baseline and after 6 months (n=10) or no treatment (n=14). Consistent with the full trial findings, denosumab reduced biomarkers of bone turnover, and significantly increased aBMD at the lumbar spine (median difference of 4.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.6 - 7.8; pBone quality as assessed by total and cortical volumetric bone mineral density (Tot. vBMD, Ct.vBMD) and cortical thickness (Ct.Th) increased significantly at the tibia, while changes at the radius were less pronounced. The trabecular volumetric BMD (Tb.vBMD), thickness (Tb. Th), separation (Tb.Sp) and number (Tb.N) and the cortical porosity (Ct.Po) at the tibia and the radius did not significantly change in both treatment groups. Micro-finite element analysis (µFEA) showed that bone stiffness increased significantly at the tibia (median difference 5.6%; 95% CI 1.8% - 9.2%; p=0.002) but not at the radius (median difference 2.9%, 95% CI -3.7% - 9.1%; p=0.369). Likewise, failure load increased significantly at the tibia (median difference 5.1%; 95% CI 2.1% - 8.1%; p=0.002) but not at the radius (median difference 2.4%, 95% CI -3.2% - 8.5%; p=0.336). These findings demonstrate that denosumab improves bone density and bone quality in first-year kidney transplant recipients at risk to develop osteoporosis. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S

  2. Hypovitaminosis D and hyperparathyroidism: effects on bone turnover and bone mineral density among perinatally HIV-infected adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudjaritruk, Tavitiya; Bunupuradah, Torsak; Aurpibul, Linda; Kosalaraksa, Pope; Kurniati, Nia; Prasitsuebsai, Wasana; Sophonphan, Jiratchaya; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Puthanakit, Thanyawee

    2016-04-24

    The impact of hypovitaminosis D and secondary hyperparathyroidism on bone mineral density (BMD) in the setting of pediatric HIV infection remains unclear. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and hyperparathyroidism and their effects on bone turnover and BMD among HIV-infected adolescents in Southeast Asia. A multicenter, cross-sectional study evaluating bone health and vitamin D metabolism in HIV-infected adolescents in Thailand and Indonesia. Perinatally HIV-infected adolescents aged 10-18 years on antiretroviral therapy with virologic suppression were enrolled. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, intact parathyroid hormone, and bone turnover markers (C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen and procollagen type I amino-terminal propeptide) were assessed; serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D less than 20 ng/ml and intact parathyroid hormone more than 65 pg/ml were defined as hypovitaminosis D and hyperparathyroidism, respectively. Lumbar spine (L2-L4) BMD Z-score -2 or less was defined as low BMD. Of 394 adolescents, 57% were women. The median age [interquartile range (IQR)] was 15.0 (13.3-16.9) years. The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D, hyperparathyroidism, and both conditions were 21% [95% confidence interval (CI): 17-25%], 17% (95% CI: 13-20%), and 5% (95% CI: 3-7%), respectively. Adolescents with hypovitaminosis D and secondary hyperparathyroidism had the highest median bone resorption (C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen: 1610 vs. 1270 ng/l; P = 0.04) and bone formation (procollagen type I amino-terminal propeptide: 572 vs. 330 μg/l; P = 0.02) markers, and the greatest proportion of low BMD (42 vs. 15%; P = 0.01) compared with the rest of the cohort. Hypovitaminosis D complicated with secondary hyperparathyroidism was associated with increased bone turnover and bone loss. Early treatment of hypovitaminosis D before hyperparathyroidism occurs may be important to prevent bone mass deterioration.

  3. Effect of gamma irradiation sterilization on the osteoinductive capacity of demineralized bone powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babak Arjmand; Hamid Reza Aghayan; Mehdi Golestani; Farid Azmoudeh Ardalan

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Gamma irradiation is a well known method for secondary sterilization of bone allograft before clinical use to reduce the risk of infections and complications. The current study evaluated the effect of gamma irradiation on the osteoinductive capability of human demineralized bone powder using a rat model. Twenty rats received two separate implants consisting of 30 mg aseptically-harvested and 30 mg gamma irradiated demineralized bone powder. The implants from each group were placed into two separate muscle pouch in the paravertebral muscles of each rat. All 20 rats were euthanized after 4 weeks and each implantation site was removed with 0.5 cm normal tissue around the implant. Histological examination was done to determine the presence or absence of new bone, cartilage and bone marrow element. All except one of 20 aseptically-harvested demineralized bone powder sites histologically contained new bone elements (95%) and six (30%) of 20 gamma irradiated demineralized bone powder sites showed evidence of new bone elements. There was significant difference between two groups (p<0.05). The results of this study indicate that gamma irradiation reduces osteoinductive properties of demineralized bone powder. But because of its availability and low cost it is widely used for secondary sterilization of bone allografts. (Author)

  4. Suppression Effect of Astaxanthin on Osteoclast Formation In Vitro and Bone Loss In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Ho Hwang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is characterized by a reduction of the bone mineral density (BMD and microarchitectural deterioration of the bone, which lead to bone fragility and susceptibility to fracture. Astaxanthin (AST has a variety of biological activities, such as a protective effect against asthma or neuroinflammation, antioxidant effect, and decrease of the osteoclast number in the right mandibles in the periodontitis model. Although treatment with AST is known to have an effect on inflammation, no studies on the effect of AST exposure on bone loss have been performed. Thus, in the present study, we examined the antiosteoporotic effect of AST on bone mass in ovariectomized (OVX mice and its possible mechanism of action. The administration of AST (5, 10 mg/kg for 6 weeks suppressed the enhancement of serum calcium, inorganic phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, total cholesterol, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP activity. The bone mineral density (BMD and bone microarchitecture of the trabecular bone in the tibia and femur were recovered by AST exposure. Moreover, in the in vitro experiment, we demonstrated that AST inhibits osteoclast formation through the expression of the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT c1, dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP, TRAP, and cathepsin K without any cytotoxic effects on bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs. Therefore, we suggest that AST may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  5. The effect of 12-month participation in osteogenic and non-osteogenic sports on bone development in adolescent male athletes. The PRO-BONE study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachopoulos, Dimitris; Barker, Alan R; Ubago-Guisado, Esther

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Research investigating the longitudinal effects of the most popular sports on bone development in adolescent males is scarce. The aim is to investigate the effect of 12-month participation in osteogenic and non-osteogenic sports on bone development. DESIGN: A 12-month study...... by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and bone stiffness was measured by quantitative ultrasound. Bone outcomes at 12 months were adjusted for baseline bone status, age, height, lean mass and moderate to vigorous physical activity. RESULTS: Footballers had higher improvement in adjusted BMC at the total...... body, total hip, shaft, Ward's triangle, legs and bone stiffness compared to cyclists (6.3-8.0%). Footballers had significantly higher adjusted BMC at total body, shaft and legs compared to swimmers (5.4-5.6%). There was no significant difference between swimmers and cyclists for any bone outcomes...

  6. Late health effects of chronic radiation exposure of bone marrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarmoshenko, Ilia V.; Malinovsky, Georgy P.; Konshina, Lidia G.; Zhukovsky, Michael V. [Institute of Industrial Ecology UB RAS, 620219, 20, Sophy Kovalevskoy St., Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Tuzankina, Irina A. [Institute of Immunology and Physiology UB RAS, 620049, 106, Pervomayskaya St., Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Accidental explosion of waste storage tank at former soviet plutonium production plant 'Mayak' in 1957 resulted in emission of considerable amount of radioactive substances to the atmosphere. Atmospheric transfer and fallout caused contamination of the environment by Sr-90 and short-lived radionuclides (East-Ural Radioactive Trace, EURT). Due to consumption of contaminated food and milk some internal organs were affected to relatively high radiation exposure. Archive data of causes of deaths of rural population of EURT northern part for period 1957-2000 were used to create the Register on causes of deaths. Register records related to the settlements where initial surface contamination by Sr-90 was above and below 3.7 kBq/m2 were included to exposed (4 844 records) and unexposed (6 158 records) group respectively. Basing on the Register the analysis of cancer and non-cancer health effects of radiation exposure was conducted. By estimating proportionate mortality ratios statistically significant excess mortality due to the groups of causes of death as follow was observed in exposed population: stomach, liver and cervix cancers; group consisted only of stomach cancer; non-cancer deceases of infectious etiology. Non-significant but remarkably high risk was observed for the following groups of causes of death: bone cancer; leukemia; liver cancer; cervix cancer. Insignificant, virtually zero risk was found for: non-gastrointestinal solid cancers; colon and lung cancers; non-infectious non-cancer deceases. At the same time, considerable radiation doses were absorbed in bone (mean bone surface dose about 0.1 Gy) and colon (mean dose about 0.07 Gy). Doses absorbed in other organs and tissues were negligible and amounted less than 0.01 Gy for most tissues. It can be seen that some disagreement between observed effects and absorbed doses is revealed. Most remarkable is the high excess risks of stomach, liver and cervix cancers as well as non-cancer deceases of

  7. Effect of hyperthyroidism and its treatment on bone mineral content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toh, S.H.; Claunch, B.C.; Brown, P.H.

    1985-01-01

    Patients with hyperthyroidism may develop osteopenia associated with fractures; however, there has been no general agreement on the incidence of osteopenia in hyperthyroidism or the recovery of the mineral loss after treatment of hyperthyroidism. The authors conducted a longitudinal prospective study on the effect of hyperthyroidism and its treatment on bone mineral content (BMC) using photon absorptiometry. They observed that both young and older hyperthyroid patients showed a significantly decreased baseline BMC compared with age- and sex-matched controls. They also observed a slight recovery of BMC in hyperthyroid patients at the two-year interval after a euthyroid state had been achieved. However, the BMC was still much lower than that of controls, and they did not find any significant restoration of BMC following ''cure'' of hyperthyroidism

  8. Dental pulp stem cells in regenerative dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, Luciano; Cordeiro, Mabel M; Nör, Silvia A; Nör, Jacques E

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells constitute the source of differentiated cells for the generation of tissues during development, and for regeneration of tissues that are diseased or injured postnatally. In recent years, stem cell research has grown exponentially owing to the recognition that stem cell-based therapies have the potential to improve the life of patients with conditions that span from Alzheimer's disease to cardiac ischemia to bone or tooth loss. Growing evidence demonstrates that stem cells are primarily found in niches and that certain tissues contain more stem cells than others. Among these tissues, the dental pulp is considered a rich source of mesenchymal stem cells that are suitable for tissue engineering applications. It is known that dental pulp stem cells have the potential to differentiate into several cell types, including odontoblasts, neural progenitors, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. The dental pulp stem cells are highly proliferative. This characteristic facilitates ex vivo expansion and enhances the translational potential of these cells. Notably, the dental pulp is arguably the most accessible source of postnatal stem cells. Collectively, the multipotency, high proliferation rates, and accessibility make the dental pulp an attractive source of mesenchymal stem cells for tissue regeneration. This review discusses fundamental concepts of stem cell biology and tissue engineering within the context of regenerative dentistry.

  9. Hierarchical Design of Tissue Regenerative Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jonas C; De Laporte, Laura

    2018-03-01

    The worldwide shortage of organs fosters significant advancements in regenerative therapies. Tissue engineering and regeneration aim to supply or repair organs or tissues by combining material scaffolds, biochemical signals, and cells. The greatest challenge entails the creation of a suitable implantable or injectable 3D macroenvironment and microenvironment to allow for ex vivo or in vivo cell-induced tissue formation. This review gives an overview of the essential components of tissue regenerating scaffolds, ranging from the molecular to the macroscopic scale in a hierarchical manner. Further, this review elaborates about recent pivotal technologies, such as photopatterning, electrospinning, 3D bioprinting, or the assembly of micrometer-scale building blocks, which enable the incorporation of local heterogeneities, similar to most native extracellular matrices. These methods are applied to mimic a vast number of different tissues, including cartilage, bone, nerves, muscle, heart, and blood vessels. Despite the tremendous progress that has been made in the last decade, it remains a hurdle to build biomaterial constructs in vitro or in vivo with a native-like structure and architecture, including spatiotemporal control of biofunctional domains and mechanical properties. New chemistries and assembly methods in water will be crucial to develop therapies that are clinically translatable and can evolve into organized and functional tissues. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Effects of Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 on Vertical Bone Augmentation in a Canine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yung-Ting; Al-Hezaimi, Khalid; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; O'Valle, Francisco; Al-Rasheed, Abdulaziz; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2017-09-01

    Vertical bone augmentation (VBA) remains unpredictable and challenging for most clinicians. This study aims to compare hard tissue outcomes of VBA, with and without recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP)-2, under space-making titanium mesh in a canine model. Eleven male beagle dogs were used in the study. Experimental ridge defects were created to form atrophic ridges. VBA was performed via guided bone regeneration using titanium mesh and allografts. In experimental hemimandibles, rhBMP-2/absorbable collagen sponge was well mixed with allografts prior to procedures, whereas a control buffer was applied within controls. Dogs were euthanized after a 4-month healing period. Clinical and radiographic examinations were performed to assess ridge dimensional changes. In addition, specimens were used for microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) assessment and histologic analysis. Membrane exposure was found on five of 11 (45.5%) rhBMP-2-treated sites, whereas it was found on nine of 11 (81.8%) non-rhBMP-2-treated sites. Within 4 months of healing, rhBMP-2-treated sites showed better radiographic bone density, greater defect fill, and significantly more bone gain in ridge height (P 0.05). Under light microscope, predominant lamellar patterns were found in the specimen obtained from rhBMP-2 sites. With inherent limitations of the canine model and the concern of such a demanding surgical technique, current findings suggest that the presence of rhBMP-2 in a composite graft allows an increase of vertical gain, with formation of ectopic bone over the titanium mesh in comparison with non-rhBMP-2 sites.

  11. Osteostatin-coated porous titanium can improve early bone regeneration of cortical bone defects in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Stok, Johan; Lozano, Daniel; Chai, Yoke Chin; Amin Yavari, Saber; Bastidas Coral, Angela P.; Verhaar, Jan A N; Gómez-Barrena, Enrique; Schrooten, Jan; Jahr, Holger; Zadpoor, Amir A.; Esbrit, Pedro; Weinans, Harrie

    2015-01-01

    A promising bone graft substitute is porous titanium. Porous titanium, produced by selective laser melting (SLM), can be made as a completely open porous and load-bearing scaffold that facilitates bone regeneration through osteoconduction. In this study, the bone regenerative capacity of porous

  12. REGEN: Ancestral Genome Reconstruction for Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Kuan; Heath, Lenwood S.; Setubal, João C.

    2012-01-01

    Ancestral genome reconstruction can be understood as a phylogenetic study with more details than a traditional phylogenetic tree reconstruction. We present a new computational system called REGEN for ancestral bacterial genome reconstruction at both the gene and replicon levels. REGEN reconstructs gene content, contiguous gene runs, and replicon structure for each ancestral genome. Along each branch of the phylogenetic tree, REGEN infers evolutionary events, including gene creation and deleti...

  13. Effect of Microgravity on Bone Tissue and Calcium Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Session TA4 includes short reports concerning: (1) Human Bone Tissue Changes after Long-Term Space Flight: Phenomenology and Possible Mechanics; (2) Prediction of Femoral Neck Bone Mineral Density Change in Space; (3) Dietary Calcium in Space; (4) Calcium Metabolism During Extended-Duration Space Flight; (5) External Impact Loads on the Lower Extremity During Jumping in Simulated Microgravity and the Relationship to Internal Bone Strain; and (6) Bone Loss During Long Term Space Flight is Prevented by the Application of a Short Term Impulsive Mechanical Stimulus.

  14. Trans-differentiation via Epigenetics: A New Paradigm in the Bone Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Dan; Ryoo, Hyun-Mo

    2018-02-01

    In regenerative medicine, growing cells or tissues in the laboratory is necessary when damaged cells can not heal by themselves. Acquisition of the required cells from the patient's own cells or tissues is an ideal option without additive side effects. In this context, cell reprogramming methods, including the use of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and trans-differentiation, have been widely studied in regenerative research. Both approaches have advantages and disadvantages, and the possibility of de-differentiation because of the epigenetic memory of iPSCs has strengthened the need for controlling the epigenetic background for successful cell reprogramming. Therefore, interest in epigenetics has increased in the field of regenerative medicine. Herein, we outline in detail the cell trans-differentiation method using epigenetic modification for bone regeneration in comparison to the use of iPSCs.

  15. Effect of GH/IGF-1 on Bone Metabolism and Osteoporsosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Locatelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Growth hormone (GH and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1 are fundamental in skeletal growth during puberty and bone health throughout life. GH increases tissue formation by acting directly and indirectly on target cells; IGF-1 is a critical mediator of bone growth. Clinical studies reporting the use of GH and IGF-1 in osteoporosis and fracture healing are outlined. Methods. A Pubmed search revealed 39 clinical studies reporting the effects of GH and IGF-1 administration on bone metabolism in osteopenic and osteoporotic human subjects and on bone healing in operated patients with normal GH secretion. Eighteen clinical studies considered the effect with GH treatment, fourteen studies reported the clinical effects with IGF-1 administration, and seven related to the GH/IGF-1 effect on bone healing. Results. Both GH and IGF-1 administration significantly increased bone resorption and bone formation in the most studies. GH/IGF-1 administration in patients with hip or tibial fractures resulted in increased bone healing, rapid clinical improvements. Some conflicting results were evidenced. Conclusions. GH and IGF-1 therapy has a significant anabolic effect. GH administration for the treatment of osteoporosis and bone fractures may greatly improve clinical outcome. GH interacts with sex steroids in the anabolic process. GH resistance process is considered.

  16. Effect of GH/IGF-1 on Bone Metabolism and Osteoporsosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Vittorio; Bianchi, Vittorio E.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) are fundamental in skeletal growth during puberty and bone health throughout life. GH increases tissue formation by acting directly and indirectly on target cells; IGF-1 is a critical mediator of bone growth. Clinical studies reporting the use of GH and IGF-1 in osteoporosis and fracture healing are outlined. Methods. A Pubmed search revealed 39 clinical studies reporting the effects of GH and IGF-1 administration on bone metabolism in osteopenic and osteoporotic human subjects and on bone healing in operated patients with normal GH secretion. Eighteen clinical studies considered the effect with GH treatment, fourteen studies reported the clinical effects with IGF-1 administration, and seven related to the GH/IGF-1 effect on bone healing. Results. Both GH and IGF-1 administration significantly increased bone resorption and bone formation in the most studies. GH/IGF-1 administration in patients with hip or tibial fractures resulted in increased bone healing, rapid clinical improvements. Some conflicting results were evidenced. Conclusions. GH and IGF-1 therapy has a significant anabolic effect. GH administration for the treatment of osteoporosis and bone fractures may greatly improve clinical outcome. GH interacts with sex steroids in the anabolic process. GH resistance process is considered. PMID:25147565

  17. Regenerative Engineering and Bionic Limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Roshan; Laurencin, Cato T

    2015-03-01

    Amputations of the upper extremity are severely debilitating, current treatments support very basic limb movement, and patients undergo extensive physiotherapy and psychological counselling. There is no prosthesis that allows the amputees near-normal function. With increasing number of amputees due to injuries sustained in accidents, natural calamities and international conflicts, there is a growing requirement for novel strategies and new discoveries. Advances have been made in technological, material and in prosthesis integration where researchers are now exploring artificial prosthesis that integrate with the residual tissues and function based on signal impulses received from the residual nerves. Efforts are focused on challenging experts in different disciplines to integrate ideas and technologies to allow for the regeneration of injured tissues, recording on tissue signals and feed-back to facilitate responsive movements and gradations of muscle force. A fully functional replacement and regenerative or integrated prosthesis will rely on interface of biological process with robotic systems to allow individual control of movement such as at the elbow, forearm, digits and thumb in the upper extremity. Regenerative engineering focused on the regeneration of complex tissue and organ systems will be realized by the cross-fertilization of advances over the past thirty years in the fields of tissue engineering, nanotechnology, stem cell science, and developmental biology. The convergence of toolboxes crated within each discipline will allow interdisciplinary teams from engineering, science, and medicine to realize new strategies, mergers of disparate technologies, such as biophysics, smart bionics, and the healing power of the mind. Tackling the clinical challenges, interfacing the biological process with bionic technologies, engineering biological control of the electronic systems, and feed-back will be the important goals in regenerative engineering over the next

  18. Regenerative braking system of PM synchronous motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qian; Lv, Chengxing; Zhao, Na; Zang, Hechao; Jiang, Huilue; Zhang, Zhaowen; Zhang, Fengli

    2018-04-01

    Permanent-magnet synchronous motor is widely adopted in many fields with the advantage of a high efficiency and a high torque density. Regenerative Braking Systems (RBS) provide an efficient method to assist PMSM system achieve better fuel economy and lowering exhaust emissions. This paper describes the design and testing of the regenerative braking systems of PMSM. The mode of PWM duty has been adjusted to control regenerative braking of PMSM using energy controller for the port-controlled Hamiltonian model. The simulation analysis indicates that a smooth control could be realized and the highest efficiency and the smallest current ripple could be achieved by Regenerative Braking Systems.

  19. Regenerative Rehabilitation – a New Future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Terzic, Carmen; Childers, Martin K.

    2014-01-01

    Modern rehabilitation medicine is propelled by newfound knowledge aimed at offering solutions for an increasingly aging population afflicted by chronic debilitating conditions. Considered a core component of future healthcare, the roll-out of regenerative medicine underscores a paradigm shift in patient management targeted at restoring physiologic function and restituting normative impact. Nascent regenerative technologies offer unprecedented prospects in achieving repair of degenerated, diseased or damaged tissues. In this context, principles of regenerative science are increasingly integrated in rehabilitation practices as illustrated in the present Supplement. Encompassing a growing multidisciplinary domain, the emergent era of “regenerative rehabilitation” brings radical innovations at the forefront of healthcare blueprints. PMID:25310603

  20. Assessment of gene-by-sex interaction effect on bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ching-Ti; Estrada, Karol; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M

    2012-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in various bone phenotypes, including bone mineral density (BMD), is widely observed; however, the extent to which genes explain these sex differences is unclear. To identify variants with different effects by sex, we examined gene-by-sex autosomal interactions genome-wide, and ......Sexual dimorphism in various bone phenotypes, including bone mineral density (BMD), is widely observed; however, the extent to which genes explain these sex differences is unclear. To identify variants with different effects by sex, we examined gene-by-sex autosomal interactions genome...

  1. Effect of latrogenic trauma on the bone scintigram: an animal study. Concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alazraki, N.; Moitoza, J.; Heaphy, J.; Taylor, A. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    An animal study was performed to assess the effect on the Tc-99m phosphate bone scintigram of injury by needle aspiration or drill hole to metaphyseal and diaphyseal areas in immature and mature bones. Results showed that in 12 immature rabbits such trauma to metaphyseal regions had no effect on the bone image. Similar metaphyseal trauma in two mature dogs showed definite abnormalities on the bone image, but in one mature rabbit, no abnormality could be identified by scintigram. Diaphyseal trauma always gave a definitely abnormal bone image. Extrapolation of these results to humans should be cautious, but it suggests that needling or drilling in metaphyseal regions in neonates or young children probably does not affect later bone images

  2. Regenerative medicine in dental and oral tissues: Dental pulp mesenchymal stem cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janti Sudiono

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Regenerative medicine is a new therapeutic modality using cell, stem cell and tissue engineering technologies. Purpose. To describe the regenerative capacity of dental pulp mesenchymal stem cell. Review. In dentistry, stem cell and tissue engineering technologies develop incredibly and attract great interest, due to the capacity to facilitate innovation in dental material and regeneration of dental and oral tissues. Mesenchymal stem cells derived from dental pulp, periodontal ligament and dental follicle, can be isolated, cultured and differentiated into various cells, so that can be useful for regeneration of dental, nerves, periodontal and bone tissues. Tissue engineering is a technology in reconstructive biology, which utilizes mechanical, cellular, or biological mediators to facilitate regeneration or reconstruction of a particular tissue. The multipotency, high proliferation rates and accessibility, make dental pulp as an attractive source of mesenchymal stem cells for tissue regeneration. Revitalized dental pulp and continued root development is the focus of regenerative endodontic while biological techniques that can restore lost alveolar bone, periodontal ligament, and root cementum is the focus of regenerative periodontic. Conclucion. Dentin-derived morphogens such as BMP are known to be involved in the regulation of odontogenesis. The multipotency and angiogenic capacity of DPSCs as the regenerative capacity of human dentin / pulp complex indicated that dental pulp may contain progenitors that are responsible for dentin repair. The human periodontal ligament is a viable alternative source for possible primitive precursors to be used in stem cell therapy.

  3. Effects of a perfusion bioreactor activated novel bone substitute in spine fusion in sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Roed; Koroma, Kariatta Ester; Ding, Ming

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of a large perfusion-bioreactor cell-activated bone substitute, on a two-level large posterolateral spine fusion sheep model.......To evaluate the effect of a large perfusion-bioreactor cell-activated bone substitute, on a two-level large posterolateral spine fusion sheep model....

  4. The Anabolic Effect of PTH on Bone is Attenuated by Simultaneous Glucocorticoid Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxlund, Hans; Ørtoft, Gitte; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus

    2006-01-01

    . The pronounced anabolic effect of PTH injections on the endocortical and trabecular bone surfaces and less pronounced anabolic effect on periosteal surfaces were partially inhibited, but not prevented, by simultaneous GC treatment in old rats. Both cortical and cancellous bone possessed full mechanical...

  5. Effect of hormone replacement therapy on bone quality in early postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paschalis, E P; Boskey, A L; Kassem, M

    2003-01-01

    HRT is an effective prophylaxis against postmenopausal bone loss. Infrared imaging of paired iliac crest biopsies obtained at baseline and after 2 years of HRT therapy demonstrate an effect on the mineral crystallinity and collagen cross-links that may affect bone quality. Several studies have de...

  6. Effects of Alendronate and Raloxifene on Bone Density and Bone Turnover Markers in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Zülfikaroğlu

    2011-04-01

    CONCLUSION: ALN 70 mg once- weekly significantly produced greater increases in spine and greater but not significantly increases in hip BMD and significantly greater reductions in markers of bone turnover than RLX in 1 yr treatment period. Both ALN and RLX treatment groups have similar safety and tolerability profiles.

  7. Local effect of zoledronic acid on new bone formation in posterolateral spinal fusion with demineralized bone matrix in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwolak, Pawel; Farei-Campagna, Jan; Jentzsch, Thorsten; von Rechenberg, Brigitte; Werner, Clément M

    2018-01-01

    Posterolateral spinal fusion is a common orthopaedic surgery performed to treat degenerative and traumatic deformities of the spinal column. In posteriolateral spinal fusion, different osteoinductive demineralized bone matrix products have been previously investigated. We evaluated the effect of locally applied zoledronic acid in combination with commercially available demineralized bone matrix putty on new bone formation in posterolateral spinal fusion in a murine in vivo model. A posterolateral sacral spine fusion in murine model was used to evaluate the new bone formation. We used the sacral spine fusion model to model the clinical situation in which a bone graft or demineralized bone matrix is applied after dorsal instrumentation of the spine. In our study, group 1 received decortications only (n = 10), group 2 received decortication, and absorbable collagen sponge carrier, group 3 received decortication and absorbable collagen sponge carrier with zoledronic acid in dose 10 µg, group 4 received demineralized bone matrix putty (DBM putty) plus decortication (n = 10), and group 5 received DBM putty, decortication and locally applied zoledronic acid in dose 10 µg. Imaging was performed using MicroCT for new bone formation assessment. Also, murine spines were harvested for histopathological analysis 10 weeks after surgery. The surgery performed through midline posterior approach was reproducible. In group with decortication alone there was no new bone formation. Application of demineralized bone matrix putty alone produced new bone formation which bridged the S1-S4 laminae. Local application of zoledronic acid to demineralized bone matrix putty resulted in significant increase of new bone formation as compared to demineralized bone matrix putty group alone. A single local application of zoledronic acid with DBM putty during posterolateral fusion in sacral murine spine model increased significantly new bone formation in situ in our model. Therefore, our

  8. Poor bone health in underprivileged Indian girls: an effect of low bone mass accrual during puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadilkar, Anuradha V; Sanwalka, Neha J; Kadam, Nidhi S; Chiplonkar, Shashi A; Khadilkar, Vaman V; Mughal, M Zulf

    2012-05-01

    A socio-economic gradient exists for most reasons of morbidity and mortality including delayed puberty in lower (LSES) as compared to higher (HSES) socio-economic stratum and puberty is an important factor affecting bone status in children and adolescents. Thus, a cross-sectional study was conducted on 195 age-matched pairs of girls (8-17years) from LSES and HSES in Pune City, India to assess the hypothesis that socio-economic factors working through late puberty would have a negative association with bone status of adolescents. Height, weight and Tanner stage were assessed. Total body bone mineral content (TBBMC), total body bone area (TBBA), total body bone mineral density (TBBMD), lean body mass (LBM) and total body fat mass (TBFM) were measured using GE Lunar DPX Pro Pencil Beam DXA (Wisconsin, USA) scanner. Mean TBBMC (1172±434g), TBBA (1351±356cm(2)), TBBMD (0.846±0.104g/cm(2)), LBM (21,622±5306g) and TBFM (7746±5194g) in LSES girls were significantly lower than that of HSES girls [TBBMC (1483±525g), TBBA (1533±380cm(2)), TBBMD (0.942±0.119g/cm(2)), LBM (24,308±5829g) and TBFM (12,196±7404g)] (pbone parameters. The differences in TBBMC, TBBA, LBM and TBFM between the 2 socio-economic strata at Tanner stage I were not significant (p>0.1) whereas there were significant differences in these parameters from Tanner stages II to V (pbone health in adolescent girls from the lower socio-economic stratum. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Male Hypogonadism and Osteoporosis: The Effects, Clinical Consequences, and Treatment of Testosterone Deficiency in Bone Health

    OpenAIRE

    Golds, Gary; Houdek, Devon; Arnason, Terra

    2017-01-01

    It is well recognized that bone loss accelerates in hypogonadal states, with female menopause being the classic example of sex hormones affecting the regulation of bone metabolism. Underrepresented is our knowledge of the clinical and metabolic consequences of overt male hypogonadism, as well as the more subtle age-related decline in testosterone on bone quality. While menopause and estrogen deficiency are well-known risk factors for osteoporosis in women, the effects of age-related testoster...

  10. Applications of Metals for Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Glenske

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The regeneration of bone tissue is the main purpose of most therapies in dental medicine. For bone regeneration, calcium phosphate (CaP-based substitute materials based on natural (allo- and xenografts and synthetic origins (alloplastic materials are applied for guiding the regeneration processes. The optimal bone substitute has to act as a substrate for bone ingrowth into a defect, as well as resorb in the time frame needed for complete regeneration up to the condition of restitution ad integrum. In this context, the modes of action of CaP-based substitute materials have been frequently investigated, where it has been shown that such materials strongly influence regenerative processes such as osteoblast growth or differentiation and also osteoclastic resorption due to different physicochemical properties of the materials. However, the material characteristics needed for the required ratio between new bone tissue formation and material degradation has not been found, until now. The addition of different substances such as collagen or growth factors and also of different cell types has already been tested but did not allow for sufficient or prompt application. Moreover, metals or metal ions are used differently as a basis or as supplement for different materials in the field of bone regeneration. Moreover, it has already been shown that different metal ions are integral components of bone tissue, playing functional roles in the physiological cellular environment as well as in the course of bone healing. The present review focuses on frequently used metals as integral parts of materials designed for bone regeneration, with the aim to provide an overview of currently existing knowledge about the effects of metals in the field of bone regeneration.

  11. Effect of ethylene oxide sterilization on the osteoinductivity of demineralized allograft bone powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid Reza Aghayan; Babak Arjmand; Mehdi Golestani; Farokh Tirgari

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Ethylene oxide has been widely used for secondary sterilization of bone allograft to reduce the risk of infection and associated complications. In this study we investigate the effects of ethylene oxide gas sterilization on the osteoinductivity of demineralized bone Powder. Eighteen rats received two separate implants consisting of 30 mg aseptically prepared and 30 mg ethylene oxide-sterilized demineralized bone powder. The demineralized bone powder from each group was placed into two separate muscle pouch created in the paravertebral muscles of each rat. After 4 weeks each implantation site was removed with 0.5 cm normal tissue around the implant. Histological examination was done to determine the presence or absence of osteoinduction. All except one of eighteen aseptically prepared demineralized bone powder sites histologically contained new bone elements (94.4%) and fourteen (77.7%) of ethylene oxide sterilized demineralized bone powder sites showed evidence of new bone elements (p>0.05). There is no significant difference in osteoblast formation in two groups. We concluded that ethylene oxide sterilization in 42 degree C did not significantly reduce the osteoinductivity of demineralized bone powder. So ethylene oxide can be considered as a suitable but not perfect method for secondary sterilization of demineralized bone powder. (Author)

  12. Effect of bone-soft tissue friction on ultrasound axial shear strain elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Songyuan; Chaudhry, Anuj; Kim, Namhee; Reddy, J N; Righetti, Raffaella

    2017-07-12

    Bone-soft tissue friction is an important factor affecting several musculoskeletal disorders, frictional syndromes and the ability of a bone fracture to heal. However, this parameter is difficult to determine using non-invasive imaging modalities, especially in clinical settings. Ultrasound axial shear strain elastography is a non-invasive imaging modality that has been used in the recent past to estimate the bonding between different tissue layers. As most elastography methods, axial shear strain elastography is primarily used in soft tissues. More recently, this technique has been proposed to assess the bone-soft tissue interface. In this paper, we investigate the effect of a variation in bone-soft tissue friction coefficient in the resulting axial shear strain elastograms. Finite element poroelastic models of bone specimens exhibiting different bone-soft tissue friction coefficients were created and mechanically analyzed. These models were then imported to an ultrasound elastography simulation module to assess the presence of axial shear strain patterns. In vitro experiments were performed to corroborate selected simulation results. The results of this study show that the normalized axial shear strain estimated at the bone-soft tissue interface is statistically correlated to the bone-soft tissue coefficient of friction. This information may prove useful to better interpret ultrasound elastography results obtained in bone-related applications and, possibly, monitor bone healing.

  13. Effects of Nrf2 Deficiency on Bone Microarchitecture in an Experimental Model of Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Ibáñez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Redox imbalance contributes to bone fragility. We have evaluated the in vivo role of nuclear factor erythroid derived 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2, an important regulator of cellular responses to oxidative stress, in bone metabolism using a model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Methods. Ovariectomy was performed in both wild-type and mice deficient in Nrf2 (Nrf2−/−. Bone microarchitecture was analyzed by μCT. Serum markers of bone metabolism were also measured. Reactive oxygen species production was determined using dihydrorhodamine 123. Results. Sham-operated or ovariectomized Nrf2−/− mice exhibit a loss in trabecular bone mineral density in femur, accompanied by a reduction in cortical area in vertebrae. Nrf2 deficiency tended to increase osteoblastic markers and significantly enhanced osteoclastic markers in sham-operated animals indicating an increased bone turnover with a main effect on bone resorption. We have also shown an increased production of oxidative stress in bone marrow-derived cells from sham-operated or ovariectomized Nrf2−/− mice and a higher responsiveness of bone marrow-derived cells to osteoclastogenic stimuli in vitro. Conclusion. We have demonstrated in vivo a key role of Nrf2 in the maintenance of bone microarchitecture.

  14. Effects of the 3D bone-to-implant contact and bone stiffness on the initial stability of a dental implant: micro-CT and resonance frequency analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, J T; Huang, H L; Tsai, M T; Wu, A Y J; Tu, M G; Fuh, L J

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of bone stiffness (elastic modulus) and three-dimensional (3D) bone-to-implant contact ratio (BIC%) on the primary stabilities of dental implants using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and resonance frequency analyses. Artificial sawbone models with five values of elastic modulus (137, 123, 47.5, 22, and 12.4 MPa) comprising two types of trabecular structure (solid-rigid and cellular-rigid) were investigated for initial implant stability quotient (ISQ), measured using the wireless Osstell resonance frequency analyzer. Bone specimens were attached to 2 mm fibre-filled epoxy sheets mimicking the cortical shell. ISQ was measured after placing a dental implant into the bone specimen. Each bone specimen with an implant was subjected to micro-CT scanning to calculate the 3D BIC% values. The similarity of the cellular type of artificial bone to the trabecular structure might make it more appropriate for obtaining accurate values of primary implant stability than solid-bone blocks. For the cellular-rigid bone models, the ISQ increased with the elastic modulus of cancellous bone. The regression correlation coefficient was 0.96 for correlations of the ISQ with the elasticity of cancellous bone and with the 3D BIC%. The initial implant stability was moderately positively correlated with the elasticity of cancellous bone and with the 3D BIC%. Copyright © 2012 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A novel use of 3D printing model demonstrates the effects of deteriorated trabecular bone structure on bone stiffness and strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Meir Max; Black, Margaret Arielle

    2018-02-01

    Trabecular bone structure is crucial to normal mechanical behavior of bones. Studies have shown that osteoporosis negatively affects trabecular bone structure, mainly by reducing bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and thus increasing fracture risk. One major limitation in assessing and quantifying the effect of this structural deterioration is that no two trabecular structures are identical. Thus, when we compare a group of healthy bones against a different group of bones that experienced resorption (i.e. decreased BV/TV) we only discover an "average" mechanical effect. It is impossible to quantify the mechanical effect of individual structural deterioration for each sample, simply because we never have the same sample in both states (intact and deteriorated structure). 3D printing is a new technology that can assist in overcoming this issue. Here we report a preliminary study that compares a healthy 3D printed trabecular bone model with the same model after bone resorption was simulated. Since the deteriorated structural bone model is derived from the healthy one, it is possible to directly estimate (percentage wise) the decrease of tissue stiffness and strength as a result of bone resorption for this specific structure. Our results demonstrate that a relatively small decrease in BV/TV (about 8%) leads to a dramatic decrease in structural strength (24%) and structural stiffness (17%), (P printing is a novel and valuable tool for quantifying the effect of structural deterioration on the mechanical properties of trabecular bone. In the future, this approach may help us attain better personal fracture risk assessments by CT scanning, 3D printing and mechanically testing individual bone replicas from patients suffering excessive bone resorption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparative radioprotective studies of chlorpromazine and cysteamine on rat bone development; Effect on serum and bone proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdeen, A M; Ibrahim, H A; Badawy, M; Elkholy, W M.E.

    1986-01-01

    Experiments were planned to study the radioprotective effect of chlorpromazine (CPZ) and Cysteamine (Cys), when injected separately or combined before irradiation, on some factors affecting the development of rat bone. The results obtained can be summarized as follows: (1) The body weight decreased due to gamma-irradiation. (2) The mortality rate increased after irradiation, but diminished by single or double chemical injection before irradiation. (3) The serum total protein; albumin, globulin contents and A/G ratio were significantly increased, 6 hrs. After irradiation, then declined afterwards. (4) Histochemically, a decrease in bone protein content was demonstrates after irradiation. The above irradiation effects were suppressed by injection of the radioprotective substances. Their effect seems to be cumulative. 4 fig.,3 tab.

  17. Mechanism analysis and evaluation methodology of regenerative braking contribution to energy efficiency improvement of electrified vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Chen; Zhang, Junzhi; Li, Yutong; Yuan, Ye

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The energy flow of an electric vehicle with regenerative brake is analyzed. • Methodology for measuring the regen brake contribution is discussed. • Evaluation parameters of regen brake contribution are proposed. • Vehicle tests are carried out on chassis dynamometer. • Test results verify the evaluation method and parameters proposed. - Abstract: This article discusses the mechanism and evaluation methods of contribution brought by regenerative braking to electric vehicle’s energy efficiency improvement. The energy flow of an electric vehicle considering the braking energy regeneration was analyzed. Then, methodologies for measuring the contribution made by regenerative brake to vehicle energy efficiency improvement were introduced. Based on the energy flow analyzed, two different evaluation parameters were proposed. Vehicle tests were carried out on chassis dynamometer under typical driving cycles with three different control strategies. The experimental results the difference between the proposed two evaluation parameters, and demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the evaluation methodologies proposed

  18. Developing effective automated feedback in temporal bone surgery simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijewickrema, Sudanthi; Piromchai, Patorn; Zhou, Yun; Ioannou, Ioanna; Bailey, James; Kennedy, Gregor; O'Leary, Stephen

    2015-06-01

    We aim to test the effectiveness, accuracy, and usefulness of an automated feedback system in facilitating skill acquisition in virtual reality surgery. We evaluate the performance of the feedback system through a randomized controlled trial of 24 students allocated to feedback and nonfeedback groups. The feedback system was based on the Melbourne University temporal bone surgery simulator. The study was conducted at the simulation laboratory of the Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, Melbourne. The study participants were medical students from the University of Melbourne, who were asked to perform virtual cortical mastoidectomy on the simulator. The extent to which the drilling behavior of the feedback and nonfeedback groups differed was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the system. Its accuracy was determined through a postexperiment observational assessment of recordings made during the experiment by an expert surgeon. Its usability was evaluated using students' self-reports of their impressions of the system. A Friedman's test showed that there was a significant improvement in the drilling performance of the feedback group, χ(2)(1) = 14.450, P feedback (when trainee behavior was detected) 88.6% of the time and appropriate feedback (accurate advice) 84.2% of the time. Participants' opinions about the usefulness of the system were highly positive. The automated feedback system was observed to be effective in improving surgical technique, and the provided feedback was found to be accurate and useful. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  19. Effects of Curcumin on Bone Loss and Biochemical Markers of Bone Turnover in Patients with Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatefi, Masoud; Ahmadi, Mohammad Reza Hafezi; Rahmani, Asghar; Dastjerdi, Masoud Moghadas; Asadollahi, Khairollah

    2018-06-01

    Osteoporosis is one of the most common problems of patients with spinal cord injuries (SCIs). The current study aimed to evaluate the antiosteoporotic effects of curcumin on densitometry parameters and biomarkers of bone turnovers among patients with SCI. The current controlled clinical trial was conducted among 100 patients with SCI referred to an outpatient clinic of rehabilitation in Ilam City, Iran, in 2013-2015. The intervention group received 110/mg/kg/day curcumin for 6 months and the control group received placebo. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in all patients. The level of procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide, serum carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen, osteocalcin, and bone-specific alkaline phosphates were compared before and after study. BMD indicators of lumbar, femoral neck, and total hip in the control group significantly decreased compared with the beginning of study. However, in the curcumin group, a significant increase was observed in BMD indicators of lumbar, femoral neck, and hip at the end of study compared with the beginning. There was also a significant difference between interventional and control groups for the mean BMD of femoral neck and hip at the end of study (0.718 ± 0.002 g/cm 2 vs. 0.712 ± 0.003 g/cm 2 and 0.742 ± 0.031 g/cm 2 vs. 0.692 ± 0.016 g/cm 2 , respectively). Curcumin, via modulation of densitometry indices and bone resorption markers, showed inhibitory effects on the process of osteoporosis. Treatment with curcumin was significantly associated with a decrease in the osteoporosis progression and bone turnover markers of patients with SCI after 6 months. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of short-term testosterone replacement on areal bone mineral density and bone turnover in young hypogonadal males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasun Deb

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Effect of parenteral testosterone esters administration on bone-mineral density (BMD and bone turnover in young age onset male hypogonadism is not studied in Indian subjects. Aims: To prospectively study the effect of short-term (6 months replacement therapy with parenteral testosterone enanthate-propionate combination on BMD and bone turnover markers in hypogonadal adult patients. Settings and Design: Prospective, tertiary care academic center. Materials and Methods: Thirteen young, otherwise healthy hypogonadal males (age 25.5 ± 4.9 yrs, serum testosterone 2.56 ± 4.29 nmol/l were subjected to BMD measurements (DXA and estimation of urinary Crosslaps™ and serum osteocalcin at baseline. Twelve healthy age and BMI-matched males served as controls for BMD measurements. The hypogonadal patients were administered parenteral testosterone esters (as mixed enanthate and propionate 250 mg i.m. every 2-3 weeks, and prospectively followed for 6 months. BMD and bone markers were studied at the end of 6 months. Statistical Analysis Used: Mann-Whitney nonparametric test, paired t-test and Pearson′s test of two-tail significance. Results: At baseline, BMD was significantly lower in hypogonadal males as compared to that in controls. With testosterone replacement, there was significant improvement in BMD, both at trabecular and cortical sites, There was a decline in bone turnover with treatment (Ur Crosslaps™:creatinine ratio: pretreatment 72.8 ± 40.4, post-treatment 35.5 ± 23.8 μg/mmol, P = 0.098; serum osteocalcin: pre-treatment 41.0 ± 16.8, post-treatment 31.7 ± 2.1 ng/ml, P = 0.393. Conclusions: Short-term parenteral testosterone replacement significantly improves BMD at the hip, lumbar spine and forearm in hypogonadal young males.

  1. Metabolic Syndrome and Bone: Pharmacologically Induced Diabetes has Deleterious Effect on Bone in Growing Obese Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagi, Cedo M; Edwards, Kristin; Berryman, Edwin

    2017-12-01

    Metabolic syndrome and osteoporosis share similar risk factors. Also, patients with diabetes have a higher risk of osteoporosis and fracture. Liver manifestations, such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), of metabolic syndrome are further aggravated in diabetics and often lead to liver failure. Our objective was to create a rat model of human metabolic syndrome and determine the long-term impact of early-onset T1D on bone structure and strength in obese growing rats. Male rats were given either standard chow and RO water (Controls) or a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet and sugar water containing 55% fructose and 45% glucose (HFD). A third group of rats received the HFD diet and a single dose of streptozotocin to induce type 1 diabetes (HFD/Sz). Body weight and glucose tolerance tests were conducted several times during the course of the study. Serum chemistry, liver enzymes, and biomarkers of bone metabolism were evaluated at 10 and 28 weeks. Shear wave elastography and histology were used to assess liver fibrosis. Cancellous bone structure and cortical bone geometry were evaluated by mCT and strength by the 3-point bending method. Body mass and fat accumulation was significantly higher in HFD and HFD/Sz rats compared to Controls. Rats in both the HFD and HFD/Sz groups developed NASH, although the change was more severe in diabetic rats. Although both groups of obese rats had larger bones, their cancellous structure and cortical thickness were reduced, resulting in diminished strength that was further aggravated by diabetes. The HFD and HFD/Sz rats recapitulate MeSy in humans with liver pathology consistent with NASH. Our data provide strong indication that obesity accompanied by type 1 diabetes significantly aggravates comorbidities of MeSy, including the development of osteopenia and weaker bones. The juvenile rat skeleton seems to be more vulnerable to damage imposed by obesity and diabetes and may offer a model to inform the underlying pathology associated

  2. The effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D on growth and bone mineralization in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and vitamin D are important for fat and bone metabolism but the intake is declining in Western societies with a potential deleterious effect on growth and bone health. Dietary PUFA composition favors the intake of omega-6 (n-6 PUFA) compared to omega-3 (n-3 PUFA...... early in life is essential for preventive steps against development of overweight and obesity. Vitamin D promotes bone mineralization and growth through regulation of the calcium homeostasis, and via activation of vitamin D receptors on bone and cartilage forming cells. However vitamin D insufficiency...... development, and fat percentage; serum vitamin D status in cord blood and height development and bone mineralization; and serum vitamin D status at 4 years and bone mineralization. This is performed in the Copenhagen Prospective Study of Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC2000). In Study 1, breast-milk n-3 PUFA...

  3. Orthodontic-periodontal interactions: Orthodontic extrusion in interdisciplinary regenerative treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolone, Maria Giacinta; Kaitsas, Roberto

    2018-06-01

    Orthodontics is a periodontal treatment. "Guided orthodontic regeneration" (GOR) procedures use orthodontic movements in perio-restorative patients. The GOR technique includes a guided orthodontic "soft tissue" regeneration (GOTR) and a guided orthodontic "bone" regeneration (GOBR) with a plastic soft tissue approach and a regenerating reality. The increased amount of soft tissue gained with orthodontic movement can be used for subsequent periodontal regenerative techniques. The increased amount of bone can as well improve primary implant stability and, eventually, simplify a GTR technique to regenerate soft tissues, to restore tooth with external resorption in aesthetic zone or to extract a tooth to create new hard-soft tissue for adjacent teeth. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  4. Alendronate Can Improve Bone Alterations in Experimental Diabetes by Preventing Antiosteogenic, Antichondrogenic, and Proadipocytic Effects of AGEs on Bone Marrow Progenitor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Rocío Chuguransky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bisphosphonates such as alendronate are antiosteoporotic drugs that inhibit the activity of bone-resorbing osteoclasts and secondarily promote osteoblastic function. Diabetes increases bone-matrix-associated advanced glycation end products (AGEs that impair bone marrow progenitor cell (BMPC osteogenic potential and decrease bone quality. Here we investigated the in vitro effect of alendronate and/or AGEs on the osteoblastogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic potential of BMPC isolated from nondiabetic untreated rats. We also evaluated the in vivo effect of alendronate (administered orally to rats with insulin-deficient Diabetes on long-bone microarchitecture and BMPC multilineage potential. In vitro, the osteogenesis (Runx2, alkaline phosphatase, type 1 collagen, and mineralization and chondrogenesis (glycosaminoglycan production of BMPC were both decreased by AGEs, while coincubation with alendronate prevented these effects. The adipogenesis of BMPC (PPARγ, intracellular triglycerides, and lipase was increased by AGEs, and this was prevented by coincubation with alendronate. In vivo, experimental Diabetes (a decreased femoral trabecular bone area, osteocyte density, and osteoclastic TRAP activity; (b increased bone marrow adiposity; and (c deregulated BMPC phenotypic potential (increasing adipogenesis and decreasing osteogenesis and chondrogenesis. Orally administered alendronate prevented all these Diabetes-induced effects on bone. Thus, alendronate could improve bone alterations in diabetic rats by preventing the antiosteogenic, antichondrogenic, and proadipocytic effects of AGEs on BMPC.

  5. High Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Activity Identifies a Subset of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells with Vascular Regenerative Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Stephen E; Kuljanin, Miljan; Cooper, Tyler T; Putman, David M; Lajoie, Gilles A; Hess, David A

    2017-06-01

    During culture expansion, multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) differentially express aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), an intracellular detoxification enzyme that protects long-lived cells against oxidative stress. Thus, MSC selection based on ALDH-activity may be used to reduce heterogeneity and distinguish MSC subsets with improved regenerative potency. After expansion of human bone marrow-derived MSCs, cell progeny was purified based on low versus high ALDH-activity (ALDH hi ) by fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and each subset was compared for multipotent stromal and provascular regenerative functions. Both ALDH l ° and ALDH hi MSC subsets demonstrated similar expression of stromal cell (>95% CD73 + , CD90 + , CD105 + ) and pericyte (>95% CD146 + ) surface markers and showed multipotent differentiation into bone, cartilage, and adipose cells in vitro. Conditioned media (CDM) generated by ALDH hi MSCs demonstrated a potent proliferative and prosurvival effect on human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs) under serum-free conditions and augmented HMVEC tube-forming capacity in growth factor-reduced matrices. After subcutaneous transplantation within directed in vivo angiogenesis assay implants into immunodeficient mice, ALDH hi MSC or CDM produced by ALDH hi MSC significantly augmented murine vascular cell recruitment and perfused vessel infiltration compared with ALDH l ° MSC. Although both subsets demonstrated strikingly similar mRNA expression patterns, quantitative proteomic analyses performed on subset-specific CDM revealed the ALDH hi MSC subset uniquely secreted multiple proangiogenic cytokines (vascular endothelial growth factor beta, platelet derived growth factor alpha, and angiogenin) and actively produced multiple factors with chemoattractant (transforming growth factor-β, C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 1, 2, and 3 (GRO), C-C motif chemokine ligand 5 (RANTES), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), interleukin [IL]-6, IL-8) and matrix

  6. Bone mineral measurement, experiment M078. [space flight effects on human bone composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambaut, P. C.; Vogel, J. M.; Ullmann, J.; Brown, S.; Kolb, F., III

    1973-01-01

    Measurement tests revealed few deviations from baseline bone mineral measurements after 56 days in a Skylab-type environment. No mineral change was observed in the right radius. One individual, however, showed a possible mineral loss in the left os calcis and another gained mineral in the right ulna. The cause of the gain is unclear but may be attributable to the heavy exercise routines engaged in by the crewmember in question. Equipment problems were identified during the experiment and rectified.

  7. Effect of random microstructure on crack propagation in cortical bone tissue under dynamic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, X; Li, S; Adel-Wahab, A; Silberschmidt, V

    2013-01-01

    A fracture process in a cortical bone tissue depends on various factors, such as bone loss, heterogeneous microstructure, variation of its material properties and accumulation of microcracks. Therefore, it is crucial to comprehend and describe the effect of microstructure and material properties of the components of cortical bone on crack propagation in a dynamic loading regime. At the microscale level, osteonal bone demonstrates a random distribution of osteons imbedded in an interstitial matrix and surrounded by a thin layer known as cement line. Such a distribution of osteons can lead to localization of deformation processes. The global mechanical behavior of bone and the crack-propagation process are affected by such localization under external loads. Hence, the random distribution of microstructural features plays a key role in the fracture process of cortical bone. The purpose of this study is two-fold: firstly, to develop two-dimensional microstructured numerical models of cortical bone tissue in order to examine the interaction between the propagating crack and bone microstructure using an extended finite-element method under both quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions; secondly, to investigate the effect of randomly distributed microstructural constituents on the crack propagation processes and crack paths. The obtained results of numerical simulations showed the influence of random microstructure on the global response of bone tissue at macroscale and on the crack-propagation process for quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions

  8. Maximum Safety Regenerative Power Tracking for DC Traction Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guifu Du

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Direct current (DC traction power systems are widely used in metro transport systems, with running rails usually being used as return conductors. When traction current flows through the running rails, a potential voltage known as “rail potential” is generated between the rails and ground. Currently, abnormal rises of rail potential exist in many railway lines during the operation of railway systems. Excessively high rail potentials pose a threat to human life and to devices connected to the rails. In this paper, the effect of regenerative power distribution on rail potential is analyzed. Maximum safety regenerative power tracking is proposed for the control of maximum absolute rail potential and energy consumption during the operation of DC traction power systems. The dwell time of multiple trains at each station and the trigger voltage of the regenerative energy absorbing device (READ are optimized based on an improved particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm to manage the distribution of regenerative power. In this way, the maximum absolute rail potential and energy consumption of DC traction power systems can be reduced. The operation data of Guangzhou Metro Line 2 are used in the simulations, and the results show that the scheme can reduce the maximum absolute rail potential and energy consumption effectively and guarantee the safety in energy saving of DC traction power systems.

  9. Effects of long-term estrogen replacement therapy on bone turnover in periarticular tibial osteophytes in surgically postmenopausal cynomolgus monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, Erik J.; Lindgren, Bruce R.; Carlson, Cathy S.

    2007-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess the effects of long-term estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) on size and indices of bone turnover in periarticular osteophytes in ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys and to compare dynamic indices of bone turnover in osteophyte bone with those of subchondral bone (SCB) and epiphyseal/metaphyseal cancellous (EMC) bone. One hundred sixty-five adult female cynomolgus macaques were bilaterally ovariectomized and randomly divided into three age- and weight...

  10. Fibrin glue as the cell-delivery vehicle for mesenchymal stromal cells in regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiuwen; Ren, Jianan; Li, Jieshou

    2012-05-01

    The use of tissue-engineering techniques such as stem-cell therapy to renew injured tissues is a promising strategy in regenerative medicine. As a cell-delivery vehicle, fibrin glues (FG) facilitate cell attachment, growth and differentiation and, ultimately, tissue formation and organization by its three-dimensional structure. Numerous studies have provided evidence that stromal cells derived from bone marrow (bone marrow stromal cells; BMSC) and adipose tissue (adipose-derived stromal cells; ADSC) contain a population of adult multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) and endothelial progenitor cells that can differentiate into several lineages. By combining MSC with FG, the implantation could take advantage of the mutual benefits. Researchers and physicians have pinned their hopes on stem cells for developing novel approaches in regenerative medicine. This review focuses on the therapeutic potential of MSC with FG in bone defect reconstruction, cartilage and tendon injury repair, ligament, heart and nerve regeneration, and, furthermore, wound healing.

  11. Effects of Bone Morphogenic Proteins on Engineered Cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooch, Keith, J.; Blunk, Torsten; Courter, Donald L.; Sieminski, Alisha; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Freed, Lisa E.

    2007-01-01

    A report describes experiments on the effects of bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) on engineered cartilage grown in vitro. In the experiments, bovine calf articular chondrocytes were seeded onto biodegradable polyglycolic acid scaffolds and cultured in, variously, a control medium or a medium supplemented with BMP-2, BMP-12, or BMP-13 in various concentrations. Under all conditions investigated, cell-polymer constructs cultivated for 4 weeks macroscopically and histologically resembled native cartilage. At a concentration of 100 ng/mL, BMP-2, BMP-12, or BMP-13 caused (1) total masses of the constructs to exceed those of the controls by 121, 80, or 62 percent, respectively; (2) weight percentages of glycosaminoglycans in the constructs to increase by 27, 18, or 15, respectively; and (3) total collagen contents of the constructs to decrease to 63, 89, or 83 percent of the control values, respectively. BMP-2, but not BMP-12 or BMP-13, promoted chondrocyte hypertrophy. These observations were interpreted as suggesting that the three BMPs increase the growth rates and modulate the compositions of engineered cartilage. It was also concluded that in vitro engineered cartilage is a suitable system for studying effects of BMPs on chondrogenesis in a well-defined environment.

  12. The roles of cellular and molecular components of a hematoma at early stage of bone healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Hoi Ting; Leung, Ping Chung; Ko, Chun Hay

    2018-04-01

    Bone healing is a complex repair process that commences with the formation of a blood clot at the injured bone, termed hematoma. It has evidenced that a lack of a stable hematoma causes delayed bone healing or non-union. The hematoma at the injured bone constitutes the early healing microenvironment. It appears to dictate healing pathways that ends in a regenerative bone. However, the hematoma is often clinically removed from the damaged site. Conversely, blood-derived products have been used in bone tissue engineering for treating critical sized defects, including fibrin gels and platelet-rich plasma. A second generation of platelet concentrate that is based on leukocyte and fibrin content has also been developed and introduced in market. Conflicting effect of these products in bone repair are reported. We propose that the bone healing response becomes dysregulated if the blood response and subsequent formation and properties of a hematoma are altered. This review focuses on the central structural, cellular, and molecular components of a fracture hematoma, with a major emphasis on their roles in regulating bone healing mechanism, and their interactions with mesenchymal stem cells. New angles towards a better understanding of these factors and relevant mechanisms involved at the beginning of bone healing may help to clarify limited or adverse effects of blood-derived products on bone repair. We emphasize that the recreation of an early hematoma niche with critical compositions might emerge as a viable therapeutic strategy for enhanced skeletal tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Effect of water on piezoelectricity in bone and collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netto, T G; Zimmerman, R L

    1975-01-01

    Interferometric measurements of bovine bone and tendon show that the values of the piezoelectric strain constant d14 decrease with hydration from the dry values of 0.2 X 10(-14) and 2.0 X 10(-14) m/V, respectively. The decrease of piezoelectricity in tendon is exponential with a characteristic hydration of 7% by weight from which an upper limit of the average molecular weight of the responsible electric dipole moments is deduced. The piezoelectricity in bone decreases relatively slowly with hydration indicating that the electric dipoles in bone collagen are subject to a different cancelling mechanism. PMID:1148359

  14. Effect of sex hormones on bone density during growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilsanz, V.; Roe, T.F.; Wells, T.R.; Senac, M.O. Jr.; Landing, B.; Libaneti, C.; Cann, C.E.; Schulz, E.

    1986-01-01

    The development of special phantoms permitted precise measurement of vertebral mineral content by CT in the very young. The normal standards for spinal trabecular bone of children aged 0-18 years are presented. Although there is no age-related difference in bone density before puberty, there is a significant increase in bone mineral content after puberty. The increase in sex hormones during puberty accounts for the increased density. Longitudinal studies analyzing vertebral density changes in castrated rabbits after testosterone and estradiol administration are discussed

  15. Effect of freezing rate and storage time on shelf-life quality of hot boned and conventionally boned ground beef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gapud, V.G.; Schlimme, D.V.

    1986-01-01

    Commercially processed, 80% lean, chub packaged ground beef (both conventionally boned and hot boned) was frozen to O F (-18 0 C) at three rates: 72, 96, and 120 hours before storage at O F (-18 0 C). The meat was examined after 0, 1.5, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months storage for the following attributes: psychrophile and aerobic plate counts, free fatty acid (FFA) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values, niacin content, raw and cooked color, moisture, fat and protein contents, and cook shrink and texture of cooked patties. Freezing rates had no significant effect on microbial load, niacin content, color, or cook shrink and texture. Freezing rate had a significant effect upon TBA and FFA values. Niacin, cook shrink and moisture values declined and TBA and FFA values increased with storage. Raw meat Hunter L value increased and Hunter a/b value declined during storage. Substantial quality differences between meat types were found

  16. REGEN: Ancestral Genome Reconstruction for Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João C. Setubal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ancestral genome reconstruction can be understood as a phylogenetic study with more details than a traditional phylogenetic tree reconstruction. We present a new computational system called REGEN for ancestral bacterial genome reconstruction at both the gene and replicon levels. REGEN reconstructs gene content, contiguous gene runs, and replicon structure for each ancestral genome. Along each branch of the phylogenetic tree, REGEN infers evolutionary events, including gene creation and deletion and replicon fission and fusion. The reconstruction can be performed by either a maximum parsimony or a maximum likelihood method. Gene content reconstruction is based on the concept of neighboring gene pairs. REGEN was designed to be used with any set of genomes that are sufficiently related, which will usually be the case for bacteria within the same taxonomic order. We evaluated REGEN using simulated genomes and genomes in the Rhizobiales order.

  17. Changes in Regenerative Capacity through Lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximina H. Yun

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Most organisms experience changes in regenerative abilities through their lifespan. During aging, numerous tissues exhibit a progressive decline in homeostasis and regeneration that results in tissue degeneration, malfunction and pathology. The mechanisms responsible for this decay are both cell intrinsic, such as cellular senescence, as well as cell-extrinsic, such as changes in the regenerative environment. Understanding how these mechanisms impact on regenerative processes is essential to devise therapeutic approaches to improve tissue regeneration and extend healthspan. This review offers an overview of how regenerative abilities change through lifespan in various organisms, the factors that underlie such changes and the avenues for therapeutic intervention. It focuses on established models of mammalian regeneration as well as on models in which regenerative abilities do not decline with age, as these can deliver valuable insights for our understanding of the interplay between regeneration and aging.

  18. REGEN: Ancestral Genome Reconstruction for Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kuan; Heath, Lenwood S; Setubal, João C

    2012-07-18

    Ancestral genome reconstruction can be understood as a phylogenetic study with more details than a traditional phylogenetic tree reconstruction. We present a new computational system called REGEN for ancestral bacterial genome reconstruction at both the gene and replicon levels. REGEN reconstructs gene content, contiguous gene runs, and replicon structure for each ancestral genome. Along each branch of the phylogenetic tree, REGEN infers evolutionary events, including gene creation and deletion and replicon fission and fusion. The reconstruction can be performed by either a maximum parsimony or a maximum likelihood method. Gene content reconstruction is based on the concept of neighboring gene pairs. REGEN was designed to be used with any set of genomes that are sufficiently related, which will usually be the case for bacteria within the same taxonomic order. We evaluated REGEN using simulated genomes and genomes in the Rhizobiales order.

  19. Autologous Bone Marrow Concentrate in a Sheep Model of Osteoarthritis: New Perspectives for Cartilage and Meniscus Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desando, Giovanna; Giavaresi, Gianluca; Cavallo, Carola; Bartolotti, Isabella; Sartoni, Federica; Nicoli Aldini, Nicolò; Martini, Lucia; Parrilli, Annapaola; Mariani, Erminia; Fini, Milena; Grigolo, Brunella

    2016-06-01

    Cell-based therapies are becoming a valuable tool to treat osteoarthritis (OA). This study investigated and compared the regenerative potential of bone marrow concentrate (BMC) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), both engineered with Hyaff(®)-11 (HA) for OA treatment in a sheep model. OA was induced via unilateral medial meniscectomy. Bone marrow was aspirated from the iliac crest, followed by concentration processes or cell isolation and expansion to obtain BMC and MSC, respectively. Treatments consisted of autologous BMC and MSC seeded onto HA. The regenerative potential of bone, cartilage, menisci, and synovia was monitored using macroscopy, histology, immunohistochemistry, and micro-computed tomography at 12 weeks post-op. Data were analyzed using the general linear model with adjusted Sidak's multiple comparison and Spearman's tests. BMC-HA treatment showed a greater repair ability in inhibiting OA progression compared to MSC-HA, leading to a reduction of inflammation in cartilage, meniscus, and synovium. Indeed, the decrease of inflammation positively contributed to counteract the progression of fibrotic and hypertrophic processes, known to be involved in tissue failure. Moreover, the treatment with BMC-HA showed the best results in allowing meniscus regeneration. Minor healing effects were noticed at bone level for both cell strategies; however, a downregulation of subchondral bone thickness (Cs.Th) was found in both cell treatments compared to the OA group in the femur. The transplantation of BMC-HA provided the best effects in supporting regenerative processes in cartilage, meniscus, and synovium and at less extent in bone. On the whole, both MSC and BMC combined with HA reduced inflammation and contributed to switch off fibrotic and hypertrophic processes. The observed regenerative potential by BMC-HA on meniscus could open new perspectives, suggesting its use not only for OA care but also for the treatment of meniscal lesions, even if further analyses are

  20. Effect of Teriparatide, Vibration and the Combination on Bone Mass and Bone Architecture in Chronic Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res, 2003. 18(3): p. 539-43. 10. Ma, Y., et al., Parathyroid hormone and mechanical usage have a synergistic effect in rat tibial...directions, respectively. Material nonlinearity was modeled as bilinear elastic– plastic with a postyield modulus that was 5% of the pre-yield modulus(31...Injury Poster Sessions, Presentation Number: SA0435 Session: Poster Session I & Poster Tours Saturday, October 5, 2013 12:00 PM - 2:00 PM, Baltimore

  1. Effect of dietary soy isoflavones on bone loss in ovariectomized rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Purpose: To determine the effect of dietary soy isoflavone supplementation on bone loss in ... Keywords: Mineral elements, Alkaline phosphatase, Isoflavones, Bone loss, Notch pathway. This is an Open .... incubated for 3 h in 5% non-fat-milk blocking solution at ..... protect against osteopenia in ovariectomised rats.

  2. Effect of parity on bone mineral density: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Seung Yeon; Kim, Yejee; Park, Hyunmin; Kim, Yun Joo; Kang, Wonku; Kim, Eun Young

    2017-08-01

    Parity has been suggested as a possible factor affecting bone health in women. However, study results on its association with bone mineral density are conflicting. PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and Korean online databases were searched using the terms "parity" and "bone mineral density", in May 2016. Two independent reviewers extracted the mean and standard deviation of bone mineral density measurements of the femoral neck, spine, and total hip in nulliparous and parous healthy women. Among the initial 10,146 studies, 10 articles comprising 24,771 women met the inclusion criteria. The overall effect of parity on bone mineral density was positive (mean difference=5.97mg/cm 2 ; 95% CI 2.37 to 9.57; P=0.001). The effect appears site-specific as parity was not significantly associated with the bone mineral density of the femoral neck (P=0.09) and lumbar spine (P=0.17), but parous women had significantly higher bone mineral density of the total hip compared to nulliparous women (mean difference=5.98mg/cm 2 ; 95% CI 1.72 to 10.24; P=0.006). No obvious heterogeneity existed among the included studies (femoral neck I 2 =0%; spine I 2 =31%; total hip I 2 =0%). Parity has a positive effect on bone in healthy, community-dwelling women and its effect appears site-specific. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. P38 MAPK / beta-catenin canonical wnt signaling mediated bone formation effects of blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appropriate nutrition is one of the critical factors that influences bone development. We studied the effects of dietary blueberry supplementation on bone growth in weanling rats. Weanling male and female rats were fed AIN-93G semi-purified diets supplemented with 10% whole blueberry powder for 14 a...

  4. Wnt/RANKL-mediated bone growth promoting effects of blueberries in weanling rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    We studied the effects of dietary blueberry supplementation on bone growth in weanling rats. Weanling male and female rats were fed AIN-93G semi-purified diets supplemented with 10% whole blueberry powder for 14 and 30 days beginning on PND 21. In both sexes tibial bone mineral density and content a...

  5. Effect of dietary soy isoflavones on bone loss in ovariectomized rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the effect of dietary soy isoflavone supplementation on bone loss in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Methods: Forty-eight rats were assigned randomly to groups of OVX rats receiving soy isoflavones (20, 30, or 40 mg/kg of body weight daily), untreated OVX rats, or untreated intact rats. After 8 weeks, bone ...

  6. The effect of storage on the nutritional quality of meat and bone meal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, W.H.; Cottam, Y.H.; Thomas, D.V.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of storage on the nutritional quality of meat and bone meal was investigated. Three meat and bone meal samples were stored for 1, 2, 3, 6 and 9 months, with or without the addition of the antioxidants (butylatedhydroxytoluene and butylatedhydroxyanisole). Gross composition, thiobarbituric

  7. Optimizing tamoxifen-inducible Cre/loxp system to reduce tamoxifen effect on bone turnover in long bones of young mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhendong A; Sun, Weihua; Chen, Haiyan; Zhang, Hongliang; Lay, Yu-An E; Lane, Nancy E; Yao, Wei

    2015-12-01

    For tamoxifen-dependent Cre recombinase, also known as CreER recombinase, tamoxifen (TAM) is used to activate the Cre to generate time- and tissue-specific mouse mutants. TAM is a potent CreER system inducer; however, TAM is also an active selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) that can influence bone homeostasis. The purpose of this study was to optimize the TAM dose for Cre recombinase activation while minimizing the effects of TAM on bone turnover in young growing mice. To evaluate the effects of TAM on bone turnover and bone mass, 1-month-old wild-type male and female mice were intraperitoneally injected with TAM at 0, 1, 10 or 100mg/kg/day for four consecutive days, or 100, 300 mg/kg/day for one day. The distal femurs were analyzed one month after the last TAM injection by microCT, mechanical test, and surface-based bone histomorphometry. Similar doses of TAM were used in Col1 (2.3 kb)-CreERT2; mT/mG reporter male mice to evaluate the dose-dependent efficacy of Cre-ER activation in bone tissue. A TAM dose of 100 mg/kg × 4 days significantly increased trabecular bone volume/total volume (BV/TV) of the distal femur, femur length, bone strength, and serum bone turnover markers compared to the 0mg control group. In contrast, TAM doses ≤ 10 mg/kg did not significantly change any of these parameters compared to the 0mg group, although a higher bone strength was observed in the 10mg group. Surface-based histomorphometry revealed that the 100mg/kg dose of TAM dose significantly increased trabecular bone formation and decreased periosteal bone formation at 1-week post-TAM treatment. Using the reporter mouse model Col1-CreERT2; mT/mG, we found that 10mg/kg TAM induced Col1-CreERT2 activity in bone at a comparable level to the 100mg/kg dose. TAM treatment at 100mg/kg/day × 4 days significantly affects bone homeostasis, resulting in an anabolic bone effect on trabecular bone in 1-month-old male mice. However, a lower dose of TAM at 10 mg/kg/day × 4 days can

  8. New tools in regenerative medicine: gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Ruiz, Miguel; Regueiro, José R

    2012-01-01

    Gene therapy aims to transfer genetic material into cells to provide them with new functions. A gene transfer agent has to be safe, capable of expressing the desired gene for a sustained period of time in a sufficiently large population of cells to produce a biological effect. Identifying a gene transfer tool that meets all of these criteria has proven to be a difficult objective. Viral and nonviral vectors, in vivo, ex vivo and in situ strategies co-exist at present, although ex vivo lenti-or retroviral vectors are presently the most popular.Natural stem cells (from embryonic, hematopoietic, mesenchymal, or adult tissues) or induced progenitor stem (iPS) cells can be modified by gene therapy for use in regenerative medicine. Among them, hematopoietic stem cells have shown clear clinical benefit, but iPS cells hold humongous potential with no ethical concerns.

  9. Effect of calcination conditions of pork bone sludge on behaviour

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... bone sludge from meat plant via two essentially different calcination methods using ... tissue and suitability for further investigations intended for medical grafting. ... The Alfred Meissner Higher School of Dental Engineering and Humanities, ...

  10. Paracrine effects of bone marrow soup restore organ function, regeneration, and repair in salivary glands damaged by irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon D Tran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are reports that bone marrow cell (BM transplants repaired irradiated salivary glands (SGs and re-established saliva secretion. However, the mechanisms of action behind these reports have not been elucidated. METHODS: To test if a paracrine mechanism was the main effect behind this reported improvement in salivary organ function, whole BM cells were lysed and its soluble intracellular contents (termed as "BM Soup" injected into mice with irradiation-injured SGs. The hypothesis was that BM Soup would protect salivary cells, increase tissue neovascularization, function, and regeneration. Two minor aims were also tested a comparing two routes of delivering BM Soup, intravenous (I.V. versus intra-glandular injections, and b comparing the age of the BM Soup's donors. The treatment-comparison group consisted of irradiated mice receiving injections of living whole BM cells. Control mice received irradiation and injections of saline or sham-irradiation. All mice were followed for 8 weeks post-irradiation. RESULTS: BM Soup restored salivary flow rates to normal levels, protected salivary acinar, ductal, myoepithelial, and progenitor cells, increased cell proliferation and blood vessels, and up-regulated expression of tissue remodeling/repair/regenerative genes (MMP2, CyclinD1, BMP7, EGF, NGF. BM Soup was as an efficient therapeutic agent as injections of live BM cells. Both intra-glandular or I.V. injections of BM Soup, and from both young and older mouse donors were as effective in repairing irradiated SGs. The intra-glandular route reduced injection frequency/dosage by four-fold. CONCLUSION: BM Soup, which contains only the cell by-products, can be advantageously used to repair irradiation-damaged SGs rather than transplanting whole live BM cells which carry the risk of differentiating into unwanted/tumorigenic cell types in SGs.

  11. Paracrine effects of bone marrow soup restore organ function, regeneration, and repair in salivary glands damaged by irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Simon D; Liu, Younan; Xia, Dengsheng; Maria, Ola M; Khalili, Saeed; Wang, Renee Wan-Jou; Quan, Vu-Hung; Hu, Shen; Seuntjens, Jan

    2013-01-01

    There are reports that bone marrow cell (BM) transplants repaired irradiated salivary glands (SGs) and re-established saliva secretion. However, the mechanisms of action behind these reports have not been elucidated. To test if a paracrine mechanism was the main effect behind this reported improvement in salivary organ function, whole BM cells were lysed and its soluble intracellular contents (termed as "BM Soup") injected into mice with irradiation-injured SGs. The hypothesis was that BM Soup would protect salivary cells, increase tissue neovascularization, function, and regeneration. Two minor aims were also tested a) comparing two routes of delivering BM Soup, intravenous (I.V.) versus intra-glandular injections, and b) comparing the age of the BM Soup's donors. The treatment-comparison group consisted of irradiated mice receiving injections of living whole BM cells. Control mice received irradiation and injections of saline or sham-irradiation. All mice were followed for 8 weeks post-irradiation. BM Soup restored salivary flow rates to normal levels, protected salivary acinar, ductal, myoepithelial, and progenitor cells, increased cell proliferation and blood vessels, and up-regulated expression of tissue remodeling/repair/regenerative genes (MMP2, CyclinD1, BMP7, EGF, NGF). BM Soup was as an efficient therapeutic agent as injections of live BM cells. Both intra-glandular or I.V. injections of BM Soup, and from both young and older mouse donors were as effective in repairing irradiated SGs. The intra-glandular route reduced injection frequency/dosage by four-fold. BM Soup, which contains only the cell by-products, can be advantageously used to repair irradiation-damaged SGs rather than transplanting whole live BM cells which carry the risk of differentiating into unwanted/tumorigenic cell types in SGs.

  12. Investigating the Abscopal Effects of Radioablation on Shielded Bone Marrow in Rodent Models Using Multimodality Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Solmaz F; Zawaski, Janice A; Inoue, Taeko; Rendon, David A; Zieske, Arthur W; Punia, Jyotinder N; Sabek, Omaima M; Gaber, M Waleed

    2017-07-01

    The abscopal effect is the response to radiation at sites that are distant from the irradiated site of an organism, and it is thought to play a role in bone marrow (BM) recovery by initiating responses in the unirradiated bone marrow. Understanding the mechanism of this effect has applications in treating BM failure (BMF) and BM transplantation (BMT), and improving survival of nuclear disaster victims. Here, we investigated the use of multimodality imaging as a translational tool to longitudinally assess bone marrow recovery. We used positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and optical imaging to quantify bone marrow activity, vascular response and marrow repopulation in fully and partially irradiated rodent models. We further measured the effects of radiation on serum cytokine levels, hematopoietic cell counts and histology. PET/CT imaging revealed a radiation-induced increase in proliferation in the shielded bone marrow (SBM) compared to exposed bone marrow (EBM) and sham controls. T 2 -weighted MRI showed radiation-induced hemorrhaging in the EBM and unirradiated SBM. In the EBM and SBM groups, we found alterations in serum cytokine and hormone levels and in hematopoietic cell population proportions, and histological evidence of osteoblast activation at the bone marrow interface. Importantly, we generated a BMT mouse model using fluorescent-labeled bone marrow donor cells and performed fluorescent imaging to reveal the migration of bone marrow cells from shielded to radioablated sites. Our study validates the use of multimodality imaging to monitor bone marrow recovery and provides evidence for the abscopal response in promoting bone marrow recovery after irradiation.

  13. Osteoporotic-like effects of cadmium on bone mineral density and content in aged ovariectomized beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacco-Gibson, N.; Abrams, J.; Chaudhry, S.; Hurst, D.; Peterson, D.; Bhattacharyya, M.

    1992-01-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of ovariectomy in conjunction with cadmium (Cd) exposure on bone. Aged female beagles with 45 Ca-labeled skeletons ovariectomized and exposed to Cd. Successive vertebral scans by dual photon absorptiometry monitored changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in each dog with time. Results showed that ovariectomy or Cd exposure alone caused significant decreases in BMD; ovariectomy with Cd exposure caused the greatest decrease. Ovariectomy alone did not decrease BMD in the distal end or mid-shaft of the tibia while BMD of the distal tibia decreased significantly due to Cd exposure alone. Combination treatment resulted in significant decreases in BMD of both tibial regions. At necropsy, tibiae, humeri, lumbar vertebrae and ribs were obtained for biochemical analysis. No group-to-group differences in bone weights (wet, dry, ash), in ash/dry ratios, or in long bone and vertebral Ca/dry or Ca/ash ratios were observed. Significantly higher total 45 Ca content and 45 Ca/dry and 45 Ca/ash ratios were observed in long bones and vertebrae of OV- and OV+ groups. In contrast, intact ribs showed significantly decreased Ca/dry and Ca/ash ratios compared to the SO-group. Quartered ribs demonstrated regional responses to specific treatment; decreases in total Ca content were greatest in the mid-rib region (-36 to -46%). Results suggest that in the aged female beagle, bone mineral loss associated with estrogen depletion is not only related to bone type (trabecular versus cortical) but also to bone Ca pools. Our results also suggest that a regional heterogeneity of bone plays a role in responsiveness to ovariectomy and Cd exposure. These aspects suggest that Cd is an exogenous factor affecting bone mineral loss independently of estrogen depletion. However, estrogen depletion primes bone for responsiveness to Cd-induced bone mineral loss

  14. Noninvasive markers of bone metabolism in the rhesus monkey: normal effects of age and gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, S.; Boden, S. D.; Gould, K. G.; Vailas, A. C.

    1996-01-01

    Measurement of bone turnover in conditions such as osteoporosis has been limited by the need for invasive iliac bone biopsy to reliably determine parameters of bone metabolism. Recent advances in the area of serum and urinary markers of bone metabolism have raised the possibility for noninvasive measurements; however, little nonhuman primate data exist for these parameters. The purpose of this experiment was to define the normal range and variability of several of the newer noninvasive bone markers which are currently under investigation in humans. The primary intent was to determine age and gender variability, as well as provide some normative data for future experiments in nonhuman primates. Twenty-four rhesus macaques were divided into equal groups of male and female according to the following age groupings: 3 years, 5-10 years, 15-20 years, and > 25 years. Urine was collected three times daily for a four-day period and measured for several markers of bone turnoverm including pyridinoline (PYD), deoxypyrodinoline (DPD), hydroxyproline, and creatinine. Bone mineral density measurements of the lumbar spine were performed at the beginning and end of the study period. Serum was also obtained at the time of bone densitometry for measurement of osteocalcin levels by radioimmunoassay. There were no significant differences in bone mineral density, urine PYD, or urine DPD based on gender. Bone density was lowest in the youngest animals, peaked in the 15-20-year group, but again decreased in the oldest animals. The osteocalcin, PYD, and DPD levels followed an inversely related pattern to bone density. The most important result was the relative age insensitivity of the ratio of PYD:DPD in monkeys up to age 20 years. Since bone density changes take months or years to become measurable and iliac biopsies are invasive, the PYD/DPD marker ratio may have important implications for rapid noninvasive measurement of the effects of potential treatments for osteoporosis in the non

  15. Osteoporotic-like effects of cadmium on bone mineral density and content in aged ovariectomized beagles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacco-Gibson, N.; Abrams, J.; Chaudhry, S.; Hurst, D.; Peterson, D.; Bhattacharyya, M.

    1992-12-31

    Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of ovariectomy in conjunction with cadmium (Cd) exposure on bone. Aged female beagles with {sup 45}Ca-labeled skeletons ovariectomized and exposed to Cd. Successive vertebral scans by dual photon absorptiometry monitored changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in each dog with time. Results showed that ovariectomy or Cd exposure alone caused significant decreases in BMD; ovariectomy with Cd exposure caused the greatest decrease. Ovariectomy alone did not decrease BMD in the distal end or mid-shaft of the tibia while BMD of the distal tibia decreased significantly due to Cd exposure alone. Combination treatment resulted in significant decreases in BMD of both tibial regions. At necropsy, tibiae, humeri, lumbar vertebrae and ribs were obtained for biochemical analysis. No group-to-group differences in bone weights (wet, dry, ash), in ash/dry ratios, or in long bone and vertebral Ca/dry or Ca/ash ratios were observed. Significantly higher total {sup 45}Ca content and {sup 45}Ca/dry and {sup 45}Ca/ash ratios were observed in long bones and vertebrae of OV- and OV+ groups. In contrast, intact ribs showed significantly decreased Ca/dry and Ca/ash ratios compared to the SO-group. Quartered ribs demonstrated regional responses to specific treatment; decreases in total Ca content were greatest in the mid-rib region ({minus}36 to {minus}46%). Results suggest that in the aged female beagle, bone mineral loss associated with estrogen depletion is not only related to bone type (trabecular versus cortical) but also to bone Ca pools. Our results also suggest that a regional heterogeneity of bone plays a role in responsiveness to ovariectomy and Cd exposure. These aspects suggest that Cd is an exogenous factor affecting bone mineral loss independently of estrogen depletion. However, estrogen depletion primes bone for responsiveness to Cd-induced bone mineral loss.

  16. Effects of drilling parameters in numerical simulation to the bone temperature elevation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhbar, Mohd Faizal Ali; Malik, Mukhtar; Yusoff, Ahmad Razlan

    2018-04-01

    Drilling into the bone can produce significant amount of heat which can cause bone necrosis. Understanding the drilling parameters influence to the heat generation is necessary to prevent thermal necrosis to the bone. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of drilling parameters on bone temperature elevation. Drilling simulations of various combinations of drill bit diameter, rotational speed and feed rate were performed using finite element software DEFORM-3D. Full-factorial design of experiments (DOE) and two way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were utilised to examine the effect of drilling parameters and their interaction influence on the bone temperature. The maximum bone temperature elevation of 58% was demonstrated within the range in this study. Feed rate was found to be the main parameter to influence the bone temperature elevation during the drilling process followed by drill diameter and rotational speed. The interaction between drill bit diameter and feed rate was found to be significantly influence the bone temperature. It is discovered that the use of low rotational speed, small drill bit diameter and high feed rate are able to minimize the elevation of bone temperature for safer surgical operations.

  17. The effects of odontogenic and nonodontogenic tissues on bone healing in Guinea pig mandible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, So Jung; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae; Hong, Jung Pyo

    1996-01-01

    This study was for comparing healing patterns and effects between with odontogenic and nonodontogenic tissues on the defected mandible. Experimental bone defects that measured 3 mm in diameter were created on the mandibular body of guinea pig by removal of bone with the use of trephine burs and bone defects were grafted with Biogran (Orthovita Co., U.S. A.) and covered with Dura Mata (Pfrimmer-Viggo GmbH Co., Germany). Guinea pigs were serially terminated by fours on the 3 days, the 1 week, the 2 weeks, the 3 weeks, the 4 weeks, and the 5 weeks after experiment, and the mandibular body was removed and fixed with 10% neutral formalin. They were decalcified and embedded in paraffin as using the usual methods. The specimen sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin and toluidine blue. They were observed with a light microscope and a polarizing microscope. The obtained results were as follows: 1. Defected bone was healed fast from the odontogenic tissues in early stage of the experiment. 2. The arrangement of the bone matrix was relatively regular in the bone from the nonodontogenic tissues, but irregular in the bone from the odotogenic tissues. 3. Compact bone has started to be absorbed and changed to the pattern of matrix bone tissue from 3 weeks after experiment.

  18. Effects and Complications of Bone-Marrow Transplantation in Man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathe, G.; Schwarzenberg, L.; Miel, J.L. A; Schneider, M.; Cattan, A.; Schlumberger, J. R. [Institut de cancerologie et immunogenetique, Hopital Paul Brousse, Villejuif (France)

    1969-07-15

    Full text: Allogenic bone-marrow grafting in 24 human leukaemic subjects is described. The graft failed in 7 cases and took in 17 cases. In the latter group, all 17 cases were complicated by the secondary syndrome which was-fatal in 13 cases and controlled in 4 cases. The immunogenetic and immunological factors determining the establishment and evolution of haematological radiochimeras in man are discussed. The choice of donor is fundamental. Three tests are effective in donor selection, the indirect histocompatibility test, the leucocyte antigen test and the reaction of donor and recipient leucocytes in the dermis of an irradiated hamster. When marrow from several donors is transfused, the recipient spontaneously selects the genetically nearest. It seems likely there is more chance of finding a suitable donor among genetically related subjects than among those who are unrelated. The frequency of graft take seems slightly lower in recipients who have previously received blood transfusions. Total bone-marrow graft is associated with specific tolerance towards donor tissues. This is paralleled by the production in the chimera of immunoglobulins produced by the graft. The secondary syndrome seems, as in animals, to be related essentially to the graft-versus-host reaction. It is convenient to distinguish among its various manifestations, on the one hand, those lesions which are readily controlled such as hepatitis or erythrodermia associated with infiltration and proliferation of immunologically competent cells from the graft and, on the other hand, immune insufficiency with regard to micro-organisms, especially viruses and Candida albicans. This latter group, the mechanism of which is complex, still eludes attempts at preventive and curative control. The use of multiple donors and the administration of cortisone during marrow transfusion and A-methopterin and/or cyclophosphamide in the days following transfusions; seem to have reduced the severity of the secondary

  19. Regenerative Medicine: Solution in Sight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingjie; Stern, Jeffrey H; Temple, Sally

    2016-01-01

    The retina, like other central nervous system tissues, has poor regenerative properties in humans. Therefore, diseases that cause retinal cell loss, such as Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), retinitis pigmentosa (RP), Leber congenital amaurosis, Usher syndrome, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy, typically result in permanent visual impairment. Stem cell technologies have revolutionized our ability to produce neural cells in abundant supply. Much stem cell research effort is focused on producing the required cell types for cell replacement, or to generate disease-in-a-dish models to elucidate novel disease mechanisms for therapeutic development. Here we review the recent advances in stem cell studies relevant to producing RPE and retinal cells, and highlight future directions.

  20. BEYOND GLYCEMIC CONTROL IN DIABETES MELLITUS: EFFECTS OF INCRETIN-BASED THERAPY ON BONE METABOLISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA eCECCARELLI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM and osteoporosis (OP are common disorders with a significant health burden, and an increase in fracture risk has been described both in type 1 (T1DM and in type 2 (T2DM diabetes. The pathogenic mechanisms of impaired skeletal strength in diabetes remain to be clarified in details and they are only in part reflected by a variation in bone mineral density (BMD. In T2DM, the occurrence of low bone turnover together with a decreased osteoblast activity and compromised bone quality has been shown. Of note, some antidiabetic drugs (e.g. tiazolidinediones, insulin may deeply affect bone metabolism. In addition, the recently introduced class of incretin-based drugs (i.e. GLP-1 receptor agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors is expected to exert potentially beneficial effects on bone health, possibly due to a bone anabolic activity of GLP-1, that can be either direct or indirect through the involvement of thyroid C cells.Here we will review the established as well as the putative effects of incretin hormones and of incretin-based drugs on bone metabolism, both in preclinical models and in man, taking into account that such therapeutic strategy may be effective not only to achieve a good glycemic control, but also to improve bone health in diabetic patients.

  1. Effect of strontium addition and chitosan concentration variation on cytotoxicity of chitosan-alginate-carbonate apatite based bone scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkasa, Rilis Eka; Umniati, B. Sri; Sunendar, Bambang

    2017-09-01

    Bone scaffold is one of the most important component in bone tissue engineering. Basically, bone scaffold is a biocompatible structure designed to replace broken bone tissue temporarily. Unlike conventional bone replacements, an advanced bone scaffold should be bioactive (e.g: supporting bone growth) and biodegradable as new bone tissue grow, while retain its mechanical properties similarity with bone. It is also possible to add more bioactive substrates to bone scaffold to further support its performance. One of the substrate is strontium, an element that could improve the ability of the bone to repair itself. However, it must be noted that excessive consumption of strontium could lead to toxicity and diseases, such as osteomalacia and hypocalcemia. This research aimed to investigate the effect of strontium addition to the cytotoxic property of chitosan-alginate-carbonate apatite bone scaffold. The amount of strontium added to the bone scaffold was 5% molar of the carbonate apatite content. As a control, bone scaffold without stronsium (0% molar) were also made. The effect of chitosan concentration variation on the cytotoxicity were also observed, where the concentration varies on 1% and 3% w/v of chitosan solution. The results showed an optimum result on bone scaffold sample with 5% molar of strontium and 3% chitosan, where 87.67% cells in the performed MTS-Assay cytotoxicity testing survived. This showed that the use of up to 5% molar addition of strontium and 3% chitosan could enhance the survivability of the cell.

  2. New advances in stem cell research: practical implications for regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, Mariusz Z; Jadczyk, Tomasz; Pędziwiatr, Daniel; Wojakowski, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Regenerative medicine is searching for stem cells that can be safely and efficiently employed for regeneration of damaged solid organs (e.g., the heart, brain, or liver). Ideal for this purpose would be pluripotent stem cells, which, according to their definition, have broad potential to differentiate into all types of adult cells. For almost 20 years, there have been unsuccessful attempts to harness controversial embryonic stem cells (ESCs) isolated from embryos. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), generated by genetic modification of adult somatic cells, are a more promising source. However, both iPSC and ESCs are associated with a risk of teratoma formation. At the same time, various types of more‑differentiated adult stem and progenitor cells derived from the bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, mobilized peripheral blood, or fat tissue are being employed in clinical trials to regenerate damaged solid organs. However, for most of these cells, there is a lack of convincing documentation for successful regeneration of the treated organs. Beneficial effects of those cells might be explained by paracrine effects of growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, bioactive lipids, and extracellular microvesicles, which are released from the cells and have trophic, antiapoptotic, and angiopoietic effects. Nevertheless, there is evidence that adult tissues harbor a promising population of very rare dormant stem cells with broad differentiation potential. In this review, we will discuss various potential sources of stem cells for regenerative medicine and the mechanisms that explain some of their beneficial effects as well as highlight the results of the first clinical trials.  

  3. Effect of Hydroxyapatite on Bone Integration in a Rabbit Tibial Defect Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Sung-Keun; Kim, Kyung-Taek; Kim, Chul-Hong; Ahn, Hee-Bae; Rho, Mee-Sook; Jeong, Min-Ho; Sun, Sang-Kyu

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to prepare hydroxyapatite (HA) and then characterize its effect on bone integration in a rabbit tibial defect model. The bone formation with different designs of HA was compared and the bony integration of several graft materials was investigated qualitatively by radiologic and histologic study. Methods Ten rabbits were included in this study; two holes were drilled bilaterally across the near cortex and the four holes in each rabbit were divided into four treatment groups (HAP, hydroxyapatite powder; HAC, hydroxyapatite cylinder; HA/TCP, hydroxyapatite/tri-calcium phosphate cylinder, and titanium cylinder). The volume of bone ingrowth and the change of bone mineral density were statistically calculated by computed tomography five times for each treatment group at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after grafting. Histologic analysis was performed at 8 weeks after grafting. Results The HAP group showed the most pronounced effect on the bone ingrowth surface area, which seen at 4, 6, and 8 weeks after graft (p 0.05). On histological examination, the HAP group revealed well-recovered cortical bone, but the bone was irregularly thickened and haphazardly admixed with powder. The HAC group showed similar histological features to those of the HA/TCP group; the cortical surface of the newly developed bone was smooth and the bone matrix on the surface of the cylinder was regularly arranged. Conclusions We concluded that both the hydroxyapatite powder and cylinder models investigated in our study may be suitable as a bone substitute in the rabbit tibial defect model, but their characteristic properties are quite different. In contrast to hydroxyapatite powder, which showed better results for the bone ingrowth surface, the hydroxyapatite cylinder showed better results for the sustained morphology. PMID:20514266

  4. Effects of genes, sex, age, and activity on BMC, bone size, and areal and volumetric BMD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havill, Lorena M; Mahaney, Michael C; L Binkley, Teresa; Specker, Bonny L

    2007-05-01

    Quantitative genetic analyses of bone data for 710 inter-related individuals 8-85 yr of age found high heritability estimates for BMC, bone area, and areal and volumetric BMD that varied across bone sites. Activity levels, especially time in moderate plus vigorous activity, had notable effects on bone. In some cases, these effects were age and sex specific. Genetic and environmental factors play a complex role in determining BMC, bone size, and BMD. This study assessed the heritability of bone measures; characterized the effects of age, sex, and physical activity on bone; and tested for age- and sex-specific bone effects of activity. Measures of bone size and areal and volumetric density (aBMD and vBMD, respectively) were obtained by DXA and pQCT on 710 related individuals (466 women) 8-85 yr of age. Measures of activity included percent time in moderate + vigorous activity (%ModVig), stair flights climbed per day, and miles walked per day. Quantitative genetic analyses were conducted to model the effects of activity and covariates on bone outcomes. Accounting for effects of age, sex, and activity levels, genes explained 40-62% of the residual variation in BMC and BMD and 27-75% in bone size (all pBMC and cross-sectional area (CSA) at the 4% radius, but this was not observed among women (sex-by-activity interaction, both p bone sites. Percent time spent in moderate to vigorous activity had the most notable effect on bone, and in some cases, this effect was age or sex specific.

  5. Vitamin D, muscle and bone: Integrating effects in development, aging and injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgis, Christian M; Baldock, Paul A; Downes, Michael

    2015-07-15

    Beyond the established effects of muscle loading on bone, a complex network of hormones and growth factors integrates these adjacent tissues. One such hormone, vitamin D, exerts broad-ranging effects in muscle and bone calcium handling, differentiation and development. Vitamin D also modulates muscle and bone-derived hormones, potentially facilitating cross-talk between these tissues. In the clinical setting, vitamin D deficiency or mutations of the vitamin D receptor result in generalized atrophy of muscle and bone, suggesting coordinated effects of vitamin D at these sites. In this review, we discuss emerging evidence that vitamin D exerts specific effects throughout the life of the musculoskeletal system - in development, aging and injury. From this holistic viewpoint, we offer new insights into an old debate: whether vitamin D's effects in the musculoskeletal system are direct via local VDR signals or indirect via its systemic effects in calcium and phosphate homeostasis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Two sides of the same coin: stem cells in cancer and regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilmer, Matthias; Vykoukal, Jody; Recio Boiles, Alejandro; Coleman, Michael; Alt, Eckhard

    2014-07-01

    Multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow, adipose tissue, cord blood, and other origins have recently received much attention as potential therapeutic agents with beneficial immunomodulatory and regenerative properties. In their native tissue environment, however, such cells also appear to have essential functions in building and supporting tumor microenvironments, providing metastatic niches, and maintaining cancer hallmarks. Here, we consider the varied roles of these tissue-resident stroma-associated cells, synthesize recent and emerging discoveries, and discuss the role, potential, and clinical applications of MSCs in cancer and regenerative medicine.-Ilmer, M., Vykoukal, J., Recio Boiles, A., Coleman, M., Alt, E. Two sides of the same coin: stem cells in cancer and regenerative medicine. © FASEB.

  7. Synergistic effects of dimethyloxallyl glycine and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 on repair of critical-sized bone defects in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xin; Liu, Yang; Ding, Zhen-Yu; Cao, Jia-Qing; Huang, Jing-Huan; Zhang, Jie-Yuan; Jia, Wei-Tao; Wang, Jing; Liu, Chang-Sheng; Li, Xiao-Lin

    2017-02-01

    In bone remodeling, osteogenesis is closely coupled to angiogenesis. Bone tissue engineering using multifunctional bioactive materials is a promising technique which has the ability to simultaneously stimulate osteogenesis and angiogenesis for repair of bone defects. We developed mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG)-doped poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx) composite scaffolds as delivery vehicle. Two bioactive molecules, dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG), a small-molecule angiogenic drug, and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2), an osteoinductive growth factor, were co-incorporated into the scaffold. The synergistic effects of DMOG and rhBMP-2 released in the composite scaffolds on osteogenic and angiogenic differentiation of hBMSCs were investigated using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Moreover, in vivo studies were conducted to observe bone regeneration and vascular formation of critical-sized bone defects in rats using micro-computed tomography, histological analyses, Microfil® perfusion, fluorescence labeling, and immunohistochemical analysis. The results showed that DMOG and rhBMP-2 released in the MBG-PHBHHx scaffolds did exert synergistic effects on the osteogenic and angiogenic differentiation of hBMSCs. Moreover, DMOG and rhBMP-2 produced significant increases in newly-formed bone and neovascularization of calvarial bone defects in rats. It is concluded that the co-delivery strategy of both rhBMP-2 and DMOG can significantly improve the critical-sized bone regeneration.

  8. Evaluation of follow-up bone scintigraphy for assessing the effects of hormone and chemotherapy of bone metastases from prostatic cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, Nobuaki; Ito, Yasuhiko; Morita, Rikushi; Yoneda, Masaya; Muranaka, Akira [Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan)

    1983-08-01

    To assess the clinical usefulness of bone scintigraphy for the osseous metastases of prostatic cancer after treatment, we attempted the correlative studies on laboratory data (TAP, PAP, ALP, and LDH) and scintigraphy. In 77 patients with prostatic cancer, bone scintigraphies were performed with sup(99m)Tc-phosphorous compounds to detect bone metastases. In 34 cases (44 %) bone metastases were detected. In 21 patients out of them, we assessed the effects of hormone and chemotherapy for bone metastases using serial bone scintigraphy. In 19 cases (24.7 %) of the bone scintigraphy showed equivocal results. Of 21 patients with bone metastases, 15 patients showed improvement on scintigram after hormone or chemotherapy. In much improved group (5 patients) and moderately improved group (5 patients), TAP and PAP levels were low and stable. On the other hand, in slightly improved group (5 patients) which showed partially effective on scintigram after treatment, serum TAP and PAP level were unstable. Some cases in the group of which the 1st scintigrams showed normal were turned to positive on scintigram, while TAP, PAP, ALP and LDH level were not elevated. Therefore, follow-up bone scintigraphies have value in evaluating the disease extent in patients with prostatic carcinoma.

  9. The effect of high voltage, high frequency pulsed electric field on slain ovine cortical bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgarifar, Hajarossadat; Oloyede, Adekunle; Zare, Firuz

    2014-04-01

    High power, high frequency pulsed electric fields known as pulsed power (PP) has been applied recently in biology and medicine. However, little attention has been paid to investigate the application of pulse power in musculoskeletal system and its possible effect on functional behavior and biomechanical properties of bone tissue. This paper presents the first research investigating whether or not PP can be applied safely on bone tissue as a stimuli and what will be the possible effect of these signals on the characteristics of cortical bone by comparing the mechanical properties of this type of bone pre and post expose to PP and in comparison with the control samples. A positive buck-boost converter was applied to generate adjustable high voltage, high frequency pulses (up to 500 V and 10 kHz). The functional behavior of bone in response to pulse power excitation was elucidated by applying compressive loading until failure. The stiffness, failure stress (strength) and the total fracture energy (bone toughness) were determined as a measure of the main bone characteristics. Furthermore, an ultrasonic technique was applied to determine and comprise bone elasticity before and after pulse power stimulation. The elastic property of cortical bone samples appeared to remain unchanged following exposure to pulse power excitation for all three orthogonal directions obtained from ultrasonic technique and similarly from the compression test. Nevertheless, the compressive strength and toughness of bone samples were increased when they were exposed to 66 h of high power pulsed electromagnetic field compared to the control samples. As the toughness and the strength of the cortical bone tissue are directly associated with the quality and integrity of the collagen matrix whereas its stiffness is primarily related to bone mineral content these overall results may address that although, the pulse power stimulation can influence the arrangement or the quality of the collagen network

  10. Effects of occlusal inclination and loading on mandibular bone remodeling: a finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungsiyakull, Chaiy; Rungsiyakull, Pimdeun; Li, Qing; Li, Wei; Swain, Michael

    2011-01-01

    To provide a preliminary understanding of the biomechanics with respect to the effect of cusp inclination and occlusal loading on the mandibular bone remodeling. Three different cusp inclinations (0, 10, and 30 degrees) of a ceramic crown and different occlusal loading locations (central fossa and 1- and 2-mm offsets horizontally) were taken into account to explore the stresses and strains transferred from the crown to the surrounding dental bone through the implant. A strain energy density obtained from two-dimensional plane-strain finite element analysis was used as the mechanical stimulus to drive cancellous and cortical bone remodeling in a buccolingual mandibular section. Different ceramic cusp inclinations had a significant effect on bone remodeling responses in terms of the change in the average peri-implant bone density and overall stability. The remodeling rate was relatively high in the first few months of loading and gradually decreased until reaching its equilibrium. A larger cusp inclination and horizontal offset (eg, 30 degrees and 2-mm offset) led to a higher bone remodeling rate and greater interfacial stress. The dental implant superstructure design (in terms of cusp inclination and loading location) determines the load transmission pattern and thus largely affects bone remodeling activities. Although the design with a lower cusp inclination recommended in previous studies may reduce damage and fracture failure, it could, to a certain extent, compromise bone engagement and long-term stability.

  11. The effect of Platelet Lysate on osteoblast proliferation associated with a transient increase of the inflammatory response in bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiu, Alessandra; Ulivi, Valentina; Sanguineti, Francesca; Cancedda, Ranieri; Descalzi, Fiorella

    2013-12-01

    Platelet Lysate (PL) contains a cocktail of growth factors and cytokines, which actively participates in tissue repair and its clinical application has been broadly described. The aim of this study was to assess the regenerative potential of PL for bone repair. We demonstrated that PL stimulation induces a transient increase of the inflammatory response in quiescent human osteoblasts, via NF-kB activation, COX-2 induction, PGE2 production and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, we showed that long-term PL stimulation enhances proliferation of actively replicating osteoblasts, without affecting their differentiation potential, along with changes of cell morphology, resulting in increased cell density at confluence. In confluent resting osteoblasts, PL treatment induced resumption of proliferation, change in cell morphology and increase of cell density at confluence. A burst of PL treatment (24-h) was sufficient to trigger such processes in both conditions. These results correlated with up-regulation of the proliferative and survival pathways ERKs and Akt and with cell cycle re-activation via induction of CyclinD1 and phosphorylation of Rb, following PL stimulation. Our findings demonstrate that PL treatment results in activation and expansion of resting osteoblasts, without affecting their differentiation potential. Therefore PL represents a good therapeutic candidate in regenerative medicine for bone repair. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of the hexahydroxyhexane myoinositol on bone uptake of radiocalcium in rats: Effect of inositol and vitamin D2 on bone uptake of 45Ca in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeloff, L.G.; Skoryna, S.C.; Henderson, I.W.D.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of inositol and vitamin D 2 on bone uptake of 45 Ca in rats. The radioactive calcium was administered to young rats by orogastric intubation (2 μci/100 g body weight (b.wt.)) with inositol (20 mg/100 g b.wt) and/or vitamin D 2 (500 IU/100g b.wt) to normal rats. Bone uptake of 45 Ca was measured after 24 hours by standard technique. Inositol alone produced a 48% increase in calcium uptake. It is concluded that inositol significantly increases bone uptake to radioactive calcium (P>0.005). Simultaneous administration of vitamin D 2 decreases the effect of inositol considerably, while vitamin D 2 has no significant effect. (author)

  13. Safety and Potential Effect of a Single Intracavernous Injection of Autologous Adipose-Derived Regenerative Cells in Patients with Erectile Dysfunction Following Radical Prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Martha Kirstine; Jensen, Charlotte Harken; Toyserkani, Navid Mohamadpour

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men, and radical prostatectomy (RP) often results in erectile dysfunction (ED) and a substantially reduced quality of life. The efficacy of current interventions, principal treatment with PDE-5 inhibitors, is not satisfactory and this condi......BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men, and radical prostatectomy (RP) often results in erectile dysfunction (ED) and a substantially reduced quality of life. The efficacy of current interventions, principal treatment with PDE-5 inhibitors, is not satisfactory...... and this condition presents an unmet medical need. Preclinical studies using adipose-derived stem cells to treat ED have shown promising results. Herein, we report the results of a human phase 1 trial with autologous adipose-derived regenerative cells (ADRCs) freshly isolated after a liposuction. METHODS: Seventeen...... men suffering from post RP ED, with no recovery using conventional therapy, were enrolled in a prospective phase 1 open-label and single-arm study. All subjects had RP performed 5-18 months before enrolment, and were followed for 6 months after intracavernosal transplantation. ADRCs were analyzed...

  14. The Effect of Liquid Nitrogen on Bone Graft Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirinoglu, Hakan; Çilingir, Özlem Tuğçe; Çelebiler, Ozhan; Ercan, Feriha; Numanoglu, Ayhan

    2015-08-01

    Liquid nitrogen is used in medicine for cancer treatment and tissue preservation; however, bone viability after its application is controversial. This study aims to evaluate both the tissue viability and the clinical and histopathologic findings following liquid nitrogen application with different thawing techniques in rats. Mandibular bone grafts were taken from 45 Wistar rats and freezed in liquid nitrogen for 20 minutes. In the rapid-thawing technique (Rapid Thawing-1, Rapid Thawing-2), the grafts were held for 20 minutes in room temperature; in the slow-thawing technique (Slow Thawing-1, Slow Thawing-2), 20 minutes in -20°C, 20 minutes in +4°C, and 20 minutes in room temperature, respectively. In Rapid Thawing-2 and Slow Thawing-2 groups, autografts were implanted to their origin for 3 weeks and bone staining with India ink was performed and samples taken for histologic examination. The amount of cells and blood vessels and the density of bone canaliculi were significantly reduced in Rapid Thawing-1 and Slow Thawing-1 groups comparing to the Control group. However, the reduction rate was more significant in the Slow Thawing-1 group. Histomorphometric evaluation of the healing autografts after 3 weeks revealed that the decreased amounts of canaliculi were not changed in Slow Thawing-2 group. The study results demonstrated that bone tissue survives after liquid nitrogen treatment regardless of the performed thawing technique; however, slow thawing causes more tissue damage and metabolism impairment. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  15. Bone mineral density and bone markers in patients with a recent low-energy fracture: effect of 1 y of treatment with calcium and vitamin D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette F; Jensen, Jens-Erik B; Eskildsen, Peter C

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low-energy fractures of the hip, forearm, shoulder, and spine are known consequences of osteoporosis. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effect of 1 y of treatment with calcium and vitamin D on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone markers in patients with a recent low-energy fracture. DESIGN...

  16. Effects of chronic mild stress on parameters of bone assessment in adult male and female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício L. Valente

    Full Text Available Abstract: Osteoporosis is a multifactorial disease of high prevalence and has great impact on quality of life, because the effects on bone structure increase the risk of fractures, what may be very debilitating. Based on the observation that patients with depression have lower bone mineral density than healthy individuals, many studies have indicated that stress could be an aggravating factor for bone loss. This study evaluates the effect of a protocol of chronic mild stress (CMS on parameters of bone assessment in male and female rats. Five 5-monh-old rats of each sex underwent a schedule of stressor application for 28 days. Stressors included cold, heat, restraint, cage tilt, isolation, overnight illumination, and water and food deprivation. Five rats of each sex were kept under minimum intervention as control group. The animals were weighed at beginning and end of the period, and after euthanasia had their bones harvested. Femur, tibia and lumbar vertebrae were analyzed by bone densitometry. Biomechanical tests were performed in femoral head and diaphysis. Trabecular bone volume was obtained from histomorphometric analysis of femoral head and vertebral body, as well as of femoral midshaft cross-sectional measures. Not all parameters analyzed showed effect of CMS. However, tibial and L4 vertebral bone mineral density and cross-sectional cortical/medullar ratio of femoral shaft were lower in female rats submitted to the CMS protocol. Among male rats, the differences were significant for femoral trabecular bone volume and maximum load obtained by biomechanical test. Thus, it could be confirmed that CMS can affect the balance of bone homeostasis in rats, what may contribute to the establishment of osteopenia or osteoporosis.

  17. Effects of treadmill exercise on cortical bone in the third metacarpus of young horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, R.N.; Jeffcott, L.B.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of exercise and relative inactivity on cortical bone were compared in young horses. Two groups were used; one was given a 14-week programme of exercise (n = 6) and the other kept as unexercised controls (n = 6). The first nine weeks of exercise involved trotting and cantering (2 to 4 km d-1 at speeds up to 12 m s-1) on a treadmill set at an incline of 3 degrees. Over the next five weeks the horses were trained at near maximal speeds (that is, up to 14.5 m s-1) with no incline of the treadmill. At the end of the programme marked differences in cortical porosity and distribution of subperiosteal osteogenesis at the mid-shaft of the third metacarpal bone were found between the groups. Histomorphometrical examination of the dorsal cortex showed minimal bone remodelling in the exercised horses, but extensive modelling as evidenced by the large amount of subperiosteal bone formation. In contrast, the unexercised horses had significantly more bone remodelling and less formation of subperiosteal bone. The histomorphometric and microradiographic findings provided an explanation for changes in the non-invasive bone measurements that occurred during training. Bone mineral content of the mid-metacarpus was found to increase more in the exercised than the unexercised horses despite a lower overall growth in bodyweight. In those horses that completed the full training programme, ultrasound speed increased significantly by the end of the training programme. It remained unchanged in the horse that did not complete the full exercise programme and decreased slightly in the unexercised horses. The difference in ultrasound speed between the groups was considered to reflect differences in intracortical bone porosity, endosteal bone formation and alterations in skin thickness. The stiffness of cortical bone increased significantly in the exercised horses but remained unaltered in the unexercised horses

  18. Simulated weightlessness and synbiotic diet effects on rat bone mechanical strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarper, Hüseyin; Blanton, Cynthia; DePalma, Jude; Melnykov, Igor V.; Gabaldón, Annette M.

    2014-10-01

    This paper reports results on exposure to simulated weightlessness that leads to a rapid decrease in bone mineral density known as spaceflight osteopenia by evaluating the effectiveness of dietary supplementation with synbiotics to counteract the effects of skeletal unloading. Forty adult male rats were studied under four different conditions in a 2 × 2 factorial design with main effects of diet (synbiotic and control) and weight condition (unloaded and control). Hindlimb unloading was performed at all times for 14 days followed by 14 days of recovery (reambulation). The synbiotic diet contained probiotic strains Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactococcus lactis lactis and prebiotic fructooligosaccharide. This paper also reports on the development of a desktop three-point bending device to measure the mechanical strength of bones from rats subjected to simulated weightlessness. The importance of quantifying bone resistance to breakage is critical when examining the effectiveness of interventions against osteopenia resulting from skeletal unloading, such as astronauts experience, disuse or disease. Mechanical strength indices provide information beyond measures of bone density and microarchitecture that enhance the overall assessment of a treatment's potency. In this study we used a newly constructed three-point bending device to measure the mechanical strength of femur and tibia bones from hindlimb-unloaded rats fed an experimental synbiotic diet enriched with probiotics and fermentable fiber. Two calculated outputs for each sample were Young's modulus of elasticity and fracture stress. Bone major elements (calcium, magnesium, and phosphorous) were quantified using ICP-MS analysis. Hindlimb unloading was associated with a significant loss of strength in the femur, and with significant reductions in major bone elements. The synbiotic diet did not protect against these unloading effects. Tibia strength and major elements were not reduced by hindlimb unloading, as was

  19. Effects of radiation on the developing dentition and supporting bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carl, W.; Wood, R.

    1980-01-01

    Underdevelopment of teeth after exposure to radiation has been observed since the early experiments with x rays. Two patients had been irradiated at young ages for embryonal rhabdomyosarcomas. For the patient treated with radiation at age 4 for a lesion in the submandibular area, root development of the mandibular teeth stopped, but the teeth nevertheless erupted. In the patient treated with radiation at age 9 for a tumor in the left cheek, bone apposition in the left side of the mandible failed to continue at the same rate as on the right side. Although new megavoltage radiation machines have reduced the chances of bone complications in adults, developing bone and structures are still significantly affected by radiation

  20. [Effects of growth hormone replacement therapy on bone metabolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masahiro; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

    2014-06-01

    Growth hormone (GH) as well as insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are essential hormones to maintain homeostasis of bone turnover by activating osteoblastogenesis and osteoclastogenesis. Results from GH replacement therapy for primary osteoporosis and adult-onset GH deficiency (AGHD) suggest that one year or more treatment period by this agent is required to gain bone mineral density (BMD) over the basal level after compensating BMD loss caused by dominant increase in bone resorption which was observed at early phase of GH treatment. A recent meta-analysis demonstrates the efficacy of GH replacement therapy on increases in BMD in male patients with AGHD. Additional analyses are needed to draw firm conclusions in female patients with AGHD, because insufficient amounts of GH might be administrated to them without considerations of influence of estrogen replacement therapy on IGF-1 production. Further observational studies are needed to clarify whether GH replacement therapy prevent fracture risk in these patients.

  1. Evidence for the Adverse Effect of Starvation on Bone Quality: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Kueper

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition and starvation’s possible adverse impacts on bone health and bone quality first came into the spotlight after the horrors of the Holocaust and the ghettos of World War II. Famine and food restrictions led to a mean caloric intake of 200–800 calories a day in the ghettos and concentration camps, resulting in catabolysis and starvation of the inhabitants and prisoners. Severely increased risks of fracture, poor bone mineral density, and decreased cortical strength were noted in several case series and descriptive reports addressing the medical issues of these individuals. A severe effect of severely diminished food intake and frequently concomitant calcium- and Vitamin D deficiencies was subsequently proven in both animal models and the most common cause of starvation in developed countries is anorexia nervosa. This review attempts to summarize the literature available on the impact of the metabolic response to Starvation on overall bone health and bone quality.

  2. Evidence for the adverse effect of starvation on bone quality: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueper, Janina; Beyth, Shaul; Liebergall, Meir; Kaplan, Leon; Schroeder, Josh E

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition and starvation's possible adverse impacts on bone health and bone quality first came into the spotlight after the horrors of the Holocaust and the ghettos of World War II. Famine and food restrictions led to a mean caloric intake of 200-800 calories a day in the ghettos and concentration camps, resulting in catabolysis and starvation of the inhabitants and prisoners. Severely increased risks of fracture, poor bone mineral density, and decreased cortical strength were noted in several case series and descriptive reports addressing the medical issues of these individuals. A severe effect of severely diminished food intake and frequently concomitant calcium- and Vitamin D deficiencies was subsequently proven in both animal models and the most common cause of starvation in developed countries is anorexia nervosa. This review attempts to summarize the literature available on the impact of the metabolic response to Starvation on overall bone health and bone quality.

  3. A review of the effects of dietary silicon intake on bone homeostasis and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodella, L F; Bonazza, V; Labanca, M; Lonati, C; Rezzani, R

    2014-11-01

    Increasing evidences suggest that dietary Silicon (Si) intake, is positively correlated with bone homeostasis and regeneration, representing a potential and valid support for the prevention and improvement of bone diseases, like osteoporosis. This review, aims to provide the state of art of the studies performed until today, in order to investigate and clarify the beneficial properties and effects of silicates, on bone metabolism. We conducted a systematic literature search up to March 2013, using two medical databases (Pubmed and the Cochrane Library), to review the studies about Si consumption and bone metabolism. We found 45 articles, but 38 were specifically focused on Si studies. RESULTS showed a positive relationship between dietary Si intake and bone regeneration.

  4. Effect of a carbonated HAP/β-glucan composite bone substitute on healing of drilled bone voids in the proximal tibial metaphysis of rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkowski, Leszek; Pawłowska, Marta; Radzki, Radosław P.; Bieńko, Marek; Polkowska, Izabela; Belcarz, Anna; Karpiński, Mirosław; Słowik, Tymoteusz; Matuszewski, Łukasz; Ślósarczyk, Anna; Ginalska, Grażyna

    2015-01-01

    A novel elastic hydroxyapatite-based composite of high surgical handiness has been developed. Its potential application in orthopedics as a filler of bone defects has been studied. The biomaterial was composed of carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHAP) granules and polysaccharide polymer (β-1,3-glucan). Cylinders of 4 mm in diameter and 6 mm in length were implanted into bone cavities created in the proximal metaphysis of tibiae of 24 New Zealand white rabbits. 18 sham-operated animals were used as controls. After 1, 3 or 6 months, the rabbits were euthanized, the bones were harvested and subjected to analysis. Radiological images and histological sections revealed integration of implants with bone tissue with no signs of graft rejection. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) indicated the stimulating effect of the biomaterial on bone formation and mineralization. Densitometry (DXA) analysis suggested that biomineralization of bones was preceded by bioresorption and gradual disappearance of porous ceramic granules. The findings suggest that the CHAP–glucan composite material enables regeneration of bone tissue and could serve as a bone defect filler. - Highlights: • Highly porous carbonate HAP granules and β-1,3-glucan were used to fill bone voids. • Critical size defects of rabbit tibiae were filled with the composite scaffolds. • Biocompatibility, mineralization and osseointegration of implants were examined. • Histological analysis indicated a high biocompatibility of composite grafts. • We report penetration of bony tissue into implants and advanced osseointegration

  5. Effect of a carbonated HAP/β-glucan composite bone substitute on healing of drilled bone voids in the proximal tibial metaphysis of rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borkowski, Leszek, E-mail: leszek.borkowski@umlub.pl [Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Medical University of Lublin, Chodźki 1, 20-093 Lublin (Poland); Pawłowska, Marta; Radzki, Radosław P.; Bieńko, Marek [Department of Animal Physiology, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Akademicka 12, 20-033 Lublin (Poland); Polkowska, Izabela [Department and Clinic of Animal Surgery, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Głęboka 30, 20-612 Lublin (Poland); Belcarz, Anna [Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Medical University of Lublin, Chodźki 1, 20-093 Lublin (Poland); Karpiński, Mirosław [Department of Companion and Wildlife Animals, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Akademicka 13, 20-950 Lublin (Poland); Słowik, Tymoteusz [Independent Radiology Unit at Lublin Small Animals Medical Centre, Stefczyka 11, 20-151 Lublin (Poland); Matuszewski, Łukasz [Children' s Orthopaedic Clinic and Rehabilitation Department, Medical University of Lublin, Chodzki 2, 20-093 Lublin (Poland); Ślósarczyk, Anna [Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, AGH-University of Science and Technology, Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Ginalska, Grażyna [Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Medical University of Lublin, Chodźki 1, 20-093 Lublin (Poland)

    2015-08-01

    A novel elastic hydroxyapatite-based composite of high surgical handiness has been developed. Its potential application in orthopedics as a filler of bone defects has been studied. The biomaterial was composed of carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHAP) granules and polysaccharide polymer (β-1,3-glucan). Cylinders of 4 mm in diameter and 6 mm in length were implanted into bone cavities created in the proximal metaphysis of tibiae of 24 New Zealand white rabbits. 18 sham-operated animals were used as controls. After 1, 3 or 6 months, the rabbits were euthanized, the bones were harvested and subjected to analysis. Radiological images and histological sections revealed integration of implants with bone tissue with no signs of graft rejection. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) indicated the stimulating effect of the biomaterial on bone formation and mineralization. Densitometry (DXA) analysis suggested that biomineralization of bones was preceded by bioresorption and gradual disappearance of porous ceramic granules. The findings suggest that the CHAP–glucan composite material enables regeneration of bone tissue and could serve as a bone defect filler. - Highlights: • Highly porous carbonate HAP granules and β-1,3-glucan were used to fill bone voids. • Critical size defects of rabbit tibiae were filled with the composite scaffolds. • Biocompatibility, mineralization and osseointegration of implants were examined. • Histological analysis indicated a high biocompatibility of composite grafts. • We report penetration of bony tissue into implants and advanced osseointegration.

  6. The Effect of Spaceflight on Bone Cell Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, William J.

    1999-01-01

    Understanding the response of bone to mechanical loading (unloading) is extremely important in defining the means of adaptation of the body to a variety of environmental conditions such as during heightened physical activity or in extended explorations of space or the sea floor. The mechanisms of the adaptive response of bone are not well defined, but undoubtedly they involve changes occurring at the cellular level of bone structure. This proposal has intended to examine the hypothesis that the loading (unloading) response of bone is mediated by specific cells through modifications of their activity cytoskeletal elements, and/or elaboration of their extracellular matrices. For this purpose, this laboratory has utilized the results of a number of previous studies defining molecular biological, biochemical, morphological, and ultrastructural events of the reproducible mineralization of a primary bone cell (osteoblast) culture system under normal loading (1G gravity level). These data and the culture system then were examined following the use of the cultures in two NASA shuttle flights, STS-59 and STS-63. The cells collected from each of the flights were compared to respective synchronous ground (1G) control cells examined as the flight samples were simultaneously analyzed and to other control cells maintained at 1G until the time of shuttle launch, at which point they were terminated and studied (defined as basal cells). Each of the cell cultures was assayed in terms of metabolic markers- gene expression; synthesis and secretion of collagen and non-collagenous proteins, including certain cytoskeletal components; assembly of collagen into macrostructural arrays- formation of mineral; and interaction of collagen and mineral crystals during calcification of the cultures. The work has utilized a combination of biochemical techniques (radiolabeling, electrophoresis, fluorography, Western and Northern Blotting, and light microscopic immunofluorescence) and structural

  7. Effect of the wavelength on laser induced breakdown spectrometric analysis of archaeological bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasem, M.A. [National Institute of Laser Enhanced Science (NILES), Cairo University, Giza (Egypt); Gonzalez, J.J.; Russo, R.E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Harith, M.A., E-mail: mharithm@niles.edu.eg [National Institute of Laser Enhanced Science (NILES), Cairo University, Giza (Egypt)

    2014-11-01

    The analytical exploitation of the laser induced plasma suffers from its transient behavior due to some nonlinear effects. These phenomena are matrix-dependent and limit the use of LIBS to mostly semi-quantitative precision. The plasma parameters have to be kept as constant as possible during LIBS measurements. Studying archaeological bone samples using LIBS technique could be more difficult since these samples are less tough in their texture than many other solid samples. Thus, the ablation process could change the sample morphological features rapidly resulting in poor reproducibility and statistics. Furthermore archaeological bones are subjected to diagenesis effects due to burial environment and postmortem effects. In the present work comparative analytical study of UV (266 nm) and IR (1064 nm) LIBS for archaeological bone samples belonging to four ancient Egyptian dynasties representing the middle kingdom (1980–1630 BC), 2nd intermediate period (1630–1539/23 BC), Roman–Greek period (30 BC–A.D. 395) and the late period (664–332 BC). Measurements have been performed under identical experimental conditions except the laser wavelength to examine its effects. Elemental fluctuations within the same dynasty were studied for reliable information about each dynasty. The analytical results demonstrated that UV-LIBS gives a more realistic picture for bone elemental composition within the same dynasty, and bone ash could be more suitable as a reference material for bone calibration in the case of UV-LIBS. - Highlights: • UV and IR LIBS for archaeological bone samples have been performed. • Elemental fluctuations within the same dynasty were studied. • UV-LIBS gave realistic picture for bone elemental composition for the same dynasty. • Depth profile for Sr/Ca concentration was an indicator for the diagenesis effect. • Bone ash is the most suitable for calcified tissue calibration for UV-LIBS.

  8. Effect of the wavelength on laser induced breakdown spectrometric analysis of archaeological bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasem, M.A.; Gonzalez, J.J.; Russo, R.E.; Harith, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    The analytical exploitation of the laser induced plasma suffers from its transient behavior due to some nonlinear effects. These phenomena are matrix-dependent and limit the use of LIBS to mostly semi-quantitative precision. The plasma parameters have to be kept as constant as possible during LIBS measurements. Studying archaeological bone samples using LIBS technique could be more difficult since these samples are less tough in their texture than many other solid samples. Thus, the ablation process could change the sample morphological features rapidly resulting in poor reproducibility and statistics. Furthermore archaeological bones are subjected to diagenesis effects due to burial environment and postmortem effects. In the present work comparative analytical study of UV (266 nm) and IR (1064 nm) LIBS for archaeological bone samples belonging to four ancient Egyptian dynasties representing the middle kingdom (1980–1630 BC), 2nd intermediate period (1630–1539/23 BC), Roman–Greek period (30 BC–A.D. 395) and the late period (664–332 BC). Measurements have been performed under identical experimental conditions except the laser wavelength to examine its effects. Elemental fluctuations within the same dynasty were studied for reliable information about each dynasty. The analytical results demonstrated that UV-LIBS gives a more realistic picture for bone elemental composition within the same dynasty, and bone ash could be more suitable as a reference material for bone calibration in the case of UV-LIBS. - Highlights: • UV and IR LIBS for archaeological bone samples have been performed. • Elemental fluctuations within the same dynasty were studied. • UV-LIBS gave realistic picture for bone elemental composition for the same dynasty. • Depth profile for Sr/Ca concentration was an indicator for the diagenesis effect. • Bone ash is the most suitable for calcified tissue calibration for UV-LIBS

  9. The Effect of Rosiglitazone on Bone Quality in a Rat Model of Insulin Resistance and Osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardone, Laura Donata

    Rosiglitazone (RSG) is an insulin-sensitizing drug used to treat Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). Clinical trials show that women taking RSG experience more limb fractures than patients taking other T2DM drugs. The purpose of this study is to understand how RSG (3mg/kg/day and 10mg/kg/day) and the bisphosphonate alendronate (0.7mg/kg/week) alter bone quality in the male, female and female ovariectomized (OVX) Zucker fatty rat model over a 12 week period. Bone quality was evaluated by mechanical testing of cortical and trabecular bone. Microarchitecture, bone mineral density (BMD), cortical bone porosity, bone formation/resorption and mineralization were also measured. Female OVX RSG10mg/kg rats had significantly lower vertebral BMD and compromised trabecular architecture versus OVX controls. Increased cortical porosity and decreased mechanical properties occurred in these rats. ALN treatment prevented these negative effects in the OVX RSG model. Evidence of reduced bone formation and excess bone resorption was detected in female RSG-treated rats.

  10. Effect of odanacatib on root resorption and alveolar bone metabolism during orthodontic tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, X X; Chu, J P; Zou, Y Z; Ru, N; Cui, S X; Bai, Y X

    2015-12-22

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of local administration of odanacatib (ODN) on orthodontic root resorption and the status of alveolar bone metabolism in rat molars. All specimens were scanned using microcomputed tomography and then the raw images were reconstructed. The total volume of the root resorption craters of the 60 g-NS (normal saline) group was higher than in the 60 g-ODN group and the control group. In the 60 g-NS group, the bone volume fraction values of alveolar bone were significantly decreased compared with the other 2 groups. There were no significant differences in the bone volume fraction values of the tibiae among the 3 groups. The results of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive (TRAP+) numbers showed that there was no difference between the 60 g-NS group and the 60 g-ODN group. The expression of cathepsin K was decreased significantly in the 60 g-ODN group. These results indicate that ODN reduces orthodontics-induced external root resorption and increases alveolar bone metabolism. This may be because ODN inhibits the activity of odontoclasts, but maintains the quantity of odontoclasts and enhances bone formation. ODN promotes local alveolar bone metabolism, but does not affect systemic bone metabolism.

  11. The Effect of Combined Exercise on Bone Mineral Density of Premenopausal Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safoura Ghasemi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The best way to prevent osteoporosis, at old age is to prevent bone loss and at young age is trying to keep bones healthy, therefore the aim of this study was to determine the effect of combined exercise on bone mineral density of premenopausal females. Materials and Methods: This semi-experimental study was conducted among 20 premenopausal females between 40 and 45 years old, which were randomly assigned to two groups (experimental and control groups in Hamadan city, during year 2016. The experimental group completed a 12-week combined exercise-training program (6 weeks in water and 6 weeks on land, three times a week and 70 minutes per session. Before and after the 12 weeks, femoral bone mineral density in all samples was measured by DEXA bone mineral densitometry. Data were analyzed with the SPSS 21 software using descriptive and inferential statistics, such as independent and paired t-test, and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA. Results: Bone mineral density of femoral neck and total hip of the experimental group, had significant differences with corresponding areas of the control group (P <0.05. In other words, the results revealed that 12 weeks of combined exercise increases femoral bone mineral density in the experimental group with a significant decrease in the control group. Conclusions: According to the results, to prevent a decrease in bone mineral density during the menopausal period, combined exercises are recommended for females at this age.

  12. High doses of ionizing radiation on bone repair: is there effect outside the irradiated site?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Flaviana Soares; Dias, Pâmella Coelho; Limirio, Pedro Henrique Justino Oliveira; Lara, Vitor Carvalho; Batista, Jonas Dantas; Dechichi, Paula

    2017-03-01

    Local ionizing radiation causes damage to bone metabolism, it reduces blood supply and cellularity over time. Recent studies indicate that radiation promotes biological response outside the treatment field. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ionizing radiation on bone repair outside the irradiated field. Ten healthy male Wistar rats were used; and five animals were submitted to radiotherapy on the left femur. After 4 weeks, in all animals were created bone defects in the right and left femurs. Seven days after surgery, animals were euthanized. The femurs were removed and randomly divided into 3 groups (n=5): Control (C) (right femur of the non-irradiated animals); Local ionizing radiation (IR) (left femur of the irradiated animals); Contralateral ionizing radiation (CIR) (right femur of the irradiated animals). The femurs were processed and embedded in paraffin; and bone histologic sections were evaluated to quantify the bone neoformation. Histomorphometric analysis showed that there was no significant difference between groups C (24.6±7.04) and CIR (25.3±4.31); and IR group not showed bone neoformation. The results suggest that ionizing radiation affects bone repair, but does not interfere in bone repair distant from the primary irradiated site. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. An improved cost-effective, reproducible method for evaluation of bone loss in a rodent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Daniel H; Schreiner, Helen; Nasri-Heir, Cibele; Greenberg, Barbara; Jiang, Shuying; Markowitz, Kenneth; Furgang, David

    2009-02-01

    This study was designed to investigate the utility of two "new" definitions for assessment of bone loss in a rodent model of periodontitis. Eighteen rats were divided into three groups. Group 1 was infected by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), group 2 was infected with an Aa leukotoxin knock-out, and group 3 received no Aa (controls). Microbial sampling and antibody titres were determined. Initially, two examiners measured the distance from the cemento-enamel-junction to alveolar bone crest using the three following methods; (1) total area of bone loss by radiograph, (2) linear bone loss by radiograph, (3) a direct visual measurement (DVM) of horizontal bone loss. Two "new" definitions were adopted; (1) any site in infected animals showing bone loss >2 standard deviations above the mean seen at that site in control animals was recorded as bone loss, (2) any animal with two or more sites in any quadrant affected by bone loss was considered as diseased. Using the "new" definitions both evaluators independently found that infected animals had significantly more disease than controls (DVM system; p<0.05). The DVM method provides a simple, cost effective, and reproducible method for studying periodontal disease in rodents.

  14. On-Command Exoskeleton for Countermeasure Microgravity Effects on Muscles and Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.; Bao, X.; Badescu, M.; Sherrit, S.; Mavroidis, C.; Unluhisarcikh, O.; Pietrusinski, M.; Rajulu, S.; Berka, R.; Cowley, M.

    2012-06-01

    On-command exoskeleton with impeding and augmenting elements would support the operation of astronauts traveling to Mars. Thus, countermeasure deleterious effects on the muscles and bones during travel and assist their physical activity on Mars.

  15. High-Phosphorus, Low-Calcium Dietary Intakes and Bone Effects of Physical Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zerath, Erik

    2003-01-01

    .... Diet inquiries showed changes in calcium and phosphorus intakes. This study is aimed at investigating the effects of physical activity on bone tissue in the context of high-phosphorus and low-calcium intakes. Sedentary (SED) and trained (TR...

  16. Effect of surface contamination on osseointegration of dental implants surrounded by circumferential bone defects.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mohamed, Seif

    2010-05-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of surface contamination on osseointegration of dental implants surrounded by a circumferential bone defect and to compare osseointegration around Osseotite with that around Nanotite implants.

  17. Protective Effects of Vildagliptin against Pioglitazone-Induced Bone Loss in Type 2 Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Young Sil; Gwon, A-Ryeong; Kwak, Kyung Min; Kim, Ju-Young; Yu, Seung Hee; Lee, Sihoon; Kim, Yeun Sun; Park, Ie Byung; Kim, Kwang-Won; Lee, Kiyoung; Kim, Byung-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Long-term use of thiazolidinediones (TZDs) is associated with bone loss and an increased risk of fracture in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Incretin-based drugs (glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonists and dipeptidylpeptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors) have several benefits in many systems in addition to glycemic control. In a previous study, we reported that exendin-4 might increase bone mineral density (BMD) by decreasing the expression of SOST/sclerostin in osteocytes in a T2DM animal model. In this study, we investigated the effects of a DPP-4 inhibitor on TZD-induced bone loss in a T2DM animal model. We randomly divided 12-week-old male Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats into four groups; control, vildagliptin, pioglitazone, and vildagliptin and pioglitazone combination. Animals in each group received the respective treatments for 5 weeks. We performed an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) before and after treatment. BMD and the trabecular micro-architecture were measured by DEXA and micro CT, respectively, at the end of the treatment. The circulating levels of active GLP-1, bone turnover markers, and sclerostin were assayed. Vildagliptin treatment significantly increased BMD and trabecular bone volume. The combination therapy restored BMD, trabecular bone volume, and trabecular bone thickness that were decreased by pioglitazone. The levels of the bone formation marker, osteocalcin, decreased and that of the bone resorption marker, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) 5b increased in the pioglitazone group. These biomarkers were ameliorated and the pioglitazone-induced increase in sclerostin level was lowered to control values by the addition of vildagliptin. In conclusion, our results indicate that orally administered vildagliptin demonstrated a protective effect on pioglitazone-induced bone loss in a type 2 diabetic rat model.

  18. Effects of amlodipine on bone metabolism in male albino Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Gradošová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Amlodipine (dihydropyridine-type calcium channel blocker is a widely used agent for the treatment of hypertension in human and veterinary medicine but detailed information about its effects on bone metabolism are missing. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the effect of amlodipine on bone metabolism in male albino Wistar rats. Amlodipine (0.3 mg/100 g body weight; gavage was administered to 8 rats for 8 weeks. Control group (n = 8 received aqua pro inj. (0.2 ml/100 g body weight; gavage. Bone marker concentrations of carboxy-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I and aminoterminal propeptide of procollagen type I in serum, and of bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP in both serum and bone homogenate were measured by enzyme immunoassay. We investigated the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2 in proximal tibia using Western blotting, and bone mineral density was measured by Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry in lumbar and caudal vertebrae and in femoral areas. Mechanical properties of the femurs were measured by three-point bending of the shaft and compression testing of the femoral neck. After 8 weeks of amlodipine administration there was a significant decrease in serum concentrations of BALP (p = 0.0009 and CTX-I (p = 0.003, and the content of BALP in bone homogenate (p = 0.026 compared to the control. In addition, Western blot analysis indicated increased BMP-2 protein concentration after amlodipine administration. Our findings suggest that amlodipine has a retarding influence on bone metabolism in rats by decreasing bone turnover, which probably in consequence increases expression of BMP-2.

  19. Novel Therapy for Bone Regeneration in Large Segmental Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Nanohydrox- yapatite- coated electrospun poly(L-lactide) nanofibers enhance osteogenic differentiation of stem cells and induce ectopic bone formation... Bone Regeneration in a Large Animal Critical Sized Defect Model, Second Annual Symposium on Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine, 2016 4...osteogenic cells and growth factors demonstrated success in facilitating bone regeneration in these cases. However, due to the lack of mechanical property

  20. Testosterone Combined with Electrical Stimulation and Standing: Effect on Muscle and Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-2-0190 TITLE: Testosterone Combined with Electrical Stimulation and Standing: Effect on Muscle and Bone PRINCIPAL...including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing...29 Sep 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Testosterone Combined with Electrical Stimulation and Standing: Effect on Muscle and Bone 5b

  1. Biochemical and biophysical aspects of iation effects in bone tissues at different stages of ontogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenkel', L.A.

    1986-01-01

    In experiments on rats it has been ascertained that under the effect of X radiation in the dose 8Gy already at early stages of organism affection in the mineral spectrum of bone tissue considerable disturbances take place, the character and degree of which depend on the animal age. Microelement composition of bone tissue under conditions of acute radiation effect undergo significant changes. The degree and character of the changes depend on radiation affection dynamics and age of the experimental animals

  2. The effects of bone on proton NMR relaxation times of surrounding liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, C. A.; Genant, H. K.; Dunham, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary attempts by our group at UCSF to assess fat content of vertebral marrow in the lumbar spine using relaxation time information demonstrated that the presence of trabecular bone affects relaxation times. The objective of this work was a thorough study of the effects of bone on NMR relaxation characteristics of surrounding liquids. Trabecular bone from autopsy specimens was ground up and sifted into a series of powders with graded densities ranging from 0.3 gm/cc to 0.8 gm/cc. Each powder was placed first in n-saline and then in cottonseed oil. With spectroscopy, spin-lattice relaxation times (T1) and effective spin-spin relaxation times (T2*) were measured for each liquid in each bone powder. As bone density and surface to volume ratio increased, T1 decreased faster for saline than for oil. T2* decreased significantly for both water and oil as the surface to volume ratio increased. It was concluded that effects of water on T1 could be explained by a surface interaction at the bone/liquid interface, which restricted rotational and translational motion of nearby molecules. The T1s of oil were not affected since oil molecules are nonpolar, do not participate in significant intermolecular hydrogen bonding, and therefore would not be expected to interact strongly with the bone surface. Effects on T2* could be explained by local magnetic field inhomogeneities created by discontinuous magnetic susceptibility near the bone surface. These preliminary results suggest that water in contact with trabecular bone in vivo will exhibit shortened relaxation times.

  3. Beneficial Therapeutic Effects of Sildenafil on Bone Healing in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-23

    Feb 23, 2018 ... (SBPC) technique for detection of collagen 1 and gremlin. 1 antibodies. ..... grafting materials on early bone regeneration in osseous defects in rabbits. ... Hart K, Baur D, Hodam J, Lesoon-Wood L, Parham M, Keith. K, et al.

  4. Effects of housing systems on behavioural assessment, bone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The birds were fed same quality and quantity of feed and water ad libitum throughout the period of the experiment which lasted for four weeks. Data were collected on behavioural observations, bone morphometry and faecal samples were analyzed to determine the helminthes egg per gram. The experiment was arranged in ...

  5. Reflective Self-Regenerative Systems Architecture Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pu, Carlton; Blough, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we develop the Reflective Self-Regenerative Systems (RSRS) architecture in detail, describing the internal structure of each component and the mutual invocations among the components...

  6. Staged regenerative sorption heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A regenerative adsorbent heat pump process and system for cooling and heating a space. A sorbent is confined in a plurality of compressors of which at least four are first stage and at least four are second stage. The first stage operates over a first pressure region and the second stage over a second pressure region which is higher than the first. Sorbate from the first stage enters the second stage. The sorbate loop includes a condenser, expansion valve, evaporator and the compressors. A single sorbate loop can be employed for single-temperature-control such as air conditioning and heating. Two sorbate loops can be used for two-temperature-control as in a refrigerator and freezer. The evaporator temperatures control the freezer and refrigerator temperatures. Alternatively the refrigerator temperature can be cooled by the freezer with one sorbate loop. A heat transfer fluid is circulated in a closed loop which includes a radiator and the compressors. Low temperature heat is exhausted by the radiator. High temperature heat is added to the heat transfer fluid entering the compressors which are desorbing vapor. Heat is transferred from compressors which are sorbing vapor to the heat transfer fluid, and from the heat transfer fluid to the compressors which are desorbing vapor. Each compressor is subjected to the following phases, heating to its highest temperature, cooling down from its highest temperature, cooling to its lowest temperature, and warming up from its lowest temperature. The phases are repeated to complete a cycle and regenerate heat.

  7. Recent considerations in regenerative endodontic treatment approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer Aksel

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Although the regenerative treatment approaches have good clinical outcomes in the majority of case reports, the outcomes are unpredictable. Since the current clinical protocols for regenerative endodontics do not fully fulfill the triad of tissue engineering ((growth factors, scaffold and stem cells, further translational studies are required to achieve more pulp- and dentin-like tissue in the root canal system to achieve pulp regeneration.

  8. Fixed and mobile-bearing total ankle prostheses: Effect on tibial bone strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrier, Alexandre; Fernandes, Caroline Sieger; Guillemin, Maïka; Crevoisier, Xavier

    2017-10-01

    Total ankle replacement is associated to a high revision rate. To improve implant survival, the potential advantage of prostheses with fixed bearing compared to mobile bearing is unclear. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that fixed and mobile bearing prostheses are associated with different biomechanical quantities typically associated to implant failure. With a validated finite element model, we compared three cases: a prosthesis with a fixed bearing, a prosthesis with a mobile bearing in a centered position, and a prosthesis with mobile bearing in an eccentric position. Both prostheses were obtained from the same manufacturer. They were tested on seven tibias with maximum axial compression force during walking. We tested the hypothesis that there was a difference of bone strain, bone-implant interfacial stress, and bone support between the three cases. We also evaluated, for the three cases, the correlations between bone support, bone strain and bone-implant interfacial stress. There were no statistically significant differences between the three cases. Overall, bone support was mainly trabecular, and less effective in the posterior side. Bone strain and bone-implant interfacial stress were strongly correlated to bone support. Even if slight differences are observed between fixed and mobile bearing, it is not enough to put forward the superiority of one of these implants regarding their reaction to axial compression. When associated to the published clinical results, our study provides no argument to warn surgeons against the use of two-components fixed bearing implants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of microstructure on micromechanical performance of dry cortical bone tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Ling; Venkatesan, Sudharshan; Kalyanasundaram, Shankar; Qin Qinghua

    2009-01-01

    The mechanical properties of bone depend on composition and structure. Previous studies have focused on macroscopic fracture behavior of bone. In the present study, we performed microindentation studies to understand the deformation properties and microcrack-microstructure interactions of dry cortical bone. Dry cortical bone tissues from lamb femurs were tested using Vickers indentation with loads of 0.245-9.8 N. We examined the effect of bone microstructure on deformation and crack propagation using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed the significant effect of cortical bone microstructure on indentation deformation and microcrack propagation. The indentation deformation of the dry cortical bone was basically plastic at any applied load with a pronounced viscoelastic recovery, in particular at lower loads. More microcracks up to a length of approximately 20 μm occurred when the applied load was increased. At loads of 4.9 N and higher, most microcracks were found to develop from the boundaries of haversian canals, osteocyte lacunae and canaliculi. Some microcracks propagated from the parallel direction of the longitudinal interstitial lamellae. At loads 0.45 N and lower, no visible microcracks were observed.

  10. Male Hypogonadism and Osteoporosis: The Effects, Clinical Consequences, and Treatment of Testosterone Deficiency in Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdek, Devon

    2017-01-01

    It is well recognized that bone loss accelerates in hypogonadal states, with female menopause being the classic example of sex hormones affecting the regulation of bone metabolism. Underrepresented is our knowledge of the clinical and metabolic consequences of overt male hypogonadism, as well as the more subtle age-related decline in testosterone on bone quality. While menopause and estrogen deficiency are well-known risk factors for osteoporosis in women, the effects of age-related testosterone decline in men on bone health are less well known. Much of our knowledge comes from observational studies and retrospective analysis on small groups of men with variable causes of primary or secondary hypogonadism and mild to overt testosterone deficiencies. This review aims to present the current knowledge of the consequences of adult male hypogonadism on bone metabolism. The direct and indirect effects of testosterone on bone cells will be explored as well as the important differences in male osteoporosis and assessment as compared to that in females. The clinical consequence of both primary and secondary hypogonadism, as well as testosterone decline in older males, on bone density and fracture risk in men will be summarized. Finally, the therapeutic options and their efficacy in male osteoporosis and hypogonadism will be discussed. PMID:28408926

  11. Male Hypogonadism and Osteoporosis: The Effects, Clinical Consequences, and Treatment of Testosterone Deficiency in Bone Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Golds

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well recognized that bone loss accelerates in hypogonadal states, with female menopause being the classic example of sex hormones affecting the regulation of bone metabolism. Underrepresented is our knowledge of the clinical and metabolic consequences of overt male hypogonadism, as well as the more subtle age-related decline in testosterone on bone quality. While menopause and estrogen deficiency are well-known risk factors for osteoporosis in women, the effects of age-related testosterone decline in men on bone health are less well known. Much of our knowledge comes from observational studies and retrospective analysis on small groups of men with variable causes of primary or secondary hypogonadism and mild to overt testosterone deficiencies. This review aims to present the current knowledge of the consequences of adult male hypogonadism on bone metabolism. The direct and indirect effects of testosterone on bone cells will be explored as well as the important differences in male osteoporosis and assessment as compared to that in females. The clinical consequence of both primary and secondary hypogonadism, as well as testosterone decline in older males, on bone density and fracture risk in men will be summarized. Finally, the therapeutic options and their efficacy in male osteoporosis and hypogonadism will be discussed.

  12. Effects of Resveratrol Supplementation on Bone Growth in Young Rats and Microarchitecture and Remodeling in Ageing Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice M. C. Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a highly prevalent skeletal disorder in the elderly that causes serious bone fractures. Peak bone mass achieved at adolescence has been shown to predict bone mass and osteoporosis related risk fracture later in life. Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol compound, may have the potential to promote bone formation and reduce bone resorption. However, it is unclear whether it can aid bone growth and bone mass accumulation during rapid growth and modulate bone metabolism during ageing. Using rat models, the current study investigated the potential effects of resveratrol supplementation during the rapid postnatal growth period and in late adulthood (early ageing on bone microarchitecture and metabolism. In the growth trial, 4-week-old male hooded Wistar rats on a normal chow diet were given resveratrol (2.5 mg/kg/day or vehicle control for 5 weeks. In the ageing trial, 6-month-old male hooded Wistar rats were treated with resveratrol (20 mg/kg/day or vehicle for 3 months. Treatment effects in the tibia were examined by μ-computer tomography (μ-CT analysis, bone histomorphometric measurements and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR gene expression analysis. Resveratrol treatment did not affect trabecular bone volume and bone remodeling indices in the youth animal model. Resveratrol supplementation in the early ageing rats tended to decrease trabecular bone volume, Sirt1 gene expression and increased expression of adipogenesis-related genes in bone, all of which were statistically insignificant. However, it decreased osteocalcin expression (p = 0.03. Furthermore, serum levels of bone resorption marker C-terminal telopeptides type I collagen (CTX-1 were significantly elevated in the resveratrol supplementation group (p = 0.02 with no changes observed in serum levels of bone formation marker alkaline phosphatase (ALP. These results in rat models suggest that resveratrol supplementation does not significantly affect bone

  13. Insulin-like growth factor I has independent effects on bone matrix formation and cell replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hock, J.M.; Centrella, M.; Canalis, E.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin on bone matrix synthesis and bone cell replication were studied in cultured 21-day-old fetal rat calvariae. Histomorphometry techniques were developed to measure the incorporation of [2,3- 3 H]proline and [methyl- 3 H]thymidine into bone matrix and bone cell nuclei, respectively, using autoradiographs of sagittal sections of calvariae cultured with IGF-I, insulin, or vehicle for up to 96 h. To confirm an effect on bone formation, IGF-I was also studied for its effects on [ 3 H]proline incorporation into collagenase-digestible protein (CDP) and noncollagen protein and on [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation into acid-precipitable material (DNA). IGF-I at 10(-9)-10(-7) M significantly increased the rate of bone matrix apposition and CDP after 24 h by 45-50% and increased cell labeling by 8-fold in the osteoprogenitor cell zone, by 4-fold in the osteoblast cell zone, and by 2-fold in the periosteal fibroblast zone. Insulin at 10(-9)-10(-6) M also increased matrix apposition rate and CDP by 40-50%, but increased cell labeling by 2-fold only at a concentration of 10(-7) M or higher and then only in the osteoprogenitor cell zone. When hydroxyurea was added to IGF-I-treated bones, the effects of IGF-I on DNA synthesis were abolished, but the increase in bone matrix apposition induced by IGF-I was only partly diminished. In conclusion, IGF-I stimulates matrix synthesis in calvariae, an effect that is partly, although not completely, dependent on its stimulatory effect on DNA synthesis

  14. Clinical effectiveness of combining platelet rich fibrin with alloplastic bone substitute for the management of combined endodontic periodontal lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Lata

    2014-02-01

    The term "endo-perio" lesion has been proposed to describe the destructive lesion resulting from inflammatory products found in varying degrees in both the periodontium and the pulpal tissues. In most of the cases, clinical symptoms disappear following successful endodontic therapy. However failure after conventional root canal treatment calls for surgical intervention. A 35 year old male patient with endo-perio lesion in right maxillary lateral incisor was treated with platelet rich fibrin (PRF) and alloplastic bone substitute after conventional endodontic therapy. At the end of 6 months there was gain in clinical attachment, increased radiographic bone fill and reduction in probing depth which was maintained till 18 month follow-up. Present case report aims to evaluate the efficacy of PRF and alloplastic bone substitute in the management of intrabony defect associated with endo-perio lesion in maxillary lateral incisor because the healing potential of PRF and bone graft has not been widely studied in endodontics. The use of PRF allows the clinician to optimize tissue remodelling, wound healing and angiogenesis by the local delivery of growth factors and proteins. The novel technique described here enables the clinician to be benefited from the full regenerative capacity of this autologous biologic material.

  15. Clinical effectiveness of combining platelet rich fibrin with alloplastic bone substitute for the management of combined endodontic periodontal lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lata Goyal

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The term "endo-perio" lesion has been proposed to describe the destructive lesion resulting from inflammatory products found in varying degrees in both the periodontium and the pulpal tissues. In most of the cases, clinical symptoms disappear following successful endodontic therapy. However failure after conventional root canal treatment calls for surgical intervention. A 35 year old male patient with endo-perio lesion in right maxillary lateral incisor was treated with platelet rich fibrin (PRF and alloplastic bone substitute after conventional endodontic therapy. At the end of 6 months there was gain in clinical attachment, increased radiographic bone fill and reduction in probing depth which was maintained till 18 month follow-up. Present case report aims to evaluate the efficacy of PRF and alloplastic bone substitute in the management of intrabony defect associated with endo-perio lesion in maxillary lateral incisor because the healing potential of PRF and bone graft has not been widely studied in endodontics. The use of PRF allows the clinician to optimize tissue remodelling, wound healing and angiogenesis by the local delivery of growth factors and proteins. The novel technique described here enables the clinician to be benefited from the full regenerative capacity of this autologous biologic material.

  16. Effect of protein malnutrition on the metabolism of bone collagen in albino rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, J S; Rao, V H [Central Leather Research Inst., Madras (India)

    1981-01-01

    The effect of protein malnutrition on the metabolism of collagen in bone was studied in young female albino rats after a single injection of /sup 3/H-proline. Both specific and total radioactivities of hydroxyproline in the total collagen of the bone were found to decrease in the protein-deficient animals, indicating decreased rate of collagen synthesis. In the urine the amount of hydroxyproline excreted and total radioactivity of /sup 3/H-hydroxyproline were greatly decreased. The results of the present investigation therefore clearly indicate decreased synthesis and catabolism of collagen in bones of protein deficient animals compared to controls.

  17. Mimicking the effects of spaceflight on bone: Combined effects of disuse and chronic low-dose rate radiation exposure on bone mass in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kanglun; Doherty, Alison H.; Genik, Paula C.; Gookin, Sara E.; Roteliuk, Danielle M.; Wojda, Samantha J.; Jiang, Zhi-Sheng; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E.; Weil, Michael M.; Donahue, Seth W.

    2017-11-01

    During spaceflight, crewmembers are subjected to biomechanical and biological challenges including microgravity and radiation. In the skeleton, spaceflight leads to bone loss, increasing the risk of fracture. Studies utilizing hindlimb suspension (HLS) as a ground-based model of spaceflight often neglect the concomitant effects of radiation exposure, and even when radiation is accounted for, it is often delivered at a high-dose rate over a very short period of time, which does not faithfully mimic spaceflight conditions. This study was designed to investigate the skeletal effects of low-dose rate gamma irradiation (8.5 cGy gamma radiation per day for 20 days, amounting to a total dose of 1.7 Gy) when administered simultaneously to disuse from HLS. The goal was to determine whether continuous, low-dose rate radiation administered during disuse would exacerbate bone loss in a murine HLS model. Four groups of 16 week old female C57BL/6 mice were studied: weight bearing + no radiation (WB+NR), HLS + NR, WB + radiation exposure (WB+RAD), and HLS+RAD. Surprisingly, although HLS led to cortical and trabecular bone loss, concurrent radiation exposure did not exacerbate these effects. Our results raise the possibility that mechanical unloading has larger effects on the bone loss that occurs during spaceflight than low-dose rate radiation.

  18. The Preventive Effect of Calcium Supplementation on Weak Bones Caused by the Interaction of Exercise and Food Restriction in Young Female Rats During the Period from Acquiring Bone Mass to Maintaining Bone Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikawa, Yuki; Agata, Umon; Kakutani, Yuya; Kato, Shoyo; Noma, Yuichi; Hattori, Satoshi; Ogata, Hitomi; Ezawa, Ikuko; Omi, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    Increasing calcium (Ca) intake is important for female athletes with a risk of weak bone caused by inadequate food intake. The aim of the present study was to examine the preventive effect of Ca supplementation on low bone strength in young female athletes with inadequate food intake, using the rats as an experimental model. Seven-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: the sedentary and ad libitum feeding group (SED), voluntary running exercise and ad libitum feeding group (EX), voluntary running exercise and 30% food restriction group (EX-FR), and a voluntary running exercise, 30% food-restricted and high-Ca diet group (EX-FR+Ca). To Ca supplementation, we used 1.2% Ca diet as "high-Ca diet" that contains two-fold Ca of normal Ca diet. The experiment lasted for 12 weeks. As a result, the energy availability, internal organ weight, bone strength, bone mineral density, and Ca absorption in the EX-FR group were significantly lower than those in the EX group. The bone strength and Ca absorption in the EX-FR+Ca group were significantly higher than those in the EX-FR group. However, the bone strength in the EX-FR+Ca group did not reach that in the EX group. These results suggested that Ca supplementation had a positive effect on bone strength, but the effect was not sufficient to prevent lower bone strength caused by food restriction in young female athletes.

  19. The effect of bisphosphonates on bone mineral density in patients with ankylosing spondylitis in daily clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arends, S.; Veneberg, J.G.; Wink, F.R.; Bos, R.; Brouwer, E.; Van Der Veer, E.; Bootsma, H.; Van Roon, E.N.; Maas, F.; Spoorenberg, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is not only characterized by excessive bone formation, but also by excessive bone loss which may lead to low bone mineral density (BMD). So far, little is known about the effect of treatment with bisphosphonates on BMD in patients with AS. Objectives: To

  20. Effect of low-dose prednisone (with calcium and calcitriol supplementation) on calcium and bone metabolism in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lems, W. F.; van Veen, G. J.; Gerrits, M. I.; Jacobs, J. W.; Houben, H. H.; van Rijn, H. J.; Bijlsma, J. W.

    1998-01-01

    The administration of moderate to high doses of corticosteroids is associated with bone loss. This probably results from the uncoupling of bone formation (decreased) and bone resorption (unchanged or increased). We examined the effect of low-dose (10 mg/day) prednisone (LDP) and the possible

  1. Effects of lead shot ingestion on bone mineralization in a population of red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez-Lloret, Pedro; Rodríguez-Navarro, Alejandro B.; Romanek, Christopher S.; Ferrandis, Pablo; Martínez-Haro, Mónica; Mateo, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    The effect of lead (Pb) toxicity on bone mineralization was investigated in a wild population of red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa) inhabiting a farmland area contaminated with Pb-shot from recreational hunting activities in Albacete, a southeastern province of Spain. Femora from 40 specimens of red-legged partridge were analyzed for Pb by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GF-AAS), and for bone composition by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The FTIR and DRX data of bone were analyzed in detail to determine possible alterations in bone mineral chemistry and crystallinity due to Pb toxicity. Results showed a marked decrease in the degree of mineralization as Pb concentrations in bone tissue increased while XRD analyses showed that the crystallinity of apatite crystals increased with the Pb load in bone. These load-dependent effects are indicative that Pb contamination altered bone remodeling by reducing new bone mineral formation and demonstrate that bone quality is a sensitive indicator of adverse effects on wild bird populations exposed to Pb pollution. - Highlights: •The effect of Pb toxicity on bone mineralization was investigated in partridges. •Lead exposure decreased bone mineralization degree. •Demonstrated usefulness of FTIR and DRX to evaluate alterations in bone chemistry and crystallinity by Pb exposure

  2. Effects of lead shot ingestion on bone mineralization in a population of red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Álvarez-Lloret, Pedro, E-mail: pedroalvarez@geol.uniovi.es [Department of Mineralogy and Petrology, University of Granada, Avd. Fuentenueva s/n, 18002 Granada (Spain); Departament of Geology, University of Oviedo, C/Jesús Arias de Velasco, s/n, 33005 Oviedo (Spain); Rodríguez-Navarro, Alejandro B. [Department of Mineralogy and Petrology, University of Granada, Avd. Fuentenueva s/n, 18002 Granada (Spain); Romanek, Christopher S. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Ferrandis, Pablo [Department of Plant Production and Agricultural Technology, E.T.S. Ingenieros Agrónomos, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Campus Universitario s/n, 02071 Albacete (Spain); Martínez-Haro, Mónica [Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos, IREC (CSIC, UCLM, JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13005 Ciudad Real (Spain); IMAR-Instituto do Mar, Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra, 3004-517 Coimbra (Portugal); Mateo, Rafael [Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos, IREC (CSIC, UCLM, JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13005 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2014-01-01

    The effect of lead (Pb) toxicity on bone mineralization was investigated in a wild population of red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa) inhabiting a farmland area contaminated with Pb-shot from recreational hunting activities in Albacete, a southeastern province of Spain. Femora from 40 specimens of red-legged partridge were analyzed for Pb by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GF-AAS), and for bone composition by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The FTIR and DRX data of bone were analyzed in detail to determine possible alterations in bone mineral chemistry and crystallinity due to Pb toxicity. Results showed a marked decrease in the degree of mineralization as Pb concentrations in bone tissue increased while XRD analyses showed that the crystallinity of apatite crystals increased with the Pb load in bone. These load-dependent effects are indicative that Pb contamination altered bone remodeling by reducing new bone mineral formation and demonstrate that bone quality is a sensitive indicator of adverse effects on wild bird populations exposed to Pb pollution. - Highlights: •The effect of Pb toxicity on bone mineralization was investigated in partridges. •Lead exposure decreased bone mineralization degree. •Demonstrated usefulness of FTIR and DRX to evaluate alterations in bone chemistry and crystallinity by Pb exposure.

  3. [Effects of the combined calcitonin and sodium etidronate therapy in Paget's disease of bone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuti, R; Turchetti, V; Righi, G; Vattimo, A

    1982-03-03

    The therapy of Paget's bone disease is essentially based on the use of calcitonin and diphosphonates: both drugs, if used in large doses for long periods, have shown themselves able to provoke particular side-effects. It was, therefore, decided to study the therapeutic efficacy of combined low-dosage treatment using synthetic salmon calcitonin and sodium-etidronate on a group of patients with Paget's osteodystrophy. A clear evident diminution in plasma alkaline phosphatase, hydroxyprolinuria and whole body retention (WBR) of MDP-Tc99m was observed, demonstrating a reduction of metabolic turnover in the bone. No changes in the bone mass (BMC), evaluated by bone mineral detector, were observed at the end of treatment. With this treatment the plateau effect was shown to be appreciably less than normally occurs when either calcitonin or sodium etidronate are used alone.

  4. Effects of total flavonoids from Drynariae Rhizoma prevent bone loss in vivo and in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang-hong Song

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen deficiency is one of the major causes of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Drynariae Rhizoma is a widely used traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of bone diseases. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of the total Drynariae Rhizoma flavonoids (DRTF on estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss using an ovariectomized rat model and osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells. Our results indicated that DRTF produced osteo-protective effects on the ovariectomized rats in terms of bone loss reduction, including decreased levels of bone turnover markers, enhanced biomechanical femur strength and trabecular bone microarchitecture deterioration prevention. In vitro experiments revealed that the actions of DRTF on regulating osteoblastic activities were mediated by the estrogen receptor (ER dependent pathway. Our data also demonstrated that DRTF inhibited osteoclastogenesis via up-regulating osteoprotegrin (OPG, as well as down-regulating receptor activator of NF–κB ligand (RANKL expression. In conclusion, this study indicated that DRTF treatment effectively suppressed bone mass loss in an ovariectomized rat model, and in vitro evidence suggested that the effects were exerted through actions on both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Keywords: Osteoporosis, Osteoblast, Osteoclast, Ovariectomy, Drynariae Rhizoma

  5. Additive Genetic Effects on Circulating Periostin Contribute to the Heritability of Bone Microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, N; Biver, E; Durosier, C; Chevalley, T; Rizzoli, R; Ferrari, S

    2015-07-01

    Genetic factors account for 60-80% of the areal bone mineral density (aBMD) variance, whereas the heritability of bone microstructure is not clearly established. aBMD and microstructure are under the control of osteocytes, which regulate bone formation through the expression of molecules such as sclerostin (SOST) and periostin (POSTN). We hypothesized that additive genetic effects contribute to serum levels of SOST and POSTN and thereby to the individual variance of bone microstructure. In a retrospective analysis of 432 subjects from the Geneva Retiree Cohort age 64.9 ± 1.4 years and 96 of their offspring age 37.9 ± 5.7 years, we measured serum SOST (sSOST) and serum POSTN (sPOSTN), distal radius and tibia microstructure, hip and lumbar spine aBMD, and bone turnover markers, Heritability (h(2), %) was calculated as twice the slope of the regression (β) between parents and offspring. cPOSTN levels were significantly higher in men than women and in offspring than parents. h(2) values for bone microstructural traits ranged from 22-64% depending on the envelope (trabecular [Tb] or cortical [Ct]) and skeletal site (radius or tibia), whereas h(2) for sPOSTN and sSOST was 50% and 40%, respectively. sPOSTN was positively associated with Tb bone volume on total volume and Ct thickness, and negatively with Ct porosity. The associations for Ct parameters remain significant after adjustment for propetide of type-I procollagen, cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen, femoral neck aBMD, sex or age. After adjustment of bone traits for sPOSTN, h(2) values decreased for several Tb and Ct bone parameters, but not for aBMD. In contrast, adjusting for sSOST did not alter h(2) values for bone traits. Additive genetic effects account for a substantial proportion of the individual variance of bone microstructure, sPOSTN, and sSOST. sPOSTN is largely inherited as a sex-related trait and carries an important contribution to the heritability of bone microstructure, indicating that

  6. Clinical concepts for regenerative therapy in intrabony defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortellini, Pierpaolo; Tonetti, Maurizio S

    2015-06-01

    Evidence indicates that periodontal regeneration is an efficacious and predictable procedure for the treatment of isolated and multiple intrabony defects. Meta-analyses from systematic reviews indicate an added benefit, in terms of clinical attachment level gain, when demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft, barrier membranes and active biologic products/compounds are applied in addition to open flap debridement. On the other hand, a consistent amount of variability of the outcomes is evident among different studies and within the experimental population of each study. This variability is explained, at least in part, by different patient and defect characteristics. Patient-related factors include smoking habit, compliance with home oral hygiene and residual inflammation after cause-related therapy. Defect-associated factors include defect depth and radiographic angle, the number of residual bony walls, pocket depth and the degree of hypermobility. In addition, surgical-related variables, such as surgical skill, clinical experience and knowledge, and application of the different regenerative materials, have a significant impact on clinical outcomes. This paper presents a strategy to optimize the clinical outcomes of periodontal regeneration. The surgical design of the flap, the use of different regenerative materials and the application of appropriate passive sutures are discussed in this review along with the scientific foundations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Endothelial Jagged-1 Is Necessary for Homeostatic and Regenerative Hematopoiesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Poulos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The bone marrow (BM microenvironment is composed of multiple niche cells that, by producing paracrine factors, maintain and regenerate the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC pool (Morrison and Spradling, 2008. We have previously demonstrated that endothelial cells support the proper regeneration of the hematopoietic system following myeloablation (Butler et al., 2010; Hooper et al., 2009; Kobayashi et al., 2010. Here, we demonstrate that expression of the angiocrine factor Jagged-1, supplied by the BM vascular niche, regulates homeostatic and regenerative hematopoiesis through a Notch-dependent mechanism. Conditional deletion of Jagged-1 in endothelial cells (Jag1(ECKO mice results in a profound decrease in hematopoiesis and premature exhaustion of the adult HSC pool, whereas quantification and functional assays demonstrate that loss of Jagged-1 does not perturb vascular or mesenchymal compartments. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the instructive function of endothelial-specific Jagged-1 is required to support the self-renewal and regenerative capacity of HSCs in the adult BM vascular niche.

  8. Application of Stem Cell Technology in Dental Regenerative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ruoxue; Lengner, Chistopher

    2013-07-01

    In this review, we summarize the current literature regarding the isolation and characterization of dental tissue-derived stem cells and address the potential of these cell types for use in regenerative cell transplantation therapy. Looking forward, platforms for the delivery of stem cells via scaffolds and the use of growth factors and cytokines for enhancing dental stem cell self-renewal and differentiation are discussed. We aim to understand the developmental origins of dental tissues in an effort to elucidate the molecular pathways governing the genesis of somatic dental stem cells. The advantages and disadvantages of several dental stem cells are discussed, including the developmental stage and specific locations from which these cells can be purified. In particular, stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth may act as a very practical and easily accessibly reservoir for autologous stem cells and hold the most value in stem cell therapy. Dental pulp stem cells and periodontal ligament stem cells should also be considered for their triple lineage differentiation ability and relative ease of isolation. Further, we address the potentials and limitations of induced pluripotent stem cells as a cell source in dental regenerative. From an economical and a practical standpoint, dental stem cell therapy would be most easily applied in the prevention of periodontal ligament detachment and bone atrophy, as well as in the regeneration of dentin-pulp complex. In contrast, cell-based tooth replacement due to decay or other oral pathology seems, at the current time, an untenable approach.

  9. The effects of oestrogens on linear bone growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A

    2001-01-01

    Regulation of linear bone growth in children and adolescents comprises a complex interaction of hormones and growth factors. Growth hormone (GH) is considered to be the key hormone regulator of linear growth in childhood. The pubertal increase in growth velocity associated with GH has traditionally...... been attributed to testicular androgen secretion in boys, and to oestrogens or adrenal androgen secretion in girls. Research data indicating that oestrogen may be the principal hormone stimulating the pubertal growth spurt in boys as well as girls is reviewed. Such an action is mediated by oestrogen...... female growth spurt despite lack of androgen action. Oestrogens may also influence linear bone growth indirectly via modulation of the GH-insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) axis. Thus, ER blockade diminishes endogenous GH secretion, androgen receptor (AR) blockade increases GH secretion in peripubertal...

  10. Effects of bone substitute architecture and surface properties on cell response, angiogenesis, and structure of new bone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, F.S.L.; Zadpoor, A.A.

    2017-01-01

    The success of bone substitutes used to repair bone defects such as critical sized defects depends on the architecture of the porous biomaterial. The architectural parameters and surface properties affect cell seeding efficiency, cell response, angiogenesis, and eventually bone formation. The

  11. Effect of salidroside on radiation-induced bone marrow adipogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jincan; Chen Xiaoyu; Liu Chengcheng; Zhu Aizhen; Liu Shantao; Liu Gexiu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the potential and underlying molecular mechanism of salidroside in ameliorating radiation-induced bone marrow adipogenesis and stimulating hematopoiesis. Methods: The female BALB/c mice aged 6-7 weeks were randomly divided into normal control group, radiation group and salidroside group. The radiation group and salidroside group were irradiated with 6.0 Gy of "6"0Co γ-rays. The salidroside group was intraperitoneally injected with 30 mg·kg"-"1·d"-"1 salidroside at 12 h and then every day until 8th d after radiation. The normal control group and radiation group were treated with equal volume of saline as control of salidroside. At 14 d after radiation, the mice weight, peripheral blood count, femur bone marrow histology, and the proportion of adipocyte area were measured, and the expressions of PPAR-γ and FABP4 were detected by q-PCR. Results: After irradiation, the numbers of white blood cells, hemoglobin and platelet in peripheral blood were reduced obviously, and the percentage of adipocyte area was increased significantly. Compared with mice in the radiation group, salidroside inhibited adipogenesis and reduced the proportion of adipocyte area (t = 13.31, P < 0.05) by reducing the expressions of PPAR-γ and FABP4 (t = 8.64, 13.19, P < 0.05). The number of white blood cells was partly recovered at 7 d after irradiation (t = 5.80, P < 0.05). Both white blood cells and hemoglobinin in peripheral blood of the salidroside group were higher than those in the radiation group at 14 d after irradiation. Conclusions: Salidroside could inhibit radiation-induced bone marrow adipogenesis and regulate bone marrow microenvironment, thereby promotes hematopoietic recovery in mice after radiation injury. (authors)

  12. Effects of radiation therapy on growing long bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Smet, A.A.; Kuhns, L.R.; Fayos, J.V.; Holt, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    Characteristic radiographic changes were seen in six of 14 children who received radiation therapy to the epiphyseal plate of a long bone. These changes, which include metaphyseal sclerosis, metaphyseal fraying, and epiphyseal plate widening, resemble rickets. In three patients, these changes were followed by development of a broad metaphyseal band of increased density. The absence of metaphyseal changes may indicate sterilization of cartilage cells and may be predictive of significant limb shortening

  13. Effects of Active Mastication on Chronic Stress-Induced Bone Loss in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Kagaku; Furuzawa, Manabu; Fujiwara, Shu; Yamada, Kumiko; Kubo, Kin-ya

    2015-01-01

    Chronic psychologic stress increases corticosterone levels, which decreases bone density. Active mastication or chewing attenuates stress-induced increases in corticosterone. We evaluated whether active mastication attenuates chronic stress-induced bone loss in mice. Male C57BL/6 (B6) mice were randomly divided into control, stress, and stress/chewing groups. Stress was induced by placing mice in a ventilated restraint tube (60 min, 2x/day, 4 weeks). The stress/chewing group was given a wooden stick to chew during the experimental period. Quantitative micro-computed tomography, histologic analysis, and biochemical markers were used to evaluate the bone response. The stress/chewing group exhibited significantly attenuated stress-induced increases in serum corticosterone levels, suppressed bone formation, enhanced bone resorption, and decreased trabecular bone mass in the vertebrae and distal femurs, compared with mice in the stress group. Active mastication during exposure to chronic stress alleviated chronic stress-induced bone density loss in B6 mice. Active mastication during chronic psychologic stress may thus be an effective strategy to prevent and/or treat chronic stress-related osteopenia.

  14. Effects of Hydroxyapatite on Bone Graft Resorption in an Experimental Model of Maxillary Alveolar Arch Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Pilanci

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Most commonly used treatments use autologous bone grafts to address bony defects in patients with cleft palate. Major disadvantages of autogenous bone grafts include donor site morbidity and resorption. Suggestions to overcome such problems include biomaterials that can be used alone or in combination with bone. We examined the effect of hydroxyapatite cement on bone graft resorption in a rabbit maxillary alveolar defect model. We divided 16 young adult albino New Zealand rabbits into two groups. A defect 1 cm wide was created in each rabbit's maxillary arch. In Group 1, the removed bone was disrupted, and the pieces were replaced in the defect. In the other group, the pieces were replaced after mixing (1:1 with hydroxyapatite cement. Quantitative computed tomographic evaluation of these grafts was performed in axial and coronal planes for each rabbit at 2 and 12 weeks. In axial images at 12 weeks, the group without cement showed mean bone resorption of 15%. In the cement group, a mean volumetric increase of 68% was seen. No resorption occurred when bone grafts were mixed with hydroxyapatite cement. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2013; 2(3.000: 170-175

  15. Discordant effect of body mass index on bone mineral density and speed of sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagag Philippe

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased BMI may affect the determination of bone mineral density (BMD by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA and speed of sound (SOS measured across bones. Preliminary data suggest that axial SOS is less affected by soft tissue. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of body mass index (BMI on BMD and SOS measured along bones. Methods We compared axial BMD determined by DXA with SOS along the phalanx, radius and tibia in 22 overweight (BMI > 27 kg/m2, and 11 lean (BMI = 21 kg/m2 postmenopausal women. Serum bone specific alkaline phosphatase and urinary deoxypyridinoline excretion determined bone turnover. Results Mean femoral neck – but not lumbar spine BMD was higher in the overweight – as compared with the lean group (0.70 ± 0.82, -0.99 ± 0.52, P P Conclusions The high BMI of postmenopausal women may result in spuriously high BMD. SOS measured along bones may be a more appropriate means for evaluating bones of overweight women.

  16. Effect of the cortex on ultrasonic backscatter measurements of cancellous bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmeister, Brent K; Holt, Andrew P; Kaste, Sue C

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic backscatter techniques offer a promising new approach for detecting changes in bone caused by osteoporosis. However, several challenges impede clinical implementation of backscatter techniques. This study examines how the dense outer surface of bone (the cortex) affects backscatter measurements of interior regions of porous (cancellous) bone tissue. Fifty-two specimens of bone were prepared from 13 human femoral heads so that the same region of cancellous bone could be ultrasonically interrogated through the cortex or along directions that avoided the cortex. Backscatter signals were analyzed over a frequency range of 0.8-3.0 MHz to determine two ultrasonic parameters: apparent integrated backscatter (AIB) and frequency slope of apparent backscatter (FSAB). The term 'apparent' means that the parameters are sensitive to the frequency-dependent effects of diffraction and attenuation. Significant (p < 0.001) changes in AIB and FSAB indicated that measurements through the cortex decreased the apparent backscattered power and increased the frequency dependence of the power. However, the cortex did not affect the correlation of AIB and FSAB with the x-ray bone mineral density of the specimens. This suggests that results from many previous in vitro backscatter studies of specimens of purely cancellous bone may be extrapolated with greater confidence to in vivo conditions.

  17. Effects of dietary bread crust Maillard reaction products on calcium and bone metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncero-Ramos, Irene; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina; Haro, Ana; Ruiz-Roca, Beatriz; Morales, Francisco J; Navarro, María Pilar

    2013-06-01

    Maillard reaction products (MRP) consumption has been related with the development of bone degenerative disorders, probably linked to changes in calcium metabolism. We aimed to investigate the effects of MRP intake from bread crust on calcium balance and its distribution, and bone metabolism. During 88 days, rats were fed control diet or diets containing bread crust as source of MRP, or its soluble high molecular weight, soluble low molecular weight or insoluble fractions (bread crust, HMW, LMW and insoluble diets, respectively). In the final week, a calcium balance was performed, then animals were sacrified and some organs removed to analyse calcium levels. A second balance was carried out throughout the experimental period to calculate global calcium retention. Biochemical parameters and bone metabolism markers were measured in serum or urine. Global calcium bioavailability was unmodified by consumption of bread crust or its isolate fractions, corroborating the previously described low affinity of MRP to bind calcium. Despite this, a higher calcium concentration was found in femur due to smaller bones having a lower relative density. The isolate consumption of the fractions altered some bone markers, reflecting a situation of increased bone resorption or higher turnover; this did not take place in the animals fed the bread crust diet. Thus, the bread crust intake does not affect negatively calcium bioavailability and bone metabolism.

  18. EFFECTS OF TAEKWONDO TRAINING ON BONE MINERAL DENSITY OF HIGH SCHOOL GIRLS IN KOREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Young Ho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of bone fractures has increased in the current decade due to osteoporosis. Bone mineral density (BMD, or the amount of mineralized bone, is an important determinant of risk for bone fractures. Bone mineralization is strongly stimulated by weight-bearing exercise during growth and development. Taekwondo, a Korean martial art, is a well-known form of strenuous and weight-bearing physical activity. Therefore, the primary goal of this study was to determine the effects of taekwondo training on the bone health of female high school students in Korea. The secondary goal of this study was to clarify the relationships between body weight and BMD in this sample. Thirty taekwondo players (TKD and 30 sedentary high school girls (CON voluntarily participated in the present study and were split into three groups by weight: light weight (L under 51 kg; middle weight (M between 51 and under 57 kg; and heavy weight (H over 57 kg. BMD was determined from dual-emission X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA, and percent body fat was measured by the skin-fold method. Lumbar spine and femoral BMD were not significantly different between light, middle and heavy body weight groups. However, the average BMD in the TKD group was significantly greater than in the CON group for all lumbar spine regions (P<0.05. The results of this study suggest that taekwondo training during growth significantly improved bone health in all weight groups.

  19. Total bone calcium in normal women: effect of age and menopause status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, J.C.; Goldgar, D.; Moy, A.

    1987-01-01

    Bone density in different regions of the skeleton was measured in 392 normal women aged 20-80 years by dual photon absorpiometry. In premenopausal women, aged 25-50 years, multiple regression analysis of regional bone density on age, height, and weight showed a small significant decrease in total bone density (less than 0.01) but no significant change in other regions of the skeleton. In postmenopausal women there were highly significant decreases in all regions of the skeleton (p less than 0.001), and bone density in these areas decreased as a logarithmic function of years since menopause. Based on multiple regression analyses, the decrease in spine density and total bone calcium was 2.5-3.0 times greater in the 25 years after menopause than the 25 years before menopause. The largest change, however, occurred in the first five years after menopause. During this time the estimated annual change in spine density and total bone calcium was about 10 times greater than that in the premenopausal period. These results demonstrate the important effect of the menopause in determining bone mass in later life

  20. Effect of the cortex on ultrasonic backscatter measurements of cancellous bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmeister, Brent K; Holt, Andrew P [Department of Physics, Rhodes College, Memphis, TN (United States); Kaste, Sue C, E-mail: hoffmeister@rhodes.edu [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, St Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2011-10-07

    Ultrasonic backscatter techniques offer a promising new approach for detecting changes in bone caused by osteoporosis. However, several challenges impede clinical implementation of backscatter techniques. This study examines how the dense outer surface of bone (the cortex) affects backscatter measurements of interior regions of porous (cancellous) bone tissue. Fifty-two specimens of bone were prepared from 13 human femoral heads so that the same region of cancellous bone could be ultrasonically interrogated through the cortex or along directions that avoided the cortex. Backscatter signals were analyzed over a frequency range of 0.8-3.0 MHz to determine two ultrasonic parameters: apparent integrated backscatter (AIB) and frequency slope of apparent backscatter (FSAB). The term 'apparent' means that the parameters are sensitive to the frequency-dependent effects of diffraction and attenuation. Significant (p < 0.001) changes in AIB and FSAB indicated that measurements through the cortex decreased the apparent backscattered power and increased the frequency dependence of the power. However, the cortex did not affect the correlation of AIB and FSAB with the x-ray bone mineral density of the specimens. This suggests that results from many previous in vitro backscatter studies of specimens of purely cancellous bone may be extrapolated with greater confidence to in vivo conditions.

  1. Effects of 15 Gy 137Cs γ-rays radiation of rat kidneys on bone metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Linfeng; Wang Hongfu; Xu Peikang; Xu Aihong; Zhu Feipeng

    2003-01-01

    The work was to observe the effects of γ-rays radiation of rat kidneys on rat bone metabolism. Ten male SD rats aged 6 months were irradiated at their kidneys with 15 Gy 137 Cs γ-rays (0.91 Gy/min) and were raised for 3 months after the radiation. On collecting 24h urine of rats they were sacrificed for serum, kidney, spine, femur and tibia exams. Results show that the γ-ray irradiation could induce the pathological injuries of renal glomeruli, tubules and mesenchyme. Comparing to the control group, significant changes were found in the irradiated group in terms of their blood urea, nitrogen creatinine, urinal β-2 microglobulin, serum Ca and P, urine Ca and P, activity of serum alkaline phosphatase, 1,25 (OH) 2 D 3 , serum PTH, urine PYD/creatinine, bone mineral density (BMD) of lumbar vertebras, mineral mass of No.4 lumbar vertebra, BMD, dehydrated weight and ash weight of right femur. Marked changes were also found in bone trabecula volume, average bone trabecula thick and the ratio of nodes/points, and rate of mineralization deposition. It was concluded that renal dysfunction and metabolic bone disease might occur with the character of accelerated bone turnover and decreased bone mass

  2. Combined Effects of Spaceflight and Age in Astronauts as Assessed by Areal Bone Mineral Density [BMD] and Trabecular Bone Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, Jean D.; Spector, Elizabeth R.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Evans, H. J.; King, L.; Watts, N. B.; Hans, D.; Smith, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    Spaceflight is a potential risk factor for secondary osteoporosis in astronauts. Although lumbar spine (LS) BMD declines rapidly, more than expected for age, there have been no fragility fractures in astronauts that can clearly be attributed to spaceflight. Recently, astronauts have been returning from 6-month spaceflights with absolute BMD still above young adult mean BMD. In spite of these BMD measurements, we project that the rapid loss in bone mass over long-duration spaceflight affects the bone microarchitecture of the LS which might predispose astronauts to premature vertebral fractures. Thus, we evaluated TBS, a novel texture index correlated with vertebral bone microarchitecture, as a means of monitoring changes to bone microarchitecture in astronauts as they age. We previously reported that TBS detects an effect of spaceflight (6-month duration), independent of BMD, in 51 astronauts (47+/-4 y) (Smith et al, J Clin Densitometry 2014). Hence, TBS was evaluated in serial DXA scans (Hologic Discovery W) conducted triennially in all active and retired astronauts and more frequently (before spaceflight, after spaceflight and until recovery) in the subset of astronauts flying 4-6- month missions. We used non-linear models to describe trends in observations (BMD or TBS) plotted as a function of astronaut age. We fitted 1175 observations of 311 astronauts, pre-flight and then postflight starting 3 years after landing or after astronaut's BMD for LS was restored to within 2% of preflight BMD. Observations were then grouped and defined as follows: 1) LD: after exposure to at least one long-duration spaceflight > 100 days and 2) SD: before LD and after exposure to at least one short-duration spaceflight < 30 days. Data from males and females were analyzed separately. Models of SD observations revealed that TBS and BMD had similar curvilinear declines with age for both male and female astronauts. However, models of LD observations showed TBS declining with age while

  3. Regenerative Endodontic Treatment: Report of Two Cases with Different Clinical Management and Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrfam Khoshkhounejad

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Endodontic intervention in necrotic immature permanent teeth is usually a clinical challenge. With appropriate case selection, regenerative treatment can be effective, providing a desirable outcome. However, there is still no consensus on the optimal disinfection protocol or the method to achieve predictable clinical outcome. This article presents two cases of regenerative treatment in necrotic immature teeth, using mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA and BiodentineTM as coronal barriers and different irrigants, which led to different clinical outcomes.

  4. Combined effects of soy isoflavone and fish oil on ovariectomy-induced bone loss in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Raina; Chiba, Hiroshige; Ishimi, Yoshiko; Uehara, Mariko; Suzuki, Kazuharu; Kim, Hyounju; Matsumoto, Akiyo

    2011-07-01

    Both soy isoflavone and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are known to reduce the levels of bone-resorbing cytokines; however, the synergistic effects of these food ingredients have not been examined yet. This study was performed to elucidate the effect of concomitant intake of soy isoflavone and fish oil on bone mass in ovariectomized mice. Eight-week-old ddY female mice were subjected to ovariectomy (OVX) or sham surgery, and then fed an AIN-93G with safflower oil (So) as a control lipid source, isoflavone-supplemented safflower oil (So + I), fish oil instead of safflower oil (Fo) or isoflavone-supplemented fish oil (Fo + I) for 4 weeks. Femoral bone mineral density was significantly decreased by OVX; however, this decrease was inhibited by the intake of isoflavone and/or fish oil. Histomorphometric analyses showed that bone volume and trabecular thickness in the distal femoral trabecular bone were significantly lower in the So group than in the sham group, but those were restored in the Fo + I groups. The number of osteoclasts was significantly decreased by isoflavone intake. The increased rate of bone resorption after OVX was inhibited by isoflavone and/or fish oil. The serum concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha was increased after OVX, but was significantly lower with the combination of isoflavone with fish oil than isoflavone or fish oil alone. The results of this study indicated that the intakes of soy isoflavone and/or fish oil might have ameliorating effects on bone loss due to OVX. Further, the concomitant intake of soy isoflavone and fish oil at a low dose showed better effects on cytokines related with bone resorption.

  5. Effects of Initial Seeding Density and Fluid Perfusion Rate on Formation of Tissue-Engineered Bone

    OpenAIRE

    GRAYSON, WARREN L.; BHUMIRATANA, SARINDR; CANNIZZARO, CHRISTOPHER; CHAO, P.-H. GRACE; LENNON, DONALD P.; CAPLAN, ARNOLD I.; VUNJAK-NOVAKOVIC, GORDANA

    2008-01-01

    We describe a novel bioreactor system for tissue engineering of bone that enables cultivation of up to six tissue constructs simultaneously, with direct perfusion and imaging capability. The bioreactor was used to investigate the relative effects of initial seeding density and medium perfusion rate on the growth and osteogenic differentiation patterns of bone marrow–derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) cultured on three-dimensional scaffolds. Fully decellularized bovine trabecular bon...

  6. The effect of dietary inclusion of meat and bone meal on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of the inclusion of meat and bone meal (MBM) in the diet of old laying hens on their egg production and the quality of their eggs was investigated. Meat and bone meal containing a high concentration of ash and a low concentration of crude protein was included at levels of 2.0, 4.0 and 6.0% in the diets and fed for ...

  7. The Expression of HMGB1 in Bone Marrow MSCs Is Upregulated by Hypoxia with Regulatory Effects on the Apoptosis and Adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Yun Tan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. Hypoxia regulates the survival of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs but the mechanism is unclear. In hypoxia, the level of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1 was increased in many cells which may be involved in the regulation of cell biology. The aim is to determine whether hypoxia affects the expression of HMGB1 in bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs and to investigate the role of HMGB1 in the apoptosis and adhesion. Methods. BM-MSCs were exposed to hypoxia (1% O2 and normoxia (20% O2 and the expression of HMGB1 was measured by RT-PCR and western blotting. The apoptosis and adhesion of BM-MSCs were evaluated after interfered by different concentrations of HMGB1. Results. Expression of HMGB1 in BM-MSCs showed a significant upregulation in hypoxia when compared to those in normoxia. The adhesion of BM-MSCs was increased by HMGB1 in a concentration-dependent manner; the apoptosis effect of HMGB1 depended on its concentrations: HMGB1 at low concentration (50 ng/mL promoted the apoptosis of BM-MSCs while HMGB1 at high concentration (≥100 ng/mL reduced this apoptosis. Conclusions. Hypoxia enhanced the expression of HMGB1 in BM-MSCs with influences on apoptosis and adhesion and this could have a significant effect on the regenerative potential of MSC-based strategies.

  8. Role of Osteal Macrophages in Bone Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Wook Cho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages have been shown to have pleiotropic functions in various pathophysiologies, especially in terms of anti-inflammatory and regenerative activity. Recently, the novel functions of bone marrow resident macrophages (called osteal macrophages were intensively studied in bone development, remodeling and tissue repair processes. This review discusses the current evidence for a role of osteal macrophages in bone modeling, remodeling, and fracture healing processes.

  9. Bone Marrow Regeneration Promoted by Biophysically Sorted Osteoprogenitors From Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Zhiyong; Lee, Wong Cheng; Guan, Guofeng; Nyan, Lin Myint; Lim, Chwee Teck; Han, Jongyoon

    2015-01-01

    Human tissue repair deficiencies can be supplemented through strategies to isolate, expand in vitro, and reimplant regenerative cells that supplant damaged cells or stimulate endogenous repair mechanisms. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), a subset of which is described as mesenchymal stem cells, are leading candidates for cell-mediated bone repair and wound healing, with hundreds of ongoing clinical trials worldwide. An outstanding key challenge for successful clinical translation of MSCs is the capacity to produce large quantities of cells in vitro with uniform and relevant therapeutic properties. By leveraging biophysical traits of MSC subpopulations and label-free microfluidic cell sorting, we hypothesized and experimentally verified that MSCs of large diameter within expanded MSC cultures were osteoprogenitors that exhibited significantly greater efficacy over other MSC subpopulations in bone marrow repair. Systemic administration of osteoprogenitor MSCs significantly improved survival rates (>80%) as compared with other MSC subpopulations (0%) for preclinical murine bone marrow injury models. Osteoprogenitor MSCs also exerted potent therapeutic effects as “cell factories” that secreted high levels of regenerative factors such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), vascular endothelial growth factor A, bone morphogenetic protein 2, epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth factor 1, and angiopoietin-1; this resulted in increased cell proliferation, vessel formation, and reduced apoptosis in bone marrow. This MSC subpopulation mediated rescue of damaged marrow tissue via restoration of the hematopoiesis-supporting stroma, as well as subsequent hematopoiesis. Together, the capabilities described herein for label-freeisolation of regenerative osteoprogenitor MSCs can markedly improve the efficacy of MSC-based therapies. PMID:25411477

  10. The effects of photobiomodulation on healing of bone defects in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Costa Lino, Maíra D.; Bastos de Carvalho, Fabíola; Ferreira Moraes, Michel; Augusto Cardoso, José; Pinheiro, Antônio L. B.; Maria Pedreira Ramalho, Luciana

    2011-03-01

    Previous studies have shown positive effects of Low level laser therapy (LLLT) on the repair of bone defects, but there are only a few that associates bone healing in the presence of a metabolic disorder as Diabetes Melitus and LLLT. The aim of this study was to assess histologically the effect of LLLT (AsGaAl), 780nm, 70mW, CW, Ø~0.4mm, 16J/cm2 per session) on the repair of surgical defects created in the femur of diabetic and non-diabetic Wistar Albinus rats. Surgical bone defects were created in 60 animals divided into four groups of 15 animals each: Group C (non-diabetic - control); Group CL (non-diabetic + LLLT); Group CD (diabetic); Group CDL (diabetic + LLLT). The animals on the irradiated group received 16 J/cm2 per session divided into four points around the defect, being the first irradiation immediately after surgery and repeated every 48h for 14 days. The animals were killed 15, 21 and 30 days after surgery. The results of the present investigation showed histological evidence of improved amount of collagen fibers at early stages of the bone healing (15 days) and increased amount of well organized bone trabeculae at the end of the experimental period (30 days) on irradiated animals, (diabetic and non-diabetic) compared to non irradiated ones. It is concluded that LLLT has a positive biomodulative effect on the healing process of bone defects, even when diabetes mellitus was present.

  11. Growth hormone effects on cortical bone dimensions in young adults with childhood-onset growth hormone deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldstrup, L; Conway, G S; Racz, K

    2012-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) treatment in young adults with childhood-onset GH deficiency has beneficial effects on bone mass. The present study shows that cortical bone dimensions also benefit from GH treatment, with endosteal expansion and increased cortical thickness leading to improved bone strength....... INTRODUCTION: In young adults with childhood-onset growth hormone deficiency (CO GHD), GH treatment after final height is reached has been shown to have beneficial effects on spine and hip bone mineral density. The objective of the study was to evaluate the influence of GH on cortical bone dimensions. METHODS...

  12. Comparative effectiveness of using resorbable membranes of polylactic acid and collagen in regeneration of bone defects in patients with periimplantitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudaryan A.A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of comparative study of effectiveness of usage of separation membranes from polylactic acid (PLA and collagen in carrying out targeted regeneration of bone tissue in 22 patients with periimplantitis. Purpose: To conduct a comparative clinico-radiological efficiency of PLA membrane and collagen membranes in removing bone defects of the alveolar bone in patients with periimplantitis in clinic. It was found that depending on the type of membrane, bone tissue growth occurs not in the same way. Surgery in treatment of periimplantitis using osteo-inducing agent «Bio-Oss» and PLA membranes allows to reach full recovery of bone in bone defects in 90.9 % of patients versus 63.63 % of cases with collagen membranes. Thus, reconstitution of bone in bone defects in periimplantitis is more of full value in using PLA membranes than with membranes from collagen.

  13. Effect of Silicon Supplementation on Bone Status in Ovariectomized Rats Under Calcium-Replete Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, So Young; Kim, Mi-Hyun; Choi, Mi-Kyeong

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have suggested that silicon (Si) had positive effects on bone, but such benefits from Si may be dependent on calcium status. Also, several biochemical roles of Si in osteoblastic mineralization, the regulation of gene expression related to bone matrix synthesis, and the decrease in reactive oxygen species and pro-inflammatory mediators were reported, but these effects were mostly shown in cell culture studies. Hence, we tested the effect of Si supplementation on bone status and the gene expression related to bone metabolism and inflammatory mediators in young estrogen-deficient rats under calcium-replete condition (0.5 % diet). Results showed that 15-week supplementation of both high and very high doses of Si (0.025 and 0.075 % diet, respectively) could not restore the ovariectomy (OVX)-induced decrease of bone mineral density (BMD) of vertebrae, femur, and tibia. Also, several bone biochemical markers (ALP, osteocalcin, CTx) and mRNA expression of COL-I, RANKL, IL-6, and TNF-α in femur metaphysis were not significantly changed by Si in OVX rats. However, a very high dose (0.075 %) of Si supplementation significantly increased OPG expression and decreased the ratio of RANKL/OPG in mRNA expression comparable to that of sham-control animals. Taken together, Si supplementation did not increase BMD under calcium-replete condition but the decrease in the ratio of RANKL/OPG expression to the normal level suggests the possibility of a bone health benefit of Si in estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss.

  14. Reconstructive Effects of Percutaneous Electrical Stimulation Combined with GGT Composite on Large Bone Defect in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Yin Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown the electromagnetic stimulation improves bone remodeling and bone healing. However, the effect of percutaneous electrical stimulation (ES was not directly explored. The purpose of this study was to evaluate effect of ES on improvement of bone repair. Twenty-four adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were used for cranial implantation. We used a composite comprising genipin cross-linked gelatin mixed with tricalcium phosphate (GGT. Bone defects of all rats were filled with the GGT composites, and the rats were assigned into six groups after operation. The first three groups underwent 4, 8, and 12 weeks of ES, and the anode was connected to the backward of the defect on the neck; the cathode was connected to the front of the defect on the head. Rats were under inhalation anesthesia during the stimulation. The other three groups only received inhalation anesthesia without ES, as control groups. All the rats were examined afterward at 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Radiographic examinations including X-ray and micro-CT showed the progressive bone regeneration in the both ES and non-ES groups. The amount of the newly formed bone increased with the time between implantation and examination in the ES and non-ES groups and was higher in the ES groups. Besides, the new bone growth trended on bilateral sides in ES groups and accumulated in U-shape in non-ES groups. The results indicated that ES could improve bone repair, and the effect is higher around the cathode.

  15. Further studies on the intermediary metabolism of bone in vitro and a monoclonal cell line (MMB-1) derived from bone: effects of parathyroid hormone and acetazolamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, F.C.

    1981-01-01

    The mechanism/mechanisms by which PTH affects Ca homeostasis between blood and bone have not been clearly established. Most studies of metabolic acid production in bone took place during the late 1950s and early 1960s. Since that time, assay techniques for metabolic acid production have been improved for greater sensitivity, more has been learned as to how PTH mediates its cellular responses, and techniques for cell isolation and culture have dramatically improved. These improvements have made possible new approaches to the study of short term effects of PTH on metabolic acid production in bone. Chapter 1 explores the potential of bone to utilize substrates other than glucose for metabolic energy transfer. Chapter 2 characterizes glucose metabolism in mouse calvaria in vitro and explores effects of PTH, acetazolamide, and C1 13,850 on calvaria oxidative metabolism. Chapter 3 describes PTH effects on glucose metabolism of MMB-1 cells, a monoclonal cell line reported to possess osteoblast-like characteristics

  16. Bone development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatara, M.R.; Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Sawa-Wojtanowicz, B.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the long-term effect of alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) administration during early neonatal life on skeletal development and function, with emphasis on bone exposed to regular stress and used to serve for systemic changes monitoring, the rib. Shropshire ram.......01). Furthermore, AKG administration induced significantly higher bone mineral density of the cortical bone by 7.1% (P

  17. Artificial organs versus regenerative medicine: is it true?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosé, Yukihiko; Okubo, Hisashi

    2003-09-01

    Individuals engaged in the fields of artificial kidney and artificial heart have often mistakenly stated that "the era of artificial organs is over; regenerative medicine is the future." Contrarily, we do not believe artificial organs and regenerative medicine are different medical technologies. As a matter of fact, artificial organs developed during the last 50 years have been used as a bridge to regeneration. The only difference between regenerative medicine and artificial organs is that artificial organs for the bridge to regeneration promote tissue regeneration in situ, instead of outside the body (for example, vascular prostheses, neuroprostheses, bladder substitutes, skin prostheses, bone prostheses, cartilage prostheses, ligament prostheses, etc.). All of these artificial organs are successful because tissue regeneration over a man-made prosthesis is established inside the patient's body (artificial organs to support regeneration). Another usage of the group of artificial organs for the bridge to regeneration is to sustain the functions of the patient's diseased organs during the regeneration process of the body's healthy tissues and/or organs. This particular group includes artificial kidney, hepatic assist, respiratory assist, and circulatory assist. Proof of regeneration of these healthy tissues and/or organs is demonstrated in the short-term recovery of end-stage organ failure patients (artificial organs for bridge to regeneration). A third group of artificial organs for the bridge to regeneration accelerates the regenerating process of the patient's healthy tissues and organs. This group includes neurostimulators, artificial blood (red cells) blood oxygenators, and plasmapheresis devices, including hemodiafiltrators. So-called "therapeutic artificial organs" fall into this category (artificial organs to accelerate regeneration). Thus, almost all of today's artificial organs are useful in the bridge to regeneration of healthy natural tissues and organs

  18. Multiscale Inorganic Hierarchically Materials: Towards an Improved Orthopaedic Regenerative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruso, Juan M; Sartuqui, Javier; Messina, Paula V

    2015-01-01

    Bone is a biologically and structurally sophisticated multifunctional tissue. It dynamically responds to biochemical, mechanical and electrical clues by remodelling itself and accordingly the maximum strength and toughness are along the lines of the greatest applied stress. The challenge is to develop an orthopaedic biomaterial that imitates the micro- and nano-structural elements and compositions of bone to locally match the properties of the host tissue resulting in a biologically fixed implant. Looking for the ideal implant, the convergence of life and materials sciences occurs. Researchers in many different fields apply their expertise to improve implantable devices and regenerative medicine. Materials of all kinds, but especially hierarchical nano-materials, are being exploited. The application of nano-materials with hierarchical design to calcified tissue reconstructive medicine involve intricate systems including scaffolds with multifaceted shapes that provides temporary mechanical function; materials with nano-topography modifications that guarantee their integration to tissues and that possesses functionalized surfaces to transport biologic factors to stimulate tissue growth in a controlled, safe, and rapid manner. Furthermore materials that should degrade on a timeline coordinated to the time that takes the tissues regrow, are prepared. These implantable devices are multifunctional and for its construction they involve the use of precise strategically techniques together with specific material manufacturing processes that can be integrated to achieve in the design, the required multifunctionality. For such reasons, even though the idea of displacement from synthetic implants and tissue grafts to regenerative-medicine-based tissue reconstruction has been guaranteed for well over a decade, the reality has yet to emerge. In this paper, we examine the recent approaches to create enhanced bioactive materials. Their design and manufacturing procedures as well

  19. Effects of long-term estrogen replacement therapy on bone turnover in periarticular tibial osteophytes in surgically postmenopausal cynomolgus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Erik J; Lindgren, Bruce R; Carlson, Cathy S

    2008-05-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess the effects of long-term estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) on size and indices of bone turnover in periarticular osteophytes in ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys and to compare dynamic indices of bone turnover in osteophyte bone with those of subchondral bone (SCB) and epiphyseal/metaphyseal cancellous (EMC) bone. One hundred sixty-five adult female cynomolgus macaques were bilaterally ovariectomized and randomly divided into three age- and weight-matched treatment groups for a 36-month treatment period. Group 1 (OVX control) received no treatment, Group 2 (SPE) received soy phytoestrogens, and Group 3 (ERT) received conjugated equine estrogens in the diet; all monkeys were labeled with calcein before necropsy. A midcoronal, plastic-embedded section of the right proximal tibia from 20 randomly selected animals per treatment group was examined histologically. Forty-nine of the sections (OVX control, n=16; SPE, n=16; ERT, n=17) contained lateral abaxial osteophytes, and static and dynamic histomorphometry measurements were taken from osteophyte bone, SCB from the lateral tibial plateau, and EMC bone. Data were analyzed using the ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis test, correlation and regression methods, and the Friedman and Wilcoxon signed rank test. There was no significant effect of long-term ERT on osteophyte area or on any static or dynamic histomorphometry parameters. The bone volume, trabecular number, and trabecular thickness in osteophyte bone were considerably higher than in EMC bone; whereas, trabecular separation was considerably lower in osteophyte bone. In all three treatment groups, BS/BV was significantly lower in osteophyte bone vs. EMC bone and significantly higher in osteophyte bone vs. lateral SCB. We conclude that osteophyte area and static and dynamic histomorphometry parameters within periarticular tibial osteophytes in ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys are not significantly influenced by long-term ERT, but

  20. Effects of long-term estrogen replacement therapy on bone turnover in periarticular tibial osteophytes in surgically postmenopausal cynomolgus monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Erik J.; Lindgren, Bruce R.; Carlson, Cathy S.

    2008-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess the effects of long-term estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) on size and indices of bone turnover in periarticular osteophytes in ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys and to compare dynamic indices of bone turnover in osteophyte bone with those of subchondral bone (SCB) and epiphyseal/metaphyseal cancellous (EMC) bone. One hundred sixty-five adult female cynomolgus macaques were bilaterally ovariectomized and randomly divided into three age- and weight-matched treatment groups for a 36-month treatment period. Group 1 (OVX control) received no treatment, Group 2 (SPE) received soy phytoestrogens, and Group 3 (ERT) received conjugated equine estrogens in the diet; all monkeys were labeled with calcein before necropsy. A midcoronal, plastic-embedded section of the right proximal tibia from 20 randomly selected animals per treatment group was examined histologically. Forty-nine of the sections (OVX control, n=16; SPE, n=16; ERT, n=17) contained lateral abaxial osteophytes, and static and dynamic histomorphometry measurements were taken from osteophyte bone, SCB from the lateral tibial plateau, and EMC bone. Data were analyzed using the ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis test, correlation and regression methods, and the Friedman and Wilcoxon signed rank test. There was no significant effect of long-term ERT on osteophyte area or on any static or dynamic histomorphometry parameters. The bone volume, trabecular number, and trabecular thickness in osteophyte bone were considerably higher than in EMC bone; whereas, trabecular separation was considerably lower in osteophyte bone. In all three treatment groups, BS/BV was significantly lower in osteophyte bone vs. EMC bone and significantly higher in osteophyte bone vs. lateral SCB. We conclude that osteophyte area and static and dynamic histomorphometry parameters within periarticular tibial osteophytes in ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys are not significantly influenced by long-term ERT, but

  1. The translation of product concept to bone products: a partnership of therapeutic effectiveness and commercialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, Anthony

    2011-12-01

    The fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have the capacity to substantially impact clinical care through the introduction of new products that can address unmet clinical needs, or significantly improve on present therapies. These products will be developed through the demonstration of therapeutic effectiveness, adequate safety, and meeting regulatory requirements. The technology used in the product will dictate the product development and manufacturing costs; the regulatory pathway; and the time taken to complete clinical trials, gain regulatory approval, and become commercialized. A comparison of the required investment of time and funds, with the potential revenue generated, allows for a determination of the likely commercialization opportunity. Ultimately, the long-term success of a product will be dependent on its clinical effectiveness and commercial viability. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  2. Estrogen inhibits Dlk1/FA1 production: A potential mechanism for estrogen effects on bone turnover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem M; Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine; Srinivasan, Bhuma

    2011-01-01

    We have recently identified delta-like 1/fetal antigen 1 (Dlk1/FA1) as a novel regulator of bone mass that functions to mediate bone loss under estrogen deficiency in mice. In this report, we investigated the effects of estrogen (E) deficiency and E replacement on serum (s) levels of Dlk1/FA1 (s......-Dlk1FA1) and its correlation with bone turnover markers. s-Dlk1/FA1 and bone turnover markers (serum cross-linked C-telopeptide [s-CTX] and serum osteocalcin) were measured in two cohorts: a group of pre- and postmenopausal women (n = 100) and a group of postmenopausal women, where half had received...... estrogen-replacement therapy (ERT, n = 166). s-Dlk1/FA1 and s-CTX were elevated in postmenopausal E-deficient women compared with premenopausal E-replete women (both p ...

  3. Effect of castration age on weight and size of some bones in Piemontese male cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lazzaroni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Effect of pre- and post-pubertal castration on bone weight and measurements has been studied in 3 groups of Piemontese male cattle (EC - early castrated, LC - late castrated, IM - intact reared in the same environmental conditions and slaughtered at about 18 month of age, at about 550 kg of l.w., and at the same commercial fattening degree. At side commercial dissection all separated bones were weighted, and on the main ones (scapula, humerus, radius, femur, and tibia linear measures were recorded and then some conformation ratios were calculated (weight/length, length/width, and length/circumference. Data were analysed by GLM ANCOVA procedure, correcting data on side weight to avoid bias due to differences in carcass weight. No differences were found in side bone weight (23.58 ± 2.61 kg, so as in single bone weight, measures and ratios.

  4. Effect of occlusal (mechanical) stimulus on bone remodelling in rat mandibular condyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazit, D; Ehrlich, J; Kohen, Y; Bab, I

    1987-09-01

    Mechanical load influences the remodelling of skeletal tissues. In the mandibular condyle, occlusal alterations and the consequent mechanical stimulus induce changes in chondrocytes and cartilage mineralization. In the present study we quantified in the mandibular condyle the effect of occlusal interference on remodelling of the subchondral bone. Computerized histomorphometry after 5-21-day exposure to the influence of a unilateral occlusal splint revealed an increased rate of trabecular remodelling, consisting of enhancement in osteoblast and osteoclast numbers and activities. The bone formation parameters reached their high values on Days 5 or 9 and remained stable thereafter. Bone resorption showed a gradual increase throughout the experimental period. These results further characterize the temporomandibular joint reaction to occlusal alterations. It is suggested that the present increase in bone turnover together with the known enhancement in chondrogenesis are part of a process of functional adaptation in response to mechanical stimulus.

  5. Artistic versus rhythmic gymnastics: effects on bone and muscle mass in young girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Rodriguez, G; Dorado, C; Ara, I; Perez-Gomez, J; Olmedillas, H; Delgado-Guerra, S; Calbet, J A L

    2007-05-01

    We compared 35 prepubertal girls, 9 artistic gymnasts and 13 rhythmic gymnasts with 13 nonphysically active controls to study the effect of gymnastics on bone and muscle mass. Lean mass, bone mineral content and areal density were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and physical fitness was also assessed. The artistic gymnasts showed a delay in pubertal development compared to the other groups (partistic gymnasts had a 16 and 17 % higher aerobic power and anaerobic capacity, while the rhythmic group had a 14 % higher anaerobic capacity than the controls, respectively (all partistic gymnasts had higher lean mass (partistic and the rhythmic gymnasts (partistic group compared to the other groups. Lean mass strongly correlated with bone mineral content (r=0.84, partistic gymnastic participation is associated with delayed pubertal development, enhanced physical fitness, muscle mass, and bone density in prepubertal girls, eliciting a higher osteogenic stimulus than rhythmic gymnastic.

  6. [Effects of pamidronate disodium (Bonin) combined with chemotherapy on bone pain in multiple myeloma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Yun; Chen, Shi-lun; Shi, Hong-zhi

    2002-10-01

    Objective. To evaluate the therapeutic effects of Disodium Pamidronate (Bonin) on bone pain in multiple myeloma. Method. 18 patients received only chemotherapy and 16 patients with addition of Bonin were compared. Result. The bone pain was significantly relieved both in chemotherapy alone group and in the combination group of Bonin with chemotherapy after treatment (P<0.01, as compared with before therapy). However, the effects of combination group were more dramatical than that of the other group (P<0.05). No obvious side-effects were observed except mild fever in one patient in the combination group. Conclusion. Bonin, as a safe and effective Bisphosphonates preparation, could relieve bone pain in multiple myeloma more effectively when combined with chemotherapy.

  7. The effects of boron supplementation of layer diets varying in calcium and phosphorus concentrations on performance, egg quality, bone strength and mineral constituents of serum, bone and faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçükyilmaz, K; Erkek, R; Bozkurt, M

    2014-01-01

    1. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate the effects of dietary calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and supplemental boron (B) (0, 75, and 150 mg/kg) on the performance, egg quality, bone strength, and mineral constituents in bone, serum and faeces. 2. A reduction by 18% in the dietary Ca-P concentration from the recommended levels for the hen strain reduced (P properties did not corroborate the hypothesis that B is a trace element playing an important role in mineral metabolism and bone strength through an interaction with Ca, P and Mg.

  8. Effect of local hemostatics on bone induction in rats: a comparative study of bone wax, fibrin-collagen paste, and bioerodible polyorthoester with and without gentamicin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solheim, E; Pinholt, E M; Bang, G

    1992-01-01

    Local hemostatics for osseous tissue should preferably be absorbable and biocompatible and should not inhibit osteogenesis. The tissue response and effect on demineralized bone-induced heterotopic osteogenesis in the abdominal muscle of 120 male Wistar rats by different local hemostatics were...... evaluated by light microscopy and 85Sr uptake analyses. Non-absorbable bone wax o