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Sample records for bonds link adjacent

  1. 27 CFR 19.241 - Operations bond-distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19.241 Section 19.241 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... wine cellar. (a) General. A wine cellar under the provisions of 27 CFR part 24 shall be treated as... subpart G for the production of distilled spirits; and (2) Such wine cellar and distilled spirits plant...

  2. A novel biomimetic orthodontic bonding agent helps prevent white spot lesions adjacent to brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfred, Lauren; Covell, David A; Crowe, Jennifer J; Tufekci, Eser; Mitchell, John C

    2013-01-01

    To compare changes in enamel microhardness adjacent to orthodontic brackets after using bonding agents containing various compositions of bioactive glass compared to a traditional resin adhesive following a simulated caries challenge. Extracted human third molars (n  =  10 per group) had orthodontic brackets bonded using one of four novel bioactive glass (BAG)-containing orthodontic bonding agents (BAG-Bonds) or commercially available Transbond-XT. The four new adhesives contained BAG in varying percentages incorporated into a traditional resin monomer mixture. Teeth were cycled through low-pH demineralizing and physiologic-pH remineralizing solutions once each day over 14 days. Microhardness was measured on longitudinal sections of the teeth 100, 200, and 300 µm from the bracket edge and beneath the brackets, at depths of 25 to 200 µm from the enamel surface. Normalized hardness values were compared using three-way analysis of variance. Significantly less reduction in enamel microhardness was found with the experimental adhesives at depths of 25 and 50 µm at all distances from the bracket edge. In all groups, there were no significant changes in enamel microhardness past 125-µm depth. Results varied with the different BAG-Bonds, with 81BAG-Bond showing the smallest decrease in enamel microhardness. The BAG-Bonds tested in this study showed a reduction in the amount of superficial enamel softening surrounding orthodontic brackets compared to a traditional bonding agent. The results indicate that clinically, BAG-Bonds may aid in maintaining enamel surface hardness, therefore helping prevent white spot lesions adjacent to orthodontic brackets.

  3. Dual adjacency matrix : exploring link groups in dense networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinkla, K.; Henry Riche, N.; Westenberg, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Node grouping is a common way of adding structure and information to networks that aids their interpretation. However, certain networks benefit from the grouping of links instead of nodes. Link communities, for example, are a form of link groups that describe high-quality overlapping node

  4. Inflation, Index-Linked Bonds, and Asset Allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Zvi Bodie

    1988-01-01

    The recent introduction of CPI-linked bonds by several financial institutions is a milestone in the history of the U.S. financial system. It has potentially far-reaching effects on individual and institutional asset allocation decisions because these securities represent the only true long-run hedge against inflation risk. CPI-linked bonds make possible the creation of additional financial innovations that would use them as the asset base. One such innovation that seems likely is inflation-pr...

  5. Bonds with index-linked stochastic coupons in quantum finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaquie, Belal Ehsan

    2018-06-01

    An index-linked coupon bond is defined that pays coupons whose values are stochastic, depending on a market defined index. This is an asset class distinct from the existing coupon bonds. The index-linked coupon bond is an example of a sukuk, which is an instrument that implements one of the cornerstones of Islamic finance (Askari et al., 2012): that an investor must share in the risk of the issuer in order to earn profits from the investment. The index-linked coupon bond is defined using the mathematical framework of quantum finance (Baaquie, 2004, 2010). The coupons are stochastic, with the quantum of coupon payments depending on a publicly traded index that is chosen to reflect the primary drivers of the revenues of the issuer of the bond. The index ensures there is information symmetry - regarding the quantum of coupon being paid - between issuer and investor. The dependence of the coupon on the index is designed so that the variation of the index mirrors the changing fortunes of the issuer, with the coupon's quantum increasing for increasing values of the index and conversely, decreasing with a fall of the index.

  6. Visualizing weighted networks: a performance comparison of adjacency matrices versus node-link diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntire, John P.; Osesina, O. Isaac; Bartley, Cecilia; Tudoreanu, M. Eduard; Havig, Paul R.; Geiselman, Eric E.

    2012-06-01

    Ensuring the proper and effective ways to visualize network data is important for many areas of academia, applied sciences, the military, and the public. Fields such as social network analysis, genetics, biochemistry, intelligence, cybersecurity, neural network modeling, transit systems, communications, etc. often deal with large, complex network datasets that can be difficult to interact with, study, and use. There have been surprisingly few human factors performance studies on the relative effectiveness of different graph drawings or network diagram techniques to convey information to a viewer. This is particularly true for weighted networks which include the strength of connections between nodes, not just information about which nodes are linked to other nodes. We describe a human factors study in which participants performed four separate network analysis tasks (finding a direct link between given nodes, finding an interconnected node between given nodes, estimating link strengths, and estimating the most densely interconnected nodes) on two different network visualizations: an adjacency matrix with a heat-map versus a node-link diagram. The results should help shed light on effective methods of visualizing network data for some representative analysis tasks, with the ultimate goal of improving usability and performance for viewers of network data displays.

  7. Do inflation-linked bonds contain information about future inflation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Valentim Machado Vicente

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a widespread belief that inflation-linked bonds are a direct source of information about inflation expectations. In this paper we address this issue by analyzing the relationship between break-even inflation (the difference between nominal and real yields and future inflation. The dataset is extracted from Brazilian Treasury bonds covering the period from April 2005 to April 2011. We find that break-even inflation is an unbiased forecast only of the 3-month and 6-month ahead inflation. For medium horizons (12 and 18 months, break-even inflation has weak explanatory power of future inflation. Over long horizons (24 and 30 months, we report a significant, but counterintuitive, negative relationship between the break-even and realized inflation rates.

  8. The Role of Inflation-Linked Bonds. Increasing, but Still Modest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhout, Ed; Ciocyte, Ona

    2017-01-01

    Although the market for inflation-linked bonds has expanded enormously, nominal bonds are still the main instrument to finance public debts. This paper seeks to explain why. It focuses on the Eurozone countries for which the standard argument that inflation-linked bonds may help to reduce inflation

  9. Parametrization of Combined Quantum Mechanical and Molecular Mechanical Methods: Bond-Tuned Link Atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xin-Ping; Gagliardi, Laura; Truhlar, Donald G

    2018-05-30

    Combined quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) methods are the most powerful available methods for high-level treatments of subsystems of very large systems. The treatment of the QM-MM boundary strongly affects the accuracy of QM/MM calculations. For QM/MM calculations having covalent bonds cut by the QM-MM boundary, it has been proposed previously to use a scheme with system-specific tuned fluorine link atoms. Here, we propose a broadly parametrized scheme where the parameters of the tuned F link atoms depend only on the type of bond being cut. In the proposed new scheme, the F link atom is tuned for systems with a certain type of cut bond at the QM-MM boundary instead of for a specific target system, and the resulting link atoms are call bond-tuned link atoms. In principle, the bond-tuned link atoms can be as convenient as the popular H link atoms, and they are especially well adapted for high-throughput and accurate QM/MM calculations. Here, we present the parameters for several kinds of cut bonds along with a set of validation calculations that confirm that the proposed bond-tuned link-atom scheme can be as accurate as the system-specific tuned F link-atom scheme.

  10. Parametrization of Combined Quantum Mechanical and Molecular Mechanical Methods: Bond-Tuned Link Atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Ping Wu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Combined quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical (QM/MM methods are the most powerful available methods for high-level treatments of subsystems of very large systems. The treatment of the QM−MM boundary strongly affects the accuracy of QM/MM calculations. For QM/MM calculations having covalent bonds cut by the QM−MM boundary, it has been proposed previously to use a scheme with system-specific tuned fluorine link atoms. Here, we propose a broadly parametrized scheme where the parameters of the tuned F link atoms depend only on the type of bond being cut. In the proposed new scheme, the F link atom is tuned for systems with a certain type of cut bond at the QM−MM boundary instead of for a specific target system, and the resulting link atoms are call bond-tuned link atoms. In principle, the bond-tuned link atoms can be as convenient as the popular H link atoms, and they are especially well adapted for high-throughput and accurate QM/MM calculations. Here, we present the parameters for several kinds of cut bonds along with a set of validation calculations that confirm that the proposed bond-tuned link-atom scheme can be as accurate as the system-specific tuned F link-atom scheme.

  11. Streptococcus mutans counts in plaque adjacent to orthodontic brackets bonded with resin-modified glass ionomer cement or resin-based composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Machado Mota

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the number of Streptococcus mutans CFU (colony forming units in the saliva and plaque adjacent to orthodontic brackets bonded with a glass ionomer cement - GIC (Fuji Ortho or a resin-based composite - RC (Concise. Twenty male and female patients, aged 12 to 20 years, participated in the study. Saliva was collected before and after placement of appliances. Plaque was collected from areas adjacent to brackets and saliva was again collected on the 15th, 30th, and 45th day after placement. On the 30th day, 0.4% stannous fluoride gel was applied for 4 minutes. No significant modification in the number of Streptococcus mutans CFU in saliva was observed after placement of the fixed orthodontic appliances. On the 15th day, the percentage of Streptococcus mutans CFU in plaque was statistically lower in sites adjacent to GIC-bonded brackets (mean = 0.365 than in those adjacent to RC-bonded brackets (mean = 0.935. No evidence was found of a contribution of GIC to the reduction of CFU in plaque after the 15th day. Topical application of stannous fluoride gel on the 30th day reduced the number of CFU in saliva, but not in plaque. This study suggests that the antimicrobial activity of GIC occurs only in the initial phase and is not responsible for a long-term anticariogenic property.

  12. Essays on sovereign bond pricing and inflation-linked products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, Zorka

    2016-01-01

    This doctoral dissertation consists of three chapters on the pricing of sovereign debt and inflation-linked products. The first chapter examines the relative pricing of nominal and inflation-linked debt of the three largest Eurozone sovereign issuers. Its main contribution is to present evidence of

  13. Diving behavior of the reef manta ray links coral reefs with adjacent deep pelagic habitats

    KAUST Repository

    Braun, Camrin D.

    2014-02-06

    Recent successful efforts to increase protection for manta rays has highlighted the lack of basic ecological information, including vertical and horizontal movement patterns, available for these species. We deployed pop-up satellite archival transmitting tags on nine reef manta rays, Manta alfredi, to determine diving behaviors and vertical habitat use. Transmitted and archived data were obtained from seven tagged mantas over deployment periods of 102-188 days, including three recovered tags containing 2.6 million depth, temperature, and light level data points collected every 10 or 15 seconds. Mantas frequented the upper 10 m during daylight hours and tended to occupy deeper water throughout the night. Six of the seven individuals performed a cumulative 76 deep dives (>150 m) with one individual reaching 432 m, extending the known depth range of this coastal, reef-oriented species and confirming its role as an ecological link between epipelagic and mesopelagic habitats. Mean vertical velocities calculated from high-resolution dive data (62 dives >150 m) from three individuals suggested that mantas may use gliding behavior during travel and that this behavior may prove more efficient than continuous horizontal swimming. The behaviors in this study indicate manta rays provide a previously unknown link between the epi- and mesopelagic layers of an extremely oligotrophic marine environment and provide evidence of a third marine species that utilizes gliding to maximize movement efficiency. © 2014 Braun et al.

  14. How shared preferences in music create bonds between people: values as the missing link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Diana; Fischer, Ronald; Strack, Micha; Bond, Michael H; Lo, Eva; Lam, Jason

    2011-09-01

    How can shared music preferences create social bonds between people? A process model is developed in which music preferences as value-expressive attitudes create social bonds via conveyed value similarity. The musical bonding model links two research streams: (a) music preferences as indicators of similarity in value orientations and (b) similarity in value orientations leading to social attraction. Two laboratory experiments and one dyadic field study demonstrated that music can create interpersonal bonds between young people because music preferences can be cues for similar or dissimilar value orientations, with similarity in values then contributing to social attraction. One study tested and ruled out an alternative explanation (via personality similarity), illuminating the differential impact of perceived value similarity versus personality similarity on social attraction. Value similarity is the missing link in explaining the musical bonding phenomenon, which seems to hold for Western and non-Western samples and in experimental and natural settings.

  15. Bond-based linear indices of the non-stochastic and stochastic edge-adjacency matrix. 1. Theory and modeling of ChemPhys properties of organic molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Martínez-Albelo, Eugenio R; Casañola-Martín, Gerardo M; Castillo-Garit, Juan A; Echevería-Díaz, Yunaimy; Zaldivar, Vicente Romero; Tygat, Jan; Borges, José E Rodriguez; García-Domenech, Ramón; Torrens, Francisco; Pérez-Giménez, Facundo

    2010-11-01

    Novel bond-level molecular descriptors are proposed, based on linear maps similar to the ones defined in algebra theory. The kth edge-adjacency matrix (E(k)) denotes the matrix of bond linear indices (non-stochastic) with regard to canonical basis set. The kth stochastic edge-adjacency matrix, ES(k), is here proposed as a new molecular representation easily calculated from E(k). Then, the kth stochastic bond linear indices are calculated using ES(k) as operators of linear transformations. In both cases, the bond-type formalism is developed. The kth non-stochastic and stochastic total linear indices are calculated by adding the kth non-stochastic and stochastic bond linear indices, respectively, of all bonds in molecule. First, the new bond-based molecular descriptors (MDs) are tested for suitability, for the QSPRs, by analyzing regressions of novel indices for selected physicochemical properties of octane isomers (first round). General performance of the new descriptors in this QSPR studies is evaluated with regard to the well-known sets of 2D/3D MDs. From the analysis, we can conclude that the non-stochastic and stochastic bond-based linear indices have an overall good modeling capability proving their usefulness in QSPR studies. Later, the novel bond-level MDs are also used for the description and prediction of the boiling point of 28 alkyl-alcohols (second round), and to the modeling of the specific rate constant (log k), partition coefficient (log P), as well as the antibacterial activity of 34 derivatives of 2-furylethylenes (third round). The comparison with other approaches (edge- and vertices-based connectivity indices, total and local spectral moments, and quantum chemical descriptors as well as E-state/biomolecular encounter parameters) exposes a good behavior of our method in this QSPR studies. Finally, the approach described in this study appears to be a very promising structural invariant, useful not only for QSPR studies but also for similarity

  16. EPR-spin probe studies of model polymers: separation of covalent cross-linking effects from hydrogen bonding effects in swelled Argonne Premium Coal samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spears, D.R.; Sady, W.; Tucker, D.; Kispert, L.D. (University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States). Chemistry Dept.)

    The swelling behaviour of 2-12% cross-linked polystyrene-divinylbenzene (PSDVB) copolymers was examined by an EPR-spin probe technique. It was observed that the mechanism of spin probe inclusion was the intercalation into the matrix rather than diffusion into the pores. The disruption of van der Waals forces between adjacent aromatic rings appeared to be the primary mechanism for pyridine swelling of PSDVB. By comparing the data to results from coal swelling studies it was also inferred that the extent of hydrogen bonding in coal will have a much greater impact on its swelling properties than its covalently cross-linked character. 24 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Area-based initiatives – and their work in bonding, bridging and linking social capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika; Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we provide a conceptual and argumentative framework for studying how Area-based Initiatives (ABIs) can facilitate contact between networks in deprived neighbourhoods and external forms of power (linking social capital). These relations provide the residents and other members...... of social capital (bridging, bonding and linking). The article concludes that ABIs contribute to creating linking social capital, but the extent of the contribution depends on the level of bonding and bridging social capital in the area. We argue that public planners as well as evaluators of the ABIs should...

  18. A novel stibacarbaborane cluster with adjacent antimony atoms exhibiting unique pnictogen bond formation that dominates its crystal packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holub, Josef; Melichar, Petr; Růžičková, Zdeňka; Vrána, Jan; Wann, Derek A; Fanfrlík, Jindřich; Hnyk, Drahomír; Růžička, Aleš

    2017-10-17

    We have prepared nido-7,8,9,11-Sb 2 C 2 B 7 H 9 , the first cluster with simultaneous Sb-B, Sb-C and Sb-Sb atom pairs with interatomic separations with magnitudes that approach the respective sums of covalent radii. However, the length of the Sb-Sb separation in this cluster is slightly less than the sum of the covalent radii. Quantum chemical analysis has revealed that the crystal packing of nido-7,8,9,11-Sb 2 C 2 B 7 H 9 is predominantly dictated by pnictogen (Pn) bonding, an unconventional σ-hole interaction. Indeed, the interaction energy of a very strong Sb 2 H-B Pn-bond in the nido-7,8,9,11-Sb 2 C 2 B 7 H 9 dimer exceeds -6.0 kcal mol -1 . This is a very large value and is comparable to the strengths of known Pn-bonds in Cl 3 Pnπ complexes (Pn = As, Sb).

  19. College drinking behaviors: mediational links between parenting styles, parental bonds, depression, and alcohol problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A

    2007-09-01

    Mediational links between parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive), parental bond (positive, negative), depression, alcohol use and abuse were tested. A 2-group, multiple-indicator, multiple-cause structural equation model with 441 (216 female, 225 male) college students was examined. In general, a poor parental bond with one's father was highly predictive of depression, a well-known predictor of alcohol abuse and related problems for both genders. In contrast, a positive parental bond with one's father significantly mediated the positive effects of authoritative fathering on depression, which then decreased alcohol use problems for both genders. For women, a negative parental bond with one's father significantly mediated the effect of having an authoritarian father on depression, which increased alcohol use problems. These findings suggest that parental influences on pathways to alcohol abuse through depression (primarily through fathers for both genders) are distinct from pathways stemming from poor impulse control (with influences primarily from the same-sex parents for both genders).

  20. Unprecedented linking of two polyoxometalate units with a metal-metal multiple bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Maxim N; Korenev, Vladimir S; Izarova, Natalya V; Peresypkina, Eugenia V; Vicent, Cristian; Fedin, Vladimir P

    2009-03-02

    The reaction of (Bu(4)N)(2)[Re(2)Cl(8)] with lacunary Keggin polyoxometalate K(7)[PW(11)O(39)] in water produces a new dumbbell-shaped heteropolyoxometalate anion, [Re(2)(PW(11)O(39))(2)](8-), whose structure contains a central Re(2) core with a quadruple bond between Re atoms (Re-Re 2.25 A), coordinated to two polyoxometalate units. This complex represents the first example of the direct linking of two polyoxometalate units via a metal-metal multiple bond. The compounds were characterized by X-ray analysis, IR, and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

  1. Social Capital and Unretirement: Exploring the Bonding, Bridging, and Linking Aspects of Social Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Ernest; Nowell, W Benjamin

    2017-12-01

    Working longer is an important area of research given extended life expectancy, shortfalls of retirement income, desires to remain socially engaged, and solvency concerns of social insurance programs. The purpose of this longitudinal population-based study of older adults is to examine how different types of social resources (social bonding, bridging, and linking) relate to returning to work after retirement. Data were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study of fully retired older adults aged 62+ in 1998 ( N = 8,334) and followed to 2008. After controlling for a comprehensive set of fixed and time-varying covariates, findings suggest that social bridging (informal volunteering) and social linking (formal volunteering, partnered with an employed spouse) were strongly and positively related to returning to work (Hazard Ratio [HR]: 1.49, p Social bonding resources were not significantly associated with returning to work. Implications for social policy are discussed.

  2. Inulin crystal initiation via a glucose-fructose cross-link of adjacent polymer chains: atomic force microscopy and static molecular modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Peter D; Rajapaksha, K Harinda; Barclay, Thomas G; Ginic-Markovic, Milena; Gerson, Andrea R; Petrovsky, Nikolai

    2015-03-06

    Semi-crystalline microparticles of inulin (MPI) have clinical utility as potent human vaccine adjuvants but their relevant surface structure and crystal assembly remain undefined. We show inulin crystal surfaces to resemble multi-layered, discoid radial spherulites resulting from very rapid formation of complex tertiary structures, implying directed crystal initiation. Physical and in silico molecular modelling of unit cells confirm steric feasibility of initiation by hydrogen-bonded cross-linking of terminal glucose to a fructose of another chain, mimicking bonding in sucrose crystals. A strong, chelate-like dual H-bond is proposed to compel the known antiparallel alignment of inulin chains. Such cross-linking would require one extra fructose per chain in the native inulin crystal, as observed. Completion of five H-bonded internal ring-domains would 'lock in' each new 6-fructose structural unit of each antiparallel helix pair to create a new isoform. All known properties of inulin isoforms follow readily from these concepts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Export of materials along a tidal river channel that links a coastal lagoon to the adjacent sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Aldeco Ramírez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Intratidal variability and flux of salt, chlorophyll-a and suspended materials were evaluated in a shallow tropical tidal channel linking a coastal lagoon to the western Gulf of Mexico. Velocity, temperature and conductivity were used to calculate the fluxes. Data were recorded during three tidal velocity cycles (tvc under extreme river discharge conditions. Chlorophyll-a and suspended materials were determined below the surface. In both seasons (dry and rainy, the flow was ebb-dominated and with longer duration than when in flood. Maximum current velocities were 0.30 m s-1 in May (dry season and 0.60 m s-1 in September (rainy season. In the dry season the mean chlorophyll-a export was of 7.56 Kg over tvc while the import was of 3.32 Kg. In the rainy season mean export (47.3 Kg was 6 times greater than the import (7.93 Kg over tvc. Phytoplankton was dominated by organisms of marine origin. The mean of exported, suspended materials in the rainy season (111.3 Kg was 4.6 times greater (859 Kg than that in the dry season (184.7 Kg over tvc. Tidal velocity asymmetry is an effective mechanism of exportation, introducing relatively warm and saltier water into the river through the tidal channel.A variabilidade intramaré, o fluxo de salinidade, a clorofila-a e material em suspensão foram avaliados em um canal superficial de maré tropical em uma lagoa costeira ao oeste do Golfo do México. Os dados de velocidade, temperatura e condutividade foram usados para cálculo dos fluxos durante três ciclos de velocidades das marés (tvc sob condições extremas de descarga. A Clorofila-a e material em suspensão foram determinados abaixo em subsuperfície. Em ambas as estações (seca e chuvosa, o fluxo dominante foi durante o refluxo e com duração maior durante o fluxo de entrada. A máxima velocidade encontrada foi 0.30 m s-1 em maio (estação seca e 0.60 m s-1 em setembro (estação chuvosa. Durante a época seca foram exportadas 7.56 Kg de clorofila

  4. The link between bond forfeiture and pretrial release mechanism: The case of Dallas County, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clipper, Stephen J; Morris, Robert G; Russell-Kaplan, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of four pretrial jail release mechanisms (i.e., bond types) commonly used during the pretrial phase of the criminal justice process in terms of their ability to discriminate between defendants failing to appear in court (i.e., bond forfeiture). These include attorney bonds, cash bonds, commercial bail bonds, and release via a pretrial services agency. A multi-treatment propensity score matching protocol was employed to assess between-release-mechanism differences in the conditional probability of failure to appear/bond forfeiture. Data were culled from archival state justice records comprising all defendants booked into the Dallas County, Texas jail during 2008 (n = 29,416). The results suggest that defendants released via commercial bail bonds were less likely to experience failure to appear leading to the bond forfeiture process compared to equivalent defendants released via cash, attorney, and pretrial services bonds. This finding held across different offense categories. The study frames these differences within a discussion encompassing procedural variation within and between each release mechanism, thereby setting the stage for further research and dialog regarding potential justice reform.

  5. The link between bond forfeiture and pretrial release mechanism: The case of Dallas County, Texas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Clipper

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of four pretrial jail release mechanisms (i.e., bond types commonly used during the pretrial phase of the criminal justice process in terms of their ability to discriminate between defendants failing to appear in court (i.e., bond forfeiture. These include attorney bonds, cash bonds, commercial bail bonds, and release via a pretrial services agency.A multi-treatment propensity score matching protocol was employed to assess between-release-mechanism differences in the conditional probability of failure to appear/bond forfeiture. Data were culled from archival state justice records comprising all defendants booked into the Dallas County, Texas jail during 2008 (n = 29,416.The results suggest that defendants released via commercial bail bonds were less likely to experience failure to appear leading to the bond forfeiture process compared to equivalent defendants released via cash, attorney, and pretrial services bonds. This finding held across different offense categories. The study frames these differences within a discussion encompassing procedural variation within and between each release mechanism, thereby setting the stage for further research and dialog regarding potential justice reform.

  6. Bonding, Bridging, and Linking Social Capital and Self-Rated Health among Chinese Adults: Use of the Anchoring Vignettes Technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Chen

    Full Text Available Three main opposing camps exist over how social capital relates to population health, namely the social support perspective, the inequality thesis, and the political economy approach. The distinction among bonding, bridging, and linking social capital probably helps close the debates between these three camps, which is rarely investigated in existing literatures. Moreover, although self-rated health is a frequently used health indicator in studies on the relationship between social capital and health, the interpersonal incomparability of this measure has been largely neglected. This study has two main objectives. Firstly, we aim to investigate the relationship between bonding, bridging, and linking social capital and self-rated health among Chinese adults. Secondly, we aim to improve the interpersonal comparability in self-rated health measurement. We use data from a nationally representative survey in China. Self-rated health was adjusted using the anchoring vignettes technique to improve comparability. Two-level ordinal logistic regression was performed to model the association between social capital and self-rated health at both individual and community levels. The interaction between residence and social capital was included to examine urban/rural disparities in the relationship. We found that most social capital indicators had a significant relationship with adjusted self-rated health of Chinese adults, but the relationships were mixed. Individual-level bonding, linking social capital, and community-level bridging social capital were positively related with health. Significant urban/rural disparities appeared in the association between community-level bonding, linking social capital, and adjusted self-rated health. For example, people living in communities with higher bonding social capital tended to report poorer adjusted self-rated health in urban areas, but the opposite tendency held for rural areas. Furthermore, the comparison between

  7. Bonding, Bridging, and Linking Social Capital and Self-Rated Health among Chinese Adults: Use of the Anchoring Vignettes Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, He; Meng, Tianguang

    2015-01-01

    Three main opposing camps exist over how social capital relates to population health, namely the social support perspective, the inequality thesis, and the political economy approach. The distinction among bonding, bridging, and linking social capital probably helps close the debates between these three camps, which is rarely investigated in existing literatures. Moreover, although self-rated health is a frequently used health indicator in studies on the relationship between social capital and health, the interpersonal incomparability of this measure has been largely neglected. This study has two main objectives. Firstly, we aim to investigate the relationship between bonding, bridging, and linking social capital and self-rated health among Chinese adults. Secondly, we aim to improve the interpersonal comparability in self-rated health measurement. We use data from a nationally representative survey in China. Self-rated health was adjusted using the anchoring vignettes technique to improve comparability. Two-level ordinal logistic regression was performed to model the association between social capital and self-rated health at both individual and community levels. The interaction between residence and social capital was included to examine urban/rural disparities in the relationship. We found that most social capital indicators had a significant relationship with adjusted self-rated health of Chinese adults, but the relationships were mixed. Individual-level bonding, linking social capital, and community-level bridging social capital were positively related with health. Significant urban/rural disparities appeared in the association between community-level bonding, linking social capital, and adjusted self-rated health. For example, people living in communities with higher bonding social capital tended to report poorer adjusted self-rated health in urban areas, but the opposite tendency held for rural areas. Furthermore, the comparison between multivariate analyses

  8. ON THE DURABILITY OF RESIN-DENTIN BONDS: IDENTIFYING THE WEAKEST LINKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zihou; Beitzel, Dylan; Mutluay, Mustafa; Tay, Franklin R.; Pashley, David H.; Arola, Dwayne

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue of resin-dentin adhesive bonds is critical to the longevity of resin composite restorations. Objectives The objectives were to characterize the fatigue and fatigue crack growth resistance of resin-dentin bonds achieved using two different commercial adhesives and to identify apparent “weak-links”. Methods Bonded interface specimens were prepared using Adper Single Bond Plus (SB) or Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SBMP) adhesives and 3M Z100 resin composite according to the manufacturers instructions. The stress-life fatigue behavior was evaluated using the twin bonded interface approach and the fatigue crack growth resistance was examined using bonded interface Compact Tension (CT) specimens. Fatigue properties of the interfaces were compared to those of the resin-adhesive, resin composite and coronal dentin. Results The fatigue strength of the SBMP interface was significantly greater than that achieved by SB (p≤0.01). Both bonded interfaces exhibited significantly lower fatigue strength than that of the Z100 and dentin. Regarding the fatigue crack growth resistance, the stress intensity threshold (ΔKth) of the SB interface was significantly greater (p≤0.01) than that of the SBMP, whereas the ΔKth of the interfaces was more than twice that of the parent adhesives. Significance Collagen fibril reinforcement of the resin adhesive is essential to the fatigue crack growth resistance of resin-dentin bonds. Resin tags that are not well hybridized into the surrounding intertubular dentin and/or poor collagen integrity are detrimental to the bonded interface durability. PMID:26169318

  9. Food sharing is linked to urinary oxytocin levels and bonding in related and unrelated wild chimpanzees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittig, Roman M.; Crockford, Catherine; Deschner, Tobias; Langergraber, Kevin E.; Ziegler, Toni E.; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Humans excel in cooperative exchanges between unrelated individuals. Although this trait is fundamental to the success of our species, its evolution and mechanisms are poorly understood. Other social mammals also build long-term cooperative relationships between non-kin, and recent evidence shows that oxytocin, a hormone involved in parent–offspring bonding, is likely to facilitate non-kin as well as kin bonds. In a population of wild chimpanzees, we measured urinary oxytocin levels following a rare cooperative event—food sharing. Subjects showed higher urinary oxytocin levels after single food-sharing events compared with other types of social feeding, irrespective of previous social bond levels. Also, urinary oxytocin levels following food sharing were higher than following grooming, another cooperative behaviour. Therefore, food sharing in chimpanzees may play a key role in social bonding under the influence of oxytocin. We propose that food-sharing events co-opt neurobiological mechanisms evolved to support mother–infant bonding during lactation bouts, and may act as facilitators of bonding and cooperation between unrelated individuals via the oxytocinergic system across social mammals. PMID:24430853

  10. Reprocessing and Recycling of Highly Cross-Linked Ion-Conducting Networks through Transalkylation Exchanges of C-N Bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obadia, Mona M; Mudraboyina, Bhanu P; Serghei, Anatoli; Montarnal, Damien; Drockenmuller, Eric

    2015-05-13

    Exploiting exchangeable covalent bonds as dynamic cross-links recently afforded a new class of polymer materials coined as vitrimers. These permanent networks are insoluble and infusible, but the network topology can be reshuffled at high temperatures, thus enabling glasslike plastic deformation and reprocessing without depolymerization. We disclose herein the development of functional and high-value ion-conducting vitrimers that take inspiration from poly(ionic liquid)s. Tunable networks with high ionic content are obtained by the solvent- and catalyst-free polyaddition of an α-azide-ω-alkyne monomer and simultaneous alkylation of the resulting poly(1,2,3-triazole)s with a series of difunctional cross-linking agents. Temperature-induced transalkylation exchanges of C-N bonds between 1,2,3-triazolium cross-links and halide-functionalized dangling chains enable recycling and reprocessing of these highly cross-linked permanent networks. They can also be recycled by depolymerization with specific solvents able to displace the transalkylation equilibrium, and they display a great potential for applications that require solid electrolytes with excellent mechanical performances and facile processing such as supercapacitors, batteries, fuel cells, and separation membranes.

  11. Linking Vegetation Structure and Spider Diversity in Riparian and Adjacent Habitats in Two Rivers of Central Argentina: An Analysis at Two Conceptual Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griotti, Mariana; Muñoz-Escobar, Christian; Ferretti, Nelson E

    2017-08-01

    The link between vegetation structure and spider diversity has been well explored in the literature. However, few studies have compared spider diversity and its response to vegetation at two conceptual levels: assemblage (species diversity) and ensemble (guild diversity). Because of this, we studied spider diversity in riparian and adjacent habitats of a river system from the Chacoan subregion in central Argentina and evaluated their linkage with vegetation structure at these two levels. To assess vegetation structure, we measured plant species richness and vegetation cover in the herb and shrub - tree layers. We collected spiders for over 6 months by using vacuum netting, sweep netting and pitfall traps. We collected 3,808 spiders belonging to 119 morphospecies, 24 families and 9 guilds. At spider assemblage level, SIMPROF analysis showed significant differences among studied habitats. At spider ensemble level, nevertheless, we found no significant differences among habitats. Concerning the linkage with vegetation structure, BIOENV test showed that spider diversity at either assemblage or ensemble level was not significantly correlated with the vegetation variables assessed. Our results indicated that spider diversity was not affected by vegetation structure. Hence, even though we found a pattern in spider assemblages among habitats, this could not be attributed to vegetation structure. In this study, we show that analyzing a community at two conceptual levels will be useful for recognizing different responses of spider communities to vegetation structure in diverse habitat types. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Quantiles of the Realized Stock-Bond Correlation and Links to the Macroeconomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanidis, Nektarios; Christiansen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    This paper adopts quantile regressions to scrutinize the realized stock–bond correlation based upon high frequency returns. The paper provides in-sample and out-of-sample analysis and considers factors constructed from a large number of macro-finance predictors well-known from the return predicta......This paper adopts quantile regressions to scrutinize the realized stock–bond correlation based upon high frequency returns. The paper provides in-sample and out-of-sample analysis and considers factors constructed from a large number of macro-finance predictors well-known from the return...

  13. Graphical linking of MO multicenter bond index and VB structures. II-5-c rings and 6-c heterocyclic rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollini, Carlos Guido; Giambiagi, Mario; Giambiagi, Myriam Segre de; Figueiredo, Aloysio Paiva de

    2001-02-01

    Through the graphical method proposed it is possible to set a link between an MO multicenter bond index and VB structures. The value of the index depends on the order of the atoms involved if they are more than three. For 5-c rings three basic structures are required; the eventually different values are 12. Unlike the 6-c case it may happen that different pairs of basic structures are used to build the same polygon. For the 6-c rings including heteroatoms the original degeneracy of benzene splits leading eventually to 60 different I ring values. (author)

  14. Graphical linking of MO multicenter bond index and VB structures. II-5-c rings and 6-c heterocyclic rings

    CERN Document Server

    Bollini, C G; Giambiagi, M

    2001-01-01

    Through the graphical method proposed it is possible to set a link between an MO multicenter bond index and VB structures. The value of the index depends on the order of the atoms involved if they are more than three. For 5-c rings three basic structures are required; the eventually different values are 12. Unlike the 6-c case it may happen that different pairs of basic structures are used to build the same polygon. For the 6-c rings including heteroatoms the original degeneracy of benzene splits leading eventually to 60 different I sub r sub i sub n sub g values.

  15. Hop, step, jump! : Building social capital by learning through bridging, bonding and linking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der E.C. (Lidewey); Jong, de T

    2009-01-01

    Studies on social capital have produced major evidence for the contention that a firm's social capital has an important implication on organisational performance and innovation (Leana and Van Buren, 1999). More recently, there is research that suggest that there are highly significant links between

  16. Description of pnicogen bonding with the help of vibrational spectroscopy-The missing link between theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, D.; Kraka, E.; Cremer, D.

    2014-10-01

    The nature of the E⋯E‧ pnicogen bond (E = N, P, As) in dimers such as H2FP⋯PH2F (1) and H3N⋯PHNO2 (2) can be described using vibrational spectroscopy in form of the calculated infrared and depolarized Raman scattering spectra. Utilizing the six calculated intermonomer frequencies, the corresponding local mode E⋯E‧ stretching frequency and force constant are obtained, where the latter provides a unique measure of the E⋯E‧ bond strength. Pnicogen bonding in 1 is relative strong (bond strength order n = 0.151) and covalent whereas pnicogen bonding in 2 is electrostatic (n = 0.047) because of a different bonding mechanism.

  17. Shear bond strength of composite to deep dentin after treatment with two different collagen cross-linking agents at varying time intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasulu, S; Vidhya, S; Sujatha, M; Mahalaxmi, S

    2012-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the shear bond strength of composite resin to deep dentin using a total etch adhesive after treatment with two collagen cross-linking agents at varying time intervals. Thirty freshly extracted human maxillary central incisors were sectioned longitudinally into equal mesial and distal halves (n=60). The proximal deep dentin was exposed, maintaining a remaining dentin thickness (RDT) of approximately 1 mm. The specimens were randomly divided into three groups based on the surface treatment of dentin prior to bonding as follows: group I (n=12, control): no prior dentin surface treatment; group II (n=24): dentin surface pretreated with 10% sodium ascorbate; and group III (n=24): dentin surface pretreated with 6.5% proanthocyanidin. Groups II and III were further subdivided into two subgroups of 12 specimens each, based on the pretreatment time of five minutes (subgroup A) and 10 minutes (subgroup B). Shear bond strength of the specimens was tested with a universal testing machine, and the data were statistically analyzed. Significantly higher shear bond strength to deep dentin was observed in teeth treated with 10% sodium ascorbate (group II) and 6.5% proanthocyanidin (group III) compared to the control group (group I). Among the collagen cross-linkers used, specimens treated with proanthocyanidin showed significantly higher shear bond strength values than those treated with sodium ascorbate. No significant difference was observed between the five-minute and 10-minute pretreatment times in groups II and III. It can be concluded that dentin surface pretreatment with both 10% sodium ascorbate and 6.5% proanthocyanidin resulted in significant improvement in bond strength of resin composite to deep dentin.

  18. Linking photochemistry in the gas and solution phase: S-H bond fission in p-methylthiophenol following UV photoexcitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Thomas A A; Zhang, Yuyuan; Ashfold, Michael N R; Bradforth, Stephen E

    2011-01-01

    Gas-phase H (Rydberg) atom photofragment translational spectroscopy and solution-phase femtosecond-pump dispersed-probe transient absorption techniques are applied to explore the excited state dynamics of p-methylthiophenol connecting the short time reactive dynamics in the two phases. The molecule is excited at a range of UV wavelengths from 286 to 193 nm. The experiments clearly demonstrate that photoexcitation results in S-H bond fission--both in the gas phase and in ethanol solution-and that the resulting p-methythiophenoxyl radical fragments are formed with significant vibrational excitation. In the gas phase, the recoil anisotropy of the H atom and the vibrational energy disposal in the p-MePhS radical products formed at the longer excitation wavelengths reveal the operation of two excited state dissociation mechanisms. The prompt excited state dissociation motif appears to map into the condensed phase also. In both phases, radicals are produced in both their ground and first excited electronic states; characteristic signatures for both sets of radical products are already apparent in the condensed phase studies after 50 fs. No evidence is seen for either solute ionisation or proton coupled electron transfer--two alternate mechanisms that have been proposed for similar heteroaromatics in solution. Therefore, at least for prompt S-H bond fissions, the direct observation of the dissociation process in solution confirms that the gas phase photofragmentation studies indeed provide important insights into the early time dynamics that transfer to the condensed phase.

  19. Thermoreversible cross-linking of maleated ethylene/propylene copolymers using hydrogen-bonding and ionic interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, C.; Mee, van der M.A.J.; Goossens, J.G.P.; Duin, van M.

    2006-01-01

    Maleated ethylene/propylene copolymers (MAn-g-EPM) were thermoreversibly cross-linked via a reaction with primary alkylamines of different length, either with an equimolar amount to obtain the amideacid or with an excess to obtain the amide-salt, which was confirmed using Fourier transform infrared

  20. Engineered disulfide bonds restore chaperone-like function of DJ-1 mutants linked to familial Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Todd; Clark, Lindsay; Ray, Soumya S

    2010-07-13

    Loss-of-function mutations such as L166P, A104T, and M26I in the DJ-1 gene (PARK7) have been linked to autosomal-recessive early onset Parkinson's disease (PD). Cellular and structural studies of the familial mutants suggest that these mutations may destabilize the dimeric structure. To look for common dynamical signatures among the DJ-1 mutants, short MD simulations of up to 1000 ps were conducted to identify the weakest region of the protein (residues 38-70). In an attempt to stabilize the protein, we mutated residue Val 51 to cysteine (V51C) to make a symmetry-related disulfide bridge with the preexisting Cys 53 on the opposite subunit. We found that the introduction of this disulfide linkage stabilized the mutants A104T and M26I against thermal denaturation, improved their ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS), and restored a chaperone-like function of blocking alpha-synuclein aggregation. The L166P mutant was far too unstable to be rescued by introduction of the V51C mutation. The results presented here point to the possible development of pharmacological chaperones, which may eventually lead to PD therapeutics.

  1. Strengthening injectable thermo-sensitive NIPAAm-g-chitosan hydrogels using chemical cross-linking of disulfide bonds as scaffolds for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu-Wei; Liu, Xifeng; Miller, A Lee; Cheng, Yu-Shiuan; Yeh, Ming-Long; Lu, Lichun

    2018-07-15

    In the present study, we fabricated non-toxic, injectable, and thermo-sensitive NIPAAm-g-chitosan (NC) hydrogels with thiol modification for introduction of disulfide cross-linking strategy. Previously, NIPAAm and chitosan copolymer has been proven to have excellent biocompatibility, biodegradability and rapid phase transition after injection, suitable to serve as cell carriers or implanted scaffolds. However, weak mechanical properties significantly limit their potential for biomedical fields. In order to overcome this issue, we incorporated thiol side chains into chitosan by covalently conjugating N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) with carbodiimide chemistry to strengthen mechanical properties. After oxidation of thiols into disulfide bonds, modified NC hydrogels did improve the compressive modulus over 9 folds (11.4 kPa). Oscillatory frequency sweep showed a positive correlation between storage modulus and cross-liking density as well. Additionally, there was no cytotoxicity observed to mesenchymal stem cells, fibroblasts and osteoblasts. We suggested that the thiol-modified thermo-sensitive polysaccharide hydrogels are promising to be a cell-laden biomaterial for tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Linking bonding and bridging ownership social capital in private firms : Moderating effects of ownership-management overlap and family firm identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhlaner, L.M.; Matser, I.; Flören, R.H.; Berent-Braun, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between bonding and bridging ownership social capital (OSC) for a random sample of 679 privately held small and medium-sized firms. Results confirm the positive effects of bonding OSC (quality of relationships and shared vision) on bridging OSC (network

  3. Linking bonding and bridging ownership social capital in private firms : moderating effects of ownership-management overlap and family firm identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorraine M. Uhlaner; Marta M. Berent-Braun; Ilse A. Matser; Roberto H. Flören

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between bonding and bridging ownership social capital (OSC) for a random sample of 679 privately held small and medium-sized firms. Results confirm the positive effects of bonding OSC (quality of relationships and shared vision) on bridging OSC (network

  4. A WIDE DISTRIBUTION OF A NEW VRN-B1c ALLELE OF WHEAT TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. IN RUSSIA, UKRAINE AND ADJACENT REGIONS: A LINK WITH THE HEADING TIME AND ADAPTIVE POTENTIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shcherban A.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The adaptation of common wheat (T. aestivum L. to diverse environmental conditions is greatly under the control of genes involved in determination of vernalization response (Vrn-1 genes. It was found that the variation in common wheat heading time is affected not only by combination of Vrn-1 homoeoalleles but also by multiple alleles at a separate Vrn-1 locus. Previously, we described the Vrn-B1c allele from T.aestivum cv. 'Saratovskaya 29' and found significant differences in the structure of the first (1st intron of this allele when compared to another highly abundant Vrn-B1a allele, specifically, the deletion of 0.8 kb coupled with the duplication of 0.4 kb. We suggested that the changes in the intron 1 of Vrn-B1c allele caused earlier ear emergence in the near-isogenic line and cultivars, carrying this allele. In this study we investigate the distribution of the Vrn-B1c allele in a wide set of spring wheat cultivars from Russia, Ukraine and adjacent regions. The analysis revealed that 40% of Russian and 53% of Ukranian spring wheat cultivars contain the Vrn-B1c allele. The high distribution of the Vrn-B1c allele can be explained by a frequent using of 'Saratovskaya 29' in the breeding process inside the studied area. From the other hand, the predominance of the Vrn-B1c allele among cultivars cultivated in West Siberia and Kazakhstan may be due to the selective advantage of this allele for the region where there is a high risk of early fall frosts.

  5. Direct Bonded Pontic (Laporan Kasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhandi Sidjaja

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Advanced science and technology in dentistry enable dental practitioners to modified she bonding techniques in tooth replacement. A pontic made of composite resin bonded to etched enamel of the adjacent teeth can be used in the replacement of one missing anterior tooth with a virgin or sowed adpicent tooth. The advantages of this technique include a one visit treatment, cow cost, good esthetics, less side effects and easy repair or rebounding. Clinical evaluation showed a high success rate therefore with a proper diagnosis and a perfect skill of the direct bonded technique this treatment can be used as an alternative restoration.

  6. Bond Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Rachel H.

    2000-01-01

    Notes trends toward increased borrowing by colleges and universities and offers guidelines for institutions that are considering issuing bonds to raise money for capital projects. Discussion covers advantages of using bond financing, how use of bonds impacts on traditional fund raising, other cautions and concerns, and some troubling aspects of…

  7. Bond markets in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibin Mu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available African bond markets have been steadily growing in recent years, but nonetheless remain undeveloped. African countries would benefit from greater access to financing and deeper financial markets. This paper compiles a unique set of data on government securities and corporate bond markets in Africa. It then applies an econometric model to analyze the key determinants of African government securities market and corporate bond market capitalization. Government securities market capitalization is directly related to better institutions and interest rate volatility, and inversely related to smaller fiscal deficits, higher interest rate spreads, exchange rate volatility, and current and capital account openness. Corporate bond market capitalization is directly linked to economic size, the level of development of the economy and financial markets, better institutions, and interest rate volatility, and inversely related to higher interest rate spreads and current account openness. Policy implications follow.

  8. Parental Bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Paul de Cock

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the early parent–child bonding relationship can be valuable in research and practice. Retrospective dimensional measures of parental bonding provide a means for assessing the experience of the early parent–child relationship. However, combinations of dimensional scores may provide information that is not readily captured with a dimensional approach. This study was designed to assess the presence of homogeneous groups in the population with similar profiles on parental bonding dimensions. Using a short version of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI, three parental bonding dimensions (care, authoritarianism, and overprotection were used to assess the presence of unobserved groups in the population using latent profile analysis. The class solutions were regressed on 23 covariates (demographics, parental psychopathology, loss events, and childhood contextual factors to assess the validity of the class solution. The results indicated four distinct profiles of parental bonding for fathers as well as mothers. Parental bonding profiles were significantly associated with a broad range of covariates. This person-centered approach to parental bonding has broad utility in future research which takes into account the effect of parent–child bonding, especially with regard to “affectionless control” style parenting.

  9. DISCOVERY OF SiCSi IN IRC+10216: A MISSING LINK BETWEEN GAS AND DUST CARRIERS OF Si–C BONDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cernicharo, J.; Agúndez, M.; Prieto, L. Velilla; Quintana-Lacaci, G. [Group of Molecular Astrophysics, ICMM, CSIC, C/Sor Juana Inés de La Cruz N3, E-28049, Madrid (Spain); McCarthy, M. C.; Gottlieb, C. A.; Drumel, M. A. Martin-; Patel, N. A.; Reilly, N. J.; Young, K. H. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138, and School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Baraban, J. H. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Changala, P. B. [JILA, National Institute of Standards and Technology and University of Colorado, and Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Guélin, M. [Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique, 300 rue de la Piscine, F-38406 St-Martin d’Hères (France); Kahane, C. [Universit Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Stanton, J. F. [Institute for Theoretical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Thorwirth, S. [I. Physikalisches Institut, Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Str. 77, D-50937 Köln (Germany)

    2015-06-10

    We report the discovery in space of a disilicon species, SiCSi, from observations between 80 and 350 GHz with the IRAM 30 m radio telescope. Owing to the close coordination between laboratory experiments and astrophysics, 112 lines have now been detected in the carbon-rich star CW Leo. The derived frequencies yield improved rotational and centrifugal distortion constants up to sixth order. From the line profiles and interferometric maps with the Submillimeter Array, the bulk of the SiCSi emission arises from a region of 6″ in radius. The derived abundance is comparable to that of SiC{sub 2}. As expected from chemical equilibrium calculations, SiCSi and SiC{sub 2} are the most abundant species harboring a Si−C bond in the dust formation zone and certainly both play a key role in the formation of SiC dust grains.

  10. A Disulfide Bond-forming Machine Is Linked to the Sortase-mediated Pilus Assembly Pathway in the Gram-positive Bacterium Actinomyces oris*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon-Robinson, Melissa E.; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Chang, Chungyu; Wu, Chenggang; Jooya, Neda; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Das, Asis; Ton-That, Hung

    2015-01-01

    Export of cell surface pilins in Gram-positive bacteria likely occurs by the translocation of unfolded precursor polypeptides; however, how the unfolded pilins gain their native conformation is presently unknown. Here, we present physiological studies to demonstrate that the FimA pilin of Actinomyces oris contains two disulfide bonds. Alanine substitution of cysteine residues forming the C-terminal disulfide bridge abrogates pilus assembly, in turn eliminating biofilm formation and polymicrobial interaction. Transposon mutagenesis of A. oris yielded a mutant defective in adherence to Streptococcus oralis, and revealed the essential role of a vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) gene in pilus assembly. Targeted deletion of vkor results in the same defects, which are rescued by ectopic expression of VKOR, but not a mutant containing an alanine substitution in its conserved CXXC motif. Depletion of mdbA, which encodes a membrane-bound thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase, abrogates pilus assembly and alters cell morphology. Remarkably, overexpression of MdbA or a counterpart from Corynebacterium diphtheriae, rescues the Δvkor mutant. By alkylation assays, we demonstrate that VKOR is required for MdbA reoxidation. Furthermore, crystallographic studies reveal that A. oris MdbA harbors a thioredoxin-like fold with the conserved CXXC active site. Consistently, each MdbA enzyme catalyzes proper disulfide bond formation within FimA in vitro that requires the catalytic CXXC motif. Because the majority of signal peptide-containing proteins encoded by A. oris possess multiple Cys residues, we propose that MdbA and VKOR constitute a major folding machine for the secretome of this organism. This oxidative protein folding pathway may be a common feature in Actinobacteria. PMID:26170452

  11. A Disulfide Bond-forming Machine Is Linked to the Sortase-mediated Pilus Assembly Pathway in the Gram-positive Bacterium Actinomyces oris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon-Robinson, Melissa E; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Chang, Chungyu; Wu, Chenggang; Jooya, Neda; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Das, Asis; Ton-That, Hung

    2015-08-28

    Export of cell surface pilins in Gram-positive bacteria likely occurs by the translocation of unfolded precursor polypeptides; however, how the unfolded pilins gain their native conformation is presently unknown. Here, we present physiological studies to demonstrate that the FimA pilin of Actinomyces oris contains two disulfide bonds. Alanine substitution of cysteine residues forming the C-terminal disulfide bridge abrogates pilus assembly, in turn eliminating biofilm formation and polymicrobial interaction. Transposon mutagenesis of A. oris yielded a mutant defective in adherence to Streptococcus oralis, and revealed the essential role of a vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) gene in pilus assembly. Targeted deletion of vkor results in the same defects, which are rescued by ectopic expression of VKOR, but not a mutant containing an alanine substitution in its conserved CXXC motif. Depletion of mdbA, which encodes a membrane-bound thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase, abrogates pilus assembly and alters cell morphology. Remarkably, overexpression of MdbA or a counterpart from Corynebacterium diphtheriae, rescues the Δvkor mutant. By alkylation assays, we demonstrate that VKOR is required for MdbA reoxidation. Furthermore, crystallographic studies reveal that A. oris MdbA harbors a thioredoxin-like fold with the conserved CXXC active site. Consistently, each MdbA enzyme catalyzes proper disulfide bond formation within FimA in vitro that requires the catalytic CXXC motif. Because the majority of signal peptide-containing proteins encoded by A. oris possess multiple Cys residues, we propose that MdbA and VKOR constitute a major folding machine for the secretome of this organism. This oxidative protein folding pathway may be a common feature in Actinobacteria. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of a novel double cross-linked hydrogel based on Diels-Alder click reaction and coordination bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shubin; Wang, Lu; Yu, Xuemei; Wang, Chengli; Wang, Zhenyu

    2018-01-01

    Hydrogels, promising biological materials, need to have both strong mechanical properties and also inherent self-healing properties. In this work a double cross-linked network (DN) hydrogel was designed and prepared by combining a Diels-Alder click reaction and coordination effects. This DN hydrogel had good thermodynamic properties, anti-EDTA performance and self-healing properties. In addition, the mechanical properties, swelling properties and surface morphology of DN hydrogels can be controlled by adjusting the ratio of Fe 3+ -catechol. The adjustment of pH value can change the color, crosslinking mode and mechanical properties of the DN hydrogel. This smart hydrogel created from DA click chemistry and coordination effects has significance for guiding the design of new hydrogels with good mechanical properties, self-healing properties and controlled cross-link density. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. UV Photofragmentation Dynamics of Protonated Cystine: Disulfide Bond Rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soorkia, Satchin; Dehon, Christophe; Kumar, S Sunil; Pedrazzani, Mélanie; Frantzen, Emilie; Lucas, Bruno; Barat, Michel; Fayeton, Jacqueline A; Jouvet, Christophe

    2014-04-03

    Disulfide bonds (S-S) play a central role in stabilizing the native structure of proteins against denaturation. Experimentally, identification of these linkages in peptide and protein structure characterization remains challenging. UV photodissociation (UVPD) can be a valuable tool in identifying disulfide linkages. Here, the S-S bond acts as a UV chromophore and absorption of one UV photon corresponds to a σ-σ* transition. We have investigated the photodissociation dynamics of protonated cystine, which is a dimer of two cysteines linked by a disulfide bridge, at 263 nm (4.7 eV) using a multicoincidence technique in which fragments coming from the same fragmentation event are detected. Two types of bond cleavages are observed corresponding to the disulfide (S-S) and adjacent C-S bond ruptures. We show that the S-S cleavage leads to three different fragment ions via three different fragmentation mechanisms. The UVPD results are compared to collision-induced dissociation (CID) and electron-induced dissociation (EID) studies.

  14. PH-Sensitive Nanogels Synthesised by Radiation-Induced Cross-Linking of Hydrogen-Bonded Interpolymer Complexes in Aqueous Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulanski, P.; Kadłubowski, S.; Henke, A.; Olejnik, A.K.; Rokita, B.; Wach, R.; Rosiak, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Nanogels, i.e., internally cross-linked hydrophilic polymeric particles of sub-micron sizes, gained much interest over the last years due to their possible application as components of advanced type of medicines, like drug carriers. It is expected that they can facilitate distribution and delivery of different types of biologically active substances (including proteins, peptides and oligonucleotides) in a controlled way within the human body. Nanogels and their bigger analogues – microgels, are mainly synthesised through free-radical cross-linking polymerization of monomers. This synthetic routine can be carried out in solution but more often emulsion techniques are preferred (mini- or microemulsion) due to easier size control and exclusion of the macrogelation process. Additionally, surfactant-free emulsion polymerization (SFEP) is the method of choice for the preparation of temperature-sensitive particles, mainly based on poly(N-isopropylacrylamide).Nanogels were also successfully prepared by intramolecular cross-linking of single macromolecules. More recently, covalent stabilization was utilized to obtain the self-assembled structures like micelles of amphiphilic block copolymers, held by relatively weak physical interactions. Due to low stability of these polymolecular systems against dilution or temperature changes, different chemistry-based strategies to turn them into permanent nanopaticles were proposed in the literature (e.g., independent stabilization of a core or a shell of the micelles)

  15. PH-Sensitive Nanogels Synthesised by Radiation-Induced Cross-Linking of Hydrogen-Bonded Interpolymer Complexes in Aqueous Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulanski, P.; Kadłubowski, S.; Henke, A.; Olejnik, A. K.; Rokita, B.; Wach, R.; Rosiak, J.M., E-mail: slawekka@mitr.p.lodz.pl [Technical University of Lodz, Wroblewskiego 15, 93-590 Lodz (Poland)

    2010-07-01

    Nanogels, i.e., internally cross-linked hydrophilic polymeric particles of sub-micron sizes, gained much interest over the last years due to their possible application as components of advanced type of medicines, like drug carriers. It is expected that they can facilitate distribution and delivery of different types of biologically active substances (including proteins, peptides and oligonucleotides) in a controlled way within the human body. Nanogels and their bigger analogues – microgels, are mainly synthesised through free-radical cross-linking polymerization of monomers. This synthetic routine can be carried out in solution but more often emulsion techniques are preferred (mini- or microemulsion) due to easier size control and exclusion of the macrogelation process. Additionally, surfactant-free emulsion polymerization (SFEP) is the method of choice for the preparation of temperature-sensitive particles, mainly based on poly(N-isopropylacrylamide).Nanogels were also successfully prepared by intramolecular cross-linking of single macromolecules. More recently, covalent stabilization was utilized to obtain the self-assembled structures like micelles of amphiphilic block copolymers, held by relatively weak physical interactions. Due to low stability of these polymolecular systems against dilution or temperature changes, different chemistry-based strategies to turn them into permanent nanopaticles were proposed in the literature (e.g., independent stabilization of a core or a shell of the micelles)

  16. Dynamic behavior of dual cross-linked nanoparticle networks under oscillatory shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, Balaji V S; Yashin, Victor V; Balazs, Anna C

    2014-01-01

    Via computer simulations, we investigate the linear and nonlinear viscoelastic response of polymer grafted nanoparticle networks subject to oscillatory shear at different amplitudes and frequencies. The individual nanoparticles are composed of a rigid spherical core and a corona of grafted polymers that encompass reactive end groups. With the overlap of the coronas on adjacent particles, the reactive end groups form permanent or labile bonds, and thus form a ‘dual cross-linked’ network. The existing labile bonds between particles can break and reform depending on the bond rupture rate, extent of deformation and the frequency of oscillation. We study how the viscoelastic behavior of the material depends on the energy of the labile bonds and identify the network characteristics that give rise to the observed viscoelastic response. We observe that with an increase in labile bond energy, the storage modulus increases while the loss modulus shows a more complex response depending on the labile bond energy. Specifically, in the case of the samples with the weaker labile bonds, the loss modulus increases monotonically, while for the samples with the stronger labile bonds, the loss modulus exhibits a minimum with an increase in frequency. We show that an increase in the storage modulus corresponds to an enhancement in the average number of bonds in the samples and the characteristics of the loss modulus depend on both the bond kinetics and the mobility of the particles in the network. Furthermore, we determine that the effective contribution of the bonds to the storage modulus decreases with increase in strain amplitude. In particular, while bond formation at small amplitude drives an increase in storage modulus, at large amplitudes it promotes clustering and formation of voids leading to strain softening. Our simulations provide a mesoscopic picture of how the nature of labile bonds affects the performance of cross-linked polymer-grafted nanoparticle networks. (paper)

  17. Skew-adjacency matrices of graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavers, M.; Cioaba, S.M.; Fallat, S.; Gregory, D.A.; Haemers, W.H.; Kirkland, S.J.; McDonald, J.J.; Tsatsomeros, M.

    2012-01-01

    The spectra of the skew-adjacency matrices of a graph are considered as a possible way to distinguish adjacency cospectral graphs. This leads to the following topics: graphs whose skew-adjacency matrices are all cospectral; relations between the matchings polynomial of a graph and the characteristic

  18. Electrochemical, spectroscopic, and DFT study of C60(CF3)n frontier orbitals (n = 2-18): the link between double bonds in pentagons and reduction potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Alexey A; Kareev, Ivan E; Shustova, Natalia B; Stukalin, Evgeny B; Lebedkin, Sergey F; Seppelt, Konrad; Strauss, Steven H; Boltalina, Olga V; Dunsch, Lothar

    2007-09-19

    The frontier orbitals of 22 isolated and characterized C(60)(CF(3))(n) derivatives, including seven reported here for the first time, have been investigated by electronic spectroscopy (n = 2 [1], 4 [1], 6 [2], 8 [5], 10 [6], 12 [3]; the number of isomers for each composition is shown in square brackets) fluorescence spectroscopy (n = 10 [4]), cyclic voltammetry under air-free conditions (all compounds with n mV s(-1) up to 5.0 V s(-1), respectively. The 18 experimental 0/- E(1/2) values (vs C(60)(0/-)) are a linear function of the DFT-predicted LUMO energies (average E1/2 deviation from the least-squares line is 0.02 V). This linear relationship was used to predict the 0/- E(1/2) values for the n = 16 and 18 derivatives, and none of the predicted values is more positive than the 0/- E(1/2) value for one of the isomers of C(60)(CF(3))(10). In general, reduction potentials for the 0/- couple are shifted anodically relative to the C(60)(0/-) couple. However, the 0/- E(1/2) values for a given composition are strongly dependent on the addition pattern of the CF3 groups. In addition, LUMO energies for isomers of C(60)(X)(n) (n = 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12) that are structurally related to many of the CF(3) derivatives were calculated and compared for X = CH(3), H, Ph, NH(2), CH(2)F, CHF(2), F, NO(2), and CN. The experimental and computational results for the C(60)(CF(3))(n) compounds and the computational results for more than 50 additional C(60)(X)(n) compounds provide new insights about the frontier orbitals of C(60)(X)(n) derivatives. For a given substituent, X, the addition pattern is as important, if not more important in many cases, than the number of substituents, n, in determining E(1/2) values. Those addition patterns with double bonds in pentagons having two C(sp(2)) nearest neighbors result in the strongest electron acceptors.

  19. Hybrid Cat Bonds

    OpenAIRE

    Barrieu, Pauline; Louberge, Henri

    2009-01-01

    Natural catastrophes attract regularly the attention of media and have become a source of public concern. From a financial viewpoint, natural catastrophes represent idiosyncratic risks, diversifiable at the world level. But for reasons analyzed in this paper reinsurance markets are unable to cope with this risk completely. Insurance-linked securities, such as cat bonds, have been issued to complete the international risk transfer process, but their development is disappointing so far. This pa...

  20. Bonds Boom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Cathryn

    1989-01-01

    The combined effect of the "Serrano" decision and Proposition 13 left California school districts with aging, overcrowded facilities. Chico schools won a $18.5 million general obligation bond election for facilities construction. With $11 billion needed for new school construction, California will need to tap local sources. A sidebar…

  1. Track with overlapping links for dry coal extrusion pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Timothy; Brady, John D

    2014-01-21

    A chain for a particulate material extrusion pump includes a plurality of links, each of the plurality of links having a link body and a link ledge, wherein each link ledge of the plurality of links at least partially overlaps the link body of an adjacent one of the plurality of links.

  2. Diffusion bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for joining beryllium to beryllium by diffusion bonding. At least one surface portion of at least two beryllium pieces is coated with nickel. A coated surface portion is positioned in a contiguous relationship with another surface portion and subjected to an environment having an atmosphere at a pressure lower than ambient pressure. A force is applied on the beryllium pieces for causing the contiguous surface portions to abut against each other. The contiguous surface portions are heated to a maximum temperature less than the melting temperature of the beryllium, and the applied force is decreased while increasing the temperature after attaining a temperature substantially above room temperature. A portion of the applied force is maintained at a temperature corresponding to about maximum temperature for a duration sufficient to effect the diffusion bond between the contiguous surface portions

  3. Bond yield curve construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kožul Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the broadest sense, yield curve indicates the market's view of the evolution of interest rates over time. However, given that cost of borrowing it closely linked to creditworthiness (ability to repay, different yield curves will apply to different currencies, market sectors, or even individual issuers. As government borrowing is indicative of interest rate levels available to other market players in a particular country, and considering that bond issuance still remains the dominant form of sovereign debt, this paper describes yield curve construction using bonds. The relationship between zero-coupon yield, par yield and yield to maturity is given and their usage in determining curve discount factors is described. Their usage in deriving forward rates and pricing related derivative instruments is also discussed.

  4. Steroids linked with amide bond - extended cholesterol

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Černý, Ivan; Buděšínský, Miloš; Pouzar, Vladimír; Drašar, P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 1 (2009), s. 88-94 ISSN 0039-128X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06077; GA AV ČR KAN200200651 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : synthesis * oligomers * amides Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.905, year: 2009

  5. Bond strength of masonry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluijm, van der R.; Vermeltfoort, A.Th.

    1992-01-01

    Bond strength is not a well defined property of masonry. Normally three types of bond strength can be distinguished: - tensile bond strength, - shear (and torsional) bond strength, - flexural bond strength. In this contribution the behaviour and strength of masonry in deformation controlled uniaxial

  6. Understanding Bonds - Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rimmer, Nina Røhr

    2016-01-01

    Undervisningsmateriale. A bond is a debt security, similar to an ”I Owe You document” (IOU). When you purchase a bond, you are lending money to a government, municipality, corporation, federal agency or other entity known as the issuer. In return for the loan, the issuer promises to pay you...... a specified rate of interest during the life of the bond and to repay the face value of the bond (the principal) when it “matures,” or comes due. Among the types of bonds you can choose from are: Government securities, municipal bonds, corporate bonds, mortgage and asset-backed securities, federal agency...... securities and foreign government bonds....

  7. Wire bonding in microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Harman, George G

    2010-01-01

    Wire Bonding in Microelectronics, Third Edition, has been thoroughly revised to help you meet the challenges of today's small-scale and fine-pitch microelectronics. This authoritative guide covers every aspect of designing, manufacturing, and evaluating wire bonds engineered with cutting-edge techniques. In addition to gaining a full grasp of bonding technology, you'll learn how to create reliable bonds at exceedingly high yields, test wire bonds, solve common bonding problems, implement molecular cleaning methods, and much more. Coverage includes: Ultrasonic bonding systems and technologies, including high-frequency systems Bonding wire metallurgy and characteristics, including copper wire Wire bond testing Gold-aluminum intermetallic compounds and other interface reactions Gold and nickel-based bond pad plating materials and problems Cleaning to improve bondability and reliability Mechanical problems in wire bonding High-yield, fine-pitch, specialized-looping, soft-substrate, and extreme-temperature wire bo...

  8. Time-constrained project scheduling with adjacent resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurink, Johann L.; Kok, A.L.; Paulus, J.J.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    We develop a decomposition method for the Time-Constrained Project Scheduling Problem (TCPSP) with adjacent resources. For adjacent resources the resource units are ordered and the units assigned to a job have to be adjacent. On top of that, adjacent resources are not required by single jobs, but by

  9. Time-constrained project scheduling with adjacent resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurink, Johann L.; Kok, A.L.; Paulus, J.J.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    2008-01-01

    We develop a decomposition method for the Time-Constrained Project Scheduling Problem (TCPSP) with Adjacent Resources. For adjacent resources the resource units are ordered and the units assigned to a job have to be adjacent. On top of that, adjacent resources are not required by single jobs, but by

  10. Effect of nanoscale surface roughness on the bonding energy of direct-bonded silicon wafers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, N.; Spearing, S. M.

    2003-11-01

    Direct wafer bonding of silicon wafers is a promising technology for manufacturing three-dimensional complex microelectromechanical systems as well as silicon-on-insulator substrates. Previous work has reported that the bond quality declines with increasing surface roughness, however, this relationship has not been quantified. This article explicitly correlates the bond quality, which is quantified by the apparent bonding energy, and the surface morphology via the bearing ratio, which describes the area of surface lying above a given depth. The apparent bonding energy is considered to be proportional to the real area of contact. The effective area of contact is defined as the area sufficiently close to contribute to the attractive force between the two bonding wafers. Experiments were conducted with silicon wafers whose surfaces were roughened by a buffered oxide etch solution (BOE, HF:NH4F=1:7) and/or a potassium hydroxide solution. The surface roughness was measured by atomic force microscopy. The wafers were direct bonded to polished "monitor" wafers following a standard RCA cleaning and the resulting bonding energy was measured by the crack-opening method. The experimental results revealed a clear correlation between the bonding energy and the bearing ratio. A bearing depth of ˜1.4 nm was found to be appropriate for the characterization of direct-bonded silicon at room temperature, which is consistent with the thickness of the water layer at the interface responsible for the hydrogen bonds that link the mating wafers.

  11. Spondylolisthesis adjacent to a cervical disc arthroplasty does not increase the risk of adjacent level degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieser, David Christopher; Cawley, Derek Thomas; Roscop, Cecile; Mazas, Simon; Coudert, Pierre; Boissiere, Louis; Obeid, Ibrahim; Vital, Jean-Marc; Pointillart, Vincent; Gille, Olivier

    2018-03-31

    To understand whether a spondylolisthesis in the sub-axial spine cranial to a cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) construes a risk of adjacent level disease (ALD). A retrospective review of 164 patients with a minimum 5-year follow-up of a cervical disc arthroplasty was performed. Multi-level surgeries, including hybrid procedures, were included. Multiple implant types were included. The two inter-vertebral discs (IVD) cranial of the CDA were monitored for evidence of radiologic degeneration using the Kettler criteria. The rate of ALD in CDA found in this series was 17.8%, with most affecting the immediately adjacent IVD (27.4 and 7.6%, respectively p = 0.000). Pre-operative mild spondylolisthesis adjacent to a planned CDA was not found to be a risk factor for ALD within 5 years. Those with a degenerative spondylolisthesis are at higher risk of ALD (33%) than those with a non-degenerative cause for their spondylolisthesis (11%). Post-operative CDA alignment, ROM or induced spondylolisthesis do not affect the rate of ALD in those with an adjacent spondylolisthesis. Patients with ALD experience significantly worse 5-year pain and functional outcomes than those unaffected by ALD. A pre-operatively identified mild spondylolisthesis in the sub-axial spine cranially adjacent to a planned CDA is not a risk factor for ALD within 5 years. These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.

  12. Bonding with Your Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the future bonding of the child and parent. Adoptive parents may be concerned about bonding with their ... general emotional support. And it's OK to ask family members and friends for help in the days — ...

  13. Australia's Bond Home Bias

    OpenAIRE

    Anil V. Mishra; Umaru B. Conteh

    2014-01-01

    This paper constructs the float adjusted measure of home bias and explores the determinants of bond home bias by employing the International Monetary Fund's high quality dataset (2001 to 2009) on cross-border bond investment. The paper finds that Australian investors' prefer investing in countries with higher economic development and more developed bond markets. Exchange rate volatility appears to be an impediment for cross-border bond investment. Investors prefer investing in countries with ...

  14. DNA sequence responsible for the amplification of adjacent genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasion, S G; Hartigan, J A; Kumar, V; Biswas, D K

    1987-10-01

    A 10.3-kb DNA fragment in the 5'-flanking region of the rat prolactin (rPRL) gene was isolated from F1BGH(1)2C1, a strain of rat pituitary tumor cells (GH cells) that produces prolactin in response to 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). Following transfection and integration into genomic DNA of recipient mouse L cells, this DNA induced amplification of the adjacent thymidine kinase gene from Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1TK). We confirmed the ability of this "Amplicon" sequence to induce amplification of other linked or unlinked genes in DNA-mediated gene transfer studies. When transferred into the mouse L cells with the 10.3-5'rPRL gene sequence of BrdU-responsive cells, both the human growth hormone and the HSV1TK genes are amplified in response to 5-bromodeoxyuridine. This observation is substantiated by BrdU-induced amplification of the cotransferred bacterial Neo gene. Cotransfection studies reveal that the BrdU-induced amplification capability is associated with a 4-kb DNA sequence in the 5'-flanking region of the rPRL gene of BrdU-responsive cells. These results demonstrate that genes of heterologous origin, linked or unlinked, and selected or unselected, can be coamplified when located within the amplification boundary of the Amplicon sequence.

  15. Phenylacetylene and H bond

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... all resembling H bonds. Non-linear H bonds due to secondary interactions. C-H stretching frequency shows blue shift. Heavy atom distances are longer than the sum of van der Waals radii. Formed a task group through IUPAC to come up with a modern definition of H bond. 15 international experts including Desiraju.

  16. Chemical bond fundamental aspects of chemical bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Frenking, Gernot

    2014-01-01

    This is the perfect complement to ""Chemical Bonding - Across the Periodic Table"" by the same editors, who are two of the top scientists working on this topic, each with extensive experience and important connections within the community. The resulting book is a unique overview of the different approaches used for describing a chemical bond, including molecular-orbital based, valence-bond based, ELF, AIM and density-functional based methods. It takes into account the many developments that have taken place in the field over the past few decades due to the rapid advances in quantum chemica

  17. Destination bonding: Hybrid cognition using Instagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arup Kumar Baksi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Empirical research has identified the phenomenon of destination bonding as a result of summated physical and emotional values associated with the destination. Physical values, namely natural landscape & other physical settings and emotional values, namely the enculturation processes, have a significant role to play in portraying visitors’ cognitive framework for destination preference. The physical values seemed to be the stimulator for bonding that embodies action or behavior tendencies in imagery. The emotional values were the conditions that lead to affective bonding and are reflected in attitudes for a place which were evident in text narratives. Social networking on virtual platforms offers the scope for hybrid cognitive expression using imagery and text to the visitors. Instagram has emerged as an application-window to capture these hybrid cognitions of visitors. This study focuses on assessing the relationship between hybrid cognition of visitors expressed via Instagram and their bond with the destination. Further to this, the study attempts to examine the impact of hybrid cognition of visitors on the behavioral pattern of prospective visitors to the destination. The study revealed that sharing of visual imageries and related text by the visitors is an expression of the physico-emotional bonding with the destination. It was further established that hybrid cognition strongly asserts destination bonding and has been also found to have moderating impact on the link between destination bonding and electronic-word-of-mouth.

  18. A slow-forming isopeptide bond in the structure of the major pilin SpaD from Corynebacterium diphtheriae has implications for pilus assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hae Joo; Paterson, Neil G. [University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Kim, Chae Un [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Middleditch, Martin [University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Chang, Chungyu; Ton-That, Hung [University of Texas–Houston Medical School, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Baker, Edward N., E-mail: ted.baker@auckland.ac.nz [University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

    2014-05-01

    Two crystal structures of the major pilin SpaD from C. diphtheriae have been determined at 1.87 and 2.5 Å resolution. The N-terminal domain is found to contain an isopeptide bond that forms slowly over time in the recombinant protein. Given its structural context, this provides insight into the relationship between internal isopeptide-bond formation and pilus assembly. The Gram-positive organism Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the cause of diphtheria in humans, expresses pili on its surface which it uses for adhesion and colonization of its host. These pili are covalent protein polymers composed of three types of pilin subunit that are assembled by specific sortase enzymes. A structural analysis of the major pilin SpaD, which forms the polymeric backbone of one of the three types of pilus expressed by C. diphtheriae, is reported. Mass-spectral and crystallographic analysis shows that SpaD contains three internal Lys–Asn isopeptide bonds. One of these, shown by mass spectrometry to be located in the N-terminal D1 domain of the protein, only forms slowly, implying an energy barrier to bond formation. Two crystal structures, of the full-length three-domain protein at 2.5 Å resolution and of a two-domain (D2-D3) construct at 1.87 Å resolution, show that each of the three Ig-like domains contains a single Lys–Asn isopeptide-bond cross-link, assumed to give mechanical stability as in other such pili. Additional stabilizing features include a disulfide bond in the D3 domain and a calcium-binding loop in D2. The N-terminal D1 domain is more flexible than the others and, by analogy with other major pilins of this type, the slow formation of its isopeptide bond can be attributed to its location adjacent to the lysine used in sortase-mediated polymerization during pilus assembly.

  19. The Valency Theory: The Human Bond From A New Psychoanalytic Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Med Hafsi

    2008-01-01

    The present paper discusses some psychoanalytical conceptions concerning what links people to each other, or the human bond. Psychoanalysis, can be regarded as a science dealing basically with, although not directly, the human bond or link linking the person with his external and internal objects. The fact that this bond is in perpetualtransformation, and therefore can be apprehended from different angles has led to various psychoanalytical conceptions or theories which are more complementary...

  20. BONDING ALUMINUM METALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, R.A.; Walker, D.E.

    1961-06-13

    A process is given for bonding aluminum to aluminum. Silicon powder is applied to at least one of the two surfaces of the two elements to be bonded, the two elements are assembled and rubbed against each other at room temperature whereby any oxide film is ruptured by the silicon crystals in the interface; thereafter heat and pressure are applied whereby an aluminum-silicon alloy is formed, squeezed out from the interface together with any oxide film, and the elements are bonded.

  1. Treasury bond volatility and uncertainty about monetary policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, I.J.M.; Vrugt, E.B.

    2010-01-01

    We show that dispersion-based uncertainty about the future course of monetary policy is the single most important determinant of Treasury bond volatility across all maturities. The link between Treasury bond volatility and uncertainty about macroeconomic variables is much stronger than for the more

  2. Copper wire bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Chauhan, Preeti S; Zhong, ZhaoWei; Pecht, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    This critical volume provides an in-depth presentation of copper wire bonding technologies, processes and equipment, along with the economic benefits and risks.  Due to the increasing cost of materials used to make electronic components, the electronics industry has been rapidly moving from high cost gold to significantly lower cost copper as a wire bonding material.  However, copper wire bonding has several process and reliability concerns due to its material properties.  Copper Wire Bonding book lays out the challenges involved in replacing gold with copper as a wire bond material, and includes the bonding process changes—bond force, electric flame off, current and ultrasonic energy optimization, and bonding tools and equipment changes for first and second bond formation.  In addition, the bond–pad metallurgies and the use of bare and palladium-coated copper wires on aluminum are presented, and gold, nickel and palladium surface finishes are discussed.  The book also discusses best practices and re...

  3. Link failure detection in a parallel computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Megerian, Mark G.; Smith, Brian E.

    2010-11-09

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for link failure detection in a parallel computer including compute nodes connected in a rectangular mesh network, each pair of adjacent compute nodes in the rectangular mesh network connected together using a pair of links, that includes: assigning each compute node to either a first group or a second group such that adjacent compute nodes in the rectangular mesh network are assigned to different groups; sending, by each of the compute nodes assigned to the first group, a first test message to each adjacent compute node assigned to the second group; determining, by each of the compute nodes assigned to the second group, whether the first test message was received from each adjacent compute node assigned to the first group; and notifying a user, by each of the compute nodes assigned to the second group, whether the first test message was received.

  4. Neuromuscular adaptations induced by adjacent joint training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ema, R; Saito, I; Akagi, R

    2018-03-01

    Effects of resistance training are well known to be specific to tasks that are involved during training. However, it remains unclear whether neuromuscular adaptations are induced after adjacent joint training. This study examined the effects of hip flexion training on maximal and explosive knee extension strength and neuromuscular performance of the rectus femoris (RF, hip flexor, and knee extensor) compared with the effects of knee extension training. Thirty-seven untrained young men were randomly assigned to hip flexion training, knee extension training, or a control group. Participants in the training groups completed 4 weeks of isometric hip flexion or knee extension training. Standardized differences in the mean change between the training groups and control group were interpreted as an effect size, and the substantial effect was assumed to be ≥0.20 of the between-participant standard deviation at baseline. Both types of training resulted in substantial increases in maximal (hip flexion training group: 6.2% ± 10.1%, effect size = 0.25; knee extension training group: 20.8% ± 9.9%, effect size = 1.11) and explosive isometric knee extension torques and muscle thickness of the RF in the proximal and distal regions. Improvements in strength were accompanied by substantial enhancements in voluntary activation, which was determined using the twitch interpolation technique and RF activation. Differences in training effects on explosive torques and neural variables between the two training groups were trivial. Our findings indicate that hip flexion training results in substantial neuromuscular adaptations during knee extensions similar to those induced by knee extension training. © 2017 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science In Sports Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Transversely Compressed Bonded Joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Stang, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The load capacity of bonded joints can be increased if transverse pressure is applied at the interface. The transverse pressure is assumed to introduce a Coulomb-friction contribution to the cohesive law for the interface. Response and load capacity for a bonded single-lap joint was derived using...

  6. Corporate Bonds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tell, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Corporate financing is the choice between capital generated by the corporation and capital from external investors. However, since the financial crisis shook the markets in 2007–2008, financing opportunities through the classical means of financing have decreased. As a result, corporations have...... to think in alternative ways such as issuing corporate bonds. A market for corporate bonds exists in countries such as Norway, Germany, France, the United Kingdom and the United States, while Denmark is still behind in this trend. Some large Danish corporations have instead used foreign corporate bonds...... markets. However, NASDAQ OMX has introduced the First North Bond Market in December 2012 and new regulatory framework came into place in 2014, which may contribute to a Danish based corporate bond market. The purpose of this article is to present the regulatory changes in Denmark in relation to corporate...

  7. Antibacterial Activity of Orthodontic Cement Containing Quaternary Ammonium Polyethylenimine Nanoparticles Adjacent to Orthodontic Brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon, Eldad; Sharabi, Revital; Eden, Adi; Zabrovsky, Asher; Ben-Gal, Gilad; Sharon, Esi; Pietrokovski, Yoav; Houri-Haddad, Yael; Beyth, Nurit

    2018-03-27

    Enamel demineralization is a common problem found in patients using orthodontic devices, such as orthodontic braces. It was found that Streptoccocus mutans growth increases adjacent to orthodontic devices, which may result in caries development. Incorporated antibacterial quaternary ammonium polyethylenimine (QPEI) nanoparticles were previously shown to be highly efficacious against various bacteria. Combining antibacterial materials in orthodontic cement may be advantageous to prevent bacterial outgrowth adjacent to orthodontic brackets. The aim was to evaluate the efficiency of orthodontic cement containing QPEI nanoparticles in reducing S. mutans and Lactobacillus casei outgrowth adjacent to orthodontic brackets. Orthodontic brackets were bonded to the buccal surfaces of extracted lower incisors. The antibacterial effect on S. mutans and L. casei outgrowth of Neobond bracket adhesive orthodontic cement with and without QPEI nanoparticles was compared. The antibacterial effect was evaluated using crystal violet staining and bacterial count (CFU/mL). The teeth in the experimental group, with the QPEI nanoparticles cement, showed significantly lower optical density (OD) values and CFU counts of S. mutans and L. casei than the teeth in the control group ( p brackets.

  8. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters. 80.1395 Section 80.1395 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake Union...

  9. Early Verb Constructions in French: Adjacency on the Left Edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneziano, Edy; Clark, Eve V.

    2016-01-01

    Children acquiring French elaborate their early verb constructions by adding adjacent morphemes incrementally at the left edge of core verbs. This hypothesis was tested with 2657 verb uses from four children between 1;3 and 2;7. Consistent with the Adjacency Hypothesis, children added clitic subjects frst only to present tense forms (as in…

  10. Objectifying the Adjacent and Opposite Angles: A Cultural Historical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, Wajeeh; Musallam, Nadera

    2018-01-01

    The angle topic is central to the development of geometric knowledge. Two of the basic concepts associated with this topic are the adjacent and opposite angles. It is the goal of the present study to analyze, based on the cultural historical semiotics framework, how high-achieving seventh grade students objectify the adjacent and opposite angles'…

  11. On Pathos Adjacency Cut Vertex Jump Graph of a Tree

    OpenAIRE

    Nagesh.H.M; R.Chandrasekhar

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the concept of pathos adjacency cut vertex jump graph PJC(T) of a tree T is introduced. We also present a characterization of graphs whose pathos adjacency cut vertex jump graphs are planar, outerplanar, minimally non-outerplanar, Eulerian and Hamiltonian.

  12. A study of roll-bonding MS90 alloy to steel utilizing chromized interlayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolaminejad, B.; Arabi, H.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a study of the application of a roll bonding technique to MS90(CuZn10) alloy strips and steel sheets using a chromized interlayer. It was found that the overall bond between these two metals resulted from two different types of bonds: a block bond, linking the MS90 alloy strips and chromium topcoat layer, and a blank bond, linking the MS90 alloy strips and bare steel surface in the area where the chromium coating has been fragmented. This study investigated the effects of plating time on the thickness of the coating layers and of the area fraction of the blank bond on the bond strength. The overall bond strength depends mainly on the strength and the area fraction of the blank bond. A linear relationship model exists between the overall bond strength and the area fraction of the blank bond. The bond strength of the blank bond was eight times greater than that of the block bond. The area fraction of the blank bond increased with increasing the coating thickness up to 55 μm, but thereafter decreased due to the rotation of the chromium blocks

  13. Loading effects of anterior cervical spine fusion on adjacent segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Shiung Wang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Adjacent segment degeneration typically follows anterior cervical spine fusion. However, the primary cause of adjacent segment degeneration remains unknown. Therefore, in order to identify the loading effects that cause adjacent segment degeneration, this study examined the loading effects to superior segments adjacent to fused bone following anterior cervical spine fusion. The C3–C6 cervical spine segments of 12 sheep were examined. Specimens were divided into the following groups: intact spine (group 1; and C5–C6 segments that were fused via cage-instrumented plate fixation (group 2. Specimens were cycled between 20° flexion and 15° extension with a displacement control of 1°/second. The tested parameters included the range of motion (ROM of each segment, torque and strain on both the body and inferior articular process at the superior segments (C3–C4 adjacent to the fused bone, and the position of the neutral axis of stress at under 20° flexion and 15° extension. Under flexion and Group 2, torque, ROM, and strain on both the bodies and facets of superior segments adjacent to the fused bone were higher than those of Group 1. Under extension and Group 2, ROM for the fused segment was less than that of Group 1; torque, ROM, and stress on both the bodies and facets of superior segments adjacent to the fused bone were higher than those of Group 1. These analytical results indicate that the muscles and ligaments require greater force to achieve cervical motion than the intact spine following anterior cervical spine fusion. In addition, ROM and stress on the bodies and facets of the joint segments adjacent to the fused bone were significantly increased. Under flexion, the neutral axis of the stress on the adjacent segment moved backward, and the stress on the bodies of the segments adjacent to the fused bone increased. These comparative results indicate that increased stress on the adjacent segments is caused by stress-shielding effects

  14. Handbook of wafer bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Ramm, Peter; Taklo, Maaike M V

    2011-01-01

    Written by an author and editor team from microsystems companies and industry-near research organizations, this handbook and reference presents dependable, first-hand information on bonding technologies.In the first part, researchers from companies and institutions around the world discuss the most reliable and reproducible technologies for the production of bonded wafers. The second part is devoted to current and emerging applications, including microresonators, biosensors and precise measuring devices.

  15. Diffusion bonding techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, R.D.

    1978-01-01

    The applications of diffusion bonding at the General Electric Neutron Devices Department are briefly discussed, with particular emphasis on the gold/gold or gold/indium joints made between metallized alumina ceramic parts in the vacuum switch tube and the crystal resonator programs. Fixtures which use the differential expansion of dissimilar metals are described and compared to one that uses hydraulic pressure to apply the necessary bonding force

  16. Operative Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Højlund, Holger

    2012-01-01

    educational goals, learning content, or value clarification. Health pedagogy is often a matter of retrospective rationalization rather than the starting point of planning. Health and risk behaviour approaches override health educational approaches. Conclusions: Operational links between health education......, health professionalism, and management strategies pose the foremost challenge. Operational links indicates cooperative levels that facilitate a creative and innovative effort across traditional professional boundaries. It is proposed that such links are supported by network structures, shared semantics...

  17. Diving behavior of the reef manta ray links coral reefs with adjacent deep pelagic habitats

    KAUST Repository

    Braun, Camrin D.; Skomal, Gregory B.; Thorrold, Simon R.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Recent successful efforts to increase protection for manta rays has highlighted the lack of basic ecological information, including vertical and horizontal movement patterns, available for these species. We deployed pop-up satellite archival

  18. Deriving inflation forecasts from government bond prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kožul Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In financial research and practice, it is widely accepted that nominal interest rates derived from the prices of various financial products of different maturities comprise of corresponding real interest rates and inflation. While extensive research has been conducted on the relationship between these three variables, estimation of their levels is still largely based on the industry surveys and market data. As this information only indicates the current expectations of interest rate and inflation movements over time, a number of caveats should be noted when interpreting such measures. In the US and the UK, where the government bond markets are the largest and most active, a comparative analysis between conventional government bonds and those whose yield is linked to inflation provides a measure of inflation expectations. However, as such analyses implicitly assume that investment in government bonds is virtually risk free, it is questionable whether the derived estimates are of any value in current economic conditions. Moreover, this approach cannot be generalized to other countries, where number of traded products from which any relationship between interest rates and inflation can be determined is limited and different economic conditions prevail. Thus, this paper aims to present an overview of the methodologies used to forecast inflation rates from government bond prices, drawing attention to the key assumptions and limitations of these approaches. The goal is to ascertain their accuracy, and thus their value in determining the real yields of various interest rate-linked products.

  19. Calculation of certain bonds duration on the financial market of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alihodžić Almir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Duration is the main measure of price sensitivity which is used on the bond market. It indicates how much the bond price would change under the impact of change in the market interest rates. There is an inverse link between the bond price and yield through the interest rates. With the rise and fall of interest rates bond holder makes capital gain or loss. The main objective of this work is to determine sensitivity of certain bonds on the financial market of Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH to the change in maturity term, and the importance of bonds as an alternative form of financing.

  20. Development of the Catastrophe Bonds and their correlation with other financial instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Čavojec, Ján

    2009-01-01

    This master thesis discusses the niche of reinsurance business -- catastrophe bonds. It provides a brief description of reinsurance in general, insurance-linked securities and catastrophe bonds. The goal of this thesis is to describe the development of cat bond market and the influence of economic and natural shocks on it. In order to analyze the effect, quarter issuance data are used together with Swiss Re Cat Bonds return indexes. In addition, several other variables (i.e. Munich Re and Swi...

  1. Romanian government bond market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia POP

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to present the level of development reached by Romanian government bond market segment, as part of the country financial market. The analysis will be descriptive (the data series available for Romania are short, based on the secondary data offered by the official bodies involved in the process of issuing and trading the Romanian government bonds (Romanian Ministry of Public Finance, Romanian National Bank and Bucharest Stock Exchange, and also on secondary data provided by the Federation of European Stock Exchanges.To enhance the market credibility as a benchmark, a various combination of measures is necessary; among these measures are mentioned: the extension of the yield curve; the issuance calendars in order to improve transparency; increasing the disclosure of information on public debt issuance and statistics; holding regular meetings with dealers, institutional investors and rating agencies; introducing a system of primary dealers; establishing a repurchase (repo market in the government bond market. These measures will be discussed based on the evolution presented inside the paper.The paper conclude with the fact that, until now, the Romanian government bond market did not provide a benchmark for the domestic financial market and that further efforts are needed in order to increase the government bond market transparency and liquidity.

  2. Interstellar hydrogen bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etim, Emmanuel E.; Gorai, Prasanta; Das, Ankan; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.; Arunan, Elangannan

    2018-06-01

    This paper reports the first extensive study of the existence and effects of interstellar hydrogen bonding. The reactions that occur on the surface of the interstellar dust grains are the dominant processes by which interstellar molecules are formed. Water molecules constitute about 70% of the interstellar ice. These water molecules serve as the platform for hydrogen bonding. High level quantum chemical simulations for the hydrogen bond interaction between 20 interstellar molecules (known and possible) and water are carried out using different ab-intio methods. It is evident that if the formation of these species is mainly governed by the ice phase reactions, there is a direct correlation between the binding energies of these complexes and the gas phase abundances of these interstellar molecules. Interstellar hydrogen bonding may cause lower gas abundance of the complex organic molecules (COMs) at the low temperature. From these results, ketenes whose less stable isomers that are more strongly bonded to the surface of the interstellar dust grains have been observed are proposed as suitable candidates for astronomical observations.

  3. Community conservation adjacent to Ruaha National Park, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue Stolberger

    2007-01-01

    In the areas adjacent to Ruaha National Park where rural communities exist, much more work and education is required to enable them to benefit directly and indirectly from tourism and managing their own natural resources.

  4. Influence of cantilevered sheet pile deflection on adjacent roadways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Cantilevered sheet pile walls are often used adjacent roadways as temporary support during construction. Excess movement of these walls has led to excessive roadway distress causing additional repairs to be necessary. This study assessed the effects ...

  5. Suprabasalt stratigraphy within and adjacent to the reference repository location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjornstad, B.N.

    1983-01-01

    This data-package contains six detailed stratigraphic correlations and structure cross sections of suprabasalt sediments in the area adjacent to and including the Reference Repository Location. 4 refs., 1 fig

  6. Sleeping sickness surveys: game reserve adjacent villages in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sleeping sickness surveys: game reserve adjacent villages in Malawi. ... Sera from 160 game ranger volunteers and from 82 suspected cases_of Rhodesian sleeping sickness were tested by use of ELISA, ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  7. Safe and Liquid Mortgage Bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Jens; Gyntelberg, Jacob; Lund, Jesper

    This paper shows that strict match pass-through funding of covered bonds provides safe and liquid mortgage bonds. Despite a 30% drop in house prices during the 2008 global crisis Danish mortgage bonds remained as liquid as most European government bonds. The Danish pass-through system effectively...... eliminates credit risk from the investor's perspective. Similar to other safe bonds, funding liquidity becomes the main driver of mortgage bond liquidity and this creates commonality in liquidity across markets and countries. These findings have implications for how to design a robust mortgage bond system...

  8. Objectifying the adjacent and opposite angles: a cultural historical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, Wajeeh; Musallam, Nadera

    2018-02-01

    The angle topic is central to the development of geometric knowledge. Two of the basic concepts associated with this topic are the adjacent and opposite angles. It is the goal of the present study to analyze, based on the cultural historical semiotics framework, how high-achieving seventh grade students objectify the adjacent and opposite angles' concepts. We videoed the learning of a group of three high-achieving students who used technology, specifically GeoGebra, to explore geometric relations related to the adjacent and opposite angles' concepts. To analyze students' objectification of these concepts, we used the categories of objectification of knowledge (attention and awareness) and the categories of generalization (factual, contextual and symbolic), developed by Radford. The research results indicate that teacher's and students' verbal and visual signs, together with the software dynamic tools, mediated the students' objectification of the adjacent and opposite angles' concepts. Specifically, eye and gestures perceiving were part of the semiosis cycles in which the participating students were engaged and which related to the mathematical signs that signified the adjacent and the opposite angles. Moreover, the teacher's suggestions/requests/questions included/suggested semiotic signs/tools, including verbal signs that helped the students pay attention, be aware of and objectify the adjacent and opposite angles' concepts.

  9. Hydrogen bonded supramolecular materials

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhan-Ting

    2015-01-01

    This book is an up-to-date text covering topics in utilizing hydrogen bonding for constructing functional architectures and supramolecular materials. The first chapter addresses the control of photo-induced electron and energy transfer. The second chapter summarizes the formation of nano-porous materials. The following two chapters introduce self-assembled gels, many of which exhibit unique functions. Other chapters cover the advances in supramolecular liquid crystals and the versatility of hydrogen bonding in tuning/improving the properties and performance of materials. This book is designed

  10. Continuing bonds and place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Annika; Walter, Tony

    2017-08-01

    Where do people feel closest to those they have lost? This article explores how continuing bonds with a deceased person can be rooted in a particular place or places. Some conceptual resources are sketched, namely continuing bonds, place attachment, ancestral places, home, reminder theory, and loss of place. The authors use these concepts to analyze interview material with seven Swedes and five Britons who often thought warmly of the deceased as residing in a particular place and often performing characteristic actions. The destruction of such a place, by contrast, could create a troubling, haunting absence, complicating the deceased's absent-presence.

  11. The Volpe Center GPS Adjacent Band Compatibility Program Plan : GPS Adjacent Band Compatibility Workshop, Volpe Center, Cambridge MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-18

    Approach to DOT GPS Adjacent Band Compatibility Assessment. Identify forums and provide public outreach to make sure the progress and work are as open and transparent as possible. Develop an implementation plan that incorporates aspects from the DOT ...

  12. Native lignin for bonding fiber boards - evaluation of bonding mechanisms in boards made from laccase-treated fibers of beech (Fagus sylvatica)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felby, Claus; Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht; Sanadi, Anand

    2004-01-01

    indicate that lignin extractives are precipitated on the fiber surfaces. The improved bonding may be related to several factors, linked to a more lignin rich fiber surface, such as surface molecular entanglements and covalent bonding between fibers through cross-linking of radicals. (C) 2004 Published......The auto-adhesion of beech wood (Fagus sylvatica) fibers can be enhanced by a pretreatment of the fibers with a phenol oxidase enzyme. The mechanism of enzymatic catalyzed bonding is linked to the generation of stable radicals in lignin by oxidation. Fiberboards made from laccase-treated fibers...

  13. Circuit and bond polytopes on series–parallel graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Borne , Sylvie; Fouilhoux , Pierre; Grappe , Roland; Lacroix , Mathieu; Pesneau , Pierre

    2015-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we describe the circuit polytope on series–parallel graphs. We first show the existence of a compact extended formulation. Though not being explicit, its construction process helps us to inductively provide the description in the original space. As a consequence, using the link between bonds and circuits in planar graphs, we also describe the bond polytope on series–parallel graphs.

  14. Integration of European Bond Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    I investigate the time variation in the integration of EU government bond markets. The integration is measured by the explanatory power of European factor portfolios for the individual bond markets for each year. The integration of the government bond markets is stronger for EMU than non-EMU memb......I investigate the time variation in the integration of EU government bond markets. The integration is measured by the explanatory power of European factor portfolios for the individual bond markets for each year. The integration of the government bond markets is stronger for EMU than non...

  15. Parental bonding and depression: personality as a mediating factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avagianou, Penelope-Alexia; Zafiropoulou, Maria

    2008-01-01

    According to Bowlby's theory of attachment, the role of early experience and parenting is of crucial importance to child development and mental health. In addition, several research findings suggest that parental bonding and different types of attachment play a crucial role in personality development. The present study examines the association between parental bonding experiences (lack of parental care, overprotection or both) and depression during adulthood. The objective of the present study was to evaluate different personality dimensions as possible mediators of the relation between perceptions of parental bonding and depressive symptoms in adult life. 181 participants (15- 49-years-old) completed the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF). The results show that lack of parental care and overprotection is linked with depressive symptoms and a number of personality characteristics, such as low self-esteem, introversion, distress and emotional instability. In contrast, high care and low protection (optimal bonding) is linked with increased self-confidence, less distress and less depressive symptoms. The results presented here are in line with Bowlby's theory of attachment and show that parental bonding is linked with problematic personality development and psychopathology. The present study provided evidence that personality factors may mediate the observed relationship between parental rearing style and depression. The potential causal mechanisms warrant longitudinal evaluation.

  16. Amalgam shear bond strength to dentin using different bonding agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, M A; Denehy, G E; Ratananakin, T

    1994-01-01

    This study evaluated the shear bond strength of amalgam to dentin using five different bonding agents: Amalgambond Plus, Optibond, Imperva Dual, All-Bond 2, and Clearfil Liner Bond. Flat dentin surfaces obtained by grinding the occlusal portion of 50 human third molars were used for this study. To contain the amalgam on the tooth surface, cylindrical plastic molds were placed on the dentin and secured with sticky wax. The bonding agents were then applied according to the manufacturers' instructions or light activated and Tytin amalgam was condensed into the plastic molds. The samples were thermocycled and shear bond strengths were determined using an Instron Universal Testing Machine. Analysis by one-way ANOVA indicated significant difference between the five groups (P < 0.05). The bond strength of amalgam to dentin was significantly higher with Amalgambond Plus using the High-Performance Additive than with the other four bonding agents.

  17. Convertible bond valuation focusing on Chinese convertible bond market

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Ke

    2010-01-01

    This paper mainly discusses the methods of valuation of convertible bonds in Chinese market. Different from common convertible bonds in European market, considering the complicate features of Chinese convertible bond, this paper represents specific pricing approaches for pricing convertible bonds with different provisions along with the increment of complexity of these provisions. More specifically, this paper represents the decomposing method and binomial tree method for pricing both of Non-...

  18. Comparison of shear bond strength of the stainless steel metallic brackets bonded by three bonding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ravadgar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In orthodontic treatment, it is essential to establish a satisfactory bond between enamel and bracket. After the self-etch primers (SEPs were introduced for the facilitation of bracket bonding in comparison to the conventional etch-and-bond system, multiple studies have been carried out on their shear bond strengths which have yielded different results. This study was aimed at comparing shear bond strengths of the stainless steel metallic brackets bonded by three bonding systems. Methods: In this experimental in vitro study, 60 extracted human maxillary premolar teeth were randomly divided into three equal groups: in the first group, Transbond XT (TBXT light cured composite was bonded with Transbond plus self-etching primer (TPSEP in the second group, TBXT composite was bonded with the conventional method of acid etching and in the third group, the self cured composite Unite TM bonding adhesive was bonded with the conventional method of acid etching. In all the groups, Standard edgewise-022 metallic brackets (American Orthodontics, Sheboygan, USA were used. Twenty-four hours after the completion of thermocycling, shear bond strength of brackets was measured by Universal Testing Machine (Zwick. In order to compare the shear bond strengths of the groups, the variance analysis test (ANOVA was adopted and p≤0.05 was considered as a significant level. Results: Based on megapascal, the average shear bond strength for the first, second, and third groups was 8.27±1.9, 9.78±2, and 8.92±2.5, respectively. There was no significant difference in the shear bond strength of the groups. Conclusions: Since TPSEP shear bond strength is approximately at the level of the conventional method of acid etching and within the desirable range for orthodontic brackets shear bond strength, applying TPSEP can serve as a substitute for the conventional method of etch and bond, particularly in orthodontic operations.

  19. Comparison of shear bond strength of the stainless steel metallic brackets bonded by three bonding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ravadgar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In orthodontic treatment, it is essential to establish a satisfactory bond between enamel and bracket. After the self-etch primers (SEPs were introduced for the facilitation of bracket bonding in comparison to the conventional etch-and-bond system, multiple studies have been carried out on their shear bond strengths which have yielded different results. This study was aimed at comparing shear bond strengths of the stainless steel metallic brackets bonded by three bonding systems. Methods: In this experimental in vitro study, 60 extracted human maxillary premolar teeth were randomly divided into three equal groups: in the first group, Transbond XT (TBXT light cured composite was bonded with Transbond plus self-etching primer (TPSEP; in the second group, TBXT composite was bonded with the conventional method of acid etching; and in the third group, the self cured composite Unite TM bonding adhesive was bonded with the conventional method of acid etching. In all the groups, Standard edgewise-022 metallic brackets (American Orthodontics, Sheboygan, USA were used. Twenty-four hours after the completion of thermocycling, shear bond strength of brackets was measured by Universal Testing Machine (Zwick. In order to compare the shear bond strengths of the groups, the variance analysis test (ANOVA was adopted and p≤0.05 was considered as a significant level. Results: Based on megapascal, the average shear bond strength for the first, second, and third groups was 8.27±1.9, 9.78±2, and 8.92±2.5, respectively. There was no significant difference in the shear bond strength of the groups. Conclusions: Since TPSEP shear bond strength is approximately at the level of the conventional method of acid etching and within the desirable range for orthodontic brackets shear bond strength, applying TPSEP can serve as a substitute for the conventional method of etch and bond, particularly in orthodontic operations.

  20. Operative Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Højlund, Holger

    2012-01-01

    and have been the object of great expectations concerning the ability to incorporate health concerns into every welfare area through health promotion strategies. The paper draws on results and analyses of a collective research project funded by the Danish National Research Council and carried out...... links' that indicate cooperative levels which facilitate a creative and innovative effort in disease prevention and health promotion targeted at children and adolescents - across traditional professional boundaries. It is proposed that such links are supported by network structures, shared semantics...

  1. Bonding and expressed emotion: two interlinked concepts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duclos, Jeanne; Maria, Anne-Solène; Dorard, Géraldine; Curt, Florence; Apfel, Alexandre; Vibert, Sarah; Rein, Zoé; Perdereau, Fabienne; Godart, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    Bonding and expressed emotion (EE) are two concepts modeling family relationships. Two studies, with contradictory results, have explored whether these concepts and their corresponding instruments [the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) and the Camberwell Family Interview] do indeed measure the same aspects of family relationships. Our first objective was to compare the adolescents' perceptions of family relationships using the PBI, and the parental viewpoint using the Five-Minute Speech Sample (FMSS-EE). Secondly, we compared the PBI scores and EE levels of the parents. Sixty adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa completed the PBI. The FMSS and a modified version of the PBI were administered to parents separately. No significant link was identified between adolescent PBI scores and parental EE levels. However, a link between maternal 'modified' PBI scores and maternal EE was observed: when mothers registered a high Final EE, they were more likely to deny their daughter's psychological autonomy compared to mothers with lower EE. Our empirical results do not support the hypothesis of an overlap between the two concepts. Indeed bonding and EE measure the same object, i.e. the quality of family relationships, but time scales differ and so do the perspectives (patient vs. parental viewpoint). Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Emission of pesticides during drilling and deposition in adjacent areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heimbach, Udo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In seven experiments seeds of maize, oil seed rape and barley, treated with neonicotinoids, were sown using pneumatic drilling equipment with deflectors attached in case of pneumatic suction systems. Directly adjacent to the drilled area of usually about 50 m width were replicated areas with bare soil as well as with crops. During maize (Zea mays drilling flowering oil seed rape (Brassica napus and during drilling of barley (Hordeum vulgare and oil seed rape flowering white mustard (Sinapis alba was adjacent. The amount of residues in the adjacent non crop areas in Petri dishes being distributed on the bare soil declined only slowly from 1 to 20 m distance from the area drilled. Seed batches with more abrasion and higher content of active substances in the dust resulted in higher residues off crop. After drilling of maize in four experiments in Petri dishes in adjacent non crop areas in 1-5 m distance between 0.02 and 0.40 g a.s./ha of neonicotinoids and in the adjacent oil seed rape a total of 0.05–0.80 g a.s./ha were detected. After drilling oil seed rape or barley these values were only 0.02–0.06 g a.s./ha in Petri dishes in non crop areas and 0.03-0.08 g a.s./ha in total in adjacent white mustard. In gauze net samplers installed vertically in 3 m distance in non crop areas up to seven times higher values were detected compared to Petri dishes.

  3. Elastic properties and 2D icosahedral bonding in borides of hexagonal WC type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Music, Denis; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2005-01-01

    Using ab initio calculations we have identified materials with bulk moduli comparable to cubic BN. These are WB, IrB, ReB and OsB crystallizing in the hexagonal WC structure. In the (0 0 0 2) planes of these compounds, we find 2D icosahedral bonding between adjacent B atoms, which has previously not been reported

  4. Elastic properties and 2D icosahedral bonding in borides of hexagonal WC type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Music, Denis [Materials Chemistry, RWTH-Aachen, Kopernikusstr. 16, D-52074 Aachen (Germany)]. E-mail: music@mch.rwth-aachen.de; Schneider, Jochen M. [Materials Chemistry, RWTH-Aachen, Kopernikusstr. 16, D-52074 Aachen (Germany)

    2005-01-15

    Using ab initio calculations we have identified materials with bulk moduli comparable to cubic BN. These are WB, IrB, ReB and OsB crystallizing in the hexagonal WC structure. In the (0 0 0 2) planes of these compounds, we find 2D icosahedral bonding between adjacent B atoms, which has previously not been reported.

  5. Why are Hydrogen Bonds Directional?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    century and most chemists appear to think of 'chemi- cal bond' as ..... These complexes, in their global min- ima, have ... taneously act as hydrogen bond donor and acceptor displaying ... also has a local minimum, which is linear and similar to.

  6. The link between physics and chemistry in track modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, N.J.B.; Bolton, C.E.; Spencer-Smith, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    The physical structure of a radiation track provides the initial conditions for the modelling of radiation chemistry. These initial conditions are not perfectly understood, because there are important gaps between what is provided by a typical track structure model and what is required to start the chemical model. This paper addresses the links between the physics and chemistry of tracks, with the intention of identifying those problems that need to be solved in order to obtain an accurate picture of the initial conditions for the purposes of modelling chemistry. These problems include the reasons for the increased yield of ionisation relative to homolytic bond breaking in comparison with the gas phase. A second area of great importance is the physical behaviour of low-energy electrons in condensed matter (including thermolisation and solvation). Many of these processes are not well understood, but they can have profound effects on the transient chemistry in the track. Several phenomena are discussed, including the short distance between adjacent energy loss events, the molecular nature of the underlying medium, dissociative attachment resonances and the ability of low-energy electrons to excite optically forbidden molecular states. Each of these phenomena has the potential to modify the transient chemistry substantially and must therefore be properly characterised before the physical model of the track can be considered to be complete. (orig.)

  7. Modeling fires in adjacent ship compartments with computational fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wix, S.D.; Cole, J.K.; Koski, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the thermal effects on radioactive (RAM) transportation pack ages with a fire in an adjacent compartment. An assumption for this analysis is that the adjacent hold fire is some sort of engine room fire. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis tools were used to perform the analysis in order to include convective heat transfer effects. The analysis results were compared to experimental data gathered in a series of tests on the United States Coast Guard ship Mayo Lykes located at Mobile, Alabama. (authors)

  8. Nonlinear spin wave coupling in adjacent magnonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadovnikov, A. V., E-mail: sadovnikovav@gmail.com; Nikitov, S. A. [Laboratory “Metamaterials,” Saratov State University, Saratov 410012 (Russian Federation); Kotel' nikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 125009 (Russian Federation); Beginin, E. N.; Morozova, M. A.; Sharaevskii, Yu. P.; Grishin, S. V.; Sheshukova, S. E. [Laboratory “Metamaterials,” Saratov State University, Saratov 410012 (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-25

    We have experimentally studied the coupling of spin waves in the adjacent magnonic crystals. Space- and time-resolved Brillouin light-scattering spectroscopy is used to demonstrate the frequency and intensity dependent spin-wave energy exchange between the side-coupled magnonic crystals. The experiments and the numerical simulation of spin wave propagation in the coupled periodic structures show that the nonlinear phase shift of spin wave in the adjacent magnonic crystals leads to the nonlinear switching regime at the frequencies near the forbidden magnonic gap. The proposed side-coupled magnonic crystals represent a significant advance towards the all-magnonic signal processing in the integrated magnonic circuits.

  9. Nonlinear spin wave coupling in adjacent magnonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadovnikov, A. V.; Nikitov, S. A.; Beginin, E. N.; Morozova, M. A.; Sharaevskii, Yu. P.; Grishin, S. V.; Sheshukova, S. E.

    2016-01-01

    We have experimentally studied the coupling of spin waves in the adjacent magnonic crystals. Space- and time-resolved Brillouin light-scattering spectroscopy is used to demonstrate the frequency and intensity dependent spin-wave energy exchange between the side-coupled magnonic crystals. The experiments and the numerical simulation of spin wave propagation in the coupled periodic structures show that the nonlinear phase shift of spin wave in the adjacent magnonic crystals leads to the nonlinear switching regime at the frequencies near the forbidden magnonic gap. The proposed side-coupled magnonic crystals represent a significant advance towards the all-magnonic signal processing in the integrated magnonic circuits.

  10. Scandinavian links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiessen, Christian Wichmann; Knowles, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    are impressive mega structures spanning international waterways. These waterways between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea have played major roles in history. The length of each of the crossings are around 20 km. The fixed links closes gaps between the Scandinavian and European motorway and rail networks...

  11. Corporate Hybrid Bonds

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlberg, Johan; Jansson, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid securities do not constitute a new phenomenon in the Swedish capital markets. Most commonly, hybrids issued by Swedish real estate companies in recent years are preference shares. Corporate hybrid bonds on the other hand may be considered as somewhat of a new-born child in the family of hybrid instruments. These do, as all other hybrid securities, share some equity-like and some debt-like characteristics. Nevertheless, since 2013 the interest for the instrument has grown rapidly and ha...

  12. Optimal Investment in Structured Bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille; Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    The paper examines the role of structured bonds in the optimal portfolio of a small retail investor. We consider the typical structured bond essentially repacking an exotic option and a zero coupon bond, i.e. an investment with portfolio insurance. The optimal portfolio is found when the investment...

  13. 46 CFR Sec. 10 - Bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 10 Bonds. (a... awarded work and the furnishing of the performance and payment bonds required by Article 14 of the NSA... of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract, the standard form of individual performance bond (Standard Form 25...

  14. TraceLink: A model of amnesia and consolidation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeter, M.; Murre, J.M.J.

    2005-01-01

    A connectionist model is presented, the TraceLink model, that implements an autonomous "off-line" consolidation process. The model consists of three subsystems: (1) a trace system (neocortex), (2) a link system (hippocampus and adjacent regions), and (3) a modulatory system (basal forebrain and

  15. The chemical bond in inorganic chemistry the bond valence model

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, I David

    2016-01-01

    The bond valence model is a version of the ionic model in which the chemical constraints are expressed in terms of localized chemical bonds formed by the valence charge of the atoms. Theorems derived from the properties of the electrostatic flux predict the rules obeyed by both ionic and covalent bonds. They make quantitative predictions of coordination number, crystal structure, bond lengths and bond angles. Bond stability depends on the matching of the bonding strengths of the atoms, while the conflicting requirements of chemistry and space lead to the structural instabilities responsible for the unusual physical properties displayed by some materials. The model has applications in many fields ranging from mineralogy to molecular biology.

  16. Influence of resin-modified glass ionomer and topical fluoride on levels of Streptococcus mutans in saliva and biofilm adjacent to metallic brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Cristina Damião ANDRUCIOLI

    Full Text Available Abstract Decalcification of enamel during fixed orthodontic appliance treatment remains a problem. White spot lesions are observed in nearly 50% of patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. The use of fluoride-containing orthodontic materials has shown inconclusive results on their ability to reduce decalcification. The aims of this investigation were to compare the levels of Streptococcus mutans (SM in saliva and biofilm adjacent to orthodontic brackets retained with a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC (Fuji ORTHO LC and a light cured composite resin (Transbond XT, and to analyze the influence of topical application of the 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF on SM counts. In a parallel study design, two groups (n=14/15 were used with random allocation and high salivary SM counts before treatment. Biofilm was collected from areas adjacent to the brackets on teeth 13, 22, 33, and 41. Both saliva and biofilm were collected on the 7th, 21st, 35th, and 49th days after appliance placement. Topical fluoride application was carried out on the 35th day. Bonding with RMGIC did not alter SM counts in saliva or biofilm adjacent to the brackets. On the other hand, the biofilm adjacent to brackets retained with composite resin showed a significant increase in SM counts along the trial period. Topical application of 1.23% APF did not reduce salivary or biofilm SM counts regardless of the bonding material. In conclusion, fluoride topical application did not show efficacy in reducing SM. The use of RMGIC as bonding materials allowed a better control of SM cfu counts in dental biofilm hindering the significant increase of these microorganisms along the trial period, which was observed in the biofilm adjacent to the composite material.

  17. Herpetology of the American Madrean Archipelago and adjacent valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence L. C. Jones

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 110 species of amphibians (18 frogs and toads, and 1 salamander) and reptiles (47 snakes, 39 lizards, and 5 turtles) are known from the American Madrean Archipelago and adjacent valleys. The high diversity of the herpetofauna comes from a variety of factors, including a convergence of biotic communities representing deserts, grasslands, and mountains....

  18. Developmental tumors and adjacent cortical dysplasia: single or dual pathology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmini, André; Paglioli, Eliseu; Silva, Vinicius Duval

    2013-12-01

    Developmental tumors often lead to refractory partial seizures and constitute a well-defined, surgically remediable epilepsy syndrome. Dysplastic features are often associated with these tumors, and their significance carries both practical and conceptual relevance. If associated focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) relates to the extent of the epileptogenic tissue, then presurgical evaluation and surgical strategies should target both the tumor and the surrounding dyslaminated cortex. Furthermore, the association has been included in the recently revised classification of FCD and the epileptogenicity of this associated dysplastic tissue is crucial to validate such revision. In addition to the possibility of representing dual pathology, the association of developmental tumors and adjacent dysplasia may instead represent a single developmental lesion with distinct parts distributed along a histopathologic continuum. Moreover, the possibility that this adjacent dyslamination is of minor epileptogenic relevance should also be entertained. Surgical data show that complete resection of the solid tumors and immediately adjacent tissue harboring satellites may disrupt epileptogenic networks and lead to high rates of seizure freedom, challenging the epileptogenic relevance of more extensive adjacent dyslaminated cortex. Whether the latter is a primary or secondary abnormality and whether dyslaminated cortex in the context of a second lesion may produce seizures after complete resection of the main lesion is still to be proven. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2013 International League Against Epilepsy.

  19. The dynamics of microtidal lagoons and adjacent coasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stive, M.J.F.; Capobianco, M.; Wang, Z.B.; Ruol, P.

    1996-01-01

    We have formulated an aggregated-scale behaviour-model for the interaction between a tidal basin and its adjacent coastal environment, without adopting a priory assumptions about their independent dynamic equilibrium behaviour. Necessarily so, the model combines observations and findings resuhing

  20. Do Mangroves Subsidize Carbon to Adjacent Mudflat Fish Communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, S.; Kasten, S.; Hartmann, J.; Staubwasser, M.; Hernandez, M. F.; West, L.; Midway, S. R.; Polito, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    Mangroves are often implicated as energetic sources for fisheries productivity. However, the validity of this connection still remains in contention. Stable isotopes may provide answers by tracking the use of specific basal carbon sources in fish and invertebrates living in mangrove-mudflat habitat mosaics. We analyzed 307 consumer samples representing n=44 fish and invertebrate species collected from mangrove forest creeks and adjacent mudflats in coastal Tanzania using bulk carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis. Given the proposed high productivity of mangrove habitats, we hypothesize that mudflat communities will have carbon stable isotope values similar to mangrove communities either through the flux of mangrove carbon into adjacent mudflats and/or via the movement of mudflat fish communities into and out of mangrove habitats. Alternatively, mangrove carbon is often refractory, which may result in mudflat communities with isotopic values that differ from those found in adjacent mangrove communities. This scenario would suggest limited carbon flow between mudflat and mangrove food webs and that the movement of fish into and out of mangrove habitats is related to shelter from predation more than feeding. Data analysis is ongoing to test these competing hypotheses. By understanding the contribution of mangrove carbon to adjacent habitats, managers in Tanzania can make better informed decisions regarding the protection of mangroves and the local fisheries, which are a crucial source of income and food.

  1. Measurement Methods to Determine Air Leakage Between Adjacent Zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hult, Erin L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dickerhoff, Darryl J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Phillip N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Air leakage between adjacent zones of a building can lead to indoor air quality and energy efficiency concerns, however there is no existing standard for measuring inter-zonal leakage. In this study, synthesized data and field measurements are analyzed in order to explore the uncertainty associated with different methods for collecting and analyzing fan pressurization measurements to calculate interzone leakage.

  2. Optimal induced universal graphs and adjacency labeling for trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Dahlgaard, Søren; Knudsen, Mathias Bæk Tejs

    2015-01-01

    bound. The lower bound and previously best upper bounds were presented in Alstrup and Rauhe (FOCS'02). Our upper bounds are obtained through a log2 n + O(1) labeling scheme for adjacency queries in forests. We hereby solve an open problem being raised repeatedly over decades, e.g. in Kannan, Naor...

  3. Hydrogen bonding in ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Patricia A; Ashworth, Claire R; Matthews, Richard P

    2015-03-07

    Ionic liquids (IL) and hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) are two diverse fields for which there is a developing recognition of significant overlap. Doubly ionic H-bonds occur when a H-bond forms between a cation and anion, and are a key feature of ILs. Doubly ionic H-bonds represent a wide area of H-bonding which has yet to be fully recognised, characterised or explored. H-bonds in ILs (both protic and aprotic) are bifurcated and chelating, and unlike many molecular liquids a significant variety of distinct H-bonds are formed between different types and numbers of donor and acceptor sites within a given IL. Traditional more neutral H-bonds can also be formed in functionalised ILs, adding a further level of complexity. Ab initio computed parameters; association energies, partial charges, density descriptors as encompassed by the QTAIM methodology (ρBCP), qualitative molecular orbital theory and NBO analysis provide established and robust mechanisms for understanding and interpreting traditional neutral and ionic H-bonds. In this review the applicability and extension of these parameters to describe and quantify the doubly ionic H-bond has been explored. Estimating the H-bonding energy is difficult because at a fundamental level the H-bond and ionic interaction are coupled. The NBO and QTAIM methodologies, unlike the total energy, are local descriptors and therefore can be used to directly compare neutral, ionic and doubly ionic H-bonds. The charged nature of the ions influences the ionic characteristics of the H-bond and vice versa, in addition the close association of the ions leads to enhanced orbital overlap and covalent contributions. The charge on the ions raises the energy of the Ylp and lowers the energy of the X-H σ* NBOs resulting in greater charge transfer, strengthening the H-bond. Using this range of parameters and comparing doubly ionic H-bonds to more traditional neutral and ionic H-bonds it is clear that doubly ionic H-bonds cover the full range of weak

  4. The effect of pretreatment with fluoride on the tensile strength of orthodontic bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, W.N.; Sheen, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    White spot decalcifications and caries occurring adjacent to bonded orthodontic brackets have long been a concern to orthodontists. One procedure suggested to overcome this problem is fluoride treatment prior to bonding. The purpose of this study was to compare the tensile bond strength of orthodontic self-cured resin from Concise on teeth rinsed 4 minutes in 1.23% APF with untreated controls. Measurements were made on an Instron machine. Debonding interfaces were observed with a scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry. Distributions were calculated. The tensile bond strengths of the fluoride-treated teeth and the untreated teeth were not significantly different. The debonding interfaces between resin and bracket base, within the resin itself, and between enamel and resin were similar in the two experimental groups. However, greater enamel detachment was seen within the fluoride pretreatment group. So while fluoride pretreatment does not significantly affect tensile bond strength, it may cause enamel detachment after debonding

  5. Additional disulfide bonds in insulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Tine N; Pettersson, Ingrid; Huus, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    The structure of insulin, a glucose homeostasis-controlling hormone, is highly conserved in all vertebrates and stabilized by three disulfide bonds. Recently, we designed a novel insulin analogue containing a fourth disulfide bond located between positions A10-B4. The N-terminus of insulin's B......-chain is flexible and can adapt multiple conformations. We examined how well disulfide bond predictions algorithms could identify disulfide bonds in this region of insulin. In order to identify stable insulin analogues with additional disulfide bonds, which could be expressed, the Cβ cut-off distance had...... in comparison to analogues with additional disulfide bonds that were more difficult to predict. In contrast, addition of the fourth disulfide bond rendered all analogues resistant to fibrillation under stress conditions and all stable analogues bound to the insulin receptor with picomolar affinities. Thus...

  6. Facial expressions and pair bonds in hylobatids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florkiewicz, Brittany; Skollar, Gabriella; Reichard, Ulrich H

    2018-06-06

    Facial expressions are an important component of primate communication that functions to transmit social information and modulate intentions and motivations. Chimpanzees and macaques, for example, produce a variety of facial expressions when communicating with conspecifics. Hylobatids also produce various facial expressions; however, the origin and function of these facial expressions are still largely unclear. It has been suggested that larger facial expression repertoires may have evolved in the context of social complexity, but this link has yet to be tested at a broader empirical basis. The social complexity hypothesis offers a possible explanation for the evolution of complex communicative signals such as facial expressions, because as the complexity of an individual's social environment increases so does the need for communicative signals. We used an intraspecies, pair-focused study design to test the link between facial expressions and sociality within hylobatids, specifically the strength of pair-bonds. The current study compared 206 hr of video and 103 hr of focal animal data for ten hylobatid pairs from three genera (Nomascus, Hoolock, and Hylobates) living at the Gibbon Conservation Center. Using video footage, we explored 5,969 facial expressions along three dimensions: repertoire use, repertoire breadth, and facial expression synchrony [FES]. We then used focal animal data to compare dimensions of facial expressiveness to pair bond strength and behavioral synchrony. Hylobatids in our study overlapped in only half of their facial expressions (50%) with the only other detailed, quantitative study of hylobatid facial expressions, while 27 facial expressions were uniquely observed in our study animals. Taken together, hylobatids have a large facial expression repertoire of at least 80 unique facial expressions. Contrary to our prediction, facial repertoire composition was not significantly correlated with pair bond strength, rates of territorial synchrony

  7. Dynamic response of a carbon nanotube-based rotary nano device with different carbon-hydrogen bonding layout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Hang [College of Water Resources and Architectural Engineering, Northwest A& F University, Yangling 712100 (China); Cai, Kun, E-mail: caikun1978@163.com [College of Water Resources and Architectural Engineering, Northwest A& F University, Yangling 712100 (China); Wan, Jing [College of Water Resources and Architectural Engineering, Northwest A& F University, Yangling 712100 (China); Gao, Zhaoliang, E-mail: coopcg@163.com [Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, 712100 (China); Chen, Zhen [State Key Laboratory of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Faculty of Vehicle Engineering and Mechanics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2016-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The rotational transmission performance of a rotational transmission system (RTS) with different types of C−H bonding layouts on the edge of motor and rotor is investigated using MD simulation method. • The L–J interaction between covalently bonded hydrogen atoms and sp1 carbon atoms is too weak to support a stable rotational transmission when only the motor or rotor has bonded hydrogen atoms. • When both the motor and rotor have the same C−H bonding layout on their adjacent ends, a stable output rotational speed of rotor can be obtained. • A low input rotational speed (e.g., 100 GHz) would lead to a synchronous rotational transmission if the system has (+0.5H) C−H bonding layout. - Abstract: In a nano rotational transmission system (RTS) which consists of a single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) as the motor and a coaxially arranged double walled carbon nanotube (DWCNT) as a bearing, the interaction between the motor and the rotor in bearing, which has great effects on the response of the RTS, is determined by their adjacent edges. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, the interaction is analyzed when the adjacent edges have different carbon-hydrogen (C−H) bonding layouts. In the computational models, the rotor in bearing and the motor with a specific input rotational speed are made from the same armchair SWCNT. Simulation results demonstrate that a perfect rotational transmission could happen when the motor and rotor have the same C−H bonding layout on their adjacent ends. If only half or less of the carbon atoms on the adjacent ends are bonded with hydrogen atoms, the strong attraction between the lower speed (100 GHz) motor and rotor leads to a synchronous rotational transmission. If only the motor or the rotor has C−H bonds on their adjacent ends, no rotational transmission happens due to weak interaction between the bonded hydrogen atoms on one end with the sp{sup 1} bonded carbon atoms on the other

  8. Cryopreserved embryo transfer: adjacent or non-adjacent to failed fresh long GnRH-agonist protocol IVF cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volodarsky-Perel, Alexander; Eldar-Geva, Talia; Holzer, Hananel E G; Schonberger, Oshrat; Reichman, Orna; Gal, Michael

    2017-03-01

    The optimal time to perform cryopreserved embryo transfer (CET) after a failed oocyte retrieval-embryo transfer (OR-ET) cycle is unknown. Similar clinical pregnancy rates were recently reported in immediate and delayed CET, performed after failed fresh OR-ET, in cycles with the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol. This study compared outcomes of CET performed adjacently (<50 days, n = 67) and non-adjacently (≥50 to 120 days, n = 62) to the last OR-day of cycles with the GnRH agonist down-regulation protocol. Additional inclusion criteria were patients' age 20-38 years, the transfer of only 1-2 cryopreserved embryos, one treatment cycle per patient and artificial preparation for CET. Significantly higher implantation, clinical pregnancy and live birth rates were found in the non-adjacent group than in the adjacent group: 30.5% versus 11.3% (P = 0.001), 41.9% versus 17.9% (P = 0.003) and 32.3% versus 13.4% (P = 0.01), respectively. These results support the postponement of CET after a failed OR-ET for at least one menstrual cycle, when a preceding long GnRH-agonist protocol is used. Copyright © 2016 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Øresund Link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jacob Steen

    "Øresundsbron" is the combined bridge and tunnel connecting Denmark and Sweden adjacent to Copenhagen. Øresundsbron was built and is operated by a consortium owned jointly by the Danish and Swedish states. The Link was inaugurated 1 July 2000 by the Queen of Denmark and the King of Sweden. The 16......-km link across the Sound could potentially impact the water exchange between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, and the dredging activities during construction were a threat to the local marine environment. The public interest in the environmental issues together with a pro-active environmental policy...... of hydrodynamic modelling, on line monitoring and access to all environmental information through a GIS based information system. The public attitude towards the project in general and the environmental impact in particular shifted from a very sceptical one at the beginning of the project to a very positive one...

  10. Toughening elastomers with sacrificial bonds and watching them break.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Etienne; Chen, Yulan; Bulters, Markus; Sijbesma, Rint P; Creton, Costantino

    2014-04-11

    Elastomers are widely used because of their large-strain reversible deformability. Most unfilled elastomers suffer from a poor mechanical strength, which limits their use. Using sacrificial bonds, we show how brittle, unfilled elastomers can be strongly reinforced in stiffness and toughness (up to 4 megapascals and 9 kilojoules per square meter) by introducing a variable proportion of isotropically prestretched chains that can break and dissipate energy before the material fails. Chemoluminescent cross-linking molecules, which emit light as they break, map in real time where and when many of these internal bonds break ahead of a propagating crack. The simple methodology that we use to introduce sacrificial bonds, combined with the mapping of where bonds break, has the potential to stimulate the development of new classes of unfilled tough elastomers and better molecular models of the fracture of soft materials.

  11. A novel stibacarbaborane cluster with adjacent antimony atoms exhibiting unique pnictogen bond formation that dominates its crystal packing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holub, Josef; Melichar, Petr; Růžičková, Z.; Vrána, J.; Wann, D. A.; Fanfrlík, Jindřich; Hnyk, Drahomír; Růžička, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 40 (2017), s. 13714-13719 ISSN 1477-9226 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-08045S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : adjusted pseudopotentials * derivates * halogen * carboranes * chalcogen Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry Impact factor: 4.029, year: 2016

  12. 33 CFR 148.217 - How can a State be designated as an adjacent coastal State?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... an adjacent coastal State? 148.217 Section 148.217 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... General § 148.217 How can a State be designated as an adjacent coastal State? (a) Adjacent coastal States... as an adjacent coastal State in the notice may request to be designated as one if the environmental...

  13. A novel hydrogen-bonded cyclic dibromide in an organic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2Institut für Anorganische Chemie, Christian-Albrechts-Universität Kiel, Olshausenstraße 40, D-24098 ... H2O molecules are linked to bromide anions via O–H⋅⋅⋅Br hydrogen bonding ..... Weiss R, Reichel S, Handlke M and Hampel F 1998.

  14. An Adaptive Model for Calculating the Correlation Degree of Multiple Adjacent Signalized Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhong Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As an important component of the urban adaptive traffic control system, subarea partition algorithm divides the road network into some small subareas and then determines the optimal signal control mode for each signalized intersection. Correlation model is the core of subarea partition algorithm because it can quantify the correlation degree of adjacent signalized intersections and decides whether these intersections can be grouped into one subarea. In most cases, there are more than two intersections in one subarea. However, current researches only focus on the correlation model for two adjacent intersections. The objective of this study is to develop a model which can calculate the correlation degree of multiple intersections adaptively. The cycle lengths, link lengths, number of intersections, and path flow between upstream and downstream coordinated phases were selected as the contributing factors of the correlation model. Their jointly impacts on the performance of the coordinated control mode relative to the isolated control mode were further studied using numerical experiments. The paper then proposed a correlation index (CI as an alternative to relative performance. The relationship between CI and the four contributing factors was established in order to predict the correlation, which determined whether adjacent intersections could be partitioned into one subarea. A value of 0 was set as the threshold of CI. If CI was larger than 0, multiple intersections could be partitioned into one subarea; otherwise, they should be separated. Finally, case studies were conducted in a real-life signalized network to evaluate the performance of the model. The results show that the CI simulates the relative performance well and could be a reliable index for subarea partition.

  15. Extraosseous Gaucher cell deposition without adjacent bone involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Brendan J; Mills, Anne M; Gaskin, Cree M

    2014-10-01

    Extraosseous Gaucher cell deposits are a rare complication of Gaucher disease that can mimic malignancy. We describe a case of Gaucher cell deposition in the subcutaneous soft tissues overlying the lower thoracic spine in an 18-year-old woman with known type III Gaucher disease. This case is unique in the literature because this subcutaneous Gaucher mass was not associated with extension from underlying bone involvement or clear lymph node origin. It demonstrated no discernible continuity with the adjacent thoracic spinous processes, the cortices of which appeared intact. Although patients with Gaucher disease are at increased risk of malignancy, Gaucher cell deposition should remain a differential consideration for soft tissue masses with or without adjacent bone involvement in patients with known Gaucher disease.

  16. A new nuclear safety programme for areas adjacent to Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varjoranta, T.

    1997-01-01

    The projects aimed at improving nuclear and radiation safety in areas adjacent to Finland have been compiled into one programme. The purpose of the programme is to promote activities that minimise accident risks at nuclear power plants and that improve preparedness for situations involving a risk. Nuclear materials are also to be kept under strict control. In the last few years, nuclear and radiation safety has clearly improved in areas adjacent to Finland. But work is still needed to reduce the remaining risks. The Finnish support programme comprises two very definite functions. On one hand, the programme acts as a catalyst for projects launched by the Russians themselves or by the Western partners together, and strives to pave the way for international financing projects. On the other hand, assistance is given as direct support for certain hand-picked projects. (orig.)

  17. Fish species diversity and conservation in Beijing and adjacent areas

    OpenAIRE

    Chunguang Zhang; Yahui Zhao; Yingchun Xing; Ruilu Guo; Qing Zhang; Yun Feng; Enyuan Fan

    2011-01-01

    Based on field surveys between 2002 and 2010, and fish collections in the National Zoological Museum, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, a total of 93 wild fish species including 12 in-troduced species had been recorded in Beijing and adjacent areas. Eighty five of these species, including some migratory and estuarine fishes, are native to the region. Only 43 native wild species were collected in our field work from 2002 to 2010. Compared with the historical records, nearly 50...

  18. Plutonium in soil adjacent to Rocky Flats plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hume, M.W.; Illsley, C.T.

    1979-01-01

    In 1975, lawsuits were filed claiming contaminated lands adjacent to the plant. Five remote as well as 89 sites on lands under litigation were sampled using four sampling techniques at each site. An additional 71 sites were sampled using the Rockwell International technique. No results approached the EPA proposed guideline screening level of 200 mCi/km 2 , although numerous sites to the last of the plant exceed 2 d/m/g (10 mCi/km 2 )

  19. The Benguela upwelling ecosystem lies adjacent to the south ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    The Benguela upwelling ecosystem lies adjacent to the south-western coast of Africa, from southern Angola. (15°S) to Cape Agulhas (35°S; Fig. 1). Ecologically, it is split into separate northern and southern sub- systems by a zone of intense perennial upwelling near. Lüderitz (26–27.5°S; Shannon 1985). As is charac-.

  20. Fatigue aging of adhesive bonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLollis, N.J.

    1979-01-01

    A year long study has been made of the effect of fatigue on the bond between two epoxy encapsulant formulations and a fused alumina disc. The variables studied included isothermal aging at temperatures up to and including the cure temperature and cyclic thermal aging from +74 to -54 0 C. The encapsulants were glass microballoon filled epoxies differing only in curing agents. One was cured with an aromatic amine eutectic (Shell Curing Agent Z). The other was cured with diethanolamine. The Z cured encapsulant bond failed completely at the bond interface with little or no aging; infrared evidence indicated a soluble interlayer as a possible cause of failure. The diethanolamine cured encapsulant survived a year of isothermal aging with little or no evidence of bond degradation. Cyclic thermal aging resulted in gradual bond failure with time. An extrapolation of the cyclic aging data indicates that the stresses induced by thermal cycling would result in complete bond failure in about 1200 days

  1. Symmetry breaking of adjacent tracks in perpendicular recording system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Huang; Wei Dan

    2007-01-01

    The track density increase in a perpendicular magnetic recording system is limited by the adjacent-track interference (ATI). In this work, a composite micromagnetic simulation model of the read/write process is developed to analyse ATI by the symmetry of signal and noise in two adjacent W = 60 nm tracks with the track pitch of the order of 100 nm. Based on the two-dimensional medium noise distribution of dibit recording, it is found that the noise in the first and later recorded tracks start to be asymmetric when the track pitch is lower than 2 W; if the read width is limited within 2/3 of the write width, the asymmetry of noise appears when the track pitch is less than 1.5 W. At higher recording densities, the signal-to-noise ratio degradation is mainly due to the noise caused by the interference from the signal of the adjacent track. Side writing can be effectively eliminated by the use of a guard band whose width is at least half the track width

  2. Using BRDFs for accurate albedo calculations and adjacency effect corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borel, C.C.; Gerstl, S.A.W.

    1996-09-01

    In this paper the authors discuss two uses of BRDFs in remote sensing: (1) in determining the clear sky top of the atmosphere (TOA) albedo, (2) in quantifying the effect of the BRDF on the adjacency point-spread function and on atmospheric corrections. The TOA spectral albedo is an important parameter retrieved by the Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR). Its accuracy depends mainly on how well one can model the surface BRDF for many different situations. The authors present results from an algorithm which matches several semi-empirical functions to the nine MISR measured BRFs that are then numerically integrated to yield the clear sky TOA spectral albedo in four spectral channels. They show that absolute accuracies in the albedo of better than 1% are possible for the visible and better than 2% in the near infrared channels. Using a simplified extensive radiosity model, the authors show that the shape of the adjacency point-spread function (PSF) depends on the underlying surface BRDFs. The adjacency point-spread function at a given offset (x,y) from the center pixel is given by the integral of transmission-weighted products of BRDF and scattering phase function along the line of sight.

  3. What is a hydrogen bond?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. What is a hydrogen bond? Precise definition of a hydrogen bond is still elusive!1. Several criteria are listed usually for X-H•••Y, X and Y initially thought to be F, O and N only1. Structural: The X-Y bond length is less than the sum of their van der Waals radii. X-H•••Y is ...

  4. Composite interlayer for diffusion bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A ductile interlayer is described, which is useful for transient liquid phase diffusion bonding of metallic articles; the interlayer consisting of a melting point depressant and a plurality of ductile lamellae which are free from carbides, aluminides and borides. The composition and fabrication of the lamellae, and the process for bonding the metallic articles, depend on the composition of the metals to be bonded, and are exemplified in the specification. (U.K.)

  5. Role of the H bond network in the radiation chemistry of hydrated systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pommeret, S.; Renault, J.P.; Caeer, S.Le; Vigneron, G.; Vuilleumier, R.; Bratos, S.; Leicknam, J.Cl.

    2006-01-01

    In the present contribution a review of the recent work on the H bond dynamics, in absence of any reactant and a new theory that unambiguously establishes a new link between spectroscopic observation and geometric properties is presented, along with results on the radiation chemistry of nanoporous media and its influence on the H bond network of an interface

  6. Shielding and mediating of hydrogen bonding in amide-based (macro)molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harings, J.A.W.

    2009-01-01

    Polymers are long chain molecules comprising continuously repeating building blocks, monomers, which are chemically linked via covalent bonds, for example the C-C bond in polyethylene. A distinction can be made in biopolymers that are made in nature and synthetic polymers that are produced by the

  7. Smarandachely Adjacent-Vertex-Distinguishing Proper Edge Chromatic Number of Cm∨Kn

    OpenAIRE

    Shunqin Liu

    2016-01-01

    According to different conditions, researchers have defined a great deal of coloring problems and the corresponding chromatic numbers. Such as, adjacent-vertex-distinguishing total chromatic number, adjacent-vertex-distinguishing proper edge chromatic number, smarandachely-adjacent-vertex-distinguishing proper edge chromatic number, smarandachely-adjacent-vertex-distinguishing proper total chromatic number. And we focus on the smarandachely adjacent-vertex-distinguishing proper edge chromatic...

  8. PMMA to SU-8 bonding for polymer based lab-on-a-chip systems with integrated optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Brian Bilenberg; Nielsen, Theodor; Clausen, Bjarne Hans

    2004-01-01

    We present an adhesive bonding technique developed for SU-8 based "lab-on-a-chip"- systems with integrated optical components. Microfluidic channels and optical components (e.g. wave-guides) are defined in SU-8 photoresist on a Pyrex glass substrate. The microfluidic channels are sealed by a second...... Pyrex substrate, bonded on top of the cross-linked SU-8 structure using an inter- mediate layer of 950K molecular weight poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA). Due to a lower refractive index of PMMA, this bonding technique offers optical waveguiding in the SU-8 structures in combination with good sealing...... of the microfluidic channels. The bonding technique is investigated with respect to bonding temperature in the range of 50 - 150 degr. C and at bonding forces of 1000 N and 2000 N on a 4-inch wafer. A maximum bonding strength of 16 MPa is achieved for the PMMA to SU-8 bonding at a bonding temperature of 110 degr. C...

  9. Wafer bonding applications and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Gösele, Ulrich

    2004-01-01

    During the past decade direct wafer bonding has developed into a mature materials integration technology. This book presents state-of-the-art reviews of the most important applications of wafer bonding written by experts from industry and academia. The topics include bonding-based fabrication methods of silicon-on-insulator, photonic crystals, VCSELs, SiGe-based FETs, MEMS together with hybrid integration and laser lift-off. The non-specialist will learn about the basics of wafer bonding and its various application areas, while the researcher in the field will find up-to-date information about this fast-moving area, including relevant patent information.

  10. A simplified indirect bonding technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Katiyar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of lingual orthodontics, indirect bonding technique has become an integral part of practice. It involves placement of brackets initially on the models and then their transfer to teeth with the help of transfer trays. Problems encountered with current indirect bonding techniques used are (1 the possibility of adhesive flash remaining around the base of the brackets which requires removal (2 longer time required for the adhesive to gain enough bond strength for secure tray removal. The new simplified indirect bonding technique presented here overcomes both these problems.

  11. Human Bond Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Ramjee

    2016-01-01

    Modern dexterous communication technology is progressively enabling humans to communicate their information through them with speech (aural) and media (optical) as underpinning essence. Humans realize this kind of aural and optical information by their optical and auditory senses. However, due...... to certain constraints, the ability to incorporate the other three sensory features namely, olfactory, gustatory, and tactile are still far from reality. Human bond communication is a novel concept that incorporates olfactory, gustatory, and tactile that will allow more expressive and holistic sensory...... information exchange through communication techniques for more human sentiment centric communication. This concept endorses the need of inclusion of other three senses and proposes an innovative approach of holistic communication for future communication network....

  12. 30 CFR 281.33 - Bonds and bonding requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bonds and bonding requirements. 281.33 Section 281.33 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Financial Considerations § 281.33...

  13. 29 CFR 2580.412-19 - Term of the bond, discovery period, other bond clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY ACT OF 1974 TEMPORARY BONDING RULES General Bond Rules § 2580.412-19 Term of the bond, discovery... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Term of the bond, discovery period, other bond clauses... new bond must be obtained each year. There is nothing in the Act that prohibits a bond for a term...

  14. Method of bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saller, H.A.; Hodge, E.S.; Paprocki, S.J.; Dayton, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    A method of making a fuel-containing structure for nuclear reactors is described comprising providing an assembly comprising fuel units consisting of a core plate containing thermal-neutron-fissionable material, sheets of cladding metal on its bottom and top surfaces, the cladding sheets being of greater width and length than the core plates whereby recesses are formed at the ends and sides of the core plate, and end pieces and first side pieces of cladding metal of the same thickness as the core plate positioned in the recesses. The assembly further comprises second side pieces of cladding metal engaging the cladding sheets so as to space the fuel units from one another, and filler plates of an acid-dissolvable nonresilient material whose melting point is above 2000 0 F, arranged between a pair of the second side pieces and the cladding plates of two adjacent fuel units. The filler plates have the same thickness as the second side pieces. The method further comprises enclosing the entire assembly in an envelope; evacuating the interior of the entire assembly through the envelope; applying inert gas under a pressure of about 10,000 psi to the outside of the envelope while at the same time heating the assembly to a temperature above the flow point of the cladding metal but below the melting point of any material of the assembly, slowly cooling the assembly to room temperature; removing the envelope; and dissolving the filler plates without attacking the cladding metal

  15. O hydrogen bonds in alkaloids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An overview of general classification scheme, medicinal importance and crystal structure analysis with emphasis on the role of hydrogen bonding in some alkaloids is presented in this paper. The article is based on a general kind of survey while crystallographic analysis and role of hydrogen bonding are limited to only ...

  16. Distance criterion for hydrogen bond

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Distance criterion for hydrogen bond. In a D-H ...A contact, the D...A distance must be less than the sum of van der Waals Radii of the D and A atoms, for it to be a hydrogen bond.

  17. Optimal Investment in Structured Bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille; Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    2012-01-01

    of the article is to provide possible explanations for the puzzle of why small retail investors hold structured bonds. The investment universe consists of a stock index, a risk-free bank account, and a structured bond containing an option written on another index. We apply expected utility maximization...

  18. Fusion-bonded fluidic interconnects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fazal, I.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2008-01-01

    A new approach to realize fluidic interconnects based on the fusion bonding of glass tubes with silicon is presented. Fusion bond strength analyses have been carried out. Experiments with plain silicon wafers and coated with silicon oxide and silicon nitride are performed. The obtained results are

  19. Adjacent segment disease and C-ADR: promises fulfilled?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riew, K Daniel; Schenk-Kisser, Jeannette M.; Skelly, Andrea C.

    2012-01-01

    Study design: Systematic review. Clinical question: Do the rates and timing of adjacent segment disease (ASD) differ between cervical total disc arthroplasty (C-ADR) and anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) in patients treated for cervical degenerative disc disease? Methods: A systematic search of MEDLINE/PubMed and bibliographies of key articles was done to identify studies with long-term follow-up for symptomatic and/or radiographic ASD comparing C-ADR with fusion for degenerative disc disease of the cervical spine. The focus was on studies with longer follow-up (48–60 months) of primary US Food and Drug Administration trials of Prestige ST, Prodisc-C, and Bryan devices as available. Trials of other discs with a minimum of 24 months follow-up were considered for inclusion. Studies evaluating lordosis/angle changes at adjacent segments and case series were excluded. Results: From 14 citations identified, four reports from three randomized controlled trials and four nonrandomized studies are summarized. Risk differences between C-ADR and ACF for symptomatic ASD were 1.5%–2.3% and were not significant across RCT reports. Time to development of ASD did not significantly differ between treatments. Rates of radiographic ASD were variable. No meaningful comparison of ASD rates based on disc design was possible. No statistical differences in adjacent segment range of motion were noted between treatment groups. Conclusion: Our analysis reveals that, to date, there is no evidence that arthroplasty decreases ASD compared with ACDF; the promise of arthroplasty decreasing ASD has not been fulfilled. PMID:23236312

  20. Microwave treatment of renal cell carcinoma adjacent to renal sinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yongyan; Liang, Ping; Yu, Xiaoling; Yu, Jie; Cheng, Zhigang; Han, Zhiyu; Duan, Shaobo; Huang, Hui

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ultrasound (US)-guided percutaneous microwave ablation (MWA) for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) adjacent to renal sinus. This retrospective study included 41 patients who underwent US-guided percutaneous MWA of 41 RCCs adjacent to the renal sinus from April 2006 to December 2015. Contrast-enhanced images of US and computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging were performed at pre-ablation and 1day, 1 month, 3 months, and every 6 months after ablation. Initial ablation success (IAS), disease-free survival (DFS), RCC-related survival (RRS), and overall survival (OS) were recorded at the follow-up visits. IAS was achieved in 92.7% (38/41) of the study subjects. The IAS significantly differed between patients with RCCs ≤4cm (100%, 29/29) and RCCs >4cm (75%, 9/12, p=0.021). During the median follow-up of 37.6 (range, 3.0-97.3) months, the estimated 1-, 3-, and 5-year DFS of patients with an initial tumor of ≤4cm were 100%, 89.7%, and 81.5%, respectively. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year RRS were 100%, 93.3%, and 93.3%, respectively. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS were 97.1%, 87.8%, and 83.6%, respectively. The multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazard model revealed no independent predictor of recurrence among all the variables. There were no MWA-related deaths among the study subjects. One patient developed a retroperitoneal abscess after ablation. US-guided percutaneous MWA appears to be a promising method for RCCs adjacent to renal sinus, especially for tumors ≤4cm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. SOCIAL BONDING: REGULATION BY NEUROPEPTIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eLieberwirth

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Affiliative social relationships (e.g., among spouses, family members, and friends play an essential role in human society. These relationships affect psychological, physiological, and behavioral functions. As positive and enduring bonds are critical for the overall well-being of humans, it is not surprising that considerable effort has been made to study the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie social bonding behaviors. The present review details the involvement of the nonapeptides, oxytocin (OT and arginine vasopressin (AVP, in the regulation of social bonding in mammals including humans. In particular, we will discuss the role of OT and AVP in the formation of social bonds between partners of a mating pair as well as between parents and their offspring. Furthermore, the role of OT and AVP in the formation of interpersonal bonding involving trust is also discussed.

  2. Fusion-bonded fluidic interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazal, I; Elwenspoek, M C

    2008-01-01

    A new approach to realize fluidic interconnects based on the fusion bonding of glass tubes with silicon is presented. Fusion bond strength analyses have been carried out. Experiments with plain silicon wafers and coated with silicon oxide and silicon nitride are performed. The obtained results are discussed in terms of the homogeneity and strength of fusion bond. High pressure testing shows that the bond strength is large enough for most applications of fluidic interconnects. The bond strength for 525 µm thick silicon, with glass tubes having an outer diameter of 6 mm and with a wall thickness of 2 mm, is more than 60 bars after annealing at a temperature of 800 °C

  3. Sibling bereavement and continuing bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packman, Wendy; Horsley, Heidi; Davies, Betty; Kramer, Robin

    2006-11-01

    Historically, from a Freudian and medical model perspective, emotional disengagement from the deceased was seen as essential to the successful adaptation of bereavement. A major shift in the bereavement literature has occurred and it is now generally accepted that despite the permanence of physical separation, the bereaved remains involved and connected to the deceased and can be emotionally sustained through continuing bonds. The majority of literature has focused on adults and on the nature of continuing bonds following the death of a spouse. In this article, the authors demonstrate how the continuing bonds concept applies to the sibling relationship. We describe the unique continued relationship formed by bereaved children and adolescents following a sibling loss, highlight the factors that influence the siblings continuing bonds expressions, and offer clinical interventions. In our view, mental health professionals can play an important role in helping parents encourage activities that may facilitate the creation and maintenance of continuing bonds in their children.

  4. Cystic adventitial degeneration: ectopic ganglia from adjacent joint capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortmann, J; Widmer, M K; Gretener, S; Do, D D; Willenberg, T; Daliri, A; Baumgartner, I

    2009-11-01

    Cystic adventitial degeneration is a rare non-atherosclerotic cause of peripheral arterial occlusive disease, mainly seen in young men without other evidence of vascular disease. Diagnosis will be established by clinical findings and by ultrasound or angiography and can be treated by excision or enucleation of the affected arterial segment or by percutaneous ultrasound-guided aspiration. However, the etiology of adventitial cysts remains unknown. We report a case of cystic adventitial degeneration showing a connection between the joint capsule and the adventitial cyst, supporting the theory that cystic adventitial degeneration may represent ectopic ganglia from adjacent joint capsules.

  5. Adjacent Lumbar Disc Herniation after Lumbar Short Spinal Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Ninomiya, Koshi; Iwatsuki, Koichi; Ohnishi, Yu-ichiro; Ohkawa, Toshika; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2014-01-01

    A 70-year-old outpatient presented with a chief complaint of sudden left leg motor weakness and sensory disturbance. He had undergone L4/5 posterior interbody fusion with L3–5 posterior fusions for spondylolisthesis 3 years prior, and the screws were removed 1 year later. He has been followed up for 3 years, and there had been no adjacent segment problems before this presentation. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a large L2/3 disc hernia descending to the L3/4 level. Compared to...

  6. Osteoid Osteoma of Cervical Spine in two adjacent Vertebrae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Etemadifar

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteoid osteoma is a benign bone tumor, mainly seen in 10-30 years male. Spine is a relatively common site and almost always, posterior elements are involved. Plain X-Ray-, CT scan and Isotope scan help to identify and localize spine lesions. We described one 18 years old boy with 3 years low neck pain. Isotope scan, MRI and CT scan showed two lesions in C7 and T1. Gross inspection and histopathology examination confirmed osteoid osteoma in two adjacent vertebrae which has not been reported elsewhere in the literature. Key words: Osteoid Osteoma, Spine, Multifocal

  7. Microwave treatment of renal cell carcinoma adjacent to renal sinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Yongyan; Liang, Ping; Yu, Xiaoling; Yu, Jie; Cheng, Zhigang; Han, Zhiyu; Duan, Shaobo; Huang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • This study shows US-guided microwave ablation appears to be a promising method to treat renal cell carcinoma adjacent to renal sinus. • The estimated 1-, 3- and 5-year RCC-related survival were 100%, 93.3% and 93.3%, respectively. • The estimated 1-, 3- and 5-year overall survival were 97.1%, 87.8%, 83.6%, respectively. • For patients with RCC ≤4 cm, initial ablation success was 100% (29/29) and the estimated 5-year disease-free survival were 81.5%. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ultrasound (US)-guided percutaneous microwave ablation (MWA) for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) adjacent to renal sinus. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 41 patients who underwent US-guided percutaneous MWA of 41 RCCs adjacent to the renal sinus from April 2006 to December 2015. Contrast-enhanced images of US and computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging were performed at pre-ablation and 1 day, 1 month, 3 months, and every 6 months after ablation. Initial ablation success (IAS), disease-free survival (DFS), RCC-related survival (RRS), and overall survival (OS) were recorded at the follow-up visits. Results: IAS was achieved in 92.7% (38/41) of the study subjects. The IAS significantly differed between patients with RCCs ≤4 cm (100%, 29/29) and RCCs >4 cm (75%, 9/12, p = 0.021). During the median follow-up of 37.6 (range, 3.0–97.3) months, the estimated 1-, 3-, and 5-year DFS of patients with an initial tumor of ≤4 cm were 100%, 89.7%, and 81.5%, respectively. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year RRS were 100%, 93.3%, and 93.3%, respectively. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS were 97.1%, 87.8%, and 83.6%, respectively. The multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazard model revealed no independent predictor of recurrence among all the variables. There were no MWA-related deaths among the study subjects. One patient developed a retroperitoneal abscess after ablation. Conclusion: US-guided percutaneous MWA

  8. Microwave treatment of renal cell carcinoma adjacent to renal sinus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Yongyan, E-mail: gaoyongyan7@163.com [Department of Interventional Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing, 100853 (China); Department of Ultrasound, The General Hospital of Chinese People’s Armed Police Forces, 69 Yongding Road, Beijing, 100039 (China); Liang, Ping, E-mail: liangping301@hotmail.com [Department of Interventional Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing, 100853 (China); Yu, Xiaoling, E-mail: 784107477@qq.com [Department of Interventional Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing, 100853 (China); Yu, Jie, E-mail: 1411495161@qq.com [Department of Interventional Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing, 100853 (China); Cheng, Zhigang, E-mail: 13691367317@163.com [Department of Interventional Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing, 100853 (China); Han, Zhiyu, E-mail: hanzhiyu122@163.com [Department of Interventional Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing, 100853 (China); Duan, Shaobo, E-mail: Dustin2662@163.com [Department of Interventional Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing, 100853 (China); Huang, Hui, E-mail: 309hh@sina.com [Department of Interventional Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing, 100853 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • This study shows US-guided microwave ablation appears to be a promising method to treat renal cell carcinoma adjacent to renal sinus. • The estimated 1-, 3- and 5-year RCC-related survival were 100%, 93.3% and 93.3%, respectively. • The estimated 1-, 3- and 5-year overall survival were 97.1%, 87.8%, 83.6%, respectively. • For patients with RCC ≤4 cm, initial ablation success was 100% (29/29) and the estimated 5-year disease-free survival were 81.5%. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ultrasound (US)-guided percutaneous microwave ablation (MWA) for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) adjacent to renal sinus. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 41 patients who underwent US-guided percutaneous MWA of 41 RCCs adjacent to the renal sinus from April 2006 to December 2015. Contrast-enhanced images of US and computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging were performed at pre-ablation and 1 day, 1 month, 3 months, and every 6 months after ablation. Initial ablation success (IAS), disease-free survival (DFS), RCC-related survival (RRS), and overall survival (OS) were recorded at the follow-up visits. Results: IAS was achieved in 92.7% (38/41) of the study subjects. The IAS significantly differed between patients with RCCs ≤4 cm (100%, 29/29) and RCCs >4 cm (75%, 9/12, p = 0.021). During the median follow-up of 37.6 (range, 3.0–97.3) months, the estimated 1-, 3-, and 5-year DFS of patients with an initial tumor of ≤4 cm were 100%, 89.7%, and 81.5%, respectively. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year RRS were 100%, 93.3%, and 93.3%, respectively. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS were 97.1%, 87.8%, and 83.6%, respectively. The multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazard model revealed no independent predictor of recurrence among all the variables. There were no MWA-related deaths among the study subjects. One patient developed a retroperitoneal abscess after ablation. Conclusion: US-guided percutaneous MWA

  9. Fabrication and bonding of thiol-ene-based microfluidic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikanen, Tiina M; Moilanen, Maria-Elisa; Lafleur, Josiane P; Zhuang, Guisheng; Jensen, Thomas G; Kutter, Jörg P

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the bonding strength of microchips fabricated by thiol-ene free-radical polymerization was characterized in detail by varying the monomeric thiol/allyl composition from the stoichiometric ratio (1:1) up to 100% excess of thiol (2:1) or allyl (1:2) functional groups. Four different thiol-ene to thiol-ene bonding combinations were tested by bonding: (i) two stoichiometric layers, (ii) two layers bearing complementary excess of thiols and allyls, (iii) two layers both bearing excess of thiols, or (iv) two layers both bearing excess of allyls. The results showed that the stiffness of the cross-linked polymer plays the most crucial role regarding the bonding strength. The most rigid polymer layers were obtained by using the stoichiometric composition or an excess of allyls, and thus, the bonding combinations (i) and (iv) withstood the highest pressures (up to the cut-off value of 6 bar). On the other hand, excess of thiol monomers yielded more elastic polymer layers and thus decreased the pressure tolerance for bonding combinations (ii) and (iii). By using monomers with more thiol groups (e.g. tetrathiol versus trithiol), a higher cross-linking ratio, and thus, greater stiffness was obtained. Surface characterization by infrared spectroscopy confirmed that the changes in the monomeric thiol/allyl composition were also reflected in the surface chemistry. The flexibility of being able to bond different types of thiol-enes together allows for tuning of the surface chemistry to yield the desired properties for each application. Here, a capillary electrophoresis separation is performed to demonstrate the attractive properties of stoichiometric thiol-ene microchips. (technical note)

  10. Structure phenomena in the bond zone of explosively bonded plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livne, Z.

    1979-12-01

    In the bond areas of couples of explosively bonded plates, there are often zones, generally designated as ''molten pockets'', which have undergone melting and solidification. The object of the present study was to investigate molten pockets, which have a decisive effect on bond quality. The experimental samples for the study were chosen in consideration of the mutual behaviour of the plates constituting the couples, according to their equilibrium phase diagrams. To facilitate the investigation, large plates were bonded under conditions that enabled to to obtain wavy bond zones that included relatively large molten pockets. To clarify the complex nature of molten pockets and their surroundings, a wide variety of methods were employed. It was found that the shape and composition of molten pockets largely depend upon the mechanism of formation of both the bond wave and the molten pockets. It was also found that the composition of molten pockets is not homogeneous, which is manifest in the modification of the composition of the pockets, the solidification morphology, the phases, which have been identified by X-ray diffraction, and the bond strenght and hardness. Moreover, the different solidification morphologies revealed by metallography were found to depend upon the types of plates bonded, the bonding conditions and the location of pockets in the wavy interface. For molten pockets, cooling rates of 10 4 to 10 5 (degC/sec) have been deduced from interdendritic spacing, and found to be in good agreement with calculations after a mathematical model. It seems that the fast cooling rates and the steep temperature gradients are at the origin of the particular solidification phenomena observed in molten pockets

  11. Dentin-bonding agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Gomes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available New dental restorative materials have been developed to meet not only the functional demands, but esthetics as well, and in the last few years an enormous range of new materials has appeared for use in dentistry. Among them, several adhesive systems, and different operative techniques for each group materials. Therefore, is indispensable for the professional to know about the properties, characteristics, and association of these materials with the dental structures, in order to select and use them correctly. Should conventional self-etching adhesive systems be used? This question encouraged this literature review to be conducted, with the aim of comparing the conventional adhesive systems with the self-etching systems and to look for scientific data that would help professionals to choose which adhesive system to use. When compared to conventional systems, it was noted that the self-etching systems show less sensitivity to technique, especially as regards errors the operator could commit. The self-etching systems, particularly the 2-step type, have shown equivalent values of bond strength, marginal microleakage and performance, therefore, will be an option for direct composite resin restorations in posterior teeth.

  12. Electronic structure and interatomic bonding in Al10V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahnatek, M; Krajci, M; Hafner, J

    2003-01-01

    On the basis of ab initio calculations we analysed the electron density distribution in the elementary cell of the compound Al 10 V. We found covalent bonding between certain atoms. The Al-V bonds of enhanced covalency are linked into -Al-V-Al-V- chains that extend over the whole crystal. The chains intersect at each V site and together form a Kagome network of corner-sharing tetrahedra. The large voids of this network are filled by Z 16 Friauf polyhedra consisting of Al atoms only. The skeleton of the Friauf polyhedron has the form of a truncated tetrahedron and consists of 12 strongly bonded Al atoms. These Al-Al bonds also have covalent character. The bonding is dominated by sp 2 hybridization. The centre of the Friauf polyhedron may be empty or occupied by an Al atom. The thermodynamic stability of the phase is investigated. The Al 21 V 2 phase with occupied voids is at low temperatures less stable than Al 10 V. The Al 10 V structure can be considered as a special case of the Al 18 Cr 2 Mg 3 structural class. We have found the same picture of bonding as we report here for Al 10 V for several other aluminium-rich alloys belonging to the Al 18 Cr 2 Mg 3 structural class also

  13. Adjacent segment disease in degenerative pathologies with posterior instrumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Guadalupe Ramírez Olvera

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To establish the real incidence of adjacent segment disease after fusion, and to identify the levels and predisposing factors for the pathology, as well as the functional results. METHODS: a retrospective case series study with level of evidence IIB, in a sample of 179 patients diagnosed with stenosis of the lumbar spine, spondylolisthesis and degenerative scoliosis, submitted to surgery in the period 2005 to December 2013, with posterior instrumentation and posterolateral fusion, with follow-up from 2007 until May 2014, in which the symptomology and radiographic findings were evaluated, to establish the diagnosis and treatment. RESULTS: the study included 179 patients diagnosed with stenosis of the lumbar spine (n=116, isthmic and degenerative spondylolisthesis (n=50 and degenerative scoliosis (n=13; during the study, 20 cases of adjacent level segment were identified, 80% of which were treated surgically with extension of the instrumentation, while 20% were treated conservatively with NSAIDs and therapeutic blocks. CONCLUSION: An incidence of 11% was found, with an average of 3.25 years in diagnosis and treatment, a prevalence of females and diagnosis of stenosis of the lumbar canal on posterior instrumentation, a predominance of levels L4-L5; 80% were treated with extension of the instrumentation. The complications were persistent radiculopathy, infection of the surgical wound, and one death due to causes not related to the lumbar pathology.

  14. ORNAMENTAL PLANTS OF CHECHNYA AND ITS ADJACENT AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa A. Taysumov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of the research is to summarize the scattered information about the types of decorative flora of the Chechen Republic and adjacent territories; to identify highly resistant ornamental plants for cities and settlements of the North Caucasus and other territories of Russia. Discussion. Currently, in a variety of botanical gardens of the North Caucasus grows a large number of decorative plant species, widely used in green construction. However, not all species posses the quality to sufficient resist unfavorable conditions of the changed abiotic and biotic environment. Among the studied, the most valuable and promising for widespread introduction are the species of more than 122 taxa, the decorative effect of which is preserved throughout the year with no signs of aging. Many examples of the targeted use of herbs, tree species, lianas, bulbous plants were cited in the research. We give a large list of Caucasian species for growing on lawns, flowerbeds, flower gardens, alpine and stony mountains, roadsides and parks, urban parks, squares and alleys as a type of gardening. Their decorative properties, vitality, durability, life form and other bio-ecological features, attitude to abiotic factors (soil conditions, illumination, temperature, soil and atmospheric humidification conditions, etc. were taken into account. Conclusion. We give a large list of ornamental species and various planting techniques of specific species are introduced in conditions of Chechnya and its adjacent territories as well as the methods of implementing in the landscaping practice in other (middle and northern regions of Russia.

  15. Absorbed dose distribution analyses in irradiation with adjacent fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cudalbu, C.; Onuc, C.; Andrada, S.

    2002-01-01

    Because the special irradiation technique with adjacent fields is the most used in the case of medulloblastoma treatment, we consider very important to specify some general information about medulloblastoma. This malignant disease has a large incidence in children with age between 5-7 years. This tumor usually originates in the cerebellum and is referred to as primitive undifferentiated tumor. It may spread contiguously to the cerebellar peduncle, floor of the fourth ventricle, into the cervical spine. In addition, it may spread via the cerebrospinal fluid intracranially and/or to the spinal cord. For this purpose it is necessary to perform a treatment technique with cranial tangential fields combined with adjacent fields for the entire spinal cord to achieve a perfect coverage of the zones with malignant cells. The treatment in this case is an association between surgery-radio-chemotherapy, where the radiotherapy has a very important roll and a curative purpose. This is due to the fact that the migration of malignant cells in the body can't be controlled by surgery. Because of this special irradiation technique used in medulloblastoma treatment, we chase to describe in this paper this complex type of irradiation where the implications of the beams divergence in doses distribution are essentials

  16. Calculations of the electrostatic potential adjacent to model phospholipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peitzsch, R M; Eisenberg, M; Sharp, K A; McLaughlin, S

    1995-03-01

    We used the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation to calculate electrostatic potentials in the aqueous phase adjacent to model phospholipid bilayers containing mixtures of zwitterionic lipids (phosphatidylcholine) and acidic lipids (phosphatidylserine or phosphatidylglycerol). The aqueous phase (relative permittivity, epsilon r = 80) contains 0.1 M monovalent salt. When the bilayers contain equipotential surfaces are discrete domes centered over the negatively charged lipids and are approximately twice the value calculated using Debye-Hückel theory. When the bilayers contain > 25% acidic lipid, the -25 mV equipotential profiles are essentially flat and agree well with the values calculated using Gouy-Chapman theory. When the bilayers contain 100% acidic lipid, all of the equipotential surfaces are flat and agree with Gouy-Chapman predictions (including the -100 mV surface, which is located only 1 A from the outermost atoms). Even our model bilayers are not simple systems: the charge on each lipid is distributed over several atoms, these partial charges are non-coplanar, there is a 2 A ion-exclusion region (epsilon r = 80) adjacent to the polar headgroups, and the molecular surface is rough. We investigated the effect of these four factors using smooth (or bumpy) epsilon r = 2 slabs with embedded point charges: these factors had only minor effects on the potential in the aqueous phase.

  17. Hydrogen–Hydrogen Bonding in Planar Biphenyl, Predicted by Atoms-In-Molecules Theory, Does Not Exist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poater, J; Sola, M.; Bickelhaupt, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    Based on an Atoms-in-Molecules (AIM) analysis, Matta et al. (Chem. Eur. J.2003, 9, 1940) recently claimed evidence for the existence of hydrogen–hydrogen bonding between ortho-hydrogen atoms, pointing towards each other from adjacent phenyl groups in planar biphenyl. This AIM result is opposed to

  18. The acid-base resistant zone in three dentin bonding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Go; Nikaido, Toru; Foxton, Richard M; Tagami, Junji

    2009-11-01

    An acid-base resistant zone has been found to exist after acid-base challenge adjacent to the hybrid layer using SEM. The aim of this study was to examine the acid-base resistant zone using three different bonding systems. Dentin disks were applied with three different bonding systems, and then a resin composite was light-cured to make dentin disk sandwiches. After acid-base challenge, the polished surfaces were observed using SEM. For both one- and two-step self-etching primer systems, an acid-base resistant zone was clearly observed adjacent to the hybrid layer - but with differing appearances. For the wet bonding system, the presence of an acid-base resistant zone was unclear. This was because the self-etching primer systems etched the dentin surface mildly, such that the remaining mineral phase of dentin and the bonding agent yielded clear acid-base resistant zones. In conclusion, the acid-base resistant zone was clearly observed when self-etching primer systems were used, but not so for the wet bonding system.

  19. Roll bonding of strained aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staun, Jakob M.

    2003-01-01

    This report investigates roll bonding of pre-strained (å ~ 4) aluminium sheets to produce high strain material from high purity aluminium (99.996%) and commercial pure aluminium (99.6%). The degree of bonding is investigated by optical microscopy and ultrasonic scanning. Under the right...... of the cross rolled volume fraction is found. To further asses this effect, and the anisotropy, it is necessary to acquire knowledge about both texture and microstructure, e.g. by TEM. Roll bonding of pre-strained aluminium is found to be a possible alternative to ARB in the quest for ultra-fine grained...

  20. Sex-linked dominant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inheritance - sex-linked dominant; Genetics - sex-linked dominant; X-linked dominant; Y-linked dominant ... can be either an autosomal chromosome or a sex chromosome. It also depends on whether the trait ...

  1. UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS) ADJACENT BAND COMPATIBILITY ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Global Positioning System (GPS) Adjacent Band Compatibility Assessment is to evaluate the maximum transmitted power levels of adjacent band radiofrequency (RF) systems that can be tolerated by G...

  2. dimensional architectures via hydrogen bonds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    organization and has potential applications in the field of magnetism ... The concepts of crystal engineering ... 4. However, the utilization of hydrogen bond supramolecular syn- ... sembling the coordination networks by designing the ligands ...

  3. Hydrogen bonding in tight environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirrotta, Alessandro; Solomon, Gemma C.; Franco, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    The single-molecule force spectroscopy of a prototypical class of hydrogen-bonded complexes is computationally investigated. The complexes consist of derivatives of a barbituric acid and a Hamilton receptor that can form up to six simultaneous hydrogen bonds. The force-extension (F-L) isotherms...... of the host-guest complexes are simulated using classical molecular dynamics and the MM3 force field, for which a refined set of hydrogen bond parameters was developed from MP2 ab initio computations. The F-L curves exhibit peaks that signal conformational changes during elongation, the most prominent...... of which is in the 60-180 pN range and corresponds to the force required to break the hydrogen bonds. These peaks in the F-L curves are shown to be sensitive to relatively small changes in the chemical structure of the host molecule. Thermodynamic insights into the supramolecular assembly were obtained...

  4. Adhesives for orthodontic bracket bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déborah Daniella Diniz Fonseca

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The advent of acid etching, introduced by Buonocore in 1955, brought the possibility of bonding between the bracket base and enamel, contributing to more esthetic and conservative orthodontics. This direct bracket bonding technique has brought benefits such as reduced cost and time in performing the treatment, as well as making it easier to perform oral hygiene. The aim of this study was to conduct a survey of published studies on orthodontic bracket bonding to dental enamel. It was verified that resin composites and glass ionomer are the most studied and researched materials for this purpose. Resin-modified glass ionomer, with its biocompatibility, capacity of releasing fluoride and no need for acid etching on the tooth structure, has become increasingly popular among dentists. However, due to the esthetic and mechanical properties of light polymerizable resin composite, it continues to be one of the adhesives of choice in the bracket bonding technique and its use is widely disseminated.

  5. Method to improve commercial bonded SOI material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maris, Humphrey John; Sadana, Devendra Kumar

    2000-07-11

    A method of improving the bonding characteristics of a previously bonded silicon on insulator (SOI) structure is provided. The improvement in the bonding characteristics is achieved in the present invention by, optionally, forming an oxide cap layer on the silicon surface of the bonded SOI structure and then annealing either the uncapped or oxide capped structure in a slightly oxidizing ambient at temperatures greater than 1200.degree. C. Also provided herein is a method for detecting the bonding characteristics of previously bonded SOI structures. According to this aspect of the present invention, a pico-second laser pulse technique is employed to determine the bonding imperfections of previously bonded SOI structures.

  6. Property Testing on Linked Lists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshani, Peyman; Matulef, Kevin; Wilkinson, Bryan Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We define a new property testing model for algorithms that do not have arbitrary query access to the input, but must instead traverse it in a manner that respects the underlying data structure in which it is stored. In particular, we consider the case when the underlying data structure is a linked...... list, and the testing algorithm is allowed to either sample randomly from the list, or walk to nodes that are adjacent to those already visited. We study the well-known monotonicity testing problem in this model, and show that (n13) queries are both necessary and sufficient to distinguish whether...... a list is sorted (monotone increasing) versus a constant distance from sorted. Our bound is strictly greater than the (logn) queries required in the standard testing model, that allows element access indexed by rank, and strictly less than the (n12) queries required by a weak model that only allows...

  7. Tritium in the Savannah River Estuary and adjacent marine waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.W.

    1978-01-01

    The tritium distribution in the Savannah River estuary and adjacent marine waters was measured to provide information on the dilution, mixing, and movement of Savannah River water in this region. The Savannah River marine region was chosen because the average tritium concentration in this river is 5 pCi/ml, whereas other rivers in the southeastern United States average less than 0.5 pCi/ml. The increased tritium concentration in the Savannah River is due to releases from the Savannah River Plant of the Department of Energy. Tritium measurements have proved particularly effective in estimating the flushing time of the Savannah River estuary (2.4 days) and in delineating the relative contribution to the water masses in Ossabaw and Port Royal Sounds from the River and from sea water. Ossabaw and Port Royal Sounds are located approximately 20 km south and north of the Savannah River estuary, respectively

  8. Tritium in the Savannah River estuary and adjacent marine waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    The tritium distribution in the Savannah River estuary and adjacent marine waters was measured to provide information on the dilution, mixing and movement of Savannah River water in this region. The Savannah River marine region was chosen because the average tritium concentration in this river is approximately 5 pCi/ml, whereas other rivers in the southeastern United States of America average less than 0.5 pCi/ml. The increased tritium concentration in the Savannah River is due to releases from the Savannah River Plant of the Department of Energy. Tritium measurements have proved particularly effective in estimating the flushing time of the Savannah River estuary (2.4 days) and in delineating the relative contribution to the water masses in Ossabaw and Port Royal Sounds from the river and from sea-water. Ossabaw and Port Royal Sounds are located approximately 20 km south and north of the Savannah River estuary respectively. (author)

  9. Adjacent Lumbar Disc Herniation after Lumbar Short Spinal Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koshi Ninomiya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 70-year-old outpatient presented with a chief complaint of sudden left leg motor weakness and sensory disturbance. He had undergone L4/5 posterior interbody fusion with L3–5 posterior fusions for spondylolisthesis 3 years prior, and the screws were removed 1 year later. He has been followed up for 3 years, and there had been no adjacent segment problems before this presentation. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed a large L2/3 disc hernia descending to the L3/4 level. Compared to the initial MRI, this hernia occurred in an “intact” disc among multilevel severely degenerated discs. Right leg paresis and bladder dysfunction appeared a few days after admission. Microscopic lumbar disc herniotomy was performed. The right leg motor weakness improved just after the operation, but the moderate left leg motor weakness and difficulty in urination persisted.

  10. Edge scour in current adjacent to stone covers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Thor Ugelvig; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Meyer, Knud Erik

    The present paper reports some early results of an experimental investigation of edge scour in currents. Two kinds of measurements are made (1) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements of secondary currents that take place near a junction between the stone cover and the sand bed in a clear......-water experiment; and (2) scour measurements in actual scour experiment in the live-bed regime. The early results indicate that edge scour in a steady current propagating in-line with a stone layer is caused by the combined action of two effects; (1) Primary flow and (2) Secondary flow. The primary flow stirs up...... the sediment and puts into suspension, and the secondary flow carries it away from the junction between the stone layer and the sand bed, resulting in a scour hole forming adjacent to the toe of the stone layer....

  11. GOAT ROCKS WILDERNESS AND ADJACENT ROADLESS AREAS, WASHINGTON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, S.E.; Close, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Goat Rocks Wilderness and adjacent roadless areas are a rugged, highly forested, scenic area located on the crest of the Cascade Range in south-central Washington. Several mineral claims have been staked in the area. Mineral surveys were conducted. Geochemical, geophysical, and geologic investigations indicate that three areas have probable mineral-resource potential for base metals in porphyry-type deposits. Available data are not adequate to permit definition of the potential for oil and gas. There is little likelihood for the occurrence of other kinds of energy resources in the area. Evaluation of resource potential in the three areas identified as having probable mineral-resource potential could be improved by more detailed geochemical studies and geologic mapping.

  12. Adjacent segment infection after surgical treatment of spondylodiscitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siam, Ahmed Ezzat; El Saghir, Hesham; Boehm, Heinrich

    2016-03-01

    This is the first case series to describe adjacent segment infection (ASI) after surgical treatment of spondylodiscitis (SD). Patients with SD, spondylitis who were surgically treated between 1994 and 2012 were included. Out of 1187 cases, 23 (1.94 %) returned to our institution (Zentralklinik Bad Berka) with ASI: 10 males, 13 females, with a mean age of 65.1 years and a mean follow-up of 69 months. ASI most commonly involved L3-4 (seven patients), T12-L1 (five) and L2-3 (four). The mean interval between operations of primary infection and ASI was 36.9 months. All cases needed surgical intervention, debridement, reconstruction and fusion with longer instrumentation, with culture and sensitivity-based postoperative antimicrobial therapy. At last follow-up, six patients (26.1 %) were mobilized in a wheelchair with a varying degree of paraplegia (three had pre-existing paralysis). Three patients died within 2 months after the ASI operation (13 %). Excellent outcomes were achieved in five patients, and good in eight. Adjacent segment infection after surgical treatment of spondylodiscitis is a rare complication (1.94 %). It is associated with multimorbidity and shows a high mortality rate and a high neurological affection rate. Possible explanations are: haematomas of repeated micro-fractures around screw loosening, haematogenous spread, direct inoculation or a combination of these factors. ASI may also lead to proximal junctional kyphosis, as found in this series. We suggest early surgical intervention with anterior debridement, reconstruction and fusion with posterior instrumentation, followed by antimicrobial therapy for 12 weeks. Level IV retrospective uncontrolled case series.

  13. Theoretical study of ZnO adsorption and bonding on Al2O3 (0001) surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yanrong; YANG Chun; XUE Weidong; LI Jinshan; LIU Yonghua

    2004-01-01

    ZnO adsorption on sapphire (0001) surface is theoretically calculated by using a plane wave ultrasoft pseudo-potential method based on ab initio molecular dynamics. The results reveal that the surface relaxation in the first layer Al-O is reduced, even eliminated after the surface adsorption of ZnO, and the chemical bonding energy is 434.3(±38.6) kJ·mol-1. The chemical bond of ZnO (0.185 ± 0.01 nm) has a 30° angle away from the adjacent Al-O bond, and the stable chemical adsorption position of the Zn is deflected from the surface O-hexagonal symmetry with an angle of about 30°. The analysis of the atomic populations, density of state and bonding electronic density before and after the adsorption indicates that the chemical bond formed by the O2- of the ZnO and the surface Al3+ has a strong ionic bonding characteristic, while the chemical bond formed by the Zn2+ and the surface O2- has an obvious covalent characteristic, which comes mainly from the hybridization of the Zn 4s and the O 2p and partially from that of the Zn 3d and the O 2p.

  14. Fatigue of the Resin-Enamel Bonded Interface and the Mechanisms of Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahyazadehfar, Mobin; Mutluay, Mustafa Murat; Majd, Hessam; Ryou, Heonjune; Arola, Dwayne

    2013-01-01

    The durability of adhesive bonds to enamel and dentin and the mechanisms of degradation caused by cyclic loading are important to the survival of composite restorations. In this study a novel method of evaluation was used to determine the strength of resin-enamel bonded interfaces under both static and cyclic loading, and to identify the mechanisms of failure. Specimens with twin interfaces of enamel bonded to commercial resin composite were loaded in monotonic and cyclic 4-point flexure to failure within a hydrated environment. Results for the resin-enamel interface were compared with those for the resin composite (control) and values reported for resin-dentin adhesive bonds. Under both modes of loading the strength of the resin-enamel interface was significantly (p≤0.0001) lower than that of the resin composite and the resin-dentin bonded interface. Fatigue failure of the interface occurred predominately by fracture of enamel, adjacent to the interface, and not due to adhesive failures. In the absence of water aging or acid production of biofilms, the durability of adhesive bonds to enamel is lower than that achieved in dentin bonding. PMID:23571321

  15. Comparative evaluation of shear bond strength of metallic brackets bonded with two different bonding agents under dry conditions and with saliva contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashallah Khanehmasjedi

    2017-02-01

    Conclusion: Application of Single Bond and Assure bonding agents resulted in adequate bond strength of brackets to tooth structures. Contamination with saliva significantly decreased the bond strength of Assure bonding agent compared with dry conditions.

  16. Proposal of new bonding technique 'Instantaneous Liquid Phase (ILP) Bonding'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yue-Chang; Nakagawa, Hiroji; Matsuda, Fukuhisa.

    1987-01-01

    A new bonding technique named ''Instantaneous Liquid Phase (ILP) bonding'' suitable mainly for welding dissimilar materials was proposed by which instantaneous melting of one or two of the faying surfaces is utilized. The processes of ILP bonding are mainly consisted of three stages, namely the first stage forming thin liquid layer by rapid heating, the second stage joining both specimens by thin liquid layer, and the third stage cooling the specimens rapidly to avoid the formation of brittle layer. The welding temperatures of the specimens to be welded in ILP bonding are generally differentiated from each other. ILP bonding was applied for a variety of combinations of dissimilar materials of aluminum, aluminum alloys, titanium, titanium alloy, carbon steel, austenitic stainless steel, copper and tungsten, and for similar materials of stainless steel and nickel-base alloy. There were no microvoids in these welding joints, and the formation of brittle layer at the bonding interface was suppressed. The welded joints of Al + Ti, Cu + carbon steel and Cu + austenitic stainless steel showed the fracture in base metal having lower tensile strength. Further, the welded joints of Al + carbon steel, Al alloy + Ti, Al alloy + carbon steel or + austenitic stainless steel, Ti + carbon steel or + austenitic stainless steel showed better tensile properties in the comparison with diffusion welding. Furthermore, ILP bonding was available for welding same materials susceptible to hot cracking. Because of the existence of liquid layer, the welding pressure required was extremely low, and preparation of faying surface by simple tooling or polishing by no.80 emery paper was enough. The change in specimen length before and after welding was relatively little, only depending on the thickness of liquid layer. The welding time was very short, and thus high welding efficiency was obtained. (author)

  17. Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets Bonded to Zirconium Crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmeti, Blerim; Azizi, Bleron; Kelmendi, Jeta; Iljazi-Shahiqi, Donika; Alar, Željko; Anić-Milošević, Sandra

    2017-06-01

    An increasing demand for esthetic restorations has resulted in an increased use of all-ceramic restorations, such as zirconium. However, one of the challenges the orthodontist must be willing to face is how to increase bond strength between the brackets and various ceramic restorations.Bond strength can beaffected bybracket type, by the material that bracketsaremade of, and their base surface design or retention mode. ​: A im: of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of the shear bond strength (SBS) of metallic and ceramic orthodontic brackets bonded to all-zirconium ceramic surfaces used for prosthetic restorations, and also to evaluate the fracture mode of these two types of orthodontic brackets. Twenty samples/semi-crowns of all-zirconium ceramic, on which orthodontic brackets were bonded, 10 metallic and 10 ceramic polycrystalline brackets, were prepared for this research. SBS has been testedby Universal Testing Machine, with a load applied using a knife edged rod moving at a fixed rate of 1 mm/min, until failure occurred. The force required to debond the brackets was recorded in Newton, then SBS was calculated to MPa. In addition, the samples were analyzed using a digital camera magnifier to determine Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI). Statistical data were processed using t-test, and the level of significance was set at α = 0.05. Higher shear bond strength values were observed in metallic brackets bonded to zirconium crowns compared tothoseof ceramic brackets, with a significant difference. During the test, two of the ceramic brackets were partially or totally damaged. Metallic brackets, compared to ceramic polycrystalline brackets, seemed tocreate stronger adhesion with all-zirconium surfaces due to their better retention mode. Also, ceramic brackets showed higher fragility during debonding.

  18. Voltage-assisted polymer wafer bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varsanik, J S; Bernstein, J J

    2012-01-01

    Polymer wafer bonding is a widely used process for fabrication of microfluidic devices. However, best practices for polymer bonds do not achieve sufficient bond strength for many applications. By applying a voltage to a polymer bond in a process called voltage-assisted bonding, bond strength is shown to improve dramatically for two polymers (Cytop™ and poly(methyl methacrylate)). Several experiments were performed to provide a starting point for further exploration of this technique. An optimal voltage range is experimentally observed with a reduction in bonding strength at higher voltages. Additionally, voltage-assisted bonding is shown to reduce void diameter due to bond defects. An electrostatic force model is proposed to explain the improved bond characteristics. This process can be used to improve bond strength for most polymers. (paper)

  19. Optimising hydrogen bonding in solid wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Emil Tang

    2009-01-01

    The chemical bonds of wood are both covalent bonds within the wood polymers and hydrogen bonds within and between the polymers. Both types of bonds are responsible for the coherence, strength and stiffness of the material. The hydrogen bonds are more easily modified by changes in load, moisture...... and temperature distorting the internal bonding state. A problem arises when studying hydrogen bonding in wood since matched wood specimens of the same species will have very different internal bonding states. Thus, possible changes in the bonding state due to some applied treatment such as conditioning...... maintaining 100 % moisture content of the wood. The hypothesis was that this would enable a fast stress relaxation as a result of reorganization of bonds, since moisture plasticizes the material and temperature promotes faster kinetics. Hereby, all past bond distortions caused by various moisture, temperature...

  20. Ravens intervene in others' bonding attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massen, Jorg J M; Szipl, Georgine; Spreafico, Michela; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2014-11-17

    The competition for power in a complex social world is hypothesized to be a driving force in the evolution of intelligence. More specifically, power may be obtained not only by brute force but also by social strategies resembling human politics. Most empirical evidence comes from primate studies that report unprovoked aggression by dominants to maintain power by spreading fear and third-party interventions in conflicts. Coalitionary support has also been described in other animals and is often linked to social bonding. As coalitions can lead to a gain in power and fitness benefits, individuals may try to prevent coalitionary support or indirectly prevent others from forming social bonds that might lead to coalitions. Although there is some empirical evidence that coalitionary support can be manipulated, little is known about the indirect strategy. We show here that wild ravens (Corvus corax) regularly intervene in affiliative interactions of others even though such interventions are potentially risky and without immediate benefits. Moreover, the identities of both interveners and intervened pairs are not randomly distributed. Ravens with existing ties initiate most interventions, and ravens that are creating new ties are most likely to be the targets of interventions. These patterns are consistent with the idea that interventions function to prevent others from forming alliances and consequently becoming future competitors. We thus show previously undescribed social maneuvers in the struggle for power. These maneuvers are likely to be of importance in other social species as well. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Towards linking user interface translation needs to lexicographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Lexikos 25 (AFRILEX-reeks/series 25: 2015): 136-150. Towards Linking ... interfaces are faced with new challenges, such as the use of existing words in new contexts or in ... ros Afrikaans–Engels/English–Afrikaans Dictionary (Du Plessis et al. ..... utterance (or text) near or adjacent to a unit which is the focus of attention [...].

  2. On Mathematical Optimization for the Visualization of Frequencies and Adjacencies as Rectangular Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrizosa, Emilio; Guerrero, Vanesa; Morales, Dolores Romero

    2018-01-01

    individuals as adjacent rectangular portions as possible and adding as few false adjacencies, i.e., adjacencies between rectangular portions corresponding to non-adjacent individuals, as possible. We formulate this visualization problem as a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) model. We propose......In this paper we address the problem of visualizing a frequency distribution and an adjacency relation attached to a set of individuals. We represent this information using a rectangular map, i.e., a subdivision of a rectangle into rectangular portions so that each portion is associated with one...

  3. Double site-bond percolation model for biomaterial implants

    OpenAIRE

    Mely, H.; Mathiot, J. -F.

    2011-01-01

    9 figures - 10 pages; We present a double site-bond percolation model to account, on the one hand, for the vascularization and/or resorption of biomaterial implant in bones, and on the other hand, for its mechanical continuity. The transformation of the implant into osseous material, and the dynamical formation/destruction of this osseous material is accounted for by creation and destruction of links and sites in two, entangled, networks. We identify the relevant parameters to describe the im...

  4. "Vibrational bonding": a new type of chemical bond is discovered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Christopher J; Macrae, Roderick M

    2015-01-01

    A long-sought but elusive new type of chemical bond, occurring on a minimum-free, purely repulsive potential energy surface, has recently been convincingly shown to be possible on the basis of high-level quantum-chemical calculations. This type of bond, termed a vibrational bond, forms because the total energy, including the dynamical energy of the nuclei, is lower than the total energy of the dissociated products, including their vibrational zero-point energy. For this to be the case, the ZPE of the product molecule must be very high, which is ensured by replacing a conventional hydrogen atom with its light isotope muonium (Mu, mass = 1/9 u) in the system Br-H-Br, a natural transition state in the reaction between Br and HBr. A paramagnetic species observed in the reaction Mu +Br2 has been proposed as a first experimental sighting of this species, but definitive identification remains challenging.

  5. Methodology for the systematic reviews on an adjacent segment pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norvell, Daniel C; Dettori, Joseph R; Skelly, Andrea C; Riew, K Daniel; Chapman, Jens R; Anderson, Paul A

    2012-10-15

    A systematic review. To provide a detailed description of the methods undertaken in the systematic search and analytical summary of adjacent segment pathology (ASP) issues and to describe the process used to develop consensus statements and clinical recommendations regarding factors associated with the prevention and treatment of ASP. We present methods used in conducting the systematic, evidence-based reviews and development of expert panel consensus statements and clinical recommendations on the classification, natural history, risk factors, and treatment of radiographical and clinical ASP. Our intent is that clinicians will combine the information from these reviews with an understanding of their own capacities and experience to better manage patients at risk of ASP and consider future research for the prevention and treatment of ASP. A systematic search and critical review of the English-language literature was undertaken for articles published on the classification, risk, risk factors, and treatment of radiographical and clinical ASP. Articles were screened for relevance using a priori criteria, and relevant articles were critically reviewed. Whether an article was included for review depended on whether the study question was descriptive, one of therapy, or one of prognosis. The strength of evidence for the overall body of literature in each topic area was determined by 2 independent reviewers considering risk of bias, consistency, directness, and precision of results using a modification of the Grades of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. Findings from articles meeting inclusion criteria were summarized. From these summaries, consensus statements or clinical recommendations were formulated among subject experts through a modified Delphi process using the GRADE approach. A total of 3382 articles were identified and screened on 14 topics relating to the classification, risks, risk

  6. Enamel Bond Strength of New Universal Adhesive Bonding Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, D E; Meyers, E J; Guillory, V L; Vandewalle, K S

    2015-01-01

    Universal bonding agents have been introduced for use as self-etch or etch-and-rinse adhesives depending on the dental substrate and clinician's preference. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) of composite to enamel using universal adhesives compared to a self-etch adhesive when applied in self-etch and etch-and-rinse modes over time. Extracted human third molars were used to create 120 enamel specimens. The specimens were ground flat and randomly divided into three groups: two universal adhesives and one self-etch adhesive. Each group was then subdivided, with half the specimens bonded in self-etch mode and half in etch-and-rinse mode. The adhesives were applied as per manufacturers' instructions, and composite was bonded using a standardized mold and cured incrementally. The groups were further divided into two subgroups with 10 specimens each. One subgroup was stored for 24 hours and the second for six months in 37°C distilled water and tested in shear. Failure mode was also determined for each specimen. A three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) found a significant difference between groups based on bonding agent (p0.05). Clearfil SE in etch-and-rinse and self-etch modes had more mixed fractures than either universal adhesive in either mode. Etching enamel significantly increased the SBS of composite to enamel. Clearfil SE had significantly greater bond strength to enamel than either universal adhesive, which were not significantly different from each other.

  7. Common Factors in International Bond Returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, J.J.A.G.; Melenberg, B.; Nijman, T.E.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we estimate and interpret the factors that jointly determine bond returns of different maturities in the US, Germany and Japan.We analyze both currency-hedged and unhedged bond returns.For currency-hedged bond returns, we find that five factors explain 96.5% of the variation of bond

  8. 7 CFR 1726.27 - Contractor's bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contractor's bonds. 1726.27 Section 1726.27... AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES General § 1726.27 Contractor's bonds. (a) RUS Form 168b, Contractor's Bond, shall be used when a contractor's bond is required by RUS Forms 200, 257...

  9. Oregon School Bond Manual. Fourth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    The manual is intended to guide attorneys and officials of school districts in the issuance and sale of school district bonds. Purchasers of school district bonds rely on the recommendations of accredited bond attorneys who render opinions concerning the validity and legality of bond issues offered for sale. This manual is designed to assist in…

  10. Oregon School Bond Manual. Fifth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    To help school districts comply with Oregon's school bond laws, this manual provides guidelines for school district attorneys and personnel in the issuance and sale of school bonds. The document describes the proper time sequence of the bonding procedure, including elections, school board authorizations, necessary certificates, bond registration…

  11. Effect of the nitrogen unshared electron pair on the direct /sup 13/C-/sup 13/C spin-spin coupling constant of a neighboring bond in oximes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shcherbakov, V.V.; Krivdin, L.B.; Kalabin, G.A.; Trofimov, B.A.

    1986-11-20

    The authors have previously established that the direct /sup 13/C-/sup 13/C coupling constants are stereospecific relative to the orientation of unshared electron pairs (UEP) of nitrogen and oxygen atoms. Here they show that the nitrogen UEP produces a positive contribution to the direct /sup 13/C-/sup 13/C coupling constant of an adjacent syn-periplanar carbon-carbon bond and not to a negative contribution of the corresponding constant of the anti-periplanar bond. Thus, the observed effect is not a consequence of the interaction of the heteroatom UEP with the anti-bonding orbital of the adjacent anti-periplanar bond (n/sub o-o/* interaction) as in the case of anomeric and related effects.

  12. Deriving the bond pricing equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kožul Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the recent focus on Eurozone debt crisis and the credit rating downgrade not only of US debt, but that of other countries and many UK major banking institutions, this paper aims to explain the concept of bond yield, its different measures and bond pricing equation. Yields on capital market instruments are rarely quoted on the same basis, which makes direct comparison between different as investment choices impossible. Some debt instruments are quoted on discount basis, whilst coupon-bearing ones accrue interest differently, offer different compounding opportunities, have different coupon payment frequencies, and manage non-business day maturity dates differently. Moreover, rules governing debt vary across countries, markets and currencies, making yield calculation and comparison a rather complex issue. Thus, some fundamental concepts applicable to debt instrument yield measurement, with focus on bond equation, are presented here. In addition, bond equation expressed in annuity form and used to apply Newton-Raphson algorithm to derive true bond yield is also shown.

  13. Welding, Bonding and Fastening, 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, J. D. (Editor); Stein, B. A. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    A compilation of papers presented in a joint NASA, American Society for Metals, The George Washington University, American Welding Soceity, and Society of Manufacturing Engineers conference on Welding, Bonding, and Fastening at Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, on October 23 to 25, 1984 is given. Papers were presented on technology developed in current research programs relevant to welding, bonding, and fastening of structural materials required in fabricating structures and mechanical systems used in the aerospace, hydrospace, and automotive industries. Topics covered in the conference included equipment, hardware and materials used when welding, brazing, and soldering, mechanical fastening, explosive welding, use of unique selected joining techniques, adhesives bonding, and nondestructive evaluation. A concept of the factory of the future was presented, followed by advanced welding techniques, automated equipment for welding, welding in a cryogenic atmosphere, blind fastening, stress corrosion resistant fasteners, fastening equipment, explosive welding of different configurations and materials, solid-state bonding, electron beam welding, new adhesives, effects of cryogenics on adhesives, and new techniques and equipment for adhesive bonding.

  14. Three methods to measure RH bond energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkowitz, J.; Ellison, G.B.; Gutman, D.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the authors compare and contrast three powerful methods for experimentally measuring bond energies in polyatomic molecules. The methods are: radical kinetics; gas phase acidity cycles; and photoionization mass spectroscopy. The knowledge of the values of bond energies are a basic piece of information to a chemist. Chemical reactions involve the making and breaking of chemical bonds. It has been shown that comparable bonds in polyatomic molecules, compared to the same bonds in radicals, can be significantly different. These bond energies can be measured in terms of bond dissociation energies

  15. Diffusionless bonding of aluminum to Zircaloy-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, R.D.

    1965-04-01

    Aluminum can be bonded to zirconium without difficulty even when a thin layer of oxide is present on the surface of the zirconium . No detectable diffusion takes place during the bonding process. The bond layer can be stretched as much. as 8% without affecting the bond. The bond can be heated for 1000 hours at 260 o C (500 o F), and can be water quenched from 260 o C (500 o F) without any noticeable change in the bond strength. An extrusion technique has been devised for making transition sections of aluminum bonded to zirconium which can then be used to join these metals by conventional welding. Welding can be done close to the bond zone without seriously affecting the integrity of the bond. This method of bonding aluminum to Zircaloy-2 is covered by Canadian patent 702,438 January 26, 1965. (author)

  16. The political dimension of "linking social capital"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    . Through an analysis of existing analytical practices, the article concludes that linking social capital is often subordinated to the two related social capital concepts of bonding and bridging, and that linking social capital is often exclusively defined and operationalized based on expressions...... of organizational trust and participation. The article proposes a recalibration to encompass the political dynamics, and political survival theory is recommended as a way to address the hitherto underexplored governance dimension. Rather than using trust as the analytical pivot, this analytical entry point may...

  17. Microsatellite Polymorphisms Adjacent to the Oxytocin Receptor Gene in Domestic Cats: Association with Personality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minori Arahori

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of studies have explored the oxytocin system in humans and non-human animals, and some have found important genetic polymorphisms in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR associated with the bonding system, social behaviors, and personality in several species. Although single nucleotide polymorphisms in OXTR have been well-examined in various species, microsatellites (or short tandem repeats adjacent to OXTR have rarely been studied, despite some suggestions that microsatellite polymorphisms near genes might play a role in genetic transcription and translation. In this study, we surveyed microsatellites in the upstream, intron, and downstream regions of OXTR in domestic cats (Felis catus. We succeeded in amplifying 5 out of 10 regions, and recognized these five regions as polymorphic. We compared allele frequencies in these five regions between mongrel cats in Japan (n = 100 and cats of 10 pure breeds (n = 40. There were significant differences in allele frequencies between the two populations in all microsatellite regions. Additionally, the owners of mongrel cats answered a comprehensive personality questionnaire, and factor analysis extracted four factors (Openness, Friendliness, Roughness, and Neuroticism. We examined the association between the microsatellite genotypes, age, sex, neutering status, and personality scores. Compared to their counterparts, younger cats tended to score higher on Openness, male cats scored higher on Friendliness, and female and neutered cats scored higher on Roughness. When we divided the sample into three groups depending on the length of alleles, we found a marginally significant association between Friendliness and MS3. Additionally, we found a sex-mediated effect of genotypes in MS4 on Friendliness, resulting in different effects on females and males. Our findings that mongrel cats had longer alleles in MS3 and MS4 than purebred cats, and that those cats tended to score higher on Friendliness

  18. Characterization of adjacent breast tumors using oligonucleotide microarrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unger, Meredith A; Rishi, Mazhar; Clemmer, Virginia B; Hartman, Jennifer L; Keiper, Elizabeth A; Greshock, Joel D; Chodosh, Lewis A; Liebman, Michael N; Weber, Barbara L

    2001-01-01

    Current methodology often cannot distinguish second primary breast cancers from multifocal disease, a potentially important distinction for clinical management. In the present study we evaluated the use of oligonucleotide-based microarray analysis in determining the clonality of tumors by comparing gene expression profiles. Total RNA was extracted from two tumors with no apparent physical connection that were located in the right breast of an 87-year-old woman diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). The RNA was hybridized to the Affymetrix Human Genome U95A Gene Chip ® (12,500 known human genes) and analyzed using the Gene Chip Analysis Suite ® 3.3 (Affymetrix, Inc, Santa Clara, CA, USA) and JMPIN ® 3.2.6 (SAS Institute, Inc, Cary, NC, USA). Gene expression profiles of tumors from five additional patients were compared in order to evaluate the heterogeneity in gene expression between tumors with similar clinical characteristics. The adjacent breast tumors had a pairwise correlation coefficient of 0.987, and were essentially indistinguishable by microarray analysis. Analysis of gene expression profiles from different individuals, however, generated a pairwise correlation coefficient of 0.710. Transcriptional profiling may be a useful diagnostic tool for determining tumor clonality and heterogeneity, and may ultimately impact on therapeutic decision making

  19. A deterministic seismic hazard map of India and adjacent areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvez, Imtiyaz A.; Vaccari, Franco; Panza, Giuliano

    2001-09-01

    A seismic hazard map of the territory of India and adjacent areas has been prepared using a deterministic approach based on the computation of synthetic seismograms complete of all main phases. The input data set consists of structural models, seismogenic zones, focal mechanisms and earthquake catalogue. The synthetic seismograms have been generated by the modal summation technique. The seismic hazard, expressed in terms of maximum displacement (DMAX), maximum velocity (VMAX), and design ground acceleration (DGA), has been extracted from the synthetic signals and mapped on a regular grid of 0.2 deg. x 0.2 deg. over the studied territory. The estimated values of the peak ground acceleration are compared with the observed data available for the Himalayan region and found in good agreement. Many parts of the Himalayan region have the DGA values exceeding 0.6 g. The epicentral areas of the great Assam earthquakes of 1897 and 1950 represent the maximum hazard with DGA values reaching 1.2-1.3 g. (author)

  20. Earthquake response of adjacent structures with viscoelastic and friction dampers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žigić Miodrag

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the seismic response of two adjacent structures connected with a dry friction damper. Each of them consists of a viscoelastic rod and a rigid block, which can slide without friction along the moving base. A simplified earthquake model is used for modeling the horizontal ground motion. Energy dissipation is taken by the presence of the friction damper, which is modeled by the set-valued Coulomb friction law. Deformation of viscoelastic rods during the relative motion of the blocks represents another way of energy dissipation. The constitutive equation of a viscoelastic body is described by the fractional Zener model, which includes fractional derivatives of stress and strain. The problem merges fractional derivatives as non-local operators and theory of set-valued functions as the non-smooth ones. Dynamical behaviour of the problem is governed by a pair of coupled multi-valued differential equations. The posed Cauchy problem is solved by use of the Grünwald-Letnikov numerical scheme. The behaviour of the system is analyzed for different values of system parameters.

  1. Repeated adjacent-segment degeneration after posterior lumbar interbody fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Shinya; Oda, Takenori; Yamasaki, Ryoji; Maeno, Takafumi; Iwasaki, Motoki

    2014-05-01

    One of the most important sequelae affecting long-term results is adjacent-segment degeneration (ASD) after posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). Although several reports have described the incidence rate, there have been no reports of repeated ASD. The purpose of this report was to describe 1 case of repeated ASD after PLIF. A 62-year-old woman with L-4 degenerative spondylolisthesis underwent PLIF at L4-5. At the second operation, L3-4 PLIF was performed for L-3 degenerative spondylolisthesis 6 years after the primary operation. At the third operation, L2-3 PLIF was performed for L-2 degenerative spondylolisthesis 1.5 years after the primary operation. Vertebral collapse of L-1 was detected 1 year after the third operation, and the collapse had progressed. At the fourth operation, 3 years after the third operation, vertebral column resection of L-1 and replacement of titanium mesh cages with pedicle screw fixation between T-4 and L-5 was performed. Although the patient's symptoms resolved after each operation, the time between surgeries shortened. The sacral slope decreased gradually although each PLIF achieved local lordosis at the fused segment.

  2. Modern sedimentary processes along the Doce river adjacent continental shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria da Silva Quaresma

    Full Text Available In areas of the continental shelf where sediment supply is greater than the sediment dispersion capacity, an extensive terrigenous deposits and consequently submerged deltas can be formed. The Eastern Brazilian shelf is characterized by the occurrence of river feed deltas in between starving coasts. Herein, modern sedimentary processes acting along the Doce river adjacent continental shelf are investigated. The main objective was to understand the shelf sediment distribution, recognizing distinct sedimentary patterns and the major influence of river sediment discharge in the formation of shelf deposits. The study used 98 surficial samples that were analyzed for grain size, composition and bulk density. Results revealed 3 distinct sectors: south - dominated by mud fraction with a recent deposition from riverine input until 30 m deep and from this depth bioclastic sands dominate; central north - sand mud dominated, been recognized as a bypass zone of resuspended sediment during high energy events; and north - relict sands with high carbonate content. The modern sedimentation processes along the Doce river continental shelf is dominated by distinct sedimentary regimes, showing a strong fluvial influence associated with wave/wind induced sediment dispersion and a carbonate regime along the outer shelf. These regimes seem to be controlled by the distance from the river mouth and bathymetric gradients.

  3. Oligocene paleogeography of the northern Great Plains and adjacent mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeland, D.

    1985-01-01

    Early Oligocene paleogeography of the northern Great Plains and adjacent mountains is inferred in part from published surface and subsurface studies of the pre-Oligocene surface. These studies are combined with published and unpublished information on clast provenance, crossbedding orientation, and Eocene paleogeography. The Oligocene Arctic Ocean-Gulf of Mexico continental divide extended from the southern Absaroka Mountains east along the Owl Creek Mountains, across the southern Powder River Basin, through the northern Black Hills, and eastward across South Dakota. Streams north of the divide flowed northeastward. The Olligocene White River Group contains 50 to 90 percent airfall pyroclastic debris from a northern Great Basin source. Most of the uranium deposits of the region in pre-Oligocene rocks can be related to a uranium source in the volcanic ash of the White River; in many places the pre-Oligocene deposits can be related to specific Oligocene channels. Uranium deposits in sandstones of major Oligocene rivers are an important new type of deposit. The Oligocene channel sandstones also contain small quantities of gold, molybdenum, gas, and oil

  4. Mechanical interactions between adjacent airways in the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Baoshun; Bates, Jason H T

    2014-03-15

    The forces of mechanical interdependence between the airways and the parenchyma in the lung are powerful modulators of airways responsiveness. Little is known, however, about the extent to which adjacent airways affect each other's ability to narrow due to distortional forces generated within the intervening parenchyma. We developed a two-dimensional computational model of two airways embedded in parenchyma. The parenchyma itself was modeled in three ways: 1) as a network of hexagonally arranged springs, 2) as a network of triangularly arranged springs, and 3) as an elastic continuum. In all cases, we determined how the narrowing of one airway was affected when the other airway was relaxed vs. when it narrowed to the same extent as the first airway. For the continuum and triangular network models, interactions between airways were negligible unless the airways lay within about two relaxed diameters of each other, but even at this distance the interactions were small. By contrast, the hexagonal spring network model predicted that airway-airway interactions mediated by the parenchyma can be substantial for any degree of airway separation at intermediate values of airway contraction forces. Evidence to date suggests that the parenchyma may be better represented by the continuum model, which suggests that the parenchyma does not mediate significant interactions between narrowing airways.

  5. Cryogun cryotherapy for oral leukoplakia and adjacent melanosis lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Ming; Cheng, Shih-Jung; Lin, Hung-Pin; Yu, Chuan-Hang; Wu, Yang-Che; Chiang, Chun-Pin

    2015-09-01

    Our previous study has shown that cryogun cryotherapy is a good and effective treatment modality for oral leukoplakia. In this study, we used cryogun cryotherapy to treat 72 oral leukoplakia and adjacent smoking-induced melanosis (OLM) lesions on the buccal mucosae. Of 72 OLM lesions, 14 had epithelial hyperplasia with parakeratosis, 24 had epithelial hyperplasia with hyperkeratosis, 26 had mild dysplasia, seven had moderate dysplasia, and one had severe dysplasia. Complete regression was achieved in all 72 OLM lesions after a mean of 3.3 ± 1.3 cryogun cryotherapy treatments. We found that OLM lesions in patients without smoking habit, with the greatest diameter cryotherapy treatment to achieve complete regression than those OLM lesions in patients with smoking habit, with the greatest diameter ≥ 2.8 cm, without epithelial dysplasia, or with a surface keratin thickness > 50 μm (all P-values cryotherapy treatment number (all P-values cryotherapy treatment required to achieve complete regression of the OLM lesion by multivariate logistic regression analyses. Cryogun cryotherapy is an effective treatment modality for OLM lesions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Flow and edge scour in current adjacent to stone covers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Thor U.; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Bøgelund, Jon

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on edge scour adjacent to a stone cover laid on a sandy bed. The three-dimensional flow over the edge of the stone layer has been investigated by the use of particle image velocimetry. The flow measurements show a significant amount...... of turbulence in the primary flow near the junction between the stone layer and the sand bed and the formation of complex secondary-flow structures. The results show that the flow and the edge scour process in a steady current are governed by the size of the roughness elements and to some extent the side slope...... of the berm. The edge scour is caused by the combined action of the primary flow and the secondary flow. The primary flow stirs up the sediment and puts it into suspension, and the secondary flow carries it away from the junction between the stone layer and the sand bed, resulting in a scour hole forming...

  7. Review of vibration effect during piling installation to adjacent structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Nurul Aishah Abd; Musir, Adhilla Ainun; Dahalan, Nurol Huda; Ghani, Abdul Naser Abdul; Khalil, Muhamad Kasimi Abd

    2017-12-01

    Basically, many major structures across the world such as towers, high rise building, houses and bridges utilize pile as a support material. The use of pile is important to strengthen the structures. However, this has led to another problem to the nearest surrounding structures resulted from pile driving. As part of a construction work, unavoidable pile driving activity generates a vibration towards the surrounding structures if uncontrolled may cause damage to the adjacent structure. As the current construction works are frequently located in urban areas where the distance between the nearest building structures is not far, vibration may cause damage to nearby structures. Knowing which part of the building that is mostly affected by various vibration patterns from the impact of pile driving is crucial. Thus, it is very important to predict the impact of vibration during piling installation work. This paper reviews the vibrations generated by piling activity toward surrounding structures in terms sources of vibration, impact of piling installation, pile-soil interaction, and factors affecting the vibration impact of building as well as to study the parameters involved in vibration generation during piling works.

  8. Concentric network symmetry grasps authors' styles in word adjacency networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amancio, Diego R.; Silva, Filipi N.; Costa, Luciano da F.

    2015-06-01

    Several characteristics of written texts have been inferred from statistical analysis derived from networked models. Even though many network measurements have been adapted to study textual properties at several levels of complexity, some textual aspects have been disregarded. In this paper, we study the symmetry of word adjacency networks, a well-known representation of text as a graph. A statistical analysis of the symmetry distribution performed in several novels showed that most of the words do not display symmetric patterns of connectivity. More specifically, the merged symmetry displayed a distribution similar to the ubiquitous power-law distribution. Our experiments also revealed that the studied metrics do not correlate with other traditional network measurements, such as the degree or the betweenness centrality. The discriminability power of the symmetry measurements was verified in the authorship attribution task. Interestingly, we found that specific authors prefer particular types of symmetric motifs. As a consequence, the authorship of books could be accurately identified in 82.5% of the cases, in a dataset comprising books written by 8 authors. Because the proposed measurements for text analysis are complementary to the traditional approach, they can be used to improve the characterization of text networks, which might be useful for applications based on stylistic classification.

  9. Pricing catastrophic bonds for earthquakes in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera, Brenda López

    2006-01-01

    After the occurrence of a natural disaster, the reconstruction can be financed with catastrophic bonds (CAT bonds) or reinsurance. For insurers, reinsurers and other corporations CAT bonds provide multi year protection without the credit risk present in reinsurance. For investors CAT bonds offer attractive returns and reduction of portfolio risk, since CAT bonds defaults are uncorrelated with defaults of other securities. As the study of natural catastrophe models plays an important role in t...

  10. Two Comments on Bond Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaister, P.

    1997-09-01

    Tetrahedral Bond Angle from Elementary Trigonometry The alternative approach of using the scalar (or dot) product of vectors enables the determination of the bond angle in a tetrahedral molecule in a simple way. There is, of course, an even more straightforward derivation suitable for students who are unfamiliar with vectors, or products thereof, but who do know some elementary trigonometry. The starting point is the figure showing triangle OAB. The point O is the center of a cube, and A and B are at opposite corners of a face of that cube in which fits a regular tetrahedron. The required bond angle alpha = AÔB; and using Pythagoras' theorem, AB = 2(square root 2) is the diagonal of a face of the cube. Hence from right-angled triangle OEB, tan(alpha/2) = (square root 2) and therefore alpha = 2tan-1(square root 2) is approx. 109° 28' (see Fig. 1).

  11. FATHER, SOCIAL BOND AND WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SYLVIA DE CASTRO KORGI

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available On the cross-point of two of the most important and inseparable Freudian questions: What is a father?and, What a woman wants?, this paper begins a reflection about the women’s place in the Freudianarticulation of the relationship between the father and the social bond. In fact, the Freudian father, thanksto the law mediation which he is its agent, has as a function the regulation of the pleasure that participatesin the social bond, making this way possible the human community. On the other hand, the support ofthe human community is the bond among brothers, as well as Freud presents it in his foundational textof the Law. How to precise the women’s place in this arrangement? The reflection stands out this thatexceeds the Father’s Law and that Freud sets on women’s account, initially under the figure of heropposition to the culture.

  12. Medieval orality, mothers, and bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Scott C

    2004-01-01

    The role of women in the Middle Ages was vilification, veneration, and exclusion. Due to the high rates of maternal and infant mortality bonding shifted from the mother-child dyad to one in which the Church, Holy Family, and king acted as pseudo-parents. In art this is suggested by the virtual absence of eye contact between the Virgin and Christ-child. Frustration of early oral needs consequent to lack of adequate mother-child bonding prompted a reactive emphasis on orality in art and legend. A decrease in infant mortality and a reciprocal improvement in mother child bonding contributed to cultural shifts in how self-realization would be accomplished during the Renaissance and in the later emergence of secular humanism.

  13. PMMA to SU-8 Bonding for Polymer Based Lab-on-a-chip Systems with Integrated Optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Brian Bilenberg; Nielsen, Theodor; Nilsson, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    An adhesive bonding technique for wafer-level sealing of SU-8 based lab-on-a-chip microsystems with integrated optical components is presented. Microfluidic channels and optical components, e.g. waveguides, are fabricated in cross-linked SU-8 and sealed with a Pyrex glass substrate by means...... strength of 16 MPa is achieved at bonding temperatures between 110 oC and 120oC, at a bonding force of 2000 N on a 4-inch wafer. The optical propagation loss of multi-mode 10ym (thickness)x 30ym (width)SU-8 waveguides is measured. The propagation loss in PMMA bonded waveguide struc-tures is more than 5 d......B/cm lower, at wavelengths between 600nm and 900 nm, than in similar structures bonded by an intermediate layer of SU-8. Furthermore 950K PMMA shows no tendency to flow into the bonded structures during bonding because of its high viscosity....

  14. Simultaneous bond degradation and bond formation during phenol-formaldehyde curing with wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Yelle; John Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Bonding of wood using phenol–formaldehyde adhesive develops highly durable bonds. Phenol– formaldehyde is believed to form primary bonds with wood cell wall polymers (e.g., lignin). However, it is unclear how this adhesive interacts and bonds to lignin. Through wood solubilisation methodologies, earlywood and latewood bonded assemblies were characterized using two-...

  15. Bond Pricing with Default Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Saa-Requejo, Jesus; Santa-Clara, Pedro

    1997-01-01

    We offer a new model for pricing bonds subject to default risk. The event of default is remodeled as the first time that a state variable that captures the solvency of the issue goes below a certain level. The payoff to the bond in case of default is a constant fraction of the value of a security with the same promised payoffs but without the risk of default. We show that our model is very tractable under different models of interest rate risk and of the interaction between default risk and i...

  16. A systematic review of definitions and classification systems of adjacent segment pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Paul; Fehlings, Michael G; Hashimoto, Robin; Lee, Michael J; Anderson, Paul A; Chapman, Jens R; Raich, Annie; Norvell, Daniel C

    2012-10-15

    Systematic review. To undertake a systematic review to determine how "adjacent segment degeneration," "adjacent segment disease," or clinical pathological processes that serve as surrogates for adjacent segment pathology are classified and defined in the peer-reviewed literature. Adjacent segment degeneration and adjacent segment disease are terms referring to degenerative changes known to occur after reconstructive spine surgery, most commonly at an immediately adjacent functional spinal unit. These can include disc degeneration, instability, spinal stenosis, facet degeneration, and deformity. The true incidence and clinical impact of degenerative changes at the adjacent segment is unclear because there is lack of a universally accepted classification system that rigorously addresses clinical and radiological issues. A systematic review of the English language literature was undertaken and articles were classified using the Grades of Recommendation Assessment, Development, and Evaluation criteria. RESULTS.: Seven classification systems of spinal degeneration, including degeneration at the adjacent segment, were identified. None have been evaluated for reliability or validity specific to patients with degeneration at the adjacent segment. The ways in which terms related to adjacent segment "degeneration" or "disease" are defined in the peer-reviewed literature are highly variable. On the basis of the systematic review presented in this article, no formal classification system for either cervical or thoracolumbar adjacent segment disorders currently exists. No recommendations regarding the use of current classification of degeneration at any segments can be made based on the available literature. A new comprehensive definition for adjacent segment pathology (ASP, the now preferred terminology) has been proposed in this Focus Issue, which reflects the diverse pathology observed at functional spinal units adjacent to previous spinal reconstruction and balances

  17. New Type of Halogen Bond: Multivalent Halogen Interacting with π- and σ-Electrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir J. Grabowski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ calculations were performed for complexes of BrF3 and BrF5 acting as Lewis acids through the bromine centre, with species playing a role of Lewis base: dihydrogen, acetylene, ethylene, and benzene. The molecular hydrogen donates electrons by its σ-bond, while in remaining moieties—in complexes of hydrocarbons; such an electron transfer follows from π-electrons. The complexes are linked by a kind of the halogen bond that is analyzed for the first time in this study, i.e., it is the link between the multivalent halogen and π or σ-electrons. The nature of such a halogen bond is discussed, as well as various dependencies and correlations are presented. Different approaches are applied here, the Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules, Natural Bond Orbital method, the decomposition of the energy of interaction, the analysis of electrostatic potentials, etc.

  18. Real-Time Price Discovery in Global Stock, Bond and Foreign Exchange Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben G.; Bollerslev, Tim; Diebold, Francis X.

    Using a unique high-frequency futures dataset, we characterize the response of U.S., German and British stock, bond and foreign exchange markets to real-time U.S. macroeconomic news. We find that news produces conditional mean jumps; hence high-frequency stock, bond and exchange rate dynamics...... are linked to fundamentals. Equity markets, moreover, react differently to news depending on the stage of the business cycle, which explains the low correlation between stock and bond returns when averaged over the cycle. Hence our results qualify earlier work suggesting that bond markets react most strongly...... to macroeconomic news; in particular, when conditioning on the state of the economy, the equity and foreign exchange markets appear equally responsive. Finally, we also document important contemporaneous links across all markets and countries, even after controlling for the effects of macroeconomic news....

  19. Perceived parenting stress in the course of postpartum depression: the buffering effect of maternal bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, C; Zietlow, A-L; Müller, M; Dubber, S

    2016-06-01

    Research investigating maternal bonding and parenting stress in the course of postpartum depression is lacking. Aim of the study was to investigate the development and potential mediation of both constructs in the course of postpartum depression. n = 31 mothers with postpartum depression according to DSM-IV and n = 32 healthy controls completed the German version of the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire and the Parenting Stress Index at two measuring times: acute depression (T1) and remission (T2). At T1, the clinical group reported lower bonding and higher parenting stress. Bonding was found to partially mediate the link between maternal diagnosis and parenting stress. Furthermore, the clinical group reported lower bonding and higher parenting stress averaged over both measurement times. However, at T2, the clinical group still differed from the controls even though they improved in bonding and reported less parenting stress. A significant increase of bonding was also observed in the control group. Maternal bonding seems to buffer the negative impact of postpartum depression on parenting stress. The results emphasize the need for interventions focusing on maternal bonding and mother-infant interaction in order to prevent impairment of the mother-child relationship.

  20. Thermally assisted peeling of an elastic strip in adhesion with a substrate via molecular bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jin; Lin, Ji; Xu, Guang-Kui; Lin, Yuan; Gao, Huajian

    A statistical model is proposed to describe the peeling of an elastic strip in adhesion with a flat substrate via an array of non-covalent molecular bonds. Under an imposed tensile peeling force, the interfacial bonds undergo diffusion-type transition in their bonding state, a process governed by a set of probabilistic equations coupled to the stretching, bending and shearing of the elastic strip. Because of the low characteristic energy scale associated with molecular bonding, thermal excitations are found to play an important role in assisting the escape of individual molecular bonds from their bonding energy well, leading to propagation of the peeling front well below the threshold peel-off force predicted by the classical theories. Our study establishes a link between the deformation of the strip and the spatiotemporal evolution of interfacial bonds, and delineates how factors like the peeling force, bending rigidity of the strip and binding energy of bonds influence the resultant peeling velocity and dimensions of the process zone. In terms of the apparent adhesion strength and dissipated energy, the bond-mediated interface is found to resist peeling in a strongly rate-dependent manner.

  1. Peptide bond detection via graphene nanogaps: a proof of principle study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, Aldo Eugenio; Gala, Fabrizio; Chinappi, Mauro; Zollo, Giuseppe

    2018-03-29

    Solid-state nanopores and nanogaps are emerging as promising tools for single molecule analysis. 2D materials, such as graphene, can potentially reach the spatial resolution needed for nucleic acid and protein sequencing. In the context of the density functional theory, atomistic modeling and non-equilibrium Green's function calculation, we show that glycine based polypeptide chains translocating across a nano-gap between two semi-infinite graphene nano-ribbons leave a specific transverse current signature for each peptide bond. The projected density of states and bond current analyses reveal a complex scenario with a role played by the adjacent α-carbons and side chains and by the orbitals of the partially resonant double bond involving C, N and O atoms of the peptide bond. In this context, specific fingerprints of the atoms involved in the peptide bonds are found. The same scenario is evidenced also for peptides involving alanine residues. The signal measured can be considered as a specific fingerprint of peptide bonds between small and neutral amino acids with no polar/charge effects. On this basis, a newly conceived nano-device made of a graphene based array of nano-gap is proposed as a possible route to approach peptide sequencing with atomic resolution.

  2. Electron transfer in silicon-bridged adjacent chromophores: the source for blue-green emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayda, Malgorzata; Angulo, Gonzalo; Hug, Gordon L; Ludwiczak, Monika; Karolczak, Jerzy; Koput, Jacek; Dobkowski, Jacek; Marciniak, Bronislaw

    2017-05-10

    Si-Bridged chromophores have been proposed as sources for blue-green emission in several technological applications. The origin of this dual emission is to be found in an internal charge transfer reaction. The current work is an attempt to describe the details of these processes in these kinds of substances, and to design a molecular architecture to improve their performance. Nuclear motions essential for intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) can involve processes from twisted internal moieties to dielectric relaxation of the solvent. To address these issues, we studied ICT between adjacent chromophores in a molecular compound containing N-isopropylcarbazole (CBL) and 1,4-divinylbenzene (DVB) linked by a dimethylsilylene bridge. In nonpolar solvents emission arises from the local excited state (LE) of carbazole whereas in solvents of higher polarity dual emission was detected (LE + ICT). The CT character of the additional emission band was concluded from the linear dependence of the fluorescence maxima on solvent polarity. Electron transfer from CBL to DVB resulted in a large excited-state dipole moment (37.3 D) as determined from a solvatochromic plot and DFT calculations. Steady-state and picosecond time-resolved fluorescence experiments in butyronitrile (293-173 K) showed that the ICT excited state arises from the LE state of carbazole. These results were analyzed and found to be in accordance with an adiabatic version of Marcus theory including solvent relaxation.

  3. Piedramuelle Limestone in the building heritage of Oviedo, Spain, and adjacent towns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenes Van den Eynde, Victor; Mateos, Felix Javier; Valdeon, Luis; Rojo, Araceli

    2017-04-01

    The Piedramuelle limestone has a very important representation in the building heritage of Oviedo, historical capital of Asturias (Spain) and surrounding towns. This argillaceous limestone has been quarried since the High Middle Ages until the beginning of the XX century. The main mineralogical components are carbonates (mainly calcite and sometimes ankerite, 70-90%), quartz (5-15%), terrigenous minerals (6-15%) and iron oxides (blocks and ashlars of the buildings. Some of the buildings constructed with Piedramuelle limestone are the Cathedral, the Old University and the Palaces from the XVII and XVIII centuries. The ambiance and historical architecture of Oviedo and adjacent towns is closely linked with the textures and colors of this stone. Nowadays, the Piedramuelle limestone is not exploited anymore, being the quarries exhausted. This represents an issue from a conservation point of view, since there is not a suitable stone for replacement. In order to preserve and maintain the building heritage of these towns, it is very important to prospect and protect the remaining outcrops still able to supply this characteristic stone.

  4. Adjacent-segment disease after thoracic pedicle screw fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Nitin; Heary, Robert F; Agarwal, Prateek

    2018-03-01

    OBJECTIVE Pedicle screw fixation is a technique widely used to treat conditions ranging from spine deformity to fracture stabilization. Pedicle screws have been used traditionally in the lumbar spine; however, they are now being used with increasing frequency in the thoracic spine as a more favorable alternative to hooks, wires, or cables. Although safety concerns, such as the incidence of adjacent-segment disease (ASD) after cervical and lumbar fusions, have been reported, such issues in the thoracic spine have yet to be addressed thoroughly. Here, the authors review the literature on ASD after thoracic pedicle screw fixation and report their own experience specifically involving the use of pedicle screws in the thoracic spine. METHODS Select references from online databases, such as PubMed (provided by the US National Library of Medicine at the National Institutes of Health), were used to survey the literature concerning ASD after thoracic pedicle screw fixation. To include the authors' experience at Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, a retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database was performed to determine the incidence of complications over a 13-year period in 123 consecutive adult patients who underwent thoracic pedicle screw fixation. Children, pregnant or lactating women, and prisoners were excluded from the review. By comparing preoperative and postoperative radiographic images, the occurrence of thoracic ASD and disease within the surgical construct was determined. RESULTS Definitive radiographic fusion was detected in 115 (93.5%) patients. Seven incidences of instrumentation failure and 8 lucencies surrounding the screws were observed. One patient was observed to have ASD of the thoracic spine. The mean follow-up duration was 50 months. CONCLUSIONS This long-term radiographic evaluation revealed the use of pedicle screws for thoracic fixation to be an effective stabilization modality. In particular, ASD seems to be less of a problem in the

  5. Tidally influenced alongshore circulation at an inlet-adjacent shoreline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Jeff E.; Elias, Edwin P.L.; List, Jeffrey H.; Erikson, Li H.; Barnard, Patrick L.

    2013-01-01

    The contribution of tidal forcing to alongshore circulation inside the surfzone is investigated at a 7 km long sandy beach adjacent to a large tidal inlet. Ocean Beach in San Francisco, CA (USA) is onshore of a ∼150 km2 ebb-tidal delta and directly south of the Golden Gate, the sole entrance to San Francisco Bay. Using a coupled flow-wave numerical model, we find that the tides modulate, and in some cases can reverse the direction of, surfzone alongshore flows through two separate mechanisms. First, tidal flow through the inlet results in a barotropic tidal pressure gradient that, when integrated across the surfzone, represents an important contribution to the surfzone alongshore force balance. Even during energetic wave conditions, the tidal pressure gradient can account for more than 30% of the total alongshore pressure gradient (wave and tidal components) and up to 55% during small waves. The wave driven component of the alongshore pressure gradient results from alongshore wave height and corresponding setup gradients induced by refraction over the ebb-tidal delta. Second, wave refraction patterns over the inner shelf are tidally modulated as a result of both tidal water depth changes and strong tidal flows (∼1 m/s), with the effect from currents being larger. These tidally induced changes in wave refraction result in corresponding variability of the alongshore radiation stress and pressure gradients within the surfzone. Our results indicate that tidal contributions to the surfzone force balance can be significant and important in determining the direction and magnitude of alongshore flow.

  6. FSH: fast spaced seed hashing exploiting adjacent hashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, Samuele; Comin, Matteo; Pizzi, Cinzia

    2018-01-01

    Patterns with wildcards in specified positions, namely spaced seeds , are increasingly used instead of k -mers in many bioinformatics applications that require indexing, querying and rapid similarity search, as they can provide better sensitivity. Many of these applications require to compute the hashing of each position in the input sequences with respect to the given spaced seed, or to multiple spaced seeds. While the hashing of k -mers can be rapidly computed by exploiting the large overlap between consecutive k -mers, spaced seeds hashing is usually computed from scratch for each position in the input sequence, thus resulting in slower processing. The method proposed in this paper, fast spaced-seed hashing (FSH), exploits the similarity of the hash values of spaced seeds computed at adjacent positions in the input sequence. In our experiments we compute the hash for each positions of metagenomics reads from several datasets, with respect to different spaced seeds. We also propose a generalized version of the algorithm for the simultaneous computation of multiple spaced seeds hashing. In the experiments, our algorithm can compute the hashing values of spaced seeds with a speedup, with respect to the traditional approach, between 1.6[Formula: see text] to 5.3[Formula: see text], depending on the structure of the spaced seed. Spaced seed hashing is a routine task for several bioinformatics application. FSH allows to perform this task efficiently and raise the question of whether other hashing can be exploited to further improve the speed up. This has the potential of major impact in the field, making spaced seed applications not only accurate, but also faster and more efficient. The software FSH is freely available for academic use at: https://bitbucket.org/samu661/fsh/overview.

  7. APPLICATION OF RIGID LINKS IN STRUCTURAL DESIGN MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Yu. Fialko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A special finite element modelling rigid links is proposed for the linear static and buckling analysis. Unlike the classical approach based on the theorems of rigid body kinematics, the proposed approach preserves the similarity between the adjacency graph for a sparse matrix and the adjacency graph for nodes of the finite element model, which allows applying sparse direct solvers more effectively. Besides, the proposed approach allows significantly reducing the number of nonzero entries in the factored stiffness matrix in comparison with the classical one, which greatly reduces the duration of the solution. For buckling problems of structures containing rigid bodies, this approach gives correct results. Several examples demonstrate its efficiency.

  8. Reaction-bonded silicon nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porz, F.

    1982-10-01

    Reaction-bonded silicon nitride (RBSN) has been characterized. The oxidation behaviour in air up to 1500 0 C and 3000 h and the effects of static and cyclic oxidation on room-temperature strength have been studied. (orig./IHOE) [de

  9. Breaking Rules – Making Bonds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    unusual because it has a pair of non-bonding electrons. So we would classify it ... you would expect the boron to be electron rich with a formal oxidation state of ... Principles of Structure and Reactivity, 4th Edition, Pearson Education, 2008. [3].

  10. Essays on European bond markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, Y.C.

    2005-01-01

    This dissertation focused on a number of issues that are of importance in the current European bond market. In the past years, the fiscal policy of the Eurozone members, advances in the technology of trading platforms and the introduction of a single currency have reshaped the fixed income markets

  11. Analysis of Disulfide Bond Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakman, Ineke; Lamriben, Lydia; van Zadelhoff, Guus; Hebert, Daniel N.

    2017-01-01

    In this unit, protocols are provided for detection of disulfide bond formation in cultures of intact cells and in an in vitro translation system containing isolated microsomes or semi-permeabilized cells. First, the newly synthesized protein of interest is biosynthetically labeled with radioactive

  12. [Posterior ceramic bonded partial restorations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainjot, Amélie; Vanheusden, Alain

    2006-01-01

    Posterior ceramic bonded partial restorations are conservative and esthetic approaches for compromised teeth. Overlays constitute a less invasive alternative for tooth tissues than crown preparations. With inlays and onlays they are also indicated in case of full arch or quadrant rehabilitations including several teeth. This article screens indications and realization of this type of restorations.

  13. Adhesive bonding of wood materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles B. Vick

    1999-01-01

    Adhesive bonding of wood components has played an essential role in the development and growth of the forest products industry and has been a key factor in the efficient utilization of our timber resource. The largest use of adhesives is in the construction industry. By far, the largest amounts of adhesives are used to manufacture building materials, such as plywood,...

  14. Bond graph modelling of engineering systems: theory, applications and software support

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Borutzky, Wolfgang; Margolis, Donald L

    2011-01-01

    ... way such that analytical or computer response predictions can be straightforwardly carried out. Bond graphs are a concise pictorial representation of all types of interacting energetic systems. In my experience working with engineers on the development of complex systems it is obvious that these systems suffer from thermal problems, structural problems, vibration and noise problems, and control and stability issues that do not fit into a single discipline. Bond graphs provide the link by which all these different ...

  15. More RRBs, Please! Why Ottawa Should Issue More Inflation-Indexed Bonds

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe Bergevin; William B.P. Robson

    2012-01-01

    Financial instruments indexed to the general price level are of great potential use to borrowers and lenders alike. But up until recently, they have been relatively scarce – in part because private borrowers dislike offering protection against inflation that they do not control. Since the early 1980s, several developed-country governments have begun issuing price-level-linked bonds, and these bonds now constitute a large share of some countries’ total debt issue. This study argues that Canada...

  16. Immigrants' continuing bonds with their native culture: assimilation analysis of three interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Hani M; Stiles, William B; Biran, Mia W; Mosher, James K; Brinegar, Meredith Glick; Banerjee, Prashant

    2009-06-01

    Three case studies of immigrants to the US from China, Iraq, and Mexico were used to build a theory of acculturation in immigrants by integrating the continuing bonds model, which describes mourning in bereavement with the assimilation model, which describes psychological change in psychotherapy. Participants were interviewed about the loss of their native culture and their life in the US. One participant had not fully assimilated the loss of her native culture, but used her continuing bonds with her culture as a source of solace. Another participant used his continuing bonds with his culture as a source of solace, but these bonds had become a source of conflict with the host culture. The third participant had largely assimilated the loss of his native culture such that the voices of this culture were linked via meaning bridges with the voices of the host culture, and the continuing bonds were resources that helped him in his land of immigration.

  17. Neutron diffraction of α, β and γ cyclodextrins: hydrogen bonding patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hingerty, B.E.; Klar, B.; Hardgrove, G.; Betzel, C.; Saenger, W.

    1983-01-01

    Cyclodextrins (CD's) are torus-shaped molecules composed of six (α), seven (β) or eight (γ) (1 → 4) linked glucoses. α-CD has been shown to have two different structures with well-defined hydrogen bonds, one tense and the other relaxed. An induced-fit-like mechanism for α-CD complex formation has been proposed. Circular hydrogen bond networks have also been found for α-CD due to the energetically favored cooperative effect. β-CD with a disordered water structure possesses an unusual flip-flop hydrogen bonding system of the type O-H H-O representing an equilibrium between two states; O-H O reversible H-O. γ-CD with a disordered water structure similar to β-CD also possesses the flip-flop hydrogen bond. This study demonstrates that hydrogen bonds are operative in disordered systems and display dynamics even in the solid state

  18. Improved DNA clamps by stacking to adjacent nucleobases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fatthalla, M.I.; Pedersen, Erik Bjerregaard

    2012-01-01

    Three or four aromatic rings interconnected by acetylene bridges form a stiff conjugated system with sufficient conformational freedom to make it useful to link together the two strands of a DNA clamp. Upon targeting a ssDNA, the conformational flexibility allows better stacking of the linker...... to the underlying non-planar base triplet in the formed triplex. This type of triplexes has a substantially higher thermal melting temperature which can be further improved by inserting locked nucleic acids (LNAs) in the Hoogsteen part of the clamp. An extremely high sensitivity to mismatches is observed...

  19. Synthesis and structure of a 2D → 3D framework with coexistence of hydrogen bonds and polythreading character

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ming-Dao, E-mail: matchlessjimmy@163.com; Zhuang, Qi-Fan; Xu, Jing; Cao, Hui, E-mail: yccaoh@hotmail.com [Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Environment Monitoring and Pollution Control, Collaborative Innovation Center for Atmospheric Environment & Equipment Technology, School of Environmental Science and Engineering (China)

    2015-12-15

    The title complex, ([Co(BPPA)(5-OH-bdc)] · (H{sub 2}O)){sub n} was prepared under hydrothermal conditions based on two ligands, namely, bis(4-(pyridin-4-yl)phenyl)amine (BPPA) and 5-hydroxyisophthalic acid (5-OH-H{sub 2}bdc). 5-OH-bdc{sup 2–} anions coordinated to Co atoms to give layers in crystal. BPPA ligands coordinate to Co atoms and thread into the adjacent layers. There are hydrogen bonds between adjacent layers, giving rise to a 2D → 3D framework.

  20. Bond and Equity Home Bias and Foreign Bias: an International Study

    OpenAIRE

    VanPée, Rosanne; De Moor, Lieven

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we explore tentatively and formally the differences between bond and equity home bias and foreign bias based on one large scale dataset including developed and emerging markets for the period 2001 to 2010. We set the stage by tentatively and formally linking the diversion of bond and equity home bias in OECD countries to the increasing public debt issues under the form of government bonds i.e. the supply-driven argument. Unlike Fidora et al. (2007) we do not find that exchange r...

  1. Percolation with first-and-second neighbour bonds: a renormalization-group calculation of critical exponents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riera, R.; Oliveira, P.M.C. de; Chaves, C.M.G.F.; Queiroz, S.L.A. de.

    1980-04-01

    A real-space renormalization group approach for the bond percolation problem in a square lattice with first- and second- neighbour bonds is proposed. The respective probabilities are treated, as independent variables. Two types of cells are constructed. In one of them the lattice is considered as two interpenetrating sublattices, first-neighbour bonds playing the role of intersublattice links. This allows the calculation of both critical exponents ν and γ, without resorting to any external field. Values found for the critical indices are in good agreement with data available in the literature. The phase diagram in parameter space is also obtained in each case. (Author) [pt

  2. Linked data management

    CERN Document Server

    Hose, Katja; Schenkel, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Linked Data Management presents techniques for querying and managing Linked Data that is available on today’s Web. The book shows how the abundance of Linked Data can serve as fertile ground for research and commercial applications. The text focuses on aspects of managing large-scale collections of Linked Data. It offers a detailed introduction to Linked Data and related standards, including the main principles distinguishing Linked Data from standard database technology. Chapters also describe how to generate links between datasets and explain the overall architecture of data integration systems based on Linked Data. A large part of the text is devoted to query processing in different setups. After presenting methods to publish relational data as Linked Data and efficient centralized processing, the book explores lookup-based, distributed, and parallel solutions. It then addresses advanced topics, such as reasoning, and discusses work related to read-write Linked Data for system interoperation. Desp...

  3. Strength of Bond Covenants and Bond Assessment Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Yahanpath

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We examine bond covenants of 29 New Zealand bond issues between 2001 and 2007.Results from the study indicate that protection provided for bondholders is weak and limited.On average, only 2-3 types of covenants are embedded with the issues and only 27% of thesecovenants provide full protection to the bondholders. However, bondholders are not compensated for taking the additional risk. We propose an alternative assessment framework that directly assesses the level of protection offered to bondholders. We calculate thecovenant quality score for the issues and classify them into four levels of protection: very high protection, moderate, low and very low. Recent legislative changes will go some way towards improving investor protection and confidence, but the effect is yet to be seen. This proposed scoring framework can be used by potential investors to complement the traditional credit ratings when making their investment decisions.

  4. Folding and fracturing of rock adjacent to salt diapirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Mark G.

    2017-04-01

    When John Ramsay wrote his groundbreaking book in 1967, deformation around salt diapirs was not something he covered. At the time, most geologists considered diapirs to form due to density inversion, rising through thick overlying strata due to buoyancy. In doing so, salt was thought to shove aside the younger rocks, shearing and fracturing them in drag folds and supposedly producing "salt gouge". Even after it was realized that the majority of diapirs spend most of their history growing at or just beneath the surface, the relative rise of salt and sinking of minibasins were (and are) still thought by many to be accommodated in part by shear and fracturing of rocks in a collar zone around the salt. There are two arguments against this model. The first is mechanical: whereas halite behaves as a viscous fluid, even young sediment deforms as a brittle material with layer anisotropy. Thus, the salt-sediment interface is the outer margin of an intrasalt shear zone caused by viscous drag against the diapir margin. The velocity of salt flow decreases dramatically toward the edge of the diapir, so that the outermost salt effectively doesn't move. Hence, no shear or fracturing is expected in surrounding strata. The second and more important argument is that empirical field data do not support the idea of drag folds and associated deformation. Certainly, strata are typically folded and thinned adjacent to diapirs. However, stratal upturn is generated by monoclinal drape folding of the diapir roof over the edge of the rising salt, and thinning is caused by deposition onto the bathymetric highs formed by the diapirs, often supplemented by roof erosion and slumping. Halokinetic sequences observed in numerous salt basins (e.g., Paradox Basin, La Popa Basin, Spanish Pyrenees, Sivas Basin, Zagros Mountains, Kuqa Basin) contain no diapir-parallel shear zones and minimal thinning and fracturing caused by diapir rise. Even megaflaps, in which strata extend for kilometers up the sides

  5. Relation between frequency and H bond length in heavy water: Towards the understanding of the unusual properties of H bond dynamics in nanoporous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pommeret, Stanislas; Leicknam, Jean-Claude; Bratos, Savo; Musat, Raluca; Renault, Jean Philippe

    2009-01-01

    The published work on H bond dynamics mainly refers to diluted solutions HDO/D 2 O rather than to normal water. The reasons for this choice are both theoretical and experimental. Mechanical isolation of the OH vibrator eliminating the resonant energy transfer makes it a better probe of the local H bond network, while the dilution in heavy water reduces the infrared absorption, which permits the use of thicker experimental cells. The isotopic substitution does not alter crucially the nature of the problem. The length r of an OH . . . O group is statistically distributed over a large interval comprised between 2.7 and 3.2 A with a mean value r 0 = 2.86 A. Liquid water may thus be viewed as a mixture of hydrogen bonds of different length. Two important characteristics of hydrogen bonding must be mentioned. (i) The OH stretching vibrations are strongly affected by this interaction. The shorter the length r of the hydrogen bond, the strongest the H bond link and the lower is its frequency ω: the covalent OH bond energy is lent to the OH. . .O bond and reinforces the latter. A number of useful relationships between ω and r were published to express this correlation. The one adopted in our previous work is the relationship due to Mikenda. (ii) Not only the OH vibrations, but also the HDO rotations are influenced noticeably by hydrogen bonding. This is due to steric forces that hinder the HDO rotations. As they are stronger in short than in long hydrogen bonds, rotations are slower in the first case than in the second. This effect was only recently discovered, but its existence is hardly to be contested. In the present contribution, we want to revisit the relationship between the frequency of the OH vibrator and the distance OH. . .O.

  6. Impact of body mass index on adjacent segment disease after lumbar fusion for degenerative spine disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Chien-Yu; Lee, Tao-Chen; Lee, Tsung-Han; Huang, Yu-Hua

    2015-04-01

    Adjacent segment disease is an important complication after fusion of degenerative lumbar spines. However, the role of body mass index (BMI) in adjacent segment disease has been addressed less. To examine the relationship between BMI and adjacent segment disease after lumbar fusion for degenerative spine diseases. For this retrospective study, we enrolled 190 patients undergoing lumbar fusion surgery for degeneration. BMI at admission was documented. Adjacent segment disease was defined by integration of the clinical presentations and radiographic criteria based on the morphology of the dural sac on magnetic resonance images. Adjacent segment disease was identified in 13 of the 190 patients, accounting for 6.8%. The interval between surgery and diagnosis as adjacent segment disease ranged from 21 to 66 months. Five of the 13 patients required subsequent surgical intervention for clinically relevant adjacent segment disease. In the logistic regression model, BMI was a risk factor for adjacent segment disease after lumbar fusion for degenerative spine diseases (odds ratio, 1.68; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-2.21; P disease rate by 67.6%. The patients were subdivided into 2 groups based on BMI, and up to 11.9% of patients with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m were diagnosed as having adjacent segment disease at the last follow-up. BMI is a risk factor for adjacent segment disease in patients undergoing lumbar fusion for degenerative spine diseases. Because BMI is clinically objective and modifiable, controlling body weight before or after surgery may provide opportunities to reduce the rate of adjacent segment disease and to improve the outcome of fusion surgery.

  7. Sieving of Hot Gases by Hyper-Cross-Linked Nanoscale-Hybrid Membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, Michiel; Hempenius, Mark A.; Schön, Peter Manfred; Vancso, Gyula J.; Nijmeijer, Arian; Wessling, Matthias; Benes, Nieck Edwin

    2014-01-01

    Macromolecular networks consisting of homogeneously distributed covalently bonded inorganic and organic precursors are anticipated to show remarkable characteristics, distinct from those of the individual constituents. A novel hypercross-linked ultrathin membrane is presented, consisting of a giant

  8. Cooperativity of halogen, chalcogen, and pnictogen bonds in infinite molecular chains by electronic structure theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Janine; Deringer, Volker L; Dronskowski, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Halogen bonds (XBs) are intriguing noncovalent interactions that are frequently being exploited for crystal engineering. Recently, similar bonding mechanisms have been proposed for adjacent main-group elements, and noncovalent "chalcogen bonds" and "pnictogen bonds" have been identified in crystal structures. A fundamental question, largely unresolved thus far, is how XBs and related contacts interact with each other in crystals; similar to hydrogen bonding, one might expect "cooperativity" (bonds amplifying each other), but evidence has been sparse. Here, we explore the crucial step from gas-phase oligomers to truly infinite chains by means of quantum chemical computations. A periodic density functional theory (DFT) framework allows us to address polymeric chains of molecules avoiding the dreaded "cluster effects" as well as the arbitrariness of defining a "large enough" cluster. We focus on three types of molecular chains that we cut from crystal structures; furthermore, we explore reasonable substitutional variants in silico. We find evidence of cooperativity in chains of halogen cyanides and also in similar chalcogen- and pnictogen-bonded systems; the bonds, in the most extreme cases, are amplified through cooperative effects by 79% (I···N), 90% (Te···N), and 103% (Sb···N). Two experimentally known organic crystals, albeit with similar atomic connectivity and XB characteristics, show signs of cooperativity in one case but not in another. Finally, no cooperativity is observed in alternating halogen/acetone and halogen/1,4-dioxane chains; in fact, these XBs weaken each other by up to 26% compared to the respective gas-phase dimers.

  9. Cooperativity in Surface Bonding and Hydrogen Bonding of Water and Hydroxyl at Metal Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiros, T.; Ogasawara, H.; Naslund, L. A.

    2010-01-01

    of the mixed phase at metal surfaces. The surface bonding can be considered to be similar to accepting a hydrogen bond, and we can thereby apply general cooperativity rules developed for hydrogen-bonded systems. This provides a simple understanding of why water molecules become more strongly bonded...... to the surface upon hydrogen bonding to OH and why the OH surface bonding is instead weakened through hydrogen bonding to water. We extend the application of this simple model to other observed cooperativity effects for pure water adsorption systems and H3O+ on metal surfaces.......We examine the balance of surface bonding and hydrogen bonding in the mixed OH + H2O overlayer on Pt(111), Cu(111), and Cu(110) via density functional theory calculations. We find that there is a cooperativity effect between surface bonding and hydrogen bonding that underlies the stability...

  10. The adhesive bonding of beryllium structural components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullerton-Batten, R.C.

    1977-01-01

    Where service conditions permit, adhesive bonding is a highly recommendable, reliable means of joining beryllium structural parts. Several important programs have successfully used adhesive bonding for joining structural and non-structural beryllium components. Adhesive bonding minimizes stress concentrations associated with other joining techniques and considerably improves fatigue resistance. In addition, no degradation of base metal properties occur. In many instances, structural joints can be fabricated more cheaply by adhesive bonding or in combination with adhesive bonding than by any other method used alone. An evaluation program on structural adhesive bonding of beryllium sheet components is described. A suitable surface pretreatment for beryllium adherends prior to bonding is given. Tensile shear strength and fatigue properties of FM 1000 and FM 123-5 adhesive bonded joints are reviewed and compared with data obtained from riveted joints of similar geometry. (author)

  11. Manufacturing study of beryllium bonded structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozuka, M.; Hirai, S.; Kikuchi, K.; Oda, Y.; Shimizu, K.

    2004-01-01

    Manufacturing study has been conducted on Be-bonded structures employed in the first-wall panel of the blanket system for the ITER. For Be tiles bonded to the Cu-Cr-Zr alloy heat sink with stainless-steel cooling pipes, a one-axis hot press with two heating process has been used to bond the three materials. First, Cu-alloy and SS materials are bonded diffusively. Then, Be tiles are bonded to the pre-bonded structure under 20 MPa and at 560 degree C. An Al-Si base interlayer has been used to bond Be to the Cu-Alloy. Because of the limited heat processes using a conventional hot press, the manufacturing cost can be minimized. Using the above bonding techniques, a partial mockup of a blanket first-wall panel with 16 Be tiles (with 50 mm in size) has been successfully manufactured. (author)

  12. Enzymatic digestibility of peptides cross-linked by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dizdaroglu, M.; Gajewski, E.; Simic, M.G.

    1984-01-01

    Digestibility by proteolytic enzymes of peptides cross-linked by ionizing radiation was investigated. Small peptides of alanine and phenylalanine were chosen as model compounds and aminopeptidases and carboxypeptidases were used as proteolytic enzymes. Peptides exposed to γ-radiation in aqueous solution were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography before and after hydrolysis by aminopeptidase M, leucine aminopeptidase carboxypeptidase A and carboxypeptidase Y. The results obtained clearly demonstrate the different actions of these enzymes on cross-linked aliphatic and aromatic peptides. Peptide bonds of cross-linked dipeptides of alanine were completely resistant to enzymatic hydrolysis whereas the enzymes, except for carboxypeptidase Y, cleaved all peptide bonds of cross-linked peptides of phenylalanine. The actions of the enzymes on these particular compounds are discussed in detail. (author)

  13. Weld bonding of stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, I. O.; Zhang, Wenqi; Goncalves, V.M.

    2004-01-01

    . The overall assessment of the weld bonding process is made using several commercial adhesives with varying working times under different surface conditions. The quality of the resulting joints is evaluated by means of macroetching observations, tension-shear tests and peel tests. The theoretical investigation......This paper presents a comprehensive theoretical and experimental investigation of the weld bonding process with the purpose of evaluating its relative performance in case of joining stainless steel parts, against alternative solutions based on structural adhesives or conventional spot-welding...... of the process consists of numerical predictions based on the commercial finite element program SORPAS with the purpose of establishing the most favourable parameters that allow spot-welding through the adhesives....

  14. Structure and bonding in clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, V.

    1991-10-01

    We review here the recent progress made in the understanding of the electronic and atomic structure of small clusters of s-p bonded materials using the density functional molecular dynamics technique within the local density approximation. Starting with a brief description of the method, results are presented for alkali metal clusters, clusters of divalent metals such as Mg and Be which show a transition from van der Waals or weak chemical bonding to metallic behaviour as the cluster size grows and clusters of Al, Sn and Sb. In the case of semiconductors, we discuss results for Si, Ge and GaAs clusters. Clusters of other materials such as P, C, S, and Se are also briefly discussed. From these and other available results we suggest the possibility of unique structures for the magic clusters. (author). 69 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  15. Bond graph modeling of centrifugal compression systems

    OpenAIRE

    Uddin, Nur; Gravdahl, Jan Tommy

    2015-01-01

    A novel approach to model unsteady fluid dynamics in a compressor network by using a bond graph is presented. The model is intended in particular for compressor control system development. First, we develop a bond graph model of a single compression system. Bond graph modeling offers a different perspective to previous work by modeling the compression system based on energy flow instead of fluid dynamics. Analyzing the bond graph model explains the energy flow during compressor surge. Two pri...

  16. About counterintuitive orbital mixing and bond populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorge, F.E.; Giambiagi, M.; Giambiagi, M.S. de

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that negative bond and orbital populations may be avoided by the introduction of a weight factor in a bond index definition, together with a suitable parameterization. The negative bond populations found for first-row metal complexes need not be ascribed to counterintuitive orbital mixing but rather, essentially, to the equipartition of the charge distribution. Different definitions of the bond population are compared for ferrocene and the effects of some parameterizations are discussed. (Author) [pt

  17. A Cat Bond Premium Puzzle?

    OpenAIRE

    Vivek J. Bantwal; Howard C. Kunreuther

    1999-01-01

    Catastrophe Bonds whose payoffs are tied to the occurrence of natural disasters offer insurers the ability to hedge event risk through the capital markets that could otherwise leave them insolvent if concentrated solely on their own balance sheets. At the same time, they offer investors a unique opportunity to enhance their portfolios with an asset that provides an attractive return that is uncorrelated with typical financial securities Despite its attractiveness, spreads in this market remai...

  18. Magnetotelluric Investigation in the Jiyang Depression and its Adjacent Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Hao, T.; Duan, Q.

    2008-12-01

    The Jiyang Depression is a secondary tectonic unit of the Bohai Bay Basin, and is a Mesozoic-Cenozoic continental-facie depositional depression. The Jiyang Depression consists of the Dongying, Zanhua, Chezhen, and Huimin sags, and the Yihezhuang, Chenjiazhuang, Qingcheng, Binxian, Guangrao, Shouguang, and heaves. In order to delineate shallow and deep structures of the depression, we conduct a magnetotelluric (MT) investigation in the Jiyang Depression and its adjacent areas. We use a remote reference setup to reduce noise disturbance, when several magnetotelluric sounding stations are measuring synchronously at different sites. The acquired MT data are to be processed and interpreted. We execute time series processing with the remote reference technique. The surveyed area is seriously interfered by noise. To improve quality of the data, we perform noise identification and manual selection of the time series segments. Identification of polarization modes is an important task for MT data qualitative interpretation. We apply for a PCA (principal component analysis) based method to automatically identify apparent polarized resistivity curves of TE and TM modes. The method recognizes the distortion and major variation of TE and TM curves and distinguishes the two kinds of curves with principal component analysis. From the apparent resistivity-frequency profile result, we can see that the Chenning Uplift and the Chenjiazhuang Heave reveal a 3-layered structure of medium-low-high, from the shallow to the deep. The structure is especially distinct for the Chenning Uplift, where there is a laterally steady-spreading high- resistivity zone corresponding to the frequency band lower than 1 Hz. The Dongying Sag is characteristic of high-low-medium from the shallow to the deep, and has a low-resistivity anomaly zone with obvious and wide lateral extending in the medium frequency band, which reflects that the deposition thickness of the basin is relatively big. The Guangrao

  19. Effect of light-curable fluoride varnish on enamel demineralization adjacent to orthodontic brackets: an in-vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Anurag; Paramshivam, Ganesh; Chugh, Vinay Kumar; Singh, Surjit; Halkai, Sudha; Kumar, Santosh

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this in-vivo study was to evaluate the effect of a single application of Clinpro XT (3M ESPE, Pymble, New South Wales, Australia), a light-curable fluoride varnish, on enamel demineralization adjacent to orthodontic brackets. Thirty-eight patients (152 teeth) whose orthodontic treatment involved extraction of 4 first premolars were recruited. Two premolars each were assigned to the control group (no treatment) and the experimental group (received fluoride varnish application). The study was designed as a nonrandomized split-mouth study in which diagonally opposite quadrants received the same treatment. After the bonding procedures, a sectional T-loop was ligated into each bracket to serve as a site for plaque retention for enhanced demineralization. Clinpro XT was applied on the buccal surfaces adjacent to the brackets on all teeth in the experimental group only. Teeth in both groups were extracted after 15 days (n = 30), 30 days (n = 30), 45 days (n = 30), 90 days (n = 18), and 120 days (n = 18). Buccolingual sections were then evaluated under polarized light microscopy. After we excluded the dropouts, the mean depth of the demineralized enamel lesions was measured in final sample of 126 teeth. The Mann-Whitney test was used for comparison of the groups. In the control group, the depths of the demineralized enamel lesions increased from 30 to 120 days, whereas in the experimental group no sign of demineralization was noted throughout the observation period except for 3 teeth. Significant differences in the depths of demineralized lesions were found between the study groups. Clinpro XT light-curable fluoride varnish may be a reasonable alternative in the reduction of enamel demineralization around orthodontic brackets, especially in noncompliant and high-risk patients. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Treatment Outcome and Patient Satisfaction with Two Adjacent Implant-Supported Restorations in the Esthetic Zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tymstra, Nynke; Meijer, Henny J. A.; Stellingsma, Kees; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Vissink, Arjan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic parameters as well as the esthetic outcome of two adjacent implant-supported restorations and the surrounding peri-implant mucosa in the maxillary esthetic zone. Ten patients were treated with two adjacent implants in the

  1. Variable length adjacent partitioning for PTS based PAPR reduction of OFDM signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibraheem, Zeyid T.; Rahman, Md. Mijanur; Yaakob, S. N.; Razalli, Mohammad Shahrazel; Kadhim, Rasim A.

    2015-01-01

    Peak-to-Average power ratio (PAPR) is a major drawback in OFDM communication. It leads the power amplifier into nonlinear region operation resulting into loss of data integrity. As such, there is a strong motivation to find techniques to reduce PAPR. Partial Transmit Sequence (PTS) is an attractive scheme for this purpose. Judicious partitioning the OFDM data frame into disjoint subsets is a pivotal component of any PTS scheme. Out of the existing partitioning techniques, adjacent partitioning is characterized by an attractive trade-off between cost and performance. With an aim of determining effects of length variability of adjacent partitions, we performed an investigation into the performances of a variable length adjacent partitioning (VL-AP) and fixed length adjacent partitioning in comparison with other partitioning schemes such as pseudorandom partitioning. Simulation results with different modulation and partitioning scenarios showed that fixed length adjacent partition had better performance compared to variable length adjacent partitioning. As expected, simulation results showed a slightly better performance of pseudorandom partitioning technique compared to fixed and variable adjacent partitioning schemes. However, as the pseudorandom technique incurs high computational complexities, adjacent partitioning schemes were still seen as favorable candidates for PAPR reduction

  2. Variable length adjacent partitioning for PTS based PAPR reduction of OFDM signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibraheem, Zeyid T.; Rahman, Md. Mijanur; Yaakob, S. N.; Razalli, Mohammad Shahrazel; Kadhim, Rasim A. [School of Computer and Communication Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    Peak-to-Average power ratio (PAPR) is a major drawback in OFDM communication. It leads the power amplifier into nonlinear region operation resulting into loss of data integrity. As such, there is a strong motivation to find techniques to reduce PAPR. Partial Transmit Sequence (PTS) is an attractive scheme for this purpose. Judicious partitioning the OFDM data frame into disjoint subsets is a pivotal component of any PTS scheme. Out of the existing partitioning techniques, adjacent partitioning is characterized by an attractive trade-off between cost and performance. With an aim of determining effects of length variability of adjacent partitions, we performed an investigation into the performances of a variable length adjacent partitioning (VL-AP) and fixed length adjacent partitioning in comparison with other partitioning schemes such as pseudorandom partitioning. Simulation results with different modulation and partitioning scenarios showed that fixed length adjacent partition had better performance compared to variable length adjacent partitioning. As expected, simulation results showed a slightly better performance of pseudorandom partitioning technique compared to fixed and variable adjacent partitioning schemes. However, as the pseudorandom technique incurs high computational complexities, adjacent partitioning schemes were still seen as favorable candidates for PAPR reduction.

  3. 33 CFR 110.168 - Hampton Roads, Virginia and adjacent waters (Datum: NAD 83).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hampton Roads, Virginia and adjacent waters (Datum: NAD 83). 110.168 Section 110.168 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., Virginia and adjacent waters (Datum: NAD 83). (a) Anchorage Grounds—(1) Anchorage A [Naval Anchorage]. The...

  4. ''Dural tail'' adjacent to acoustic neuroma on MRI: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunardi, P.; Mastronardi, L.; Nardacci, B.; Acqui, M.; Fortuna, A.

    1993-01-01

    A 'dural tail' on Gd-DTPA-enhanced MRI has been often observed adjacent to meningiomas and considered to be useful in distinguishing meningioma of the cerebellopontine angle from acoustic neuroma. However, demonstration of a dural tail adjacent to an acoustic neuroma indicates that this sign is not specific. (orig.)

  5. Fluorides leaching from restorative materials and the effect on adjacent teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Vibeke; Poulsen, Agneta; Teglers, Poul Thorpen

    2010-01-01

    Placing a Class II restoration in a tooth changes the local environment, including that for the adjacent tooth. Apart from the change to a less- or non-cariogenic environment for the restored tooth, the effect of leachable components from a restoration in the adjacent tooth should be taken into c...

  6. Simple inorganic complexes but intricate hydrogen bonding ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    We are interested in obtaining single crystals of metal-opda complexes because their crystal structures would show complex hydrogen bonding network due to the presence of. –NH2 groups in the opda ligand (hydrogen bonding donor sites) and inorganic anions having mostly oxo groups (hydrogen bonding acceptor sites) ...

  7. 75 FR 39730 - Tribal Economic Development Bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Tribal Economic Development Bonds AGENCY: Department of the Treasury... (``Treasury'') seeks comments from Indian Tribal Governments regarding the Tribal Economic Development Bond... governments, known as ``Tribal Economic Development Bonds,'' under Section 7871(f) of the Internal Revenue...

  8. 30 CFR 800.21 - Collateral bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collateral bonds. 800.21 Section 800.21 Mineral... FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS § 800.21 Collateral bonds. (a) Collateral bonds, except for letters of credit, cash accounts, and real property, shall be...

  9. Are Stock and Corporate Bond Markets Integrated?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zundert, J.; Driessen, Joost

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the cross-sectional integration of stock and corporate bond markets by comparing a firm’s expected stock return, as implied by corporate bond spreads, to its realized stock return. We compute expected corporate bond returns by correcting credit spreads for expected losses due to

  10. 36 CFR 9.48 - Performance bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance bond. 9.48... MINERALS MANAGEMENT Non-Federal Oil and Gas Rights § 9.48 Performance bond. (a) Prior to approval of a plan of operations, the operator shall be required to file a suitable performance bond with satisfactory...

  11. Environmentally dependent bond-order potentials: New ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Environmentally dependent bond-order potentials: New developments and applications ... for modelling amorphous structure we found that the and bond integrals are not only transferable between graphite and diamond structures but they are also strongly anisotropic due to inter-plan bonding between graphite sheets.

  12. Low temperature anodic bonding to silicon nitride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weichel, Steen; Reus, Roger De; Bouaidat, Salim

    2000-01-01

    Low-temperature anodic bonding to stoichiometric silicon nitride surfaces has been performed in the temperature range from 3508C to 4008C. It is shown that the bonding is improved considerably if the nitride surfaces are either oxidized or exposed to an oxygen plasma prior to the bonding. Both bu...

  13. Liquidity risk premia in corporate bond markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, J.J.A.G.; de Jong, F.C.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the role of liquidity risk in the pricing of corporate bonds. We show that corporate bond returns have significant exposures to fluctuations in treasury bond liquidity and equity market liquidity. Further, this liquidity risk is a priced factor for the expected returns on

  14. 25 CFR 216.8 - Performance bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Performance bond. 216.8 Section 216.8 Indians BUREAU OF... RECLAMATION OF LANDS General Provisions § 216.8 Performance bond. (a) Upon approval of an exploration plan or mining plan, the operator shall be required to file a suitable performance bond of not less than $2,000...

  15. 43 CFR 23.9 - Performance bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Performance bond. 23.9 Section 23.9 Public... LANDS § 23.9 Performance bond. (a)(1) Upon approval of an exploration plan or mining plan, the operator shall be required to file a suitable performance bond of not less than $2,000 with satisfactory surety...

  16. 36 CFR 223.35 - Performance bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance bond. 223.35 Section 223.35 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND... Performance bond. Timber sale contracts may require the purchaser to furnish a performance bond for...

  17. 36 CFR 9.13 - Performance bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance bond. 9.13... MINERALS MANAGEMENT Mining and Mining Claims § 9.13 Performance bond. (a) Upon approval of a plan of operations the operator shall be required to file a suitable performance bond with satisfactory surety...

  18. 27 CFR 24.146 - Bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bonds. 24.146 Section 24.146 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE.... (c) Wine vinegar plant bond. The proprietor of a wine vinegar plant who withdraws wine from a bonded...

  19. Constructing an optimal facility layout to maximize adjacency as a function of common boundary length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassemi Tari, Farhad; Neghabi, Hossein

    2018-03-01

    An effective facility layout implies that departments with high flow are laid adjacent. However, in the case of a very narrow boundary length between the neighbouring departments, the adjacency would actually be useless. In traditional layout design methods, a score is generally assigned independent of the department's boundary length. This may result in a layout design with a restricted material flow. This article proposes a new concept of adjacency in which the department pairs are laid adjacent with a wider path. To apply this concept, a shop with unequal rectangular departments is contemplated and a mathematical programming model with the objective of maximizing the sum of the adjacency degrees is proposed. A computational experiment is conducted to demonstrate the efficiency of the layout design. It is demonstrated that the new concept provides a more efficient and a more realistic layout design.

  20. Recent Advances in Adhesive Bonding - The Role of Biomolecules, Nanocompounds, and Bonding Strategies in Enhancing Resin Bonding to Dental Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münchow, Eliseu A; Bottino, Marco C

    2017-09-01

    To present an overview on the main agents (i.e., biomolecules and nanocompounds) and/or strategies currently available to amplify or stabilize resin-dentin bonding. According to studies retrieved for full text reading (2014-2017), there are currently six major strategies available to overcome resin-dentin bond degradation: (i) use of collagen crosslinking agents, which may form stable covalent bonds with collagen fibrils, thus strengthening the hybrid layer; (ii) use of antioxidants, which may allow further polymerization reactions over time; (iii) use of protease inhibitors, which may inhibit or inactivate metalloproteinases; (iv) modification of the bonding procedure, which may be performed by using the ethanol wet-bonding technique or by applying an additional adhesive (hydrophobic) coating, thereby strengthening the hybrid layer; (v) laser treatment of the substrate prior to bonding, which may cause specific topographic changes in the surface of dental substrates, increasing bonding efficacy; and (vi) reinforcement of the resin matrix with inorganic fillers and/or remineralizing agents, which may positively enhance physico-mechanical properties of the hybrid layer. With the present review, we contributed to the better understanding of adhesion concepts and mechanisms of resin-dentin bond degradation, showing the current prospects available to solve that problematic. Also, adhesively-bonded restorations may be benefited by the use of some biomolecules, nanocompounds or alternative bonding strategies in order to minimize bond strength degradation.

  1. Channel Bonding in Linux Ethernet Environment using Regular Switching Hub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-wen Hsueh

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Bandwidth plays an important role for quality of service in most network systems. There are many technologies developed to increase host bandwidth in a LAN environment. Most of them need special hardware support, such as switching hub that supports IEEE Link Aggregation standard. In this paper, we propose a Linux solution to increase the bandwidth between hosts with multiple network adapters connected to a regular switching hub. The approach is implemented as two Linux kernel modules in a LAN environment without modification to the hardware and operating systems on host machines. Packets are dispatched to bonding network adapters for transmission. The proposed approach is backward compatible, flexible and transparent to users and only one IP address is needed for multiple bonding network adapters. Evaluation experiments in TCP and UDP transmission are shown with bandwidth gain proportionally to the number of network adapters. It is suitable for large-scale LAN systems with high bandwidth requirement, such as clustering systems.

  2. The road to the first, fully active and more stable human insulin variant with an additional disulfide bond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Tine N.; Kjeldsen, Thomas B.; Jensen, Knud Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    Insulin, a small peptide hormone, is crucial in maintaining blood glucose homeostasis. The stability and activity of the protein is directed by an intricate system involving disulfide bonds to stabilize the active monomeric species and by their non-covalent oligomerization. All known insulin...... variants in vertebrates consist of two peptide chains and have six cysteine residues, which form three disulfide bonds, two of them link the two chains and a third is an intra-chain bond in the A-chain. This classical insulin fold appears to have been conserved over half a billion years of evolution. We...... addressed the question whether a human insulin variant with four disulfide bonds could exist and be fully functional. In this review, we give an overview of the road to engineering four-disulfide bonded insulin analogs. During our journey, we discovered several active four disulfide bonded insulin analogs...

  3. A synthesis of dominant ecological processes in intensive shrimp ponds and adjacent coastal environments in NE Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burford, M.A.; Costanzo, S.D.; Dennison, W.C.; Jackson, C.J.; Jones, A.B.; McKinnon, A.D.; Preston, N.P.; Trott, L.A.

    2003-01-01

    One of the key environmental concerns about shrimp farming is the discharge of waters with high levels of nutrients and suspended solids into adjacent waterways. In this paper we synthesize the results of our multidisciplinary research linking ecological processes in intensive shrimp ponds with their downstream impacts in tidal, mangrove-lined creeks. The incorporation of process measurements and bioindicators, in addition to water quality measurements, improved our understanding of the effect of shrimp farm discharges on the ecological health of the receiving water bodies. Changes in water quality parameters were an oversimplification of the ecological effects of water discharges, and use of key measures including primary production rates, phytoplankton responses to nutrients, community shifts in zooplankton and δ 15 N ratios in marine plants have the potential to provide more integrated and robust measures. Ultimately, reduction in nutrient discharges is most likely to ensure the future sustainability of the industry

  4. An Effective Channel Allocation Scheme to Reduce Co-Channel and Adjacent Channel Interference for WMN Backhaul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, S.; Ismaili, I.A.; Khuhawar, F.Y.

    2016-01-01

    Two folded work presents channel allocation scheme sustaining channel orthogonality and channel spacing to reduce CCI (Co-Channel Interference) and ACI (Adjacent Channel Interference) for inter flow of an intra-flow link. Proposed scheme as a part of radio resource allocation is applied on infrastructure based backhaul of wireless mesh network using directional antennas. The proposed approach is applied separately on 2.4 and 5GHz bands. Interference of connectivity graph is modelled by strongly connected directed graph and greedy algorithms are used for channel allocation. We have used OPNET Modeller suite to simulate network models for this research. The proposed arrangement reduces the channel interference and increases system throughput. In this research, the influence of channel is computed in terms of network throughput and delay. (author)

  5. Strength of Al and Al-Mg/alumina bonds prepared using ultrahigh vacuum diffusion bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, W.E.; Campbell, G.H.; Wien, W.L.; Stoner, S.L.

    1994-01-01

    The authors have measured the cross-breaking strength of Al and Al-Mg alloys bonded with alumina. Diffusion bonding of Al and Al-Mg alloys requires significantly more bonding time than previously thought to obtain complete bonding. In contrast to previous diffusion bonding studies, fracture morphologies are similar to those obtained in bonds formed by liquid phase reaction; i.e., bonds are as strong or stronger than the ceramic; and fracture tends to propagate in the metal for pure Al and near the interface in the ceramic for the alloys. There are indications that the fracture morphology depends on Mg content and therefore on plasticity in the metal

  6. Effect of ethanol-wet-bonding technique on resin–enamel bonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Kerim Ayar

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: The ethanol-wet-bonding technique may increase the bond strength of commercial adhesives to enamel. The chemical composition of the adhesives can affect the bond strength of adhesives when bonding to acid-etched enamel, using the ethanol-wet-bonding technique. Some adhesive systems used in the present study may simultaneously be applied to enamel and dentin using ethanol-wet-bonding. Furthermore, deploying ethanol-wet-bonding for the tested commercial adhesives to enamel can increase the adhesion abilities of these adhesives to enamel.

  7. Dynamic breaking of a single gold bond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pobelov, Ilya V.; Lauritzen, Kasper Primdal; Yoshida, Koji

    2017-01-01

    While one might assume that the force to break a chemical bond gives a measure of the bond strength, this intuition is misleading. If the force is loaded slowly, thermal fluctuations may break the bond before it is maximally stretched, and the breaking force will be less than the bond can sustain...... of a single Au-Au bond and show that the breaking force is dependent on the loading rate. We probe the temperature and structural dependencies of breaking and suggest that the paradox can be explained by fast breaking of atomic wires and slow breaking of point contacts giving very similar breaking forces....

  8. Hexacoordinate bonding and aromaticity in silicon phthalocyanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang

    2010-12-23

    Si-E bondings in hexacoordinate silicon phthalocyanine were analyzed using bond order (BO), energy partition, atoms in molecules (AIM), electron localization function (ELF), and localized orbital locator (LOL). Bond models were proposed to explain differences between hexacoordinate and tetracoordinate Si-E bondings. Aromaticity of silicon phthalocyanine was investigated using nucleus-independent chemical shift (NICS), harmonic oscillator model of aromaticity (HOMA), conceptual density functional theory (DFT), ring critical point (RCP) descriptors, and delocalization index (DI). Structure, energy, bonding, and aromaticity of tetracoordinate silicon phthalocyanine were studied and compared with hexacoordinate one.

  9. Valuing Convertible Bonds Based on LSRQM Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Convertible bonds are one of the essential financial products for corporate finance, while the pricing theory is the key problem to the theoretical research of convertible bonds. This paper demonstrates how to price convertible bonds with call and put provisions using Least-Squares Randomized Quasi-Monte Carlo (LSRQM method. We consider the financial market with stochastic interest rates and credit risk and present a detailed description on calculating steps of convertible bonds value. The empirical results show that the model fits well the market prices of convertible bonds in China’s market and the LSRQM method is effective.

  10. Nitrogen Source Apportionment for the Catchment, Estuary, and Adjacent Coastal Waters of the River Scheldt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan E. Vermaat

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Using the systems approach framework (SAF, a coupled model suite was developed for simulating land-use decision making in response to nutrient abatement costs and water and nutrient fluxes in the hydrological network of the Scheldt River, and nutrient fluxes in the estuary and adjacent coastal sea. The purpose was to assess the efficiency of different long-term water quality improvement measures in current and future climate and societal settings, targeting nitrogen (N load reduction. The spatial-dynamic model suite consists of two dynamically linked modules: PCRaster is used for the drainage network and is combined with ExtendSim modules for farming decision making and estuarine N dispersal. Model predictions of annual mean flow and total N concentrations compared well with data available for river and estuary (r² ≥ 0.83. Source apportionment was carried out to societal sectors and administrative regions; both households and agriculture are the major sources of N, with the regions of Flanders and Wallonia contributing most. Load reductions by different measures implemented in the model were comparable (~75% remaining after 30 yr, but costs differed greatly. Increasing domestic sewage connectivity was more effective, at comparatively low cost (47% remaining. The two climate scenarios did not lead to major differences in load compared with the business-as-usual scenario (~88% remaining. Thus, this spatially explicit model of water flow and N fluxes in the Scheldt catchment can be used to compare different long-term policy options for N load reduction to river, estuary, and receiving sea in terms of their effectiveness, cost, and optimal location of implementation.

  11. Shear bond strength of a denture base acrylic resin and gingiva-colored indirect composite material to zirconia ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubochi, Kei; Komine, Futoshi; Fushiki, Ryosuke; Yagawa, Shogo; Mori, Serina; Matsumura, Hideo

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the shear bond strengths of two gingiva-colored materials (an indirect composite material and a denture base acrylic resin) to zirconia ceramics and determine the effects of surface treatment with various priming agents. A gingiva-colored indirect composite material (CER) or denture base acrylic resin (PAL) was bonded to zirconia disks with unpriming (UP) or one of seven priming agents (n=11 each), namely, Alloy Primer (ALP), Clearfil Photo Bond (CPB), Clearfil Photo Bond with Clearfil Porcelain Bond Activator (CPB+Act), Metal Link (MEL), Meta Fast Bonding Liner (MFB), MR. bond (MRB), and V-Primer (VPR). Shear bond strength was determined before and after 5000 thermocycles. The data were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis test and Steel-Dwass test. The mean pre-/post-thermalcycling bond strengths were 1.0-14.1MPa/0.1-12.1MPa for the CER specimen and 0.9-30.2MPa/0.1-11.1MPa for the PAL specimen. For the CER specimen, the ALP, CPB, and CPB+Act groups had significantly higher bond strengths among the eight groups, at both 0 and 5000 thermocycles. For the PAL specimen, shear bond strength was significantly lower after thermalcycling in all groups tested. After 5000 thermocycles, bond strengths were significantly higher in the CPB and CPB+Act groups than in the other groups. For the PAL specimens, bond strengths were significantly lower after thermalcycling in all groups tested. The MDP functional monomer improved bonding of a gingiva-colored indirect composite material and denture base acrylic resin to zirconia ceramics. Copyright © 2016 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. First-principles investigation of the structure and synergistic chemical bonding of Ag and Mg at the Al | Ω interface in a Al-Cu-Mg-Ag alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Lipeng; Irving, Douglas L.; Zikry, Mohammed A.; Brenner, D.W.

    2009-01-01

    Density functional theory was used to characterize the atomic structure and bonding of the Al | Ω interface in a Al-Cu-Mg-Ag alloy. The most stable interfacial structure was found to be connected by Al-Al bonds with a hexagonal Al lattice on the surface of the Ω phase sitting on the vacant hollow sites of the Al {1 1 1} matrix plane. The calculations predict that when substituted separately for Al at this interface, Ag and Mg do not enhance the interface stability through chemical bonding. Combining Ag and Mg, however, was found to chemically stabilize this interface, with the lowest-energy structure examined being a bi-layer with Ag atoms adjacent to the Al matrix and Mg adjacent to the Ω phase. This study provides an atomic arrangement for the interfacial bi-layer observed experimentally in this alloy.

  13. Social impact bonds and their application to preventive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, John L

    2013-05-01

    Although preventive health in Australia has been acknowledged as central to national health and wellbeing, efforts to reform the delivery of preventive health have to date produced limited results. The financing of preventive health at a national level is based on outcome- or performance-based funding mechanisms; however, delivery of interventions and activities at a state level have not been subjected to outcome-based funding processes. A new financing tool being applied in the area of social services (social impact bonds) has emerged as a possible model for application in the prevention arena. This paper explores key issues in the consideration of this funding model in the prevention arena. When preventive health is conceptualised as a merit good, the role of government is clarified and outcome measures fully articulated, social impact bonds may be a viable funding option to supplement core public health activities. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC? The complexities of outcome monitoring in preventive health are well understood.Likewise, the problem of linking funding to outcomes from preventive health practice has also been debated at length in health policy. However, not much is known about the application of social impact bonds into the preventive health arena.WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD? This paper discusses the limitations and opportunities facing the application of the social impact bond financing model in the preventive health arena. This has not been undertaken previously.WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTITIONERS? Social impact bonds have received significant recent attention from federal and state government treasury departments as potential financing tools for government. Health policy practitioners are watching this space very closely to see the outcomes of a New South Wales trial. Health promotion practitioners and primary care practitioners who deliver preventive services will need to keep abreast of this issue as it will have significant impact on their

  14. Liquidity in Government versus Covered Bond Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Jens; Gyntelberg, Jacob; Sangill, Thomas

    We present findings on the secondary market liquidity of government and covered bonds in Denmark before, during and after the 2008 financial crisis. The analysis focuses on wholesale trading in the two markets and is based on a complete transaction level dataset covering November 2007 until end...... 2011. Overall, our findings suggest that Danish benchmark covered bonds by and large are as liquid as Danish government bonds - including in periods of market stress. Before the financial crisis of 2008, government bonds were slightly more liquid than covered bonds. During the crisis, trading continued...... in both markets but the government bond market experienced a brief but pronounced decline in market liquidity while liquidity in the covered bond market was more robust - partly reflective of a number of events as well as policy measures introduced in the autumn of 2008. After the crisis, liquidity...

  15. Dynamic link: user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Hiroo; Asai, Kiyoshi; Kihara, Kazuhisa.

    1981-09-01

    The purpose of dynamic link facility is to link a load module dynamically only when it is used in execution time. The facility is very useful for development, execution and maintenance of a large scale computer program which is too big to be saved as one load module in main memory, or it is poor economy to save it due to many unused subroutines depending on an input. It is also useful for standardization and common utilization of programs. Standard usage of dynamic link facility of FACOM M-200 computer system, a software tool which analyzes the effect of dynamic link facility and application of dynamic link to nuclear codes are described. (author)

  16. Actor bonds after relationship dissolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaates, Maria Anne

    2000-01-01

    Most of the presented papers at the 1st NoRD Workshop can be classified as belonging to the business marketing approach to relationship dissolution. Two papers were conceptual, and the remaining six were empirical studies. The first conceptual study by Skaates (2000) focuses on the nature...... of the actor bonds that remain after a business relationship has ended. The study suggests that an interdisciplinary approach would provide a richer understanding of the phenomenon; this could be achieved by using e.g. Bourdieu's sociological concepts in dissolution research....

  17. Actor Bonds in Situations of Discontinuous Business Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaates, Maria Anne

    2000-01-01

    Demand in many industrial buying situations, e.g. project purchases or procurement related to virtual organizations, is discontinuous. In situations of discontinuity, networks are often more of an ad hos informational and social nature, as strong activity and resource links are not present....... Furthermore the governance structure of markets characterized by discontinuous business activities is either that of the "socially constructed market" (Skaates, 2000) or that of the (socially constructed) network (Håkansson and Johanson, 1993). Additionally relationships and actor bonds vary substantially...

  18. The extended variant of the bond valence-bond length correlation curve for boron(III)-oxygen bonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidey, Vasyl

    2015-01-01

    The extended variant of the bond valence (s)-bond length (r) correlation curve for boron(III)-oxygen bonds has been closely approximated using the three-parameter function s = [k/(r - l)] - m, where s is measured in valence units (vu), r is measured in Aa, k = 0.53 Aa.vu, l = 0.975(1) Aa and m = 0.32 vu. The function s = exp[(r 0 - r)/b] traditionally used in the modern bond valence model requires the separate set of the bond valence parameters (r 0 = 1.362 Aa; b = 0.23 Aa) in order to approximate the above s-r curve for the bonds shorter than ∝1.3 Aa.

  19. Mechatronic modeling and simulation using bond graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Shuvra

    2009-01-01

    Introduction to Mechatronics and System ModelingWhat Is Mechatronics?What Is a System and Why Model Systems?Mathematical Modeling Techniques Used in PracticeSoftwareBond Graphs: What Are They?Engineering SystemsPortsGeneralized VariablesBond GraphsBasic Components in SystemsA Brief Note about Bond Graph Power DirectionsSummary of Bond Direction RulesDrawing Bond Graphs for Simple Systems: Electrical and MechanicalSimplification Rules for Junction StructureDrawing Bond Graphs for Electrical SystemsDrawing Bond Graphs for Mechanical SystemsCausalityDrawing Bond Graphs for Hydraulic and Electronic Components and SystemsSome Basic Properties and Concepts for FluidsBond Graph Model of Hydraulic SystemsElectronic SystemsDeriving System Equations from Bond GraphsSystem VariablesDeriving System EquationsTackling Differential CausalityAlgebraic LoopsSolution of Model Equations and Their InterpretationZeroth Order SystemsFirst Order SystemsSecond Order SystemTransfer Functions and Frequency ResponsesNumerical Solution ...

  20. Progress in cold roll bonding of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Long; Nagai, Kotobu; Yin Fuxing

    2008-01-01

    Layered composite materials have become an increasingly interesting topic in industrial development. Cold roll bonding (CRB), as a solid phase method of bonding same or different metals by rolling at room temperature, has been widely used in manufacturing large layered composite sheets and foils. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of a technology using layered composite materials produced by CRB and discuss the suitability of this technology in the fabrication of layered composite materials. The effects of process parameters on bonding, mainly including process and surface preparation conditions, have been analyzed. Bonding between two sheets can be realized when deformation reduction reaches a threshold value. However, it is essential to remove surface contamination layers to produce a satisfactory bond in CRB. It has been suggested that the degreasing and then scratch brushing of surfaces create a strong bonding between the layers. Bonding mechanisms, in which the film theory is expressed as the major mechanism in CRB, as well as bonding theoretical models, have also been reviewed. It has also been showed that it is easy for fcc structure metals to bond compared with bcc and hcp structure metals. In addition, hardness on bonding same metals plays an important part in CRB. Applications of composites produced by CRB in industrial fields are briefly reviewed and possible developments of CRB in the future are also described. Corrections were made to the abstract and conclusion of this article on 18 June 2008. The corrected electronic version is identical to the print version. (topical review)

  1. Yield and Failure Behavior Investigated for Cross-Linked Phenolic Resins Using Molecular Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Joshua D.; Lawson, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were conducted to fundamentally evaluate the yield and failure behavior of cross-linked phenolic resins at temperatures below the glass transition. Yield stress was investigated at various temperatures, strain rates, and degrees of cross-linking. The onset of non-linear behavior in the cross-linked phenolic structures was caused by localized irreversible molecular rearrangements through the rotation of methylene linkers followed by the formation or annihilation of neighboring hydrogen bonds. The yield stress results, with respect to temperature and strain rate, could be fit by existing models used to describe yield behavior of amorphous glasses. The degree of cross-linking only indirectly influences the maximum yield stress through its influence on glass transition temperature (Tg), however there is a strong relationship between the degree of cross-linking and the failure mechanism. Low cross-linked samples were able to separate through void formation, whereas the highly cross-linked structures exhibited bond scission.

  2. Effects of matrix metallproteinases on dentin bonding and strategies to increase durability of dentin adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Hyun Lee

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The limited durability of resin-dentin bonds severely compromises the longevity of composite resin restorations. Resin-dentin bond degradation might occur via degradation of water-rich and resin sparse collagen matrices by host-derived matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs. This review article provides overview of current knowledge of the role of MMPs in dentin matrix degradation and four experimental strategies for extending the longevity of resin-dentin bonds. They include: (1 the use of broad-spectrum inhibitors of MMPs, (2 the use of cross-linking agents for silencing the activities of MMPs, (3 ethanol wet-bonding with hydrophobic resin, (4 biomimetic remineralization of water-filled collagen matrix. A combination of these strategies will be able to overcome the limitations in resin-dentin adhesion.

  3. Facebook Use and Social Capital: To Bond, To Bridge, or to Escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Min-Woo; D'Angelo, Jonathan; McLeod, Douglas M.

    2013-01-01

    This study employs the uses and gratification approach to investigate how different forms of Facebook use are linked to bridging social capital and bonding social capital. A survey of 152 college students was conducted to address research questions and to test hypotheses. Factor analysis identified six unique uses and gratifications: (a)…

  4. Intrinsic self-healing thermoset through covalent and hydrogen bonding interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araya-Hermosilla, R.; Lima, G. M. R.; Raffa, P.; Fortunato, G.; Pucci, A.; Flores, Mario E.; Moreno-Villoslada, I.; Broekhuis, A. A.; Picchioni, F.

    The intrinsic self-healing ability of polyketone (PK) chemically modified into furan and/or OH groups containing derivatives is presented. Polymers bearing different ratios of both functional groups were cross-linked via furan/bis-maleimide (Diels-Alder adducts) and hydrogen bonding interactions

  5. Adjacent field separations for homogenous dose distribution at particular depth and associated hot and cold spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supe, S.S.; Deka, A.C.; Deka, B.C.; Sathiyanaranyanan, V.K.

    1991-01-01

    In radiotherapy treatment planning we come across many situations when treatment is given by using two adjacent fields, for e.g. for treatment of Hodgkin's disease. A pair of adjacent field have been used regularly for the treatment of ovarian tumours. A small separation is given at the skin level, otherwise hot spots are observed at the depth of interest. The separation depend upon tumour depths, and source to skin distance (SSD). Formulae have been derived for the separation as well as for hot and cold spots. The case of adjacent field becomes more complicated when anterior as well as posterior adjacent fields are used. It is not completely possible to avoid the hot and cold spots in such cases. This is partially avoided by shifting the gap on the skin surface during the course of treatment. (author). 2 refs., 2 tabs

  6. Incidence of root canal treatment of second molars following adjacent impacted third molar extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yener Oguz

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Although the incidence is minimal, iatrogenic subluxation injuries occurring during the surgical removal of impacted third molars can lead to pulpal complications and a requirement for root canal treatment of adjacent second molars.

  7. 76 FR 74585 - Railroad Workplace Safety; Adjacent-Track On-Track Safety for Roadway Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    ... impression that adjacent-track on-track safety was in effect, but it was not, due to a miscommunication. Of... the solution to the problem.'' And while the RWP Working Group did in fact draft this language, and...

  8. 31. Introduction with adjacent production of foundry and rolling department of electrolysis shop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.V.

    1993-01-01

    The introduction with adjacent production of foundry and rolling department of electrolysis shop was conducted. The foundry machine was described. The chemical properties of aluminium for ferrous alloy production were defined.

  9. Numerical Simulation of Salinity and Dissolved Oxygen at Perdido Bay and Adjacent Coastal Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Fluid Dynamic Code (EFDC), a numerical estuarine and coastal ocean circulation hydrodynamic model, was used to simulate the distribution of the salinity, temperature, nutrients and dissolved oxygen (DO) in Perdido Bay and adjacent Gulf of Mexico. External forcing fa...

  10. The Nature of the Hydrogen Bond Outline of a Comprehensive Hydrogen Bond Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gilli, Gastone

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen bond (H-bond) effects are known: it makes sea water liquid, joins cellulose microfibrils in trees, shapes DNA into genes and polypeptide chains into wool, hair, muscles or enzymes. Its true nature is less known and we may still wonder why O-H...O bond energies range from less than 1 to more than 30 kcal/mol without apparent reason. This H-bond puzzle is re-examined here from its very beginning and presented as an inclusive compilation of experimental H-bond energies andgeometries.New concepts emerge from this analysis: new classes of systematically strong H-bonds (CAHBs and RAHBs: cha

  11. In-Depth Characterization of Protein Disulfide Bonds by Online Liquid Chromatography-Electrochemistry-Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzar, Linda; Nicolardi, Simone; Rutten, Julie W.; Oberstein, Saskia A. J. Lesnik; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke; van der Burgt, Yuri E. M.

    2016-01-01

    Disulfide bonds are an important class of protein post-translational modifications, yet this structurally crucial modification type is commonly overlooked in mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics approaches. Recently, the benefits of online electrochemistry-assisted reduction of protein S-S bonds prior to MS analysis were exemplified by successful characterization of disulfide bonds in peptides and small proteins. In the current study, we have combined liquid chromatography (LC) with electrochemistry (EC) and mass analysis by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) MS in an online LC-EC-MS platform to characterize protein disulfide bonds in a bottom-up proteomics workflow. A key advantage of a LC-based strategy is the use of the retention time in identifying both intra- and interpeptide disulfide bonds. This is demonstrated by performing two sequential analyses of a certain protein digest, once without and once with electrochemical reduction. In this way, the "parent" disulfide-linked peptide detected in the first run has a retention time-based correlation with the EC-reduced peptides detected in the second run, thus simplifying disulfide bond mapping. Using this platform, both inter- and intra-disulfide-linked peptides were characterized in two different proteins, ß-lactoglobulin and ribonuclease B. In order to prevent disulfide reshuffling during the digestion process, proteins were digested at a relatively low pH, using (a combination of) the high specificity proteases trypsin and Glu-C. With this approach, disulfide bonds in ß-lactoglobulin and ribonuclease B were comprehensively identified and localized, showing that online LC-EC-MS is a useful tool for the characterization of protein disulfide bonds.

  12. Visualisierung von typisierten Links in Linked Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Neubauer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Das Themengebiet der Arbeit behandelt Visualisierungen von typisierten Links in Linked Data. Die wissenschaftlichen Gebiete, die im Allgemeinen den Inhalt des Beitrags abgrenzen, sind das Semantic Web, das Web of Data und Informationsvisualisierung. Das Semantic Web, das von Tim Berners Lee 2001 erfunden wurde, stellt eine Erweiterung zum World Wide Web (Web 2.0 dar. Aktuelle Forschungen beziehen sich auf die Verknüpfbarkeit von Informationen im World Wide Web. Um es zu ermöglichen, solche Verbindungen wahrnehmen und verarbeiten zu können sind Visualisierungen die wichtigsten Anforderungen als Hauptteil der Datenverarbeitung. Im Zusammenhang mit dem Sematic Web werden Repräsentationen von zuhammenhängenden Informationen anhand von Graphen gehandhabt. Der Grund des Entstehens dieser Arbeit ist in erster Linie die Beschreibung der Gestaltung von Linked Data-Visualisierungskonzepten, deren Prinzipien im Rahmen einer theoretischen Annäherung eingeführt werden. Anhand des Kontexts führt eine schrittweise Erweiterung der Informationen mit dem Ziel, praktische Richtlinien anzubieten, zur Vernetzung dieser ausgearbeiteten Gestaltungsrichtlinien. Indem die Entwürfe zweier alternativer Visualisierungen einer standardisierten Webapplikation beschrieben werden, die Linked Data als Netzwerk visualisiert, konnte ein Test durchgeführt werden, der deren Kompatibilität zum Inhalt hatte. Der praktische Teil behandelt daher die Designphase, die Resultate, und zukünftige Anforderungen des Projektes, die durch die Testung ausgearbeitet wurden.

  13. DETERMINANTS OF ORI001 TYPE GOVERNMENT BOND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosandi Yulius

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The need to build a strong bond market is amenable, especially after the 1997 crises. This paper analyzes the influence of deposit interest rate, foreign exchange rates, and Composite Stock Price Index on yield-to-maturity of Bond Series Retail ORI001, employing monthly data from Bloomberg information service, 2006(8 to 2008(12, using Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity type models. It finds the evidence that deposit interest rate and exchange rate have positive significant influence on the bond, and that stock index has a negative significant influence on the bond. It also finds that Deposit Interest Rate, exchange rate, and the stock index significantly influence the bond altogether.Keywords: Interest rate, exchange rate, composite stock price index, yield-to-maturity, bondJEL classification numbers: G12, G15

  14. Theoretical investigation of compounds with triple bonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devarajan, Deepa

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, compounds with potential triple-bonding character involving the heavier main-group elements, Group 4 transition metals, and the actinides uranium and thorium were studied by using molecular quantum mechanics. The triple bonds are described in terms of the individual orbital contributions (σ, π parallel , and π perpendicular to ), involving electron-sharing covalent or donor-acceptor interactions between the orbitals of two atoms or fragments. Energy decomposition, natural bond orbital, and atoms in molecules analyses were used for the bonding analysis of the triple bonds. The results of this thesis suggest that the triple-bonding character between the heavier elements of the periodic table is important and worth further study and exploration.

  15. Generalized bond percolation and statistical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsallis, C.

    1978-05-01

    A generalization of traditional bond percolation is performed, in the sens that bonds have now the possibility of partially transmitting the information (a fact which leads to the concept of 'fidelity' of the bond), and also in the sens that, besides the normal tendency to equiprobability, the bonds are allowed to substantially change the information. Furthermore the fidelity is allowed, to become an aleatory variable, and the operational rules concerning the associated distribution laws are determined. Thermally quenched random bonds and the whole body of Statistical Mechanics become particular cases of this formalism, which is in general adapted to the treatment of all problems whose main characteristic is to preserve a part of the information through a long path or array (critical phenomena, regime changements, thermal random models, etc). Operationally it provides a quick method for the calculation of the equivalent probability of complex clusters within the traditional bond percolation problem [pt

  16. Degradation of β-Aryl Ether Bonds in Transgenic Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mnich, Ewelina

    Lignin is one of the main building blocks of the plant cell wall. It tethers the cell wall by cross-linking with polysaccharides conferring mechanical strength to plants, aiding water transport and providing a mechanical barrier against pathogens. It is generated by the polymerization....... Compared to other plants grass cell walls contain elevated amount of ferulates which play a crucial role in cross-linking of polysaccharides and lignin. In addition ferulates are believed to be nucleation cites for the lignification. The bacterium Sphingomonas paucimobilis SYK6 has developed an enzyme...... of the cell wall. The aim of the study was to alter lignin structure by expression in plants of the enzymes from S. paucimobilis involved in ether bond degradation (LigDFG). Arabidopsis thaliana and Brachypodium distachyon transgenic lines were generated and characterized with respect to lignin structure...

  17. An implant periapical lesion associated with an endodontic-periodontic lesion of an adjacent molar

    OpenAIRE

    Chou, Ting-An; Chang, Yu-Liang; Yu, Ling-Min; Pan, Whei-Ling; Ju, Yuh-Ren; Chan, Chiu-Po

    2010-01-01

    Adjacent natural teeth with untreated pulpal or periodontal pathology may be a potential risk for implant infection. We report a rare case of an implant periapical lesion (IPL) possibly caused by direct extension of a periradicular lesion of an adjacent tooth. A 40-year-old female patient, who had previously received three implants on the edentulous areas of teeth 16, 36 and 46, had a recurrent infection over the lower left second molar area for 2 years. A periapical radiograph revealed incom...

  18. Local adjacency metric dimension of sun graph and stacked book graph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulisda Badri, Alifiah; Darmaji

    2018-03-01

    A graph is a mathematical system consisting of a non-empty set of nodes and a set of empty sides. One of the topics to be studied in graph theory is the metric dimension. Application in the metric dimension is the navigation robot system on a path. Robot moves from one vertex to another vertex in the field by minimizing the errors that occur in translating the instructions (code) obtained from the vertices of that location. To move the robot must give different instructions (code). In order for the robot to move efficiently, the robot must be fast to translate the code of the nodes of the location it passes. so that the location vertex has a minimum distance. However, if the robot must move with the vertex location on a very large field, so the robot can not detect because the distance is too far.[6] In this case, the robot can determine its position by utilizing location vertices based on adjacency. The problem is to find the minimum cardinality of the required location vertex, and where to put, so that the robot can determine its location. The solution to this problem is the dimension of adjacency metric and adjacency metric bases. Rodrguez-Velzquez and Fernau combine the adjacency metric dimensions with local metric dimensions, thus becoming the local adjacency metric dimension. In the local adjacency metric dimension each vertex in the graph may have the same adjacency representation as the terms of the vertices. To obtain the local metric dimension of values in the graph of the Sun and the stacked book graph is used the construction method by considering the representation of each adjacent vertex of the graph.

  19. Improving risk allocation through cat bonds

    OpenAIRE

    Nell, Martin; Richter, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    Catastrophe bonds (cat bonds) often use index triggers, such as, for instance, parametric descriptions of a catastrophe. This implies the problem of the so-called basis risk, resulting from the fact that, in contrast to traditional reinsurance, this kind of coverage cannot be a perfect hedge for the primary's insured portfolio. On the other hand, cat bonds offer some very attractive economic features: Besides their usefulness as a solution to the problems of moral hazard and default risk, an ...

  20. Decomposing European bond and equity volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2004-01-01

    The paper investigates volatility spillover from US and aggregate European asset markets into European national asset markets. A main contribution is that bond and equity volatilities are analyzed simultaneously. A new model belonging to the "volatilityspillover" family is suggested: The conditional variance of e.g. the unexpected German stock return is divided into separate effects from the contemporaneous idiosyncratic variance of US bonds, US stocks, European bonds, European stocks, German...

  1. Carbodiimide Inactivation of MMPs and Effect on Dentin Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, A.; Apolonio, F.M.; Saboia, V.P.A.; Santi, S.; Angeloni, V.; Checchi, V.; Curci, R.; Di Lenarda, R.; Tay, F.R.; Pashley, D.H.; Breschi, L.

    2014-01-01

    The use of protein cross-linking agents during bonding procedures has been recently proposed to improve bond durability. This study aimed to use zymography and in situ zymography techniques to evaluate the ability of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) cross-linker to inhibit matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity. The hypotheses tested were that: (1) bonding procedures increase dentin gelatinolytic activity and (2) EDC pre-treatment prevents this enzymatic activity. The zymographic assay was performed on protein extracts obtained from dentin powder treated with Optibond FL or Scotchbond 1XT with or without 0.3M EDC pre-treatment. For in situ zymography, adhesive/dentin interfaces were created with the same adhesives applied to acid-etched dentin slabs pre-treated or not with EDC conditioner. Zymograms revealed increased expression of dentin endogenous MMP-2 and -9 after adhesive application, while the use of EDC as a primer inactivated dentin gelatinases. Results of in situ zymograpy showed that hybrid layers of tested adhesives exhibited intense collagenolytic activity, while almost no fluorescence signal was detected when specimens were pre-treated with EDC. The correlative analysis used in this study demonstrated that EDC could contribute to inactivate endogenous dentin MMPs within the hybrid layer created by etch-and-rinse adhesives. PMID:24334409

  2. Analysis of CD83 antigen expression in human breast fibroadenoma and adjacent tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Nascimento Borges

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Dendritic cell maturation is considered essential for starting an immune response. The CD83 antigen is an important marker of dendritic cell maturation. The objectives here were to analyze CD83 antigen expression in human breast fibroadenoma and breast tissue adjacent to the lesion and to identify clinical factors that might influence this expression. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a retrospective study at a public university hospital, in which 29 histopathological samples of breast fibroadenoma and adjacent breast tissue, from 28 women of reproductive age, were analyzed. METHODS: The immunohistochemistry method was used to analyze the cell expression of the antigen. The antigen expression in the cells was evaluated by means of random manual counting using an optical microscope. RESULTS: Positive expression of the CD83 antigen in the epithelial cells of the fibroadenoma (365.52; standard deviation ± 133.13 in relation to the adjacent breast tissue cells (189.59; standard deviation ± 140.75 was statistically larger (P < 0.001. Several clinical features were analyzed, but only parity was shown to influence CD83 antigen expression in the adjacent breast tissue, such that positive expression was more evident in nulliparous women (P = 0.042. CONCLUSIONS: The expression of the CD83 antigen in the fibroadenoma was positive and greater than in the adjacent breast tissue. Positive expression of the antigen in the adjacent breast tissue was influenced by parity, and was significantly more evident in nulliparous women.

  3. Risk Factors for the Development of Adjacent Segment Disease Following Anterior Cervical Arthrodesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezgi Akar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to clinically and radiologically evaluate the efficacy of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF in the treatment of adjacent level degeneration. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 89 patients (55 females, 34 males who underwent ACDF. Adjacent segment degeneration findings were evaluated by investigating new osteophyte formation, growth of existing osteophytes, ossification of the anterior longitudinal ligament, presence of intervertebral disc space narrowing, sagittal alignment and range of motion (ROM using serial radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging. Results: The mean age of the 89 patients was 41.3 (24-76 years. The mean follow-up duration was 34.3 (12-64 months. Radiographic evidence of adjacent segment degeneration was observed in 12 patients (13.4%. Nine (75% patients had new complaints. Of the patients who had degenerative changes, 7 were (58% were male, 5 (42% were female; the mean age was 46 (30- 62 years. It was observed that the level of fusion and the number of fusion did not increase the adjacent segment degeneration. All of 12 patients were observed to have a non lordotic cervical spine and increased ROM. Conclusion: Development of degeneration at the level adjacent to region anterior cervical discectomy and fusion performed is higher compared to non-adjacent levels. The level of fusion and the number of fusion levels have no effect on the development of degeneration. (The Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2015; 53:120-3

  4. Linking open vocabularies

    CERN Document Server

    Greifender, Elke; Seadle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Linked Data (LD), Linked Open Data (LOD) and generating a web of data, present the new knowledge sharing frontier. In a philosophical context, LD is an evolving environment that reflects humankinds' desire to understand the world by drawing on the latest technologies and capabilities of the time. LD, while seemingly a new phenomenon did not emerge overnight; rather it represents the natural progression by which knowledge structures are developed, used, and shared. Linked Open Vocabularies is a significant trajectory of LD. Linked Open Vocabularies targets vocabularies that have traditionally b

  5. Stereoelectronic control in peptide bond formation. Ab initio calculations and speculations on the mechanism of action of serine proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorenstein, D G; Taira, K

    1984-01-01

    Ab initio molecular orbital calculations have been performed on the reaction profile for the addition/elimination reaction between ammonia and formic acid, proceeding via a tetrahedral intermediate: NH3 + HCO2H----H2NCH(OH)2----NH2CHO + H2O. Calculated transition state energies for the first addition step of the reaction revealed that a lone pair on the oxygen of the OH group, which is antiperiplanar to the attacking nitrogen, stabilized the transition state by 3.9 kcal/mol, thus supporting the hypothesis of stereoelectronic control for this reaction. In addition, a secondary, counterbalancing stereoelectronic effect stabilizes the second step, water elimination, transition state by 3.1 kcal/mol if the lone pair on the leaving water oxygen is not antiperiplanar to the C-N bond. The best conformation for the transition states was thus one with a lone pair antiperiplanar to the adjacent scissile bond and also one without a lone-pair orbital on the scissile bond oxygen or nitrogen antiperiplanar to the adjacent polar bond. The significance of these stereoelectronic effects for the mechanism of action of serine proteases is discussed. PMID:6394065

  6. Halogen bonding in solution: thermodynamics and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, Thomas M; Chudzinski, Michael G; Sarwar, Mohammed G; Taylor, Mark S

    2013-02-21

    Halogen bonds are noncovalent interactions in which covalently bound halogens act as electrophilic species. The utility of halogen bonding for controlling self-assembly in the solid state is evident from a broad spectrum of applications in crystal engineering and materials science. Until recently, it has been less clear whether, and to what extent, halogen bonding could be employed to influence conformation, binding or reactivity in the solution phase. This tutorial review summarizes and interprets solution-phase thermodynamic data for halogen bonding interactions obtained over the past six decades and highlights emerging applications in molecular recognition, medicinal chemistry and catalysis.

  7. Cold pressure welding - the mechanisms governing bonding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels

    1979-01-01

    Investigations of the bonding surface in scanning electron microscope after fracture confirm the mechanisms of bond formation in cold pressure welding to be: fracture of work-hardened surface layer, surface expansion increasing the area of virgin surface, extrusion of virgin material through cracks...... of the original surface layer, and establishment of real contact and bonding between virgin material. This implies that normal pressure as well as surface expansion are basic parameters governing the bond strength. Experimental investigations of pressure welding Al-Al under plane strain compression in a specially...

  8. THEORETICAL AND NUMERICAL VALUATION OF CALLABLE BONDS

    OpenAIRE

    Dejun Xie

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the value of a callable bond and the bond issuer’s optimal financial decision regarding whether to continue the investment on the market or call the bond. Assume the market investment return follows a stochastic model, the value of contract is formulated as a partial differential equation system embedded with a free boundary, defining the level of market return rate at which it is optimal for the issuer to call the bond. A fundamental solution of the partial differential ...

  9. Bonding in ZnSb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Lasse; Madsen, Georg K. H.; Iversen, Bo Brummerstedt

    Thermoelectric materials are capable of converting waste heat into usable electric energy. The conversion efficiency depends critically on the electronic band structure. Theoretical calculations predict the semiconducting ZnSb to have a promising efficiency if it is n-doped. The details of the lo......Thermoelectric materials are capable of converting waste heat into usable electric energy. The conversion efficiency depends critically on the electronic band structure. Theoretical calculations predict the semiconducting ZnSb to have a promising efficiency if it is n-doped. The details...... of the lowest conduction band have therefore been investigated. Electrons placed in the lowest conduction band are predicted to increase the bonding between second nearest neighbour atoms. This causes a lowering of the energy at special points in the first Brillouin zone. Thereby, the dispersion of the lowest...

  10. Financial Assets [share, bonds] & Ancylia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksoed, Wh-

    2016-11-01

    Instead Elaine Scarry: "Thermonuclear monarchy" reinvent Carry Nation since Aug 17, 1965 the Republic of Indonesia's President speech: "Reach to the Star", for "cancellation" usually found in External Debt herewith retrieved from "the Window of theWorld": Ancylia, feast in March, a month named after Mars, the god of war. "On March 19 they used to put on their biggest performance of gymnastics in order to "bribe" their god for another good year", further we have vacancy & "vacuum tube"- Bulat Air karena Pembuluh, Bulat Kata karena Mufakat" proverb from Minangkabau, West Sumatra. Follows March 19, 1984 are first prototype flight of IAI Astra Jet as well as March 19, 2012 invoice accompanies Electric car Kujang-193, Fainancial Assets [share, bonds] are the answer for "infrastructure" & state owned enterprises assets to be hedged first initial debt per capita accordances. Heartfelt gratitudes to HE. Mr. Ir. Sarwono Kusumaatmadja/PT. Smartfren INDONESIA.

  11. Diffusion-Weighted MRI Assessment of Adjacent Disc Degeneration After Thoracolumbar Vertebral Fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noriega, David C., E-mail: dcnoriega1970@gmail.com [Valladolid University Hospital, Spine Department (Spain); Marcia, Stefano, E-mail: stemarcia@gmail.com [SS. Trinità Hospital ASL 8 Cagliari, Department of Radiology (Italy); Ardura, Francisco, E-mail: fardura@ono.com [Valladolid University Hospital, Spine Department (Spain); Lite, Israel Sanchez, E-mail: israelslite@hotmail.com [Valladolid University Hospital, Radiology Department (Spain); Marras, Mariangela, E-mail: mariangela.marrasmd@gmail.com [Azienda Ospedaliero Brotzu (A.O.B.), Department of Radiology (Italy); Saba, Luca, E-mail: lucasaba@tiscali.it [Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria (A.O.U.), Department of Radiology (Italy)

    2016-09-15

    ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to assess, by the mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), if a relationship exists between disc ADC and MR findings of adjacent disc degeneration after thoracolumbar fractures treated by anatomic reduction using vertebral augmentation (VAP).Materials and MethodsTwenty non-consecutive patients (mean age 50.7 years; range 45–56) treated because of vertebral fractures, were included in this study. There were 10 A3.1 and 10 A1.2 fractures (AO classification). Surgical treatment using VAP was applied in 14 cases, and conservative in 6 patients. MRI T2-weighted images and mapping of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of the intervertebral disc adjacent to the fractured segment were performed after a mean follow-up of 32 months. A total of 60 discs, 3 per patient, were analysed: infra-adjacent, supra-adjacent and a control disc one level above the supra-adjacent.ResultsNo differences between patients surgically treated and those following a conservative protocol regarding the average ADC values obtained in the 20 control discs analysed were found. Considering all discs, average ADC in the supra-adjacent level was lower than in the infra-adjacent (1.35 ± 0.12 vs. 1.53 ± 0.06; p < 0.001). Average ADC values of the discs used as a control were similar to those of the infra-adjacent level (1.54 ± 0.06). Compared to surgically treated patients, discs at the supra-adjacent fracture level showed statistically significant lower values in cases treated conservatively (p < 0.001). The variation in the delay of surgery had no influence on the average values of ADC at any of the measured levels.ConclusionsADC measurements of the supra-adjacent discs after a mean follow-up of 32 months following thoracolumbar fractures, showed that restoration of the vertebral collapse by minimally invasive VAP prevents posttraumatic disc degeneration.

  12. Influence of intermolecular amide hydrogen bonding on the geometry, atomic charges, and spectral modes of acetanilide: An ab initio study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binoy, J.; Prathima, N. B.; Murali Krishna, C.; Santhosh, C.; Hubert Joe, I.; Jayakumar, V. S.

    2006-08-01

    Acetanilide, a compound of pharmaceutical importance possessing pain-relieving properties due to its blocking the pulse dissipating along the nerve fiber, is subjected to vibrational spectral investigation using NIR FT Raman, FT-IR, and SERS. The geometry, Mulliken charges, and vibrational spectrum of acetanilide have been computed using the Hartree-Fock theory and density functional theory employing the 6-31G (d) basis set. To investigate the influence of intermolecular amide hydrogen bonding, the geometry, charge distribution, and vibrational spectrum of the acetanilide dimer have been computed at the HF/6-31G (d) level. The computed geometries reveal that the acetanilide molecule is planar, while twisting of the secondary amide group with respect to the phenyl ring is found upon hydrogen bonding. The trans isomerism and “amido” form of the secondary amide, hyperconjugation of the C=O group with the adjacent C-C bond, and donor-acceptor interaction have been investigated using computed geometry. The carbonyl stretching band position is found to be influenced by the tendency of the phenyl ring to withdraw nitrogen lone pair, intermolecular hydrogen bonding, conjugation, and hyperconjugation. A decrease in the NH and C=O bond orders and increase in the C-N bond orders due to donor-acceptor interaction can be observed in the vibrational spectra. The SERS spectral analysis reveals that the flat orientation of the molecule on the adsorption plane is preferred.

  13. 33 CFR 148.510 - What happens when a petition for exemption involves the interests of an adjacent coastal State?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... exemption involves the interests of an adjacent coastal State? 148.510 Section 148.510 Navigation and... petition for exemption involves the interests of an adjacent coastal State? If the petition for exemption concerns an adjacent coastal State, the Commandant (CG-5) forwards the petition to the Governor of the...

  14. Comparative TEM study of bonded silicon/silicon interfaces fabricated by hydrophilic, hydrophobic and UHV wafer bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reznicek, A.; Scholz, R.; Senz, S.; Goesele, U.

    2003-01-01

    Wafers of Czochralski-grown silicon were bonded hydrophilically, hydrophobically and in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) at room temperature. Wafers bonded hydrophilically adhere together by hydrogen bonds, those bonded hydrophobically by van der Waals forces and UHV-bonded ones by covalent bonds. Annealing the pre-bonded hydrophilic and hydrophobic wafer pairs in argon for 2 h at different temperatures increases the initially low bonding energy. UHV-bonded wafer pairs were also annealed to compare the results. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations show nano-voids at the interface. The void density depends on the initial bonding strength. During annealing the shape, coverage and density of the voids change significantly

  15. Let's "Downscale" Linked Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gueret, C.D.M.; de Boer, V.; Schlobach, K.S.

    2014-01-01

    Open data policies and linked data publication are powerful tools for increasing transparency, participatory governance, and accountability. The linked data community proudly emphasizes the economic and societal impact such technology shows. But a closer look proves that the design and deployment of

  16. Let's "Downscale" Linked Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gueret, Christophe; de Boer, Victor; Schlobach, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Open data policies and linked data publication are powerful tools for increasing transparency, participatory governance, and accountability. A closer look at linked data technologies, however, proves that their design and deployment exclude the majority of the world’s population. It will take small

  17. Weierstrass polynomials for links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1997-01-01

    There is a natural way of identifying links in3-space with polynomial covering spaces over thecircle. Thereby any link in 3-space can be definedby a Weierstrass polynomial over the circle. Theequivalence relation for covering spaces over thecircle is, however, completely different from...

  18. Are Bonding Agents being Effective on the Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets Bonded to the Composite?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Farzanegan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the clinical problems in orthodontics is the bonding of brackets tocomposite restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bondstrength of brackets bonded to composite restorations using Excite. Methods:Forty brackets were bonded to composite surfaces, which were embedded inacrylic resin. One of the following four protocols was employed for surfacepreparation of the composite: group 1 37% phosphoric acid for 60 seconds, group2 roughening with a diamond bur plus 37% phosphoric acid for 60 seconds, group3 37% phosphoric acid for 60 seconds and the applying Excite®, group4 roughening with diamond bur plus 37% phosphoric acid for 60 seconds andapplying Excite®. Maxillary central brackets were bonded onto thecomposite prepared samples with Transbond XT. Shear Bond Strength (SBS wasmeasured by a universal testing machine. The ANOVA and Tukey test was utilizedfor data analysis. Results: There was a significant difference betweenthe four groups (P

  19. Bonding Durability of Four Adhesive Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Atash Biz Yeganeh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to compare the durability of four adhesive systems by assessing their microtensile bond strength (MTBS and microleakage during six months of water storage.Materials and Methods: A total of 128 human third molars were used. The adhesives tested were Scotch Bond Multipurpose (SBMP, Single Bond (SB, Clearfil-SE bond (CSEB, and All-Bond SE (ABSE. After sample preparation for MTBS testing, the microspecimens were subjected to microtensile tester after one day and six months of water storage. For microleakage evaluation, facial and lingual class V cavities were prepared and restored with composite. After thermocycling, microleakage was evaluated. Bond strength values were subjected to one-way ANOVA and Tamhane’s test, and the microleakage data were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis, Dunn, Mann Whitney and Wilcoxon tests (P<0.05.Results: Single Bond yielded the highest and ABSE yielded the lowest bond strength at one day and six months. Short-term bond strength of SBMP and CSEB was similar. After six months, a significant decrease in bond strength was observed in ABSE and SBMP groups. At one day, ABSE showed the highest microleakage at the occlusal margin; however, at the gingival margin, there was no significant difference among groups. Long-term microleakage of all groups at the occlusal margins was similar, whilst gingival margins of SBMP and SB showed significantly higher microleakage.Conclusion: The highest MTBS and favorable sealability were obtained by Clearfil SE bond. Water storage had no effect on microleakage of self-etch adhesives at the gingival margin or MTBS of CSEB and SB. 

  20. Composite Laser Ceramics by Advanced Bonding Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikesue, Akio; Aung, Yan Lin; Kamimura, Tomosumi; Honda, Sawao; Iwamoto, Yuji

    2018-02-09

    Composites obtained by bonding materials with the same crystal structure and different chemical compositions can create new functions that do not exist in conventional concepts. We have succeeded in bonding polycrystalline YAG and Nd:YAG ceramics without any interstices at the bonding interface, and the bonding state of this composite was at the atomic level, similar to the grain boundary structure in ceramics. The mechanical strength of the bonded composite reached 278 MPa, which was not less than the strength of each host material (269 and 255 MPa). Thermal conductivity of the composite was 12.3 W/mK (theoretical value) which is intermediate between the thermal conductivities of YAG and Nd:YAG (14.1 and 10.2 W/mK, respectively). Light scattering cannot be detected at the bonding interface of the ceramic composite by laser tomography. Since the scattering coefficients of the monolithic material and the composite material formed by bonding up to 15 layers of the same materials were both 0.10%/cm, there was no occurrence of light scattering due to the bonding. In addition, it was not detected that the optical distortion and non-uniformity of the refractive index variation were caused by the bonding. An excitation light source (LD = 808 nm) was collimated to 200 μm and irradiated into a commercial 1% Nd:YAG single crystal, but fracture damage occurred at a low damage threshold of 80 kW/cm². On the other hand, the same test was conducted on the bonded interface of 1% Nd:YAG-YAG composite ceramics fabricated in this study, but it was not damaged until the excitation density reached 127 kW/cm². 0.6% Nd:YAG-YAG composite ceramics showed high damage resistance (up to 223 kW/cm²). It was concluded that composites formed by bonding polycrystalline ceramics are ideal in terms of thermo-mechanical and optical properties.

  1. Pricing unit-linked insurance with guaranteed benefit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, M.; Novkaniza, F.; Novita, M.

    2017-07-01

    Unit-linked insurance is an investment-linked insurance, that is, the given benefit is the premium investment out-come. Recently, the most widely marketed insurance in the industry is unit-linked insurance with guaranteed benefit. With guaranteed benefit applied, the insurance benefits form is similar to the payoff form of European call option. Thereby, pricing European call option is involved in pricing unit-linked insurance with guaranteed benefit. The dynamics of investment outcome is assumed to follow stochastic interest rate. Hence, change of measure methods is used in pricing unit-linked insurance. The discount factor with stochastic interest rate needs to be modified as well to be zero coupon bond price. Eventually, the insurance premium is calculated by equivalence principle with guaranteed benefit and insurance period explicitly given.

  2. 77 FR 29472 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds-Termination: Atlantic Bonding Company, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... be accepted from this company, and bonds that are continuous in nature should not be renewed. The... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds--Termination: Atlantic Bonding Company, Inc. AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Department...

  3. Comparison of Shear Bond Strengths of three resin systems for a Base Metal Alloy bonded to

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jlali H

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Resin-bonded fixed partial dentures (F.P.D can be used for conservative treatment of partially edentulous"npatients. There are numerous studies regarding the strength of resin composite bond to base meta! alloys. Shear bond"nstrength of three resin systems were invistigated. In this study these systems consisted of: Panavia Ex, Mirage FLC and"nMarathon V. Thirty base metal specimens were prepared from rexillium III alloy and divided into three groups. Then each"ngroup was bonded to enamel of human extracted molar teeth with these systems. All of specimens were stored in water at"n37ac for 48 hours. A shear force was applied to each specimen by the instron universal testing machine. A statistical"nevaluation of the data using one-way analysis of variance showed that there was highly significant difference (P<0.01"nbetween the bond strengths of these three groups."nThe base metal specimens bonded with panavia Ex luting agent, exhibited the highest mean bond strength. Shear bond"nstrength of the specimens bonded to enamel with Mirage F1C showed lower bond strenght than panavia EX. However, the"nlowest bond strength was obtained by the specimens bonded with Marathon V.

  4. Sacroiliac Joint Fusion Minimally Affects Adjacent Lumbar Segment Motion: A Finite Element Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Derek P; Kiapour, Ali; Yerby, Scott A; Goel, Vijay K

    2015-01-01

    Adjacent segment disease is a recognized consequence of fusion in the spinal column. Fusion of the sacroiliac joint is an effective method of pain reduction. Although effective, the consequences of sacroiliac joint fusion and the potential for adjacent segment disease for the adjacent lumbar spinal levels is unknown. The objective of this study was to quantify the change in range of motion of the sacroiliac joint and the adjacent lumbar spinal motion segments due to sacroiliac joint fusion and compare these changes to previous literature to assess the potential for adjacent segment disease in the lumbar spine. An experimentally validated finite element model of the lumbar spine and pelvis was used to simulate a fusion of the sacroiliac joint using three laterally placed triangular implants (iFuse Implant System, SI-BONE, Inc., San Jose, CA). The range of motion of the sacroiliac joint and the adjacent lumbar spinal motion segments were calculated using a hybrid loading protocol and compared with the intact range of motion in flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. The range of motions of the treated sacroiliac joints were reduced in flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation, by 56.6%, 59.5%, 27.8%, and 53.3%, respectively when compared with the intact condition. The stiffening of the sacroiliac joint resulted in increases at the adjacent lumbar motion segment (L5-S1) for flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation, of 3.0%, 3.7%, 1.1%, and 4.6%, respectively. Fusion of the sacroiliac joint resulted in substantial (> 50%) reductions in flexion, extension, and axial rotation of the sacroiliac joint with minimal (sacroiliac joint fusion, the long-term clinical results remain to be investigated.

  5. Modeling Interactions between Backbarrier Marshes, Tidal Inlets, Ebb-deltas, and Adjacent Barriers Exposed to Rising Sea Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanegan, K.; Georgiou, I. Y.; FitzGerald, D.

    2016-02-01

    Along barrier island chains, tidal exchange between the backbarrier and the coastal ocean supports unique saltwater and brackish ecosystems and is responsible for exporting sediment and nutrients to the surrounding coast. Tidal prism, basement controls, and wave and tidal energy dictate the size and number of tidal inlets and the volume of sand sequestered in ebb-tidal deltas. The inlet tidal prism is a function of bay area, tidal range, and secondary controls, including flow inertia, basinal hypsometry, and frictional factors. Sea- level rise (SLR) is threatening coastal environments, causing mainland flooding, changes in sediment supply, and conversion of wetlands and tidal flats to open water. These factors are impacting basinal hypsometry and increasing open water area, resulting in enlarging tidal prisms, increased dimensions of tidal inlets and ebb-tidal deltas, and erosion along adjacent barrier shorelines. Although the effects of SLR on coastal morphology are difficult to study by field observations alone, physics-based numerical models provide a sophisticated means of analyzing coastal processes over decadal time-scales and linking process causation to long term development. Here, we use a numerical model that includes relevant features in the barrier/tidal basin system, linking back-barrier marsh degradation, inlet expansion, and ebb-delta growth to barrier erosion through long-term hydrodynamic and morphology simulations. Sediment exchange and process interactions are investigated using an idealized domain resembling backbarrier basins of mixed energy coasts so that the sensitivity to varying SLR rates, interior marsh loss, sediment supply, and hydrodynamic controls can be more easily analyzed. Model runs explore these processes over geologic time scales, demonstrating the vulnerability of backbarrier systems to projected SLR and marsh loss. Results demonstrate the links between changing basin morphology and shoreface sedimentation patterns that initiate

  6. Hydrogen Bonds and Life in the Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Vladilo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The scientific community is allocating more and more resources to space missions and astronomical observations dedicated to the search for life beyond Earth. This experimental endeavor needs to be backed by a theoretical framework aimed at defining universal criteria for the existence of life. With this aim in mind, we have explored which chemical and physical properties should be expected for life possibly different from the terrestrial one, but similarly sustained by genetic and catalytic molecules. We show that functional molecules performing genetic and catalytic tasks must feature a hierarchy of chemical interactions operating in distinct energy bands. Of all known chemical bonds and forces, only hydrogen bonds are able to mediate the directional interactions of lower energy that are needed for the operation of genetic and catalytic tasks. For this reason and because of the unique quantum properties of hydrogen bonding, the functional molecules involved in life processes are predicted to have extensive hydrogen-bonding capabilities. A molecular medium generating a hydrogen-bond network is probably essential to support the activity of the functional molecules. These hydrogen-bond requirements constrain the viability of hypothetical biochemistries alternative to the terrestrial one, provide thermal limits to life molecular processes, and offer a conceptual framework to define a transition from a “covalent-bond stage” to a “hydrogen-bond stage” in prebiotic chemistry.

  7. 40 CFR 280.98 - Surety bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: Performance Bond Date bond executed: Period of coverage: Principal: [legal name and business address of owner... “corporation”] State of incorporation (if applicable): Surety(ies): [name(s) and business address(es)] Scope of...) shall not be discharged by any payment or succession of payments hereunder, unless and until such...

  8. Hydrogen bond dynamics in bulk alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinokita, Keisuke; Cunha, Ana V.; Jansen, Thomas L. C.; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen-bonded liquids play a significant role in numerous chemical and biological phenomena. In the past decade, impressive developments in multidimensional vibrational spectroscopy and combined molecular dynamics–quantum mechanical simulation have established many intriguing features of hydrogen bond dynamics in one of the fundamental solvents in nature, water. The next class of a hydrogen-bonded liquid—alcohols—has attracted much less attention. This is surprising given such important differences between water and alcohols as the imbalance between the number of hydrogen bonds, each molecule can accept (two) and donate (one) and the very presence of the hydrophobic group in alcohols. Here, we use polarization-resolved pump-probe and 2D infrared spectroscopy supported by extensive theoretical modeling to investigate hydrogen bond dynamics in methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol employing the OH stretching mode as a reporter. The sub-ps dynamics in alcohols are similar to those in water as they are determined by similar librational and hydrogen-bond stretch motions. However, lower density of hydrogen bond acceptors and donors in alcohols leads to the appearance of slow diffusion-controlled hydrogen bond exchange dynamics, which are essentially absent in water. We anticipate that the findings herein would have a potential impact on fundamental chemistry and biology as many processes in nature involve the interplay of hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups

  9. 78 FR 36029 - CDFI Bond Guarantee Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... the extent a Secondary Loan is financed on a corporate finance basis (i.e., through a Credit... Issue. Bonds will be used to finance Bond Loans to Eligible CDFIs for Eligible Purposes for a period not... financial strength, stability, durability and liquidity as reflected in its corporate credit ratings and...

  10. Index Driven Price Pressure in Corporate Bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Jens

    Inclusion and exclusion of bonds from major indices are information-free, monthly events. At these events, liquidity providers get a significant abnormal return by trading against index trackers. The return is highest for bonds that are excluded because of a recent downgrade with a one-day return...

  11. Sol-gel bonding of silicon wafers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbe, C.J.; Cassidy, D.J.; Triani, G.; Latella, B.A.; Mitchell, D.R.G.; Finnie, K.S.; Bartlett, J.R.; Woolfrey, J.L.; Collins, G.A.

    2005-01-01

    Low temperature bonding of silicon wafers was achieved using sol-gel technology. The initial sol-gel chemistry of the coating solution was found to influence the mechanical properties of the resulting bonds. More precisely, the influence of parameters such as the alkoxide concentration, water-to-alkoxide molar ratio, pH, and solution aging on the final bond morphologies and interfacial fracture energy was studied. The thickness and density of the sol-gel coating were characterised using ellipsometry. The corresponding bonded specimens were investigated using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy to monitor their chemical composition, infrared imaging to control bond integrity, and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy to study their microstructure. Their interfacial fracture energy was measured using microindentation. An optimum water-to-alkoxide molar ratio of 10 and hydrolysis water at pH = 2 were found. Such conditions led to relatively dense films (> 90%), resulting in bonds with a fracture energy of 3.5 J/m 2 , significantly higher than those obtained using classical hydrophilic bonding (typically 1.5-2.5 J/m 2 ). Ageing of the coating solution was found to decrease the bond strength

  12. Theoretical Characterization of Hydrogen Bonding Interactions ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The highest stabilization results in case of (H2N)CHO as hydrogen bond acceptor. The variation of the substituents at –OH functional group also influences the strength of hydrogen bond; nearly all the substituents increase the stabilization energy relative to HOH. The analysis of geometrical parameters; proton affinities, ...

  13. Expected Business Conditions and Bond Risk Premia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jonas Nygaard

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I study the predictability of bond risk premia by means of expectations to future business conditions using survey forecasts from the Survey of Professional Forecasters. I show that expected business conditions consistently affect excess bond returns and that the inclusion of exp...

  14. Nondestructive testing of thermocompression bonds. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hale, G.M.

    1981-02-01

    A Scanning Laser Acoustic Microscope (SLAM) was used to characterize hybrid microcircuit beam lead bonds formed on thin film networks by a thermocompression process. Results from subsequent pull testing show that the SLAM offered no significant advantage over visual inspection for detecting bad bonds. Infrared microscopy and resistance measurements were also reviewed and rejected as being ineffective inspection methods

  15. 46 CFR 540.6 - Surety bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... transportation. The requirements of Form FMC-132A, however, may be amended by the Commission in a particular case for good cause. (b) In the case of a surety bond which is to cover all passenger operations of the... shall be issued by a bonding company authorized to do business in the United States and acceptable to...

  16. Hydrogen Bonds and Life in the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The scientific community is allocating more and more resources to space missions and astronomical observations dedicated to the search for life beyond Earth. This experimental endeavor needs to be backed by a theoretical framework aimed at defining universal criteria for the existence of life. With this aim in mind, we have explored which chemical and physical properties should be expected for life possibly different from the terrestrial one, but similarly sustained by genetic and catalytic molecules. We show that functional molecules performing genetic and catalytic tasks must feature a hierarchy of chemical interactions operating in distinct energy bands. Of all known chemical bonds and forces, only hydrogen bonds are able to mediate the directional interactions of lower energy that are needed for the operation of genetic and catalytic tasks. For this reason and because of the unique quantum properties of hydrogen bonding, the functional molecules involved in life processes are predicted to have extensive hydrogen-bonding capabilities. A molecular medium generating a hydrogen-bond network is probably essential to support the activity of the functional molecules. These hydrogen-bond requirements constrain the viability of hypothetical biochemistries alternative to the terrestrial one, provide thermal limits to life molecular processes, and offer a conceptual framework to define a transition from a “covalent-bond stage” to a “hydrogen-bond stage” in prebiotic chemistry. PMID:29301382

  17. Hydrogen bond dynamics in bulk alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinokita, Keisuke; Cunha, Ana V; Jansen, Thomas L C; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S

    2015-06-07

    Hydrogen-bonded liquids play a significant role in numerous chemical and biological phenomena. In the past decade, impressive developments in multidimensional vibrational spectroscopy and combined molecular dynamics-quantum mechanical simulation have established many intriguing features of hydrogen bond dynamics in one of the fundamental solvents in nature, water. The next class of a hydrogen-bonded liquid--alcohols--has attracted much less attention. This is surprising given such important differences between water and alcohols as the imbalance between the number of hydrogen bonds, each molecule can accept (two) and donate (one) and the very presence of the hydrophobic group in alcohols. Here, we use polarization-resolved pump-probe and 2D infrared spectroscopy supported by extensive theoretical modeling to investigate hydrogen bond dynamics in methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol employing the OH stretching mode as a reporter. The sub-ps dynamics in alcohols are similar to those in water as they are determined by similar librational and hydrogen-bond stretch motions. However, lower density of hydrogen bond acceptors and donors in alcohols leads to the appearance of slow diffusion-controlled hydrogen bond exchange dynamics, which are essentially absent in water. We anticipate that the findings herein would have a potential impact on fundamental chemistry and biology as many processes in nature involve the interplay of hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups.

  18. Sol-gel bonding of silicon wafers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbe, C.J.; Cassidy, D.J.; Triani, G.; Latella, B.A.; Mitchell, D.R.G.; Finnie, K.S.; Short, K.; Bartlett, J.R.; Woolfrey, J.L.; Collins, G.A.

    2005-01-01

    Sol-gel bonds have been produced between smooth, clean silicon substrates by spin-coating solutions containing partially hydrolysed silicon alkoxides. The two coated substrates were assembled and the resulting sandwich fired at temperatures ranging from 60 to 600 deg. C. The sol-gel coatings were characterised using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ellipsometry, and atomic force microscopy, while the corresponding bonded specimens were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. Mechanical properties were characterised using both microindentation and tensile testing. Bonding of silicon wafers has been successfully achieved at temperatures as low as 60 deg. C. At 300 deg. C, the interfacial fracture energy was 1.55 J/m 2 . At 600 deg. C, sol-gel bonding provided superior interfacial fracture energy over classical hydrophilic bonding (3.4 J/m 2 vs. 1.5 J/m 2 ). The increase in the interfacial fracture energy is related to the increase in film density due to the sintering of the sol-gel interface with increasing temperature. The superior interfacial fracture energy obtained by sol-gel bonding at low temperature is due to the formation of an interfacial layer, which chemically bonds the two sol-gel coatings on each wafer. Application of a tensile stress on the resulting bond leads to fracture of the samples at the silicon/sol-gel interface

  19. 76 FR 38577 - Bond Guarantee Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... notes or bonds, including the principal, interest, and call premiums not to exceed 30 years, issued by CDFIs to finance loans for eligible community or economic development purposes. The bonds or notes will... accordance with Federal credit policy, moreover, the Federal Financing Bank (FFB), a body corporate and...

  20. Hydrogen Bonds and Life in the Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladilo, Giovanni; Hassanali, Ali

    2018-01-03

    The scientific community is allocating more and more resources to space missions and astronomical observations dedicated to the search for life beyond Earth. This experimental endeavor needs to be backed by a theoretical framework aimed at defining universal criteria for the existence of life. With this aim in mind, we have explored which chemical and physical properties should be expected for life possibly different from the terrestrial one, but similarly sustained by genetic and catalytic molecules. We show that functional molecules performing genetic and catalytic tasks must feature a hierarchy of chemical interactions operating in distinct energy bands. Of all known chemical bonds and forces, only hydrogen bonds are able to mediate the directional interactions of lower energy that are needed for the operation of genetic and catalytic tasks. For this reason and because of the unique quantum properties of hydrogen bonding, the functional molecules involved in life processes are predicted to have extensive hydrogen-bonding capabilities. A molecular medium generating a hydrogen-bond network is probably essential to support the activity of the functional molecules. These hydrogen-bond requirements constrain the viability of hypothetical biochemistries alternative to the terrestrial one, provide thermal limits to life molecular processes, and offer a conceptual framework to define a transition from a "covalent-bond stage" to a "hydrogen-bond stage" in prebiotic chemistry.

  1. Fusion bonding of silicon nitride surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reck, Kasper; Østergaard, Christian; Thomsen, Erik Vilain

    2011-01-01

    While silicon nitride surfaces are widely used in many micro electrical mechanical system devices, e.g. for chemical passivation, electrical isolation or environmental protection, studies on fusion bonding of two silicon nitride surfaces (Si3N4–Si3N4 bonding) are very few and highly application...

  2. ROLE OF DIASPORA BONDS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Bunyk

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of the bond issue for the Diaspora as a source of financing of the national economy and a factor of development. We reveal the following factors driving demand in the diaspora bond market: targeting at a project, channels, audience and marketing. The paper shows international experience to attract migrants’ savings and use them to issue bonds. Investors consider diaspora bonds because: firstly, people who have disposable income, who can commit that income or that excess income to a long term investment should look at diaspora bonds: secondly, people who really want to participate in transforming the home country should look at diaspora bond specifically diaspora bonds related to projects: and last but not least, if there are incentives around diaspora bonds for example whether there’s tax incentive and other kinds of incentive, that also should be taken into account. Also we disclosed the possibility of using this type of securities in Ukraine and its expedience.

  3. Pair-bonding, romantic love, and evolution: the curious case of Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Garth J O; Simpson, Jeffry A; Campbell, Lorne; Overall, Nickola C

    2015-01-01

    This article evaluates a thesis containing three interconnected propositions. First, romantic love is a "commitment device" for motivating pair-bonding in humans. Second, pair-bonding facilitated the idiosyncratic life history of hominins, helping to provide the massive investment required to rear children. Third, managing long-term pair bonds (along with family relationships) facilitated the evolution of social intelligence and cooperative skills. We evaluate this thesis by integrating evidence from a broad range of scientific disciplines. First, consistent with the claim that romantic love is an evolved commitment device, our review suggests that it is universal; suppresses mate-search mechanisms; has specific behavioral, hormonal, and neuropsychological signatures; and is linked to better health and survival. Second, we consider challenges to this thesis posed by the existence of arranged marriage, polygyny, divorce, and infidelity. Third, we show how the intimate relationship mind seems to be built to regulate and monitor relationships. Fourth, we review comparative evidence concerning links among mating systems, reproductive biology, and brain size. Finally, we discuss evidence regarding the evolutionary timing of shifts to pair-bonding in hominins. We conclude there is interdisciplinary support for the claim that romantic love and pair-bonding, along with alloparenting, played critical roles in the evolution of Homo sapiens. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. [Biophysical principles of collagen cross-linking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spörl, E; Raiskup-Wolf, F; Pillunat, L E

    2008-02-01

    The reduced mechanical stability of the cornea in keratoconus or in keratectasia after Lasik may be increased by photooxidative cross-linking of corneal collagen. The biophysical principles are compiled for the safe and effective application of this new treatment method. The setting of the therapy parameters should be elucidated from the absorption behaviour of the cornea. The safety of the method for the endothelium cells and the lens will be discussed. The induced cross-links are shown to be the result of changes in the physico-chemical properties of the cornea. To reach a high absorption of the irradiation energy in the cornea, riboflavin of a concentration of 0.1% and UV light of a wavelength of 370 nm, corresponding to the relative maximum of absorption of riboflavin, were used. An irradiance of 3 mW/cm(2) and an irradiation time of 30 min lead to an increase of the mechanical stiffness. The endothelium cells will be protected due to the high absorption within the cornea, that means the damaging threshold of the endothelium cells will not be reached in a 400 microm thick stroma. As evidence for cross-links we can consider the increase of the biomechanical stiffness, the increased resistance against enzymatic degradation, a higher shrinkage temperature, a lower swelling rate and an increased diameter of collagen fibres. The therapy parameters were tested experimentally and have been proven clinically in the corneal collagen cross-linking. These parameters should be respected to reach a safe cross-linking effect without damage of the adjacent tissues.

  5. Green and social bonds - A promising tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, Dominique; Barochez, Aurelie de; Cozic, Aela

    2013-11-01

    Issues of green bonds, socially responsible bonds and climate bonds are on the rise. Novethic estimates that some Euro 5 billion in such bonds has been issued since the start of 2013 by development banks, the main issuers of this type of debt. The figure is equal to over half of their total issues since 2007. Including local authorities, corporations and banks, a total Euro 8 billion of these bonds has been issued thus far in 2013. Given the size of the bond market, which the OECD estimated at Euro 95,000 billion in 2011, green and social bonds are still something of a niche but have strong growth potential. A number of large issues, from Euro 500 million to Euro 1 billion, were announced at the end of the year. Unlike conventional bonds, green and social bonds are not intended to finance all the activities of the issuer or refinance its debt. They serve instead to finance specific projects, such as producing renewable energy or adapting to climate change, the risk of which is shouldered by the issuer. This makes them an innovative instrument, used to earmark investments in projects with a direct environmental or social benefit rather than simply on the basis of the issuer's sustainable development policy. With financing being sought for the ecological transition, green and social bonds are promising instruments, sketching out at global level the shape of tools adapted to the financing of a green economy. On the strength of these advantages, the interest of responsible investors - the main target of green and social bond issuers - is growing fast. Judging by issuer press releases and the most commonly used currencies, the main subscribers today are US investors, among them CalSTRS and fund managers like Calvert Investment Management and Trillium Asset Management. European asset owners are also starting to focus on green and social bonds. A Novethic survey shows that 13% of them have already subscribed to such an issue or plan to do so. The present study

  6. Mechanics of wafer bonding: Effect of clamping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, K. T.; Thouless, M. D.; Spearing, S. M.

    2004-01-01

    A mechanics-based model is developed to examine the effects of clamping during wafer bonding processes. The model provides closed-form expressions that relate the initial geometry and elastic properties of the wafers to the final shape of the bonded pair and the strain energy release rate at the interface for two different clamping configurations. The results demonstrate that the curvature of bonded pairs may be controlled through the use of specific clamping arrangements during the bonding process. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the strain energy release rate depends on the clamping configuration and that using applied loads usually leads to an undesirable increase in the strain energy release rate. The results are discussed in detail and implications for process development and bonding tool design are highlighted.

  7. Diffusion bonding in compact heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southall, David

    2009-01-01

    Heatric's diffusion bonding process is a solid-state joining technology that produces strong, compact, all-metal heat exchanger cores. Diffusion bonding allows for a large quantity of joints to be made in geometries that would normally be inaccessible for conventional welding techniques. Since Heatric's diffusion bonding process uses no interlayer or braze alloy, the resulting heat exchanger core has consistent chemistry throughout and, under carefully controlled conditions, a return to parent metal strength can be reached. This paper will provide an overview of the diffusion bonding process and its origins, and also its application to compact heat exchanger construction. The paper will then discuss recent work that has been done to compare mechanical properties of Heatric's diffusion bonded material with material that has been conventionally welded, as well as with material tested in the as-received condition. (author)

  8. 1 mil gold bond wire study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huff, Johnathon; McLean, Michael B.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Rutherford, Brian Milne

    2013-05-01

    In microcircuit fabrication, the diameter and length of a bond wire have been shown to both affect the current versus fusing time ratio of a bond wire as well as the gap length of the fused wire. This study investigated the impact of current level on the time-to-open and gap length of 1 mil by 60 mil gold bond wires. During the experiments, constant current was provided for a control set of bond wires for 250ms, 410ms and until the wire fused; non-destructively pull-tested wires for 250ms; and notched wires. The key findings were that as the current increases, the gap length increases and 73% of the bond wires will fuse at 1.8A, and 100% of the wires fuse at 1.9A within 60ms. Due to the limited scope of experiments and limited data analyzed, further investigation is encouraged to confirm these observations.

  9. Bonded exciplex formation: electronic and stereoelectronic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingsheng; Haze, Olesya; Dinnocenzo, Joseph P; Farid, Samir; Farid, Ramy S; Gould, Ian R

    2008-12-18

    As recently proposed, the singlet-excited states of several cyanoaromatics react with pyridine via bonded-exciplex formation, a novel concept in photochemical charge transfer reactions. Presented here are electronic and steric effects on the quenching rate constants, which provide valuable support for the model. Additionally, excited-state quenching in poly(vinylpyridine) is strongly inhibited both relative to that in neat pyridine and also to conventional exciplex formation in polymers, consistent with a restrictive orientational requirement for the formation of bonded exciplexes. Examples of competing reactions to form both conventional and bonded exciplexes are presented, which illustrate the delicate balance between these two processes when their reaction energetics are similar. Experimental and computational evidence is provided for the formation of a bonded exciplex in the reaction of the singlet excited state of 2,6,9,10-tetracyanoanthracene (TCA) with an oxygen-substituted donor, dioxane, thus expanding the scope of bonded exciplexes.

  10. Thermoreversible cross-linking of elastomers : a comparative study between ionic interactions, hydrogen bonding and covalent cross-links

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mee, van der M.A.J.

    2007-01-01

    Vernetten, in de Angelsaksische literatuur aangeduid met crosslinken, van elastomeren is noodzakelijk om typische rubbereigenschappen zoals hoge elasticiteit, taaiheid en oplosmiddelresistentie te verkrijgen. De belangrijkste industriële technieken hiervoor, zijnde zwavel en peroxide vulkanisatie,

  11. Uplink scheduling and adjacent-channel coupling loss analysis for TD-LTE deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Woon-Young; Moon, Sung Ho; Kim, Jae-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    TD-LTE, one of the two duplexing modes in LTE, operates in unpaired spectrum and has the advantages of TDD-based technologies. It is expected that TD-LTE will be more rapidly deployed in near future and most of WiMax operators will upgrade their networks to TD-LTE gradually. Before completely upgrading to TD-LTE, WiMax may coexist with TD-LTE in an adjacent frequency band. In addition, multiple TD-LTE operators may deploy their networks in adjacent bands. When more than one TDD network operates in adjacent frequency bands, severe interference may happen due to adjacent channel interference (ACI) and unsynchronized operations. In this paper, coexistence issues between TD-LTE and other systems are analyzed and coexistence requirements are provided. This paper has three research objectives. First, frame synchronization between TD-LTE and WiMax is discussed by investigating possible combinations of TD-LTE and WiMax configurations. Second, an uplink scheduling algorithm is proposed to utilize a leakage pattern of ACI in synchronized operations. Third, minimum requirements for coexistence in unsynchronized operations are analyzed by introducing a concept of adjacent-channel coupling loss. From the analysis and simulation results, we can see that coexistence of TD-LTE with other TDD systems is feasible if the two networks are synchronized. For the unsynchronized case, some special cell-site engineering techniques may be required to reduce the ACI.

  12. The relative influence of road characteristics and habitat on adjacent lizard populations in arid shrublands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Kaylan A.; Chalfoun, Anna D.; Gerow, Kenneth G.

    2016-01-01

    As road networks continue to expand globally, indirect impacts to adjacent wildlife populations remain largely unknown. Simultaneously, reptile populations are declining worldwide and anthropogenic habitat loss and fragmentation are frequently cited causes. We evaluated the relative influence of three different road characteristics (surface treatment, width, and traffic volume) and habitat features on adjacent populations of Northern Sagebrush Lizards (Sceloporus graciosus graciosus), Plateau Fence Lizards (S. tristichus), and Greater Short-Horned Lizards (Phrynosoma hernandesi) in mixed arid shrubland habitats in southwest Wyoming. Neither odds of lizard presence nor relative abundance was significantly related to any of the assessed road characteristics, although there was a trend for higher Sceloporus spp. abundance adjacent to paved roads. Sceloporus spp. relative abundance did not vary systematically with distance to the nearest road. Rather, both Sceloporus spp. and Greater Short-Horned Lizards were associated strongly with particular habitat characteristics adjacent to roads. Sceloporus spp. presence and relative abundance increased with rock cover, relative abundance was associated positively with shrub cover, and presence was associated negatively with grass cover. Greater Short-Horned Lizard presence increased with bare ground and decreased marginally with shrub cover. Our results suggest that habitat attributes are stronger correlates of lizard presence and relative abundance than individual characteristics of adjacent roads, at least in our system. Therefore, an effective conservation approach for these species may be to consider the landscape through which new roads and their associated development would occur, and the impact that placement could have on fragment size and key habitat elements.

  13. Non-target adjacent stimuli classification improves performance of classical ERP-based brain computer interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, G. A.; Hernández, L. F.

    2015-04-01

    Objective. The classical ERP-based speller, or P300 Speller, is one of the most commonly used paradigms in the field of Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI). Several alterations to the visual stimuli presentation system have been developed to avoid unfavorable effects elicited by adjacent stimuli. However, there has been little, if any, regard to useful information contained in responses to adjacent stimuli about spatial location of target symbols. This paper aims to demonstrate that combining the classification of non-target adjacent stimuli with standard classification (target versus non-target) significantly improves classical ERP-based speller efficiency. Approach. Four SWLDA classifiers were trained and combined with the standard classifier: the lower row, upper row, right column and left column classifiers. This new feature extraction procedure and the classification method were carried out on three open databases: the UAM P300 database (Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico), BCI competition II (dataset IIb) and BCI competition III (dataset II). Main results. The inclusion of the classification of non-target adjacent stimuli improves target classification in the classical row/column paradigm. A gain in mean single trial classification of 9.6% and an overall improvement of 25% in simulated spelling speed was achieved. Significance. We have provided further evidence that the ERPs produced by adjacent stimuli present discriminable features, which could provide additional information about the spatial location of intended symbols. This work promotes the searching of information on the peripheral stimulation responses to improve the performance of emerging visual ERP-based spellers.

  14. Analysis of CD83 antigen expression in human breast fibroadenoma and adjacent tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Marcus Nascimento; Facina, Gil; Silva, Ismael Dale Cotrin Guerreiro; Waitzberg, Angela Flávia Logullo; Nazario, Afonso Celso Pinto

    2011-12-01

    Dendritic cell maturation is considered essential for starting an immune response. The CD83 antigen is an important marker of dendritic cell maturation. The objectives here were to analyze CD83 antigen expression in human breast fibroadenoma and breast tissue adjacent to the lesion and to identify clinical factors that might influence this expression. This was a retrospective study at a public university hospital, in which 29 histopathological samples of breast fibroadenoma and adjacent breast tissue, from 28 women of reproductive age, were analyzed. The immunohistochemistry method was used to analyze the cell expression of the antigen. The antigen expression in the cells was evaluated by means of random manual counting using an optical microscope. Positive expression of the CD83 antigen in the epithelial cells of the fibroadenoma (365.52; standard deviation ± 133.13) in relation to the adjacent breast tissue cells (189.59; standard deviation ± 140.75) was statistically larger (P fibroadenoma was positive and greater than in the adjacent breast tissue. Positive expression of the antigen in the adjacent breast tissue was influenced by parity, and was significantly more evident in nulliparous women.

  15. Gas explosion in a room with a window and passage to an adjacent room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polandov Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Some publications describe an effect, produced during a physical model experiment, when an adjacent gas-free room influences the gas explosion pressure in a room with a window. The explosion pressure in this case significantly exceeds (2.5 times the explosion pressure in a room without an adjacent room. This result has been confirmed by our studies. Based on other available information about the influence of the ignition point location on the explosion pressure in one room, it was suggested that this could be true for an explosion in two rooms. In our studies we used a test unit with two connected chambers, each having a volume of 1.125 m3. It turned out that this influence of the adjacent volume was not so unambiguous as it was described in those publications. It was found out that the maximum effect of explosion pressure amplification by the adjacent room is achieved, when the igniter is located in the chamber filled with a gas-air mixture in the area between the center of the chamber and the window (maximum amplification by more than 3 times. This effect is lower directly by the window (1.8 times and is practically absent in case of ignition within the area near the passage connecting the chamber with the adjacent room. This suggests that the effect discovered earlier is a special case of the general dependence of the gas explosion pressure in two chambers on the igniter location.

  16. PMMA to Polystyrene bonding for polymer based microfluidic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Yiqiang

    2013-03-29

    A thermal bonding technique for Poly (methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) to Polystyrene (PS) is presented in this paper. The PMMA to PS bonding was achieved using a thermocompression method, and the bonding strength was carefully characterized. The bonding temperature ranged from 110 to 125 C with a varying compression force, from 700 to 1,000 N (0.36-0.51 MPa). After the bonding process, two kinds of adhesion quantification methods were used to measure the bonding strength: the double cantilever beam method and the tensile stress method. The results show that the bonding strength increases with a rising bonding temperature and bonding force. The results also indicate that the bonding strength is independent of bonding time. A deep-UV surface treatment method was also provided in this paper to lower the bonding temperature and compression force. Finally, a PMMA to PS bonded microfluidic device was fabricated successfully. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  17. Predicting Bond Betas using Macro-Finance Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanidis, Nektarios; Christiansen, Charlotte; Cipollini, Andrea

    We conduct in-sample and out-of-sample forecasting using the new approach of combining explanatory variables through complete subset regressions (CSR). We predict bond CAPM betas and bond returns conditioning on various macro-fi…nance variables. We explore differences across long-term government ...... bonds, investment grade corporate bonds, and high-yield corporate bonds. The CSR method performs well in predicting bond betas, especially in-sample, and, mainly high-yield bond betas when the focus is out-of-sample. Bond returns are less predictable than bond betas....

  18. Evidence for Interfacial Halogen Bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swords, Wesley B; Simon, Sarah J C; Parlane, Fraser G L; Dean, Rebecca K; Kellett, Cameron W; Hu, Ke; Meyer, Gerald J; Berlinguette, Curtis P

    2016-05-10

    A homologous series of donor-π-acceptor dyes was synthesized, differing only in the identity of the halogen substituents about the triphenylamine (TPA; donor) portion of each molecule. Each Dye-X (X=F, Cl, Br, and I) was immobilized on a TiO2 surface to investigate how the halogen substituents affect the reaction between the light-induced charge-separated state, TiO2 (e(-) )/Dye-X(+) , with iodide in solution. Transient absorption spectroscopy showed progressively faster reactivity towards nucleophilic iodide with more polarizable halogen substituents: Dye-F < Dye-Cl < Dye-Br < Dye-I. Given that all other structural and electronic properties for the series are held at parity, with the exception of an increasingly larger electropositive σ-hole on the heavier halogens, the differences in dye regeneration kinetics for Dye-Cl, Dye-Br, and Dye-I are ascribed to the extent of halogen bonding with the nucleophilic solution species. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. 48 CFR 728.105-1 - Advance payment bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Bonds 728.105-1 Advance payment bonds. (a) Generally, advance payment bonds will not be required in connection with USAID contracts containing an advance... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advance payment bonds. 728...

  20. 7 CFR 1780.95 - Public bidding on bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... public bidding. The Agency will not submit a bid at the advertised sale unless required by State law, nor... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public bidding on bonds. 1780.95 Section 1780.95... Bonds and Bond Transcript Documents for Public Body Applicants § 1780.95 Public bidding on bonds. Bonds...

  1. Bond-Slip Relationship for CFRP Sheets Externally Bonded to Concrete under Cyclic Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Cao, Shuangyin; Yang, Yue; Zhu, Juntao

    2018-02-26

    The objective of this paper was to explore the bond-slip relationship between carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheets and concrete under cyclic loading through experimental and analytical approaches. Modified beam tests were performed in order to gain insight into the bond-slip relationship under static and cyclic loading. The test variables are the CFRP-to-concrete width ratio, and the bond length of the CFRP sheets. An analysis of the test results in this paper and existing test results indicated that the slope of the ascending segment of the bond-slip curve decreased with an increase in the number of load cycles, but the slip corresponding to the maximum shear stress was almost invariable as the number of load cycles increased. In addition, the rate of reduction in the slope of the ascending range of the bond-slip curve during cyclic loading decreased as the concrete strength increased, and increased as the load level or CFRP-to-concrete width ratio enhanced. However, these were not affected by variations in bond length if the residual bond length was longer than the effective bond length. A bilinear bond-slip model for CFRP sheets that are externally bonded to concrete under cyclic loading, which considered the effects of the cyclic load level, concrete strength, and CFRP-to-concrete ratio, was developed based on the existing static bond-slip model. The accuracy of this proposed model was verified by a comparison between this proposed model and test results.

  2. Breastfeeding and Active Bonding Protects against Children’s Internalizing Behavior Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianghong Liu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding is associated with numerous health benefits to offspring and mothers and may improve maternal-infant bonding. Ample evidence suggests breastfeeding can improve child neurodevelopment, but more research is needed to establish whether breastfeeding is linked to the development of child psychopathology. This paper aims to explore the effects of both breastfeeding and mother-child interactions on child behavioral outcomes at a later age. Children from the China Jintan Child Cohort Study (N = 1267, at age six years old were assessed, along with their parents. Children who were breastfed exclusively for a period of time in the presence of active bonding were compared to those who were breastfed in the absence of active bonding as well as to children who were not exclusively breastfed, with or without active bonding. Results from ANOVA and GLM, using SPSS20, indicate that children who were breastfed and whose mothers actively engaged with them displayed the lowest risk of internalizing problems (mean = 10.01, SD = 7.21, while those who were neither exclusively breastfed nor exposed to active bonding had the least protection against later internalizing problems (mean = 12.79, SD = 8.14. The effect of breastfeeding on internalizing pathology likely represents a biosocial and holistic effect of physiological, and nutritive, and maternal-infant bonding benefits.

  3. Interplay between childhood maltreatment, parental bonding, and gender effects: impact on quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikhye, Kobita; Tyrka, Audrey R; Kelly, Megan M; Gagne, Gerard G; Mello, Andrea F; Mello, Marcelo F; Price, Lawrence H; Carpenter, Linda L

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine associations between childhood adversity, parental bonding, gender, depressive symptoms, and quality of life in non-treatment-seeking adults from the community. Effects of differential parental rearing were compared in adults who reported a high degree of childhood maltreatment (n=72) and those who reported no significant adverse events in childhood (n=69). Subjects completed retrospective measures of childhood maltreatment and perceived parenting style, as well as measures of current depressive symptoms and quality of life. The subjects without childhood maltreatment were younger and endorsed less current depressive symptomatology than did subjects with childhood maltreatment. While the subjects without a history of maltreatment reported more "optimal" bonding experiences with their parents, the maltreatment group members were more likely to characterize their early parental bonding experiences in terms of "affectionless control" (pparenting), "affectionate constraint" (p=.025 for maternal parenting and p=.004 for paternal parenting), or "weak or absent" bonding (pparenting). Results of a multiple regression analysis revealed that overall quality of paternal care (p=.015) and current level of depressive symptoms (pparental bonding data were limited to the group with childhood maltreatment. These findings extend previous work documenting a relationship between early life maltreatment and suboptimal parental bonding, suggesting gender-specific effects of maternal and paternal care. Effects of childhood maltreatment on quality of life in adulthood appear to be linked with the quality of childhood paternal care and the occurrence of depressive symptomatology in adulthood, suggesting possible targets for primary or secondary prevention.

  4. Effect of adhesive resin cements on bond strength of ceramic core materials to dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogdu, M; Aladag, L I

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of self-etch and self-adhesive resin cements on the shear bond strength of ceramic core materials bonded to dentin. Extracted, caries-free, human central maxillary incisor teeth were selected, and the vestibule surfaces were cut flat to obtain dentin surfaces. Ceramic core materials (IPS e.max Press and Prettau Zirconia) were luted to the dentin surfaces using three self-etch adhesive systems (Duo-Link, Panavia F 2.0, and RelyX Ultimate Clicker) and two self-adhesive resin systems (RelyX U200 Automix and Maxcem Elite). A shear bond strength test was performed using a universal testing machine. Failure modes were observed under a stereomicroscope, and bonding interfaces between the adhesive resin cements and the teeth were evaluated with a scanning electron microscope. Data were analyzed with Student's t-test and one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's test (α = 0.05). The type of adhesive resin cement significantly affected the shear bond strengths of ceramic core materials bonded to dentin (P materials when the specimens were luted with self-adhesive resin cements (P materials.

  5. Increased helix and protein stability through the introduction of a new tertiary hydrogen bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, R W; Nicholson, E M; Thapar, R; Klevit, R E; Scholtz, J M

    1999-03-12

    In an effort to quantify the importance of hydrogen bonding and alpha-helix formation to protein stability, a capping box motif was introduced into the small phosphocarrier protein HPr. Previous studies had confirmed that Ser46, at the N-cap position of the short helix-B in HPr, serves as an N-cap in solution. Thus, only a single-site mutation was required to produce a canonical S-X-X-E capping box: Lys49 at the N3 position was substituted with a glutamic acid residue. Thermal and chemical denaturation studies on the resulting K49E HPr show that the designed variant is approximately 2 kcal mol-1 more stable than the wild-type protein. However, NMR studies indicate that the side-chain of Glu49 does not participate in the expected capping H-bond interaction, but instead forms a new tertiary H-bond that links helix-B to the four-stranded beta-sheet of HPr. Here, we demonstrate that a strategy in which new non-native H-bonds are introduced can generate proteins with increased stability. We discuss why the original capping box design failed, and compare the energetic consequences of the new tertiary side-chain to main-chain H-bond with a local (helix-capping) side-chain to main-chain H-bond on the protein's global stability. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  6. Long range order and hydrogen bonding in liquid methanol: A Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shilov, I.Y.; Rode, B.M. [Department of Theoretical Chemistry, Institute of General, Inorganic and Theoretical Chemistry, University of Innsbruck, Innrain 52a, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Durov, V.A. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1999-02-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation of liquid methanol was performed in NVT ensemble at 298 K using a cubic simulation box containing 500 molecules. Long-range correlations in the liquid are discussed on the basis of site-site radial distribution functions. Hydrogen bonding and topological structure of the methanol aggregates were evaluated in detail, namely the number of linked molecules, formation of branches and cyclic structures. The necessity of larger simulation boxes for a full structural description and thermodynamic characterization of hydrogen-bonded liquids is clearly established by the results. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  7. Link to paper

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Link to the paper. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Naile, J., A.W. Garrison, J. Avants, and J. Washington. Isomers/enantiomers of...

  8. Benign Lesions in Mucosa Adjacent to Intestinal-Type Sinonasal Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Vivanco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational exposure to wood dust is a strong risk factor for the development of intestinal-type sinonasal adenocarcinoma (ITAC; however, knowledge on possible precursor lesions or biomarkers is limited. Fifty-one samples of tumor-adjacent mucosa and 19 control samples of mucosa from the unaffected fossa of ITAC patients were evaluated for histological changes and p53 protein expression. Mild dysplasia was observed in 14%, cuboidal metaplasia in 57%, intestinal metaplasia in 8%, squamous metaplasia in 24%, and cylindrocellular hyperplasia in 53% of cases. P53 immunopositivity was generally weak occurring most frequently in squamous metaplasia. Wood dust etiology did not appear of influence on the histological changes, but p53 showed a tendency for higher positivity. Dysplasia adjacent to tumor was indicative of subsequent development of recurrence. In conclusion, precursor lesions do occur in mucosa adjacent to ITAC. This is clinically important, because it may justify the screening of high-risk individuals such as woodworkers.

  9. The Missing Link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Laura Luise

    2014-01-01

    Paper presented at A Valentine to Gertrude Stein. The Reception of Gertrude Stein in the Arts and Humanities, held at the University of Copenhagen 8. - 10. May 2014, in collaboration with the universities of Ghent and Linköping......Paper presented at A Valentine to Gertrude Stein. The Reception of Gertrude Stein in the Arts and Humanities, held at the University of Copenhagen 8. - 10. May 2014, in collaboration with the universities of Ghent and Linköping...

  10. Bond financing for renewable energy in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Thiam Hee; Tao, Jacqueline Yujia

    2016-01-01

    Addressing the financing gap for renewable energy (RE) projects in Asia is critical to ensure that the rapidly increasing energy needs could be met sustainably. This paper explores the cause of the financing gap in Asia and proposes the use of bond financing to address the financing gap. Specifically, three fixed income instruments, namely local currency denominated (LCY) corporate bonds, asset backed project bonds and financial green bonds, will be assessed. Whilst the potential for these three instruments to mobilize large flows of private sector financing is great, key supportive policies aimed at reducing the capital market bias for conventional power generation technologies and supportive RE policies are required. Another key aspect would be the necessary deepening of local and regional fixed income markets before such capital market instruments are able to play a big role. - Highlights: •This study looks at the current financing gap and RE financing landscape in developing Asia. •LCY corporate bonds, asset backed projects bonds and financial green bonds could help to address the financing gap for RE in the region. •Policy recommendations for building the fixed income market for RE projects are provided.

  11. Bone bonding at natural and biomaterial surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, John E

    2007-12-01

    Bone bonding is occurring in each of us and all other terrestrial vertebrates throughout life at bony remodeling sites. The surface created by the bone-resorbing osteoclast provides a three-dimensionally complex surface with which the cement line, the first matrix elaborated during de novo bone formation, interdigitates and is interlocked. The structure and composition of this interfacial bony matrix has been conserved during evolution across species; and we have known for over a decade that this interfacial matrix can be recapitulated at a biomaterial surface implanted in bone, given appropriate healing conditions. No evidence has emerged to suggest that bone bonding to artificial materials is any different from this natural biological process. Given this understanding it is now possible to explain why bone-bonding biomaterials are not restricted to the calcium-phosphate-based bioactive materials as was once thought. Indeed, in the absence of surface porosity, calcium phosphate biomaterials are not bone bonding. On the contrary, non-bonding materials can be rendered bone bonding by modifying their surface topography. This paper argues that the driving force for bone bonding is bone formation by contact osteogenesis, but that this has to occur on a sufficiently stable recipient surface which has micron-scale surface topography with undercuts in the sub-micron scale-range.

  12. Protection of MOS capacitors during anodic bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schjølberg-Henriksen, K.; Plaza, J. A.; Rafí, J. M.; Esteve, J.; Campabadal, F.; Santander, J.; Jensen, G. U.; Hanneborg, A.

    2002-07-01

    We have investigated the electrical damage by anodic bonding on CMOS-quality gate oxide and methods to prevent this damage. n-type and p-type MOS capacitors were characterized by quasi-static and high-frequency CV-curves before and after anodic bonding. Capacitors that were bonded to a Pyrex wafer with 10 μm deep cavities enclosing the capacitors exhibited increased leakage current and interface trap density after bonding. Two different methods were successful in protecting the capacitors from such damage. Our first approach was to increase the cavity depth from 10 μm to 50 μm, thus reducing the electric field across the gate oxide during bonding from approximately 2 × 105 V cm-1 to 4 × 104 V cm-1. The second protection method was to coat the inside of a 10 μm deep Pyrex glass cavity with aluminium, forming a Faraday cage that removed the electric field across the cavity during anodic bonding. Both methods resulted in capacitors with decreased interface trap density and unchanged leakage current after bonding. No change in effective oxide charge or mobile ion contamination was observed on any of the capacitors in the study.

  13. Sound insulation property of membrane-type acoustic metamaterials carrying different masses at adjacent cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuguang; Wen, Jihong; Zhao, Honggang; Yu, Dianlong; Cai, Li; Wen, Xisen

    2013-08-01

    We present the experimental realization and theoretical understanding of membrane-type acoustic metamaterials embedded with different masses at adjacent cells, capable of increasing the transmission loss at low frequency. Owing to the reverse vibration of adjacent cells, Transmission loss (TL) peaks appear, and the magnitudes of the TL peaks exceed the predicted results of the composite wall. Compared with commonly used configuration, i.e., all cells carrying with identical mass, the nonuniformity of attaching masses causes another much low TL peak. Finite element analysis was employed to validate and provide insights into the TL behavior of the structure.

  14. TP53 mutations in clinically normal mucosa adjacent to oral carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thode, Christenze; Bilde, Anders; von Buchwald, Christian

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The tumour-suppressor protein p53 often accumulates in histologically normal epithelium adjacent to oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC). We investigated whether this was associated with mutations in TP53, the gene for p53, and might implicate impending malignancy. METHODS: Specimens...... products were separated by denatured gradient gel electrophoresis. Fragments with a deviant DGEE pattern were sequenced. RESULTS: TP53 mutations were found in six of 18 tumours. Fourteen specimens contained histologically normal mucosa adjacent to the tumour; 13 of these showed small clusters of p53...

  15. Tabu search approaches for the multi-level warehouse layout problem with adjacency constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G. Q.; Lai, K. K.

    2010-08-01

    A new multi-level warehouse layout problem, the multi-level warehouse layout problem with adjacency constraints (MLWLPAC), is investigated. The same item type is required to be located in adjacent cells, and horizontal and vertical unit travel costs are product dependent. An integer programming model is proposed to formulate the problem, which is NP hard. Along with a cube-per-order index policy based heuristic, the standard tabu search (TS), greedy TS, and dynamic neighbourhood based TS are presented to solve the problem. The computational results show that the proposed approaches can reduce the transportation cost significantly.

  16. Atomically Bonded Transparent Superhydrophobic Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aytug, Tolga [ORNL

    2015-08-01

    Maintaining clarity and avoiding the accumulation of water and dirt on optically transparent surfaces such as US military vehicle windshields, viewports, periscope optical head windows, and electronic equipment cover glasses are critical to providing a high level of visibility, improved survivability, and much-needed safety for warfighters in the field. Through a combination of physical vapor deposition techniques and the exploitation of metastable phase separation in low-alkali borosilicate, a novel technology was developed for the fabrication of optically transparent, porous nanostructured silica thin film coatings that are strongly bonded to glass platforms. The nanotextured films, initially structurally superhydrophilic, exhibit superior superhydrophobicity, hence antisoiling ability, following a simple but robust modification in surface chemistry. The surfaces yield water droplet contact angles as high as 172°. Moreover, the nanostructured nature of these coatings provides increased light scattering in the UV regime and reduced reflectivity (i.e., enhanced transmission) over a broad range of the visible spectrum. In addition to these functionalities, the coatings exhibit superior mechanical resistance to abrasion and are thermally stable to temperatures approaching 500°C. The overall process technology relies on industry standard equipment and inherently scalable manufacturing processes and demands only nontoxic, naturally abundant, and inexpensive base materials. Such coatings, applied to the optical components of current and future combat equipment and military vehicles will provide a significant strategic advantage for warfighters. The inherent self-cleaning properties of such superhydrophobic coatings will also mitigate biofouling of optical windows exposed to high-humidity conditions and can help decrease repair/replacement costs, reduce maintenance, and increase readiness by limiting equipment downtime.

  17. Expected Business Conditions and Bond Risk Premia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jonas Nygaard

    This paper studies the predictability of bond risk premia by means of expectations to future business conditions using survey forecasts from the Survey of Professional Forecasters. We show that expected business conditions consistently affect excess bond returns and that the inclusion of expected...... business conditions in standard predictive regressions improve forecast performance relative to models using information derived from the current term structure or macroeconomic variables. The results are confirmed in a real-time out-of-sample exercise, where the predictive accuracy of the models...... is evaluated both statistically and from the perspective of a mean-variance investor that trades in the bond market....

  18. Solitons on H bonds in proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    d'Ovidio, F.; Bohr, H.G.; Lindgård, Per-Anker

    2003-01-01

    system shows that the solitons are spontaneously created and are stable and moving along the helix axis. A perturbation on one of the three H-bond lines forms solitons on the other H bonds as well. The robust solitary wave may explain very long-lived modes in the frequency range of 100 cm(-1) which...... are found in recent x-ray laser experiments. The dynamics parameters of the Toda lattice are in accordance with the usual Lennard-Jones parameters used for realistic H-bond potentials in proteins....

  19. The Cost of Immediacy for Corporate Bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Jens; Marco, Rossi

    Liquidity provision in the corporate bond market has become significantly more expensive after the 2008 credit crisis. Using index exclusions as a natural experiment during which uninformed index trackers request immediacy, we find that the price of immediacy has doubled for short-term investment...... grade bonds, and more than tripled for speculative-grade bonds. The increased cost of immediacy is a side-effect of a ban on proprietary trading (Volker Rule) and tighter post-crisis capital regulations, which have resulted in lower aggregate dealer inventories....

  20. Love Thy Neighbor: Bonding versus Bridging Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Poulsen, Odile; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2005-01-01

    We study how trust is generated in society. In a two-sector model, we analyze two communities. In the bonding community people do not trust people outside their regular networks. In the bridging community people choose to trust strangers when they meet them. The hypothesis is that when trust is only bonding, it cannot accumulate. Our theoretical contribution is to show that when trust is only bonding then the economy’s level of trust moves to an unstable equilibrium that may under certain con...

  1. Unusual bond paths in organolithium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachrach, S.M.; Ritchie, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    We have applied the topological method to a number of organolithium compounds. The wavefunctions were determined with GAUSSIAN-82 using 3-21G basis set and fully optimized geometries. Gradient paths were obtained using the RHODER package and critical points were located using EXTREME. These results indicate the unusual nature of organolithium compounds. The strange bond paths arise mainly from the ionic nature of the C-Li interaction. We suggest that the term ''bond path'' may best be suited for covalent bonds. 4 figs., 1 tab

  2. Quantum mechanical facets of chemical bonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daudel, R.

    1976-01-01

    To define the concept of bond is both a central problem of quantum chemistry and a difficult one. The concept of bond appeared little by little in the mind of chemists from empirical observations. From the wave-mechanical viewpoint it is not an observable. Therefore there is no precise operator associated with that concept. As a consequence there is not a unique approach to the idea of chemical bond. This is why it is preferred to present various quantum mechanical facets, e.g. the energetic facet, the density facet, the partitioning facet and the functional facet, of that important concept. (Auth.)

  3. A novel disulfide bond in the SH2 Domain of the C-terminal Src kinase controls catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jamie E; Whitford, Paul C; Shaffer, Jennifer; Onuchic, Jose N; Adams, Joseph A; Jennings, Patricia A

    2007-02-02

    The SH2 domain of the C-terminal Src kinase [Csk] contains a unique disulfide bond that is not present in other known SH2 domains. To investigate whether this unusual disulfide bond serves a novel function, the effects of disulfide bond formation on catalytic activity of the full-length protein and on the structure of the SH2 domain were investigated. The kinase activity of full-length Csk decreases by an order of magnitude upon formation of the disulfide bond in the distal SH2 domain. NMR spectra of the fully oxidized and fully reduced SH2 domains exhibit similar chemical shift patterns and are indicative of similar, well-defined tertiary structures. The solvent-accessible disulfide bond in the isolated SH2 domain is highly stable and far from the small lobe of the kinase domain. However, reduction of this bond results in chemical shift changes of resonances that map to a cluster of residues that extend from the disulfide bond across the molecule to a surface that is in direct contact with the small lobe of the kinase domain in the intact molecule. Normal mode analyses and molecular dynamics calculations suggest that disulfide bond formation has large effects on residues within the kinase domain, most notably within the active-site cleft. Overall, the data indicate that reversible cross-linking of two cysteine residues in the SH2 domain greatly impacts catalytic function and interdomain communication in Csk.

  4. Linked Ocean Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadbetter, Adam; Arko, Robert; Chandler, Cynthia; Shepherd, Adam

    2014-05-01

    "Linked Data" is a term used in Computer Science to encapsulate a methodology for publishing data and metadata in a structured format so that links may be created and exploited between objects. Berners-Lee (2006) outlines the following four design principles of a Linked Data system: Use Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) as names for things. Use HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) URIs so that people can look up those names. When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using the standards (Resource Description Framework [RDF] and the RDF query language [SPARQL]). Include links to other URIs so that they can discover more things. In 2010, Berners-Lee revisited his original design plan for Linked Data to encourage data owners along a path to "good Linked Data". This revision involved the creation of a five star rating system for Linked Data outlined below. One star: Available on the web (in any format). Two stars: Available as machine-readable structured data (e.g. An Excel spreadsheet instead of an image scan of a table). Three stars: As two stars plus the use of a non-proprietary format (e.g. Comma Separated Values instead of Excel). Four stars: As three stars plus the use of open standards from the World Wide Web Commission (W3C) (i.e. RDF and SPARQL) to identify things, so that people can point to your data and metadata. Five stars: All the above plus link your data to other people's data to provide context Here we present work building on the SeaDataNet common vocabularies served by the NERC Vocabulary Server, connecting projects such as the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) and the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) and other vocabularies such as the Marine Metadata Interoperability Ontology Register and Repository and the NASA Global Change Master Directory to create a Linked Ocean Data cloud. Publishing the vocabularies and metadata in standard RDF XML and exposing SPARQL endpoints renders them five-star Linked

  5. Composite Bonding to Stainless Steel Crowns Using a New Universal Bonding and Single-Bottle Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Hattan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study is to evaluate the shear bond strength of nanocomposite to stainless steel crowns using a new universal bonding system. Material and Methods. Eighty (80 stainless steel crowns (SSCs were divided into four groups (20 each. Packable nanocomposite was bonded to the lingual surface of the crowns in the following methods: Group A without adhesive (control group, Group B using a new universal adhesive system (Scotchbond Universal Adhesive, 3M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany, and Group C and Group D using two different brands of single-bottle adhesive systems. Shear bond strengths were calculated and the types of failure also were recorded. Results. The shear strength of Group B was significantly greater than that of other groups. No significant differences were found between the shear bond strengths of Groups C and D. The control group had significantly lower shear bond strength ( to composite than the groups that utilized bonding agents. Conclusion. Composites bonding to stainless steel crowns using the new universal bonding agent (Scotchbond Universal Adhesive, 3M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany show significantly greater shear bond strengths and fewer adhesive failures when compared to traditional single-bottle systems.

  6. Room temperature Cu-Cu direct bonding using surface activated bonding method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T.H.; Howlader, M.M.R.; Itoh, T.; Suga, T.

    2003-01-01

    Thin copper (Cu) films of 80 nm thickness deposited on a diffusion barrier layered 8 in. silicon wafers were directly bonded at room temperature using the surface activated bonding method. A low energy Ar ion beam of 40-100 eV was used to activate the Cu surface prior to bonding. Contacting two surface-activated wafers enables successful Cu-Cu direct bonding. The bonding process was carried out under an ultrahigh vacuum condition. No thermal annealing was required to increase the bonding strength since the bonded interface was strong enough at room temperature. The chemical constitution of the Cu surface was examined by Auger electron spectroscope. It was observed that carbon-based contaminations and native oxides on copper surface were effectively removed by Ar ion beam irradiation for 60 s without any wet cleaning processes. An atomic force microscope study shows that the Ar ion beam process causes no surface roughness degradation. Tensile test results show that high bonding strength equivalent to bulk material is achieved at room temperature. The cross-sectional transmission electron microscope observations reveal the presence of void-free bonding interface without intermediate layer at the bonded Cu surfaces

  7. A simple semi-empirical approximation for bond energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorge, F.E.; Giambiagi, M.; Giambiagi, M.S. de.

    1985-01-01

    A simple semi-empirical expression for bond energy, related with a generalized bond index, is proposed and applied within the IEH framework. The correlation with experimental data is good for the intermolecular bond energy of base pairs of nucleic acids and other hydrogen bonded systems. The intramolecular bond energies for a sample of molecules containing typical bonds and for hydrides are discussed. The results are compared with those obtained by other methods. (Author) [pt

  8. The missing link: leadership, identity, and the social brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vugt, Mark

    2012-05-01

    How the cohesion of a social network is being maintained in spite of having different layers of social interaction is an important question. I argue that the evolution of both (political) hierarchy and social identity play a crucial role in scaling up and bonding social networks. Together they are missing links in the social brain hypothesis, and further research is needed to understand the functions of leadership and social identity. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Evaluation of a New Nano-filled Bonding Agent for Bonding Orthodontic Brackets as Compared to a Conventional Bonding Agent: An in vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandesh S Pai

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Although both bonding agents provide clinically acceptable levels of bond strength, the technique to bond the nano-filled Prime and Bond NT is more cumbersome as compared to the Transbond XT material, which makes the latter a more popular choice in the clinical set up. If the application procedures for the Prime and Bond NT can be simplified then it could be a convenient option in the orthodontic practice.

  10. Disorder-induced quantum bond percolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, Shinya; Katsuno, Shuji; Goda, Masaki

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the effects of off-diagonal disorder on localization properties in quantum bond percolation networks on cubic lattices, motivated by the finding that the off-diagonal disorder does not always enhance the quantum localization of wavefunctions. We numerically construct a diagram of the 'percolation threshold', distinguishing extended states from localized states as a function of two degrees of disorder, by using the level statistics and finite-size scaling. The percolation threshold increases in a characteristic way on increasing the disorder in the connected bonds, while it gradually decreases on increasing the disorder in the disconnected bonds. Furthermore, the exchange of connected and disconnected bonds induced by the disorder causes a dramatic change of the percolation threshold.

  11. Functional chiral hydrogen-bonded assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateos timoneda, Miguel

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis different aspects of functional hydrogen-bonded (double and tetrarosette) assemblies are described. The functions were inspired by naturally occurring mechanisms such as molecular recognition, supramolecular chirality and its origin, and biostrategies for the correct folding of

  12. On the photostability of the disulfide bond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephansen, Anne Boutrup; Larsen, Martin Alex Bjørn; Klein, Liv Bærenholdt

    2014-01-01

    Photostability is an essential property of molecular building blocks of nature. Disulfides are central in the structure determination of proteins, which is in striking contradiction to the result that the S-S bond is a photochemically labile structural entity that cleaves to form free radicals upon...... on a sub 50 fs timescale without further ado. In a cyclic motif resembling the cysteine-disulfide bond in proteins, light can perturb the S-S bond to generate short-lived diradicaloid species, but the sulfur atoms are conformationally restricted by the ring that prevents the sulfur atoms from flying apart...... the photostability of disulfide-bonds must be ascribed a cyclic structural arrangement....

  13. 21 CFR 1.97 - Bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the relabeling or other action necessary to bring the article into compliance with the act or rendering it other than a food, drug, device, or cosmetic, in such manner as is prescribed for such bond in...

  14. Space Shuttle OV-105 Subnominal Bond Investigation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gunn-Golkin, Anna E

    2005-01-01

    ... with Krylon 1201 Spray Starch or MS-143 Mold Release Agent. The research was accomplished by analyzing historical NASA documents, results of bond verification tests, peel tests, contamination tests and fabrication process anomaly tests.

  15. Engineering Performance of Polyurethane Bonded Aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haimin WU

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the engineering performance of polyurethane (PUR bonded aggregate were studied. The engineering performance, including compressive and flexural mechanical properties, void ratio, and coefficient of permeability were determined through laboratory tests. Moreover, the effects of two different curing conditions on the compressive strength properties of a PUR bonded aggregate were also evaluated. The compressive strengths of PUR bonded aggregates were found to be lower than that of conventional porous concrete, which is a commonly used cushion material. However, experimental results indicated a higher void ratio and coefficient of permeability, lower elasticity modulus, better toughness, and stronger adaptability to flexural deformation compared to porous concrete. Consequently, PUR bonded aggregate is a better solution than porous concrete when used as the cushion material of a geomembrane surface barrier for a high rock-fill dam.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.2.15798

  16. Valuing Catastrophe Bonds Involving Credit Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Catastrophe bonds are the most important products in catastrophe risk securitization market. For the operating mechanism, CAT bonds may have a credit risk, so in this paper we consider the influence of the credit risk on CAT bonds pricing that is different from the other literature. We employ the Jarrow and Turnbull method to model the credit risks and get access to the general pricing formula using the Extreme Value Theory. Furthermore, we present an empirical pricing study of the Property Claim Services data, where the parameters in the loss function distribution are estimated by the MLE method and the default probabilities are deduced by the US financial market data. Then we get the catastrophe bonds value by the Monte Carlo method.

  17. Handbook of adhesive bonded structural repair

    CERN Document Server

    Wegman, Raymond F

    1992-01-01

    Provides repair methods for adhesive bonded and composite structures; identifies suitable materials and equipment for repairs; describes damage evaluation criteria and techniques, and methods of inspection before and after repair.

  18. 29 CFR 501.9 - Surety bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 218 OF THE IMMIGRATION... demonstrating its ability to discharge financial obligations under the H-2A program. The original bond...

  19. Composite Laser Ceramics by Advanced Bonding Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Tomosumi; Honda, Sawao

    2018-01-01

    Composites obtained by bonding materials with the same crystal structure and different chemical compositions can create new functions that do not exist in conventional concepts. We have succeeded in bonding polycrystalline YAG and Nd:YAG ceramics without any interstices at the bonding interface, and the bonding state of this composite was at the atomic level, similar to the grain boundary structure in ceramics. The mechanical strength of the bonded composite reached 278 MPa, which was not less than the strength of each host material (269 and 255 MPa). Thermal conductivity of the composite was 12.3 W/mK (theoretical value) which is intermediate between the thermal conductivities of YAG and Nd:YAG (14.1 and 10.2 W/mK, respectively). Light scattering cannot be detected at the bonding interface of the ceramic composite by laser tomography. Since the scattering coefficients of the monolithic material and the composite material formed by bonding up to 15 layers of the same materials were both 0.10%/cm, there was no occurrence of light scattering due to the bonding. In addition, it was not detected that the optical distortion and non-uniformity of the refractive index variation were caused by the bonding. An excitation light source (LD = 808 nm) was collimated to 200 μm and irradiated into a commercial 1% Nd:YAG single crystal, but fracture damage occurred at a low damage threshold of 80 kW/cm2. On the other hand, the same test was conducted on the bonded interface of 1% Nd:YAG-YAG composite ceramics fabricated in this study, but it was not damaged until the excitation density reached 127 kW/cm2. 0.6% Nd:YAG-YAG composite ceramics showed high damage resistance (up to 223 kW/cm2). It was concluded that composites formed by bonding polycrystalline ceramics are ideal in terms of thermo-mechanical and optical properties. PMID:29425152

  20. Spatiotemporal evolution of Calophaca (Fabaceae) reveals multiple dispersals in the Central Asian mountains and adjacent regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming-Li Zhang; Zhi-Bin Wen; Peter W. Fritsch; Stewart C. Sanderson

    2015-01-01

    The Central Asian flora plays a significant role in Eurasia and the Northern Hemisphere. Calophaca, a member of this flora, includes eight currently recognized species, and is centered in Central Asia, with some taxa extending into adjacent areas. A phylogenetic analysis of the genus utilizing nuclear ribosomal ITS and plastid trnS-trnG and rbcL sequences was carried...

  1. Long-term soil accumulation of chromium, copper, and arsenic adjacent to preservative-treated wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Lebow; D. Foster; J. Evans

    2004-01-01

    Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood has been used extensively in outdoor applications. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and CCA producers recently reached an agreement to limit future use of CCA for some types of applications. One area of concern is the long-term accumulation of leached CCA in soil adjacent to treated wood structures. Interpreting...

  2. Testing EGM2008 on Leveling Data from Scandinavia, Adjacent Baltic Areas, and Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strykowski, Gabriel; Forsberg, René

    2010-01-01

    We tested EGM2008 on GPS/leveling data from Scandinavia and adjacent areas. EGM2008 performs at the same level as the best regional geoid model, NKG2004. However, the direct evaluation of EGM2008 is difficult in Greenland because no leveling data are available. Nevertheless, we show on 78 GPS-MSS...

  3. Preliminary assessment of illegal hunting by communities adjacent to the northern Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gandiwa, E.

    2011-01-01

    Illegal hunting of wildlife is a major issue in today’s society, particularly in tropical ecosystems. In this study, a total of 114 local residents from eight villages located in four wards adjacent to the northern Gonarezhou National Park, south-eastern Zimbabwe were interviewed in 2009, using

  4. Regional Spectral Model simulations of the summertime regional climate over Taiwan and adjacent areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching-Teng Lee; Ming-Chin Wu; Shyh-Chin Chen

    2005-01-01

    The National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) regional spectral model (RSM) version 97 was used to investigate the regional summertime climate over Taiwan and adjacent areas for June-July-August of 1990 through 2000. The simulated sea-level-pressure and wind fields of RSM1 with 50-km grid space are similar to the reanalysis, but the strength of the...

  5. Resonance properties of tidal channels with multiple retention basisn: role of adjacent sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, Pieter C.; Schuttelaars, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    We present an idealised model of the tidal response in a main channel with multiple secondary basins, co-oscillating with an adjacent sea. The sea is represented as a semi-infinite strip of finite width, anywhere between the limits of a channel extension (narrow) and a half-plane (wide). The sea

  6. Ten-year survival rates of teeth adjacent to treated and untreated posterior bounded edentulous spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, S A; Shugars, D A; Bader, J D; White, B A

    2001-05-01

    Failure to replace a single missing posterior tooth may lead to a variety of dental problems, which may ultimately result in tooth loss. However, little is known about the fate of the adjacent teeth if a missing posterior tooth is not replaced. This retrospective study evaluated the survival of teeth adjacent to treated and untreated posterior bounded edentulous spaces. Data were obtained from electronic treatment records from the Kaiser Permanente Dental Care Program, Portland, Ore. A final sample of 317 patients who met the study inclusion criteria was identified. Each bounded edentulous space was placed in 1 of 3 treatment categories: untreated, restored with a fixed partial denture, or restored with a removable partial denture. Subsequent treatment and the status of the teeth adjacent to the bounded edentulous space were followed through December 1999. Ten-year Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were generated for each treatment group, and differences in survival were evaluated with the log-rank chi-square test (alpha=.05). There was a significant difference in survival among the 3 treatment categories (P=.005). Spaces restored with a fixed partial denture had longer 10-year survival estimates (92%) than those that remained untreated (81%). Spaces restored with a removable partial denture had the poorest 10-year survival rate (56%). Under the conditions and selection bias associated with this retrospective study, the survival of teeth adjacent to a single posterior edentulous space was negatively associated with removable partial denture placement compared with no treatment or the use of a fixed partial denture.

  7. Status of fisher in the northern Idaho panhandle and adjacent mountain ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Lucid; L. Robinson; S. Cushman; L. Allen; M. Schwartz; K. Pilgrim

    2013-01-01

    The Multi-species Baseline Initiative (MBI) is a collaborative of organizations which is conducting a comprehensive inventory for fisher (Martes pennanti) and other wildlife species across the Idaho Panhandle and adjacent mountain ranges. From 2010-2012, MBI partners established 112 forest carnivore bait stations to collect photographs and DNA from 22 wildlife species...

  8. International comparison calculations for a BWR lattice with adjacent gadolinium pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeder, C.; Wydler, P.

    1984-09-01

    The results of burnup calculations for a simplified BWR fuel element with two adjacent gadolinium rods are presented and discussed. Ten complete solutions were contributed by Denmark, France, Italy (3), Japan (3), Switzerland and the UK. Partial results obtained from Poland and the USA are included in an Appendix. (Auth.)

  9. Epigenomic profiling of DNA methylation in paired prostate cancer versus adjacent benign tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geybels, Milan S; Zhao, Shanshan; Wong, Chao-Jen; Bibikova, Marina; Klotzle, Brandy; Wu, Michael; Ostrander, Elaine A; Fan, Jian-Bing; Feng, Ziding; Stanford, Janet L

    2015-12-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation may promote prostate carcinogenesis. We investigated epigenome-wide DNA methylation profiles in prostate cancer (PCa) compared to adjacent benign tissue to identify differentially methylated CpG sites. The study included paired PCa and adjacent benign tissue samples from 20 radical prostatectomy patients. Epigenetic profiling was done using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Linear models that accounted for the paired study design and False Discovery Rate Q-values were used to evaluate differential CpG methylation. mRNA expression levels of the genes with the most differentially methylated CpG sites were analyzed. In total, 2,040 differentially methylated CpG sites were identified in PCa versus adjacent benign tissue (Q-value Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data provided confirmatory evidence for our findings. This study of PCa versus adjacent benign tissue showed many differentially methylated CpGs and regions in and outside gene promoter regions, which may potentially be used for the development of future epigenetic-based diagnostic tests or as therapeutic targets. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Headwater fish population responses to planting grass filter strips adjacent to channelized agricultural headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grass filter strips are a widely used conservation practice in the Midwestern United States for reducing nutrient, pesticide, and sediment inputs into agricultural streams. Only a limited amount of information is available on the ecological effects of planting grass filter strips adjacent to channe...

  11. An assessment of transport timescales and return coefficient in adjacent tropical estuaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andutta, Fernando P.; Helfer, Fernanda; de Miranda, Luiz Bruner; Deleersnijder, E.L.C.; Thomas, C.J.; Lemckert, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Transport timescales (TTS), namely residence time and exposure time, were computed for adjacent shallow meso-tidal tropical estuarines system using the Lagrangian model D-Waq Part coupled with the hydrodynamic model Delft3D-Flow, and the Constituent-oriented Age and Residence time Theory, CART.

  12. Effects of ecological compensation meadows on arthropod diversity in adjacent intensively managed grassland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrecht, M.; Duelli, P.; Obrist, M.K.; Müller, C.; Schüpbach, B.; Kleijn, D.; Schmid, B.

    2010-01-01

    An important goal of ecological compensation areas (ECAs) is to increase biodiversity in adjacent intensively managed farmland and the agricultural landscape at large. We tested whether this goal can be achieved in the case of the agri-environmental restoration scheme implemented for Swiss grassland

  13. Antibacterial Activity of Orthodontic Cement Containing Quaternary Ammonium Polyethylenimine Nanoparticles Adjacent to Orthodontic Brackets

    OpenAIRE

    Eldad Sharon; Revital Sharabi; Adi Eden; Asher Zabrovsky; Gilad Ben-Gal; Esi Sharon; Yoav Pietrokovski; Yael Houri-Haddad; Nurit Beyth

    2018-01-01

    Enamel demineralization is a common problem found in patients using orthodontic devices, such as orthodontic braces. It was found that Streptoccocus mutans growth increases adjacent to orthodontic devices, which may result in caries development. Incorporated antibacterial quaternary ammonium polyethylenimine (QPEI) nanoparticles were previously shown to be highly efficacious against various bacteria. Combining antibacterial materials in orthodontic cement may be advantageous to prevent bacter...

  14. Low-loss hollow-core silica fibers with adjacent nested anti-resonant tubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, Selim; Bang, Ole; Bache, Morten

    2015-01-01

    We report on numerical design optimization of hollow-core antiresonant fibers with the aim of reducing transmission losses. We show that re-arranging the nested anti-resonant tubes in the cladding to be adjacent has the effect of significantly reducing leakage as well as bending losses, and for r...

  15. Edge effects of stink bugs in corn, cotton, peanut and soybean fields adjacent to woodland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Producers face significant crop losses from stink bug species in the southeastern USA, but the high mobility and polyphagy of the bugs make predictions of their presence in crops difficult. While there is some evidence that they colonize crops from adjacent crops, there are no studies of their colo...

  16. Post-frontier forest change adjacent to Braulio Carrillo National Park, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Schelhas; G. Arturo Sanchez-Azofeifa

    2006-01-01

    Effective biodiversity conservation in national parks depends to a large extent on adjacent forest cover. While deforestation and forest fragmentation as a result of colonization and agriculture have been widespread in neotropical countries over the past few decades, in some places agricultural intensification, wage labor, and rural to urban migration are becoming the...

  17. Histological and histomorphometrical evaluation of tissue reactions adjacent to endosteal implants in monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, K; Rostrup, E; Hjörting-Hansen, E

    1992-01-01

    A qualitative and quantitative histological study of the initial healing response adjacent to 24 submerged and non-submerged implants placed in the lower jaws of 6 monkeys is presented. The histomorphometric analysis showed no significant differences in mineralized bone-implant contact length...

  18. Examining incentives for adjacent non-industrial private forest landowners to cooperate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melinda Vokoun; Gregory S Amacher; Jay Sullivan; Dave Wear

    2010-01-01

    Individual landowners may capture non-timber benefits from both their own forested parcels and adjacent parcels owned by different landowners. These benefits may affect incentives for landowners to cooperate in their forest management decisions. Landowner survey data is used to examine incentives to cooperate concerning joint forest management and coordination of...

  19. Deformations and damage to buildings adjacent to deep excavations in soft soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korff, M.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to gain insight into mechanisms of soil-structure interaction for buildings adjacent to deep excavations and to find a reliable method to design and monitor deep excavations in urban areas with soft soil conditions. The research focuses on typical Dutch conditions. The

  20. Non-Adjacent Dependency Learning in Infants at Familial Risk of Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkhoff, Annemarie; de Bree, Elise; de Klerk, Maartje; Wijnen, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that developmental dyslexia is (partly) caused by a deficit in implicit sequential learning, by investigating whether infants at familial risk of dyslexia can track non-adjacent dependencies in an artificial language. An implicit learning deficit would hinder detection of such dependencies, which mark grammatical…

  1. Adjacency-blurring-effect of scenes modeled by the radiosity method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borel, C.C.; Gerstl, S.A.W.

    1992-05-01

    In this paper we describe a method to simulate images through a scattering atmosphere. We compute the scattering of light from adjacent surfaces into the field-of-view (FOV) with the extended radiosity method. Our simulation takes aerosol scattering phase functions and ground bidirectional reflectance distributions (BRDF) into account. 10 refs.

  2. Tourist preferences for ecotourism in rural communities adjacent to Kruger National Park: A choice experiment approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaminuka, P.; Groeneveld, R.A.; Selomane, A.O.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the potential for development of ecotourism in rural communities adjacent to Kruger National Park (KNP) in South Africa. We determine preferences of tourists, according to origin and income levels, for ecotourism and their marginal willingness to pay (MWTP) for three ecotourism

  3. 77 FR 53164 - Railroad Workplace Safety; Adjacent-Track On-Track Safety for Roadway Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ...-0059, Notice No. 6] RIN 2130-AC37 Railroad Workplace Safety; Adjacent-Track On-Track Safety for Roadway... complex issues raised in both the petitions for reconsideration of the final rule published November 30... issues. One of the Petitions included a request for a delay in the effective date of the final rule until...

  4. 78 FR 33754 - Railroad Workplace Safety; Adjacent-Track On-Track Safety for Roadway Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ...-0059, Notice No. 7] RIN 2130-AC37 Railroad Workplace Safety; Adjacent-Track On-Track Safety for Roadway... and comments raised a number of substantive issues requiring a detailed response. As FRA's response to... INFORMATION: On November 30, 2011, FRA published a final rule amending its regulations on railroad workplace...

  5. 77 FR 13978 - Railroad Workplace Safety; Adjacent-Track On-Track Safety for Roadway Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ...-0059, Notice No. 5] RIN 2130-AB96 Railroad Workplace Safety; Adjacent-Track On-Track Safety for Roadway... that raise a number of substantive issues requiring a detailed response. Accordingly, in order to...: On November 30, 2011, FRA published a final rule amending its regulations on railroad workplace...

  6. Managing sovereign credit risk in bond portfolios

    OpenAIRE

    Bruder, Benjamin; Hereil, Pierre; Roncalli, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    With the recent development of the European debt crisis, traditional index bond management has been severely called into question. We focus here on the risk issues raised by the classical market-capitalization weighting scheme. We propose an approach to properly measure sovereign credit risk in a fixed-income portfolio. For that, we assume that CDS spreads follow a SABR process and we derive a sovereign credit risk measure based on CDS spreads and duration of portfolio bonds. We then consider...

  7. Expectations, Bond Yields and Monetary Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chun, Albert Lee

    2011-01-01

    expectations about inflation, output growth, and the anticipated path of monetary policy actions contain important information for explaining movements in bond yields. Estimates from a forward-looking monetary policy rule suggest that the central bank exhibits a preemptive response to inflationary expectations...... of this type may provide traders and policymakers with a new set of tools for formally assessing the reaction of bond yields to shifts in market expectations...

  8. A Global Stock and Bond Model

    OpenAIRE

    Connor, Gregory

    1996-01-01

    Factor models are now widely used to support asset selection decisions. Global asset allocation, the allocation between stocks versus bonds and among nations, usually relies instead on correlation analysis of international equity and bond indexes. It would be preferable to have a single integrated framework for both asset selection and asset allocation. This framework would require a factor model applicable at an asset or country level, as well as at a global level,...

  9. Testing Bonds Between Brittle And Ductile Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Donald R.; Ohsaki, Hiroyuki

    1989-01-01

    Simple uniaxial strain test devised to measure intrinsic shear strength. Brittle film deposited on ductile stubstrate film, and combination stretched until brittle film cracks, then separates from substrate. Dimensions of cracked segments related in known way to tensile strength of brittle film and shear strength of bond between two films. Despite approximations and limitations of technique, tests show it yields semiquantitative measures of bond strengths, independent of mechanical properties of substrates, with results reproducible with plus or minus 6 percent.

  10. Automatic centring and bonding of lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krey, Stefan; Heinisch, J.; Dumitrescu, E.

    2007-05-01

    We present an automatic bonding station which is able to center and bond individual lenses or doublets to a barrel with sub micron centring accuracy. The complete manufacturing cycle includes the glue dispensing and UV curing. During the process the state of centring is continuously controlled by the vision software, and the final result is recorded to a file for process statistics. Simple pass or fail results are displayed to the operator at the end of the process.

  11. Equity Volatility and Corporate Bond Yields

    OpenAIRE

    John Y. Campbell; Glen B. Taksler

    2002-01-01

    This paper explores the effect of equity volatility on corporate bond yields. Panel data for the late 1990s show that idiosyncratic firm-level volatility can explain as much cross-sectional variation in yields as can credit ratings. This finding, together with the upward trend in idiosyncratic equity volatility documented by Campbell, Lettau, Malkiel, and Xu (2001), helps to explain recent increases in corporate bond yields. The definitive version is available at www.blackwell-synergy.com.

  12. Determinants Of Ori001 Type Government Bond

    OpenAIRE

    Yulius, Yosandi

    2011-01-01

    The need to build a strong bond market is amenable, especially after the 1997 crises. This paper analyzes the influence of deposit interest rate, foreign exchange rates, and Composite Stock Price Index on yield-to-maturity of Bond Series Retail ORI001, employing monthly data from Bloomberg information service, 2006(8) to 2008(12), using Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity type models. It finds the evidence that deposit interest rate and exchange rate have positive signif...

  13. The chemical bond as an emergent phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Jon C; Ho, Vinh; Lubchenko, Vassiliy

    2017-05-07

    We first argue that the covalent bond and the various closed-shell interactions can be thought of as symmetry broken versions of one and the same interaction, viz., the multi-center bond. We use specially chosen molecular units to show that the symmetry breaking is controlled by density and electronegativity variation. We show that the bond order changes with bond deformation but in a step-like fashion, regions of near constancy separated by electronic localization transitions. These will often cause displacive transitions as well so that the bond strength, order, and length are established self-consistently. We further argue on the inherent relation of the covalent, closed-shell, and multi-center interactions with ionic and metallic bonding. All of these interactions can be viewed as distinct sectors on a phase diagram with density and electronegativity variation as control variables; the ionic and covalent/secondary sectors are associated with on-site and bond-order charge density wave, respectively, the metallic sector with an electronic fluid. While displaying a contiguity at low densities, the metallic and ionic interactions represent distinct phases separated by discontinuous transitions at sufficiently high densities. Multi-center interactions emerge as a hybrid of the metallic and ionic bond that results from spatial coexistence of delocalized and localized electrons. In the present description, the issue of the stability of a compound is that of the mutual miscibility of electronic fluids with distinct degrees of electron localization, supra-atomic ordering in complex inorganic compounds coming about naturally. The notions of electronic localization advanced hereby suggest a high throughput, automated procedure for screening candidate compounds and structures with regard to stability, without the need for computationally costly geometric optimization.

  14. INVESTIGATING FINANCIAL INNOVATION AND EUROPEAN CAPITAL MARKETS. THE CASE OF CATASTROPHE BONDS AND LISTED REINSURANCE COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSTANTIN LAURA-GABRIELA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on the financial innovation – stock market interconnections, the present research studies the association between the insurance-linked market activity of European (reinsurance companies and their evolution on the capital markets. With the aim of emphasizing the connections from the perspective of the stock performance and their risk, the empirical analysis is based on vector autoregression (VAR and Granger causality analyses. The proposed examination is further developed by considering both impulse response functions and variance decomposition insights. The proxies of the catastrophe bond market, as financial innovation, there are employed both the size and the number of catastrophe bonds transactions, while the stock returns and their standard deviation stand for representatives of the evolution of the reinsurance companies on the capital markets in terms of financial performance and risk. The main results confirm other studies, suggesting that the effects of issuing cat bonds on the ceding companies is reflected rather in terms of stocks’ risk diminishing

  15. INVESTIGATING FINANCIAL INNOVATION AND EUROPEAN CAPITAL MARKETS. THE CASE OF CATASTROPHE BONDS AND LISTED REINSURANCE COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSTANTIN LAURA-GABRIELA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on the financial innovation – stock market interconnections, the present research studies the association between the insurance-linked market activity of European (reinsurance companies and their evolution on the capital markets. With the aim of emphasizing the connections from the perspective of the stock performance and their risk, the empirical analysis is based on vector autoregression (VAR and Granger causality analyses. The proposed examination is further developed by considering both impulse response functions and variance decomposition insights. The proxies of the catastrophe bond market, as financial innovation, there are employed both the size and the number of catastrophe bonds transactions, while the stock returns and their standard deviation stand for representatives of the evolution of the reinsurance companies on the capital markets in terms of financial performance and risk. The main results confirm other studies, suggesting that the effects of issuing cat bonds on the ceding companies is reflected rather in terms of stocks’ risk diminishing.

  16. Mechanical tunability via hydrogen bonding in metal-organic frameworks with the perovskite architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Thirumurugan, A; Barton, Phillip T; Lin, Zheshuai; Henke, Sebastian; Yeung, Hamish H-M; Wharmby, Michael T; Bithell, Erica G; Howard, Christopher J; Cheetham, Anthony K

    2014-06-04

    Two analogous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with the perovskite architecture, [C(NH2)3][Mn(HCOO)3] (1) and [(CH2)3NH2][Mn(HCOO)3] (2), exhibit significantly different mechanical properties. The marked difference is attributed to their distinct modes of hydrogen bonding between the A-site amine cation and the anionic framework. The stronger cross-linking hydrogen bonding in 1 gives rise to Young's moduli and hardnesses that are up to twice those in 2, while the thermal expansion is substantially smaller. This study presents clear evidence that the mechanical properties of MOF materials can be substantially tuned via hydrogen-bonding interactions.

  17. Diversity and Enzyme Activity of Ectomycorrhizal Fungal Communities Following Nitrogen Fertilization in an Urban-Adjacent Pine Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ning

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Rapid economic development and accelerated urbanization in China has resulted in widespread atmospheric nitrogen (N deposition. One consequence of N deposition is the alteration of mycorrhizal symbioses that are critical for plant resource acquisition (nitrogen, N, phosphorus, P, water. In this study, we characterized the diversity, composition, and functioning of ectomycorrhizal (ECM fungal communities in an urban-adjacent Pinus elliottii plantation under ambient N deposition (~24 kg N ha−1 year−1, and following N fertilization (low N, 50 kg N ha−1 year−1; high N, 300 kg N ha−1 year−1. ECM functioning was expressed as the potential activities of extracellular enzymes required for organic N (protease, P (phosphomonoesterase, and recalcitrant polymers (phenol oxidase. Despite high ambient N deposition, ECM community composition shifted under experimental N fertilization, and those changes were linked to disparate levels of soil minerals (P, K and organic matter (but not N, a decline in acid phosphatase (AP, and an increase in phenol oxidase (PO potential activities. Based on enzyme stoichiometry, medium-smooth exploration type ECM species invested more in C acquisition (PO relative to P (AP following high N fertilization than other exploration types. ECM species with hydrophilic mantles also showed higher enzymatic PO:AP ratios than taxa with hydrophobic mantles. Our findings add to the accumulating evidence that shifts in ECM community composition and taxa specialized in organic C, N, and P degradation could modulate the soil nutrient cycling in forests exposed to chronic elevated N input.

  18. Spatial relationships between nitrogen status and pitch canker disease in slash pine planted adjacent to a poultry operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Zamora, Isabel; Bliss, Christine; Jokela, Eric J.; Comerford, N.B.; Grunwald, Sabine; Barnard, E.; Vasquez, G.M.

    2007-01-01

    Pitch canker disease (Fusarium circinatum Nirenberg and O'Donnell) causes serious shoot dieback, reduced growth and mortality in pines found in the southern and western USA, and has been linked to nutrient imbalances. Poultry houses with forced-air ventilation systems produce nitrogen (N) emissions. This study analyzed spatial correlations between pitch canker disease and foliar, forest floor, soil, and throughfall N in a slash pine (Pinus elliottii var. elliottii Engelm.) plantation adjacent to a poultry operation in north Florida, USA. Tissue and throughfall N concentrations were highest near the poultry houses and remained elevated for 400 m. Disease incidence ranged from 57-71% near the poultry houses and was spatially correlated with N levels. Similarly, stem mortality ranged from 41-53% in the most heavily impacted area, and declined to 0-9% at distances greater than 400 m. These results suggest that nutritional processes exacerbate changes in disease susceptibility and expression in slash pine. - Local emissions from poultry production appear to significantly contribute to the spatial distribution of N and pitch canker disease in managed slash pine ecosystems

  19. Pressure bonding molybdenum alloy (TZM) to reaction-bonded silicon nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huffsmith, S.A.; Landingham, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    Topping cycles could boost the energy efficiencies of a variety of systems by using what is now waste heat. One such topping cycle uses a ceramic helical expander and would require that a reaction-bonded silicon nitride (RBSN) rotor be bonded to a shaft of TZM (Mo-0.5 wt % Ti-0.08 wt % Zr). Coupon studies show that TZM can be bonded to RBSN at 1300 0 C and 69 MPa if there is an interlayer of MoSi 2 . A layer of finely ground (10 μm) MoSi 2 facilitates bond formation and provides a thicker bond interface. The hardness and grain structure of the TZM and RBSN were not affected by the temperature and pressure required to bond the coupons

  20. Relationship between thin-film bond strength as measured by a scratch test, and indentation hardness for bonding agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusakabe, Shusuke; Rawls, H Ralph; Hotta, Masato

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate thin-film bond strength between a bonding agent and human dentin, using a scratch test, and the characteristics and accuracy of measurement. One-step bonding agents (BeautiBond; Bond Force; Adper Easy Bond; Clearfil tri-S Bond) and two-step bonding agents (Cleafil SE Bond; FL-Bond II) were investigated in this study. Flat dentin surfaces were prepared for extracted human molars. The dentin surfaces were ground and bonding agents were applied and light cured. The thin-film bond strength test of the specimens was evaluated by the critical load at which the coated bonding agent failed and dentin appeared. The scratch mark sections were then observed under a scanning electron microscope. Indentation hardness was evaluated by the variation in depth under an applied load of 10gf. Data were compared by one-way ANOVA with the Scheffé's post hoc multiple comparison test (pstrength and indentation hardness were analyzed using analysis of correlation and covariance. The thin-film bond strength of two-step bonding agents were found to be significantly higher than that of one-step bonding agents with small standard deviations. Scratch marks consistently showed adhesive failure in the vicinity of the bonding agent/dentin interface. The indentation hardness showed a trend that two-step bonding agents have greater hardness than one-step bonding agents. A moderately significant correlation (r(2)=0.31) was found between thin-film bond strength and indentation hardness. Thin-film bond strength test is a valid and reliable means of evaluating bond strength in the vicinity of the adhesive interface and is more accurate than other methods currently in use. Further, the thin-film bond strength is influenced by the hardness of the cued bonding agent. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.